Science.gov

Sample records for accuracy precision repeatability

  1. Tomography & Geochemistry: Precision, Repeatability, Accuracy and Joint Interpretations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foulger, G. R.; Panza, G. F.; Artemieva, I. M.; Bastow, I. D.; Cammarano, F.; Doglioni, C.; Evans, J. R.; Hamilton, W. B.; Julian, B. R.; Lustrino, M.; Thybo, H.; Yanovskaya, T. B.

    2015-12-01

    Seismic tomography can reveal the spatial seismic structure of the mantle, but has little ability to constrain composition, phase or temperature. In contrast, petrology and geochemistry can give insights into mantle composition, but have severely limited spatial control on magma sources. For these reasons, results from these three disciplines are often interpreted jointly. Nevertheless, the limitations of each method are often underestimated, and underlying assumptions de-emphasized. Examples of the limitations of seismic tomography include its ability to image in detail the three-dimensional structure of the mantle or to determine with certainty the strengths of anomalies. Despite this, published seismic anomaly strengths are often unjustifiably translated directly into physical parameters. Tomography yields seismological parameters such as wave speed and attenuation, not geological or thermal parameters. Much of the mantle is poorly sampled by seismic waves, and resolution- and error-assessment methods do not express the true uncertainties. These and other problems have become highlighted in recent years as a result of multiple tomography experiments performed by different research groups, in areas of particular interest e.g., Yellowstone. The repeatability of the results is often poorer than the calculated resolutions. The ability of geochemistry and petrology to identify magma sources and locations is typically overestimated. These methods have little ability to determine source depths. Models that assign geochemical signatures to specific layers in the mantle, including the transition zone, the lower mantle, and the core-mantle boundary, are based on speculative models that cannot be verified and for which viable, less-astonishing alternatives are available. Our knowledge is poor of the size, distribution and location of protoliths, and of metasomatism of magma sources, the nature of the partial-melting and melt-extraction process, the mixing of disparate

  2. Accuracy and Precision of an IGRT Solution

    SciTech Connect

    Webster, Gareth J. Rowbottom, Carl G.; Mackay, Ranald I.

    2009-07-01

    Image-guided radiotherapy (IGRT) can potentially improve the accuracy of delivery of radiotherapy treatments by providing high-quality images of patient anatomy in the treatment position that can be incorporated into the treatment setup. The achievable accuracy and precision of delivery of highly complex head-and-neck intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) plans with an IGRT technique using an Elekta Synergy linear accelerator and the Pinnacle Treatment Planning System (TPS) was investigated. Four head-and-neck IMRT plans were delivered to a semi-anthropomorphic head-and-neck phantom and the dose distribution was measured simultaneously by up to 20 microMOSFET (metal oxide semiconductor field-effect transmitter) detectors. A volumetric kilovoltage (kV) x-ray image was then acquired in the treatment position, fused with the phantom scan within the TPS using Syntegra software, and used to recalculate the dose with the precise delivery isocenter at the actual position of each detector within the phantom. Three repeat measurements were made over a period of 2 months to reduce the effect of random errors in measurement or delivery. To ensure that the noise remained below 1.5% (1 SD), minimum doses of 85 cGy were delivered to each detector. The average measured dose was systematically 1.4% lower than predicted and was consistent between repeats. Over the 4 delivered plans, 10/76 measurements showed a systematic error > 3% (3/76 > 5%), for which several potential sources of error were investigated. The error was ultimately attributable to measurements made in beam penumbrae, where submillimeter positional errors result in large discrepancies in dose. The implementation of an image-guided technique improves the accuracy of dose verification, particularly within high-dose gradients. The achievable accuracy of complex IMRT dose delivery incorporating image-guidance is within {+-} 3% in dose over the range of sample points. For some points in high-dose gradients

  3. Accuracy and precision of an IGRT solution.

    PubMed

    Webster, Gareth J; Rowbottom, Carl G; Mackay, Ranald I

    2009-01-01

    Image-guided radiotherapy (IGRT) can potentially improve the accuracy of delivery of radiotherapy treatments by providing high-quality images of patient anatomy in the treatment position that can be incorporated into the treatment setup. The achievable accuracy and precision of delivery of highly complex head-and-neck intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) plans with an IGRT technique using an Elekta Synergy linear accelerator and the Pinnacle Treatment Planning System (TPS) was investigated. Four head-and-neck IMRT plans were delivered to a semi-anthropomorphic head-and-neck phantom and the dose distribution was measured simultaneously by up to 20 microMOSFET (metal oxide semiconductor field-effect transmitter) detectors. A volumetric kilovoltage (kV) x-ray image was then acquired in the treatment position, fused with the phantom scan within the TPS using Syntegra software, and used to recalculate the dose with the precise delivery isocenter at the actual position of each detector within the phantom. Three repeat measurements were made over a period of 2 months to reduce the effect of random errors in measurement or delivery. To ensure that the noise remained below 1.5% (1 SD), minimum doses of 85 cGy were delivered to each detector. The average measured dose was systematically 1.4% lower than predicted and was consistent between repeats. Over the 4 delivered plans, 10/76 measurements showed a systematic error > 3% (3/76 > 5%), for which several potential sources of error were investigated. The error was ultimately attributable to measurements made in beam penumbrae, where submillimeter positional errors result in large discrepancies in dose. The implementation of an image-guided technique improves the accuracy of dose verification, particularly within high-dose gradients. The achievable accuracy of complex IMRT dose delivery incorporating image-guidance is within +/- 3% in dose over the range of sample points. For some points in high-dose gradients

  4. Precision standoff guidance antenna accuracy evaluation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Irons, F. H.; Landesberg, M. M.

    1981-02-01

    This report presents a summary of work done to determine the inherent angular accuracy achievable with the guidance and control precision standoff guidance antenna. The antenna is a critical element in the anti-jam single station guidance program since its characteristics can limit the intrinsic location guidance accuracy. It was important to determine the extent to which high ratio beamsplitting results could be achieved repeatedly and what issues were involved with calibrating the antenna. The antenna accuracy has been found to be on the order of 0.006 deg. through the use of a straightforward lookup table concept. This corresponds to a cross range error of 21 m at a range of 200 km. This figure includes both pointing errors and off-axis estimation errors. It was found that the antenna off-boresight calibration is adequately represented by a straight line for each position plus a lookup table for pointing errors relative to broadside. In the event recalibration is required, it was found that only 1% of the model would need to be corrected.

  5. Accuracy of velocities from repeated GPS measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akarsu, V.; Sanli, D. U.; Arslan, E.

    2015-04-01

    Today repeated GPS measurements are still in use, because we cannot always employ GPS permanent stations due to a variety of limitations. One area of study that uses velocities/deformation rates from repeated GPS measurements is the monitoring of crustal motion. This paper discusses the quality of the velocities derived using repeated GPS measurements for the aim of monitoring crustal motion. From a global network of International GNSS Service (IGS) stations, we processed GPS measurements repeated monthly and annually spanning nearly 15 years and estimated GPS velocities for GPS baseline components latitude, longitude and ellipsoidal height. We used web-based GIPSY for the processing. Assuming true deformation rates can only be determined from the solutions of 24 h observation sessions, we evaluated the accuracy of the deformation rates from 8 and 12 h sessions. We used statistical hypothesis testing to assess the velocities derived from short observation sessions. In addition, as an alternative control method we checked the accuracy of GPS solutions from short observation sessions against those of 24 h sessions referring to statistical criteria that measure the accuracy of regression models. Results indicate that the velocities of the vertical component are completely affected when repeated GPS measurements are used. The results also reveal that only about 30% of the 8 h solutions and about 40% of 12 h solutions for the horizontal coordinates are acceptable for velocity estimation. The situation is much worse for the vertical component in which none of the solutions from campaign measurements are acceptable for obtaining reliable deformation rates.

  6. Bullet trajectory reconstruction - Methods, accuracy and precision.

    PubMed

    Mattijssen, Erwin J A T; Kerkhoff, Wim

    2016-05-01

    Based on the spatial relation between a primary and secondary bullet defect or on the shape and dimensions of the primary bullet defect, a bullet's trajectory prior to impact can be estimated for a shooting scene reconstruction. The accuracy and precision of the estimated trajectories will vary depending on variables such as, the applied method of reconstruction, the (true) angle of incidence, the properties of the target material and the properties of the bullet upon impact. This study focused on the accuracy and precision of estimated bullet trajectories when different variants of the probing method, ellipse method, and lead-in method are applied on bullet defects resulting from shots at various angles of incidence on drywall, MDF and sheet metal. The results show that in most situations the best performance (accuracy and precision) is seen when the probing method is applied. Only for the lowest angles of incidence the performance was better when either the ellipse or lead-in method was applied. The data provided in this paper can be used to select the appropriate method(s) for reconstruction and to correct for systematic errors (accuracy) and to provide a value of the precision, by means of a confidence interval of the specific measurement. PMID:27044032

  7. Precision and Accuracy Studies with Kajaani Fiber Length Analyzers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Copur, Yalcin; Makkonen, Hannu

    The aim of this study was to test the measurement precision and accuracy of the Kajaani FS-100 giving attention to possible machine error in the measurements. Fiber length of pine pulps produced using polysulfide, kraft, biokraft and soda methods were determined using both FS-100 and FiberLab automated fiber length analyzers. The measured length values were compared for both methods. The measurement precision and accuracy was tested by replicated measurements using rayon stable fibers. Measurements performed on pulp samples showed typical length distributions for both analyzers. Results obtained from Kajaani FS-100 and FiberLab showed a significant correlation. The shorter length measurement with FiberLab was found to be mainly due to the instrument calibration. The measurement repeatability tested for Kajaani FS-100 indicated that the measurements are precise.

  8. Precision and accuracy in fluorescent short tandem repeat DNA typing: assessment of benefits imparted by the use of allelic ladders with the AmpF/STR Profiler Plus kit.

    PubMed

    Leclair, Benoît; Frégeau, Chantal J; Bowen, Kathy L; Fourney, Ron M

    2004-03-01

    Base-calling precision of short tandem repeat (STR) allelic bands on dynamic slab-gel electrophoresis systems was evaluated. Data was collected from over 6000 population database allele peaks generated from 468 population database samples amplified with the AmpF/STR Profiler Plus (PP) kit and electrophoresed on ABD 377 DNA sequencers. Precision was measured by way of standard deviations and was shown to be essentially the same, whether using fixed or floating bin genotyping. However, the allelic ladders have proven more sensitive to electrophoretic variations than database samples, which have caused some floating bins of D18S51 to shift on occasion. This observation prompted the investigation of polyacrylamide gel formulations in order to stabilize allelic ladder migration. The results demonstrate that, although alleles comprised in allelic ladders and questioned samples run on the same gel should migrate in an identical manner, this premise needs to be verified for any given electrophoresis platform and gel formulation. We show that the compilation of base-calling data is a very informative and useful tool for assessing the performance stability of dynamic gel electrophoresis systems, stability on which depends genotyping result quality. PMID:15004837

  9. Measurement Precision for Repeat Examinees on a Standardized Patient Examination

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raymond, Mark R.; Swygert, Kimberly A.; Kahraman, Nilufer

    2012-01-01

    Examinees who initially fail and later repeat an SP-based clinical skills exam typically exhibit large score gains on their second attempt, suggesting the possibility that examinees were not well measured on one of those attempts. This study evaluates score precision for examinees who repeated an SP-based clinical skills test administered as part…

  10. Feasibility, Accuracy, and Repeatability of Suprathreshold Saccadic Vector Optokinetic Perimetry

    PubMed Central

    Murray, Ian C.; Cameron, Lorraine A.; McTrusty, Alice D.; Perperidis, Antonios; Brash, Harry M.; Fleck, Brian W.; Minns, Robert A.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate feasibility, accuracy, and repeatability of suprathreshold Saccadic Vector Optokinetic Perimetry (SVOP) by comparison with Humphrey Field Analyzer (HFA) perimetry. Methods The subjects included children with suspected field defects (n = 10, age 5–15 years), adults with field defects (n = 33, age 39–78 years), healthy children (n = 12, age 6–14 years), and healthy adults (n = 30, age 16–61 years). The test protocol comprised repeat suprathreshold SVOP and HFA testing with the C-40 test pattern. Feasibility was assessed by protocol completeness. Sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy of SVOP was established by comparison with reliable HFA tests in two ways: (1) visual field pattern results (normal/abnormal), and (2) individual test point outcomes (seen/unseen). Repeatability of each test type was assessed using Cohen's kappa coefficient. Results Of subjects, 82% completed a full protocol. Poor reliability of HFA testing in child patients limited the robustness of comparisons in this group. Sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy across all groups when analyzing the visual field pattern results was 90.9%, 88.5%, and 89.0%, respectively, and was 69.1%, 96.9%, and 95.0%, respectively, when analyzing the individual test points. Cohen's kappa coefficient for repeatability of SVOP and HFA was excellent (0.87 and 0.88, respectively) when assessing visual field pattern results, and substantial (0.62 and 0.74, respectively) when assessing test point outcomes. Conclusions SVOP was accurate in this group of adults. Further studies are required to assess SVOP in child patient groups. Translational Relevance SVOP technology is still in its infancy but is used in a number of centers. It will undergo iterative improvements and this study provides a benchmark for future iterations. PMID:27617181

  11. Precise estimation of repeating earthquake moment: Example from parkfield, california

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rubinstein, J.L.; Ellsworth, W.L.

    2010-01-01

    We offer a new method for estimating the relative size of repeating earthquakes using the singular value decomposition (SVD). This method takes advantage of the highly coherent waveforms of repeating earthquakes and arrives at far more precise and accurate descriptions of earthquake size than standard catalog techniques allow. We demonstrate that uncertainty in relative moment estimates is reduced from ??75% for standard coda-duration techniques employed by the network to an uncertainty of ??6.6% when the SVD method is used. This implies that a single-station estimate of moment using the SVD method has far less uncertainty than the whole-network estimates of moment based on coda duration. The SVD method offers a significant improvement in our ability to describe the size of repeating earthquakes and thus an opportunity to better understand how they accommodate slip as a function of time.

  12. Meter Accuracy Seafloor Geodesy using Repeated Multibeam Surveys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DeSanto, J. B.; Sandwell, D. T.

    2014-12-01

    Ship-board multibeam surveys are a useful tool in measuring tectonic deformation of the seafloor, having been used to measure the ~50 m of surface slip along the Japan trench during the 2011 Tohoku-Oki earthquake with an uncertainty of 20 m (Fujiwara et al, 2011, Science). In this study, we investigate the improvement in positioning accuracy obtainable when comparing multibeam and sidescan surveys repeated along the same track to within 1/10 of the critical baseline and taken at a slow ship speed of 1 knot. We compare two surveys of the Juan de Fuca Ridge axis fitting these criteria with two coincident surveys of the Cocos Ridge, taken at 11 knots. Both pairs of surveys were collected using a Simrad EM120 sonar system aboard the RV Roger Revelle. We find the multibeam surveys of the Juan de Fuca ridge axis sufficient to measure displacements accurate to better than 2 m, a marked improvement over the 50 m accuracy of the Cocos ridge surveys. Likewise, we can measure displacement accurate to 2 m using the sidescan data from the Juan de Fuca surveys. This accuracy is sufficient to observe meter-level horizontal movements on the deep ocean associated with large earthquakes and landslides.

  13. Development of fully automated quantitative capillary electrophoresis with high accuracy and repeatability.

    PubMed

    Xu, Yuan; Ling, Bang-Zan; Zhu, Wen-Jun; Yao, Dong; Zhang, Lin; Wang, Yan; Yan, Chao

    2016-03-01

    A quantitative capillary electrophoresis (qCE) was developed by utilizing a rotary type of nano-volume injector, an autosampler, and a thermostat with cooling capacity. The accuracy and precision were greatly improved compared with conventional capillary electrophoresis. The 10 nL volume accuracy was guaranteed by the carefully designed nano-injector with an accurate internal loop. The system repeatability (precision) in terms of RSD <0.5% for migration time and 1% for peak area were achieved by using DMSO as a test sample. We believe that this fully automated qCE system has the potential to be employed broadly in quality control and quality assurance in the pharmaceutical industry. PMID:26174138

  14. Source-monitoring accuracy across repeated tests following directed forgetting.

    PubMed

    Goernert, Phillip N

    2005-05-01

    The repeated recall of items from lists that participants were earlier instructed to either remember or to forget was examined in two experiments. RR participants (those instructed to remember both lists they were presented) tended to recall more List 1 items than FR participants (those instructed to forget the first list and to remember the second list). FR participants recalled more List 2 items than did RR participants, but only when directed to report those items (Experiment 1), not when directed to report items from both lists (Experiment 2). Participants experienced difficulty correctly reporting the list source of items they recalled and incorrect source recall increased across tests, showing hypermnesia. This later result underscores the need for caution when assessing the accuracy of information retrieved from multiple sources across repeated tests. Together, the data patterns provide support for the retrieval dynamics account of hypermnesia, the context-change account of directed forgetting, and limited support for the retrieval inhibition view of directed forgetting. PMID:15969833

  15. Accuracy and Repeatability of Refractive Error Measurements by Photorefractometry

    PubMed Central

    Rajavi, Zhale; Sabbaghi, Hamideh; Baghini, Ahmad Shojaei; Yaseri, Mehdi; Sheibani, Koroush; Norouzi, Ghazal

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To determine the accuracy of photorefraction and autorefraction as compared to cycloautorefraction and to detect the repeatability of photorefraction. Methods: This diagnostic study included the right eyes of 86 children aged 7-12 years. Refractive status was measured using photorefraction (PlusoptiX SO4, GmbH, Nürnberg, Germany) and autorefraction (Topcon RM800, USA) with and without cycloplegia. Photorefraction for each eye was performed three times to assess repeatability. Results: The overall agreement between photorefraction and cycloautorefraction was over 81% for all refractive errors. Photorefractometry had acceptable sensitivity and specificity for myopia and astigmatism. There was no statistically significant difference considering myopia and astigmatism in all comparisons, while the difference was significant for hyperopia using both amblyogenic (P = 0.006) and nonamblyogenic criteria (P = 0.001). A myopic shift of 1.21 diopter (D) and 1.58 D occurred with photorefraction in nonamblyogenic and amblyogenic hyperopia, respectively. Using revised cut-off points of + 1.12 D and + 2.6 D instead of + 2.00 D and + 3.50 D improved the sensitivity of photorefractometry to 84.62% and 69.23%, respectively. The repeatability of photorefraction for measurement of myopia, astigmatism and hyperopia was acceptable (intra-cluster correlation [ICC]: 0.98, 0.94 and 0.77, respectively). Autorefraction results were significantly different from cycloautorefraction in hyperopia (P < 0.0001), but comparable in myopia and astigmatism. Also, noncycloglegic autorefraction results were similar to photorefraction in this study. Conclusion: Although photorefraction was accurate for measurement of myopia and astigmatism, its sensitivity for hyperopia was low which could be improved by considering revised cut-off points. Considering cut-off points, photorefraction can be used as a screening method. PMID:26730305

  16. Multi-Repeated Projection Lithography for High-Precision Linear Scale Based on Average Homogenization Effect.

    PubMed

    Ren, Dongxu; Zhao, Huiying; Zhang, Chupeng; Yuan, Daocheng; Xi, Jianpu; Zhu, Xueliang; Ban, Xinxing; Dong, Longchao; Gu, Yawen; Jiang, Chunye

    2016-01-01

    A multi-repeated photolithography method for manufacturing an incremental linear scale using projection lithography is presented. The method is based on the average homogenization effect that periodically superposes the light intensity of different locations of pitches in the mask to make a consistent energy distribution at a specific wavelength, from which the accuracy of a linear scale can be improved precisely using the average pitch with different step distances. The method's theoretical error is within 0.01 µm for a periodic mask with a 2-µm sine-wave error. The intensity error models in the focal plane include the rectangular grating error on the mask, static positioning error, and lithography lens focal plane alignment error, which affect pitch uniformity less than in the common linear scale projection lithography splicing process. It was analyzed and confirmed that increasing the repeat exposure number of a single stripe could improve accuracy, as could adjusting the exposure spacing to achieve a set proportion of black and white stripes. According to the experimental results, the effectiveness of the multi-repeated photolithography method is confirmed to easily realize a pitch accuracy of 43 nm in any 10 locations of 1 m, and the whole length accuracy of the linear scale is less than 1 µm/m. PMID:27089348

  17. Multi-Repeated Projection Lithography for High-Precision Linear Scale Based on Average Homogenization Effect

    PubMed Central

    Ren, Dongxu; Zhao, Huiying; Zhang, Chupeng; Yuan, Daocheng; Xi, Jianpu; Zhu, Xueliang; Ban, Xinxing; Dong, Longchao; Gu, Yawen; Jiang, Chunye

    2016-01-01

    A multi-repeated photolithography method for manufacturing an incremental linear scale using projection lithography is presented. The method is based on the average homogenization effect that periodically superposes the light intensity of different locations of pitches in the mask to make a consistent energy distribution at a specific wavelength, from which the accuracy of a linear scale can be improved precisely using the average pitch with different step distances. The method’s theoretical error is within 0.01 µm for a periodic mask with a 2-µm sine-wave error. The intensity error models in the focal plane include the rectangular grating error on the mask, static positioning error, and lithography lens focal plane alignment error, which affect pitch uniformity less than in the common linear scale projection lithography splicing process. It was analyzed and confirmed that increasing the repeat exposure number of a single stripe could improve accuracy, as could adjusting the exposure spacing to achieve a set proportion of black and white stripes. According to the experimental results, the effectiveness of the multi-repeated photolithography method is confirmed to easily realize a pitch accuracy of 43 nm in any 10 locations of 1 m, and the whole length accuracy of the linear scale is less than 1 µm/m. PMID:27089348

  18. Precise orbit computation for the Geosat Exact Repeat Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haines, Bruce J.; Born, George H.; Rosborough, George W.; Marsh, James G.; Williamson, Ronald G.

    1990-01-01

    Results are reported from an extensive investigation of orbit-determination strategies for the Geosat Exact Repeat Mission (ERM). The goal is to establish optimum geodetic parameters and procedures for the computation of the most accurate Geosat orbits possible and to apply these procedures for routine computation during the ERM for the following purposes: (1) to enhance the value of the Geosat oceanographic investigations by providing the user community with improved ephemerides, (2) to develop orbit determination techniques for the upcoming altimetric mission Topex/Poseidon, and (3) to assess the radial orbit accuracy obtainable with recently developed gravity models. To this end, ephemerides for the entire first year of the ERM have been computed using the GEODYN II orbit program on the Cyber 205 supercomputer system at the NASA Goddard.

  19. Accuracy of velocities from repeated GPS surveys: relative positioning is concerned

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duman, Huseyin; Ugur Sanli, D.

    2016-04-01

    Over more than a decade, researchers have been interested in studying the accuracy of GPS positioning solutions. Recently, reporting the accuracy of GPS velocities has been added to this. Researchers studying landslide motion, tectonic motion, uplift, sea level rise, and subsidence still report results from GPS experiments in which repeated GPS measurements from short sessions are used. This motivated some other researchers to study the accuracy of GPS deformation rates/velocities from various repeated GPS surveys. In one of the efforts, the velocity accuracy was derived from repeated GPS static surveys using short observation sessions and Precise Point Positioning mode of GPS software. Velocities from short GPS sessions were compared with the velocities from 24 h sessions. The accuracy of velocities was obtained using statistical hypothesis testing and quantifying the accuracy of least squares estimation models. The results reveal that 45-60 % of the horizontal and none of the vertical solutions comply with the results from 24 h solutions. We argue that this case in which the data was evaluated using PPP should also apply to the case in which the data belonging to long GPS base lengths is processed using fundamental relative point positioning. To test this idea we chose the two IGS stations ANKR and NICO and derive their velocities from the reference stations held fixed in the stable EURASIAN plate. The University of Bern's GNSS software BERNESE was used to produce relative positioning solutions, and the results are compared with those of GIPSY/OASIS II PPP results. First impressions indicate that it is worth designing a global experiment and test these ideas in detail.

  20. Horizontal strain and precision of EDM from repeated surveys of the Precise Geodetic Net of Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mizuno, Hiroo

    1994-09-01

    A simple statistical approach has been applied to the repeated electro-optical distance measurements (EDM) of 1,358 lines in the Tohoku district of Japan to obtain knowledge about the precision of EDM and the possible accumulation of strain. The average time interval between measurements is about seven or eight years. It is shown that the whole data of the difference between distance measurements repeated over a given line δD are interpreted in terms of EDM errors comprising distance proportional systematic errors and standard errors expressed by the usual formsqrt {α ^2 + β ^2 D^2 } . The rate of horizontal deformation must therefore be much smaller than the strain rates of about 0.7 ˜ 0.8 ppm over 7 to 8 years which have been hitherto expected.

  1. Precision and Accuracy Parameters in Structured Light 3-D Scanning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eiríksson, E. R.; Wilm, J.; Pedersen, D. B.; Aanæs, H.

    2016-04-01

    Structured light systems are popular in part because they can be constructed from off-the-shelf low cost components. In this paper we quantitatively show how common design parameters affect precision and accuracy in such systems, supplying a much needed guide for practitioners. Our quantitative measure is the established VDI/VDE 2634 (Part 2) guideline using precision made calibration artifacts. Experiments are performed on our own structured light setup, consisting of two cameras and a projector. We place our focus on the influence of calibration design parameters, the calibration procedure and encoding strategy and present our findings. Finally, we compare our setup to a state of the art metrology grade commercial scanner. Our results show that comparable, and in some cases better, results can be obtained using the parameter settings determined in this study.

  2. The Plus or Minus Game - Teaching Estimation, Precision, and Accuracy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Forringer, Edward R.; Forringer, Richard S.; Forringer, Daniel S.

    2016-03-01

    A quick survey of physics textbooks shows that many (Knight, Young, and Serway for example) cover estimation, significant digits, precision versus accuracy, and uncertainty in the first chapter. Estimation "Fermi" questions are so useful that there has been a column dedicated to them in TPT (Larry Weinstein's "Fermi Questions.") For several years the authors (a college physics professor, a retired algebra teacher, and a fifth-grade teacher) have been playing a game, primarily at home to challenge each other for fun, but also in the classroom as an educational tool. We call the game "The Plus or Minus Game." The game combines estimation with the principle of precision and uncertainty in a competitive and fun way.

  3. Precision and accuracy in the reproduction of simple tone sequences.

    PubMed

    Vos, P G; Ellermann, H H

    1989-02-01

    In four experiments we investigated the precision and accuracy with which amateur musicians are able to reproduce sequences of tones varied only temporally, so as to have tone and rest durations constant over sequences, and the tempo varied over the musically meaningful range of 5-0.5 tones per second. Experiments 1 and 2 supported the hypothesis of attentional bias toward having the attack moments, rather than the departure moments, precisely times. Experiment 3 corroborated the hypothesis that inaccurate timing of short interattack intervals is manifested in a lengthening of rests, rather than tones, as a result of larger motor activity during the reproduction of rests. Experiment 4 gave some support to the hypothesis that the shortening of long interattack intervals is due to mnemonic constraints affecting the rests rather than the tones. Both theoretical and practical consequences of the various findings, particularly with respect to timing in musical performance, are discussed. PMID:2522528

  4. Fluorescence Axial Localization with Nanometer Accuracy and Precision

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Hui; Yen, Chi-Fu; Sivasankar, Sanjeevi

    2012-06-15

    We describe a new technique, standing wave axial nanometry (SWAN), to image the axial location of a single nanoscale fluorescent object with sub-nanometer accuracy and 3.7 nm precision. A standing wave, generated by positioning an atomic force microscope tip over a focused laser beam, is used to excite fluorescence; axial position is determined from the phase of the emission intensity. We use SWAN to measure the orientation of single DNA molecules of different lengths, grafted on surfaces with different functionalities.

  5. Accuracy, Precision, and Resolution in Strain Measurements on Diffraction Instruments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Polvino, Sean M.

    Diffraction stress analysis is a commonly used technique to evaluate the properties and performance of different classes of materials from engineering materials, such as steels and alloys, to electronic materials like Silicon chips. Often to better understand the performance of these materials at operating conditions they are also commonly subjected to elevated temperatures and different loading conditions. The validity of any measurement under these conditions is only as good as the control of the conditions and the accuracy and precision of the instrument being used to measure the properties. What is the accuracy and precision of a typical diffraction system and what is the best way to evaluate these quantities? Is there a way to remove systematic and random errors in the data that are due to problems with the control system used? With the advent of device engineering employing internal stress as a method for increasing performance the measurement of stress from microelectronic structures has become of enhanced importance. X-ray diffraction provides an ideal method for measuring these small areas without the need for modifying the sample and possibly changing the strain state. Micro and nano diffraction experiments on Silicon-on-Insulator samples revealed changes to the material under investigation and raised significant concerns about the usefulness of these techniques. This damage process and the application of micro and nano diffraction is discussed.

  6. Assessing the Accuracy of the Precise Point Positioning Technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bisnath, S. B.; Collins, P.; Seepersad, G.

    2012-12-01

    The Precise Point Positioning (PPP) GPS data processing technique has developed over the past 15 years to become a standard method for growing categories of positioning and navigation applications. The technique relies on single receiver point positioning combined with the use of precise satellite orbit and clock information and high-fidelity error modelling. The research presented here uniquely addresses the current accuracy of the technique, explains the limits of performance, and defines paths to improvements. For geodetic purposes, performance refers to daily static position accuracy. PPP processing of over 80 IGS stations over one week results in few millimetre positioning rms error in the north and east components and few centimetres in the vertical (all one sigma values). Larger error statistics for real-time and kinematic processing are also given. GPS PPP with ambiguity resolution processing is also carried out, producing slight improvements over the float solution results. These results are categorised into quality classes in order to analyse the root error causes of the resultant accuracies: "best", "worst", multipath, site displacement effects, satellite availability and geometry, etc. Also of interest in PPP performance is solution convergence period. Static, conventional solutions are slow to converge, with approximately 35 minutes required for 95% of solutions to reach the 20 cm or better horizontal accuracy. Ambiguity resolution can significantly reduce this period without biasing solutions. The definition of a PPP error budget is a complex task even with the resulting numerical assessment, as unlike the epoch-by-epoch processing in the Standard Position Service, PPP processing involving filtering. An attempt is made here to 1) define the magnitude of each error source in terms of range, 2) transform ranging error to position error via Dilution Of Precision (DOP), and 3) scale the DOP through the filtering process. The result is a deeper

  7. Scatterometry measurement precision and accuracy below 70 nm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sendelbach, Matthew; Archie, Charles N.

    2003-05-01

    Scatterometry is a contender for various measurement applications where structure widths and heights can be significantly smaller than 70 nm within one or two ITRS generations. For example, feedforward process control in the post-lithography transistor gate formation is being actively pursued by a number of RIE tool manufacturers. Several commercial forms of scatterometry are available or under development which promise to provide satisfactory performance in this regime. Scatterometry, as commercially practiced today, involves analyzing the zeroth order reflected light from a grating of lines. Normal incidence spectroscopic reflectometry, 2-theta fixed-wavelength ellipsometry, and spectroscopic ellipsometry are among the optical techniques, while library based spectra matching and realtime regression are among the analysis techniques. All these commercial forms will find accurate and precise measurement a challenge when the material constituting the critical structure approaches a very small volume. Equally challenging is executing an evaluation methodology that first determines the true properties (critical dimensions and materials) of semiconductor wafer artifacts and then compares measurement performance of several scatterometers. How well do scatterometers track process induced changes in bottom CD and sidewall profile? This paper introduces a general 3D metrology assessment methodology and reports upon work involving sub-70 nm structures and several scatterometers. The methodology combines results from multiple metrologies (CD-SEM, CD-AFM, TEM, and XSEM) to form a Reference Measurement System (RMS). The methodology determines how well the scatterometry measurement tracks critical structure changes even in the presence of other noncritical changes that take place at the same time; these are key components of accuracy. Because the assessment rewards scatterometers that measure with good precision (reproducibility) and good accuracy, the most precise

  8. The Precise Location of the Soft Gamma Repeater SGR 1627-41 with Chandra

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wachter, S.; Kouveliotou, C.; Patel, S. K.; Tennant, A. F.; Woods, P. M.; Eichler, D.; Lyubarsky, Y.; Bouchet, P.

    2003-01-01

    We report the precise localization of the Soft Gamma Repeater SGR 1627-41 with the Chandra X-ray Observatory. The best position for SGR 1627-41 was determined to be RA=16:35:51.844, DEC=-47:35:23.31 (J2000) with an accuracy of 0.6 arcsec. We present the results of our search for an IR counterpart to SGR 1627-41 and compare our results to the existing detections and limits of other magnetar infrared and optical observations in the literature. We also present new observations of SGR 1806-20 obtained during the recent reactivation of the source. In addition, we have determined a precise location for archival Chandra observations and reanalyzed archival IR data in the search for a counterpart.

  9. T1-mapping in the heart: accuracy and precision

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    The longitudinal relaxation time constant (T1) of the myocardium is altered in various disease states due to increased water content or other changes to the local molecular environment. Changes in both native T1 and T1 following administration of gadolinium (Gd) based contrast agents are considered important biomarkers and multiple methods have been suggested for quantifying myocardial T1 in vivo. Characterization of the native T1 of myocardial tissue may be used to detect and assess various cardiomyopathies while measurement of T1 with extracellular Gd based contrast agents provides additional information about the extracellular volume (ECV) fraction. The latter is particularly valuable for more diffuse diseases that are more challenging to detect using conventional late gadolinium enhancement (LGE). Both T1 and ECV measures have been shown to have important prognostic significance. T1-mapping has the potential to detect and quantify diffuse fibrosis at an early stage provided that the measurements have adequate reproducibility. Inversion recovery methods such as MOLLI have excellent precision and are highly reproducible when using tightly controlled protocols. The MOLLI method is widely available and is relatively mature. The accuracy of inversion recovery techniques is affected significantly by magnetization transfer (MT). Despite this, the estimate of apparent T1 using inversion recovery is a sensitive measure, which has been demonstrated to be a useful tool in characterizing tissue and discriminating disease. Saturation recovery methods have the potential to provide a more accurate measurement of T1 that is less sensitive to MT as well as other factors. Saturation recovery techniques are, however, noisier and somewhat more artifact prone and have not demonstrated the same level of reproducibility at this point in time. This review article focuses on the technical aspects of key T1-mapping methods and imaging protocols and describes their limitations including

  10. PRECISION AND ACCURACY ASSESSMENTS FOR STATE AND LOCAL AIR MONITORING NETWORKS--1988

    EPA Science Inventory

    Precision and accuracy data obtained from state and local agencies (SLAMS) during 1988 are analyzed. ooled site variances and average biases which are relevant quantities to both precision and accuracy determinations are statistically compared within and between states to assess ...

  11. Models of Accuracy in Repeated-Measures Designs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dixon, Peter

    2008-01-01

    Accuracy is often analyzed using analysis of variance techniques in which the data are assumed to be normally distributed. However, accuracy data are discrete rather than continuous, and proportion correct are constrained to the range 0-1. Monte Carlo simulations are presented illustrating how this can lead to distortions in the pattern of means.…

  12. Large format focal plane array integration with precision alignment, metrology and accuracy capabilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neumann, Jay; Parlato, Russell; Tracy, Gregory; Randolph, Max

    2015-09-01

    Focal plane alignment for large format arrays and faster optical systems require enhanced precision methodology and stability over temperature. The increase in focal plane array size continues to drive the alignment capability. Depending on the optical system, the focal plane flatness of less than 25μm (.001") is required over transition temperatures from ambient to cooled operating temperatures. The focal plane flatness requirement must also be maintained in airborne or launch vibration environments. This paper addresses the challenge of the detector integration into the focal plane module and housing assemblies, the methodology to reduce error terms during integration and the evaluation of thermal effects. The driving factors influencing the alignment accuracy include: datum transfers, material effects over temperature, alignment stability over test, adjustment precision and traceability to NIST standard. The FPA module design and alignment methodology reduces the error terms by minimizing the measurement transfers to the housing. In the design, the proper material selection requires matched coefficient of expansion materials minimizes both the physical shift over temperature as well as lowering the stress induced into the detector. When required, the co-registration of focal planes and filters can achieve submicron relative positioning by applying precision equipment, interferometry and piezoelectric positioning stages. All measurements and characterizations maintain traceability to NIST standards. The metrology characterizes the equipment's accuracy, repeatability and precision of the measurements.

  13. Sex differences in accuracy and precision when judging time to arrival: data from two Internet studies.

    PubMed

    Sanders, Geoff; Sinclair, Kamila

    2011-12-01

    We report two Internet studies that investigated sex differences in the accuracy and precision of judging time to arrival. We used accuracy to mean the ability to match the actual time to arrival and precision to mean the consistency with which each participant made their judgments. Our task was presented as a computer game in which a toy UFO moved obliquely towards the participant through a virtual three-dimensional space on route to a docking station. The UFO disappeared before docking and participants pressed their space bar at the precise moment they thought the UFO would have docked. Study 1 showed it was possible to conduct quantitative studies of spatiotemporal judgments in virtual reality via the Internet and confirmed reports that men are more accurate because women underestimate, but found no difference in precision measured as intra-participant variation. Study 2 repeated Study 1 with five additional presentations of one condition to provide a better measure of precision. Again, men were more accurate than women but there were no sex differences in precision. However, within the coincidence-anticipation timing (CAT) literature, of those studies that report sex differences, a majority found that males are both more accurate and more precise than females. Noting that many CAT studies report no sex differences, we discuss appropriate interpretations of such null findings. While acknowledging that CAT performance may be influenced by experience we suggest that the sex difference may have originated among our ancestors with the evolutionary selection of men for hunting and women for gathering. PMID:21125324

  14. Accuracy and precision of alternative estimators of ectoparasiticide efficacy.

    PubMed

    Schall, Robert; Burger, Divan A; Luus, Herman G

    2016-06-15

    While there is consensus that the efficacy of parasiticides is properly assessed using the Abbott formula, there is as yet no general consensus on the use of arithmetic versus geometric mean numbers of surviving parasites in the formula. The purpose of this paper is to investigate the accuracy and precision of various efficacy estimators based on the Abbott formula which alternatively use arithmetic mean, geometric mean and median numbers of surviving parasites; we also consider a maximum likelihood estimator. Our study shows that the best estimators using geometric means are competitive, with respect to root mean squared error, with the conventional Abbott estimator using arithmetic means, as they have lower average and lower median root mean square error over the parameter scenarios which we investigated. However, our study confirms that Abbott estimators using geometric means are potentially biased upwards, and this upward bias is substantial in particular when the test product has substandard efficacy (90% and below). For this reason, we recommend that the Abbott estimator be calculated using arithmetic means. PMID:27198777

  15. Accuracy and precision of ice stream bed topography derived from ground-based radar surveys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    King, Edward

    2016-04-01

    There is some confusion within the glaciological community as to the accuracy of the basal topography derived from radar measurements. A number of texts and papers state that basal topography cannot be determined to better than one quarter of the wavelength of the radar system. On the other hand King et al (Nature Geoscience, 2009) claimed that features of the bed topography beneath Rutford Ice Stream, Antarctica can be distinguished to +/- 3m using a 3 MHz radar system (which has a quarter wavelength of 14m in ice). These statements of accuracy are mutually exclusive. I will show in this presentation that the measurement of ice thickness is a radar range determination to a single strongly-reflective target. This measurement has much higher accuracy than the resolution of two targets of similar reflection strength, which is governed by the quarter-wave criterion. The rise time of the source signal and the sensitivity and digitisation interval of the recording system are the controlling criteria on radar range accuracy. A dataset from Pine Island Glacier, West Antarctica will be used to illustrate these points, as well as the repeatability or precision of radar range measurements, and the influence of gridding parameters and positioning accuracy on the final DEM product.

  16. Accuracy and repeatability of Roentgen stereophotogrammetric analysis (RSA) for measuring knee laxity in longitudinal studies.

    PubMed

    Fleming, B C; Peura, G D; Abate, J A; Beynnon, B D

    2001-10-01

    Roentgen stereophotogrammetric analysis (RSA) can be used to assess temporal changes in anterior-posterior (A-P) knee laxity. However, the accuracy and precision of RSA is dependent on many factors and should be independently evaluated for a particular application. The objective of this study was to evaluate the use of RSA for measuring A-P knee laxity. The specific aims were to assess the variation or "noise" inherent to RSA, to determine the reproducibility of RSA for repeated A-P laxity testing, and to assess the accuracy of these measurements. Two experiments were performed. The first experiment utilized three rigid models of the tibiofemoral joint to assess the noise and to compare digitization errors of two independent examiners. No differences were found in the kinematic outputs of the RSA due to examiner, repeated trials, or the model used. In a second experiment, A-P laxity values between the A-P shear load limits of +/-60 N of five cadaver goat knees were measured to assess the error associated with repeated testing. The RSA laxity values were also compared to those obtained from a custom designed linkage system. The mean A-P laxity values with the knee 30 degrees, 60 degrees, and 90 degrees of flexion for the ACL-intact goat knee (+/-95% confidence interval) were 0.8 (+/-0.25), 0.9 (+/-0.29), and 0.4 (+/-0.22) mm, respectively. In the ACL-deficient knee, the A-P laxity values increased by an order of magnitude to 8.8 (+/-1.39), 7.6 (+/-1.32), and 3.1 (+/-1.20)mm, respectively. No significant differences were found between the A-P laxity values measured by RSA and the independent measurement technique. A highly significant linear relationship (r(2)=0.83) was also found between these techniques. This study suggests that the RSA method is an accurate and precise means to measure A-P knee laxity for repeated testing over time. PMID:11522316

  17. Accuracy of 3D white light scanning of abutment teeth impressions: evaluation of trueness and precision

    PubMed Central

    Jeon, Jin-Hun; Kim, Hae-Young; Kim, Ji-Hwan

    2014-01-01

    PURPOSE This study aimed to evaluate the accuracy of digitizing dental impressions of abutment teeth using a white light scanner and to compare the findings among teeth types. MATERIALS AND METHODS To assess precision, impressions of the canine, premolar, and molar prepared to receive all-ceramic crowns were repeatedly scanned to obtain five sets of 3-D data (STL files). Point clouds were compared and error sizes were measured (n=10 per type). Next, to evaluate trueness, impressions of teeth were rotated by 10°-20° and scanned. The obtained data were compared with the first set of data for precision assessment, and the error sizes were measured (n=5 per type). The Kruskal-Wallis test was performed to evaluate precision and trueness among three teeth types, and post-hoc comparisons were performed using the Mann-Whitney U test with Bonferroni correction (α=.05). RESULTS Precision discrepancies for the canine, premolar, and molar were 3.7 µm, 3.2 µm, and 7.3 µm, respectively, indicating the poorest precision for the molar (P<.001). Trueness discrepancies for teeth types were 6.2 µm, 11.2 µm, and 21.8 µm, respectively, indicating the poorest trueness for the molar (P=.007). CONCLUSION In respect to accuracy the molar showed the largest discrepancies compared with the canine and premolar. Digitizing of dental impressions of abutment teeth using a white light scanner was assessed to be a highly accurate method and provided discrepancy values in a clinically acceptable range. Further study is needed to improve digitizing performance of white light scanning in axial wall. PMID:25551007

  18. Improvements in the accuracy and the repeatability of long trace profiler measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Takacs, P.Z.; Church, E.L.; Bresloff, C.J.; Assoufid, L.

    1999-09-01

    Modifications of the long trace profiler at the Advanced Photon Source at Argonne National Laboratory have significantly improved its accuracy and repeatability for measuring the figure of large flat and long-radius mirrors. Use of a Dove prism in the reference beam path corrects phasing problems between mechanical errors and thermally induced system errors. A single reference correction now completely removes both of these error signals from the measured surface profile. The addition of a precision air conditioner keeps the temperature in the metrology enclosure constant to within {plus_minus}0.1&hthinsp;{degree}C over a 24-h period and has significantly improved the stability and the repeatability of the measurements. Long-radius surface curvatures can now be measured absolutely with a high degree of confidence. These improved capabilities are illustrated with a series of measurements of a 500-mm-long mirror with a 5-km radius of curvature. The standard deviation in the average of ten slope profile scans is 0.3 {mu}rad, and the corresponding standard deviation in the height error is 4.6 nm. {copyright} 1999 Optical Society of America

  19. Improvements in the accuracy and the repeatability of long trace profiler measurements.

    PubMed

    Takacs, P Z; Church, E L; Bresloff, C J; Assoufid, L

    1999-09-01

    Modifications of the long trace profiler at the Advanced Photon Source at Argonne National Laboratory have significantly improved its accuracy and repeatability for measuring the figure of large flat and long-radius mirrors. Use of a Dove prism in the reference beam path corrects phasing problems between mechanical errors and thermally induced system errors. A single reference correction now completely removes both of these error signals from the measured surface profile. The addition of a precision air conditioner keeps the temperature in the metrology enclosure constant to within +/-0.1 degrees C over a 24-h period and has significantly improved the stability and the repeatability of the measurements. Long-radius surface curvatures can now be measured absolutely with a high degree of confidence. These improved capabilities are illustrated with a series of measurements of a 500-mm-long mirror with a 5-km radius of curvature. The standard deviation in the average of ten slope profile scans is 0.3 microrad, and the corresponding standard deviation in the height error is 4.6 nm. PMID:18324056

  20. Precise Determination of the Helical Repeat of Tobacco Mosaic Virus

    SciTech Connect

    Kendall, A.; McDonald, M.; Stubbs, G.

    2009-06-01

    Tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) is widely used as a distance standard in electron microscopy, fiber diffraction, and other imaging techniques. The dimension used as a reference is the pitch of the viral helix, 23 {angstrom}. This distance, however, has never been measured with any great degree of precision. The helical pitch of TMV has been determined to be 22.92 {+-}0.03 {angstrom} by X-ray fiber diffraction methods using highly collimated synchrotron radiation.

  1. Precise determination of the helical repeat of tobacco mosaic virus

    SciTech Connect

    Kendall, Amy; McDonald, Michele; Stubbs, Gerald

    2007-12-05

    Tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) is widely used as a distance standard in electron microscopy, fiber diffraction, and other imaging techniques. The dimension used as a reference is the pitch of the viral helix, 23 A. This distance, however, has never been measured with any great degree of precision. The helical pitch of TMV has been determined to be 22.92 {+-} 0.03 A by X-ray fiber diffraction methods using highly collimated synchrotron radiation.

  2. Repeatability and Precision of Laser Diffraction Measurements of Small Objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dudley, Scott C.; Mudry, R.

    2006-12-01

    In this poster we’ll present results of using diffraction measurements to infer the size of small objects such as the diameter of a human hair. We’ll compare the diffraction results with visual measurements through a microscope, and we’ll discuss repeatability of the diffraction measurements across semesters, which can enable the use of hair samples as an unknown in a diffraction laboratory. Finally, we’ll show that there are large variations in the diameter of human hair even from a single spot of an individual’s head.

  3. Improved DORIS accuracy for precise orbit determination and geodesy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Willis, Pascal; Jayles, Christian; Tavernier, Gilles

    2004-01-01

    In 2001 and 2002, 3 more DORIS satellites were launched. Since then, all DORIS results have been significantly improved. For precise orbit determination, 20 cm are now available in real-time with DIODE and 1.5 to 2 cm in post-processing. For geodesy, 1 cm precision can now be achieved regularly every week, making now DORIS an active part of a Global Observing System for Geodesy through the IDS.

  4. Numerical planetary and lunar ephemerides - Present status, precision and accuracies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Standish, E. Myles, Jr.

    1986-01-01

    Features of the emphemeris creation process are described with attention given to the equations of motion, the numerical integration, and the least-squares fitting process. Observational data are presented and ephemeride accuracies are estimated. It is believed that radio measurements, VLBI, occultations, and the Space Telescope and Hipparcos will improve ephemerides in the near future. Limitations to accuracy are considered as well as relativity features. The export procedure, by which an outside user may obtain and use the JPL ephemerides, is discussed.

  5. Improvement in precision, accuracy, and efficiency in sstandardizing the characterization of granular materials

    SciTech Connect

    Tucker, Jonathan R.; Shadle, Lawrence J.; Benyahia, Sofiane; Mei, Joseph; Guenther, Chris; Koepke, M. E.

    2013-01-01

    Useful prediction of the kinematics, dynamics, and chemistry of a system relies on precision and accuracy in the quantification of component properties, operating mechanisms, and collected data. In an attempt to emphasize, rather than gloss over, the benefit of proper characterization to fundamental investigations of multiphase systems incorporating solid particles, a set of procedures were developed and implemented for the purpose of providing a revised methodology having the desirable attributes of reduced uncertainty, expanded relevance and detail, and higher throughput. Better, faster, cheaper characterization of multiphase systems result. Methodologies are presented to characterize particle size, shape, size distribution, density (particle, skeletal and bulk), minimum fluidization velocity, void fraction, particle porosity, and assignment within the Geldart Classification. A novel form of the Ergun equation was used to determine the bulk void fractions and particle density. Accuracy of properties-characterization methodology was validated on materials of known properties prior to testing materials of unknown properties. Several of the standard present-day techniques were scrutinized and improved upon where appropriate. Validity, accuracy, and repeatability were assessed for the procedures presented and deemed higher than present-day techniques. A database of over seventy materials has been developed to assist in model validation efforts and future desig

  6. S-193 scatterometer backscattering cross section precision/accuracy for Skylab 2 and 3 missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krishen, K.; Pounds, D. J.

    1975-01-01

    Procedures for measuring the precision and accuracy with which the S-193 scatterometer measured the background cross section of ground scenes are described. Homogeneous ground sites were selected, and data from Skylab missions were analyzed. The precision was expressed as the standard deviation of the scatterometer-acquired backscattering cross section. In special cases, inference of the precision of measurement was made by considering the total range from the maximum to minimum of the backscatter measurements within a data segment, rather than the standard deviation. For Skylab 2 and 3 missions a precision better than 1.5 dB is indicated. This procedure indicates an accuracy of better than 3 dB for the Skylab 2 and 3 missions. The estimates of precision and accuracy given in this report are for backscattering cross sections from -28 to 18 dB. Outside this range the precision and accuracy decrease significantly.

  7. Global positioning system measurements for crustal deformation: Precision and accuracy

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Prescott, W.H.; Davis, J.L.; Svarc, J.L.

    1989-01-01

    Analysis of 27 repeated observations of Global Positioning System (GPS) position-difference vectors, up to 11 kilometers in length, indicates that the standard deviation of the measurements is 4 millimeters for the north component, 6 millimeters for the east component, and 10 to 20 millimeters for the vertical component. The uncertainty grows slowly with increasing vector length. At 225 kilometers, the standard deviation of the measurement is 6, 11, and 40 millimeters for the north, east, and up components, respectively. Measurements with GPS and Geodolite, an electromagnetic distance-measuring system, over distances of 10 to 40 kilometers agree within 0.2 part per million. Measurements with GPS and very long baseline interferometry of the 225-kilometer vector agree within 0.05 part per million.

  8. The precision and accuracy of a portable heart rate monitor.

    PubMed

    Seaward, B L; Sleamaker, R H; McAuliffe, T; Clapp, J F

    1990-01-01

    A device that would comfortably and accurately measure exercise heart rate during field performance could be valuable for athletes, fitness participants, and investigators in the field of exercise physiology. Such a device, a portable telemeterized microprocessor, was compared with direct EKG measurements in a laboratory setting under several conditions to assess its accuracy. Twenty-four subjects were studied at rest and during light-, moderate-, high-, and maximal-intensity endurance activities (walking, running, aerobic dancing, and Nordic Track simulated cross-country skiing. Differences between values obtained by the two measuring devices were not statistically significant, with correlation coefficient (r) values ranging from 0.998 to 0.999. The two methods proved equally reliable for measuring heart rate in a host of varied aerobic activities at varying intensities. PMID:2306564

  9. Milling precision and fitting accuracy of Cerec Scan milled restorations.

    PubMed

    Arnetzl, G; Pongratz, D

    2005-10-01

    The milling accuracy of the Cerec Scan system was examined under standard practice conditions. For this purpose, one and the same 3D design similar to an inlay was milled 30 times from Vita Mark II ceramic blocks. Cylindrical diamond burs with 1.2 or 1.6 mm diameter were used. Each individual milled body was measured exactly to 0.1 microm at five defined sections with a coordinate measuring instrument from the Zeiss company. In the statistical evaluation, both the different diamond bur diameters and the extent of material removal from the ceramic blank were taken into consideration; sections with large substance removal and sections with low substance removal were defined. The standard deviation for the 1.6-mm burs was clearly greater than that for the 1.2-mm burs for the section with large substance removal. This difference was significant according to the Levene test for variance equality. In sections with low substance removal, no difference between the use of the 1.6-mm or 1.2-mm bur was shown. The measuring results ranged between 0.053 and 0.14 mm. The spacing of the distances with large substance removal were larger than those with low substance removal. The T-test for paired random samples showed that the distance with large substance removal when using the 1.6-mm bur was significantly larger than the distance with low substance removal. The difference was not significant for the small burs. It was shown several times statistically that the use of the cylindrical diamond bur with 1.6-mm diameter led to greater inaccuracies than the use of the 1.2-mm cylindrical diamond bur, especially at sites with large material removal. PMID:16689028

  10. 40 CFR 1065.305 - Verifications for accuracy, repeatability, and noise.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Verifications for accuracy, repeatability, and noise. 1065.305 Section 1065.305 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS ENGINE-TESTING PROCEDURES Calibrations and Verifications §...

  11. 40 CFR 1065.305 - Verifications for accuracy, repeatability, and noise.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 34 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Verifications for accuracy, repeatability, and noise. 1065.305 Section 1065.305 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS ENGINE-TESTING PROCEDURES Calibrations and Verifications §...

  12. 40 CFR 1065.305 - Verifications for accuracy, repeatability, and noise.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 34 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Verifications for accuracy, repeatability, and noise. 1065.305 Section 1065.305 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS ENGINE-TESTING PROCEDURES Calibrations and Verifications §...

  13. 40 CFR 1065.305 - Verifications for accuracy, repeatability, and noise.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 33 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Verifications for accuracy, repeatability, and noise. 1065.305 Section 1065.305 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS ENGINE-TESTING PROCEDURES Calibrations and Verifications §...

  14. 40 CFR 1065.305 - Verifications for accuracy, repeatability, and noise.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 33 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Verifications for accuracy, repeatability, and noise. 1065.305 Section 1065.305 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS ENGINE-TESTING PROCEDURES Calibrations and Verifications §...

  15. Precision and Accuracy in Measurements: A Tale of Four Graduated Cylinders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Treptow, Richard S.

    1998-01-01

    Expands upon the concepts of precision and accuracy at a level suitable for general chemistry. Serves as a bridge to the more extensive treatments in analytical chemistry textbooks and the advanced literature on error analysis. Contains 22 references. (DDR)

  16. Expansion and dissemination of a standardized accuracy and precision assessment technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kwartowitz, David M.; Riti, Rachel E.; Holmes, David R., III

    2011-03-01

    The advent and development of new imaging techniques and image-guidance have had a major impact on surgical practice. These techniques attempt to allow the clinician to not only visualize what is currently visible, but also what is beneath the surface, or function. These systems are often based on tracking systems coupled with registration and visualization technologies. The accuracy and precision of the tracking systems, thus is critical in the overall accuracy and precision of the image-guidance system. In this work the accuracy and precision of an Aurora tracking system is assessed, using the technique specified in " novel technique for analysis of accuracy of magnetic tracking systems used in image guided surgery." This analysis yielded a demonstration that accuracy is dependent on distance from the tracker's field generator, and had an RMS value of 1.48 mm. The error has the similar characteristics and values as the previous work, thus validating this method for tracker analysis.

  17. Accuracy and Precision of Silicon Based Impression Media for Quantitative Areal Texture Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Goodall, Robert H.; Darras, Laurent P.; Purnell, Mark A.

    2015-01-01

    Areal surface texture analysis is becoming widespread across a diverse range of applications, from engineering to ecology. In many studies silicon based impression media are used to replicate surfaces, and the fidelity of replication defines the quality of data collected. However, while different investigators have used different impression media, the fidelity of surface replication has not been subjected to quantitative analysis based on areal texture data. Here we present the results of an analysis of the accuracy and precision with which different silicon based impression media of varying composition and viscosity replicate rough and smooth surfaces. Both accuracy and precision vary greatly between different media. High viscosity media tested show very low accuracy and precision, and most other compounds showed either the same pattern, or low accuracy and high precision, or low precision and high accuracy. Of the media tested, mid viscosity President Jet Regular Body and low viscosity President Jet Light Body (Coltène Whaledent) are the only compounds to show high levels of accuracy and precision on both surface types. Our results show that data acquired from different impression media are not comparable, supporting calls for greater standardisation of methods in areal texture analysis. PMID:25991505

  18. S193 radiometer brightness temperature precision/accuracy for SL2 and SL3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pounds, D. J.; Krishen, K.

    1975-01-01

    The precision and accuracy with which the S193 radiometer measured the brightness temperature of ground scenes is investigated. Estimates were derived from data collected during Skylab missions. Homogeneous ground sites were selected and S193 radiometer brightness temperature data analyzed. The precision was expressed as the standard deviation of the radiometer acquired brightness temperature. Precision was determined to be 2.40 K or better depending on mode and target temperature.

  19. Accuracy and Repeatability of the Gait Analysis by the WalkinSense System

    PubMed Central

    de Castro, Marcelo P.; Soares, Denise P.; Borgonovo-Santos, Márcio; Sousa, Filipa; Vilas-Boas, João Paulo

    2014-01-01

    WalkinSense is a new device designed to monitor walking. The aim of this study was to measure the accuracy and repeatability of the gait analysis performed by the WalkinSense system. Descriptions of values recorded by WalkinSense depicting typical gait in adults are also presented. A bench experiment using the Trublu calibration device was conducted to statically test the WalkinSense. Following this, a dynamic test was carried out overlapping the WalkinSense and the Pedar insoles in 40 healthy participants during walking. Pressure peak, pressure peak time, pressure-time integral, and mean pressure at eight-foot regions were calculated. In the bench experiments, the repeatability (i) among the WalkinSense sensors (within), (ii) between two WalkinSense devices, and (iii) between the WalkinSense and the Trublu devices was excellent. In the dynamic tests, the repeatability of the WalkinSense (i) between stances in the same trial (within-trial) and (ii) between trials was also excellent (ICC > 0.90). When the eight-foot regions were analyzed separately, the within-trial and between-trials repeatability was good-to-excellent in 88% (ICC > 0.80) of the data and fair in 11%. In short, the data suggest that the WalkinSense has good-to-excellent levels of accuracy and repeatability for plantar pressure variables. PMID:24701570

  20. Does routine repeat testing of critical laboratory values improve their accuracy?

    PubMed Central

    Baradaran Motie, Pooya; Zare-Mirzaie, Ali; Shayanfar, Nasrin; Kadivar, Maryam

    2015-01-01

    Background: Routine repeat testing of critical laboratory values is very common these days to increase their accuracy and to avoid reporting false or infeasible results. We figure that repeat testing of critical laboratory values has any benefits or not. Methods: We examined 2233 repeated critical laboratory values in 13 different hematology and chemistry tests including: hemoglobin, white blood cell, platelet, international normalized ratio, partial thromboplastin time, glucose, potassium, sodium, phosphorus, magnesium, calcium, total bilirubin and direct bilirubin. The absolute difference and the percentage of change between the two tests for each critical value were calculated and then compared with the College of American Pathologists/Clinical Laboratory Improvement Amendments allowable error. Results: Repeat testing yielded results that were within the allowable error on 2213 of 2233 specimens (99.1%). There was only one outlier (0.2%) in the white blood cell test category, 9 (2.9%) in the platelet test category, 5 (4%) in the partial thromboplastin time test category, 5 (4.8%) in the international normalized ratio test category and none in other test categories. Conclusion: Routine, repeat testing of critical hemoglobin, white blood cell, platelet, international normalized ratio, partial thromboplastin time, glucose, potassium, sodium, phosphorus, magnesium, calcium, total bilirubin and direct bilirubin results does not have any benefits to increase their accuracy. PMID:26034729

  1. Precision, accuracy, and application of diver-towed underwater GPS receivers.

    PubMed

    Schories, Dirk; Niedzwiedz, Gerd

    2012-04-01

    Diver-towed global positioning systems (GPS) handhelds have been used for a few years in underwater monitoring studies. We modeled the accuracy of this method using the software KABKURR originally developed by the University of Rostock for fishing and marine engineering. Additionally, three field experiments were conducted to estimate the precision of the method and apply it in the field: (1) an experiment of underwater transects from 5 to 35 m in the Southern Chile fjord region, (2) a transect from 5 to 30 m under extreme climatic conditions in the Antarctic, and (3) an underwater tracking experiment at Lake Ranco, Southern Chile. The coiled cable length in relation to water depth is the main error source besides the signal quality of the GPS under calm weather conditions. The forces used in the model resulted in a displacement of 2.3 m in a depth of 5 m, 3.2 m at a 10-m depth, 4.6 m in a 20-m depth, 5.5 m at a 30-m depth, and 6.8 m in a 40-m depth, when only an additional 0.5 m cable extension was used compared to the water depth. The GPS buoy requires good buoyancy in order to keep its position at the water surface when the diver is trying to minimize any additional cable extension error. The diver has to apply a tensile force for shortening the cable length at the lower cable end. Repeated diving along transect lines from 5 to 35 m resulted only in small deviations independent of water depth indicating the precision of the method for monitoring studies. Routing of given reference points with a Garmin 76CSx handheld placed in an underwater housing resulted in mean deviances less than 6 m at a water depth of 10 m. Thus, we can confirm that diver-towed GPS handhelds give promising results when used for underwater research in shallow water and open a wide field of applicability, but no submeter accuracy is possible due to the different error sources. PMID:21614620

  2. [Assessment of precision and accuracy of digital surface photogrammetry with the DSP 400 system].

    PubMed

    Krimmel, M; Kluba, S; Dietz, K; Reinert, S

    2005-03-01

    The objective of the present study was to evaluate the precision and accuracy of facial anthropometric measurements obtained through digital 3-D surface photogrammetry with the DSP 400 system in comparison to traditional 2-D photogrammetry. Fifty plaster casts of cleft infants were imaged and 21 standard anthropometric measurements were obtained. For precision assessment the measurements were performed twice in a subsample. Accuracy was determined by comparison of direct measurements and indirect 2-D and 3-D image measurements. Precision of digital surface photogrammetry was almost as good as direct anthropometry and clearly better than 2-D photogrammetry. Measurements derived from 3-D images showed better congruence to direct measurements than from 2-D photos. Digital surface photogrammetry with the DSP 400 system is sufficiently precise and accurate for craniofacial anthropometric examinations. PMID:15832575

  3. Accuracy and repeatability of two methods of gait analysis - GaitRite™ und Mobility Lab™ - in subjects with cerebellar ataxia.

    PubMed

    Schmitz-Hübsch, Tanja; Brandt, Alexander U; Pfueller, Caspar; Zange, Leonora; Seidel, Adrian; Kühn, Andrea A; Paul, Friedemann; Minnerop, Martina; Doss, Sarah

    2016-07-01

    Instrumental gait analysis is increasingly recognized as a useful tool for the evaluation of movement disorders. The various assessment devices available to date have mostly been evaluated in healthy populations only. We aimed to explore whether reliability and validity seen in healthy subjects can also be assumed in subjects with cerebellar ataxic gait. Gait was recorded simultaneously with two devices - a sensor-embedded walkway and an inertial sensor based system - to explore test accuracy in two groups of subjects: one with mild to moderate cerebellar ataxia due to a subtype of autosomal-dominantly inherited neurodegenerative disorder (SCA14), the other were healthy subjects matched for age and height (CTR). Test precision was assessed by retest within session for each device. In conclusion, accuracy and repeatability of gait measurements were not compromised by ataxic gait disorder. The accuracy of spatial measures was speed-dependent and a direct comparison of stride length from both devices will be most reliably made at comfortable speed. Measures of stride variability had low agreement between methods in CTR and at retest in both groups. However, the marked increase of stride variability in ataxia outweighs the observed amount of imprecision. PMID:27289221

  4. Evaluation of optoelectronic Plethysmography accuracy and precision in recording displacements during quiet breathing simulation.

    PubMed

    Massaroni, C; Schena, E; Saccomandi, P; Morrone, M; Sterzi, S; Silvestri, S

    2015-08-01

    Opto-electronic Plethysmography (OEP) is a motion analysis system used to measure chest wall kinematics and to indirectly evaluate respiratory volumes during breathing. Its working principle is based on the computation of marker displacements placed on the chest wall. This work aims at evaluating the accuracy and precision of OEP in measuring displacement in the range of human chest wall displacement during quiet breathing. OEP performances were investigated by the use of a fully programmable chest wall simulator (CWS). CWS was programmed to move 10 times its eight shafts in the range of physiological displacement (i.e., between 1 mm and 8 mm) at three different frequencies (i.e., 0.17 Hz, 0.25 Hz, 0.33 Hz). Experiments were performed with the aim to: (i) evaluate OEP accuracy and precision error in recording displacement in the overall calibrated volume and in three sub-volumes, (ii) evaluate the OEP volume measurement accuracy due to the measurement accuracy of linear displacements. OEP showed an accuracy better than 0.08 mm in all trials, considering the whole 2m(3) calibrated volume. The mean measurement discrepancy was 0.017 mm. The precision error, expressed as the ratio between measurement uncertainty and the recorded displacement by OEP, was always lower than 0.55%. Volume overestimation due to OEP linear measurement accuracy was always <; 12 mL (<; 3.2% of total volume), considering all settings. PMID:26736504

  5. The Plus or Minus Game--Teaching Estimation, Precision, and Accuracy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forringer, Edward R.; Forringer, Richard S.; Forringer, Daniel S.

    2016-01-01

    A quick survey of physics textbooks shows that many (Knight, Young, and Serway for example) cover estimation, significant digits, precision versus accuracy, and uncertainty in the first chapter. Estimation "Fermi" questions are so useful that there has been a column dedicated to them in "TPT" (Larry Weinstein's "Fermi…

  6. PRECISION AND ACCURACY ASSESSMENTS FOR STATE AND LOCAL AIR MONITORING NETWORKS, 1984

    EPA Science Inventory

    Precision and accuracy data obtained from state and local agencies during 1984 are summarized and compared to data reported earlier for the period 1981-1983. A continual improvement in the completeness of the data is evident. Improvement is also evident in the size of the precisi...

  7. PRECISION AND ACCURACY ASSESSMENTS FOR STATE AND LOCAL AIR MONITORING NETWORKS, 1983

    EPA Science Inventory

    Precision and accuracy data obtained from State and local agencies during 1983 are summarized and evaluated. Some comparisons are made with the results previously reported for 1981 and 1982 to determine the indication of any trends. Some trends indicated improvement in the comple...

  8. PRECISION AND ACCURACY ASSESSMENTS FOR STATE AND LOCAL AIR MONITORING NETWORKS, 1985

    EPA Science Inventory

    Precision and accuracy data obtained from State and local agencies during 1985 are summarized and evaluated. Some comparisons are made with the results reported for prior years to determine any trends. Some trends indicated continued improvement in the completeness of reporting o...

  9. ASSESSMENT OF THE PRECISION AND ACCURACY OF SAM AND MFC MICROCOSMS EXPOSED TO TOXICANTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The results of 30 mixed flank culture (MFC) and four standardized aquatic microcosm (SAM) microcosm experiments were used to describe the precision and accuracy of these two protocols. oefficients of variation (CV) for chemicals measurements (DO,pH) were generally less than 7%, f...

  10. Commissioning Procedures for Mechanical Precision and Accuracy in a Dedicated LINAC

    SciTech Connect

    Ballesteros-Zebadua, P.; Larrga-Gutierrez, J. M.; Garcia-Garduno, O. A.; Juarez, J.; Prieto, I.; Moreno-Jimenez, S.; Celis, M. A.

    2008-08-11

    Mechanical precision measurements are fundamental procedures for the commissioning of a dedicated LINAC. At our Radioneurosurgery Unit, these procedures can be suitable as quality assurance routines that allow the verification of the equipment geometrical accuracy and precision. In this work mechanical tests were performed for gantry and table rotation, obtaining mean associated uncertainties of 0.3 mm and 0.71 mm, respectively. Using an anthropomorphic phantom and a series of localized surface markers, isocenter accuracy showed to be smaller than 0.86 mm for radiosurgery procedures and 0.95 mm for fractionated treatments with mask. All uncertainties were below tolerances. The highest contribution to mechanical variations is due to table rotation, so it is important to correct variations using a localization frame with printed overlays. Mechanical precision knowledge would allow to consider the statistical errors in the treatment planning volume margins.

  11. Evaluation of the Accuracy and Precision of a Next Generation Computer-Assisted Surgical System

    PubMed Central

    Dai, Yifei; Liebelt, Ralph A.; Gao, Bo; Gulbransen, Scott W.; Silver, Xeve S.

    2015-01-01

    Background Computer-assisted orthopaedic surgery (CAOS) improves accuracy and reduces outliers in total knee arthroplasty (TKA). However, during the evaluation of CAOS systems, the error generated by the guidance system (hardware and software) has been generally overlooked. Limited information is available on the accuracy and precision of specific CAOS systems with regard to intraoperative final resection measurements. The purpose of this study was to assess the accuracy and precision of a next generation CAOS system and investigate the impact of extra-articular deformity on the system-level errors generated during intraoperative resection measurement. Methods TKA surgeries were performed on twenty-eight artificial knee inserts with various types of extra-articular deformity (12 neutral, 12 varus, and 4 valgus). Surgical resection parameters (resection depths and alignment angles) were compared between postoperative three-dimensional (3D) scan-based measurements and intraoperative CAOS measurements. Using the 3D scan-based measurements as control, the accuracy (mean error) and precision (associated standard deviation) of the CAOS system were assessed. The impact of extra-articular deformity on the CAOS system measurement errors was also investigated. Results The pooled mean unsigned errors generated by the CAOS system were equal or less than 0.61 mm and 0.64° for resection depths and alignment angles, respectively. No clinically meaningful biases were found in the measurements of resection depths (< 0.5 mm) and alignment angles (< 0.5°). Extra-articular deformity did not show significant effect on the measurement errors generated by the CAOS system investigated. Conclusions This study presented a set of methodology and workflow to assess the system-level accuracy and precision of CAOS systems. The data demonstrated that the CAOS system investigated can offer accurate and precise intraoperative measurements of TKA resection parameters, regardless of the presence

  12. Accuracy, precision and economics: The cost of cutting-edge chemical analyses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamilton, B.; Hannigan, R.; Jones, C.; Chen, Z.

    2002-12-01

    Otolith (fish ear bone) chemistry has proven to be an exceptional tool for the identification of essential fish habitats in marine and freshwater environments. These measurements, which explore the variations in trace element content of otoliths relative to Calcium (eg., Ba/Ca, Mg/Ca etc.), provide data to resolve the differences in habitat water chemistry on the watershed to catchment scale. The vast majority of these analyses are performed by laser ablation ICP-MS using a high-resolution instrument. However, few laboratories are equipped with this configuration and many researchers measure the trace element chemistry of otoliths by whole digestion ICP-MS using lower resolution quadrupole instruments. This study examines the differences in accuracy and precision between three elemental analysis methods using whole otolith digestion on a low resolution ICP-MS (ELAN 9000). The first, and most commonly used, technique is external calibration with internal standardization. This technique is the most cost-effective but also is one with limitations in terms of method detection. The second, standard addition is more costly in terms of time and use of standard materials but offers gains in precision and accuracy. The third, isotope dilution, is the least cost effective but the most accurate of elemental analysis techniques. Based on the results of this study, which seeks to identify the technique which is the easiest to implement yet has the precision and accuracy necessary to resolve spatial variations in habitats, we conclude that external calibration with internal standardization can be sufficient to revolve spatial and temporal variations in marine and estuarine environments (+/- 6-8% accuracy). Standard addition increases the accuracy of measurements to 2-5% and is ideal for freshwater studies. While there is a gain in accuracy and precision with isotope dilution, the spatial and temporal resolution is no greater with this technique than the other.

  13. Accuracy in Dental Medicine, A New Way to Measure Trueness and Precision

    PubMed Central

    Ender, Andreas; Mehl, Albert

    2014-01-01

    Reference scanners are used in dental medicine to verify a lot of procedures. The main interest is to verify impression methods as they serve as a base for dental restorations. The current limitation of many reference scanners is the lack of accuracy scanning large objects like full dental arches, or the limited possibility to assess detailed tooth surfaces. A new reference scanner, based on focus variation scanning technique, was evaluated with regards to highest local and general accuracy. A specific scanning protocol was tested to scan original tooth surface from dental impressions. Also, different model materials were verified. The results showed a high scanning accuracy of the reference scanner with a mean deviation of 5.3 ± 1.1 µm for trueness and 1.6 ± 0.6 µm for precision in case of full arch scans. Current dental impression methods showed much higher deviations (trueness: 20.4 ± 2.2 µm, precision: 12.5 ± 2.5 µm) than the internal scanning accuracy of the reference scanner. Smaller objects like single tooth surface can be scanned with an even higher accuracy, enabling the system to assess erosive and abrasive tooth surface loss. The reference scanner can be used to measure differences for a lot of dental research fields. The different magnification levels combined with a high local and general accuracy can be used to assess changes of single teeth or restorations up to full arch changes. PMID:24836007

  14. Validation of accuracy and repeatability of UltraSurf metrology on common optical shapes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DeFisher, Scott; Matthews, Greg; Fess, Edward

    2015-10-01

    Advancements in optical manufacturing technology allow optical designers to implement steep aspheric or high departure surfaces into their systems. Accurate metrology during the grinding and polishing stages of asphere manufacturing will reduce time and cost. Measuring these surfaces with common interferometers or profilometers can be difficult due to large surface slopes or unpolished surface texture. OptiPro has developed UltraSurf to qualify the form, figure, and thickness of steep aspheric and freeform optics. UltraSurf is a computer controlled, non-contact coordinate measuring machine. It incorporates five air-bearing axes, linear motors, high-resolution feedback, and a non-contact probe. The measuring probe is scanned over the optical surface while maintaining perpendicularity and a constant focal offset. There are multiple probe technologies available on UltraSurf, and each probe has strengths and weaknesses relative to the material properties, surface finish, and figure error of an optical component. Validation of the system accuracy, repeatability, and methodology must be performed to trust the measurement data. Form and figure maps of a flat, a sphere, and an asphere using UltraSurf will be presented with comparisons to interferometry. In addition, accuracy, repeatability, and machine qualification will be discussed.

  15. Piping inspection instrument carriage with precise and repeatable position control and location determination

    DOEpatents

    Hapstack, M.; Talarek, T.R.; Zollinger, W.T.; Heckendorn, F.M. II; Park, L.R.

    1994-02-15

    An instrument carriage for inspection of piping comprises front and rear leg assemblies for engaging the interior of the piping and supporting and centering the carriage therein, and an instrumentation arm carried by a shaft system running from the front to rear leg assemblies. The shaft system has a screw shaft for moving the arm axially and a spline gear for moving the arm azimuthally. The arm has a pair of air cylinders that raise and lower a plate in the radial direction. On the plate are probes including an eddy current probe and an ultrasonic testing probe. The ultrasonic testing probe is capable of spinning 360[degree] about its axis. The instrument carriage uses servo motors and pressurized air cylinders for precise actuation of instrument components and precise, repeatable actuation of position control mechanisms. 8 figures.

  16. Piping inspection instrument carriage with precise and repeatable position control and location determination

    DOEpatents

    Hapstack, Mark; Talarek, Ted R.; Zollinger, W. Thor; Heckendorn, II, Frank M.; Park, Larry R.

    1994-01-01

    An instrument carriage for inspection of piping comprises front and rear leg assemblies for engaging the interior of the piping and supporting and centering the carriage therein, and an instrumentation arm carried by a shaft system running from the front to rear leg assemblies. The shaft system has a screw shaft for moving the arm axially and a spline gear for moving the arm azimuthally. The arm has a pair of air cylinders that raise and lower a plate in the radial direction. On the plate are probes including an eddy current probe and an ultrasonic testing probe. The ultrasonic testing probe is capable of spinning 360.degree. about its axis. The instrument carriage uses servo motors and pressurized air cylinders for precise actuation of instrument components and precise, repeatable actuation of position control mechanisms.

  17. Performance characterization of precision micro robot using a machine vision system over the Internet for guaranteed positioning accuracy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kwon, Yongjin; Chiou, Richard; Rauniar, Shreepud; Sosa, Horacio

    2005-11-01

    There is a missing link between a virtual development environment (e.g., a CAD/CAM driven offline robotic programming) and production requirements of the actual robotic workcell. Simulated robot path planning and generation of pick-and-place coordinate points will not exactly coincide with the robot performance due to lack of consideration in variations in individual robot repeatability and thermal expansion of robot linkages. This is especially important when robots are controlled and programmed remotely (e.g., through Internet or Ethernet) since remote users have no physical contact with robotic systems. Using the current technology in Internet-based manufacturing that is limited to a web camera for live image transfer has been a significant challenge for the robot task performance. Consequently, the calibration and accuracy quantification of robot critical to precision assembly have to be performed on-site and the verification of robot positioning accuracy cannot be ascertained remotely. In worst case, the remote users have to assume the robot performance envelope provided by the manufacturers, which may causes a potentially serious hazard for system crash and damage to the parts and robot arms. Currently, there is no reliable methodology for remotely calibrating the robot performance. The objective of this research is, therefore, to advance the current state-of-the-art in Internet-based control and monitoring technology, with a specific aim in the accuracy calibration of micro precision robotic system for the development of a novel methodology utilizing Ethernet-based smart image sensors and other advanced precision sensory control network.

  18. ACCURACY AND PRECISION OF A METHOD TO STUDY KINEMATICS OF THE TEMPOROMANDIBULAR JOINT: COMBINATION OF MOTION DATA AND CT IMAGING

    PubMed Central

    Baltali, Evre; Zhao, Kristin D.; Koff, Matthew F.; Keller, Eugene E.; An, Kai-Nan

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to test the precision and accuracy of a method used to track selected landmarks during motion of the temporomandibular joint (TMJ). A precision phantom device was constructed and relative motions between two rigid bodies on the phantom device were measured using optoelectronic (OE) and electromagnetic (EM) motion tracking devices. The motion recordings were also combined with a 3D CT image for each type of motion tracking system (EM+CT and OE+CT) to mimic methods used in previous studies. In the OE and EM data collections, specific landmarks on the rigid bodies were determined using digitization. In the EM+CT and OE+CT data sets, the landmark locations were obtained from the CT images. 3D linear distances and 3D curvilinear path distances were calculated for the points. The accuracy and precision for all 4 methods were evaluated (EM, OE, EM+CT and OE+CT). In addition, results were compared with and without the CT imaging (EM vs. EM+CT, OE vs. OE+CT). All systems overestimated the actual 3D curvilinear path lengths. All systems also underestimated the actual rotation values. The accuracy of all methods was within 0.5 mm for 3D curvilinear path calculations, 0.05 mm for 3D linear distance calculations, and 0.2° for rotation calculations. In addition, Bland-Altman plots for each configuration of the systems suggest that measurements obtained from either system are repeatable and comparable. PMID:18617178

  19. Repeatability and Accuracy of Exoplanet Eclipse Depths Measured with Post-cryogenic Spitzer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ingalls, James G.; Krick, J. E.; Carey, S. J.; Stauffer, John R.; Lowrance, Patrick J.; Grillmair, Carl J.; Buzasi, Derek; Deming, Drake; Diamond-Lowe, Hannah; Evans, Thomas M.; Morello, G.; Stevenson, Kevin B.; Wong, Ian; Capak, Peter; Glaccum, William; Laine, Seppo; Surace, Jason; Storrie-Lombardi, Lisa

    2016-08-01

    We examine the repeatability, reliability, and accuracy of differential exoplanet eclipse depth measurements made using the InfraRed Array Camera (IRAC) on the Spitzer Space Telescope during the post-cryogenic mission. We have re-analyzed an existing 4.5 μm data set, consisting of 10 observations of the XO-3b system during secondary eclipse, using seven different techniques for removing correlated noise. We find that, on average, for a given technique, the eclipse depth estimate is repeatable from epoch to epoch to within 156 parts per million (ppm). Most techniques derive eclipse depths that do not vary by more than a factor 3 of the photon noise limit. All methods but one accurately assess their own errors: for these methods, the individual measurement uncertainties are comparable to the scatter in eclipse depths over the 10 epoch sample. To assess the accuracy of the techniques as well as to clarify the difference between instrumental and other sources of measurement error, we have also analyzed a simulated data set of 10 visits to XO-3b, for which the eclipse depth is known. We find that three of the methods (BLISS mapping, Pixel Level Decorrelation, and Independent Component Analysis) obtain results that are within three times the photon limit of the true eclipse depth. When averaged over the 10 epoch ensemble, 5 out of 7 techniques come within 60 ppm of the true value. Spitzer exoplanet data, if obtained following current best practices and reduced using methods such as those described here, can measure repeatable and accurate single eclipse depths, with close to photon-limited results.

  20. Accuracy and Precision of Three-Dimensional Low Dose CT Compared to Standard RSA in Acetabular Cups: An Experimental Study.

    PubMed

    Brodén, Cyrus; Olivecrona, Henrik; Maguire, Gerald Q; Noz, Marilyn E; Zeleznik, Michael P; Sköldenberg, Olof

    2016-01-01

    Background and Purpose. The gold standard for detection of implant wear and migration is currently radiostereometry (RSA). The purpose of this study is to compare a three-dimensional computed tomography technique (3D CT) to standard RSA as an alternative technique for measuring migration of acetabular cups in total hip arthroplasty. Materials and Methods. With tantalum beads, we marked one cemented and one uncemented cup and mounted these on a similarly marked pelvic model. A comparison was made between 3D CT and standard RSA for measuring migration. Twelve repeated stereoradiographs and CT scans with double examinations in each position and gradual migration of the implants were made. Precision and accuracy of the 3D CT were calculated. Results. The accuracy of the 3D CT ranged between 0.07 and 0.32 mm for translations and 0.21 and 0.82° for rotation. The precision ranged between 0.01 and 0.09 mm for translations and 0.06 and 0.29° for rotations, respectively. For standard RSA, the precision ranged between 0.04 and 0.09 mm for translations and 0.08 and 0.32° for rotations, respectively. There was no significant difference in precision between 3D CT and standard RSA. The effective radiation dose of the 3D CT method, comparable to RSA, was estimated to be 0.33 mSv. Interpretation. Low dose 3D CT is a comparable method to standard RSA in an experimental setting. PMID:27478832

  1. Accuracy and Precision of Three-Dimensional Low Dose CT Compared to Standard RSA in Acetabular Cups: An Experimental Study

    PubMed Central

    Olivecrona, Henrik; Maguire, Gerald Q.; Noz, Marilyn E.; Zeleznik, Michael P.

    2016-01-01

    Background and Purpose. The gold standard for detection of implant wear and migration is currently radiostereometry (RSA). The purpose of this study is to compare a three-dimensional computed tomography technique (3D CT) to standard RSA as an alternative technique for measuring migration of acetabular cups in total hip arthroplasty. Materials and Methods. With tantalum beads, we marked one cemented and one uncemented cup and mounted these on a similarly marked pelvic model. A comparison was made between 3D CT and standard RSA for measuring migration. Twelve repeated stereoradiographs and CT scans with double examinations in each position and gradual migration of the implants were made. Precision and accuracy of the 3D CT were calculated. Results. The accuracy of the 3D CT ranged between 0.07 and 0.32 mm for translations and 0.21 and 0.82° for rotation. The precision ranged between 0.01 and 0.09 mm for translations and 0.06 and 0.29° for rotations, respectively. For standard RSA, the precision ranged between 0.04 and 0.09 mm for translations and 0.08 and 0.32° for rotations, respectively. There was no significant difference in precision between 3D CT and standard RSA. The effective radiation dose of the 3D CT method, comparable to RSA, was estimated to be 0.33 mSv. Interpretation. Low dose 3D CT is a comparable method to standard RSA in an experimental setting. PMID:27478832

  2. A Method for Assessing the Accuracy of a Photogrammetry System for Precision Deployable Structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, Ashley

    2005-01-01

    The measurement techniques used to validate analytical models of large deployable structures are an integral Part of the technology development process and must be precise and accurate. Photogrammetry and videogrammetry are viable, accurate, and unobtrusive methods for measuring such large Structures. Photogrammetry uses Software to determine the three-dimensional position of a target using camera images. Videogrammetry is based on the same principle, except a series of timed images are analyzed. This work addresses the accuracy of a digital photogrammetry system used for measurement of large, deployable space structures at JPL. First, photogrammetry tests are performed on a precision space truss test article, and the images are processed using Photomodeler software. The accuracy of the Photomodeler results is determined through, comparison with measurements of the test article taken by an external testing group using the VSTARS photogrammetry system. These two measurements are then compared with Australis photogrammetry software that simulates a measurement test to predict its accuracy. The software is then used to study how particular factors, such as camera resolution and placement, affect the system accuracy to help design the setup for the videogrammetry system that will offer the highest level of accuracy for measurement of deploying structures.

  3. Evaluation of precision and accuracy of the Borgwaldt RM20S(®) smoking machine designed for in vitro exposure.

    PubMed

    Kaur, Navneet; Lacasse, Martine; Roy, Jean-Philippe; Cabral, Jean-Louis; Adamson, Jason; Errington, Graham; Waldron, Karen C; Gaça, Marianna; Morin, André

    2010-12-01

    The Borgwaldt RM20S(®) smoking machine enables the generation, dilution, and transfer of fresh cigarette smoke to cell exposure chambers, for in vitro analyses. We present a study confirming the precision (repeatability r, reproducibility R) and accuracy of smoke dose generated by the Borgwaldt RM20S(®) system and delivery to exposure chambers. Due to the aerosol nature of cigarette smoke, the repeatability of the dilution of the vapor phase in air was assessed by quantifying two reference standard gases: methane (CH(4), r between 29.0 and 37.0 and RSD between 2.2% and 4.5%) and carbon monoxide (CO, r between 166.8 and 235.8 and RSD between 0.7% and 3.7%). The accuracy of dilution (percent error) for CH(4) and CO was between 6.4% and 19.5% and between 5.8% and 6.4%, respectively, over a 10-1000-fold dilution range. To corroborate our findings, a small inter-laboratory study was carried out for CH(4) measurements. The combined dilution repeatability had an r between 21.3 and 46.4, R between 52.9 and 88.4, RSD between 6.3% and 17.3%, and error between 4.3% and 13.1%. Based on the particulate component of cigarette smoke (3R4F), the repeatability (RSD = 12%) of the undiluted smoke generated by the Borgwaldt RM20S(®) was assessed by quantifying solanesol using high-performance liquid chromatography with ultraviolet detection (HPLC/UV). Finally, the repeatability (r between 0.98 and 4.53 and RSD between 8.8% and 12%) of the dilution of generated smoke particulate phase was assessed by quantifying solanesol following various dilutions of cigarette smoke. The findings in this study suggest the Borgwaldt RM20S(®) smoking machine is a reliable tool to generate and deliver repeatable and reproducible doses of whole smoke to in vitro cultures. PMID:21126153

  4. Measuring the accuracy and precision of quantitative coronary angiography using a digitally simulated test phantom

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morioka, Craig A.; Whiting, James S.; LeFree, Michelle T.

    1998-06-01

    Quantitative coronary angiography (QCA) diameter measurements have been used as an endpoint measurement in clinical studies involving therapies to reduce coronary atherosclerosis. The accuracy and precision of the QCA measure can affect the sample size and study conclusions of a clinical study. Measurements using x-ray test phantoms can underestimate the precision and accuracy of the actual arteries in clinical digital angiograms because they do not contain complex patient structures. Determining the clinical performance of QCA algorithms under clinical conditions is difficult because: (1) no gold standard test object exists in clinical images, (2) phantom images do not have any structured background noise. We purpose the use of computer simulated arteries as a replacement for traditional angiographic test phantoms to evaluate QCA algorithm performance.

  5. The Use of Scale-Dependent Precision to Increase Forecast Accuracy in Earth System Modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thornes, Tobias; Duben, Peter; Palmer, Tim

    2016-04-01

    At the current pace of development, it may be decades before the 'exa-scale' computers needed to resolve individual convective clouds in weather and climate models become available to forecasters, and such machines will incur very high power demands. But the resolution could be improved today by switching to more efficient, 'inexact' hardware with which variables can be represented in 'reduced precision'. Currently, all numbers in our models are represented as double-precision floating points - each requiring 64 bits of memory - to minimise rounding errors, regardless of spatial scale. Yet observational and modelling constraints mean that values of atmospheric variables are inevitably known less precisely on smaller scales, suggesting that this may be a waste of computer resources. More accurate forecasts might therefore be obtained by taking a scale-selective approach whereby the precision of variables is gradually decreased at smaller spatial scales to optimise the overall efficiency of the model. To study the effect of reducing precision to different levels on multiple spatial scales, we here introduce a new model atmosphere developed by extending the Lorenz '96 idealised system to encompass three tiers of variables - which represent large-, medium- and small-scale features - for the first time. In this chaotic but computationally tractable system, the 'true' state can be defined by explicitly resolving all three tiers. The abilities of low resolution (single-tier) double-precision models and similar-cost high resolution (two-tier) models in mixed-precision to produce accurate forecasts of this 'truth' are compared. The high resolution models outperform the low resolution ones even when small-scale variables are resolved in half-precision (16 bits). This suggests that using scale-dependent levels of precision in more complicated real-world Earth System models could allow forecasts to be made at higher resolution and with improved accuracy. If adopted, this new

  6. Comparison between predicted and actual accuracies for an Ultra-Precision CNC measuring machine

    SciTech Connect

    Thompson, D.C.; Fix, B.L.

    1995-05-30

    At the 1989 CIRP annual meeting, we reported on the design of a specialized, ultra-precision CNC measuring machine, and on the error budget that was developed to guide the design process. In our paper we proposed a combinatorial rule for merging estimated and/or calculated values for all known sources of error, to yield a single overall predicted accuracy for the machine. In this paper we compare our original predictions with measured performance of the completed instrument.

  7. Testing the Deployment Repeatability of a Precision Deployable Boom Prototype for the Proposed SWOT Karin Instrument

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Agnes, Gregory S.; Waldman, Jeff; Hughes, Richard; Peterson, Lee D.

    2015-01-01

    NASA's proposed Surface Water Ocean Topography (SWOT) mission, scheduled to launch in 2020, would provide critical information about Earth's oceans, ocean circulation, fresh water storage, and river discharge. The mission concept calls for a dual-antenna Ka-band radar interferometer instrument, known as KaRIn, that would map the height of water globally along two 50 km wide swaths. The KaRIn antennas, which would be separated by 10 meters on either side of the spacecraft, would need to be precisely deployable in order to meet demanding pointing requirements. Consequently, an effort was undertaken to design build and prototype a precision deployable Mast for the KaRIn instrument. Each mast was 4.5-m long with a required dilitation stability of 2.5 microns over 3 minutes. It required a minimum first mode of 7 Hz. Deployment repeatability was less than +/- 7 arcsec in all three rotation directions. Overall mass could not exceed 41.5 Kg including any actuators and thermal blanketing. This set of requirements meant the boom had to be three times lighter and two orders of magnitude more precise than the existing state of the art for deployable booms.

  8. Measuring changes in Plasmodium falciparum transmission: Precision, accuracy and costs of metrics

    PubMed Central

    Tusting, Lucy S.; Bousema, Teun; Smith, David L.; Drakeley, Chris

    2016-01-01

    As malaria declines in parts of Africa and elsewhere, and as more countries move towards elimination, it is necessary to robustly evaluate the effect of interventions and control programmes on malaria transmission. To help guide the appropriate design of trials to evaluate transmission-reducing interventions, we review eleven metrics of malaria transmission, discussing their accuracy, precision, collection methods and costs, and presenting an overall critique. We also review the non-linear scaling relationships between five metrics of malaria transmission; the entomological inoculation rate, force of infection, sporozoite rate, parasite rate and the basic reproductive number, R0. Our review highlights that while the entomological inoculation rate is widely considered the gold standard metric of malaria transmission and may be necessary for measuring changes in transmission in highly endemic areas, it has limited precision and accuracy and more standardised methods for its collection are required. In areas of low transmission, parasite rate, sero-conversion rates and molecular metrics including MOI and mFOI may be most appropriate. When assessing a specific intervention, the most relevant effects will be detected by examining the metrics most directly affected by that intervention. Future work should aim to better quantify the precision and accuracy of malaria metrics and to improve methods for their collection. PMID:24480314

  9. Evaluation of precision and accuracy of selenium measurements in biological materials using neutron activation analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Greenberg, R.R.

    1988-01-01

    In recent years, the accurate determination of selenium in biological materials has become increasingly important in view of the essential nature of this element for human nutrition and its possible role as a protective agent against cancer. Unfortunately, the accurate determination of selenium in biological materials is often difficult for most analytical techniques for a variety of reasons, including interferences, complicated selenium chemistry due to the presence of this element in multiple oxidation states and in a variety of different organic species, stability and resistance to destruction of some of these organo-selenium species during acid dissolution, volatility of some selenium compounds, and potential for contamination. Neutron activation analysis (NAA) can be one of the best analytical techniques for selenium determinations in biological materials for a number of reasons. Currently, precision at the 1% level (1s) and overall accuracy at the 1 to 2% level (95% confidence interval) can be attained at the U.S. National Bureau of Standards (NBS) for selenium determinations in biological materials when counting statistics are not limiting (using the {sup 75}Se isotope). An example of this level of precision and accuracy is summarized. Achieving this level of accuracy, however, requires strict attention to all sources of systematic error. Precise and accurate results can also be obtained after radiochemical separations.

  10. Precision and accuracy of 3D lower extremity residua measurement systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Commean, Paul K.; Smith, Kirk E.; Vannier, Michael W.; Hildebolt, Charles F.; Pilgram, Thomas K.

    1996-04-01

    Accurate and reproducible geometric measurement of lower extremity residua is required for custom prosthetic socket design. We compared spiral x-ray computed tomography (SXCT) and 3D optical surface scanning (OSS) with caliper measurements and evaluated the precision and accuracy of each system. Spiral volumetric CT scanned surface and subsurface information was used to make external and internal measurements, and finite element models (FEMs). SXCT and OSS were used to measure lower limb residuum geometry of 13 below knee (BK) adult amputees. Six markers were placed on each subject's BK residuum and corresponding plaster casts and distance measurements were taken to determine precision and accuracy for each system. Solid models were created from spiral CT scan data sets with the prosthesis in situ under different loads using p-version finite element analysis (FEA). Tissue properties of the residuum were estimated iteratively and compared with values taken from the biomechanics literature. The OSS and SXCT measurements were precise within 1% in vivo and 0.5% on plaster casts, and accuracy was within 3.5% in vivo and 1% on plaster casts compared with caliper measures. Three-dimensional optical surface and SXCT imaging systems are feasible for capturing the comprehensive 3D surface geometry of BK residua, and provide distance measurements statistically equivalent to calipers. In addition, SXCT can readily distinguish internal soft tissue and bony structure of the residuum. FEM can be applied to determine tissue material properties interactively using inverse methods.

  11. Increasing the precision and accuracy of top-loading balances:  application of experimental design.

    PubMed

    Bzik, T J; Henderson, P B; Hobbs, J P

    1998-01-01

    The traditional method of estimating the weight of multiple objects is to obtain the weight of each object individually. We demonstrate that the precision and accuracy of these estimates can be improved by using a weighing scheme in which multiple objects are simultaneously on the balance. The resulting system of linear equations is solved to yield the weight estimates for the objects. Precision and accuracy improvements can be made by using a weighing scheme without requiring any more weighings than the number of objects when a total of at least six objects are to be weighed. It is also necessary that multiple objects can be weighed with about the same precision as that obtained with a single object, and the scale bias remains relatively constant over the set of weighings. Simulated and empirical examples are given for a system of eight objects in which up to five objects can be weighed simultaneously. A modified Plackett-Burman weighing scheme yields a 25% improvement in precision over the traditional method and implicitly removes the scale bias from seven of the eight objects. Applications of this novel use of experimental design techniques are shown to have potential commercial importance for quality control methods that rely on the mass change rate of an object. PMID:21644600

  12. Results of the 2015 Spitzer Exoplanet Data Challenge: Repeatability and Accuracy of Exoplanet Eclipse Depths

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ingalls, James G.; Krick, Jessica E.; Carey, Sean J.; Stauffer, John R.; Grillmair, Carl J.; Lowrance, Patrick

    2016-06-01

    We examine the repeatability, reliability, and accuracy of differential exoplanet eclipse depth measurements made using the InfraRed Array Camera (IRAC) on the Spitzer Space Telescope during the post-cryogenic mission. At infrared wavelengths secondary eclipses and phase curves are powerful tools for studying a planet’s atmosphere. Extracting information about atmospheres, however, is extremely challenging due to the small differential signals, which are often at the level of 100 parts per million (ppm) or smaller, and require the removal of significant instrumental systematics. For the IRAC 3.6 and 4.5μm InSb detectors that remain active on post-cryogenic Spitzer, the interplay of residual telescope pointing fluctuations with intrapixel gain variations in the moderately under sampled camera is the largest source of time-correlated noise. Over the past decade, a suite of techniques for removing this noise from IRAC data has been developed independently by various investigators. In summer 2015, the Spitzer Science Center hosted a Data Challenge in which seven exoplanet expert teams, each using a different noise-removal method, were invited to analyze 10 eclipse measurements of the hot Jupiter XO-3 b, as well as a complementary set of 10 simulated measurements. In this contribution we review the results of the Challenge. We describe statistical tools to assess the repeatability, reliability, and validity of data reduction techniques, and to compare and (perhaps) choose between techniques.

  13. Accuracy and precision of quantitative 31P-MRS measurements of human skeletal muscle mitochondrial function.

    PubMed

    Layec, Gwenael; Gifford, Jayson R; Trinity, Joel D; Hart, Corey R; Garten, Ryan S; Park, Song Y; Le Fur, Yann; Jeong, Eun-Kee; Richardson, Russell S

    2016-08-01

    Although theoretically sound, the accuracy and precision of (31)P-magnetic resonance spectroscopy ((31)P-MRS) approaches to quantitatively estimate mitochondrial capacity are not well documented. Therefore, employing four differing models of respiratory control [linear, kinetic, and multipoint adenosine diphosphate (ADP) and phosphorylation potential], this study sought to determine the accuracy and precision of (31)P-MRS assessments of peak mitochondrial adenosine-triphosphate (ATP) synthesis rate utilizing directly measured peak respiration (State 3) in permeabilized skeletal muscle fibers. In 23 subjects of different fitness levels, (31)P-MRS during a 24-s maximal isometric knee extension and high-resolution respirometry in muscle fibers from the vastus lateralis was performed. Although significantly correlated with State 3 respiration (r = 0.72), both the linear (45 ± 13 mM/min) and phosphorylation potential (47 ± 16 mM/min) models grossly overestimated the calculated in vitro peak ATP synthesis rate (P < 0.05). Of the ADP models, the kinetic model was well correlated with State 3 respiration (r = 0.72, P < 0.05), but moderately overestimated ATP synthesis rate (P < 0.05), while the multipoint model, although being somewhat less well correlated with State 3 respiration (r = 0.55, P < 0.05), most accurately reflected peak ATP synthesis rate. Of note, the PCr recovery time constant (τ), a qualitative index of mitochondrial capacity, exhibited the strongest correlation with State 3 respiration (r = 0.80, P < 0.05). Therefore, this study reveals that each of the (31)P-MRS data analyses, including PCr τ, exhibit precision in terms of mitochondrial capacity. As only the multipoint ADP model did not overstimate the peak skeletal muscle mitochondrial ATP synthesis, the multipoint ADP model is the only quantitative approach to exhibit both accuracy and precision. PMID:27302751

  14. Accuracy and repeatability of weighing for occupational hygiene measurements: results from an inter-laboratory comparison.

    PubMed

    Stacey, Peter; Revell, Graham; Tylee, Barry

    2002-11-01

    Gravimetric analysis is a fundamental technique frequently used in occupational hygiene assessments, but few studies have investigated its repeatability and reproducibility. Four inter-laboratory comparisons are discussed in this paper. The first involved 32 laboratories weighing 25 mm diameter glassfibre filters, the second involved 11 laboratories weighing 25 mm diameter PVC filters and the third involved eight laboratories weighing plastic IOM heads with 25 mm diameter glassfibre filters. Data from the third study found that measurements using this type of IOM head were unreliable. A fourth study, to ascertain if laboratories could improve their performance, involved a selected sub-group of 10 laboratories from the first exercise that analysed the 25 mm diameter glassfibre filters. The studies tested the analytical measurement process and not just the variation in weighings obtained on blank filters, as previous studies have done. Graphs of data from the first and second exercises suggest that a power curve relationship exists between reproducibility and loading and repeatability and loading. The relationship for reproducibility in the first study followed the equation log s(R) = -0.62 log m + 0.86 and in the second study log s(R) = -0.64 log m + 0.57, where s(R) is the reproducibility in terms of per cent relative standard deviation (%RSD) and m is the weight of loading in milligrams. The equation for glassfibre filters from the first exercise suggested that at a measurement of 0.4 mg (about a tenth of the United Kingdom legislative definition of a hazardous substance for a respirable dust for an 8 h sample), the measurement reproducibility is more than +/-25% (2sigma). The results from PVC filters had better repeatability estimates than the glassfibre filters, but overall they had similar estimates of reproducibility. An improvement in both the reproducibility and repeatability for glassfibre filters was observed in the fourth study. This improvement reduced

  15. Wound Area Measurement with Digital Planimetry: Improved Accuracy and Precision with Calibration Based on 2 Rulers

    PubMed Central

    Foltynski, Piotr

    2015-01-01

    Introduction In the treatment of chronic wounds the wound surface area change over time is useful parameter in assessment of the applied therapy plan. The more precise the method of wound area measurement the earlier may be identified and changed inappropriate treatment plan. Digital planimetry may be used in wound area measurement and therapy assessment when it is properly used, but the common problem is the camera lens orientation during the taking of a picture. The camera lens axis should be perpendicular to the wound plane, and if it is not, the measured area differ from the true area. Results Current study shows that the use of 2 rulers placed in parallel below and above the wound for the calibration increases on average 3.8 times the precision of area measurement in comparison to the measurement with one ruler used for calibration. The proposed procedure of calibration increases also 4 times accuracy of area measurement. It was also showed that wound area range and camera type do not influence the precision of area measurement with digital planimetry based on two ruler calibration, however the measurements based on smartphone camera were significantly less accurate than these based on D-SLR or compact cameras. Area measurement on flat surface was more precise with the digital planimetry with 2 rulers than performed with the Visitrak device, the Silhouette Mobile device or the AreaMe software-based method. Conclusion The calibration in digital planimetry with using 2 rulers remarkably increases precision and accuracy of measurement and therefore should be recommended instead of calibration based on single ruler. PMID:26252747

  16. The tradeoff between accuracy and precision in latent variable models of mediation processes

    PubMed Central

    Ledgerwood, Alison; Shrout, Patrick E.

    2016-01-01

    Social psychologists place high importance on understanding mechanisms, and frequently employ mediation analyses to shed light on the process underlying an effect. Such analyses can be conducted using observed variables (e.g., a typical regression approach) or latent variables (e.g., a SEM approach), and choosing between these methods can be a more complex and consequential decision than researchers often realize. The present paper adds to the literature on mediation by examining the relative tradeoff between accuracy and precision in latent versus observed variable modeling. Whereas past work has shown that latent variable models tend to produce more accurate estimates, we demonstrate that observed variable models tend to produce more precise estimates, and examine this relative tradeoff both theoretically and empirically in a typical three-variable mediation model across varying levels of effect size and reliability. We discuss implications for social psychologists seeking to uncover mediating variables, and recommend practical approaches for maximizing both accuracy and precision in mediation analyses. PMID:21806305

  17. Accuracy or precision: Implications of sample design and methodology on abundance estimation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kowalewski, Lucas K.; Chizinski, Christopher J.; Powell, Larkin A.; Pope, Kevin L.; Pegg, Mark A.

    2015-01-01

    Sampling by spatially replicated counts (point-count) is an increasingly popular method of estimating population size of organisms. Challenges exist when sampling by point-count method, and it is often impractical to sample entire area of interest and impossible to detect every individual present. Ecologists encounter logistical limitations that force them to sample either few large-sample units or many small sample-units, introducing biases to sample counts. We generated a computer environment and simulated sampling scenarios to test the role of number of samples, sample unit area, number of organisms, and distribution of organisms in the estimation of population sizes using N-mixture models. Many sample units of small area provided estimates that were consistently closer to true abundance than sample scenarios with few sample units of large area. However, sample scenarios with few sample units of large area provided more precise abundance estimates than abundance estimates derived from sample scenarios with many sample units of small area. It is important to consider accuracy and precision of abundance estimates during the sample design process with study goals and objectives fully recognized, although and with consequence, consideration of accuracy and precision of abundance estimates is often an afterthought that occurs during the data analysis process.

  18. Accuracy and precision of stream reach water surface slopes estimated in the field and from maps

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Isaak, D.J.; Hubert, W.A.; Krueger, K.L.

    1999-01-01

    The accuracy and precision of five tools used to measure stream water surface slope (WSS) were evaluated. Water surface slopes estimated in the field with a clinometer or from topographic maps used in conjunction with a map wheel or geographic information system (GIS) were significantly higher than WSS estimated in the field with a surveying level (biases of 34, 41, and 53%, respectively). Accuracy of WSS estimates obtained with an Abney level did not differ from surveying level estimates, but conclusions regarding the accuracy of Abney levels and clinometers were weakened by intratool variability. The surveying level estimated WSS most precisely (coefficient of variation [CV] = 0.26%), followed by the GIS (CV = 1.87%), map wheel (CV = 6.18%), Abney level (CV = 13.68%), and clinometer (CV = 21.57%). Estimates of WSS measured in the field with an Abney level and estimated for the same reaches with a GIS used in conjunction with l:24,000-scale topographic maps were significantly correlated (r = 0.86), but there was a tendency for the GIS to overestimate WSS. Detailed accounts of the methods used to measure WSS and recommendations regarding the measurement of WSS are provided.

  19. Accuracy and precision of four common peripheral temperature measurement methods in intensive care patients

    PubMed Central

    Asadian, Simin; Khatony, Alireza; Moradi, Gholamreza; Abdi, Alireza; Rezaei, Mansour

    2016-01-01

    Introduction An accurate determination of body temperature in critically ill patients is a fundamental requirement for initiating the proper process of diagnosis, and also therapeutic actions; therefore, the aim of the study was to assess the accuracy and precision of four noninvasive peripheral methods of temperature measurement compared to the central nasopharyngeal measurement. Methods In this observational prospective study, 237 patients were recruited from the intensive care unit of Imam Ali Hospital of Kermanshah. The patients’ body temperatures were measured by four peripheral methods; oral, axillary, tympanic, and forehead along with a standard central nasopharyngeal measurement. After data collection, the results were analyzed by paired t-test, kappa coefficient, receiver operating characteristic curve, and using Statistical Package for the Social Sciences, version 19, software. Results There was a significant meaningful correlation between all the peripheral methods when compared with the central measurement (P<0.001). Kappa coefficients showed good agreement between the temperatures of right and left tympanic membranes and the standard central nasopharyngeal measurement (88%). Paired t-test demonstrated an acceptable precision with forehead (P=0.132), left (P=0.18) and right (P=0.318) tympanic membranes, oral (P=1.00), and axillary (P=1.00) methods. Sensitivity and specificity of both the left and right tympanic membranes were more than for other methods. Conclusion The tympanic and forehead methods had the highest and lowest accuracy for measuring body temperature, respectively. It is recommended to use the tympanic method (right and left) for assessing a patient’s body temperature in the intensive care units because of high accuracy and acceptable precision. PMID:27621673

  20. Assessing accuracy and precision for field and laboratory data: a perspective in ecosystem restoration

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stapanian, Martin A.; Lewis, Timothy E; Palmer, Craig J.; Middlebrook Amos, Molly

    2016-01-01

    Unlike most laboratory studies, rigorous quality assurance/quality control (QA/QC) procedures may be lacking in ecosystem restoration (“ecorestoration”) projects, despite legislative mandates in the United States. This is due, in part, to ecorestoration specialists making the false assumption that some types of data (e.g. discrete variables such as species identification and abundance classes) are not subject to evaluations of data quality. Moreover, emergent behavior manifested by complex, adapting, and nonlinear organizations responsible for monitoring the success of ecorestoration projects tend to unconsciously minimize disorder, QA/QC being an activity perceived as creating disorder. We discuss similarities and differences in assessing precision and accuracy for field and laboratory data. Although the concepts for assessing precision and accuracy of ecorestoration field data are conceptually the same as laboratory data, the manner in which these data quality attributes are assessed is different. From a sample analysis perspective, a field crew is comparable to a laboratory instrument that requires regular “recalibration,” with results obtained by experts at the same plot treated as laboratory calibration standards. Unlike laboratory standards and reference materials, the “true” value for many field variables is commonly unknown. In the laboratory, specific QA/QC samples assess error for each aspect of the measurement process, whereas field revisits assess precision and accuracy of the entire data collection process following initial calibration. Rigorous QA/QC data in an ecorestoration project are essential for evaluating the success of a project, and they provide the only objective “legacy” of the dataset for potential legal challenges and future uses.

  1. Mapping stream habitats with a global positioning system: Accuracy, precision, and comparison with traditional methods

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dauwalter, D.C.; Fisher, W.L.; Belt, K.C.

    2006-01-01

    We tested the precision and accuracy of the Trimble GeoXT??? global positioning system (GPS) handheld receiver on point and area features and compared estimates of stream habitat dimensions (e.g., lengths and areas of riffles and pools) that were made in three different Oklahoma streams using the GPS receiver and a tape measure. The precision of differentially corrected GPS (DGPS) points was not affected by the number of GPS position fixes (i.e., geographic location estimates) averaged per DGPS point. Horizontal error of points ranged from 0.03 to 2.77 m and did not differ with the number of position fixes per point. The error of area measurements ranged from 0.1% to 110.1% but decreased as the area increased. Again, error was independent of the number of position fixes averaged per polygon corner. The estimates of habitat lengths, widths, and areas did not differ when measured using two methods of data collection (GPS and a tape measure), nor did the differences among methods change at three stream sites with contrasting morphologies. Measuring features with a GPS receiver was up to 3.3 times faster on average than using a tape measure, although signal interference from high streambanks or overhanging vegetation occasionally limited satellite signal availability and prolonged measurements with a GPS receiver. There were also no differences in precision of habitat dimensions when mapped using a continuous versus a position fix average GPS data collection method. Despite there being some disadvantages to using the GPS in stream habitat studies, measuring stream habitats with a GPS resulted in spatially referenced data that allowed the assessment of relative habitat position and changes in habitats over time, and was often faster than using a tape measure. For most spatial scales of interest, the precision and accuracy of DGPS data are adequate and have logistical advantages when compared to traditional methods of measurement. ?? 2006 Springer Science+Business Media

  2. DNA motifs determining the accuracy of repeat duplication during CRISPR adaptation in Haloarcula hispanica.

    PubMed

    Wang, Rui; Li, Ming; Gong, Luyao; Hu, Songnian; Xiang, Hua

    2016-05-19

    Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats (CRISPRs) acquire new spacers to generate adaptive immunity in prokaryotes. During spacer integration, the leader-preceded repeat is always accurately duplicated, leading to speculations of a repeat-length ruler. Here in Haloarcula hispanica, we demonstrate that the accurate duplication of its 30-bp repeat requires two conserved mid-repeat motifs, AACCC and GTGGG. The AACCC motif was essential and needed to be ∼10 bp downstream from the leader-repeat junction site, where duplication consistently started. Interestingly, repeat duplication terminated sequence-independently and usually with a specific distance from the GTGGG motif, which seemingly served as an anchor site for a molecular ruler. Accordingly, altering the spacing between the two motifs led to an aberrant duplication size (29, 31, 32 or 33 bp). We propose the adaptation complex may recognize these mid-repeat elements to enable measuring the repeat DNA for spacer integration. PMID:27085805

  3. DNA motifs determining the accuracy of repeat duplication during CRISPR adaptation in Haloarcula hispanica

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Rui; Li, Ming; Gong, Luyao; Hu, Songnian; Xiang, Hua

    2016-01-01

    Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats (CRISPRs) acquire new spacers to generate adaptive immunity in prokaryotes. During spacer integration, the leader-preceded repeat is always accurately duplicated, leading to speculations of a repeat-length ruler. Here in Haloarcula hispanica, we demonstrate that the accurate duplication of its 30-bp repeat requires two conserved mid-repeat motifs, AACCC and GTGGG. The AACCC motif was essential and needed to be ∼10 bp downstream from the leader-repeat junction site, where duplication consistently started. Interestingly, repeat duplication terminated sequence-independently and usually with a specific distance from the GTGGG motif, which seemingly served as an anchor site for a molecular ruler. Accordingly, altering the spacing between the two motifs led to an aberrant duplication size (29, 31, 32 or 33 bp). We propose the adaptation complex may recognize these mid-repeat elements to enable measuring the repeat DNA for spacer integration. PMID:27085805

  4. Use of an extracorporeal circulation perfusion simulator: evaluation of its accuracy and repeatability.

    PubMed

    Tokumine, Asako; Momose, Naoki; Tomizawa, Yasuko

    2013-12-01

    Medical simulators have mainly been used as educational tools. They have been used to train technicians and to educate potential users about safety. We combined software for hybrid-type extracorporeal circulation simulation (ECCSIM) with a CPB-Workshop console. We evaluated the performance of ECCSIM, including its accuracy and repeatability, during simulated ECC. We performed a detailed evaluation of the synchronization of the software with the console and the function of the built-in valves. An S-III heart–lung machine was used for the open circuit. It included a venous reservoir, an oxygenator (RX-25), and an arterial filter. The tubes for venous drainage and the arterial line were connected directly to the ports of the console. The ECCSIM recorded the liquid level of the reservoir continuously. The valve in the console controlled the pressure load of the arterial line. The software made any adjustments necessary to both arterial pressure load and the venous drainage flow volume. No external flowmeters were necessary during simulation. We found the CPB-Workshop to be convenient, reliable, and sufficiently exact. It can be used to validate procedures by monitoring the controls and responses by using a combination of qualitative measures. PMID:24022821

  5. Precision and accuracy of spectrophotometric pH measurements at environmental conditions in the Baltic Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hammer, Karoline; Schneider, Bernd; Kuliński, Karol; Schulz-Bull, Detlef E.

    2014-06-01

    The increasing uptake of anthropogenic CO2 by the oceans has raised an interest in precise and accurate pH measurement in order to assess the impact on the marine CO2-system. Spectrophotometric pH measurements were refined during the last decade yielding a precision and accuracy that cannot be achieved with the conventional potentiometric method. However, until now the method was only tested in oceanic systems with a relative stable and high salinity and a small pH range. This paper describes the first application of such a pH measurement system at conditions in the Baltic Sea which is characterized by a wide salinity and pH range. The performance of the spectrophotometric system at pH values as low as 7.0 (“total” scale) and salinities between 0 and 35 was examined using TRIS-buffer solutions, certified reference materials, and tests of consistency with measurements of other parameters of the marine CO2 system. Using m-cresol purple as indicator dye and a spectrophotometric measurement system designed at Scripps Institution of Oceanography (B. Carter, A. Dickson), a precision better than ±0.001 and an accuracy between ±0.01 and ±0.02 was achieved within the observed pH and salinity ranges in the Baltic Sea. The influence of the indicator dye on the pH of the sample was determined theoretically and is presented as a pH correction term for the different alkalinity regimes in the Baltic Sea. Because of the encouraging tests, the ease of operation and the fact that the measurements refer to the internationally accepted “total” pH scale, it is recommended to use the spectrophotometric method also for pH monitoring and trend detection in the Baltic Sea.

  6. Hepatic perfusion in a tumor model using DCE-CT: an accuracy and precision study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stewart, Errol E.; Chen, Xiaogang; Hadway, Jennifer; Lee, Ting-Yim

    2008-08-01

    In the current study we investigate the accuracy and precision of hepatic perfusion measurements based on the Johnson and Wilson model with the adiabatic approximation. VX2 carcinoma cells were implanted into the livers of New Zealand white rabbits. Simultaneous dynamic contrast-enhanced computed tomography (DCE-CT) and radiolabeled microsphere studies were performed under steady-state normo-, hyper- and hypo-capnia. The hepatic arterial blood flows (HABF) obtained using both techniques were compared with ANOVA. The precision was assessed by the coefficient of variation (CV). Under normo-capnia the microsphere HABF were 51.9 ± 4.2, 40.7 ± 4.9 and 99.7 ± 6.0 ml min-1 (100 g)-1 while DCE-CT HABF were 50.0 ± 5.7, 37.1 ± 4.5 and 99.8 ± 6.8 ml min-1 (100 g)-1 in normal tissue, tumor core and rim, respectively. There were no significant differences between HABF measurements obtained with both techniques (P > 0.05). Furthermore, a strong correlation was observed between HABF values from both techniques: slope of 0.92 ± 0.05, intercept of 4.62 ± 2.69 ml min-1 (100 g)-1 and R2 = 0.81 ± 0.05 (P < 0.05). The Bland-Altman plot comparing DCE-CT and microsphere HABF measurements gives a mean difference of -0.13 ml min-1 (100 g)-1, which is not significantly different from zero. DCE-CT HABF is precise, with CV of 5.7, 24.9 and 1.4% in the normal tissue, tumor core and rim, respectively. Non-invasive measurement of HABF with DCE-CT is accurate and precise. DCE-CT can be an important extension of CT to assess hepatic function besides morphology in liver diseases.

  7. Accuracy improvement techniques in Precise Point Positioning method using multiple GNSS constellations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vasileios Psychas, Dimitrios; Delikaraoglou, Demitris

    2016-04-01

    The future Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS), including modernized GPS, GLONASS, Galileo and BeiDou, offer three or more signal carriers for civilian use and much more redundant observables. The additional frequencies can significantly improve the capabilities of the traditional geodetic techniques based on GPS signals at two frequencies, especially with regard to the availability, accuracy, interoperability and integrity of high-precision GNSS applications. Furthermore, highly redundant measurements can allow for robust simultaneous estimation of static or mobile user states including more parameters such as real-time tropospheric biases and more reliable ambiguity resolution estimates. This paper presents an investigation and analysis of accuracy improvement techniques in the Precise Point Positioning (PPP) method using signals from the fully operational (GPS and GLONASS), as well as the emerging (Galileo and BeiDou) GNSS systems. The main aim was to determine the improvement in both the positioning accuracy achieved and the time convergence it takes to achieve geodetic-level (10 cm or less) accuracy. To this end, freely available observation data from the recent Multi-GNSS Experiment (MGEX) of the International GNSS Service, as well as the open source program RTKLIB were used. Following a brief background of the PPP technique and the scope of MGEX, the paper outlines the various observational scenarios that were used in order to test various data processing aspects of PPP solutions with multi-frequency, multi-constellation GNSS systems. Results from the processing of multi-GNSS observation data from selected permanent MGEX stations are presented and useful conclusions and recommendations for further research are drawn. As shown, data fusion from GPS, GLONASS, Galileo and BeiDou systems is becoming increasingly significant nowadays resulting in a position accuracy increase (mostly in the less favorable East direction) and a large reduction of convergence

  8. Effects of shortened acquisition time on accuracy and precision of quantitative estimates of organ activity1

    PubMed Central

    He, Bin; Frey, Eric C.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: Quantitative estimation of in vivo organ uptake is an essential part of treatment planning for targeted radionuclide therapy. This usually involves the use of planar or SPECT scans with acquisition times chosen based more on image quality considerations rather than the minimum needed for precise quantification. In previous simulation studies at clinical count levels (185 MBq 111In), the authors observed larger variations in accuracy of organ activity estimates resulting from anatomical and uptake differences than statistical noise. This suggests that it is possible to reduce the acquisition time without substantially increasing the variation in accuracy. Methods: To test this hypothesis, the authors compared the accuracy and variation in accuracy of organ activity estimates obtained from planar and SPECT scans at various count levels. A simulated phantom population with realistic variations in anatomy and biodistribution was used to model variability in a patient population. Planar and SPECT projections were simulated using previously validated Monte Carlo simulation tools. The authors simulated the projections at count levels approximately corresponding to 1.5–30 min of total acquisition time. The projections were processed using previously described quantitative SPECT (QSPECT) and planar (QPlanar) methods. The QSPECT method was based on the OS-EM algorithm with compensations for attenuation, scatter, and collimator-detector response. The QPlanar method is based on the ML-EM algorithm using the same model-based compensation for all the image degrading effects as the QSPECT method. The volumes of interests (VOIs) were defined based on the true organ configuration in the phantoms. The errors in organ activity estimates from different count levels and processing methods were compared in terms of mean and standard deviation over the simulated phantom population. Results: There was little degradation in quantitative reliability when the acquisition time was

  9. Slight pressure imbalances can affect accuracy and precision of dual inlet-based clumped isotope analysis.

    PubMed

    Fiebig, Jens; Hofmann, Sven; Löffler, Niklas; Lüdecke, Tina; Methner, Katharina; Wacker, Ulrike

    2016-01-01

    It is well known that a subtle nonlinearity can occur during clumped isotope analysis of CO2 that - if remaining unaddressed - limits accuracy. The nonlinearity is induced by a negative background on the m/z 47 ion Faraday cup, whose magnitude is correlated with the intensity of the m/z 44 ion beam. The origin of the negative background remains unclear, but is possibly due to secondary electrons. Usually, CO2 gases of distinct bulk isotopic compositions are equilibrated at 1000 °C and measured along with the samples in order to be able to correct for this effect. Alternatively, measured m/z 47 beam intensities can be corrected for the contribution of secondary electrons after monitoring how the negative background on m/z 47 evolves with the intensity of the m/z 44 ion beam. The latter correction procedure seems to work well if the m/z 44 cup exhibits a wider slit width than the m/z 47 cup. Here we show that the negative m/z 47 background affects precision of dual inlet-based clumped isotope measurements of CO2 unless raw m/z 47 intensities are directly corrected for the contribution of secondary electrons. Moreover, inaccurate results can be obtained even if the heated gas approach is used to correct for the observed nonlinearity. The impact of the negative background on accuracy and precision arises from small imbalances in m/z 44 ion beam intensities between reference and sample CO2 measurements. It becomes the more significant the larger the relative contribution of secondary electrons to the m/z 47 signal is and the higher the flux rate of CO2 into the ion source is set. These problems can be overcome by correcting the measured m/z 47 ion beam intensities of sample and reference gas for the contributions deriving from secondary electrons after scaling these contributions to the intensities of the corresponding m/z 49 ion beams. Accuracy and precision of this correction are demonstrated by clumped isotope analysis of three internal carbonate standards. The

  10. Composite tube and plate manufacturing repeatability as determined by precision measurements of thermal strain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riddle, Lenn A.; Tucker, James R.; Bluth, A. Marcel

    2013-09-01

    Composite materials often carry the reputation of demonstrating high variability in critical material properties. The JWST telescope metering structure is fabricated of several thousand separate composite piece parts. The stringent dimensional stability requirements on the metering structure require the critical thermal strain response of every composite piece be verified either at the billet or piece part level. JWST is a unique composite space structure in that it has required the manufacturing of several hundred composite billets that cover many lots of prepreg and many years of fabrication. The flight billet thermal expansion acceptance criteria limits the coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) to a tolerance ranging between +/-0.014 ppm/K to +/-0.04 ppm/K around a prescribed nominal when measured from 293 K down to 40 K. The different tolerance values represent different material forms including flat plates and different tube cross-section dimensions. A precision measurement facility was developed that could measure at the required accuracy and at a pace that supported the composite part fabrication rate. The test method and facility is discussed and the results of a statistical process analysis of the flight composite billets are surveyed.

  11. Estimated results analysis and application of the precise point positioning based high-accuracy ionosphere delay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Shi-tai; Peng, Jun-huan

    2015-12-01

    The characterization of ionosphere delay estimated with precise point positioning is analyzed in this paper. The estimation, interpolation and application of the ionosphere delay are studied based on the processing of 24-h data from 5 observation stations. The results show that the estimated ionosphere delay is affected by the hardware delay bias from receiver so that there is a difference between the estimated and interpolated results. The results also show that the RMSs (root mean squares) are bigger, while the STDs (standard deviations) are better than 0.11 m. When the satellite difference is used, the hardware delay bias can be canceled. The interpolated satellite-differenced ionosphere delay is better than 0.11 m. Although there is a difference between the between the estimated and interpolated ionosphere delay results it cannot affect its application in single-frequency positioning and the positioning accuracy can reach cm level.

  12. Improved precision and accuracy in quantifying plutonium isotope ratios by RIMS

    SciTech Connect

    Isselhardt, B. H.; Savina, M. R.; Kucher, A.; Gates, S. D.; Knight, K. B.; Hutcheon, I. D.

    2015-09-01

    Resonance ionization mass spectrometry (RIMS) holds the promise of rapid, isobar-free quantification of actinide isotope ratios in as-received materials (i.e. not chemically purified). Recent progress in achieving this potential using two Pu test materials is presented. RIMS measurements were conducted multiple times over a period of two months on two different Pu solutions deposited on metal surfaces. Measurements were bracketed with a Pu isotopic standard, and yielded absolute accuracies of the measured 240Pu/239Pu ratios of 0.7% and 0.58%, with precisions (95% confidence intervals) of 1.49% and 0.91%. In conclusion, the minor isotope 238Pu was also quantified despite the presence of a significant quantity of 238U in the samples.

  13. Improved precision and accuracy in quantifying plutonium isotope ratios by RIMS

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Isselhardt, B. H.; Savina, M. R.; Kucher, A.; Gates, S. D.; Knight, K. B.; Hutcheon, I. D.

    2015-09-01

    Resonance ionization mass spectrometry (RIMS) holds the promise of rapid, isobar-free quantification of actinide isotope ratios in as-received materials (i.e. not chemically purified). Recent progress in achieving this potential using two Pu test materials is presented. RIMS measurements were conducted multiple times over a period of two months on two different Pu solutions deposited on metal surfaces. Measurements were bracketed with a Pu isotopic standard, and yielded absolute accuracies of the measured 240Pu/239Pu ratios of 0.7% and 0.58%, with precisions (95% confidence intervals) of 1.49% and 0.91%. In conclusion, the minor isotope 238Pu was also quantified despite the presence ofmore » a significant quantity of 238U in the samples.« less

  14. Millimeter-accuracy GPS landslide monitoring using Precise Point Positioning with Single Receiver Phase Ambiguity (PPP-SRPA) resolution: a case study in Puerto Rico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, G. Q.

    2013-03-01

    Continuous Global Positioning System (GPS) monitoring is essential for establishing the rate and pattern of superficial movements of landslides. This study demonstrates a technique which uses a stand-alone GPS station to conduct millimeter-accuracy landslide monitoring. The Precise Point Positioning with Single Receiver Phase Ambiguity (PPP-SRPA) resolution employed by the GIPSY/OASIS software package (V6.1.2) was applied in this study. Two-years of continuous GPS data collected at a creeping landslide were used to evaluate the accuracy of the PPP-SRPA solutions. The criterion for accuracy was the root-mean-square (RMS) of residuals of the PPP-SRPA solutions with respect to "true" landslide displacements over the two-year period. RMS is often regarded as repeatability or precision in GPS literature. However, when contrasted with a known "true" position or displacement it could be termed RMS accuracy or simply accuracy. This study indicated that the PPP-SRPA resolution can provide an accuracy of 2 to 3 mm horizontally and 8 mm vertically for 24-hour sessions with few outliers (< 1%) in the Puerto Rico region. Horizontal accuracy below 5 mm can be stably achieved with 4-hour or longer sessions if avoiding the collection of data during extreme weather conditions. Vertical accuracy below 10 mm can be achieved with 8-hour or longer sessions. This study indicates that the PPP-SRPA resolution is competitive with the conventional carrier-phase double-difference network resolution for static (longer than 4 hours) landslide monitoring while maintaining many advantages. It is evident that the PPP-SRPA method would become an attractive alternative to the conventional carrier-phase double-difference method for landslide monitoring, notably in remote areas or developing countries.

  15. Accuracy and precision of estimating age of gray wolves by tooth wear

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gipson, P.S.; Ballard, W.B.; Nowak, R.M.; Mech, L.D.

    2000-01-01

    We evaluated the accuracy and precision of tooth wear for aging gray wolves (Canis lupus) from Alaska, Minnesota, and Ontario based on 47 known-age or known-minimum-age skulls. Estimates of age using tooth wear and a commercial cementum annuli-aging service were useful for wolves up to 14 years old. The precision of estimates from cementum annuli was greater than estimates from tooth wear, but tooth wear estimates are more applicable in the field. We tended to overestimate age by 1-2 years and occasionally by 3 or 4 years. The commercial service aged young wolves with cementum annuli to within ?? 1 year of actual age, but under estimated ages of wolves ???9 years old by 1-3 years. No differences were detected in tooth wear patterns for wild wolves from Alaska, Minnesota, and Ontario, nor between captive and wild wolves. Tooth wear was not appropriate for aging wolves with an underbite that prevented normal wear or severely broken and missing teeth.

  16. Repeating a Monologue under Increasing Time Pressure: Effects on Fluency, Complexity, and Accuracy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thai, Chau; Boers, Frank

    2016-01-01

    Studies have shown that learners' task performance improves when they have the opportunity to repeat the task. Conditions for task repetition vary, however. In the 4/3/2 activity, learners repeat a monologue under increasing time pressure. The purpose is to foster fluency, but it has been suggested in the literature that it also benefits other…

  17. Accuracy and precision of gait events derived from motion capture in horses during walk and trot.

    PubMed

    Boye, Jenny Katrine; Thomsen, Maj Halling; Pfau, Thilo; Olsen, Emil

    2014-03-21

    This study aimed to create an evidence base for detection of stance-phase timings from motion capture in horses. The objective was to compare the accuracy (bias) and precision (SD) for five published algorithms for the detection of hoof-on and hoof-off using force plates as the reference standard. Six horses were walked and trotted over eight force plates surrounded by a synchronised 12-camera infrared motion capture system. The five algorithms (A-E) were based on: (A) horizontal velocity of the hoof; (B) Fetlock angle and horizontal hoof velocity; (C) horizontal displacement of the hoof relative to the centre of mass; (D) horizontal velocity of the hoof relative to the Centre of Mass and; (E) vertical acceleration of the hoof. A total of 240 stance phases in walk and 240 stance phases in trot were included in the assessment. Method D provided the most accurate and precise results in walk for stance phase duration with a bias of 4.1% for front limbs and 4.8% for hind limbs. For trot we derived a combination of method A for hoof-on and method E for hoof-off resulting in a bias of -6.2% of stance in the front limbs and method B for the hind limbs with a bias of 3.8% of stance phase duration. We conclude that motion capture yields accurate and precise detection of gait events for horses walking and trotting over ground and the results emphasise a need for different algorithms for front limbs versus hind limbs in trot. PMID:24529754

  18. Accuracy and precision of MR blood oximetry based on the long paramagnetic cylinder approximation of large vessels.

    PubMed

    Langham, Michael C; Magland, Jeremy F; Epstein, Charles L; Floyd, Thomas F; Wehrli, Felix W

    2009-08-01

    An accurate noninvasive method to measure the hemoglobin oxygen saturation (%HbO(2)) of deep-lying vessels without catheterization would have many clinical applications. Quantitative MRI may be the only imaging modality that can address this difficult and important problem. MR susceptometry-based oximetry for measuring blood oxygen saturation in large vessels models the vessel as a long paramagnetic cylinder immersed in an external field. The intravascular magnetic susceptibility relative to surrounding muscle tissue is a function of oxygenated hemoglobin (HbO(2)) and can be quantified with a field-mapping pulse sequence. In this work, the method's accuracy and precision was investigated theoretically on the basis of an analytical expression for the arbitrarily oriented cylinder, as well as experimentally in phantoms and in vivo in the femoral artery and vein at 3T field strength. Errors resulting from vessel tilt, noncircularity of vessel cross-section, and induced magnetic field gradients were evaluated and methods for correction were designed and implemented. Hemoglobin saturation was measured at successive vessel segments, differing in geometry, such as eccentricity and vessel tilt, but constant blood oxygen saturation levels, as a means to evaluate measurement consistency. The average standard error and coefficient of variation of measurements in phantoms were <2% with tilt correction alone, in agreement with theory, suggesting that high accuracy and reproducibility can be achieved while ignoring noncircularity for tilt angles up to about 30 degrees . In vivo, repeated measurements of %HbO(2) in the femoral vessels yielded a coefficient of variation of less than 5%. In conclusion, the data suggest that %HbO(2) can be measured reproducibly in vivo in large vessels of the peripheral circulation on the basis of the paramagnetic cylinder approximation of the incremental field. PMID:19526517

  19. Gaining Precision and Accuracy on Microprobe Trace Element Analysis with the Multipoint Background Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allaz, J. M.; Williams, M. L.; Jercinovic, M. J.; Donovan, J. J.

    2014-12-01

    Electron microprobe trace element analysis is a significant challenge, but can provide critical data when high spatial resolution is required. Due to the low peak intensity, the accuracy and precision of such analyses relies critically on background measurements, and on the accuracy of any pertinent peak interference corrections. A linear regression between two points selected at appropriate off-peak positions is a classical approach for background characterization in microprobe analysis. However, this approach disallows an accurate assessment of background curvature (usually exponential). Moreover, if present, background interferences can dramatically affect the results if underestimated or ignored. The acquisition of a quantitative WDS scan over the spectral region of interest is still a valuable option to determine the background intensity and curvature from a fitted regression of background portions of the scan, but this technique retains an element of subjectivity as the analyst has to select areas in the scan, which appear to represent background. We present here a new method, "Multi-Point Background" (MPB), that allows acquiring up to 24 off-peak background measurements from wavelength positions around the peaks. This method aims to improve the accuracy, precision, and objectivity of trace element analysis. The overall efficiency is amended because no systematic WDS scan needs to be acquired in order to check for the presence of possible background interferences. Moreover, the method is less subjective because "true" backgrounds are selected by the statistical exclusion of erroneous background measurements, reducing the need for analyst intervention. This idea originated from efforts to refine EPMA monazite U-Th-Pb dating, where it was recognised that background errors (peak interference or background curvature) could result in errors of several tens of million years on the calculated age. Results obtained on a CAMECA SX-100 "UltraChron" using monazite

  20. Impact of survey workflow on precision and accuracy of terrestrial LiDAR datasets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gold, P. O.; Cowgill, E.; Kreylos, O.

    2009-12-01

    Ground-based LiDAR (Light Detection and Ranging) survey techniques are enabling remote visualization and quantitative analysis of geologic features at unprecedented levels of detail. For example, digital terrain models computed from LiDAR data have been used to measure displaced landforms along active faults and to quantify fault-surface roughness. But how accurately do terrestrial LiDAR data represent the true ground surface, and in particular, how internally consistent and precise are the mosaiced LiDAR datasets from which surface models are constructed? Addressing this question is essential for designing survey workflows that capture the necessary level of accuracy for a given project while minimizing survey time and equipment, which is essential for effective surveying of remote sites. To address this problem, we seek to define a metric that quantifies how scan registration error changes as a function of survey workflow. Specifically, we are using a Trimble GX3D laser scanner to conduct a series of experimental surveys to quantify how common variables in field workflows impact the precision of scan registration. Primary variables we are testing include 1) use of an independently measured network of control points to locate scanner and target positions, 2) the number of known-point locations used to place the scanner and point clouds in 3-D space, 3) the type of target used to measure distances between the scanner and the known points, and 4) setting up the scanner over a known point as opposed to resectioning of known points. Precision of the registered point cloud is quantified using Trimble Realworks software by automatic calculation of registration errors (errors between locations of the same known points in different scans). Accuracy of the registered cloud (i.e., its ground-truth) will be measured in subsequent experiments. To obtain an independent measure of scan-registration errors and to better visualize the effects of these errors on a registered point

  1. The accuracy and precision of DXA for assessing body composition in team sport athletes.

    PubMed

    Bilsborough, Johann Christopher; Greenway, Kate; Opar, David; Livingstone, Steuart; Cordy, Justin; Coutts, Aaron James

    2014-01-01

    This study determined the precision of pencil and fan beam dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) devices for assessing body composition in professional Australian Football players. Thirty-six professional Australian Football players, in two groups (fan DXA, N = 22; pencil DXA, N = 25), underwent two consecutive DXA scans. A whole body phantom with known values for fat mass, bone mineral content and fat-free soft tissue mass was also used to validate each DXA device. Additionally, the criterion phantom was scanned 20 times by each DXA to assess reliability. Test-retest reliability of DXA anthropometric measures were derived from repeated fan and pencil DXA scans. Fat-free soft tissue mass and bone mineral content from both DXA units showed strong correlations with, and trivial differences to, the criterion phantom values. Fat mass from both DXA showed moderate correlations with criterion measures (pencil: r = 0.64; fan: r = 0.67) and moderate differences with the criterion value. The limits of agreement were similar for both fan beam DXA and pencil beam DXA (fan: fat-free soft tissue mass = -1650 ± 179 g, fat mass = -357 ± 316 g, bone mineral content = 289 ± 122 g; pencil: fat-free soft tissue mass = -1701 ± 257 g, fat mass = -359 ± 326 g, bone mineral content = 177 ± 117 g). DXA also showed excellent precision for bone mineral content (coefficient of variation (%CV) fan = 0.6%; pencil = 1.5%) and fat-free soft tissue mass (%CV fan = 0.3%; pencil = 0.5%) and acceptable reliability for fat measures (%CV fan: fat mass = 2.5%, percent body fat = 2.5%; pencil: fat mass = 5.9%, percent body fat = 5.7%). Both DXA provide precise measures of fat-free soft tissue mass and bone mineral content in lean Australian Football players. DXA-derived fat-free soft tissue mass and bone mineral content are suitable for assessing body composition in lean team sport athletes. PMID:24914773

  2. Accuracy Assessment of the Precise Point Positioning for Different Troposphere Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oguz Selbesoglu, Mahmut; Gurturk, Mert; Soycan, Metin

    2016-04-01

    This study investigates the accuracy and repeatability of PPP technique at different latitudes by using different troposphere delay models. Nine IGS stations were selected between 00-800 latitudes at northern hemisphere and southern hemisphere. Coordinates were obtained for 7 days at 1 hour intervals in summer and winter. At first, the coordinates were estimated by using Niell troposphere delay model with and without including north and east gradients in order to investigate the contribution of troposphere delay gradients to the positioning . Secondly, Saastamoinen model was used to eliminate troposphere path delays by using standart atmosphere parameters were extrapolated for all station levels. Finally, coordinates were estimated by using RTCA-MOPS empirical troposphere delay model. Results demonstrate that Niell troposphere delay model with horizontal gradients has better mean values of rms errors 0.09 % and 65 % than the Niell troposphere model without horizontal gradients and RTCA-MOPS model, respectively. Saastamoinen model mean values of rms errors were obtained approximately 4 times bigger than the Niell troposphere delay model with horizontal gradients.

  3. A simple device for high-precision head image registration: Preliminary performance and accuracy tests

    SciTech Connect

    Pallotta, Stefania

    2007-05-15

    The purpose of this paper is to present a new device for multimodal head study registration and to examine its performance in preliminary tests. The device consists of a system of eight markers fixed to mobile carbon pipes and bars which can be easily mounted on the patient's head using the ear canals and the nasal bridge. Four graduated scales fixed to the rigid support allow examiners to find the same device position on the patient's head during different acquisitions. The markers can be filled with appropriate substances for visualisation in computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance, single photon emission computer tomography (SPECT) and positron emission tomography images. The device's rigidity and its position reproducibility were measured in 15 repeated CT acquisitions of the Alderson Rando anthropomorphic phantom and in two SPECT studies of a patient. The proposed system displays good rigidity and reproducibility characteristics. A relocation accuracy of less than 1,5 mm was found in more than 90% of the results. The registration parameters obtained using such a device were compared to those obtained using fiducial markers fixed on phantom and patient heads, resulting in differences of less than 1 deg. and 1 mm for rotation and translation parameters, respectively. Residual differences between fiducial marker coordinates in reference and in registered studies were less than 1 mm in more than 90% of the results, proving that the device performed as accurately as noninvasive stereotactic devices. Finally, an example of multimodal employment of the proposed device is reported.

  4. Welcome detailed data, but with a grain of salt: accuracy, precision, uncertainty in flood inundation modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dottori, Francesco; Di Baldassarre, Giuliano; Todini, Ezio

    2013-04-01

    New survey techniques are providing a huge amount of high-detailed and accurate data which can be extremely valuable for flood inundation modeling. Such data availability raises the issue of how to exploit their information content to provide reliable flood risk mapping and predictions. We think that these data should form the basis of hydraulic modelling anytime they are available. However, high expectations regarding these datasets should be tempered as some important issues should be considered. These include: the large number of uncertainty sources in model structure and available data; the difficult evaluation of model results, due to the scarcity of observed data; the computational efficiency; the false confidence that can be given by high-resolution results, as accuracy of results is not necessarily increased by higher precision. We briefly discuss these issues and existing approaches which can be used to manage high detailed data. In our opinion, methods based on sub-grid and roughness upscaling treatments would be in many instances an appropriate solution to maintain consistence with the uncertainty related to model structure and data available for model building and evaluation.

  5. Precision and accuracy of regional radioactivity quantitation using the maximum likelihood EM reconstruction algorithm

    SciTech Connect

    Carson, R.E.; Yan, Y.; Chodkowski, B.; Yap, T.K.; Daube-Witherspoon, M.E. )

    1994-09-01

    The imaging characteristics of maximum likelihood (ML) reconstruction using the EM algorithm for emission tomography have been extensively evaluated. There has been less study of the precision and accuracy of ML estimates of regional radioactivity concentration. The authors developed a realistic brain slice simulation by segmenting a normal subject's MRI scan into gray matter, white matter, and CSF and produced PET sinogram data with a model that included detector resolution and efficiencies, attenuation, scatter, and randoms. Noisy realizations at different count levels were created, and ML and filtered backprojection (FBP) reconstructions were performed. The bias and variability of ROI values were determined. In addition, the effects of ML pixel size, image smoothing and region size reduction were assessed. ML estimates at 1,000 iterations (0.6 sec per iteration on a parallel computer) for 1-cm[sup 2] gray matter ROIs showed negative biases of 6% [+-] 2% which can be reduced to 0% [+-] 3% by removing the outer 1-mm rim of each ROI. FBP applied to the full-size ROIs had 15% [+-] 4% negative bias with 50% less noise than ML. Shrinking the FBP regions provided partial bias compensation with noise increases to levels similar to ML. Smoothing of ML images produced biases comparable to FBP with slightly less noise. Because of its heavy computational requirements, the ML algorithm will be most useful for applications in which achieving minimum bias is important.

  6. Modeling precision and accuracy of a LWIR microgrid array imaging polarimeter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boger, James K.; Tyo, J. Scott; Ratliff, Bradley M.; Fetrow, Matthew P.; Black, Wiley T.; Kumar, Rakesh

    2005-08-01

    Long-wave infrared (LWIR) imaging is a prominent and useful technique for remote sensing applications. Moreover, polarization imaging has been shown to provide additional information about the imaged scene. However, polarization estimation requires that multiple measurements be made of each observed scene point under optically different conditions. This challenging measurement strategy makes the polarization estimates prone to error. The sources of this error differ depending upon the type of measurement scheme used. In this paper, we examine one particular measurement scheme, namely, a simultaneous multiple-measurement imaging polarimeter (SIP) using a microgrid polarizer array. The imager is composed of a microgrid polarizer masking a LWIR HgCdTe focal plane array (operating at 8.3-9.3 μm), and is able to make simultaneous modulated scene measurements. In this paper we present an analytical model that is used to predict the performance of the system in order to help interpret real results. This model is radiometrically accurate and accounts for the temperature of the camera system optics, spatial nonuniformity and drift, optical resolution and other sources of noise. This model is then used in simulation to validate it against laboratory measurements. The precision and accuracy of the SIP instrument is then studied.

  7. Precision and accuracy of clinical quantification of myocardial blood flow by dynamic PET: A technical perspective.

    PubMed

    Moody, Jonathan B; Lee, Benjamin C; Corbett, James R; Ficaro, Edward P; Murthy, Venkatesh L

    2015-10-01

    A number of exciting advances in PET/CT technology and improvements in methodology have recently converged to enhance the feasibility of routine clinical quantification of myocardial blood flow and flow reserve. Recent promising clinical results are pointing toward an important role for myocardial blood flow in the care of patients. Absolute blood flow quantification can be a powerful clinical tool, but its utility will depend on maintaining precision and accuracy in the face of numerous potential sources of methodological errors. Here we review recent data and highlight the impact of PET instrumentation, image reconstruction, and quantification methods, and we emphasize (82)Rb cardiac PET which currently has the widest clinical application. It will be apparent that more data are needed, particularly in relation to newer PET technologies, as well as clinical standardization of PET protocols and methods. We provide recommendations for the methodological factors considered here. At present, myocardial flow reserve appears to be remarkably robust to various methodological errors; however, with greater attention to and more detailed understanding of these sources of error, the clinical benefits of stress-only blood flow measurement may eventually be more fully realized. PMID:25868451

  8. Evaluation of Precise Point Positioning accuracy under large total electron content variations in equatorial latitudes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodríguez-Bilbao, I.; Moreno Monge, B.; Rodríguez-Caderot, G.; Herraiz, M.; Radicella, S. M.

    2015-01-01

    The ionosphere is one of the largest contributors to errors in GNSS positioning. Although in Precise Point Positioning (PPP) the ionospheric delay is corrected to a first order through the 'iono-free combination', significant errors may still be observed when large electron density gradients are present. To confirm this phenomenon, the temporal behavior of intense fluctuations of total electron content (TEC) and PPP altitude accuracy at equatorial latitudes are analyzed during four years of different solar activity. For this purpose, equatorial plasma irregularities are identified with periods of high rate of change of TEC (ROT). The largest ROT values are observed from 19:00 to 01:00 LT, especially around magnetic equinoxes, although some differences exist between the stations depending on their location. Highest ROT values are observed in the American and African regions. In general, large ROT events are accompanied by frequent satellite signal losses and an increase in the PPP altitude error during years 2001, 2004 and 2011. A significant increase in the PPP altitude error RMS is observed in epochs of high ROT with respect to epochs of low ROT in years 2001, 2004 and 2011, reaching up to 0.26 m in the 19:00-01:00 LT period.

  9. David Weston--Ocean science of invariant principles, total accuracy, and appropriate precision

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roebuck, Ian

    2002-11-01

    David Weston's entire professional career was as a member of the Royal Navy Scientific Service, working in the field of ocean acoustics and its applications to maritime operations. The breadth of his interests has often been remarked upon, but because of the sensitive nature of his work at the time, it was indeed much more diverse than his published papers showed. This presentation, from the successors to the laboratories he illuminated for many years, is an attempt to fill in at least some of the gaps. The presentation also focuses on the underlying scientific philosophy of David's work, rooted in the British tradition of applicable mathematics and physics. A deep appreciation of the role of invariants and dimensional methods, and awareness of the sensitivity of any models to changes to the input assumptions, was at the heart of his approach. The needs of the Navy kept him rigorous in requiring accuracy, and clear about the distinction between it and precision. Examples of these principles are included, still as relevant today as they were when he insisted on applying them 30 years ago.

  10. Sub-nm accuracy metrology for ultra-precise reflective X-ray optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siewert, F.; Buchheim, J.; Zeschke, T.; Brenner, G.; Kapitzki, S.; Tiedtke, K.

    2011-04-01

    The transport and monochromatization of synchrotron light from a high brilliant laser-like source to the experimental station without significant loss of brilliance and coherence is a challenging task in X-ray optics and requires optical elements of utmost accuracy. These are wave-front preserving plane mirrors with lengths of up to 1 m characterized by residual slope errors in the range of 0.05 μrad (rms) and values of 0.1 nm (rms) for micro-roughness. In the case of focusing optical elements like elliptical cylinders the required residual slope error is in the range of 0.25 μrad rms and better. In addition the alignment of optical elements is a critical and beamline performance limiting topic. Thus the characterization of ultra-precise reflective optical elements for FEL-beamline application in the free and mounted states is of significant importance. We will discuss recent results in the field of metrology achieved at the BESSY-II Optics Laboratory (BOL) of the Helmholtz Zentrum Berlin (HZB) by use of the Nanometer Optical Component Measuring Machine (NOM). Different types of mirror have been inspected by line-scan and slope mapping in the free and mounted states. Based on these results the mirror clamping of a combined mirror/grating set-up for the BL-beamlines at FLASH was improved.

  11. Obtaining identical results with double precision global accuracy on different numbers of processors in parallel particle Monte Carlo simulations

    SciTech Connect

    Cleveland, Mathew A. Brunner, Thomas A.; Gentile, Nicholas A.; Keasler, Jeffrey A.

    2013-10-15

    We describe and compare different approaches for achieving numerical reproducibility in photon Monte Carlo simulations. Reproducibility is desirable for code verification, testing, and debugging. Parallelism creates a unique problem for achieving reproducibility in Monte Carlo simulations because it changes the order in which values are summed. This is a numerical problem because double precision arithmetic is not associative. Parallel Monte Carlo, both domain replicated and decomposed simulations, will run their particles in a different order during different runs of the same simulation because the non-reproducibility of communication between processors. In addition, runs of the same simulation using different domain decompositions will also result in particles being simulated in a different order. In [1], a way of eliminating non-associative accumulations using integer tallies was described. This approach successfully achieves reproducibility at the cost of lost accuracy by rounding double precision numbers to fewer significant digits. This integer approach, and other extended and reduced precision reproducibility techniques, are described and compared in this work. Increased precision alone is not enough to ensure reproducibility of photon Monte Carlo simulations. Non-arbitrary precision approaches require a varying degree of rounding to achieve reproducibility. For the problems investigated in this work double precision global accuracy was achievable by using 100 bits of precision or greater on all unordered sums which where subsequently rounded to double precision at the end of every time-step.

  12. Prediction Accuracy in Multivariate Repeated-Measures Bayesian Forecasting Models with Examples Drawn from Research on Sleep and Circadian Rhythms

    PubMed Central

    Kogan, Clark; Kalachev, Leonid; Van Dongen, Hans P. A.

    2016-01-01

    In study designs with repeated measures for multiple subjects, population models capturing within- and between-subjects variances enable efficient individualized prediction of outcome measures (response variables) by incorporating individuals response data through Bayesian forecasting. When measurement constraints preclude reasonable levels of prediction accuracy, additional (secondary) response variables measured alongside the primary response may help to increase prediction accuracy. We investigate this for the case of substantial between-subjects correlation between primary and secondary response variables, assuming negligible within-subjects correlation. We show how to determine the accuracy of primary response predictions as a function of secondary response observations. Given measurement costs for primary and secondary variables, we determine the number of observations that produces, with minimal cost, a fixed average prediction accuracy for a model of subject means. We illustrate this with estimation of subject-specific sleep parameters using polysomnography and wrist actigraphy. We also consider prediction accuracy in an example time-dependent, linear model and derive equations for the optimal timing of measurements to achieve, on average, the best prediction accuracy. Finally, we examine an example involving a circadian rhythm model and show numerically that secondary variables can improve individualized predictions in this time-dependent nonlinear model as well. PMID:27110271

  13. 13 Years of TOPEX/POSEIDON Precision Orbit Determination and the 10-fold Improvement in Expected Orbit Accuracy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lemoine, F. G.; Zelensky, N. P.; Luthcke, S. B.; Rowlands, D. D.; Beckley, B. D.; Klosko, S. M.

    2006-01-01

    Launched in the summer of 1992, TOPEX/POSEIDON (T/P) was a joint mission between NASA and the Centre National d Etudes Spatiales (CNES), the French Space Agency, to make precise radar altimeter measurements of the ocean surface. After the remarkably successful 13-years of mapping the ocean surface T/P lost its ability to maneuver and was de-commissioned January 2006. T/P revolutionized the study of the Earth s oceans by vastly exceeding pre-launch estimates of surface height accuracy recoverable from radar altimeter measurements. The precision orbit lies at the heart of the altimeter measurement providing the reference frame from which the radar altimeter measurements are made. The expected quality of orbit knowledge had limited the measurement accuracy expectations of past altimeter missions, and still remains a major component in the error budget of all altimeter missions. This paper describes critical improvements made to the T/P orbit time series over the 13-years of precise orbit determination (POD) provided by the GSFC Space Geodesy Laboratory. The POD improvements from the pre-launch T/P expectation of radial orbit accuracy and Mission requirement of 13-cm to an expected accuracy of about 1.5-cm with today s latest orbits will be discussed. The latest orbits with 1.5 cm RMS radial accuracy represent a significant improvement to the 2.0-cm accuracy orbits currently available on the T/P Geophysical Data Record (GDR) altimeter product.

  14. Measurement Precision and Accuracy of the Centre Location of AN Ellipse by Weighted Centroid Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsuoka, R.

    2015-03-01

    Circular targets are often utilized in photogrammetry, and a circle on a plane is projected as an ellipse onto an oblique image. This paper reports an analysis conducted in order to investigate the measurement precision and accuracy of the centre location of an ellipse on a digital image by an intensity-weighted centroid method. An ellipse with a semi-major axis a, a semi-minor axis b, and a rotation angle θ of the major axis is investigated. In the study an equivalent radius r = (a2cos2θ + b2sin2θ)1/2 is adopted as a measure of the dimension of an ellipse. First an analytical expression representing a measurement error (ϵx, ϵy,) is obtained. Then variances Vx of ϵx are obtained at 1/256 pixel intervals from 0.5 to 100 pixels in r by numerical integration, because a formula representing Vx is unable to be obtained analytically when r > 0.5. The results of the numerical integration indicate that Vxwould oscillate in a 0.5 pixel cycle in r and Vx excluding the oscillation component would be inversely proportional to the cube of r. Finally an effective approximate formula of Vx from 0.5 to 100 pixels in r is obtained by least squares adjustment. The obtained formula is a fractional expression of which numerator is a fifth-degree polynomial of {r-0.5×int(2r)} expressing the oscillation component and denominator is the cube of r. Here int(x) is the function to return the integer part of the value x. Coefficients of the fifth-degree polynomial of the numerator can be expressed by a quadratic polynomial of {0.5×int(2r)+0.25}.

  15. Accuracy, precision and response time of consumer bimetal and digital thermometers for cooked ground beef patties and chicken breasts

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Three models each of consumer instant-read bimetal and digital thermometers were tested for accuracy, precision and response time compared to a calibrated thermocouple in cooked 80 percent and 90 percent lean ground beef patties and boneless and bone-in split chicken breasts. At the recommended inse...

  16. Technical note: precision and accuracy of in vitro digestion of neutral detergent fiber and predicted net energy of lactation content of fibrous feeds.

    PubMed

    Spanghero, M; Berzaghi, P; Fortina, R; Masoero, F; Rapetti, L; Zanfi, C; Tassone, S; Gallo, A; Colombini, S; Ferlito, J C

    2010-10-01

    The objective of this study was to test the precision and agreement with in situ data (accuracy) of neutral detergent fiber degradability (NDFD) obtained with the rotating jar in vitro system (Daisy(II) incubator, Ankom Technology, Fairport, NY). Moreover, the precision of the chemical assays requested by the National Research Council (2001) for feed energy calculations and the estimated net energy of lactation contents were evaluated. Precision was measured as standard deviation (SD) of reproducibility (S(R)) and repeatability (S(r)) (between- and within-laboratory variability, respectively), which were expressed as coefficients of variation (SD/mean × 100, S(R) and S(r), respectively). Ten fibrous feed samples (alfalfa dehydrated, alfalfa hay, corn cob, corn silage, distillers grains, meadow hay, ryegrass hay, soy hulls, wheat bran, and wheat straw) were analyzed by 5 laboratories. Analyses of dry matter (DM), ash, crude protein (CP), neutral detergent fiber (NDF), and acid detergent fiber (ADF) had satisfactory S(r), from 0.4 to 2.9%, and S(R), from 0.7 to 6.2%, with the exception of ether extract (EE) and CP bound to NDF or ADF. Extending the fermentation time from 30 to 48 h increased the NDFD values (from 42 to 54% on average across all tested feeds) and improved the NDFD precision, in terms of both S(r) (12 and 7% for 30 and 48 h, respectively) and S(R) (17 and 10% for 30 and 48 h, respectively). The net energy for lactation (NE(L)) predicted from 48-h incubation NDFD data approximated well the tabulated National Research Council (2001) values for several feeds, and the improvement in NDFD precision given by longer incubations (48 vs. 30 h) also improved precision of the NE(L) estimates from 11 to 8%. Data obtained from the rotating jar in vitro technique compared well with in situ data. In conclusion, the adoption of a 48-h period of incubation improves repeatability and reproducibility of NDFD and accuracy and reproducibility of the associated calculated

  17. Measurement of midfemoral shaft geometry: repeatability and accuracy using magnetic resonance imaging and dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry.

    PubMed

    Woodhead, H J; Kemp, A F; Blimkie CJR; Briody, J N; Duncan, C S; Thompson, M; Lam, A; Howman-Giles, R; Cowell, C T

    2001-12-01

    Although macroscopic geometric architecture is an important determinant of bone strength, there is limited published information relating to the validation of the techniques used in its measurement. This study describes new techniques for assessing geometry at the midfemur using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) and examines both the repeatability and the accuracy of these and previously described DXA methods. Contiguous transverse MRI (Philips 1.5T) scans of the middle one-third femur were made in 13 subjects, 3 subjects with osteoporosis. Midpoint values for total width (TW), cortical width (CW), total cross-sectional area (TCSA), cortical cross-sectional area (CCSA), and volumes from reconstructed three-dimensional (3D) images (total volume [TV] and cortical volume [CVol]) were derived. Midpoint TW and CW also were determined using DXA (Lunar V3.6, lumbar software) by visual and automated edge detection analysis. Repeatability was assessed on scans made on two occasions and then analyzed twice by two independent observers (blinded), with intra- and interobserver repeatability expressed as the CV (CV +/- SD). Accuracy was examined by comparing MRI and DXA measurements of venison bone (and Perspex phantom for MRI), against "gold standard" measures made by vernier caliper (width), photographic image digitization (area) and water displacement (volume). Agreement between methods was analyzed using mean differences (MD +/- SD%). MRI CVs ranged from 0.5 +/- 0.5% (TV) to 3.1 +/- 3.1% (CW) for intraobserver and 0.55 +/- 0.5% (TV) to 3.6 +/- 3.6% (CW) for interobserver repeatability. DXA results ranged from 1.6 +/- 1.5% (TW) to 4.4 +/- 4.5% (CW) for intraobserver and 3.8 +/- 3.8% (TW) to 8.3 +/- 8.1% (CW) for interobserver variation. MRI accuracy was excellent for TV (3.3 +/- 6.4%), CVol (3.5 +/- 4.0%), TCSA (1.8 +/- 2.6%), and CCSA (1.6 +/- 4.2%) but not TW (4.1 +/- 1.4%) or CW (16.4 +/14.9%). DXA results were TW (6.8 +/- 2

  18. Repeatability precision of the falling number procedure under standard and modified methodologies

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The falling number (FN) procedure is used worldwide to assess the integrity of the starch stored within wheat seed. As an indirect measurement of the activity level of alpha-amylase, FN relies on a dedicated viscometer that measures the amount of time needed for a metal stirring rod of precise geome...

  19. Using statistics and software to maximize precision and accuracy in U-Pb geochronological measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McLean, N.; Bowring, J. F.; Bowring, S. A.

    2009-12-01

    Uncertainty in U-Pb geochronology results from a wide variety of factors, including isotope ratio determinations, common Pb corrections, initial daughter product disequilibria, instrumental mass fractionation, isotopic tracer calibration, and U decay constants and isotopic composition. The relative contribution of each depends on the proportion of radiogenic to common Pb, the measurement technique, and the quality of systematic error determinations. Random and systematic uncertainty contributions may be propagated into individual analyses or for an entire population, and must be propagated correctly to accurately interpret data. Tripoli and U-Pb_Redux comprise a new data reduction and error propagation software package that combines robust cycle measurement statistics with rigorous multivariate data analysis and presents the results graphically and interactively. Maximizing the precision and accuracy of a measurement begins with correct appraisal and codification of the systematic and random errors for each analysis. For instance, a large dataset of total procedural Pb blank analyses defines a multivariate normal distribution, describing the mean of and variation in isotopic composition (IC) that must be subtracted from each analysis. Uncertainty in the size and IC of each Pb blank is related to the (random) uncertainty in ratio measurements and the (systematic) uncertainty involved in tracer subtraction. Other sample and measurement parameters can be quantified in the same way, represented as statistical distributions that describe their uncertainty or variation, and are input into U-Pb_Redux as such before the raw sample isotope ratios are measured. During sample measurement, U-Pb_Redux and Tripoli can relay cycle data in real time, calculating a date and uncertainty for each new cycle or block. The results are presented in U-Pb_Redux as an interactive user interface with multiple visualization tools. One- and two-dimensional plots of each calculated date and

  20. Sensitivity Analysis for Characterizing the Accuracy and Precision of JEM/SMILES Mesospheric O3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Esmaeili Mahani, M.; Baron, P.; Kasai, Y.; Murata, I.; Kasaba, Y.

    2011-12-01

    The main purpose of this study is to evaluate the Superconducting sub-Millimeter Limb Emission Sounder (SMILES) measurements of mesospheric ozone, O3. As the first step, the error due to the impact of Mesospheric Temperature Inversions (MTIs) on ozone retrieval has been determined. The impacts of other parameters such as pressure variability, solar events, and etc. on mesospheric O3 will also be investigated. Ozone, is known to be important due to the stratospheric O3 layer protection of life on Earth by absorbing harmful UV radiations. However, O3 chemistry can be studied purely in the mesosphere without distraction of heterogeneous situation and dynamical variations due to the short lifetime of O3 in this region. Mesospheric ozone is produced by the photo-dissociation of O2 and the subsequent reaction of O with O2. Diurnal and semi-diurnal variations of mesospheric ozone are associated with variations in solar activity. The amplitude of the diurnal variation increases from a few percent at an altitude of 50 km, to about 80 percent at 70 km. Although despite the apparent simplicity of this situation, significant disagreements exist between the predictions from the existing models and observations, which need to be resolved. SMILES is a highly sensitive radiometer with a few to several tens percent of precision from upper troposphere to the mesosphere. SMILES was developed by the Japanese Aerospace eXploration Agency (JAXA) and the National Institute of Information and Communications Technology (NICT) located at the Japanese Experiment Module (JEM) on the International Space Station (ISS). SMILES has successfully measured the vertical distributions and the diurnal variations of various atmospheric species in the latitude range of 38S to 65N from October 2009 to April 2010. A sensitivity analysis is being conducted to investigate the expected precision and accuracy of the mesospheric O3 profiles (from 50 to 90 km height) due to the impact of Mesospheric Temperature

  1. Accuracy and precision of polyurethane dental arch models fabricated using a three-dimensional subtractive rapid prototyping method with an intraoral scanning technique

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jae-Hong; Kim, Ki-Baek; Kim, Woong-Chul; Kim, Ji-Hwan

    2014-01-01

    Objective This study aimed to evaluate the accuracy and precision of polyurethane (PUT) dental arch models fabricated using a three-dimensional (3D) subtractive rapid prototyping (RP) method with an intraoral scanning technique by comparing linear measurements obtained from PUT models and conventional plaster models. Methods Ten plaster models were duplicated using a selected standard master model and conventional impression, and 10 PUT models were duplicated using the 3D subtractive RP technique with an oral scanner. Six linear measurements were evaluated in terms of x, y, and z-axes using a non-contact white light scanner. Accuracy was assessed using mean differences between two measurements, and precision was examined using four quantitative methods and the Bland-Altman graphical method. Repeatability was evaluated in terms of intra-examiner variability, and reproducibility was assessed in terms of inter-examiner and inter-method variability. Results The mean difference between plaster models and PUT models ranged from 0.07 mm to 0.33 mm. Relative measurement errors ranged from 2.2% to 7.6% and intraclass correlation coefficients ranged from 0.93 to 0.96, when comparing plaster models and PUT models. The Bland-Altman plot showed good agreement. Conclusions The accuracy and precision of PUT dental models for evaluating the performance of oral scanner and subtractive RP technology was acceptable. Because of the recent improvements in block material and computerized numeric control milling machines, the subtractive RP method may be a good choice for dental arch models. PMID:24696823

  2. Bias, precision and accuracy in the estimation of cuticular and respiratory water loss: a case study from a highly variable cockroach, Perisphaeria sp.

    PubMed

    Gray, Emilie M; Chown, Steven L

    2008-01-01

    We compared the precision, bias and accuracy of two techniques that were recently proposed to estimate the contributions of cuticular and respiratory water loss to total water loss in insects. We performed measurements of VCO2 and VH2O in normoxia, hyperoxia and anoxia using flow through respirometry on single individuals of the highly variable cockroach Perisphaeria sp. to compare estimates of cuticular and respiratory water loss (CWL and RWL) obtained by the VH2O-VCO2 y-intercept method with those obtained by the hyperoxic switch method. Precision was determined by assessing the repeatability of values obtained whereas bias was assessed by comparing the methods' results to each other and to values for other species found in the literature. We found that CWL was highly repeatable by both methods (R0.88) and resulted in similar values to measures of CWL determined during the closed-phase of discontinuous gas exchange (DGE). Repeatability of RWL was much lower (R=0.40) and significant only in the case of the hyperoxic method. RWL derived from the hyperoxic method is higher (by 0.044 micromol min(-1)) than that obtained from the method traditionally used for measuring water loss during the closed-phase of DGE, suggesting that in the past RWL may have been underestimated. The very low cuticular permeability of this species (3.88 microg cm(-2) h(-1) Torr(-1)) is reasonable given the seasonally hot and dry habitat where it lives. We also tested the hygric hypothesis proposed to account for the evolution of discontinuous gas exchange cycles and found no effect of respiratory pattern on RWL, although the ratio of mean VH2O to VCO2 was higher for continuous patterns compared with discontinuous ones. PMID:17949739

  3. Use of single-representative reverse-engineered surface-models for RSA does not affect measurement accuracy and precision.

    PubMed

    Seehaus, Frank; Schwarze, Michael; Flörkemeier, Thilo; von Lewinski, Gabriela; Kaptein, Bart L; Jakubowitz, Eike; Hurschler, Christof

    2016-05-01

    Implant migration can be accurately quantified by model-based Roentgen stereophotogrammetric analysis (RSA), using an implant surface model to locate the implant relative to the bone. In a clinical situation, a single reverse engineering (RE) model for each implant type and size is used. It is unclear to what extent the accuracy and precision of migration measurement is affected by implant manufacturing variability unaccounted for by a single representative model. Individual RE models were generated for five short-stem hip implants of the same type and size. Two phantom analyses and one clinical analysis were performed: "Accuracy-matched models": one stem was assessed, and the results from the original RE model were compared with randomly selected models. "Accuracy-random model": each of the five stems was assessed and analyzed using one randomly selected RE model. "Precision-clinical setting": implant migration was calculated for eight patients, and all five available RE models were applied to each case. For the two phantom experiments, the 95%CI of the bias ranged from -0.28 mm to 0.30 mm for translation and -2.3° to 2.5° for rotation. In the clinical setting, precision is less than 0.5 mm and 1.2° for translation and rotation, respectively, except for rotations about the proximodistal axis (<4.1°). High accuracy and precision of model-based RSA can be achieved and are not biased by using a single representative RE model. At least for implants similar in shape to the investigated short-stem, individual models are not necessary. © 2015 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Orthop Res 34:903-910, 2016. PMID:26553748

  4. Dichotomy in perceptual learning of interval timing: calibration of mean accuracy and precision differ in specificity and time course.

    PubMed

    Sohn, Hansem; Lee, Sang-Hun

    2013-01-01

    Our brain is inexorably confronted with a dynamic environment in which it has to fine-tune spatiotemporal representations of incoming sensory stimuli and commit to a decision accordingly. Among those representations needing constant calibration is interval timing, which plays a pivotal role in various cognitive and motor tasks. To investigate how perceived time interval is adjusted by experience, we conducted a human psychophysical experiment using an implicit interval-timing task in which observers responded to an invisible bar drifting at a constant speed. We tracked daily changes in distributions of response times for a range of physical time intervals over multiple days of training with two major types of timing performance, mean accuracy and precision. We found a decoupled dynamics of mean accuracy and precision in terms of their time course and specificity of perceptual learning. Mean accuracy showed feedback-driven instantaneous calibration evidenced by a partial transfer around the time interval trained with feedback, while timing precision exhibited a long-term slow improvement with no evident specificity. We found that a Bayesian observer model, in which a subjective time interval is determined jointly by a prior and likelihood function for timing, captures the dissociative temporal dynamics of the two types of timing measures simultaneously. Finally, the model suggested that the width of the prior, not the likelihoods, gradually shrinks over sessions, substantiating the important role of prior knowledge in perceptual learning of interval timing. PMID:23076112

  5. Discovery and characterization of Alu repeat sequences via precise local read assembly

    PubMed Central

    Wildschutte, Julia H.; Baron, Alayna; Diroff, Nicolette M.; Kidd, Jeffrey M.

    2015-01-01

    Alu insertions have contributed to >11% of the human genome and ∼30–35 Alu subfamilies remain actively mobile, yet the characterization of polymorphic Alu insertions from short-read data remains a challenge. We build on existing computational methods to combine Alu detection and de novo assembly of WGS data as a means to reconstruct the full sequence of insertion events from Illumina paired end reads. Comparison with published calls obtained using PacBio long-reads indicates a false discovery rate below 5%, at the cost of reduced sensitivity due to the colocation of reference and non-reference repeats. We generate a highly accurate call set of 1614 completely assembled Alu variants from 53 samples from the Human Genome Diversity Project (HGDP) panel. We utilize the reconstructed alternative insertion haplotypes to genotype 1010 fully assembled insertions, obtaining >99% agreement with genotypes obtained by PCR. In our assembled sequences, we find evidence of premature insertion mechanisms and observe 5′ truncation in 16% of AluYa5 and AluYb8 insertions. The sites of truncation coincide with stem-loop structures and SRP9/14 binding sites in the Alu RNA, implicating L1 ORF2p pausing in the generation of 5′ truncations. Additionally, we identified variable AluJ and AluS elements that likely arose due to non-retrotransposition mechanisms. PMID:26503250

  6. Quantifying Vegetation Change in Semiarid Environments: Precision and Accuracy of Spectral Mixture Analysis and the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elmore, Andrew J.; Mustard, John F.; Manning, Sara J.; Elome, Andrew J.

    2000-01-01

    Because in situ techniques for determining vegetation abundance in semiarid regions are labor intensive, they usually are not feasible for regional analyses. Remotely sensed data provide the large spatial scale necessary, but their precision and accuracy in determining vegetation abundance and its change through time have not been quantitatively determined. In this paper, the precision and accuracy of two techniques, Spectral Mixture Analysis (SMA) and Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) applied to Landsat TM data, are assessed quantitatively using high-precision in situ data. In Owens Valley, California we have 6 years of continuous field data (1991-1996) for 33 sites acquired concurrently with six cloudless Landsat TM images. The multitemporal remotely sensed data were coregistered to within 1 pixel, radiometrically intercalibrated using temporally invariante surface features and geolocated to within 30 m. These procedures facilitated the accurate location of field-monitoring sites within the remotely sensed data. Formal uncertainties in the registration, radiometric alignment, and modeling were determined. Results show that SMA absolute percent live cover (%LC) estimates are accurate to within ?4.0%LC and estimates of change in live cover have a precision of +/-3.8%LC. Furthermore, even when applied to areas of low vegetation cover, the SMA approach correctly determined the sense of clump, (i.e., positive or negative) in 87% of the samples. SMA results are superior to NDVI, which, although correlated with live cover, is not a quantitative measure and showed the correct sense of change in only 67%, of the samples.

  7. Assessing the accuracy and repeatability of automated photogrammetrically generated digital surface models from unmanned aerial system imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chavis, Christopher

    Using commercial digital cameras in conjunction with Unmanned Aerial Systems (UAS) to generate 3-D Digital Surface Models (DSMs) and orthomosaics is emerging as a cost-effective alternative to Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR). Powerful software applications such as Pix4D and APS can automate the generation of DSM and orthomosaic products from a handful of inputs. However, the accuracy of these models is relatively untested. The objectives of this study were to generate multiple DSM and orthomosaic pairs of the same area using Pix4D and APS from flights of imagery collected with a lightweight UAS. The accuracy of each individual DSM was assessed in addition to the consistency of the method to model one location over a period of time. Finally, this study determined if the DSMs automatically generated using lightweight UAS and commercial digital cameras could be used for detecting changes in elevation and at what scale. Accuracy was determined by comparing DSMs to a series of reference points collected with survey grade GPS. Other GPS points were also used as control points to georeference the products within Pix4D and APS. The effectiveness of the products for change detection was assessed through image differencing and observance of artificially induced, known elevation changes. The vertical accuracy with the optimal data and model is ≈ 25 cm and the highest consistency over repeat flights is a standard deviation of ≈ 5 cm. Elevation change detection based on such UAS imagery and DSM models should be viable for detecting infrastructure change in urban or suburban environments with little dense canopy vegetation.

  8. Accuracy and precisions of water quality parameters retrieved from particle swarm optimisation in a sub-tropical lake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campbell, Glenn; Phinn, Stuart R.

    2009-09-01

    Optical remote sensing has been used to map and monitor water quality parameters such as the concentrations of hydrosols (chlorophyll and other pigments, total suspended material, and coloured dissolved organic matter). In the inversion / optimisation approach a forward model is used to simulate the water reflectance spectra from a set of parameters and the set that gives the closest match is selected as the solution. The accuracy of the hydrosol retrieval is dependent on an efficient search of the solution space and the reliability of the similarity measure. In this paper the Particle Swarm Optimisation (PSO) was used to search the solution space and seven similarity measures were trialled. The accuracy and precision of this method depends on the inherent noise in the spectral bands of the sensor being employed, as well as the radiometric corrections applied to images to calculate the subsurface reflectance. Using the Hydrolight® radiative transfer model and typical hydrosol concentrations from Lake Wivenhoe, Australia, MERIS reflectance spectra were simulated. The accuracy and precision of hydrosol concentrations derived from each similarity measure were evaluated after errors associated with the air-water interface correction, atmospheric correction and the IOP measurement were modelled and applied to the simulated reflectance spectra. The use of band specific empirically estimated values for the anisotropy value in the forward model improved the accuracy of hydrosol retrieval. The results of this study will be used to improve an algorithm for the remote sensing of water quality for freshwater impoundments.

  9. Nano-accuracy measurements and the surface profiler by use of Monolithic Hollow Penta-Prism for precision mirror testing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qian, Shinan; Wayne, Lewis; Idir, Mourad

    2014-09-01

    We developed a Monolithic Hollow Penta-Prism Long Trace Profiler-NOM (MHPP-LTP-NOM) to attain nano-accuracy in testing plane- and near-plane-mirrors. A new developed Monolithic Hollow Penta-Prism (MHPP) combined with the advantages of PPLTP and autocollimator ELCOMAT of the Nano-Optic-Measuring Machine (NOM) is used to enhance the accuracy and stability of our measurements. Our precise system-alignment method by using a newly developed CCD position-monitor system (PMS) assured significant thermal stability and, along with our optimized noise-reduction analytic method, ensured nano-accuracy measurements. Herein we report our tests results; all errors are about 60 nrad rms or less in tests of plane- and near-plane- mirrors.

  10. Optimizing the accuracy and precision of the single-pulse Laue technique for synchrotron photo-crystallography

    SciTech Connect

    Kaminski, Radoslaw; Graber, Timothy; Benedict, Jason B.; Henning, Robert; Chen, Yu-Sheng; Scheins, Stephan; Messerschmidt, Marc; Coppens, Philip

    2010-06-24

    The accuracy that can be achieved in single-pulse pump-probe Laue experiments is discussed. It is shown that with careful tuning of the experimental conditions a reproducibility of the intensity ratios of equivalent intensities obtained in different measurements of 3-4% can be achieved. The single-pulse experiments maximize the time resolution that can be achieved and, unlike stroboscopic techniques in which the pump-probe cycle is rapidly repeated, minimize the temperature increase due to the laser exposure of the sample.

  11. Optimizing the accuracy and precision of the single-pulse Laue technique for synchrotron photo-crystallography

    PubMed Central

    Kamiński, Radosław; Graber, Timothy; Benedict, Jason B.; Henning, Robert; Chen, Yu-Sheng; Scheins, Stephan; Messerschmidt, Marc; Coppens, Philip

    2010-01-01

    The accuracy that can be achieved in single-pulse pump-probe Laue experiments is discussed. It is shown that with careful tuning of the experimental conditions a reproducibility of the intensity ratios of equivalent intensities obtained in different measurements of 3–4% can be achieved. The single-pulse experiments maximize the time resolution that can be achieved and, unlike stroboscopic techniques in which the pump-probe cycle is rapidly repeated, minimize the temperature increase due to the laser exposure of the sample. PMID:20567080

  12. The extended tracking network and indications of baseline precision and accuracy in the North Andes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Freymueller, Jeffrey T.; Kellogg, James N.

    1990-01-01

    The CASA Uno Global Positioning System (GPS) experiment (January-February 1988) included an extended tracking network which covered three continents in addition to the network of scientific interest in Central and South America. The repeatability of long baselines (400-1000 km) in South America is improved by up to a factor of two in the horizontal vector baseline components by using tracking stations in the Pacific and Europe to supplement stations in North America. In every case but one, the differences between the mean solutions obtained using different tracking networks was equal to or smaller than day-to-day rms repeatabilities for the same baselines. The mean solutions obtained by using tracking stations in North America and the Pacific agreed at the 2-3 millimeter level with those using tracking stations in North America and Europe. The agreement of the extended tracking network solutions suggests that a broad distribution of tracking stations provides better geometric constraints on the satellite orbits and that solutions are not sensitive to changes in tracking network configuration when an extended network is use. A comparison of the results from the North Andes and a baseline in North America suggests that the use of a geometrically strong extended tracking network is most important when the network of interest is far from North America.

  13. A high-precision Jacob's staff with improved spatial accuracy and laser sighting capability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patacci, Marco

    2016-04-01

    A new Jacob's staff design incorporating a 3D positioning stage and a laser sighting stage is described. The first combines a compass and a circular spirit level on a movable bracket and the second introduces a laser able to slide vertically and rotate on a plane parallel to bedding. The new design allows greater precision in stratigraphic thickness measurement while restricting the cost and maintaining speed of measurement to levels similar to those of a traditional Jacob's staff. Greater precision is achieved as a result of: a) improved 3D positioning of the rod through the use of the integrated compass and spirit level holder; b) more accurate sighting of geological surfaces by tracing with height adjustable rotatable laser; c) reduced error when shifting the trace of the log laterally (i.e. away from the dip direction) within the trace of the laser plane, and d) improved measurement of bedding dip and direction necessary to orientate the Jacob's staff, using the rotatable laser. The new laser holder design can also be used to verify parallelism of a geological surface with structural dip by creating a visual planar datum in the field and thus allowing determination of surfaces which cut the bedding at an angle (e.g., clinoforms, levees, erosion surfaces, amalgamation surfaces, etc.). Stratigraphic thickness measurements and estimates of measurement uncertainty are valuable to many applications of sedimentology and stratigraphy at different scales (e.g., bed statistics, reconstruction of palaeotopographies, depositional processes at bed scale, architectural element analysis), especially when a quantitative approach is applied to the analysis of the data; the ability to collect larger data sets with improved precision will increase the quality of such studies.

  14. A Time Projection Chamber for High Accuracy and Precision Fission Cross-Section Measurements

    SciTech Connect

    T. Hill; K. Jewell; M. Heffner; D. Carter; M. Cunningham; V. Riot; J. Ruz; S. Sangiorgio; B. Seilhan; L. Snyder; D. M. Asner; S. Stave; G. Tatishvili; L. Wood; R. G. Baker; J. L. Klay; R. Kudo; S. Barrett; J. King; M. Leonard; W. Loveland; L. Yao; C. Brune; S. Grimes; N. Kornilov; T. N. Massey; J. Bundgaard; D. L. Duke; U. Greife; U. Hager; E. Burgett; J. Deaven; V. Kleinrath; C. McGrath; B. Wendt; N. Hertel; D. Isenhower; N. Pickle; H. Qu; S. Sharma; R. T. Thornton; D. Tovwell; R. S. Towell; S.

    2014-09-01

    The fission Time Projection Chamber (fissionTPC) is a compact (15 cm diameter) two-chamber MICROMEGAS TPC designed to make precision cross-section measurements of neutron-induced fission. The actinide targets are placed on the central cathode and irradiated with a neutron beam that passes axially through the TPC inducing fission in the target. The 4p acceptance for fission fragments and complete charged particle track reconstruction are powerful features of the fissionTPC which will be used to measure fission cross-sections and examine the associated systematic errors. This paper provides a detailed description of the design requirements, the design solutions, and the initial performance of the fissionTPC.

  15. The Precision and Accuracy of AIRS Level 1B Radiances for Climate Studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hearty, Thomas J.; Gaiser, Steve; Pagano, Tom; Aumann, Hartmut

    2004-01-01

    We investigate uncertainties in the Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) radiances based on in-flight and preflight calibration algorithms and observations. The global coverage and spectra1 resolution ((lamda)/(Delta)(lamda) 1200) of AIRS enable it to produce a data set that can be used as a climate data record over the lifetime of the instrument. Therefore, we examine the effects of the uncertainties in the calibration and the detector stability on future climate studies. The uncertainties of the parameters that go into the AIRS radiometric calibration are propagated to estimate the accuracy of the radiances and any climate data record created from AIRS measurements. The calculated radiance uncertainties are consistent with observations. Algorithm enhancements may be able to reduce the radiance uncertainties by as much as 7%. We find that the orbital variation of the gain contributes a brightness temperature bias of < 0.01 K.

  16. Quantification and visualization of carotid segmentation accuracy and precision using a 2D standardized carotid map

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiu, Bernard; Ukwatta, Eranga; Shavakh, Shadi; Fenster, Aaron

    2013-06-01

    This paper describes a framework for vascular image segmentation evaluation. Since the size of vessel wall and plaque burden is defined by the lumen and wall boundaries in vascular segmentation, these two boundaries should be considered as a pair in statistical evaluation of a segmentation algorithm. This work proposed statistical metrics to evaluate the difference of local vessel wall thickness (VWT) produced by manual and algorithm-based semi-automatic segmentation methods (ΔT) with the local segmentation standard deviation of the wall and lumen boundaries considered. ΔT was further approximately decomposed into the local wall and lumen boundary differences (ΔW and ΔL respectively) in order to provide information regarding which of the wall and lumen segmentation errors contribute more to the VWT difference. In this study, the lumen and wall boundaries in 3D carotid ultrasound images acquired for 21 subjects were each segmented five times manually and by a level-set segmentation algorithm. The (absolute) difference measures (i.e., ΔT, ΔW, ΔL and their absolute values) and the pooled local standard deviation of manually and algorithmically segmented wall and lumen boundaries were computed for each subject and represented in a 2D standardized map. The local accuracy and variability of the segmentation algorithm at each point can be quantified by the average of these metrics for the whole group of subjects and visualized on the 2D standardized map. Based on the results shown on the 2D standardized map, a variety of strategies, such as adding anchor points and adjusting weights of different forces in the algorithm, can be introduced to improve the accuracy and variability of the algorithm.

  17. Accuracy and repeatability of quantitative fluoroscopy for the measurement of sagittal plane translation and finite centre of rotation in the lumbar spine.

    PubMed

    Breen, Alexander; Breen, Alan

    2016-07-01

    Quantitative fluoroscopy (QF) was developed to measure intervertebral mechanics in vivo and has been found to have high repeatability and accuracy for the measurement of intervertebral rotations. However, sagittal plane translation and finite centre of rotation (FCR) are potential measures of stability but have not yet been fully validated for current QF. This study investigated the repeatability and accuracy of QF for measuring these variables. Repeatability was assessed from L2-S1 in 20 human volunteers. Accuracy was investigated using 10 consecutive measurements from each of two pairs of linked and instrumented dry human vertebrae as reference; one which tilted without translation and one which translated without tilt. The results found intra- and inter-observer repeatability for translation to be 1.1mm or less (SEM) with fair to substantial reliability (ICC 0.533-0.998). Intra-observer repeatability of FCR location for inter-vertebral rotations of 5° and above ranged from 1.5mm to 1.8mm (SEM) with moderate to substantial reliability (ICC 0.626-0.988). Inter-observer repeatability for FCR ranged from 1.2mm to 5.7mm, also with moderate to substantial reliability (ICC 0.621-0.878). Reliability was substantial (ICC>0.81) for 10/16 measures for translation and 5/8 for FCR location. Accuracy for translation was 0.1mm (fixed centre) and 2.2mm (moveable centre), with an FCR error of 0.3mm(x) and 0.4mm(y) (fixed centre). This technology was found to have a high level of accuracy and with a few exceptions, moderate to substantial repeatability for the measurement of translation and FCR from fluoroscopic motion sequences. PMID:27129784

  18. Clinical decision support systems for improving diagnostic accuracy and achieving precision medicine.

    PubMed

    Castaneda, Christian; Nalley, Kip; Mannion, Ciaran; Bhattacharyya, Pritish; Blake, Patrick; Pecora, Andrew; Goy, Andre; Suh, K Stephen

    2015-01-01

    As research laboratories and clinics collaborate to achieve precision medicine, both communities are required to understand mandated electronic health/medical record (EHR/EMR) initiatives that will be fully implemented in all clinics in the United States by 2015. Stakeholders will need to evaluate current record keeping practices and optimize and standardize methodologies to capture nearly all information in digital format. Collaborative efforts from academic and industry sectors are crucial to achieving higher efficacy in patient care while minimizing costs. Currently existing digitized data and information are present in multiple formats and are largely unstructured. In the absence of a universally accepted management system, departments and institutions continue to generate silos of information. As a result, invaluable and newly discovered knowledge is difficult to access. To accelerate biomedical research and reduce healthcare costs, clinical and bioinformatics systems must employ common data elements to create structured annotation forms enabling laboratories and clinics to capture sharable data in real time. Conversion of these datasets to knowable information should be a routine institutionalized process. New scientific knowledge and clinical discoveries can be shared via integrated knowledge environments defined by flexible data models and extensive use of standards, ontologies, vocabularies, and thesauri. In the clinical setting, aggregated knowledge must be displayed in user-friendly formats so that physicians, non-technical laboratory personnel, nurses, data/research coordinators, and end-users can enter data, access information, and understand the output. The effort to connect astronomical numbers of data points, including '-omics'-based molecular data, individual genome sequences, experimental data, patient clinical phenotypes, and follow-up data is a monumental task. Roadblocks to this vision of integration and interoperability include ethical, legal

  19. Precise and Continuous Time and Frequency Synchronisation at the 5×10-19 Accuracy Level

    PubMed Central

    Wang, B.; Gao, C.; Chen, W. L.; Miao, J.; Zhu, X.; Bai, Y.; Zhang, J. W.; Feng, Y. Y.; Li, T. C.; Wang, L. J.

    2012-01-01

    The synchronisation of time and frequency between remote locations is crucial for many important applications. Conventional time and frequency dissemination often makes use of satellite links. Recently, the communication fibre network has become an attractive option for long-distance time and frequency dissemination. Here, we demonstrate accurate frequency transfer and time synchronisation via an 80 km fibre link between Tsinghua University (THU) and the National Institute of Metrology of China (NIM). Using a 9.1 GHz microwave modulation and a timing signal carried by two continuous-wave lasers and transferred across the same 80 km urban fibre link, frequency transfer stability at the level of 5×10−19/day was achieved. Time synchronisation at the 50 ps precision level was also demonstrated. The system is reliable and has operated continuously for several months. We further discuss the feasibility of using such frequency and time transfer over 1000 km and its applications to long-baseline radio astronomy. PMID:22870385

  20. Towards the next decades of precision and accuracy in a 87Sr optical lattice clock

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, Michael; Lin, Yige; Swallows, Matthew; Bishof, Michael; Blatt, Sebastian; Benko, Craig; Chen, Licheng; Hirokawa, Takako; Rey, Ana Maria; Ye, Jun

    2011-05-01

    Optical lattice clocks based on ensembles of neutral atoms have the potential to operate at the highest levels of stability due to the parallel interrogation of many atoms. However, the control of systematic shifts in these systems is correspondingly difficult due to potential collisional atomic interactions. By tightly confining samples of ultracold fermionic 87Sr atoms in a two-dimensional optical lattice, as opposed to the conventional one-dimensional geometry, we increase the collisional interaction energy to be the largest relevant energy scale, thus entering the strongly interacting regime of clock operation. We show both theoretically and experimentally that this increase in interaction energy results in a paradoxical decrease in the collisional shift, reducing this key systematic to the 10-17 level. We also present work towards next- generation ultrastable lasers to attain quantum-limited clock operation, potentially enhancing clock precision by an order of magnitude. This work was supported by a grant from the ARO with funding from the DARPA OLE program, NIST, NSF, and AFOSR.

  1. Tedlar bag sampling technique for vertical profiling of carbon dioxide through the atmospheric boundary layer with high precision and accuracy.

    PubMed

    Schulz, Kristen; Jensen, Michael L; Balsley, Ben B; Davis, Kenneth; Birks, John W

    2004-07-01

    Carbon dioxide is the most important greenhouse gas other than water vapor, and its modulation by the biosphere is of fundamental importance to our understanding of global climate change. We have developed a new technique for vertical profiling of CO2 and meteorological parameters through the atmospheric boundary layer and well into the free troposphere. Vertical profiling of CO2 mixing ratios allows estimates of landscape-scale fluxes characteristic of approximately100 km2 of an ecosystem. The method makes use of a powered parachute as a platform and a new Tedlar bag air sampling technique. Air samples are returned to the ground where measurements of CO2 mixing ratios are made with high precision (< or =0.1%) and accuracy (< or =0.1%) using a conventional nondispersive infrared analyzer. Laboratory studies are described that characterize the accuracy and precision of the bag sampling technique and that measure the diffusion coefficient of CO2 through the Tedlar bag wall. The technique has been applied in field studies in the proximity of two AmeriFlux sites, and results are compared with tower measurements of CO2. PMID:15296321

  2. Accuracy and precision of cone beam computed tomography in periodontal defects measurement (systematic review).

    PubMed

    Anter, Enas; Zayet, Mohammed Khalifa; El-Dessouky, Sahar Hosny

    2016-01-01

    Systematic review of literature was made to assess the extent of accuracy of cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) as a tool for measurement of alveolar bone loss in periodontal defect. A systematic search of PubMed electronic database and a hand search of open access journals (from 2000 to 2015) yielded abstracts that were potentially relevant. The original articles were then retrieved and their references were hand searched for possible missing articles. Only articles that met the selection criteria were included and criticized. The initial screening revealed 47 potentially relevant articles, of which only 14 have met the selection criteria; their CBCT average measurements error ranged from 0.19 mm to 1.27 mm; however, no valid meta-analysis could be made due to the high heterogeneity between the included studies. Under the limitation of the number and strength of the available studies, we concluded that CBCT provides an assessment of alveolar bone loss in periodontal defect with a minimum reported mean measurements error of 0.19 ± 0.11 mm and a maximum reported mean measurements error of 1.27 ± 1.43 mm, and there is no agreement between the studies regarding the direction of the deviation whether over or underestimation. However, we should emphasize that the evidence to this data is not strong. PMID:27563194

  3. Pupil size dynamics during fixation impact the accuracy and precision of video-based gaze estimation.

    PubMed

    Choe, Kyoung Whan; Blake, Randolph; Lee, Sang-Hun

    2016-01-01

    Video-based eye tracking relies on locating pupil center to measure gaze positions. Although widely used, the technique is known to generate spurious gaze position shifts up to several degrees in visual angle because pupil centration can change without eye movement during pupil constriction or dilation. Since pupil size can fluctuate markedly from moment to moment, reflecting arousal state and cognitive processing during human behavioral and neuroimaging experiments, the pupil size artifact is prevalent and thus weakens the quality of the video-based eye tracking measurements reliant on small fixational eye movements. Moreover, the artifact may lead to erroneous conclusions if the spurious signal is taken as an actual eye movement. Here, we measured pupil size and gaze position from 23 human observers performing a fixation task and examined the relationship between these two measures. Results disclosed that the pupils contracted as fixation was prolonged, at both small (<16s) and large (∼4min) time scales, and these pupil contractions were accompanied by systematic errors in gaze position estimation, in both the ellipse and the centroid methods of pupil tracking. When pupil size was regressed out, the accuracy and reliability of gaze position measurements were substantially improved, enabling differentiation of 0.1° difference in eye position. We confirmed the presence of systematic changes in pupil size, again at both small and large scales, and its tight relationship with gaze position estimates when observers were engaged in a demanding visual discrimination task. PMID:25578924

  4. Accuracy and precision of cone beam computed tomography in periodontal defects measurement (systematic review)

    PubMed Central

    Anter, Enas; Zayet, Mohammed Khalifa; El-Dessouky, Sahar Hosny

    2016-01-01

    Systematic review of literature was made to assess the extent of accuracy of cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) as a tool for measurement of alveolar bone loss in periodontal defect. A systematic search of PubMed electronic database and a hand search of open access journals (from 2000 to 2015) yielded abstracts that were potentially relevant. The original articles were then retrieved and their references were hand searched for possible missing articles. Only articles that met the selection criteria were included and criticized. The initial screening revealed 47 potentially relevant articles, of which only 14 have met the selection criteria; their CBCT average measurements error ranged from 0.19 mm to 1.27 mm; however, no valid meta-analysis could be made due to the high heterogeneity between the included studies. Under the limitation of the number and strength of the available studies, we concluded that CBCT provides an assessment of alveolar bone loss in periodontal defect with a minimum reported mean measurements error of 0.19 ± 0.11 mm and a maximum reported mean measurements error of 1.27 ± 1.43 mm, and there is no agreement between the studies regarding the direction of the deviation whether over or underestimation. However, we should emphasize that the evidence to this data is not strong. PMID:27563194

  5. The accuracy and precision of two non-invasive, magnetic resonance-guided focused ultrasound-based thermal diffusivity estimation methods

    PubMed Central

    Dillon, Christopher R.; Payne, Allison; Christensen, Douglas A.; Roemer, Robert B.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The use of correct tissue thermal diffusivity values is necessary for making accurate thermal modeling predictions during magnetic resonance-guided focused ultrasound (MRgFUS) treatment planning. This study evaluates the accuracy and precision of two non-invasive thermal diffusivity estimation methods, a Gaussian Temperature method published by Cheng and Plewes in 2002 and a Gaussian specific absorption rate (SAR) method published by Dillon et al in 2012. Materials and Methods Both methods utilize MRgFUS temperature data obtained during cooling following a short (<25s) heating pulse. The Gaussian SAR method can also use temperatures obtained during heating. Experiments were performed at low heating levels (ΔT~10°C) in ex vivo pork muscle and in vivo rabbit back muscle. The non-invasive MRgFUS thermal diffusivity estimates were compared with measurements from two standard invasive methods. Results Both non-invasive methods accurately estimate thermal diffusivity when using MR-temperature cooling data (overall ex vivo error<6%, in vivo<12%). Including heating data in the Gaussian SAR method further reduces errors (ex vivo error<2%, in vivo<3%). The significantly lower standard deviation values (p<0.03) of the Gaussian SAR method indicate that it has better precision than the Gaussian Temperature method. Conclusions With repeated sonications, either MR-based method could provide accurate thermal diffusivity values for MRgFUS therapies. Fitting to more data simultaneously likely makes the Gaussian SAR method less susceptible to noise, and using heating data helps it converge more consistently to the FUS fitting parameters and thermal diffusivity. These effects lead to the improved precision of the Gaussian SAR method. PMID:25198092

  6. A Method of Determining Accuracy and Precision for Dosimeter Systems Using Accreditation Data

    SciTech Connect

    Rick Cummings and John Flood

    2010-12-01

    A study of the uncertainty of dosimeter results is required by the national accreditation programs for each dosimeter model for which accreditation is sought. Typically, the methods used to determine uncertainty have included the partial differentiation method described in the U.S. Guide to Uncertainty in Measurements or the use of Monte Carlo techniques and probability distribution functions to generate simulated dose results. Each of these techniques has particular strengths and should be employed when the areas of uncertainty are required to be understood in detail. However, the uncertainty of dosimeter results can also be determined using a Model II One-Way Analysis of Variance technique and accreditation testing data. The strengths of the technique include (1) the method is straightforward and the data are provided under accreditation testing and (2) the method provides additional data for the analysis of long-term uncertainty using Statistical Process Control (SPC) techniques. The use of SPC to compare variances and standard deviations over time is described well in other areas and is not discussed in detail in this paper. The application of Analysis of Variance to historic testing data indicated that the accuracy in a representative dosimetry system (Panasonic® Model UD-802) was 8.2%, 5.1%, and 4.8% and the expanded uncertainties at the 95% confidence level were 10.7%, 14.9%, and 15.2% for the Accident, Protection Level-Shallow, and Protection Level-Deep test categories in the Department of Energy Laboratory Accreditation Program, respectively. The 95% level of confidence ranges were (0.98 to 1.19), (0.90 to 1.20), and (0.90 to 1.20) for the three groupings of test categories, respectively.

  7. A method of determining accuracy and precision for dosimeter systems using accreditation data.

    PubMed

    Cummings, Frederick; Flood, John R

    2010-12-01

    A study of the uncertainty of dosimeter results is required by the national accreditation programs for each dosimeter model for which accreditation is sought. Typically, the methods used to determine uncertainty have included the partial differentiation method described in the U.S. Guide to Uncertainty in Measurements or the use of Monte Carlo techniques and probability distribution functions to generate simulated dose results. Each of these techniques has particular strengths and should be employed when the areas of uncertainty are required to be understood in detail. However, the uncertainty of dosimeter results can also be determined using a Model II One-Way Analysis of Variance technique and accreditation testing data. The strengths of the technique include (1) the method is straightforward and the data are provided under accreditation testing and (2) the method provides additional data for the analysis of long-term uncertainty using Statistical Process Control (SPC) techniques. The use of SPC to compare variances and standard deviations over time is described well in other areas and is not discussed in detail in this paper. The application of Analysis of Variance to historic testing data indicated that the accuracy in a representative dosimetry system (Panasonic® Model UD-802) was 8.2%, 5.1%, and 4.8% and the expanded uncertainties at the 95% confidence level were 10.7%, 14.9%, and 15.2% for the Accident, Protection Level-Shallow, and Protection Level-Deep test categories in the Department of Energy Laboratory Accreditation Program, respectively. The 95% level of confidence ranges were (0.98 to 1.19), (0.90 to 1.20), and (0.90 to 1.20) for the three groupings of test categories, respectively. PMID:21068596

  8. Video image analysis in the Australian meat industry - precision and accuracy of predicting lean meat yield in lamb carcasses.

    PubMed

    Hopkins, D L; Safari, E; Thompson, J M; Smith, C R

    2004-06-01

    A wide selection of lamb types of mixed sex (ewes and wethers) were slaughtered at a commercial abattoir and during this process images of 360 carcasses were obtained online using the VIAScan® system developed by Meat and Livestock Australia. Soft tissue depth at the GR site (thickness of tissue over the 12th rib 110 mm from the midline) was measured by an abattoir employee using the AUS-MEAT sheep probe (PGR). Another measure of this thickness was taken in the chiller using a GR knife (NGR). Each carcass was subsequently broken down to a range of trimmed boneless retail cuts and the lean meat yield determined. The current industry model for predicting meat yield uses hot carcass weight (HCW) and tissue depth at the GR site. A low level of accuracy and precision was found when HCW and PGR were used to predict lean meat yield (R(2)=0.19, r.s.d.=2.80%), which could be improved markedly when PGR was replaced by NGR (R(2)=0.41, r.s.d.=2.39%). If the GR measures were replaced by 8 VIAScan® measures then greater prediction accuracy could be achieved (R(2)=0.52, r.s.d.=2.17%). A similar result was achieved when the model was based on principal components (PCs) computed from the 8 VIAScan® measures (R(2)=0.52, r.s.d.=2.17%). The use of PCs also improved the stability of the model compared to a regression model based on HCW and NGR. The transportability of the models was tested by randomly dividing the data set and comparing coefficients and the level of accuracy and precision. Those models based on PCs were superior to those based on regression. It is demonstrated that with the appropriate modeling the VIAScan® system offers a workable method for predicting lean meat yield automatically. PMID:22061323

  9. Accuracy and reliability of multi-GNSS real-time precise positioning: GPS, GLONASS, BeiDou, and Galileo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xingxing; Ge, Maorong; Dai, Xiaolei; Ren, Xiaodong; Fritsche, Mathias; Wickert, Jens; Schuh, Harald

    2015-06-01

    In this contribution, we present a GPS+GLONASS+BeiDou+Galileo four-system model to fully exploit the observations of all these four navigation satellite systems for real-time precise orbit determination, clock estimation and positioning. A rigorous multi-GNSS analysis is performed to achieve the best possible consistency by processing the observations from different GNSS together in one common parameter estimation procedure. Meanwhile, an efficient multi-GNSS real-time precise positioning service system is designed and demonstrated by using the multi-GNSS Experiment, BeiDou Experimental Tracking Network, and International GNSS Service networks including stations all over the world. The statistical analysis of the 6-h predicted orbits show that the radial and cross root mean square (RMS) values are smaller than 10 cm for BeiDou and Galileo, and smaller than 5 cm for both GLONASS and GPS satellites, respectively. The RMS values of the clock differences between real-time and batch-processed solutions for GPS satellites are about 0.10 ns, while the RMS values for BeiDou, Galileo and GLONASS are 0.13, 0.13 and 0.14 ns, respectively. The addition of the BeiDou, Galileo and GLONASS systems to the standard GPS-only processing, reduces the convergence time almost by 70 %, while the positioning accuracy is improved by about 25 %. Some outliers in the GPS-only solutions vanish when multi-GNSS observations are processed simultaneous. The availability and reliability of GPS precise positioning decrease dramatically as the elevation cutoff increases. However, the accuracy of multi-GNSS precise point positioning (PPP) is hardly decreased and few centimeter are still achievable in the horizontal components even with 40 elevation cutoff. At 30 and 40 elevation cutoffs, the availability rates of GPS-only solution drop significantly to only around 70 and 40 %, respectively. However, multi-GNSS PPP can provide precise position estimates continuously (availability rate is more than 99

  10. In silico instrumental response correction improves precision of label-free proteomics and accuracy of proteomics-based predictive models.

    PubMed

    Lyutvinskiy, Yaroslav; Yang, Hongqian; Rutishauser, Dorothea; Zubarev, Roman A

    2013-08-01

    In the analysis of proteome changes arising during the early stages of a biological process (e.g. disease or drug treatment) or from the indirect influence of an important factor, the biological variations of interest are often small (∼10%). The corresponding requirements for the precision of proteomics analysis are high, and this often poses a challenge, especially when employing label-free quantification. One of the main contributors to the inaccuracy of label-free proteomics experiments is the variability of the instrumental response during LC-MS/MS runs. Such variability might include fluctuations in the electrospray current, transmission efficiency from the air-vacuum interface to the detector, and detection sensitivity. We have developed an in silico post-processing method of reducing these variations, and have thus significantly improved the precision of label-free proteomics analysis. For abundant blood plasma proteins, a coefficient of variation of approximately 1% was achieved, which allowed for sex differentiation in pooled samples and ≈90% accurate differentiation of individual samples by means of a single LC-MS/MS analysis. This method improves the precision of measurements and increases the accuracy of predictive models based on the measurements. The post-acquisition nature of the correction technique and its generality promise its widespread application in LC-MS/MS-based methods such as proteomics and metabolomics. PMID:23589346

  11. Accuracy and Precision of Equine Gait Event Detection during Walking with Limb and Trunk Mounted Inertial Sensors

    PubMed Central

    Olsen, Emil; Andersen, Pia Haubro; Pfau, Thilo

    2012-01-01

    The increased variations of temporal gait events when pathology is present are good candidate features for objective diagnostic tests. We hypothesised that the gait events hoof-on/off and stance can be detected accurately and precisely using features from trunk and distal limb-mounted Inertial Measurement Units (IMUs). Four IMUs were mounted on the distal limb and five IMUs were attached to the skin over the dorsal spinous processes at the withers, fourth lumbar vertebrae and sacrum as well as left and right tuber coxae. IMU data were synchronised to a force plate array and a motion capture system. Accuracy (bias) and precision (SD of bias) was calculated to compare force plate and IMU timings for gait events. Data were collected from seven horses. One hundred and twenty three (123) front limb steps were analysed; hoof-on was detected with a bias (SD) of −7 (23) ms, hoof-off with 0.7 (37) ms and front limb stance with −0.02 (37) ms. A total of 119 hind limb steps were analysed; hoof-on was found with a bias (SD) of −4 (25) ms, hoof-off with 6 (21) ms and hind limb stance with 0.2 (28) ms. IMUs mounted on the distal limbs and sacrum can detect gait events accurately and precisely. PMID:22969392

  12. Synthesized Speech Intelligibility and Early Preschool-Age Children: Comparing Accuracy for Single-Word Repetition with Repeated Exposure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pinkoski-Ball, Carrie L.; Reichle, Joe; Munson, Benjamin

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: This investigation examined the effect of repeated exposure to novel and repeated spoken words in typical environments on the intelligibility of 2 synthesized voices and human recorded speech in preschools. Method: Eighteen preschoolers listened to and repeated single words presented in human-recorded speech, DECtalk Paul, and AT&T Voice…

  13. Quantifying precision and accuracy of measurements of dissolved inorganic carbon stable isotopic composition using continuous-flow isotope-ratio mass spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    Waldron, Susan; Marian Scott, E; Vihermaa, Leena E; Newton, Jason

    2014-01-01

    RATIONALE We describe an analytical procedure that allows sample collection and measurement of carbon isotopic composition (δ13CV-PDB value) and dissolved inorganic carbon concentration, [DIC], in aqueous samples without further manipulation post field collection. By comparing outputs from two different mass spectrometers, we quantify with the statistical rigour uncertainty associated with the estimation of an unknown measurement. This is rarely undertaken, but it is needed to understand the significance of field data and to interpret quality assurance exercises. METHODS Immediate acidification of field samples during collection in evacuated, pre-acidified vials removed the need for toxic chemicals to inhibit continued bacterial activity that might compromise isotopic and concentration measurements. Aqueous standards mimicked the sample matrix and avoided headspace fractionation corrections. Samples were analysed using continuous-flow isotope-ratio mass spectrometry, but for low DIC concentration the mass spectrometer response could be non-linear. This had to be corrected for. RESULTS Mass spectrometer non-linearity exists. Rather than estimating precision as the repeat analysis of an internal standard, we have adopted inverse linear calibrations to quantify the precision and 95% confidence intervals (CI) of the δ13CDIC values. The response for [DIC] estimation was always linear. For 0.05–0.5 mM DIC internal standards, however, changes in mass spectrometer linearity resulted in estimations of the precision in the δ13CVPDB value of an unknown ranging from ± 0.44‰ to ± 1.33‰ (mean values) and a mean 95% CI half-width of ±1.1–3.1‰. CONCLUSIONS Mass spectrometer non-linearity should be considered in estimating uncertainty in measurement. Similarly, statistically robust estimates of precision and accuracy should also be adopted. Such estimations do not inhibit research advances: our consideration of small-scale spatial variability at two points on a

  14. Accuracy, Precision, Ease-Of-Use, and Cost of Methods to Test Ebola-Relevant Chlorine Solutions.

    PubMed

    Wells, Emma; Wolfe, Marlene K; Murray, Anna; Lantagne, Daniele

    2016-01-01

    To prevent transmission in Ebola Virus Disease (EVD) outbreaks, it is recommended to disinfect living things (hands and people) with 0.05% chlorine solution and non-living things (surfaces, personal protective equipment, dead bodies) with 0.5% chlorine solution. In the current West African EVD outbreak, these solutions (manufactured from calcium hypochlorite (HTH), sodium dichloroisocyanurate (NaDCC), and sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl)) have been widely used in both Ebola Treatment Unit and community settings. To ensure solution quality, testing is necessary, however test method appropriateness for these Ebola-relevant concentrations has not previously been evaluated. We identified fourteen commercially-available methods to test Ebola-relevant chlorine solution concentrations, including two titration methods, four DPD dilution methods, and six test strips. We assessed these methods by: 1) determining accuracy and precision by measuring in quintuplicate five different 0.05% and 0.5% chlorine solutions manufactured from NaDCC, HTH, and NaOCl; 2) conducting volunteer testing to assess ease-of-use; and, 3) determining costs. Accuracy was greatest in titration methods (reference-12.4% error compared to reference method), then DPD dilution methods (2.4-19% error), then test strips (5.2-48% error); precision followed this same trend. Two methods had an accuracy of <10% error across all five chlorine solutions with good precision: Hach digital titration for 0.05% and 0.5% solutions (recommended for contexts with trained personnel and financial resources), and Serim test strips for 0.05% solutions (recommended for contexts where rapid, inexpensive, and low-training burden testing is needed). Measurement error from test methods not including pH adjustment varied significantly across the five chlorine solutions, which had pH values 5-11. Volunteers found test strip easiest and titration hardest; costs per 100 tests were $14-37 for test strips and $33-609 for titration. Given the

  15. Accuracy, Precision, Ease-Of-Use, and Cost of Methods to Test Ebola-Relevant Chlorine Solutions

    PubMed Central

    Wells, Emma; Wolfe, Marlene K.; Murray, Anna; Lantagne, Daniele

    2016-01-01

    To prevent transmission in Ebola Virus Disease (EVD) outbreaks, it is recommended to disinfect living things (hands and people) with 0.05% chlorine solution and non-living things (surfaces, personal protective equipment, dead bodies) with 0.5% chlorine solution. In the current West African EVD outbreak, these solutions (manufactured from calcium hypochlorite (HTH), sodium dichloroisocyanurate (NaDCC), and sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl)) have been widely used in both Ebola Treatment Unit and community settings. To ensure solution quality, testing is necessary, however test method appropriateness for these Ebola-relevant concentrations has not previously been evaluated. We identified fourteen commercially-available methods to test Ebola-relevant chlorine solution concentrations, including two titration methods, four DPD dilution methods, and six test strips. We assessed these methods by: 1) determining accuracy and precision by measuring in quintuplicate five different 0.05% and 0.5% chlorine solutions manufactured from NaDCC, HTH, and NaOCl; 2) conducting volunteer testing to assess ease-of-use; and, 3) determining costs. Accuracy was greatest in titration methods (reference-12.4% error compared to reference method), then DPD dilution methods (2.4–19% error), then test strips (5.2–48% error); precision followed this same trend. Two methods had an accuracy of <10% error across all five chlorine solutions with good precision: Hach digital titration for 0.05% and 0.5% solutions (recommended for contexts with trained personnel and financial resources), and Serim test strips for 0.05% solutions (recommended for contexts where rapid, inexpensive, and low-training burden testing is needed). Measurement error from test methods not including pH adjustment varied significantly across the five chlorine solutions, which had pH values 5–11. Volunteers found test strip easiest and titration hardest; costs per 100 tests were $14–37 for test strips and $33–609 for titration

  16. Detailed data is welcome, but with a pinch of salt: Accuracy, precision, and uncertainty in flood inundation modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dottori, F.; Di Baldassarre, G.; Todini, E.

    2013-09-01

    New survey techniques provide a large amount of high-resolution data, which can be extremely precious for flood inundation modeling. Such data availability raises the issue as to how to exploit their information content to effectively improve flood risk mapping and predictions. In this paper, we will discuss a number of important issues which should be taken into account in works related to flood modeling. These include the large number of uncertainty sources in model structure and available data; the difficult evaluation of model results, due to the scarcity of observed data; computational efficiency; false confidence that can be given by high-resolution outputs, as accuracy is not necessarily increased by higher precision. Finally, we briefly review and discuss a number of existing approaches, such as subgrid parameterization and roughness upscaling methods, which can be used to incorporate high detailed data into flood inundation models, balancing efficiency and reliability.

  17. Community-based Approaches to Improving Accuracy, Precision, and Reproducibility in U-Pb and U-Th Geochronology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McLean, N. M.; Condon, D. J.; Bowring, S. A.; Schoene, B.; Dutton, A.; Rubin, K. H.

    2015-12-01

    The last two decades have seen a grassroots effort by the international geochronology community to "calibrate Earth history through teamwork and cooperation," both as part of the EARTHTIME initiative and though several daughter projects with similar goals. Its mission originally challenged laboratories "to produce temporal constraints with uncertainties approaching 0.1% of the radioisotopic ages," but EARTHTIME has since exceeded its charge in many ways. Both the U-Pb and Ar-Ar chronometers first considered for high-precision timescale calibration now regularly produce dates at the sub-per mil level thanks to instrumentation, laboratory, and software advances. At the same time new isotope systems, including U-Th dating of carbonates, have developed comparable precision. But the larger, inter-related scientific challenges envisioned at EARTHTIME's inception remain - for instance, precisely calibrating the global geologic timescale, estimating rates of change around major climatic perturbations, and understanding evolutionary rates through time - and increasingly require that data from multiple geochronometers be combined. To solve these problems, the next two decades of uranium-daughter geochronology will require further advances in accuracy, precision, and reproducibility. The U-Th system has much in common with U-Pb, in that both parent and daughter isotopes are solids that can easily be weighed and dissolved in acid, and have well-characterized reference materials certified for isotopic composition and/or purity. For U-Pb, improving lab-to-lab reproducibility has entailed dissolving precisely weighed U and Pb metals of known purity and isotopic composition together to make gravimetric solutions, then using these to calibrate widely distributed tracers composed of artificial U and Pb isotopes. To mimic laboratory measurements, naturally occurring U and Pb isotopes were also mixed in proportions to mimic samples of three different ages, to be run as internal

  18. Assessment of accuracy and precision of 3D reconstruction of unicompartmental knee arthroplasty in upright position using biplanar radiography.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Tsung-Yuan; Dimitriou, Dimitris; Hosseini, Ali; Liow, Ming Han Lincoln; Torriani, Martin; Li, Guoan; Kwon, Young-Min

    2016-07-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the precision and accuracy of 3D reconstruction of UKA component position, contact location and lower limb alignment in standing position using biplanar radiograph. Two human specimens with 4 medial UKAs were implanted with beads for radiostereometric analysis (RSA). The specimens were frozen in standing position and CT-scanned to obtain relative positions between the beads, bones and UKA components. The specimens were then imaged using biplanar radiograph (EOS). The positions of the femur, tibia, UKA components and UKA contact locations were obtained using RSA- and EOS-based techniques. Intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) was calculated for inter-observer reliability of the EOS technique. The average (standard deviation) of the differences between two techniques in translations and rotations were less than 0.18 (0.29) mm and 0.39° (0.66°) for UKA components. The root-mean-square-errors (RMSE) of contact location along the anterior/posterior and medial/lateral directions were 0.84mm and 0.30mm. The RMSEs of the knee rotations were less than 1.70°. The ICCs for the EOS-based segmental orientations between two raters were larger than 0.98. The results suggest the EOS-based 3D reconstruction technique can precisely determine component position, contact location and lower limb alignment for UKA patients in weight-bearing standing position. PMID:27117422

  19. THE PRECISION AND ACCURACY OF EARLY EPOCH OF REIONIZATION FOREGROUND MODELS: COMPARING MWA AND PAPER 32-ANTENNA SOURCE CATALOGS

    SciTech Connect

    Jacobs, Daniel C.; Bowman, Judd; Aguirre, James E.

    2013-05-20

    As observations of the Epoch of Reionization (EoR) in redshifted 21 cm emission begin, we assess the accuracy of the early catalog results from the Precision Array for Probing the Epoch of Reionization (PAPER) and the Murchison Wide-field Array (MWA). The MWA EoR approach derives much of its sensitivity from subtracting foregrounds to <1% precision, while the PAPER approach relies on the stability and symmetry of the primary beam. Both require an accurate flux calibration to set the amplitude of the measured power spectrum. The two instruments are very similar in resolution, sensitivity, sky coverage, and spectral range and have produced catalogs from nearly contemporaneous data. We use a Bayesian Markov Chain Monte Carlo fitting method to estimate that the two instruments are on the same flux scale to within 20% and find that the images are mostly in good agreement. We then investigate the source of the errors by comparing two overlapping MWA facets where we find that the differences are primarily related to an inaccurate model of the primary beam but also correlated errors in bright sources due to CLEAN. We conclude with suggestions for mitigating and better characterizing these effects.

  20. Error propagation in relative real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction quantification models: the balance between accuracy and precision.

    PubMed

    Nordgård, Oddmund; Kvaløy, Jan Terje; Farmen, Ragne Kristin; Heikkilä, Reino

    2006-09-15

    Real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) has gained wide popularity as a sensitive and reliable technique for mRNA quantification. The development of new mathematical models for such quantifications has generally paid little attention to the aspect of error propagation. In this study we evaluate, both theoretically and experimentally, several recent models for relative real-time RT-PCR quantification of mRNA with respect to random error accumulation. We present error propagation expressions for the most common quantification models and discuss the influence of the various components on the total random error. Normalization against a calibrator sample to improve comparability between different runs is shown to increase the overall random error in our system. On the other hand, normalization against multiple reference genes, introduced to improve accuracy, does not increase error propagation compared to normalization against a single reference gene. Finally, we present evidence that sample-specific amplification efficiencies determined from individual amplification curves primarily increase the random error of real-time RT-PCR quantifications and should be avoided. Our data emphasize that the gain of accuracy associated with new quantification models should be validated against the corresponding loss of precision. PMID:16899212

  1. Guidelines for Dual Energy X-Ray Absorptiometry Analysis of Trabecular Bone-Rich Regions in Mice: Improved Precision, Accuracy, and Sensitivity for Assessing Longitudinal Bone Changes.

    PubMed

    Shi, Jiayu; Lee, Soonchul; Uyeda, Michael; Tanjaya, Justine; Kim, Jong Kil; Pan, Hsin Chuan; Reese, Patricia; Stodieck, Louis; Lin, Andy; Ting, Kang; Kwak, Jin Hee; Soo, Chia

    2016-05-01

    Trabecular bone is frequently studied in osteoporosis research because changes in trabecular bone are the most common cause of osteoporotic fractures. Dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) analysis specific to trabecular bone-rich regions is crucial to longitudinal osteoporosis research. The purpose of this study is to define a novel method for accurately analyzing trabecular bone-rich regions in mice via DXA. This method will be utilized to analyze scans obtained from the International Space Station in an upcoming study of microgravity-induced bone loss. Thirty 12-week-old BALB/c mice were studied. The novel method was developed by preanalyzing trabecular bone-rich sites in the distal femur, proximal tibia, and lumbar vertebrae via high-resolution X-ray imaging followed by DXA and micro-computed tomography (micro-CT) analyses. The key DXA steps described by the novel method were (1) proper mouse positioning, (2) region of interest (ROI) sizing, and (3) ROI positioning. The precision of the new method was assessed by reliability tests and a 14-week longitudinal study. The bone mineral content (BMC) data from DXA was then compared to the BMC data from micro-CT to assess accuracy. Bone mineral density (BMD) intra-class correlation coefficients of the new method ranging from 0.743 to 0.945 and Levene's test showing that there was significantly lower variances of data generated by new method both verified its consistency. By new method, a Bland-Altman plot displayed good agreement between DXA BMC and micro-CT BMC for all sites and they were strongly correlated at the distal femur and proximal tibia (r=0.846, p<0.01; r=0.879, p<0.01, respectively). The results suggest that the novel method for site-specific analysis of trabecular bone-rich regions in mice via DXA yields more precise, accurate, and repeatable BMD measurements than the conventional method. PMID:26956416

  2. Single-frequency receivers as master permanent stations in GNSS networks: precision and accuracy of the positioning in mixed networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dabove, Paolo; Manzino, Ambrogio Maria

    2015-04-01

    The use of GPS/GNSS instruments is a common practice in the world at both a commercial and academic research level. Since last ten years, Continuous Operating Reference Stations (CORSs) networks were born in order to achieve the possibility to extend a precise positioning more than 15 km far from the master station. In this context, the Geomatics Research Group of DIATI at the Politecnico di Torino has carried out several experiments in order to evaluate the achievable precision obtainable with different GNSS receivers (geodetic and mass-market) and antennas if a CORSs network is considered. This work starts from the research above described, in particular focusing the attention on the usefulness of single frequency permanent stations in order to thicken the existing CORSs, especially for monitoring purposes. Two different types of CORSs network are available today in Italy: the first one is the so called "regional network" and the second one is the "national network", where the mean inter-station distances are about 25/30 and 50/70 km respectively. These distances are useful for many applications (e.g. mobile mapping) if geodetic instruments are considered but become less useful if mass-market instruments are used or if the inter-station distance between master and rover increases. In this context, some innovative GNSS networks were developed and tested, analyzing the performance of rover's positioning in terms of quality, accuracy and reliability both in real-time and post-processing approach. The use of single frequency GNSS receivers leads to have some limits, especially due to a limited baseline length, the possibility to obtain a correct fixing of the phase ambiguity for the network and to fix the phase ambiguity correctly also for the rover. These factors play a crucial role in order to reach a positioning with a good level of accuracy (as centimetric o better) in a short time and with an high reliability. The goal of this work is to investigate about the

  3. Standardization of Operator-Dependent Variables Affecting Precision and Accuracy of the Disk Diffusion Method for Antibiotic Susceptibility Testing.

    PubMed

    Hombach, Michael; Maurer, Florian P; Pfiffner, Tamara; Böttger, Erik C; Furrer, Reinhard

    2015-12-01

    Parameters like zone reading, inoculum density, and plate streaking influence the precision and accuracy of disk diffusion antibiotic susceptibility testing (AST). While improved reading precision has been demonstrated using automated imaging systems, standardization of the inoculum and of plate streaking have not been systematically investigated yet. This study analyzed whether photometrically controlled inoculum preparation and/or automated inoculation could further improve the standardization of disk diffusion. Suspensions of Escherichia coli ATCC 25922 and Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 29213 of 0.5 McFarland standard were prepared by 10 operators using both visual comparison to turbidity standards and a Densichek photometer (bioMérieux), and the resulting CFU counts were determined. Furthermore, eight experienced operators each inoculated 10 Mueller-Hinton agar plates using a single 0.5 McFarland standard bacterial suspension of E. coli ATCC 25922 using regular cotton swabs, dry flocked swabs (Copan, Brescia, Italy), or an automated streaking device (BD-Kiestra, Drachten, Netherlands). The mean CFU counts obtained from 0.5 McFarland standard E. coli ATCC 25922 suspensions were significantly different for suspensions prepared by eye and by Densichek (P < 0.001). Preparation by eye resulted in counts that were closer to the CLSI/EUCAST target of 10(8) CFU/ml than those resulting from Densichek preparation. No significant differences in the standard deviations of the CFU counts were observed. The interoperator differences in standard deviations when dry flocked swabs were used decreased significantly compared to the differences when regular cotton swabs were used, whereas the mean of the standard deviations of all operators together was not significantly altered. In contrast, automated streaking significantly reduced both interoperator differences, i.e., the individual standard deviations, compared to the standard deviations for the manual method, and the mean of

  4. Determination of the precision and accuracy of morphological measurements using the Kinect™ sensor: comparison with standard stereophotogrammetry.

    PubMed

    Bonnechère, B; Jansen, B; Salvia, P; Bouzahouene, H; Sholukha, V; Cornelis, J; Rooze, M; Van Sint Jan, S

    2014-01-01

    The recent availability of the Kinect™ sensor, a low-cost Markerless Motion Capture (MMC) system, could give new and interesting insights into ergonomics (e.g. the creation of a morphological database). Extensive validation of this system is still missing. The aim of the study was to determine if the Kinect™ sensor can be used as an easy, cheap and fast tool to conduct morphology estimation. A total of 48 subjects were analysed using MMC. Results were compared with measurements obtained from a high-resolution stereophotogrammetric system, a marker-based system (MBS). Differences between MMC and MBS were found; however, these differences were systematically correlated and enabled regression equations to be obtained to correct MMC results. After correction, final results were in agreement with MBS data (p = 0.99). Results show that measurements were reproducible and precise after applying regression equations. Kinect™ sensors-based systems therefore seem to be suitable for use as fast and reliable tools to estimate morphology. Practitioner Summary: The Kinect™ sensor could eventually be used for fast morphology estimation as a body scanner. This paper presents an extensive validation of this device for anthropometric measurements in comparison to manual measurements and stereophotogrammetric devices. The accuracy is dependent on the segment studied but the reproducibility is excellent. PMID:24646374

  5. Strategy for high-accuracy-and-precision retrieval of atmospheric methane from the mid-infrared FTIR network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sussmann, R.; Forster, F.; Rettinger, M.; Jones, N.

    2011-05-01

    We present a strategy (MIR-GBM v1.0) for the retrieval of column-averaged dry-air mole fractions of methane (XCH4) with a precision <0.3 % (1-σ diurnal variation, 7-min integration) and a seasonal bias <0.14 % from mid-infrared ground-based solar FTIR measurements of the Network for the Detection of Atmospheric Composition Change (NDACC, comprising 22 FTIR stations). This makes NDACC methane data useful for satellite validation and for the inversion of regional-scale sources and sinks in addition to long-term trend analysis. Such retrievals complement the high accuracy and precision near-infrared observations of the younger Total Carbon Column Observing Network (TCCON) with time series dating back 15 yr or so before TCCON operations began. MIR-GBM v1.0 is using HITRAN 2000 (including the 2001 update release) and 3 spectral micro windows (2613.70-2615.40 cm-1, 2835.50-2835.80 cm-1, 2921.00-2921.60 cm-1). A first-order Tikhonov constraint is applied to the state vector given in units of per cent of volume mixing ratio. It is tuned to achieve minimum diurnal variation without damping seasonality. Final quality selection of the retrievals uses a threshold for the ratio of root-mean-square spectral residuals and information content (<0.15 %). Column-averaged dry-air mole fractions are calculated using the retrieved methane profiles and four-times-daily pressure-temperature-humidity profiles from National Center for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) interpolated to the time of measurement. MIR-GBM v1.0 is the optimum of 24 tested retrieval strategies (8 different spectral micro-window selections, 3 spectroscopic line lists: HITRAN 2000, 2004, 2008). Dominant errors of the non-optimum retrieval strategies are HDO/H2O-CH4 interference errors (seasonal bias up to ≈4 %). Therefore interference errors have been quantified at 3 test sites covering clear-sky integrated water vapor levels representative for all NDACC sites (Wollongong maximum = 44.9 mm, Garmisch mean = 14.9 mm

  6. Strategy for high-accuracy-and-precision retrieval of atmospheric methane from the mid-infrared FTIR network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sussmann, R.; Forster, F.; Rettinger, M.; Jones, N.

    2011-09-01

    We present a strategy (MIR-GBM v1.0) for the retrieval of column-averaged dry-air mole fractions of methane (XCH4) with a precision <0.3% (1-σ diurnal variation, 7-min integration) and a seasonal bias <0.14% from mid-infrared ground-based solar FTIR measurements of the Network for the Detection of Atmospheric Composition Change (NDACC, comprising 22 FTIR stations). This makes NDACC methane data useful for satellite validation and for the inversion of regional-scale sources and sinks in addition to long-term trend analysis. Such retrievals complement the high accuracy and precision near-infrared observations of the younger Total Carbon Column Observing Network (TCCON) with time series dating back 15 years or so before TCCON operations began. MIR-GBM v1.0 is using HITRAN 2000 (including the 2001 update release) and 3 spectral micro windows (2613.70-2615.40 cm-1, 2835.50-2835.80 cm-1, 2921.00-2921.60 cm-1). A first-order Tikhonov constraint is applied to the state vector given in units of per cent of volume mixing ratio. It is tuned to achieve minimum diurnal variation without damping seasonality. Final quality selection of the retrievals uses a threshold for the goodness of fit (χ2 < 1) as well as for the ratio of root-mean-square spectral noise and information content (<0.15%). Column-averaged dry-air mole fractions are calculated using the retrieved methane profiles and four-times-daily pressure-temperature-humidity profiles from National Center for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) interpolated to the time of measurement. MIR-GBM v1.0 is the optimum of 24 tested retrieval strategies (8 different spectral micro-window selections, 3 spectroscopic line lists: HITRAN 2000, 2004, 2008). Dominant errors of the non-optimum retrieval strategies are systematic HDO/H2O-CH4 interference errors leading to a seasonal bias up to ≈5%. Therefore interference errors have been quantified at 3 test sites covering clear-sky integrated water vapor levels representative for all NDACC

  7. Airborne Laser CO2 Column Measurements: Evaluation of Precision and Accuracy Under a Wide Range of Surface and Atmospheric Conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Browell, E. V.; Dobler, J. T.; Kooi, S. A.; Fenn, M. A.; Choi, Y.; Vay, S. A.; Harrison, F. W.; Moore, B.

    2011-12-01

    This paper discusses the latest flight test results of a multi-frequency intensity-modulated (IM) continuous-wave (CW) laser absorption spectrometer (LAS) that operates near 1.57 μm for remote CO2 column measurements. This IM-LAS system is under development for a future space-based mission to determine the global distribution of regional-scale CO2 sources and sinks, which is the objective of the NASA Active Sensing of CO2 Emissions during Nights, Days, and Seasons (ASCENDS) mission. A prototype of the ASCENDS system, called the Multi-frequency Fiber Laser Lidar (MFLL), has been flight tested in eleven airborne campaigns since May 2005. This paper compares the most recent results obtained during the 2010 and 2011 UC-12 and DC-8 flight tests, where MFLL remote CO2 column measurements were evaluated against airborne in situ CO2 profile measurements traceable to World Meteorological Organization standards. The major change to the MFLL system in 2011 was the implementation of several different IM modes, which could be quickly changed in flight, to directly compare the precision and accuracy of MFLL CO2 measurements in each mode. The different IM modes that were evaluated included "fixed" IM frequencies near 50, 200, and 500 kHz; frequencies changed in short time steps (Stepped); continuously swept frequencies (Swept); and a pseudo noise (PN) code. The Stepped, Swept, and PN modes were generated to evaluate the ability of these IM modes to desensitize MFLL CO2 column measurements to intervening optically thin aerosols/clouds. MFLL was flown on the NASA Langley UC-12 aircraft in May 2011 to evaluate the newly implemented IM modes and their impact on CO2 measurement precision and accuracy, and to determine which IM mode provided the greatest thin cloud rejection (TCR) for the CO2 column measurements. Within the current hardware limitations of the MFLL system, the "fixed" 50 kHz results produced similar SNR values to those found previously. The SNR decreased as expected

  8. Polyallelic structural variants can provide accurate, highly informative genetic markers focused on diagnosis and therapeutic targets: Accuracy vs. Precision.

    PubMed

    Roses, A D

    2016-02-01

    Structural variants (SVs) include all insertions, deletions, and rearrangements in the genome, with several common types of nucleotide repeats including single sequence repeats, short tandem repeats, and insertion-deletion length variants. Polyallelic SVs provide highly informative markers for association studies with well-phenotyped cohorts. SVs can influence gene regulation by affecting epigenetics, transcription, splicing, and/or translation. Accurate assays of polyallelic SV loci are required to define the range and allele frequency of variable length alleles. PMID:26517180

  9. Effect of modulation frequency bandwidth on measurement accuracy and precision for digital diffuse optical spectroscopy (dDOS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jung, Justin; Istfan, Raeef; Roblyer, Darren

    2014-03-01

    Near-infrared (NIR) frequency-domain Diffuse Optical Spectroscopy (DOS) is an emerging technology with a growing number of potential clinical applications. In an effort to reduce DOS system complexity and improve portability, we recently demonstrated a direct digital sampling method that utilizes digital signal generation and detection as a replacement for more traditional analog methods. In our technique, a fast analog-to-digital converter (ADC) samples the detected time-domain radio frequency (RF) waveforms at each modulation frequency in a broad-bandwidth sweep (50- 300MHz). While we have shown this method provides comparable results to other DOS technologies, the process is data intensive as digital samples must be stored and processed for each modulation frequency and wavelength. We explore here the effect of reducing the modulation frequency bandwidth on the accuracy and precision of extracted optical properties. To accomplish this, the performance of the digital DOS (dDOS) system was compared to a gold standard network analyzer based DOS system. With a starting frequency of 50MHz, the input signal of the dDOS system was swept to 100, 150, 250, or 300MHz in 4MHz increments and results were compared to full 50-300MHz networkanalyzer DOS measurements. The average errors in extracted μa and μs' with dDOS were lowest for the full 50-300MHz sweep (less than 3%) and were within 3.8% for frequency bandwidths as narrow as 50-150MHz. The errors increased to as much as 9.0% when a bandwidth of 50-100MHz was tested. These results demonstrate the possibility for reduced data collection with dDOS without critical compensation of optical property extraction.

  10. Precision (Repeatability and Reproducibility) and Agreement of Corneal Power Measurements Obtained by Topcon KR-1W and iTrace

    PubMed Central

    Hua, Yanjun; Xu, Zequan; Qiu, Wei; Wu, Qiang

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate the repeatability and reproducibility of corneal power measurements obtained by Topcon KR-1W and iTrace, and assess the agreement with measurements obtained by Allegro Topolyzer and IOLMaster. Methods The right eyes of 100 normal subjects were prospectively scanned 3 times using all the 4 devices. Another observer performed additional 3 consecutive scans using the Topcon KR-1W and iTrace in the same session. About one week later, the first observer repeated the measurements using the Topcon KR-1W and iTrace. The steep keratometry (Ks), flat keratometry (Kf), mean keratometry (Km), J0 and J45 were analyzed. Repeatability and reproducibility of measurements were evaluated by the within-subject standard deviation (Sw), coefficient of variation (CoV), test-retest repeatability (2.77Sw), and intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC). Agreements between devices were assessed using Bland-Altman analysis and 95% limits of agreement (LoA). Results Intraobserver repeatability and interobserver and intersession reproducibility of the Ks, Kf and Km showed a CoV of no more than 0.5%, a 2.77Sw of 0.70 D or less, and an ICC of no less than 0.99. However, J0 and J45 showed poor intraobserver repeatability and interobserver and intersession reproducibility (all ICCs not greater than 0.446). Statistically significant differences existed between Topcon KR-1W and IOLMaster, Topcon KR-1W and iTrace, Topcon KR-1W and Topolyzer, iTrace and Topolyzer, iTrace and IOLMaster for Ks, Kf and Km measurements (all P < 0.05). The mean differences between Topcon KR-1W, iTrace, and the other 2 devices were small. The 95% LoA were approximately 1.0 D to 1.5 D for all measurements. Conclusions The Ks, Kf and Km obtained by Topcon KR-1W and iTrace showed excellent intraobserver repeatability and interobserver and intersession reproducibility in normal eyes. The agreement between Topcon KR-1W and Topolyzer, Topcon KR-1W and IOLMaster, iTrace and Topolyzer, iTrace and IOLMaster

  11. Accuracy, precision and response time of consumer fork, remote digital probe and disposable indicator thermometers for cooked ground beef patties and chicken breasts

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Nine different commercially available instant-read consumer thermometers (forks, remotes, digital probe and disposable color change indicators) were tested for accuracy and precision compared to a calibrated thermocouple in 80 percent and 90 percent lean ground beef patties, and boneless and bone-in...

  12. An Examination of the Precision and Technical Accuracy of the First Wave of Group-Randomized Trials Funded by the Institute of Education Sciences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spybrook, Jessaca; Raudenbush, Stephen W.

    2009-01-01

    This article examines the power analyses for the first wave of group-randomized trials funded by the Institute of Education Sciences. Specifically, it assesses the precision and technical accuracy of the studies. The authors identified the appropriate experimental design and estimated the minimum detectable standardized effect size (MDES) for each…

  13. Deformable Image Registration for Adaptive Radiation Therapy of Head and Neck Cancer: Accuracy and Precision in the Presence of Tumor Changes

    SciTech Connect

    Mencarelli, Angelo; Kranen, Simon Robert van; Hamming-Vrieze, Olga; Beek, Suzanne van; Nico Rasch, Coenraad Robert; Herk, Marcel van; Sonke, Jan-Jakob

    2014-11-01

    Purpose: To compare deformable image registration (DIR) accuracy and precision for normal and tumor tissues in head and neck cancer patients during the course of radiation therapy (RT). Methods and Materials: Thirteen patients with oropharyngeal tumors, who underwent submucosal implantation of small gold markers (average 6, range 4-10) around the tumor and were treated with RT were retrospectively selected. Two observers identified 15 anatomical features (landmarks) representative of normal tissues in the planning computed tomography (pCT) scan and in weekly cone beam CTs (CBCTs). Gold markers were digitally removed after semiautomatic identification in pCTs and CBCTs. Subsequently, landmarks and gold markers on pCT were propagated to CBCTs, using a b-spline-based DIR and, for comparison, rigid registration (RR). To account for observer variability, the pair-wise difference analysis of variance method was applied. DIR accuracy (systematic error) and precision (random error) for landmarks and gold markers were quantified. Time trend of the precisions for RR and DIR over the weekly CBCTs were evaluated. Results: DIR accuracies were submillimeter and similar for normal and tumor tissue. DIR precision (1 SD) on the other hand was significantly different (P<.01), with 2.2 mm vector length in normal tissue versus 3.3 mm in tumor tissue. No significant time trend in DIR precision was found for normal tissue, whereas in tumor, DIR precision was significantly (P<.009) degraded during the course of treatment by 0.21 mm/week. Conclusions: DIR for tumor registration proved to be less precise than that for normal tissues due to limited contrast and complex non-elastic tumor response. Caution should therefore be exercised when applying DIR for tumor changes in adaptive procedures.

  14. High precision and high accuracy isotopic measurement of uranium using lead and thorium calibration solutions by inductively coupled plasma-multiple collector-mass spectrometry

    SciTech Connect

    Bowen, I.; Walder, A.J.; Hodgson, T.; Parrish, R.R. |

    1998-12-31

    A novel method for the high accuracy and high precision measurement of uranium isotopic composition by Inductively Coupled Plasma-Multiple Collector-Mass Spectrometry is discussed. Uranium isotopic samples are spiked with either thorium or lead for use as internal calibration reference materials. This method eliminates the necessity to periodically measure uranium standards to correct for changing mass bias when samples are measured over long time periods. This technique has generated among the highest levels of analytical precision on both the major and minor isotopes of uranium. Sample throughput has also been demonstrated to exceed Thermal Ionization Mass Spectrometry by a factor of four to five.

  15. Towards the GEOSAT Follow-On Precise Orbit Determination Goals of High Accuracy and Near-Real-Time Processing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lemoine, Frank G.; Zelensky, Nikita P.; Chinn, Douglas S.; Beckley, Brian D.; Lillibridge, John L.

    2006-01-01

    The US Navy's GEOSAT Follow-On spacecraft (GFO) primary mission objective is to map the oceans using a radar altimeter. Satellite laser ranging data, especially in combination with altimeter crossover data, offer the only means of determining high-quality precise orbits. Two tuned gravity models, PGS7727 and PGS7777b, were created at NASA GSFC for GFO that reduce the predicted radial orbit through degree 70 to 13.7 and 10.0 mm. A macromodel was developed to model the nonconservative forces and the SLR spacecraft measurement offset was adjusted to remove a mean bias. Using these improved models, satellite-ranging data, altimeter crossover data, and Doppler data are used to compute both daily medium precision orbits with a latency of less than 24 hours. Final precise orbits are also computed using these tracking data and exported with a latency of three to four weeks to NOAA for use on the GFO Geophysical Data Records (GDR s). The estimated orbit precision of the daily orbits is between 10 and 20 cm, whereas the precise orbits have a precision of 5 cm.

  16. The precision and accuracy of iterative and non-iterative methods of photopeak integration in activation analysis, with particular reference to the analysis of multiplets

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Baedecker, P.A.

    1977-01-01

    The relative precisions obtainable using two digital methods, and three iterative least squares fitting procedures of photopeak integration have been compared empirically using 12 replicate counts of a test sample with 14 photopeaks of varying intensity. The accuracy by which the various iterative fitting methods could analyse synthetic doublets has also been evaluated, and compared with a simple non-iterative approach. ?? 1977 Akade??miai Kiado??.

  17. Accuracy and precision of a custom camera-based system for 2D and 3D motion tracking during speech and nonspeech motor tasks

    PubMed Central

    Feng, Yongqiang; Max, Ludo

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Studying normal or disordered motor control requires accurate motion tracking of the effectors (e.g., orofacial structures). The cost of electromagnetic, optoelectronic, and ultrasound systems is prohibitive for many laboratories, and limits clinical applications. For external movements (lips, jaw), video-based systems may be a viable alternative, provided that they offer high temporal resolution and sub-millimeter accuracy. Method We examined the accuracy and precision of 2D and 3D data recorded with a system that combines consumer-grade digital cameras capturing 60, 120, or 240 frames per second (fps), retro-reflective markers, commercially-available computer software (APAS, Ariel Dynamics), and a custom calibration device. Results Overall mean error (RMSE) across tests was 0.15 mm for static tracking and 0.26 mm for dynamic tracking, with corresponding precision (SD) values of 0.11 and 0.19 mm, respectively. The effect of frame rate varied across conditions, but, generally, accuracy was reduced at 240 fps. The effect of marker size (3 vs. 6 mm diameter) was negligible at all frame rates for both 2D and 3D data. Conclusion Motion tracking with consumer-grade digital cameras and the APAS software can achieve sub-millimeter accuracy at frame rates that are appropriate for kinematic analyses of lip/jaw movements for both research and clinical purposes. PMID:24686484

  18. Accuracy and precision of a custom camera-based system for 2-d and 3-d motion tracking during speech and nonspeech motor tasks.

    PubMed

    Feng, Yongqiang; Max, Ludo

    2014-04-01

    PURPOSE Studying normal or disordered motor control requires accurate motion tracking of the effectors (e.g., orofacial structures). The cost of electromagnetic, optoelectronic, and ultrasound systems is prohibitive for many laboratories and limits clinical applications. For external movements (lips, jaw), video-based systems may be a viable alternative, provided that they offer high temporal resolution and submillimeter accuracy. METHOD The authors examined the accuracy and precision of 2-D and 3-D data recorded with a system that combines consumer-grade digital cameras capturing 60, 120, or 240 frames per second (fps), retro-reflective markers, commercially available computer software (APAS, Ariel Dynamics), and a custom calibration device. RESULTS Overall root-mean-square error (RMSE) across tests was 0.15 mm for static tracking and 0.26 mm for dynamic tracking, with corresponding precision (SD) values of 0.11 and 0.19 mm, respectively. The effect of frame rate varied across conditions, but, generally, accuracy was reduced at 240 fps. The effect of marker size (3- vs. 6-mm diameter) was negligible at all frame rates for both 2-D and 3-D data. CONCLUSION Motion tracking with consumer-grade digital cameras and the APAS software can achieve submillimeter accuracy at frame rates that are appropriate for kinematic analyses of lip/jaw movements for both research and clinical purposes. PMID:24686484

  19. Which are the most useful scales for predicting repeat self-harm? A systematic review evaluating risk scales using measures of diagnostic accuracy

    PubMed Central

    Quinlivan, L; Cooper, J; Davies, L; Hawton, K; Gunnell, D; Kapur, N

    2016-01-01

    Objectives The aims of this review were to calculate the diagnostic accuracy statistics of risk scales following self-harm and consider which might be the most useful scales in clinical practice. Design Systematic review. Methods We based our search terms on those used in the systematic reviews carried out for the National Institute for Health and Care Excellence self-harm guidelines (2012) and evidence update (2013), and updated the searches through to February 2015 (CINAHL, EMBASE, MEDLINE, and PsychINFO). Methodological quality was assessed and three reviewers extracted data independently. We limited our analysis to cohort studies in adults using the outcome of repeat self-harm or attempted suicide. We calculated diagnostic accuracy statistics including measures of global accuracy. Statistical pooling was not possible due to heterogeneity. Results The eight papers included in the final analysis varied widely according to methodological quality and the content of scales employed. Overall, sensitivity of scales ranged from 6% (95% CI 5% to 6%) to 97% (CI 95% 94% to 98%). The positive predictive value (PPV) ranged from 5% (95% CI 3% to 9%) to 84% (95% CI 80% to 87%). The diagnostic OR ranged from 1.01 (95% CI 0.434 to 2.5) to 16.3 (95%CI 12.5 to 21.4). Scales with high sensitivity tended to have low PPVs. Conclusions It is difficult to be certain which, if any, are the most useful scales for self-harm risk assessment. No scales perform sufficiently well so as to be recommended for routine clinical use. Further robust prospective studies are warranted to evaluate risk scales following an episode of self-harm. Diagnostic accuracy statistics should be considered in relation to the specific service needs, and scales should only be used as an adjunct to assessment. PMID:26873046

  20. Accuracy and precision of end-expiratory lung-volume measurements by automated nitrogen washout/washin technique in patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Introduction End-expiratory lung volume (EELV) is decreased in acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), and bedside EELV measurement may help to set positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP). Nitrogen washout/washin for EELV measurement is available at the bedside, but assessments of accuracy and precision in real-life conditions are scant. Our purpose was to (a) assess EELV measurement precision in ARDS patients at two PEEP levels (three pairs of measurements), and (b) compare the changes (Δ) induced by PEEP for total EELV with the PEEP-induced changes in lung volume above functional residual capacity measured with passive spirometry (ΔPEEP-volume). The minimal predicted increase in lung volume was calculated from compliance at low PEEP and ΔPEEP to ensure the validity of lung-volume changes. Methods Thirty-four patients with ARDS were prospectively included in five university-hospital intensive care units. ΔEELV and ΔPEEP volumes were compared between 6 and 15 cm H2O of PEEP. Results After exclusion of three patients, variability of the nitrogen technique was less than 4%, and the largest difference between measurements was 81 ± 64 ml. ΔEELV and ΔPEEP-volume were only weakly correlated (r2 = 0.47); 95% confidence interval limits, -414 to 608 ml). In four patients with the highest PEEP (≥ 16 cm H2O), ΔEELV was lower than the minimal predicted increase in lung volume, suggesting flawed measurements, possibly due to leaks. Excluding those from the analysis markedly strengthened the correlation between ΔEELV and ΔPEEP volume (r2 = 0.80). Conclusions In most patients, the EELV technique has good reproducibility and accuracy, even at high PEEP. At high pressures, its accuracy may be limited in case of leaks. The minimal predicted increase in lung volume may help to check for accuracy. PMID:22166727

  1. Progress integrating ID-TIMS U-Pb geochronology with accessory mineral geochemistry: towards better accuracy and higher precision time

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schoene, B.; Samperton, K. M.; Crowley, J. L.; Cottle, J. M.

    2012-12-01

    It is increasingly common that hand samples of plutonic and volcanic rocks contain zircon with dates that span between zero and >100 ka. This recognition comes from the increased application of U-series geochronology on young volcanic rocks and the increased precision to better than 0.1% on single zircons by the U-Pb ID-TIMS method. It has thus become more difficult to interpret such complicated datasets in terms of ashbed eruption or magma emplacement, which are critical constraints for geochronologic applications ranging from biotic evolution and the stratigraphic record to magmatic and metamorphic processes in orogenic belts. It is important, therefore, to develop methods that aid in interpreting which minerals, if any, date the targeted process. One promising tactic is to better integrate accessory mineral geochemistry with high-precision ID-TIMS U-Pb geochronology. These dual constraints can 1) identify cogenetic populations of minerals, and 2) record magmatic or metamorphic fluid evolution through time. Goal (1) has been widely sought with in situ geochronology and geochemical analysis but is limited by low-precision dates. Recent work has attempted to bridge this gap by retrieving the typically discarded elution from ion exchange chemistry that precedes ID-TIMS U-Pb geochronology and analyzing it by ICP-MS (U-Pb TIMS-TEA). The result integrates geochemistry and high-precision geochronology from the exact same volume of material. The limitation of this method is the relatively coarse spatial resolution compared to in situ techniques, and thus averages potentially complicated trace element profiles through single minerals or mineral fragments. In continued work, we test the effect of this on zircon by beginning with CL imaging to reveal internal zonation and growth histories. This is followed by in situ LA-ICPMS trace element transects of imaged grains to reveal internal geochemical zonation. The same grains are then removed from grain-mount, fragmented, and

  2. Leaf vein length per unit area is not intrinsically dependent on image magnification: avoiding measurement artifacts for accuracy and precision.

    PubMed

    Sack, Lawren; Caringella, Marissa; Scoffoni, Christine; Mason, Chase; Rawls, Michael; Markesteijn, Lars; Poorter, Lourens

    2014-10-01

    Leaf vein length per unit leaf area (VLA; also known as vein density) is an important determinant of water and sugar transport, photosynthetic function, and biomechanical support. A range of software methods are in use to visualize and measure vein systems in cleared leaf images; typically, users locate veins by digital tracing, but recent articles introduced software by which users can locate veins using thresholding (i.e. based on the contrasting of veins in the image). Based on the use of this method, a recent study argued against the existence of a fixed VLA value for a given leaf, proposing instead that VLA increases with the magnification of the image due to intrinsic properties of the vein system, and recommended that future measurements use a common, low image magnification for measurements. We tested these claims with new measurements using the software LEAFGUI in comparison with digital tracing using ImageJ software. We found that the apparent increase of VLA with magnification was an artifact of (1) using low-quality and low-magnification images and (2) errors in the algorithms of LEAFGUI. Given the use of images of sufficient magnification and quality, and analysis with error-free software, the VLA can be measured precisely and accurately. These findings point to important principles for improving the quantity and quality of important information gathered from leaf vein systems. PMID:25096977

  3. Accuracy and Precision in the Southern Hemisphere Additional Ozonesondes (SHADOZ) Dataset in Light of the JOSIE-2000 Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Witte, Jacquelyn C.; Thompson, Anne M.; Schmidlin, F. J.; Oltmans, S. J.; Smit, H. G. J.

    2004-01-01

    Since 1998 the Southern Hemisphere ADditional OZonesondes (SHADOZ) project has provided over 2000 ozone profiles over eleven southern hemisphere tropical and subtropical stations. Balloon-borne electrochemical concentration cell (ECC) ozonesondes are used to measure ozone. The data are archived at: &ttp://croc.gsfc.nasa.gov/shadoz>. In analysis of ozonesonde imprecision within the SHADOZ dataset, Thompson et al. [JGR, 108,8238,20031 we pointed out that variations in ozonesonde technique (sensor solution strength, instrument manufacturer, data processing) could lead to station-to-station biases within the SHADOZ dataset. Imprecisions and accuracy in the SHADOZ dataset are examined in light of new data. First, SHADOZ total ozone column amounts are compared to version 8 TOMS (2004 release). As for TOMS version 7, satellite total ozone is usually higher than the integrated column amount from the sounding. Discrepancies between the sonde and satellite datasets decline two percentage points on average, compared to version 7 TOMS offsets. Second, the SHADOZ station data are compared to results of chamber simulations (JOSE-2000, Juelich Ozonesonde Intercomparison Experiment) in which the various SHADOZ techniques were evaluated. The range of JOSE column deviations from a standard instrument (-10%) in the chamber resembles that of the SHADOZ station data. It appears that some systematic variations in the SHADOZ ozone record are accounted for by differences in solution strength, data processing and instrument type (manufacturer).

  4. EFFECT OF RADIATION DOSE LEVEL ON ACCURACY AND PRECISION OF MANUAL SIZE MEASUREMENTS IN CHEST TOMOSYNTHESIS EVALUATED USING SIMULATED PULMONARY NODULES

    PubMed Central

    Söderman, Christina; Johnsson, Åse Allansdotter; Vikgren, Jenny; Norrlund, Rauni Rossi; Molnar, David; Svalkvist, Angelica; Månsson, Lars Gunnar; Båth, Magnus

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the dependency of the accuracy and precision of nodule diameter measurements on the radiation dose level in chest tomosynthesis. Artificial ellipsoid-shaped nodules with known dimensions were inserted in clinical chest tomosynthesis images. Noise was added to the images in order to simulate radiation dose levels corresponding to effective doses for a standard-sized patient of 0.06 and 0.04 mSv. These levels were compared with the original dose level, corresponding to an effective dose of 0.12 mSv for a standard-sized patient. Four thoracic radiologists measured the longest diameter of the nodules. The study was restricted to nodules located in high-dose areas of the tomosynthesis projection radiographs. A significant decrease of the measurement accuracy and intraobserver variability was seen for the lowest dose level for a subset of the observers. No significant effect of dose level on the interobserver variability was found. The number of non-measurable small nodules (≤5 mm) was higher for the two lowest dose levels compared with the original dose level. In conclusion, for pulmonary nodules at positions in the lung corresponding to locations in high-dose areas of the projection radiographs, using a radiation dose level resulting in an effective dose of 0.06 mSv to a standard-sized patient may be possible in chest tomosynthesis without affecting the accuracy and precision of nodule diameter measurements to any large extent. However, an increasing number of non-measurable small nodules (≤5 mm) with decreasing radiation dose may raise some concerns regarding an applied general dose reduction for chest tomosynthesis examinations in the clinical praxis. PMID:26994093

  5. EFFECT OF RADIATION DOSE LEVEL ON ACCURACY AND PRECISION OF MANUAL SIZE MEASUREMENTS IN CHEST TOMOSYNTHESIS EVALUATED USING SIMULATED PULMONARY NODULES.

    PubMed

    Söderman, Christina; Johnsson, Åse Allansdotter; Vikgren, Jenny; Norrlund, Rauni Rossi; Molnar, David; Svalkvist, Angelica; Månsson, Lars Gunnar; Båth, Magnus

    2016-06-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the dependency of the accuracy and precision of nodule diameter measurements on the radiation dose level in chest tomosynthesis. Artificial ellipsoid-shaped nodules with known dimensions were inserted in clinical chest tomosynthesis images. Noise was added to the images in order to simulate radiation dose levels corresponding to effective doses for a standard-sized patient of 0.06 and 0.04 mSv. These levels were compared with the original dose level, corresponding to an effective dose of 0.12 mSv for a standard-sized patient. Four thoracic radiologists measured the longest diameter of the nodules. The study was restricted to nodules located in high-dose areas of the tomosynthesis projection radiographs. A significant decrease of the measurement accuracy and intraobserver variability was seen for the lowest dose level for a subset of the observers. No significant effect of dose level on the interobserver variability was found. The number of non-measurable small nodules (≤5 mm) was higher for the two lowest dose levels compared with the original dose level. In conclusion, for pulmonary nodules at positions in the lung corresponding to locations in high-dose areas of the projection radiographs, using a radiation dose level resulting in an effective dose of 0.06 mSv to a standard-sized patient may be possible in chest tomosynthesis without affecting the accuracy and precision of nodule diameter measurements to any large extent. However, an increasing number of non-measurable small nodules (≤5 mm) with decreasing radiation dose may raise some concerns regarding an applied general dose reduction for chest tomosynthesis examinations in the clinical praxis. PMID:26994093

  6. Preliminary assessment of the accuracy and precision of TOPEX/POSEIDON altimeter data with respect to the large-scale ocean circulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wunsch, Carl; Stammer, Detlef

    1994-01-01

    TOPEX/POSEIDON sea surface height measurements are examined for quantitative consistency with known elements of the oceanic general circulation and its variability. Project-provided corrections were accepted but are at tested as part of the overall results. The ocean was treated as static over each 10-day repeat cycle and maps constructed of the absolute sea surface topography from simple averages in 2 deg x 2 deg bins. A hybrid geoid model formed from a combination of the recent Joint Gravity Model-2 and the project-provided Ohio State University geoid was used to estimate the absolute topography in each 10-day period. Results are examined in terms of the annual average, seasonal average, seasonal variations, and variations near the repeat period. Conclusion are as follows: the orbit error is now difficult to observe, having been reduced to a level at or below the level of other error sources; the geoid dominates the error budget of the estimates of the absolute topography; the estimated seasonal cycle is consistent with prior estimates; shorter-period variability is dominated on the largest scales by an oscillation near 50 days in spherical harmonics Y(sup m)(sub 1)(theta, lambda) with an amplitude near 10 cm, close to the simplest alias of the M(sub 2) tide. This spectral peak and others visible in the periodograms support the hypothesis that the largest remaining time-dependent errors lie in the tidal models. Though discrepancies attribute to the geoid are within the formal uncertainties of the good estimates, removal of them is urgent for circulation studies. Current gross accuracy of the TOPEX/POSEIDON mission is in the range of 5-10 cm, distributed overbroad band of frequencies and wavenumbers. In finite bands, accuracies approach the 1-cm level, and expected improvements arising from extended mission duration should reduce these numbers by nearly an order of magnitude.

  7. SU-E-J-147: Monte Carlo Study of the Precision and Accuracy of Proton CT Reconstructed Relative Stopping Power Maps

    SciTech Connect

    Dedes, G; Asano, Y; Parodi, K; Arbor, N; Dauvergne, D; Testa, E; Letang, J; Rit, S

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: The quantification of the intrinsic performances of proton computed tomography (pCT) as a modality for treatment planning in proton therapy. The performance of an ideal pCT scanner is studied as a function of various parameters. Methods: Using GATE/Geant4, we simulated an ideal pCT scanner and scans of several cylindrical phantoms with various tissue equivalent inserts of different sizes. Insert materials were selected in order to be of clinical relevance. Tomographic images were reconstructed using a filtered backprojection algorithm taking into account the scattering of protons into the phantom. To quantify the performance of the ideal pCT scanner, we study the precision and the accuracy with respect to the theoretical relative stopping power ratios (RSP) values for different beam energies, imaging doses, insert sizes and detector positions. The planning range uncertainty resulting from the reconstructed RSP is also assessed by comparison with the range of the protons in the analytically simulated phantoms. Results: The results indicate that pCT can intrinsically achieve RSP resolution below 1%, for most examined tissues at beam energies below 300 MeV and for imaging doses around 1 mGy. RSP maps accuracy of less than 0.5 % is observed for most tissue types within the studied dose range (0.2–1.5 mGy). Finally, the uncertainty in the proton range due to the accuracy of the reconstructed RSP map is well below 1%. Conclusion: This work explores the intrinsic performance of pCT as an imaging modality for proton treatment planning. The obtained results show that under ideal conditions, 3D RSP maps can be reconstructed with an accuracy better than 1%. Hence, pCT is a promising candidate for reducing the range uncertainties introduced by the use of X-ray CT alongside with a semiempirical calibration to RSP.Supported by the DFG Cluster of Excellence Munich-Centre for Advanced Photonics (MAP)

  8. Limited proteolysis and peptide mapping for comparability of biopharmaceuticals: An evaluation of repeatability, intra-assay precision and capability to detect structural change.

    PubMed

    Perrin, Camille; Burkitt, Will; Perraud, Xavier; O'Hara, John; Jone, Carl

    2016-05-10

    The use of limited proteolysis followed by peptide mapping for the comparability of the higher-order structure of biopharmaceuticals was investigated. In this approach the proteolysis is performed under non-reducing and non-denaturing conditions, and the resulting peptide map is determined by the samples primary and higher order structures. This allows comparability of biopharmaceuticals to be made in terms of their higher order structure, using a method that is relatively simple to implement. The digestion of a monoclonal antibody under non-denaturing conditions was analyzed using peptide mapping, circular dichroism (CD) and sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). This allowed an optimal digestion time to be chosen. This method was then assessed for its ability to detect structural change using a monoclonal antibody, which had been subjected to a range of stresses; deglycosylation, mild denaturation and a batch that had failed specifications due to in-process reduction. The repeatability and inter-assay precision were assessed. It was demonstrated that the limited proteolysis peptide maps of the three stressed samples were significantly different to control samples and that the differences observed were consistent between the occasions when the assays were run. A combination of limited proteolysis and CD or SDS-PAGE analysis was shown to enhance the capacity of these techniques to detect structural change, which otherwise would not have been observed. PMID:26918895

  9. Factors influence accuracy and precision in the determination of the elemental composition of defense waste glass by ICP-emission spectrometry

    SciTech Connect

    Goode, S.R.

    1995-12-31

    The influence of instrumental factors on the accuracy and precision of the determination of the composition of glass and glass feedstock is presented. In addition, the effects of different methods of sampling, dissolution methods, and standardization procedures and their effect on the quality of the chemical analysis will also be presented. The target glass simulates the material that will be prepared by the vitrification of highly radioactive liquid defense waste. The glass and feedstock streams must be well characterized to ensure a durable glass; current models estimate a 100,000 year lifetime. The elemental composition will be determined by ICP-emission spectrometry with radiation exposure issues requiring a multielement analysis for all constituents, on a single analytical sample, using compromise conditions.

  10. Approaches for achieving long-term accuracy and precision of δ18O and δ2H for waters analyzed using laser absorption spectrometers.

    PubMed

    Wassenaar, Leonard I; Coplen, Tyler B; Aggarwal, Pradeep K

    2014-01-21

    The measurement of δ(2)H and δ(18)O in water samples by laser absorption spectroscopy (LAS) are adopted increasingly in hydrologic and environmental studies. Although LAS instrumentation is easy to use, its incorporation into laboratory operations is not as easy, owing to extensive offline data manipulation required for outlier detection, derivation and application of algorithms to correct for between-sample memory, correcting for linear and nonlinear instrumental drift, VSMOW-SLAP scale normalization, and in maintaining long-term QA/QC audits. Here we propose a series of standardized water-isotope LAS performance tests and routine sample analysis templates, recommended procedural guidelines, and new data processing software (LIMS for Lasers) that altogether enables new and current LAS users to achieve and sustain long-term δ(2)H and δ(18)O accuracy and precision for these important isotopic assays. PMID:24328223

  11. A Study of the Accuracy and Precision Among XRF, ICP-MS, and PIXE on Trace Element Analyses of Small Water Samples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naik, Sahil; Patnaik, Ritish; Kummari, Venkata; Phinney, Lucas; Dhoubhadel, Mangal; Jesseph, Aaron; Hoffmann, William; Verbeck, Guido; Rout, Bibhudutta

    2010-10-01

    The study aimed to compare the viability, precision, and accuracy among three popular instruments - X-ray Fluorescence (XRF), Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometer (ICP-MS), and Particle-Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE) - used to analyze the trace elemental composition of small water samples. Ten-milliliter water samples from public tap water sources in seven different localities in India (Bangalore, Kochi, Bhubaneswar, Cuttack, Puri, Hospet, and Pipili) were prepared through filtration and dilution for proper analysis. The project speculates that the ICP-MS will give the most accurate and precise trace elemental analysis, followed by PIXE and XRF. XRF will be seen as a portable and affordable instrument that can analyze samples on-site while ICP-MS is extremely accurate, and expensive option for off-site analyses. PIXE will be deemed to be too expensive and cumbersome for on-site analysis; however, laboratories with a PIXE accelerator can use the instrument to get accurate analyses.

  12. Improving Precision and Accuracy of Isotope Ratios from Short Transient Laser Ablation-Multicollector-Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry Signals: Application to Micrometer-Size Uranium Particles.

    PubMed

    Claverie, Fanny; Hubert, Amélie; Berail, Sylvain; Donard, Ariane; Pointurier, Fabien; Pécheyran, Christophe

    2016-04-19

    The isotope drift encountered on short transient signals measured by multicollector inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (MC-ICPMS) is related to differences in detector time responses. Faraday to Faraday and Faraday to ion counter time lags were determined and corrected using VBA data processing based on the synchronization of the isotope signals. The coefficient of determination of the linear fit between the two isotopes was selected as the best criterion to obtain accurate detector time lag. The procedure was applied to the analysis by laser ablation-MC-ICPMS of micrometer sized uranium particles (1-3.5 μm). Linear regression slope (LRS) (one isotope plotted over the other), point-by-point, and integration methods were tested to calculate the (235)U/(238)U and (234)U/(238)U ratios. Relative internal precisions of 0.86 to 1.7% and 1.2 to 2.4% were obtained for (235)U/(238)U and (234)U/(238)U, respectively, using LRS calculation, time lag, and mass bias corrections. A relative external precision of 2.1% was obtained for (235)U/(238)U ratios with good accuracy (relative difference with respect to the reference value below 1%). PMID:27031645

  13. An in-depth evaluation of accuracy and precision in Hg isotopic analysis via pneumatic nebulization and cold vapor generation multi-collector ICP-mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Rua-Ibarz, Ana; Bolea-Fernandez, Eduardo; Vanhaecke, Frank

    2016-01-01

    Mercury (Hg) isotopic analysis via multi-collector inductively coupled plasma (ICP)-mass spectrometry (MC-ICP-MS) can provide relevant biogeochemical information by revealing sources, pathways, and sinks of this highly toxic metal. In this work, the capabilities and limitations of two different sample introduction systems, based on pneumatic nebulization (PN) and cold vapor generation (CVG), respectively, were evaluated in the context of Hg isotopic analysis via MC-ICP-MS. The effect of (i) instrument settings and acquisition parameters, (ii) concentration of analyte element (Hg), and internal standard (Tl)-used for mass discrimination correction purposes-and (iii) different mass bias correction approaches on the accuracy and precision of Hg isotope ratio results was evaluated. The extent and stability of mass bias were assessed in a long-term study (18 months, n = 250), demonstrating a precision ≤0.006% relative standard deviation (RSD). CVG-MC-ICP-MS showed an approximately 20-fold enhancement in Hg signal intensity compared with PN-MC-ICP-MS. For CVG-MC-ICP-MS, the mass bias induced by instrumental mass discrimination was accurately corrected for by using either external correction in a sample-standard bracketing approach (SSB) or double correction, consisting of the use of Tl as internal standard in a revised version of the Russell law (Baxter approach), followed by SSB. Concomitant matrix elements did not affect CVG-ICP-MS results. Neither with PN, nor with CVG, any evidence for mass-independent discrimination effects in the instrument was observed within the experimental precision obtained. CVG-MC-ICP-MS was finally used for Hg isotopic analysis of reference materials (RMs) of relevant environmental origin. The isotopic composition of Hg in RMs of marine biological origin testified of mass-independent fractionation that affected the odd-numbered Hg isotopes. While older RMs were used for validation purposes, novel Hg isotopic data are provided for the

  14. Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry for measuring total bone mineral content in the rat: study of accuracy and precision.

    PubMed

    Casez, J P; Muehlbauer, R C; Lippuner, K; Kelly, T; Fleisch, H; Jaeger, P

    1994-07-01

    Sequential studies of osteopenic bone disease in small animals require the availability of non-invasive, accurate and precise methods to assess bone mineral content (BMC) and bone mineral density (BMD). Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA), which is currently used in humans for this purpose, can also be applied to small animals by means of adapted software. Precision and accuracy of DXA was evaluated in 10 rats weighing 50-265 g. The rats were anesthetized with a mixture of ketamine-xylazine administrated intraperitoneally. Each rat was scanned six times consecutively in the antero-posterior incidence after repositioning using the rat whole-body software for determination of whole-body BMC and BMD (Hologic QDR 1000, software version 5.52). Scan duration was 10-20 min depending on rat size. After the last measurement, rats were sacrificed and soft tissues were removed by dermestid beetles. Skeletons were then scanned in vitro (ultra high resolution software, version 4.47). Bones were subsequently ashed and dissolved in hydrochloric acid and total body calcium directly assayed by atomic absorption spectrophotometry (TBCa[chem]). Total body calcium was also calculated from the DXA whole-body in vivo measurement (TBCa[DXA]) and from the ultra high resolution measurement (TBCa[UH]) under the assumption that calcium accounts for 40.5% of the BMC expressed as hydroxyapatite. Precision error for whole-body BMC and BMD (mean +/- S.D.) was 1.3% and 1.5%, respectively. Simple regression analysis between TBCa[DXA] or TBCa[UH] and TBCa[chem] revealed tight correlations (n = 0.991 and 0.996, respectively), with slopes and intercepts which were significantly different from 1 and 0, respectively.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7950505

  15. The Impact of 3D Volume-of-Interest Definition on Accuracy and Precision of Activity Estimation in Quantitative SPECT and Planar Processing Methods

    PubMed Central

    He, Bin; Frey, Eric C.

    2010-01-01

    Accurate and precise estimation of organ activities is essential for treatment planning in targeted radionuclide therapy. We have previously evaluated the impact of processing methodology, statistical noise, and variability in activity distribution and anatomy on the accuracy and precision of organ activity estimates obtained with quantitative SPECT (QSPECT), and planar (QPlanar) processing. Another important effect impacting the accuracy and precision of organ activity estimates is accuracy of and variability in the definition of organ regions of interest (ROI) or volumes of interest (VOI). The goal of this work was thus to systematically study the effects of VOI definition on the reliability of activity estimates. To this end, we performed Monte Carlo simulation studies using randomly perturbed and shifted VOIs to assess the impact on organ activity estimations. The 3D NCAT phantom was used with activities that modeled clinically observed 111In ibritumomab tiuxetan distributions. In order to study the errors resulting from misdefinitions due to manual segmentation errors, VOIs of the liver and left kidney were first manually defined. Each control point was then randomly perturbed to one of the nearest or next-nearest voxels in the same transaxial plane in three ways: with no, inward or outward directional bias, resulting in random perturbation, erosion or dilation, respectively of the VOIs. In order to study the errors resulting from the misregistration of VOIs, as would happen, e.g., in the case where the VOIs were defined using a misregistered anatomical image, the reconstructed SPECT images or projections were shifted by amounts ranging from −1 to 1 voxels in increments of 0.1 voxels in both the transaxial and axial directions. The activity estimates from the shifted reconstructions or projections were compared to those from the originals, and average errors were computed for the QSPECT and QPlanar methods, respectively. For misregistration, errors in organ

  16. High-Precision Surface Inspection: Uncertainty Evaluation within an Accuracy Range of 15μm with Triangulation-based Laser Line Scanners

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dupuis, Jan; Kuhlmann, Heiner

    2014-06-01

    Triangulation-based range sensors, e.g. laser line scanners, are used for high-precision geometrical acquisition of free-form surfaces, for reverse engineering tasks or quality management. In contrast to classical tactile measuring devices, these scanners generate a great amount of 3D-points in a short period of time and enable the inspection of soft materials. However, for accurate measurements, a number of aspects have to be considered to minimize measurement uncertainties. This study outlines possible sources of uncertainties during the measurement process regarding the scanner warm-up, the impact of laser power and exposure time as well as scanner’s reaction to areas of discontinuity, e.g. edges. All experiments were performed using a fixed scanner position to avoid effects resulting from imaging geometry. The results show a significant dependence of measurement accuracy on the correct adaption of exposure time as a function of surface reflectivity and laser power. Additionally, it is illustrated that surface structure as well as edges can cause significant systematic uncertainties.

  17. Technical Note: Precision and accuracy of a commercially available CT optically stimulated luminescent dosimetry system for the measurement of CT dose index

    PubMed Central

    Vrieze, Thomas J.; Sturchio, Glenn M.; McCollough, Cynthia H.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To determine the precision and accuracy of CTDI100 measurements made using commercially available optically stimulated luminescent (OSL) dosimeters (Landaur, Inc.) as beam width, tube potential, and attenuating material were varied. Methods: One hundred forty OSL dosimeters were individually exposed to a single axial CT scan, either in air, a 16-cm (head), or 32-cm (body) CTDI phantom at both center and peripheral positions. Scans were performed using nominal total beam widths of 3.6, 6, 19.2, and 28.8 mm at 120 kV and 28.8 mm at 80 kV. Five measurements were made for each of 28 parameter combinations. Measurements were made under the same conditions using a 100-mm long CTDI ion chamber. Exposed OSL dosimeters were returned to the manufacturer, who reported dose to air (in mGy) as a function of distance along the probe, integrated dose, and CTDI100. Results: The mean precision averaged over 28 datasets containing five measurements each was 1.4% ± 0.6%, range = 0.6%–2.7% for OSL and 0.08% ± 0.06%, range = 0.02%–0.3% for ion chamber. The root mean square (RMS) percent differences between OSL and ion chamber CTDI100 values were 13.8%, 6.4%, and 8.7% for in-air, head, and body measurements, respectively, with an overall RMS percent difference of 10.1%. OSL underestimated CTDI100 relative to the ion chamber 21/28 times (75%). After manual correction of the 80 kV measurements, the RMS percent differences between OSL and ion chamber measurements were 9.9% and 10.0% for 80 and 120 kV, respectively. Conclusions: Measurements of CTDI100 with commercially available CT OSL dosimeters had a percent standard deviation of 1.4%. After energy-dependent correction factors were applied, the RMS percent difference in the measured CTDI100 values was about 10%, with a tendency of OSL to underestimate CTDI relative to the ion chamber. Unlike ion chamber methods, however, OSL dosimeters allow measurement of the radiation dose profile. PMID:23127052

  18. Technical Note: Precision and accuracy of a commercially available CT optically stimulated luminescent dosimetry system for the measurement of CT dose index

    SciTech Connect

    Vrieze, Thomas J.; Sturchio, Glenn M.; McCollough, Cynthia H.

    2012-11-15

    Purpose: To determine the precision and accuracy of CTDI{sub 100} measurements made using commercially available optically stimulated luminescent (OSL) dosimeters (Landaur, Inc.) as beam width, tube potential, and attenuating material were varied. Methods: One hundred forty OSL dosimeters were individually exposed to a single axial CT scan, either in air, a 16-cm (head), or 32-cm (body) CTDI phantom at both center and peripheral positions. Scans were performed using nominal total beam widths of 3.6, 6, 19.2, and 28.8 mm at 120 kV and 28.8 mm at 80 kV. Five measurements were made for each of 28 parameter combinations. Measurements were made under the same conditions using a 100-mm long CTDI ion chamber. Exposed OSL dosimeters were returned to the manufacturer, who reported dose to air (in mGy) as a function of distance along the probe, integrated dose, and CTDI{sub 100}. Results: The mean precision averaged over 28 datasets containing five measurements each was 1.4%{+-} 0.6%, range = 0.6%-2.7% for OSL and 0.08%{+-} 0.06%, range = 0.02%-0.3% for ion chamber. The root mean square (RMS) percent differences between OSL and ion chamber CTDI{sub 100} values were 13.8%, 6.4%, and 8.7% for in-air, head, and body measurements, respectively, with an overall RMS percent difference of 10.1%. OSL underestimated CTDI{sub 100} relative to the ion chamber 21/28 times (75%). After manual correction of the 80 kV measurements, the RMS percent differences between OSL and ion chamber measurements were 9.9% and 10.0% for 80 and 120 kV, respectively. Conclusions: Measurements of CTDI{sub 100} with commercially available CT OSL dosimeters had a percent standard deviation of 1.4%. After energy-dependent correction factors were applied, the RMS percent difference in the measured CTDI{sub 100} values was about 10%, with a tendency of OSL to underestimate CTDI relative to the ion chamber. Unlike ion chamber methods, however, OSL dosimeters allow measurement of the radiation dose profile.

  19. Accuracy and precision of porosity estimates based on velocity inversion of surface ground-penetrating radar data: A controlled experiment at the Boise Hydrogeophysical Research Site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bradford, J.; Clement, W.

    2006-12-01

    Although rarely acquired, ground penetrating radar (GPR) data acquired in continuous multi-offset geometries can substantially improve our understanding of the subsurface compared to conventional single offset surveys. This improvement arises because multi-offset data enable full use of the information that the GPR signal can carry. The added information allows us to maximize the material property information extracted from a GPR survey. Of the array of potential multi-offset GPR measurements, traveltime vs offset information enables laterally and vertically continuous electromagnetic (EM) velocity measurements. In turn, the EM velocities provide estimates of water content via petrophysical relationships such as the CRIM or Topp's equations. In fully saturated media the water content is a direct measure of bulk porosity. The Boise Hydrogeophysical Research Site (BHRS) is a experimental wellfield located in a shallow alluvial aquifer near Boise, Idaho. In July, 2006 we conducted a controlled 3D multi-offset GPR experiment at the BHRS designed to test the accuracy of state-of-the-art velocity analysis methodologies. We acquired continuous multi-offset GPR data over an approximately 20 x 30 m 3D area. The GPR system was a Sensors and Software pulseEkko Pro multichannel system with 100 MHz antennas and was configured with 4 receivers and a single transmitter. Data were acquired in off-end geometry for a total of 16 offsets with a 1 m offset interval and 1 m near offset. The data were acquired on a 1 m x 1m grid in four passes, each consisting of a 3 m range of equally spaced offsets. The survey encompassed 13 wells finished to the ~20 m depth of the unconfined aquifer. We established velocity control by acquiring vertical radar profiles (VRPs) in all 13 wells. Preliminary velocity measurements using an established method of reflection tomography were within about 1 percent of local 1D velocity distributions determined from the VRPs. Vertical velocity precision from the

  20. Development and validation of an automated and marker-free CT-based spatial analysis method (CTSA) for assessment of femoral hip implant migration In vitro accuracy and precision comparable to that of radiostereometric analysis (RSA).

    PubMed

    Scheerlinck, Thierry; Polfliet, Mathias; Deklerck, Rudi; Van Gompel, Gert; Buls, Nico; Vandemeulebroucke, Jef

    2016-04-01

    Background and purpose - We developed a marker-free automated CT-based spatial analysis (CTSA) method to detect stem-bone migration in consecutive CT datasets and assessed the accuracy and precision in vitro. Our aim was to demonstrate that in vitro accuracy and precision of CTSA is comparable to that of radiostereometric analysis (RSA). Material and methods - Stem and bone were segmented in 2 CT datasets and both were registered pairwise. The resulting rigid transformations were compared and transferred to an anatomically sound coordinate system, taking the stem as reference. This resulted in 3 translation parameters and 3 rotation parameters describing the relative amount of stem-bone displacement, and it allowed calculation of the point of maximal stem migration. Accuracy was evaluated in 39 comparisons by imposing known stem migration on a stem-bone model. Precision was estimated in 20 comparisons based on a zero-migration model, and in 5 patients without stem loosening. Results - Limits of the 95% tolerance intervals (TIs) for accuracy did not exceed 0.28 mm for translations and 0.20° for rotations (largest standard deviation of the signed error (SDSE): 0.081 mm and 0.057°). In vitro, limits of the 95% TI for precision in a clinically relevant setting (8 comparisons) were below 0.09 mm and 0.14° (largest SDSE: 0.012 mm and 0.020°). In patients, the precision was lower, but acceptable, and dependent on CT scan resolution. Interpretation - CTSA allows detection of stem-bone migration with an accuracy and precision comparable to that of RSA. It could be valuable for evaluation of subtle stem loosening in clinical practice. PMID:26634843

  1. Development and validation of an automated and marker-free CT-based spatial analysis method (CTSA) for assessment of femoral hip implant migration In vitro accuracy and precision comparable to that of radiostereometric analysis (RSA)

    PubMed Central

    Scheerlinck, Thierry; Polfliet, Mathias; Deklerck, Rudi; Van Gompel, Gert; Buls, Nico; Vandemeulebroucke, Jef

    2016-01-01

    Background and purpose — We developed a marker-free automated CT-based spatial analysis (CTSA) method to detect stem-bone migration in consecutive CT datasets and assessed the accuracy and precision in vitro. Our aim was to demonstrate that in vitro accuracy and precision of CTSA is comparable to that of radiostereometric analysis (RSA). Material and methods — Stem and bone were segmented in 2 CT datasets and both were registered pairwise. The resulting rigid transformations were compared and transferred to an anatomically sound coordinate system, taking the stem as reference. This resulted in 3 translation parameters and 3 rotation parameters describing the relative amount of stem-bone displacement, and it allowed calculation of the point of maximal stem migration. Accuracy was evaluated in 39 comparisons by imposing known stem migration on a stem-bone model. Precision was estimated in 20 comparisons based on a zero-migration model, and in 5 patients without stem loosening. Results — Limits of the 95% tolerance intervals (TIs) for accuracy did not exceed 0.28 mm for translations and 0.20° for rotations (largest standard deviation of the signed error (SDSE): 0.081 mm and 0.057°). In vitro, limits of the 95% TI for precision in a clinically relevant setting (8 comparisons) were below 0.09 mm and 0.14° (largest SDSE: 0.012 mm and 0.020°). In patients, the precision was lower, but acceptable, and dependent on CT scan resolution. Interpretation — CTSA allows detection of stem-bone migration with an accuracy and precision comparable to that of RSA. It could be valuable for evaluation of subtle stem loosening in clinical practice. PMID:26634843

  2. The 1998-2000 SHADOZ (Southern Hemisphere ADditional OZonesondes) Tropical Ozone Climatology: Ozonesonde Precision, Accuracy and Station-to-Station Variability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Witte, J. C.; Thompson, Anne M.; McPeters, R. D.; Oltmans, S. J.; Schmidlin, F. J.; Bhartia, P. K. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    As part of the SAFARI-2000 campaign, additional launches of ozonesondes were made at Irene, South Africa and at Lusaka, Zambia. These represent campaign augmentations to the SHADOZ database described in this paper. This network of 10 southern hemisphere tropical and subtropical stations, designated the Southern Hemisphere ADditional OZonesondes (SHADOZ) project and established from operational sites, provided over 1000 profiles from ozonesondes and radiosondes during the period 1998-2000. (Since that time, two more stations, one in southern Africa, have joined SHADOZ). Archived data are available at: http://code9l6.gsfc.nasa.gov/Data-services/shadoz>. Uncertainties and accuracies within the SHADOZ ozone data set are evaluated by analyzing: (1) imprecisions in stratospheric ozone profiles and in methods of extrapolating ozone above balloon burst; (2) comparisons of column-integrated total ozone from sondes with total ozone from the Earth-Probe/TOMS (Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer) satellite and ground-based instruments; (3) possible biases from station-to-station due to variations in ozonesonde characteristics. The key results are: (1) Ozonesonde precision is 5%; (2) Integrated total ozone column amounts from the sondes are in good agreement (2-10%) with independent measurements from ground-based instruments at five SHADOZ sites and with overpass measurements from the TOMS satellite (version 7 data). (3) Systematic variations in TOMS-sonde offsets and in groundbased-sonde offsets from station to station reflect biases in sonde technique as well as in satellite retrieval. Discrepancies are present in both stratospheric and tropospheric ozone. (4) There is evidence for a zonal wave-one pattern in total and tropospheric ozone, but not in stratospheric ozone.

  3. Analysis of the accuracy and precision of the McMaster method in detection of the eggs of Toxocara and Trichuris species (Nematoda) in dog faeces.

    PubMed

    Kochanowski, Maciej; Dabrowska, Joanna; Karamon, Jacek; Cencek, Tomasz; Osiński, Zbigniew

    2013-07-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the accuracy and precision of McMaster method with Raynaud's modification in the detection of the eggs of the nematodes Toxocara canis (Werner, 1782) and Trichuris ovis (Abildgaard, 1795) in faeces of dogs. Four variants of McMaster method were used for counting: in one grid, two grids, the whole McMaster chamber and flotation in the tube. One hundred sixty samples were prepared from dog faeces (20 repetitions for each egg quantity) containing 15, 25, 50, 100, 150, 200, 250 and 300 eggs of T. canis and T. ovis in 1 g of faeces. To compare the influence of kind of faeces on the results, samples of dog faeces were enriched at the same levels with the eggs of another nematode, Ascaris suum Goeze, 1782. In addition, 160 samples of pig faeces were prepared and enriched only with A. suum eggs in the same way. The highest limit of detection (the lowest level of eggs that were detected in at least 50% of repetitions) in all McMaster chamber variants were obtained for T. canis eggs (25-250 eggs/g faeces). In the variant with flotation in the tube, the highest limit of detection was obtained for T. ovis eggs (100 eggs/g). The best results of the limit of detection, sensitivity and the lowest coefficients of variation were obtained with the use of the whole McMaster chamber variant. There was no significant impact of properties of faeces on the obtained results. Multiplication factors for the whole chamber were calculated on the basis of the transformed equation of the regression line, illustrating the relationship between the number of detected eggs and that of the eggs added to the'sample. Multiplication factors calculated for T. canis and T. ovis eggs were higher than those expected using McMaster method with Raynaud modification. PMID:23951934

  4. Application of U-Pb ID-TIMS dating to the end-Triassic global crisis: testing the limits on precision and accuracy in a multidisciplinary whodunnit (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schoene, B.; Schaltegger, U.; Guex, J.; Bartolini, A.

    2010-12-01

    The ca. 201.4 Ma Triassic-Jurassic boundary is characterized by one of the most devastating mass-extinctions in Earth history, subsequent biologic radiation, rapid carbon cycle disturbances and enormous flood basalt volcanism (Central Atlantic Magmatic Province - CAMP). Considerable uncertainty remains regarding the temporal and causal relationship between these events though this link is important for understanding global environmental change under extreme stresses. We present ID-TIMS U-Pb zircon geochronology on volcanic ash beds from two marine sections that span the Triassic-Jurassic boundary and from the CAMP in North America. To compare the timing of the extinction with the onset of the CAMP, we assess the precision and accuracy of ID-TIMS U-Pb zircon geochronology by exploring random and systematic uncertainties, reproducibility, open-system behavior, and pre-eruptive crystallization of zircon. We find that U-Pb ID-TIMS dates on single zircons can be internally and externally reproducible at 0.05% of the age, consistent with recent experiments coordinated through the EARTHTIME network. Increased precision combined with methods alleviating Pb-loss in zircon reveals that these ash beds contain zircon that crystallized between 10^5 and 10^6 years prior to eruption. Mineral dates older than eruption ages are prone to affect all geochronologic methods and therefore new tools exploring this form of “geologic uncertainty” will lead to better time constraints for ash bed deposition. In an effort to understand zircon dates within the framework of a magmatic system, we analyzed zircon trace elements by solution ICPMS for the same volume of zircon dated by ID-TIMS. In one example we argue that zircon trace element patterns as a function of time result from a mix of xeno-, ante-, and autocrystic zircons in the ash bed, and approximate eruption age with the youngest zircon date. In a contrasting example from a suite of Cretaceous andesites, zircon trace elements

  5. Accuracy and precision of 14C-based source apportionment of organic and elemental carbon in aerosols using the Swiss_4S protocol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mouteva, G. O.; Fahrni, S. M.; Santos, G. M.; Randerson, J. T.; Zhang, Y.-L.; Szidat, S.; Czimczik, C. I.

    2015-09-01

    Aerosol source apportionment remains a critical challenge for understanding the transport and aging of aerosols, as well as for developing successful air pollution mitigation strategies. The contributions of fossil and non-fossil sources to organic carbon (OC) and elemental carbon (EC) in carbonaceous aerosols can be quantified by measuring the radiocarbon (14C) content of each carbon fraction. However, the use of 14C in studying OC and EC has been limited by technical challenges related to the physical separation of the two fractions and small sample sizes. There is no common procedure for OC/EC 14C analysis, and uncertainty studies have largely focused on the precision of yields. Here, we quantified the uncertainty in 14C measurement of aerosols associated with the isolation and analysis of each carbon fraction with the Swiss_4S thermal-optical analysis (TOA) protocol. We used an OC/EC analyzer (Sunset Laboratory Inc., OR, USA) coupled to a vacuum line to separate the two components. Each fraction was thermally desorbed and converted to carbon dioxide (CO2) in pure oxygen (O2). On average, 91 % of the evolving CO2 was then cryogenically trapped on the vacuum line, reduced to filamentous graphite, and measured for its 14C content via accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS). To test the accuracy of our setup, we quantified the total amount of extraneous carbon introduced during the TOA sample processing and graphitization as the sum of modern and fossil (14C-depleted) carbon introduced during the analysis of fossil reference materials (adipic acid for OC and coal for EC) and contemporary standards (oxalic acid for OC and rice char for EC) as a function of sample size. We further tested our methodology by analyzing five ambient airborne particulate matter (PM2.5) samples with a range of OC and EC concentrations and 14C contents in an interlaboratory comparison. The total modern and fossil carbon blanks of our setup were 0.8 ± 0.4 and 0.67 ± 0.34 μg C, respectively

  6. Accuracy and precision of 14C-based source apportionment of organic and elemental carbon in aerosols using the Swiss_4S protocol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mouteva, G. O.; Fahrni, S. M.; Santos, G. M.; Randerson, J. T.; Zhang, Y. L.; Szidat, S.; Czimczik, C. I.

    2015-04-01

    Aerosol source apportionment remains a critical challenge for understanding the transport and aging of aerosols, as well as for developing successful air pollution mitigation strategies. The contributions of fossil and non-fossil sources to organic carbon (OC) and elemental carbon (EC) in carbonaceous aerosols can be quantified by measuring the radiocarbon (14C) content of each carbon fraction. However, the use of 14C in studying OC and EC has been limited by technical challenges related to the physical separation of the two fractions and small sample sizes. There is no common procedure for OC/EC 14C analysis, and uncertainty studies have largely focused on the precision of yields. Here, we quantified the uncertainty in 14C measurement of aerosols associated with the isolation and analysis of each carbon fraction with the Swiss_4S thermal-optical analysis (TOA) protocol. We used an OC/EC analyzer (Sunset Laboratory Inc., OR, USA) coupled to vacuum line to separate the two components. Each fraction was thermally desorbed and converted to carbon dioxide (CO2) in pure oxygen (O2). On average 91% of the evolving CO2 was then cryogenically trapped on the vacuum line, reduced to filamentous graphite, and measured for its 14C content via accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS). To test the accuracy of our set-up, we quantified the total amount of extraneous carbon introduced during the TOA sample processing and graphitization as the sum of modern and fossil (14C-depleted) carbon introduced during the analysis of fossil reference materials (adipic acid for OC and coal for EC) and contemporary standards (oxalic acid for OC and rice char for EC) as a function of sample size. We further tested our methodology by analyzing five ambient airborne particulate matter (PM2.5) samples with a range of OC and EC concentrations and 14C contents in an interlaboratory comparison. The total modern and fossil carbon blanks of our set-up were 0.8 ± 0.4 and 0.67 ± 0.34 μg C, respectively

  7. The effects of temporal-precision and time-minimization constraints on the spatial and temporal accuracy of aimed hand movements.

    PubMed

    Carlton, L G

    1994-03-01

    Discrete aimed hand movements, made by subjects given temporal-accuracy and time-minimization task instructions, were compared. Movements in the temporal-accuracy task were made to a point target with a goal movement time of 400 ms. A circular target then was manufactured that incorporated the measured spatial errors from the temporal-accuracy task, and subjects attempted to contact the target with a minimum movement time and without missing the circular target (time-minimization task instructions). This procedure resulted in equal movement amplitude and approximately equal spatial accuracy for the two task instructions. Movements under the time-minimization instructions were completed rapidly (M = 307 ms) without target misses, and tended to be made up of two submovements. In contrast, movements under temporal-accuracy instructions were made more slowly (M = 397 ms), matching the goal movement time, and were typically characterized by a single submovement. These data support the hypothesis that movement times, at a fixed movement amplitude versus target width ratio, decrease as the number of submovements increases, and that movements produced under temporal-accuracy and time-minimization have different control characteristics. These control differences are related to the linear and logarithmic speed-accuracy relations observed for temporal-accuracy and time-minimization tasks, respectively. PMID:15757833

  8. Precision Pointing Control System (PPCS) star tracker test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    Tests performed on the TRW precision star tracker are described. The unit tested was a two-axis gimballed star tracker designed to provide star LOS data to an accuracy of 1 to 2 sec. The tracker features a unique bearing system and utilizes thermal and mechanical symmetry techniques to achieve high precision which can be demonstrated in a one g environment. The test program included a laboratory evaluation of tracker functional operation, sensitivity, repeatibility, and thermal stability.

  9. SU-E-J-03: Characterization of the Precision and Accuracy of a New, Preclinical, MRI-Guided Focused Ultrasound System for Image-Guided Interventions in Small-Bore, High-Field Magnets

    SciTech Connect

    Ellens, N; Farahani, K

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: MRI-guided focused ultrasound (MRgFUS) has many potential and realized applications including controlled heating and localized drug delivery. The development of many of these applications requires extensive preclinical work, much of it in small animal models. The goal of this study is to characterize the spatial targeting accuracy and reproducibility of a preclinical high field MRgFUS system for thermal ablation and drug delivery applications. Methods: The RK300 (FUS Instruments, Toronto, Canada) is a motorized, 2-axis FUS positioning system suitable for small bore (72 mm), high-field MRI systems. The accuracy of the system was assessed in three ways. First, the precision of the system was assessed by sonicating regular grids of 5 mm squares on polystyrene plates and comparing the resulting focal dimples to the intended pattern, thereby assessing the reproducibility and precision of the motion control alone. Second, the targeting accuracy was assessed by imaging a polystyrene plate with randomly drilled holes and replicating the hole pattern by sonicating the observed hole locations on intact polystyrene plates and comparing the results. Third, the practicallyrealizable accuracy and precision were assessed by comparing the locations of transcranial, FUS-induced blood-brain-barrier disruption (BBBD) (observed through Gadolinium enhancement) to the intended targets in a retrospective analysis of animals sonicated for other experiments. Results: The evenly-spaced grids indicated that the precision was 0.11 +/− 0.05 mm. When image-guidance was included by targeting random locations, the accuracy was 0.5 +/− 0.2 mm. The effective accuracy in the four rodent brains assessed was 0.8 +/− 0.6 mm. In all cases, the error appeared normally distributed (p<0.05) in both orthogonal axes, though the left/right error was systematically greater than the superior/inferior error. Conclusions: The targeting accuracy of this device is sub-millimeter, suitable for many

  10. Two-Site Evaluation of the Repeatability and Precision of an Automated Dual-Column Hydrogen/Deuterium Exchange Mass Spectrometry Platform.

    PubMed

    Cummins, David J; Espada, Alfonso; Novick, Scott J; Molina-Martin, Manuel; Stites, Ryan E; Espinosa, Juan Felix; Broughton, Howard; Goswami, Devrishi; Pascal, Bruce D; Dodge, Jeffrey A; Chalmers, Michael J; Griffin, Patrick R

    2016-06-21

    Hydrogen/deuterium exchange coupled with mass spectrometry (HDX-MS) is an information-rich biophysical method for the characterization of protein dynamics. Successful applications of differential HDX-MS include the characterization of protein-ligand binding. A single differential HDX-MS data set (protein ± ligand) is often comprised of more than 40 individual HDX-MS experiments. To eliminate laborious manual processing of samples, and to minimize random and gross errors, automated systems for HDX-MS analysis have become routine in many laboratories. However, an automated system, while less prone to random errors introduced by human operators, may have systematic errors that go unnoticed without proper detection. Although the application of automated (and manual) HDX-MS has become common, there are only a handful of studies reporting the systematic evaluation of the performance of HDX-MS experiments, and no reports have been published describing a cross-site comparison of HDX-MS experiments. Here, we describe an automated HDX-MS platform that operates with a parallel, two-trap, two-column configuration that has been installed in two remote laboratories. To understand the performance of the system both within and between laboratories, we have designed and completed a test-retest repeatability study for differential HDX-MS experiments implemented at each of two laboratories, one in Florida and the other in Spain. This study provided sufficient data to do both within and between laboratory variability assessments. Initial results revealed a systematic run-order effect within one of the two systems. Therefore, the study was repeated, and this time the conclusion was that the experimental conditions were successfully replicated with minimal systematic error. PMID:27224086

  11. Detecting declines in the abundance of a bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus) population: Understanding the accuracy, precision, and costs of our efforts

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Al-Chokhachy, R.; Budy, P.; Conner, M.

    2009-01-01

    Using empirical field data for bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus), we evaluated the trade-off between power and sampling effort-cost using Monte Carlo simulations of commonly collected mark-recapture-resight and count data, and we estimated the power to detect changes in abundance across different time intervals. We also evaluated the effects of monitoring different components of a population and stratification methods on the precision of each method. Our results illustrate substantial variability in the relative precision, cost, and information gained from each approach. While grouping estimates by age or stage class substantially increased the precision of estimates, spatial stratification of sampling units resulted in limited increases in precision. Although mark-resight methods allowed for estimates of abundance versus indices of abundance, our results suggest snorkel surveys may be a more affordable monitoring approach across large spatial scales. Detecting a 25% decline in abundance after 5 years was not possible, regardless of technique (power = 0.80), without high sampling effort (48% of study site). Detecting a 25% decline was possible after 15 years, but still required high sampling efforts. Our results suggest detecting moderate changes in abundance of freshwater salmonids requires considerable resource and temporal commitments and highlight the difficulties of using abundance measures for monitoring bull trout populations.

  12. The Effects of Repeated Testing, Simulated Malingering, and Traumatic Brain Injury on High-Precision Measures of Simple Visual Reaction Time.

    PubMed

    Woods, David L; Wyma, John M; Yund, E William; Herron, Timothy J

    2015-01-01

    Simple reaction time (SRT), the latency to respond to a stimulus, has been widely used as a basic measure of processing speed. In the current experiments, we examined clinically-relevant properties of a new SRT test that presents visual stimuli to the left or right hemifield at varying stimulus onset asynchronies (SOAs). Experiment 1 examined test-retest reliability in 48 participants who underwent three test sessions at weekly intervals. In the first test, log-transformed (log-SRT) z-scores, corrected for the influence of age and computer-use, were well predicted by regression functions derived from a normative population of 189 control participants. Test-retest reliability of log-SRT z-scores was measured with an intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC = 0.83) and equaled or exceeded those of other SRT tests and other widely used tests of processing speed that are administered manually. No significant learning effects were observed across test sessions. Experiment 2 investigated the same participants when instructed to malinger during a fourth testing session: 94% showed abnormal log-SRT z-scores, with 83% producing log-SRT z-scores exceeding a cutoff of 3.0, a degree of abnormality never seen in full-effort conditions. Thus, a log-SRT z-score cutoff of 3.0 had a sensitivity (83%) and specificity (100%) that equaled or exceeded that of existing symptom validity tests. We argue that even expert malingerers, fully informed of the malingering-detection metric, would be unable to successfully feign impairments on the SRT test because of the precise control of SRT latencies that would be required. Experiment 3 investigated 26 patients with traumatic brain injury (TBI) tested more than 1 year post-injury. The 22 patients with mild TBI showed insignificantly faster SRTs than controls, but a small group of four patients with severe TBI showed slowed SRTs. Simple visual reaction time is a reliable measure of processing speed that is sensitive to the effects of malingering

  13. The Effects of Repeated Testing, Simulated Malingering, and Traumatic Brain Injury on High-Precision Measures of Simple Visual Reaction Time

    PubMed Central

    Woods, David L.; Wyma, John M.; Yund, E. William; Herron, Timothy J.

    2015-01-01

    Simple reaction time (SRT), the latency to respond to a stimulus, has been widely used as a basic measure of processing speed. In the current experiments, we examined clinically-relevant properties of a new SRT test that presents visual stimuli to the left or right hemifield at varying stimulus onset asynchronies (SOAs). Experiment 1 examined test-retest reliability in 48 participants who underwent three test sessions at weekly intervals. In the first test, log-transformed (log-SRT) z-scores, corrected for the influence of age and computer-use, were well predicted by regression functions derived from a normative population of 189 control participants. Test-retest reliability of log-SRT z-scores was measured with an intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC = 0.83) and equaled or exceeded those of other SRT tests and other widely used tests of processing speed that are administered manually. No significant learning effects were observed across test sessions. Experiment 2 investigated the same participants when instructed to malinger during a fourth testing session: 94% showed abnormal log-SRT z-scores, with 83% producing log-SRT z-scores exceeding a cutoff of 3.0, a degree of abnormality never seen in full-effort conditions. Thus, a log-SRT z-score cutoff of 3.0 had a sensitivity (83%) and specificity (100%) that equaled or exceeded that of existing symptom validity tests. We argue that even expert malingerers, fully informed of the malingering-detection metric, would be unable to successfully feign impairments on the SRT test because of the precise control of SRT latencies that would be required. Experiment 3 investigated 26 patients with traumatic brain injury (TBI) tested more than 1 year post-injury. The 22 patients with mild TBI showed insignificantly faster SRTs than controls, but a small group of four patients with severe TBI showed slowed SRTs. Simple visual reaction time is a reliable measure of processing speed that is sensitive to the effects of malingering

  14. Method and system using power modulation for maskless vapor deposition of spatially graded thin film and multilayer coatings with atomic-level precision and accuracy

    DOEpatents

    Montcalm, Claude; Folta, James Allen; Tan, Swie-In; Reiss, Ira

    2002-07-30

    A method and system for producing a film (preferably a thin film with highly uniform or highly accurate custom graded thickness) on a flat or graded substrate (such as concave or convex optics), by sweeping the substrate across a vapor deposition source operated with time-varying flux distribution. In preferred embodiments, the source is operated with time-varying power applied thereto during each sweep of the substrate to achieve the time-varying flux distribution as a function of time. A user selects a source flux modulation recipe for achieving a predetermined desired thickness profile of the deposited film. The method relies on precise modulation of the deposition flux to which a substrate is exposed to provide a desired coating thickness distribution.

  15. Precision Fabrication of a Large-Area Sinusoidal Surface Using a Fast-Tool-Servo Technique ─Improvement of Local Fabrication Accuracy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Wei; Tano, Makoto; Araki, Takeshi; Kiyono, Satoshi

    This paper describes a diamond turning fabrication system for a sinusoidal grid surface. The wavelength and amplitude of the sinusoidal wave in each direction are 100µm and 100nm, respectively. The fabrication system, which is based on a fast-tool-servo (FTS), has the ability to generate the angle grid surface over an area of φ 150mm. This paper focuses on the improvement of the local fabrication accuracy. The areas considered are each approximately 1 × 1mm, and can be imaged by an interference microscope. Specific fabrication errors of the manufacturing process, caused by the round nose geometry of the diamond cutting tool and the data digitization, are successfully identified by Discrete Fourier Transform of the microscope images. Compensation processes are carried out to reduce the errors. As a result, the fabrication errors in local areas of the angle grid surface are reduced by 1/10.

  16. Leaf Vein Length per Unit Area Is Not Intrinsically Dependent on Image Magnification: Avoiding Measurement Artifacts for Accuracy and Precision1[W][OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Sack, Lawren; Caringella, Marissa; Scoffoni, Christine; Mason, Chase; Rawls, Michael; Markesteijn, Lars; Poorter, Lourens

    2014-01-01

    Leaf vein length per unit leaf area (VLA; also known as vein density) is an important determinant of water and sugar transport, photosynthetic function, and biomechanical support. A range of software methods are in use to visualize and measure vein systems in cleared leaf images; typically, users locate veins by digital tracing, but recent articles introduced software by which users can locate veins using thresholding (i.e. based on the contrasting of veins in the image). Based on the use of this method, a recent study argued against the existence of a fixed VLA value for a given leaf, proposing instead that VLA increases with the magnification of the image due to intrinsic properties of the vein system, and recommended that future measurements use a common, low image magnification for measurements. We tested these claims with new measurements using the software LEAFGUI in comparison with digital tracing using ImageJ software. We found that the apparent increase of VLA with magnification was an artifact of (1) using low-quality and low-magnification images and (2) errors in the algorithms of LEAFGUI. Given the use of images of sufficient magnification and quality, and analysis with error-free software, the VLA can be measured precisely and accurately. These findings point to important principles for improving the quantity and quality of important information gathered from leaf vein systems. PMID:25096977

  17. Repeatability and oblique flow response characteristics of current meters

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fulford, Janice M.; Thibodeaux, Kirk G.; Kaehrle, William R.

    1993-01-01

    Laboratory investigation into the precision and accuracy of various mechanical-current meters are presented. Horizontal-axis and vertical-axis meters that are used for the measurement of point velocities in streams and rivers were tested. Meters were tested for repeatability and response to oblique flows. Both horizontal- and vertical-axis meters were found to under- and over-register oblique flows with errors generally increasing as the velocity and angle of flow increased. For the oblique flow tests, magnitude of errors were smallest for horizontal-axis meters. Repeatability of all meters tested was good, with the horizontal- and vertical-axis meters performing similarly.

  18. High-accuracy, high-precision, high-resolution, continuous monitoring of urban greenhouse gas emissions? Results to date from INFLUX

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davis, K. J.; Brewer, A.; Cambaliza, M. O. L.; Deng, A.; Hardesty, M.; Gurney, K. R.; Heimburger, A. M. F.; Karion, A.; Lauvaux, T.; Lopez-Coto, I.; McKain, K.; Miles, N. L.; Patarasuk, R.; Prasad, K.; Razlivanov, I. N.; Richardson, S.; Sarmiento, D. P.; Shepson, P. B.; Sweeney, C.; Turnbull, J. C.; Whetstone, J. R.; Wu, K.

    2015-12-01

    The Indianapolis Flux Experiment (INFLUX) is testing the boundaries of our ability to use atmospheric measurements to quantify urban greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. The project brings together inventory assessments, tower-based and aircraft-based atmospheric measurements, and atmospheric modeling to provide high-accuracy, high-resolution, continuous monitoring of emissions of GHGs from the city. Results to date include a multi-year record of tower and aircraft based measurements of the urban CO2 and CH4 signal, long-term atmospheric modeling of GHG transport, and emission estimates for both CO2 and CH4 based on both tower and aircraft measurements. We will present these emissions estimates, the uncertainties in each, and our assessment of the primary needs for improvements in these emissions estimates. We will also present ongoing efforts to improve our understanding of atmospheric transport and background atmospheric GHG mole fractions, and to disaggregate GHG sources (e.g. biogenic vs. fossil fuel CO2 fluxes), topics that promise significant improvement in urban GHG emissions estimates.

  19. Accuracy and Precision in the Southern Hemisphere Additional Ozonesondes (SHADOZ) Dataset 1998-2000 in Light of the JOSIE-2000 Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Witte, J. C.; Thompson, A. M.; Schmidlin, F. J.; Oltmans, S. J.; McPeters, R. D.; Smit, H. G. J.

    2003-01-01

    A network of 12 southern hemisphere tropical and subtropical stations in the Southern Hemisphere ADditional OZonesondes (SHADOZ) project has provided over 2000 profiles of stratospheric and tropospheric ozone since 1998. Balloon-borne electrochemical concentration cell (ECC) ozonesondes are used with standard radiosondes for pressure, temperature and relative humidity measurements. The archived data are available at:http: //croc.gsfc.nasa.gov/shadoz. In Thompson et al., accuracies and imprecisions in the SHADOZ 1998- 2000 dataset were examined using ground-based instruments and the TOMS total ozone measurement (version 7) as references. Small variations in ozonesonde technique introduced possible biases from station-to-station. SHADOZ total ozone column amounts are now compared to version 8 TOMS; discrepancies between the two datasets are reduced 2\\% on average. An evaluation of ozone variations among the stations is made using the results of a series of chamber simulations of ozone launches (JOSIE-2000, Juelich Ozonesonde Intercomparison Experiment) in which a standard reference ozone instrument was employed with the various sonde techniques used in SHADOZ. A number of variations in SHADOZ ozone data are explained when differences in solution strength, data processing and instrument type (manufacturer) are taken into account.

  20. The effect of dilution and the use of a post-extraction nucleic acid purification column on the accuracy, precision, and inhibition of environmental DNA samples

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mckee, Anna M.; Spear, Stephen F.; Pierson, Todd W.

    2015-01-01

    Isolation of environmental DNA (eDNA) is an increasingly common method for detecting presence and assessing relative abundance of rare or elusive species in aquatic systems via the isolation of DNA from environmental samples and the amplification of species-specific sequences using quantitative PCR (qPCR). Co-extracted substances that inhibit qPCR can lead to inaccurate results and subsequent misinterpretation about a species’ status in the tested system. We tested three treatments (5-fold and 10-fold dilutions, and spin-column purification) for reducing qPCR inhibition from 21 partially and fully inhibited eDNA samples collected from coastal plain wetlands and mountain headwater streams in the southeastern USA. All treatments reduced the concentration of DNA in the samples. However, column purified samples retained the greatest sensitivity. For stream samples, all three treatments effectively reduced qPCR inhibition. However, for wetland samples, the 5-fold dilution was less effective than other treatments. Quantitative PCR results for column purified samples were more precise than the 5-fold and 10-fold dilutions by 2.2× and 3.7×, respectively. Column purified samples consistently underestimated qPCR-based DNA concentrations by approximately 25%, whereas the directional bias in qPCR-based DNA concentration estimates differed between stream and wetland samples for both dilution treatments. While the directional bias of qPCR-based DNA concentration estimates differed among treatments and locations, the magnitude of inaccuracy did not. Our results suggest that 10-fold dilution and column purification effectively reduce qPCR inhibition in mountain headwater stream and coastal plain wetland eDNA samples, and if applied to all samples in a study, column purification may provide the most accurate relative qPCR-based DNA concentrations estimates while retaining the greatest assay sensitivity.

  1. Re-Os geochronology of the El Salvador porphyry Cu-Mo deposit, Chile: Tracking analytical improvements in accuracy and precision over the past decade

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zimmerman, Aaron; Stein, Holly J.; Morgan, John W.; Markey, Richard J.; Watanabe, Yasushi

    2014-04-01

    deposit geochronology. The timing and duration of mineralization from Re-Os dating of ore minerals is more precise than estimates from previously reported 40Ar/39Ar and K-Ar ages on alteration minerals. The Re-Os results suggest that the mineralization is temporally distinct from pre-mineral rhyolite porphyry (42.63 ± 0.28 Ma) and is immediately prior to or overlapping with post-mineral latite dike emplacement (41.16 ± 0.48 Ma). Based on the Re-Os and other geochronologic data, the Middle Eocene intrusive activity in the El Salvador district is divided into three pulses: (1) 44-42.5 Ma for weakly mineralized porphyry intrusions, (2) 41.8-41.2 Ma for intensely mineralized porphyry intrusions, and (3) ∼41 Ma for small latite dike intrusions without major porphyry stocks. The orientation of igneous dikes and porphyry stocks changed from NNE-SSW during the first pulse to WNW-ESE for the second and third pulses. This implies that the WNW-ESE striking stress changed from σ3 (minimum principal compressive stress) during the first pulse to σHmax (maximum principal compressional stress in a horizontal plane) during the second and third pulses. Therefore, the focus of intense porphyry Cu-Mo mineralization occurred during a transient geodynamic reconfiguration just before extinction of major intrusive activity in the region.

  2. Precision Attitude Determination for an Infrared Space Telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Benford, Dominic J.

    2008-01-01

    We have developed performance simulations for a precision attitude determination system using a focal plane star tracker on an infrared space telescope. The telescope is being designed for the Destiny mission to measure cosmologically distant supernovae as one of the candidate implementations for the Joint Dark Energy Mission. Repeat observations of the supernovae require attitude control at the level of 0.010 arcseconds (0.05 microradians) during integrations and at repeat intervals up to and over a year. While absolute accuracy is not required, the repoint precision is challenging. We have simulated the performance of a focal plane star tracker in a multidimensional parameter space, including pixel size, read noise, and readout rate. Systematic errors such as proper motion, velocity aberration, and parallax can be measured and compensated out. Our prediction is that a relative attitude determination accuracy of 0.001 to 0.002 arcseconds (0.005 to 0.010 microradians) will be achievable.

  3. Both the Exact Target Site Sequence and a Long Poly(A) Tail Are Required for Precise Insertion of the 18S Ribosomal DNA-Specific Non-Long Terminal Repeat Retrotransposon R7Ag.

    PubMed

    Nichuguti, Narisu; Hayase, Mayumi; Fujiwara, Haruhiko

    2016-05-15

    Ribosomal elements (R elements) are site-specific non-long terminal repeat (LTR) retrotransposons that target ribosomal DNA (rDNA). To elucidate how R elements specifically access their target sites, we isolated and characterized the 18S rDNA-specific R element R7Ag from Anopheles gambiae Using an in vivo and ex vivo recombinant baculovirus retrotransposition system, we found that the exact host 18S rDNA sequence at the target site is essential for the precise insertion of R7Ag. In addition, a long poly(A) tail is necessary for the accurate initiation of R7Ag reverse transcription, a novel mechanism found in non-LTR elements. We further compared the subcellular localizations of proteins in R7Ag as well as R1Bm, another R element that targets 28S rDNA. Although the open reading frame 1 proteins (ORF1ps) of both R7Ag and R1Bm localized predominantly in the cytoplasm, ORF2 proteins (ORF2ps) colocalized in the nucleus with the nucleolar marker fibrillarin. The ORF1ps and ORF2ps of both R elements colocalized largely in the nuclear periphery and to a lesser extent within the nucleus. These results suggest that R7Ag and R1Bm proteins may access nucleolar rDNA targets in an ORF2p-dependent manner. PMID:26976636

  4. Digital image centering. I. [for precision astrometry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Van Altena, W. F.; Auer, L. H.

    1975-01-01

    A series of parallax plates have been measured on a PDS microdensitometer to assess the possibility of using the PDS for precision relative astrometry and to investigate centering algorithms that might be used to analyze digital images obtained with the Large Space Telescope. The basic repeatability of the PDS is found to be plus or minus 0.6 micron, with the potential for reaching plus or minus 0.2 micron. A very efficient centering algorithm has been developed which fits the marginal density distributions of the image with a Gaussian profile and a sloping background. The accuracy is comparable with the best results obtained with a photoelectric image bisector.

  5. System for precise position registration

    DOEpatents

    Sundelin, Ronald M.; Wang, Tong

    2005-11-22

    An apparatus for enabling accurate retaining of a precise position, such as for reacquisition of a microscopic spot or feature having a size of 0.1 mm or less, on broad-area surfaces after non-in situ processing. The apparatus includes a sample and sample holder. The sample holder includes a base and three support posts. Two of the support posts interact with a cylindrical hole and a U-groove in the sample to establish location of one point on the sample and a line through the sample. Simultaneous contact of the third support post with the surface of the sample defines a plane through the sample. All points of the sample are therefore uniquely defined by the sample and sample holder. The position registration system of the current invention provides accuracy, as measured in x, y repeatability, of at least 140 .mu.m.

  6. Seasonal Effects on GPS PPP Accuracy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saracoglu, Aziz; Ugur Sanli, D.

    2016-04-01

    GPS Precise Point Positioning (PPP) is now routinely used in many geophysical applications. Static positioning and 24 h data are requested for high precision results however real life situations do not always let us collect 24 h data. Thus repeated GPS surveys of 8-10 h observation sessions are still used by some research groups. Positioning solutions from shorter data spans are subject to various systematic influences, and the positioning quality as well as the estimated velocity is degraded. Researchers pay attention to the accuracy of GPS positions and of the estimated velocities derived from short observation sessions. Recently some research groups turned their attention to the study of seasonal effects (i.e. meteorological seasons) on GPS solutions. Up to now usually regional studies have been reported. In this study, we adopt a global approach and study the various seasonal effects (including the effect of the annual signal) on GPS solutions produced from short observation sessions. We use the PPP module of the NASA/JPL's GIPSY/OASIS II software and globally distributed GPS stations' data of the International GNSS Service. Accuracy studies previously performed with 10-30 consecutive days of continuous data. Here, data from each month of a year, incorporating two years in succession, is used in the analysis. Our major conclusion is that a reformulation for the GPS positioning accuracy is necessary when taking into account the seasonal effects, and typical one term accuracy formulation is expanded to a two-term one.

  7. Relative accuracy evaluation.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yan; Wang, Hongzhi; Yang, Zhongsheng; Li, Jianzhong

    2014-01-01

    The quality of data plays an important role in business analysis and decision making, and data accuracy is an important aspect in data quality. Thus one necessary task for data quality management is to evaluate the accuracy of the data. And in order to solve the problem that the accuracy of the whole data set is low while a useful part may be high, it is also necessary to evaluate the accuracy of the query results, called relative accuracy. However, as far as we know, neither measure nor effective methods for the accuracy evaluation methods are proposed. Motivated by this, for relative accuracy evaluation, we propose a systematic method. We design a relative accuracy evaluation framework for relational databases based on a new metric to measure the accuracy using statistics. We apply the methods to evaluate the precision and recall of basic queries, which show the result's relative accuracy. We also propose the method to handle data update and to improve accuracy evaluation using functional dependencies. Extensive experimental results show the effectiveness and efficiency of our proposed framework and algorithms. PMID:25133752

  8. Relative Accuracy Evaluation

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yan; Wang, Hongzhi; Yang, Zhongsheng; Li, Jianzhong

    2014-01-01

    The quality of data plays an important role in business analysis and decision making, and data accuracy is an important aspect in data quality. Thus one necessary task for data quality management is to evaluate the accuracy of the data. And in order to solve the problem that the accuracy of the whole data set is low while a useful part may be high, it is also necessary to evaluate the accuracy of the query results, called relative accuracy. However, as far as we know, neither measure nor effective methods for the accuracy evaluation methods are proposed. Motivated by this, for relative accuracy evaluation, we propose a systematic method. We design a relative accuracy evaluation framework for relational databases based on a new metric to measure the accuracy using statistics. We apply the methods to evaluate the precision and recall of basic queries, which show the result's relative accuracy. We also propose the method to handle data update and to improve accuracy evaluation using functional dependencies. Extensive experimental results show the effectiveness and efficiency of our proposed framework and algorithms. PMID:25133752

  9. Repeating thermocouple

    SciTech Connect

    Falk, R. A.

    1985-06-04

    Disclosed herein is a repeating use thermocouple assembly and method of making the same in which a cavity adjacent the tip of the thermocouple is filled with a thermosetting foundry sand and baked in place to provide support for the thermocouple tube without causing stresses during use which could cause breakage of the thermocouple tube.

  10. Precision electron polarimetry

    SciTech Connect

    Chudakov, Eugene A.

    2013-11-01

    A new generation of precise Parity-Violating experiments will require a sub-percent accuracy of electron beam polarimetry. Compton polarimetry can provide such accuracy at high energies, but at a few hundred MeV the small analyzing power limits the sensitivity. M{\\o}ller polarimetry provides a high analyzing power independent on the beam energy, but is limited by the properties of the polarized targets commonly used. Options for precision polarimetry at ~300 MeV will be discussed, in particular a proposal to use ultra-cold atomic hydrogen traps to provide a 100\\%-polarized electron target for M{\\o}ller polarimetry.

  11. Precision electron polarimetry

    SciTech Connect

    Chudakov, E.

    2013-11-07

    A new generation of precise Parity-Violating experiments will require a sub-percent accuracy of electron beam polarimetry. Compton polarimetry can provide such accuracy at high energies, but at a few hundred MeV the small analyzing power limits the sensitivity. Mo/ller polarimetry provides a high analyzing power independent on the beam energy, but is limited by the properties of the polarized targets commonly used. Options for precision polarimetry at 300 MeV will be discussed, in particular a proposal to use ultra-cold atomic hydrogen traps to provide a 100%-polarized electron target for Mo/ller polarimetry.

  12. SU-E-P-54: Evaluation of the Accuracy and Precision of IGPS-O X-Ray Image-Guided Positioning System by Comparison with On-Board Imager Cone-Beam Computed Tomography

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, D; Wang, W; Jiang, B; Fu, D

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: The purpose of this study is to assess the positioning accuracy and precision of IGPS-O system which is a novel radiographic kilo-voltage x-ray image-guided positioning system developed for clinical IGRT applications. Methods: IGPS-O x-ray image-guided positioning system consists of two oblique sets of radiographic kilo-voltage x-ray projecting and imaging devices which were equiped on the ground and ceiling of treatment room. This system can determine the positioning error in the form of three translations and three rotations according to the registration of two X-ray images acquired online and the planning CT image. An anthropomorphic head phantom and an anthropomorphic thorax phantom were used for this study. The phantom was set up on the treatment table with correct position and various “planned” setup errors. Both IGPS-O x-ray image-guided positioning system and the commercial On-board Imager Cone-beam Computed Tomography (OBI CBCT) were used to obtain the setup errors of the phantom. Difference of the Result between the two image-guided positioning systems were computed and analyzed. Results: The setup errors measured by IGPS-O x-ray image-guided positioning system and the OBI CBCT system showed a general agreement, the means and standard errors of the discrepancies between the two systems in the left-right, anterior-posterior, superior-inferior directions were −0.13±0.09mm, 0.03±0.25mm, 0.04±0.31mm, respectively. The maximum difference was only 0.51mm in all the directions and the angular discrepancy was 0.3±0.5° between the two systems. Conclusion: The spatial and angular discrepancies between IGPS-O system and OBI CBCT for setup error correction was minimal. There is a general agreement between the two positioning system. IGPS-O x-ray image-guided positioning system can achieve as good accuracy as CBCT and can be used in the clinical IGRT applications.

  13. Precision performance lamp technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bell, Dean A.; Kiesa, James E.; Dean, Raymond A.

    1997-09-01

    A principal function of a lamp is to produce light output with designated spectra, intensity, and/or geometric radiation patterns. The function of a precision performance lamp is to go beyond these parameters and into the precision repeatability of performance. All lamps are not equal. There are a variety of incandescent lamps, from the vacuum incandescent indictor lamp to the precision lamp of a blood analyzer. In the past the definition of a precision lamp was described in terms of wattage, light center length (LCL), filament position, and/or spot alignment. This paper presents a new view of precision lamps through the discussion of a new segment of lamp design, which we term precision performance lamps. The definition of precision performance lamps will include (must include) the factors of a precision lamp. But what makes a precision lamp a precision performance lamp is the manner in which the design factors of amperage, mscp (mean spherical candlepower), efficacy (lumens/watt), life, not considered individually but rather considered collectively. There is a statistical bias in a precision performance lamp for each of these factors; taken individually and as a whole. When properly considered the results can be dramatic to the system design engineer, system production manage and the system end-user. It can be shown that for the lamp user, the use of precision performance lamps can translate to: (1) ease of system design, (2) simplification of electronics, (3) superior signal to noise ratios, (4) higher manufacturing yields, (5) lower system costs, (6) better product performance. The factors mentioned above are described along with their interdependent relationships. It is statistically shown how the benefits listed above are achievable. Examples are provided to illustrate how proper attention to precision performance lamp characteristics actually aid in system product design and manufacturing to build and market more, market acceptable product products in the

  14. Repeated Reading.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moyer, Sandra B.

    1982-01-01

    The article reviews research on the use of multiple oral rereading (MOR) with reading disabled students. MOR uses daily practice on a selection of little difficulty. Its effectiveness in increasing fluency (accuracy and speed) is examined, and the role of redundancy in three types of reading models is analyzed. (CL)

  15. Repeating seismic events in China.

    PubMed

    Schaff, David P; Richards, Paul G

    2004-02-20

    About 10% of seismic events in and near China from 1985 to 2000 were repeating events not more than about 1 kilometer from each other. We cross-correlated seismograms from approximately 14,000 earthquakes and explosions and measured relative arrival times to approximately 0.01 second, enabling lateral location precision of about 100 to 300 meters. Such precision is important for seismic hazard studies, earthquake physics, and nuclear test ban verification. Recognition and measurement of repeating signals in archived data and the resulting improvement in location specificity quantifies the inaccuracy of current procedures for picking onset times and locating events. PMID:14976310

  16. Application of AFINCH as a Tool for Evaluating the Effects of Streamflow-Gaging-Network Size and Composition on the Accuracy and Precision of Streamflow Estimates at Ungaged Locations in the Southeast Lake Michigan Hydrologic Subregion

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Koltun, G.F.; Holtschlag, David J.

    2010-01-01

    Bootstrapping techniques employing random subsampling were used with the AFINCH (Analysis of Flows In Networks of CHannels) model to gain insights into the effects of variation in streamflow-gaging-network size and composition on the accuracy and precision of streamflow estimates at ungaged locations in the 0405 (Southeast Lake Michigan) hydrologic subregion. AFINCH uses stepwise-regression techniques to estimate monthly water yields from catchments based on geospatial-climate and land-cover data in combination with available streamflow and water-use data. Calculations are performed on a hydrologic-subregion scale for each catchment and stream reach contained in a National Hydrography Dataset Plus (NHDPlus) subregion. Water yields from contributing catchments are multiplied by catchment areas and resulting flow values are accumulated to compute streamflows in stream reaches which are referred to as flow lines. AFINCH imposes constraints on water yields to ensure that observed streamflows are conserved at gaged locations. Data from the 0405 hydrologic subregion (referred to as Southeast Lake Michigan) were used for the analyses. Daily streamflow data were measured in the subregion for 1 or more years at a total of 75 streamflow-gaging stations during the analysis period which spanned water years 1971-2003. The number of streamflow gages in operation each year during the analysis period ranged from 42 to 56 and averaged 47. Six sets (one set for each censoring level), each composed of 30 random subsets of the 75 streamflow gages, were created by censoring (removing) approximately 10, 20, 30, 40, 50, and 75 percent of the streamflow gages (the actual percentage of operating streamflow gages censored for each set varied from year to year, and within the year from subset to subset, but averaged approximately the indicated percentages). Streamflow estimates for six flow lines each were aggregated by censoring level, and results were analyzed to assess (a) how the size

  17. Accuracy of Digital vs. Conventional Implant Impressions

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Sang J.; Betensky, Rebecca A.; Gianneschi, Grace E.; Gallucci, German O.

    2015-01-01

    The accuracy of digital impressions greatly influences the clinical viability in implant restorations. The aim of this study is to compare the accuracy of gypsum models acquired from the conventional implant impression to digitally milled models created from direct digitalization by three-dimensional analysis. Thirty gypsum and 30 digitally milled models impressed directly from a reference model were prepared. The models were scanned by a laboratory scanner and 30 STL datasets from each group were imported to an inspection software. The datasets were aligned to the reference dataset by a repeated best fit algorithm and 10 specified contact locations of interest were measured in mean volumetric deviations. The areas were pooled by cusps, fossae, interproximal contacts, horizontal and vertical axes of implant position and angulation. The pooled areas were statistically analysed by comparing each group to the reference model to investigate the mean volumetric deviations accounting for accuracy and standard deviations for precision. Milled models from digital impressions had comparable accuracy to gypsum models from conventional impressions. However, differences in fossae and vertical displacement of the implant position from the gypsum and digitally milled models compared to the reference model, exhibited statistical significance (p<0.001, p=0.020 respectively). PMID:24720423

  18. Identification of WD40 repeats by secondary structure-aided profile-profile alignment.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chuan; Dong, Xiaobao; Han, Lei; Su, Xiao-Dong; Zhang, Ziding; Li, Jinyan; Song, Jiangning

    2016-06-01

    A WD40 protein typically contains four or more repeats of ~40 residues ended with the Trp-Asp dipeptide, which folds into β-propellers with four β strands in each repeat. They often function as scaffolds for protein-protein interactions and are involved in numerous fundamental biological processes. Despite their important functional role, the "velcro" closure of WD40 propellers and the diversity of WD40 repeats make their identification a difficult task. Here we develop a new WD40 Repeat Recognition method (WDRR), which uses predicted secondary structure information to generate candidate repeat segments, and further employs a profile-profile alignment to identify the correct WD40 repeats from candidate segments. In particular, we design a novel alignment scoring function that combines dot product and BLOSUM62, thereby achieving a great balance of sensitivity and accuracy. Taking advantage of these strategies, WDRR could effectively reduce the false positive rate and accurately identify more remote homologous WD40 repeats with precise repeat boundaries. We further use WDRR to re-annotate the Pfam families in the β-propeller clan (CL0186) and identify a number of WD40 repeat proteins with high confidence across nine model organisms. The WDRR web server and the datasets are available at http://protein.cau.edu.cn/wdrr/. PMID:27021623

  19. Online image-guided intensity-modulated radiotherapy for prostate cancer: How much improvement can we expect? A theoretical assessment of clinical benefits and potential dose escalation by improving precision and accuracy of radiation delivery

    SciTech Connect

    Ghilezan, Michel; Yan Di . E-mail: dyan@beaumont.edu; Liang Jian; Jaffray, David; Wong, John; Martinez, Alvaro

    2004-12-01

    Purpose: To quantify the theoretical benefit, in terms of improvement in precision and accuracy of treatment delivery and in dose increase, of using online image-guided intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IG-IMRT) performed with onboard cone-beam computed tomography (CT), in an ideal setting of no intrafraction motion/deformation, in the treatment of prostate cancer. Methods and materials: Twenty-two prostate cancer patients treated with conventional radiotherapy underwent multiple serial CT scans (median 18 scans per patient) during their treatment. We assumed that these data sets were equivalent to image sets obtainable by an onboard cone-beam CT. Each patient treatment was simulated with conventional IMRT and online IG-IMRT separately. The conventional IMRT plan was generated on the basis of pretreatment CT, with a clinical target volume to planning target volume (CTV-to-PTV) margin of 1 cm, and the online IG-IMRT plan was created before each treatment fraction on the basis of the CT scan of the day, without CTV-to-PTV margin. The inverse planning process was similar for both conventional IMRT and online IG-IMRT. Treatment dose for each organ of interest was quantified, including patient daily setup error and internal organ motion/deformation. We used generalized equivalent uniform dose (EUD) to compare the two approaches. The generalized EUD (percentage) of each organ of interest was scaled relative to the prescription dose at treatment isocenter for evaluation and comparison. On the basis of bladder wall and rectal wall EUD, a dose-escalation coefficient was calculated, representing the potential increment of the treatment dose achievable with online IG-IMRT as compared with conventional IMRT. Results: With respect to radiosensitive tumor, the average EUD for the target (prostate plus seminal vesicles) was 96.8% for conventional IMRT and 98.9% for online IG-IMRT, with standard deviations (SDs) of 5.6% and 0.7%, respectively (p < 0.0001). The average EUDs of

  20. Temporal accuracy of human cortico-cortical interactions

    PubMed Central

    Abeles, Moshe

    2016-01-01

    The precision in space and time of interactions among multiple cortical sites was evaluated by examining repeating precise spatiotemporal patterns of instances in which cortical currents showed brief amplitude undulations. The amplitudes of the cortical current dipoles were estimated by applying a variant of synthetic aperture magnetometry to magnetoencephalographic (MEG) recordings of subjects tapping to metric auditory rhythms of drum beats. Brief amplitude undulations were detected in the currents by template matching at a rate of 2–3 per second. Their timing was treated as point processes, and precise spatiotemporal patterns were searched for. By randomly teetering these point processes within a time window W, we estimated the accuracy of the timing of these brief amplitude undulations and compared the results with those obtained by applying the same analysis to traces composed of random numbers. The results demonstrated that the timing accuracy of patterns was better than 3 ms. Successful classification of two different cognitive processes based on these patterns suggests that at least some of the repeating patterns are specific to a cognitive process. PMID:26843604

  1. Temporal accuracy of human cortico-cortical interactions.

    PubMed

    Tal, Idan; Abeles, Moshe

    2016-04-01

    The precision in space and time of interactions among multiple cortical sites was evaluated by examining repeating precise spatiotemporal patterns of instances in which cortical currents showed brief amplitude undulations. The amplitudes of the cortical current dipoles were estimated by applying a variant of synthetic aperture magnetometry to magnetoencephalographic (MEG) recordings of subjects tapping to metric auditory rhythms of drum beats. Brief amplitude undulations were detected in the currents by template matching at a rate of 2-3 per second. Their timing was treated as point processes, and precise spatiotemporal patterns were searched for. By randomly teetering these point processes within a time windowW, we estimated the accuracy of the timing of these brief amplitude undulations and compared the results with those obtained by applying the same analysis to traces composed of random numbers. The results demonstrated that the timing accuracy of patterns was better than 3 ms. Successful classification of two different cognitive processes based on these patterns suggests that at least some of the repeating patterns are specific to a cognitive process. PMID:26843604

  2. Laser focus positioning method with submicrometer accuracy.

    PubMed

    Alexeev, Ilya; Strauss, Johannes; Gröschl, Andreas; Cvecek, Kristian; Schmidt, Michael

    2013-01-20

    Accurate positioning of a sample is one of the primary challenges in laser micromanufacturing. There are a number of methods that allow detection of the surface position; however, only a few of them use the beam of the processing laser as a basis for the measurement. Those methods have an advantage that any changes in the processing laser beam can be inherently accommodated. This work describes a direct, contact-free method to accurately determine workpiece position with respect to the structuring laser beam focal plane based on nonlinear harmonic generation. The method makes workpiece alignment precise and time efficient due to ease of automation and provides the repeatability and accuracy of the surface detection of less than 1 μm. PMID:23338188

  3. Precision digital control systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vyskub, V. G.; Rozov, B. S.; Savelev, V. I.

    This book is concerned with the characteristics of digital control systems of great accuracy. A classification of such systems is considered along with aspects of stabilization, programmable control applications, digital tracking systems and servomechanisms, and precision systems for the control of a scanning laser beam. Other topics explored are related to systems of proportional control, linear devices and methods for increasing precision, approaches for further decreasing the response time in the case of high-speed operation, possibilities for the implementation of a logical control law, and methods for the study of precision digital control systems. A description is presented of precision automatic control systems which make use of electronic computers, taking into account the existing possibilities for an employment of computers in automatic control systems, approaches and studies required for including a computer in such control systems, and an analysis of the structure of automatic control systems with computers. Attention is also given to functional blocks in the considered systems.

  4. Duct Leakage Repeatability Testing

    SciTech Connect

    Walker, Iain; Sherman, Max

    2014-01-01

    Duct leakage often needs to be measured to demonstrate compliance with requirements or to determine energy or Indoor Air Quality (IAQ) impacts. Testing is often done using standards such as ASTM E1554 (ASTM 2013) or California Title 24 (California Energy Commission 2013 & 2013b), but there are several choices of methods available within the accepted standards. Determining which method to use or not use requires an evaluation of those methods in the context of the particular needs. Three factors that are important considerations are the cost of the measurement, the accuracy of the measurement and the repeatability of the measurement. The purpose of this report is to evaluate the repeatability of the three most significant measurement techniques using data from the literature and recently obtained field data. We will also briefly discuss the first two factors. The main question to be answered by this study is to determine if differences in the repeatability of these tests methods is sufficient to indicate that any of these methods is so poor that it should be excluded from consideration as an allowed procedure in codes and standards.

  5. The GBT precision telescope control system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prestage, Richard M.; Constantikes, Kim T.; Balser, Dana S.; Condon, James J.

    2004-10-01

    The NRAO Robert C. Byrd Green Bank Telescope (GBT) is a 100m diameter advanced single dish radio telescope designed for a wide range of astronomical projects with special emphasis on precision imaging. Open-loop adjustments of the active surface, and real-time corrections to pointing and focus on the basis of structural temperatures already allow observations at frequencies up to 50GHz. Our ultimate goal is to extend the observing frequency limit up to 115GHz; this will require a two dimensional tracking error better than 1.3", and an rms surface accuracy better than 210μm. The Precision Telescope Control System project has two main components. One aspect is the continued deployment of appropriate metrology systems, including temperature sensors, inclinometers, laser rangefinders and other devices. An improved control system architecture will harness this measurement capability with the existing servo systems, to deliver the precision operation required. The second aspect is the execution of a series of experiments to identify, understand and correct the residual pointing and surface accuracy errors. These can have multiple causes, many of which depend on variable environmental conditions. A particularly novel approach is to solve simultaneously for gravitational, thermal and wind effects in the development of the telescope pointing and focus tracking models. Our precision temperature sensor system has already allowed us to compensate for thermal gradients in the antenna, which were previously responsible for the largest "non-repeatable" pointing and focus tracking errors. We are currently targetting the effects of wind as the next, currently uncompensated, source of error.

  6. Strategies for high-precision Global Positioning System orbit determination

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lichten, Stephen M.; Border, James S.

    1987-01-01

    Various strategies for the high-precision orbit determination of the GPS satellites are explored using data from the 1985 GPS field test. Several refinements to the orbit determination strategies were found to be crucial for achieving high levels of repeatability and accuracy. These include the fine tuning of the GPS solar radiation coefficients and the ground station zenith tropospheric delays. Multiday arcs of 3-6 days provided better orbits and baselines than the 8-hr arcs from single-day passes. Highest-quality orbits and baselines were obtained with combined carrier phase and pseudorange solutions.

  7. Approaching improved adhesive bonding repeatability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schlette, Christian; Müller, Tobias; Roβmann, Jürgen; Brecher, Christian

    2016-03-01

    Today, the precision of micro-optics assembly is mostly limited by the accuracy of the bonding process ― and in the case of adhesive bonding by the prediction and compensation of adhesive shrinkage during curing. In this contribution, we present a novel approach to address adhesive bonding based on hybrid control system theory. In hybrid control, dynamic systems are described as "plants" which produce discrete and/or continuous outputs from given discrete and/or continuous inputs, thus yielding a hybrid state space description of the system. The task of hybrid controllers is to observe the plant and to generate a discrete and/or continuous input sequence that guides or holds the plant in a desired target state region while avoiding invalid or unwanted intermediate states. Our approach is based on a series of experiments carried out in order to analyze, define and decouple the dependencies of adhesive shrinkage on multiple parameters, such as application geometries, fixture forces and UV intensities. As some of the dependencies describe continuous effects (e.g. shrinkage from UV intensity) and other dependencies describe discrete state transitions (e.g. fixture removal during curing), the resulting model of the overall bonding process is a hybrid dynamic system in the general case. For this plant model, we then propose a concept of sampling-based parameter search as a basis to design suitable hybrid controllers, which have the potential to optimize process control for a selection of assembly steps, thus improving the repeatability of related production steps like beam-shaping optics or mounting of turning mirrors for fiber coupling.

  8. Overlay accuracy fundamentals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kandel, Daniel; Levinski, Vladimir; Sapiens, Noam; Cohen, Guy; Amit, Eran; Klein, Dana; Vakshtein, Irina

    2012-03-01

    Currently, the performance of overlay metrology is evaluated mainly based on random error contributions such as precision and TIS variability. With the expected shrinkage of the overlay metrology budget to < 0.5nm, it becomes crucial to include also systematic error contributions which affect the accuracy of the metrology. Here we discuss fundamental aspects of overlay accuracy and a methodology to improve accuracy significantly. We identify overlay mark imperfections and their interaction with the metrology technology, as the main source of overlay inaccuracy. The most important type of mark imperfection is mark asymmetry. Overlay mark asymmetry leads to a geometrical ambiguity in the definition of overlay, which can be ~1nm or less. It is shown theoretically and in simulations that the metrology may enhance the effect of overlay mark asymmetry significantly and lead to metrology inaccuracy ~10nm, much larger than the geometrical ambiguity. The analysis is carried out for two different overlay metrology technologies: Imaging overlay and DBO (1st order diffraction based overlay). It is demonstrated that the sensitivity of DBO to overlay mark asymmetry is larger than the sensitivity of imaging overlay. Finally, we show that a recently developed measurement quality metric serves as a valuable tool for improving overlay metrology accuracy. Simulation results demonstrate that the accuracy of imaging overlay can be improved significantly by recipe setup optimized using the quality metric. We conclude that imaging overlay metrology, complemented by appropriate use of measurement quality metric, results in optimal overlay accuracy.

  9. Precision Nova operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ehrlich, Robert B.; Miller, John L.; Saunders, Rodney L.; Thompson, Calvin E.; Weiland, Timothy L.; Laumann, Curt W.

    1995-12-01

    To improve the symmetry of x-ray drive on indirectly driven ICF capsules, we have increased the accuracy of operating procedures and diagnostics on the Nova laser. Precision Nova operations include routine precision power balance to within 10% rms in the 'foot' and 5% rms in the peak of shaped pulses, beam synchronization to within 10 ps rms, and pointing of the beams onto targets to within 35 micrometer rms. We have also added a 'fail-safe chirp' system to avoid stimulated Brillouin scattering (SBS) in optical components during high energy shots.

  10. Precision Nova operations

    SciTech Connect

    Ehrlich, R.B.; Miller, J.L.; Saunders, R.L.; Thompson, C.E.; Weiland, T.L.; Laumann, C.W.

    1995-09-01

    To improve the symmetry of x-ray drive on indirectly driven ICF capsules, we have increased the accuracy of operating procedures and diagnostics on the Nova laser. Precision Nova operations includes routine precision power balance to within 10% rms in the ``foot`` and 5% nns in the peak of shaped pulses, beam synchronization to within 10 ps rms, and pointing of the beams onto targets to within 35 {mu}m rms. We have also added a ``fail-safe chirp`` system to avoid Stimulated Brillouin Scattering (SBS) in optical components during high energy shots.

  11. Precision GPS orbit determination strategies for an earth orbiter and geodetic tracking system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lichten, Stephen M.; Bertiger, Willy I.; Border, James S.

    1988-01-01

    Data from two 1985 GPS field tests were processed and precise GPS orbits were determined. With a combined carrier phase and pseudorange, the 1314-km repeatability improves substantially to 5 parts in 10 to the 9th (0.6 cm) in the north and 2 parts in 10 to the 8th (2-3 cm) in the other components. To achieve these levels of repeatability and accuracy, it is necessary to fine-tune the GPS solar radiation coefficients and ground station zenith tropospheric delays.

  12. Sub-Micron-Accuracy Gold-to-Gold Interconnection Flip-Chip Bonding Approach for Electronics-Optics Heterogeneous Integration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thanh Tung, Bui; Suzuki, Motohiro; Kato, Fumiki; Nemoto, Shunsuke; Watanabe, Naoki; Aoyagi, Masahiro

    2013-04-01

    High-precision integration has valuable meaning in heterogeneous convergent technology. In this paper we report on a new high-precision low-temperature bonding approach, capable of submicron alignment accuracy, based on the conventional ultrasonic flip-chip bonding technique and modified metal pad and bump elements. The interconnection pair made from a conductive-sloped hollow bonding pad (concave) and metal cone bump (convex) elements, i.e., misalignment self-correction elements, helps in aligning and maintaining the alignment between the chip and the substrate during stacking. By this method, the stacking accuracy can be improved significantly and effectively. Repeatable submicron (i.e., less than 500 nm) bonding accuracies are confirmed through experimental investigation. Moreover, reliable bond characteristics including electrical and mechanical properties are observed, validating the performance of the bonding approach. With these results, the proposed high-precision low-temperature bonding approach shows its suitability for heterogeneous electronics-optics integration applications.

  13. Positioning accuracy assessment for the 4GEO/5IGSO/2MEO constellation of COMPASS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, ShanShi; Cao, YueLing; Zhou, JianHua; Hu, XiaoGong; Tang, ChengPan; Liu, Li; Guo, Rui; He, Feng; Chen, JunPing; Wu, Bin

    2012-12-01

    Determined to become a new member of the well-established GNSS family, COMPASS (or BeiDou-2) is developing its capabilities to provide high accuracy positioning services. Two positioning modes are investigated in this study to assess the positioning accuracy of COMPASS' 4GEO/5IGSO/2MEO constellation. Precise Point Positioning (PPP) for geodetic users and real-time positioning for common navigation users are utilized. To evaluate PPP accuracy, coordinate time series repeatability and discrepancies with GPS' precise positioning are computed. Experiments show that COMPASS PPP repeatability for the east, north and up components of a receiver within mainland China is better than 2 cm, 2 cm and 5 cm, respectively. Apparent systematic offsets of several centimeters exist between COMPASS precise positioning and GPS precise positioning, indicating errors remaining in the treatments of COMPASS measurement and dynamic models and reference frame differences existing between two systems. For common positioning users, COMPASS provides both open and authorized services with rapid differential corrections and integrity information available to authorized users. Our assessment shows that in open service positioning accuracy of dual-frequency and single-frequency users is about 5 m and 6 m (RMS), respectively, which may be improved to about 3 m and 4 m (RMS) with the addition of differential corrections. Less accurate Signal In Space User Ranging Error (SIS URE) and Geometric Dilution of Precision (GDOP) contribute to the relatively inferior accuracy of COMPASS as compared to GPS. Since the deployment of the remaining 1 GEO and 2 MEO is not able to significantly improve GDOP, the performance gap could only be overcome either by the use of differential corrections or improvement of the SIS URE, or both.

  14. Precise Orbit Determination for ALOS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nakamura, Ryo; Nakamura, Shinichi; Kudo, Nobuo; Katagiri, Seiji

    2007-01-01

    The Advanced Land Observing Satellite (ALOS) has been developed to contribute to the fields of mapping, precise regional land coverage observation, disaster monitoring, and resource surveying. Because the mounted sensors need high geometrical accuracy, precise orbit determination for ALOS is essential for satisfying the mission objectives. So ALOS mounts a GPS receiver and a Laser Reflector (LR) for Satellite Laser Ranging (SLR). This paper deals with the precise orbit determination experiments for ALOS using Global and High Accuracy Trajectory determination System (GUTS) and the evaluation of the orbit determination accuracy by SLR data. The results show that, even though the GPS receiver loses lock of GPS signals more frequently than expected, GPS-based orbit is consistent with SLR-based orbit. And considering the 1 sigma error, orbit determination accuracy of a few decimeters (peak-to-peak) was achieved.

  15. Are Currently Available Wearable Devices for Activity Tracking and Heart Rate Monitoring Accurate, Precise, and Medically Beneficial?

    PubMed Central

    El-Amrawy, Fatema

    2015-01-01

    Objectives The new wave of wireless technologies, fitness trackers, and body sensor devices can have great impact on healthcare systems and the quality of life. However, there have not been enough studies to prove the accuracy and precision of these trackers. The objective of this study was to evaluate the accuracy, precision, and overall performance of seventeen wearable devices currently available compared with direct observation of step counts and heart rate monitoring. Methods Each participant in this study used three accelerometers at a time, running the three corresponding applications of each tracker on an Android or iOS device simultaneously. Each participant was instructed to walk 200, 500, and 1,000 steps. Each set was repeated 40 times. Data was recorded after each trial, and the mean step count, standard deviation, accuracy, and precision were estimated for each tracker. Heart rate was measured by all trackers (if applicable), which support heart rate monitoring, and compared to a positive control, the Onyx Vantage 9590 professional clinical pulse oximeter. Results The accuracy of the tested products ranged between 79.8% and 99.1%, while the coefficient of variation (precision) ranged between 4% and 17.5%. MisFit Shine showed the highest accuracy and precision (along with Qualcomm Toq), while Samsung Gear 2 showed the lowest accuracy, and Jawbone UP showed the lowest precision. However, Xiaomi Mi band showed the best package compared to its price. Conclusions The accuracy and precision of the selected fitness trackers are reasonable and can indicate the average level of activity and thus average energy expenditure. PMID:26618039

  16. Accuracy and precision of gravitational-wave models of inspiraling neutron star-black hole binaries with spin: Comparison with matter-free numerical relativity in the low-frequency regime

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhagwat, Swetha; Kumar, Prayush; Barkett, Kevin; Afshari, Nousha; Brown, Duncan A.; Lovelace, Geoffrey; Scheel, Mark A.; Szilagyi, Bela; LIGO Collaboration

    2016-03-01

    Detection of gravitational wave involves extracting extremely weak signal from noisy data and their detection depends crucially on the accuracy of the signal models. The most accurate models of compact binary coalescence are known to come from solving the Einstein's equation numerically without any approximations. However, this is computationally formidable. As a more practical alternative, several analytic or semi analytic approximations are developed to model these waveforms. However, the work of Nitz et al. (2013) demonstrated that there is disagreement between these models. We present a careful follow up study on accuracies of different waveform families for spinning black-hole neutron star binaries, in context of both detection and parameter estimation and find that SEOBNRv2 to be the most faithful model. Post Newtonian models can be used for detection but we find that they could lead to large parameter bias. Supported by National Science Foundation (NSF) Awards No. PHY-1404395 and No. AST-1333142.

  17. Ultra-precise particle velocities in pulsed supersonic beams

    SciTech Connect

    Christen, Wolfgang

    2013-07-14

    We describe an improved experimental method for the generation of cold, directed particle bunches, and the highly accurate determination of their velocities in a pulsed supersonic beam, allowing for high-resolution experiments of atoms, molecules, and clusters. It is characterized by a pulsed high pressure jet source with high brilliance and optimum repeatability, a flight distance of few metres that can be varied with a tolerance of setting of 50 {mu}m, and a precision in the mean flight time of particles of better than 10{sup -4}. The technique achieves unmatched accuracies in particle velocities and kinetic energies and also permits the reliable determination of enthalpy changes with very high precision.

  18. High-precision Photogrammetric Surface Figure Measurements under Cryogenic Environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lou, Z.; Qian, Y.; Fan, S. H.; Liu, C. R.; Wang, H. R.; Zuo, Y. X.; Cheng, J. Q.; Yang, J.

    2016-01-01

    Limited by the working temperature of the measurement equipments, most of the high-precision surface figure measurement techniques cannot be applied under a cryogenic environment. This paper reports the first attempt to measure the surface figure of a high-precision terahertz reflector panel under low temperatures based on photogrammetry. The measurement employs a high resolution industrial camera sitting on an automatic experimental platform which enables photos been taken in an automatic fashion inside a climate chamber. A repeatable accuracy of 2.1 μm rms is achieved under the cryogenic environment. Furthermore, surface figure measured by a three-coordinate measuring machine under room temperature is used to calibrate the thickness variation of the paper targets. By this technique, the surface figure of an aluminum prototype panel of the 5 meter Dome A Terahertz Telescope (DATE5) is measured from room temperature down to -55°C.

  19. High accuracy wall thickness loss monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gajdacsi, Attila; Cegla, Frederic

    2014-02-01

    Ultrasonic inspection of wall thickness in pipes is a standard technique applied widely in the petrochemical industry. The potential precision of repeat measurements with permanently installed ultrasonic sensors however significantly surpasses that of handheld sensors as uncertainties associated with coupling fluids and positional offsets are eliminated. With permanently installed sensors the precise evaluation of very small wall loss rates becomes feasible in a matter of hours. The improved accuracy and speed of wall loss rate measurements can be used to evaluate and develop more effective mitigation strategies. This paper presents an overview of factors causing variability in the ultrasonic measurements which are then systematically addressed and an experimental setup with the best achievable stability based on these considerations is presented. In the experimental setup galvanic corrosion is used to induce predictable and very small wall thickness loss. Furthermore, it is shown that the experimental measurements can be used to assess the effect of reduced wall loss that is produced by the injection of corrosion inhibitor. The measurements show an estimated standard deviation of about 20nm, which in turn allows us to evaluate the effect and behaviour of corrosion inhibitors within less than an hour.

  20. Making Precise Antenna Reflectors For Millimeter Wavelengths

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sharp, G. Richard; Wanhainen, Joyce S.; Ketelsen, Dean A.

    1994-01-01

    In improved method of fabrication of precise, lightweight antenna reflectors for millimeter wavelengths, required precise contours of reflecting surfaces obtained by computer numberically controlled machining of surface layers bonded to lightweight, rigid structures. Achievable precision greater than that of older, more-expensive fabrication method involving multiple steps of low- and high-temperature molding, in which some accuracy lost at each step.

  1. Precision translator

    DOEpatents

    Reedy, Robert P.; Crawford, Daniel W.

    1984-01-01

    A precision translator for focusing a beam of light on the end of a glass fiber which includes two turning fork-like members rigidly connected to each other. These members have two prongs each with its separation adjusted by a screw, thereby adjusting the orthogonal positioning of a glass fiber attached to one of the members. This translator is made of simple parts with capability to keep adjustment even in condition of rough handling.

  2. Precision translator

    DOEpatents

    Reedy, R.P.; Crawford, D.W.

    1982-03-09

    A precision translator for focusing a beam of light on the end of a glass fiber which includes two turning fork-like members rigidly connected to each other. These members have two prongs each with its separation adjusted by a screw, thereby adjusting the orthogonal positioning of a glass fiber attached to one of the members. This translator is made of simple parts with capability to keep adjustment even in condition of rough handling.

  3. A Complete and Accurate Ab Initio Repeat Finding Algorithm.

    PubMed

    Lian, Shuaibin; Chen, Xinwu; Wang, Peng; Zhang, Xiaoli; Dai, Xianhua

    2016-03-01

    It has become clear that repetitive sequences have played multiple roles in eukaryotic genome evolution including increasing genetic diversity through mutation, changes in gene expression and facilitating generation of novel genes. However, identification of repetitive elements can be difficult in the ab initio manner. Currently, some classical ab initio tools of finding repeats have already presented and compared. The completeness and accuracy of detecting repeats of them are little pool. To this end, we proposed a new ab initio repeat finding tool, named HashRepeatFinder, which is based on hash index and word counting. Furthermore, we assessed the performances of HashRepeatFinder with other two famous tools, such as RepeatScout and Repeatfinder, in human genome data hg19. The results indicated the following three conclusions: (1) The completeness of HashRepeatFinder is the best one among these three compared tools in almost all chromosomes, especially in chr9 (8 times of RepeatScout, 10 times of Repeatfinder); (2) in terms of detecting large repeats, HashRepeatFinder also performed best in all chromosomes, especially in chr3 (24 times of RepeatScout and 250 times of Repeatfinder) and chr19 (12 times of RepeatScout and 60 times of Repeatfinder); (3) in terms of accuracy, HashRepeatFinder can merge the abundant repeats with high accuracy. PMID:26272474

  4. Precision GPS ephemerides and baselines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    Based on the research, the area of precise ephemerides for GPS satellites, the following observations can be made pertaining to the status and future work needed regarding orbit accuracy. There are several aspects which need to be addressed in discussing determination of precise orbits, such as force models, kinematic models, measurement models, data reduction/estimation methods, etc. Although each one of these aspects was studied at CSR in research efforts, only points pertaining to the force modeling aspect are addressed.

  5. Assessing the Accuracy and Precision of Inorganic Geochemical Data Produced through Flux Fusion and Acid Digestions: Multiple (60+) Comprehensive Analyses of BHVO-2 and the Development of Improved "Accepted" Values

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ireland, T. J.; Scudder, R.; Dunlea, A. G.; Anderson, C. H.; Murray, R. W.

    2014-12-01

    The use of geological standard reference materials (SRMs) to assess both the accuracy and the reproducibility of geochemical data is a vital consideration in determining the major and trace element abundances of geologic, oceanographic, and environmental samples. Calibration curves commonly are generated that are predicated on accurate analyses of these SRMs. As a means to verify the robustness of these calibration curves, a SRM can also be run as an unknown item (i.e., not included as a data point in the calibration). The experimentally derived composition of the SRM can thus be compared to the certified (or otherwise accepted) value. This comparison gives a direct measure of the accuracy of the method used. Similarly, if the same SRM is analyzed as an unknown over multiple analytical sessions, the external reproducibility of the method can be evaluated. Two common bulk digestion methods used in geochemical analysis are flux fusion and acid digestion. The flux fusion technique is excellent at ensuring complete digestion of a variety of sample types, is quick, and does not involve much use of hazardous acids. However, this technique is hampered by a high amount of total dissolved solids and may be accompanied by an increased analytical blank for certain trace elements. On the other hand, acid digestion (using a cocktail of concentrated nitric, hydrochloric and hydrofluoric acids) provides an exceptionally clean digestion with very low analytical blanks. However, this technique results in a loss of Si from the system and may compromise results for a few other elements (e.g., Ge). Our lab uses flux fusion for the determination of major elements and a few key trace elements by ICP-ES, while acid digestion is used for Ti and trace element analyses by ICP-MS. Here we present major and trace element data for BHVO-2, a frequently used SRM derived from a Hawaiian basalt, gathered over a period of over two years (30+ analyses by each technique). We show that both digestion

  6. Precision synchrotron radiation detectors

    SciTech Connect

    Levi, M.; Rouse, F.; Butler, J.; Jung, C.K.; Lateur, M.; Nash, J.; Tinsman, J.; Wormser, G.; Gomez, J.J.; Kent, J.

    1989-03-01

    Precision detectors to measure synchrotron radiation beam positions have been designed and installed as part of beam energy spectrometers at the Stanford Linear Collider (SLC). The distance between pairs of synchrotron radiation beams is measured absolutely to better than 28 /mu/m on a pulse-to-pulse basis. This contributes less than 5 MeV to the error in the measurement of SLC beam energies (approximately 50 GeV). A system of high-resolution video cameras viewing precisely-aligned fiducial wire arrays overlaying phosphorescent screens has achieved this accuracy. Also, detectors of synchrotron radiation using the charge developed by the ejection of Compton-recoil electrons from an array of fine wires are being developed. 4 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  7. Investigation of practical and theoretical accuracy of wireless indoor-positioning system UBISENSE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wozniak, Marek; Odziemczyk, Waldemar; Nagorski, Kamil

    2013-04-01

    The development of Real Time Locating Systems has become an important add-on to many existing location aware systems. While Global Navigation Satelite System has solved most of the outdoor problems, it fails to repeat this success indoors. Wireless indoor positioning systems have become very popular in recent years. One of them is UBISENSE system. This system requires to carry an identity tag that is detected by sensors, which typically use triangulation to determine location. This paper presents the results of the investigation of accuracy of tag position using precise geodetic measurements and geometric analysis. Experimental measurements were carried out on the field polygon using precise tacheometer TCRP 1201+ and complete equipment of Ubisense. Results of experimental measurements were analyzed and presented graphically using Surfer 8. The paper presents the results of the investigation the teoretical and practical positioning accuracy according to the various working conditions.

  8. Precise Measurement for Manufacturing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    A metrology instrument known as PhaseCam supports a wide range of applications, from testing large optics to controlling factory production processes. This dynamic interferometer system enables precise measurement of three-dimensional surfaces in the manufacturing industry, delivering speed and high-resolution accuracy in even the most challenging environments.Compact and reliable, PhaseCam enables users to make interferometric measurements right on the factory floor. The system can be configured for many different applications, including mirror phasing, vacuum/cryogenic testing, motion/modal analysis, and flow visualization.

  9. Precision Pointing System Development

    SciTech Connect

    BUGOS, ROBERT M.

    2003-03-01

    The development of precision pointing systems has been underway in Sandia's Electronic Systems Center for over thirty years. Important areas of emphasis are synthetic aperture radars and optical reconnaissance systems. Most applications are in the aerospace arena, with host vehicles including rockets, satellites, and manned and unmanned aircraft. Systems have been used on defense-related missions throughout the world. Presently in development are pointing systems with accuracy goals in the nanoradian regime. Future activity will include efforts to dramatically reduce system size and weight through measures such as the incorporation of advanced materials and MEMS inertial sensors.

  10. Measuring the positional accuracy of computer assisted surgical tracking systems.

    PubMed

    Clarke, J V; Deakin, A H; Nicol, A C; Picard, F

    2010-01-01

    Computer Assisted Orthopaedic Surgery (CAOS) technology is constantly evolving with support from a growing number of clinical trials. In contrast, reports of technical accuracy are scarce, with there being no recognized guidelines for independent measurement of the basic static performance of computer assisted systems. To address this problem, a group of surgeons, academics and manufacturers involved in the field of CAOS collaborated with the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) International and drafted a set of standards for measuring and reporting the technical performance of such systems. The aims of this study were to use these proposed guidelines in assessing the positional accuracy of both a commercially available and a novel tracking system. A standardized measurement object model based on the ASTM guidelines was designed and manufactured to provide an array of points in space. Both the Polaris camera with associated active infrared trackers and a novel system that used a small visible-light camera (MicronTracker) were evaluated by measuring distances and single point repeatability. For single point registration the measurements were obtained both manually and with the pointer rigidly clamped to eliminate human movement artifact. The novel system produced unacceptably large distance errors and was not evaluated beyond this stage. The commercial system was precise and its accuracy was well within the expected range. However, when the pointer was held manually, particularly by a novice user, the results were significantly less precise by a factor of almost ten. The ASTM guidelines offer a simple, standardized method for measuring positional accuracy and could be used to enable independent testing of tracking systems. The novel system demonstrated a high level of inaccuracy that made it inappropriate for clinical testing. The commercially available tracking system performed well within expected limits under optimal conditions, but revealed a

  11. High-precision measurement of pixel positions in a charge-coupled device.

    PubMed

    Shaklan, S; Sharman, M C; Pravdo, S H

    1995-10-10

    The high level of spatial uniformity in modern CCD's makes them excellent devices for astrometric instruments. However, at the level of accuracy envisioned by the more ambitious projects such as the Astrometric Imaging Telescope, current technology produces CCD's with significant pixel registration errors. We describe a technique for making high-precision measurements of relative pixel positions. We measured CCD's manufactured for the Wide Field Planetary Camera II installed in the Hubble Space Telescope. These CCD's are shown to have significant step-and-repeat errors of 0.033 pixel along every 34th row, as well as a 0.003-pixel curvature along 34-pixel stripes. The source of these errors is described. Our experiments achieved a per-pixel accuracy of 0.011 pixel. The ultimate shot-noise limited precision of the method is less than 0.001 pixel. PMID:21060522

  12. Superior accuracy of model-based radiostereometric analysis for measurement of polyethylene wear

    PubMed Central

    Stilling, M.; Kold, S.; de Raedt, S.; Andersen, N. T.; Rahbek, O.; Søballe, K.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives The accuracy and precision of two new methods of model-based radiostereometric analysis (RSA) were hypothesised to be superior to a plain radiograph method in the assessment of polyethylene (PE) wear. Methods A phantom device was constructed to simulate three-dimensional (3D) PE wear. Images were obtained consecutively for each simulated wear position for each modality. Three commercially available packages were evaluated: model-based RSA using laser-scanned cup models (MB-RSA), model-based RSA using computer-generated elementary geometrical shape models (EGS-RSA), and PolyWare. Precision (95% repeatability limits) and accuracy (Root Mean Square Errors) for two-dimensional (2D) and 3D wear measurements were assessed. Results The precision for 2D wear measures was 0.078 mm, 0.102 mm, and 0.076 mm for EGS-RSA, MB-RSA, and PolyWare, respectively. For the 3D wear measures the precision was 0.185 mm, 0.189 mm, and 0.244 mm for EGS-RSA, MB-RSA, and PolyWare respectively. Repeatability was similar for all methods within the same dimension, when compared between 2D and 3D (all p > 0.28). For the 2D RSA methods, accuracy was below 0.055 mm and at least 0.335 mm for PolyWare. For 3D measurements, accuracy was 0.1 mm, 0.2 mm, and 0.3 mm for EGS-RSA, MB-RSA and PolyWare respectively. PolyWare was less accurate compared with RSA methods (p = 0.036). No difference was observed between the RSA methods (p = 0.10). Conclusions For all methods, precision and accuracy were better in 2D, with RSA methods being superior in accuracy. Although less accurate and precise, 3D RSA defines the clinically relevant wear pattern (multidirectional). PolyWare is a good and low-cost alternative to RSA, despite being less accurate and requiring a larger sample size. PMID:23610688

  13. Precision GPS ephemerides and baselines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    The emphasis of this grant was focused on precision ephemerides for the Global Positioning System (GPS) satellites for geodynamics applications. During the period of this grant, major activities were in the areas of thermal force modeling, numerical integration accuracy improvement for eclipsing satellites, analysis of GIG '91 campaign data, and the Southwest Pacific campaign data analysis.

  14. Precision orbit computations for Starlette

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marsh, J. G.; Williamson, R. G.

    1976-01-01

    The Starlette satellite, launched in February 1975 by the French Centre National d'Etudes Spatiales, was designed to minimize the effects of nongravitational forces and to obtain the highest possible accuracy for laser range measurements. Analyses of the first four months of global laser tracking data confirmed the stability of the orbit and the precision to which the satellite's position is established.

  15. Accuracy and precision of gravitational-wave models of inspiraling neutron star-black hole binaries with spin: Comparison with matter-free numerical relativity in the low-frequency regime

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Prayush; Barkett, Kevin; Bhagwat, Swetha; Afshari, Nousha; Brown, Duncan A.; Lovelace, Geoffrey; Scheel, Mark A.; Szilágyi, Béla

    2015-11-01

    Coalescing binaries of neutron stars and black holes are one of the most important sources of gravitational waves for the upcoming network of ground-based detectors. Detection and extraction of astrophysical information from gravitational-wave signals requires accurate waveform models. The effective-one-body and other phenomenological models interpolate between analytic results and numerical relativity simulations, that typically span O (10 ) orbits before coalescence. In this paper we study the faithfulness of these models for neutron star-black hole binaries. We investigate their accuracy using new numerical relativity (NR) simulations that span 36-88 orbits, with mass ratios q and black hole spins χBH of (q ,χBH)=(7 ,±0.4 ),(7 ,±0.6 ) , and (5 ,-0.9 ). These simulations were performed treating the neutron star as a low-mass black hole, ignoring its matter effects. We find that (i) the recently published SEOBNRv1 and SEOBNRv2 models of the effective-one-body family disagree with each other (mismatches of a few percent) for black hole spins χBH≥0.5 or χBH≤-0.3 , with waveform mismatch accumulating during early inspiral; (ii) comparison with numerical waveforms indicates that this disagreement is due to phasing errors of SEOBNRv1, with SEOBNRv2 in good agreement with all of our simulations; (iii) phenomenological waveforms agree with SEOBNRv2 only for comparable-mass low-spin binaries, with overlaps below 0.7 elsewhere in the neutron star-black hole binary parameter space; (iv) comparison with numerical waveforms shows that most of this model's dephasing accumulates near the frequency interval where it switches to a phenomenological phasing prescription; and finally (v) both SEOBNR and post-Newtonian models are effectual for neutron star-black hole systems, but post-Newtonian waveforms will give a significant bias in parameter recovery. Our results suggest that future gravitational-wave detection searches and parameter estimation efforts would benefit

  16. Repeated Course Enrollments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Windham, Patricia

    This report resents tables of repeated course enrollment data in Florida community colleges for the fall 1993 cohort. Overall, the percent of repeats in college preparatory courses was greater than that of college credit courses. Within ICS codes, the highest percentage of credit repeat enrollments was in mathematics; the second highest was in…

  17. Study of precise positioning at L-band using communications satellites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1971-01-01

    The L-band positioning experiment is reported which encompassed experiment design, experimentation, and data reduction and analysis. In the experiment the ATS-5 synchronous satellite L-band transponder was used in conjunction with the modified ALPHA 2 navigation receivers to demonstrate the technical capability of precision position fixing for oceanographic purposes. The feasibility of using relative ranging techniques implemented by two identical receiving systems, properly calibrated, to determine a line of position accurately on the surface of the earth was shown. The program demonstrated the level of resolution, repeatibility, precision, and accuracy of existing modest-cost effective navigation equipment. The experiment configuration and data reduction techniques were developed in parallel with the hardware modification tasks. Test results verify the ability of a satellite-based system to satisfy the requirements of precision position fixing.

  18. Accuracy and reproducibility of bending stiffness measurements by mechanical response tissue analysis in artificial human ulnas.

    PubMed

    Arnold, Patricia A; Ellerbrock, Emily R; Bowman, Lyn; Loucks, Anne B

    2014-11-01

    Osteoporosis is characterized by reduced bone strength, but no FDA-approved medical device measures bone strength. Bone strength is strongly associated with bone stiffness, but no FDA-approved medical device measures bone stiffness either. Mechanical Response Tissue Analysis (MRTA) is a non-significant risk, non-invasive, radiation-free, vibration analysis technique for making immediate, direct functional measurements of the bending stiffness of long bones in humans in vivo. MRTA has been used for research purposes for more than 20 years, but little has been published about its accuracy. To begin to investigate its accuracy, we compared MRTA measurements of bending stiffness in 39 artificial human ulna bones to measurements made by Quasistatic Mechanical Testing (QMT). In the process, we also quantified the reproducibility (i.e., precision and repeatability) of both methods. MRTA precision (1.0±1.0%) and repeatability (3.1 ± 3.1%) were not as high as those of QMT (0.2 ± 0.2% and 1.3+1.7%, respectively; both p<10(-4)). The relationship between MRTA and QMT measurements of ulna bending stiffness was indistinguishable from the identity line (p=0.44) and paired measurements by the two methods agreed within a 95% confidence interval of ± 5%. If such accuracy can be achieved on real human ulnas in situ, and if the ulna is representative of the appendicular skeleton, MRTA may prove clinically useful. PMID:25261885

  19. Precision linear ramp function generator

    DOEpatents

    Jatko, W. Bruce; McNeilly, David R.; Thacker, Louis H.

    1986-01-01

    A ramp function generator is provided which produces a precise linear ramp unction which is repeatable and highly stable. A derivative feedback loop is used to stabilize the output of an integrator in the forward loop and control the ramp rate. The ramp may be started from a selected baseline voltage level and the desired ramp rate is selected by applying an appropriate constant voltage to the input of the integrator.

  20. Precision linear ramp function generator

    DOEpatents

    Jatko, W.B.; McNeilly, D.R.; Thacker, L.H.

    1984-08-01

    A ramp function generator is provided which produces a precise linear ramp function which is repeatable and highly stable. A derivative feedback loop is used to stabilize the output of an integrator in the forward loop and control the ramp rate. The ramp may be started from a selected baseline voltage level and the desired ramp rate is selected by applying an appropriate constant voltage to the input of the integrator.

  1. A protocol for evaluating the accuracy of 3D body scanners.

    PubMed

    Kouchi, Makiko; Mochimaru, Masaaki; Bradtmiller, Bruce; Daanen, Hein; Li, Peng; Nacher, Beatriz; Nam, Yunja

    2012-01-01

    Scan-derived landmarks locations and surface shapes are more and more used, but there is no commonly accepted protocol for evaluating the accuracy of these measurements. Therefore we propose a protocol for evaluating the accuracy of surface shape and the repeatability of scan-derived landmark locations. According to existing Japanese and German domestic standards, we propose to use an artefact (e.g. sphere with diameter of about 120 mm) calibrated very accurately for evaluating the accuracy of scanner-systems. For evaluating the repeatability of landmark locations, we propose to use an anthropomorphic dummy with landmark locations premarked. These test objects are measured by a 3D body scanner to be evaluated. Evaluation parameters such as trueness, precision, and repeatability are calculated from the measured data. A round-robin test was conducted in six different institutes using 17 body/head/foot scanners produced by eight companies. The purposes of the roundrobin test were to evaluate the availability of test objects to different body scanners, and to examine the measurement locations of test objects and quality parameters to be reported. As a result, the proposed test objects could be measured and the data exported by all scanner systems except one, which could not export the ball measurement. For a comparative purpose, a figure of measured surface might be useful. PMID:22317336

  2. Towards GPS orbit accuracy of tens of centimeters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lichten, Stephen M.

    1990-01-01

    In this paper, CASA Uno orbit results are presented utilizing data from four continents. Refinements in orbit modeling, combined with the availability of a worldwide tracking network and the dense distribution of tracking sites in North and South America, have improved orbit determination precision to about 60 cm (per component) for four of the seven GPS satellites tracked in CASA Uno. The orbit results are consistent with California baseline repeatabilities, which are at the few mm level in horizontal and length, and 1-2 cm in the vertical. Baseline comparisons with VLBI provide a measure of orbit accuracy, showing sub-cm agreement in length and 1.5 cm agreement in the horizontal.

  3. Precision spectroscopy with a frequency-comb-calibrated solar spectrograph

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doerr, H.-P.

    2015-06-01

    The measurement of the velocity field of the plasma at the solar surface is a standard diagnostic tool in observational solar physics. Detailed information about the energy transport as well as on the stratification of temperature, pressure and magnetic fields in the solar atmosphere are encoded in Doppler shifts and in the precise shape of the spectral lines. The available instruments deliver data of excellent quality and precision. However, absolute wavelength calibration in solar spectroscopy was so far mostly limited to indirect methods and in general suffers from large systematic uncertainties of the order of 100 m/s. During the course of this thesis, a novel wavelength calibration system based on a laser frequency comb was deployed to the solar Vacuum Tower Telescope (VTT), Tenerife, with the goal of enabling highly accurate solar wavelength measurements at the level of 1 m/s on an absolute scale. The frequency comb was developed in a collaboration between the Kiepenheuer-Institute for Solar Physics, Freiburg, Germany and the Max Planck Institute for Quantum Optics, Garching, Germany. The efforts cumulated in the new prototype instrument LARS (Lars is an Absolute Reference Spectrograph) for solar precision spectroscopy which is in preliminary scientific operation since~2013. The instrument is based on the high-resolution echelle spectrograph of the VTT for which feed optics based on single-mode optical fibres were developed for this project. The setup routinely achieves an absolute calibration accuracy of 60 cm/s and a repeatability of 2.5 cm/s. An unprecedented repeatability of only 0.32 cm/s could be demonstrated with a differential calibration scheme. In combination with the high spectral resolving power of the spectrograph of 7x10^5 and virtually absent internal scattered light, LARS provides a spectral purity and fidelity that previously was the domain of Fourier-transform spectrometers only. The instrument therefore provides unique capabilities for

  4. Building Fluency through the Repeated Reading Method

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohen, Joshua

    2011-01-01

    For the last two years the author has used Repeated Reading (RR) to teach reading fluency in English as a Foreign Language classrooms in colleges and universities in Japan. RR is a method where the student reads and rereads a text silently or aloud from two to four times to reach a predetermined level of speed, accuracy, and comprehension. RR…

  5. The Spring 1985 high precision baseline test of the JPL GPS-based geodetic system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davidson, John M.; Thornton, Catherine L.; Stephens, Scott A.; Blewitt, Geoffrey; Lichten, Stephen M.; Sovers, Ojars J.; Kroger, Peter M.; Skrumeda, Lisa L.; Border, James S.; Neilan, Ruth E.

    1987-01-01

    The Spring 1985 High Precision Baseline Test (HPBT) was conducted. The HPBT was designed to meet a number of objectives. Foremost among these was the demonstration of a level of accuracy of 1 to 2:10 to the 7th power, or better, for baselines ranging in length up to several hundred kilometers. These objectives were all met with a high degree of success, with respect to the demonstration of system accuracy in particular. The results from six baselines ranging in length from 70 to 729 km were examined for repeatability and, in the case of three baselines, were compared to results from colocated VLBI systems. Repeatability was found to be 5:10 to the 8th power (RMS) for the north baseline coordinate, independent of baseline length, while for the east coordinate RMS repeatability was found to be larger than this by factors of 2 to 4. The GPS-based results were found to be in agreement with those from colocated VLBI measurements, when corrected for the physical separations of the VLBI and CPG antennas, at the level of 1 to 2:10 to the 7th power in all coordinates, independent of baseline length. The results for baseline repeatability are consistent with the current GPA error budget, but the GPS-VLBI intercomparisons disagree at a somewhat larger level than expected. It is hypothesized that these differences may result from errors in the local survey measurements used to correct for the separations of the GPS and VLBI antenna reference centers.

  6. Precision spectroscopy of Helium

    SciTech Connect

    Cancio, P.; Giusfredi, G.; Mazzotti, D.; De Natale, P.; De Mauro, C.; Krachmalnicoff, V.; Inguscio, M.

    2005-05-05

    Accurate Quantum-Electrodynamics (QED) tests of the simplest bound three body atomic system are performed by precise laser spectroscopic measurements in atomic Helium. In this paper, we present a review of measurements between triplet states at 1083 nm (23S-23P) and at 389 nm (23S-33P). In 4He, such data have been used to measure the fine structure of the triplet P levels and, then, to determine the fine structure constant when compared with equally accurate theoretical calculations. Moreover, the absolute frequencies of the optical transitions have been used for Lamb-shift determinations of the levels involved with unprecedented accuracy. Finally, determination of the He isotopes nuclear structure and, in particular, a measurement of the nuclear charge radius, are performed by using hyperfine structure and isotope-shift measurements.

  7. Precision ozone vapor pressure measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hanson, D.; Mauersberger, K.

    1985-01-01

    The vapor pressure above liquid ozone has been measured with a high accuracy over a temperature range of 85 to 95 K. At the boiling point of liquid argon (87.3 K) an ozone vapor pressure of 0.0403 Torr was obtained with an accuracy of + or - 0.7 percent. A least square fit of the data provided the Clausius-Clapeyron equation for liquid ozone; a latent heat of 82.7 cal/g was calculated. High-precision vapor pressure data are expected to aid research in atmospheric ozone measurements and in many laboratory ozone studies such as measurements of cross sections and reaction rates.

  8. Mixed-Precision Spectral Deferred Correction: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Grout, Ray W. S.

    2015-09-02

    Convergence of spectral deferred correction (SDC), where low-order time integration methods are used to construct higher-order methods through iterative refinement, can be accelerated in terms of computational effort by using mixed-precision methods. Using ideas from multi-level SDC (in turn based on FAS multigrid ideas), some of the SDC correction sweeps can use function values computed in reduced precision without adversely impacting the accuracy of the final solution. This is particularly beneficial for the performance of combustion solvers such as S3D [6] which require double precision accuracy but are performance limited by the cost of data motion.

  9. Quality, precision and accuracy of the maximum No. 40 anemometer

    SciTech Connect

    Obermeir, J.; Blittersdorf, D.

    1996-12-31

    This paper synthesizes available calibration data for the Maximum No. 40 anemometer. Despite its long history in the wind industry, controversy surrounds the choice of transfer function for this anemometer. Many users are unaware that recent changes in default transfer functions in data loggers are producing output wind speed differences as large as 7.6%. Comparison of two calibration methods used for large samples of Maximum No. 40 anemometers shows a consistent difference of 4.6% in output speeds. This difference is significantly larger than estimated uncertainty levels. Testing, initially performed to investigate related issues, reveals that Gill and Maximum cup anemometers change their calibration transfer functions significantly when calibrated in the open atmosphere compared with calibration in a laminar wind tunnel. This indicates that atmospheric turbulence changes the calibration transfer function of cup anemometers. These results call into question the suitability of standard wind tunnel calibration testing for cup anemometers. 6 refs., 10 figs., 4 tabs.

  10. Precision and accuracy of decay constants and age standards

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Villa, I. M.

    2011-12-01

    40 years of round-robin experiments with age standards teach us that systematic errors must be present in at least N-1 labs if participants provide N mutually incompatible data. In EarthTime, the U-Pb community has produced and distributed synthetic solutions with full metrological traceability. Collector linearity is routinely calibrated under variable conditions (e.g. [1]). Instrumental mass fractionation is measured in-run with double spikes (e.g. 233U-236U). Parent-daughter ratios are metrologically traceable, so the full uncertainty budget of a U-Pb age should coincide with interlaboratory uncertainty. TIMS round-robin experiments indeed show a decrease of N towards the ideal value of 1. Comparing 235U-207Pb with 238U-206Pb ages (e.g. [2]) has resulted in a credible re-evaluation of the 235U decay constant, with lower uncertainty than gamma counting. U-Pb microbeam techniques reveal the link petrology-microtextures-microchemistry-isotope record but do not achieve the low uncertainty of TIMS. In the K-Ar community, N is large; interlaboratory bias is > 10 times self-assessed uncertainty. Systematic errors may have analytical and petrological reasons. Metrological traceability is not yet implemented (substantial advance may come from work in progress, e.g. [7]). One of the worst problems is collector stability and linearity. Using electron multipliers (EM) instead of Faraday buckets (FB) reduces both dynamic range and collector linearity. Mass spectrometer backgrounds are never zero; the extent as well as the predictability of their variability must be propagated into the uncertainty evaluation. The high isotope ratio of the atmospheric Ar requires a large dynamic range over which linearity must be demonstrated under all analytical conditions to correctly estimate mass fractionation. The only assessment of EM linearity in Ar analyses [3] points out many fundamental problems; the onus of proof is on every laboratory claiming low uncertainties. Finally, sample size reduction is often associated to reducing clean-up time to increase sample/blank ratio; this may be self-defeating, as "dry blanks" [4] do not represent either the isotopic composition or the amount of Ar released by the sample chamber when exposed to unpurified sample gas. Single grains enhance background and purification problems relative to large sample sizes measured on FB. Petrologically, many natural "standards" are not ideal (e.g. MMhb1 [5], B4M [6]), as their original distributors never conceived petrology as the decisive control on isotope retention. Comparing ever smaller aliquots of unequilibrated minerals causes ever larger age variations. Metrologically traceable synthetic isotope mixtures still lie in the future. Petrological non-ideality of natural standards does not allow a metrological uncertainty budget. Collector behavior, on the contrary, does. Its quantification will, by definition, make true intralaboratory uncertainty greater or equal to interlaboratory bias. [1] Chen J, Wasserburg GJ, 1981. Analyt Chem 53, 2060-2067 [2] Mattinson JM, 2010. Chem Geol 275, 186-198 [3] Turrin B et al, 2010. G-cubed, 11, Q0AA09 [4] Baur H, 1975. PhD thesis, ETH Zürich, No. 6596 [5] Villa IM et al, 1996. Contrib Mineral Petrol 126, 67-80 [6] Villa IM, Heri AR, 2010. AGU abstract V31A-2296 [7] Morgan LE et al, in press. G-cubed, 2011GC003719

  11. Factors affecting accuracy and precision in PET volume imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Karp, J.S.; Daube-Witherspoon, M.E.; Muehllehner, G. )

    1991-03-01

    Volume imaging positron emission tomographic (PET) scanners with no septa and a large axial acceptance angle offer several advantages over multiring PET scanners. A volume imaging scanner combines high sensitivity with fine axial sampling and spatial resolution. The fine axial sampling minimizes the partial volume effect, which affects the measured concentration of an object. Even if the size of an object is large compared to the slice spacing in a multiring scanner, significant variation in the concentration is measured as a function of the axial position of the object. With a volume imaging scanner, it is necessary to use a three-dimensional reconstruction algorithm in order to avoid variations in the axial resolution as a function of the distance from the center of the scanner. In addition, good energy resolution is needed in order to use a high energy threshold to reduce the coincident scattered radiation.

  12. Accuracy and Precision of Radioactivity Quantification in Nuclear Medicine Images

    PubMed Central

    Frey, Eric C.; Humm, John L.; Ljungberg, Michael

    2012-01-01

    The ability to reliably quantify activity in nuclear medicine has a number of increasingly important applications. Dosimetry for targeted therapy treatment planning or for approval of new imaging agents requires accurate estimation of the activity in organs, tumors, or voxels at several imaging time points. Another important application is the use of quantitative metrics derived from images, such as the standard uptake value commonly used in positron emission tomography (PET), to diagnose and follow treatment of tumors. These measures require quantification of organ or tumor activities in nuclear medicine images. However, there are a number of physical, patient, and technical factors that limit the quantitative reliability of nuclear medicine images. There have been a large number of improvements in instrumentation, including the development of hybrid single-photon emission computed tomography/computed tomography and PET/computed tomography systems, and reconstruction methods, including the use of statistical iterative reconstruction methods, which have substantially improved the ability to obtain reliable quantitative information from planar, single-photon emission computed tomography, and PET images. PMID:22475429

  13. Precision and accuracy of visual foliar injury assessments

    SciTech Connect

    Gumpertz, M.L.; Tingey, D.T.; Hogsett, W.E.

    1982-07-01

    The study compared three measures of foliar injury: (i) mean percent leaf area injured of all leaves on the plant, (ii) mean percent leaf area injured of the three most injured leaves, and (iii) the proportion of injured leaves to total number of leaves. For the first measure, the variation caused by reader biases and day-to-day variations were compared with the innate plant-to-plant variation. Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris 'Pinto'), pea (Pisum sativum 'Little Marvel'), radish (Rhaphanus sativus 'Cherry Belle'), and spinach (Spinacia oleracea 'Northland') plants were exposed to either 3 ..mu..L L/sup -1/ SO/sub 2/ or 0.3 ..mu..L L/sup -1/ ozone for 2 h. Three leaf readers visually assessed the percent injury on every leaf of each plant while a fourth reader used a transparent grid to make an unbiased assessment for each plant. The mean leaf area injured of the three most injured leaves was highly correlated with all leaves on the plant only if the three most injured leaves were <100% injured. The proportion of leaves injured was not highly correlated with percent leaf area injured of all leaves on the plant for any species in this study. The largest source of variation in visual assessments was plant-to-plant variation, which ranged from 44 to 97% of the total variance, followed by variation among readers (0-32% of the variance). Except for radish exposed to ozone, the day-to-day variation accounted for <18% of the total. Reader bias in assessment of ozone injury was significant but could be adjusted for each reader by a simple linear regression (R/sup 2/ = 0.89-0.91) of the visual assessments against the grid assessments.

  14. Arrival Metering Precision Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prevot, Thomas; Mercer, Joey; Homola, Jeffrey; Hunt, Sarah; Gomez, Ashley; Bienert, Nancy; Omar, Faisal; Kraut, Joshua; Brasil, Connie; Wu, Minghong, G.

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes the background, method and results of the Arrival Metering Precision Study (AMPS) conducted in the Airspace Operations Laboratory at NASA Ames Research Center in May 2014. The simulation study measured delivery accuracy, flight efficiency, controller workload, and acceptability of time-based metering operations to a meter fix at the terminal area boundary for different resolution levels of metering delay times displayed to the air traffic controllers and different levels of airspeed information made available to the Time-Based Flow Management (TBFM) system computing the delay. The results show that the resolution of the delay countdown timer (DCT) on the controllers display has a significant impact on the delivery accuracy at the meter fix. Using the 10 seconds rounded and 1 minute rounded DCT resolutions resulted in more accurate delivery than 1 minute truncated and were preferred by the controllers. Using the speeds the controllers entered into the fourth line of the data tag to update the delay computation in TBFM in high and low altitude sectors increased air traffic control efficiency and reduced fuel burn for arriving aircraft during time based metering.

  15. Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter Orbit Determination Accuracy Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Slojkowski, Steven E.

    2014-01-01

    LRO definitive and predictive accuracy requirements were easily met in the nominal mission orbit, using the LP150Q lunar gravity model. center dot Accuracy of the LP150Q model is poorer in the extended mission elliptical orbit. center dot Later lunar gravity models, in particular GSFC-GRAIL-270, improve OD accuracy in the extended mission. center dot Implementation of a constrained plane when the orbit is within 45 degrees of the Earth-Moon line improves cross-track accuracy. center dot Prediction accuracy is still challenged during full-Sun periods due to coarse spacecraft area modeling - Implementation of a multi-plate area model with definitive attitude input can eliminate prediction violations. - The FDF is evaluating using analytic and predicted attitude modeling to improve full-Sun prediction accuracy. center dot Comparison of FDF ephemeris file to high-precision ephemeris files provides gross confirmation that overlap compares properly assess orbit accuracy.

  16. Precision Polarimetry for Cold Neutrons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barron-Palos, Libertad; Bowman, J. David; Chupp, Timothy E.; Crawford, Christopher; Danagoulian, Areg; Gentile, Thomas R.; Jones, Gordon; Klein, Andreas; Penttila, Seppo I.; Salas-Bacci, Americo; Sharma, Monisha; Wilburn, W. Scott

    2007-10-01

    The abBA and PANDA experiments, currently under development, aim to measure the correlation coefficients in the polarized free neutron beta decay at the FnPB in SNS. The polarization of the neutron beam, polarized with a ^3He spin filter, has to be known with high precision in order to achieve the goal accuracy of these experiments. In the NPDGamma experiment, where a ^3He spin filter was used, it was observed that backgrounds play an important role in the precision to which the polarization can be determined. An experiment that focuses in the reduction of background sources to establish techniques and find the upper limit for the polarization accuracy with these spin filters is currently in progress at LANSCE. A description of the measurement and results will be presented.

  17. Precision grid and hand motion for accurate needle insertion in brachytherapy

    SciTech Connect

    McGill, Carl S.; Schwartz, Jonathon A.; Moore, Jason Z.; McLaughlin, Patrick W.; Shih, Albert J.

    2011-08-15

    Purpose: In prostate brachytherapy, a grid is used to guide a needle tip toward a preplanned location within the tissue. During insertion, the needle deflects en route resulting in target misplacement. In this paper, 18-gauge needle insertion experiments into phantom were performed to test effects of three parameters, which include the clearance between the grid hole and needle, the thickness of the grid, and the needle insertion speed. Measurement apparatus that consisted of two datum surfaces and digital depth gauge was developed to quantify needle deflections. Methods: The gauge repeatability and reproducibility (GR and R) test was performed on the measurement apparatus, and it proved to be capable of measuring a 2 mm tolerance from the target. Replicated experiments were performed on a 2{sup 3} factorial design (three parameters at two levels) and analysis included averages and standard deviation along with an analysis of variance (ANOVA) to find significant single and two-way interaction factors. Results: Results showed that grid with tight clearance hole and slow needle speed increased precision and accuracy of needle insertion. The tight grid was vital to enhance precision and accuracy of needle insertion for both slow and fast insertion speed; additionally, at slow speed the tight, thick grid improved needle precision and accuracy. Conclusions: In summary, the tight grid is important, regardless of speed. The grid design, which shows the capability to reduce the needle deflection in brachytherapy procedures, can potentially be implemented in the brachytherapy procedure.

  18. A New Approach to Precision Design for Machine Tools

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Baodong; Jiao, Aisheng; Yi, Xiangbin; Xu, Yanwei

    Precision of the NC axes is an important aspect of machine tool design. Conventionally, the precision specification of machine tools is empirically determined, resulting in poor designs with insufficient or excessive precision. To provide a cost-effective precision specification for machine tools, an active precision design approach is proposed to generate the specification of the positioning repeatability of NC axes to meet the designated working precision requirements of the machine tools. Finally, the approach is demonstrated and validated through a case study of precision design for a gear milling machine.

  19. Reconfigurable multiport EPON repeater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oishi, Masayuki; Inohara, Ryo; Agata, Akira; Horiuchi, Yukio

    2009-11-01

    An extended reach EPON repeater is one of the solutions to effectively expand FTTH service areas. In this paper, we propose a reconfigurable multi-port EPON repeater for effective accommodation of multiple ODNs with a single OLT line card. The proposed repeater, which has multi-ports in both OLT and ODN sides, consists of TRs, BTRs with the CDR function and a reconfigurable electrical matrix switch, can accommodate multiple ODNs to a single OLT line card by controlling the connection of the matrix switch. Although conventional EPON repeaters require full OLT line cards to accommodate subscribers from the initial installation stage, the proposed repeater can dramatically reduce the number of required line cards especially when the number of subscribers is less than a half of the maximum registerable users per OLT. Numerical calculation results show that the extended reach EPON system with the proposed EPON repeater can save 17.5% of the initial installation cost compared with a conventional repeater, and can be less expensive than conventional systems up to the maximum subscribers especially when the percentage of ODNs in lightly-populated areas is higher.

  20. Revisiting the TALE repeat.

    PubMed

    Deng, Dong; Yan, Chuangye; Wu, Jianping; Pan, Xiaojing; Yan, Nieng

    2014-04-01

    Transcription activator-like (TAL) effectors specifically bind to double stranded (ds) DNA through a central domain of tandem repeats. Each TAL effector (TALE) repeat comprises 33-35 amino acids and recognizes one specific DNA base through a highly variable residue at a fixed position in the repeat. Structural studies have revealed the molecular basis of DNA recognition by TALE repeats. Examination of the overall structure reveals that the basic building block of TALE protein, namely a helical hairpin, is one-helix shifted from the previously defined TALE motif. Here we wish to suggest a structure-based re-demarcation of the TALE repeat which starts with the residues that bind to the DNA backbone phosphate and concludes with the base-recognition hyper-variable residue. This new numbering system is consistent with the α-solenoid superfamily to which TALE belongs, and reflects the structural integrity of TAL effectors. In addition, it confers integral number of TALE repeats that matches the number of bound DNA bases. We then present fifteen crystal structures of engineered dHax3 variants in complex with target DNA molecules, which elucidate the structural basis for the recognition of bases adenine (A) and guanine (G) by reported or uncharacterized TALE codes. Finally, we analyzed the sequence-structure correlation of the amino acid residues within a TALE repeat. The structural analyses reported here may advance the mechanistic understanding of TALE proteins and facilitate the design of TALEN with improved affinity and specificity. PMID:24622844

  1. Quantum repeated games revisited

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frąckiewicz, Piotr

    2012-03-01

    We present a scheme for playing quantum repeated 2 × 2 games based on Marinatto and Weber’s approach to quantum games. As a potential application, we study the twice repeated Prisoner’s Dilemma game. We show that results not available in the classical game can be obtained when the game is played in the quantum way. Before we present our idea, we comment on the previous scheme of playing quantum repeated games proposed by Iqbal and Toor. We point out the drawbacks that make their results unacceptable.

  2. Accuracy of Noninvasive Glucose Sensing Based on Near-Infrared Spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jin; Liu, Rong; Xu, Kexin

    2015-11-01

    The noninvasive sensing of the blood glucose concentration is usually based on optical, electrical, or acoustical signals induced by blood glucose; these signals are extremely weak and subject to fluctuations caused by the variation in the body or surroundings. Therefore, it is challenging to detect blood glucose noninvasively with high accuracy, and no successful accurate and noninvasive clinical application has been reported. We found that there are two key measurement issues to be addressed: systematic errors, such as the errors induced by the drifts of devices or by variations in body temperature, among others, are too large to guarantee the trueness of measurement at present; and random disturbances in repeated tests, such as disturbances associated with variations in the human-machine interface, pulses, and the thermal noise of the devices, cause larger repeated measurement errors and compromise precision. Recent novel reference measurements based on differential near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy are considered promising for solving the systematic error issue by establishing matched references, collected at another detection site or at another time, and subsequently differencing to remove the common systematic errors. However, differencing weakens the signal of interest itself and enlarges the effects of the second issue, random disturbances affecting the precision. It is understood that only reference measurements that can meet the precision requirement will be promising for future applications. Therefore, this study quantitatively evaluates the precision of the main differential NIR spectroscopy measurements considering similar conditions and minimized random disturbances. The precision of the measurements under these conditions should represent their optimal precision levels. After the evaluation, noninvasive glucose-sensing methods that hold promise for future clinical application are proposed. Finally, the evaluation criteria could be a reference for the

  3. Precision powder feeder

    DOEpatents

    Schlienger, M. Eric; Schmale, David T.; Oliver, Michael S.

    2001-07-10

    A new class of precision powder feeders is disclosed. These feeders provide a precision flow of a wide range of powdered materials, while remaining robust against jamming or damage. These feeders can be precisely controlled by feedback mechanisms.

  4. Airborne Topographic Mapper Calibration Procedures and Accuracy Assessment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martin, Chreston F.; Krabill, William B.; Manizade, Serdar S.; Russell, Rob L.; Sonntag, John G.; Swift, Robert N.; Yungel, James K.

    2012-01-01

    Description of NASA Airborn Topographic Mapper (ATM) lidar calibration procedures including analysis of the accuracy and consistancy of various ATM instrument parameters and the resulting influence on topographic elevation measurements. The ATM elevations measurements from a nominal operating altitude 500 to 750 m above the ice surface was found to be: Horizontal Accuracy 74 cm, Horizontal Precision 14 cm, Vertical Accuracy 6.6 cm, Vertical Precision 3 cm.

  5. Design for H type co-planar precision stage based on closed air bearing guideway with vacuum attraction force

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Bin; Shi, Zhaoyao; Lin, Jiachun; Zhang, Hua

    2011-12-01

    The accuracy of traditional two-dimensional precision stage is limited not only by the accuracy of each guideway but also by the configuration of the stage. It is not easy to calculate and compensate the total accuracy of the stage due to the complicated influence caused by the different position of the slides. An air bearing guideways with vacuum attraction forces has been designed with closed slide structure to enhance the stiffness and avoid the deformation caused by the weight of slide and workpieces. An H style two-dimension ultra-precision stage with co-planar structure has been developed based on the air bearing guideways to avoid the multi-influence by the axes. Driven by linear motors, the position of the workpiece is encoded by length scales with resolution of 50nm and thermal expansion of 0.6 μm/m/°C (0 °C to 30 °C). The travel span of the stage is 320x320mm, during which each axis has a positioning accuracy of +/-1μm, a repeatability of +/-0.3μm and a straightness of +/-0.5μm. The stage can be applied in precision manufacturing and measurement.

  6. Precise near-earth navigation with GPS: A survey of techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yunck, T. P.; Wu, S. C.; Wu, J.

    1987-01-01

    The tracking accuracy of the low earth orbiters (below about 3000 km altitude) can be brought below 10 cm with a variety of differential techniques that exploit the Global Positioning System (GPS). All of these techniques require a precisely known global network of GPS ground receivers and a receiver aboard the user satellite, and all simultaneously estimate the user and GPS satellite orbits. Three basic approaches are the geometric, dynamic, and nondynamic strategies. The last combines dynamic GPS solutions with a geometric user solution. Two powerful extensions of the nondynamic strategy show considerable promise. The first uses an optimized synthesis of dynamics and geometry in the user solution, while the second uses a novel gravity-adjustment method to exploit data from repeat ground tracks. These techniques will offer sub-decimeter accuracy for dynamically unpredictable satellites down to the lowesst possible altitudes.

  7. Increasing Accuracy in Environmental Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacksier, Tracey; Fernandes, Adelino; Matthew, Matt; Lehmann, Horst

    2016-04-01

    Human activity is increasing the concentrations of green house gases (GHG) in the atmosphere which results in temperature increases. High precision is a key requirement of atmospheric measurements to study the global carbon cycle and its effect on climate change. Natural air containing stable isotopes are used in GHG monitoring to calibrate analytical equipment. This presentation will examine the natural air and isotopic mixture preparation process, for both molecular and isotopic concentrations, for a range of components and delta values. The role of precisely characterized source material will be presented. Analysis of individual cylinders within multiple batches will be presented to demonstrate the ability to dynamically fill multiple cylinders containing identical compositions without isotopic fractionation. Additional emphasis will focus on the ability to adjust isotope ratios to more closely bracket sample types without the reliance on combusting naturally occurring materials, thereby improving analytical accuracy.

  8. Daily Bone Alignment With Limited Repeat CT Correction Rivals Daily Ultrasound Alignment for Prostate Radiotherapy

    SciTech Connect

    O'Daniel, Jennifer C.; Dong Lei Zhang Lifei; Wang He; Tucker, Susan L.; Kudchadker, Rajat J.; Lee, Andrew K.; Cheung, Rex; Cox, James D.; Kuban, Deborah A.; Mohan, Radhe

    2008-05-01

    Purpose: To compare the effectiveness of daily ultrasound (US)- and computed tomography (CT)-guided alignments with an off-line correction protocol using daily bone alignment plus a correction factor for systematic internal prostate displacement (CF{sub ID}). Methods and Materials: Ten prostate cancer patients underwent CT scans three times weekly using an integrated CT-linear accelerator system, followed by alignment using US for daily radiotherapy. Intensity-modulated radiotherapy plans were designed with our current clinical margins. The treatment plan was copied onto the repeat CT images and aligned using several methods: (1) bone alignment plus CF{sub ID} after three off-line CT scans (bone+3CT), (2) bone alignment plus CF{sub ID} after six off-line CT scans (bone+6CT), (3) US alignment, and (4) CT alignment. The accuracy of the repeated US and CT measurements to determine the CF{sub ID} was compared. The target dosimetric effect was quantified. Results: The CF{sub ID} for internal systematic prostate displacements was more accurately measured with limited repeat CT scans than with US (residual error, 0.0 {+-} 0.7 mm vs. 2.0 {+-} 3.2 mm). Bone+3CT, bone+6CT, and US provided equivalent prostate and seminal vesicle dose coverage, but bone+3CT and bone+6CT produced more precise daily alignments. Daily CT alignment provided the greatest target dose coverage. Conclusion: Daily bone alignment plus CF{sub ID} for internal systematic prostate displacement provided better daily alignment precision and equivalent dose coverage compared with daily US alignment. The CF{sub ID} should be based on at least three repeat CT scans, which could be collected before the start of treatment or during the first 3 treatment days. Daily bone alignment plus CF{sub ID} provides another option for accurate prostate cancer patient positioning.

  9. The Pentapeptide Repeat Proteins

    SciTech Connect

    Vetting,M.; Hegde, S.; Fajardo, J.; Fiser, A.; Roderick, S.; Takiff, H.; Blanchard, J.

    2006-01-01

    The Pentapeptide Repeat Protein (PRP) family has over 500 members in the prokaryotic and eukaryotic kingdoms. These proteins are composed of, or contain domains composed of, tandemly repeated amino acid sequences with a consensus sequence of [S, T,A, V][D, N][L, F]-[S, T,R][G]. The biochemical function of the vast majority of PRP family members is unknown. The three-dimensional structure of the first member of the PRP family was determined for the fluoroquinolone resistance protein (MfpA) from Mycobacterium tuberculosis. The structure revealed that the pentapeptide repeats encode the folding of a novel right-handed quadrilateral {beta}-helix. MfpA binds to DNA gyrase and inhibits its activity. The rod-shaped, dimeric protein exhibits remarkable size, shape and electrostatic similarity to DNA.

  10. A high-resolution measurement device for detecting the positioning accuracy of the optical fiber positioner

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gu, Yonggang; Xu, Jianlei; Jin, Yi; Zhai, Chao

    2012-09-01

    The optical fiber positioner with double revolving mechanism is driven by two stepping motors. One stepping motor drives center revolving mechanism and the other drives decentered slewing mechanism. Photogrammetry is currently used to detect the positioning accuracy of the optical fiber positioner, but it cannot achieve high precision because of the small size of the fiber’s diameter. So, a new measurement device, which mainly contained optical microscope, CCD camera and two-dimensional precision mobile platform, was established in this paper. One end of the optical fiber (the other end was lighted by integrating sphere light source) was imaged on the CCD sensor in a magnified way through the optical microscope, and the image was processed to build the position feedback mechanism in real time. Then the two-dimensional mobile platform was controlled by PID control method to track the optical fiber, and the fiber was always kept to locate in center of the CCD image in order to eliminate the aberrations of the optical microscope lens. Finally, the position changes of the moving fiber could be obtained by the coordinates of the two-dimensional precision mobile platform. The experimental results demonstrate that the resolution of this measurement device is 0.1μm and the accuracy of repeat positioning is 1.5μm. The measurement device could satisfy the testing requirement.

  11. Honesty through repeated interactions.

    PubMed

    Rich, Patricia; Zollman, Kevin J S

    2016-04-21

    In the study of signaling, it is well known that the cost of deception is an essential element for stable honest signaling in nature. In this paper, we show how costs for deception can arise endogenously from repeated interactions between individuals. Utilizing the Sir Philip Sidney game as an illustrative case, we show that repeated interactions can sustain honesty with no observable signal costs, even when deception cannot be directly observed. We provide a number of potential experimental tests for this theory which distinguish it from the available alternatives. PMID:26869213

  12. Design and experiment on a multi-functioned and programmable piezoelectric ceramic power supply with high precision for speckle interferometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Biao; Ye, Yan; Wang, Yong-hong; Yang, En-zhen

    2016-01-01

    Speckle interferometry is a method of measuring structure's tiny deformations which requires accurate phase information of interference fringes. The phase information is acquired by micro-displacement produced by piezoelectric ceramic (PZT). In order to drive the PZT micro-displacement actuator, a multi-functioned and programmable PZT power supply with high precision is designed. Calibration experiment has been done to the PZT micro-actuator in speckle interferometry. Some experiments were also done to test its relevant characteristics. The experiment results show that it has high linearity, repeatability, stability, low ripple and can meet the requirement of the reliability and displacement accuracy in speckle interferometry.

  13. Nano-level instrumentation for analyzing the dynamic accuracy of a rolling element bearing.

    PubMed

    Yang, Z; Hong, J; Zhang, J; Wang, M Y; Zhu, Y

    2013-12-01

    The rotational performance of high-precision rolling bearings is fundamental to the overall accuracy of complex mechanical systems. A nano-level instrument to analyze rotational accuracy of high-precision bearings of machine tools under working conditions was developed. In this instrument, a high-precision (error motion < 0.15 μm) and high-stiffness (2600 N axial loading capacity) aerostatic spindle was applied to spin the test bearing. Operating conditions could be simulated effectively because of the large axial loading capacity. An air-cylinder, controlled by a proportional pressure regulator, was applied to drive an air-bearing subjected to non-contact and precise loaded axial forces. The measurement results on axial loading and rotation constraint with five remaining degrees of freedom were completely unconstrained and uninfluenced by the instrument's structure. Dual capacity displacement sensors with 10 nm resolution were applied to measure the error motion of the spindle using a double-probe error separation method. This enabled the separation of the spindle's error motion from the measurement results of the test bearing which were measured using two orthogonal laser displacement sensors with 5 nm resolution. Finally, a Lissajous figure was used to evaluate the non-repetitive run-out (NRRO) of the bearing at different axial forces and speeds. The measurement results at various axial loadings and speeds showed the standard deviations of the measurements' repeatability and accuracy were less than 1% and 2%. Future studies will analyze the relationship between geometrical errors and NRRO, such as the ball diameter differences of and the geometrical errors in the grooves of rings. PMID:24387464

  14. Nano-level instrumentation for analyzing the dynamic accuracy of a rolling element bearing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Z.; Hong, J.; Zhang, J.; Wang, M. Y.; Zhu, Y.

    2013-12-01

    The rotational performance of high-precision rolling bearings is fundamental to the overall accuracy of complex mechanical systems. A nano-level instrument to analyze rotational accuracy of high-precision bearings of machine tools under working conditions was developed. In this instrument, a high-precision (error motion < 0.15 μm) and high-stiffness (2600 N axial loading capacity) aerostatic spindle was applied to spin the test bearing. Operating conditions could be simulated effectively because of the large axial loading capacity. An air-cylinder, controlled by a proportional pressure regulator, was applied to drive an air-bearing subjected to non-contact and precise loaded axial forces. The measurement results on axial loading and rotation constraint with five remaining degrees of freedom were completely unconstrained and uninfluenced by the instrument's structure. Dual capacity displacement sensors with 10 nm resolution were applied to measure the error motion of the spindle using a double-probe error separation method. This enabled the separation of the spindle's error motion from the measurement results of the test bearing which were measured using two orthogonal laser displacement sensors with 5 nm resolution. Finally, a Lissajous figure was used to evaluate the non-repetitive run-out (NRRO) of the bearing at different axial forces and speeds. The measurement results at various axial loadings and speeds showed the standard deviations of the measurements' repeatability and accuracy were less than 1% and 2%. Future studies will analyze the relationship between geometrical errors and NRRO, such as the ball diameter differences of and the geometrical errors in the grooves of rings.

  15. Nano-level instrumentation for analyzing the dynamic accuracy of a rolling element bearing

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Z.; Hong, J.; Zhang, J.; Wang, M. Y.; Zhu, Y.

    2013-12-15

    The rotational performance of high-precision rolling bearings is fundamental to the overall accuracy of complex mechanical systems. A nano-level instrument to analyze rotational accuracy of high-precision bearings of machine tools under working conditions was developed. In this instrument, a high-precision (error motion < 0.15 μm) and high-stiffness (2600 N axial loading capacity) aerostatic spindle was applied to spin the test bearing. Operating conditions could be simulated effectively because of the large axial loading capacity. An air-cylinder, controlled by a proportional pressure regulator, was applied to drive an air-bearing subjected to non-contact and precise loaded axial forces. The measurement results on axial loading and rotation constraint with five remaining degrees of freedom were completely unconstrained and uninfluenced by the instrument's structure. Dual capacity displacement sensors with 10 nm resolution were applied to measure the error motion of the spindle using a double-probe error separation method. This enabled the separation of the spindle's error motion from the measurement results of the test bearing which were measured using two orthogonal laser displacement sensors with 5 nm resolution. Finally, a Lissajous figure was used to evaluate the non-repetitive run-out (NRRO) of the bearing at different axial forces and speeds. The measurement results at various axial loadings and speeds showed the standard deviations of the measurements’ repeatability and accuracy were less than 1% and 2%. Future studies will analyze the relationship between geometrical errors and NRRO, such as the ball diameter differences of and the geometrical errors in the grooves of rings.

  16. High precision measurement system based on coplanar XY-stage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, Kuang-Chao; Miao, Jin-Wei; Gong, Wei; Zhang, You-Liang; Cheng, Fang

    2011-12-01

    A coplanar XY-stage, together with a high precise measurement system, is presented in this paper. The proposed coplanar XY-stage fully conforms to the Abbe principle. The symmetric structural design is considered to eliminate the structure deformation due to force and temperature changes. For consisting of a high precise measurement system, a linear diffraction grating interferometer(LDGI) is employed as the position feedback sensor with the resolution to 1 nm after the waveform interpolation, an ultrasonic motor HR4 is used to generate both the long stroke motion and the nano positioning on the same stage. Three modes of HR4 are used for positioning control: the AC mode in continuous motion control for the long stroke; the gate mode to drive the motor in low velocity for the short stroke; and the DC mode in which the motor works as a piezo actuator, enabling accurate positioning of a few nanometers. The stage calibration is carried out by comparing the readings of LDGI with a Renishaw laser interferometer and repeated 5 times. Experimental results show the XY-stage has achieved positioning accuracy in less than 20nm after the compensation of systematic errors, and standard deviation is within 20 nm for travels up to 20 mm.

  17. Ultra-precision turning of complex spiral optical delay line

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xiaodong; Li, Po; Fang, Fengzhou; Wang, Qichang

    2011-11-01

    Optical delay line (ODL) implements the vertical or depth scanning of optical coherence tomography, which is the most important factor affecting the scanning resolution and speed. The spinning spiral mirror is found as an excellent optical delay device because of the high-speed and high-repetition-rate. However, it is one difficult task to machine the mirror due to the special shape and precision requirement. In this paper, the spiral mirror with titled parabolic generatrix is proposed, and the ultra-precision turning method is studied for its machining using the spiral mathematic model. Another type of ODL with the segmental shape is also introduced and machined to make rotation balance for the mass equalization when scanning. The efficiency improvement is considered in details, including the rough cutting with the 5- axis milling machine, the machining coordinates unification, and the selection of layer direction in turning. The onmachine measuring method based on stylus gauge is designed to analyze the shape deviation. The air bearing is used as the measuring staff and the laser interferometer sensor as the position sensor, whose repeatability accuracy is proved up to 10nm and the stable feature keeps well. With this method developed, the complex mirror with nanometric finish of 10.7nm in Ra and the form error within 1um are achieved.

  18. Highly precise measurement of HIV DNA by droplet digital PCR.

    PubMed

    Strain, Matthew C; Lada, Steven M; Luong, Tiffany; Rought, Steffney E; Gianella, Sara; Terry, Valeri H; Spina, Celsa A; Woelk, Christopher H; Richman, Douglas D

    2013-01-01

    Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) provides the most sensitive measurement of residual infection in patients on effective combination antiretroviral therapy (cART). Droplet digital PCR (ddPCR) has recently been shown to provide highly accurate quantification of DNA copy number, but its application to quantification of HIV DNA, or other equally rare targets, has not been reported. This paper demonstrates and analyzes the application of ddPCR to measure the frequency of total HIV DNA (pol copies per million cells), and episomal 2-LTR (long terminal repeat) circles in cells isolated from infected patients. Analysis of over 300 clinical samples, including over 150 clinical samples assayed in triplicate by ddPCR and by real-time PCR (qPCR), demonstrates a significant increase in precision, with an average 5-fold decrease in the coefficient of variation of pol copy numbers and a >20-fold accuracy improvement for 2-LTR circles. Additional benefits of the ddPCR assay over qPCR include absolute quantification without reliance on an external standard and relative insensitivity to mismatches in primer and probe sequences. These features make digital PCR an attractive alternative for measurement of HIV DNA in clinical specimens. The improved sensitivity and precision of measurement of these rare events should facilitate measurements to characterize the latent HIV reservoir and interventions to eradicate it. PMID:23573183

  19. Highly Precise Measurement of HIV DNA by Droplet Digital PCR

    PubMed Central

    Strain, Matthew C.; Lada, Steven M.; Luong, Tiffany; Rought, Steffney E.; Gianella, Sara; Terry, Valeri H.; Spina, Celsa A.; Woelk, Christopher H.; Richman, Douglas D.

    2013-01-01

    Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) provides the most sensitive measurement of residual infection in patients on effective combination antiretroviral therapy (cART). Droplet digital PCR (ddPCR) has recently been shown to provide highly accurate quantification of DNA copy number, but its application to quantification of HIV DNA, or other equally rare targets, has not been reported. This paper demonstrates and analyzes the application of ddPCR to measure the frequency of total HIV DNA (pol copies per million cells), and episomal 2-LTR (long terminal repeat) circles in cells isolated from infected patients. Analysis of over 300 clinical samples, including over 150 clinical samples assayed in triplicate by ddPCR and by real-time PCR (qPCR), demonstrates a significant increase in precision, with an average 5-fold decrease in the coefficient of variation of pol copy numbers and a >20-fold accuracy improvement for 2-LTR circles. Additional benefits of the ddPCR assay over qPCR include absolute quantification without reliance on an external standard and relative insensitivity to mismatches in primer and probe sequences. These features make digital PCR an attractive alternative for measurement of HIV DNA in clinical specimens. The improved sensitivity and precision of measurement of these rare events should facilitate measurements to characterize the latent HIV reservoir and interventions to eradicate it. PMID:23573183

  20. Construction concepts for precision segmented reflectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mikulas, Martin M., Jr.; Withnell, Peter R.

    1993-01-01

    Three construction concepts for deployable precision segmented reflectors are presented. The designs produce reflectors with very high surface accuracies and diameters three to five times the width of the launch vehicle shroud. Of primary importance is the reliability of both the deployment process and the reflector operation. This paper is conceptual in nature, and uses these criteria to present beneficial design concepts for deployable precision segmented reflectors.

  1. High-precision arithmetic in mathematical physics

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Bailey, David H.; Borwein, Jonathan M.

    2015-05-12

    For many scientific calculations, particularly those involving empirical data, IEEE 32-bit floating-point arithmetic produces results of sufficient accuracy, while for other applications IEEE 64-bit floating-point is more appropriate. But for some very demanding applications, even higher levels of precision are often required. Furthermore, this article discusses the challenge of high-precision computation, in the context of mathematical physics, and highlights what facilities are required to support future computation, in light of emerging developments in computer architecture.

  2. Triggering of repeated earthquakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sobolev, G. A.; Zakrzhevskaya, N. A.; Sobolev, D. G.

    2016-03-01

    Based on the analysis of the world's earthquakes with magnitudes M ≥ 6.5 for 1960-2013, it is shown that they cause global-scale coherent seismic oscillations which most distinctly manifest themselves in the period interval of 4-6 min during 1-3 days after the event. After these earthquakes, a repeated shock has an increased probability to occur in different seismically active regions located as far away as a few thousand km from the previous event, i.e., a remote interaction of seismic events takes place. The number of the repeated shocks N( t) decreases with time, which characterizes the memory of the lithosphere about the impact that has occurred. The time decay N( t) can be approximated by the linear, exponential, and powerlaw dependences. No distinct correlation between the spatial locations of the initial and repeated earthquakes is revealed. The probable triggering mechanisms of the remote interaction between the earthquakes are discussed. Surface seismic waves traveling several times around the Earth's, coherent oscillations, and global source are the most preferable candidates. This may lead to the accumulation and coalescence of ruptures in the highly stressed or weakened domains of a seismically active region, which increases the probability of a repeated earthquake.

  3. Repeated Causal Decision Making

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hagmayer, York; Meder, Bjorn

    2013-01-01

    Many of our decisions refer to actions that have a causal impact on the external environment. Such actions may not only allow for the mere learning of expected values or utilities but also for acquiring knowledge about the causal structure of our world. We used a repeated decision-making paradigm to examine what kind of knowledge people acquire in…

  4. Bidirectional Manchester repeater

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ferguson, J.

    1980-01-01

    Bidirectional Manchester repeater is inserted at periodic intervals along single bidirectional twisted pair transmission line to detect, amplify, and transmit bidirectional Manchester 11 code signals. Requiring only 18 TTL 7400 series IC's, some line receivers and drivers, and handful of passive components, circuit is simple and relatively inexpensive to build.

  5. Development of a high-speed nanoprofiler using normal vector tracing method for high-accuracy mirrors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okuda, Kohei; Kitayama, Takao; Usuki, Koji; Kojima, Takuya; Okita, Kenya; Uchikoshi, Junichi; Higashi, Yasuo; Endo, Katsuyoshi

    2013-09-01

    High-precision optical elements are used in various fields. Ultraprecise aspherical mirrors that offer nanofocusing and high coherence are used to concentrate high-brightness X-rays in developing third-generation synchrotron radiation facilities. In industry, extreme ultraviolet (wavelength: 13.5 nm) lithography, which is used to fabricate semiconductor devices, uses high-accuracy aspherical mirrors for its projection optical systems. The demand for rapid progress in nanomeasurement technologies is increasing because it is difficult to realize next-generation ultraprecise mirrors with the required precision by conventional processing. The measuring method itself requires superhigh precision. We developed an innovative nanoprofiler that can directly measure the figure of high-accuracy mirrors without using a reference surface. The principle of our measuring method is to determine the normal vectors by causing the optical paths of the incident and reflected light at the measurement point to coincide; it is based on the straightness of laser light and the accuracy of rotational goniometers. From the acquired normal vectors and their coordinates, the three-dimensional shape is calculated by a reconstruction algorithm. We measured concave spherical mirrors and compared the results with those using a Fizeau interferometer. The profiles of the mirrors were consistent within the range of error in their middle portions. In addition, we evaluated the performance of an airflow control unit by measuring a concave spherical mirror. This unit suppressed the influence of environmental change, and drastically improved the repeatability.

  6. The Magsat precision vector magnetometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Acuna, M. H.

    1980-01-01

    This paper examines the Magsat precision vector magnetometer which is designed to measure projections of the ambient field in three orthogonal directions. The system contains a highly stable and linear triaxial fluxgate magnetometer with a dynamic range of + or - 2000 nT (1 nT = 10 to the -9 weber per sq m). The magnetometer electronics, analog-to-digital converter, and digitally controlled current sources are implemented with redundant designs to avoid a loss of data in case of failures. Measurements are carried out with an accuracy of + or - 1 part in 64,000 in magnitude and 5 arcsec in orientation (1 arcsec = 0.00028 deg).

  7. An accuracy assessment of realtime GNSS time series toward semi- real time seafloor geodetic observation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Osada, Y.; Ohta, Y.; Demachi, T.; Kido, M.; Fujimoto, H.; Azuma, R.; Hino, R.

    2013-12-01

    Large interplate earthquake repeatedly occurred in Japan Trench. Recently, the detail crustal deformation revealed by the nation-wide inland GPS network called as GEONET by GSI. However, the maximum displacement region for interplate earthquake is mainly located offshore region. GPS/Acoustic seafloor geodetic observation (hereafter GPS/A) is quite important and useful for understanding of shallower part of the interplate coupling between subducting and overriding plates. We typically conduct GPS/A in specific ocean area based on repeated campaign style using research vessel or buoy. Therefore, we cannot monitor the temporal variation of seafloor crustal deformation in real time. The one of technical issue on real time observation is kinematic GPS analysis because kinematic GPS analysis based on reference and rover data. If the precise kinematic GPS analysis will be possible in the offshore region, it should be promising method for real time GPS/A with USV (Unmanned Surface Vehicle) and a moored buoy. We assessed stability, precision and accuracy of StarFireTM global satellites based augmentation system. We primarily tested for StarFire in the static condition. In order to assess coordinate precision and accuracy, we compared 1Hz StarFire time series and post-processed precise point positioning (PPP) 1Hz time series by GIPSY-OASIS II processing software Ver. 6.1.2 with three difference product types (ultra-rapid, rapid, and final orbits). We also used difference interval clock information (30 and 300 seconds) for the post-processed PPP processing. The standard deviation of real time StarFire time series is less than 30 mm (horizontal components) and 60 mm (vertical component) based on 1 month continuous processing. We also assessed noise spectrum of the estimated time series by StarFire and post-processed GIPSY PPP results. We found that the noise spectrum of StarFire time series is similar pattern with GIPSY-OASIS II processing result based on JPL rapid orbit

  8. Validity and repeatability of three in-shoe pressure measurement systems.

    PubMed

    Price, Carina; Parker, Daniel; Nester, Christopher

    2016-05-01

    In-shoe pressure measurement devices are used in research and clinic to quantify plantar foot pressures. Various devices are available, differing in size, sensor number and type; therefore accuracy and repeatability. Three devices (Medilogic, Tekscan and Pedar) were examined in a 2 day×3 trial design, quantifying insole response to regional and whole insole loading. The whole insole protocol applied an even pressure (50-600kPa) to the insole surface for 0-30s in the Novel TruBlue™ device. The regional protocol utilised cylinders with contact surfaces of 3.14 and 15.9cm(2) to apply pressures of 50 and 200kPa. The validity (% difference and Root Mean Square Error: RMSE) and repeatability (Intra-Class Correlation Coefficient: ICC) of the applied pressures (whole insole) and contact area (regional) were outcome variables. Validity of the Pedar system was highest (RMSE 2.6kPa; difference 3.9%), with the Medilogic (RMSE 27.0kPa; difference 13.4%) and Tekscan (RMSE 27.0kPa; difference 5.9%) systems displaying reduced validity. The average and peak pressures demonstrated high between-day repeatability for all three systems and each insole size (ICC≥0.859). The regional contact area % difference ranged from -97 to +249%, but the ICC demonstrated medium to high between-day repeatability (ICC≥0.797). Due to the varying responses of the systems, the choice of an appropriate pressure measurement device must be based on the loading characteristics and the outcome variables sought. Medilogic and Tekscan were most effective between 200 and 300kPa; Pedar performed well across all pressures. Contact area was less precise, but relatively repeatable for all systems. PMID:27131180

  9. Precise Countersinking Tool

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jenkins, Eric S.; Smith, William N.

    1992-01-01

    Tool countersinks holes precisely with only portable drill; does not require costly machine tool. Replaceable pilot stub aligns axis of tool with centerline of hole. Ensures precise cut even with imprecise drill. Designed for relatively low cutting speeds.

  10. Accumulate repeat accumulate codes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abbasfar, Aliazam; Divsalar, Dariush; Yao, Kung

    2004-01-01

    In this paper we propose an innovative channel coding scheme called 'Accumulate Repeat Accumulate codes' (ARA). This class of codes can be viewed as serial turbo-like codes, or as a subclass of Low Density Parity Check (LDPC) codes, thus belief propagation can be used for iterative decoding of ARA codes on a graph. The structure of encoder for this class can be viewed as precoded Repeat Accumulate (RA) code or as precoded Irregular Repeat Accumulate (IRA) code, where simply an accumulator is chosen as a precoder. Thus ARA codes have simple, and very fast encoder structure when they representing LDPC codes. Based on density evolution for LDPC codes through some examples for ARA codes, we show that for maximum variable node degree 5 a minimum bit SNR as low as 0.08 dB from channel capacity for rate 1/2 can be achieved as the block size goes to infinity. Thus based on fixed low maximum variable node degree, its threshold outperforms not only the RA and IRA codes but also the best known LDPC codes with the dame maximum node degree. Furthermore by puncturing the accumulators any desired high rate codes close to code rate 1 can be obtained with thresholds that stay close to the channel capacity thresholds uniformly. Iterative decoding simulation results are provided. The ARA codes also have projected graph or protograph representation that allows for high speed decoder implementation.

  11. Towards 1 MilliGal Global Marine Gravity Accuracy from CryoSat, Envisat, and Jason-1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sandwell, D. T.; Garcia, E. M.; Smith, W. H.

    2012-12-01

    The accuracy of the global marine gravity field depends primarily on two factors - spatial track density and altimeter range precision. Recently three new non-repeat altimeter data sets are becoming available. (1) CryoSat has been collecting data over the world's oceans for the past 2.5 years. While its main mission is to map the changing topography of the ice sheets it is also revolutionizing our understanding of marine gravity. (2) In October 2010, the Envisat radar altimeter was placed in a new partly drifting phase orbit to conserve fuel. Although the spacecraft failed in April 2012, it was able to collect 1.5 years of data along this new ground track. (3) In May of 2012, the Jason-1 radar altimeter was maneuvered from its 10-day repeat track to a 406 day repeat track to begin its new geodetic mission phase. The largest error source in the construction of marine gravity models from satellite altimetry is due to errors in picking the arrival time of the return radar echo. We have developed a new approach to retracking altimeter waveforms by assuming that rise-time parameter, which represents the roughness of the ocean surface from ocean swell (SWH), varies smoothly along the satellite ground track. The results of the 20 Hz range precision for all the non-repeat altimeters are provided in the Table below. Note the improved range precision of the newer altimeters on Envisat and CryoSat with respect to the older altimeters on Geosat and ERS-1. These improvements in range precision combined with the increased track density are resulting in dramatic improvements in the accuracy of the marine gravity field. A blind test of the altimeter-derived gravity was performed by ConocoPhillips using their proprietary terrestrial gravity measurements. The rms difference between 1.4 million data points from the northern Gulf of Mexico is 1.83 mGal. The rms difference over an area of semi-permanent ice cover is 3.77 mGal. Most of the error at lower latitude is due to errors in the

  12. "Precision" drug development?

    PubMed

    Woodcock, J

    2016-02-01

    The concept of precision medicine has entered broad public consciousness, spurred by a string of targeted drug approvals, highlighted by the availability of personal gene sequences, and accompanied by some remarkable claims about the future of medicine. It is likely that precision medicines will require precision drug development programs. What might such programs look like? PMID:26331240

  13. Precision agricultural systems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Precision agriculture is a new farming practice that has been developing since late 1980s. It has been variously referred to as precision farming, prescription farming, site-specific crop management, to name but a few. There are numerous definitions for precision agriculture, but the central concept...

  14. Spatial and waveform relationships of repeating and anti-repeating earthquake clusters at intermediate-depths in the Bucaramanga nest, Colombia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barrett, S. A.; Prieto, G.; Beroza, G. C.

    2012-12-01

    The Bucaramanga Nest beneath Northern Colombia is the densest concentration of intermediate depth seismicity in the world. It includes large groups of repeating earthquakes, as well as anti-repeating (or repeating with reverse polarity) earthquakes. We seek to understand the spatial relationship of these repeating and anti-repeating events with respect to each other as well as with respect to the surrounding seismicity. We accomplish this first through precise relocations of events in the Colombian national catalog (RSNC) using double-difference relocation. Preliminary results using only catalog times indicate that repeating and anti-repeating earthquakes occur in the core of the nest among a cloud of non-correlating seismicity. Further improvements on initial relocations will be made using cross-correlation measurements. Once we have precise locations, we will use a combination of waveform similarity and possibly moment tensor inversion to develop a mechanical model for the occurrence of these events.

  15. A quick telemanipulator calibration and repeatability method with applications

    SciTech Connect

    Jansen, J.F.; Haley, D.C.

    1994-09-01

    This paper will present a methodology that was used to calibrate and measure the repeatability of two telemanipulators at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The global accuracy of the method was 0.05 in. ({approx_equal} 1.3 mm), and the orientation accuracy was approximately 6 min ({approx_equal} 0.002 rads). For most teleoperator systems, these accuracies are more than adequate because of the construction of the mechanism and sensor capabilities (e.g., typically 12 bits of resolution). Although industrial robots require accuracies of about 0.05 mm or better, telemanipulators do not.

  16. Precision CW laser automatic tracking system investigated

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lang, K. T.; Lucy, R. F.; Mcgann, E. J.; Peters, C. J.

    1966-01-01

    Precision laser tracker capable of tracking a low acceleration target to an accuracy of about 20 microradians rms is being constructed and tested. This laser tracking has the advantage of discriminating against other optical sources and the capability of simultaneously measuring range.

  17. Using satellite data to increase accuracy of PMF calculations

    SciTech Connect

    Mettel, M.C.

    1992-03-01

    The accuracy of a flood severity estimate depends on the data used. The more detailed and precise the data, the more accurate the estimate. Earth observation satellites gather detailed data for determining the probable maximum flood at hydropower projects.

  18. The Seasat Precision Orbit Determination Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tapley, B. D.; Born, G. H.

    1980-01-01

    The objectives and conclusions reached during the Seasat Precision Orbit Determination Experiment are discussed. It is noted that the activities of the experiment team included extensive software calibration and validation and an intense effort to validate and improve the dynamic models which describe the satellite's motion. Significant improvement in the gravitational model was obtained during the experiment, and it is pointed out that the current accuracy of the Seasat altitude ephemeris is 1.5 m rms. An altitude ephemeris for the Seasat spacecraft with an accuracy of 0.5 m rms is seen as possible with further improvements in the geopotential, atmospheric drag, and solar radiation pressure models. It is concluded that since altimetry missions with a 2-cm precision altimeter are contemplated, the precision orbit determination effort initiated under the Seasat Project must be continued and expanded.

  19. History repeats itself: genomic divergence in copepods.

    PubMed

    Renaut, Sébastien; Dion-Côté, Anne-Marie

    2016-04-01

    Press stop, erase everything from now till some arbitrary time in the past and start recording life as it evolves once again. Would you see the same tape of life playing itself over and over, or would a different story unfold every time? The late Steven Jay Gould called this experiment replaying the tape of life and argued that any replay of the tape would lead evolution down a pathway radically different from the road actually taken (Gould 1989). This thought experiment has puzzled evolutionary biologists for a long time: how repeatable are evolutionary events? And if history does indeed repeat itself, what are the factors that may help us predict the path taken? A powerful means to address these questions at a small evolutionary scale is to study closely related populations that have evolved independently, under similar environmental conditions. This is precisely what Pereira et al. () set out to do using marine copepods Tigriopus californicus, and present their results in this issue of Molecular Ecology. They show that evolution can be repeatable and even partly predictable, at least at the molecular level. As expected from theory, patterns of divergence were shaped by natural selection. At the same time, strong genetic drift due to small population sizes also constrained evolution down a similar evolutionary road, and probably contributed to repeatable patterns of genomic divergence. PMID:27012819

  20. Precision optical metrology without lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bergmann, Ralf B.; Burke, Jan; Falldorf, Claas

    2015-07-01

    Optical metrology is a key technique when it comes to precise and fast measurement with a resolution down to the micrometer or even nanometer regime. The choice of a particular optical metrology technique and the quality of results depends on sample parameters such as size, geometry and surface roughness as well as user requirements such as resolution, measurement time and robustness. Interferometry-based techniques are well known for their low measurement uncertainty in the nm range, but usually require careful isolation against vibration and a laser source that often needs shielding for reasons of eye-safety. In this paper, we concentrate on high precision optical metrology without lasers by using the gradient based measurement technique of deflectometry and the finite difference based technique of shear interferometry. Careful calibration of deflectometry systems allows one to investigate virtually all kinds of reflecting surfaces including aspheres or free-form surfaces with measurement uncertainties below the μm level. Computational Shear Interferometry (CoSI) allows us to combine interferometric accuracy and the possibility to use cheap and eye-safe low-brilliance light sources such as e.g. fiber coupled LEDs or even liquid crystal displays. We use CoSI e.g. for quantitative phase contrast imaging in microscopy. We highlight the advantages of both methods, discuss their transfer functions and present results on the precision of both techniques.

  1. Duct Leakage Repeatability Testing

    SciTech Connect

    Walker, Iain; Sherman, Max

    2014-08-01

    The purpose of this report is to evaluate the repeatability of the three most significant measurement techniques for duct leakage using data from the literature and recently obtained field data. We will also briefly discuss the first two factors. The main question to be answered by this study is to determine if differences in the repeatability of these tests methods is sufficient to indicate that any of these methods is so poor that it should be excluded from consideration as an allowed procedure in codes and standards. The three duct leak measurement methods assessed in this report are the two duct pressurization methods that are commonly used by many practitioners and the DeltaQ technique. These are methods B, C and A, respectively of the ASTM E1554 standard. Although it would be useful to evaluate other duct leak test methods, this study focused on those test methods that are commonly used and are required in various test standards, such as BPI (2010), RESNET (2014), ASHRAE 62.2 (2013), California Title 24 (CEC 2012), DOE Weatherization and many other energy efficiency programs.

  2. Repeated measures with zeros.

    PubMed

    Berk, K N; Lachenbruch, P A

    2002-08-01

    Consider repeated measures data with many zeros. For the case with one grouping factor and one repeated measure, we examine several models, assuming that the nonzero data are roughly lognormal. One of the simplest approaches is to model the zeros as left-censored observations from the lognormal distribution. A random effect is assumed for subjects. The censored model makes a strong assumption about the relationship between the zeros and the nonzero values. To check on this, you can instead assume that some of the zeros are 'true' zeros and model them as Bernoulli. Then the other values are modeled with a censored lognormal. A logistic model is used for the Bernoulli p, the probability of a true nonzero. The fit of the pure left-censored lognormal can be assessed by testing the hypothesis that p is 1, as described by Moulton and Halsey. The model can also be simplified by omitting the censoring, leaving a logistic model for the zeros and a lognormal model for the nonzero values. This is approximately equivalent to modeling the zero and nonzero values separately, a two-part model. In contrast to the censored model, this model assumes only a slight relationship (a covariance component) between the occurrence of zeros and the size of the nonzero values. The models are compared in terms of an example with data from children's private speech. PMID:12197298

  3. Advanced irrigation engineering: Precision and Precise

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Irrigation advances in precision irrigation (PI) or site-specific irrigation (SSI) have been considerable in research; however commercialization lags. A primary necessity for it is variability in soil texture that affects soil water holding capacity and crop yield. Basically, SSI/PI uses variable ra...

  4. Advanced irrigation engineering: Precision and Precise

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Irrigation advances in precision irrigation (PI) or site specific irrigation (SSI) have been considerable in research; however commercialization lags. A primary necessity for PI/SSI is variability in soil texture that affects soil water holding capacity and crop yield. Basically, SSI/PI uses variabl...

  5. Precision aerial application for site-specific rice crop management

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Precision agriculture includes different technologies that allow agricultural professional to use information management tools to optimize agriculture production. The new technologies allow aerial application applicators to improve application accuracy and efficiency, which saves time and money for...

  6. Repeat Customer Success in Extension

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bess, Melissa M.; Traub, Sarah M.

    2013-01-01

    Four multi-session research-based programs were offered by two Extension specialist in one rural Missouri county. Eleven participants who came to multiple Extension programs could be called "repeat customers." Based on the total number of participants for all four programs, 25% could be deemed as repeat customers. Repeat customers had…

  7. System and method for high precision isotope ratio destructive analysis

    DOEpatents

    Bushaw, Bruce A; Anheier, Norman C; Phillips, Jon R

    2013-07-02

    A system and process are disclosed that provide high accuracy and high precision destructive analysis measurements for isotope ratio determination of relative isotope abundance distributions in liquids, solids, and particulate samples. The invention utilizes a collinear probe beam to interrogate a laser ablated plume. This invention provides enhanced single-shot detection sensitivity approaching the femtogram range, and isotope ratios that can be determined at approximately 1% or better precision and accuracy (relative standard deviation).

  8. Taking the Measure of the Universe : Precision Astrometry with SIM PlanetQuest

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Unwin, Stephen C.; Shao, Michael; Tanner, Angelle M.; Allen, Ronald J.; Beichman, Charles A.; Boboltz, David; Catanzarite, Joseph H.; Chaboyer, Brian C.; Ciardi, David R.; Edberg, Stephen J.; Fey, Alan L.; Fischer, Debra A.; Gelino, Christopher R.; Gould, Andrew P.; Grillmair, Carl; Henry, Todd J.; Johnston, Kathryn V.; Johnston, Kenneth J.; Jones, Dayton L.; Kulkarni, Shrinivas R.; Law, Nicholas M.; Majewski, Steven R.; Makarov, Valeri V.; Marcy, Geoffrey W.; Meier, David L.

    2008-01-01

    Precision astrometry at microarcsecond accuracy has application to a wide range of astrophysical problems. This paper is a study of the science questions that can be addressed using an instrument with flexible scheduling that delivers parallaxes at about 4 microarcsec (microns)as) on targets as faint as V = 20, and differential accuracy of 0.6 (microns)as on bright targets. The science topics are drawn primarily from the Team Key Projects, selected in 2000, for the Space Interferometry Mission PlanetQuest (SIM PlanetQuest). We use the capabilities of this mission to illustrate the importance of the next level of astrometric precision in modern astrophysics. SIM PlanetQuest is currently in the detailed design phase, having completed in 2005 all of the enabling technologies needed for the flight instrument. It will be the first space-based long baseline Michelson interferometer designed for precision astrometry. SIM will contribute strongly to many astronomical fields including stellar and galactic astrophysics, planetary systems around nearby stars, and the study of quasar and AGN nuclei. Using differential astrometry SIM will search for planets with masses as small as an Earth orbiting in the 'habitable zone' around the nearest stars, and could discover many dozen if Earth-like planets are common. It will characterize the multiple-planet systems that are now known to exist, and it will be able to search for terrestrial planets around all of the candidate target stars in the Terrestrial Planet Finder and Darwin mission lists. It will be capable of detecting planets around young stars, thereby providing insights into how planetary systems are born and how they evolve with time. Precision astrometry allows the measurement of accurate dynamical masses for stars in binary systems. SIM will observe significant numbers of very high- and low-mass stars, providing stellar masses to 1%, the accuracy needed to challenge physical models. Using precision proper motion

  9. High accuracy determination of the thermal properties of supported 2D materials

    PubMed Central

    Judek, Jarosław; Gertych, Arkadiusz P.; Świniarski, Michał; Łapińska, Anna; Dużyńska, Anna; Zdrojek, Mariusz

    2015-01-01

    We present a novel approach for the simultaneous determination of the thermal conductivity κ and the total interface conductance g of supported 2D materials by the enhanced opto-thermal method. We harness the property of the Gaussian laser beam that acts as a heat source, whose size can easily and precisely be controlled. The experimental data for multi-layer graphene and MoS2 flakes are supplemented using numerical simulations of the heat distribution in the Si/SiO2/2D material system. The procedure of κ and g extraction is tested in a statistical approach, demonstrating the high accuracy and repeatability of our method. PMID:26179785

  10. RepeatsDB: a database of tandem repeat protein structures

    PubMed Central

    Di Domenico, Tomás; Potenza, Emilio; Walsh, Ian; Gonzalo Parra, R.; Giollo, Manuel; Minervini, Giovanni; Piovesan, Damiano; Ihsan, Awais; Ferrari, Carlo; Kajava, Andrey V.; Tosatto, Silvio C.E.

    2014-01-01

    RepeatsDB (http://repeatsdb.bio.unipd.it/) is a database of annotated tandem repeat protein structures. Tandem repeats pose a difficult problem for the analysis of protein structures, as the underlying sequence can be highly degenerate. Several repeat types haven been studied over the years, but their annotation was done in a case-by-case basis, thus making large-scale analysis difficult. We developed RepeatsDB to fill this gap. Using state-of-the-art repeat detection methods and manual curation, we systematically annotated the Protein Data Bank, predicting 10 745 repeat structures. In all, 2797 structures were classified according to a recently proposed classification schema, which was expanded to accommodate new findings. In addition, detailed annotations were performed in a subset of 321 proteins. These annotations feature information on start and end positions for the repeat regions and units. RepeatsDB is an ongoing effort to systematically classify and annotate structural protein repeats in a consistent way. It provides users with the possibility to access and download high-quality datasets either interactively or programmatically through web services. PMID:24311564

  11. GEOSPATIAL DATA ACCURACY ASSESSMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The development of robust accuracy assessment methods for the validation of spatial data represent's a difficult scientific challenge for the geospatial science community. The importance and timeliness of this issue is related directly to the dramatic escalation in the developmen...

  12. Improving the precision matrix for precision cosmology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paz, Dante J.; Sánchez, Ariel G.

    2015-12-01

    The estimation of cosmological constraints from observations of the large-scale structure of the Universe, such as the power spectrum or the correlation function, requires the knowledge of the inverse of the associated covariance matrix, namely the precision matrix, Ψ . In most analyses, Ψ is estimated from a limited set of mock catalogues. Depending on how many mocks are used, this estimation has an associated error which must be propagated into the final cosmological constraints. For future surveys such as Euclid and Dark Energy Spectroscopic Instrument, the control of this additional uncertainty requires a prohibitively large number of mock catalogues. In this work, we test a novel technique for the estimation of the precision matrix, the covariance tapering method, in the context of baryon acoustic oscillation measurements. Even though this technique was originally devised as a way to speed up maximum likelihood estimations, our results show that it also reduces the impact of noisy precision matrix estimates on the derived confidence intervals, without introducing biases on the target parameters. The application of this technique can help future surveys to reach their true constraining power using a significantly smaller number of mock catalogues.

  13. Precision Optics Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reid, Robert L.; And Others

    This guide outlines the competency-based, two-year precision optics curriculum that the American Precision Optics Manufacturers Association has proposed to fill the void that it suggests will soon exist as many of the master opticians currently employed retire. The model, which closely resembles the old European apprenticeship model, calls for 300…

  14. Sub-nanometer interferometry and precision turning for large optical fabrication

    SciTech Connect

    Klingmann, J L; Sommargren, G E

    1999-04-01

    At Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), we have the unique combination of precision turning and metrology capabilities critical to the fabrication of large optical elements. We have developed a self-referenced interferometer to measure errors in aspheric optics to sub- nanometer accuracy over 200-millimeter apertures, a dynamic range of 5{approximately}10. We have utilized diamond turning to figure optics for X-ray to IR wavelengths and, with fast-tool-servo technology, can move optical segments from off-axis to on-axis. With part capacities to 2.3-meters diameter and the metrology described above, segments of very large, ultra-lightweight mirrors can potentially be figured to final requirements. precision of diamond-turning will carryover although the surface finish may be degraded. Finally, the most critical component of a fabrication process is the metrology that enables an accurate part. Well characterized machines are very repeatable and part accuracy must come from proper metrology. A self- referencing interferometer has been developed that can measure accurately to sub-nanometer values. As with traditional interferometers, measurements are fast and post- processed data provides useful feedback to the user. The simplicity of the device allows it to be used on large optics and systems.

  15. Sub-Nanometer Resolution Ultrasonic Motor for 300 mm Wafer Lithography Precision Stage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Egashira, Yoshiya; Kosaka, Kouji; Iwabuchi, Tetsuya; Kosaka, Tetsuya; Baba, Tetsuro; Endo, Taishi; Hashiguchi, Hiroyuki; Harada, Takashi; Nagamoto, Keiichi; Watanabe, Masayuki; Yamakawa, Takahiro; Miyata, Noboru; Moriyama, Shiro; Morizono, Yasuhiro; Nakada, Akira; Kubota, Hiroshi; Ohmi, Tadahiro

    2002-09-01

    This paper describes the development of the nonresonant ultrasonic motor (NRUSM) applied to a 300-mm-stroke ultra-precision stage for future LSI manufacturing, in particular electron beam based technologies. Advantages of the NRUSM are high resolution, no magnetic noise generation, high servo rigidity and high retention. It is confirmed that the NRUSM is suitable for ultra-precision positioning, and slow- and high-velocity feeding at closed-loop controls. The performance of the NRUSM-driven stage includes; (1) 85 mm/s feed velocity with average acceleration 375 mm/s2 over the 300 mm stroke at open-loop control; (2) ± 0.69 nm positioning accuracy at step and repeat response, 17 ms average positioning time for ± 30 nm positioning accuracy, positional error during constant velocity feeding below ± 1.5 nm for 100 nm/s and ± 40 nm for 20 mm/s, and velocity ripple at 36 mm/s is below 0.04% at closed-loop control.

  16. A 3-D Multilateration: A Precision Geodetic Measurement System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Escobal, P. R.; Fliegel, H. F.; Jaffe, R. M.; Muller, P. M.; Ong, K. M.; Vonroos, O. H.

    1972-01-01

    A system was designed with the capability of determining 1-cm accuracy station positions in three dimensions using pulsed laser earth satellite tracking stations coupled with strictly geometric data reduction. With this high accuracy, several crucial geodetic applications become possible, including earthquake hazards assessment, precision surveying, plate tectonics, and orbital determination.

  17. Precision Spectroscopy of Atomic Hydrogen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beyer, A.; Parthey, Ch G.; Kolachevsky, N.; Alnis, J.; Khabarova, K.; Pohl, R.; Peters, E.; Yost, D. C.; Matveev, A.; Predehl, K.; Droste, S.; Wilken, T.; Holzwarth, R.; Hänsch, T. W.; Abgrall, M.; Rovera, D.; Salomon, Ch; Laurent, Ph; Udem, Th

    2013-12-01

    Precise determinations of transition frequencies of simple atomic systems are required for a number of fundamental applications such as tests of quantum electrodynamics (QED), the determination of fundamental constants and nuclear charge radii. The sharpest transition in atomic hydrogen occurs between the metastable 2S state and the 1S ground state. Its transition frequency has now been measured with almost 15 digits accuracy using an optical frequency comb and a cesium atomic clock as a reference [1]. A recent measurement of the 2S - 2P3/2 transition frequency in muonic hydrogen is in significant contradiction to the hydrogen data if QED calculations are assumed to be correct [2, 3]. We hope to contribute to this so-called "proton size puzzle" by providing additional experimental input from hydrogen spectroscopy.

  18. Persistent scatterers at building facades - Evaluation of appearance and localization accuracy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gernhardt, Stefan; Auer, Stefan; Eder, Konrad

    2015-02-01

    Thanks to the high resolution of modern SAR satellites many persistent scatterers (PS) appear at single buildings. Approximately half of them represent building facades. These groups of points often show regular patterns in SAR images that can be related to repeating structure elements on the facades. Hence, individual buildings can now be monitored over time, either based on amplitude (for change detection) or phase information (using interferometric methods). However, patterns of point signatures are often disrupted or disappear when the imaging geometry is slightly changed. In addition, the localization accuracy of estimated and geocoded natural PS is not known, yet. The investigation at hand provides a detailed analysis of PS patterns based on reference data obtained from a photogrammetric survey and terrestrial measurements. The processing of the optical images allows creating a detailed 3D model of the respective facade, which represents the geometrical object information for SAR simulation. The terrestrial measurements allow relating the 3D model to its true position in a world coordinate system like UTM (Universal Transverse Mercator), which is necessary for assessing the localization accuracy of the signatures. From the simulation results the appearance of the point patterns of natural PS in high resolution SAR data can be better understood. Moreover, the localization accuracy and the precision for these points can be derived for the first time. The approach and findings for two case studies in Munich are described in detail in this paper.

  19. A Highly Accurate Stress Measurement System for Producing Precise X-Ray Masks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oda, Masatoshi; Une, Atsunobu; Okada, Ikuo; Shinohara, Shinji; Nakayama, Yasuo; Yoshihara, Hideo

    1995-12-01

    A new system that measures stress in film deposited on Si wafers has been developed to produce highly accurate X-ray masks. The system consists of very rigid air sliders, an electrostatic sensor, and a soft-handling wafer chuck. With the system, wafer warp is precisely measured before and after film deposition, and the stress distribution is calculated from those measurements. Wafer warps can be measured with a repeatability of a few nanometers by this system. The stress distribution of absorber film on 2-mm-thick Si wafers can be determined with an accuracy of ±5 MPa. The stress distribution agrees well with the pattern position shifts in the membrane.

  20. Accuracy of analyses of microelectronics nanostructures in atom probe tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vurpillot, F.; Rolland, N.; Estivill, R.; Duguay, S.; Blavette, D.

    2016-07-01

    The routine use of atom probe tomography (APT) as a nano-analysis microscope in the semiconductor industry requires the precise evaluation of the metrological parameters of this instrument (spatial accuracy, spatial precision, composition accuracy or composition precision). The spatial accuracy of this microscope is evaluated in this paper in the analysis of planar structures such as high-k metal gate stacks. It is shown both experimentally and theoretically that the in-depth accuracy of reconstructed APT images is perturbed when analyzing this structure composed of an oxide layer of high electrical permittivity (higher-k dielectric constant) that separates the metal gate and the semiconductor channel of a field emitter transistor. Large differences in the evaporation field between these layers (resulting from large differences in material properties) are the main sources of image distortions. An analytic model is used to interpret inaccuracy in the depth reconstruction of these devices in APT.

  1. High-Precision Nucleation Rate Measurements for Higher Melting Metals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bokeloh, Joachim; Wilde, Gerhard

    2014-08-01

    Nucleation of a crystal in undercooled melts of higher melting face-centered-cubic-metals has often been studied in the past. However, the data available were not of sufficient accuracy and only covered nucleation rates in too small of a range to allow precise conclusions concerning the nature of the underlying process as well as concerning important parameters such as the solid-liquid interface free energy that can in principle be deducted from such analyses. One way to circumvent ambiguities and analyze nucleation kinetics under well-defined conditions experimentally is given by performing statistically significant numbers of repeated single droplet experiments. Application of proper statistics analyses yields nucleation rates that are independent of a specific nucleation model. The first studies that were conducted in accordance with this approach on pure model materials revealed that the approach is valid. The results are comparable to those obtained by classic nucleation theory applied to experimental data, and it was shown that one might need to rethink the common assumption that heterogeneous nucleation is almost always responsible for solidification initiation. The current results also show that often-used models for the solid-liquid interface free energy might lead to overestimated values.

  2. Development of simple sequence repeat markers in cymbopogon species.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Jitendra; Verma, Vijeshwar; Shahi, Ashok Kumar; Qazi, Gulam Nab; Balyan, Harindra Singh

    2007-03-01

    The genus Cymbopogon comprises about 140 species, which produce characteristic aromatic essential oils. However, the phenotypic identification of species of Cymbopogon has been difficult as a result of widespread occurrence of natural variants, which differ in ploidy levels and chemotaxonomic complexities. Therefore, we have developed a set of simple sequence repeat markers from a genomic library of Cymbopogon jwarancusa to help in the precise identification of the species (including accessions) of Cymbopogon. For this purpose, we isolated 16 simple sequence repeat containing genomic deoxyribonucleic acid clones of C. jwarancusa, which contained a total of 32 simple sequence repeats with a range of 1 to 3 simple sequence repeats per clone. The majority (68.8%) of the 32 simple sequence repeats comprised dinucleotide repeat motifs followed by simple sequence repeats with trinucleotide (21.8%) and other higher order repeat motifs. Eighteen (81.8%) of the 22 designed primers for the above simple sequence repeats amplified products of expected sizes, when tried with genomic DNA of C. jwarancusa, the source species. Thirteen (72.2%) of the 18 functional primers detected polymorphism among the three species of Cymbopogon (C. flexuosus, C. pendulus and C. jwarancusa) and amplified a total of 95 alleles (range 1-18 alleles) with a PIC value of 0.44 to 0.96 per simple sequence repeat. Thus, the higher allelic range and high level of polymorphism demonstrated by the newly developed simple sequence repeat markers are likely to have many applications such as in improvement of essential oil quality by authentication of Cymbopogon species and varieties and mapping or tagging the genes controlling agronomically important traits of essential oils, which can further be utilized in marker assisted breeding. PMID:17318781

  3. Interoceptive accuracy and panic.

    PubMed

    Zoellner, L A; Craske, M G

    1999-12-01

    Psychophysiological models of panic hypothesize that panickers focus attention on and become anxious about the physical sensations associated with panic. Attention on internal somatic cues has been labeled interoception. The present study examined the role of physiological arousal and subjective anxiety on interoceptive accuracy. Infrequent panickers and nonanxious participants participated in an initial baseline to examine overall interoceptive accuracy. Next, participants ingested caffeine, about which they received either safety or no safety information. Using a mental heartbeat tracking paradigm, participants' count of their heartbeats during specific time intervals were coded based on polygraph measures. Infrequent panickers were more accurate in the perception of their heartbeats than nonanxious participants. Changes in physiological arousal were not associated with increased accuracy on the heartbeat perception task. However, higher levels of self-reported anxiety were associated with superior performance. PMID:10596462

  4. The Autonomous Precision Landing and Hazard Detection and Avoidance Technology (ALHAT)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Epp, Chirold D.; Smith, Thomas B.

    2007-01-01

    As NASA plans to send humans back to the Moon and develop a lunar outpost, technologies must be developed to place humans and cargo safely, precisely, repeatedly, on the lunar surface with the capability to avoid surface hazards. Exploration Space Architecture Study requirements include the need for global lunar surface access with safe, precise landing without lighting constraints on terrain that may have landing hazards for human scale landing vehicles. Landing accuracies of perhaps 1,000 meters for sortie crew missions to 10 s of meters for Outpost class missions are required. The Autonomous precision Landing Hazard Avoidance Technology (ALHAT) project will develop the new and unique descent and landing Guidance, Navigation and Control (GNC) hardware and software technologies necessary for these capabilities. The ALHAT project will qualify a lunar descent and landing GNC system to a Technology Readiness Level (TRL) of 6 capable of supporting lunar crewed, cargo, and robotic missions. The (ALHAT) development project was chartered by NASA Headquarters in October 2006. The initial effort to write a project plan and define an ALHAT Team was followed by a fairly aggressive research and analysis effort to determine what technologies existed that could be developed and applied to the lunar landing problems indicated above. This paper describes the project development, research, analysis and concept evolution that has occurred since the assignment of the project. This includes the areas of systems engineering, GNC, sensors, sensor algorithms, simulations, fielding testing, laboratory testing, Hardware-In-The-Loop testing, system avionics and system certification concepts.

  5. Precision Environmental Radiation Monitoring System

    SciTech Connect

    Vladimir Popov, Pavel Degtiarenko

    2010-07-01

    A new precision low-level environmental radiation monitoring system has been developed and tested at Jefferson Lab. This system provides environmental radiation measurements with accuracy and stability of the order of 1 nGy/h in an hour, roughly corresponding to approximately 1% of the natural cosmic background at the sea level. Advanced electronic front-end has been designed and produced for use with the industry-standard High Pressure Ionization Chamber detector hardware. A new highly sensitive readout electronic circuit was designed to measure charge from the virtually suspended ionization chamber ion collecting electrode. New signal processing technique and dedicated data acquisition were tested together with the new readout. The designed system enabled data collection in a remote Linux-operated computer workstation, which was connected to the detectors using a standard telephone cable line. The data acquisition system algorithm is built around the continuously running 24-bit resolution 192 kHz data sampling analog to digital convertor. The major features of the design include: extremely low leakage current in the input circuit, true charge integrating mode operation, and relatively fast response to the intermediate radiation change. These features allow operating of the device as an environmental radiation monitor, at the perimeters of the radiation-generating installations in densely populated areas, like in other monitoring and security applications requiring high precision and long-term stability. Initial system evaluation results are presented.

  6. Precision liquid level sensor

    DOEpatents

    Field, M.E.; Sullivan, W.H.

    A precision liquid level sensor utilizes a balanced bridge, each arm including an air dielectric line. Changes in liquid level along one air dielectric line imbalance the bridge and create a voltage which is directly measurable across the bridge.

  7. Saturation of repeated quantum measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haapasalo, Erkka; Heinosaari, Teiko; Kuramochi, Yui

    2016-08-01

    We study sequential measurement scenarios where the system is repeatedly subjected to the same measurement process. We first provide examples of such repeated measurements where further repetitions of the measurement do not increase our knowledge on the system after some finite number of measurement steps. We also prove, however, that repeating the Lüders measurement of an unsharp two-outcome observable never saturates in this sense, and we characterize the observable measured in the limit of infinitely many repetitions. Our result implies that a repeated measurement can be used to correct the inherent noise of an unsharp observable.

  8. Measurement system with high accuracy for laser beam quality.

    PubMed

    Ke, Yi; Zeng, Ciling; Xie, Peiyuan; Jiang, Qingshan; Liang, Ke; Yang, Zhenyu; Zhao, Ming

    2015-05-20

    Presently, most of the laser beam quality measurement system collimates the optical path manually with low efficiency and low repeatability. To solve these problems, this paper proposed a new collimated method to improve the reliability and accuracy of the measurement results. The system accuracy controlled the position of the mirror to change laser beam propagation direction, which can realize the beam perpendicularly incident to the photosurface of camera. The experiment results show that the proposed system has good repeatability and the measuring deviation of M2 factor is less than 0.6%. PMID:26192526

  9. Precision displacement reference system

    DOEpatents

    Bieg, Lothar F.; Dubois, Robert R.; Strother, Jerry D.

    2000-02-22

    A precision displacement reference system is described, which enables real time accountability over the applied displacement feedback system to precision machine tools, positioning mechanisms, motion devices, and related operations. As independent measurements of tool location is taken by a displacement feedback system, a rotating reference disk compares feedback counts with performed motion. These measurements are compared to characterize and analyze real time mechanical and control performance during operation.

  10. Research on the polishing technology of high-precision aspherical cylindrical lens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fu, Xiu-hua; Wang, Zhe; Jia, Zong-he; Dong, Huan; Liu, Dan; Zhang, Chuan-xin

    2014-08-01

    Aspherical cylindrical lens compared with the cylindrical lens, they improved image quality and optical properties, simplified the system architecture. They applied in many fields, such as high power laser system, fax machines and typographical scan imaging system, as well as bar code scanning, lighting and other aspects of holography. Aspherical cylindrical lens are centrosymmetric. It is difficult to process. Parallel with the side line and bus bar line is difficult to ensure. Machining accuracy is low. It is usually about 15 μm, that not sufficient to meet the needs of modern highprecision laser systems. These have become a major problem restricting its development. Combining traditional and modern polishing techniques, a new technique for polishing aspherical cylindrical lens is proposed-- longitudinal feedback compensation technology. With dimensions of 15 × 5 × 5 mm quartz aspherical cylindrical lens as an example, the surface profilometer results of detection of the workpiece usually, modify the shape of the polishing surface of the mold, to control the size of the area of the polishing, the surface of the workpiece to achieve the effect of the type of compensation. After repeated testing and feedback compensation, gradually improve the accuracy of the workpiece surface type. The results show that this technique can effectively improve the precision aspherical cylindrical lens. After detection the workpiece surface accuracy is 0.8μm, the surface finish is Class II. It has the actual production of a certain application value.

  11. High-precision hydraulic Stewart platform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Silfhout, Roelof G.

    1999-08-01

    We present a novel design for a Stewart platform (or hexapod), an apparatus which performs positioning tasks with high accuracy. The platform, which is supported by six hydraulic telescopic struts, provides six degrees of freedom with 1 μm resolution. Rotations about user defined pivot points can be specified for any axis of rotation with microradian accuracy. Motion of the platform is performed by changing the strut lengths. Servo systems set and maintain the length of the struts to high precision using proportional hydraulic valves and incremental encoders. The combination of hydraulic actuators and a design which is optimized in terms of mechanical stiffness enables the platform to manipulate loads of up to 20 kN. Sophisticated software allows direct six-axis positioning including true path control. Our platform is an ideal support structure for a large variety of scientific instruments that require a stable alignment base with high-precision motion.

  12. Activity monitor accuracy in persons using canes.

    PubMed

    Wendland, Deborah Michael; Sprigle, Stephen H

    2012-01-01

    The StepWatch activity monitor has not been validated on multiple indoor and outdoor surfaces in a population using ambulation aids. The aims of this technical report are to report on strategies to configure the StepWatch activity monitor on subjects using a cane and to report the accuracy of both leg-mounted and cane-mounted StepWatch devices on people ambulating over different surfaces while using a cane. Sixteen subjects aged 67 to 85 yr (mean 75.6) who regularly use a cane for ambulation participated. StepWatch calibration was performed by adjusting sensitivity and cadence. Following calibration optimization, accuracy was tested on both the leg-mounted and cane-mounted devices on different surfaces, including linoleum, sidewalk, grass, ramp, and stairs. The leg-mounted device had an accuracy of 93.4% across all surfaces, while the cane-mounted device had an aggregate accuracy of 84.7% across all surfaces. Accuracy of the StepWatch on the stairs was significantly less accurate (p < 0.001) when comparing surfaces using repeated measures analysis of variance. When monitoring community mobility, placement of a StepWatch on a person and his/her ambulation aid can accurately document both activity and device use. PMID:23341318

  13. Accuracy of deception judgments.

    PubMed

    Bond, Charles F; DePaulo, Bella M

    2006-01-01

    We analyze the accuracy of deception judgments, synthesizing research results from 206 documents and 24,483 judges. In relevant studies, people attempt to discriminate lies from truths in real time with no special aids or training. In these circumstances, people achieve an average of 54% correct lie-truth judgments, correctly classifying 47% of lies as deceptive and 61% of truths as nondeceptive. Relative to cross-judge differences in accuracy, mean lie-truth discrimination abilities are nontrivial, with a mean accuracy d of roughly .40. This produces an effect that is at roughly the 60th percentile in size, relative to others that have been meta-analyzed by social psychologists. Alternative indexes of lie-truth discrimination accuracy correlate highly with percentage correct, and rates of lie detection vary little from study to study. Our meta-analyses reveal that people are more accurate in judging audible than visible lies, that people appear deceptive when motivated to be believed, and that individuals regard their interaction partners as honest. We propose that people judge others' deceptions more harshly than their own and that this double standard in evaluating deceit can explain much of the accumulated literature. PMID:16859438

  14. Detection of repeating and "anti-repeating" earthquakes in the Bucaramanga Nest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barrett, S. A.; Prieto, G.; Beroza, G. C.

    2011-12-01

    The Bucaramanga Nest, beneath northern Colombia represents the densest concentration of intermediate-depth earthquakes in the world. The roughly 11 km3 volume produces approximately 15 events per day, yielding an active catalog of seismicity well separated from surrounding seismic activity. We correlate template-event waveforms from known earthquakes to continuous records from the Colombian National (RSNC) seismic network. Typical repeating events are identified as well as the more curious "anti-repeat" events for which seismograms show reversed polarity and nearly perfect anti-correlation. These events are of particular interest as they are not known for shallow, crustal earthquake populations. By compiling a more complete catalog of earthquakes, and by developing precise relative locations, we seek to understand the temporal and size variations of these recurring events in the Bucaramanga Nest.

  15. RRW: repeated random walks on genome-scale protein networks for local cluster discovery

    PubMed Central

    Macropol, Kathy; Can, Tolga; Singh, Ambuj K

    2009-01-01

    Background We propose an efficient and biologically sensitive algorithm based on repeated random walks (RRW) for discovering functional modules, e.g., complexes and pathways, within large-scale protein networks. Compared to existing cluster identification techniques, RRW implicitly makes use of network topology, edge weights, and long range interactions between proteins. Results We apply the proposed technique on a functional network of yeast genes and accurately identify statistically significant clusters of proteins. We validate the biological significance of the results using known complexes in the MIPS complex catalogue database and well-characterized biological processes. We find that 90% of the created clusters have the majority of their catalogued proteins belonging to the same MIPS complex, and about 80% have the majority of their proteins involved in the same biological process. We compare our method to various other clustering techniques, such as the Markov Clustering Algorithm (MCL), and find a significant improvement in the RRW clusters' precision and accuracy values. Conclusion RRW, which is a technique that exploits the topology of the network, is more precise and robust in finding local clusters. In addition, it has the added flexibility of being able to find multi-functional proteins by allowing overlapping clusters. PMID:19740439

  16. Precision of vertical position estimates from very long baseline interferometry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Herring, T. A.

    1986-01-01

    It is found that the precision of VLBI measurements of vertical crustal motions is limited by errors in the modeling of the propagation delay through the earth's neutral atmosphere, and by errors in finding the orientation of a fixed crust coordinate system in the VLBI reference frame. The repeatability of baseline length measurements study indicates a vertical position precision of about 8 cm, averaged over 13 sites and 4.5 years of data, while the repeatability of vertical position estimates for a Richmond, FL site is found to yield a precision of about 7 cm for 42 observations made over an 11-month period. An overall precision of 8 cm for a 24-hour VLBI observing session is obtained, and the effects of earth orientation parameter errors is contingent on the distances between the VLBI sites.

  17. All-photonic quantum repeaters

    PubMed Central

    Azuma, Koji; Tamaki, Kiyoshi; Lo, Hoi-Kwong

    2015-01-01

    Quantum communication holds promise for unconditionally secure transmission of secret messages and faithful transfer of unknown quantum states. Photons appear to be the medium of choice for quantum communication. Owing to photon losses, robust quantum communication over long lossy channels requires quantum repeaters. It is widely believed that a necessary and highly demanding requirement for quantum repeaters is the existence of matter quantum memories. Here we show that such a requirement is, in fact, unnecessary by introducing the concept of all-photonic quantum repeaters based on flying qubits. In particular, we present a protocol based on photonic cluster-state machine guns and a loss-tolerant measurement equipped with local high-speed active feedforwards. We show that, with such all-photonic quantum repeaters, the communication efficiency scales polynomially with the channel distance. Our result paves a new route towards quantum repeaters with efficient single-photon sources rather than matter quantum memories. PMID:25873153

  18. Sequence repeats and protein structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoang, Trinh X.; Trovato, Antonio; Seno, Flavio; Banavar, Jayanth R.; Maritan, Amos

    2012-11-01

    Repeats are frequently found in known protein sequences. The level of sequence conservation in tandem repeats correlates with their propensities to be intrinsically disordered. We employ a coarse-grained model of a protein with a two-letter amino acid alphabet, hydrophobic (H) and polar (P), to examine the sequence-structure relationship in the realm of repeated sequences. A fraction of repeated sequences comprises a distinct class of bad folders, whose folding temperatures are much lower than those of random sequences. Imperfection in sequence repetition improves the folding properties of the bad folders while deteriorating those of the good folders. Our results may explain why nature has utilized repeated sequences for their versatility and especially to design functional proteins that are intrinsically unstructured at physiological temperatures.

  19. All-photonic quantum repeaters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azuma, Koji; Tamaki, Kiyoshi; Lo, Hoi-Kwong

    2015-04-01

    Quantum communication holds promise for unconditionally secure transmission of secret messages and faithful transfer of unknown quantum states. Photons appear to be the medium of choice for quantum communication. Owing to photon losses, robust quantum communication over long lossy channels requires quantum repeaters. It is widely believed that a necessary and highly demanding requirement for quantum repeaters is the existence of matter quantum memories. Here we show that such a requirement is, in fact, unnecessary by introducing the concept of all-photonic quantum repeaters based on flying qubits. In particular, we present a protocol based on photonic cluster-state machine guns and a loss-tolerant measurement equipped with local high-speed active feedforwards. We show that, with such all-photonic quantum repeaters, the communication efficiency scales polynomially with the channel distance. Our result paves a new route towards quantum repeaters with efficient single-photon sources rather than matter quantum memories.

  20. All-photonic quantum repeaters.

    PubMed

    Azuma, Koji; Tamaki, Kiyoshi; Lo, Hoi-Kwong

    2015-01-01

    Quantum communication holds promise for unconditionally secure transmission of secret messages and faithful transfer of unknown quantum states. Photons appear to be the medium of choice for quantum communication. Owing to photon losses, robust quantum communication over long lossy channels requires quantum repeaters. It is widely believed that a necessary and highly demanding requirement for quantum repeaters is the existence of matter quantum memories. Here we show that such a requirement is, in fact, unnecessary by introducing the concept of all-photonic quantum repeaters based on flying qubits. In particular, we present a protocol based on photonic cluster-state machine guns and a loss-tolerant measurement equipped with local high-speed active feedforwards. We show that, with such all-photonic quantum repeaters, the communication efficiency scales polynomially with the channel distance. Our result paves a new route towards quantum repeaters with efficient single-photon sources rather than matter quantum memories. PMID:25873153

  1. Estimating repeatability of egg size

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Flint, P.L.; Rockwell, R.F.; Sedinger, J.S.

    2001-01-01

    Measures of repeatability have long been used to assess patterns of variation in egg size within and among females. We compared different analytical approaches for estimating repeatability of egg size of Black Brant. Separate estimates of repeatability for eggs of each clutch size and laying sequence number varied from 0.49 to 0.64. We suggest that using the averaging egg size within clutches results in underestimation of variation within females and thereby overestimates repeatability. We recommend a nested design that partitions egg-size variation within clutches, among clutches within females, and among females. We demonstrate little variation in estimates of repeatability resulting from a nested model controlling for egg laying sequence and a nested model in which we assumed laying sequence was unknown.

  2. Estimating sparse precision matrices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Padmanabhan, Nikhil; White, Martin; Zhou, Harrison H.; O'Connell, Ross

    2016-08-01

    We apply a method recently introduced to the statistical literature to directly estimate the precision matrix from an ensemble of samples drawn from a corresponding Gaussian distribution. Motivated by the observation that cosmological precision matrices are often approximately sparse, the method allows one to exploit this sparsity of the precision matrix to more quickly converge to an asymptotic 1/sqrt{N_sim} rate while simultaneously providing an error model for all of the terms. Such an estimate can be used as the starting point for further regularization efforts which can improve upon the 1/sqrt{N_sim} limit above, and incorporating such additional steps is straightforward within this framework. We demonstrate the technique with toy models and with an example motivated by large-scale structure two-point analysis, showing significant improvements in the rate of convergence. For the large-scale structure example, we find errors on the precision matrix which are factors of 5 smaller than for the sample precision matrix for thousands of simulations or, alternatively, convergence to the same error level with more than an order of magnitude fewer simulations.

  3. Precision Higgs Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boughezal, Radja

    2015-04-01

    The future of the high energy physics program will increasingly rely upon precision studies looking for deviations from the Standard Model. Run I of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) triumphantly discovered the long-awaited Higgs boson, and there is great hope in the particle physics community that this new state will open a portal onto a new theory of Nature at the smallest scales. A precision study of Higgs boson properties is needed in order to test whether this belief is true. New theoretical ideas and high-precision QCD tools are crucial to fulfill this goal. They become even more important as larger data sets from LHC Run II further reduce the experimental errors and theoretical uncertainties begin to dominate. In this talk, I will review recent progress in understanding Higgs properties,including the calculation of precision predictions needed to identify possible physics beyond the Standard Model in the Higgs sector. New ideas for measuring the Higgs couplings to light quarks as well as bounding the Higgs width in a model-independent way will be discussed. Precision predictions for Higgs production in association with jets and ongoing efforts to calculate the inclusive N3LO cross section will be reviewed.

  4. Estimating sparse precision matrices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Padmanabhan, Nikhil; White, Martin; Zhou, Harrison H.; O'Connell, Ross

    2016-05-01

    We apply a method recently introduced to the statistical literature to directly estimate the precision matrix from an ensemble of samples drawn from a corresponding Gaussian distribution. Motivated by the observation that cosmological precision matrices are often approximately sparse, the method allows one to exploit this sparsity of the precision matrix to more quickly converge to an asymptotic 1/√{N_sim} rate while simultaneously providing an error model for all of the terms. Such an estimate can be used as the starting point for further regularization efforts which can improve upon the 1/√{N_sim} limit above, and incorporating such additional steps is straightforward within this framework. We demonstrate the technique with toy models and with an example motivated by large-scale structure two-point analysis, showing significant improvements in the rate of convergence. For the large-scale structure example we find errors on the precision matrix which are factors of 5 smaller than for the sample precision matrix for thousands of simulations or, alternatively, convergence to the same error level with more than an order of magnitude fewer simulations.

  5. Estimating sparse precision matrices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Padmanabhan, Nikhil; White, Martin; Zhou, Harrison H.; O'Connell, Ross

    2016-08-01

    We apply a method recently introduced to the statistical literature to directly estimate the precision matrix from an ensemble of samples drawn from a corresponding Gaussian distribution. Motivated by the observation that cosmological precision matrices are often approximately sparse, the method allows one to exploit this sparsity of the precision matrix to more quickly converge to an asymptotic 1/√{N_sim} rate while simultaneously providing an error model for all of the terms. Such an estimate can be used as the starting point for further regularization efforts which can improve upon the 1/√{N_sim} limit above, and incorporating such additional steps is straightforward within this framework. We demonstrate the technique with toy models and with an example motivated by large-scale structure two-point analysis, showing significant improvements in the rate of convergence. For the large-scale structure example, we find errors on the precision matrix which are factors of 5 smaller than for the sample precision matrix for thousands of simulations or, alternatively, convergence to the same error level with more than an order of magnitude fewer simulations.

  6. Precise Indoor Localization for Mobile Laser Scanner

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaijaluoto, R.; Hyyppä, A.

    2015-05-01

    Accurate 3D data is of high importance for indoor modeling for various applications in construction, engineering and cultural heritage documentation. For the lack of GNSS signals hampers use of kinematic platforms indoors, TLS is currently the most accurate and precise method for collecting such a data. Due to its static single view point data collection, excessive time and data redundancy are needed for integrity and coverage of data. However, localization methods with affordable scanners are used for solving mobile platform pose problem. The aim of this study was to investigate what level of trajectory accuracies can be achieved with high quality sensors and freely available state of the art planar SLAM algorithms, and how well this trajectory translates to a point cloud collected with a secondary scanner. In this study high precision laser scanners were used with a novel way to combine the strengths of two SLAM algorithms into functional method for precise localization. We collected five datasets using Slammer platform with two laser scanners, and processed them with altogether 20 different parameter sets. The results were validated against TLS reference. The results show increasing scan frequency improves the trajectory, reaching 20 mm RMSE levels for the best performing parameter sets. Further analysis of the 3D point cloud showed good agreement with TLS reference with 17 mm positional RMSE. With precision scanners the obtained point cloud allows for high level of detail data for indoor modeling with accuracies close to TLS at best with vastly improved data collection efficiency.

  7. Ultra-precision: enabling our future.

    PubMed

    Shore, Paul; Morantz, Paul

    2012-08-28

    This paper provides a perspective on the development of ultra-precision technologies: What drove their evolution and what do they now promise for the future as we face the consequences of consumption of the Earth's finite resources? Improved application of measurement is introduced as a major enabler of mass production, and its resultant impact on wealth generation is considered. This paper identifies the ambitions of the defence, automotive and microelectronics sectors as important drivers of improved manufacturing accuracy capability and ever smaller feature creation. It then describes how science fields such as astronomy have presented significant precision engineering challenges, illustrating how these fields of science have achieved unprecedented levels of accuracy, sensitivity and sheer scale. Notwithstanding their importance to science understanding, many science-driven ultra-precision technologies became key enablers for wealth generation and other well-being issues. Specific ultra-precision machine tools important to major astronomy programmes are discussed, as well as the way in which subsequently evolved machine tools made at the beginning of the twenty-first century, now provide much wider benefits. PMID:22802499

  8. High-precision robotic microcontact printing (R-μCP) utilizing a vision guided selectively compliant articulated robotic arm.

    PubMed

    McNulty, Jason D; Klann, Tyler; Sha, Jin; Salick, Max; Knight, Gavin T; Turng, Lih-Sheng; Ashton, Randolph S

    2014-06-01

    Increased realization of the spatial heterogeneity found within in vivo tissue microenvironments has prompted the desire to engineer similar complexities into in vitro culture substrates. Microcontact printing (μCP) is a versatile technique for engineering such complexities onto cell culture substrates because it permits microscale control of the relative positioning of molecules and cells over large surface areas. However, challenges associated with precisely aligning and superimposing multiple μCP steps severely limits the extent of substrate modification that can be achieved using this method. Thus, we investigated the feasibility of using a vision guided selectively compliant articulated robotic arm (SCARA) for μCP applications. SCARAs are routinely used to perform high precision, repetitive tasks in manufacturing, and even low-end models are capable of achieving microscale precision. Here, we present customization of a SCARA to execute robotic-μCP (R-μCP) onto gold-coated microscope coverslips. The system not only possesses the ability to align multiple polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) stamps but also has the capability to do so even after the substrates have been removed, reacted to graft polymer brushes, and replaced back into the system. Plus, non-biased computerized analysis shows that the system performs such sequential patterning with <10 μm precision and accuracy, which is equivalent to the repeatability specifications of the employed SCARA model. R-μCP should facilitate the engineering of complex in vivo-like complexities onto culture substrates and their integration with microfluidic devices. PMID:24759945

  9. Repeatability of agronomic traits in Panicum maximum (Jacq.) hybrids.

    PubMed

    Braz, T G S; Fonseca, D M; Jank, L; Cruz, C D; Martuscello, J A

    2015-01-01

    When evaluating plants, in particular perennial species, it is common to obtain repeated measures of a given trait from the same individual to evaluate the traits' repeatability in successive harvests. The degree of correlation among these measures defines the coefficient of repeatability, which has been widely utilized in the study of forage traits of interest for breeding. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the repeatability of agronomic traits in Panicum maximum hybrids. Hybrids from three progenies totaling 320 hybrids were evaluated in an incomplete-block design, with consideration of production and morpho-agronomic traits. Of the production traits, total dry matter and leaf dry matter showed the highest repeatability and varied from 0.540 to 0.769, whereas stem dry matter had lower coefficients (0.265-0.632). Among the morpho-agronomic traits, plant height and incidence of Bipolaris maydis had higher coefficients (0.118-0.460). The repeatability values of the agronomic traits were low-to-moderate, and six evaluations were sufficient to provide accuracy in the selection of hybrids regarding total dry matter, leaf dry matter, plant height, and incidence of B. maydis, whereas the other traits require more repeated measures to increase reliability in the prediction of their response. PMID:26782581

  10. How Physics Got Precise

    SciTech Connect

    Kleppner, Daniel

    2005-01-19

    Although the ancients knew the length of the year to about ten parts per million, it was not until the end of the 19th century that precision measurements came to play a defining role in physics. Eventually such measurements made it possible to replace human-made artifacts for the standards of length and time with natural standards. For a new generation of atomic clocks, time keeping could be so precise that the effects of the local gravitational potentials on the clock rates would be important. This would force us to re-introduce an artifact into the definition of the second - the location of the primary clock. I will describe some of the events in the history of precision measurements that have led us to this pleasing conundrum, and some of the unexpected uses of atomic clocks today.

  11. Precision gap particle separator

    DOEpatents

    Benett, William J.; Miles, Robin; Jones, II., Leslie M.; Stockton, Cheryl

    2004-06-08

    A system for separating particles entrained in a fluid includes a base with a first channel and a second channel. A precision gap connects the first channel and the second channel. The precision gap is of a size that allows small particles to pass from the first channel into the second channel and prevents large particles from the first channel into the second channel. A cover is positioned over the base unit, the first channel, the precision gap, and the second channel. An port directs the fluid containing the entrained particles into the first channel. An output port directs the large particles out of the first channel. A port connected to the second channel directs the small particles out of the second channel.

  12. Precision Muonium Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jungmann, Klaus P.

    2016-09-01

    The muonium atom is the purely leptonic bound state of a positive muon and an electron. It has a lifetime of 2.2 µs. The absence of any known internal structure provides for precision experiments to test fundamental physics theories and to determine accurate values of fundamental constants. In particular ground state hyperfine structure transitions can be measured by microwave spectroscopy to deliver the muon magnetic moment. The frequency of the 1s-2s transition in the hydrogen-like atom can be determined with laser spectroscopy to obtain the muon mass. With such measurements fundamental physical interactions, in particular quantum electrodynamics, can also be tested at highest precision. The results are important input parameters for experiments on the muon magnetic anomaly. The simplicity of the atom enables further precise experiments, such as a search for muonium-antimuonium conversion for testing charged lepton number conservation and searches for possible antigravity of muons and dark matter.

  13. Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter Orbit Determination Accuracy Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Slojkowski, Steven E.

    2014-01-01

    Results from operational OD produced by the NASA Goddard Flight Dynamics Facility for the LRO nominal and extended mission are presented. During the LRO nominal mission, when LRO flew in a low circular orbit, orbit determination requirements were met nearly 100% of the time. When the extended mission began, LRO returned to a more elliptical frozen orbit where gravity and other modeling errors caused numerous violations of mission accuracy requirements. Prediction accuracy is particularly challenged during periods when LRO is in full-Sun. A series of improvements to LRO orbit determination are presented, including implementation of new lunar gravity models, improved spacecraft solar radiation pressure modeling using a dynamic multi-plate area model, a shorter orbit determination arc length, and a constrained plane method for estimation. The analysis presented in this paper shows that updated lunar gravity models improved accuracy in the frozen orbit, and a multiplate dynamic area model improves prediction accuracy during full-Sun orbit periods. Implementation of a 36-hour tracking data arc and plane constraints during edge-on orbit geometry also provide benefits. A comparison of the operational solutions to precision orbit determination solutions shows agreement on a 100- to 250-meter level in definitive accuracy.

  14. Asymptotic accuracy of two-class discrimination

    SciTech Connect

    Ho, T.K.; Baird, H.S.

    1994-12-31

    Poor quality-e.g. sparse or unrepresentative-training data is widely suspected to be one cause of disappointing accuracy of isolated-character classification in modern OCR machines. We conjecture that, for many trainable classification techniques, it is in fact the dominant factor affecting accuracy. To test this, we have carried out a study of the asymptotic accuracy of three dissimilar classifiers on a difficult two-character recognition problem. We state this problem precisely in terms of high-quality prototype images and an explicit model of the distribution of image defects. So stated, the problem can be represented as a stochastic source of an indefinitely long sequence of simulated images labeled with ground truth. Using this sequence, we were able to train all three classifiers to high and statistically indistinguishable asymptotic accuracies (99.9%). This result suggests that the quality of training data was the dominant factor affecting accuracy. The speed of convergence during training, as well as time/space trade-offs during recognition, differed among the classifiers.

  15. Precision Heating Process

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    A heat sealing process was developed by SEBRA based on technology that originated in work with NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory. The project involved connecting and transferring blood and fluids between sterile plastic containers while maintaining a closed system. SEBRA markets the PIRF Process to manufacturers of medical catheters. It is a precisely controlled method of heating thermoplastic materials in a mold to form or weld catheters and other products. The process offers advantages in fast, precise welding or shape forming of catheters as well as applications in a variety of other industries.

  16. Precision manometer gauge

    DOEpatents

    McPherson, M.J.; Bellman, R.A.

    1982-09-27

    A precision manometer gauge which locates a zero height and a measured height of liquid using an open tube in communication with a reservoir adapted to receive the pressure to be measured. The open tube has a reference section carried on a positioning plate which is moved vertically with machine tool precision. Double scales are provided to read the height of the positioning plate accurately, the reference section being inclined for accurate meniscus adjustment, and means being provided to accurately locate a zero or reference position.

  17. Precision manometer gauge

    DOEpatents

    McPherson, Malcolm J.; Bellman, Robert A.

    1984-01-01

    A precision manometer gauge which locates a zero height and a measured height of liquid using an open tube in communication with a reservoir adapted to receive the pressure to be measured. The open tube has a reference section carried on a positioning plate which is moved vertically with machine tool precision. Double scales are provided to read the height of the positioning plate accurately, the reference section being inclined for accurate meniscus adjustment, and means being provided to accurately locate a zero or reference position.

  18. Increasing Accuracy in Computed Inviscid Boundary Conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dyson, Roger

    2004-01-01

    of time derivatives of surface-normal velocity (consistent with no flow through the boundary) up to arbitrarily high order. The corrections for the first-order spatial derivatives of pressure are calculated by use of the first-order time derivative velocity. The corrected first-order spatial derivatives are used to calculate the second- order time derivatives of velocity, which, in turn, are used to calculate the corrections for the second-order pressure derivatives. The process as described is repeated, progressing through increasing orders of derivatives, until the desired accuracy is attained.

  19. Manufacturing Precise, Lightweight Paraboloidal Mirrors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hermann, Frederick Thomas

    2006-01-01

    A process for fabricating a precise, diffraction- limited, ultra-lightweight, composite- material (matrix/fiber) paraboloidal telescope mirror has been devised. Unlike the traditional process of fabrication of heavier glass-based mirrors, this process involves a minimum of manual steps and subjective judgment. Instead, this process involves objectively controllable, repeatable steps; hence, this process is better suited for mass production. Other processes that have been investigated for fabrication of precise composite-material lightweight mirrors have resulted in print-through of fiber patterns onto reflecting surfaces, and have not provided adequate structural support for maintenance of stable, diffraction-limited surface figures. In contrast, this process does not result in print-through of the fiber pattern onto the reflecting surface and does provide a lightweight, rigid structure capable of maintaining a diffraction-limited surface figure in the face of changing temperature, humidity, and air pressure. The process consists mainly of the following steps: 1. A precise glass mandrel is fabricated by conventional optical grinding and polishing. 2. The mandrel is coated with a release agent and covered with layers of a carbon- fiber composite material. 3. The outer surface of the outer layer of the carbon-fiber composite material is coated with a surfactant chosen to provide for the proper flow of an epoxy resin to be applied subsequently. 4. The mandrel as thus covered is mounted on a temperature-controlled spin table. 5. The table is heated to a suitable temperature and spun at a suitable speed as the epoxy resin is poured onto the coated carbon-fiber composite material. 6. The surface figure of the optic is monitored and adjusted by use of traditional Ronchi, Focault, and interferometric optical measurement techniques while the speed of rotation and the temperature are adjusted to obtain the desired figure. The proper selection of surfactant, speed or rotation

  20. Astrophysics with Microarcsecond Accuracy Astrometry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Unwin, Stephen C.

    2008-01-01

    Space-based astrometry promises to provide a powerful new tool for astrophysics. At a precision level of a few microarcsonds, a wide range of phenomena are opened up for study. In this paper we discuss the capabilities of the SIM Lite mission, the first space-based long-baseline optical interferometer, which will deliver parallaxes to 4 microarcsec. A companion paper in this volume will cover the development and operation of this instrument. At the level that SIM Lite will reach, better than 1 microarcsec in a single measurement, planets as small as one Earth can be detected around many dozen of the nearest stars. Not only can planet masses be definitely measured, but also the full orbital parameters determined, allowing study of system stability in multiple planet systems. This capability to survey our nearby stellar neighbors for terrestrial planets will be a unique contribution to our understanding of the local universe. SIM Lite will be able to tackle a wide range of interesting problems in stellar and Galactic astrophysics. By tracing the motions of stars in dwarf spheroidal galaxies orbiting our Milky Way, SIM Lite will probe the shape of the galactic potential history of the formation of the galaxy, and the nature of dark matter. Because it is flexibly scheduled, the instrument can dwell on faint targets, maintaining its full accuracy on objects as faint as V=19. This paper is a brief survey of the diverse problems in modern astrophysics that SIM Lite will be able to address.

  1. High precision redundant robotic manipulator

    DOEpatents

    Young, K.K.D.

    1998-09-22

    A high precision redundant robotic manipulator for overcoming contents imposed by obstacles or imposed by a highly congested work space is disclosed. One embodiment of the manipulator has four degrees of freedom and another embodiment has seven degrees of freedom. Each of the embodiments utilize a first selective compliant assembly robot arm (SCARA) configuration to provide high stiffness in the vertical plane, a second SCARA configuration to provide high stiffness in the horizontal plane. The seven degree of freedom embodiment also utilizes kinematic redundancy to provide the capability of avoiding obstacles that lie between the base of the manipulator and the end effector or link of the manipulator. These additional three degrees of freedom are added at the wrist link of the manipulator to provide pitch, yaw and roll. The seven degrees of freedom embodiment uses one revolute point per degree of freedom. For each of the revolute joints, a harmonic gear coupled to an electric motor is introduced, and together with properly designed based servo controllers provide an end point repeatability of less than 10 microns. 3 figs.

  2. High precision redundant robotic manipulator

    DOEpatents

    Young, Kar-Keung David

    1998-01-01

    A high precision redundant robotic manipulator for overcoming contents imposed by obstacles or imposed by a highly congested work space. One embodiment of the manipulator has four degrees of freedom and another embodiment has seven degreed of freedom. Each of the embodiments utilize a first selective compliant assembly robot arm (SCARA) configuration to provide high stiffness in the vertical plane, a second SCARA configuration to provide high stiffness in the horizontal plane. The seven degree of freedom embodiment also utilizes kinematic redundancy to provide the capability of avoiding obstacles that lie between the base of the manipulator and the end effector or link of the manipulator. These additional three degrees of freedom are added at the wrist link of the manipulator to provide pitch, yaw and roll. The seven degrees of freedom embodiment uses one revolute point per degree of freedom. For each of the revolute joints, a harmonic gear coupled to an electric motor is introduced, and together with properly designed based servo controllers provide an end point repeatability of less than 10 microns.

  3. Precision bolometer bridge

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    White, D. R.

    1968-01-01

    Prototype precision bolometer calibration bridge is manually balanced device for indicating dc bias and balance with either dc or ac power. An external galvanometer is used with the bridge for null indication, and the circuitry monitors voltage and current simultaneously without adapters in testing 100 and 200 ohm thin film bolometers.

  4. Precision metal molding

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Townhill, A.

    1967-01-01

    Method provides precise alignment for metal-forming dies while permitting minimal thermal expansion without die warpage or cavity space restriction. The interfacing dowel bars and die side facings are arranged so the dies are restrained in one orthogonal angle and permitted to thermally expand in the opposite orthogonal angle.

  5. Precision liquid level sensor

    DOEpatents

    Field, M.E.; Sullivan, W.H.

    1985-01-29

    A precision liquid level sensor utilizes a balanced R. F. bridge, each arm including an air dielectric line. Changes in liquid level along one air dielectric line imbalance the bridge and create a voltage which is directly measurable across the bridge. 2 figs.

  6. Precision liquid level sensor

    DOEpatents

    Field, Michael E.; Sullivan, William H.

    1985-01-01

    A precision liquid level sensor utilizes a balanced R. F. bridge, each arm including an air dielectric line. Changes in liquid level along one air dielectric line imbalance the bridge and create a voltage which is directly measurable across the bridge.

  7. Precision in Stereochemical Terminology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wade, Leroy G., Jr.

    2006-01-01

    An analysis of relatively new terminology that has given multiple definitions often resulting in students learning principles that are actually false is presented with an example of the new term stereogenic atom introduced by Mislow and Siegel. The Mislow terminology would be useful in some cases if it were used precisely and correctly, but it is…

  8. Precision physics at LHC

    SciTech Connect

    Hinchliffe, I.

    1997-05-01

    In this talk the author gives a brief survey of some physics topics that will be addressed by the Large Hadron Collider currently under construction at CERN. Instead of discussing the reach of this machine for new physics, the author gives examples of the types of precision measurements that might be made if new physics is discovered.

  9. Impact of number of repeated scans on model observer performance for a low-contrast detection task in CT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Chi; Yu, Lifeng; Chen, Baiyu; Vrieze, Thomas; Favazza, Christopher; Leng, Shuai; McCollough, Cynthia

    2015-03-01

    In previous investigations on CT image quality, channelized Hotelling observer (CHO) models have been shown to well represent human observer performance in several phantom-based detection/discrimination tasks. In these studies, a large number of independent images was necessary to estimate the expectation images and covariance matrices for each test condition. The purpose of this study is to investigate how the number of repeated scans affects the precision and accuracy of the CHO's performance in a signal-known-exactly detection task. A phantom containing 21 low-contrast objects (3 contrast levels and 7 sizes) was scanned with a 128-slice CT scanner at three dose levels. For each dose level, 100 independent images were acquired for each test condition. All images were reconstructed using filtered-backprojection (FBP) and a commercial iterative reconstruction algorithm. For each combination of dose level and reconstruction method, the low-contrast detectability, quantified with the area under receiver operating characteristic curve (Az), was calculated using a previously validated CHO model. To determine the dependency of CHO performance on the number of repeated scans, the Az value was calculated for different number of channel filters, for each object size and contrast, and for different dose/reconstruction settings using all 100 repeated scans. The Az values were also calculated using randomly selected subsets of the scans (from 10 to 90 scans with an increment of 10 scans). Using the Az from the 100 scans as the reference, the accuracy of Az values calculated from a fewer number of scans was determined and the minimal number of scans was subsequently derived. For the studied signal-known-exactly detection task, results demonstrated that, the minimal number of scans depends on dose level, object size and contrast level, and channel filters.

  10. Protein Repeats from First Principles.

    PubMed

    Turjanski, Pablo; Parra, R Gonzalo; Espada, Rocío; Becher, Verónica; Ferreiro, Diego U

    2016-01-01

    Some natural proteins display recurrent structural patterns. Despite being highly similar at the tertiary structure level, repeating patterns within a single repeat protein can be extremely variable at the sequence level. We use a mathematical definition of a repetition and investigate the occurrences of these in sequences of different protein families. We found that long stretches of perfect repetitions are infrequent in individual natural proteins, even for those which are known to fold into structures of recurrent structural motifs. We found that natural repeat proteins are indeed repetitive in their families, exhibiting abundant stretches of 6 amino acids or longer that are perfect repetitions in the reference family. We provide a systematic quantification for this repetitiveness. We show that this form of repetitiveness is not exclusive of repeat proteins, but also occurs in globular domains. A by-product of this work is a fast quantification of the likelihood of a protein to belong to a family. PMID:27044676

  11. Protein Repeats from First Principles

    PubMed Central

    Turjanski, Pablo; Parra, R. Gonzalo; Espada, Rocío; Becher, Verónica; Ferreiro, Diego U.

    2016-01-01

    Some natural proteins display recurrent structural patterns. Despite being highly similar at the tertiary structure level, repeating patterns within a single repeat protein can be extremely variable at the sequence level. We use a mathematical definition of a repetition and investigate the occurrences of these in sequences of different protein families. We found that long stretches of perfect repetitions are infrequent in individual natural proteins, even for those which are known to fold into structures of recurrent structural motifs. We found that natural repeat proteins are indeed repetitive in their families, exhibiting abundant stretches of 6 amino acids or longer that are perfect repetitions in the reference family. We provide a systematic quantification for this repetitiveness. We show that this form of repetitiveness is not exclusive of repeat proteins, but also occurs in globular domains. A by-product of this work is a fast quantification of the likelihood of a protein to belong to a family. PMID:27044676

  12. Protein Repeats from First Principles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turjanski, Pablo; Parra, R. Gonzalo; Espada, Rocío; Becher, Verónica; Ferreiro, Diego U.

    2016-04-01

    Some natural proteins display recurrent structural patterns. Despite being highly similar at the tertiary structure level, repeating patterns within a single repeat protein can be extremely variable at the sequence level. We use a mathematical definition of a repetition and investigate the occurrences of these in sequences of different protein families. We found that long stretches of perfect repetitions are infrequent in individual natural proteins, even for those which are known to fold into structures of recurrent structural motifs. We found that natural repeat proteins are indeed repetitive in their families, exhibiting abundant stretches of 6 amino acids or longer that are perfect repetitions in the reference family. We provide a systematic quantification for this repetitiveness. We show that this form of repetitiveness is not exclusive of repeat proteins, but also occurs in globular domains. A by-product of this work is a fast quantification of the likelihood of a protein to belong to a family.

  13. High-precision positioning of radar scatterers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dheenathayalan, Prabu; Small, David; Schubert, Adrian; Hanssen, Ramon F.

    2016-05-01

    Remote sensing radar satellites cover wide areas and provide spatially dense measurements, with millions of scatterers. Knowledge of the precise position of each radar scatterer is essential to identify the corresponding object and interpret the estimated deformation. The absolute position accuracy of synthetic aperture radar (SAR) scatterers in a 2D radar coordinate system, after compensating for atmosphere and tidal effects, is in the order of centimeters for TerraSAR-X (TSX) spotlight images. However, the absolute positioning in 3D and its quality description are not well known. Here, we exploit time-series interferometric SAR to enhance the positioning capability in three dimensions. The 3D positioning precision is parameterized by a variance-covariance matrix and visualized as an error ellipsoid centered at the estimated position. The intersection of the error ellipsoid with objects in the field is exploited to link radar scatterers to real-world objects. We demonstrate the estimation of scatterer position and its quality using 20 months of TSX stripmap acquisitions over Delft, the Netherlands. Using trihedral corner reflectors (CR) for validation, the accuracy of absolute positioning in 2D is about 7 cm. In 3D, an absolute accuracy of up to ˜ 66 cm is realized, with a cigar-shaped error ellipsoid having centimeter precision in azimuth and range dimensions, and elongated in cross-range dimension with a precision in the order of meters (the ratio of the ellipsoid axis lengths is 1/3/213, respectively). The CR absolute 3D position, along with the associated error ellipsoid, is found to be accurate and agree with the ground truth position at a 99 % confidence level. For other non-CR coherent scatterers, the error ellipsoid concept is validated using 3D building models. In both cases, the error ellipsoid not only serves as a quality descriptor, but can also help to associate radar scatterers to real-world objects.

  14. High accuracy OMEGA timekeeping

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Imbier, E. A.

    1982-01-01

    The Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory (SAO) operates a worldwide satellite tracking network which uses a combination of OMEGA as a frequency reference, dual timing channels, and portable clock comparisons to maintain accurate epoch time. Propagational charts from the U.S. Coast Guard OMEGA monitor program minimize diurnal and seasonal effects. Daily phase value publications of the U.S. Naval Observatory provide corrections to the field collected timing data to produce an averaged time line comprised of straight line segments called a time history file (station clock minus UTC). Depending upon clock location, reduced time data accuracies of between two and eight microseconds are typical.

  15. Precision manufacturing for clinical-quality regenerative medicines.

    PubMed

    Williams, David J; Thomas, Robert J; Hourd, Paul C; Chandra, Amit; Ratcliffe, Elizabeth; Liu, Yang; Rayment, Erin A; Archer, J Richard

    2012-08-28

    Innovations in engineering applied to healthcare make a significant difference to people's lives. Market growth is guaranteed by demographics. Regulation and requirements for good manufacturing practice-extreme levels of repeatability and reliability-demand high-precision process and measurement solutions. Emerging technologies using living biological materials add complexity. This paper presents some results of work demonstrating the precision automated manufacture of living materials, particularly the expansion of populations of human stem cells for therapeutic use as regenerative medicines. The paper also describes quality engineering techniques for precision process design and improvement, and identifies the requirements for manufacturing technology and measurement systems evolution for such therapies. PMID:22802496

  16. Nanostructured functional films from engineered repeat proteins

    PubMed Central

    Grove, Tijana Z.; Regan, Lynne; Cortajarena, Aitziber L.

    2013-01-01

    Fundamental advances in biotechnology, medicine, environment, electronics and energy require methods for precise control of spatial organization at the nanoscale. Assemblies that rely on highly specific biomolecular interactions are an attractive approach to form materials that display novel and useful properties. Here, we report on assembly of films from the designed, rod-shaped, superhelical, consensus tetratricopeptide repeat protein (CTPR). We have designed three peptide-binding sites into the 18 repeat CTPR to allow for further specific and non-covalent functionalization of films through binding of fluorescein labelled peptides. The fluorescence signal from the peptide ligand bound to the protein in the solid film is anisotropic, demonstrating that CTPR films can impose order on otherwise isotropic moieties. Circular dichroism measurements show that the individual protein molecules retain their secondary structure in the film, and X-ray scattering, birefringence and atomic force microscopy experiments confirm macroscopic alignment of CTPR molecules within the film. This work opens the door to the generation of innovative biomaterials with tailored structure and function. PMID:23594813

  17. Airborne Radar Interferometric Repeat-Pass Processing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hensley, Scott; Michel, Thierry R.; Jones, Cathleen E.; Muellerschoen, Ronald J.; Chapman, Bruce D.; Fore, Alexander; Simard, Marc; Zebker, Howard A.

    2011-01-01

    Earth science research often requires crustal deformation measurements at a variety of time scales, from seconds to decades. Although satellites have been used for repeat-track interferometric (RTI) synthetic-aperture-radar (SAR) mapping for close to 20 years, RTI is much more difficult to implement from an airborne platform owing to the irregular trajectory of the aircraft compared with microwave imaging radar wavelengths. Two basic requirements for robust airborne repeat-pass radar interferometry include the ability to fly the platform to a desired trajectory within a narrow tube and the ability to have the radar beam pointed in a desired direction to a fraction of a beam width. Uninhabited Aerial Vehicle Synthetic Aperture Radar (UAVSAR) is equipped with a precision auto pilot developed by NASA Dryden that allows the platform, a Gulfstream III, to nominally fly within a 5 m diameter tube and with an electronically scanned antenna to position the radar beam to a fraction of a beam width based on INU (inertial navigation unit) attitude angle measurements.

  18. Improving the accuracy of phase-shifting techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cruz-Santos, William; López-García, Lourdes; Redondo-Galvan, Arturo

    2015-05-01

    The traditional phase-shifting profilometry technique is based on the projection of digital interference patterns and computation of the absolute phase map. Recently, a method was proposed that used phase interpolation to the corner detection, at subpixel accuracy in the projector image for improving the camera-projector calibration. We propose a general strategy to improve the accuracy in the search for correspondence that can be used to obtain high precision three-dimensional reconstruction. Experimental results show that our strategy can outperform the precision of the phase-shifting method.

  19. Principles and techniques for designing precision machines

    SciTech Connect

    Hale, L C

    1999-02-01

    This thesis is written to advance the reader's knowledge of precision-engineering principles and their application to designing machines that achieve both sufficient precision and minimum cost. It provides the concepts and tools necessary for the engineer to create new precision machine designs. Four case studies demonstrate the principles and showcase approaches and solutions to specific problems that generally have wider applications. These come from projects at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory in which the author participated: the Large Optics Diamond Turning Machine, Accuracy Enhancement of High- Productivity Machine Tools, the National Ignition Facility, and Extreme Ultraviolet Lithography. Although broad in scope, the topics go into sufficient depth to be useful to practicing precision engineers and often fulfill more academic ambitions. The thesis begins with a chapter that presents significant principles and fundamental knowledge from the Precision Engineering literature. Following this is a chapter that presents engineering design techniques that are general and not specific to precision machines. All subsequent chapters cover specific aspects of precision machine design. The first of these is Structural Design, guidelines and analysis techniques for achieving independently stiff machine structures. The next chapter addresses dynamic stiffness by presenting several techniques for Deterministic Damping, damping designs that can be analyzed and optimized with predictive results. Several chapters present a main thrust of the thesis, Exact-Constraint Design. A main contribution is a generalized modeling approach developed through the course of creating several unique designs. The final chapter is the primary case study of the thesis, the Conceptual Design of a Horizontal Machining Center.

  20. Accuracy of the blood pressure measurement.

    PubMed

    Rabbia, F; Del Colle, S; Testa, E; Naso, D; Veglio, F

    2006-08-01

    Blood pressure measurement is the cornerstone for the diagnosis, the treatment and the research on arterial hypertension, and all of the decisions about one of these single aspects may be dramatically influenced by the accuracy of the measurement. Over the past 20 years or so, the accuracy of the conventional Riva-Rocci/Korotkoff technique of blood pressure measurement has been questioned and efforts have been made to improve the technique with automated devices. In the same period, recognition of the phenomenon of white coat hypertension, whereby some individuals with an apparent increase in blood pressure have normal, or reduced, blood pressures when measurement is repeated away from the medical environment, has focused attention on methods of measurement that provide profiles of blood pressure behavior rather than relying on isolated measurements under circumstances that may in themselves influence the level of blood pressure recorded. These methodologies have included repeated measurements of blood pressure using the traditional technique, self-measurement of blood pressure in the home or work place, and ambulatory blood pressure measurement using innovative automated devices. The purpose of this review to serve as a source of practical information about the commonly used methods for blood pressure measurement: the traditional Riva-Rocci method and the automated methods. PMID:17016412

  1. Precision controllability of the YF-17 airplane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sisk, T. R.; Mataeny, N. W.

    1980-01-01

    A flying qualities evaluation conducted on the YF-17 airplane permitted assessment of its precision controllability in the transonic flight regime over the allowable angle of attack range. The precision controllability (tailchase tracking) study was conducted in constant-g and windup turn tracking maneuvers with the command augmentation system (CAS) on, automatic maneuver flaps, and the caged pipper gunsight depressed 70 mils. This study showed that the YF-17 airplane tracks essentially as well at 7 g's to 8 g's as earlier fighters did at 4 g's to 5 g's before they encountered wing rock. The pilots considered the YF-17 airplane one of the best tracking airplanes they had flown. Wing rock at the higher angles of attack degraded tracking precision, and lack of control harmony made precision controllability more difficult. The revised automatic maneuver flap schedule incorporated in the airplane at the time of the tests did not appear to be optimum. The largest tracking errors and greatest pilot workload occurred at high normal load factors at low angles of attack. The pilots reported that the high-g maneuvers caused some tunnel vision and that they found it difficult to think clearly after repeated maneuvers.

  2. Characterization of Hertzian rolling microslip in precision revolute joints for deployable space structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeon, Sungeun Ki

    2009-09-01

    The capabilities of space-born telescopes are primarily limited by their launch systems, dictating both light-gathering power and resolution, by constricting aperture size. Precision deployable space structure technology enables smaller stowed configurations for launch and a larger deployed operational state in space. The primary engineering difficulties arise from the accuracy and repeatability requirements of the deployed system, where an optical system requires tens of nanometers RMS surface displacement. Recent studies identify that instabilities and errors in a deployable space structure are primarily caused by the stick-slip friction between the contact interfaces of the latches and joints. The intent of this research is to model and characterize the nonlinearities of contact of a precision revolute joint for deployable space structures. The joint is a modified pin-clevis joint, where the deployment mechanism, load-path, and sources of instability are relegated to the contact interfaces of pair of angular contact bearings. This research presents a nonlinear lumped-parameter finite element modeling the nonlinear mechanics of contact to characterize the microdynamic behavior of the angular contact bearings for a precision revolute hinge. The mechanics of contact are based on Hertz contact theory and a numerical simulation subproblem based on the influence function method. The numerical simulation is rigorously validated and is shown to efficiently and effectively model transient rolling contact with varying normal contact forces, where current literature and numerical modeling techniques fail. The in uence of surface roughness and stochastic variations due to manufacturing and assembly are studied in regards to stiffness performance metrics. Rolling hysteresis is identified for various conditions, and a zero-loss rolling mechanism is discovered and investigated. Design implications, capabilities, recommendations, and optimal improvements for the precision hinge

  3. A passion for precision

    SciTech Connect

    2010-05-19

    For more than three decades, the quest for ever higher precision in laser spectroscopy of the simple hydrogen atom has inspired many advances in laser, optical, and spectroscopic techniques, culminating in femtosecond laser optical frequency combs  as perhaps the most precise measuring tools known to man. Applications range from optical atomic clocks and tests of QED and relativity to searches for time variations of fundamental constants. Recent experiments are extending frequency comb techniques into the extreme ultraviolet. Laser frequency combs can also control the electric field of ultrashort light pulses, creating powerful new tools for the emerging field of attosecond science.Organiser(s): L. Alvarez-Gaume / PH-THNote: * Tea & coffee will be served at 16:00.

  4. Towards precision medicine.

    PubMed

    Ashley, Euan A

    2016-08-16

    There is great potential for genome sequencing to enhance patient care through improved diagnostic sensitivity and more precise therapeutic targeting. To maximize this potential, genomics strategies that have been developed for genetic discovery - including DNA-sequencing technologies and analysis algorithms - need to be adapted to fit clinical needs. This will require the optimization of alignment algorithms, attention to quality-coverage metrics, tailored solutions for paralogous or low-complexity areas of the genome, and the adoption of consensus standards for variant calling and interpretation. Global sharing of this more accurate genotypic and phenotypic data will accelerate the determination of causality for novel genes or variants. Thus, a deeper understanding of disease will be realized that will allow its targeting with much greater therapeutic precision. PMID:27528417

  5. Precision Polarization of Neutrons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, Elise; Barron-Palos, Libertad; Couture, Aaron; Crawford, Christopher; Chupp, Tim; Danagoulian, Areg; Estes, Mary; Hona, Binita; Jones, Gordon; Klein, Andi; Penttila, Seppo; Sharma, Monisha; Wilburn, Scott

    2009-05-01

    Determining polarization of a cold neutron beam to high precision is required for the next generation neutron decay correlation experiments at the SNS, such as the proposed abBA and PANDA experiments. Precision polarimetry measurements were conducted at Los Alamos National Laboratory with the goal of determining the beam polarization to the level of 10-3 or better. The cold neutrons from FP12 were polarized using optically polarized ^3He gas as a spin filter, which has a highly spin-dependent absorption cross section. A second ^ 3He spin filter was used to analyze the neutron polarization after passing through a resonant RF spin rotator. A discussion of the experiment and results will be given.

  6. A passion for precision

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2011-10-06

    For more than three decades, the quest for ever higher precision in laser spectroscopy of the simple hydrogen atom has inspired many advances in laser, optical, and spectroscopic techniques, culminating in femtosecond laser optical frequency combs  as perhaps the most precise measuring tools known to man. Applications range from optical atomic clocks and tests of QED and relativity to searches for time variations of fundamental constants. Recent experiments are extending frequency comb techniques into the extreme ultraviolet. Laser frequency combs can also control the electric field of ultrashort light pulses, creating powerful new tools for the emerging field of attosecond science.Organiser(s): L. Alvarez-Gaume / PH-THNote: * Tea & coffee will be served at 16:00.

  7. Calibrated high-precision 17O-excess measurements using cavity ring-down spectroscopy with laser-current-tuned cavity resonance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steig, E. J.; Gkinis, V.; Schauer, A. J.; Schoenemann, S. W.; Samek, K.; Hoffnagle, J.; Dennis, K. J.; Tan, S. M.

    2014-08-01

    High-precision analysis of the 17O / 16O isotope ratio in water and water vapor is of interest in hydrological, paleoclimate, and atmospheric science applications. Of specific interest is the parameter 17O excess (Δ17O), a measure of the deviation from a~linear relationship between 17O / 16O and 18O / 16O ratios. Conventional analyses of Δ17O of water are obtained by fluorination of H2O to O2 that is analyzed by dual-inlet isotope ratio mass spectrometry (IRMS). We describe a new laser spectroscopy instrument for high-precision Δ17O measurements. The new instrument uses cavity ring-down spectroscopy (CRDS) with laser-current-tuned cavity resonance to achieve reduced measurement drift compared with previous-generation instruments. Liquid water and water-vapor samples can be analyzed with a better than 8 per meg precision for Δ17O using integration times of less than 30 min. Calibration with respect to accepted water standards demonstrates that both the precision and the accuracy of Δ17O are competitive with conventional IRMS methods. The new instrument also achieves simultaneous analysis of δ18O, Δ17O and δD with precision of < 0.03‰, < 0.02 and < 0.2‰, respectively, based on repeated calibrated measurements.

  8. Precision disablement aiming system

    DOEpatents

    Monda, Mark J.; Hobart, Clinton G.; Gladwell, Thomas Scott

    2016-02-16

    A disrupter to a target may be precisely aimed by positioning a radiation source to direct radiation towards the target, and a detector is positioned to detect radiation that passes through the target. An aiming device is positioned between the radiation source and the target, wherein a mechanical feature of the aiming device is superimposed on the target in a captured radiographic image. The location of the aiming device in the radiographic image is used to aim a disrupter towards the target.

  9. Precise linear sun sensor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnston, D. D.

    1972-01-01

    An evaluation of the precise linear sun sensor relating to future mission applications was performed. The test procedures, data, and results of the dual-axis, solid-state system are included. Brief descriptions of the sensing head and of the system's operational characteristics are presented. A unique feature of the system is that multiple sensor heads with various fields of view may be used with the same electronics.

  10. Precision laser aiming system

    SciTech Connect

    Ahrens, Brandon R.; Todd, Steven N.

    2009-04-28

    A precision laser aiming system comprises a disrupter tool, a reflector, and a laser fixture. The disrupter tool, the reflector and the laser fixture are configurable for iterative alignment and aiming toward an explosive device threat. The invention enables a disrupter to be quickly and accurately set up, aligned, and aimed in order to render safe or to disrupt a target from a standoff position.

  11. Accuracy in Judgments of Aggressiveness

    PubMed Central

    Kenny, David A.; West, Tessa V.; Cillessen, Antonius H. N.; Coie, John D.; Dodge, Kenneth A.; Hubbard, Julie A.; Schwartz, David

    2009-01-01

    Perceivers are both accurate and biased in their understanding of others. Past research has distinguished between three types of accuracy: generalized accuracy, a perceiver’s accuracy about how a target interacts with others in general; perceiver accuracy, a perceiver’s view of others corresponding with how the perceiver is treated by others in general; and dyadic accuracy, a perceiver’s accuracy about a target when interacting with that target. Researchers have proposed that there should be more dyadic than other forms of accuracy among well-acquainted individuals because of the pragmatic utility of forecasting the behavior of interaction partners. We examined behavioral aggression among well-acquainted peers. A total of 116 9-year-old boys rated how aggressive their classmates were toward other classmates. Subsequently, 11 groups of 6 boys each interacted in play groups, during which observations of aggression were made. Analyses indicated strong generalized accuracy yet little dyadic and perceiver accuracy. PMID:17575243

  12. Accuracy of post-bomb 137Cs and 14C in dating fluvial deposits

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ely, L.L.; Webb, R.H.; Enzel, Y.

    1992-01-01

    The accuracy and precision of 137Cs and 14C for dating post-1950 alluvial deposits were evaluated for deposits from known floods on two rivers in Arizona. The presence of 137Cs reliably indicates that deposition occurred after intensive above-ground nuclear testing was initiated around 1950. There was a positive correlation between the measured level of 137Cs activity and the clay content of the sediments, although 137Cs was detected even in sandy flood sediments with low clay content. 137Cs is a valuable dating tool in arid environments where organic materials for 14C or tree-ring dating are scarce and observational records are limited. The 14C activity measured in different types of fine organic detritus yielded dates within 1 to 8 yr of a 1980 flood deposit, and the accuracy was species-dependent. However, undifferentiated mixtures of fine organic materials from several post-bomb deposits of various ages repeatedly yielded dates between 1958 and 1962, and detrital charcoal yielded a date range of 1676-1939. In semiarid environments, the residence time of most types of organic debris precludes accurate annual resolution of post-bomb 14C dates. ?? 1992.

  13. Precise Point Positioning in the Airborne Mode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El-Mowafy, Ahmed

    2011-01-01

    The Global Positioning System (GPS) is widely used for positioning in the airborne mode such as in navigation as a supplementary system and for geo-referencing of cameras in mapping and surveillance by aircrafts and Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAV). The Precise Point Positioning (PPP) approach is an attractive positioning approach based on processing of un-differenced observations from a single GPS receiver. It employs precise satellite orbits and satellite clock corrections. These data can be obtained via the internet from several sources, e.g. the International GNSS Service (IGS). The data can also broadcast from satellites, such as via the LEX signal of the new Japanese satellite system QZSS. The PPP can achieve positioning precision and accuracy at the sub-decimetre level. In this paper, the functional and stochastic mathematical modelling used in PPP is discussed. Results of applying the PPP method in an airborne test using a small fixed-wing aircraft are presented. To evaluate the performance of the PPP approach, a reference trajectory was established by differential positioning of the same GPS observations with data from a ground reference station. The coordinate results from the two approaches, PPP and differential positioning, were compared and statistically evaluated. For the test at hand, positioning accuracy at the cm-to-decimetre was achieved for latitude and longitude coordinates and doubles that value for height estimation.

  14. Highly Parallel, High-Precision Numerical Integration

    SciTech Connect

    Bailey, David H.; Borwein, Jonathan M.

    2005-04-22

    This paper describes a scheme for rapidly computing numerical values of definite integrals to very high accuracy, ranging from ordinary machine precision to hundreds or thousands of digits, even for functions with singularities or infinite derivatives at endpoints. Such a scheme is of interest not only in computational physics and computational chemistry, but also in experimental mathematics, where high-precision numerical values of definite integrals can be used to numerically discover new identities. This paper discusses techniques for a parallel implementation of this scheme, then presents performance results for 1-D and 2-D test suites. Results are also given for a certain problem from mathematical physics, which features a difficult singularity, confirming a conjecture to 20,000 digit accuracy. The performance rate for this latter calculation on 1024 CPUs is 690 Gflop/s. We believe that this and one other 20,000-digit integral evaluation that we report are the highest-precision non-trivial numerical integrations performed to date.

  15. Monte Carlo simulations for deriving the precision in GPR velocity estimates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clark, R. A.; Booth, A.; Murray, T.

    2010-12-01

    Models of ground penetrating radar (GPR) propagation velocity are often used to quantify physical subsurface properties (e.g., layer thickness, porosity, water content). A common approach is to conduct semblance analysis on common midpoint (CMP) gathers, in which successive pairs of stacking velocity and travel-time are input to Dix’s Equation, to obtain a velocity estimate, termed interval stacking velocity. However, the precision in interval stacking velocity is seldom reported since it is cumbersome to obtain an analytic expression for precision particularly since Dix’s Equation has four independently resolved degrees of freedom. We present Monte Carlo simulations as a means of expressing interval stacking velocities, and its derivative quantities, as a probability density functions (PDFs). These are built using Gaussian distributions of pseudo-random samples from within the 50% contour around successive coherence responses; precision is summarised using the median and inter-quartile range of each PDF. To verify this method’s accuracy, we simulate CMP data in which travel-times are computed for reflections from two horizontal horizons at depths of 5 and 10 m, with isotropic interval velocity of 0.1 m/ns, for source-receiver offsets from 0 to 30 m. The Monte Carlo simulation produces 107 manifestations of interval stacking velocity and layer thickness, and yields estimates of 0.1±0.003 m/ns and 4.99±0.16 m, respectively. The simulation is repeated for real CMP data, acquired with 50 MHz antennas, for establishing the precision in interval stacking velocity and speculative estimates (in the absence of extensive borehole logs) of layer thickness and fractional porosity (via the complex refractive index method, CRIM). The site comprises Quaternary sediment, in which the water table is observed at ~2 m depth, overlying Cambrian basement at 10-15 m depth. The resolution of stacking velocity in semblance analysis decreases with depth, as reflected in PDFs of

  16. Arizona Vegetation Resource Inventory (AVRI) accuracy assessment

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Szajgin, John; Pettinger, L.R.; Linden, D.S.; Ohlen, D.O.

    1982-01-01

    A quantitative accuracy assessment was performed for the vegetation classification map produced as part of the Arizona Vegetation Resource Inventory (AVRI) project. This project was a cooperative effort between the Bureau of Land Management (BLM) and the Earth Resources Observation Systems (EROS) Data Center. The objective of the accuracy assessment was to estimate (with a precision of ?10 percent at the 90 percent confidence level) the comission error in each of the eight level II hierarchical vegetation cover types. A stratified two-phase (double) cluster sample was used. Phase I consisted of 160 photointerpreted plots representing clusters of Landsat pixels, and phase II consisted of ground data collection at 80 of the phase I cluster sites. Ground data were used to refine the phase I error estimates by means of a linear regression model. The classified image was stratified by assigning each 15-pixel cluster to the stratum corresponding to the dominant cover type within each cluster. This method is known as stratified plurality sampling. Overall error was estimated to be 36 percent with a standard error of 2 percent. Estimated error for individual vegetation classes ranged from a low of 10 percent ?6 percent for evergreen woodland to 81 percent ?7 percent for cropland and pasture. Total cost of the accuracy assessment was $106,950 for the one-million-hectare study area. The combination of the stratified plurality sampling (SPS) method of sample allocation with double sampling provided the desired estimates within the required precision levels. The overall accuracy results confirmed that highly accurate digital classification of vegetation is difficult to perform in semiarid environments, due largely to the sparse vegetation cover. Nevertheless, these techniques show promise for providing more accurate information than is presently available for many BLM-administered lands.

  17. Estimation of precipitable water vapour using kinematic GNSS precise point positioning over an altitude range of 1 km

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Webb, S. R.; Penna, N. T.; Clarke, P. J.; Webster, S.; Martin, I.

    2013-12-01

    The estimation of total precipitable water vapour (PWV) using kinematic GNSS has been investigated since around 2001, aiming to extend the use of static ground-based GNSS, from which PWV estimates are now operationally assimilated into numerical weather prediction models. To date, kinematic GNSS PWV studies suggest a PWV measurement agreement with radiosondes of 2-3 mm, almost commensurate with static GNSS measurement accuracy, but only shipborne experiments have so far been carried out. As a first step towards extending such sea level-based studies to platforms that operate at a range of altitudes, such as airplanes or land based vehicles, the kinematic GNSS estimation of PWV over an exactly repeated trajectory is considered. A data set was collected from a GNSS receiver and antenna mounted on a carriage of the Snowdon Mountain Railway, UK, which continually ascends and descends through 950 m of vertical relief. Static GNSS reference receivers were installed at the top and bottom of the altitude profile, and derived zenith wet delay (ZWD) was interpolated to the altitude of the train to provide reference values together with profile estimates from the 100 m resolution runs of the Met Office's Unified Model. We demonstrate similar GNSS accuracies as obtained from previous shipborne studies, namely a double difference relative kinematic GNSS ZWD accuracy within 14 mm, and a kinematic GNSS precise point positioning ZWD accuracy within 15 mm. The latter is a more typical airborne PWV estimation scenario i.e. without the reliance on ground-based GNSS reference stations. We show that the kinematic GPS-only precise point positioning ZWD estimation is enhanced by also incorporating GLONASS observations.

  18. Accuracy of tablet splitting.

    PubMed

    McDevitt, J T; Gurst, A H; Chen, Y

    1998-01-01

    We attempted to determine the accuracy of manually splitting hydrochlorothiazide tablets. Ninety-four healthy volunteers each split ten 25-mg hydrochlorothiazide tablets, which were then weighed using an analytical balance. Demographics, grip and pinch strength, digit circumference, and tablet-splitting experience were documented. Subjects were also surveyed regarding their willingness to pay a premium for commercially available, lower-dose tablets. Of 1752 manually split tablet portions, 41.3% deviated from ideal weight by more than 10% and 12.4% deviated by more than 20%. Gender, age, education, and tablet-splitting experience were not predictive of variability. Most subjects (96.8%) stated a preference for commercially produced, lower-dose tablets, and 77.2% were willing to pay more for them. For drugs with steep dose-response curves or narrow therapeutic windows, the differences we recorded could be clinically relevant. PMID:9469693

  19. Control of repeat protein curvature by computational protein design

    PubMed Central

    Park, Keunwan; Shen, Betty W.; Parmeggiani, Fabio; Huang, Po-Ssu; Stoddard, Barry L.; Baker, David

    2014-01-01

    Shape complementarity is an important component of molecular recognition, and the ability to precisely adjust the shape of a binding scaffold to match a target of interest would greatly facilitate the creation of high affinity protein reagents and therapeutics. Here we describe a general approach to control the shape of the binding surface on repeat protein scaffolds, and apply it to leucine rich repeat proteins. First, a set of self-compatible building block modules are designed that when polymerized each generate surfaces with unique but constant curvatures. Second, a set of junction modules that connect the different building blocks are designed. Finally, new proteins with custom designed shapes are generated by appropriately combining building block and junction modules. Crystal structures of the designs illustrate the power of the approach in controlling repeat protein curvature. PMID:25580576

  20. Galvanometer deflection: a precision high-speed system.

    PubMed

    Jablonowski, D P; Raamot, J

    1976-06-01

    An X-Y galvanometer deflection system capable of high precision in a random access mode of operation is described. Beam positional information in digitized form is obtained by employing a Ronchi grating with a sophisticated optical detection scheme. This information is used in a control interface to locate the beam to the required precision. The system is characterized by high accuracy at maximum speed and is designed for operation in a variable environment, with particular attention placed on thermal insensitivity. PMID:20165203

  1. Limitations on quantum key repeaters.

    PubMed

    Bäuml, Stefan; Christandl, Matthias; Horodecki, Karol; Winter, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    A major application of quantum communication is the distribution of entangled particles for use in quantum key distribution. Owing to noise in the communication line, quantum key distribution is, in practice, limited to a distance of a few hundred kilometres, and can only be extended to longer distances by use of a quantum repeater, a device that performs entanglement distillation and quantum teleportation. The existence of noisy entangled states that are undistillable but nevertheless useful for quantum key distribution raises the question of the feasibility of a quantum key repeater, which would work beyond the limits of entanglement distillation, hence possibly tolerating higher noise levels than existing protocols. Here we exhibit fundamental limits on such a device in the form of bounds on the rate at which it may extract secure key. As a consequence, we give examples of states suitable for quantum key distribution but unsuitable for the most general quantum key repeater protocol. PMID:25903096

  2. Multiple ion counting ICPMS double spike method for precise U isotopic analysis at ultra-trace levels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Snow, Jonathan E.; Friedrich, Jon M.

    2005-04-01

    Of the various methods for the measurement of the isotopic composition of U in solids and solutions, few offer both sensitivity and precision. In recent years, the use of ICPMS technology for this determination has become increasingly prevalent. Here we describe a method for the determination of the 235U/238U ratio in very small quantities (<=350 pg) with an accuracy of better than 3[per mille sign]. We measured several terrestrial standard materials and repeated analyses of the U960 isotopic composition standard. We used a 233U/236U double spike, with multiple ion counting on an unmodified Nu Instruments multicollector ICPMS and a non-standard detector configuration that allows an approximately 20-fold sensitivity gain over the best conventional techniques. This technique shows promise for the detection of isotopic tracers in the environment (for example anthropogenic 238U) at very extreme dilutions, or in cases where the total amount of analyte is necessarily limited.

  3. Hysteresis of magnetostructural transitions: Repeatable and non-repeatable processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Provenzano, Virgil; Della Torre, Edward; Bennett, Lawrence H.; ElBidweihy, Hatem

    2014-02-01

    The Gd5Ge2Si2 alloy and the off-stoichiometric Ni50Mn35In15 Heusler alloy belong to a special class of metallic materials that exhibit first-order magnetostructural transitions near room temperature. The magnetic properties of this class of materials have been extensively studied due to their interesting magnetic behavior and their potential for a number of technological applications such as refrigerants for near-room-temperature magnetic refrigeration. The thermally driven first-order transitions in these materials can be field-induced in the reverse order by applying a strong enough field. The field-induced transitions are typically accompanied by the presence of large magnetic hysteresis, the characteristics of which are a complicated function of temperature, field, and magneto-thermal history. In this study we show that the virgin curve, the major loop, and sequentially measured MH loops are the results of both repeatable and non-repeatable processes, in which the starting magnetostructural state, prior to the cycling of field, plays a major role. Using the Gd5Ge2Si2 and Ni50Mn35In15 alloys, as model materials, we show that a starting single phase state results in fully repeatable processes and large magnetic hysteresis, whereas a mixed phase starting state results in non-repeatable processes and smaller hysteresis.

  4. Instrument Attitude Precision Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Juang, Jer-Nan

    2004-01-01

    A novel approach is presented in this paper to analyze attitude precision and control for an instrument gimbaled to a spacecraft subject to an internal disturbance caused by a moving component inside the instrument. Nonlinear differential equations of motion for some sample cases are derived and solved analytically to gain insight into the influence of the disturbance on the attitude pointing error. A simple control law is developed to eliminate the instrument pointing error caused by the internal disturbance. Several cases are presented to demonstrate and verify the concept presented in this paper.

  5. Precision Robotic Assembly Machine

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2010-09-01

    The world's largest laser system is the National Ignition Facility (NIF), located at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. NIF's 192 laser beams are amplified to extremely high energy, and then focused onto a tiny target about the size of a BB, containing frozen hydrogen gas. The target must be perfectly machined to incredibly demanding specifications. The Laboratory's scientists and engineers have developed a device called the "Precision Robotic Assembly Machine" for this purpose. Its unique design won a prestigious R&D-100 award from R&D Magazine.

  6. Precision mass measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gläser, M.; Borys, M.

    2009-12-01

    Mass as a physical quantity and its measurement are described. After some historical remarks, a short summary of the concept of mass in classical and modern physics is given. Principles and methods of mass measurements, for example as energy measurement or as measurement of weight forces and forces caused by acceleration, are discussed. Precision mass measurement by comparing mass standards using balances is described in detail. Measurement of atomic masses related to 12C is briefly reviewed as well as experiments and recent discussions for a future new definition of the kilogram, the SI unit of mass.

  7. Precision Robotic Assembly Machine

    SciTech Connect

    2009-08-14

    The world's largest laser system is the National Ignition Facility (NIF), located at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. NIF's 192 laser beams are amplified to extremely high energy, and then focused onto a tiny target about the size of a BB, containing frozen hydrogen gas. The target must be perfectly machined to incredibly demanding specifications. The Laboratory's scientists and engineers have developed a device called the "Precision Robotic Assembly Machine" for this purpose. Its unique design won a prestigious R&D-100 award from R&D Magazine.

  8. Precision electroweak measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Demarteau, M.

    1996-11-01

    Recent electroweak precision measurements fro {ital e}{sup +}{ital e}{sup -} and {ital p{anti p}} colliders are presented. Some emphasis is placed on the recent developments in the heavy flavor sector. The measurements are compared to predictions from the Standard Model of electroweak interactions. All results are found to be consistent with the Standard Model. The indirect constraint on the top quark mass from all measurements is in excellent agreement with the direct {ital m{sub t}} measurements. Using the world`s electroweak data in conjunction with the current measurement of the top quark mass, the constraints on the Higgs` mass are discussed.

  9. Accuracy of Aerodynamic Model Parameters Estimated from Flight Test Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morelli, Eugene A.; Klein, Vladislav

    1997-01-01

    An important put of building mathematical models based on measured date is calculating the accuracy associated with statistical estimates of the model parameters. Indeed, without some idea of this accuracy, the parameter estimates themselves have limited value. An expression is developed for computing quantitatively correct parameter accuracy measures for maximum likelihood parameter estimates when the output residuals are colored. This result is important because experience in analyzing flight test data reveals that the output residuals from maximum likelihood estimation are almost always colored. The calculations involved can be appended to conventional maximum likelihood estimation algorithms. Monte Carlo simulation runs were used to show that parameter accuracy measures from the new technique accurately reflect the quality of the parameter estimates from maximum likelihood estimation without the need for correction factors or frequency domain analysis of the output residuals. The technique was applied to flight test data from repeated maneuvers flown on the F-18 High Alpha Research Vehicle. As in the simulated cases, parameter accuracy measures from the new technique were in agreement with the scatter in the parameter estimates from repeated maneuvers, whereas conventional parameter accuracy measures were optimistic.

  10. Pure laparoscopic hepatectomy as repeat surgery and repeat hepatectomy

    PubMed Central

    Isetani, Masashi; Morise, Zenichi; Kawabe, Norihiko; Tomishige, Hirokazu; Nagata, Hidetoshi; Kawase, Jin; Arakawa, Satoshi

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To assess clinical outcomes of laparoscopic hepatectomy (LH) in patients with a history of upper abdominal surgery and repeat hepatectomy. METHODS: This study compared the perioperative courses of patients receiving LH at our institution that had or had not previously undergone upper abdominal surgery. Of the 80 patients who underwent LH, 22 had prior abdominal surgeries, including hepatectomy (n = 12), pancreatectomy (n = 3), cholecystectomy and common bile duct excision (n = 1), splenectomy (n = 1), total gastrectomy (n = 1), colectomy with the involvement of transverse colon (n = 3), and extended hysterectomy with extensive lymph-node dissection up to the upper abdomen (n = 1). Clinical indicators including operating time, blood loss, hospital stay, and morbidity were compared among the groups. RESULTS: Eighteen of the 22 patients who had undergone previous surgery had severe adhesions in the area around the liver. However, there were no conversions to laparotomy in this group. In the 58 patients without a history of upper abdominal surgery, the median operative time was 301 min and blood loss was 150 mL. In patients with upper abdominal surgical history or repeat hepatectomy, the operative times were 351 and 301 min, and blood loss was 100 and 50 mL, respectively. The median postoperative stay was 17, 13 and 12 d for patients with no history of upper abdominal surgery, patients with a history, and patients with repeat hepatectomy, respectively. There were five cases with complications in the group with no surgical history, compared to only one case in the group with a prior history. There were no statistically significant differences in the perioperative results between the groups with and without upper abdominal surgical history, or with repeat hepatectomy. CONCLUSION: LH is feasible and safe in patients with a history of upper abdominal surgery or repeat hepatectomy. PMID:25624731

  11. Density Variations Observable by Precision Satellite Orbits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McLaughlin, C. A.; Lechtenberg, T.; Hiatt, A.

    2008-12-01

    This research uses precision satellite orbits from the Challenging Minisatellite Payload (CHAMP) satellite to produce a new data source for studying density changes that occur on time scales less than a day. Precision orbit derived density is compared to accelerometer derived density. In addition, the precision orbit derived densities are used to examine density variations that have been observed with accelerometer data to see if they are observable. In particular, the research will examine the observability of geomagnetic storm time changes and polar cusp features that have been observed in accelerometer data. Currently highly accurate density data is available from three satellites with accelerometers and much lower accuracy data is available from hundreds of satellites for which two-line element sets are available from the Air Force. This paper explores a new data source that is more accurate and has better temporal resolution than the two-line element sets, and provides better spatial coverage than satellites with accelerometers. This data source will be valuable for studying atmospheric phenomena over short periods, for long term studies of the atmosphere, and for validating and improving complex coupled models that include neutral density. The precision orbit derived densities are very similar to the accelerometer derived densities, but the accelerometer can observe features with shorter temporal variations. This research will quantify the time scales observable by precision orbit derived density. The technique for estimating density is optimal orbit determination. The estimates are optimal in the least squares or minimum variance sense. Precision orbit data from CHAMP is used as measurements in a sequential measurement processing and filtering scheme. The atmospheric density is estimated as a correction to an atmospheric model.

  12. Determination of GPS orbits to submeter accuracy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bertiger, W. I.; Lichten, S. M.; Katsigris, E. C.

    1988-01-01

    Orbits for satellites of the Global Positioning System (GPS) were determined with submeter accuracy. Tests used to assess orbital accuracy include orbit comparisons from independent data sets, orbit prediction, ground baseline determination, and formal errors. One satellite tracked 8 hours each day shows rms error below 1 m even when predicted more than 3 days outside of a 1-week data arc. Differential tracking of the GPS satellites in high Earth orbit provides a powerful relative positioning capability, even when a relatively small continental U.S. fiducial tracking network is used with less than one-third of the full GPS constellation. To demonstrate this capability, baselines of up to 2000 km in North America were also determined with the GPS orbits. The 2000 km baselines show rms daily repeatability of 0.3 to 2 parts in 10 to the 8th power and agree with very long base interferometry (VLBI) solutions at the level of 1.5 parts in 10 to the 8th power. This GPS demonstration provides an opportunity to test different techniques for high-accuracy orbit determination for high Earth orbiters. The best GPS orbit strategies included data arcs of at least 1 week, process noise models for tropospheric fluctuations, estimation of GPS solar pressure coefficients, and combine processing of GPS carrier phase and pseudorange data. For data arc of 2 weeks, constrained process noise models for GPS dynamic parameters significantly improved the situation.

  13. New High Precision Linelist of H_3^+

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hodges, James N.; Perry, Adam J.; Markus, Charles; Jenkins, Paul A., II; Kocheril, G. Stephen; McCall, Benjamin J.

    2014-06-01

    As the simplest polyatomic molecule, H_3^+ serves as an ideal benchmark for theoretical predictions of rovibrational energy levels. By strictly ab initio methods, the current accuracy of theoretical predictions is limited to an impressive one hundredth of a wavenumber, which has been accomplished by consideration of relativistic, adiabatic, and non-adiabatic corrections to the Born-Oppenheimer PES. More accurate predictions rely on a treatment of quantum electrodynamic effects, which have improved the accuracies of vibrational transitions in molecular hydrogen to a few MHz. High precision spectroscopy is of the utmost importance for extending the frontiers of ab initio calculations, as improved precision and accuracy enable more rigorous testing of calculations. Additionally, measuring rovibrational transitions of H_3^+ can be used to predict its forbidden rotational spectrum. Though the existing data can be used to determine rotational transition frequencies, the uncertainties are prohibitively large. Acquisition of rovibrational spectra with smaller experimental uncertainty would enable a spectroscopic search for the rotational transitions. The technique Noise Immune Cavity Enhanced Optical Heterodyne Velocity Modulation Spectroscopy, or NICE-OHVMS has been previously used to precisely and accurately measure transitions of H_3^+, CH_5^+, and HCO^+ to sub-MHz uncertainty. A second module for our optical parametric oscillator has extended our instrument's frequency coverage from 3.2-3.9 μm to 2.5-3.9 μm. With extended coverage, we have improved our previous linelist by measuring additional transitions. O. L. Polyansky, et al. Phil. Trans. R. Soc. A (2012), 370, 5014--5027. J. Komasa, et al. J. Chem. Theor. Comp. (2011), 7, 3105--3115. C. M. Lindsay, B. J. McCall, J. Mol. Spectrosc. (2001), 210, 66--83. J. N. Hodges, et al. J. Chem. Phys. (2013), 139, 164201.

  14. High precision kinematic surveying with laser scanners

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gräfe, Gunnar

    2007-12-01

    The kinematic survey of roads and railways is becoming a much more common data acquisition method. The development of the Mobile Road Mapping System (MoSES) has reached a level that allows the use of kinematic survey technology for high precision applications. The system is equipped with cameras and laser scanners. For high accuracy requirements, the scanners become the main sensor group because of their geometric precision and reliability. To guarantee reliable survey results, specific calibration procedures have to be applied, which can be divided into the scanner sensor calibration as step 1, and the geometric transformation parameter estimation with respect to the vehicle coordinate system as step 2. Both calibration steps include new methods for sensor behavior modeling and multisensor system integration. To verify laser scanner quality of the MoSES system, the results are regularly checked along different test routes. It can be proved that a standard deviation of 0.004 m for height of the scanner points will be obtained, if the specific calibrations and data processing methods are applied. This level of accuracy opens new possibilities to serve engineering survey applications using kinematic measurement techniques. The key feature of scanner technology is the full digital coverage of the road area. Three application examples illustrate the capabilities. Digital road surface models generated from MoSES data are used, especially for road surface reconstruction tasks along highways. Compared to static surveys, the method offers comparable accuracy at higher speed, lower costs, much higher grid resolution and with greater safety. The system's capability of gaining 360 profiles leads to other complex applications like kinematic tunnel surveys or the precise analysis of bridge clearances.

  15. Precision estimates for tomographic nondestructive assay

    SciTech Connect

    Prettyman, T.H.

    1995-12-31

    One technique being applied to improve the accuracy of assays of waste in large containers is computerized tomography (CT). Research on the application of CT to improve both neutron and gamma-ray assays of waste is being carried out at LANL. For example, tomographic gamma scanning (TGS) is a single-photon emission CT technique that corrects for the attenuation of gamma rays emitted from the sample using attenuation images from transmission CT. By accounting for the distribution of emitting material and correcting for the attenuation of the emitted gamma rays, TGS is able to achieve highly accurate assays of radionuclides in medium-density wastes. It is important to develope methods to estimate the precision of such assays, and this paper explores this problem by examining the precision estimators for TGS.

  16. Precision measurements in supersymmetry

    SciTech Connect

    Feng, J.L.

    1995-05-01

    Supersymmetry is a promising framework in which to explore extensions of the standard model. If candidates for supersymmetric particles are found, precision measurements of their properties will then be of paramount importance. The prospects for such measurements and their implications are the subject of this thesis. If charginos are produced at the LEP II collider, they are likely to be one of the few available supersymmetric signals for many years. The author considers the possibility of determining fundamental supersymmetry parameters in such a scenario. The study is complicated by the dependence of observables on a large number of these parameters. He proposes a straightforward procedure for disentangling these dependences and demonstrate its effectiveness by presenting a number of case studies at representative points in parameter space. In addition to determining the properties of supersymmetric particles, precision measurements may also be used to establish that newly-discovered particles are, in fact, supersymmetric. Supersymmetry predicts quantitative relations among the couplings and masses of superparticles. The author discusses tests of such relations at a future e{sup +}e{sup {minus}} linear collider, using measurements that exploit the availability of polarizable beams. Stringent tests of supersymmetry from chargino production are demonstrated in two representative cases, and fermion and neutralino processes are also discussed.

  17. Precision flyer initiator

    DOEpatents

    Frank, Alan M.; Lee, Ronald S.

    1998-01-01

    A precision flyer initiator forms a substantially spherical detonation wave in a high explosive (HE) pellet. An explosive driver, such as a detonating cord, a wire bridge circuit or a small explosive, is detonated. A flyer material is sandwiched between the explosive driver and an end of a barrel that contains an inner channel. A projectile or "flyer" is sheared from the flyer material by the force of the explosive driver and projected through the inner channel. The flyer than strikes the HE pellet, which is supported above a second end of the barrel by a spacer ring. A gap or shock decoupling material delays the shock wave in the barrel from predetonating the HE pellet before the flyer. A spherical detonation wave is formed in the HE pellet. Thus, a shock wave traveling through the barrel fails to reach the HE pellet before the flyer strikes the HE pellet. The precision flyer initiator can be used in mining devices, well-drilling devices and anti-tank devices.

  18. Precision muon physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gorringe, T. P.; Hertzog, D. W.

    2015-09-01

    The muon is playing a unique role in sub-atomic physics. Studies of muon decay both determine the overall strength and establish the chiral structure of weak interactions, as well as setting extraordinary limits on charged-lepton-flavor-violating processes. Measurements of the muon's anomalous magnetic moment offer singular sensitivity to the completeness of the standard model and the predictions of many speculative theories. Spectroscopy of muonium and muonic atoms gives unmatched determinations of fundamental quantities including the magnetic moment ratio μμ /μp, lepton mass ratio mμ /me, and proton charge radius rp. Also, muon capture experiments are exploring elusive features of weak interactions involving nucleons and nuclei. We will review the experimental landscape of contemporary high-precision and high-sensitivity experiments with muons. One focus is the novel methods and ingenious techniques that achieve such precision and sensitivity in recent, present, and planned experiments. Another focus is the uncommonly broad and topical range of questions in atomic, nuclear and particle physics that such experiments explore.

  19. Precision Joining Center

    SciTech Connect

    Powell, J.W.; Westphal, D.A.

    1991-08-01

    A workshop to obtain input from industry on the establishment of the Precision Joining Center (PJC) was held on July 10--12, 1991. The PJC is a center for training Joining Technologists in advanced joining techniques and concepts in order to promote the competitiveness of US industry. The center will be established as part of the DOE Defense Programs Technology Commercialization Initiative, and operated by EG G Rocky Flats in cooperation with the American Welding Society and the Colorado School of Mines Center for Welding and Joining Research. The overall objectives of the workshop were to validate the need for a Joining Technologists to fill the gap between the welding operator and the welding engineer, and to assure that the PJC will train individuals to satisfy that need. The consensus of the workshop participants was that the Joining Technologist is a necessary position in industry, and is currently used, with some variation, by many companies. It was agreed that the PJC core curriculum, as presented, would produce a Joining Technologist of value to industries that use precision joining techniques. The advantage of the PJC would be to train the Joining Technologist much more quickly and more completely. The proposed emphasis of the PJC curriculum on equipment intensive and hands-on training was judged to be essential.

  20. Progressive Precision Surface Design

    SciTech Connect

    Duchaineau, M; Joy, KJ

    2002-01-11

    We introduce a novel wavelet decomposition algorithm that makes a number of powerful new surface design operations practical. Wavelets, and hierarchical representations generally, have held promise to facilitate a variety of design tasks in a unified way by approximating results very precisely, thus avoiding a proliferation of undergirding mathematical representations. However, traditional wavelet decomposition is defined from fine to coarse resolution, thus limiting its efficiency for highly precise surface manipulation when attempting to create new non-local editing methods. Our key contribution is the progressive wavelet decomposition algorithm, a general-purpose coarse-to-fine method for hierarchical fitting, based in this paper on an underlying multiresolution representation called dyadic splines. The algorithm requests input via a generic interval query mechanism, allowing a wide variety of non-local operations to be quickly implemented. The algorithm performs work proportionate to the tiny compressed output size, rather than to some arbitrarily high resolution that would otherwise be required, thus increasing performance by several orders of magnitude. We describe several design operations that are made tractable because of the progressive decomposition. Free-form pasting is a generalization of the traditional control-mesh edit, but for which the shape of the change is completely general and where the shape can be placed using a free-form deformation within the surface domain. Smoothing and roughening operations are enhanced so that an arbitrary loop in the domain specifies the area of effect. Finally, the sculpting effect of moving a tool shape along a path is simulated.

  1. Precision flyer initiator

    DOEpatents

    Frank, A.M.; Lee, R.S.

    1998-05-26

    A precision flyer initiator forms a substantially spherical detonation wave in a high explosive (HE) pellet. An explosive driver, such as a detonating cord, a wire bridge circuit or a small explosive, is detonated. A flyer material is sandwiched between the explosive driver and an end of a barrel that contains an inner channel. A projectile or ``flyer`` is sheared from the flyer material by the force of the explosive driver and projected through the inner channel. The flyer than strikes the HE pellet, which is supported above a second end of the barrel by a spacer ring. A gap or shock decoupling material delays the shock wave in the barrel from predetonating the HE pellet before the flyer. A spherical detonation wave is formed in the HE pellet. Thus, a shock wave traveling through the barrel fails to reach the HE pellet before the flyer strikes the HE pellet. The precision flyer initiator can be used in mining devices, well-drilling devices and anti-tank devices. 10 figs.

  2. Precision of Four Acoustic Bone Measurement Devices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, Christopher; Rianon, Nahid; Feiveson, Alan; Shackelford, Linda; LeBlanc, Adrian

    2000-01-01

    Though many studies have quantified the precision of various acoustic bone measurement devices, it is difficult to directly compare the results among the studies, because they used disparate subject pools, did not specify the estimation methodology, or did not use consistent definitions for various precision characteristics. In this study, we used a repeated measures design protocol to directly determine the precision characteristics of four acoustic bone measurement devices: the Mechanical Response Tissue Analyzer (MRTA), the UBA-575+, the SoundScan 2000 (S2000), and the Sahara Ultrasound Bone Analyzer. Ten men and ten women were scanned on all four devices by two different operators at five discrete time points: Week 1, Week 2, Week 3, Month 3 and Month 6. The percent coefficient of variation (%CV) and standardized coefficient of variation were computed for the following precision characteristics: interoperator effect, operator-subject interaction, short-term error variance, and long-term drift. The MRTA had high interoperator errors for its ulnar and tibial stiffness measures and a large long-term drift in its tibial stiffness measurement. The UBA-575+ exhibited large short-term error variances and long-term drift for all three of its measurements. The S2000's tibial speed of sound measurement showed a high short-term error variance and a significant operator-subject interaction but very good values (less than 1%) for the other precision characteristics. The Sahara seemed to have the best overall performance, but was hampered by a large %CV for short-term error variance in its broadband ultrasound attenuation measure.

  3. Precision of Four Acoustic Bone Measurement Devices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, Christopher; Feiveson, Alan H.; Shackelford, Linda; Rianon, Nahida; LeBlanc, Adrian

    2000-01-01

    Though many studies have quantified the precision of various acoustic bone measurement devices, it is difficult to directly compare the results among the studies, because they used disparate subject pools, did not specify the estimation methodology, or did not use consistent definitions for various precision characteristics. In this study, we used a repeated measures design protocol to directly determine the precision characteristics of four acoustic bone measurement devices: the Mechanical Response Tissue Analyzer (MRTA), the UBA-575+, the SoundScan 2000 (S2000), and the Sahara Ultrasound Done Analyzer. Ten men and ten women were scanned on all four devices by two different operators at five discrete time points: Week 1, Week 2, Week 3, Month 3 and Month 6. The percent coefficient of variation (%CV) and standardized coefficient of variation were computed for the following precision characteristics: interoperator effect, operator-subject interaction, short-term error variance, and long-term drift, The MRTA had high interoperator errors for its ulnar and tibial stiffness measures and a large long-term drift in its tibial stiffness measurement. The UBA-575+ exhibited large short-term error variances and long-term drift for all three of its measurements. The S2000's tibial speed of sound measurement showed a high short-term error variance and a significant operator-subject interaction but very good values ( < 1%) for the other precision characteristics. The Sahara seemed to have the best overall performance, but was hampered by a large %CV for short-term error variance in its broadband ultrasound attenuation measure.

  4. Precise autofocusing microscope with rapid response

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Chien-Sheng; Jiang, Sheng-Hong

    2015-03-01

    The rapid on-line or off-line automated vision inspection is a critical operation in the manufacturing fields. Accordingly, this present study designs and characterizes a novel precise optics-based autofocusing microscope with a rapid response and no reduction in the focusing accuracy. In contrast to conventional optics-based autofocusing microscopes with centroid method, the proposed microscope comprises a high-speed rotating optical diffuser in which the variation of the image centroid position is reduced and consequently the focusing response is improved. The proposed microscope is characterized and verified experimentally using a laboratory-built prototype. The experimental results show that compared to conventional optics-based autofocusing microscopes, the proposed microscope achieves a more rapid response with no reduction in the focusing accuracy. Consequently, the proposed microscope represents another solution for both existing and emerging industrial applications of automated vision inspection.

  5. Reticence, Accuracy and Efficacy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oreskes, N.; Lewandowsky, S.

    2015-12-01

    James Hansen has cautioned the scientific community against "reticence," by which he means a reluctance to speak in public about the threat of climate change. This may contribute to social inaction, with the result that society fails to respond appropriately to threats that are well understood scientifically. Against this, others have warned against the dangers of "crying wolf," suggesting that reticence protects scientific credibility. We argue that both these positions are missing an important point: that reticence is not only a matter of style but also of substance. In previous work, Bysse et al. (2013) showed that scientific projections of key indicators of climate change have been skewed towards the low end of actual events, suggesting a bias in scientific work. More recently, we have shown that scientific efforts to be responsive to contrarian challenges have led scientists to adopt the terminology of a "pause" or "hiatus" in climate warming, despite the lack of evidence to support such a conclusion (Lewandowsky et al., 2015a. 2015b). In the former case, scientific conservatism has led to under-estimation of climate related changes. In the latter case, the use of misleading terminology has perpetuated scientific misunderstanding and hindered effective communication. Scientific communication should embody two equally important goals: 1) accuracy in communicating scientific information and 2) efficacy in expressing what that information means. Scientists should strive to be neither conservative nor adventurous but to be accurate, and to communicate that accurate information effectively.

  6. Visual inspection reliability for precision manufactured parts

    DOE PAGESBeta

    See, Judi E.

    2015-09-04

    Sandia National Laboratories conducted an experiment for the National Nuclear Security Administration to determine the reliability of visual inspection of precision manufactured parts used in nuclear weapons. In addition visual inspection has been extensively researched since the early 20th century; however, the reliability of visual inspection for nuclear weapons parts has not been addressed. In addition, the efficacy of using inspector confidence ratings to guide multiple inspections in an effort to improve overall performance accuracy is unknown. Further, the workload associated with inspection has not been documented, and newer measures of stress have not been applied.

  7. Precise and automated microfluidic sample preparation.

    SciTech Connect

    Crocker, Robert W.; Patel, Kamlesh D.; Mosier, Bruce P.; Harnett, Cindy K.

    2004-07-01

    Autonomous bio-chemical agent detectors require sample preparation involving multiplex fluid control. We have developed a portable microfluidic pump array for metering sub-microliter volumes at flowrates of 1-100 {micro}L/min. Each pump is composed of an electrokinetic (EK) pump and high-voltage power supply with 15-Hz feedback from flow sensors. The combination of high pump fluid impedance and active control results in precise fluid metering with nanoliter accuracy. Automated sample preparation will be demonstrated by labeling proteins with fluorescamine and subsequent injection to a capillary gel electrophoresis (CGE) chip.

  8. Platform Precision Autopilot Overview and Flight Test Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lin, V.; Strovers, B.; Lee, J.; Beck, R.

    2008-01-01

    The Platform Precision Autopilot is an instrument landing system interfaced autopilot system, developed to enable an aircraft to repeatedly fly nearly the same trajectory hours, days, or weeks later. The Platform Precision Autopilot uses a novel design to interface with a NASA Gulfstream III jet by imitating the output of an instrument landing system approach. This technique minimizes, as much as possible, modifications to the baseline Gulfstream III jet and retains the safety features of the aircraft autopilot. The Platform Precision Autopilot requirement is to fly within a 5-m (16.4-ft) radius tube for distances to 200 km (108 nmi) in the presence of light turbulence for at least 90 percent of the time. This capability allows precise repeat-pass interferometry for the Uninhabited Aerial Vehicle Synthetic Aperture Radar program, whose primary objective is to develop a miniaturized, polarimetric, L-band synthetic aperture radar. Precise navigation is achieved using an accurate differential global positioning system developed by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory. Flight-testing has demonstrated the ability of the Platform Precision Autopilot to control the aircraft within the specified tolerance greater than 90 percent of the time in the presence of aircraft system noise and nonlinearities, constant pilot throttle adjustments, and light turbulence.

  9. The Effect of Strength Training on Fractionalized Accuracy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gronbech, C. Eric

    The role of the strength factor in the accomplishment of precision tasks was investigated. Forty adult males weight trained to develop physical strength in several muscle groups, particularly in the elbow flexor area. Results indicate a decrease in incidence of accuracy concurrent with an increase in muscle strength. This suggests that in order to…

  10. Precise Orbit Determination for Altimeter Satellites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zelensky, N. P.; Luthcke, S. B.; Rowlands, D. D.; Lemoine, F. G.; Beckley, B. B.; Wang, Y.; Chinn, D. S.

    2002-05-01

    Orbit error remains a critical component in the error budget for all radar altimeter missions. This paper describes the ongoing work at GSFC to improve orbits for three radar altimeter satellites: TOPEX/POSEIDON (T/P), Jason, and Geosat Follow-On (GFO). T/P has demonstrated that, the time variation of ocean topography can be determined with an accuracy of a few centimeters, thanks to the availability of highly accurate orbits (2-3 cm radially) produced at GSFC. Jason, the T/P follow-on, is intended to continue measurement of the ocean surface with the same, if not better accuracy. Reaching the Jason centimeter accuracy orbit goal would greatly benefit the knowledge of ocean circulation. Several new POD strategies which promise significant improvement to the current T/P orbit are evaluated over one year of data. Also, preliminary, but very promising Jason POD results are presented. Orbit improvement for GFO has been dramatic, and has allowed this mission to provide a POESEIDON class altimeter product. The GFO Precise Orbit Ephemeris (POE) orbits are based on satellite laser ranging (SLR) tracking supplemented with GFO/GFO altimeter crossover data. The accuracy of these orbits were evaluated using several tests, including independent TOPEX/GFO altimeter crossover data. The orbit improvements are shown over the years 2000 and 2001 for which the POEs have been completed.

  11. Do Twelfths Terminate or Repeat?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ambrose, Rebecca; Burnison, Erica

    2015-01-01

    When finding the decimal equivalent of a fraction with 12 in the denominator, will it terminate or repeat? This question came from a seventh grader in author Erica Burnison's class as the student was pondering a poster generated by one of her classmates. Not only was the question intriguing, but it also affirmed the belief in the power of…

  12. Pentapeptide Repeat Proteins and Cyanobacteria

    SciTech Connect

    Buchko, Garry W.

    2009-10-16

    Cyanobacteria are unique in many ways and one unusual feature is the presence of a suite of proteins that contain at least one domain with a minimum of eight tandem repeated five-residues (Rfr) of the general consensus sequence A[N/D]LXX. The function of such pentapeptide repeat proteins (PRPs) are still unknown, however, their prevalence in cyanobacteria suggests that they may play some role in the unique biological activities of cyanobacteria. As part of an inter-disciplinary Membrane Biology Grand Challenge at the Environmental Molecular Sciences Laboratory (Pacific Northwest National Laboratory) and Washington University in St. Louis, the genome of Cyanothece 51142 was sequenced and its molecular biology studied with relation to circadian rhythms. The genome of Cyanothece encodes for 35 proteins that contain at least one PRP domain. These proteins range in size from 105 (Cce_3102) to 930 (Cce_2929) kDa with the PRP domains ranging in predicted size from 12 (Cce_1545) to 62 (cce_3979) tandem pentapeptide repeats. Transcriptomic studies with 29 out of the 35 genes showed that at least three of the PRPs in Cyanothece 51142 (cce_0029, cce_3083, and cce_3272) oscillated with repeated periods of light and dark, further supporting a biological function for PRPs. Using X-ray diffraction crystallography, the structure for two pentapeptide repeat proteins from Cyanothece 51142 were determined, cce_1272 (aka Rfr32) and cce_4529 (aka Rfr23). Analysis of their molecular structures suggests that all PRP may share the same structural motif, a novel type of right-handed quadrilateral β-helix, or Rfr-fold, reminiscent of a square tower with four distinct faces. Each pentapeptide repeat occupies one face of the Rfr-fold with four consecutive pentapeptide repeats completing a coil that, in turn, stack upon each other to form “protein skyscrapers”. Details of the structural features of the Rfr-fold are reviewed here together with a discussion for the possible role of end

  13. Truss Assembly and Welding by Intelligent Precision Jigging Robots

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Komendera, Erik; Dorsey, John T.; Doggett, William R.; Correll, Nikolaus

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes an Intelligent Precision Jigging Robot (IPJR) prototype that enables the precise alignment and welding of titanium space telescope optical benches. The IPJR, equipped with micron accuracy sensors and actuators, worked in tandem with a lower precision remote controlled manipulator. The combined system assembled and welded a 2 m truss from stock titanium components. The calibration of the IPJR, and the difference between the predicted and the truss dimensions as-built, identified additional sources of error that should be addressed in the next generation of IPJRs in 2D and 3D.

  14. Operating a real time high accuracy positioning system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnston, G.; Hanley, J.; Russell, D.; Vooght, A.

    2003-04-01

    The paper shall review the history and development of real time DGPS services prior to then describing the design of a high accuracy GPS commercial augmentation system and service currently delivering over a wide area to users of precise positioning products. The infrastructure and system shall be explained in relation to the need for high accuracy and high integrity of positioning for users. A comparison of the different techniques for the delivery of data shall be provided to outline the technical approach taken. Examples of the performance of the real time system shall be shown in various regions and modes to outline the current achievable accuracies. Having described and established the current GPS based situation, a review of the potential of the Galileo system shall be presented. Following brief contextual information relating to the Galileo project, core system and services, the paper will identify possible key applications and the main user communities for sub decimetre level precise positioning. The paper will address the Galileo and modernised GPS signals in space that are relevant to commercial precise positioning for the future and will discuss the implications for precise positioning performance. An outline of the proposed architecture shall be described and associated with pointers towards a successful implementation. Central to this discussion will be an assessment of the likely evolution of system infrastructure and user equipment implementation, prospects for new applications and their effect upon the business case for precise positioning services.

  15. Rapid, Repeat-sample Monitoring of Crustal Deformations and Environmental Phenomena with the Uninhabited Aerial Vehicle Synthetic Aperture Radar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Robert C.

    2006-01-01

    The Uninhabited Aerial Vehicle Synthetic Aperture Radar (UAVSAR) is a precision repeat-pass Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR) mission being developed by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory and the Dryden Flight Research Center in support of NASA s Science Mission Directorate. UAVSAR's unique ability to fly a repeatable flight path, along with an electronically steerable array, allows interferometric data to be obtained with accuracies measured in millimeters. Deploying the radar on an airborne platform will also allow for radar images to be collected and compared with images from the same area taken hours or even years later - providing for long-term trending and near real-time notification of changes and deformations. UAVSAR s data processing algorithms will provide for near-real time data reduction providing disaster planning and response teams with highly accurate data to aid in the prediction of, and response to, natural phenomena. UAVSAR data can be applied to increasing our understanding of the processes behind solid earth, cryosphere, carbon cycle and other areas of interest in earth science. Technologies developed for UAVSAR may also be applicable to a future earth-orbiting InSAR mission and possibly for missions to the Moon or Mars. The UAVSAR is expected to fly on a Gulfstream III aircraft this winter, followed by a flight test program lasting until the second half of 2007. Following radar calibration and data reduction activities, the platform will be ready for science users in the summer of 2008.

  16. Precision Joining Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Powell, John W.

    1991-01-01

    The establishment of a Precision Joining Center (PJC) is proposed. The PJC will be a cooperatively operated center with participation from U.S. private industry, the Colorado School of Mines, and various government agencies, including the Department of Energy's Nuclear Weapons Complex (NWC). The PJC's primary mission will be as a training center for advanced joining technologies. This will accomplish the following objectives: (1) it will provide an effective mechanism to transfer joining technology from the NWC to private industry; (2) it will provide a center for testing new joining processes for the NWC and private industry; and (3) it will provide highly trained personnel to support advance joining processes for the NWC and private industry.

  17. High Accuracy Wavelength Calibration For A Scanning Visible Spectrometer

    SciTech Connect

    Filippo Scotti and Ronald Bell

    2010-07-29

    Spectroscopic applications for plasma velocity measurements often require wavelength accuracies ≤ 0.2Â. An automated calibration for a scanning spectrometer has been developed to achieve a high wavelength accuracy overr the visible spectrum, stable over time and environmental conditions, without the need to recalibrate after each grating movement. The method fits all relevant spectrometer paraameters using multiple calibration spectra. With a steping-motor controlled sine-drive, accuracies of ~0.025 Â have been demonstrated. With the addition of high resolution (0.075 aresec) optical encoder on the grading stage, greater precision (~0.005 Â) is possible, allowing absolute velocity measurements with ~0.3 km/s. This level of precision requires monitoring of atmospheric temperature and pressure and of grating bulk temperature to correct for changes in the refractive index of air and the groove density, respectively.

  18. High accuracy wavelength calibration for a scanning visible spectrometer.

    PubMed

    Scotti, Filippo; Bell, Ronald E

    2010-10-01

    Spectroscopic applications for plasma velocity measurements often require wavelength accuracies ≤0.2 Å. An automated calibration, which is stable over time and environmental conditions without the need to recalibrate after each grating movement, was developed for a scanning spectrometer to achieve high wavelength accuracy over the visible spectrum. This method fits all relevant spectrometer parameters using multiple calibration spectra. With a stepping-motor controlled sine drive, an accuracy of ∼0.25 Å has been demonstrated. With the addition of a high resolution (0.075 arc  sec) optical encoder on the grating stage, greater precision (∼0.005 Å) is possible, allowing absolute velocity measurements within ∼0.3 km/s. This level of precision requires monitoring of atmospheric temperature and pressure and of grating bulk temperature to correct for changes in the refractive index of air and the groove density, respectively. PMID:21033925

  19. Precision Neutron Polarimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma, Monisha; Barron-Palos, L.; Bowman, J. D.; Chupp, T. E.; Crawford, C.; Danagoulian, A.; Klein, A.; Penttila, S. I.; Salas-Bacci, A. F.; Wilburn, W. S.

    2008-04-01

    Proposed PANDA and abBA experiments aim to measure the correlation coefficients in the polarized neutron beta decay at the SNS. The goal of these experiments is 0.1% measurement which will require neutron polarimetry at 0.1% level. The FnPB neutron beam will be polarized either using a ^3He spin filter or a supermirror polarizer and the neutron polarization will be measured using a ^3He spin filter. Experiment to establish the accuracy to which neutron polarization can be determined using ^3He spin fliters was performed at Los Alamos National Laboratory in Summer 2007 and the analysis is in progress. The details of the experiment and the results will be presented.

  20. Precision laser automatic tracking system.

    PubMed

    Lucy, R F; Peters, C J; McGann, E J; Lang, K T

    1966-04-01

    A precision laser tracker has been constructed and tested that is capable of tracking a low-acceleration target to an accuracy of about 25 microrad root mean square. In tracking high-acceleration targets, the error is directly proportional to the angular acceleration. For an angular acceleration of 0.6 rad/sec(2), the measured tracking error was about 0.1 mrad. The basic components in this tracker, similar in configuration to a heliostat, are a laser and an image dissector, which are mounted on a stationary frame, and a servocontrolled tracking mirror. The daytime sensitivity of this system is approximately 3 x 10(-10) W/m(2); the ultimate nighttime sensitivity is approximately 3 x 10(-14) W/m(2). Experimental tests were performed to evaluate both dynamic characteristics of this system and the system sensitivity. Dynamic performance of the system was obtained, using a small rocket covered with retroreflective material launched at an acceleration of about 13 g at a point 204 m from the tracker. The daytime sensitivity of the system was checked, using an efficient retroreflector mounted on a light aircraft. This aircraft was tracked out to a maximum range of 15 km, which checked the daytime sensitivity of the system measured by other means. The system also has been used to track passively stars and the Echo I satellite. Also, the system tracked passively a +7.5 magnitude star, and the signal-to-noise ratio in this experiment indicates that it should be possible to track a + 12.5 magnitude star. PMID:20048888