Effect of matrix on recovery of biogenic amines in fish.
Richard, Nicole; Pivarnik, Lori; Ellis, P Christopher; Lee, Chong
2008-01-01
Biogenic amines, such as putrescine, cadaverine, and histamine, in fish can be indicators of spoilage and/or safety. Methanol extraction used for AOAC Official Methods 996.07 and 977.13 has resulted in low amine recoveries in fish. Extraction methodology was evaluated to improve recovery from fish tissue. Samples were evaluated for recovery of known quantities of biogenic amines added to tissue prior to extraction. Addition of 25% 0.4 N HCI to the 75% methanol-water extraction solvent (according to AOAC Official Methods 996.07 and 977.13) resulted in higher recoveries (P < 0.05) of the biogenic amines. Putrescine recovery increased from 44 +/- 2 to 100 +/- 14% in flounder and scup, and from 53 +/- 21 to 119 +/- 27% in mackerel and butterfish; cadaverine recovery increased from 47 +/- 4 to 106 +/- 15% (flounder/scup) and 58 +/- 24 to 113 +/- 9% (mackerel/butterfish); histamine recovery increased from 54 +/- 13 to 89 +/- 28% (mackerel). MeOH extraction resulted in comparable recovery from canned tuna, indicating that protein denaturation from processing may eliminate possible matrix interference. Acidification of the solvent resulted in a more complete extraction of the added amines to fresh/frozen fish tissue. This finding could indicate that current extraction procedures may cause biogenic amines to be underestimated.
Recovery of SINIS turnstile accuracy in a strongly nonequilibrium regime
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Khaymovich, I. M.; Basko, D. M.
2016-10-01
We perform a theoretical study of nonequilibrium effects in charge transport through a hybrid single-electron transistor based on a small normal metal (N) island with the gate-controlled number of electrons, tunnel-coupled to voltage-biased superconducting (S) electrodes (SINIS). Focusing on the turnstile mode of the transistor operation with the gate voltage driven periodically, and electrons on the island being out of equilibrium, we find that the current quantization accuracy is a nonmonotonic function of the relaxation rate ΓF of the distribution function F (ɛ ) on the island due to tunneling, as compared to the drive frequency f , electron-electron 1 /τe e , and electron-phonon 1 /τe p h relaxation rates. Surprisingly, in the strongly nonequilibrium regime, f ≫ΓF≫τee -1,τep h -1 , the turnstile current plateau is recovered, similarly to the ideal equilibrium regime, τep h -1≫ΓF . The plateau is destroyed in the quasiequilibrium regime when the electron-electron relaxation is faster than tunneling.
Low-Rank Positive Semidefinite Matrix Recovery From Corrupted Rank-One Measurements
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, Yuanxin; Sun, Yue; Chi, Yuejie
2017-01-01
We study the problem of estimating a low-rank positive semidefinite (PSD) matrix from a set of rank-one measurements using sensing vectors composed of i.i.d. standard Gaussian entries, which are possibly corrupted by arbitrary outliers. This problem arises from applications such as phase retrieval, covariance sketching, quantum space tomography, and power spectrum estimation. We first propose a convex optimization algorithm that seeks the PSD matrix with the minimum $\\ell_1$-norm of the observation residual. The advantage of our algorithm is that it is free of parameters, therefore eliminating the need for tuning parameters and allowing easy implementations. We establish that with high probability, a low-rank PSD matrix can be exactly recovered as soon as the number of measurements is large enough, even when a fraction of the measurements are corrupted by outliers with arbitrary magnitudes. Moreover, the recovery is also stable against bounded noise. With the additional information of an upper bound of the rank of the PSD matrix, we propose another non-convex algorithm based on subgradient descent that demonstrates excellent empirical performance in terms of computational efficiency and accuracy.
Accuracy of Pseudo-Inverse Covariance Learning--A Random Matrix Theory Analysis.
Hoyle, David C
2011-07-01
For many learning problems, estimates of the inverse population covariance are required and often obtained by inverting the sample covariance matrix. Increasingly for modern scientific data sets, the number of sample points is less than the number of features and so the sample covariance is not invertible. In such circumstances, the Moore-Penrose pseudo-inverse sample covariance matrix, constructed from the eigenvectors corresponding to nonzero sample covariance eigenvalues, is often used as an approximation to the inverse population covariance matrix. The reconstruction error of the pseudo-inverse sample covariance matrix in estimating the true inverse covariance can be quantified via the Frobenius norm of the difference between the two. The reconstruction error is dominated by the smallest nonzero sample covariance eigenvalues and diverges as the sample size becomes comparable to the number of features. For high-dimensional data, we use random matrix theory techniques and results to study the reconstruction error for a wide class of population covariance matrices. We also show how bagging and random subspace methods can result in a reduction in the reconstruction error and can be combined to improve the accuracy of classifiers that utilize the pseudo-inverse sample covariance matrix. We test our analysis on both simulated and benchmark data sets.
Volatile organic compound matrix spike recoveries for ground- and surface-water samples, 1997-2001
Rowe, Barbara L.; Delzer, Gregory C.; Bender, David A.; Zogorski, John S.
2005-01-01
The U.S. Geological Survey's National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) Program used field matrix spikes (FMSs), field matrix spike replicates (FMSRs), laboratory matrix spikes (LMSs), and laboratory reagent spikes (LRSs), in part, to assess the quality of volatile organic compound (VOC) data from water samples collected and analyzed in more than 50 of the Nation's largest river basins and aquifers (Study Units). The data-quality objectives of the NAWQA Program include estimating the extent to which variability, degradation, and matrix effects, if any, may affect the interpretation of chemical analyses of ground- and surface-water samples. In order to help meet these objectives, a known mass of VOCs was added (spiked) to water samples collected in 25 Study Units. Data within this report include recoveries from 276 ground- and surface-water samples spiked with a 25-microliter syringe with a spike solution containing 85 VOCs to achieve a concentration of 0.5 microgram per liter. Combined recoveries for 85 VOCs from spiked ground- and surface-water samples and reagent water were used to broadly characterize the overall recovery of VOCs. Median recoveries for 149 FMSs, 107 FMSRs, 20 LMSs, and 152 LRSs were 79.9, 83.3, 113.1, and 103.5 percent, respectively. Spike recoveries for 85 VOCs also were calculated individually. With the exception of a few VOCs, the median percent recoveries determined from each spike type for individual VOCs followed the same pattern as for all VOC recoveries combined, that is, listed from least to greatest recovery-FMSs, FMSRs, LRSs, and LMSs. The median recoveries for individual VOCs ranged from 63.7 percent to 101.5 percent in FMSs; 63.1 percent to 101.4 percent in FMSRs; 101.7 percent to 135.0 percent in LMSs; and 91.0 percent to 118.7 percent in LRSs. Additionally, individual VOC recoveries were compared among paired spike types, and these recoveries were used to evaluate potential bias in the method. Variability associated with field
Zhang, Zhe; Erbe, Malena; He, Jinlong; Ober, Ulrike; Gao, Ning; Zhang, Hao; Simianer, Henner; Li, Jiaqi
2015-02-09
Obtaining accurate predictions of unobserved genetic or phenotypic values for complex traits in animal, plant, and human populations is possible through whole-genome prediction (WGP), a combined analysis of genotypic and phenotypic data. Because the underlying genetic architecture of the trait of interest is an important factor affecting model selection, we propose a new strategy, termed BLUP|GA (BLUP-given genetic architecture), which can use genetic architecture information within the dataset at hand rather than from public sources. This is achieved by using a trait-specific covariance matrix ( T: ), which is a weighted sum of a genetic architecture part ( S: matrix) and the realized relationship matrix ( G: ). The algorithm of BLUP|GA (BLUP-given genetic architecture) is provided and illustrated with real and simulated datasets. Predictive ability of BLUP|GA was validated with three model traits in a dairy cattle dataset and 11 traits in three public datasets with a variety of genetic architectures and compared with GBLUP and other approaches. Results show that BLUP|GA outperformed GBLUP in 20 of 21 scenarios in the dairy cattle dataset and outperformed GBLUP, BayesA, and BayesB in 12 of 13 traits in the analyzed public datasets. Further analyses showed that the difference of accuracies for BLUP|GA and GBLUP significantly correlate with the distance between the T: and G: matrices. The new strategy applied in BLUP|GA is a favorable and flexible alternative to the standard GBLUP model, allowing to account for the genetic architecture of the quantitative trait under consideration when necessary. This feature is mainly due to the increased similarity between the trait-specific relationship matrix ( T: matrix) and the genetic relationship matrix at unobserved causal loci. Applying BLUP|GA in WGP would ease the burden of model selection.
Majumdar, Angshul; Gogna, Anupriya; Ward, Rabab
2014-08-25
We address the problem of acquiring and transmitting EEG signals in Wireless Body Area Networks (WBAN) in an energy efficient fashion. In WBANs, the energy is consumed by three operations: sensing (sampling), processing and transmission. Previous studies only addressed the problem of reducing the transmission energy. For the first time, in this work, we propose a technique to reduce sensing and processing energy as well: this is achieved by randomly under-sampling the EEG signal. We depart from previous Compressed Sensing based approaches and formulate signal recovery (from under-sampled measurements) as a matrix completion problem. A new algorithm to solve the matrix completion problem is derived here. We test our proposed method and find that the reconstruction accuracy of our method is significantly better than state-of-the-art techniques; and we achieve this while saving sensing, processing and transmission energy. Simple power analysis shows that our proposed methodology consumes considerably less power compared to previous CS based techniques.
High-accuracy wavefront control for retinal imaging with Adaptive-Influence-Matrix Adaptive Optics
Zou, Weiyao; Burns, Stephen A.
2010-01-01
We present an iterative technique for improving adaptive optics (AO) wavefront correction for retinal imaging, called the Adaptive-Influence-Matrix (AIM) method. This method is based on the fact that the deflection-to-voltage relation of common deformable mirrors used in AO are nonlinear, and the fact that in general the wavefront errors of the eye can be considered to be composed of a static, non-zero wavefront error (such as the defocus and astigmatism), and a time-varying wavefront error. The aberrated wavefront is first corrected with a generic influence matrix, providing a mirror compensation figure for the static wavefront error. Then a new influence matrix that is more accurate for the specific static wavefront error is calibrated based on the mirror compensation figure. Experimental results show that with the AIM method the AO wavefront correction accuracy can be improved significantly in comparison to the generic AO correction. The AIM method is most useful in AO modalities where there are large static contributions to the wavefront aberrations. PMID:19997241
2015-12-01
Award Number: W81XWH-11-1-0797 TITLE: Matrix metalloproteinases as a therapeutic target to improve neurologic recovery after spinal cord injury...after spinal cord injury 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-11-1-0797 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) Linda J. Noble, Alpa...SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 14. ABSTRACT Purpose: We are evaluating efficacy of GM6001, a matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) inhibitor in a murine model of spinal cord
Zimmerman, Tammy M.; Breen, Kevin J.
2012-01-01
Pesticide concentration data for waters from selected carbonate-rock aquifers in agricultural areas of Pennsylvania were collected in 1993–2009 for occurrence and distribution assessments. A set of 30 wells was visited once in 1993–1995 and again in 2008–2009 to assess concentration changes. The data include censored matched pairs (nondetections of a compound in one or both samples of a pair). A potentially improved approach for assessing concentration changes is presented where (i) concentrations are adjusted with models of matrix-spike recovery and (ii) area-wide temporal change is tested by use of the paired Prentice-Wilcoxon (PPW) statistical test. The PPW results for atrazine, simazine, metolachlor, prometon, and an atrazine degradate, deethylatrazine (DEA), are compared using recovery-adjusted and unadjusted concentrations. Results for adjusted compared with unadjusted concentrations in 2008–2009 compared with 1993–1995 were similar for atrazine and simazine (significant decrease; 95% confidence level) and metolachlor (no change) but differed for DEA (adjusted, decrease; unadjusted, increase) and prometon (adjusted, decrease; unadjusted, no change). The PPW results were different on recovery-adjusted compared with unadjusted concentrations. Not accounting for variability in recovery can mask a true change, misidentify a change when no true change exists, or assign a direction opposite of the true change in concentration that resulted from matrix influences on extraction and laboratory method performance. However, matrix-based models of recovery derived from a laboratory performance dataset from multiple studies for national assessment, as used herein, rather than time- and study-specific recoveries may introduce uncertainty in recovery adjustments for individual samples that should be considered in assessing change.
Ambiguity in measuring matrix diffusion with single-well injection/recovery tracer tests
Lessoff, S.C.; Konikow, L.F.
1997-01-01
Single-well injection/recovery tracer tests are considered for use in characterizing and quantifying matrix diffusion in dual-porosity aquifers. Numerical modeling indicates that neither regional drift in homogeneous aquifers, nor heterogeneity in aquifers having no regional drift, nor hydrodynamic dispersion significantly affects these tests. However, when drift is coupled simultaneously with heterogeneity, they can have significant confounding effects on tracer return. This synergistic effect of drift and heterogeneity may help explain irreversible flow and inconsistent results sometimes encountered in previous single-well injection/recovery tracer tests. Numerical results indicate that in a hypothetical single-well injection/recovery tracer test designed to demonstrate and measure dual-porosity characteristics in a fractured dolomite, the simultaneous effects of drift and heterogeneity sometimes yields responses similar to those anticipated in a homogeneous dual-porosity formation. In these cases, tracer recovery could provide a false indication of the occurrence of matrix diffusion. Shortening the shut-in period between injection and recovery periods may make the test less sensitive to drift. Using multiple tracers having different diffusion characteristics, multiple tests having different pumping schedules, and testing the formation at more than one location would decrease the ambiguity in the interpretation of test data.
Improved EPMA Trace Element Accuracy Using a Matrix Iterated Quantitative Blank Correction
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Donovan, J. J.; Wark, D. A.; Jercinovic, M. J.
2007-12-01
At trace element levels below several hundred PPM, accuracy is more often the limiting factor for EPMA quantification rather than precision. Modern EPMA instruments equipped with low noise detectors, counting electronics and large area analyzing crystals can now routinely achieve sensitivities for most elements in the 10 to 100 PPM levels (or even lower). But due to various sample and instrumental artifacts in the x-ray continuum, absolute accuracy is often the limiting factor for ultra trace element quantification. These artifacts have various mechanisms, but are usually attributed to sample artifacts (e.g., sample matrix absorption edges)1, detector artifacts (e.g., Ar or Xe absorption edges) 2 and analyzing crystal artifacts (extended peak tails preventing accurate determination of the true background and ¡§negative peaks¡¨ or ¡§holes¡¨ in the x-ray continuum). The latter being first described3 by Self, et al. and recently documented for the Ti kÑ in quartz geo-thermometer. 4 Ti (ka) Ti (ka) Ti (ka) Ti (ka) Ti (ka) Si () O () Total Average: -.00146 -.00031 -.00180 .00013 .00240 46.7430 53.2563 99.9983 Std Dev: .00069 .00075 .00036 .00190 .00117 .00000 .00168 .00419 The general magnitude of these artifacts can be seen in the above analyses of Ti ka in a synthetic quartz standard. The values for each spectrometer/crystal vary systematically from ¡V18 PPM to + 24 PPM. The exact mechanism for these continuum ¡§holes¡¨ is not known but may be related to secondary lattice diffraction occurring at certain Bragg angles depending on crystal mounting orientation for non-isometric analyzing crystals5. These x-ray continuum artifacts can produce systematic errors at levels up to 100 PPM or more depending on the particular analytical situation. In order to correct for these inaccuracies, a ¡§blank¡¨ correction has been developed that applies a quantitative correction to the measured x-ray intensities during the matrix iteration, by calculating the intensity
Evaluation of microwave digestion systems for mercury recovery in an oil matrix
Whitaker, M.J.; Clymire, J.W.
1997-09-01
The scope of this document is to characterize three microwave systems developed by CEM Corporation. The purpose of this investigative work was to evaluate the performance of each system for dissolution qualities and the recovery of mercury in an oil based matrix. The microwave systems evaluated were the heavy duty vessel system (HDV), the advanced composite system (ACV), and the open vessel system (OVS). All three systems have automated features, but all systems are limited by one factor or another. EPA method 3051 was the procedure used for sample preparation for this project. This particular microwave digestion method can also be used for other metal analytes of interest. Of the three different systems, only the HDV (now UDV) demonstrated complete digestion of the oil based matrix in a one step process and acceptable mercury recoveries.
Application of matrix heat exchangers to thermomechanical exergy recovery from liquid hydrogen
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ahuja, Vikas; Green, Roger
This paper reports the outcome of a project aimed at exploring thermomechanical exergy recovery from liquid hydrogen. The basis of this project was the conceptual design, development and testing of a new process for CO 2 removal from air for use in alkaline fuel cells operating with hydrogen stored as a liquid, addressing simultaneously: thermomechanical exergy recovery from liquid hydrogen, and its application to CO 2 removal from atmospheric air. This project was an attempt to address these issues by using the cooling available from the vaporisation of liquid hydrogen and/or boil-off vapour, to remove CO 2 from the alkaline fuel cell feed air by refrigeration purification, ie. by freezing the CO 2 out of the air. A schematic description of the process and an energy balance for refrigeration purification for the CO 2 removal are presented, showing that the process relies on high effectiveness heat exchangers and water re-vaporisation. The high effectiveness heat transfer is achieved using perforated plate matrix heat exchangers. Implicit in this work were: The development of a new sizing procedure for matrix heat exchangers based on an approximate analytical solution for their performance, published recently in this journal. The development of a new method for construction of perforated plate matrix heat exchangers. Experimental testing of matrix heat exchanger performance. The application of matrix heat exchangers to mass transfer, and their use as reversing heat exchangers. Certain questions relating to the recent analysis published in this journal are raised and modifications suggested. Experimental results of heat exchanger effectiveness tests and CO 2 removal tests showed that heat exchangers of the requisite effectiveness were designed and manufactured, and that the proposed process was successful in exergy recovery and CO 2 removal
The role of species traits in mediating functional recovery during matrix restoration.
Barnes, Andrew D; Emberson, Rowan M; Krell, Frank-Thorsten; Didham, Raphael K
2014-01-01
Reversing anthropogenic impacts on habitat structure is frequently successful through restoration, but the mechanisms linking habitat change, community reassembly and recovery of ecosystem functioning remain unknown. We test for the influence of edge effects and matrix habitat restoration on the reassembly of dung beetle communities and consequent recovery of dung removal rates across tropical forest edges. Using path modelling, we disentangle the relative importance of community-weighted trait means and functional trait dispersion from total biomass effects on rates of dung removal. Community trait composition and biomass of dung beetle communities responded divergently to edge effects and matrix habitat restoration, yielding opposing effects on dung removal. However, functional dispersion--used in this study as a measure of niche complementarity--did not explain a significant amount of variation in dung removal rates across habitat edges. Instead, we demonstrate that the path to functional recovery of these altered ecosystems depends on the trait-mean composition of reassembling communities, over and above purely biomass-dependent processes that would be expected under neutral theory. These results suggest that any ability to manage functional recovery of ecosystems during habitat restoration will demand knowledge of species' roles in ecosystem processes.
Clinoptilolite-based mixed matrix membranes for the selective recovery of potassium and ammonium.
Casadellà, A; Kuntke, P; Schaetzle, O; Loos, K
2016-03-01
A clinoptilolite-based mixed matrix membrane (MMM) was developed and studied for the selective recovery of ammonium and potassium. Adsorption of sodium (Na(+)), potassium (K(+)) and ammonium (NH4(+)) was investigated with single salt and equimolar salt solution under static and dynamic conditions. Furthermore, the adsorption capacity of clinoptilolite was investigated when embedded in the MMM and in clay form. Two conditioning methods were compared: HCl and NaCl. Conditioned clinoptilolite with NaCl gave higher static adsorption capacities than with HCl which alters the chemical structure of clinoptilolite. The adsorption of Na(+) was not detected in the static adsorption experiments and results showed that Na(+) adsorbed during the conditioning process it was exchanged by K(+) and NH4(+).The clinoptilolite embedded in MMM reduced the porosity of the MMM so the highest adsorption capacity was reached when the amount of polymer was the lowest: 30 wt% polymer and 70 wt% clinoptilolite. The application of MMM in a dead-end filtration cell (dynamic adsorption) resulted in higher adsorption capacities compared to static conditions and comparable results between synthetic solutions and diluted urine samples. This indicates that MMM is a suitable method for the recovery of K(+) and NH4(+) directly from a diluted urine matrix. The desorption (recovery) of K(+) and NH4(+) from MMM was higher using water at 60 °C than using an acidic treatment.
Kim, Wantae; Kim, Boungyoung; Choi, Doyoung; Oki, Tatsuya; Kim, Sangbae
2010-11-15
Natural resources of platinum group metals (PGMs) are limited and their demand is increasing because of their extensive uses in industrial applications. The low rate of production of PGMs due to low concentration in the related natural ores and high cost of production have made the recovery of PGMs from previously discarded catalytic converters a viable proposition. The ceramic-honeycomb-type automobile catalytic converter contains appreciable amount of PGMs. These valuable substances, which are embedded in the catalyst layer and covered on the surface of the supporting matrix, were selectively recovered by attrition scrubbing. The attrition scrubbing was effective for the selective recovery of catalyst layer. The process was convinced as the comminution and separation process by physical impact and shearing action between particles in the scrubbing vessel. The catalyst layer was dislodged from the surface of the supporting matrix into fine particles by attrition scrubbing. The recovery of Al(2)O(3) and total PGMs in the fraction less than 300 μm increased with the residence time whereas their contents in the recovered materials slightly decreased. The interparticle scrubbing became favorable when the initial input size increased. However, the solid/liquid ratio in the mixing vessel was slightly affected by the low density of converter particles.
Low-rank matrix decomposition and spatio-temporal sparse recovery for STAP radar
Sen, Satyabrata
2015-08-04
We develop space-time adaptive processing (STAP) methods by leveraging the advantages of sparse signal processing techniques in order to detect a slowly-moving target. We observe that the inherent sparse characteristics of a STAP problem can be formulated as the low-rankness of clutter covariance matrix when compared to the total adaptive degrees-of-freedom, and also as the sparse interference spectrum on the spatio-temporal domain. By exploiting these sparse properties, we propose two approaches for estimating the interference covariance matrix. In the first approach, we consider a constrained matrix rank minimization problem (RMP) to decompose the sample covariance matrix into a low-rank positive semidefinite and a diagonal matrix. The solution of RMP is obtained by applying the trace minimization technique and the singular value decomposition with matrix shrinkage operator. Our second approach deals with the atomic norm minimization problem to recover the clutter response-vector that has a sparse support on the spatio-temporal plane. We use convex relaxation based standard sparse-recovery techniques to find the solutions. With extensive numerical examples, we demonstrate the performances of proposed STAP approaches with respect to both the ideal and practical scenarios, involving Doppler-ambiguous clutter ridges, spatial and temporal decorrelation effects. As a result, the low-rank matrix decomposition based solution requires secondary measurements as many as twice the clutter rank to attain a near-ideal STAP performance; whereas the spatio-temporal sparsity based approach needs a considerably small number of secondary data.
Low-rank matrix decomposition and spatio-temporal sparse recovery for STAP radar
Sen, Satyabrata
2015-08-04
We develop space-time adaptive processing (STAP) methods by leveraging the advantages of sparse signal processing techniques in order to detect a slowly-moving target. We observe that the inherent sparse characteristics of a STAP problem can be formulated as the low-rankness of clutter covariance matrix when compared to the total adaptive degrees-of-freedom, and also as the sparse interference spectrum on the spatio-temporal domain. By exploiting these sparse properties, we propose two approaches for estimating the interference covariance matrix. In the first approach, we consider a constrained matrix rank minimization problem (RMP) to decompose the sample covariance matrix into a low-rank positivemore » semidefinite and a diagonal matrix. The solution of RMP is obtained by applying the trace minimization technique and the singular value decomposition with matrix shrinkage operator. Our second approach deals with the atomic norm minimization problem to recover the clutter response-vector that has a sparse support on the spatio-temporal plane. We use convex relaxation based standard sparse-recovery techniques to find the solutions. With extensive numerical examples, we demonstrate the performances of proposed STAP approaches with respect to both the ideal and practical scenarios, involving Doppler-ambiguous clutter ridges, spatial and temporal decorrelation effects. As a result, the low-rank matrix decomposition based solution requires secondary measurements as many as twice the clutter rank to attain a near-ideal STAP performance; whereas the spatio-temporal sparsity based approach needs a considerably small number of secondary data.« less
Expression of matrix metalloproteinases during impairment and recovery of the avian growth plate.
Dan, H; Simsa-Maziel, S; Hisdai, A; Sela-Donenfeld, D; Monsonego Ornan, E
2009-11-01
Tibial dyschondroplasia (TD) is a prevalent skeletal abnormality associated with rapid growth rate in many avian species. It is characterized by the presence of a nonvascularized, nonmineralized lesion that extends from the epiphyseal growth plate into the metaphysis of the proximal tibiotarsal bones. In this study, we examined the expression of 4 members of the matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) family (MMP-2, -3, -9, and -13) in thiram-induced TD lesions and in the process of recovery from TD, by in situ hybridization analysis and quantitative real-time PCR. A model for the induction and recovery of TD was established, consisting of 3 groups of broilers: (1) thiram group, chicks fed a thiram-enriched diet to induce TD; (2) recovery group, chicks fed a thiram-enriched diet during the first week of the experiment and a normal diet from the second week on; and (3) control group, chicks fed a normal diet throughout the experimental period. In agreement with our previous data, the 4 MMP were diminished in the TD lesion (P < 0.05); however, in the current study we show that the growth plate was able to repair itself and that the MMP reappeared during the process of recovery from TD. Our results strengthen the link between MMP expression and growth-plate impairment, and we suggest that gelatinase activity (MMP-2 and 9) facilitates this process.
van Mantgem, P.J.; Stephenson, N.L.
2005-01-01
1 We assess the use of simple, size-based matrix population models for projecting population trends for six coniferous tree species in the Sierra Nevada, California. We used demographic data from 16 673 trees in 15 permanent plots to create 17 separate time-invariant, density-independent population projection models, and determined differences between trends projected from initial surveys with a 5-year interval and observed data during two subsequent 5-year time steps. 2 We detected departures from the assumptions of the matrix modelling approach in terms of strong growth autocorrelations. We also found evidence of observation errors for measurements of tree growth and, to a more limited degree, recruitment. Loglinear analysis provided evidence of significant temporal variation in demographic rates for only two of the 17 populations. 3 Total population sizes were strongly predicted by model projections, although population dynamics were dominated by carryover from the previous 5-year time step (i.e. there were few cases of recruitment or death). Fractional changes to overall population sizes were less well predicted. Compared with a null model and a simple demographic model lacking size structure, matrix model projections were better able to predict total population sizes, although the differences were not statistically significant. Matrix model projections were also able to predict short-term rates of survival, growth and recruitment. Mortality frequencies were not well predicted. 4 Our results suggest that simple size-structured models can accurately project future short-term changes for some tree populations. However, not all populations were well predicted and these simple models would probably become more inaccurate over longer projection intervals. The predictive ability of these models would also be limited by disturbance or other events that destabilize demographic rates. ?? 2005 British Ecological Society.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yunisa, Regina; Haryanto, Freddy
2015-09-01
The research was conducted to evaluate and analyze the results of the CT image autocontouring Prism TPS using confusion matrix and ROC methods. This study begins by treating thoracic CT images using a grayscale format TPS Prism software. Autocontouring done in the area of spinal cord and right lung with appropriate parameter settings window. The average value of the sensitivity, specificity and accuracy for 23 slices of spinal cord are 0.93, 0.99, and 0.99. For two slices of the right lung, average value of sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy of 2 slices were 0.99, 0.99, and 0.99. These values are classified as `Excellent'.
Effects of processing on the recovery of food allergens from a model dark chocolate matrix.
Khuda, Sefat E; Jackson, Lauren S; Fu, Tong-Jen; Williams, Kristina M
2015-02-01
To alleviate the risk to allergic consumers, it is crucial to improve factors affecting the detection of food allergens in processed chocolate products. This study evaluated processing effects on (1) recovery of peanut, egg, and milk allergens using five different extraction buffers, and (2) identification of specific allergenic proteins from extracts of incurred chocolate using allergen-specific antibodies and human allergic sera. Immunochemical staining with polyclonal antibodies showed that the addition of detergent or reducing agent improved extraction efficiency of peanut proteins, but not of egg and milk proteins. Tempering decreased antibody binding regardless of extractant. Detection of IgE-reactive peanut, egg, and milk allergens was differentially affected by tempering and extractant. Detection problems associated with matrix and processing effects may be overcome by the choice of extraction buffer and detecting antibody.
Geocoding accuracy and the recovery of relationships between environmental exposures and health
Mazumdar, Soumya; Rushton, Gerard; Smith, Brian J; Zimmerman, Dale L; Donham, Kelley J
2008-01-01
Background This research develops methods for determining the effect of geocoding quality on relationships between environmental exposures and health. The likelihood of detecting an existing relationship – statistical power – between measures of environmental exposures and health depends not only on the strength of the relationship but also on the level of positional accuracy and completeness of the geocodes from which the measures of environmental exposure are made. This paper summarizes the results of simulation studies conducted to examine the impact of inaccuracies of geocoded addresses generated by three types of geocoding processes: a) addresses located on orthophoto maps, b) addresses matched to TIGER files (U.S Census or their derivative street files); and, c) addresses from E-911 geocodes (developed by local authorities for emergency dispatch purposes). Results The simulated odds of disease using exposures modelled from the highest quality geocodes could be sufficiently recovered using other, more commonly used, geocoding processes such as TIGER and E-911; however, the strength of the odds relationship between disease exposures modelled at geocodes generally declined with decreasing geocoding accuracy. Conclusion Although these specific results cannot be generalized to new situations, the methods used to determine the sensitivity of results can be used in new situations. Estimated measures of positional accuracy must be used in the interpretation of results of analyses that investigate relationships between health outcomes and exposures measured at residential locations. Analyses similar to those employed in this paper can be used to validate interpretation of results from empirical analyses that use geocoded locations with estimated measures of positional accuracy. PMID:18387189
High accuracy injection circuit for the calibration of a large pixel sensor matrix
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Quartieri, E.; Comotti, D.; Manghisoni, M.
2013-08-01
Semiconductor pixel detectors, for particle tracking and vertexing in high energy physics experiments as well as for X-ray imaging, in particular for synchrotron light sources and XFELs, require a large area sensor matrix. This work will discuss the design and the characterization of a high-linearity, low dispersion injection circuit to be used for pixel-level calibration of detector readout electronics in a large pixel sensor matrix. The circuit provides a useful tool for the characterization of the readout electronics of the pixel cell unit for both monolithic active pixel sensors and hybrid pixel detectors. In the latter case, the circuit allows for precise analogue test of the readout channel already at the chip level, when no sensor is connected. Moreover, it provides a simple means for calibration of readout electronics once the detector has been connected to the chip. Two injection techniques can be provided by the circuit: one for a charge sensitive amplification and the other for a transresistance readout channel. The aim of the paper is to describe the architecture and the design guidelines of the calibration circuit, which has been implemented in a 130 nm CMOS technology. Moreover, experimental results of the proposed injection circuit will be presented in terms of linearity and dispersion.
Knudsen, E I; Knudsen, P F; Esterly, S D
1984-04-01
We studied the ability of barn owls to recover accurate sound localization after being raised with one ear occluded. Most of the owls had ear plugs inserted before they reached adult size, and therefore they never experienced normal adult localization cues until their ear plugs were removed. Upon removal of their ear plugs, these owls exhibited large systematic sound localization errors. The rate at which they recovered accurate localization decreased with the age of the bird at the time of plug removal, and recovery essentially ceased when owls reached 38 to 42 weeks of age. We interpret this age as the end of a critical period for the consolidation of associations between auditory cues and locations in space. Owls that had experienced adult localization cues for a short period of time before ear plugging recovered normal accuracy rapidly, even if they remained plugged well past the end of the critical period. This suggests that a brief exposure to normal adult cues early in the critical period is sufficient to enable the recovery of localization accuracy much later in life.
Kumar, M Praveen; Patil, Suneel G; Dheeraj, Bhandari; Reddy, Keshav; Goel, Dinker; Krishna, Gopi
2015-01-01
Background: The difficulty in obtaining an acceptable impression increases exponentially as the number of abutments increases. Accuracy of the impression material and the use of a suitable impression technique are of utmost importance in the fabrication of a fixed partial denture. This study compared the accuracy of the matrix impression system with conventional putty reline and multiple mix technique for individual dies by comparing the inter-abutment distance in the casts obtained from the impressions. Materials and Methods: Three groups, 10 impressions each with three impression techniques (matrix impression system, putty reline technique and multiple mix technique) were made of a master die. Typodont teeth were embedded in a maxillary frasaco model base. The left first premolar was removed to create a three-unit fixed partial denture situation and the left canine and second premolar were prepared conservatively, and hatch marks were made on the abutment teeth. The final casts obtained from the impressions were examined under a profile projector and the inter-abutment distance was calculated for all the casts and compared. Results: The results from this study showed that in the mesiodistal dimensions the percentage deviation from master model in Group I was 0.1 and 0.2, in Group II was 0.9 and 0.3, and Group III was 1.6 and 1.5, respectively. In the labio-palatal dimensions the percentage deviation from master model in Group I was 0.01 and 0.4, Group II was 1.9 and 1.3, and Group III was 2.2 and 2.0, respectively. In the cervico-incisal dimensions the percentage deviation from the master model in Group I was 1.1 and 0.2, Group II was 3.9 and 1.7, and Group III was 1.9 and 3.0, respectively. In the inter-abutment dimension of dies, percentage deviation from master model in Group I was 0.1, Group II was 0.6, and Group III was 1.0. Conclusion: The matrix impression system showed more accuracy of reproduction for individual dies when compared with putty reline
Warda, Alicja K.; Tempelaars, Marcel H.; Abee, Tjakko; Nierop Groot, Masja N.
2016-01-01
The ability of spores to recover and grow out after food processing is affected by cellular factors and by the outgrowth conditions. In the current communication we studied the recovery and outgrowth of individually sorted spores in BHI and rice broth media and on agar plates using flow cytometry. We show that recovery of wet heat treated Bacillus cereus ATCC 14579 spores is affected by matrix composition with highest recovery in BHI broth or on rice agar plates, compared to BHI agar plates and rice broth. Data show that not only media composition but also its liquid or solid state affect the recovery of heat treated spores. To determine the impact of factors with putative roles in recovery of heat treated spores, specific genes previously shown to be highly expressed in outgrowing heat-treated spores were selected for mutant construction. Spores of nine B. cereus ATCC 14579 deletion mutants were obtained and their recovery from wet heat treatment was evaluated using BHI and rice broth and agar plates. Deletion mutant spores showed different capacity to recover from heat treatment compared to wild type with the most pronounced effect for a mutant lacking BC5242, a gene encoding a membrane protein with C2C2 zinc finger which resulted in over 95% reduction in recovery compared to the wild type in BHI broth. Notably, similar relative performance of wild type and mutants was observed using the other recovery conditions. We obtained insights on the impact of matrix composition and state on recovery of individually sorted heat treated spores and identified cellular factors with putative roles in this process. These results may provide leads for future developments in design of more efficient combined preservation treatments. PMID:27486443
Nishigaki, Shinsuke M
2012-12-01
Schierenberg et al. [Phys. Rev. E 85, 061130 (2012)] recently applied the Wigner surmise, i.e., substitution of ∞ × ∞ matrices by their 2 × 2 counterparts for the computation of level spacing distributions, to random matrix ensembles in transition between two universality classes. I examine the accuracy and the range of validity of the surmise for the crossover between the Gaussian orthogonal and unitary ensembles by contrasting them with the large-N results that I evaluated using the Nyström-type method for the Fredholm determinant. The surmised expression at the best-fitting parameter provides a good approximation for 0
Shenvi, Neil; van Aggelen, Helen; Yang, Yang; Yang, Weitao; Schwerdtfeger, Christine; Mazziotti, David
2013-08-07
Tensor hypercontraction is a method that allows the representation of a high-rank tensor as a product of lower-rank tensors. In this paper, we show how tensor hypercontraction can be applied to both the electron repulsion integral tensor and the two-particle excitation amplitudes used in the parametric 2-electron reduced density matrix (p2RDM) algorithm. Because only O(r) auxiliary functions are needed in both of these approximations, our overall algorithm can be shown to scale as O(r(4)), where r is the number of single-particle basis functions. We apply our algorithm to several small molecules, hydrogen chains, and alkanes to demonstrate its low formal scaling and practical utility. Provided we use enough auxiliary functions, we obtain accuracy similar to that of the standard p2RDM algorithm, somewhere between that of CCSD and CCSD(T).
Basu, Rajit K; Donaworth, Emily; Siroky, Brian; Devarajan, Prasad; Wong, Hector R
2015-04-01
Acute kidney injury (AKI) leads to chronic kidney disease. The mechanisms involved with recovery from AKI are poorly understood and molecular mediators responsible for healing and restoration of kidney function are understudied. We previously discovered differential expression of matrix metalloproteinase-8 (MMP-8) mRNA and protein in patients with severe sepsis associated AKI versus sepsis without AKI. Here, we demonstrate the involvement of MMP-8 in purely ischemic AKI. Mice subjected to 30 min of bilateral renal ischemia developed increased plasma creatinine and MMP-8 expression within 24 h versus sham controls. After an initial surge and subsequent return toward baseline, both kidney MMP-8 expression and activity exhibited a late increase (Days 5-7 post-ischemia reperfusion) in mice subjected to AKI. Neutrophil infiltration of the kidney was significantly higher after AKI in wild-type mice than in MMP-8 null mice, starting at 4 days. Additionally, MMP-8 null mice subjected to AKI demonstrated a persistent histopathologic and functional injury and worsened health (greater overall weight loss) versus wild-type cohorts after seven days. Taken together, our findings suggest that MMP-8 is involved with restoration of baseline kidney health after ischemic kidney injury and that a potential mechanism involves the interaction of MMP-8 and neutrophil recruitment to the site of injury.
Khuda, Sefat; Slate, Andrew; Pereira, Marion; Al-Taher, Fadwa; Jackson, Lauren; Diaz-Amigo, Carmen; Bigley, Elmer C; Whitaker, Thomas; Williams, Kristina
2012-05-02
Immunodetection of allergens in dark chocolate is complicated by interference from the chocolate components. The objectives of this study were to establish reference materials for detecting multiple allergens in dark chocolate and to determine the accuracy and precision of allergen detection by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) before and after chocolate processing. Defatted peanut flour, whole egg powder, and spray-dried milk were added to melted chocolate at seven incurred levels and tempered for 4 h. Allergen concentrations were measured using commercial ELISA kits. Tempering decreased the detection of casein and β-lactoglobulin (BLG), but had no significant effect on the detection of peanut and egg. Total coefficients of variation were higher in tempered than untempered chocolate for casein and BLG, but total and analytical CVs were comparable for peanut and egg. These findings indicate that processing has a greater effect on recovery and variability of casein and BLG than peanut and egg detection in a dark chocolate matrix.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Qi, S.; Yu, M.; Fu, J.; Li, P. D.; Zhu, M.
2016-01-01
This paper mainly investigated the creep and recovery behaviors of magnetorheological elastomers (MRE) based on polyurethane/epoxy resin (EP) graft interpenetrating polymer networks (IPNs). The influences of constant stress level, content of EP, particle distribution, magnetic field and temperature on the creep and recovery behaviors were systematically investigated. As expected, results suggested that the presence of IPNs leads to a significant improvement of creep resistance of MRE, and creep and recovery behaviors of MRE were highly dependent on magnetic field and temperature. To further understand its deformation mechanism, several models (i.e., Findley’s power law model, Burgers model, and Weibull distribution equation) were used to fit the measured creep and recovery data. Results showed that the modeling of creep and recovery of samples was satisfactorily conducted by using these models. The influences of content of EP and magnetic field on fitting parameters were discussed, and relevant physical mechanism was proposed to explain it qualitatively.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Motoyama, Yuichi; Shiga, Hidetoshi; Sato, Takeshi; Kambe, Hiroshi; Yoshida, Makoto
2017-03-01
Recovery behavior (recovery) and strain-rate dependence of the stress-strain curve (strain-rate dependence) are incorporated into constitutive equations of alloys to predict residual stress and thermal stress during casting. Nevertheless, few studies have systematically investigated the effects of these metallurgical phenomena on the prediction accuracy of thermal stress in a casting. This study compares the thermal stress analysis results with in situ thermal stress measurement results of an Al-Si-Cu specimen during casting. The results underscore the importance for the alloy constitutive equation of incorporating strain-rate dependence to predict thermal stress that develops at high temperatures where the alloy shows strong strain-rate dependence of the stress-strain curve. However, the prediction accuracy of the thermal stress developed at low temperatures did not improve by considering the strain-rate dependence. Incorporating recovery into the constitutive equation improved the accuracy of the simulated thermal stress at low temperatures. Results of comparison implied that the constitutive equation should include strain-rate dependence to simulate defects that develop from thermal stress at high temperatures, such as hot tearing and hot cracking. Recovery should be incorporated into the alloy constitutive equation to predict the casting residual stress and deformation caused by the thermal stress developed mainly in the low temperature range.
This video discusses the recovery events that occur in high-power rocketry and the various devices used in safely recovering the rocket. The video includes a discussion of black powder and ejection...
2014-10-01
journal.pone.0096408 Editor: Hatem E. Sabaawy, Rutgers- Robert wood Johnson Medical School, United States of America Received January 23, 2014; Accepted April 7...functional recovery after spinal cord injury. Journal of neurochemistry 121: 818–829. 8. Stirling DP, Yong VW (2008) Dynamics of the inflammatory response
Tensile creep and creep-recovery behavior of a SiC-fiber-Si3N4-matrix composite
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Holmes, John W.; Park, Yong H.; Jones, J. W.
1993-01-01
The tensile creep and creep-recovery behavior of a hot-pressed unidirectional SiC-fiber/Si3N4-matrix composite was investigated at 1200 C in air, in order to determine how various sustained and cyclic creep loading histories would influence the creep rate, accumulated creep strain, and the amount of strain recovered upon specimen unloading. The data accumulated indicate that the fundamental damage mode for sustained tensile creep at stresses of 200 and 250 MPa was periodic fiber fracture and that the creep life and the failure mode at 250 MPa were strongly influenced by the rate at which the initial creep stress was applied. Cyclic loading significantly lowered the duration of primary creep and the overall creep-strain accumulation. The implications of the results for microstructural and component design are discussed.
Suls, Jerry; Martin, René
2011-04-01
Despite the basic premise of behavioral medicine that understanding and treatment of physical well-being require a full appreciation of the confluence of micro-, molar-, and macro-variables, the field tends to focus on linear, causal relationships. In this paper, we argue that more attention be given to a dynamic matrix approach, which assumes that biological, psychological, and social elements are interconnected and continually influence each other (consistent with the biopsychosocial model). To illustrate, the authors draw from their independent and collaborative research programs on overlapping cardiac risk factors, symptom interpretation, and treatment delay for cardiac care and recovery from heart disease. "Cabling" across biological, psychological, and social variables is considered as a transformative strategy for medicine and the other health-related disciplines.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Rupp, Andre A.; Templin, Jonathan
2008-01-01
This article reports a study that investigated the effects of Q-matrix misspecifications on parameter estimates and misclassification rates for the deterministic-input, noisy "and" gate (DINA) model, which is a restricted latent class model for multiple classifications of respondents that can be useful for cognitively motivated diagnostic…
Gilon, N; El-Haddad, J; Stankova, A; Lei, W; Ma, Q; Motto-Ros, V; Yu, J
2011-11-01
Laser ablation coupled to inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (LA-ICP-OES) and laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) were investigated for the determination of Ca, Mg, Zn and Na in milk samples. The accuracy of both methods was evaluated by comparison of the concentration found using LA-ICP-OES and LIBS with classical wet digestion associated with ICP-OES determination. The results were not fully acceptable, with biases from less than 1% to more than 60%. Matrix effects were also investigated. The sample matrix can influence the temperature, electron number density (n (e)) and other excitation characteristics in the ICP. These ICP characteristics were studied and evaluated during ablation of eight milk samples. Differences in n (e) (from 8.9 to 13.8 × 10(14) cm(-3)) and rotational temperature (ranging from 3,400 to 4,400 K) occurred with no correlation with trueness. LIBS results obtained after classical external calibration procedure gave degraded accuracy, indicating a strong matrix effect. The LIBS measurements clearly showed that the major problem in LA-ICP was related to the ablation process and that LIBS spectroscopy is an excellent diagnostic tool for LA-ICP techniques.
Ropper, Alexander E; Thakor, Devang K; Han, InBo; Yu, Dou; Zeng, Xiang; Anderson, Jamie E; Aljuboori, Zaid; Kim, Soo-Woo; Wang, Hongjun; Sidman, Richard L; Zafonte, Ross D; Teng, Yang D
2017-01-31
Mesenchymal stromal stem cells (MSCs) isolated from adult tissues offer tangible potential for regenerative medicine, given their feasibility for autologous transplantation. MSC research shows encouraging results in experimental stroke, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, and neurotrauma models. However, further translational progress has been hampered by poor MSC graft survival, jeopardizing cellular and molecular bases for neural repair in vivo. We have devised an adult human bone marrow MSC (hMSC) delivery formula by investigating molecular events involving hMSCs incorporated in a uniquely designed poly(lactic-co-glycolic) acid scaffold, a clinically safe polymer, following inflammatory exposures in a dorsal root ganglion organotypic coculture system. Also, in rat T9-T10 hemisection spinal cord injury (SCI), we demonstrated that the tailored scaffolding maintained hMSC stemness, engraftment, and led to robust motosensory improvement, neuropathic pain and tissue damage mitigation, and myelin preservation. The scaffolded nontransdifferentiated hMSCs exerted multimodal effects of neurotrophism, angiogenesis, neurogenesis, antiautoimmunity, and antiinflammation. Hindlimb locomotion was restored by reestablished integrity of submidbrain circuits of serotonergic reticulospinal innervation at lumbar levels, the propriospinal projection network, neuromuscular junction, and central pattern generator, providing a platform for investigating molecular events underlying the repair impact of nondifferentiated hMSCs. Our approach enabled investigation of recovery neurobiology components for injured adult mammalian spinal cord that are different from those involved in normal neural function. The uncovered neural circuits and their molecular and cellular targets offer a biological underpinning for development of clinical rehabilitation therapies to treat disabilities and complications of SCI.
Xiu, Junshan; Dong, Lili; Qin, Hua; Liu, Yunyan; Yu, Jin
2016-12-01
The detection limit of trace metals in liquids has been improved greatly by laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) using solid substrate. A paper substrate and a metallic substrate were used as a solid substrate for the detection of trace metals in aqueous solutions and viscous liquids (lubricating oils) respectively. The matrix effect on quantitative analysis of trace metals in two types of liquids was investigated. For trace metals in aqueous solutions using paper substrate, the calibration curves established for pure solutions and mixed solutions samples presented large variation on both the slope and the intercept for the Cu, Cd, and Cr. The matrix effects among the different elements in mixed solutions were observed. However, good agreement was obtained between the measured and known values in real wastewater. For trace metals in lubricating oils, the matrix effect between the different oils is relatively small and reasonably negligible under the conditions of our experiment. A universal calibration curve can be established for trace metals in different types of oils. The two approaches are verified that it is possible to develop a feasible and sensitive method with accuracy results for rapid detection of trace metals in industrial wastewater and viscous liquids by laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy.
Yang, Ya; Smith, Stephen A.
2014-01-01
Orthology inference is central to phylogenomic analyses. Phylogenomic data sets commonly include transcriptomes and low-coverage genomes that are incomplete and contain errors and isoforms. These properties can severely violate the underlying assumptions of orthology inference with existing heuristics. We present a procedure that uses phylogenies for both homology and orthology assignment. The procedure first uses similarity scores to infer putative homologs that are then aligned, constructed into phylogenies, and pruned of spurious branches caused by deep paralogs, misassembly, frameshifts, or recombination. These final homologs are then used to identify orthologs. We explore four alternative tree-based orthology inference approaches, of which two are new. These accommodate gene and genome duplications as well as gene tree discordance. We demonstrate these methods in three published data sets including the grape family, Hymenoptera, and millipedes with divergence times ranging from approximately 100 to over 400 Ma. The procedure significantly increased the completeness and accuracy of the inferred homologs and orthologs. We also found that data sets that are more recently diverged and/or include more high-coverage genomes had more complete sets of orthologs. To explicitly evaluate sources of conflicting phylogenetic signals, we applied serial jackknife analyses of gene regions keeping each locus intact. The methods described here can scale to over 100 taxa. They have been implemented in python with independent scripts for each step, making it easy to modify or incorporate them into existing pipelines. All scripts are available from https://bitbucket.org/yangya/phylogenomic_dataset_construction. PMID:25158799
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Torres-Perea, C.; Muñoz-Rodríguez, D.; Medina-Peralta, S.; Carrera-Figueiras, C.; Moguel-Ordóñez, Y. B.
2013-06-01
This work focused on the evaluation of the recovery of organophosphorus pesticides from bee pollen after matrix solid phase-dispersion extraction (MSPD). Materials based on silica, titania and titania modified with polivylnylimidazole or polyestirene were used as adsorbents for the extraction of pesticides. Small amounts of fortified pollen (0.1 g, at 1 micro-g/g of pesticides), adsorbent (0.4 g) and solvent elution (1 mL de acetonitrile - ACN) were used in the extractions. For recovery evaluation, pollen extracts were analyzed by gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry.
Rauss, A; Knaus, W A; Patois, E; Le Gall, J R; Loirat, P
1990-01-01
This study evaluated the accuracy and reliability of predictions for recovery from multiple organ system failure (OSF). A previous analysis had provided estimates of the probabilities of recovery from various combinations of OSF for 2,843 intensive care unit (ICU) patients treated in 13 U.S. hospitals. These estimates were applied prospectively to 2,405 ICU admissions in 27 French hospitals. Despite variations in the incidences of underlying disease and the distributions of OSF between the two countries, clinical outcomes were similar for the 5,248 total patients. In both countries, two OSFs persisting for more than one day resulted in a hospital death rate of 60%. Hospital mortality rates for patients with three or more OSFs persisting after one day consistently exceeded 90%. Isolated neurologic failure had the poorest overall prognosis, but various other combinations of OSFs did not result in significantly different outcomes. The stability of the prognostic estimates in the two countries suggests that, despite pathogenetic variations, persistent multiple OSF results in consistent clinical outcomes. These mortality projections provide firm reference data for assessing efficacy of new treatments within institutions with similar standards of care. The narrow confidence intervals associated with these estimates also provide objectively defined opportunities to review future treatment plans for individual patients.
Yu, Huarong; Liang, Heng; Qu, Fangshu; Han, Zheng-shuang; Shao, Senlin; Chang, Haiqing; Li, Guibai
2015-01-01
Parallel factor (PARAFAC) analysis enables a quantitative analysis of excitation-emission matrix (EEM). The impact of a spectral variability stemmed from a diverse dataset on the representativeness of the PARAFAC model needs to be examined. In this study, samples from a river, effluent of a wastewater treatment plant, and algae secretion were collected and subjected to PARAFAC analysis. PARAFAC models of global dataset and individual datasets were compared. It was found that the peak shift derived from source diversity undermined the accuracy of the global model. The results imply that building a universal PARAFAC model that can be widely available for fitting new EEMs would be quite difficult, but fitting EEMs to existing PARAFAC model that belong to a similar environment would be more realistic. The accuracy of online monitoring strategy that monitors the fluorescence intensities at the peaks of PARAFAC components was examined by correlating the EEM data with the maximum fluorescence (Fmax) modeled by PARAFAC. For the individual datasets, remarkable correlations were obtained around the peak positions. However, an analysis of cocktail datasets implies that the involvement of foreign components that are spectrally similar to local components would undermine the online monitoring strategy. PMID:25958786
Wang, Lei; You, Zhu-Hong; Xia, Shi-Xiong; Liu, Feng; Chen, Xing; Yan, Xin; Zhou, Yong
2017-04-07
Protein-Protein Interactions (PPIs) are essential to most biological processes and play a critical role in most cellular functions. With the development of high-throughput biological techniques and in silico methods, a large number of PPI data have been generated for various organisms, but many problems remain unsolved. These factors promoted the development of the in silico methods based on machine learning to predict PPIs. In this study, we propose a novel method by combining ensemble Rotation Forest (RF) classifier and Discrete Cosine Transform (DCT) algorithm to predict the interactions among proteins. Specifically, the protein amino acids sequence is transformed into Position-Specific Scoring Matrix (PSSM) containing biological evolution information, and then the feature vector is extracted to present protein evolutionary information using DCT algorithm; finally, the ensemble rotation forest model is used to predict whether a given protein pair is interacting or not. When performed on Yeast and H. pylori data sets, the proposed method achieved excellent results with an average accuracy of 98.54% and 88.27%. In addition, we achieved good prediction accuracy of 98.08%, 92.75%, 98.87% and 98.72% on independent data sets (C.elegans, E.coli, H.sapiens and M.musculus). In order to further evaluate the performance of our method, we compare it with the state-of-the-art Support Vector Machine (SVM) classifier and get good results. As a web server, the source code and Yeast data sets used in this article are freely available at http://202.119.201.126:8888/DCTRF/.
Kumari, Rashmi; Willing, Lisa B; Patel, Shyama D; Baskerville, Karen A; Simpson, Ian A
2011-12-01
Diabetes is a major risk factor of stroke and is associated with increased frequency of stroke and a poorer prognosis for recovery. In earlier studies we have utilized type 2 diabetic mouse models of stroke and demonstrated that diabetic db/db and ob/ob mice experience larger infarct volumes and impaired recovery associated with greater infiltration of macrophage following hypoxic-ischemic (H/I) insult than their heterozygous non-diabetic db/+ and ob/+ littermates. To obtain a better understanding of the pathogenesis of the impaired recovery, we have investigated the role of matrix metalloproteases and their endogenous inhibitors in the breakdown of the blood-brain barrier (BBB) following H/I. Diabetic db/db mice showed a significant and more rapid increase in matrix metalloprotease (MMP)-9 mRNA, protein and gelatinolytic activity compared with db/+, which resulted in an increased degradation of occludin and collagen IV and subsequently, an increased BBB permeability and greater infiltration of neutrophils into the infarct area. The expression of the MMPs, especially in the db/+ mice, is preceded by an elevated expression of their endogenous tissue inhibitors of metalloproteases (TIMPs) 1, 2, and 3, whereas in the db/db mice, a lower expression of the TIMPs is associated with greater MMP 3 and 9 expression. These results suggest that an imbalance in the MMPs/TIMPs cascade in the diabetic mouse, particularly MMP-9, results in a greater neutrophil invasion, a compromised BBB and consequently a greater insult.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Herskovits, E. H.; Itoh, R.; Melhem, E. R.
2001-01-01
OBJECTIVE: The objective of our study was to determine the effects of MR sequence (fluid-attenuated inversion-recovery [FLAIR], proton density--weighted, and T2-weighted) and of lesion location on sensitivity and specificity of lesion detection. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We generated FLAIR, proton density-weighted, and T2-weighted brain images with 3-mm lesions using published parameters for acute multiple sclerosis plaques. Each image contained from zero to five lesions that were distributed among cortical-subcortical, periventricular, and deep white matter regions; on either side; and anterior or posterior in position. We presented images of 540 lesions, distributed among 2592 image regions, to six neuroradiologists. We constructed a contingency table for image regions with lesions and another for image regions without lesions (normal). Each table included the following: the reviewer's number (1--6); the MR sequence; the side, position, and region of the lesion; and the reviewer's response (lesion present or absent [normal]). We performed chi-square and log-linear analyses. RESULTS: The FLAIR sequence yielded the highest true-positive rates (p < 0.001) and the highest true-negative rates (p < 0.001). Regions also differed in reviewers' true-positive rates (p < 0.001) and true-negative rates (p = 0.002). The true-positive rate model generated by log-linear analysis contained an additional sequence-location interaction. The true-negative rate model generated by log-linear analysis confirmed these associations, but no higher order interactions were added. CONCLUSION: We developed software with which we can generate brain images of a wide range of pulse sequences and that allows us to specify the location, size, shape, and intrinsic characteristics of simulated lesions. We found that the use of FLAIR sequences increases detection accuracy for cortical-subcortical and periventricular lesions over that associated with proton density- and T2-weighted sequences.
Thorpe, Chavaunne T; Godinho, Marta S C; Riley, Graham P; Birch, Helen L; Clegg, Peter D; Screen, Hazel R C
2015-12-01
While the predominant function of all tendons is to transfer force from muscle to bone and position the limbs, some tendons additionally function as energy stores, reducing the cost of locomotion. Energy storing tendons experience extremely high strains and need to be able to recoil efficiently for maximum energy storage and return. In the equine forelimb, the energy storing superficial digital flexor tendon (SDFT) has much higher failure strains than the positional common digital extensor tendon (CDET). However, we have previously shown that this is not due to differences in the properties of the SDFT and CDET fascicles (the largest tendon subunits). Instead, there is a greater capacity for interfascicular sliding in the SDFT which facilitates the greater extensions in this particular tendon (Thorpe et al., 2012). In the current study, we exposed fascicles and interfascicular matrix (IFM) from the SDFT and CDET to cyclic loading followed by a test to failure. The results show that IFM mechanical behaviour is not a result of irreversible deformation, but the IFM is able to withstand cyclic loading, and is more elastic in the SDFT than in the CDET. We also assessed the effect of ageing on IFM properties, demonstrating that the IFM is less able to resist repetitive loading as it ages, becoming stiffer with increasing age in the SDFT. These results provide further indications that the IFM is important for efficient function in energy storing tendons, and age-related alterations to the IFM may compromise function and predispose older tendons to injury.
Thorpe, Chavaunne T.; Godinho, Marta S.C.; Riley, Graham P.; Birch, Helen L.; Clegg, Peter D.; Screen, Hazel R.C.
2015-01-01
While the predominant function of all tendons is to transfer force from muscle to bone and position the limbs, some tendons additionally function as energy stores, reducing the cost of locomotion. Energy storing tendons experience extremely high strains and need to be able to recoil efficiently for maximum energy storage and return. In the equine forelimb, the energy storing superficial digital flexor tendon (SDFT) has much higher failure strains than the positional common digital extensor tendon (CDET). However, we have previously shown that this is not due to differences in the properties of the SDFT and CDET fascicles (the largest tendon subunits). Instead, there is a greater capacity for interfascicular sliding in the SDFT which facilitates the greater extensions in this particular tendon (Thorpe et al., 2012). In the current study, we exposed fascicles and interfascicular matrix (IFM) from the SDFT and CDET to cyclic loading followed by a test to failure. The results show that IFM mechanical behaviour is not a result of irreversible deformation, but the IFM is able to withstand cyclic loading, and is more elastic in the SDFT than in the CDET. We also assessed the effect of ageing on IFM properties, demonstrating that the IFM is less able to resist repetitive loading as it ages, becoming stiffer with increasing age in the SDFT. These results provide further indications that the IFM is important for efficient function in energy storing tendons, and age-related alterations to the IFM may compromise function and predispose older tendons to injury. PMID:25958330
Som, Suman; Maity, Abhijit; Banik, Gourab Dutta; Ghosh, Chiranjit; Chaudhuri, Sujit; Daschakraborty, Sunil Baran; Ghosh, Shibendu; Pradhan, Manik
2014-09-01
We report for the first time the excretion kinetics of the percentage dose of (13)C recovered/h ((13)C-PDR %/h) and cumulative PDR, i.e. c-PDR (%) to accomplish the highest diagnostic accuracy of the (13)C-urea breath test ((13)C-UBT) for the detection of Helicobacter pylori infection without any risk of diagnostic errors using an optical cavity-enhanced integrated cavity output spectroscopy (ICOS) method. An optimal diagnostic cut-off point for the presence of H. pylori infection was determined to be c-PDR (%) = 1.47 % at 60 min, using the receiver operating characteristic curve (ROC) analysis to overcome the "grey zone" containing false-positive and false-negative results of the (13)C-UBT. The present (13)C-UBT exhibited 100 % diagnostic sensitivity (true-positive rate) and 100 % specificity (true-negative rate) with an accuracy of 100 % compared with invasive endoscopy and biopsy tests. Our c-PDR (%) methodology also manifested both diagnostic positive and negative predictive values of 100 %, demonstrating excellent diagnostic accuracy. We also observed that the effect of endogenous CO2 production related to basal metabolic rates in individuals was statistically insignificant (p = 0.78) on the diagnostic accuracy. However, the presence of H. pylori infection was indicated by the profound effect of urea hydrolysis rate (UHR). Our findings suggest that the current c-PDR (%) is a valid and sufficiently robust novel approach for an accurate, specific, fast and noninvasive diagnosis of H. pylori infection, which could routinely be used for large-scale screening purposes and diagnostic assessment, i.e. for early detection and follow-up of patients.
Sabushimike, Donatien; Na, Seung You; Kim, Jin Young; Bui, Ngoc Nam; Seo, Kyung Sik; Kim, Gil Gyeom
2016-01-01
The detection of a moving target using an IR-UWB Radar involves the core task of separating the waves reflected by the static background and by the moving target. This paper investigates the capacity of the low-rank and sparse matrix decomposition approach to separate the background and the foreground in the trend of UWB Radar-based moving target detection. Robust PCA models are criticized for being batched-data-oriented, which makes them inconvenient in realistic environments where frames need to be processed as they are recorded in real time. In this paper, a novel method based on overlapping-windows processing is proposed to cope with online processing. The method consists of processing a small batch of frames which will be continually updated without changing its size as new frames are captured. We prove that RPCA (via its Inexact Augmented Lagrange Multiplier (IALM) model) can successfully separate the two subspaces, which enhances the accuracy of target detection. The overlapping-windows processing method converges on the optimal solution with its batch counterpart (i.e., processing batched data with RPCA), and both methods prove the robustness and efficiency of the RPCA over the classic PCA and the commonly used exponential averaging method. PMID:27598159
Sabushimike, Donatien; Na, Seung You; Kim, Jin Young; Bui, Ngoc Nam; Seo, Kyung Sik; Kim, Gil Gyeom
2016-09-01
The detection of a moving target using an IR-UWB Radar involves the core task of separating the waves reflected by the static background and by the moving target. This paper investigates the capacity of the low-rank and sparse matrix decomposition approach to separate the background and the foreground in the trend of UWB Radar-based moving target detection. Robust PCA models are criticized for being batched-data-oriented, which makes them inconvenient in realistic environments where frames need to be processed as they are recorded in real time. In this paper, a novel method based on overlapping-windows processing is proposed to cope with online processing. The method consists of processing a small batch of frames which will be continually updated without changing its size as new frames are captured. We prove that RPCA (via its Inexact Augmented Lagrange Multiplier (IALM) model) can successfully separate the two subspaces, which enhances the accuracy of target detection. The overlapping-windows processing method converges on the optimal solution with its batch counterpart (i.e., processing batched data with RPCA), and both methods prove the robustness and efficiency of the RPCA over the classic PCA and the commonly used exponential averaging method.
Ghadyani, Hamid R.; Srinivasan, Subhadra; Pogue, Brian W.; Paulsen, Keith D.
2010-01-01
The quantification of total hemoglobin concentration (HbT) obtained from multi-modality image-guided near infrared spectroscopy (IG-NIRS) was characterized using the boundary element method (BEM) for 3D image reconstruction. Multi-modality IG-NIRS systems use a priori information to guide the reconstruction process. While this has been shown to improve resolution, the effect on quantitative accuracy is unclear. Here, through systematic contrast-detail analysis, the fidelity of IG-NIRS in quantifying HbT was examined using 3D simulations. These simulations show that HbT could be recovered for medium sized (20mm in 100mm total diameter) spherical inclusions with an average error of 15%, for the physiologically relevant situation of 2:1 or higher contrast between background and inclusion. Using partial 3D volume meshes to reduce the ill-posed nature of the image reconstruction, inclusions as small as 14mm could be accurately quantified with less than 15% error, for contrasts of 1.5 or higher. This suggests that 3D IG-NIRS provides quantitatively accurate results for sizes seen early in treatment cycle of patients undergoing neoadjuvant chemotherapy when the tumors are larger than 30mm. PMID:20720975
Hawthorne, S B; Grabanski, C B; Martin, E; Miller, D J
2000-09-15
Extractions of a polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH)-contaminated soil from a former manufactured gas plant site were performed with a Soxhlet apparatus (18 h), by pressurized liquid extraction (PLE) (50 min at 100 degrees C), supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) (1 h at 150 degrees C with pure CO2), and subcritical water (1 h at 250 degrees C, or 30 min at 300 degrees C). Although minor differences in recoveries for some PAHs resulted from the different methods, quantitative agreement between all of the methods was generally good. However, the extract quality differed greatly. The organic solvent extracts (Soxhlet and PLE) were much darker, while the extracts from subcritical water (collected in toluene) were orange, and the extracts from SFE (collected in CH2Cl2) were light yellow. The organic solvent extracts also yielded more artifact peaks in the gas chromatography (GC)-mass spectrometry and GC-flame ionization detection chromatograms, especially compared to supercritical CO2. Based on elemental analysis (carbon and nitrogen) of the soil residues after each extraction, subcritical water, PLE, and Soxhlet extraction had poor selectivity for PAHs versus bulk soil organic matter (approximately 1/4 to 1/3 of the bulk soil organic matter was extracted along with the PAHs), while SFE with pure CO2 removed only 8% of the bulk organic matrix. Selectivities for different compound classes also vary with extraction method. Extraction of urban air particulate matter with organic solvents yields very high concentrations of n- and branched alkanes (approximately C18 to C30) from diesel exhaust as well as lower levels of PAHs, and no selectivity between the bulk alkanes and PAHs is obtained during organic solvent extraction. Some moderate selectivity with supercritical CO2 can be achieved by first extracting the bulk alkanes at mild conditions, followed by stronger conditions to extract the remaining PAHs, i.e., the least polar organics are the easiest organics to extract
Mompelat, Sophie; Fourmond, Marie-Pierre; Laurentie, Michel; Verdon, Eric; Hurtaud-Pessel, Dominique; Abjean, Jean-Pierre
2015-08-14
A robust, selective and specific liquid chromatography-high resolution mass spectrometry (LC-HRMS) method was developed for the quantification of total residues of ceftiofur, an antibiotic belonging to the 3rd generation cephalosporins in plasma, muscle and kidney of poultry. Ceftiofur and conjugates in samples were firstly hydrolyzed with dithioerythritol into desfuroylceftiofur, which was then stabilized by derivatization with iodoacetamide into desfuroylceftiofur acetamide. Sample were then submitted to a solid phase extraction followed the accurate mass analysis of desfuroylceftiofur acetamide by LC-HRMS in full scan mode using a linear trap quadrupole (LTQ)-Orbitrap mass spectrometer with a resolving power 60,000 full width at half maximum (FWHM). The method was fully validated over a dosing range between 100 and 2000 μg kg(-1) (or μg L(-1)) using the total error approach. Accuracy profiles a graphical decision-making tool were built by computing results of validation procedure with acceptance limits set at ±60%, and β-expectation tolerance intervals, i.e. the interval assuming to contain a β % of future measurements (β=90% in this study). Total measurement error including trueness, repeatability and intermediate precision were evaluated. Relative bias of trueness was never exceeding the threshold of 6% in all matrices at all level of concentration. The mean relative standard deviation for repeatability was lower than 16% at all levels of concentration for all matrices; the mean relative standard deviation for intermediate precision was lower than 25% at all levels of concentration for all matrices. This validation approach proved that the method is reliable for the quantification in each and every matrix (i.e. plasma, kidneys and muscle of chicken) thanks to only one single regression model (i.e. linear) obtained from external calibration standards (without matrix) with deuterated labelled internal standard. The developed method was applied during a
Salvia, Marie-Virginie; Cren-Olivé, Cécile; Vulliet, Emmanuelle
2013-11-08
Numerous chemical products are dispersed in our environment. Many of them are recognized as harmful to humans and the ecosystem. Among these harmful substances are antibiotics and steroid hormones. Currently, very few data are available on the presence and fate of these substances in the environment, in particular for solid matrices, mainly due to a lack of analytical methodologies. Indeed, soil is a very complex matrix, and the nature and composition of the soil has a significant impact on the extraction efficiency and the sensitivity of the method. For this reason a statistical approach was performed to study the influence of soil parameters (clay, silt, sand and organic carbon percentages and cation exchange capacity (CEC)) on recoveries and matrix effects of various pharmaceuticals and steroids. Thus, an analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) was performed when several substances were analyzed simultaneously, whereas a Pearson correlation was used to study the compounds individually. To the best of our knowledge, this study is the first time such an experiment was performed. The results showed that clay and organic carbon percentages as well as the CEC have an impact on the recoveries of most of the target substances, the variables being anti-correlated. This result suggests that the compounds are trapped in soils with high levels of clay and organic carbon and a high CEC. For the matrix effects, it was shown that the organic carbon content has a significant effect on steroid hormones and penicillin G matrix effects (positive correlation). Finally, interaction effects (first order) were evaluated. This latter point corresponds to the crossed effects that occur between explanatory variables (soil parameters). Indeed, the value taken by an explanatory variable can have an influence on the effect that another explanatory variable has on a dependent variable. For instance, it was shown that some parameters (silt, sand) have an impact on the effect that clay content has on
Surrogate matrix: opportunities and challenges for tissue sample analysis.
Ho, Stacy; Gao, Hong
2015-09-23
Often there is limited availability of matching tissue matrix and/or the analyte may occur endogenously in the target tissue. Surrogate matrix provides an option for quantitation of drug, metabolite(s) and biomarker(s) in these circumstances. However, the use of a surrogate matrix also presents challenges. This paper summarizes and discusses the challenges of selecting a proper surrogate, validating the suitability of the surrogate and establishing a surrogate tissue method using the fit-for-purpose approach. This paper also systematically reviews the current practices for evaluating key parameters of a surrogate tissue assay, including sensitivity, specificity, selectivity, interference, precision, accuracy, recovery, matrix effects and stability. Considerations and suggestions are provided for dealing with such challenges during method establishment and tissue sample analysis.
2007-09-01
matrix ceramic composites,” Journal of American Ceramic Society, 76[10]:2695-2700 (1993). 40. Zawada , L.P. “Longitudinal and transthickness tensile...behavior of several oxide/oxide composites,” Ceramic Science and Engineering Proceedings, 19[3]: 327-340 (1998). 41. Zawada , L.P. and Staehler
Islam, Shahidul; Ma, Wujun; Yan, Guijun; Gao, Liyan; Appels, Rudi
2011-06-22
Bread made from a mixture of wheat and lupin flour possesses a number of health benefits. The addition of lupin flour to wheat flour during breadmaking has major effects on bread properties. The present study investigated the lupin and wheat flour protein interactions during the breadmaking process including dough formation and baking by using proteomics research technologies including MS/MS to identify the proteins. Results revealed that qualitatively most proteins from both lupin and wheat flour remained unchanged after baking as per electrophoretic behavior, whereas some were incorporated into the bread gluten matrix and became unextractable. Most of the lupin α-conglutins could be readily extracted from the lupin-wheat bread even at low salt and nonreducing/nondenaturing extraction conditions. In contrast, most of the β-conglutins lost extractability, suggesting that they were trapped in the bread gluten matrix. The higher thermal stability of α-conglutins compared to β-conglutins is speculated to account for this difference.
Xu, He-Lin; Tian, Fu-Rong; Lu, Cui-Tao; Xu, Jie; Fan, Zi-Liang; Yang, Jing-Jing; Chen, Pian-Pian; Huang, Ya-Dong; Xiao, Jian; Zhao, Ying-Zheng
2016-01-01
Because of the short half-life, either systemic or local administration of bFGF shows significant drawbacks to spinal injury. In this study, an acellular spinal cord scaffold (ASC) was encapsulated in a thermo-sensitive hydrogel to overcome these limitations. The ASC was firstly prepared from the spinal cord of healthy rats and characterized by scanning electronic microscopy and immunohistochemical staining. bFGF could specifically complex with the ASC scaffold via electrostatic or receptor-mediated interactions. The bFGF-ASC complex was further encapsulated into a heparin modified poloxamer (HP) solution to prepare atemperature-sensitive hydrogel (bFGF-ASC-HP). bFGF release from the ASC-HP hydrogel was more slower than that from the bFGF-ASC complex alone. An in vitro cell survival study showed that the bFGF-ASC-HP hydrogel could more effectively promote the proliferation of PC12 cells than a bFGF solution, with an approximate 50% increase in the cell survival rate within 24 h (P < 0.05). Compared with the bFGF solution, bFGF-ASC-HP hydrogel displayed enhanced inhibition of glial scars and obviously improved the functional recovery of the SCI model rat through regeneration of nerve axons and the differentiation of the neural stem cells. In summary, an ASC-HP hydrogel might be a promising carrier to deliver bFGF to an injured spinal cord. PMID:27922061
Lee, Tai-Fen; Lee, Hao; Chen, Chung-Ming; Du, Shin-Hei; Cheng, Ya-Chih; Hsu, Chen-Ching; Chung, Meng-Yu; Teng, Shih-Hua; Teng, Lee-Jene; Hsueh, Po-Ren
2013-05-01
Among 30 urinary isolates of Staphylococcus saprophyticus identified by sequencing methods, the rate of accurate identification was 100% for Bruker Biotyper matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS), 86.7% for the Phoenix PID and Vitek 2 GP systems, 93.3% for the MicroScan GP33 system, and 46.7% for the BBL CHROMagar Orientation system.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Jones, Joanna R., Ed.
1992-01-01
This issue of the Arizona Reading Journal focuses on the theme "reading recovery" and includes the following articles: "Why Is an Inservice Programme for Reading Recovery Teachers Necessary?" (Marie M. Clay); "What Is Reading Recovery?" (Gay Su Pinnell); "Teaching a Hard To Teach Child" (Constance A.…
High accuracy broadband infrared spectropolarimetry
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Krishnaswamy, Venkataramanan
Mueller matrix spectroscopy or Spectropolarimetry combines conventional spectroscopy with polarimetry, providing more information than can be gleaned from spectroscopy alone. Experimental studies on infrared polarization properties of materials covering a broad spectral range have been scarce due to the lack of available instrumentation. This dissertation aims to fill the gap by the design, development, calibration and testing of a broadband Fourier Transform Infra-Red (FT-IR) spectropolarimeter. The instrument operates over the 3-12 mum waveband and offers better overall accuracy compared to the previous generation instruments. Accurate calibration of a broadband spectropolarimeter is a non-trivial task due to the inherent complexity of the measurement process. An improved calibration technique is proposed for the spectropolarimeter and numerical simulations are conducted to study the effectiveness of the proposed technique. Insights into the geometrical structure of the polarimetric measurement matrix is provided to aid further research towards global optimization of Mueller matrix polarimeters. A high performance infrared wire-grid polarizer is characterized using the spectropolarimeter. Mueller matrix spectrum measurements on Penicillin and pine pollen are also presented.
Modified matrix volatilization setup for characterization of high purity germanium.
Meruva, Adisesha Reddy; Raparthi, Shekhar; Kumar, Sunil Jai
2016-01-01
Modified matrix volatilization (MV) method has been described to characterize high purity germanium material of 7 N (99.99999%) purity. Transport of both, the chlorine gas generated in-situ in this method and the argon gas (carrier) is fine controlled by means of a mass flow controller. This enabled both uniform reaction of chlorine gas with the germanium matrix and smooth removal of germanium matrix as its chloride. This resulted in improvement in the reproducibility of the analytical results. The use of quartz reaction vessel has lead to the reduction in the process blank levels. The combined effect of these modifications in the MV setup has resulted in very consistent and low process blanks and hence improved detection limits of this method. Applicability of the method has been expanded to rare earth elements and other elements after examining their recoveries. The quantification is done by using inductively coupled plasma quadrupole mass spectrometer (ICP-QMS) and continuum source graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (CS-GFAAS). In the absence of certified reference materials for high pure germanium, the accuracy of the method is established by spike recovery tests. The precision of the method has been found to vary from 1 to 30% for concentrations between 1 and 30 ng g(-1). The limits of detection (LOD) for the target analytes are found to be between 18 and 0.033 ng g(-1).
Steel, Timothy; Chaganti, Joga
2015-01-01
Conventional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is the technique of choice for diagnosis of cerebral tumours, and has become an increasingly powerful tool for their evaluation; however, the diagnosis of common contrast-enhancing lesions can be challenging, as it is sometimes impossible to differentiate them using conventional imaging. Histopathological analysis of biopsy specimens is the gold standard for diagnosis; however, there are significant risks associated with the invasive procedure and definitive diagnosis is not always achieved. Early accurate diagnosis is important, as management differs accordingly. Advanced MRI techniques have increasing utility for aiding diagnosis in a variety of clinical scenarios. Dynamic susceptibility-weighted contrast-enhanced (DSC) MRI is a perfusion imaging technique and a potentially important tool for the characterisation of cerebral tumours. The percentage of signal intensity recovery (PSR) and relative cerebral blood volume (rCBV) derived from DSC MRI provide information about tumour capillary permeability and neoangiogenesis, which can be used to characterise tumour type and grade, and distinguish tumour recurrence from treatment-related effects. Therefore, PSR and rCBV potentially represent a non-invasive means of diagnosis; however, the clinical utility of these parameters has yet to be established. We present a review of the literature to date. PMID:26475485
Guedes, Jhonyson Arruda Carvalho; Silva, Renata de Oliveira; Lima, Cleidiane Gomes; Milhome, Maria Aparecida Liberato; do Nascimento, Ronaldo Ferreira
2016-05-15
"Quick, Easy, Cheap, Effective, Rugged and Safe" (QuEChERS)-GC/MS analytical technique was used to evaluated matrix effect of twenty-two pesticides in guava. Validation parameters (selectivity, linearity, LOD, LOQ, accuracy and precision) were determined for multiresidue analysis. Statistical test (t-student) was applied to the coefficients of the curves obtained for the guava matrix. The matrix effect (ME) for each pesticide was evaluated through the study of slope ratios obtained of solvent and guava matrix curves. Most of the compounds had positive ME. The rates of recovery were satisfactory (73.97-119.38%), with a coefficient of variation (CV) less than 20%. Analysis of commercial guava samples showed the presence of 5 types of pesticides residues at levels ranging from 0.1 to 0.5 mg·kg(-1). The results reveal the presence of unauthorized pesticides for cultivation of guava. This data can assist government agencies to ensure food security.
High-dimensional statistical inference: From vector to matrix
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhang, Anru
. For the second part of the thesis, we introduce a rank-one projection model for low-rank matrix recovery and propose a constrained nuclear norm minimization method for stable recovery of low-rank matrices in the noisy case. The procedure is adaptive to the rank and robust against small perturbations. Both upper and lower bounds for the estimation accuracy under the Frobenius norm loss are obtained. The proposed estimator is shown to be rate-optimal under certain conditions. The estimator is easy to implement via convex programming and performs well numerically. The techniques and main results developed in the chapter also have implications to other related statistical problems. An application to estimation of spiked covariance matrices from one-dimensional random projections is considered. The results demonstrate that it is still possible to accurately estimate the covariance matrix of a high-dimensional distribution based only on one-dimensional projections. For the third part of the thesis, we consider another setting of low-rank matrix completion. Current literature on matrix completion focuses primarily on independent sampling models under which the individual observed entries are sampled independently. Motivated by applications in genomic data integration, we propose a new framework of structured matrix completion (SMC) to treat structured missingness by design. Specifically, our proposed method aims at efficient matrix recovery when a subset of the rows and columns of an approximately low-rank matrix are observed. We provide theoretical justification for the proposed SMC method and derive lower bound for the estimation errors, which together establish the optimal rate of recovery over certain classes of approximately low-rank matrices. Simulation studies show that the method performs well in finite sample under a variety of configurations. The method is applied to integrate several ovarian cancer genomic studies with different extent of genomic measurements
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Clark, John R.
2007-01-01
Since the founding of Alcoholics Anonymous (AA) in 1935, programs offering opportunity for recovery from alcoholism and other addictions have undergone vast changes. The Internet has created nearly limitless opportunities for recovering people and those seeking recovery to find both meetings and places where they can gather virtually and discuss…
SparRec: An effective matrix completion framework of missing data imputation for GWAS
Jiang, Bo; Ma, Shiqian; Causey, Jason; Qiao, Linbo; Hardin, Matthew Price; Bitts, Ian; Johnson, Daniel; Zhang, Shuzhong; Huang, Xiuzhen
2016-01-01
Genome-wide association studies present computational challenges for missing data imputation, while the advances of genotype technologies are generating datasets of large sample sizes with sample sets genotyped on multiple SNP chips. We present a new framework SparRec (Sparse Recovery) for imputation, with the following properties: (1) The optimization models of SparRec, based on low-rank and low number of co-clusters of matrices, are different from current statistics methods. While our low-rank matrix completion (LRMC) model is similar to Mendel-Impute, our matrix co-clustering factorization (MCCF) model is completely new. (2) SparRec, as other matrix completion methods, is flexible to be applied to missing data imputation for large meta-analysis with different cohorts genotyped on different sets of SNPs, even when there is no reference panel. This kind of meta-analysis is very challenging for current statistics based methods. (3) SparRec has consistent performance and achieves high recovery accuracy even when the missing data rate is as high as 90%. Compared with Mendel-Impute, our low-rank based method achieves similar accuracy and efficiency, while the co-clustering based method has advantages in running time. The testing results show that SparRec has significant advantages and competitive performance over other state-of-the-art existing statistics methods including Beagle and fastPhase. PMID:27762341
SparRec: An effective matrix completion framework of missing data imputation for GWAS
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jiang, Bo; Ma, Shiqian; Causey, Jason; Qiao, Linbo; Hardin, Matthew Price; Bitts, Ian; Johnson, Daniel; Zhang, Shuzhong; Huang, Xiuzhen
2016-10-01
Genome-wide association studies present computational challenges for missing data imputation, while the advances of genotype technologies are generating datasets of large sample sizes with sample sets genotyped on multiple SNP chips. We present a new framework SparRec (Sparse Recovery) for imputation, with the following properties: (1) The optimization models of SparRec, based on low-rank and low number of co-clusters of matrices, are different from current statistics methods. While our low-rank matrix completion (LRMC) model is similar to Mendel-Impute, our matrix co-clustering factorization (MCCF) model is completely new. (2) SparRec, as other matrix completion methods, is flexible to be applied to missing data imputation for large meta-analysis with different cohorts genotyped on different sets of SNPs, even when there is no reference panel. This kind of meta-analysis is very challenging for current statistics based methods. (3) SparRec has consistent performance and achieves high recovery accuracy even when the missing data rate is as high as 90%. Compared with Mendel-Impute, our low-rank based method achieves similar accuracy and efficiency, while the co-clustering based method has advantages in running time. The testing results show that SparRec has significant advantages and competitive performance over other state-of-the-art existing statistics methods including Beagle and fastPhase.
Genotype imputation via matrix completion
Chi, Eric C.; Zhou, Hua; Chen, Gary K.; Del Vecchyo, Diego Ortega; Lange, Kenneth
2013-01-01
Most current genotype imputation methods are model-based and computationally intensive, taking days to impute one chromosome pair on 1000 people. We describe an efficient genotype imputation method based on matrix completion. Our matrix completion method is implemented in MATLAB and tested on real data from HapMap 3, simulated pedigree data, and simulated low-coverage sequencing data derived from the 1000 Genomes Project. Compared with leading imputation programs, the matrix completion algorithm embodied in our program MENDEL-IMPUTE achieves comparable imputation accuracy while reducing run times significantly. Implementation in a lower-level language such as Fortran or C is apt to further improve computational efficiency. PMID:23233546
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Craps, Ben; Evnin, Oleg; Nguyen, Kévin
2017-02-01
Matrix quantum mechanics offers an attractive environment for discussing gravitational holography, in which both sides of the holographic duality are well-defined. Similarly to higher-dimensional implementations of holography, collapsing shell solutions in the gravitational bulk correspond in this setting to thermalization processes in the dual quantum mechanical theory. We construct an explicit, fully nonlinear supergravity solution describing a generic collapsing dilaton shell, specify the holographic renormalization prescriptions necessary for computing the relevant boundary observables, and apply them to evaluating thermalizing two-point correlation functions in the dual matrix theory.
GEOSPATIAL DATA ACCURACY ASSESSMENT
The development of robust accuracy assessment methods for the validation of spatial data represent's a difficult scientific challenge for the geospatial science community. The importance and timeliness of this issue is related directly to the dramatic escalation in the developmen...
Landsat wildland mapping accuracy
Todd, William J.; Gehring, Dale G.; Haman, J. F.
1980-01-01
A Landsat-aided classification of ten wildland resource classes was developed for the Shivwits Plateau region of the Lake Mead National Recreation Area. Single stage cluster sampling (without replacement) was used to verify the accuracy of each class.
Metz, William C.; Metz, W. Chris; Mitrani, Jacques E.; Hewett, Jr., Paul L.; Jones, Christopher A.
2004-12-31
Sync Matrix provides a graphic display of the relationships among all of the response activities of each jurisdiction. This is accomplished through software that organizes and displays the activities by jurisdiction, function, and time for easy review and analysis. The software can also integrate the displays of multiple jurisdictions to allow examination of the total response.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kandel, Daniel; Levinski, Vladimir; Sapiens, Noam; Cohen, Guy; Amit, Eran; Klein, Dana; Vakshtein, Irina
2012-03-01
Currently, the performance of overlay metrology is evaluated mainly based on random error contributions such as precision and TIS variability. With the expected shrinkage of the overlay metrology budget to < 0.5nm, it becomes crucial to include also systematic error contributions which affect the accuracy of the metrology. Here we discuss fundamental aspects of overlay accuracy and a methodology to improve accuracy significantly. We identify overlay mark imperfections and their interaction with the metrology technology, as the main source of overlay inaccuracy. The most important type of mark imperfection is mark asymmetry. Overlay mark asymmetry leads to a geometrical ambiguity in the definition of overlay, which can be ~1nm or less. It is shown theoretically and in simulations that the metrology may enhance the effect of overlay mark asymmetry significantly and lead to metrology inaccuracy ~10nm, much larger than the geometrical ambiguity. The analysis is carried out for two different overlay metrology technologies: Imaging overlay and DBO (1st order diffraction based overlay). It is demonstrated that the sensitivity of DBO to overlay mark asymmetry is larger than the sensitivity of imaging overlay. Finally, we show that a recently developed measurement quality metric serves as a valuable tool for improving overlay metrology accuracy. Simulation results demonstrate that the accuracy of imaging overlay can be improved significantly by recipe setup optimized using the quality metric. We conclude that imaging overlay metrology, complemented by appropriate use of measurement quality metric, results in optimal overlay accuracy.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Boerstoel, J. W.
1988-12-01
A framework is provided for numerical accuracy assessment. The purpose of numerical flow simulations is formulated. This formulation concerns the classes of aeronautical configurations (boundaries), the desired flow physics (flow equations and their properties), the classes of flow conditions on flow boundaries (boundary conditions), and the initial flow conditions. Next, accuracy and economical performance requirements are defined; the final numerical flow simulation results of interest should have a guaranteed accuracy, and be produced for an acceptable FLOP-price. Within this context, the validation of numerical processes with respect to the well known topics of consistency, stability, and convergence when the mesh is refined must be done by numerical experimentation because theory gives only partial answers. This requires careful design of text cases for numerical experimentation. Finally, the results of a few recent evaluation exercises of numerical experiments with a large number of codes on a few test cases are summarized.
Zhao, Xiaoming; Metcalfe, Chris D
2008-03-15
Matrix effects are a great challenge for the quantitative analysis of environmental samples by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). Signal suppression or enhancement can compromise the accuracy of analytical results. While matrix effects have been relatively well studied for applications of LC-MS/MS instrumentation with electrospray ionization, there have been relatively few studies to evaluate matrix effects when using atmospheric pressure chemical ionization (APCI) as the ion source. In this study, we determined the effects of sample matrix on the analysis of six neutral pharmaceuticals (i.e., caffeine, cotinine, carbamazepine and its major metabolite, carbamazepine-10,11-dihydrodiol, trimethoprim, and fluoxetine) in samples of municipal wastewater using LC-APCI-MS/MS and evaluated whether isotope-labeled internal standards can be used to compensate for matrix effects. The matrix effects were measured using postextraction spikes and postcolumn direct infusion, respectively. The results showed that the matrix in the extracts prepared from municipal wastewater enhanced the signals for four of the six analytes when using an APCI source. Without correction for signal enhancement, apparent recoveries of the analytes from wastewater samples were overestimated to levels as high as 178% of the spiked amount. Isotope-labeled compounds corrected for these overestimates that occurred as a result of interferences from the sample matrix.
Condition and Error Estimates in Numerical Matrix Computations
Konstantinov, M. M.; Petkov, P. H.
2008-10-30
This tutorial paper deals with sensitivity and error estimates in matrix computational processes. The main factors determining the accuracy of the result computed in floating--point machine arithmetics are considered. Special attention is paid to the perturbation analysis of matrix algebraic equations and unitary matrix decompositions.
Optical matrix-matrix multiplication method demonstrated by the use of a multifocus hololens.
Liang, Y Z; Liu, H K
1984-08-01
A method of optical matrix-matrix multiplication is presented. The feasibility of the method is also experimentally demonstrated by the use of a dichromated-gelatin multifocus holographic lens (hololens). With the specific values of matrices chosen, the average percentage error between the theoretical and experimental data of the elements of the output matrix of the multiplication of some specific pairs of 3 x 3 matrices is 0.4%, which corresponds to an 8-bit accuracy.
Optical matrix-matrix multiplication method demonstrated by the use of a multifocus hololens
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Liu, H. K.; Liang, Y.-Z.
1984-01-01
A method of optical matrix-matrix multiplication is presented. The feasibility of the method is also experimentally demonstrated by the use of a dichromated-gelatin multifocus holographic lens (hololens). With the specific values of matrices chosen, the average percentage error between the theoretical and experimental data of the elements of the output matrix of the multiplication of some specific pairs of 3 x 3 matrices is 0.4 percent, which corresponds to an 8-bit accuracy.
High accuracy OMEGA timekeeping
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Imbier, E. A.
1982-01-01
The Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory (SAO) operates a worldwide satellite tracking network which uses a combination of OMEGA as a frequency reference, dual timing channels, and portable clock comparisons to maintain accurate epoch time. Propagational charts from the U.S. Coast Guard OMEGA monitor program minimize diurnal and seasonal effects. Daily phase value publications of the U.S. Naval Observatory provide corrections to the field collected timing data to produce an averaged time line comprised of straight line segments called a time history file (station clock minus UTC). Depending upon clock location, reduced time data accuracies of between two and eight microseconds are typical.
Relationship Between Magnitude of Applied Spin Recovery Moment and Ensuing Number of Recovery Turns
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Anglin, Ernie L.
1967-01-01
An analytical study has been made to investigate the relationship between the magnitude of the applied spin recovery moment and the ensuing number of turns made during recovery from a developed spin with a view toward determining how to interpolate or extrapolate spin recovery results with regard to determining the amount of control required for a satisfactory recovery. Five configurations were used which are considered to be representative of modern airplanes: a delta-wing fighter, a stub-wing research vehicle, a boostglide configuration, a supersonic trainer, and a sweptback-wing fighter. The results obtained indicate that there is a direct relationship between the magnitude of the applied spin recovery moments and the ensuing number of recovery turns made and that this relationship can be expressed in either simple multiplicative or exponential form. Either type of relationship was adequate for interpolating or extrapolating to predict turns required for recovery with satisfactory accuracy for configurations having relatively steady recovery motions. Any two recoveries from the same developed spin condition can be used as a basis for the predicted results provided these recoveries are obtained with the same ratio of recovery control deflections. No such predictive method can be expected to give satisfactory results for oscillatory recoveries.
Analyzing thematic maps and mapping for accuracy
Rosenfield, G.H.
1982-01-01
Two problems which exist while attempting to test the accuracy of thematic maps and mapping are: (1) evaluating the accuracy of thematic content, and (2) evaluating the effects of the variables on thematic mapping. Statistical analysis techniques are applicable to both these problems and include techniques for sampling the data and determining their accuracy. In addition, techniques for hypothesis testing, or inferential statistics, are used when comparing the effects of variables. A comprehensive and valid accuracy test of a classification project, such as thematic mapping from remotely sensed data, includes the following components of statistical analysis: (1) sample design, including the sample distribution, sample size, size of the sample unit, and sampling procedure; and (2) accuracy estimation, including estimation of the variance and confidence limits. Careful consideration must be given to the minimum sample size necessary to validate the accuracy of a given. classification category. The results of an accuracy test are presented in a contingency table sometimes called a classification error matrix. Usually the rows represent the interpretation, and the columns represent the verification. The diagonal elements represent the correct classifications. The remaining elements of the rows represent errors by commission, and the remaining elements of the columns represent the errors of omission. For tests of hypothesis that compare variables, the general practice has been to use only the diagonal elements from several related classification error matrices. These data are arranged in the form of another contingency table. The columns of the table represent the different variables being compared, such as different scales of mapping. The rows represent the blocking characteristics, such as the various categories of classification. The values in the cells of the tables might be the counts of correct classification or the binomial proportions of these counts divided by
Evaluating model accuracy for model-based reasoning
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Chien, Steve; Roden, Joseph
1992-01-01
Described here is an approach to automatically assessing the accuracy of various components of a model. In this approach, actual data from the operation of a target system is used to drive statistical measures to evaluate the prediction accuracy of various portions of the model. We describe how these statistical measures of model accuracy can be used in model-based reasoning for monitoring and design. We then describe the application of these techniques to the monitoring and design of the water recovery system of the Environmental Control and Life Support System (ECLSS) of Space Station Freedom.
Hierarchical cluster analysis of matrix effects on 110 pesticide residues in 28 tea matrixes.
Li, Yan; Pang, Guo-Fang; Fan, Chun-Lin; Chen, Xi
2013-01-01
Matrix effects on 110 pesticides in 28 tea matrixes of different varieties and origins by LC/MS/MS were studied, and most of the pesticides exhibited soft and medium signal suppression. To better understand the influence of the tea varieties and the physicochemical characteristics of pesticides on the matrix effects, the multivariate analysis tool called hierarchical cluster analysis was applied. Tea matrixes were grouped into three clusters: unfermented, fermented, and post-fermented teas. Any type of tea can be chosen from each cluster as a corresponding representative matrix within that cluster to make matrix-matched solutions, which could simplify analysis while guaranteeing its accuracy. Matrix effects on most pesticides were similar despite the physicochemical diversities of the pesticides.
Radiocarbon dating accuracy improved
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Scientists have extended the accuracy of carbon-14 (14C) dating by correlating dates older than 8,000 years with uranium-thorium dates that span from 8,000 to 30,000 years before present (ybp, present = 1950). Edouard Bard, Bruno Hamelin, Richard Fairbanks and Alan Zindler, working at Columbia University's Lamont-Doherty Geological Observatory, dated corals from reefs off Barbados using both 14C and uranium-234/thorium-230 by thermal ionization mass spectrometry techniques. They found that the two age data sets deviated in a regular way, allowing the scientists to correlate the two sets of ages. The 14C dates were consistently younger than those determined by uranium-thorium, and the discrepancy increased to about 3,500 years at 20,000 ybp.
Extraction and quantitative analysis of iodine in solid and solution matrixes.
Brown, Christopher F; Geiszler, Keith N; Vickerman, Tanya S
2005-11-01
129I is a contaminant of interest in the vadose zone and groundwater at numerous federal and privately owned facilities. Several techniques have been utilized to extract iodine from solid matrixes; however, all of them rely on two fundamental approaches: liquid extraction or chemical/heat-facilitated volatilization. While these methods are typically chosen for their ease of implementation, they do not totally dissolve the solid. We defined a method that produces complete solid dissolution and conducted laboratory tests to assess its efficacy to extract iodine from solid matrixes. Testing consisted of potassium nitrate/potassium hydroxide fusion of the sample, followed by sample dissolution in a mixture of sulfuric acid and sodium bisulfite. The fusion extraction method resulted in complete sample dissolution of all solid matrixes tested. Quantitative analysis of 127I and 129I via inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry showed better than +/-10% accuracy for certified reference standards, with the linear operating range extending more than 3 orders of magnitude (0.005-5 microg/L). Extraction and analysis of four replicates of standard reference material containing 5 microg/g 127I resulted in an average recovery of 98% with a relative deviation of 6%. This simple and cost-effective technique can be applied to solid samples of varying matrixes with little or no adaptation.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nœtinger, B.
2015-02-01
Modeling natural Discrete Fracture Networks (DFN) receives more and more attention in applied geosciences, from oil and gas industry, to geothermal recovery and aquifer management. The fractures may be either natural, or artificial in case of well stimulation. Accounting for the flow inside the fracture network, and accounting for the transfers between the matrix and the fractures, with the same level of accuracy is an important issue for calibrating the well architecture and for setting up optimal resources recovery strategies. Recently, we proposed an original method allowing to model transient pressure diffusion in the fracture network only [1]. The matrix was assumed to be impervious. A systematic approximation scheme was built, allowing to model the initial DFN by a set of N unknowns located at each identified intersection between fractures. The higher N, the higher the accuracy of the model. The main assumption was using a quasi steady state hypothesis, that states that the characteristic diffusion time over one single fracture is negligible compared with the characteristic time of the macroscopic problem, e.g. change of boundary conditions. In that context, the lowest order approximation N = 1 has the form of solving a transient problem in a resistor/capacitor network, a so-called pipe network. Its topology is the same as the network of geometrical intersections between fractures. In this paper, we generalize this approach in order to account for fluxes from matrix to fractures. The quasi steady state hypothesis at the fracture level is still kept. Then, we show that in the case of well separated time scales between matrix and fractures, the preceding model needs only to be slightly modified in order to incorporate these fluxes. The additional knowledge of the so-called matrix to fracture transfer function allows to modify the mass matrix that becomes a time convolution operator. This is reminiscent of existing space averaged transient dual porosity models.
Valverde-Albacete, Francisco J.; Peláez-Moreno, Carmen
2014-01-01
The most widely spread measure of performance, accuracy, suffers from a paradox: predictive models with a given level of accuracy may have greater predictive power than models with higher accuracy. Despite optimizing classification error rate, high accuracy models may fail to capture crucial information transfer in the classification task. We present evidence of this behavior by means of a combinatorial analysis where every possible contingency matrix of 2, 3 and 4 classes classifiers are depicted on the entropy triangle, a more reliable information-theoretic tool for classification assessment. Motivated by this, we develop from first principles a measure of classification performance that takes into consideration the information learned by classifiers. We are then able to obtain the entropy-modulated accuracy (EMA), a pessimistic estimate of the expected accuracy with the influence of the input distribution factored out, and the normalized information transfer factor (NIT), a measure of how efficient is the transmission of information from the input to the output set of classes. The EMA is a more natural measure of classification performance than accuracy when the heuristic to maximize is the transfer of information through the classifier instead of classification error count. The NIT factor measures the effectiveness of the learning process in classifiers and also makes it harder for them to “cheat” using techniques like specialization, while also promoting the interpretability of results. Their use is demonstrated in a mind reading task competition that aims at decoding the identity of a video stimulus based on magnetoencephalography recordings. We show how the EMA and the NIT factor reject rankings based in accuracy, choosing more meaningful and interpretable classifiers. PMID:24427282
Valverde-Albacete, Francisco J; Peláez-Moreno, Carmen
2014-01-01
The most widely spread measure of performance, accuracy, suffers from a paradox: predictive models with a given level of accuracy may have greater predictive power than models with higher accuracy. Despite optimizing classification error rate, high accuracy models may fail to capture crucial information transfer in the classification task. We present evidence of this behavior by means of a combinatorial analysis where every possible contingency matrix of 2, 3 and 4 classes classifiers are depicted on the entropy triangle, a more reliable information-theoretic tool for classification assessment. Motivated by this, we develop from first principles a measure of classification performance that takes into consideration the information learned by classifiers. We are then able to obtain the entropy-modulated accuracy (EMA), a pessimistic estimate of the expected accuracy with the influence of the input distribution factored out, and the normalized information transfer factor (NIT), a measure of how efficient is the transmission of information from the input to the output set of classes. The EMA is a more natural measure of classification performance than accuracy when the heuristic to maximize is the transfer of information through the classifier instead of classification error count. The NIT factor measures the effectiveness of the learning process in classifiers and also makes it harder for them to "cheat" using techniques like specialization, while also promoting the interpretability of results. Their use is demonstrated in a mind reading task competition that aims at decoding the identity of a video stimulus based on magnetoencephalography recordings. We show how the EMA and the NIT factor reject rankings based in accuracy, choosing more meaningful and interpretable classifiers.
Recovery position - series (image)
... CPR, the victim should be placed in the recovery position. The recovery position helps keep the victim's airway open. To put the victim in the recovery position grab the victim's leg and shoulder and ...
... Peripheral Artery Disease Venous Thromboembolism Aortic Aneurysm More Heart Attack Recovery FAQs Updated:Sep 19,2016 Most people ... recovery. View an animation of a heart attack . Heart Attack Recovery Questions and Answers What treatments will I ...
Reticence, Accuracy and Efficacy
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Oreskes, N.; Lewandowsky, S.
2015-12-01
James Hansen has cautioned the scientific community against "reticence," by which he means a reluctance to speak in public about the threat of climate change. This may contribute to social inaction, with the result that society fails to respond appropriately to threats that are well understood scientifically. Against this, others have warned against the dangers of "crying wolf," suggesting that reticence protects scientific credibility. We argue that both these positions are missing an important point: that reticence is not only a matter of style but also of substance. In previous work, Bysse et al. (2013) showed that scientific projections of key indicators of climate change have been skewed towards the low end of actual events, suggesting a bias in scientific work. More recently, we have shown that scientific efforts to be responsive to contrarian challenges have led scientists to adopt the terminology of a "pause" or "hiatus" in climate warming, despite the lack of evidence to support such a conclusion (Lewandowsky et al., 2015a. 2015b). In the former case, scientific conservatism has led to under-estimation of climate related changes. In the latter case, the use of misleading terminology has perpetuated scientific misunderstanding and hindered effective communication. Scientific communication should embody two equally important goals: 1) accuracy in communicating scientific information and 2) efficacy in expressing what that information means. Scientists should strive to be neither conservative nor adventurous but to be accurate, and to communicate that accurate information effectively.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Peterson, Matthew C.
1991-08-01
The United States Air Force Environmental Technical Applications Center (USAFETAC) was tasked to review the scientific literature for studies of the Groves Neutral Density Climatology Model and compare the Groves Model with others in the 30-60 km range. The tasking included a request to investigate the merits of comparing accuracy of the Groves Model to rocketsonde data. USAFETAC analysts found the Groves Model to be state of the art for middle-atmospheric climatological models. In reviewing previous comparisons with other models and with space shuttle-derived atmospheric densities, good density vs altitude agreement was found in almost all cases. A simple technique involving comparison of the model with range reference atmospheres was found to be the most economical way to compare the Groves Model with rocketsonde data; an example of this type is provided. The Groves 85 Model is used routinely in USAFETAC's Improved Point Analysis Model (IPAM). To create this model, Dr. Gerald Vann Groves produced tabulations of atmospheric density based on data derived from satellite observations and modified by rocketsonde observations. Neutral Density as presented here refers to the monthly mean density in 10-degree latitude bands as a function of altitude. The Groves 85 Model zonal mean density tabulations are given in their entirety.
Scattering matrix theory for stochastic scalar fields.
Korotkova, Olga; Wolf, Emil
2007-05-01
We consider scattering of stochastic scalar fields on deterministic as well as on random media, occupying a finite domain. The scattering is characterized by a generalized scattering matrix which transforms the angular correlation function of the incident field into the angular correlation function of the scattered field. Within the accuracy of the first Born approximation this matrix can be expressed in a simple manner in terms of the scattering potential of the scatterer. Apart from determining the angular distribution of the spectral intensity of the scattered field, the scattering matrix makes it possible also to determine the changes in the state of coherence of the field produced on scattering.
Rank Awareness in Group-Sparse Recovery of Multi-Echo MR Images
Majumdar, Angshul; Ward, Rabab
2013-01-01
This work addresses the problem of recovering multi-echo T1 or T2 weighted images from their partial K-space scans. Recent studies have shown that the best results are obtained when all the multi-echo images are reconstructed by simultaneously exploiting their intra-image spatial redundancy and inter-echo correlation. The aforesaid studies either stack the vectorised images (formed by row or columns concatenation) as columns of a Multiple Measurement Vector (MMV) matrix or concatenate them as a long vector. Owing to the inter-image correlation, the thus formed MMV matrix or the long concatenated vector is row-sparse or group-sparse respectively in a transform domain (wavelets). Consequently the reconstruction problem was formulated as a row-sparse MMV recovery or a group-sparse vector recovery. In this work we show that when the multi-echo images are arranged in the MMV form, the thus formed matrix is low-rank. We show that better reconstruction accuracy can be obtained when the information about rank-deficiency is incorporated into the row/group sparse recovery problem. Mathematically, this leads to a constrained optimization problem where the objective function promotes the signal's groups-sparsity as well as its rank-deficiency; the objective function is minimized subject to data fidelity constraints. The experiments were carried out on ex vivo and in vivo T2 weighted images of a rat's spinal cord. Results show that this method yields considerably superior results than state-of-the-art reconstruction techniques. PMID:23519348
Hybrid matrix fiber composites
Deteresa, Steven J.; Lyon, Richard E.; Groves, Scott E.
2003-07-15
Hybrid matrix fiber composites having enhanced compressive performance as well as enhanced stiffness, toughness and durability suitable for compression-critical applications. The methods for producing the fiber composites using matrix hybridization. The hybrid matrix fiber composites include two chemically or physically bonded matrix materials, whereas the first matrix materials are used to impregnate multi-filament fibers formed into ribbons and the second matrix material is placed around and between the fiber ribbons that are impregnated with the first matrix material and both matrix materials are cured and solidified.
The matrix exponential in transient structural analysis
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Minnetyan, Levon
1987-01-01
The primary usefulness of the presented theory is in the ability to represent the effects of high frequency linear response with accuracy, without requiring very small time steps in the analysis of dynamic response. The matrix exponential contains a series approximation to the dynamic model. However, unlike the usual analysis procedure which truncates the high frequency response, the approximation in the exponential matrix solution is in the time domain. By truncating the series solution to the matrix exponential short, the solution is made inaccurate after a certain time. Yet, up to that time the solution is extremely accurate, including all high frequency effects. By taking finite time increments, the exponential matrix solution can compute the response very accurately. Use of the exponential matrix in structural dynamics is demonstrated by simulating the free vibration response of multi degree of freedom models of cantilever beams.
Dosimetric accuracy of a staged radiosurgery treatment
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cernica, George; de Boer, Steven F.; Diaz, Aidnag; Fenstermaker, Robert A.; Podgorsak, Matthew B.
2005-05-01
For large cerebral arteriovenous malformations (AVMs), the efficacy of radiosurgery is limited since the large doses necessary to produce obliteration may increase the risk of radiation necrosis to unacceptable levels. An alternative is to stage the radiosurgery procedure over multiple stages (usually two), effectively irradiating a smaller volume of the AVM nidus with a therapeutic dose during each session. The difference between coordinate systems defined by sequential stereotactic frame placements can be represented by a translation and a rotation. A unique transformation can be determined based on the coordinates of several fiducial markers fixed to the skull and imaged in each stereotactic coordinate system. Using this transformation matrix, isocentre coordinates from the first stage can be displayed in the coordinate system of subsequent stages allowing computation of a combined dose distribution covering the entire AVM. The accuracy of this approach was tested on an anthropomorphic head phantom and was verified dosimetrically. Subtle defects in the phantom were used as control points, and 2 mm diameter steel balls attached to the surface were used as fiducial markers and reference points. CT images (2 mm thick) were acquired. Using a transformation matrix developed with two frame placements, the predicted locations of control and reference points had an average error of 0.6 mm near the fiducial markers and 1.0 mm near the control points. Dose distributions in a staged treatment approach were accurately calculated using the transformation matrix. This approach is simple, fast and accurate. Errors were small and clinically acceptable for Gamma Knife radiosurgery. Accuracy can be improved by reducing the CT slice thickness.
Combining Multiple Gyroscope Outputs for Increased Accuracy
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Bayard, David S.
2003-01-01
A proposed method of processing the outputs of multiple gyroscopes to increase the accuracy of rate (that is, angular-velocity) readings has been developed theoretically and demonstrated by computer simulation. Although the method is applicable, in principle, to any gyroscopes, it is intended especially for application to gyroscopes that are parts of microelectromechanical systems (MEMS). The method is based on the concept that the collective performance of multiple, relatively inexpensive, nominally identical devices can be better than that of one of the devices considered by itself. The method would make it possible to synthesize the readings of a single, more accurate gyroscope (a virtual gyroscope) from the outputs of a large number of microscopic gyroscopes fabricated together on a single MEMS chip. The big advantage would be that the combination of the MEMS gyroscope array and the processing circuitry needed to implement the method would be smaller, lighter in weight, and less power-hungry, relative to a conventional gyroscope of equal accuracy. The method (see figure) is one of combining and filtering the digitized outputs of multiple gyroscopes to obtain minimum-variance estimates of rate. In the combining-and-filtering operations, measurement data from the gyroscopes would be weighted and smoothed with respect to each other according to the gain matrix of a minimum- variance filter. According to Kalman-filter theory, the gain matrix of the minimum-variance filter is uniquely specified by the filter covariance, which propagates according to a matrix Riccati equation. The present method incorporates an exact analytical solution of this equation.
Endochronic theory of transient creep and creep recovery
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Wu, H. C.; Chen, L.
1979-01-01
Short time creep and creep recovery were investigated by means of the endochronic theory of viscoplasticity. It is shown that the constitutive equations for constant-strain-rate stress-strain behavior, creep, creep recovery, and stress relaxation can all ber derived from the general constitutive equation by imposing appropriate constraints. In this unified approach, the effect of strain-hardening is naturally accounted for when describing creep and creep recovery. The theory predicts with reasonable accuracy the creep and creep recovery behaviors for Aluminum 1100-0 at 150 C. It was found that the strain-rate history at prestraining stage affects the subsequent creep. A critical stress was also established for creep recovery. The theory predicts a forward creep for creep recovery stress greater than the critical stress. For creep recovery stress less than the critical stress, the theory then predicts a normal strain recovery.
Wang, Sui; Zhang, Ruifeng
2006-08-11
The objective of this article was to investigate the feasibility of epoxy resin-based monoliths prepared by stepwise polymerization and column preconcentration of metal ions using large-scale monolithic matrix. A novel macroporous polymer monolith matrix was prepared from epoxy resin (EP) and ethylenediamine (EDA) and pore-forming reagent (polyethylene glycol, PEG-1000) by in situ step-addition polymerization. The morphology of the resulting polymer monolith was characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). A solid-phase extraction (SPE) cartridge prepared from a simple glass-tube was used for the preconcentration and determination of Pb(II) combined with flame atomic absorption spectroscopy (FAAS). The characteristics of the monoliths for the extraction of Pb(II) in aqueous solution were investigated. The experimental results showed that trace Pb(II) ions could be quantitatively preconcentrated in the pH range of 4.0-9.0 with recoveries of >95%. The maximum static adsorption capacity of the monolith adsorbent was 106.8 mg g(-1). The column was eluted by 1.0 mol L(-1) HNO3 and recovery of Pb(II) was more than 97%. Moreover, the polymer monolith adsorbent shows superior reusability and stability. The precision and the accuracy of the proposed procedure were satisfactory by analyzing a standard reference material and three natural water samples. It was shown that the EP-EDA monolith was suitable for the preconcentration of environmental Pb(II) as an ion-selective SPE adsorbent.
The Spectrum of Neurological Recovery
Mir, Tanveer P.
2012-01-01
The equivalence of brain death with death is largely, although not universally accepted. Patients may have suffered insults such as cardiac arrest, vascular catastrophe, poisoning, or head trauma. Early identification of patients at greatest risk of poor neurologic outcome and management in the appropriate critical care setting is the key to maximizing neurological recovery. Recent technological advances and neuroimaging have made it possible to predict neurological reversibility with great accuracy. Significant improvements in therapy such as hypothermia, will improve outcomes in neurological catastrophies, particularly in anoxic-ischemic encephalopathy. The clinical spectrum and diagnostic criteria of minimally conscious and vegetative states is reviewed. The current understanding of the differences in prognosis and prediction of meaningful cognitive and functional recovery in each neurological state is described. Establishing an understanding of the ethical principles that guide medical decisions in clinical practice related to different neurological states is evolving into a new field called neuroethics. PMID:23610514
Adjustment of Pesticide Concentrations for Temporal Changes in Analytical Recovery, 1992-2006
Martin, Jeffrey D.; Stone, Wesley W.; Wydoski, Duane S.; Sandstrom, Mark W.
2009-01-01
Recovery is the proportion of a target analyte that is quantified by an analytical method and is a primary indicator of the analytical bias of a measurement. Recovery is measured by analysis of quality-control (QC) water samples that have known amounts of target analytes added ('spiked' QC samples). For pesticides, recovery is the measured amount of pesticide in the spiked QC sample expressed as percentage of the amount spiked, ideally 100 percent. Temporal changes in recovery have the potential to adversely affect time-trend analysis of pesticide concentrations by introducing trends in environmental concentrations that are caused by trends in performance of the analytical method rather than by trends in pesticide use or other environmental conditions. This report examines temporal changes in the recovery of 44 pesticides and 8 pesticide degradates (hereafter referred to as 'pesticides') that were selected for a national analysis of time trends in pesticide concentrations in streams. Water samples were analyzed for these pesticides from 1992 to 2006 by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. Recovery was measured by analysis of pesticide-spiked QC water samples. Temporal changes in pesticide recovery were investigated by calculating robust, locally weighted scatterplot smooths (lowess smooths) for the time series of pesticide recoveries in 5,132 laboratory reagent spikes; 1,234 stream-water matrix spikes; and 863 groundwater matrix spikes. A 10-percent smoothing window was selected to show broad, 6- to 12-month time scale changes in recovery for most of the 52 pesticides. Temporal patterns in recovery were similar (in phase) for laboratory reagent spikes and for matrix spikes for most pesticides. In-phase temporal changes among spike types support the hypothesis that temporal change in method performance is the primary cause of temporal change in recovery. Although temporal patterns of recovery were in phase for most pesticides, recovery in matrix spikes was greater
Test Expectancy Affects Metacomprehension Accuracy
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Thiede, Keith W.; Wiley, Jennifer; Griffin, Thomas D.
2011-01-01
Background: Theory suggests that the accuracy of metacognitive monitoring is affected by the cues used to judge learning. Researchers have improved monitoring accuracy by directing attention to more appropriate cues; however, this is the first study to more directly point students to more appropriate cues using instructions regarding tests and…
Matrix Completion Optimization for Localization in Wireless Sensor Networks for Intelligent IoT
Nguyen, Thu L. N.; Shin, Yoan
2016-01-01
Localization in wireless sensor networks (WSNs) is one of the primary functions of the intelligent Internet of Things (IoT) that offers automatically discoverable services, while the localization accuracy is a key issue to evaluate the quality of those services. In this paper, we develop a framework to solve the Euclidean distance matrix completion problem, which is an important technical problem for distance-based localization in WSNs. The sensor network localization problem is described as a low-rank dimensional Euclidean distance completion problem with known nodes. The task is to find the sensor locations through recovery of missing entries of a squared distance matrix when the dimension of the data is small compared to the number of data points. We solve a relaxation optimization problem using a modification of Newton’s method, where the cost function depends on the squared distance matrix. The solution obtained in our scheme achieves a lower complexity and can perform better if we use it as an initial guess for an interactive local search of other higher precision localization scheme. Simulation results show the effectiveness of our approach. PMID:27213378
Matrix Completion Optimization for Localization in Wireless Sensor Networks for Intelligent IoT.
Nguyen, Thu L N; Shin, Yoan
2016-05-18
Localization in wireless sensor networks (WSNs) is one of the primary functions of the intelligent Internet of Things (IoT) that offers automatically discoverable services, while the localization accuracy is a key issue to evaluate the quality of those services. In this paper, we develop a framework to solve the Euclidean distance matrix completion problem, which is an important technical problem for distance-based localization in WSNs. The sensor network localization problem is described as a low-rank dimensional Euclidean distance completion problem with known nodes. The task is to find the sensor locations through recovery of missing entries of a squared distance matrix when the dimension of the data is small compared to the number of data points. We solve a relaxation optimization problem using a modification of Newton's method, where the cost function depends on the squared distance matrix. The solution obtained in our scheme achieves a lower complexity and can perform better if we use it as an initial guess for an interactive local search of other higher precision localization scheme. Simulation results show the effectiveness of our approach.
Rogers, Matt
2016-07-12
Every 100 days, the Department of Energy is held accountable for a progress report on the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act. Update at 200 days, hosted by Matt Rogers, Senior Advisor to Secretary Steven Chu for Recovery Act Implementation.
Rogers, Matt
2009-01-01
Every 100 days, the Department of Energy is held accountable for a progress report on the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act. Update at 200 days, hosted by Matt Rogers, Senior Advisor to Secretary Steven Chu for Recovery Act Implementation.
Farooque, Mohammad; Yuh, Chao-Yi
1996-01-01
A carbonate fuel cell matrix comprising support particles and crack attenuator particles which are made platelet in shape to increase the resistance of the matrix to through cracking. Also disclosed is a matrix having porous crack attenuator particles and a matrix whose crack attenuator particles have a thermal coefficient of expansion which is significantly different from that of the support particles, and a method of making platelet-shaped crack attenuator particles.
Ma, Xu; Cheng, Yongmei; Hao, Shuai
2016-12-10
Automatic classification of terrain surfaces from an aerial image is essential for an autonomous unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) landing at an unprepared site by using vision. Diverse terrain surfaces may show similar spectral properties due to the illumination and noise that easily cause poor classification performance. To address this issue, a multi-stage classification algorithm based on low-rank recovery and multi-feature fusion sparse representation is proposed. First, color moments and Gabor texture feature are extracted from training data and stacked as column vectors of a dictionary. Then we perform low-rank matrix recovery for the dictionary by using augmented Lagrange multipliers and construct a multi-stage terrain classifier. Experimental results on an aerial map database that we prepared verify the classification accuracy and robustness of the proposed method.
Matrix with Prescribed Eigenvectors
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Ahmad, Faiz
2011-01-01
It is a routine matter for undergraduates to find eigenvalues and eigenvectors of a given matrix. But the converse problem of finding a matrix with prescribed eigenvalues and eigenvectors is rarely discussed in elementary texts on linear algebra. This problem is related to the "spectral" decomposition of a matrix and has important technical…
The intraclass covariance matrix.
Carey, Gregory
2005-09-01
Introduced by C.R. Rao in 1945, the intraclass covariance matrix has seen little use in behavioral genetic research, despite the fact that it was developed to deal with family data. Here, I reintroduce this matrix, and outline its estimation and basic properties for data sets on pairs of relatives. The intraclass covariance matrix is appropriate whenever the research design or mathematical model treats the ordering of the members of a pair as random. Because the matrix has only one estimate of a population variance and covariance, both the observed matrix and the residual matrix from a fitted model are easy to inspect visually; there is no need to mentally average homologous statistics. Fitting a model to the intraclass matrix also gives the same log likelihood, likelihood-ratio (LR) chi2, and parameter estimates as fitting that model to the raw data. A major advantage of the intraclass matrix is that only two factors influence the LR chi2--the sampling error in estimating population parameters and the discrepancy between the model and the observed statistics. The more frequently used interclass covariance matrix adds a third factor to the chi2--sampling error of homologous statistics. Because of this, the degrees of freedom for fitting models to an intraclass matrix differ from fitting that model to an interclass matrix. Future research is needed to establish differences in power-if any--between the interclass and the intraclass matrix.
When Does Choice of Accuracy Measure Alter Imputation Accuracy Assessments?
Ramnarine, Shelina; Zhang, Juan; Chen, Li-Shiun; Culverhouse, Robert; Duan, Weimin; Hancock, Dana B.; Hartz, Sarah M.; Johnson, Eric O.; Olfson, Emily; Schwantes-An, Tae-Hwi; Saccone, Nancy L.
2015-01-01
Imputation, the process of inferring genotypes for untyped variants, is used to identify and refine genetic association findings. Inaccuracies in imputed data can distort the observed association between variants and a disease. Many statistics are used to assess accuracy; some compare imputed to genotyped data and others are calculated without reference to true genotypes. Prior work has shown that the Imputation Quality Score (IQS), which is based on Cohen’s kappa statistic and compares imputed genotype probabilities to true genotypes, appropriately adjusts for chance agreement; however, it is not commonly used. To identify differences in accuracy assessment, we compared IQS with concordance rate, squared correlation, and accuracy measures built into imputation programs. Genotypes from the 1000 Genomes reference populations (AFR N = 246 and EUR N = 379) were masked to match the typed single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) coverage of several SNP arrays and were imputed with BEAGLE 3.3.2 and IMPUTE2 in regions associated with smoking behaviors. Additional masking and imputation was conducted for sequenced subjects from the Collaborative Genetic Study of Nicotine Dependence and the Genetic Study of Nicotine Dependence in African Americans (N = 1,481 African Americans and N = 1,480 European Americans). Our results offer further evidence that concordance rate inflates accuracy estimates, particularly for rare and low frequency variants. For common variants, squared correlation, BEAGLE R2, IMPUTE2 INFO, and IQS produce similar assessments of imputation accuracy. However, for rare and low frequency variants, compared to IQS, the other statistics tend to be more liberal in their assessment of accuracy. IQS is important to consider when evaluating imputation accuracy, particularly for rare and low frequency variants. PMID:26458263
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
de Miranda, John; Williams, Greg
2011-01-01
Young people are entering long-term recovery probably in greater numbers than ever before. A key word here is "probably" because we know precious little about the phenomenon of young people who recover from alcohol and drug addition. This article is a preliminary exploration of youth in recovery. It reviews several types of recovery support…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Kauffman, Jeffrey
2008-01-01
Thanatologists, as Balk recently commented (Balk, 2004), have been saying that there is no recovery from bereavement, or that we should not speak of bereavement as leading to a recovery. The term recovery has a high level of plasticity and can be shaped to fit diverse meanings, including contradictory meanings. We will sort our way through some of…
Smith, R.V
1989-03-01
Technology continues to grow in the realm of enhanced oil recovery. Since 1950 several processes have proven economic for oil recovery. Others are still in their infancy and must be custom designed for each reservoir. This paper gives a general overview of these processes. The author focuses on the latest technology and the outlook for enhanced oil recovery operations.
High Accuracy Time Transfer Synchronization
1994-12-01
HIGH ACCURACY TIME TRANSFER SYNCHRONIZATION Paul Wheeler, Paul Koppang, David Chalmers, Angela Davis, Anthony Kubik and William Powell U.S. Naval...Observatory Washington, DC 20392 Abstract In July 1994, the US Naval Observatory (USNO) Time Service System Engineering Division conducted a...field test to establish a baseline accuracy for two-way satellite time transfer synchro- nization. Three Hewlett-Packard model 5071 high performance
Process Analysis Via Accuracy Control
1982-02-01
0 1 4 3 NDARDS THE NATIONAL February 1982 Process Analysis Via Accuracy Control RESEARCH PROG RAM U.S. DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Maritime...SUBTITLE Process Analysis Via Accuracy Control 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT NUMBER 5e...examples are contained in Appendix C. Included, are examples of how “A/C” process - analysis leads to design improvement and how a change in sequence can
Method for the removal and recovery of mercury
Easterly, Clay E.; Vass, Arpad A.; Tyndall, Richard L.
1997-01-01
The present invention is an enhanced method for the removal and recovery of mercury from mercury-contaminated matrices. The method involves contacting a mercury-contaminated matrix with an aqueous dispersant solution derived from specific intra-amoebic isolates to release the mercury from the mercury-contaminated matrix and emulsify the mercury; then, contacting the matrix with an amalgamating metal from a metal source to amalgamate the mercury to the amalgamating metal; removing the metallic source from the mercury-contaminated matrix; and heating the metallic source to vaporize the mercury in a closed system to capture the mercury vapors.
Method for the removal and recovery of mercury
Easterly, C.E.; Vass, A.A.; Tyndall, R.L.
1997-01-28
The present invention is an enhanced method for the removal and recovery of mercury from mercury-contaminated matrices. The method involves contacting a mercury-contaminated matrix with an aqueous dispersant solution derived from specific intra-amoebic isolates to release the mercury from the mercury-contaminated matrix and emulsify the mercury; then, contacting the matrix with an amalgamating metal from a metal source to amalgamate the mercury to the amalgamating metal; removing the metallic source from the mercury-contaminated matrix; and heating the metallic source to vaporize the mercury in a closed system to capture the mercury vapors.
Parce, J. Wallace; Bernatis, Paul; Dubrow, Robert; Freeman, William P.; Gamoras, Joel; Kan, Shihai; Meisel, Andreas; Qian, Baixin; Whiteford, Jeffery A.; Ziebarth, Jonathan
2010-01-12
Matrixes doped with semiconductor nanocrystals are provided. In certain embodiments, the semiconductor nanocrystals have a size and composition such that they absorb or emit light at particular wavelengths. The nanocrystals can comprise ligands that allow for mixing with various matrix materials, including polymers, such that a minimal portion of light is scattered by the matrixes. The matrixes of the present invention can also be utilized in refractive index matching applications. In other embodiments, semiconductor nanocrystals are embedded within matrixes to form a nanocrystal density gradient, thereby creating an effective refractive index gradient. The matrixes of the present invention can also be used as filters and antireflective coatings on optical devices and as down-converting layers. Processes for producing matrixes comprising semiconductor nanocrystals are also provided. Nanostructures having high quantum efficiency, small size, and/or a narrow size distribution are also described, as are methods of producing indium phosphide nanostructures and core-shell nanostructures with Group II-VI shells.
Battleground Energy Recovery Project
Bullock, Daniel
2011-12-31
In October 2009, the project partners began a 36-month effort to develop an innovative, commercial-scale demonstration project incorporating state-of-the-art waste heat recovery technology at Clean Harbors, Inc., a large hazardous waste incinerator site located in Deer Park, Texas. With financial support provided by the U.S. Department of Energy, the Battleground Energy Recovery Project was launched to advance waste heat recovery solutions into the hazardous waste incineration market, an area that has seen little adoption of heat recovery in the United States. The goal of the project was to accelerate the use of energy-efficient, waste heat recovery technology as an alternative means to produce steam for industrial processes. The project had three main engineering and business objectives: Prove Feasibility of Waste Heat Recovery Technology at a Hazardous Waste Incinerator Complex; Provide Low-cost Steam to a Major Polypropylene Plant Using Waste Heat; and Create a Showcase Waste Heat Recovery Demonstration Project.
Matrix preconditioning: a robust operation for optical linear algebra processors.
Ghosh, A; Paparao, P
1987-07-15
Analog electrooptical processors are best suited for applications demanding high computational throughput with tolerance for inaccuracies. Matrix preconditioning is one such application. Matrix preconditioning is a preprocessing step for reducing the condition number of a matrix and is used extensively with gradient algorithms for increasing the rate of convergence and improving the accuracy of the solution. In this paper, we describe a simple parallel algorithm for matrix preconditioning, which can be implemented efficiently on a pipelined optical linear algebra processor. From the results of our numerical experiments we show that the efficacy of the preconditioning algorithm is affected very little by the errors of the optical system.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yang, Yongchao; Nagarajaiah, Satish
2016-06-01
Randomly missing data of structural vibration responses time history often occurs in structural dynamics and health monitoring. For example, structural vibration responses are often corrupted by outliers or erroneous measurements due to sensor malfunction; in wireless sensing platforms, data loss during wireless communication is a common issue. Besides, to alleviate the wireless data sampling or communication burden, certain accounts of data are often discarded during sampling or before transmission. In these and other applications, recovery of the randomly missing structural vibration responses from the available, incomplete data, is essential for system identification and structural health monitoring; it is an ill-posed inverse problem, however. This paper explicitly harnesses the data structure itself-of the structural vibration responses-to address this (inverse) problem. What is relevant is an empirical, but often practically true, observation, that is, typically there are only few modes active in the structural vibration responses; hence a sparse representation (in frequency domain) of the single-channel data vector, or, a low-rank structure (by singular value decomposition) of the multi-channel data matrix. Exploiting such prior knowledge of data structure (intra-channel sparse or inter-channel low-rank), the new theories of ℓ1-minimization sparse recovery and nuclear-norm-minimization low-rank matrix completion enable recovery of the randomly missing or corrupted structural vibration response data. The performance of these two alternatives, in terms of recovery accuracy and computational time under different data missing rates, is investigated on a few structural vibration response data sets-the seismic responses of the super high-rise Canton Tower and the structural health monitoring accelerations of a real large-scale cable-stayed bridge. Encouraging results are obtained and the applicability and limitation of the presented methods are discussed.
Luo, Zhimin; Du, Wei; Zheng, Penglei; Guo, Pengqi; Wu, Ningli; Tang, Weili; Zeng, Aiguo; Chang, Chun; Fu, Qiang
2015-09-01
A simple, fast and sensitive method for determination of the degradation products of penicillin (penicilloic acid and penilloic acid) in milk samples has been developed by combining selective surface molecularly imprinted matrix solid-phase dispersion and high performance liquid chromatography (SMIPs-MSPD-HPLC). The selected dispersant SMIPs had high affinity for penicilloic acid and penilloic acid in milk matrix and the obtained extract was sufficiently clean for direct injection for HPLC analysis without any interference from the matrix. The proposed SMIPs-MSPD-HPLC method was validated for linearity, precision, accuracy, limit of detection and limit of quantitation. Linearity ranged from 0.04 to 4 μg g(-1) (correlation coefficient r(2) > 0.999). Recoveries of penicilloic acid from milk samples at different spiked levels were between 79.8 and 90.3%, with RSD values within 5.2-7.4%, and the limit of detection and limit of quantitation values were 0.04 and 0.13 μg g(-1), respectively. Recoveries of penilloic acid from milk samples at different spiked levels were between 77.4 and 86.2%, with RSD values within 3.1-6.4%, and the limit of detection and limit of quantitation values were 0.05 and 0.17 μg g(-1), respectively. The developed SMIPs-MSPD-HPLC method was successfully applied to direct determination of penicilloic acid and penilloic acid in milk samples.
An Integrated MEMS Gyroscope Array with Higher Accuracy Output.
Chang, Honglong; Xue, Liang; Qin, Wei; Yuan, Guangmin; Yuan, Weizheng
2008-04-28
In this paper, an integrated MEMS gyroscope array method composed of two levels of optimal filtering was designed to improve the accuracy of gyroscopes. In the firstlevel filtering, several identical gyroscopes were combined through Kalman filtering into a single effective device, whose performance could surpass that of any individual sensor. The key of the performance improving lies in the optimal estimation of the random noise sources such as rate random walk and angular random walk for compensating the measurement values. Especially, the cross correlation between the noises from different gyroscopes of the same type was used to establish the system noise covariance matrix and the measurement noise covariance matrix for Kalman filtering to improve the performance further. Secondly, an integrated Kalman filter with six states was designed to further improve the accuracy with the aid of external sensors such as magnetometers and accelerometers in attitude determination. Experiments showed that three gyroscopes with a bias drift of 35 degree per hour could be combined into a virtual gyroscope with a drift of 1.07 degree per hour through the first-level filter, and the bias drift was reduced to 0.53 degree per hour after the second-level filtering. It proved that the proposed integrated MEMS gyroscope array is capable of improving the accuracy of the MEMS gyroscopes, which provides the possibility of using these low cost MEMS sensors in high-accuracy application areas.
Actinide recovery method -- Large soil samples
Maxwell , S.L. III
2000-04-25
There is a need to measure actinides in environmental samples with lower and lower detection limits, requiring larger sample sizes. This analysis is adversely affected by sample-matrix interferences, which make analyzing soil samples above five-grams very difficult. A new Actinide-Recovery Method has been developed by the Savannah River Site Central Laboratory to preconcentrate actinides from large-soil samples. Diphonix Resin (Eichrom Industries), a 1994 R and D 100 winner, is used to preconcentrate the actinides from large soil samples, which are bound powerfully to the resin's diphosphonic acid groups. A rapid microwave-digestion technique is used to remove the actinides from the Diphonix Resin, which effectively eliminates interfering matrix components from the soil matrix. The microwave-digestion technique is more effective and less tedious than catalyzed hydrogen peroxide digestions of the resin or digestion of diphosphonic stripping agents such as HEDPA. After resin digestion, the actinides are recovered in a small volume of nitric acid which can be loaded onto small extraction chromatography columns, such as TEVA Resin, U-TEVA Resin or TRU Resin (Eichrom Industries). Small, selective extraction columns do not generate large volumes of liquid waste and provide consistent tracer recoveries after soil matrix elimination.
Fong, Jiunn N. C.; Yildiz, Fitnat H.
2015-01-01
Proteinaceous components of the biofilm matrix include secreted extracellular proteins, cell surface adhesins and protein subunits of cell appendages such as flagella and pili. Biofilm matrix proteins play diverse roles in biofilm formation and dissolution. They are involved in attaching cells to surfaces, stabilizing the biofilm matrix via interactions with exopolysaccharide and nucleic acid components, developing three-dimensional biofilm architectures, and dissolving biofilm matrix via enzymatic degradation of polysaccharides, proteins, and nucleic acids. In this chapter, we will review functions of matrix proteins in a selected set of microorganisms, studies of the matrix proteomes of Vibrio cholerae and Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and roles of outer membrane vesicles and of nucleoid-binding proteins in biofilm formation. PMID:26104709
Schlecht, Martin F.; Kassakian, John G.; Caloggero, Anthony J.; Rhodes, Bruce; Otten, David; Rasmussen, Neil
1982-01-01
An automatic switching matrix that includes an apertured matrix board containing a matrix of wires that can be interconnected at each aperture. Each aperture has associated therewith a conductive pin which, when fully inserted into the associated aperture, effects electrical connection between the wires within that particular aperture. Means is provided for automatically inserting the pins in a determined pattern and for removing all the pins to permit other interconnecting patterns.
Rowe, Michael; Serowik, Kristin L.; Ablondi, Karen; Wilbur, Charles; Rosen, Marc I.
2014-01-01
Objective Social recovery and external money management are important approaches in contemporary mental health care, but little research has been done on the relationship between the two or on application of recovery principles to money management for people at risk of being assigned a representative payee or conservator. Methods Twenty-five transcripts out of forty-nine total qualitative interviews with persons receiving SSI or SSDI who were at risk of being assigned a money manager were analyzed to assess the presence of recognized recovery themes. Results The recovery principles of self-direction and responsibility were strong themes in participant comments related to money management. Conclusions and Implications for Practice Money management interventions should incorporate peoples’ recovery-related motivations to acquire financial management skills as a means to direct and assume responsibility for one’s finances. Staff involved in money management should receive training to support client’s recovery-related goals. PMID:23750764
Intermediate water recovery system
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Deckman, G.; Anderson, A. R. (Editor)
1973-01-01
A water recovery system for collecting, storing, and processing urine, wash water, and humidity condensates from a crew of three aboard a spacecraft is described. The results of a 30-day test performed on a breadboard system are presented. The intermediate water recovery system produced clear, sterile, water with a 96.4 percent recovery rate from the processed urine. Recommendations for improving the system are included.
Astronomic Position Accuracy Capability Study.
1979-10-01
portion of F. E. Warren AFB, Wyoming. The three points were called THEODORE ECC , TRACY, and JIM and consisted of metal tribrachs plastered to cinder...sets were computed as a deviation from the standard. Accuracy figures were determined from these residuals. Homo - geneity of variances was tested using
The hidden KPI registration accuracy.
Shorrosh, Paul
2011-09-01
Determining the registration accuracy rate is fundamental to improving revenue cycle key performance indicators. A registration quality assurance (QA) process allows errors to be corrected before bills are sent and helps registrars learn from their mistakes. Tools are available to help patient access staff who perform registration QA manually.
Improving Speaking Accuracy through Awareness
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Dormer, Jan Edwards
2013-01-01
Increased English learner accuracy can be achieved by leading students through six stages of awareness. The first three awareness stages build up students' motivation to improve, and the second three provide learners with crucial input for change. The final result is "sustained language awareness," resulting in ongoing…
Inventory accuracy in 60 days!
Miller, G J
1997-08-01
Despite great advances in manufacturing technology and management science, thousands of organizations still don't have a handle on basic inventory accuracy. Many companies don't even measure it properly, or at all, and lack corrective action programs to improve it. This article offers an approach that has proven successful a number of times, when companies were quite serious about making improvements. Not only can it be implemented, but also it can likely be implemented within 60 days per area, if properly managed. The hardest part is selling people on the need to improve and then keeping them motivated. The net cost of such a program? Probably less than nothing, since the benefits gained usually far exceed the costs. Improved inventory accuracy can aid in enhancing customer service, determining purchasing and manufacturing priorities, reducing operating costs, and increasing the accuracy of financial records. This article also addresses the gap in contemporary literature regarding accuracy program features for repetitive, JIT, cellular, and process- and project-oriented environments.
Phillips, Shaun M; Thompson, Richard; Oliver, Jon L
2014-12-01
This study investigated the reliability and accuracy of self-regulated recovery time and performance during repeated sprinting. On 4 occasions, 14 men (24.5 ± 5.0 years) completed 10 × 6 seconds cycle sprints against 7.5% body mass, self-regulating (SR) recovery time to maintain performance. Subjects then repeated the test, but with a reduced recovery (RR) of 10% less recovery time. Across the first 4 trials, there were no between-trial differences in peak power output (PPO) or mean power output (MPO), recovery time, or fatigue index (p > 0.05). Random variation in recovery time was reduced across trials 3-4 (coefficient of variation [CV] = 7.5%, 95% confidence limits [CL] = 5.4-12.4%) compared with trials 1-2 (CV = 16.0, 95% CL = 11.4-27.0%) and 2-3 (CV = 10.1%, 95% CL = 7.2-16.7%) but was consistent across trials for PPO and MPO (between-trials CV, ≤3.3%). There were no trial effects for any performance, physiological, or perceptual measures when comparing SR with RR (p > 0.05), although heart rate and perceptual measures increased with subsequent sprint efforts (p ≤ 0.05). After 2 familiarization trials, subjects can reliably self-regulate recovery time to maintain performance during repeated sprints. However, subjects overestimate the amount of recovery time required, as reducing this time by 10% had no effect on performance, perceptual, or physiological parameters. Self-regulated sprinting is potentially a reliable training tool, particularly for sprint training where maintenance of work is desired. However, overestimation of required recovery time means that performance improvements may not be achieved if the goal of training is improvement of repeated sprint performance with incomplete recovery.
Image recovery from edge primitives
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Alter-Gartenberg, Rachel; Huck, Friedrich O.; Narayanswamy, Ramkumar
1990-01-01
A method for extracting edge primitives from Mach-band patterns is presented together with a method for recovering image representations of features outlined by the edge boundaries. The accuracy, stability, and resolution of these representations are assessed. Since these representations are most commonly used in characterizing targets, this method of low-level processing offers new opportunities for computer vision and high data-compressing coding. Two bandpass filters are considered, the spatially invariant Laplacian of Gaussian filter and spatially variant intensity-dependent spatial (IDS) summation. It is shown that the recovery from the IDS bandpass data is particularly advantageous in applications for which robustness to local and temporal variations in illumination is important. It is concluded that the edge primitives extracted from bandpassed images can be an efficient way to store, transmit, and represent images.
Gutbezahl, Cary; Haan, Perry
2006-01-01
An organization's ability to correct service errors is an important factor in achieving success in today's service economy. This paper examines service recovery in hospitals in the U.S. First is a general review of service recovery theories. Next is a discussion of specific service issues related to the hospital environment. The literature on service recovery is used to make specific recommendations to hospitals for ways to improve their ability to remedy service errors when they occur. Suggestions for future research in the field of service recovery are also made.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Interbartolo, Michael
2009-01-01
Objectives include: a) Describe the organization of recovery force command and control and landing areas; b) Describe the function and timeline use of the Earth Landing System (ELS); c) Describe Stable 1 vs Stable 2 landing configurations and the function of the Command Module Uprighting System; d) Explain the activities of the helicopter and swimmer teams in egress and recovery of the crew; e)Explain the activities of the swimmer teams and primary recovery ship in recovery of the Command Module; and f) Describe several landing incidents that occurred during Apollo.
Abert, J.G.
1983-01-01
Resource Recovery Guides is a collection of articles orignally published between 1975 and 1981. Many of these articles were not easily available to interested readers. Subjects discussed include newspaper recycling, aluminum recovery, codisposal of solid waste and dry sewage sludge, and the recovery of glass from urban refuse. Includes a combined author and subject index. Contents: National concerns for recycling and resource recovery of municipal waste: policy perspectives. Planning, procurement, marketing, economics, and finance. Waste as a source of raw materials. Waste as an energy source.
Improved accuracies for satellite tracking
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kammeyer, P. C.; Fiala, A. D.; Seidelmann, P. K.
1991-01-01
A charge coupled device (CCD) camera on an optical telescope which follows the stars can be used to provide high accuracy comparisons between the line of sight to a satellite, over a large range of satellite altitudes, and lines of sight to nearby stars. The CCD camera can be rotated so the motion of the satellite is down columns of the CCD chip, and charge can be moved from row to row of the chip at a rate which matches the motion of the optical image of the satellite across the chip. Measurement of satellite and star images, together with accurate timing of charge motion, provides accurate comparisons of lines of sight. Given lines of sight to stars near the satellite, the satellite line of sight may be determined. Initial experiments with this technique, using an 18 cm telescope, have produced TDRS-4 observations which have an rms error of 0.5 arc second, 100 m at synchronous altitude. Use of a mosaic of CCD chips, each having its own rate of charge motion, in the focal place of a telescope would allow point images of a geosynchronous satellite and of stars to be formed simultaneously in the same telescope. The line of sight of such a satellite could be measured relative to nearby star lines of sight with an accuracy of approximately 0.03 arc second. Development of a star catalog with 0.04 arc second rms accuracy and perhaps ten stars per square degree would allow determination of satellite lines of sight with 0.05 arc second rms absolute accuracy, corresponding to 10 m at synchronous altitude. Multiple station time transfers through a communications satellite can provide accurate distances from the satellite to the ground stations. Such observations can, if calibrated for delays, determine satellite orbits to an accuracy approaching 10 m rms.
MAPPING SPATIAL THEMATIC ACCURACY WITH FUZZY SETS
Thematic map accuracy is not spatially homogenous but variable across a landscape. Properly analyzing and representing spatial pattern and degree of thematic map accuracy would provide valuable information for using thematic maps. However, current thematic map accuracy measures (...
Sparse recovery via convex optimization
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Randall, Paige Alicia
This thesis considers the problem of estimating a sparse signal from a few (possibly noisy) linear measurements. In other words, we have y = Ax + z where A is a measurement matrix with more columns than rows, x is a sparse signal to be estimated, z is a noise vector, and y is a vector of measurements. This setup arises frequently in many problems ranging from MRI imaging to genomics to compressed sensing.We begin by relating our setup to an error correction problem over the reals, where a received encoded message is corrupted by a few arbitrary errors, as well as smaller dense errors. We show that under suitable conditions on the encoding matrix and on the number of arbitrary errors, one is able to accurately recover the message.We next show that we are able to achieve oracle optimality for x, up to a log factor and a factor of sqrt{s}, when we require the matrix A to obey an incoherence property. The incoherence property is novel in that it allows the coherence of A to be as large as O(1/ log n) and still allows sparsities as large as O(m/log n). This is in contrast to other existing results involving coherence where the coherence can only be as large as O(1/sqrt{m}) to allow sparsities as large as O(sqrt{m}). We also do not make the common assumption that the matrix A obeys a restricted eigenvalue condition.We then show that we can recover a (non-sparse) signal from a few linear measurements when the signal has an exactly sparse representation in an overcomplete dictionary. We again only require that the dictionary obey an incoherence property.Finally, we introduce the method of l_1 analysis and show that it is guaranteed to give good recovery of a signal from a few measurements, when the signal can be well represented in a dictionary. We require that the combined measurement/dictionary matrix satisfies a uniform uncertainty principle and we compare our results with the more standard l_1 synthesis approach.All our methods involve solving an l_1 minimization
Accuracy and speed in computing the Chebyshev collocation derivative
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Don, Wai-Sun; Solomonoff, Alex
1991-01-01
We studied several algorithms for computing the Chebyshev spectral derivative and compare their roundoff error. For a large number of collocation points, the elements of the Chebyshev differentiation matrix, if constructed in the usual way, are not computed accurately. A subtle cause is is found to account for the poor accuracy when computing the derivative by the matrix-vector multiplication method. Methods for accurately computing the elements of the matrix are presented, and we find that if the entities of the matrix are computed accurately, the roundoff error of the matrix-vector multiplication is as small as that of the transform-recursion algorithm. Results of CPU time usage are shown for several different algorithms for computing the derivative by the Chebyshev collocation method for a wide variety of two-dimensional grid sizes on both an IBM and a Cray 2 computer. We found that which algorithm is fastest on a particular machine depends not only on the grid size, but also on small details of the computer hardware as well. For most practical grid sizes used in computation, the even-odd decomposition algorithm is found to be faster than the transform-recursion method.
Link prediction via matrix completion
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pech, Ratha; Hao, Dong; Pan, Liming; Cheng, Hong; Zhou, Tao
2017-02-01
Inspired by the practical importance of social networks, economic networks, biological networks and so on, studies on large and complex networks have attracted a surge of attention in the recent years. Link prediction is a fundamental issue to understand the mechanisms by which new links are added to the networks. We introduce the method of robust principal component analysis (robust PCA) into link prediction, and estimate the missing entries of the adjacency matrix. On the one hand, our algorithm is based on the sparse and low-rank property of the matrix, while, on the other hand, it also performs very well when the network is dense. This is because a relatively dense real network is also sparse in comparison to the complete graph. According to extensive experiments on real networks from disparate fields, when the target network is connected and sufficiently dense, whether it is weighted or unweighted, our method is demonstrated to be very effective and with prediction accuracy being considerably improved compared to many state-of-the-art algorithms.
Czerwinski, Michael; Spence, Jason R
2017-01-05
Recently in Nature, Gjorevski et al. (2016) describe a fully defined synthetic hydrogel that mimics the extracellular matrix to support in vitro growth of intestinal stem cells and organoids. The hydrogel allows exquisite control over the chemical and physical in vitro niche and enables identification of regulatory properties of the matrix.
HEAVY AND THERMAL OIL RECOVERY PRODUCTION MECHANISMS
Anthony R. Kovscek
2002-07-01
This technical progress report describes work performed from April 1 through June 30, 2002, for the project ''Heavy and Thermal Oil Recovery Production Mechanisms.'' We investigate a broad spectrum of topics related to thermal and heavy-oil recovery. Significant results were obtained in the areas of multiphase flow and rock properties, hot-fluid injection, improved primary heavy oil recovery, and reservoir definition. The research tools and techniques used are varied and span from pore-level imaging of multiphase fluid flow to definition of reservoir-scale features through streamline-based history-matching techniques. Briefly, experiments were conducted to image at the pore level matrix-to-fracture production of oil from a fractured porous medium. This project is ongoing. A simulation studied was completed in the area of recovery processes during steam injection into fractured porous media. We continued to study experimentally heavy-oil production mechanisms from relatively low permeability rocks under conditions of high pressure and high temperature. High temperature significantly increased oil recovery rate and decreased residual oil saturation. Also in the area of imaging production processes in laboratory-scale cores, we use CT to study the process of gas-phase formation during solution gas drive in viscous oils. Results from recent experiments are reported here. Finally, a project was completed that uses the producing water-oil ratio to define reservoir heterogeneity and integrate production history into a reservoir model using streamline properties.
Grassmann matrix quantum mechanics
Anninos, Dionysios; Denef, Frederik; Monten, Ruben
2016-04-21
We explore quantum mechanical theories whose fundamental degrees of freedom are rectangular matrices with Grassmann valued matrix elements. We study particular models where the low energy sector can be described in terms of a bosonic Hermitian matrix quantum mechanics. We describe the classical curved phase space that emerges in the low energy sector. The phase space lives on a compact Kähler manifold parameterized by a complex matrix, of the type discovered some time ago by Berezin. The emergence of a semiclassical bosonic matrix quantum mechanics at low energies requires that the original Grassmann matrices be in the long rectangular limit.more » In conclusion, we discuss possible holographic interpretations of such matrix models which, by construction, are endowed with a finite dimensional Hilbert space.« less
Grassmann matrix quantum mechanics
Anninos, Dionysios; Denef, Frederik; Monten, Ruben
2016-04-21
We explore quantum mechanical theories whose fundamental degrees of freedom are rectangular matrices with Grassmann valued matrix elements. We study particular models where the low energy sector can be described in terms of a bosonic Hermitian matrix quantum mechanics. We describe the classical curved phase space that emerges in the low energy sector. The phase space lives on a compact Kähler manifold parameterized by a complex matrix, of the type discovered some time ago by Berezin. The emergence of a semiclassical bosonic matrix quantum mechanics at low energies requires that the original Grassmann matrices be in the long rectangular limit. In conclusion, we discuss possible holographic interpretations of such matrix models which, by construction, are endowed with a finite dimensional Hilbert space.
Markowski, Adam S; Mannan, M Sam
2008-11-15
A risk matrix is a mechanism to characterize and rank process risks that are typically identified through one or more multifunctional reviews (e.g., process hazard analysis, audits, or incident investigation). This paper describes a procedure for developing a fuzzy risk matrix that may be used for emerging fuzzy logic applications in different safety analyses (e.g., LOPA). The fuzzification of frequency and severity of the consequences of the incident scenario are described which are basic inputs for fuzzy risk matrix. Subsequently using different design of risk matrix, fuzzy rules are established enabling the development of fuzzy risk matrices. Three types of fuzzy risk matrix have been developed (low-cost, standard, and high-cost), and using a distillation column case study, the effect of the design on final defuzzified risk index is demonstrated.
Efficient Data Gathering Methods in Wireless Sensor Networks Using GBTR Matrix Completion
Wang, Donghao; Wan, Jiangwen; Nie, Zhipeng; Zhang, Qiang; Fei, Zhijie
2016-01-01
To obtain efficient data gathering methods for wireless sensor networks (WSNs), a novel graph based transform regularized (GBTR) matrix completion algorithm is proposed. The graph based transform sparsity of the sensed data is explored, which is also considered as a penalty term in the matrix completion problem. The proposed GBTR-ADMM algorithm utilizes the alternating direction method of multipliers (ADMM) in an iterative procedure to solve the constrained optimization problem. Since the performance of the ADMM method is sensitive to the number of constraints, the GBTR-A2DM2 algorithm obtained to accelerate the convergence of GBTR-ADMM. GBTR-A2DM2 benefits from merging two constraint conditions into one as well as using a restart rule. The theoretical analysis shows the proposed algorithms obtain satisfactory time complexity. Extensive simulation results verify that our proposed algorithms outperform the state of the art algorithms for data collection problems in WSNs in respect to recovery accuracy, convergence rate, and energy consumption. PMID:27657085
"Sizing Up" Codependency Recovery.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Messner, Beth A.
1996-01-01
Analyzes codependency related, self-help literature with a dramatistic lens to explore M. Beattie's bibliotherapeutic portrayal of codependency and codependency recovery. Depicts Beattie's "stylistic medicine" for codependency recovery as a three-step, rebirth experience: (1) recognize the codependent pollution within; (2) engage in…
Accuracy of implant impression techniques.
Assif, D; Marshak, B; Schmidt, A
1996-01-01
Three impression techniques were assessed for accuracy in a laboratory cast that simulated clinical practice. The first technique used autopolymerizing acrylic resin to splint the transfer copings. The second involved splinting of the transfer copings directly to an acrylic resin custom tray. In the third, only impression material was used to orient the transfer copings. The accuracy of stone casts with implant analogs was measured against a master framework. The fit of the framework on the casts was tested using strain gauges. The technique using acrylic resin to splint transfer copings in the impression material was significantly more accurate than the two other techniques. Stresses observed in the framework are described and discussed with suggestions to improve clinical and laboratory techniques.
Martial arts striking hand peak acceleration, accuracy and consistency.
Neto, Osmar Pinto; Marzullo, Ana Carolina De Miranda; Bolander, Richard P; Bir, Cynthia A
2013-01-01
The goal of this paper was to investigate the possible trade-off between peak hand acceleration and accuracy and consistency of hand strikes performed by martial artists of different training experiences. Ten male martial artists with training experience ranging from one to nine years volunteered to participate in the experiment. Each participant performed 12 maximum effort goal-directed strikes. Hand acceleration during the strikes was obtained using a tri-axial accelerometer block. A pressure sensor matrix was used to determine the accuracy and consistency of the strikes. Accuracy was estimated by the radial distance between the centroid of each subject's 12 strikes and the target, whereas consistency was estimated by the square root of the 12 strikes mean squared distance from their centroid. We found that training experience was significantly correlated to hand peak acceleration prior to impact (r(2)=0.456, p =0.032) and accuracy (r(2)=0. 621, p=0.012). These correlations suggest that more experienced participants exhibited higher hand peak accelerations and at the same time were more accurate. Training experience, however, was not correlated to consistency (r(2)=0.085, p=0.413). Overall, our results suggest that martial arts training may lead practitioners to achieve higher striking hand accelerations with better accuracy and no change in striking consistency.
Liang, Yicheng; Peng, Hao
2015-02-07
Depth-of-interaction (DOI) poses a major challenge for a PET system to achieve uniform spatial resolution across the field-of-view, particularly for small animal and organ-dedicated PET systems. In this work, we implemented an analytical method to model system matrix for resolution recovery, which was then incorporated in PET image reconstruction on a graphical processing unit platform, due to its parallel processing capacity. The method utilizes the concepts of virtual DOI layers and multi-ray tracing to calculate the coincidence detection response function for a given line-of-response. The accuracy of the proposed method was validated for a small-bore PET insert to be used for simultaneous PET/MR breast imaging. In addition, the performance comparisons were studied among the following three cases: 1) no physical DOI and no resolution modeling; 2) two physical DOI layers and no resolution modeling; and 3) no physical DOI design but with a different number of virtual DOI layers. The image quality was quantitatively evaluated in terms of spatial resolution (full-width-half-maximum and position offset), contrast recovery coefficient and noise. The results indicate that the proposed method has the potential to be used as an alternative to other physical DOI designs and achieve comparable imaging performances, while reducing detector/system design cost and complexity.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bokhove, H.
The High Accuracy Sun Sensor (HASS) is described, concentrating on measurement principle, the CCD detector used, the construction of the sensorhead and the operation of the sensor electronics. Tests on a development model show that the main aim of a 0.01-arcsec rms stability over a 10-minute period is closely approached. Remaining problem areas are associated with the sensor sensitivity to illumination level variations, the shielding of the detector, and the test and calibration equipment.
Enhancing and evaluating diagnostic accuracy.
Swets, J A; Getty, D J; Pickett, R M; D'Orsi, C J; Seltzer, S E; McNeil, B J
1991-01-01
Techniques that may enhance diagnostic accuracy in clinical settings were tested in the context of mammography. Statistical information about the relevant features among those visible in a mammogram and about their relative importances in the diagnosis of breast cancer was the basis of two decision aids for radiologists: a checklist that guides the radiologist in assigning a scale value to each significant feature of the images of a particular case, and a computer program that merges those scale values optimally to estimate a probability of malignancy. A test set of approximately 150 proven cases (including normals and benign and malignant lesions) was interpreted by six radiologists, first in their usual manner and later with the decision aids. The enhancing effect of these feature-analytic techniques was analyzed across subsets of cases that were restricted progressively to more and more difficult cases, where difficulty was defined in terms of the radiologists' judgements in the standard reading condition. Accuracy in both standard and enhanced conditions decreased regularly and substantially as case difficulty increased, but differentially, such that the enhancement effect grew regularly and substantially. For the most difficult case sets, the observed increases in accuracy translated into an increase of about 0.15 in sensitivity (true-positive proportion) for a selected specificity (true-negative proportion) of 0.85 or a similar increase in specificity for a selected sensitivity of 0.85. That measured accuracy can depend on case-set difficulty to different degrees for two diagnostic approaches has general implications for evaluation in clinical medicine. Comparative, as well as absolute, assessments of diagnostic performances--for example, of alternative imaging techniques--may be distorted by inadequate treatments of this experimental variable. Subset analysis, as defined and illustrated here, can be useful in alleviating the problem.
Cortical Plasticity during Motor Learning and Recovery after Ischemic Stroke
Hosp, Jonas A.; Luft, Andreas R.
2011-01-01
The motor system has the ability to adapt to environmental constraints and injury to itself. This adaptation is often referred to as a form of plasticity allowing for livelong acquisition of new movements and for recovery after stroke. We are not sure whether learning and recovery work via same or similar neural mechanisms. But, all these processes require widespread changes within the matrix of the brain. Here, basic mechanisms of these adaptations on the level of cortical circuitry and networks are reviewed. We focus on the motor cortices because their role in learning and recovery has been investigated more thoroughly than other brain regions. PMID:22135758
Li, Xiaowen; Shen, Baohua; Jiang, Zheng; Huang, Yi; Zhuo, Xianyi
2013-08-09
A novel analytical toxicology method has been developed for the analysis of drugs of abuse in human urine by using a high resolution and high mass accuracy hybrid linear ion trap-Orbitrap mass spectrometer (LTQ-Orbitrap-MS). This method allows for the detection of different drugs of abuse, including amphetamines, cocaine, opiate alkaloids, cannabinoids, hallucinogens and their metabolites. After solid-phase extraction with Oasis HLB cartridges, spiked urine samples were analysed by HPLC/LTQ-Orbitrap-MS using an electrospray interface in positive ionisation mode, with resolving power of 30,000 full width at half maximum (FWHM). Gradient elution off of a Hypersil Gold PFP column (50mm×2.1mm) allowed to resolve 65 target compounds and 3 internal standards in a total chromatographic run time of 20min. Validation of this method consisted of confirmation of identity, selectivity, linearity, limit of detection (LOD), lowest limits of quantification (LLOQ), accuracy, precision, extraction recovery and matrix effect. The regression coefficients (r(2)) for the calibration curves (LLOQ - 100ng/mL) in the study were ≥0.99. The LODs for 65 validated compounds were better than 5ng/ml except for 4 compounds. The relative standard deviation (RSD), which was used to estimate repeatability at three concentrations, was always less than 15%. The recovery of extraction and matrix effects were above 50 and 70%, respectively. Mass accuracy was always better than 2ppm, corresponding to a maximum mass error of 0.8 millimass units (mmu). The accurate masses of characteristic fragments were obtained by collisional experiments for a more reliable identification of the analytes. Automated data analysis and reporting were performed using ToxID software with an exact mass database. This procedure was then successfully applied to analyse drugs of abuse in a real urine sample from subject who was assumed to be drug addict.
Municipal water consumption forecast accuracy
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fullerton, Thomas M.; Molina, Angel L.
2010-06-01
Municipal water consumption planning is an active area of research because of infrastructure construction and maintenance costs, supply constraints, and water quality assurance. In spite of that, relatively few water forecast accuracy assessments have been completed to date, although some internal documentation may exist as part of the proprietary "grey literature." This study utilizes a data set of previously published municipal consumption forecasts to partially fill that gap in the empirical water economics literature. Previously published municipal water econometric forecasts for three public utilities are examined for predictive accuracy against two random walk benchmarks commonly used in regional analyses. Descriptive metrics used to quantify forecast accuracy include root-mean-square error and Theil inequality statistics. Formal statistical assessments are completed using four-pronged error differential regression F tests. Similar to studies for other metropolitan econometric forecasts in areas with similar demographic and labor market characteristics, model predictive performances for the municipal water aggregates in this effort are mixed for each of the municipalities included in the sample. Given the competitiveness of the benchmarks, analysts should employ care when utilizing econometric forecasts of municipal water consumption for planning purposes, comparing them to recent historical observations and trends to insure reliability. Comparative results using data from other markets, including regions facing differing labor and demographic conditions, would also be helpful.
Rotation Matrix Method for Analyzing Noisy Nonlinear Data
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chu, P. C.; Ivanov, L. M.; Margolina, T. M.
2005-12-01
Analysis on noisy nonlinear data is to solve a set of algebraic equations. Three factors affect the accuracy of reconstruction: (a) large condition number of the coefficient matrix, (b) high noise-to-signal ratio in the source term, and (c) no a-priori knowledge of noise statistics. To improve the reconstruction accuracy, the set of linear algebraic equations is transformed into a new one with minimum condition number and noise-to-signal ratio using the rotation matrix. The procedure does not require any knowledge of low-order statistics of noises. Several examples including highly distorted Lorenz attractor, Black Sea circulations illustrate the benefit of using this procedure.
Fast calculation of Laurent expansions for matrix inverses
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fornberg, Bengt
2016-12-01
Previously described algorithms for calculating the Laurent expansion of the inverse of a matrix-valued analytic function become impractical already for singularity orders as low as around p = 6, since they require over O (28p) matrix multiplications and correspondingly large amounts of memory. In place of using mathematically exact recursions, we show that, for floating point calculations, a rational approximation approach can avoid this cost barrier without any significant loss in accuracy.
Bayesian hierarchical model for large-scale covariance matrix estimation.
Zhu, Dongxiao; Hero, Alfred O
2007-12-01
Many bioinformatics problems implicitly depend on estimating large-scale covariance matrix. The traditional approaches tend to give rise to high variance and low accuracy due to "overfitting." We cast the large-scale covariance matrix estimation problem into the Bayesian hierarchical model framework, and introduce dependency between covariance parameters. We demonstrate the advantages of our approaches over the traditional approaches using simulations and OMICS data analysis.
On the spline-based wavelet differentiation matrix
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Jameson, Leland
1993-01-01
The differentiation matrix for a spline-based wavelet basis is constructed. Given an n-th order spline basis it is proved that the differentiation matrix is accurate of order 2n + 2 when periodic boundary conditions are assumed. This high accuracy, or superconvergence, is lost when the boundary conditions are no longer periodic. Furthermore, it is shown that spline-based bases generate a class of compact finite difference schemes.
Lei, Fen-Fen; Zhang, Xue-Na; Gao, Yuan-Li; Han, Ya-Hong; Li, Xiu-Juan; Pan, Si-Yi
2012-05-01
Multiple headspace solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME) using a novel fiber coated with anilino-methyl triethoxy silicane-methacrylic acid/terminated silicone oil has been introduced as a useful pretreatment technique coupled to gas chromatography-flame ionization detector for the detection of ethyl carbamate in pickles. Anilino-methyl triethoxy silicane and methacrylic acid are put into use simultaneously with the aim to increase the hydrogen interaction strength between ethyl carbamate and the coating. In addition, the new fiber exhibits high thermal stability, good reproducibility, and long lifetime. Extraction temperature, extraction time, amount of desiccant, and amount of sample were well optimized to guarantee the suitability of multiple HS-SPME. Significant matrix interference was observed among various types of pickles and the multiple HS-SPME procedure was proved to be effective in avoiding the matrix effect by a complete recovery of the analyte. The method showed satisfactory linearity (0.1-100 mg kg(-1)), precision (4.25%, n = 5), and detection limit (0.038 mg kg(-1)). The accuracy of the method was evaluated by comparison with standard addition method and the results were statistically equivalent. The study indicates that the multiple HS-SPME procedure is simple, convenient, accurate, and low-cost, and most of all, can be used for quantitative analysis in complex matrix without matrix effect.
Wei, Zuofu; Pan, Youzhi; Li, Lu; Huang, Yuyang; Qi, Xiaolin; Luo, Meng; Zu, Yuangang; Fu, Yujie
2014-11-01
A method based on matrix solid-phase dispersion extraction followed by ultra high performance liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry is presented for the extraction and determination of phenolic compounds in Equisetum palustre. This method combines the high efficiency of matrix solid-phase dispersion extraction and the rapidity, sensitivity, and accuracy of ultra high performance liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry. The influential parameters of the matrix solid-phase dispersion extraction were investigated and optimized. The optimized conditions were as follows: silica gel was selected as dispersing sorbent, the ratio of silica gel to sample was selected to be 2:1 (400/200 mg), and 8 mL of 80% methanol was used as elution solvent. Furthermore, a fast and sensitive ultra high performance liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry method was developed for the determination of nine phenolic compounds in E. palustre. This method was carried out within <6 min, and exhibited satisfactory linearity, precision, and recovery. Compared with ultrasound-assisted extraction, the proposed matrix solid-phase dispersion procedure possessed higher extraction efficiency, and was more convenient and time saving with reduced requirements on sample and solvent amounts. All these results suggest that the developed method represents an excellent alternative for the extraction and determination of active components in plant matrices.
Convex Banding of the Covariance Matrix.
Bien, Jacob; Bunea, Florentina; Xiao, Luo
2016-01-01
We introduce a new sparse estimator of the covariance matrix for high-dimensional models in which the variables have a known ordering. Our estimator, which is the solution to a convex optimization problem, is equivalently expressed as an estimator which tapers the sample covariance matrix by a Toeplitz, sparsely-banded, data-adaptive matrix. As a result of this adaptivity, the convex banding estimator enjoys theoretical optimality properties not attained by previous banding or tapered estimators. In particular, our convex banding estimator is minimax rate adaptive in Frobenius and operator norms, up to log factors, over commonly-studied classes of covariance matrices, and over more general classes. Furthermore, it correctly recovers the bandwidth when the true covariance is exactly banded. Our convex formulation admits a simple and efficient algorithm. Empirical studies demonstrate its practical effectiveness and illustrate that our exactly-banded estimator works well even when the true covariance matrix is only close to a banded matrix, confirming our theoretical results. Our method compares favorably with all existing methods, in terms of accuracy and speed. We illustrate the practical merits of the convex banding estimator by showing that it can be used to improve the performance of discriminant analysis for classifying sound recordings.
Performance and Accuracy of LAPACK's Symmetric TridiagonalEigensolvers
Demmel, Jim W.; Marques, Osni A.; Parlett, Beresford N.; Vomel,Christof
2007-04-19
We compare four algorithms from the latest LAPACK 3.1 release for computing eigenpairs of a symmetric tridiagonal matrix. These include QR iteration, bisection and inverse iteration (BI), the Divide-and-Conquer method (DC), and the method of Multiple Relatively Robust Representations (MR). Our evaluation considers speed and accuracy when computing all eigenpairs, and additionally subset computations. Using a variety of carefully selected test problems, our study includes a variety of today's computer architectures. Our conclusions can be summarized as follows. (1) DC and MR are generally much faster than QR and BI on large matrices. (2) MR almost always does the fewest floating point operations, but at a lower MFlop rate than all the other algorithms. (3) The exact performance of MR and DC strongly depends on the matrix at hand. (4) DC and QR are the most accurate algorithms with observed accuracy O({radical}ne). The accuracy of BI and MR is generally O(ne). (5) MR is preferable to BI for subset computations.
Martens, J.S.; Hietala, V.M.; Plut, T.A.
1995-01-03
The present invention comprises a novel matrix amplifier. The matrix amplifier includes an active superconducting power divider (ASPD) having N output ports; N distributed amplifiers each operatively connected to one of the N output ports of the ASPD; and a power combiner having N input ports each operatively connected to one of the N distributed amplifiers. The distributed amplifier can included M stages of amplification by cascading superconducting active devices. The power combiner can include N active elements. The resulting (N[times]M) matrix amplifier can produce signals of high output power, large bandwidth, and low noise. 6 figures.
Martens, Jon S.; Hietala, Vincent M.; Plut, Thomas A.
1995-01-01
The present invention comprises a novel matrix amplifier. The matrix amplifier includes an active superconducting power divider (ASPD) having N output ports; N distributed amplifiers each operatively connected to one of the N output ports of the ASPD; and a power combiner having N input ports each operatively connected to one of the N distributed amplifiers. The distributed amplifier can included M stages of amplification by cascading superconducting active devices. The power combiner can include N active elements. The resulting (N.times.M) matrix amplifier can produce signals of high output power, large bandwidth, and low noise.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Morozov, A.
2012-08-01
Partition functions of eigenvalue matrix models possess a number of very different descriptions: as matrix integrals, as solutions to linear and nonlinear equations, as τ-functions of integrable hierarchies and as special-geometry prepotentials, as result of the action of W-operators and of various recursions on elementary input data, as gluing of certain elementary building blocks. All this explains the central role of such matrix models in modern mathematical physics: they provide the basic "special functions" to express the answers and relations between them, and they serve as a dream model of what one should try to achieve in any other field.
Paffhausen, M.W.; Smith, D.L.; Ugaki, S.N.
1990-09-01
This report describes Phase I of the Solvent Recycle/Recovery Task of the DOE Chlorinated Solvent Substitution Program for the US Air Force by the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, EG G Idaho, Inc., through the US Department of Energy, Idaho Operations Office. The purpose of the task is to identify and test recovery and recycling technologies for proposed substitution solvents identified by the Biodegradable Solvent Substitution Program and the Alternative Solvents/Technologies for Paint Stripping Program with the overall objective of minimizing hazardous wastes. A literature search to identify recycle/recovery technologies and initial distillation studies has been conducted. 4 refs.
Measuring Diagnoses: ICD Code Accuracy
O'Malley, Kimberly J; Cook, Karon F; Price, Matt D; Wildes, Kimberly Raiford; Hurdle, John F; Ashton, Carol M
2005-01-01
Objective To examine potential sources of errors at each step of the described inpatient International Classification of Diseases (ICD) coding process. Data Sources/Study Setting The use of disease codes from the ICD has expanded from classifying morbidity and mortality information for statistical purposes to diverse sets of applications in research, health care policy, and health care finance. By describing a brief history of ICD coding, detailing the process for assigning codes, identifying where errors can be introduced into the process, and reviewing methods for examining code accuracy, we help code users more systematically evaluate code accuracy for their particular applications. Study Design/Methods We summarize the inpatient ICD diagnostic coding process from patient admission to diagnostic code assignment. We examine potential sources of errors at each step and offer code users a tool for systematically evaluating code accuracy. Principle Findings Main error sources along the “patient trajectory” include amount and quality of information at admission, communication among patients and providers, the clinician's knowledge and experience with the illness, and the clinician's attention to detail. Main error sources along the “paper trail” include variance in the electronic and written records, coder training and experience, facility quality-control efforts, and unintentional and intentional coder errors, such as misspecification, unbundling, and upcoding. Conclusions By clearly specifying the code assignment process and heightening their awareness of potential error sources, code users can better evaluate the applicability and limitations of codes for their particular situations. ICD codes can then be used in the most appropriate ways. PMID:16178999
Recovery After Stroke: Healthy Eating
Recovery After Stroke: Healthy Eating Eating well after stroke is key to your recovery. Choosing healthy foods can help you keep up ... get the nutrition you need for your stroke recovery. Eat your biggest meal early in the day ...
The "Pesticide-exposure Matrix" was developed to help epidemiologists and other researchers identify the active ingredients to which people were likely exposed when their homes and gardens were treated for pests in past years.
Functional Polymer Matrix Fibers
2007-11-02
the carbon nanofibers led to the deterioration of the polymeric cellulose structure. Extensive research on the surface treatment of carbon nanofibers...1 November 2003 - 14-Mar-05 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER FA8655-03-1-3042 Functional Polymer Matrix Fibres 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM...MARYLABONE RD LONDON NWl 5TH PERFORMANCE REPORT Project title: Functional polymer matrix fibers Period of performance: 1 November 2003 - 31 October 2004
Optical coherency matrix tomography
Kagalwala, Kumel H.; Kondakci, H. Esat; Abouraddy, Ayman F.; Saleh, Bahaa E. A.
2015-01-01
The coherence of an optical beam having multiple degrees of freedom (DoFs) is described by a coherency matrix G spanning these DoFs. This optical coherency matrix has not been measured in its entirety to date—even in the simplest case of two binary DoFs where G is a 4 × 4 matrix. We establish a methodical yet versatile approach—optical coherency matrix tomography—for reconstructing G that exploits the analogy between this problem in classical optics and that of tomographically reconstructing the density matrix associated with multipartite quantum states in quantum information science. Here G is reconstructed from a minimal set of linearly independent measurements, each a cascade of projective measurements for each DoF. We report the first experimental measurements of the 4 × 4 coherency matrix G associated with an electromagnetic beam in which polarization and a spatial DoF are relevant, ranging from the traditional two-point Young’s double slit to spatial parity and orbital angular momentum modes. PMID:26478452
Grummitt, W.E.; Hardwick, W.H.
1961-01-01
A process is given for the recovery of ruthenium from its aqueous solutions by oxidizing the ruthenium to the octavalent state and subsequently extracting the ruthenium into a halogen-substituted liquid paraffin.
Boulineau, B.
1991-08-26
In August of 1990 the Savannah River Site Photography Group began testing on a different type of silver recovery system. This paper describes the baseline study and the different phases of installation and testing of the system.
Knowledge discovery by accuracy maximization
Cacciatore, Stefano; Luchinat, Claudio; Tenori, Leonardo
2014-01-01
Here we describe KODAMA (knowledge discovery by accuracy maximization), an unsupervised and semisupervised learning algorithm that performs feature extraction from noisy and high-dimensional data. Unlike other data mining methods, the peculiarity of KODAMA is that it is driven by an integrated procedure of cross-validation of the results. The discovery of a local manifold’s topology is led by a classifier through a Monte Carlo procedure of maximization of cross-validated predictive accuracy. Briefly, our approach differs from previous methods in that it has an integrated procedure of validation of the results. In this way, the method ensures the highest robustness of the obtained solution. This robustness is demonstrated on experimental datasets of gene expression and metabolomics, where KODAMA compares favorably with other existing feature extraction methods. KODAMA is then applied to an astronomical dataset, revealing unexpected features. Interesting and not easily predictable features are also found in the analysis of the State of the Union speeches by American presidents: KODAMA reveals an abrupt linguistic transition sharply separating all post-Reagan from all pre-Reagan speeches. The transition occurs during Reagan’s presidency and not from its beginning. PMID:24706821
High accuracy time transfer synchronization
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Wheeler, Paul J.; Koppang, Paul A.; Chalmers, David; Davis, Angela; Kubik, Anthony; Powell, William M.
1995-01-01
In July 1994, the U.S. Naval Observatory (USNO) Time Service System Engineering Division conducted a field test to establish a baseline accuracy for two-way satellite time transfer synchronization. Three Hewlett-Packard model 5071 high performance cesium frequency standards were transported from the USNO in Washington, DC to Los Angeles, California in the USNO's mobile earth station. Two-Way Satellite Time Transfer links between the mobile earth station and the USNO were conducted each day of the trip, using the Naval Research Laboratory(NRL) designed spread spectrum modem, built by Allen Osborne Associates(AOA). A Motorola six channel GPS receiver was used to track the location and altitude of the mobile earth station and to provide coordinates for calculating Sagnac corrections for the two-way measurements, and relativistic corrections for the cesium clocks. This paper will discuss the trip, the measurement systems used and the results from the data collected. We will show the accuracy of using two-way satellite time transfer for synchronization and the performance of the three HP 5071 cesium clocks in an operational environment.
Multispectral palmprint recognition using a quaternion matrix.
Xu, Xingpeng; Guo, Zhenhua; Song, Changjiang; Li, Yafeng
2012-01-01
Palmprints have been widely studied for biometric recognition for many years. Traditionally, a white light source is used for illumination. Recently, multispectral imaging has drawn attention because of its high recognition accuracy. Multispectral palmprint systems can provide more discriminant information under different illuminations in a short time, thus they can achieve better recognition accuracy. Previously, multispectral palmprint images were taken as a kind of multi-modal biometrics, and the fusion scheme on the image level or matching score level was used. However, some spectral information will be lost during image level or matching score level fusion. In this study, we propose a new method for multispectral images based on a quaternion model which could fully utilize the multispectral information. Firstly, multispectral palmprint images captured under red, green, blue and near-infrared (NIR) illuminations were represented by a quaternion matrix, then principal component analysis (PCA) and discrete wavelet transform (DWT) were applied respectively on the matrix to extract palmprint features. After that, Euclidean distance was used to measure the dissimilarity between different features. Finally, the sum of two distances and the nearest neighborhood classifier were employed for recognition decision. Experimental results showed that using the quaternion matrix can achieve a higher recognition rate. Given 3000 test samples from 500 palms, the recognition rate can be as high as 98.83%.
Two-Matrix Photometer Control System
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhantayev, Zh. Sh.; Kuratov, K. S.; Seytimbetov, A. M.; Mailybayev, A. G.; Alimgazinova, N. Sh.; Manapbayeva, A. B.; Kuratova, A. K.; Iztleuov, N. T.
In this paper astronomical two-matrix photometer is described. It differs from common one CCD camera photometers by using the second CCD camera. It enables simultaneously to carry out the studied star and standard star light inputs measurements. The second camera application enables significantly to increase measurements accuracy and at least twice time decrease of one star observation. The significant increase of measurements accuracy is reached by carrying out simultaneous observations, and errors caused by the Earth atmosphere fluctuation are the same as for studied star so for standard star. Time decrease is reached by carrying out both stars simultaneous observations. In the paper photometer's optical mechanics scheme is given. The motion mechanism of receiving and recording block with micrometer screw rotated by stepping motor is described. It is demonstrated that exact coordinates of matrix position attached to clutch on micrometer screw are shoot by absolute magnetic encoder. The applied two-matrix photometer control system electronic equipment is described. The photometer operation control algorithm installed on Tien-Shan astronomical observatory 1-meter telescope is presented.
Multispectral Palmprint Recognition Using a Quaternion Matrix
Xu, Xingpeng; Guo, Zhenhua; Song, Changjiang; Li, Yafeng
2012-01-01
Palmprints have been widely studied for biometric recognition for many years. Traditionally, a white light source is used for illumination. Recently, multispectral imaging has drawn attention because of its high recognition accuracy. Multispectral palmprint systems can provide more discriminant information under different illuminations in a short time, thus they can achieve better recognition accuracy. Previously, multispectral palmprint images were taken as a kind of multi-modal biometrics, and the fusion scheme on the image level or matching score level was used. However, some spectral information will be lost during image level or matching score level fusion. In this study, we propose a new method for multispectral images based on a quaternion model which could fully utilize the multispectral information. Firstly, multispectral palmprint images captured under red, green, blue and near-infrared (NIR) illuminations were represented by a quaternion matrix, then principal component analysis (PCA) and discrete wavelet transform (DWT) were applied respectively on the matrix to extract palmprint features. After that, Euclidean distance was used to measure the dissimilarity between different features. Finally, the sum of two distances and the nearest neighborhood classifier were employed for recognition decision. Experimental results showed that using the quaternion matrix can achieve a higher recognition rate. Given 3000 test samples from 500 palms, the recognition rate can be as high as 98.83%. PMID:22666049
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Baker, A. J.; Soliman, M. O.
1978-01-01
A study of accuracy and convergence of linear functional finite element solution to linear parabolic and hyperbolic partial differential equations is presented. A variable-implicit integration procedure is employed for the resultant system of ordinary differential equations. Accuracy and convergence is compared for the consistent and two lumped assembly procedures for the identified initial-value matrix structure. Truncation error estimation is accomplished using Richardson extrapolation.
Postattack Recovery Strategies.
1980-11-01
relocation conditions --problems that range from financing and the stockpiling of needed resources to providing information about how, where, and with...sustain their health, improve economic and social conditions and start rebuilding for the long-term recovery. The types of information that would be...Postattack Economic Conditions One of the important federal roles for aiding postattack economic recovery will be that of supplying information on
Holmes, J.R.
1981-01-01
Sanitary landfill of domestic, commercial, and industrial wastes is the predominant method of waste disposal in the United Kingdom. Although there was various waste disposal processes at various stages of design and test, landfill and incineration are still the only reliable methods of waste processing. Methods of recovery and use of refuse are examined in this book together with various separation processes, waste derived fuels, refuse composting, and glass and metal recovery. (Refs. 39).
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
1968-01-01
A team of U.S. Navy underwater demolition swimmers prepares the Apollo 8 command module for being hoisted aboard the carrier U.S.S. Yorktown, prime recovery vessel for the initial manned lunar orbital mission. The crew members - astronauts Frank Borman, James A. Lovell, Jr., and William A. Anders - had already egressed the spacecraft and were aboard the recovery ship at the time of this photo.
Calibration, linearity, precision, and accuracy of a PIXE system
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Richter, F.-W.; Wätjen, U.
1984-04-01
An accuracy and precision of better than 10% each can be achieved with PIXE analysis, with both thin and thick samples. Measures we took to obtain these values for routine analyses in the Marburg PIXE system are discussed. The advantages of an experimental calibration procedure, using thin evaporated standard foils, over the "absolute" method of employing X-ray production cross sections are outlined. The importance of X-ray line intensity ratios, even of weak transitions, for the accurate analysis of interfering elements of low mass content is demonstrated for the Se K α-Pb L ηline overlap. Matrix effects including secondary excitation can be corrected for very well without degrading accuracy under certain conditions.
Actinide Recovery Method for Large Soil Samples
Maxwell, S.L. III; Nichols, S.
1998-11-01
A new Actinide Recovery Method has been developed by the Savannah River Site Central Laboratory to preconcentrate actinides in very large soil samples. Diphonix Resin(r) is used eliminate soil matrix interferences and preconcentrate actinides after soil leaching or soil fusion. A rapid microwave digestion technique is used to remove the actinides from the Diphonix Resin(r). After the resin digestion, the actinides are recovered in a small volume of nitric acid which can be easily loaded onto small extraction-chromatography columns, such as TEVA Resin(r), U-TEVA Resin(r) or TRU Resin(r) (Eichrom Industries). This method enables the application of small, selective extraction-columns to recover actinides from very large soil samples with high selectivity, consistent tracer recoveries and minimal liquid waste.
Goce Gradients In Various Reference Frames and Their Accuracies
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Müller, J.; Oberndorfer, H.
The objective of GOCE (Gravity Field and Steady-State Ocean Circulation Explorer) is the determination of the Earth's gravity field with high spatial resolution. The main sensor is a gradiometer which measures gravity gradients, i.e. the matrix of the sec- ond derivatives of the gravitational potential. Some of them (the diagonal compo- nents of the gravity tensor) are observed with highest accuracy of about 3 mE/ (Hz), whereas the others are determined less accurate. The gradients will be observed in the instrument frame, which approximates the satellite frame (beside some misalign- ments). Some users, however, need the gradients in more convenient frames for further processing. For the transformation of the gradients in other frames (e.g.in the nominal orbital frame or a terrestrial frame), the transformation parameters (orientation angles) and the single components of the gravity tensor have to be known with sufficient ac- curacy. As the accuracy of both quantities is restricted because of conceptual reasons, the resulting gradients in the new frames have only a reduced accuracy. We show how the elements of the gravity tensor and their accuracies look like in the various frames as well as their spectral behaviour.
Accuracy of perturbative master equations.
Fleming, C H; Cummings, N I
2011-03-01
We consider open quantum systems with dynamics described by master equations that have perturbative expansions in the system-environment interaction. We show that, contrary to intuition, full-time solutions of order-2n accuracy require an order-(2n+2) master equation. We give two examples of such inaccuracies in the solutions to an order-2n master equation: order-2n inaccuracies in the steady state of the system and order-2n positivity violations. We show how these arise in a specific example for which exact solutions are available. This result has a wide-ranging impact on the validity of coupling (or friction) sensitive results derived from second-order convolutionless, Nakajima-Zwanzig, Redfield, and Born-Markov master equations.
Increasing Accuracy in Environmental Measurements
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jacksier, Tracey; Fernandes, Adelino; Matthew, Matt; Lehmann, Horst
2016-04-01
Human activity is increasing the concentrations of green house gases (GHG) in the atmosphere which results in temperature increases. High precision is a key requirement of atmospheric measurements to study the global carbon cycle and its effect on climate change. Natural air containing stable isotopes are used in GHG monitoring to calibrate analytical equipment. This presentation will examine the natural air and isotopic mixture preparation process, for both molecular and isotopic concentrations, for a range of components and delta values. The role of precisely characterized source material will be presented. Analysis of individual cylinders within multiple batches will be presented to demonstrate the ability to dynamically fill multiple cylinders containing identical compositions without isotopic fractionation. Additional emphasis will focus on the ability to adjust isotope ratios to more closely bracket sample types without the reliance on combusting naturally occurring materials, thereby improving analytical accuracy.
Accuracy of Pressure Sensitive Paint
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Liu, Tianshu; Guille, M.; Sullivan, J. P.
2001-01-01
Uncertainty in pressure sensitive paint (PSP) measurement is investigated from a standpoint of system modeling. A functional relation between the imaging system output and luminescent emission from PSP is obtained based on studies of radiative energy transports in PSP and photodetector response to luminescence. This relation provides insights into physical origins of various elemental error sources and allows estimate of the total PSP measurement uncertainty contributed by the elemental errors. The elemental errors and their sensitivity coefficients in the error propagation equation are evaluated. Useful formulas are given for the minimum pressure uncertainty that PSP can possibly achieve and the upper bounds of the elemental errors to meet required pressure accuracy. An instructive example of a Joukowsky airfoil in subsonic flows is given to illustrate uncertainty estimates in PSP measurements.
Effect of atmospherics on beamforming accuracy
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Alexander, Richard M.
1990-01-01
Two mathematical representations of noise due to atmospheric turbulence are presented. These representations are derived and used in computer simulations of the Bartlett Estimate implementation of beamforming. Beamforming is an array processing technique employing an array of acoustic sensors used to determine the bearing of an acoustic source. Atmospheric wind conditions introduce noise into the beamformer output. Consequently, the accuracy of the process is degraded and the bearing of the acoustic source is falsely indicated or impossible to determine. The two representations of noise presented here are intended to quantify the effects of mean wind passing over the array of sensors and to correct for these effects. The first noise model is an idealized case. The effect of the mean wind is incorporated as a change in the propagation velocity of the acoustic wave. This yields an effective phase shift applied to each term of the spatial correlation matrix in the Bartlett Estimate. The resultant error caused by this model can be corrected in closed form in the beamforming algorithm. The second noise model acts to change the true direction of propagation at the beginning of the beamforming process. A closed form correction for this model is not available. Efforts to derive effective means to reduce the contributions of the noise have not been successful. In either case, the maximum error introduced by the wind is a beam shift of approximately three degrees. That is, the bearing of the acoustic source is indicated at a point a few degrees from the true bearing location. These effects are not quite as pronounced as those seen in experimental results. Sidelobes are false indications of acoustic sources in the beamformer output away from the true bearing angle. The sidelobes that are observed in experimental results are not caused by these noise models. The effects of mean wind passing over the sensor array as modeled here do not alter the beamformer output as
Generalized matrix inversion is not harder than matrix multiplication
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Petkovic, Marko D.; Stanimirovic, Predrag S.
2009-08-01
Starting from the Strassen method for rapid matrix multiplication and inversion as well as from the recursive Cholesky factorization algorithm, we introduced a completely block recursive algorithm for generalized Cholesky factorization of a given symmetric, positive semi-definite matrix . We used the Strassen method for matrix inversion together with the recursive generalized Cholesky factorization method, and established an algorithm for computing generalized {2,3} and {2,4} inverses. Introduced algorithms are not harder than the matrix-matrix multiplication.
Extracellular matrix structure.
Theocharis, Achilleas D; Skandalis, Spyros S; Gialeli, Chrysostomi; Karamanos, Nikos K
2016-02-01
Extracellular matrix (ECM) is a non-cellular three-dimensional macromolecular network composed of collagens, proteoglycans/glycosaminoglycans, elastin, fibronectin, laminins, and several other glycoproteins. Matrix components bind each other as well as cell adhesion receptors forming a complex network into which cells reside in all tissues and organs. Cell surface receptors transduce signals into cells from ECM, which regulate diverse cellular functions, such as survival, growth, migration, and differentiation, and are vital for maintaining normal homeostasis. ECM is a highly dynamic structural network that continuously undergoes remodeling mediated by several matrix-degrading enzymes during normal and pathological conditions. Deregulation of ECM composition and structure is associated with the development and progression of several pathologic conditions. This article emphasizes in the complex ECM structure as to provide a better understanding of its dynamic structural and functional multipotency. Where relevant, the implication of the various families of ECM macromolecules in health and disease is also presented.
Pan, Feng; Kasiviswanathan, Shiva
2010-01-01
In the matrix interdiction problem, a real-valued matrix and an integer k is given. The objective is to remove k columns such that the sum over all rows of the maximum entry in each row is minimized. This combinatorial problem is closely related to bipartite network interdiction problem which can be applied to prioritize the border checkpoints in order to minimize the probability that an adversary can successfully cross the border. After introducing the matrix interdiction problem, we will prove the problem is NP-hard, and even NP-hard to approximate with an additive n{gamma} factor for a fixed constant {gamma}. We also present an algorithm for this problem that achieves a factor of (n-k) mUltiplicative approximation ratio.
Recovery of Interdependent Networks
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
di Muro, M. A.; La Rocca, C. E.; Stanley, H. E.; Havlin, S.; Braunstein, L. A.
2016-03-01
Recent network research has focused on the cascading failures in a system of interdependent networks and the necessary preconditions for system collapse. An important question that has not been addressed is how to repair a failing system before it suffers total breakdown. Here we introduce a recovery strategy for nodes and develop an analytic and numerical framework for studying the concurrent failure and recovery of a system of interdependent networks based on an efficient and practically reasonable strategy. Our strategy consists of repairing a fraction of failed nodes, with probability of recovery γ, that are neighbors of the largest connected component of each constituent network. We find that, for a given initial failure of a fraction 1 ‑ p of nodes, there is a critical probability of recovery above which the cascade is halted and the system fully restores to its initial state and below which the system abruptly collapses. As a consequence we find in the plane γ ‑ p of the phase diagram three distinct phases. A phase in which the system never collapses without being restored, another phase in which the recovery strategy avoids the breakdown, and a phase in which even the repairing process cannot prevent system collapse.
Recovery of Interdependent Networks.
Di Muro, M A; La Rocca, C E; Stanley, H E; Havlin, S; Braunstein, L A
2016-03-09
Recent network research has focused on the cascading failures in a system of interdependent networks and the necessary preconditions for system collapse. An important question that has not been addressed is how to repair a failing system before it suffers total breakdown. Here we introduce a recovery strategy for nodes and develop an analytic and numerical framework for studying the concurrent failure and recovery of a system of interdependent networks based on an efficient and practically reasonable strategy. Our strategy consists of repairing a fraction of failed nodes, with probability of recovery γ, that are neighbors of the largest connected component of each constituent network. We find that, for a given initial failure of a fraction 1 - p of nodes, there is a critical probability of recovery above which the cascade is halted and the system fully restores to its initial state and below which the system abruptly collapses. As a consequence we find in the plane γ - p of the phase diagram three distinct phases. A phase in which the system never collapses without being restored, another phase in which the recovery strategy avoids the breakdown, and a phase in which even the repairing process cannot prevent system collapse.
Recovery of Interdependent Networks
Di Muro, M. A.; La Rocca, C. E.; Stanley, H. E.; Havlin, S.; Braunstein, L. A.
2016-01-01
Recent network research has focused on the cascading failures in a system of interdependent networks and the necessary preconditions for system collapse. An important question that has not been addressed is how to repair a failing system before it suffers total breakdown. Here we introduce a recovery strategy for nodes and develop an analytic and numerical framework for studying the concurrent failure and recovery of a system of interdependent networks based on an efficient and practically reasonable strategy. Our strategy consists of repairing a fraction of failed nodes, with probability of recovery γ, that are neighbors of the largest connected component of each constituent network. We find that, for a given initial failure of a fraction 1 − p of nodes, there is a critical probability of recovery above which the cascade is halted and the system fully restores to its initial state and below which the system abruptly collapses. As a consequence we find in the plane γ − p of the phase diagram three distinct phases. A phase in which the system never collapses without being restored, another phase in which the recovery strategy avoids the breakdown, and a phase in which even the repairing process cannot prevent system collapse. PMID:26956773
Matrixed business support comparison study.
Parsons, Josh D.
2004-11-01
The Matrixed Business Support Comparison Study reviewed the current matrixed Chief Financial Officer (CFO) division staff models at Sandia National Laboratories. There were two primary drivers of this analysis: (1) the increasing number of financial staff matrixed to mission customers and (2) the desire to further understand the matrix process and the opportunities and challenges it creates.
Rheocasting Al Matrix Composites
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Girot, F. A.; Albingre, L.; Quenisset, J. M.; Naslain, R.
1987-11-01
Aluminum alloy matrix composites reinforced by SiC short fibers (or whiskers) can be prepared by rheocasting, a process which consists of the incorporation and homogeneous distribution of the reinforcement by stirring within a semi-solid alloy. Using this technique, composites containing fiber volume fractions in the range of 8-15%, have been obtained for various fibers lengths (i.e., 1 mm, 3 mm and 6 mm for SiC fibers). This paper attempts to delineate the best compocasting conditions for aluminum matrix composites reinforced by short SiC (e.g Nicalon) or SiC whiskers (e.g., Tokamax) and characterize the resulting microstructures.
Density matrix perturbation theory.
Niklasson, Anders M N; Challacombe, Matt
2004-05-14
An orbital-free quantum perturbation theory is proposed. It gives the response of the density matrix upon variation of the Hamiltonian by quadratically convergent recursions based on perturbed projections. The technique allows treatment of embedded quantum subsystems with a computational cost scaling linearly with the size of the perturbed region, O(N(pert.)), and as O(1) with the total system size. The method allows efficient high order perturbation expansions, as demonstrated with an example involving a 10th order expansion. Density matrix analogs of Wigner's 2n+1 rule are also presented.
Unconventional gas recovery symposium
Not Available
1980-01-01
The objective of the SPE and DOE in organizing this symposium has been to bring together in a single annual meeting the best of the professional community engaged in unconventional gas recovery technology. The first venture will focus on discussions of the realities and potentials of unconventional gas sources and an exchange of technology developments. Unconventional gas sources are expected to have an important impact on new gas supplies as technological developments rapidly emerge and become mature technologies in the recovery of natural gas from coal, tight formations, Devonian shale geopressured reservoirs and other alternative high-cost gas sources. It is hoped that this symposium will provide a state-of-art perspective on geology, exploration and production research, recovery technology and field test results. Separate abstracts have been prepared for individual articles for inclusion in the Energy Data Base.
Recovery from vestibular ototoxicity
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Black, F. O.; Gianna-Poulin, C.; Pesznecker, S. C.
2001-01-01
OBJECTIVE: Determine whether subjects with documented vestibular ototoxicity recover vestibular function and, if so, investigate the recovery dynamics. STUDY DESIGN: Prospective and retrospective reviews and repeated measures. SETTING: Clinical research and technology center. SUBJECTS: Twenty-eight subjects who received vestibulotoxic medications were followed for at least 12 months after initial treatment. CONTROLS: Our subject sample was compared with a published database of normal individuals. INTERVENTIONS: All 28 subjects received systemically administered medications known to be ototoxic. The subjects' treating physicians controlled medication, dosage, and administration schedules. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Tests of horizontal canal vestibulo-ocular function were performed. Subjects' auditory and vestibular symptoms were recorded. RESULTS: Eleven subjects (39%) showed changes in horizontal canal vestibulo-ocular gain constant (GC) and/or time constant (TC) consistent with vestibular ototoxicity. When tested 1 year after ototoxic drug administration, eight of the nine subjects who experienced ototoxic decrease in GC showed a recovery of GC to normal limits. Only one of the eight subjects who experienced ototoxic decrease in TC showed recovery of TC to within normal limits. Ototoxicity onset and recovery were independent of baseline vestibular function, and ototoxicity onset did not correlate with cumulative dose of ototoxic medication. There was no relationship between subjective symptoms and ototoxicity onset. CONCLUSIONS: Recovery of GC after vestibular ototoxicity is more commonly observed than recovery of TC. Because ototoxic changes developed and continued in an unpredictable time and manner in relation to ototoxic drug administration, we propose that once ototoxic changes in vestibulo-ocular reflex are detected, ototoxic medications should be discontinued as soon as possible.
Fisk, William J.; Faulkner, David; Sullivan, Douglas P.
2008-10-01
Are the carbon dioxide (CO2) sensors in your demand controlled ventilation systems sufficiently accurate? The data from these sensors are used to automatically modulate minimum rates of outdoor air ventilation. The goal is to keep ventilation rates at or above design requirements while adjusting the ventilation rate with changes in occupancy in order to save energy. Studies of energy savings from demand controlled ventilation and of the relationship of indoor CO2 concentrations with health and work performance provide a strong rationale for use of indoor CO2 data to control minimum ventilation rates1-7. However, this strategy will only be effective if, in practice, the CO2 sensors have a reasonable accuracy. The objective of this study was; therefore, to determine if CO2 sensor performance, in practice, is generally acceptable or problematic. This article provides a summary of study methods and findings ? additional details are available in a paper in the proceedings of the ASHRAE IAQ?2007 Conference8.
Astrophysics with Microarcsecond Accuracy Astrometry
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Unwin, Stephen C.
2008-01-01
Space-based astrometry promises to provide a powerful new tool for astrophysics. At a precision level of a few microarcsonds, a wide range of phenomena are opened up for study. In this paper we discuss the capabilities of the SIM Lite mission, the first space-based long-baseline optical interferometer, which will deliver parallaxes to 4 microarcsec. A companion paper in this volume will cover the development and operation of this instrument. At the level that SIM Lite will reach, better than 1 microarcsec in a single measurement, planets as small as one Earth can be detected around many dozen of the nearest stars. Not only can planet masses be definitely measured, but also the full orbital parameters determined, allowing study of system stability in multiple planet systems. This capability to survey our nearby stellar neighbors for terrestrial planets will be a unique contribution to our understanding of the local universe. SIM Lite will be able to tackle a wide range of interesting problems in stellar and Galactic astrophysics. By tracing the motions of stars in dwarf spheroidal galaxies orbiting our Milky Way, SIM Lite will probe the shape of the galactic potential history of the formation of the galaxy, and the nature of dark matter. Because it is flexibly scheduled, the instrument can dwell on faint targets, maintaining its full accuracy on objects as faint as V=19. This paper is a brief survey of the diverse problems in modern astrophysics that SIM Lite will be able to address.
[Accuracy of HDL cholesterol measurements].
Niedmann, P D; Luthe, H; Wieland, H; Schaper, G; Seidel, D
1983-02-01
The widespread use of different methods for the determination of HDL-cholesterol (in Europe: sodium phosphotungstic acid/MgCl2) in connection with enzymatic procedures (in the USA: heparin/MnCl2 followed by the Liebermann-Burchard method) but common reference values makes it necessary to evaluate not only accuracy, specificity, and precision of the precipitation step but also of the subsequent cholesterol determination. A high ratio of serum vs. concentrated precipitation reagent (10:1 V/V) leads to the formation of variable amounts of delta-3.5-cholestadiene. This substance is not recognized by cholesterol oxidase but leads to an 1.6 times overestimation by the Liebermann-Burchard method. Therefore, errors in HDL-cholesterol determination should be considered and differences up to 30% may occur between HDL-cholesterol values determined by the different techniques (heparin/MnCl2 - Liebermann-Burchard and NaPW/MgCl2-CHOD-PAP).
A. Hutton; D. Arenius; J. Benesch; S. Chattopadhyay; E. F. Daly; O. Garza; R. Kazimi; R. Lauzi; L. Merminga; W. Merz; R. Nelson; W. Oren; M. Poelker; P. Powers; J. Preble; V. Ganni; C. R. Reece; R. Rimmer; M. Spata; S. Suhring
2004-07-01
Hurricane Isabel, originally a Category 5 storm, arrived at Jefferson Lab on September 18, 2003 with winds of only 75 mph, creating little direct damage to the infrastructure. However, electric power was lost for four days allowing the superconducting cryomodules to warm up and causing a total loss of the liquid helium. The subsequent recovery of the cryomodules and the impact of the considerable amount of opportunistic preventive maintenance provides important lessons for all accelerator complexes, not only those with superconducting elements. The details of how the recovery process was structured and the resulting improvement in accelerator availability will be discussed in detail.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Whipple, R. D.
1980-01-01
The potential effectiveness of rockets as an auxiliary means for an aircraft to effect recovery from spins was investigated. The advances in rocket technology produced by the space effort suggested that currently available systems might obviate many of the problems encountered in earlier rocket systems. A modern fighter configuration known to exhibit a flat spin mode was selected. An analytical study was made of the thrust requirements for a rocket spin recovery system for the subject configuration. These results were then applied to a preliminary systems study of rocket components appropriate to the problem. Subsequent spin tunnel tests were run to evaluate the analytical results.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Deckman, G.; Rousseau, J. (Editor)
1973-01-01
The Wash Water Recovery System (WWRS) is intended for use in processing shower bath water onboard a spacecraft. The WWRS utilizes flash evaporation, vapor compression, and pyrolytic reaction to process the wash water to allow recovery of potable water. Wash water flashing and foaming characteristics, are evaluated physical properties, of concentrated wash water are determined, and a long term feasibility study on the system is performed. In addition, a computer analysis of the system and a detail design of a 10 lb/hr vortex-type water vapor compressor were completed. The computer analysis also sized remaining system components on the basis of the new vortex compressor design.
Epigenetics in Stroke Recovery
Kassis, Haifa; Shehadah, Amjad; Chopp, Michael; Zhang, Zheng Gang
2017-01-01
Abstract: While the death rate from stroke has continually decreased due to interventions in the hyperacute stage of the disease, long-term disability and institutionalization have become common sequelae in the aftermath of stroke. Therefore, identification of new molecular pathways that could be targeted to improve neurological recovery among survivors of stroke is crucial. Epigenetic mechanisms such as post-translational modifications of histone proteins and microRNAs have recently emerged as key regulators of the enhanced plasticity observed during repair processes after stroke. In this review, we highlight the recent advancements in the evolving field of epigenetics in stroke recovery. PMID:28264471
An analysis of the accuracy of a parameter optimization. M.S. Thesis
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Baram, Y.
1974-01-01
The numerical operations involved in a currently used optimization technique are discussed and analyzed with special attention to the numerical accuracy. Alternative methods for deriving linear system transfer functions, finding the relationships between the transfer function coefficients and the design parameters, and solving a matrix equation are presented for more accurate and cost effective solutions.
Matrix Embedded Organic Synthesis
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kamakolanu, U. G.; Freund, F. T.
2016-05-01
In the matrix of minerals such as olivine, a redox reaction of the low-z elements occurs. Oxygen is oxidized to the peroxy state while the low-Z-elements become chemically reduced. We assign them a formula [CxHyOzNiSj]n- and call them proto-organics.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Elliott, John
2012-09-01
As part of our 'toolkit' for analysing an extraterrestrial signal, the facility for calculating structural affinity to known phenomena must be part of our core capabilities. Without such a resource, we risk compromising our potential for detection and decipherment or at least causing significant delay in the process. To create such a repository for assessing structural affinity, all known systems (language parameters) need to be structurally analysed to 'place' their 'system' within a relational communication matrix. This will need to include all known variants of language structure, whether 'living' (in current use) or ancient; this must also include endeavours to incorporate yet undeciphered scripts and non-human communication, to provide as complete a picture as possible. In creating such a relational matrix, post-detection decipherment will be assisted by a structural 'map' that will have the potential for 'placing' an alien communication with its nearest known 'neighbour', to assist subsequent categorisation of basic parameters as a precursor to decipherment. 'Universal' attributes and behavioural characteristics of known communication structure will form a range of templates (Elliott, 2001 [1] and Elliott et al., 2002 [2]), to support and optimise our attempt at categorising and deciphering the content of an extraterrestrial signal. Detection of the hierarchical layers, which comprise intelligent, complex communication, will then form a matrix of calculations that will ultimately score affinity through a relational matrix of structural comparison. In this paper we develop the rationales and demonstrate functionality with initial test results.
Matrix product state renormalization
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bal, M.; Rams, M. M.; Zauner, V.; Haegeman, J.; Verstraete, F.
2016-11-01
The truncation or compression of the spectrum of Schmidt values is inherent to the matrix product state (MPS) approximation of one-dimensional quantum ground states. We provide a renormalization group picture by interpreting this compression as an application of Wilson's numerical renormalization group along the imaginary time direction appearing in the path integral representation of the state. The location of the physical index is considered as an impurity in the transfer matrix and static MPS correlation functions are reinterpreted as dynamical impurity correlations. Coarse-graining the transfer matrix is performed using a hybrid variational ansatz based on matrix product operators, combining ideas of MPS and the multiscale entanglement renormalization ansatz. Through numerical comparison with conventional MPS algorithms, we explicitly verify the impurity interpretation of MPS compression, as put forward by V. Zauner et al. [New J. Phys. 17, 053002 (2015), 10.1088/1367-2630/17/5/053002] for the transverse-field Ising model. Additionally, we motivate the conceptual usefulness of endowing MPS with an internal layered structure by studying restricted variational subspaces to describe elementary excitations on top of the ground state, which serves to elucidate a transparent renormalization group structure ingrained in MPS descriptions of ground states.
Ground Truth Sampling and LANDSAT Accuracy Assessment
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Robinson, J. W.; Gunther, F. J.; Campbell, W. J.
1982-01-01
It is noted that the key factor in any accuracy assessment of remote sensing data is the method used for determining the ground truth, independent of the remote sensing data itself. The sampling and accuracy procedures developed for nuclear power plant siting study are described. The purpose of the sampling procedure was to provide data for developing supervised classifications for two study sites and for assessing the accuracy of that and the other procedures used. The purpose of the accuracy assessment was to allow the comparison of the cost and accuracy of various classification procedures as applied to various data types.
Time-dependent deformation of titanium metal matrix composites
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Bigelow, C. A.; Bahei-El-din, Y. A.; Mirdamadi, M.
1995-01-01
A three-dimensional finite element program called VISCOPAC was developed and used to conduct a micromechanics analysis of titanium metal matrix composites. The VISCOPAC program uses a modified Eisenberg-Yen thermo-viscoplastic constitutive model to predict matrix behavior under thermomechanical fatigue loading. The analysis incorporated temperature-dependent elastic properties in the fiber and temperature-dependent viscoplastic properties in the matrix. The material model was described and the necessary material constants were determined experimentally. Fiber-matrix interfacial behavior was analyzed using a discrete fiber-matrix model. The thermal residual stresses due to the fabrication cycle were predicted with a failed interface, The failed interface resulted in lower thermal residual stresses in the matrix and fiber. Stresses due to a uniform transverse load were calculated at two temperatures, room temperature and an elevated temperature of 650 C. At both temperatures, a large stress concentration was calculated when the interface had failed. The results indicate the importance of accuracy accounting for fiber-matrix interface failure and the need for a micromechanics-based analytical technique to understand and predict the behavior of titanium metal matrix composites.
On the Differentiation Matrix for Daubechies-Based Wavelets on an Interval
1993-12-01
wavelet systems defined on an interval. In particular, the differentiation accuracy of the dif- ferentiation matrices constructed from the currently...the product of three ma- trices: E) = CDC. The three matrices are defined as follows: "* The first matrix C is a quadrature matrix mapping from...quadrature matrices and ill- conditioned 3-point quadrature matrices . 6. Quadrature Matrix C Using Samples: C performs the mapping, C : g --+ f. For the D4
Jones, Christina
2014-10-01
Many ICU patients struggle to recovery following critical illness and may be left with physical, cognitive and psychological problems, which have a negative impact on their quality of life. Gross muscle mass loss and weakness can take some months to recover after the patients' Intensive Care Unit (ICU) discharge, in addition critical illness polyneuropathies can further complicate physical recovery. Psychological problems such as anxiety, depression and post traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) are common and have an negative impact on the patients' ability to engage in rehabilitation after ICU discharge. Finally cognitive deficit affecting memory can be a significant problem. The first step in helping patients to recover from such a devastating illness is to recognise those who have the greatest need and target interventions. Research now suggests that there are interventions that can accelerate physical recovery and reduce the incidence of psychological problems such as anxiety, depression and PTSD. Cognitive rehabilitation, however, is still in its infancy. This review will look at the research into patients' recovery and what can be done to improve this where needed.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Harris, Kitty S.; Kimball, Thomas G.; Casiraghi, Ann M.; Maison, Sara J.
2014-01-01
More than ever, people are seeking substance use disorder treatment during the adolescent and young adult stages of development. Developmentally, many of these young adults new to recovery are in the process of making career decisions that may require attendance at a college or university. However, the collegiate environment is not conducive to a…
This study evaluated the product quality, waste reduction/pollution prevention, and economic aspects of three technologies for onsite solvent recovery. The technologies were (1) atmospheric batch distillation, (2) vacuum heat-pump distillation, and (3) low-emission vapor degreas...
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Vogel, Carl
2009-01-01
This article discusses recovery high schools which are designed specifically to serve students who have been through a professional substance abuse treatment program and are working to stay away from drugs and alcohol. The schools typically serve multiple districts and are funded from both the per-pupil state funds that follow a student and what…
Disaster Recovery: Courting Disaster
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
O'Hanlon, Charlene
2007-01-01
An inadequate or nonexistent disaster recovery plan can have dire results. Fire, power outage, and severe weather all can brin down the best of networks in an instant. This article draws on the experiences of the Charlotte County Public Schools (Port Charlotte, Florida), which were able to lessen the damage caused by Hurricane Charley when it hit…
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
1984-01-01
Ball Metal's design of ducting and controls for series of roof top heat exchangers was inspired by Tech Briefs. Heat exchangers are installed on eight press and coating lines used to decorate sheet metal. The heat recovery system provides an estimated energy savings of more than $250,000 per year.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
1959-01-01
On May 28, 1959, a Jupiter Intermediate Range Ballistic Missile provided by a U.S. Army team in Redstone Arsenal, Alabama, launched a nose cone carrying Baker, A South American squirrel monkey and Able, An American-born rhesus monkey. This photograph shows Able after recovery of the nose cone of the Jupiter rocket by U.S.S. Kiowa.
Computer Disaster Recovery Planning.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Clark, Orvin R.
Arguing that complete, reliable, up-to-date system documentation is critical for every data processing environment, this paper on computer disaster recovery planning begins by discussing the importance of such documentation both for recovering from a systems crash, and for system maintenance and enhancement. The various components of system…
Cost Recovery Through Depreciation.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Forrester, Robert T.; Wesolowski, Leonard V.
1983-01-01
The approach of adopting depreciation rather than use allowance in order to recover more accurately the cost of college buildings and equipment used on federal projects is considered. It is suggested that depreciation will offer most colleges and universities a higher annual recovery rate, and an opportunity for better facilities planning. For…
Ismaiel, Omnia A; Jenkins, Rand G; Karnes, H Thomas
2013-08-01
Dried blood spot (DBS) sampling coupled to liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) is a rapidly developing approach in the field of biopharmaceutical analysis. DBS sampling enables analysis of small sample volumes with high sensitivity and selectivity while providing a convenient easy to store and ship format. Lipid components that may be extracted during biological sample processing may result in matrix ionization effects and can significantly affect the precision and accuracy of the results. Glycerophosphocholines (GPChos), cholesterols and triacylglycerols (TAG) are the main lipid components that contribute to matrix effects in LC-MS/MS. Various organic solvents such as methanol, acetonitrile, methyl tertiary butyl ether, ethyl ether, dichloromethane and n-hexane were investigated for elution of these lipid components from DBS samples. Methanol extracts demonstrated the highest levels of GPChos whereas ethyl ether and n-hexane extracts contained less than 1.0 % of the GPChos levels in the methanol extracts. Ethyl ether extracts contained the highest levels of cholesterols and TAG in comparison to other investigated organic solvents. Acetonitrile is recommended as an elution solvent due to low lipid recoveries. Matrix effects resulted from different extracted lipid components should be studied and assessed carefully in DBS samples.
Knaack, Jennifer S; Zhou, Yingtao; Abney, Carter W; Prezioso, Samantha M; Magnuson, Matthew; Evans, Ronald; Jakubowski, Edward M; Hardy, Katelyn; Johnson, Rudolph C
2012-11-20
We have developed a novel immunomagnetic scavenging technique for extracting cholinesterase inhibitors from aqueous matrixes using biological targeting and antibody-based extraction. The technique was characterized using the organophosphorus nerve agent VX. The limit of detection for VX in high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC)-grade water, defined as the lowest calibrator concentration, was 25 pg/mL in a small, 500 μL sample. The method was characterized over the course of 22 sample sets containing calibrators, blanks, and quality control samples. Method precision, expressed as the mean relative standard deviation, was less than 9.2% for all calibrators. Quality control sample accuracy was 102% and 100% of the mean for VX spiked into HPLC-grade water at concentrations of 2.0 and 0.25 ng/mL, respectively. This method successfully was applied to aqueous extracts from soil, hamburger, and finished tap water spiked with VX. Recovery was 65%, 81%, and 100% from these matrixes, respectively. Biologically based extractions of organophosphorus compounds represent a new technique for sample extraction that provides an increase in extraction specificity and sensitivity.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Liu, Qingyang
2010-07-01
This paper proposes the use of photochemical vapor generation with acetic acid as sample introduction for the direct determination of ultra-trace mercury in white vinegars by atomic fluorescence spectrometry. Under ultraviolet irradiation, the sample matrix (acetic acid) can reduce mercury ion to atomic mercury Hg 0, which is swept by argon gas into an atomic fluorescence spectrometer for subsequent analytical measurements. The effects of several factors such as the concentration of acetic acid, irradiation time, the flow rate of the carrier gas and matrix effects were discussed and optimized to give detection limits of 0.08 ng mL -1 for mercury. Using the experimental conditions established during the optimization (3% v/v acetic acid, 30 s irradiation time and 20 W mercury lamp), the precision levels, expressed as relative standard deviation, were 4.6% (one day) and 7.8% (inter-day) for mercury ( n = 9). Addition/recovery tests for evaluation of the accuracy were in the range of 92-98% for mercury. The method was also validated by analysis of vinegar samples without detectable amount of Hg spiked with aqueous standard reference materials (GBW(E) 080392 and GBW(E) 080393). The results were also compared with those obtained by acid digestion procedure and determination of mercury by ICP-MS. There was no significant difference between the results obtained by the two methods based on a t-test (at 95% confidence level).
Effects of accuracy motivation and anchoring on metacomprehension judgment and accuracy.
Zhao, Qin
2012-01-01
The current research investigates how accuracy motivation impacts anchoring and adjustment in metacomprehension judgment and how accuracy motivation and anchoring affect metacomprehension accuracy. Participants were randomly assigned to one of six conditions produced by the between-subjects factorial design involving accuracy motivation (incentive or no) and peer performance anchor (95%, 55%, or no). Two studies showed that accuracy motivation did not impact anchoring bias, but the adjustment-from-anchor process occurred. Accuracy incentive increased anchor-judgment gap for the 95% anchor but not for the 55% anchor, which induced less certainty about the direction of adjustment. The findings offer support to the integrative theory of anchoring. Additionally, the two studies revealed a "power struggle" between accuracy motivation and anchoring in influencing metacomprehension accuracy. Accuracy motivation could improve metacomprehension accuracy in spite of anchoring effect, but if anchoring effect is too strong, it could overpower the motivation effect. The implications of the findings were discussed.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Edelman, Alan; Rao, N. Raj
Random matrix theory is now a big subject with applications in many disciplines of science, engineering and finance. This article is a survey specifically oriented towards the needs and interests of a numerical analyst. This survey includes some original material not found anywhere else. We include the important mathematics which is a very modern development, as well as the computational software that is transforming the theory into useful practice.
Yang, Xiaojing; Xiong, Xuewu; Cao, Ji; Luan, Baolei; Liu, Yongjun; Liu, Guozhu; Zhang, Lei
2015-01-30
Matrix interference, which can lead to false positive/negative results, contamination of injector or separation column, incompatibility between sample solution and the selected analytical instrument, and response inhibition or even quenching, is commonly suffered for the analysis of trace level toxic impurities in drug substance. In this study, a simple matrix precipitation strategy is proposed to eliminate or minimize the above stated matrix interference problems. Generally, a sample of active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs) is dissolved in an appropriate solvent to achieve the desired high concentration and then an anti-solvent is added to precipitate the matrix substance. As a result, the target analyte is extracted into the mixed solution with very less residual of APIs. This strategy has the characteristics of simple manipulation, high recovery and excellent anti-interference capability. It was found that the precipitation ratio (R, representing the ability to remove matrix substance) and the proportion of solvent (the one used to dissolve APIs) in final solution (P, affecting R and also affecting the method sensitivity) are two important factors of the precipitation process. The correlation between R and P was investigated by performing precipitation with various APIs in different solvent/anti-solvent systems. After a detailed mathematical reasoning process, P=20% was proved to be an effective and robust condition to perform the precipitation strategy. The precipitation method with P=20% can be used as a general strategy for toxic impurity analysis in APIs. Finally, several typical examples are described in this article, where the challenging matrix interference issues have been resolved successfully.
A single recovery type curve from Theis' exact solution.
Samani, Nozar; Pasandi, M
2003-01-01
The Theis type curve matching method and the Cooper-Jacob semilog method are commonly used for estimation of transmissivity and storage coefficient of infinite, homogeneous, isotropic, confined aquifers from drawdown data of a constant rate pumping test. Although these methods are based on drawdown data, they are often applied indiscriminately to analyze both drawdown and recovery data. Moreover, the limitations of drawdown type curve to analyze recovery data collected after short pumping times are not well understood by the practicing engineers. This often may result in an erroneous interpretation of such recovery data. In this paper, a novel but simple method is proposed to determine the storage coefficient as well as transmissivity from recovery data measured after the pumping period of an aquifer test. The method eliminates the dependence on pumping time effects and has the advantage of employing only one single recovery type curve. The method based on the conversion of residual drawdown to recovered drawdown (buildup) data plotted versus a new equivalent time (delta(t) x t(p)/t(p) + delta(t)). The method uses the recovery data in one observation point only, and does not need the initial water level h0, which may be unknown. The accuracy of the method is checked with three sets of field data. This method appears to be complementary to the Cooper-Jacob and Theis methods, as it provides values of both storage coefficient and transmissivity from recovery data, regardless of pumping duration.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mortensen, Andreas; Llorca, Javier
2010-08-01
In metal matrix composites, a metal is combined with another, often nonmetallic, phase to produce a novel material having attractive engineering attributes of its own. A subject of much research in the 1980s and 1990s, this class of materials has, in the past decade, increased significantly in variety. Copper matrix composites, layered composites, high-conductivity composites, nanoscale composites, microcellular metals, and bio-derived composites have been added to a palette that, ten years ago, mostly comprised ceramic fiber- or particle-reinforced light metals together with some well-established engineering materials, such as WC-Co cermets. At the same time, research on composites such as particle-reinforced aluminum, aided by novel techniques such as large-cell 3-D finite element simulation or computed X-ray microtomography, has served as a potent vehicle for the elucidation of the mechanics of high-contrast two-phase elastoplastic materials, with implications that range well beyond metal matrix composites.
Spacecraft attitude determination accuracy from mission experience
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Brasoveanu, D.; Hashmall, J.; Baker, D.
1994-10-01
This document presents a compilation of the attitude accuracy attained by a number of satellites that have been supported by the Flight Dynamics Facility (FDF) at Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC). It starts with a general description of the factors that influence spacecraft attitude accuracy. After brief descriptions of the missions supported, it presents the attitude accuracy results for currently active and older missions, including both three-axis stabilized and spin-stabilized spacecraft. The attitude accuracy results are grouped by the sensor pair used to determine the attitudes. A supplementary section is also included, containing the results of theoretical computations of the effects of variation of sensor accuracy on overall attitude accuracy.
Spacecraft attitude determination accuracy from mission experience
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Brasoveanu, D.; Hashmall, J.; Baker, D.
1994-01-01
This document presents a compilation of the attitude accuracy attained by a number of satellites that have been supported by the Flight Dynamics Facility (FDF) at Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC). It starts with a general description of the factors that influence spacecraft attitude accuracy. After brief descriptions of the missions supported, it presents the attitude accuracy results for currently active and older missions, including both three-axis stabilized and spin-stabilized spacecraft. The attitude accuracy results are grouped by the sensor pair used to determine the attitudes. A supplementary section is also included, containing the results of theoretical computations of the effects of variation of sensor accuracy on overall attitude accuracy.
ANALYSIS OF A CLASSIFICATION ERROR MATRIX USING CATEGORICAL DATA TECHNIQUES.
Rosenfield, George H.; Fitzpatrick-Lins, Katherine
1984-01-01
Summary form only given. A classification error matrix typically contains tabulation results of an accuracy evaluation of a thematic classification, such as that of a land use and land cover map. The diagonal elements of the matrix represent the counts corrected, and the usual designation of classification accuracy has been the total percent correct. The nondiagonal elements of the matrix have usually been neglected. The classification error matrix is known in statistical terms as a contingency table of categorical data. As an example, an application of these methodologies to a problem of remotely sensed data concerning two photointerpreters and four categories of classification indicated that there is no significant difference in the interpretation between the two photointerpreters, and that there are significant differences among the interpreted category classifications. However, two categories, oak and cottonwood, are not separable in classification in this experiment at the 0. 51 percent probability. A coefficient of agreement is determined for the interpreted map as a whole, and individually for each of the interpreted categories. A conditional coefficient of agreement for the individual categories is compared to other methods for expressing category accuracy which have already been presented in the remote sensing literature.
Relative Recovery of Thermal Energy and Fresh Water in Aquifer Storage and Recovery Systems.
Miotliński, K; Dillon, P J
2015-01-01
This paper explores the relationship between thermal energy and fresh water recoveries from an aquifer storage recovery (ASR) well in a brackish confined aquifer. It reveals the spatial and temporal distributions of temperature and conservative solutes between injected and recovered water. The evaluation is based on a review of processes affecting heat and solute transport in a homogeneous aquifer. In this simplified analysis, it is assumed that the aquifer is sufficiently anisotropic to inhibit density-affected flow, flow is axisymmetric, and the analysis is limited to a single ASR cycle. Results show that the radial extent of fresh water at the end of injection is greater than that of the temperature change due to the heating or cooling of the geological matrix as well as the interstitial water. While solutes progress only marginally into low permeability aquitards by diffusion, conduction of heat into aquitards above and below is more substantial. Consequently, the heat recovery is less than the solute recovery when the volume of the recovered water is lower than the injection volume. When the full volume of injected water is recovered the temperature mixing ratio divided by the solute mixing ratio for recovered water ranges from 0.95 to 0.6 for ratios of maximum plume radius to aquifer thickness of 0.6 to 4.6. This work is intended to assist conceptual design for dual use of ASR for conjunctive storage of water and thermal energy to maximize the potential benefits.
The accuracy of matrix population model projections for coniferous trees in the Sierra Nevada
van Mantgem, P.J.; Stephenson, N.L.
2005-01-01
No. 2 fuel oil was fed to mallard (Anas platyrhynchos) ducklings in concentrations of 0.5 and 5.0% of the diet from hatching to 18 wk of age to assess the effects of chronic oil ingestion during early development. Five growth parameters (body weight, wing length, ninth primary length, tarsal length, and bill length) were depressed in birds receiving a diet containing 5% fuel oil. There was no oil-related mortality. The 5% fuel oil diet impaired avoidance behavior of 9-d-old mallard ducklings compared with controls or ducklings fed 0.5% oil. Open-field activity was greatly increased in 16-wk-old ducklings fed 5.0% oil. Liver hypertrophy and splenic atrophy were gross evidences of pathological effects in birds on the 5.0% oil diet. More subtle effects included biochemical lesions that resulted in the elevation of plasma alanine aminotransferase and ornithine carbamoyltransferase activity.
Elemental sulfur recovery process
Flytzani-Stephanopoulos, Maria; Hu, Zhicheng
1993-01-01
An improved catalytic reduction process for the direct recovery of elemental sulfur from various SO.sub.2 -containing industrial gas streams. The catalytic process provides combined high activity and selectivity for the reduction of SO.sub.2 to elemental sulfur product with carbon monoxide or other reducing gases. The reaction of sulfur dioxide and reducing gas takes place over certain catalyst formulations based on cerium oxide. The process is a single-stage, catalytic sulfur recovery process in conjunction with regenerators, such as those used in dry, regenerative flue gas desulfurization or other processes, involving direct reduction of the SO.sub.2 in the regenerator off gas stream to elemental sulfur in the presence of a catalyst.
Elemental sulfur recovery process
Flytzani-Stephanopoulos, M.; Zhicheng Hu.
1993-09-07
An improved catalytic reduction process for the direct recovery of elemental sulfur from various SO[sub 2]-containing industrial gas streams. The catalytic process provides combined high activity and selectivity for the reduction of SO[sub 2] to elemental sulfur product with carbon monoxide or other reducing gases. The reaction of sulfur dioxide and reducing gas takes place over certain catalyst formulations based on cerium oxide. The process is a single-stage, catalytic sulfur recovery process in conjunction with regenerators, such as those used in dry, regenerative flue gas desulfurization or other processes, involving direct reduction of the SO[sub 2] in the regenerator off gas stream to elemental sulfur in the presence of a catalyst. 4 figures.
Stevenson, J.W.; Werkema, R.G.
1959-07-28
The recovery of uranium from magnesium fluoride slag obtained as a by- product in the production of uranium metal by the bomb reduction prccess is presented. Generally the recovery is accomplished by finely grinding the slag, roasting ihe ground slag air, and leaching the roasted slag with a hot, aqueous solution containing an excess of the sodium bicarbonate stoichiometrically required to form soluble uranium carbonate complex. The roasting is preferably carried out at between 425 and 485 deg C for about three hours. The leaching is preferably done at 70 to 90 deg C and under pressure. After leaching and filtration the uranium may be recovered from the clear leach liquor by any desired method.
Spontaneous recovery from acalculia.
Basso, Anna; Caporali, Alessandra; Faglioni, Pietro
2005-01-01
A topic much considered in research on acalculia was its relationship with aphasia. Far less attention has been given to the natural course of acalculia. In this retrospective study, we examined the relationship between aphasia and acalculia in an unselected series of 98 left-brain-damaged patients and the spontaneous recovery from acalculia in 92 acalculic patients with follow-up. There was a significant association between aphasia and acalculia although 19 participants exhibited aphasia with no acalculia and six acalculia with no aphasia. We observed significant improvement between a first examination carried out between 1 and 5 months post-onset and a second examination carried out between 3 and 11 months later (mean: 5 months). The mechanisms of spontaneous recovery are discussed.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
1979-01-01
Gasoline is volatile and some of it evaporates during storage, giving off hydrocarbon vapor. Formerly, the vapor was vented into the atmosphere but anti-pollution regulations have precluded that practice in many localities, so oil companies and storage terminals are installing systems to recover hydrocarbon vapor. Recovery provides an energy conservation bonus in that most of the vapor can be reconverted to gasoline. Two such recovery systems are shown in the accompanying photographs (mid-photo at right and in the foreground below). They are actually two models of the same system, although.configured differently because they are customized to users' needs. They were developed and are being manufactured by Edwards Engineering Corporation, Pompton Plains, New Jersey. NASA technological information proved useful in development of the equipment.
Designer drilling increases recovery
Eck-Olsen, J.; Drevdal, K.E.
1995-04-01
Implementation of a new designer-well profile has resulted in increased recovery and production rates. The geologically complex Gullfaks field, located in the Norwegian sector of the North Sea, required a new type of well profile to increase total recovery and production rates from Gullfaks A, B and C platforms. Advances in steerable technology and directional drilling performance enabled a 3-D horizontal, extended-reach well profile, now designated as a designer well, to penetrate multiple targets. This article presents the concept, implementation and conclusions drawn from designer well application. Gullfaks field, in Norwegian North Sea Block 34/10, is the first license ever run by a fully Norwegian joint venture corporation. The license group consists of Statoil (operator), Norsk Hydro and Saga Petroleum. The field currently produces more than 535,000 bopd from three main Jurassic reservoirs.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cao, Zhaoliang; Shao, Lina; Wang, Yukun; Mu, Quanquan; Hu, Lifa; Zhang, Xingyun; Xuan, Li
2016-12-01
The interaction matrix significantly affects the correction accuracy of wavefront correctors. For diffractive liquid crystal wavefront correctors (LCWFCs), the diffraction wavefront error must be taken into account to improve the accuracy of the interaction matrix. In this paper, a tunable Zernike polynomial coefficient method is demonstrated that decreases the effect of the diffraction wavefront error on the interaction matrix. Moreover, to eliminate the effect of the random error, a least squares method is combined with the tunable coefficient method. Experimental results show that, with the combined method, the error of the interaction matrix is decreased by a factor of 2.5 compared to that when the least squares method is used alone. Furthermore, an open loop adaptive correction experiment was performed and a considerable improvement of the image resolution was obtained by the novel method. Therefore, this method is very useful for liquid crystal adaptive optics systems to acquire the high correction accuracy.
Moberg, D. Paul; Finch, Andrew J.
2009-01-01
High schools specifically designed for students recovering from a substance use disorder (substance abuse or dependence) have been emerging as a continuing care resource since 1987. This study of 17 schools provides the first systematic description of recovery school programs and their students. The most common school model is that of a program or affiliated school, embedded organizationally and physically with another school or set of alternative school programs. Although embedded, there are serious efforts to maintain physical separation of recovery school students from other students, using scheduling and physical barriers. Affiliation with public school systems is the case for most recovery schools, and seems to be a major factor in assuring fiscal and organizational feasibility. The students in the recovery high schools studied were predominantly white (78%), with about one-half from two parent homes. Overall parent educational levels suggest a higher mean SES than in the general population. Most students (78%) had prior formal treatment for substance use disorders, often concomitantly with treatment for mental health concerns, and were often referred by treatment providers. Students came with a broad and complex range of mental health issues, traumatic experiences, drug use patterns, criminal justice involvement, and educational backgrounds. The complexity of these problems clearly limits the enrollment capacity of the schools. Retrospective pretest to post-test analysis suggests significant reduction in substance use as well as in mental health symptoms among the students. Students were very positive in their assessment of the therapeutic value of the schools, but less enthusiastic regarding the educational programs. The school programs appear to successfully function as continuing care to reinforce and sustain the therapeutic benefits students gained from their treatment experiences. PMID:19165348
Superconducting energy recovery linacs
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ben-Zvi, Ilan
2016-10-01
High-average-power and high-brightness electron beams from a combination of laser photocathode electron guns and a superconducting energy recovery linac (ERL) is an emerging accelerator science with applications in ERL light sources, high repetition rate free electron lasers , electron cooling, electron ion colliders and more. This paper reviews the accelerator physics issues of superconducting ERLs, discusses major subsystems and provides a few examples of superconducting ERLs.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
1969-01-01
A Navy helicopter arrivies to recover the Apollo 10 astronauts, seen entering a life raft, as the Command Module 'Charlie Brown' floats in the South Pacific. U.S. Navy underwater demolition team swimmers assist in the recovery operations. Splashdown occurred at 11:53 a.m., May 26, 1969, about 400 miles east of American Samoa. Note that in this photo the divers have attached a flotation collar to the spacecraft.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
1983-01-01
Cogeneration system is one in which the energy ordinarily wasted in an industrial process is recovered and reused to create a second form of energy. Such an energy recovery system is in use at Crane Company's plant in Ferguson, KY, which manufactures ceramic bathroom fixtures. Crane's system captures hot stack gases from the company's four ceramic kilns and uses them to produce electrical power for plant operations.
Full CKM matrix with lattice QCD
Okamoto, Masataka; /Fermilab
2004-12-01
The authors show that it is now possible to fully determine the CKM matrix, for the first time, using lattice QCD. |V{sub cd}|, |V{sub cs}|, |V{sub ub}|, |V{sub cb}| and |V{sub us}| are, respectively, directly determined with the lattice results for form factors of semileptonic D {yields} {pi}lv, D {yields} Klv, B {yields} {pi}lv, B {yields} Dlv and K {yields} {pi}lv decays. The error from the quenched approximation is removed by using the MILC unquenced lattice gauge configurations, where the effect of u, d and s quarks is included. The error from the ''chiral'' extrapolation (m{sub l} {yields} m{sub ud}) is greatly reduced by using improved staggered quarks. The accuracy is comparable to that of the Particle Data Group averages. In addition, |V{sub ud}|, |V{sub ts}|, |V{sub ts}| and |V{sub td}| are determined by using unitarity of the CKM matrix and the experimental result for sin (2{beta}). In this way, they obtain all 9 CKM matrix elements, where the only theoretical input is lattice QCD. They also obtain all the Wolfenstein parameters, for the first time, using lattice QCD.
Pyruvate enhances neurological recovery following cardiopulmonary arrest and resuscitation
Sharma, Arti B.; Barlow, Matthew A.; Yang, Shao-Hua; Simpkins, James W.; Mallet, Robert T.
2009-01-01
Purpose Cerebral oxidative stress and metabolic dysfunction impede neurological recovery from cardiac arrest-resuscitation. Pyruvate, a potent antioxidant and energy-yielding fuel, has been shown to protect against oxidant- and ischemia-induced neuronal damage. This study tested whether acute pyruvate treatment during cardiopulmonary resuscitation can prevent neurological dysfunction and cerebral injury following cardiac arrest. Methods Anesthetized, open-chest mongrel dogs underwent 5 min cardiac arrest, 5 min open chest cardiac compression (OCCC), defibrillation and 3 day recovery. Pyruvate (n = 9) or NaCl volume control (n = 8) were administered (0.125 mmol/kg/min iv) throughout OCCC and the first 55 min recovery. Sham dogs (n = 6) underwent surgery and recovery without cardiac arrest-resuscitation. Results Neurological deficit score (NDS), evaluated at 2 day recovery, was sharply increased in NaCl-treated dogs (10.3 ± 3.5) vs. shams (1.2 ± 0.4), but pyruvate treatment mitigated neurological deficit (NDS = 3.3 ± 1.2; P < 0.05 vs. NaCl). Brain samples were taken for histological examination and evaluation of inflammation and cell death at 3 d recovery. Loss of pyramidal neurons in the hippocampal CA1 subregion was greater in the NaCl controls than in pyruvate treated dogs (11.7 ± 2.3% vs. 4.3 ± 1.2%; P < 0.05). Cardiac arrest increased caspase 3 activity, matrix metalloproteinase activity, and DNA fragmentation in the CA1 subregion; pyruvate prevented caspase-3 activation and DNA fragmentation, and suppressed matrix metalloproteinase activity. Conclusion Intravenous pyruvate therapy during cardiopulmonary resuscitation prevents initial oxidative stress and neuronal injury and enhances neurological recovery from cardiac arrest. PMID:17618729
Evans, V.
1982-08-31
The energy recovery device includes a housing having a central shaft which is connected to a lever operating a work-load system capable of generating work-load forces. The central shaft is also connected to a disk having four posts generally parallel to the shaft and initially located at positions corresponding to the four major points of a compass. Within each corner of the housing, a helically coiled spring is positioned over a support post. Each spring has two extending arms which contact two respective adjacent posts on the disk so as to maintain the spring under tension. When the lever is at the neutral position, I.E., when no work-load forces are generated, the recovery forces generated by the four springs within the housing are generally balanced. As the lever is displaced from the neutral position by a driving force, the disk rotates whereby the angular displacement between the arms of any spring decreases. Once the disk is displaced, the spring forces aid in continuing displacement of the disk. Simultaneously the work-load system generates forces which oppose any displacement. The springs are preferably configured and dimensioned so that, at any given displacement of the lever from the neutral position, the recovery forces generally counterbalance the work-load forces. Thus the lever will remain at a given displacement when the driving force applied to the lever is removed. Additionally, the counterbalancing of forces permits continued displacement of the lever with a minimal and constant driving force.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
1998-01-01
Freedom Star, one of NASA's two solid rocket booster recovery ships, is towing a barge containing the third Space Shuttle Super Lightweight External Tank (SLWT) into Port Canaveral. This SLWT was slated for use to launch the orbiter Discovery on mission STS-95 in October 1998. This first time towing arrangement, part of a cost saving plan by NASA to prudently manage existing resources, began June 12 from the Michoud Assembly Facility in New Orleans where the Shuttle's external tanks were manufactured. The barge was transported up Banana River to the LC-39 turn basin using a conventional tug boat. Previously, NASA relied on an outside contractor to provide external tank towing services at a cost of about $120,000 per trip. The new plan allowed NASA's Space Flight Operations contractor, United Space Alliance (USA), to provide the same service to NASA using the recovery ships during their downtime between Shuttle launches. Studies showed a potential savings of about $50,000 per trip. The cost of the necessary ship modifications would be paid back by the fourteenth tank delivery. The other recovery ship, Liberty Star, also underwent deck strengthening enhancements and had the necessary towing wench installed.
On the Matrix Exponential Function
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Hou, Shui-Hung; Hou, Edwin; Pang, Wan-Kai
2006-01-01
A novel and simple formula for computing the matrix exponential function is presented. Specifically, it can be used to derive explicit formulas for the matrix exponential of a general matrix A satisfying p(A) = 0 for a polynomial p(s). It is ready for use in a classroom and suitable for both hand as well as symbolic computation.
Mueller-Jones Matrix measurement in material identification
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Xu, Jiang; Qian, Weixian; Wang, Xiao
2016-09-01
The uniformity of lattice arrangement plays an important role in industrial processing, science and technology studies and environmental pollution detection. However, there are very little papers to study surface structure by depolarization characteristics. In order to improve the efficiency and accuracy of material identification system by polarization technology, we developed a new method to decompose the Mueller matrix, we studied the mechanism of the scattering of electromagnetic wave, and analyzed the relationship between the characteristics of depolarization and mechanism of scattering. We used the Jones Matrix and Mueller Matrix to set up the physical model, and decomposed the Mueller-Jones Matrix by the characteristics of polarization, then got the depolarization coefficients (ωd) of the surfaces of the samples. By using this theory, we deduced the relation formula of Mueller matrix, Mueller-Jones matrix and Isotropic-Depolarizer matrix. Based on the polarized characteristics of the samples, we analyzed design method of material identification system and gave the results of the experimental test. Finally, we applied the theory of Fresnel formulas to verify the theoretical model. From the results, we found that the depolarization coefficients of the samples' surfaces were related to the scattering, and in the whole measurement process, the depolarization coefficients of the samples were far different; the method could easily to distinguish the metal and nonmetal, and more quickly to analyze the surface roughness of the samples. Therefore, the depolarization technology had a great application value, and the paper had very important significance on the development of surface structure study.
Multiscreening determination of organic pollutants in molluscs using matrix solid phase dispersion.
Ziarrusta, H; Olivares, M; Delgado, A; Posada-Ureta, O; Zuloaga, O; Etxebarria, N
2015-04-24
This work describes the optimisation, validation and application of matrix solid-phase dispersion (MSPD) coupled to gas chromatography mass spectrometry, both single quadrupole (GC-MS) and tandem (GC-MS/MS), for the quantification in molluscs of up to 40 different analytes belonging to several families of priority and emerging organic contaminants, including polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), organochlorine pesticides (OCPs), organophosphorus pesticides (OPPs) and musk fragrances. The MSPD procedure was fully optimised with a special focus on the clean-up strategy. The best recoveries were obtained using glass syringes, 0.30 g of freeze-dried sample, 0.30 g of Florisil as solid support, 4.00 g of activated silica and 25 mL of dichloromethane as elution solvent. Using GC-MS/MS the method afforded good linearities (r(2), between 0.980 and 0.9996), adequate repeatability and reproducibility (RSD<17% and 33%, respectively) and low instrumental limits of detection (between 0.010 and 2.74 ng mL(-1)). The accuracy of the method was evaluated using different approaches, i.e. assessment of spiked fish hatchery samples, laboratory reference material and standard reference material (SRM 2977). Satisfactory apparent recoveries were obtained for all the target analytes after correction with the corresponding labelled surrogate, except for PAHs in the case of SRM 2977, which required the use of the standard addition method. Finally, MSPD was applied to mollusc species collected in Colombia and Nicaragua, where PAHs, PCBs, musks and pesticides were detected at low ng g(-1) levels.
The cellulose resource matrix.
Keijsers, Edwin R P; Yılmaz, Gülden; van Dam, Jan E G
2013-03-01
The emerging biobased economy is causing shifts from mineral fossil oil based resources towards renewable resources. Because of market mechanisms, current and new industries utilising renewable commodities, will attempt to secure their supply of resources. Cellulose is among these commodities, where large scale competition can be expected and already is observed for the traditional industries such as the paper industry. Cellulose and lignocellulosic raw materials (like wood and non-wood fibre crops) are being utilised in many industrial sectors. Due to the initiated transition towards biobased economy, these raw materials are intensively investigated also for new applications such as 2nd generation biofuels and 'green' chemicals and materials production (Clark, 2007; Lange, 2007; Petrus & Noordermeer, 2006; Ragauskas et al., 2006; Regalbuto, 2009). As lignocellulosic raw materials are available in variable quantities and qualities, unnecessary competition can be avoided via the choice of suitable raw materials for a target application. For example, utilisation of cellulose as carbohydrate source for ethanol production (Kabir Kazi et al., 2010) avoids the discussed competition with easier digestible carbohydrates (sugars, starch) deprived from the food supply chain. Also for cellulose use as a biopolymer several different competing markets can be distinguished. It is clear that these applications and markets will be influenced by large volume shifts. The world will have to reckon with the increase of competition and feedstock shortage (land use/biodiversity) (van Dam, de Klerk-Engels, Struik, & Rabbinge, 2005). It is of interest - in the context of sustainable development of the bioeconomy - to categorize the already available and emerging lignocellulosic resources in a matrix structure. When composing such "cellulose resource matrix" attention should be given to the quality aspects as well as to the available quantities and practical possibilities of processing the
Kretschmann, Andreas; Cedergreen, Nina; Christensen, Jan H
2016-02-01
Pyrethroids are highly toxic towards aquatic macroinvertebrates such as Daphnia magna and can be synergized when co-occurring with azole fungicides. A sensitive analytical method for the measurement of azole-pyrethroid mixtures in aquatic macroinvertebrates is not available at present. We developed and validated an extraction, cleanup, and quantification procedure for four pyrethroid insecticides and four azole fungicides at the picograms per milligram wet weight level in D. magna using a QuEChERS approach and GC-ECD analysis. Short- and long-term matrix effects were analyzed by injection of a series of extracts from D. magna, and the best surrogate standards were identified through correlation analysis of analyte responses. The presence of matrix clearly stabilized the analyte responses (≤6% relative standard deviation of peak area compared to up to 22% when injected without matrix). The sensitivity was high with detection limits and limits of quantification between 58-168 and 119-571 pg mg(wet weight)(-1) for the azoles and 5.8-27 and 12-84 pg mg(wet weight)(-1) for the pyrethroids, respectively. Accuracy (% recovery) was between 95 and 111% and the precision (repeatability) below 10% relative standard deviation for all analytes. In the case of prochloraz, α-cypermethrin, and deltamethrin, normalization to surrogate standards led to a clear improvement of accuracy and precision by up to 8 and 4%, respectively. The method was successfully applied to the measurement of internal α-cypermethrin concentrations in D. magna under environmentally relevant exposure conditions (exposure to a pulse in the micrograms per liter range) with and without co-exposure to propiconazole.
A high-accuracy optical linear algebra processor for finite element applications
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Casasent, D.; Taylor, B. K.
1984-01-01
Optical linear processors are computationally efficient computers for solving matrix-matrix and matrix-vector oriented problems. Optical system errors limit their dynamic range to 30-40 dB, which limits their accuray to 9-12 bits. Large problems, such as the finite element problem in structural mechanics (with tens or hundreds of thousands of variables) which can exploit the speed of optical processors, require the 32 bit accuracy obtainable from digital machines. To obtain this required 32 bit accuracy with an optical processor, the data can be digitally encoded, thereby reducing the dynamic range requirements of the optical system (i.e., decreasing the effect of optical errors on the data) while providing increased accuracy. This report describes a new digitally encoded optical linear algebra processor architecture for solving finite element and banded matrix-vector problems. A linear static plate bending case study is described which quantities the processor requirements. Multiplication by digital convolution is explained, and the digitally encoded optical processor architecture is advanced.
Supported Molecular Matrix Electrophoresis.
Matsuno, Yu-Ki; Kameyama, Akihiko
2015-01-01
Mucins are difficult to separate using conventional gel electrophoresis methods such as SDS-PAGE and agarose gel electrophoresis, owing to their large size and heterogeneity. On the other hand, cellulose acetate membrane electrophoresis can separate these molecules, but is not compatible with glycan analysis. Here, we describe a novel membrane electrophoresis technique, termed "supported molecular matrix electrophoresis" (SMME), in which a porous polyvinylidene difluoride (PVDF) membrane filter is used to achieve separation. This description includes the separation, visualization, and glycan analysis of mucins with the SMME technique.
Hybrid transfer-matrix FDTD method for layered periodic structures.
Deinega, Alexei; Belousov, Sergei; Valuev, Ilya
2009-03-15
A hybrid transfer-matrix finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) method is proposed for modeling the optical properties of finite-width planar periodic structures. This method can also be applied for calculation of the photonic bands in infinite photonic crystals. We describe the procedure of evaluating the transfer-matrix elements by a special numerical FDTD simulation. The accuracy of the new method is tested by comparing computed transmission spectra of a 32-layered photonic crystal composed of spherical or ellipsoidal scatterers with the results of direct FDTD and layer-multiple-scattering calculations.
Stereotype Accuracy: Toward Appreciating Group Differences.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Lee, Yueh-Ting, Ed.; And Others
The preponderance of scholarly theory and research on stereotypes assumes that they are bad and inaccurate, but understanding stereotype accuracy and inaccuracy is more interesting and complicated than simpleminded accusations of racism or sexism would seem to imply. The selections in this collection explore issues of the accuracy of stereotypes…
[Upon scientific accuracy scheme at clinical specialties].
Ortega Calvo, M
2006-11-01
Will be medical specialties like sciences in the future? Yes, progressively they will. Accuracy in clinical specialties will be dissimilar in the future because formal-logic mathematics, quantum physics advances and relativity theory utilities. Evidence based medicine is now helping to clinical specialties on scientific accuracy by the way of decision theory.
Sound source localization identification accuracy: bandwidth dependencies.
Yost, William A; Zhong, Xuan
2014-11-01
Sound source localization accuracy using a sound source identification task was measured in the front, right quarter of the azimuth plane as rms (root-mean-square) error (degrees) for stimulus conditions in which the bandwidth (1/20 to 2 octaves wide) and center frequency (250, 2000, 4000 Hz) of 200-ms noise bursts were varied. Tones of different frequencies (250, 2000, 4000 Hz) were also used. As stimulus bandwidth increases, there is an increase in sound source localization identification accuracy (i.e., rms error decreases). Wideband stimuli (>1 octave wide) produce best sound source localization accuracy (~6°-7° rms error), and localization accuracy for these wideband noise stimuli does not depend on center frequency. For narrow bandwidths (<1 octave) and tonal stimuli, accuracy does depend on center frequency such that highest accuracy is obtained for low-frequency stimuli (centered on 250 Hz), worse accuracy for mid-frequency stimuli (centered on 2000 Hz), and intermediate accuracy for high-frequency stimuli (centered on 4000 Hz).
Accuracy of Parent Identification of Stuttering Occurrence
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Einarsdottir, Johanna; Ingham, Roger
2009-01-01
Background: Clinicians rely on parents to provide information regarding the onset and development of stuttering in their own children. The accuracy and reliability of their judgments of stuttering is therefore important and is not well researched. Aim: To investigate the accuracy of parent judgements of stuttering in their own children's speech…
Increasing Deception Detection Accuracy with Strategic Questioning
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Levine, Timothy R.; Shaw, Allison; Shulman, Hillary C.
2010-01-01
One explanation for the finding of slightly above-chance accuracy in detecting deception experiments is limited variance in sender transparency. The current study sought to increase accuracy by increasing variance in sender transparency with strategic interrogative questioning. Participants (total N = 128) observed cheaters and noncheaters who…
The Accuracy of Gender Stereotypes Regarding Occupations.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Beyer, Sylvia; Finnegan, Andrea
Given the salience of biological sex, it is not surprising that gender stereotypes are pervasive. To explore the prevalence of such stereotypes, the accuracy of gender stereotyping regarding occupations is presented in this paper. The paper opens with an overview of gender stereotype measures that use self-perceptions as benchmarks of accuracy,…
Evaluating the accuracy of selenodesic reference grids
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Koptev, A. A.
1974-01-01
Estimates were made of the accuracy of reference point grids using the technique of calculating the errors from theoretical analysis. Factors taken into consideration were: telescope accuracy, number of photographs, and libration amplitude. To solve the problem, formulas were used for the relationship between the coordinates of lunar surface points and their images on the photograph.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Blomqvist, J.; Fullmer, R.
2010-04-01
The idea that Linear Covariance techniques can be used to predict the accuracy of attitude determination systems and assist in their design is investigated. By using the sensor's estimated parameter accuracy, one could calculate the total standard deviation of the attitude determination that is resulting from these uncertainties by simple Root- Sum-Square of the attitude standard deviation resulting from the respective uncertainties. Generalized Matrix Laboratory (MATLAB) M-functions using this technique are written in order to provide a tool for estimating the attitude determination accuracy of a small spacecraft and to identify major contributions to the attitude determination uncertainty. This tool is applied to a satellite dynamics truth model developed in order to quantify the effects of sensor uncertainties on this particular spacecraft's attitude determination accuracy. The result of this study determines the standard deviation of the attitude determination as a function of the sensor uncertainties.
Towards Arbitrary Accuracy Inviscid Surface Boundary Conditions
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Dyson, Rodger W.; Hixon, Ray
2002-01-01
Inviscid nonlinear surface boundary conditions are currently limited to third order accuracy in time for non-moving surfaces and actually reduce to first order in time when the surfaces move. For steady-state calculations it may be possible to achieve higher accuracy in space, but high accuracy in time is required for efficient simulation of multiscale unsteady phenomena. A surprisingly simple technique is shown here that can be used to correct the normal pressure derivatives of the flow at a surface on a Cartesian grid so that arbitrarily high order time accuracy is achieved in idealized cases. This work demonstrates that nonlinear high order time accuracy at a solid surface is possible and desirable, but it also shows that the current practice of only correcting the pressure is inadequate.
Performance of carrier phase recovery for electronically dispersion compensated coherent systems.
Farhoudi, Ramtin; Ghazisaeidi, Amirhossein; Rusch, Leslie Ann
2012-11-19
An analytical approach taking into account carrier phase estimation (CPE) is presented to predict performance of quadrature phase shift-keying (QPSK) systems using coherent detection. Using this approach, system performance is found as a function of symbol rate, local oscillator (LO) linewidth, chromatic dispersion (CD) and signal-to-noise ratio (SNR). A new expression is derived for the covariance matrix of the conditional probability density function (pdf) of the decision statistic. This pdf is used to find bit error rate (BER) semi-analytically. Our analytical derivation assumes perfect removal of data modulation which corresponds to an ideal decision feedback (DF) carrier recovery. The validity of the analytical pdf for predicting BER is verified for a wide range of system parameters of interest in long haul systems. In addition, our semi-analytical BER provides a lower bound for the Viterbi-Viterbi (VV) BER, while showing the analytical BER previously proposed in the literature shows an overly pessimistic prediction of VV BER performance. We show that inaccuracy in previous analysis stems from overly simple model for the CPE when compensating large accumulated dispersion electronically. Finally, we study extension of our results to quadrature amplitude modulation (QAM). Preliminary simulation results are promising but the accuracy of our semi-analytical approach for predicting BER should be investigated further.
Umbilical cable recovery load analysis
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yan, Shu-wang; Jia, Zhao-lin; Feng, Xiao-wei; Li, Shi-tao
2013-06-01
Umbilical cable is a kind of integrated subsea cable widely used in the exploration and exploitation of oil and gas field. The severe ocean environment makes great challenges to umbilical maintenance and repair work. Damaged umbilical is usually recovered for the regular operation of the offshore production system. Analysis on cables in essence is a two-point boundary problem. The tension load at the mudline must be known first, and then the recovery load and recovery angle on the vessel can be solved by use of catenary equation. The recovery analysis also involves umbilical-soil interaction and becomes more complicated. Calculation methods for recovery load of the exposed and buried umbilical are established and the relationship between the position of touch down point and the recovery load as well as the recovery angle and recovery load are analyzed. The analysis results provide a theoretical reference for offshore on-deck operation.
Recovery definitions: Do they change?
Kaskutas, Lee Ann; Witbrodt, Jane; Grella, Christine E.
2015-01-01
Background The term “recovery” is widely used in the substance abuse literature and clinical settings, but data have not been available to empirically validate how recovery is defined by individuals who are themselves in recovery. The “What Is Recovery?” project developed a 39-item definition of recovery based on a large nationwide online survey of individuals in recovery. The objective of this paper is to report on the stability of those definitions one to two years later. Methods To obtain a sample for studying recovery definitions that reflected the different pathways to recovery, the parent study involved intensive outreach. Follow-up interviews (n = 1237) were conducted online and by telephone among respondents who consented to participate in follow-up studies. Descriptive analyses considered endorsement of individual recovery items at both surveys, and t-tests of summary scores studied significant change in the sample overall and among key subgroups. To assess item reliability, Cronbach’s alpha was estimated. Results Rates of endorsement of individual items at both interviews was above 90% for a majority of the recovery elements, and there was about as much transition into endorsement as out of endorsement. Statistically significant t-test scores were of modest magnitude, and reliability statistics were high (ranging from .782 to .899). Conclusions Longitudinal analyses found little evidence of meaningful change in recovery definitions at follow-up. Results thus suggest that the recovery definitions developed in the parent “What Is Recovery?” survey represent stable definitions of recovery that can be used to guide service provision in Recovery-Oriented Systems of Care. PMID:26166666
ANS shell elements with improved transverse shear accuracy. [Assumed Natural Coordinate Strain
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Jensen, Daniel D.; Park, K. C.
1992-01-01
A method of forming assumed natural coordinate strain (ANS) plate and shell elements is presented. The ANS method uses equilibrium based constraints and kinematic constraints to eliminate hierarchical degrees of freedom which results in lower order elements with improved stress recovery and displacement convergence. These techniques make it possible to easily implement the element into the standard finite element software structure, and a modified shape function matrix can be used to create consistent nodal loads.
An Analytical State Transition Matrix for Orbits Perturbed by an Oblate Spheroid
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Mueller, A. C.
1977-01-01
An analytical state transition matrix and its inverse, which include the short period and secular effects of the second zonal harmonic, were developed from the nonsingular PS satellite theory. The fact that the independent variable in the PS theory is not time is in no respect disadvantageous, since any explicit analytical solution must be expressed in the true or eccentric anomaly. This is shown to be the case for the simple conic matrix. The PS theory allows for a concise, accurate, and algorithmically simple state transition matrix. The improvement over the conic matrix ranges from 2 to 4 digits accuracy.
Verser, Dan W.; Eggeman, Timothy J.
2009-10-13
A method is disclosed for the recovery of an organic acid from a dilute salt solution in which the cation of the salt forms an insoluble carbonate salt. A tertiary amine and CO.sub.2 are introduced to the solution to form the insoluble carbonate salt and a complex between the acid and an amine. A water immiscible solvent, such as an alcohol, is added to extract the acid/amine complex from the dilute salt solution to a reaction phase. The reaction phase is continuously dried and a product between the acid and the solvent, such as an ester, is formed.
Verser, Dan W [Menlo Park, CA; Eggeman, Timothy J [Lakewood, CO
2011-11-01
A method is disclosed for the recovery of an organic acid from a dilute salt solution in which the cation of the salt forms an insoluble carbonate salt. A tertiary amine and CO.sub.2 are introduced to the solution to form the insoluble carbonate salt and a complex between the acid and an amine. A water immiscible solvent, such as an alcohol, is added to extract the acid/amine complex from the dilute salt solution to a reaction phase. The reaction phase is continuously dried and a product between the acid and the solvent, such as an ester, is formed.
Pyrolysis with staged recovery
Green, Norman W.; Duraiswamy, Kandaswamy; Lumpkin, Robert E.; Winter, Bruce L.
1979-03-20
In a continuous process for recovery of values contained in a solid carbonaceous material, the carbonaceous material is comminuted and then subjected to flash pyrolysis in the presence of a particulate heat source fed over an overflow weir to form a pyrolysis product stream containing a carbon containing solid residue and volatilized hydrocarbons. After the carbon containing solid residue is separated from the pyrolysis product stream, values are obtained by condensing volatilized hydrocarbons. The particulate source of heat is formed by oxidizing carbon in the solid residue.
Bailes, R.H.; Long, R.S.; Olson, R.S.; Kerlinger, H.O.
1959-02-10
A method is described for recovering uranium values from uranium bearing phosphate solutions such as are encountered in the manufacture of phosphate fertilizers. The solution is first treated with a reducing agent to obtain all the uranium in the tetravalent state. Following this reduction, the solution is treated to co-precipitate the rcduced uranium as a fluoride, together with other insoluble fluorides, thereby accomplishing a substantially complete recovery of even trace amounts of uranium from the phosphate solution. This precipitate usually takes the form of a complex fluoride precipitate, and after appropriate pre-treatment, the uranium fluorides are leached from this precipitate and rccovered from the leach solution.
1996-07-01
This report presents the results of the outstanding studies on olefin product purities, pyridine recovery, and absorber offgas utilization. Other reports issued since the May 2 technical review meeting in Grangemouth evaluated the impact of the new VLE data on the solution stripping operation and the olefin loadings in the lean and rich solutions. This report completes the bulk of Stone & Webster`s engineering development of the absorber/stripper process for Phase I. The final feasibility study report (to be issued in August) will present an updated design and economics.
Bloch, J.; Armstrong, T.; Dingler, B.; Enemark, D.; Holden, D.; Little, C.; Munson, C.; Priedhorsky, B.; Roussel-Dupre, D.; Smith, B.; Warner, R.; Dill, B.; Huffman, G.; McLoughlin, F.; Mills, R.; Miller, R.
1994-03-01
The authors report the recovery of the ALEXIS small satellite mission. ALEXIS is a 113-kg satellite that carries an ultrasoft x-ray telescope array and a high-speed VHF receiver/digitizer (BLACKBEARD), supported by a miniature spacecraft bus. It was launched by a Pegasus booster on 1993 April 25, but a solar paddle was damaged during powered flight. Initial attempts to contact ALEXIS were unsuccessful. The satellite finally responded in June, and was soon brought under control. Because the magnetometer had failed, the rescue required the development of new attitude control-techniques. The telemetry system has performed nominally. They discuss the procedures used to recover the ALEXIS mission.
Jones, R.L.
1987-02-17
This patent describes a resource recovery utility comprising: (i) a landfill; (ii) a continuous wall surrounding the perimeter of the landfill; (iii) a containment structure extending completely over the landfill and affixed to the continuous wall; (iv) means for introducing refuse into the landfill; (v) means for compacting the refuse; (vi) means for removing and recovering methane generated by anaerobic bacterial digestion of organic materials contained in the refuse; and (vii) means for removing at least a portion of the compacted refuse from the landfill.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
1982-01-01
The towing ship, Liberty, towed a recovered solid rocket booster (SRB) for the STS-5 mission to Port Canaveral, Florida. The recovered SRB would be inspected and refurbished for reuse. The Shuttle's SRB's and solid rocket motors (SRM's) are the largest ever built and the first designed for refurbishment and reuse. Standing nearly 150-feet high, the twin boosters provide the majority of thrust for the first two minutes of flight, about 5.8 million pounds. The requirement for reusability dictated durable materials and construction to preclude corrosion of the hardware exposed to the harsh seawater environment. The SRB contains a complete recovery subsystem that includes parachutes, beacons, lights, and tow fixture.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
1982-01-01
The towing ship, Liberty, towed a recovered solid rocket booster (SRB) for the STS-3 mission to Port Canaveral, Florida. The recovered SRB would be inspected and refurbished for reuse. The Shuttle's SRB's and solid rocket motors (SRM's) are the largest ever built and the first designed for refurbishment and reuse. Standing nearly 150-feet high, the twin boosters provide the majority of thrust for the first two minutes of flight, about 5.8 million pounds. The requirement for reusability dictated durable materials and construction to preclude corrosion of the hardware exposed to the harsh seawater environment. The SRB contains a complete recovery subsystem that includes parachutes, beacons, lights, and tow fixture.
Pyrochemical recovery of actinides
Laidler, J.J.
1993-01-01
This report discusses an important advantage of the Integral Fast Reactor (IFR) which is its ability to recycle fuel in the process of power generation, extending fuel resources by a considerable amount and assuring the continued viability of nuclear power stations by reducing dependence on external fuel supplies. Pyroprocessing is the means whereby the recycle process is accomplished. It can also be applied to the recovery of fuel constituents from spent fuel generated in the process of operation of conventional light water reactor power plants, offering the means to recover the valuable fuel resources remaining in that material.
Pyrochemical recovery of actinides
Laidler, J.J.
1993-03-01
This report discusses an important advantage of the Integral Fast Reactor (IFR) which is its ability to recycle fuel in the process of power generation, extending fuel resources by a considerable amount and assuring the continued viability of nuclear power stations by reducing dependence on external fuel supplies. Pyroprocessing is the means whereby the recycle process is accomplished. It can also be applied to the recovery of fuel constituents from spent fuel generated in the process of operation of conventional light water reactor power plants, offering the means to recover the valuable fuel resources remaining in that material.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bloch, J.; Armstrong, T.; Dingler, B.; Enemark, D.; Holden, D.; Little, C.; Munson, C.; Priedhorsky, B.; Roussel-Dupre, D.; Smith, B.
1994-01-01
The authors report the recovery of the ALEXIS small satellite mission. ALEXIS is a 113-kg satellite that carries an ultrasoft x-ray telescope array and a high-speed VHF receiver/digitizer (BLACKBEARD), supported by a miniature spacecraft bus. It was launched by a Pegasus booster on 1993 April 25, but a solar paddle was damaged during powered flight. Initial attempts to contact ALEXIS were unsuccessful. The satellite finally responded in June, and was soon brought under control. Because the magnetometer had failed, the rescue required the development of new attitude control-techniques. The telemetry system has performed nominally. They discuss the procedures used to recover the ALEXIS mission.
Protein structure estimation from NMR data by matrix completion.
Li, Zhicheng; Li, Yang; Lei, Qiang; Zhao, Qing
2017-02-06
Knowledge of protein structures is very important to understand their corresponding physical and chemical properties. Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) spectroscopy is one of the main methods to measure protein structure. In this paper, we propose a two-stage approach to calculate the structure of a protein from a highly incomplete distance matrix, where most data are obtained from NMR. We first randomly "guess" a small part of unobservable distances by utilizing the triangle inequality, which is crucial for the second stage. Then we use matrix completion to calculate the protein structure from the obtained incomplete distance matrix. We apply the accelerated proximal gradient algorithm to solve the corresponding optimization problem. Furthermore, the recovery error of our method is analyzed, and its efficiency is demonstrated by several practical examples.
Error analysis for matrix elastic-net regularization algorithms.
Li, Hong; Chen, Na; Li, Luoqing
2012-05-01
Elastic-net regularization is a successful approach in statistical modeling. It can avoid large variations which occur in estimating complex models. In this paper, elastic-net regularization is extended to a more general setting, the matrix recovery (matrix completion) setting. Based on a combination of the nuclear-norm minimization and the Frobenius-norm minimization, we consider the matrix elastic-net (MEN) regularization algorithm, which is an analog to the elastic-net regularization scheme from compressive sensing. Some properties of the estimator are characterized by the singular value shrinkage operator. We estimate the error bounds of the MEN regularization algorithm in the framework of statistical learning theory. We compute the learning rate by estimates of the Hilbert-Schmidt operators. In addition, an adaptive scheme for selecting the regularization parameter is presented. Numerical experiments demonstrate the superiority of the MEN regularization algorithm.
Evaluation of chondromalacia of the patella with axial inversion recovery-fast spin-echo imaging.
Lee, S H; Suh, J S; Cho, J; Kim, S J; Kim, S J
2001-03-01
The purpose of our study was to assess the accuracy of inversion recovery-fast spin-echo (IR-FSE) imaging for the evaluation of chondromalacia of the patella. Eighty-six patients were included, they underwent magnetic resonance (MR) examination and subsequent knee arthroscopy. Medial and lateral facets of the patella were evaluated separately. Axial images were obtained by using IR-FSE (TR/TE/TI = 3000/25/150 msec; echo train length, 8; 4-mm thickness; 12-cm field of view; 512 x 256 matrix; two, number of excitations) with a 1.5-T MR machine. MR interpretation of chondromalacia was made on the basis of the arthroscopic grading system. Of a total of 172 facets graded, arthroscopy revealed chondromalacia in 14 facets with various grades (G0, 158; G1, 1; G2, 3; G3, 6; G4, 4). Sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy in the chondromalacia grades were 57.1%, 93.0%, and 90.1%, respectively. There was one false-negative case (G4) and 11 false-positive cases (G1, eight; G2, two; G3, one). Sensitivity and specificity corrected by one grade difference were improved to 85.7% and 98.1%, respectively. When cartilage changes were grouped into early (corresponding to grade 1 and 2) and advanced (grade 3 and 4) diseases, sensitivity and specificity of the early and advanced diseases were 75% and 94% and 80% and 99%, respectively. IR-FSE imaging of the knee revealed high specificity but low sensitivity for the evaluation of chondromalacia of the patella.
Imaging network level language recovery after left PCA stroke
Sebastian, Rajani; Long, Charltien; Purcell, Jeremy J.; Faria, Andreia V.; Lindquist, Martin; Jarso, Samson; Race, David; Davis, Cameron; Posner, Joseph; Wright, Amy; Hillis, Argye E.
2016-01-01
Purpose: The neural mechanisms that support aphasia recovery are not yet fully understood. Our goal was to evaluate longitudinal changes in naming recovery in participants with posterior cerebral artery (PCA) stroke using a case-by-case analysis. Methods: Using task based and resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and detailed language testing, we longitudinally studied the recovery of the naming network in four participants with PCA stroke with naming deficits at the acute (0 week), sub acute (3–5 weeks), and chronic time point (5–7 months) post stroke. Behavioral and imaging analyses (task related and resting state functional connectivity) were carried out to elucidate longitudinal changes in naming recovery. Results: Behavioral and imaging analysis revealed that an improvement in naming accuracy from the acute to the chronic stage was reflected by increased connectivity within and between left and right hemisphere “language” regions. One participant who had persistent moderate naming deficit showed weak and decreasing connectivity longitudinally within and between left and right hemisphere language regions. Conclusions: These findings emphasize a network view of aphasia recovery, and show that the degree of inter- and intra- hemispheric balance between the language-specific regions is necessary for optimal recovery of naming, at least in participants with PCA stroke. PMID:27176918
Creep and recovery behavior analysis of space mesh structures
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tang, Yaqiong; Li, Tuanjie; Ma, Xiaofei
2016-11-01
The Schapery's nonlinear viscoelastic theory and nonlinear force-density method have been investigated to analyze the creep and recovery behaviors of space deployable mesh reflectors in this paper. Based on Schapery's nonlinear viscoelastic theory, we establish the creep and recovery constitutive model for cables whose pretensions were applied stepwise in time. This constitutive model has been further used for adjustment of cables' elongation rigidity. In addition, the time-dependent tangent stiffness matrix is calculated by the partial differentiation of the corresponding load vector with respect to the nodal coordinate vector obtained by the nonlinear force-density method. An incremental-iterative solution based on the Newton-Raphson method is adopted for solving the time-dependent nonlinear statics equations. Finally, a hoop truss reflector antenna is presented as a numerical example to illustrate the efficiency of the proposed method for the creep and recovery behavior analysis of space deployable mesh structures.
Anatomy-aware measurement of segmentation accuracy
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tizhoosh, H. R.; Othman, A. A.
2016-03-01
Quantifying the accuracy of segmentation and manual delineation of organs, tissue types and tumors in medical images is a necessary measurement that suffers from multiple problems. One major shortcoming of all accuracy measures is that they neglect the anatomical significance or relevance of different zones within a given segment. Hence, existing accuracy metrics measure the overlap of a given segment with a ground-truth without any anatomical discrimination inside the segment. For instance, if we understand the rectal wall or urethral sphincter as anatomical zones, then current accuracy measures ignore their significance when they are applied to assess the quality of the prostate gland segments. In this paper, we propose an anatomy-aware measurement scheme for segmentation accuracy of medical images. The idea is to create a "master gold" based on a consensus shape containing not just the outline of the segment but also the outlines of the internal zones if existent or relevant. To apply this new approach to accuracy measurement, we introduce the anatomy-aware extensions of both Dice coefficient and Jaccard index and investigate their effect using 500 synthetic prostate ultrasound images with 20 different segments for each image. We show that through anatomy-sensitive calculation of segmentation accuracy, namely by considering relevant anatomical zones, not only the measurement of individual users can change but also the ranking of users' segmentation skills may require reordering.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Biesanz, Jeremy C.
2010-01-01
The social accuracy model of interpersonal perception (SAM) is a componential model that estimates perceiver and target effects of different components of accuracy across traits simultaneously. For instance, Jane may be generally accurate in her perceptions of others and thus high in "perceptive accuracy"--the extent to which a particular…
Ceramic matrix and resin matrix composites: A comparison
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hurwitz, Frances I.
1987-01-01
The underlying theory of continuous fiber reinforcement of ceramic matrix and resin matrix composites, their fabrication, microstructure, physical and mechanical properties are contrasted. The growing use of organometallic polymers as precursors to ceramic matrices is discussed as a means of providing low temperature processing capability without the fiber degradation encountered with more conventional ceramic processing techniques. Examples of ceramic matrix composites derived from particulate-filled, high char yield polymers and silsesquioxane precursors are provided.
Grinding forces and elastic recovery in ceramic materials
Kondo, Y.; Tsukuda, A. ); Takada, A.; Okada, S. )
1994-06-01
Understanding grinding technology using a diamond grinding wheel is very important to achieve the dimensional accuracy of the final product in structural application of ceramics. Because Si[sub 3]N[sub 4] is very difficult to grind, its grindability, which is estimated from the grinding force, is examined with regard to some of its physical properties. The difficult-to-grind nature of Si[sub 3]N[sub 4] depends on its high elastic recovery energy.
Schneider, S. L.; Dravnieks, K.
1985-04-30
An energy recovery ventilator adapted to be mounted on a roof and adapted to be connected to the outlet of an exhaust air duct of a building ventilation system and the inlet of an air supply duct of a building ventilation system. The energy recovery ventilator includes a housing having an exhaust air chamber and a supply air chamber separated by a divider wall. A circular heat transfer wheel is position in the housing, a portion of the wheel being housed in the exhaust air chamber and a second portion of the wheel being housed in the supply air chamber, and the heat transfer wheel is caused to rotate about a central axis. An exhaust fan is housed in the exhaust air chamber and causes exhaust air to be pulled through the exhaust air duct and the heat transfer wheel and to be exhausted from the housing. A supply air fan is housed in the supply air housing above the heat transfer wheel, and causes outside air to be drawn into the supply air chamber and to be forced through the heat transfer wheel into the air supply duct.
Recovery and neurological evaluation.
Fàbregas, Neus; Bruder, Nicolas
2007-12-01
Recovery from general anaesthesia is a period of intense stress for patients: there is sympathetic activation, catecholamine release, and increase in blood pressure or heart rate. Stressful events increase cerebral blood flow and cerebral oxygen consumption, potentially producing elevation of intracranial pressure and thus, favouring cerebral insults. Measures to prevent agitation, hypertension, shivering, and coughing are therefore very well justified in neurosurgical patients. The rationale for a "rapid-awakening-strategy" after craniotomy with general anaesthesia is that an early diagnosis of postoperative neurological complications is essential to limit potentially devastating consequences and finally improve patient outcome. A trial of early recovery may always be attempted to perform a neurological evaluation. An awake patient is the best and the cheapest neuromonitoring available. If, after surgery, a patient does not rapidly recover consciousness, or a focal neurological deficit becomes apparent, a head CT-scan should be performed as soon as possible to rule out a neurosurgical complication. Close monitoring during the first 24 hours after craniotomy is mandatory.
Al-Tufail, M; Akram, M; Haq, A
1999-03-01
The method previously used in the Toxicology Laboratories of King Faisal Specialist Hospital and Research Center for determining the zinc concentration in serum by Zeeman atomic absorption spectrometer was improved by modifying the matrix modifier and by changing the heated graphite furnace atomization (HGA) program. After trying several methods we failed to achieve the required precision and the accuracy of methods for serum zinc determination. We changed the matrix modifier to a fifty percent mixture (v/v) of 3.90 grams per liter of ammonium phosphate in Type 1 water with 0.2% nitric acid and 1.0 gram per liter of magnesium nitrate in acidic water (0.2% HNO3) with 0.1% triton X-100 was used as matrix modifier. A twenty-five fold dilution of the sample in matrix modifier was injected on the L'vov's platform of the furnace. In order to reduce the high sensitivity of Zn the furnace program was modified. The method is found very robust. The average reproducibility between inter-runs and intra-run is less than 1.59% with a high degree of accuracy. We used two levels of controls i.e. normal or low level and abnormal or high level. The linearity and the detection limit of the assay were 0.9992 and 0.010 micromol/L respectively. Average recovery of the analyte was 98.65%. The X-Bar and R charts were constructed by using Shewhart's statistical analysis technique to assess the test methodology. It was found that the assay is capable and stable for routine clinical and research analysis. The capability index (C(P)) of the assay, an indicator of the precision, was calculated.
Accuracy of Small Base Metal Dental Castings,
1980-07-10
aCCURACY OF SMALL BASE METAL DENTAL CASTINGS,(U) M JUL 80 E A HUBET, S 6 VERMILYEA, M .J KUFFLER UNCLASSIFIED NE7 hhhhh *EN UN~CLASSIFIED SECURITY...TPCCSI70NO. 3. RECIPIENT’S .CATALOG NUMBER I _% dSutte 5. TYPE OF REPORT & PERIOD COVERED Accuracy of Small Base Metal Dental Castings Manuscript S...base metal- alloys is countered by their inadequate casting accuracy . Until this problem can be overcome, the acceptance of such alloys for routine use
Discrimination in measures of knowledge monitoring accuracy
Was, Christopher A.
2014-01-01
Knowledge monitoring predicts academic outcomes in many contexts. However, measures of knowledge monitoring accuracy are often incomplete. In the current study, a measure of students’ ability to discriminate known from unknown information as a component of knowledge monitoring was considered. Undergraduate students’ knowledge monitoring accuracy was assessed and used to predict final exam scores in a specific course. It was found that gamma, a measure commonly used as the measure of knowledge monitoring accuracy, accounted for a small, but significant amount of variance in academic performance whereas the discrimination and bias indexes combined to account for a greater amount of variance in academic performance. PMID:25339979
Mixed Mode Matrix Multiplication
Meng-Shiou Wu; Srinivas Aluru; Ricky A. Kendall
2004-09-30
In modern clustering environments where the memory hierarchy has many layers (distributed memory, shared memory layer, cache,...), an important question is how to fully utilize all available resources and identify the most dominant layer in certain computations. When combining algorithms on all layers together, what would be the best method to get the best performance out of all the resources we have? Mixed mode programming model that uses thread programming on the shared memory layer and message passing programming on the distributed memory layer is a method that many researchers are using to utilize the memory resources. In this paper, they take an algorithmic approach that uses matrix multiplication as a tool to show how cache algorithms affect the performance of both shared memory and distributed memory algorithms. They show that with good underlying cache algorithm, overall performance is stable. When underlying cache algorithm is bad, superlinear speedup may occur, and an increasing number of threads may also improve performance.
Matrix membranes and integrability
Zachos, C.; Fairlie, D.; Curtright, T.
1997-06-01
This is a pedagogical digest of results reported in Curtright, Fairlie, {ampersand} Zachos 1997, and an explicit implementation of Euler`s construction for the solution of the Poisson Bracket dual Nahm equation. But it does not cover 9 and 10-dimensional systems, and subsequent progress on them Fairlie 1997. Cubic interactions are considered in 3 and 7 space dimensions, respectively, for bosonic membranes in Poisson Bracket form. Their symmetries and vacuum configurations are explored. Their associated first order equations are transformed to Nahm`s equations, and are hence seen to be integrable, for the 3-dimensional case, by virtue of the explicit Lax pair provided. Most constructions introduced also apply to matrix commutator or Moyal Bracket analogs.
Hyaluronan: A Matrix Component
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rügheimer, Louise
2008-09-01
The glucosaminoglycan hyaluronan is a key component of the extracellular matrix. It is a large, negatively charged molecule that can act as an ion exchange reservoir for positive ions. Hyaluronan is involved in renomedullary water handling through its water-binding capacity. In the renal medulla, the main source for hyaluronan production is the renomedullary interstitial cells. Hyaluronan synthases are found in the inner part of the plasma membrane and polymerize hyaluronan chains which are extruded into the extracellular space. Hyaluronidases are a family of enzymes involved in the degradation of hyaluronan. They have a wide range of properties, including differences in size, inhibitor sensitivities, catalytic mechanisms, substrate specificities and pH optima.
Hastings, Matthew B
2009-01-01
We show how to combine the light-cone and matrix product algorithms to simulate quantum systems far from equilibrium for long times. For the case of the XXZ spin chain at {Delta} = 0.5, we simulate to a time of {approx} 22.5. While part of the long simulation time is due to the use of the light-cone method, we also describe a modification of the infinite time-evolving bond decimation algorithm with improved numerical stability, and we describe how to incorporate symmetry into this algorithm. While statistical sampling error means that we are not yet able to make a definite statement, the behavior of the simulation at long times indicates the appearance of either 'revivals' in the order parameter as predicted by Hastings and Levitov (e-print arXiv:0806.4283) or of a distinct shoulder in the decay of the order parameter.
Compressed sensing recovery via nonconvex shrinkage penalties
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Woodworth, Joseph; Chartrand, Rick
2016-07-01
The {{\\ell }}0 minimization of compressed sensing is often relaxed to {{\\ell }}1, which yields easy computation using the shrinkage mapping known as soft thresholding, and can be shown to recover the original solution under certain hypotheses. Recent work has derived a general class of shrinkages and associated nonconvex penalties that better approximate the original {{\\ell }}0 penalty and empirically can recover the original solution from fewer measurements. We specifically examine p-shrinkage and firm thresholding. In this work, we prove that given data and a measurement matrix from a broad class of matrices, one can choose parameters for these classes of shrinkages to guarantee exact recovery of the sparsest solution. We further prove convergence of the algorithm iterative p-shrinkage (IPS) for solving one such relaxed problem.
Enhanced Oil Recovery: Aqueous Flow Tracer Measurement
Joseph Rovani; John Schabron
2009-02-01
A low detection limit analytical method was developed to measure a suite of benzoic acid and fluorinated benzoic acid compounds intended for use as tracers for enhanced oil recovery operations. Although the new high performance liquid chromatography separation successfully measured the tracers in an aqueous matrix at low part per billion levels, the low detection limits could not be achieved in oil field water due to interference problems with the hydrocarbon-saturated water using the system's UV detector. Commercial instrument vendors were contacted in an effort to determine if mass spectrometry could be used as an alternate detection technique. The results of their work demonstrate that low part per billion analysis of the tracer compounds in oil field water could be achieved using ultra performance liquid chromatography mass spectrometry.
Improved density matrix expansion for spin-unsaturated nuclei
Gebremariam, B.; Bogner, S. K.; Duguet, T.
2010-07-15
A current objective of low-energy nuclear theory is to build nonempirical nuclear energy density functionals (EDFs) from underlying internucleon interactions and many-body perturbation theory (MBPT). The density matrix expansion (DME) of Negele and Vautherin is a convenient method to map highly nonlocal Hartree-Fock expressions into the form of a quasi-local Skyrme functional with density-dependent couplings. In this work, we assess the accuracy of the DME at reproducing the nonlocal exchange (Fock) contribution to the energy. In contrast to the scalar part of the density matrix for which the original formulation of Negele and Vautherin is reasonably accurate, we demonstrate the necessity to reformulate the DME for the vector part of the density matrix, which is needed for an accurate description of spin-unsaturated nuclei. Phase-space-averaging techniques are shown to yield a significant improvement for the vector part of the density matrix compared to the original formulation of Negele and Vautherin. The key to the improved accuracy is to take into account the anisotropy that characterizes the local momentum distribution in the surface region of finite Fermi systems. Optimizing separately the DME for the central, tensor, and spin-orbit contributions to the Fock energy, one reaches a few-percent accuracy over a representative set of semi-magic nuclei. With such an accuracy at hand, one can envision using the corresponding Skyrme-like energy functional as a microscopically constrained starting point around which future phenomenological parametrizations can be built and refined.
Methodology and utility of a job-exposure matrix
Plato, N.; Steineck, G. )
1993-01-01
We have previously reported a study in which a job-exposure matrix was applied to census data, identifying, e.g., polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and creosote as increasing the risk of urothelial cancer. In this article, we expand on some theoretical issues, and present detailed accounts of constructed linkages for PCBs, creosote, and phenols. For agents of interest, one should emphasize the positive predictive value rather than the sensitivity in the construction of the matrix. The reverse is true for confounding factors; to avoid residual confounding after restriction to subjects unexposed for the confounding factors, one should emphasize sensitivity, possibly compromising the positive predictive value. This discrepancy between agents of interest and confounding factors may limit the application of a general matrix for studying several different diseases. The construction of the matrix is much harder, if sensitivity rather than positive predictive value is emphasized for an agent. Confounding from industry-related agents arises due to a true mixed exposure in certain work tasks, but also due to a gross classification of occupations in the census. One should not confuse different levels of the positive predictive value with exposure dose. A dose-response with different levels of positive predictive value reflects an accuracy of the matrix, not a biological phenomenon. Studies with exposure information from a job-exposure matrix applied to registers with scant information on occupation and industry may be warranted for exposures and diseases for which previous studies with a detailed documentation of exposure have low precision. 31 refs.
Evaluating the Accuracy of Hessian Approximations for Direct Dynamics Simulations.
Zhuang, Yu; Siebert, Matthew R; Hase, William L; Kay, Kenneth G; Ceotto, Michele
2013-01-08
Direct dynamics simulations are a very useful and general approach for studying the atomistic properties of complex chemical systems, since an electronic structure theory representation of a system's potential energy surface is possible without the need for fitting an analytic potential energy function. In this paper, recently introduced compact finite difference (CFD) schemes for approximating the Hessian [J. Chem. Phys.2010, 133, 074101] are tested by employing the monodromy matrix equations of motion. Several systems, including carbon dioxide and benzene, are simulated, using both analytic potential energy surfaces and on-the-fly direct dynamics. The results show, depending on the molecular system, that electronic structure theory Hessian direct dynamics can be accelerated up to 2 orders of magnitude. The CFD approximation is found to be robust enough to deal with chaotic motion, concomitant with floppy and stiff mode dynamics, Fermi resonances, and other kinds of molecular couplings. Finally, the CFD approximations allow parametrical tuning of different CFD parameters to attain the best possible accuracy for different molecular systems. Thus, a direct dynamics simulation requiring the Hessian at every integration step may be replaced with an approximate Hessian updating by tuning the appropriate accuracy.
Sun-pointing programs and their accuracy
Zimmerman, J.C.
1981-05-01
Several sun-pointing programs and their accuracy are described. FORTRAN program listings are given. Program descriptions are given for both Hewlett-Packard (HP-67) and Texas Instruments (TI-59) hand-held calculators.
Critical thinking and accuracy of nurses' diagnoses.
Lunney, Margaret
2003-01-01
Interpretations of patient data are complex and diverse, contributing to a risk of low accuracy nursing diagnoses. This risk is confirmed in research findings that accuracy of nurses' diagnoses varied widely from high to low. Highly accurate diagnoses are essential, however, to guide nursing interventions for the achievement of positive health outcomes. Development of critical thinking abilities is likely to improve accuracy of nurses' diagnoses. New views of critical thinking serve as a basis for critical thinking in nursing. Seven cognitive skills and ten habits of mind are identified as dimensions of critical thinking for use in the diagnostic process. Application of the cognitive skills of critical thinking illustrates the importance of using critical thinking for accuracy of nurses' diagnoses. Ten strategies are proposed for self-development of critical thinking abilities.
Lectures on Matrix Field Theory
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ydri, Badis
The subject of matrix field theory involves matrix models, noncommutative geometry, fuzzy physics and noncommutative field theory and their interplay. In these lectures, a lot of emphasis is placed on the matrix formulation of noncommutative and fuzzy spaces, and on the non-perturbative treatment of the corresponding field theories. In particular, the phase structure of noncommutative $\\phi^4$ theory is treated in great detail, and an introduction to noncommutative gauge theory is given.
Neural Mechanisms of Speed-Accuracy Tradeoff
Heitz, Richard P.; Schall, Jeffrey D.
2012-01-01
SUMMARY Intelligent agents balance speed of responding with accuracy of deciding. Stochastic accumulator models commonly explain this speed-accuracy tradeoff by strategic adjustment of response threshold. Several laboratories identify specific neurons in prefrontal and parietal cortex with this accumulation process, yet no neurophysiological correlates of speed-accuracy tradeoff have been described. We trained macaque monkeys to trade speed for accuracy on cue during visual search and recorded the activity of neurons in the frontal eye field. Unpredicted by any model, we discovered that speed-accuracy tradeoff is accomplished through several distinct adjustments. Visually responsive neurons modulated baseline firing rate, sensory gain, and the duration of perceptual processing. Movement neurons triggered responses with activity modulated in a direction opposite of model predictions. Thus, current stochastic accumulator models provide an incomplete description of the neural processes accomplishing speed-accuracy tradeoffs. The diversity of neural mechanisms was reconciled with the accumulator framework through an integrated accumulator model constrained by requirements of the motor system. PMID:23141072
A theoretical validation of the B-matrix spatial distribution approach to diffusion tensor imaging.
Borkowski, Karol; Kłodowski, Krzysztof; Figiel, Henryk; Krzyżak, Artur Tadeusz
2017-02-01
The recently presented B-matrix Spatial Distribution (BSD) approach is a calibration technique which derives the actual distribution of the B-matrix in space. It is claimed that taking into account the spatial variability of the B-matrix improves the accuracy of diffusion tensor imaging (DTI). The purpose of this study is to verify this approach theoretically through computer simulations. Assuming three different spatial distributions of the B-matrix, diffusion weighted signals were calculated for the six orientations of a model anisotropic phantom. Subsequently two variants of the BSD calibration were performed for each of the three cases; one with the assumption of high uniformity of the model phantom (uBSD-DTI) and the other taking into account imperfections in phantom structure (BSD-DTI). Several cases of varying degrees of phantom uniformity were analyzed and the distributions of the B-matrix obtained were used for the calculation of the diffusion tensor of a model isotropic phantom. The results were compared with standard diffusion tensor calculation. The simulations confirmed the improvement of accuracy in the determination of the diffusion tensor after the calibration. BSD-DTI improves accuracy independent of both the degree of uniformity of the phantom and the inhomogeneity of the B-matrix. In cases of a relatively good uniformity of the phantom and minor distortions in the spatial distribution of the B-matrix, the uBSD-DTI approach is sufficient.
Register file soft error recovery
Fleischer, Bruce M.; Fox, Thomas W.; Wait, Charles D.; Muff, Adam J.; Watson, III, Alfred T.
2013-10-15
Register file soft error recovery including a system that includes a first register file and a second register file that mirrors the first register file. The system also includes an arithmetic pipeline for receiving data read from the first register file, and error detection circuitry to detect whether the data read from the first register file includes corrupted data. The system further includes error recovery circuitry to insert an error recovery instruction into the arithmetic pipeline in response to detecting the corrupted data. The inserted error recovery instruction replaces the corrupted data in the first register file with a copy of the data from the second register file.
Superdiffusive gas recovery from nanopores
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wu, Haiyi; He, Yadong; Qiao, Rui
2016-11-01
Understanding the recovery of gas from reservoirs featuring pervasive nanopores is essential for effective shale gas extraction. Classical theories cannot accurately predict such gas recovery and many experimental observations are not well understood. Here we report molecular simulations of the recovery of gas from single nanopores, explicitly taking into account molecular gas-wall interactions. We show that, in very narrow pores, the strong gas-wall interactions are essential in determining the gas recovery behavior both quantitatively and qualitatively. These interactions cause the total diffusion coefficients of the gas molecules in nanopores to be smaller than those predicted by kinetic theories, hence slowing down the rate of gas recovery. These interactions also lead to significant adsorption of gas molecules on the pore walls. Because of the desorption of these gas molecules during gas recovery, the gas recovery from the nanopore does not exhibit the usual diffusive scaling law (i.e., the accumulative recovery scales as R ˜t1 /2 ) but follows a superdiffusive scaling law R ˜tn (n >0.5 ), which is similar to that observed in some field experiments. For the system studied here, the superdiffusive gas recovery scaling law can be captured well by continuum models in which the gas adsorption and desorption from pore walls are taken into account using the Langmuir model.
Hurricane Recovery Report 2004
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Gordon, Joseph P.
2005-01-01
During August and September 2004, four hurricanes tested the mettle of Space Coast residents and the Kennedy Space Center (KSC) leadership and workforce. These threats underscored two important points: the very real vulnerability of KSC and its valuable space program assets to the devastating power of a hurricane, and the planning required to effectively deal with such threats. The damage was significant even though KSC did not experience sustained hurricane-force winds. To better understand and appreciate these points, this report provides an overview of the meteorological history of the Space Coast and what is involved in the planning, preparation, and recovery activities, as well as addressing the impacts of the 2004 hurricane season.
Goldsberry, Fred L.
1989-01-01
All energy resources available from a geopressured geothermal reservoir are used for the production of pipeline quality gas using a high pressure separator/heat exchanger and a membrane separator, and recovering waste gas from both the membrane separator and a low pressure separator in tandem with the high pressure separator for use in enhanced oil recovery, or in powering a gas engine and turbine set. Liquid hydrocarbons are skimmed off the top of geothermal brine in the low pressure separator. High pressure brine from the geothermal well is used to drive a turbine/generator set before recovering waste gas in the first separator. Another turbine/generator set is provided in a supercritical binary power plant that uses propane as a working fluid in a closed cycle, and uses exhaust heat from the combustion engine and geothermal energy of the brine in the separator/heat exchanger to heat the propane.
Moore, Albert S.; Verhoff, Francis H.
1980-01-01
The present invention is directed to an improved wet air oxidation system and method for reducing the chemical oxygen demand (COD) of waste water used from scrubbers of coal gasification plants, with this COD reduction being sufficient to effectively eliminate waste water as an environmental pollutant. The improvement of the present invention is provided by heating the air used in the oxidation process to a temperature substantially equal to the temperature in the oxidation reactor before compressing or pressurizing the air. The compression of the already hot air further heats the air which is then passed in heat exchange with gaseous products of the oxidation reaction for "superheating" the gaseous products prior to the use thereof in turbines as the driving fluid. The superheating of the gaseous products significantly minimizes condensation of gaseous products in the turbine so as to provide a substantially greater recovery of mechanical energy from the process than heretofore achieved.
Plant hydrocarbon recovery process
Dzadzic, P.M.; Price, M.C.; Shih, C.J.; Weil, T.A.
1982-01-26
A process for production and recovery of hydrocarbons from hydrocarbon-containing whole plants in a form suitable for use as chemical feedstocks or as hydrocarbon energy sources which process comprises: (A) pulverizing by grinding or chopping hydrocarbon-containing whole plants selected from the group consisting of euphorbiaceae, apocynaceae, asclepiadaceae, compositae, cactaceae and pinaceae families to a suitable particle size, (B) drying and preheating said particles in a reducing atmosphere under positive pressure (C) passing said particles through a thermal conversion zone containing a reducing atmosphere and with a residence time of 1 second to about 30 minutes at a temperature within the range of from about 200* C. To about 1000* C., (D) separately recovering the condensable vapors as liquids and the noncondensable gases in a condition suitable for use as chemical feedstocks or as hydrocarbon fuels.
Integrated oxygen recovery system
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Lee, M. Gene; Davenport, Ronald J.
1993-01-01
Life Systems has conceptualized an innovative Integrated Oxygen Recovery System (IORS) applicable to advanced mission air revitalization. The IORS provides the capability to electrochemically generate metabolic oxygen (O2) and recover O2 from the space habitat atmosphere via a carbon dioxide (CO2) reduction process within a single assembly. To achieve this capability, the IORS utilizes a Solid Metal Cathode (SMC) water electrolysis unit that simultaneously serves as the Sabatier CO2 reduction reactor. The IORS enables two major life support systems currently baselined in closed loop air revitalization systems to be combined into one smaller, less complex system. This concept reduces fluidic and electrical interface requirements and eliminates a hydrogen (H2) interface. Life Systems is performing an evaluation of the IORS process directed at demonstrating performance and quantifying key physical characteristics including power, weight, and volume. Technical progress achieved during the first two months of the program is summarized.
Frankle, Christen M.
2004-04-20
There is provided an apparatus and method for assisting speech recovery in people with inability to speak due to aphasia, apraxia or another condition with similar effect. A hollow, rigid, thin-walled tube with semi-circular or semi-elliptical cut out shapes at each open end is positioned such that one end mates with the throat/voice box area of the neck of the assistor and the other end mates with the throat/voice box area of the assisted. The speaking person (assistor) makes sounds that produce standing wave vibrations at the same frequency in the vocal cords of the assisted person. Driving the assisted person's vocal cords with the assisted person being able to hear the correct tone enables the assisted person to speak by simply amplifying the vibration of membranes in their throat.
Oklejas, R.A.; Oklejas, E. Jr.
1991-09-17
This patent describes an energy recovery pump turbine for use in industrial processes where a fluid is pumped at a high pressure into the process and at least a portion of the fluid is discharged from the process at a high pressure. It comprises a central body portion that defines a turbine impeller cavity and a pump impeller cavity; a turbine inlet nozzle extending from the turbine impeller cavity through the central body portion; the turbine inlet nozzle being located adjacent the outer periphery of the turbine impeller cavity, a turbine exhaust passageway passing into the turbine impeller cavity, the turbine exhaust passageway being located adjacent the center of the turbine impeller; a turbine positioned in the turbine impeller cavity to receive the high pressure fluid discharged from the process, the turbine having an impeller positioned on a shaft, the fluid engaging the impeller and causing the impeller and shaft to rotate.
Integrated oxygen recovery system
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Lee, M. Gene; Davenport, Ronald J.
1993-01-01
Life Systems has conceptualized an innovative Integrated Oxygen Recovery System (IORS) applicable to advanced mission air revitalization. The IORS provides the capability to electrochemically generate metabolic oxygen (O2) and recover O2 from the space habitat atmosphere via a carbon dioxide (CO2) reduction process within a single assembly. To achieve this capability, the IORS utilizes a Solid Metal Cathode (SMC) water electrolysis unit that simultaneously serves as the Sabatier CO2 reduction reactor. The IORS enables two major life support systems currently baselined in closed loop air revitalization systems to be combined into one smaller, less complex system. This concept reduces fluidic and electrical interface requirements and eliminates a hydrogen (H2) interface. Life Systems is performing an evaluation of the IORS process directed at demonstrating performance and quantifying key physical characteristics including power, weight, and volume. The results of the checkout, shakedown, and initial parametric tests are summarized.
Frankle, Christen M.
2000-10-19
There is provided an apparatus and method for assisting speech recovery in people with inability to speak due to aphasia, apraxia or another condition with similar effect. A hollow, rigid, thin-walled tube with semi-circular or semi-elliptical cut out shapes at each open end is positioned such that one end mates with the throat/voice box area of the neck of the assistor and the other end mates with the throat/voice box area of the assisted. The speaking person (assistor) makes sounds that produce standing wave vibrations at the same frequency in the vocal cords of the assisted person. Driving the assisted person's vocal cords with the assisted person being able to hear the correct tone enables the assisted person to speak by simply amplifying the vibration of membranes in their throat.
The ab-initio density matrix renormalization group in practice
Olivares-Amaya, Roberto; Hu, Weifeng; Sharma, Sandeep; Yang, Jun; Chan, Garnet Kin-Lic; Nakatani, Naoki
2015-01-21
The ab-initio density matrix renormalization group (DMRG) is a tool that can be applied to a wide variety of interesting problems in quantum chemistry. Here, we examine the density matrix renormalization group from the vantage point of the quantum chemistry user. What kinds of problems is the DMRG well-suited to? What are the largest systems that can be treated at practical cost? What sort of accuracies can be obtained, and how do we reason about the computational difficulty in different molecules? By examining a diverse benchmark set of molecules: π-electron systems, benchmark main-group and transition metal dimers, and the Mn-oxo-salen and Fe-porphine organometallic compounds, we provide some answers to these questions, and show how the density matrix renormalization group is used in practice.
Lopez-Avila, V.; Young, R.; Kim, R.; Beckert, W.F. )
1993-05-01
A collaborative study was conducted, with 14 laboratories participating, to determine the method accuracy and precision of the proposed U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Methods 3560 and 8440. These methods involve the extraction of petroleum hydrocarbons from solid matrixes with supercritical carbon dioxide at 340 atm and 80 degrees C for 30 min (dynamic), collection of the extracted materials in tetrachloroethene (Method 3560), and analysis of the extracts by infrared (IR) spectrometry (Method 8440). The study design was based on the AOAC blind replicate design with balanced replicates. The study samples consisted of 4 solid matrixes that had petroleum hydrocarbon contents ranging from 614 to 32,600 mg/kg. Each of the 4 matrixes was extracted in triplicate, and the extracts were analyzed with 2 different IR spectrometers. In addition, each of the participating laboratories extracted a sample of unspiked clay soil, the same clay soil spiked with corn oil and reference oil at 1000 mg/kg each, and the same clay soil wetted to 30% water content and spiked with motor oil at 10,000 mg/kg (the latter 3 samples were extracted only once). Results indicated that the overall method accuracy for concentrations ranging from 614 to 32,600 mg/kg was 82.9%; the mean recoveries of petroleum hydrocarbons for each of the 4 solid matrixes ranged from 77.9 to 107% for analyses performed with the Perkin-Elmer Fourier transform IR spectrometer and from 75.9 to 101% for analyses performed with the Buck-Scientific IR spectrometer; the differences between the 2 instruments on a sample-by-sample basis were less than 17% for the total petroleum hydrocarbon determinations. The interlaboratory method precisions (RSDR) appeared to be matrix-dependent and ranged from 17.3 to 45.4% for analyses performed with the Perkin-Elmer Fourier transform IR spectrometer and from 16.7 to 47.9% for the Buck-Scientific IR spectrometer.
Auxiliary Density Matrix Methods for Hartree-Fock Exchange Calculations.
Guidon, Manuel; Hutter, Jürg; VandeVondele, Joost
2010-08-10
The calculation of Hartree-Fock exchange (HFX) is computationally demanding for large systems described with high-quality basis sets. In this work, we show that excellent performance and good accuracy can nevertheless be obtained if an auxiliary density matrix is employed for the HFX calculation. Several schemes to derive an auxiliary density matrix from a high-quality density matrix are discussed. Key to the accuracy of the auxiliary density matrix methods (ADMM) is the use of a correction based on standard generalized gradient approximations for HFX. ADMM integrates seamlessly in existing HFX codes and, in particular, can be employed in linear scaling implementations. Demonstrating the performance of the method, the effect of HFX on the structure of liquid water is investigated in detail using Born-Oppenheimer molecular dynamics simulations (300 ps) of a system of 64 molecules. Representative for large systems are calculations on a solvated protein (Rubredoxin), for which ADMM outperforms the corresponding standard HFX implementation by approximately a factor 20.
Hyperspectral Image Recovery via Hybrid Regularization
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Arablouei, Reza; de Hoog, Frank
2016-12-01
Natural images tend to mostly consist of smooth regions with individual pixels having highly correlated spectra. This information can be exploited to recover hyperspectral images of natural scenes from their incomplete and noisy measurements. To perform the recovery while taking full advantage of the prior knowledge, we formulate a composite cost function containing a square-error data-fitting term and two distinct regularization terms pertaining to spatial and spectral domains. The regularization for the spatial domain is the sum of total-variation of the image frames corresponding to all spectral bands. The regularization for the spectral domain is the l1-norm of the coefficient matrix obtained by applying a suitable sparsifying transform to the spectra of the pixels. We use an accelerated proximal-subgradient method to minimize the formulated cost function. We analyze the performance of the proposed algorithm and prove its convergence. Numerical simulations using real hyperspectral images exhibit that the proposed algorithm offers an excellent recovery performance with a number of measurements that is only a small fraction of the hyperspectral image data size. Simulation results also show that the proposed algorithm significantly outperforms an accelerated proximal-gradient algorithm that solves the classical basis-pursuit denoising problem to recover the hyperspectral image.
Hyperspectral Image Recovery via Hybrid Regularization.
Arablouei, Reza; de Hoog, Frank
2016-09-27
Natural images tend to mostly consist of smooth regions with individual pixels having highly correlated spectra. This information can be exploited to recover hyperspectral images of natural scenes from their incomplete and noisy measurements. To perform the recovery while taking full advantage of the prior knowledge, we formulate a composite cost function containing a square-error data-fitting term and two distinct regularization terms pertaining to spatial and spectral domains. The regularization for the spatial domain is the sum of total-variation of the image frames corresponding to all spectral bands. The regularization for the spectral domain is the ��������-norm of the coefficient matrix obtained by applying a suitable sparsifying transform to the spectra of the pixels. We use an accelerated proximal-subgradient method to minimize the formulated cost function. We analyse the performance of the proposed algorithm and prove its convergence. Numerical simulations using real hyperspectral images exhibit that the proposed algorithm offers an excellent recovery performance with a number of measurements that is only a small fraction of the hyperspectral image data size. Simulation results also show that the proposed algorithm significantly outperforms an accelerated proximal-gradient algorithm that solves the classical basis-pursuit denoising problem to recover the hyperspectral image.
Matrix market: a web resource for test matrix collection
Boisvert, R.F.; Pozo, R.; Remington, K.; Barrett, R.F.; Dongarra, J.J. /
1996-05-30
We describe a repository of data for the testing of numerical algorithms and mathematical software for matrix computations. The repository is designed to accommodate both dense and sparse matrices, as well as software to generate matrices. It has been seeded with the well known Harwell-Boeing sparse matrix collection. The raw data files have been augmented with an integrated World Wide Web interface which describes the matrices in the collection quantitatively and visually, For example, each matrix has a Web page which details its attributes, graphically depicts its sparsity pattern, and provides access to the matrix itself in several formats. In addition, a search mechanism is included which allows retrieval of matrices based on a variety of attributes, such as type and size, as well as through free-text search in abstracts. The URL is http://math.nist.gov/MatrixMarket.
Dictionary learning and sparse recovery for electrodermal activity analysis
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kelsey, Malia; Dallal, Ahmed; Eldeeb, Safaa; Akcakaya, Murat; Kleckner, Ian; Gerard, Christophe; Quigley, Karen S.; Goodwin, Matthew S.
2016-05-01
Measures of electrodermal activity (EDA) have advanced research in a wide variety of areas including psychophysiology; however, the majority of this research is typically undertaken in laboratory settings. To extend the ecological validity of laboratory assessments, researchers are taking advantage of advances in wireless biosensors to gather EDA data in ambulatory settings, such as in school classrooms. While measuring EDA in naturalistic contexts may enhance ecological validity, it also introduces analytical challenges that current techniques cannot address. One limitation is the limited efficiency and automation of analysis techniques. Many groups either analyze their data by hand, reviewing each individual record, or use computationally inefficient software that limits timely analysis of large data sets. To address this limitation, we developed a method to accurately and automatically identify SCRs using curve fitting methods. Curve fitting has been shown to improve the accuracy of SCR amplitude and location estimations, but have not yet been used to reduce computational complexity. In this paper, sparse recovery and dictionary learning methods are combined to improve computational efficiency of analysis and decrease run time, while maintaining a high degree of accuracy in detecting SCRs. Here, a dictionary is first created using curve fitting methods for a standard SCR shape. Then, orthogonal matching pursuit (OMP) is used to detect SCRs within a dataset using the dictionary to complete sparse recovery. Evaluation of our method, including a comparison to for speed and accuracy with existing software, showed an accuracy of 80% and a reduced run time.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Möller, Thomas
2016-12-01
General expressions for the matrix elements of the tight-binding operator are presented using the Racah-Wigner algebra, where the wave functions are expressed as coupled multiplet wave functions within a given angular momentum coupling scheme. The knowledge of all possible Slater determinants is not necessary and the matrix elements can be written as compact expressions computable with arbitrary accuracy.
Increasing Accuracy in Computed Inviscid Boundary Conditions
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Dyson, Roger
2004-01-01
A technique has been devised to increase the accuracy of computational simulations of flows of inviscid fluids by increasing the accuracy with which surface boundary conditions are represented. This technique is expected to be especially beneficial for computational aeroacoustics, wherein it enables proper accounting, not only for acoustic waves, but also for vorticity and entropy waves, at surfaces. Heretofore, inviscid nonlinear surface boundary conditions have been limited to third-order accuracy in time for stationary surfaces and to first-order accuracy in time for moving surfaces. For steady-state calculations, it may be possible to achieve higher accuracy in space, but high accuracy in time is needed for efficient simulation of multiscale unsteady flow phenomena. The present technique is the first surface treatment that provides the needed high accuracy through proper accounting of higher-order time derivatives. The present technique is founded on a method known in art as the Hermitian modified solution approximation (MESA) scheme. This is because high time accuracy at a surface depends upon, among other things, correction of the spatial cross-derivatives of flow variables, and many of these cross-derivatives are included explicitly on the computational grid in the MESA scheme. (Alternatively, a related method other than the MESA scheme could be used, as long as the method involves consistent application of the effects of the cross-derivatives.) While the mathematical derivation of the present technique is too lengthy and complex to fit within the space available for this article, the technique itself can be characterized in relatively simple terms: The technique involves correction of surface-normal spatial pressure derivatives at a boundary surface to satisfy the governing equations and the boundary conditions and thereby achieve arbitrarily high orders of time accuracy in special cases. The boundary conditions can now include a potentially infinite number
Jaeger, Matthias; Konrad, Albrecht; Rueegg, Sebastian; Rabenschlag, Franziska
2013-11-30
Considerable lack of publications and inconsistent results on construct validity make it difficult to choose an appropriate instrument to measure recovery. The aim of the present study was to evaluate additional psychometric aspects of two established measures of personal recovery with differing focuses. Bivariate associations of the recovery measures with personal, clinical and subjective factors were conducted as indicators of concurrent (convergent and divergent) validity. The scales were also tested concerning internal consistency. The sample comprised of 81 inpatients on an acute psychiatric ward (main diagnoses: 27% substance-related disorders, 27% schizophrenic disorders, 25% affective disorders, 10% neurotic or stress-related disorders, and 11% personality disorders). The "Recovery Attitudes Questionnaire (RAQ)" has to be reevaluated before further administration due to serious psychometric shortcomings concerning internal consistency and concurrent validity. The "Recovery Process Inventory (RPI)" total scale showed acceptable concurrent and within-scale validity and can be recommended in order to measure the personal recovery process for clinical and scientific purposes.
Recovery in soccer : part ii-recovery strategies.
Nédélec, Mathieu; McCall, Alan; Carling, Chris; Legall, Franck; Berthoin, Serge; Dupont, Gregory
2013-01-01
In the formerly published part I of this two-part review, we examined fatigue after soccer matchplay and recovery kinetics of physical performance, and cognitive, subjective and biological markers. To reduce the magnitude of fatigue and to accelerate the time to fully recover after completion, several recovery strategies are now used in professional soccer teams. During congested fixture schedules, recovery strategies are highly required to alleviate post-match fatigue, and then to regain performance faster and reduce the risk of injury. Fatigue following competition is multifactorial and mainly related to dehydration, glycogen depletion, muscle damage and mental fatigue. Recovery strategies should consequently be targeted against the major causes of fatigue. Strategies reviewed in part II of this article were nutritional intake, cold water immersion, sleeping, active recovery, stretching, compression garments, massage and electrical stimulation. Some strategies such as hydration, diet and sleep are effective in their ability to counteract the fatigue mechanisms. Providing milk drinks to players at the end of competition and a meal containing high-glycaemic index carbohydrate and protein within the hour following the match are effective in replenishing substrate stores and optimizing muscle-damage repair. Sleep is an essential part of recovery management. Sleep disturbance after a match is common and can negatively impact on the recovery process. Cold water immersion is effective during acute periods of match congestion in order to regain performance levels faster and repress the acute inflammatory process. Scientific evidence for other strategies reviewed in their ability to accelerate the return to the initial level of performance is still lacking. These include active recovery, stretching, compression garments, massage and electrical stimulation. While this does not mean that these strategies do not aid the recovery process, the protocols implemented up until
Ceramic matrix composite article and process of fabricating a ceramic matrix composite article
Cairo, Ronald Robert; DiMascio, Paul Stephen; Parolini, Jason Robert
2016-01-12
A ceramic matrix composite article and a process of fabricating a ceramic matrix composite are disclosed. The ceramic matrix composite article includes a matrix distribution pattern formed by a manifold and ceramic matrix composite plies laid up on the matrix distribution pattern, includes the manifold, or a combination thereof. The manifold includes one or more matrix distribution channels operably connected to a delivery interface, the delivery interface configured for providing matrix material to one or more of the ceramic matrix composite plies. The process includes providing the manifold, forming the matrix distribution pattern by transporting the matrix material through the manifold, and contacting the ceramic matrix composite plies with the matrix material.
Hybridized polymer matrix composites
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
House, E. E.; Hoggatt, J. T.; Symonds, W. A.
1980-01-01
The extent to which graphite fibers are released from resin matrix composites that are exposed to fire and impact conditions was determined. Laboratory simulations of those conditions that could exist in the event of an aircraft crash and burn situation were evaluated. The effectiveness of various hybridizing concepts in preventing this release of graphite fibers were also evaluated. The baseline (i.e., unhybridized) laminates examined were prepared from commercially available graphite/epoxy, graphite/polyimide, and graphite/phenolic materials. Hybridizing concepts investigated included resin fillers, laminate coatings, resin blending, and mechanical interlocking of the graphite reinforcement. The baseline and hybridized laminates' mechanical properties, before and after isothermal and humidity aging, were also compared. It was found that a small amount of graphite fiber was released from the graphite/epoxy laminates during the burn and impact conditions used in this program. However, the extent to which the fibers were released is not considered a severe enough problem to preclude the use of graphite reinforced composites in civil aircraft structure. It also was found that several hybrid concepts eliminated this fiber release. Isothermal and humidity aging did not appear to alter the fiber release tendencies.
Calkins, Noel C.
1991-01-01
An armor system which utilizes glass. A plurality of constraint cells are mounted on a surface of a substrate, which is metal armor plate or a similar tough material, such that the cells almost completely cover the surface of the substrate. Each constraint cell has a projectile-receiving wall parallel to the substrate surface and has sides which are perpendicular to and surround the perimeter of the receiving wall. The cells are mounted such that, in one embodiment, the substrate surface serves as a sixth side or closure for each cell. Each cell has inside of it a plate, termed the front plate, which is parallel to and in contact with substantially all of the inside surface of the receiving wall. The balance of each cell is completely filled with a projectile-abrading material consisting of glass and a ceramic material and, in certain embodiments, a polymeric material. The glass may be in monolithic form or particles of ceramic may be dispersed in a glass matrix. The ceramic material may be in monolithic form or may be in the form of particles dispersed in glass or dispersed in said polymer.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Jairam, Dharmananda; Kiewra, Kenneth A.; Kauffman, Douglas F.; Zhao, Ruomeng
2012-01-01
This study investigated how best to study a matrix. Fifty-three participants studied a matrix topically (1 column at a time), categorically (1 row at a time), or in a unified way (all at once). Results revealed that categorical and unified study produced higher: (a) performance on relationship and fact tests, (b) study material satisfaction, and…
Matrix Methods to Analytic Geometry.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Bandy, C.
1982-01-01
The use of basis matrix methods to rotate axes is detailed. It is felt that persons who have need to rotate axes often will find that the matrix method saves considerable work. One drawback is that most students first learning to rotate axes will not yet have studied linear algebra. (MP)
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Klinger, Beate; Mayer-Gürr, Torsten
2016-11-01
For more than 14 years, the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) mission has provided information about Earth's gravity field with unprecedented accuracy. The twin satellites GRACE-A and GRACE-B are both equipped with a three-axis electrostatic accelerometer, measuring the non-gravitational forces acting on the spacecraft. In order to make use of the uncalibrated Level-1B accelerometer (ACC1B) data during gravity field recovery, bias and scale parameters have to be estimated. The proposed calibration method is a two-step approach and makes use of modeled non-conservative accelerations. The simulated non-conservative accelerations serve as reference for the a priori accelerometer calibration, i.e. for the ACC1B data. During gravity field recovery the calibration parameters are re-estimated. Several calibration parameters for the GRACE accelerometers using different methods have already been published. The aim of our study was primarily to analyze the temperature-dependent behavior of the accelerometer scale factors and biases, and the impact of the parametrization of scale factors and biases on the recovered gravity field solutions; but not to obtain calibrated accelerometer data. Within the ITSG-Grace2016 release, the accelerometer biases are estimated daily using uniform cubic basis splines (UCBS), the scale factors are also estimated daily using a fully-populated scale factor matrix. Therefore, not only the scale factors in along-track, cross-track, and radial direction are estimated, but also the non-orthogonality of the accelerometer axes (cross-talk) and the misalignment between the Accelerometer Frame (AF) and Science Reference Frame (SRF) are taken into account. The time evolution of the estimated calibration parameters over the whole GRACE period (2002-04 to 2016-01) shows a clear temperature-dependency for both scale factors and biases. Using this new approach, the estimates of the C20 coefficient significantly improve, with results now
Towards Experimental Accuracy from the First Principles
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Polyansky, O. L.; Lodi, L.; Tennyson, J.; Zobov, N. F.
2013-06-01
Producing ab initio ro-vibrational energy levels of small, gas-phase molecules with an accuracy of 0.10 cm^{-1} would constitute a significant step forward in theoretical spectroscopy and would place calculated line positions considerably closer to typical experimental accuracy. Such an accuracy has been recently achieved for the H_3^+ molecular ion for line positions up to 17 000 cm ^{-1}. However, since H_3^+ is a two-electron system, the electronic structure methods used in this study are not applicable to larger molecules. A major breakthrough was reported in ref., where an accuracy of 0.10 cm^{-1} was achieved ab initio for seven water isotopologues. Calculated vibrational and rotational energy levels up to 15 000 cm^{-1} and J=25 resulted in a standard deviation of 0.08 cm^{-1} with respect to accurate reference data. As far as line intensities are concerned, we have already achieved for water a typical accuracy of 1% which supersedes average experimental accuracy. Our results are being actively extended along two major directions. First, there are clear indications that our results for water can be improved to an accuracy of the order of 0.01 cm^{-1} by further, detailed ab initio studies. Such level of accuracy would already be competitive with experimental results in some situations. A second, major, direction of study is the extension of such a 0.1 cm^{-1} accuracy to molecules containg more electrons or more than one non-hydrogen atom, or both. As examples of such developments we will present new results for CO, HCN and H_2S, as well as preliminary results for NH_3 and CH_4. O.L. Polyansky, A. Alijah, N.F. Zobov, I.I. Mizus, R. Ovsyannikov, J. Tennyson, L. Lodi, T. Szidarovszky and A.G. Csaszar, Phil. Trans. Royal Soc. London A, {370}, 5014-5027 (2012). O.L. Polyansky, R.I. Ovsyannikov, A.A. Kyuberis, L. Lodi, J. Tennyson and N.F. Zobov, J. Phys. Chem. A, (in press). L. Lodi, J. Tennyson and O.L. Polyansky, J. Chem. Phys. {135}, 034113 (2011).
Untreated Recovery from Eating Disorders
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Woods, Susan
2004-01-01
This retrospective study explored the experience of recovery from anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa without professional treatment. A nine-question open-ended electronic survey was posted for a period of four months at a mid-western university. Sixteen female and two male respondents reported recovery from adolescent-onset full syndrome…
Disaster Manual: Emergency, Evacuation, Recovery.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Koplowitz, Brad; And Others
This manual outlines the responsibilities of the director of the Oklahoma Department of Libraries in the event of a disaster as well as the functions of the emergency recovery team (ERT) in the coordination of recovery, and emergency action steps to be taken. The evacuation and emergency plan provided for the Allen Wright Memorial Library Building…
Recovery from Binge Eating Disorder
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Krentz, Adrienne; Chew, Judy; Arthur, Nancy
2005-01-01
The purpose of this study was to characterize the psychological processes of recovery from binge eating disorder (BED). A model was developed by asking the research question, "What is the experience of recovery for women with BED?" Unstructured interviews were conducted with six women who met the DSM-IV criteria for BED, and who were recovered…
Metal recovery from porous materials
Sturcken, E.F.
1991-01-01
The present invention relates to recovery of metals. More specifically, the present invention relates to the recovery of plutonium and other metals from porous materials using microwaves. The United States Government has rights in this invention pursuant to Contract No. DE-AC09-89SR18035 between the US Department of Energy and Westinghouse Savannah River Company.
Unconventional gas recovery symposium. Proceedings
Not Available
1982-01-01
This conference contains 51 papers and 4 abstracts of papers presented at the symposium on unconventional gas recovery. Some of the topics covered are: coalbed methane; methane recovery; gas hydrates; hydraulic fracturing treatments; geopressured systems; foam fracturing; evaluation of Devonian shales; tight gas sands; propping agents; and economics of natural gas production. All papers have been abstracted and indexed for the Energy Data Base.
Recurarization in the recovery room.
Albaladejo, P; Kinirons, B; Brocas, E; Benhamou, D; Samii, K
1999-07-01
A case of recurarization in the recovery room is reported. Accumulation of atracurium in the intravenous line led to recurarization after flushing the line in the recovery room. A respiratory arrest with severe desaturation and bradycardia occurred. Circumstances leading to this event and the mechanisms enabling a neuromuscular blockade to occur, following the administration of a small dose of relaxant, are discussed.
Biomass Program Recovery Act Factsheet
2010-03-01
The Biomass Program has awarded about $718 million in American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (Recovery Act) funds. The projects the Program is supporting are intended to: Accelerate advanced biofuels research, development, and demonstration; Speed the deployment and commercialization of advanced biofuels and bioproducts; Further the U.S. bioindustry through market transformation and creating or saving a range of jobs.
Micromechanics for ceramic matrix composites
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Murthy, P. L. N.; Chamis, C. C.
1991-01-01
The fiber substructuring concepts and the micromechanics equations that are embedded in the Ceramic Matrix Composite Analyzer (CEMCAN) computer code are described as well as the code itself, its current features and capabilities, and some examples to demonstrate the code's versatility. The methodology is equally applicable to metal matrix and polymer matrix composites. The prediction of ply mechanical and thermal properties agree very well with the existing models in the Integrated Composite Analyzer and the Ceramic Matrix Composite Analyzer, lending credence to the fiber substructuring approach. Fiber substructuring can capture greater local detail than conventional unit-cell-based micromechanical theories. It offers promise in simulating complex aspects of micromechanics in ceramic matrix composites.
Making recombinant extracellular matrix proteins.
Ruggiero, Florence; Koch, Manuel
2008-05-01
A variety of approaches to understand extracellular matrix protein structure and function require production of recombinant proteins. Moreover, the expression of heterologous extracellular matrix proteins, in particular collagens, using the recombinant technology is of major interest to the biomedical industry. Although extracellular matrix proteins are large, modular and often multimeric, most of them have been successfully produced in various expression systems. This review provides important factors, including the design of the construct, the cloning strategies, the expression vectors, the transfection method and the host cell systems, to consider in choosing a reliable and cost-effective way to make recombinant extracellular matrix proteins. Advantages and drawbacks of each system have been appraised. Protocols that may ease efficient recombinant production of extracellular matrix are described. Emphasis is placed on the recombinant collagen production. Members of the collagen superfamily exhibit specific structural features and generally require complex post-translational modifications to retain full biological activity that make more arduous their recombinant production.
Zheng, Shirui; Ma, Zhiyuan; Ye, Jianfeng; Wang, Guangfa; Wang, Ruwei; Zhou, Hui; Zeng, Su; Jiang, Huidi
2014-01-01
24-Dehydropollinstanol (DEH), 24-methylene cholesterol (MET) and 31-norcycloartenol (NOR) are the functional triterpene alcohols of pollen of Brassica campestris. To study the pharmacokinetics of the above components of pollen of B. campestris in rats, a liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method was developed. To avoid the interference of endogenous MET in rat plasma, fetal bovine serum (FBS) was selected as surrogate matrix and validated. Rat plasma was liquid-liquid extracted, then the chromatographic separation was conducted on a poroshell 120 SB C18 column (2.7μm, 2.1mm×50mm) at 38°C within 5.6min utilizing a gradient elution with a mobile phase consisting of (A) 0.1% formic acid in water and (B) 0.1% formic acid in methanol. The detection was performed on a triple quadrupole tandem mass spectrometer in multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) mode using positive atmospheric pressure chemical ionization (APCI). The method was validated over the concentration of 9.8-1560ng/ml; the inter-and-intra-day precisions (RSD %) were ≤7.8%, and the accuracies (RE %) were -5.3% to 12.2%, the extraction recovery ranged from 73.5% to 106.9% for all of these analytes, and no obvious matrix effect was observed. The developed method was applied successfully to study the pharmacokinetics of DEH, MET and NOR in rats after oral administration of pollen of B. campestris.
Kuennen, R.W.; Woinik, K.A.; Fricke, F.L.; Caruso, J.A.
1982-11-01
A method utilizing a pressure dissolution technique to minimize sample pretreatment is described for multielement analysis of raw agricultural crops by inductively coupled argon plasma atomic emission spectrometry. The procedure employs a 30-min pressure dissolution of sample composite with 6 M HCI at 80/sup 8/C in 60-mL linear polyethylene bottles. A sample introduction system is also described which permits direct atomization of complex organic matrices. Combined with a real sample matrix callbration technique, this introduction system allows rapid and accurate multielement analysis of complex HCl sample matrix solutions. The procedure compares favorably to more time-consuming conventional wet ashing methods for the determination of major, minor, and trace elements occurring in lettuce, potatoes, peanuts, soybeans, spinach, sweet corn, and wheat. Recoveries for spiked samples, precision studies, and analyses of NBS reference materials demonstrate the reliability and accuracy of the procedure. Advantages and limitations of this technique relative to conventional wet ashing methods are discussed. 2 figures, 7 tables.
Activity monitor accuracy in persons using canes.
Wendland, Deborah Michael; Sprigle, Stephen H
2012-01-01
The StepWatch activity monitor has not been validated on multiple indoor and outdoor surfaces in a population using ambulation aids. The aims of this technical report are to report on strategies to configure the StepWatch activity monitor on subjects using a cane and to report the accuracy of both leg-mounted and cane-mounted StepWatch devices on people ambulating over different surfaces while using a cane. Sixteen subjects aged 67 to 85 yr (mean 75.6) who regularly use a cane for ambulation participated. StepWatch calibration was performed by adjusting sensitivity and cadence. Following calibration optimization, accuracy was tested on both the leg-mounted and cane-mounted devices on different surfaces, including linoleum, sidewalk, grass, ramp, and stairs. The leg-mounted device had an accuracy of 93.4% across all surfaces, while the cane-mounted device had an aggregate accuracy of 84.7% across all surfaces. Accuracy of the StepWatch on the stairs was significantly less accurate (p < 0.001) when comparing surfaces using repeated measures analysis of variance. When monitoring community mobility, placement of a StepWatch on a person and his/her ambulation aid can accurately document both activity and device use.
Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter Orbit Determination Accuracy Analysis
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Slojkowski, Steven E.
2014-01-01
Results from operational OD produced by the NASA Goddard Flight Dynamics Facility for the LRO nominal and extended mission are presented. During the LRO nominal mission, when LRO flew in a low circular orbit, orbit determination requirements were met nearly 100% of the time. When the extended mission began, LRO returned to a more elliptical frozen orbit where gravity and other modeling errors caused numerous violations of mission accuracy requirements. Prediction accuracy is particularly challenged during periods when LRO is in full-Sun. A series of improvements to LRO orbit determination are presented, including implementation of new lunar gravity models, improved spacecraft solar radiation pressure modeling using a dynamic multi-plate area model, a shorter orbit determination arc length, and a constrained plane method for estimation. The analysis presented in this paper shows that updated lunar gravity models improved accuracy in the frozen orbit, and a multiplate dynamic area model improves prediction accuracy during full-Sun orbit periods. Implementation of a 36-hour tracking data arc and plane constraints during edge-on orbit geometry also provide benefits. A comparison of the operational solutions to precision orbit determination solutions shows agreement on a 100- to 250-meter level in definitive accuracy.
Accuracy metrics for judging time scale algorithms
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Douglas, R. J.; Boulanger, J.-S.; Jacques, C.
1994-01-01
Time scales have been constructed in different ways to meet the many demands placed upon them for time accuracy, frequency accuracy, long-term stability, and robustness. Usually, no single time scale is optimum for all purposes. In the context of the impending availability of high-accuracy intermittently-operated cesium fountains, we reconsider the question of evaluating the accuracy of time scales which use an algorithm to span interruptions of the primary standard. We consider a broad class of calibration algorithms that can be evaluated and compared quantitatively for their accuracy in the presence of frequency drift and a full noise model (a mixture of white PM, flicker PM, white FM, flicker FM, and random walk FM noise). We present the analytic techniques for computing the standard uncertainty for the full noise model and this class of calibration algorithms. The simplest algorithm is evaluated to find the average-frequency uncertainty arising from the noise of the cesium fountain's local oscillator and from the noise of a hydrogen maser transfer-standard. This algorithm and known noise sources are shown to permit interlaboratory frequency transfer with a standard uncertainty of less than 10(exp -15) for periods of 30-100 days.
Balance Recovery Prediction with Multiple Strategies for Standing Humans
Aftab, Zohaib; Robert, Thomas; Wieber, Pierre-Brice
2016-01-01
Human balance recovery from external disturbances is a complex process, and simulating it remains an open challenge. In particular, there still is a need for a comprehensive numerical tool capable of predicting the outcome of a balance perturbation, including in particular the three elementary recovery strategies: ankle, hip and stepping with variable step duration. In order to fill this gap we further developed a previously proposed multiple step balance recovery prediction tool to include the use of the hip strategy and variable step duration. Simulated recovery reactions are compared against observations from different experimental situations from the literature. Reasonable accuracy in terms of step positions and durations were obtained for these different situations using a single set of controller parameters. Moreover, variations in the use of the hip strategy and the step duration between situations were consistent with biomechanical observations. Such a model could be useful to better understand the balance recovery mechanisms, and could also be used to identify potentially hazardous situations. PMID:26974820
Embrittlement recovery due to annealing of reactor pressure vessel steels
Eason, E.D.; Wright, J.E.; Nelson, E.E.; Odette, G.R.; Mader, E.V.
1995-12-31
The irradiation embrittlement of nuclear reactor pressure vessels (RPV) can be reduced by thermal annealing at temperatures higher than the normal operating conditions. The objective of this work was to analyze the pertinent data and develop quantitative models for estimating the recovery in 30 ft-lb (41 J) Charpy transition temperature and Charpy upper shelf energy due to annealing. An analysis data base was developed, reviewed for completeness and accuracy, and documented as part of this work. Models were developed based on a combination of statistical techniques, including pattern recognition and transformation analysis, and the current understanding of the mechanisms governing embrittlement and recovery. The quality of models fitted in this project was evaluated by considering both the Charpy annealing data used for fitting and a surrogate hardness data base. This work demonstrates that microhardness recovery is i good surrogate for shift recovery and that there is a high level of consistency between he observed annealing trends and fundamental models of embrittlement and recovery processes.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Horne, Richard B.; Kersten, Tobias; Glauert, Sarah A.; Meredith, Nigel P.; Boscher, Daniel; Sicard, Angelica; Maget, Vincent
2013-04-01
Whistler mode chorus waves play a major role in the loss and acceleration of electrons in the Earth's radiation belts. While high time resolution satellite data show that these waves are highly structured in frequency and time, at present their effects on the electron distribution can only be assessed on a global scale by using quasi-linear diffusion theory. Here we present new quasi-linear diffusion coefficients for upper and lower band chorus waves for use in global radiation belt models. Using data from DE 1 CRRES, Cluster 1, Double Star TC1 and THEMIS, we have constructed a database of wave properties and used this to construct new diffusion coefficients for L* = 1.5 to 10 in steps of 0.5, 10 latitude bins between 0o and 60o ,8 bins in MLT and 5 levels of geomagnetic activity as measured by Kp. We find that the peak frequency of lower band chorus is close to 0.2 fce, which is lower than that used in previous models. The combined upper and lower band chorus diffusion shows structure that should result in an energy dependent pitch angle anisotropy, particularly between 1 keV and 100 keV. The diffusion rates suggest that wave-particle interactions should still be very important outside geostationary orbit, out to at least L* = 8. We find significant energy diffusion near 1 keV near the loss cone, consistent with wave growth. By including the new chorus diffusion matrix into the BAS radiation belt (BRB) model we compare the effects on the evolution of the radiation belts against previous models.
Measurement accuracies in band-limited extrapolation
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kritikos, H. N.
1982-01-01
The problem of numerical instability associated with extrapolation algorithms is addressed. An attempt is made to estimate the bounds for the acceptable errors and to place a ceiling on the measurement accuracy and computational accuracy needed for the extrapolation. It is shown that in band limited (or visible angle limited) extrapolation the larger effective aperture L' that can be realized from a finite aperture L by over sampling is a function of the accuracy of measurements. It is shown that for sampling in the interval L/b absolute value of xL, b1 the signal must be known within an error e sub N given by e sub N squared approximately = 1/4(2kL') cubed (e/8b L/L')(2kL') where L is the physical aperture, L' is the extrapolated aperture, and k = 2pi lambda.
The measurement accuracy of passive radon instruments.
Beck, T R; Foerster, E; Buchröder, H; Schmidt, V; Döring, J
2014-01-01
This paper analyses the data having been gathered from interlaboratory comparisons of passive radon instruments over 10 y with respect to the measurement accuracy. The measurement accuracy is discussed in terms of the systematic and the random measurement error. The analysis shows that the systematic measurement error of the most instruments issued by professional laboratory services can be within a range of ±10 % from the true value. A single radon measurement has an additional random measurement error, which is in the range of up to ±15 % for high exposures to radon (>2000 kBq h m(-3)). The random measurement error increases for lower exposures. The analysis especially applies to instruments with solid-state nuclear track detectors and results in proposing criteria for testing the measurement accuracy. Instruments with electrets and charcoal have also been considered, but the low stock of data enables only a qualitative discussion.
Why do delayed summaries improve metacomprehension accuracy?
Anderson, Mary C M; Thiede, Keith W
2008-05-01
We showed that metacomprehension accuracy improved when participants (N=87 college students) wrote summaries of texts prior to judging their comprehension; however, accuracy only improved when summaries were written after a delay, not when written immediately after reading. We evaluated two hypotheses proposed to account for this delayed-summarization effect (the accessibility hypothesis and the situation model hypothesis). The data suggest that participants based metacomprehension judgments more on the gist of texts when they generated summaries after a delay; whereas, they based judgments more on details when they generated summaries immediately after reading. Focusing on information relevant to the situation model of a text (the gist of a text) produced higher levels of metacomprehension accuracy, which is consistent with situation model hypothesis.
Increasing Accuracy and Increasing Tension in Ho
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Freedman, Wendy L.
2017-01-01
The Hubble Constant, Ho, provides a measure of the current expansion rate of the universe. In recent decades, there has been a huge increase in the accuracy with which extragalactic distances, and hence Ho, can be measured. While the historical factor-of-two uncertainty in Ho has been resolved, a new discrepancy has arisen between the values of Ho measured in the local universe, and that estimated from cosmic microwave background measurements, assuming a Lambda cold dark matter model. I will review the advances that have led to the increase in accuracy in measurements of Ho, as well as describe exciting future prospects with the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) and Gaia, which will make it feasible to measure extragalactic distances at percent-level accuracy in the next decade.
A novel method for assessing the 3-D orientation accuracy of inertial/magnetic sensors.
Faber, Gert S; Chang, Chien-Chi; Rizun, Peter; Dennerlein, Jack T
2013-10-18
A novel method for assessing the accuracy of inertial/magnetic sensors is presented. The method, referred to as the "residual matrix" method, is advantageous because it decouples the sensor's error with respect to Earth's gravity vector (attitude residual error: pitch and roll) from the sensor's error with respect to magnetic north (heading residual error), while remaining insensitive to singularity problems when the second Euler rotation is close to ±90°. As a demonstration, the accuracy of an inertial/magnetic sensor mounted to a participant's forearm was evaluated during a reaching task in a laboratory. Sensor orientation was measured internally (by the inertial/magnetic sensor) and externally using an optoelectronic measurement system with a marker cluster rigidly attached to the sensor's enclosure. Roll, pitch and heading residuals were calculated using the proposed novel method, as well as using a common orientation assessment method where the residuals are defined as the difference between the Euler angles measured by the inertial sensor and those measured by the optoelectronic system. Using the proposed residual matrix method, the roll and pitch residuals remained less than 1° and, as expected, no statistically significant difference between these two measures of attitude accuracy was found; the heading residuals were significantly larger than the attitude residuals but remained below 2°. Using the direct Euler angle comparison method, the residuals were in general larger due to singularity issues, and the expected significant difference between inertial/magnetic sensor attitude and heading accuracy was not present.
Wastewater heat recovery apparatus
Kronberg, James W.
1992-01-01
A heat recovery system with a heat exchanger and a mixing valve. A drain trap includes a heat exchanger with an inner coiled tube, baffle plate, wastewater inlet, wastewater outlet, cold water inlet, and preheated water outlet. Wastewater enters the drain trap through the wastewater inlet, is slowed and spread by the baffle plate, and passes downward to the wastewater outlet. Cold water enters the inner tube through the cold water inlet and flows generally upward, taking on heat from the wastewater. This preheated water is fed to the mixing valve, which includes a flexible yoke to which are attached an adjustable steel rod, two stationary zinc rods, and a pivoting arm. The free end of the arm forms a pad which rests against a valve seat. The rods and pivoting arm expand or contract as the temperature of the incoming preheated water changes. The zinc rods expand more than the steel rod, flexing the yoke and rotating the pivoting arm. The pad moves towards the valve seat as the temperature of the preheated water rises, and away as the temperature falls, admitting a variable amount of hot water to maintain a nearly constant average process water temperature.
Wastewater heat recovery apparatus
Kronberg, J.W.
1992-09-01
A heat recovery system is described with a heat exchanger and a mixing valve. A drain trap includes a heat exchanger with an inner coiled tube, baffle plate, wastewater inlet, wastewater outlet, cold water inlet, and preheated water outlet. Wastewater enters the drain trap through the wastewater inlet, is slowed and spread by the baffle plate, and passes downward to the wastewater outlet. Cold water enters the inner tube through the cold water inlet and flows generally upward, taking on heat from the wastewater. This preheated water is fed to the mixing valve, which includes a flexible yoke to which are attached an adjustable steel rod, two stationary zinc rods, and a pivoting arm. The free end of the arm forms a pad which rests against a valve seat. The rods and pivoting arm expand or contract as the temperature of the incoming preheated water changes. The zinc rods expand more than the steel rod, flexing the yoke and rotating the pivoting arm. The pad moves towards the valve seat as the temperature of the preheated water rises, and away as the temperature falls, admitting a variable amount of hot water to maintain a nearly constant average process water temperature. 6 figs.
Hyman, H.H.; Dreher, J.L.
1959-07-01
The recovery of uranium from the acidic aqueous metal waste solutions resulting from the bismuth phosphate carrier precipitation of plutonium from solutions of neutron irradiated uranium is described. The waste solutions consist of phosphoric acid, sulfuric acid, and uranium as a uranyl salt, together with salts of the fission products normally associated with neutron irradiated uranium. Generally, the process of the invention involves the partial neutralization of the waste solution with sodium hydroxide, followed by conversion of the solution to a pH 11 by mixing therewith sufficient sodium carbonate. The resultant carbonate-complexed waste is contacted with a titanated silica gel and the adsorbent separated from the aqueous medium. The aqueous solution is then mixed with sufficient acetic acid to bring the pH of the aqueous medium to between 4 and 5, whereby sodium uranyl acetate is precipitated. The precipitate is dissolved in nitric acid and the resulting solution preferably provided with salting out agents. Uranyl nitrate is recovered from the solution by extraction with an ether such as diethyl ether.
Benoit, Jeffrey T.; Dobbs, Gregory M.; Lemcoff, Norberto O.
2015-06-23
An energy recovery heat exchanger (100) includes a housing (102). The housing has a first flowpath (144) from a first inlet (104) to a first outlet (106). The housing has a second flowpath (146) from a second inlet (108) to a second outlet (110). Either of two cores may be in an operative position in the housing. Each core has a number of first passageways having open first and second ends and closed first and second sides. Each core has a number of second such passageways interspersed with the first passageways. The ends of the second passageways are aligned with the sides of the first passageways and vice versa. A number of heat transfer member sections separate adjacent ones of the first and second passageways. An actuator is coupled to the carrier to shift the cores between first and second conditions. In the first condition, the first core (20) is in the operative position and the second core (220) is not. In the second condition, the second core is in the operative position and the first core is not. When a core is in the operative position, its first passageways are along the first flowpath and the second passageways are along the second flowpath.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
1969-01-01
Sitting in the life raft, during the Apollo 12 Pacific recovery, are the three mission astronauts; Alan L. Bean, pilot of the Lunar Module (LM), Intrepid; Richard Gordon, pilot of the Command Module (CM), Yankee Clipper; and Spacecraft Commander Charles Conrad. The second manned lunar landing mission, Apollo 12 launched from launch pad 39-A at Kennedy Space Center in Florida on November 14, 1969 via a Saturn V launch vehicle. The Saturn V vehicle was developed by the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) under the direction of Dr. Wernher von Braun. The LM, Intrepid, landed astronauts Conrad and Bean on the lunar surface in what's known as the Ocean of Storms, while astronaut Richard Gordon piloted the CM, Yankee Clipper, in a parking orbit around the Moon. Lunar soil activities included the deployment of the Apollo Lunar Surface Experiments Package (ALSEP), finding the unmanned Surveyor 3 that landed on the Moon on April 19, 1967, and collecting 75 pounds (34 kilograms) of rock samples. Apollo 12 safely returned to Earth on November 24, 1969.
Madkour, Mohamed H; Heinrich, Daniel; Alghamdi, Mansour A; Shabbaj, Ibraheem I; Steinbüchel, Alexander
2013-09-09
The recovery of polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs) from biomass, that is, from bacterial cells, is one of the major obstacles in the industrial production of these polyesters. Since PHAs are naturally synthesized as intracellular storage compounds for carbon and energy and are for this deposited in the cytoplasm of the bacterial cell, PHAs are more or less tightly linked with the entire biomass, and the polyesters must be released from the cells before their isolation and purification can be conducted. This additional step, that is, the release from the cells, is a major difference from most other biotechnological processes where the product occurs outside of the cells because it is secreted into the medium in a bioreactor or because it is synthesized in vitro in an enzyme reactor in a cell free system. This additional step contributes significantly to the overall costs of production. In this review we provide an overview about the different processes that result in the release of PHA from the cells, and we evaluate these processes with regard to the suitability at large scale in the industry.
Li, Qu; Yao, Min; Yang, Jianhua; Xu, Ning
2014-01-01
Online friend recommendation is a fast developing topic in web mining. In this paper, we used SVD matrix factorization to model user and item feature vector and used stochastic gradient descent to amend parameter and improve accuracy. To tackle cold start problem and data sparsity, we used KNN model to influence user feature vector. At the same time, we used graph theory to partition communities with fairly low time and space complexity. What is more, matrix factorization can combine online and offline recommendation. Experiments showed that the hybrid recommendation algorithm is able to recommend online friends with good accuracy.
The accuracy of Halley's cometary orbits
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hughes, D. W.
The accuracy of a scientific computation depends in the main on the data fed in and the analysis method used. This statement is certainly true of Edmond Halley's cometary orbit work. Considering the 420 comets that had been seen before Halley's era of orbital calculation (1695 - 1702) only 24, according to him, had been observed well enough for their orbits to be calculated. Two questions are considered in this paper. Do all the orbits listed by Halley have the same accuracy? and, secondly, how accurate was Halley's method of calculation?
Field Accuracy Test of Rpas Photogrammetry
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Barry, P.; Coakley, R.
2013-08-01
Baseline Surveys Ltd is a company which specialises in the supply of accurate geospatial data, such as cadastral, topographic and engineering survey data to commercial and government bodies. Baseline Surveys Ltd invested in aerial drone photogrammetric technology and had a requirement to establish the spatial accuracy of the geographic data derived from our unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) photogrammetry before marketing our new aerial mapping service. Having supplied the construction industry with survey data for over 20 years, we felt that is was crucial for our clients to clearly understand the accuracy of our photogrammetry so they can safely make informed spatial decisions, within the known accuracy limitations of our data. This information would also inform us on how and where UAV photogrammetry can be utilised. What we wanted to find out was the actual accuracy that can be reliably achieved using a UAV to collect data under field conditions throughout a 2 Ha site. We flew a UAV over the test area in a "lawnmower track" pattern with an 80% front and 80% side overlap; we placed 45 ground markers as check points and surveyed them in using network Real Time Kinematic Global Positioning System (RTK GPS). We specifically designed the ground markers to meet our accuracy needs. We established 10 separate ground markers as control points and inputted these into our photo modelling software, Agisoft PhotoScan. The remaining GPS coordinated check point data were added later in ArcMap to the completed orthomosaic and digital elevation model so we could accurately compare the UAV photogrammetry XYZ data with the RTK GPS XYZ data at highly reliable common points. The accuracy we achieved throughout the 45 check points was 95% reliably within 41 mm horizontally and 68 mm vertically and with an 11.7 mm ground sample distance taken from a flight altitude above ground level of 90 m.The area covered by one image was 70.2 m × 46.4 m, which equals 0.325 Ha. This finding has shown
Size-Dependent Accuracy of Nanoscale Thermometers.
Alicki, Robert; Leitner, David M
2015-07-23
The accuracy of two classes of nanoscale thermometers is estimated in terms of size and system-dependent properties using the spin-boson model. We consider solid state thermometers, where the energy splitting is tuned by thermal properties of the material, and fluorescent organic thermometers, in which the fluorescence intensity depends on the thermal population of conformational states of the thermometer. The results of the theoretical model compare well with the accuracy reported for several nanothermometers that have been used to measure local temperature inside living cells.
Estimation and Accuracy after Model Selection
Efron, Bradley
2013-01-01
Classical statistical theory ignores model selection in assessing estimation accuracy. Here we consider bootstrap methods for computing standard errors and confidence intervals that take model selection into account. The methodology involves bagging, also known as bootstrap smoothing, to tame the erratic discontinuities of selection-based estimators. A useful new formula for the accuracy of bagging then provides standard errors for the smoothed estimators. Two examples, nonparametric and parametric, are carried through in detail: a regression model where the choice of degree (linear, quadratic, cubic, …) is determined by the Cp criterion, and a Lasso-based estimation problem. PMID:25346558
Predictive accuracy in the neuroprediction of rearrest
Aharoni, Eyal; Mallett, Joshua; Vincent, Gina M.; Harenski, Carla L.; Calhoun, Vince D.; Sinnott-Armstrong, Walter; Gazzaniga, Michael S.; Kiehl, Kent A.
2014-01-01
A recently published study by the present authors (Aharoni et al., 2013) reported evidence that functional changes in the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) within a sample of 96 criminal offenders who were engaged in a Go/No-Go impulse control task significantly predicted their rearrest following release from prison. In an extended analysis, we use discrimination and calibration techniques to test the accuracy of these predictions relative to more traditional models and their ability to generalize to new observations in both full and reduced models. Modest to strong discrimination and calibration accuracy were found, providing additional support for the utility of neurobiological measures in predicting rearrest. PMID:24720689
Final Technical Report: Increasing Prediction Accuracy.
King, Bruce Hardison; Hansen, Clifford; Stein, Joshua
2015-12-01
PV performance models are used to quantify the value of PV plants in a given location. They combine the performance characteristics of the system, the measured or predicted irradiance and weather at a site, and the system configuration and design into a prediction of the amount of energy that will be produced by a PV system. These predictions must be as accurate as possible in order for finance charges to be minimized. Higher accuracy equals lower project risk. The Increasing Prediction Accuracy project at Sandia focuses on quantifying and reducing uncertainties in PV system performance models.
Calculation of Radiative Corrections to E1 matrix elements in the Neutral Alkalis
Sapirstein, J; Cheng, K T
2004-09-28
Radiative corrections to E1 matrix elements for ns-np transitions in the alkali metal atoms lithium through francium are evaluated. They are found to be small for the lighter alkalis but significantly larger for the heavier alkalis, and in the case of cesium much larger than the experimental accuracy. The relation of the matrix element calculation to a recent decay rate calculation for hydrogenic ions is discussed, and application of the method to parity nonconservation in cesium is described.
Stea, Jonathan N; Yakovenko, Igor; Hodgins, David C
2015-09-01
The present study of recovery from cannabis use disorders was undertaken with 2 primary objectives that address gaps in the literature. The first objective was to provide an exploratory portrait of the recovery process from cannabis use disorders, comparing individuals who recovered naturally with those who were involved in treatment. The second objective was to explore systematically the similarities and differences between abstinence and moderation recoveries. Adults who have recovered from a cannabis use disorder were recruited in the community (N = 119). The abstinence and treatment-assisted participants exhibited higher levels of lifetime cannabis problem severity than the moderation and natural recovery participants, respectively. As well, cognitive factors were identified as the most useful strategies for recovery (e.g., thinking about benefits and negative consequences of cannabis), followed by behavioral factors (e.g., avoidance of triggers for use and high-risk situations). Findings lend further support to the effectiveness of cognitive, motivational, and behavioral strategies as helpful actions and maintenance factors involved in the recovery process. The findings also generally support the idea that cannabis use disorders lie on a continuum of problem severity, with moderation and natural recoveries more likely to occur at the lower end of the continuum and abstinence and treatment-assisted recoveries more likely to occur at the upper end.
Geometric deviation modeling by kinematic matrix based on Lagrangian coordinate
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Liu, Weidong; Hu, Yueming; Liu, Yu; Dai, Wanyi
2015-09-01
Typical representation of dimension and geometric accuracy is limited to the self-representation of dimension and geometric deviation based on geometry variation thinking, yet the interactivity affection of geometric variation and gesture variation of multi-rigid body is not included. In this paper, a kinematic matrix model based on Lagrangian coordinate is introduced, with the purpose of unified model for geometric variation and gesture variation and their interactive and integrated analysis. Kinematic model with joint, local base and movable base is built. The ideal feature of functional geometry is treated as the base body; the fitting feature of functional geometry is treated as the adjacent movable body; the local base of the kinematic model is fixed onto the ideal geometry, and the movable base of the kinematic model is fixed onto the fitting geometry. Furthermore, the geometric deviation is treated as relative location or rotation variation between the movable base and the local base, and it's expressed by the Lagrangian coordinate. Moreover, kinematic matrix based on Lagrangian coordinate for different types of geometry tolerance zones is constructed, and total freedom for each kinematic model is discussed. Finally, the Lagrangian coordinate library, kinematic matrix library for geometric deviation modeling is illustrated, and an example of block and piston fits is introduced. Dimension and geometric tolerances of the shaft and hole fitting feature are constructed by kinematic matrix and Lagrangian coordinate, and the results indicate that the proposed kinematic matrix is capable and robust in dimension and geometric tolerances modeling.
Improving stochastic estimates with inference methods: Calculating matrix diagonals
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Selig, Marco; Oppermann, Niels; Enßlin, Torsten A.
2012-02-01
Estimating the diagonal entries of a matrix, that is not directly accessible but only available as a linear operator in the form of a computer routine, is a common necessity in many computational applications, especially in image reconstruction and statistical inference. Here, methods of statistical inference are used to improve the accuracy or the computational costs of matrix probing methods to estimate matrix diagonals. In particular, the generalized Wiener filter methodology, as developed within information field theory, is shown to significantly improve estimates based on only a few sampling probes, in cases in which some form of continuity of the solution can be assumed. The strength, length scale, and precise functional form of the exploited autocorrelation function of the matrix diagonal is determined from the probes themselves. The developed algorithm is successfully applied to mock and real world problems. These performance tests show that, in situations where a matrix diagonal has to be calculated from only a small number of computationally expensive probes, a speedup by a factor of 2 to 10 is possible with the proposed method.
Photomask CD and LER characterization using Mueller matrix spectroscopic ellipsometry
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Heinrich, A.; Dirnstorfer, I.; Bischoff, J.; Meiner, K.; Ketelsen, H.; Richter, U.; Mikolajick, T.
2014-10-01
Critical dimension and line edge roughness on photomask arrays are determined with Mueller matrix spectroscopic ellipsometry. Arrays with large sinusoidal perturbations are measured for different azimuth angels and compared with simulations based on rigorous coupled wave analysis. Experiment and simulation show that line edge roughness leads to characteristic changes in the different Mueller matrix elements. The influence of line edge roughness is interpreted as an increase of isotropic character of the sample. The changes in the Mueller matrix elements are very similar when the arrays are statistically perturbed with rms roughness values in the nanometer range suggesting that the results on the sinusoidal test structures are also relevant for "real" mask errors. Critical dimension errors and line edge roughness have similar impact on the SE MM measurement. To distinguish between both deviations, a strategy based on the calculation of sensitivities and correlation coefficients for all Mueller matrix elements is shown. The Mueller matrix elements M13/M31 and M34/M43 are the most suitable elements due to their high sensitivities to critical dimension errors and line edge roughness and, at the same time, to a low correlation coefficient between both influences. From the simulated sensitivities, it is estimated that the measurement accuracy has to be in the order of 0.01 and 0.001 for the detection of 1 nm critical dimension error and 1 nm line edge roughness, respectively.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Oehlmann, Dietmar; Ohlmann, Odile M.; Danzebrink, Hans U.
2005-04-01
perform this exchange, as a matrix, understood as source, of new ideas.
Adjustment of pesticide concentrations for temporal changes in analytical recovery, 1992–2010
Martin, Jeffrey D.; Eberle, Michael
2011-01-01
Recovery is the proportion of a target analyte that is quantified by an analytical method and is a primary indicator of the analytical bias of a measurement. Recovery is measured by analysis of quality-control (QC) water samples that have known amounts of target analytes added ("spiked" QC samples). For pesticides, recovery is the measured amount of pesticide in the spiked QC sample expressed as a percentage of the amount spiked, ideally 100 percent. Temporal changes in recovery have the potential to adversely affect time-trend analysis of pesticide concentrations by introducing trends in apparent environmental concentrations that are caused by trends in performance of the analytical method rather than by trends in pesticide use or other environmental conditions. This report presents data and models related to the recovery of 44 pesticides and 8 pesticide degradates (hereafter referred to as "pesticides") that were selected for a national analysis of time trends in pesticide concentrations in streams. Water samples were analyzed for these pesticides from 1992 through 2010 by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. Recovery was measured by analysis of pesticide-spiked QC water samples. Models of recovery, based on robust, locally weighted scatterplot smooths (lowess smooths) of matrix spikes, were developed separately for groundwater and stream-water samples. The models of recovery can be used to adjust concentrations of pesticides measured in groundwater or stream-water samples to 100 percent recovery to compensate for temporal changes in the performance (bias) of the analytical method.
Cell-wall recovery after irreversible deformation of wood.
Keckes, Jozef; Burgert, Ingo; Frühmann, Klaus; Müller, Martin; Kölln, Klaas; Hamilton, Myles; Burghammer, Manfred; Roth, Stephan V; Stanzl-Tschegg, Stefanie; Fratzl, Peter
2003-12-01
The remarkable mechanical properties of biological materials reside in their complex hierarchical architecture and in specific molecular mechanistic phenomena. The fundamental importance of molecular interactions and bond recovery has been suggested by studies on deformation and fracture of bone and nacre. Like these mineral-based materials, wood also represents a complex nanocomposite with excellent mechanical performance, despite the fact that it is mainly based on polymers. In wood, however, the mechanistic contribution of processes in the cell wall is not fully understood. Here we have combined tensile tests on individual wood cells and on wood foils with simultaneous synchrotron X-ray diffraction analysis in order to separate deformation mechanisms inside the cell wall from those mediated by cell-cell interactions. We show that tensile deformation beyond the yield point does not deteriorate the stiffness of either individual cells or foils. This indicates that there is a dominant recovery mechanism that re-forms the amorphous matrix between the cellulose microfibrils within the cell wall, maintaining its mechanical properties. This stick-slip mechanism, rather like Velcro operating at the nanometre level, provides a 'plastic response' similar to that effected by moving dislocations in metals. We suggest that the molecular recovery mechanism in the cell matrix is a universal phenomenon dominating the tensile deformation of different wood tissue types.
Matrix cracking in brittle-matrix composites with tailored interfaces
Danchaivijit, S.; Chao, L.Y.; Shetty, D.K.
1995-10-01
Matrix cracking from controlled through cracks with bridging filaments was studied in a model unidirectional composite of SiC filaments in an epoxy-bonded alumina matrix. An unbonded, frictional interface was produced by moderating the curing shrinkage of the epoxy with the alumina filler and coating the filaments with a releasing agent. Uniaxial tension test specimens (2.5 x 25 x 125 mm) with filament-bridged through cracks were fabricated by a novel two-step casting technique involving casting, precracking and joining of cracked and uncracked sections. Distinct matrix-cracking stresses, corresponding to the extension of the filament-bridged cracks, were measured in uniaxial tension tests using a high-sensitivity extensometer. The crack-length dependence of the matrix-cracking stress was found to be in good agreement with the prediction of a fracture-mechanics analysis that employed a new crack-closure force-crack-opening displacement relation in the calculation of the stress intensity for fiber-bridged cracks. The prediction was based on independent experimental measurements of the matrix fracture toughness (K{sub cm}), the interfacial sliding friction stress ({tau}) and the residual stress in the matrix ({sigma}{sub m}{sup I}). The matrix-cracking stress for crack lengths (2a) greater than 3 mm was independent of the crack length and agreed with the prediction of the steady-state theory of Budiansky, Hutchinson and Evans. Tests on specimens without the deliberately introduced cracks indicated a matrix-cracking stress significantly higher than the steady-state stress.
New pole placement algorithm - Polynomial matrix approach
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Shafai, B.; Keel, L. H.
1990-01-01
A simple and direct pole-placement algorithm is introduced for dynamical systems having a block companion matrix A. The algorithm utilizes well-established properties of matrix polynomials. Pole placement is achieved by appropriately assigning coefficient matrices of the corresponding matrix polynomial. This involves only matrix additions and multiplications without requiring matrix inversion. A numerical example is given for the purpose of illustration.
Matrix Fourth-Complex Variables
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dimiev, Stancho; Marinov, Marin S.; Stoev, Peter
2009-11-01
In the paper we consider quasi-cyclic hyper-complex variables which are naturally related to the partial differential equations with complex variables. In fact, we develop a matrix 4×4 generalization of the classical bicomplex numbers [1], [2]. We recall that a matrix 2×2 isomorphic type treatment of the classical bicomplex numbers was developed in [3]. Here we develop a matrix 4×4 generalization of the bicomplex numbers including some improvement of the papers [3] and [4]. Let us remark that a deep generalization of the considered ideas was sketch in [5] before us.
Mechanotransduction and extracellular matrix homeostasis
Humphrey, Jay D.; Dufresne, Eric R.; Schwartz, Martin A.
2015-01-01
Preface Soft connective tissues at steady state are yet dynamic; resident cells continually read environmental cues and respond to promote homeostasis, including maintenance of the mechanical properties of the extracellular matrix that are fundamental to cellular and tissue health. The mechanosensing process involves assessment of the mechanics of the matrix by the cells through integrins and the actomyosin cytoskeleton, and is followed by a mechano-regulation process that includes the deposition, rearrangement, or removal of matrix to maintain overall form and function. Progress toward understanding the molecular, cellular, and tissue scale effects that promote mechanical homeostasis has helped identify key questions for future research. PMID:25355505
High temperature polymer matrix composites
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Serafini, Tito T. (Editor)
1987-01-01
These are the proceedings of the High Temperature Polymer Matrix Composites Conference held at the NASA Lewis Research Center on March 16 to 18, 1983. The purpose of the conference is to provide scientists and engineers working in the field of high temperature polymer matrix composites an opportunity to review, exchange, and assess the latest developments in this rapidly expanding area of materials technology. Technical papers are presented in the following areas: (1) matrix development; (2) adhesive development; (3) Characterization; (4) environmental effects; and (5) applications.
High Temperature Polymer Matrix Composites
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
1985-01-01
These are the proceedings of the High Temperature Polymer Matrix Composites Conference held at the NASA Lewis Research Center on March 16 to 18, 1983. The purpose of the conference is to provide scientists and engineers working in the field of high temperature polymer matrix composites an opportunity to review, exchange, and assess the latest developments in this rapidly expanding area of materials technology. Technical papers are presented in the following areas: (1) matrix development; (2) adhesive development; (3) characterization; (4) environmental effects; and (5) applications.
The CEOS Recovery Observatory Pilot
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hosford, S.; Proy, C.; Giros, A.; Eddy, A.; Petiteville, I.; Ishida, C.; Gaetani, F.; Frye, S.; Zoffoli, S.; Danzeglocke, J.
2015-04-01
Over the course of the last decade, large populations living in vulnerable areas have led to record damages and substantial loss of life in mega-disasters ranging from the deadly Indian Ocean tsunami of 2004 and Haiti earthquake of 2010; the catastrophic flood damages of Hurricane Katrina in 2005 and the Tohoku tsunami of 2011, and the astonishing extent of the environmental impact of the Deepwater Horizon explosion in 2009. These major catastrophes have widespread and long-lasting impacts with subsequent recovery and reconstruction costing billions of euros and lasting years. While satellite imagery is used on an ad hoc basis after many disasters to support damage assessment, there is currently no standard practice or system to coordinate acquisition of data and facilitate access for early recovery planning and recovery tracking and monitoring. CEOS led the creation of a Recovery Observatory Oversight Team, which brings together major recovery stakeholders such as the UNDP and the World Bank/Global Facility for Disaster Reduction and Recovery, value-adding providers and leading space agencies. The principal aims of the Observatory are to: 1. Demonstrate the utility of a wide range of earth observation data to facilitate the recovery and reconstruction phase following a major catastrophic event; 2. Provide a concrete case to focus efforts in identifying and resolving technical and organizational obstacles to facilitating the visibility and access to a relevant set of EO data; and 3. Develop dialogue and establish institutional relationships with the Recovery phase user community to best target data and information requirements; The paper presented here will describe the work conducted in preparing for the triggering of a Recovery Observatory including support to rapid assessments and Post Disaster Needs Assessments by the EO community.
Muscle injuries: optimising recovery.
Järvinen, Tero A H; Järvinen, Teppo L N; Kääriäinen, Minna; Aärimaa, Ville; Vaittinen, Samuli; Kalimo, Hannu; Järvinen, Markku
2007-04-01
Muscle injuries are one of the most common traumas occurring in sports. Despite their clinical importance, there are only a few clinical studies on the treatment of muscle injuries. Lack of clinical studies is most probably attributable to the fact that there is not only a high heterogeneity in the severity of injuries, but also the injuries take place in different muscles, making it very demanding to carry out clinical trials. Accordingly, the current treatment principles of muscle injuries have either been derived from experimental studies or been tested empirically only. Clinically, first aid for muscle injuries follows the RICE (Rest, Ice, Compression and Elevation) principle. The objective of RICE is to stop the injury-induced bleeding into the muscle tissue and thereby minimise the extent of the injury. Clinical examination should be carried out immediately after the injury and 5-7 days after the initial trauma, at which point the severity of the injury can be assessed more reliably. At that time, a more detailed characterisation of the injury can be made using imaging diagnostic modalities (ultrasound or MRI) if desired. The treatment of injured skeletal muscle should be carried out by immediate immobilisation of the injured muscle (clinically, relative immobility/avoidance of muscle contractions). However, the duration of immobilisation should be limited to a period sufficient to produce a scar of sufficient strength to bear the forces induced by remobilisation without re-rupture and the return to activity (mobilisation) should then be started gradually within the limits of pain. Early return to activity is needed to optimise the regeneration of healing muscle and recovery of the flexibility and strength of the injured skeletal muscle to pre-injury levels. The rehabilitation programme should be built around progressive agility and trunk stabilisation exercises, as these exercises seem to yield better outcome for injured skeletal muscle than programmes based
Valder, Joshua F.; Delzer, Gregory C.; Bender, David A.; Price, Curtis V.
2011-01-01
This report presents finished-water matrix-spike recoveries of 270 anthropogenic organic compounds with and without the addition of ascorbic acid to preserve water samples containing free chlorine. Percent recoveries were calculated using analytical results from a study conducted during 2004-10 for the National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) Program of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS). The study was intended to characterize the effect of quenching on finished-water matrix-spike recoveries and to better understand the potential oxidation and transformation of 270 anthropogenic organic compounds. The anthropogenic organic compounds studied include those on analytical schedules 1433, 2003, 2033, 2060, 2020, and 4024 of the USGS National Water Quality Laboratory. Three types of samples were collected from 34 NAWQA locations across the Nation: (1) quenched finished-water samples (not spiked), (2) quenched finished-water matrix-spike samples, and (3) nonquenched finished-water matrix-spike samples. Percent recoveries of anthropogenic organic compounds in quenched and nonquenched finished-water matrix-spike samples are presented. Comparisons of percent recoveries between quenched and nonquenched spiked samples can be used to show how quenching affects finished-water samples. A maximum of 18 surface-water and 34 groundwater quenched finished-water matrix-spike samples paired with nonquenched finished-water matrix-spike samples were analyzed. Percent recoveries for the study are presented in two ways: (1) finished-water matrix-spike samples supplied by surface-water or groundwater, and (2) by use (or source) group category for surface-water and groundwater supplies. Graphical representations of percent recoveries for the quenched and nonquenched finished-water matrix-spike samples also are presented.
Prediction of Walking and Arm Recovery after Stroke: A Critical Review
Kwah, Li Khim; Herbert, Robert D.
2016-01-01
Clinicians often base their predictions of walking and arm recovery on multiple predictors. Multivariate prediction models may assist clinicians to make accurate predictions. Several reviews have been published on the prediction of motor recovery after stroke, but none have critically appraised development and validation studies of models for predicting walking and arm recovery. In this review, we highlight some common methodological limitations of models that have been developed and validated. Notable models include the proportional recovery model and the PREP algorithm. We also identify five other models based on clinical predictors that might be ready for further validation. It has been suggested that neurophysiological and neuroimaging data may be used to predict arm recovery. Current evidence suggests, but does not show conclusively, that the addition of neurophysiological and neuroimaging data to models containing clinical predictors yields clinically important increases in predictive accuracy. PMID:27827835
Speed-Accuracy Response Models: Scoring Rules Based on Response Time and Accuracy
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Maris, Gunter; van der Maas, Han
2012-01-01
Starting from an explicit scoring rule for time limit tasks incorporating both response time and accuracy, and a definite trade-off between speed and accuracy, a response model is derived. Since the scoring rule is interpreted as a sufficient statistic, the model belongs to the exponential family. The various marginal and conditional distributions…
Accuracy of Digital vs. Conventional Implant Impressions
Lee, Sang J.; Betensky, Rebecca A.; Gianneschi, Grace E.; Gallucci, German O.
2015-01-01
The accuracy of digital impressions greatly influences the clinical viability in implant restorations. The aim of this study is to compare the accuracy of gypsum models acquired from the conventional implant impression to digitally milled models created from direct digitalization by three-dimensional analysis. Thirty gypsum and 30 digitally milled models impressed directly from a reference model were prepared. The models were scanned by a laboratory scanner and 30 STL datasets from each group were imported to an inspection software. The datasets were aligned to the reference dataset by a repeated best fit algorithm and 10 specified contact locations of interest were measured in mean volumetric deviations. The areas were pooled by cusps, fossae, interproximal contacts, horizontal and vertical axes of implant position and angulation. The pooled areas were statistically analysed by comparing each group to the reference model to investigate the mean volumetric deviations accounting for accuracy and standard deviations for precision. Milled models from digital impressions had comparable accuracy to gypsum models from conventional impressions. However, differences in fossae and vertical displacement of the implant position from the gypsum and digitally milled models compared to the reference model, exhibited statistical significance (p<0.001, p=0.020 respectively). PMID:24720423
Seasonal Effects on GPS PPP Accuracy
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Saracoglu, Aziz; Ugur Sanli, D.
2016-04-01
GPS Precise Point Positioning (PPP) is now routinely used in many geophysical applications. Static positioning and 24 h data are requested for high precision results however real life situations do not always let us collect 24 h data. Thus repeated GPS surveys of 8-10 h observation sessions are still used by some research groups. Positioning solutions from shorter data spans are subject to various systematic influences, and the positioning quality as well as the estimated velocity is degraded. Researchers pay attention to the accuracy of GPS positions and of the estimated velocities derived from short observation sessions. Recently some research groups turned their attention to the study of seasonal effects (i.e. meteorological seasons) on GPS solutions. Up to now usually regional studies have been reported. In this study, we adopt a global approach and study the various seasonal effects (including the effect of the annual signal) on GPS solutions produced from short observation sessions. We use the PPP module of the NASA/JPL's GIPSY/OASIS II software and globally distributed GPS stations' data of the International GNSS Service. Accuracy studies previously performed with 10-30 consecutive days of continuous data. Here, data from each month of a year, incorporating two years in succession, is used in the analysis. Our major conclusion is that a reformulation for the GPS positioning accuracy is necessary when taking into account the seasonal effects, and typical one term accuracy formulation is expanded to a two-term one.
Adult Metacomprehension: Judgment Processes and Accuracy Constraints
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Zhao, Qin; Linderholm, Tracy
2008-01-01
The objective of this paper is to review and synthesize two interrelated topics in the adult metacomprehension literature: the bases of metacomprehension judgment and the constraints on metacomprehension accuracy. Our review shows that adult readers base their metacomprehension judgments on different types of information, including experiences…
Task Speed and Accuracy Decrease When Multitasking
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Lin, Lin; Cockerham, Deborah; Chang, Zhengsi; Natividad, Gloria
2016-01-01
As new technologies increase the opportunities for multitasking, the need to understand human capacities for multitasking continues to grow stronger. Is multitasking helping us to be more efficient? This study investigated the multitasking abilities of 168 participants, ages 6-72, by measuring their task accuracy and completion time when they…
Accuracy Assessment for AG500, Electromagnetic Articulograph
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Yunusova, Yana; Green, Jordan R.; Mefferd, Antje
2009-01-01
Purpose: The goal of this article was to evaluate the accuracy and reliability of the AG500 (Carstens Medizinelectronik, Lenglern, Germany), an electromagnetic device developed recently to register articulatory movements in three dimensions. This technology seems to have unprecedented capabilities to provide rich information about time-varying…
Least squares polynomial fits and their accuracy
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Lear, W. M.
1977-01-01
Equations are presented which attempt to fit least squares polynomials to tables of date. It is concluded that much data are needed to reduce the measurement error standard deviation by a significant amount, however at certain points great accuracy is attained.
A microwave position sensor with submillimeter accuracy
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Stelzer, A.; Diskus, C. G.; Lubke, K.; Thim, H. W.
1999-12-01
Design and characteristics of a prototype distance sensor are presented in this paper. The radar front-end operates at 35 GHz and applies six-port technology and direct frequency measurement. The sensor makes use of both frequency-modulated continuous wave and interferometer principles and is capable of measuring distance with a very high accuracy of ±0.1 mm.
Vowel Space Characteristics and Vowel Identification Accuracy
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Neel, Amy T.
2008-01-01
Purpose: To examine the relation between vowel production characteristics and intelligibility. Method: Acoustic characteristics of 10 vowels produced by 45 men and 48 women from the J. M. Hillenbrand, L. A. Getty, M. J. Clark, and K. Wheeler (1995) study were examined and compared with identification accuracy. Global (mean f0, F1, and F2;…
Statistical Parameters for Describing Model Accuracy
1989-03-20
mean and the standard deviation, approximately characterizes the accuracy of the model, since the width of the confidence interval whose center is at...Using a modified version of Chebyshev’s inequality, a similar result is obtained for the upper bound of the confidence interval width for any
High Accuracy Transistor Compact Model Calibrations
Hembree, Charles E.; Mar, Alan; Robertson, Perry J.
2015-09-01
Typically, transistors are modeled by the application of calibrated nominal and range models. These models consists of differing parameter values that describe the location and the upper and lower limits of a distribution of some transistor characteristic such as current capacity. Correspond- ingly, when using this approach, high degrees of accuracy of the transistor models are not expected since the set of models is a surrogate for a statistical description of the devices. The use of these types of models describes expected performances considering the extremes of process or transistor deviations. In contrast, circuits that have very stringent accuracy requirements require modeling techniques with higher accuracy. Since these accurate models have low error in transistor descriptions, these models can be used to describe part to part variations as well as an accurate description of a single circuit instance. Thus, models that meet these stipulations also enable the calculation of quantifi- cation of margins with respect to a functional threshold and uncertainties in these margins. Given this need, new model high accuracy calibration techniques for bipolar junction transis- tors have been developed and are described in this report.
Direct Behavior Rating: Considerations for Rater Accuracy
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Harrison, Sayward E.; Riley-Tillman, T. Chris; Chafouleas, Sandra M.
2014-01-01
Direct behavior rating (DBR) offers users a flexible, feasible method for the collection of behavioral data. Previous research has supported the validity of using DBR to rate three target behaviors: academic engagement, disruptive behavior, and compliance. However, the effect of the base rate of behavior on rater accuracy has not been established.…
Accuracy of Depth to Water Measurements
Accuracy of depth to water measurements is an issue identified by the Forum as a concern of Superfund decision-makers as they attempt to determine directions of ground-water flow, areas of recharge or discharge, the hydraulic characteristics of...
Bullet trajectory reconstruction - Methods, accuracy and precision.
Mattijssen, Erwin J A T; Kerkhoff, Wim
2016-05-01
Based on the spatial relation between a primary and secondary bullet defect or on the shape and dimensions of the primary bullet defect, a bullet's trajectory prior to impact can be estimated for a shooting scene reconstruction. The accuracy and precision of the estimated trajectories will vary depending on variables such as, the applied method of reconstruction, the (true) angle of incidence, the properties of the target material and the properties of the bullet upon impact. This study focused on the accuracy and precision of estimated bullet trajectories when different variants of the probing method, ellipse method, and lead-in method are applied on bullet defects resulting from shots at various angles of incidence on drywall, MDF and sheet metal. The results show that in most situations the best performance (accuracy and precision) is seen when the probing method is applied. Only for the lowest angles of incidence the performance was better when either the ellipse or lead-in method was applied. The data provided in this paper can be used to select the appropriate method(s) for reconstruction and to correct for systematic errors (accuracy) and to provide a value of the precision, by means of a confidence interval of the specific measurement.
Bayesian Methods for Medical Test Accuracy
Broemeling, Lyle D.
2011-01-01
Bayesian methods for medical test accuracy are presented, beginning with the basic measures for tests with binary scores: true positive fraction, false positive fraction, positive predictive values, and negative predictive value. The Bayesian approach is taken because of its efficient use of prior information, and the analysis is executed with a Bayesian software package WinBUGS®. The ROC (receiver operating characteristic) curve gives the intrinsic accuracy of medical tests that have ordinal or continuous scores, and the Bayesian approach is illustrated with many examples from cancer and other diseases. Medical tests include X-ray, mammography, ultrasound, computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging, nuclear medicine and tests based on biomarkers, such as blood glucose values for diabetes. The presentation continues with more specialized methods suitable for measuring the accuracies of clinical studies that have verification bias, and medical tests without a gold standard. Lastly, the review is concluded with Bayesian methods for measuring the accuracy of the combination of two or more tests. PMID:26859485
47 CFR 65.306 - Calculation accuracy.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-10-01
... 47 Telecommunication 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Calculation accuracy. 65.306 Section 65.306 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES (CONTINUED) INTERSTATE RATE OF RETURN PRESCRIPTION PROCEDURES AND METHODOLOGIES Exchange Carriers § 65.306 Calculation...
Navigation Accuracy Guidelines for Orbital Formation Flying
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Carpenter, J. Russell; Alfriend, Kyle T.
2004-01-01
Some simple guidelines based on the accuracy in determining a satellite formation s semi-major axis differences are useful in making preliminary assessments of the navigation accuracy needed to support such missions. These guidelines are valid for any elliptical orbit, regardless of eccentricity. Although maneuvers required for formation establishment, reconfiguration, and station-keeping require accurate prediction of the state estimate to the maneuver time, and hence are directly affected by errors in all the orbital elements, experience has shown that determination of orbit plane orientation and orbit shape to acceptable levels is less challenging than the determination of orbital period or semi-major axis. Furthermore, any differences among the member s semi-major axes are undesirable for a satellite formation, since it will lead to differential along-track drift due to period differences. Since inevitable navigation errors prevent these differences from ever being zero, one may use the guidelines this paper presents to determine how much drift will result from a given relative navigation accuracy, or conversely what navigation accuracy is required to limit drift to a given rate. Since the guidelines do not account for non-two-body perturbations, they may be viewed as useful preliminary design tools, rather than as the basis for mission navigation requirements, which should be based on detailed analysis of the mission configuration, including all relevant sources of uncertainty.
Accuracy of References in Five Entomology Journals.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Kristof, Cynthia
ln this paper, the bibliographical references in five core entomology journals are examined for citation accuracy in order to determine if the error rates are similar. Every reference printed in each journal's first issue of 1992 was examined, and these were compared to the original (cited) publications, if possible, in order to determine the…
Method for measuring centroid algorithm accuracy
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Klein, S.; Liewer, K.
2002-01-01
This paper will describe such a method for measuring the accuracy of centroid algorithms using a relatively inexpensive setup consisting of a white light source, lenses, a CCD camea, an electro-strictive actuator, and a DAC (Digital-to-Analog Converter), and employing embedded PowerPC, VxWorks, and Solaris based software.
High accuracy gaseous x-ray detectors
Smith, G.C.
1983-11-01
An outline is given of the design and operation of high accuracy position-sensitive x-ray detectors suitable for experiments using synchrotron radiation. They are based on the gas proportional detector, with position readout using a delay line; a detailed examination is made of factors which limit spatial resolution. Individual wire readout may be used for extremely high counting rates.
Observed Consultation: Confidence and Accuracy of Assessors
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Tweed, Mike; Ingham, Christopher
2010-01-01
Judgments made by the assessors observing consultations are widely used in the assessment of medical students. The aim of this research was to study judgment accuracy and confidence and the relationship between these. Assessors watched recordings of consultations, scoring the students on: a checklist of items; attributes of consultation; a…
Asphaltenes and improved oil recovery
Yen, T.F.
1995-12-31
Often, asphaltene is related solely to the downstream petroleum refining aspect, the logic being that these large, refractoric molecules in heavy ends or bottoms of barrels are difficult to convert into light petroleum hydrocarbons. The refinery bottoms or residues are largely asphaltics (asphaltene, resin, and preasphaltene). This persuades many investigators to correlate and interrelate asphaltene with catalyst compositions, conversion conditions, etc., in refining operations. Few papers appearing in the literature deal with asphaltene and upstream petroleum production and recovery. To this goal, the present paper summarizes the role which petroleum asphaltene plays in production and recovery, especially to improved oil recovery (IOR).
Manned Spacecraft Landing and Recovery
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hammel, Don
2004-01-01
As recent history has tragically demonstrated, a successful space mission is not complete until the crew has safely returned to earth and has been successfully recovered. It is noted that a safe return to earth does not guarantee a successful recovery. The focus of this presentation will be a discussion of the ground operation assets involved in a successful recovery. The author's experience in land and water-based recovery of crewed vehicles and flight hardware at Kennedy Space Center (KSC), Edwards Air Force Base, international landing sites, and the Atlantic Ocean provides for some unique insight into this topic. He has participated in many aspects of Space Shuttle landing and recovery operations including activation of Transatlantic Abort Landing (TAL) sites and Emergency Landing Sites (ELS) as an Operations Test Director, execution of post landing convoy operations as an Orbiter Move Director, Operations Test Director, and Landing and Recovery Director, and recovery of solid rocket boosters, frustum and their parachutes 140 miles offshore in a wide range of sea states as a Retrieval Diver/Engineer. The recovery operations for the Mercury, Gemini, and Apollo were similar from a landing and recovery perspective in th t they all were capsules with limited "flying" capability and had a planned End of Mission (EOM) in an ocean with a descent slowed by parachutes. The general process was to deploy swim teams via helicopters to prepare the capsule for recovery and assist with crew extraction when required. The capsule was then hoisted onto the deck of a naval vessel. This approach required the extensive use and deployment of military assets to support the primary landing zone as well as alternate and contingency locations. The Russian Soyuz capsule also has limited "flying" capability; however, the planned EOM is terrestrial. In addition to use of parachutes to slow the reentry descent, soft-landing rockets on the bottom of the vehicle are employed to cushion the
Global Patterns of Drought Recovery
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Schwalm, C.; Anderegg, W.; Biondi, F.; Koch, G. W.; Litvak, M. E.; Shaw, J.; Wolf, A.; Huntzinger, D. N.; Michalak, A. M.; Schaefer, K. M.; Fisher, J. B.; Cook, R. B.; Wei, Y.; Fang, Y.; Hayes, D. J.; Huang, M.; Jain, A. K.; Tian, H.
2015-12-01
Understanding the impacts of drought on carbon metabolism is crucial to elucidate how global environmental change will alter the climate regulation ecosystem service provided by terrestrial vegetation. Notwithstanding past and anticipated future changes in drought regime the interplay between hydrologic (amelioration of precipitation deficit) and functional (return to pre-drought levels of carbon metabolism) post-drought recovery is not well understood. Recovery time is however a prime determinant of whether ecosystems revert to their initial state or transition to a new equilibrium. Here we quantify post-drought recovery time of gross primary productivity (GPP) at grid cell (0.5° spatial resolution) to global scales using three reconstructions: MODIS, upscaled FLUXNET, and an ensemble of state-of-the-art standardized land surface model runs taken from MsTMIP (Multi-scale Synthesis and Terrestrial Model Intercomparison Project). Drought is tracked using the multiscalar Standardized Precipitation-Evapotranspiration Index drought metric where the integration period (the retrospective window used to calculate the metric) is varied from 1 to 24-months. We define recovery time as a function of both hydrologic and GPP recovery, i.e., both must attain pre-drought levels for recovery to occur. Despite the diverse provenance of the reconstructions, different reconstruction periods, and variable integration lengths several consistent patterns emerge across the c. 4 000 000 drought events and subsequent recovery times cataloged. Recovery time scales with drought severity and drought length. Biological productivity and biodiversity exhibit response surfaces with large amplitudes and clear thresholds whereas soil fertility is a weak constraint. In general, GPP-based descriptors of drought events serve as key boundary conditions for drought recovery. The longest recovery times occur on marginal lands--non-forested, mixed tree-grass, and boreal systems--with a slight uptick for
Medial Patellofemoral Ligament Reconstruction Femoral Tunnel Accuracy
Hiemstra, Laurie A.; Kerslake, Sarah; Lafave, Mark
2017-01-01
Background: Medial patellofemoral ligament (MPFL) reconstruction is a procedure aimed to reestablish the checkrein to lateral patellar translation in patients with symptomatic patellofemoral instability. Correct femoral tunnel position is thought to be crucial to successful MPFL reconstruction, but the accuracy of this statement in terms of patient outcomes has not been tested. Purpose: To assess the accuracy of femoral tunnel placement in an MPFL reconstruction cohort and to determine the correlation between tunnel accuracy and a validated disease-specific, patient-reported quality-of-life outcome measure. Study Design: Case series; Level of evidence, 4. Methods: Between June 2008 and February 2014, a total of 206 subjects underwent an MPFL reconstruction. Lateral radiographs were measured to determine the accuracy of the femoral tunnel by measuring the distance from the center of the femoral tunnel to the Schöttle point. Banff Patella Instability Instrument (BPII) scores were collected a mean 24 months postoperatively. Results: A total of 155 (79.5%) subjects had adequate postoperative lateral radiographs and complete BPII scores. The mean duration of follow-up (±SD) was 24.4 ± 8.2 months (range, 12-74 months). Measurement from the center of the femoral tunnel to the Schöttle point resulted in 143 (92.3%) tunnels being categorized as “good” or “ideal.” There were 8 failures in the cohort, none of which occurred in malpositioned tunnels. The mean distance from the center of the MPFL tunnel to the center of the Schöttle point was 5.9 ± 4.2 mm (range, 0.5-25.9 mm). The mean postoperative BPII score was 65.2 ± 22.5 (range, 9.2-100). Pearson r correlation demonstrated no statistically significant relationship between accuracy of femoral tunnel position and BPII score (r = –0.08; 95% CI, –0.24 to 0.08). Conclusion: There was no evidence of a correlation between the accuracy of MPFL reconstruction femoral tunnel in relation to the Schöttle point and
Matrix enhancement effect: a blessing or a curse for gas chromatography?--A review.
Rahman, Md Musfiqur; Abd El-Aty, A M; Shim, Jae-Han
2013-11-01
The matrix enhancement effect in gas chromatography (GC) has been a problem for the last decade and results in unexpected high recovery. Most efforts, including the use of different types of injectors/matrix simplification procedures, and further clean-up associated with removing this effect has focused on equalizing the response of the standard in the solvent and matrix. However, after eliminating the matrix enhancement effect, the sensitivity of GC remained unchanged. But, GC sensitivity can be increased by utilizing this matrix effect originating from a matrix-matched standard. Very few studies have highlighted utilizing the matrix effect but have rather advocated eliminating it. Analyte protectants (3-ethoxy-1,2-propanediol, gulonolactone and sorbitol) have been introduced as an alternative for GC-mass spectroscopy (GC-MS) (not examined for other GC detectors), as they equalize the response without removing the matrix effect, and, hence, increase sensitivity. Versatile applications of analyte protectants are not observed in practice. The European guidelines recommend the use of matrix-matched standard calibration for residue measurements. As a result, numerous applications are available for matrix-matched standards that compensate for the matrix effect. Moreover, the matrices (among them pepper leaf matrix) act as a protectant for thermolabile analytes in some cases. A lower detection limit should be achieved to comply with the maximum residue limits. Therefore, the matrix enhancement effect, which is considered a problem, can play an important role in lowering the detection limit by increasing the transfer of analyte from the injection port to the detector.
Accuracy of genotype imputation in sheep breeds.
Hayes, B J; Bowman, P J; Daetwyler, H D; Kijas, J W; van der Werf, J H J
2012-02-01
Although genomic selection offers the prospect of improving the rate of genetic gain in meat, wool and dairy sheep breeding programs, the key constraint is likely to be the cost of genotyping. Potentially, this constraint can be overcome by genotyping selection candidates for a low density (low cost) panel of SNPs with sparse genotype coverage, imputing a much higher density of SNP genotypes using a densely genotyped reference population. These imputed genotypes would then be used with a prediction equation to produce genomic estimated breeding values. In the future, it may also be desirable to impute very dense marker genotypes or even whole genome re-sequence data from moderate density SNP panels. Such a strategy could lead to an accurate prediction of genomic estimated breeding values across breeds, for example. We used genotypes from 48 640 (50K) SNPs genotyped in four sheep breeds to investigate both the accuracy of imputation of the 50K SNPs from low density SNP panels, as well as prospects for imputing very dense or whole genome re-sequence data from the 50K SNPs (by leaving out a small number of the 50K SNPs at random). Accuracy of imputation was low if the sparse panel had less than 5000 (5K) markers. Across breeds, it was clear that the accuracy of imputing from sparse marker panels to 50K was higher if the genetic diversity within a breed was lower, such that relationships among animals in that breed were higher. The accuracy of imputation from sparse genotypes to 50K genotypes was higher when the imputation was performed within breed rather than when pooling all the data, despite the fact that the pooled reference set was much larger. For Border Leicesters, Poll Dorsets and White Suffolks, 5K sparse genotypes were sufficient to impute 50K with 80% accuracy. For Merinos, the accuracy of imputing 50K from 5K was lower at 71%, despite a large number of animals with full genotypes (2215) being used as a reference. For all breeds, the relationship of
Audiovisual biofeedback improves motion prediction accuracy
Pollock, Sean; Lee, Danny; Keall, Paul; Kim, Taeho
2013-01-01
Purpose: The accuracy of motion prediction, utilized to overcome the system latency of motion management radiotherapy systems, is hampered by irregularities present in the patients’ respiratory pattern. Audiovisual (AV) biofeedback has been shown to reduce respiratory irregularities. The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that AV biofeedback improves the accuracy of motion prediction. Methods: An AV biofeedback system combined with real-time respiratory data acquisition and MR images were implemented in this project. One-dimensional respiratory data from (1) the abdominal wall (30 Hz) and (2) the thoracic diaphragm (5 Hz) were obtained from 15 healthy human subjects across 30 studies. The subjects were required to breathe with and without the guidance of AV biofeedback during each study. The obtained respiratory signals were then implemented in a kernel density estimation prediction algorithm. For each of the 30 studies, five different prediction times ranging from 50 to 1400 ms were tested (150 predictions performed). Prediction error was quantified as the root mean square error (RMSE); the RMSE was calculated from the difference between the real and predicted respiratory data. The statistical significance of the prediction results was determined by the Student's t-test. Results: Prediction accuracy was considerably improved by the implementation of AV biofeedback. Of the 150 respiratory predictions performed, prediction accuracy was improved 69% (103/150) of the time for abdominal wall data, and 78% (117/150) of the time for diaphragm data. The average reduction in RMSE due to AV biofeedback over unguided respiration was 26% (p < 0.001) and 29% (p < 0.001) for abdominal wall and diaphragm respiratory motion, respectively. Conclusions: This study was the first to demonstrate that the reduction of respiratory irregularities due to the implementation of AV biofeedback improves prediction accuracy. This would result in increased efficiency of motion
Accuracy of distance measurements in biplane angiography
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Toennies, Klaus D.; Oishi, Satoru; Koster, David; Schroth, Gerhard
1997-05-01
Distance measurements of the vascular system of the brain can be derived from biplanar digital subtraction angiography (2p-DSA). The measurements are used for planning of minimal invasive surgical procedures. Our 90 degree-fixed-angle G- ring angiography system has the potential of acquiring pairs of such images with high geometric accuracy. The sizes of vessels and aneurysms are estimated applying a fast and accurate extraction method in order to select an appropriate surgical strategy. Distance computation from 2p-DSA is carried out in three steps. First, the boundary of the structure to be measured is detected based on zero-crossings and closeness to user-specified end points. Subsequently, the 3D location of the center of the structure is computed from the centers of gravity of its two projections. This location is used to reverse the magnification factor caused by the cone-shaped projection of the x-rays. Since exact measurements of possibly very small structures are crucial to the usefulness in surgical planning, we identified mechanical and computational influences on the geometry which may have an impact on the measurement accuracy. A study with phantoms is presented distinguishing between the different effects and enabling the computation of an optimal overall exactness. Comparing this optimum with results of distance measurements on phantoms whose exact size and shape is known, we found, that the measurement error for structures of size of 20 mm was less than 0.05 mm on average and 0.50 mm at maximum. The maximum achievable accuracy of 0.15 mm was in most cases exceeded by less than 0.15 mm. This accuracy surpasses by far the requirements for the above mentioned surgery application. The mechanic accuracy of the fixed-angle biplanar system meets the requirements for computing a 3D reconstruction of the small vessels of the brain. It also indicates, that simple measurements will be possible on systems being less accurate.
Achieving Climate Change Absolute Accuracy in Orbit
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Wielicki, Bruce A.; Young, D. F.; Mlynczak, M. G.; Thome, K. J; Leroy, S.; Corliss, J.; Anderson, J. G.; Ao, C. O.; Bantges, R.; Best, F.; Bowman, K.; Brindley, H.; Butler, J. J.; Collins, W.; Dykema, J. A.; Doelling, D. R.; Feldman, D. R.; Fox, N.; Huang, X.; Holz, R.; Huang, Y.; Jennings, D.; Jin, Z.; Johnson, D. G.; Jucks, K.; Kato, S.; Kratz, D. P.; Liu, X.; Lukashin, C.; Mannucci, A. J.; Phojanamongkolkij, N.; Roithmayr, C. M.; Sandford, S.; Taylor, P. C.; Xiong, X.
2013-01-01
The Climate Absolute Radiance and Refractivity Observatory (CLARREO) mission will provide a calibration laboratory in orbit for the purpose of accurately measuring and attributing climate change. CLARREO measurements establish new climate change benchmarks with high absolute radiometric accuracy and high statistical confidence across a wide range of essential climate variables. CLARREO's inherently high absolute accuracy will be verified and traceable on orbit to Système Internationale (SI) units. The benchmarks established by CLARREO will be critical for assessing changes in the Earth system and climate model predictive capabilities for decades into the future as society works to meet the challenge of optimizing strategies for mitigating and adapting to climate change. The CLARREO benchmarks are derived from measurements of the Earth's thermal infrared spectrum (5-50 micron), the spectrum of solar radiation reflected by the Earth and its atmosphere (320-2300 nm), and radio occultation refractivity from which accurate temperature profiles are derived. The mission has the ability to provide new spectral fingerprints of climate change, as well as to provide the first orbiting radiometer with accuracy sufficient to serve as the reference transfer standard for other space sensors, in essence serving as a "NIST [National Institute of Standards and Technology] in orbit." CLARREO will greatly improve the accuracy and relevance of a wide range of space-borne instruments for decadal climate change. Finally, CLARREO has developed new metrics and methods for determining the accuracy requirements of climate observations for a wide range of climate variables and uncertainty sources. These methods should be useful for improving our understanding of observing requirements for most climate change observations.
Chan, Garnet Kin-Lic; Keselman, Anna; Nakatani, Naoki; Li, Zhendong; White, Steven R
2016-07-07
Current descriptions of the ab initio density matrix renormalization group (DMRG) algorithm use two superficially different languages: an older language of the renormalization group and renormalized operators, and a more recent language of matrix product states and matrix product operators. The same algorithm can appear dramatically different when written in the two different vocabularies. In this work, we carefully describe the translation between the two languages in several contexts. First, we describe how to efficiently implement the ab initio DMRG sweep using a matrix product operator based code, and the equivalence to the original renormalized operator implementation. Next we describe how to implement the general matrix product operator/matrix product state algebra within a pure renormalized operator-based DMRG code. Finally, we discuss two improvements of the ab initio DMRG sweep algorithm motivated by matrix product operator language: Hamiltonian compression, and a sum over operators representation that allows for perfect computational parallelism. The connections and correspondences described here serve to link the future developments with the past and are important in the efficient implementation of continuing advances in ab initio DMRG and related algorithms.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chan, Garnet Kin-Lic; Keselman, Anna; Nakatani, Naoki; Li, Zhendong; White, Steven R.
2016-07-01
Current descriptions of the ab initio density matrix renormalization group (DMRG) algorithm use two superficially different languages: an older language of the renormalization group and renormalized operators, and a more recent language of matrix product states and matrix product operators. The same algorithm can appear dramatically different when written in the two different vocabularies. In this work, we carefully describe the translation between the two languages in several contexts. First, we describe how to efficiently implement the ab initio DMRG sweep using a matrix product operator based code, and the equivalence to the original renormalized operator implementation. Next we describe how to implement the general matrix product operator/matrix product state algebra within a pure renormalized operator-based DMRG code. Finally, we discuss two improvements of the ab initio DMRG sweep algorithm motivated by matrix product operator language: Hamiltonian compression, and a sum over operators representation that allows for perfect computational parallelism. The connections and correspondences described here serve to link the future developments with the past and are important in the efficient implementation of continuing advances in ab initio DMRG and related algorithms.
Iparraguirre, A; Rodil, R; Quintana, J B; Bizkarguenaga, E; Prieto, A; Zuloaga, O; Cela, R; Fernández, L A
2014-09-19
In the present work, a novel analytical method for the simultaneous determination of ten polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), eight methoxylated PBDEs (MeO-PBDEs) and seven hydroxylated PBDEs (OH-PBDEs) in soil, lettuce and carrot samples was developed. The procedure was based on matrix solid-phase dispersion (MSPD) followed by gas chromatography coupled to negative chemical ionization-mass spectrometry (GC-NCI-MS). Under optimum conditions, 0.5g of sample (freeze-dried in the case of lettuce and carrot samples) was dispersed with 0.5g of octadecyl-functionalized silica (C18) and 1.75g of acidified silica (10% H2SO4, w/w) was used as clean-up sorbent. A two-step fractionated elution was carried out. First, PBDEs and MeO-PBDEs were eluted in 75:25% (v/v) n-hexane/dichloromethane mixture and, then, the retained OH-PBDEs were eluted in pure dichloromethane. Both extracts were analyzed by GC-NCI-MS separately, in the case of OH-PBDEs after derivatization with N-methyl-N-(trimethylsilyl) trifluoroacetamide. The developed method was validated in terms of accuracy for soil, lettuce and carrot matrices, spiked at two fortification levels (5 and 25ngg(-1)). After correction with the corresponding surrogate, apparent recovery values (defined as the recovery obtained after correction with the corresponding surrogate) were in the 80-129% range. Precision (as relative standard deviation) in the 1-21% range and method detection limits (MDLs) in the 0.003 and 0.3ngg(-1) range for soil and in the 0.003-0.4ngg(-1) range (dry weight) for lettuce and carrot samples were obtained. For PBDEs the method was also validated with a standard reference material (SRM-2585) of house dust. Finally, the method was applied for the determination of target analytes in soil, lettuce and carrot.
Extracellular matrix and wound healing.
Maquart, F X; Monboisse, J C
2014-04-01
Extracellular matrix has been known for a long time as an architectural support for the tissues. Many recent data, however, have shown that extracellular matrix macromolecules (collagens, elastin, glycosaminoglycans, proteoglycans and connective tissue glycoproteins) are able to regulate many important cell functions, such as proliferation, migration, protein synthesis or degradation, apoptosis, etc., making them able to play an important role in the wound repair process. Not only the intact macromolecules but some of their specific domains, that we called "Matrikines", are also able to regulate many cell activities. In this article, we will summarize main findings showing the effects of extracellular matrix macromolecules and matrikines on connective tissue and epithelial cells, particularly in skin, and their potential implication in the wound healing process. These examples show that extracellular matrix macromolecules or some of their specific domains may play a major role in wound healing. Better knowledge of these interactions may suggest new therapeutic targets in wound healing defects.
Matrix quantum mechanics from qubits
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hartnoll, Sean A.; Huijse, Liza; Mazenc, Edward A.
2017-01-01
We introduce a transverse field Ising model with order N 2 spins interacting via a nonlocal quartic interaction. The model has an O( N, ℤ), hyperoctahedral, symmetry. We show that the large N partition function admits a saddle point in which the symmetry is enhanced to O( N). We further demonstrate that this `matrix saddle' correctly computes large N observables at weak and strong coupling. The matrix saddle undergoes a continuous quantum phase transition at intermediate couplings. At the transition the matrix eigenvalue distribution becomes disconnected. The critical excitations are described by large N matrix quantum mechanics. At the critical point, the low energy excitations are waves propagating in an emergent 1 + 1 dimensional spacetime.
Performance Appraisal for Matrix Management.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Edwards, M. R.; Sproull, J. Ruth
1985-01-01
A matrix management system designed for use by a highly technical nuclear weapons research and development facility to improve productivity and flexibility by the use of multiple authority, responsibility, and accountability relationships is described. (MSE)
Stochastic determination of matrix determinants.
Dorn, Sebastian; Ensslin, Torsten A
2015-07-01
Matrix determinants play an important role in data analysis, in particular when Gaussian processes are involved. Due to currently exploding data volumes, linear operations-matrices-acting on the data are often not accessible directly but are only represented indirectly in form of a computer routine. Such a routine implements the transformation a data vector undergoes under matrix multiplication. While efficient probing routines to estimate a matrix's diagonal or trace, based solely on such computationally affordable matrix-vector multiplications, are well known and frequently used in signal inference, there is no stochastic estimate for its determinant. We introduce a probing method for the logarithm of a determinant of a linear operator. Our method rests upon a reformulation of the log-determinant by an integral representation and the transformation of the involved terms into stochastic expressions. This stochastic determinant determination enables large-size applications in Bayesian inference, in particular evidence calculations, model comparison, and posterior determination.
Dimartino, Gianluca
2007-01-01
A convenient method is presented for determination of vitamin D in natural cheese, processed cheese, milk, cereals, noncarbonated soft drinks, and juice by liquid chromatography/ mass spectrometry (LC/MS). Samples were saponified, extracted, evaporated, redissolved in acetonitrile, and injected into an LC-atmospheric pressure chemical ionization-MS system with no preparative chromatographic steps. Vitamin D was determined by selected ion monitoring. MS response was linear for vitamin D3 and its internal standard vitamin D2, and overall average recoveries ranged from 98 to 105%. A blending experiment in which shredded vitamin D3-fortified cheddar was mixed with control nonfortified cheddar showed linearity. The limit of detection for vitamin D was 1.3 ng and the limit of quantitation was 3 ng. The method gave good accuracy and precision, with a standard deviation of 9.5 and relative standard deviation of 6.7%. Results for vitamin D3 obtained with this method for different food matrixes, at different levels, were in agreement with those obtained with the reference LC/UV method currently used by many laboratories and derived from AOAC Official Method 982.29.
Molybdenum disilicide alloy matrix composite
Petrovic, John J.; Honnell, Richard E.; Gibbs, W. Scott
1990-01-01
Compositions of matter consisting of matrix matrials having silicon carbide dispersed throughout them and methods of making the compositions. A matrix material is an alloy of an intermetallic compound, molybdenum disilicide, and at least one secondary component which is a refractory silicide. The silicon carbide dispersant may be in the form of VLS whiskers, VS whiskers, or submicron powder or a mixture of these forms.
Staggered chiral random matrix theory
Osborn, James C.
2011-02-01
We present a random matrix theory for the staggered lattice QCD Dirac operator. The staggered random matrix theory is equivalent to the zero-momentum limit of the staggered chiral Lagrangian and includes all taste breaking terms at their leading order. This is an extension of previous work which only included some of the taste breaking terms. We will also present some results for the taste breaking contributions to the partition function and the Dirac eigenvalues.
Molybdenum disilicide alloy matrix composite
Petrovic, John J.; Honnell, Richard E.; Gibbs, W. Scott
1991-01-01
Compositions of matter consisting of matrix materials having silicon carbide dispersed throughout them and methods of making the compositions. A matrix material is an alloy of an intermetallic compound, molybdenum disilicide, and at least one secondary component which is a refractory silicide. The silicon carbide dispersant may be in the form of VLS whiskers, VS whiskers, or submicron powder or a mixture of these forms.
Molybdenum disilicide alloy matrix composite
Petrovic, J.J.; Honnell, R.E.; Gibbs, W.S.
1991-12-03
Compositions of matter consisting of matrix materials having silicon carbide dispersed throughout them and methods of making the compositions are disclosed. A matrix material is an alloy of an intermetallic compound, molybdenum disilicide, and at least one secondary component which is a refractory silicide. The silicon carbide dispersant may be in the form of VLS whiskers, VS whiskers, or submicron powder or a mixture of these forms. 3 figures.
Algorithmic deformation of matrix factorisations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Carqueville, Nils; Dowdy, Laura; Recknagel, Andreas
2012-04-01
Branes and defects in topological Landau-Ginzburg models are described by matrix factorisations. We revisit the problem of deforming them and discuss various deformation methods as well as their relations. We have implemented these algorithms and apply them to several examples. Apart from explicit results in concrete cases, this leads to a novel way to generate new matrix factorisations via nilpotent substitutions, and to criteria whether boundary obstructions can be lifted by bulk deformations.
Universal Keplerian state transition matrix
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Shepperd, S. W.
1985-01-01
A completely general method for computing the Keplerian state transition matrix in terms of Goodyear's universal variables is presented. This includes a new scheme for solving Kepler's problem which is a necessary first step to computing the transition matrix. The Kepler problem is solved in terms of a new independent variable requiring the evaluation of only one transcendental function. Furthermore, this transcendental function may be conveniently evaluated by means of a Gaussian continued fraction.
Rimayi, Cornelius; Odusanya, David; Mtunzi, Fanyana; Tsoka, Shepherd
2015-01-01
This paper investigates the efficiency of application of four different multivariate calibration techniques, namely matrix-matched internal standard (MMIS), matrix-matched external standard (MMES), solvent-only internal standard (SOIS) and solvent-only external standard (SOES) on the detection and quantification of 20 organochlorine compounds from high, low and blank matrix water sample matrices by Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS) coupled to solid phase extraction (SPE). Further statistical testing, using Statistical Package for the Social Science (SPSS) by applying MANOVA, T-tests and Levene's F tests indicates that matrix composition has a more significant effect on the efficiency of the analytical method than the calibration method of choice. Matrix effects are widely described as one of the major sources of errors in GC-MS multiresidue analysis. Descriptive and inferential statistics proved that the matrix-matched internal standard calibration was the best approach to use for samples of varying matrix composition as it produced the most precise average mean recovery of 87% across all matrices tested. The use of an internal standard calibration overall produced more precise total recoveries than external standard calibration, with mean values of 77% and 64% respectively. The internal standard calibration technique produced a particularly high overall standard deviation of 38% at 95% confidence level indicating that it is less robust than the external standard calibration method which had an overall standard error of 32% at 95% confidence level. Overall, the matrix-matched external standard calibration proved to be the best calibration approach for analysis of low matrix samples which consisted of the real sample matrix as it had the most precise recovery of 98% compared to other calibration approaches for the low-matrix samples.
Monitoring EERE's Recovery Act Portfolio
2011-01-01
Performance monitoring of Recovery Act projects within EERE has been an ongoing effort. Project recipients have been reporting technical and financial progress to project officers on a quarterly basis.
Recovery Potential After Acute Stroke
Seitz, Rüdiger J.; Donnan, Geoffrey A.
2015-01-01
In acute stroke, the major factor for recovery is the early use of thrombolysis aimed at arterial recanalization and reperfusion of ischemic brain tissue. Subsequently, neurorehabilitative training critically improves clinical recovery due to augmention of postlesional plasticity. Neuroimaging and electrophysiology studies have revealed that the location and volume of the stroke lesion, the affection of nerve fiber tracts, as well as functional and structural changes in the perilesional tissue and in large-scale bihemispheric networks are relevant biomarkers of post-stroke recovery. However, associated disorders, such as mood disorders, epilepsy, and neurodegenerative diseases, may induce secondary cerebral changes or aggravate the functional deficits and, thereby, compromise the potential for recovery. PMID:26617568
Gemini 9 spacecraft recovery operations
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
1966-01-01
The Gemini 9-A spacecraft, with Astronauts Thomas Stafford and Eugene Cernan still inside, in water as the aircraft carrier U.S.S. Wasp, the recovery ship, comes alongside to recover the astronauts and their spaceship.
This study evaluated the product quality, waste reduction/pollution prevention, and economic aspects of three technologies for onsite solvent recovery: atmospheric batch distillation, vacuum heat-pump distillation, and low-emission vapor degreasing. The atmospheric and vacuum ...
Recovery and purification of ethylene
Reyneke, Rian; Foral, Michael J.; Lee, Guang-Chung; Eng, Wayne W. Y.; Sinclair, Iain; Lodgson, Jeffery S.
2008-10-21
A process for the recovery and purification of ethylene and optionally propylene from a stream containing lighter and heavier components that employs an ethylene distributor column and a partially thermally coupled distributed distillation system.
Ratepayer Recovery Act of 2009
Sen. Landrieu, Mary L. [D-LA
2009-05-19
06/09/2009 Committee on Homeland Security and Governmental Affairs referred to Subcommittee on Disaster Recovery. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:
Constraint checking during error recovery
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Lutz, Robyn R.; Wong, Johnny S. K.
1993-01-01
The system-level software onboard a spacecraft is responsible for recovery from communication, power, thermal, and computer-health anomalies that may occur. The recovery must occur without disrupting any critical scientific or engineering activity that is executing at the time of the error. Thus, the error-recovery software may have to execute concurrently with the ongoing acquisition of scientific data or with spacecraft maneuvers. This work provides a technique by which the rules that constrain the concurrent execution of these processes can be modeled in a graph. An algorithm is described that uses this model to validate that the constraints hold for all concurrent executions of the error-recovery software with the software that controls the science and engineering activities of the spacecraft. The results are applicable to a variety of control systems with critical constraints on the timing and ordering of the events they control.
Recycling of aluminum matrix composites
Nishida, Yoshinori; Izawa, Norihisa; Kuramasu, Yukio
1999-03-01
Separation of matrix metals in composites was tried on alumina short fiber-reinforced aluminum and 6061 alloy composites and SiC whisker-reinforced 6061 alloy composite for recycling. It is possible to separate molten matrix metals from fibers in the composites using fluxes that are used for melt treatment to remove inclusions. About 50 vol pct of the matrix metals was separated from the alumina short fiber-reinforced composites. The separation ratio of the matrix from the SiC whisker-reinforced 6061 alloy composite was low and about 20 vol pct. The separation mechanism was discussed thermodynamically using interface free energies. Since the flux/fiber interface energy is smaller than the aluminum/fiber interface energy, the replacement of aluminum with fluxes in composites takes place easily. Gases released by the decomposition of fluxes act an important role in pushing out the molten matrix metal from the composite. The role was confirmed by the great amount cavity formed in the composite after the matrix metal flowed out.
Carbonate fuel cell matrix strengthening
Yuh, C.Y.; Haung, C.M.; Johnsen, R.
1995-12-31
The present baseline electrolyte matrix is a porous ceramic powder bed impregnated with alkali carbonate electrolyte. The matrix provides both ionic conduction and gas sealing. During fuel cell stack operation, the matrix experiences both mechanical and thermal stresses. Different mechanical characteristics of active and wet seal areas generate stress. Thermal stress is generated by nonuniform temperature distribution and thermal cycling. A carbonate fuel cell generally may experience planned and unplanned thermal cycles between 650 C and room temperature during its 40,000h life. During the cycling, the electrolyte matrix expands and contracts at a different rate from other cell components. Furthermore, the change in electrolyte volume associated with freezing/melting may generate additional thermal stress. Strengthening of the matrix may be beneficial for longer-term stability of the carbonate fuel cell with respect to repeated thermal cycling. Several promising strengtheners with improved chemical and mechanical stabilities were identified. Fibers provide the highest strengthening effect, followed by particulates. Matrix fabrication technique was successfully modified for uniformly incorporating the advanced strengtheners, maintaining the desired aspect ratio. Enhanced gas sealing demonstrated using the advanced matrices.
Origin of Chondrules and Matrix in Carbonaceous Chondrites
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Palme, H.; Spettel, B.; Ikeda, Y.
1993-07-01
We have recently shown that in Allende, chondrules and matrix are complementary in composition. Chondrules have low Fe/Cr ratios and matrix has high Fe/Cr ratios; the bulk meteorite has the CI ratio. Chondrules on the average have Ca/Al ratios below the solar system ratio of 1.10, which is also the bulk Allende ratio; matrix and related dark inclusions have ratios above 1.10. It was therefore concluded that chondrules and matrix formed from a single reservoir characteristic of the bulk Allende composition [1,2]. Recent reports on the CV meteorite Y-86751 [3,4] indicated the opposite relationship, with high Ca/Al ratios in chondrules and low ratios in matrix. Different compositions of individual components of Y-86751 and of Allende but similar bulk compositions of both meteorites may reveal important details on the preaccretionary evolution of the carbonaceous chondrites. We have therefore begun chemical analyses of the bulk of Y-86751 and its individual lithic components, chondrules, matrix, amoeboid olivine inclusions, Ca,Al-rich inclusions, etc. Results of the bulk analysis of Y-86751 show that this meteorite has (within the accuracy of the analysis) the same bulk composition as Allende. In particular, the Ca/Al ratio is within 3% of the average solar system ratio of 1.1 (by weight). The only statistically resolvable difference is the 50% higher content of Zn in Y-86751. Major-element INA analyses indicate a Ca/Al ratio above the chondritic ratio for several chondrules and opposite to that of average Allende chondrules [1]. Matrix samples have a tendency for low Ca/Al ratios, confirming EMP-matrix analyses [4]. The separates are presently analyzed for a large number of trace elements. After the analyses, separates will be investigated petrographically. The apparent disequilibrium among Allende components and the strong compositional zoning of olivine grains constrain the thermal history of the Allende parent body [e.g., 5]. Any metamorphic redistribution of Ca or
Attitudes and Actions toward Resource Recovery.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Gilbreath, Tommy D.
1981-01-01
Examines how the industrial arts curriculum can develop attitudes toward resource recovery in elementary, middle, and high school. Discusses resource recovery hardware, environmental legislation, and citizen responsibility. (CT)
Product spectrum matrix feature extraction and recognition of radar deception jamming
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tian, Xiao; Tang, Bin; Gui, Guan
2013-12-01
A deception jamming recognition algorithm is proposed based on product spectrum matrix (SPM). Firstly, the product spectral in the different pulse repetition interval (PRI) is calculated, and the product spectral of frequency-slow time is arranged into a two-dimensional matrix. Secondly, non-negative matrix factorisation (NMF) is used to extract the features, and further the separability of the characteristic parameters is analysed by the F-Ratio. Finally, the best features are selected to recognise the deception jamming. The experimental results show that the average recognition accuracy of the proposed deception jamming algorithm is higher than 90% when SNR is greater than 6dB.
Effects of error sources on the parallelism of an optical matrix-vector processor
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Perlee, Caroline J.; Casasent, David P.
1990-01-01
The error sources in a high accuracy optical matrix-vector processor are analyzed by numerical simulation in terms of their effects on the parallelism and speed of the processor. These effects are detailed for radices -2, -4 and -8. Radix -4 is shown to provide maximum parallel processing capabilities under the effects of the system's error sources. Processing speed is shown to be a function of matrix partitioning and the number of parallel processing channels. Consequently, radix -4 operation provides a higher processing speed than radix -2 and -8 for most matrix-vector multiplications when error source effects are considered.
Mass Matrix Formulation of the FLIP Particle-in-Cell Method
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Burgess, D.; Sulsky, D.; Brackbill, J. U.
1992-11-01
A refinement of FLIP [ Brackbill and Ruppel, J. Comput. Phys.65, 314 (1986) ] is described which uses a mass matrix formulation to achieve greater accuracy and less numerical diffusion over the previous version. Without the refinement, there is a significant dissipation of energy in modeling elastic vibrations of a solid. Moreover, in modeling an initial flow discontinuity there are sub-grid-scale oscillations in the particle velocity field in the neighborhood of the discontinuity. These difficulties are eliminated using the mass matrix. In addition, the mass matrix formulation conserves kinetic energy, linear and angular momentum, and is Galilean invariant.
Target recovery in complex networks
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sun, Weiman; Zeng, An
2017-01-01
The invulnerability of complex networks is an important issue which has been widely analyzed in different fields. A lot of works have been done to measure and improve the stability of complex networks when being attacked. Recently, how to recover networks after attack was intensively studied. The existing methods are mainly designed to recover the overall functionality of networks, yet in many real cases the recovery of important nodes should be given priority, to which we refer target recovery. For example, when the cold wave paralyses the railway networks, target recovery means to repair those stations or railways such that the transport capacity of densely-populated cities can be recovered as fast as possible. In this paper, we first compare the impact of attacks on the whole network and target nodes respectively, and then study the efficiency of traditional recovery methods that are proposed based on global centrality metrics. Furthermore, based on target centrality metrics, we introduce a local betweenness recovery method and we find it has better performance than the traditional methods. We finally propose a hybrid recovery method which includes local betweenness metric and local closeness metric. The performance of the hybrid method is shown to be similar to that of the greedy algorithm.
Chemically enhanced in situ recovery
Sale, T.; Pitts, M.; Wyatt, K.
1996-08-01
Chemically enhanced recovery is a promising alternative to current technologies for management of subsurface releases of organic liquids. Through the inclusion of surfactants, solvents, polymers, and/or alkaline agents to a waterflood, the transport of targeted organic compounds can be increased and rates of recovery enhanced. By far, the vast majority of work done in the field of chemically enhanced recovery has been at a laboratory scale. The following text focuses on chemically enhanced recovery from a field application perspective with emphasis given to chlorinated solvents in a low permeability setting. While chlorinated solvents are emphasized, issues discussed are also relevant to organic liquids less dense than water such as petroleum products. Topics reviewed include: (1) Description of technology; (2) General technology considerations; (3) Low permeability media considerations; (4) Cost and reliability considerations; (5) Commercial availability; and (6) Case histories. Through this paper an appreciation is developed of both the potential and limitations of chemically enhanced recovery. Excluded from the scope of this paper is the in situ destruction of organic compounds through processes such as chemical or biological oxidation, chemically enhanced recovery of inorganic compounds, and ex situ soil treatment processes. 11 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.
Total Value of Phosphorus Recovery.
Mayer, Brooke K; Baker, Lawrence A; Boyer, Treavor H; Drechsel, Pay; Gifford, Mac; Hanjra, Munir A; Parameswaran, Prathap; Stoltzfus, Jared; Westerhoff, Paul; Rittmann, Bruce E
2016-07-05
Phosphorus (P) is a critical, geographically concentrated, nonrenewable resource necessary to support global food production. In excess (e.g., due to runoff or wastewater discharges), P is also a primary cause of eutrophication. To reconcile the simultaneous shortage and overabundance of P, lost P flows must be recovered and reused, alongside improvements in P-use efficiency. While this motivation is increasingly being recognized, little P recovery is practiced today, as recovered P generally cannot compete with the relatively low cost of mined P. Therefore, P is often captured to prevent its release into the environment without beneficial recovery and reuse. However, additional incentives for P recovery emerge when accounting for the total value of P recovery. This article provides a comprehensive overview of the range of benefits of recovering P from waste streams, i.e., the total value of recovering P. This approach accounts for P products, as well as other assets that are associated with P and can be recovered in parallel, such as energy, nitrogen, metals and minerals, and water. Additionally, P recovery provides valuable services to society and the environment by protecting and improving environmental quality, enhancing efficiency of waste treatment facilities, and improving food security and social equity. The needs to make P recovery a reality are also discussed, including business models, bottlenecks, and policy and education strategies.
Developing a Regional Recovery Framework
Lesperance, Ann M.; Olson, Jarrod; Stein, Steven L.; Clark, Rebecca; Kelly, Heather; Sheline, Jim; Tietje, Grant; Williamson, Mark; Woodcock, Jody
2011-09-01
Abstract A biological attack would present an unprecedented challenge for local, state, and federal agencies; the military; the private sector; and individuals on many fronts ranging from vaccination and treatment to prioritization of cleanup actions to waste disposal. To prepare the Seattle region to recover from a biological attack, the Seattle Urban Area Security Initiative (UASI) partners collaborated with military and federal agencies to develop a Regional Recovery Framework for a Biological Attack in the Seattle Urban Area. The goal was to reduce the time and resources required to recover and restore wide urban areas, military installations, and other critical infrastructure following a biological incident by providing a coordinated systems approach. Based on discussions in small workshops, tabletop exercises, and interviews with emergency response agency staff, the partners identified concepts of operation for various areas to address critical issues the region will face as recovery progresses. Key to this recovery is the recovery of the economy. Although the Framework is specific to a catastrophic, wide-area biological attack using anthrax, it was designed to be flexible and scalable so it could also serve as the recovery framework for an all-hazards approach. The Framework also served to coalesce policy questions that must be addressed for long-term recovery. These questions cover such areas as safety and health, security, financial management, waste management, legal issues, and economic development.
Spatial and thematic assessment of object-based forest stand delineation using an OFA-matrix
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hernando, A.; Tiede, D.; Albrecht, F.; Lang, S.
2012-10-01
The delineation and classification of forest stands is a crucial aspect of forest management. Object-based image analysis (OBIA) can be used to produce detailed maps of forest stands from either orthophotos or very high resolution satellite imagery. However, measures are then required for evaluating and quantifying both the spatial and thematic accuracy of the OBIA output. In this paper we present an approach for delineating forest stands and a new Object Fate Analysis (OFA) matrix for accuracy assessment. A two-level object-based orthophoto analysis was first carried out to delineate stands on the Dehesa Boyal public land in central Spain (Avila Province). Two structural features were first created for use in class modelling, enabling good differentiation between stands: a relational tree cover cluster feature, and an arithmetic ratio shadow/tree feature. We then extended the OFA comparison approach with an OFA-matrix to enable concurrent validation of thematic and spatial accuracies. Its diagonal shows the proportion of spatial and thematic coincidence between a reference data and the corresponding classification. New parameters for Spatial Thematic Loyalty (STL), Spatial Thematic Loyalty Overall (STLOVERALL) and Maximal Interfering Object (MIO) are introduced to summarise the OFA-matrix accuracy assessment. A stands map generated by OBIA (classification data) was compared with a map of the same area produced from photo interpretation and field data (reference data). In our example the OFA-matrix results indicate good spatial and thematic accuracies (>65%) for all stand classes except for the shrub stands (31.8%), and a good STLOVERALL (69.8%). The OFA-matrix has therefore been shown to be a valid tool for OBIA accuracy assessment.
Processing and damage recovery of intrinsic self-healing glass fiber reinforced composites
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sordo, Federica; Michaud, Véronique
2016-08-01
Glass fiber reinforced composites with a self-healing, supramolecular hybrid network matrix were produced using a modified vacuum assisted resin infusion moulding process adapted to high temperature processing. The quality and fiber volume fraction (50%) of the obtained materials were assessed through microscopy and matrix burn-off methods. The thermo-mechanical properties were quantified by means of dynamic mechanical analysis, revealing very high damping properties compared to traditional epoxy-based glass fiber reinforced composites. Self-healing properties were assessed by three-point bending tests. A high recovery of the flexural properties, around 72% for the elastic modulus and 65% of the maximum flexural stress, was achieved after a resting period of 24 h at room temperature. Recovery after low velocity impact events was also visually observed. Applications for this intrinsic and autonomic self-healing highly reinforced composite material point towards semi-structural applications where high damping and/or integrity recovery after impact are required.
2008-01-01
The increase of proinflammatory cytokines in vaginal secretions may serve as a surrogate marker of unwanted inflammatory reaction to microbicide products topically applied for the prevention of sexually transmitted diseases, including HIV-1. Interleukin (IL)-1β and IL-6 have been proposed as indicators of inflammation and increased risk of HIV-1 transmission; however, the lack of information regarding detection platforms optimal for vaginal fluids and interlaboratory variation limit their use for microbicide evaluation and other clinical applications. This study examines fluid matrix variants relevant to vaginal sampling techniques and proposes a model for interlaboratory comparisons across current cytokine detection technologies. IL-1β and IL-6 standards were measured by 12 laboratories in four countries, using 14 immunoassays and four detection platforms based on absorbance, chemiluminescence, electrochemiluminescence, and fluorescence. International reference preparations of cytokines with defined biological activity were spiked into (1) a defined medium simulating the composition of human vaginal fluid at pH 4.5 and 7.2, (2) physiologic salt solutions (phosphate-buffered saline and saline) commonly used for vaginal lavage sampling in clinical studies of cytokines, and (3) human blood serum. Assays were assessed for reproducibility, linearity, accuracy, and significantly detectable fold difference in cytokine level. Factors with significant impact on cytokine recovery were determined by Kruskal−Wallis analysis of variance with Dunn’s multiple comparison test and multiple regression models. All assays showed acceptable intra-assay reproducibility; however, most were associated with significant interlaboratory variation. The smallest reliably detectable cytokine differences (P < 0.05) derived from pooled interlaboratory data varied from 1.5- to 26-fold depending on assay, cytokine, and matrix type. IL-6 but not IL-1β determinations were lower in both saline
Matrix effects corrections in DDT assay of {sup 239}Pu with the CTEN instrument
Hollas, C.L.; Arnone, G.; Brunson, G.; Coop, K.
1997-11-01
The accuracy of transuranic (TRU) waste assay using the differential die-away technique depends upon significant corrections to compensate for the effects of the matrix material in which the TRU waste is located. We have used a new instrument, the combined thermal/epithermal neutron (CTEN) instrument for the assay of TRU waste, to develop methods to improve the accuracy of these corrections. Neutrons from a pulsed 14-MeV neutron generator are moderated in the walls of the CTEN cavity and induce fission in the TRU material. The prompt neutrons from these fission events are detected in cadmium-wrapped {sup 3}He neutron detectors. We have developed methods of data acquisition and analysis to extract correlation in the neutron signals resulting from fission during active interrogation. This correlation information, in conjunction with the total number of neutrons detected, is used to determine the fraction of fission neutrons transmitted through the matrix material into the {sup 3}He detectors. This determination allows us to cleanly separate the matrix effects into two processes: matrix modification upon the neutron interrogating flux and matrix modification upon the fraction of fission neutrons transmitted to the neutron detectors. Recent results indicate that for some matrix systems, corrections for position dependent effects within the matrix are possible. 7 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab.
Matrix-assisted diffusion-ordered spectroscopy: choosing a matrix.
Gramosa, Nilce V; Ricardo, Nágila M S P; Adams, Ralph W; Morris, Gareth A; Nilsson, Mathias
2016-06-07
Diffusion-ordered spectroscopy (DOSY) is an important technique for separating the NMR signals of the components in a mixture, and relies on differences in diffusion coefficient. Standard DOSY experiments therefore struggle when the components of a mixture are of similar size, and hence diffuse at similar rates. Fortunately, the diffusion coefficients of solutes can be manipulated by changing the matrix in which they diffuse, using matrix components that interact differentially with them, a technique known as matrix-assisted DOSY. In the present investigation, we evaluate the performance of a number of new, previously used, and mixed matrices with an informative test mixture: the three positional isomers of dihydroxybenzene. The aim of this work is to present the matrix-assisted DOSY user with information about the potential utility of a set of matrices (and combinations of matrices), including ionic and non-ionic surfactants, complexing agents, polymers, and mixed solvents. A variety of matrices improved the diffusion resolution of the signals of the test system, with the best separation achieved by mixed micelles of sodium dodecyl sulfate and cetyl trimethylammonium bromide. The use of mixed matrices offers great potential for the analyst to tailor the matrix to a particular sample under study. © 2016 The Authors Magnetic Resonance in Chemistry Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Panuwet, Parinya; Hunter, Ronald E.; D’Souza, Priya E.; Chen, Xianyu; Radford, Samantha A.; Cohen, Jordan R.; Marder, M. Elizabeth; Kartavenka, Kostya; Ryan, P. Barry; Barr, Dana Boyd
2015-01-01
The ability to quantify levels of target analytes in biological samples accurately and precisely, in biomonitoring, involves the use of highly sensitive and selective instrumentation such as tandem mass spectrometers and a thorough understanding of highly variable matrix effects. Typically, matrix effects are caused by co-eluting matrix components that alter the ionization of target analytes as well as the chromatographic response of target analytes, leading to reduced or increased sensitivity of the analysis. Thus, before the desired accuracy and precision standards of laboratory data are achieved, these effects must be characterized and controlled. Here we present our review and observations of matrix effects encountered during the validation and implementation of tandem mass spectrometry-based analytical methods. We also provide systematic, comprehensive laboratory strategies needed to control challenges posed by matrix effects in order to ensure delivery of the most accurate data for biomonitoring studies assessing exposure to environmental toxicants. PMID:25562585
Zeolite membrane cascade for tritium extraction and recovery systems
Borisevich, O.; Demange, D.; Lefebvre, X.; Kind, M.
2015-03-15
Membrane separation by zeolite membranes has been proposed as a pre-concentration stage for the tritium extraction from the purge helium of the breeding blanket combined with a final recovery by the catalytic membrane reactor PERMCAT. This fully continuous operation improves the tritium management in fusion machines, minimizing the tritium inventory. For the first time, the permeation measurements for H{sub 2} - He mixtures through a MFI-alumina hollow fibre membrane has been measured for different compositions (0.1 - 20% H{sub 2}) and temperatures. Such a highly permeable membrane, although it shows a limited selectivity, appears attractive for tritium recovery in the blanket. This will imply its operation in a membrane cascade, for which simulation work is ongoing. Mathematically the process is modeled using mass balance equations that can be transformed into the matrix form and solved iteratively assuming a permeate concentration on the first step of iteration, until the separation requirements are fulfilled.
Li, Jiale; Wu, Liqing; Jin, Youxun; Su, Ping; Yang, Bin; Yang, Yi
2016-05-01
Isotope dilution mass spectrometry (IDMS), an important metrological method, is widely used for absolute quantification of peptides and proteins. IDMS employs an isotope-labeled peptide or protein as an internal standard although the use of a protein provides improved accuracy. Generally, the isotope-labeled protein is obtained by stable isotope labeling by amino acids in cell culture (SILAC) technology. However, SILAC is expensive, laborious, and time-consuming. To overcome these drawbacks, a novel universal SI-traceable IDMS method for absolute quantification of proteins in a matrix is described with human transferrin (hTRF). The hTRF and a human serum sample were labeled with different tandem mass tags (TMTs). After mixing the TMT-labeled hTRF and serum sample together followed by digestion, the peptides were separated by nano-liquid chromatography and analyzed by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS). Using the signature peptides, we calculated the ratios of reporter ions from the TMT-labeled peptides which, in turn, allowed determination of the mass fraction of hTRF. The recovery ranged from 97% to 105% with a CV of 3.9%. The LOD and LOQ were 1.71 × 10(-5) g/g and 5.69 × 10(-5) g/g of hTRF in human serum, respectively, and the relative expanded uncertainty was 4.7% with a mass fraction of 2.08 mg/g. For comparison, an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) method for hTRF yielded a mass fraction of 2.03 mg/g. This method provides a starting point for establishing IDMS technology to accurately determine the mass fractions of protein biomarkers in a matrix with traceability to SI units. This technology should support the development of a metrological method useful for quantification of a wide variety of proteins.
Improvement in Rayleigh Scattering Measurement Accuracy
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Fagan, Amy F.; Clem, Michelle M.; Elam, Kristie A.
2012-01-01
Spectroscopic Rayleigh scattering is an established flow diagnostic that has the ability to provide simultaneous velocity, density, and temperature measurements. The Fabry-Perot interferometer or etalon is a commonly employed instrument for resolving the spectrum of molecular Rayleigh scattered light for the purpose of evaluating these flow properties. This paper investigates the use of an acousto-optic frequency shifting device to improve measurement accuracy in Rayleigh scattering experiments at the NASA Glenn Research Center. The frequency shifting device is used as a means of shifting the incident or reference laser frequency by 1100 MHz to avoid overlap of the Rayleigh and reference signal peaks in the interference pattern used to obtain the velocity, density, and temperature measurements, and also to calibrate the free spectral range of the Fabry-Perot etalon. The measurement accuracy improvement is evaluated by comparison of Rayleigh scattering measurements acquired with and without shifting of the reference signal frequency in a 10 mm diameter subsonic nozzle flow.
Response time accuracy in Apple Macintosh computers.
Neath, Ian; Earle, Avery; Hallett, Darcy; Surprenant, Aimée M
2011-06-01
The accuracy and variability of response times (RTs) collected on stock Apple Macintosh computers using USB keyboards was assessed. A photodiode detected a change in the screen's luminosity and triggered a solenoid that pressed a key on the keyboard. The RTs collected in this way were reliable, but could be as much as 100 ms too long. The standard deviation of the measured RTs varied between 2.5 and 10 ms, and the distributions approximated a normal distribution. Surprisingly, two recent Apple-branded USB keyboards differed in their accuracy by as much as 20 ms. The most accurate RTs were collected when an external CRT was used to display the stimuli and Psychtoolbox was able to synchronize presentation with the screen refresh. We conclude that RTs collected on stock iMacs can detect a difference as small as 5-10 ms under realistic conditions, and this dictates which types of research should or should not use these systems.
Accuracy control in Monte Carlo radiative calculations
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Almazan, P. Planas
1993-01-01
The general accuracy law that rules the Monte Carlo, ray-tracing algorithms used commonly for the calculation of the radiative entities in the thermal analysis of spacecraft are presented. These entities involve transfer of radiative energy either from a single source to a target (e.g., the configuration factors). or from several sources to a target (e.g., the absorbed heat fluxes). In fact, the former is just a particular case of the latter. The accuracy model is later applied to the calculation of some specific radiative entities. Furthermore, some issues related to the implementation of such a model in a software tool are discussed. Although only the relative error is considered through the discussion, similar results can be derived for the absolute error.
Accuracy of forecasts in strategic intelligence.
Mandel, David R; Barnes, Alan
2014-07-29
The accuracy of 1,514 strategic intelligence forecasts abstracted from intelligence reports was assessed. The results show that both discrimination and calibration of forecasts was very good. Discrimination was better for senior (versus junior) analysts and for easier (versus harder) forecasts. Miscalibration was mainly due to underconfidence such that analysts assigned more uncertainty than needed given their high level of discrimination. Underconfidence was more pronounced for harder (versus easier) forecasts and for forecasts deemed more (versus less) important for policy decision making. Despite the observed underconfidence, there was a paucity of forecasts in the least informative 0.4-0.6 probability range. Recalibrating the forecasts substantially reduced underconfidence. The findings offer cause for tempered optimism about the accuracy of strategic intelligence forecasts and indicate that intelligence producers aim to promote informativeness while avoiding overstatement.
High Accuracy Fuel Flowmeter, Phase 1
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Mayer, C.; Rose, L.; Chan, A.; Chin, B.; Gregory, W.
1983-01-01
Technology related to aircraft fuel mass - flowmeters was reviewed to determine what flowmeter types could provide 0.25%-of-point accuracy over a 50 to one range in flowrates. Three types were selected and were further analyzed to determine what problem areas prevented them from meeting the high accuracy requirement, and what the further development needs were for each. A dual-turbine volumetric flowmeter with densi-viscometer and microprocessor compensation was selected for its relative simplicity and fast response time. An angular momentum type with a motor-driven, spring-restrained turbine and viscosity shroud was selected for its direct mass-flow output. This concept also employed a turbine for fast response and a microcomputer for accurate viscosity compensation. The third concept employed a vortex precession volumetric flowmeter and was selected for its unobtrusive design. Like the turbine flowmeter, it uses a densi-viscometer and microprocessor for density correction and accurate viscosity compensation.
Positional Accuracy Assessment of Googleearth in Riyadh
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Farah, Ashraf; Algarni, Dafer
2014-06-01
Google Earth is a virtual globe, map and geographical information program that is controlled by Google corporation. It maps the Earth by the superimposition of images obtained from satellite imagery, aerial photography and GIS 3D globe. With millions of users all around the globe, GoogleEarth® has become the ultimate source of spatial data and information for private and public decision-support systems besides many types and forms of social interactions. Many users mostly in developing countries are also using it for surveying applications, the matter that raises questions about the positional accuracy of the Google Earth program. This research presents a small-scale assessment study of the positional accuracy of GoogleEarth® Imagery in Riyadh; capital of Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA). The results show that the RMSE of the GoogleEarth imagery is 2.18 m and 1.51 m for the horizontal and height coordinates respectively.
Accuracy estimation for supervised learning algorithms
Glover, C.W.; Oblow, E.M.; Rao, N.S.V.
1997-04-01
This paper illustrates the relative merits of three methods - k-fold Cross Validation, Error Bounds, and Incremental Halting Test - to estimate the accuracy of a supervised learning algorithm. For each of the three methods we point out the problem they address, some of the important assumptions that are based on, and illustrate them through an example. Finally, we discuss the relative advantages and disadvantages of each method.
Boresighting Issues for High Accuracy TSPI Sensors
2015-04-29
UNIT NUMBER 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) AND ADDRESS(ES) 412 RANS/ENRT Edwards Air Force Base, CA...navigation sensor to accurately report the heading, roll, and pitch of an aircraft, the angular offset between the sensor inertial coordinate system and...the aircraft coordinate system, the “boresight”, must be measured . Errors in the boresight measurements directly affect the accuracy of the navigation
Measurement Accuracy Limitation Analysis on Synchrophasors
Zhao, Jiecheng; Zhan, Lingwei; Liu, Yilu; Qi, Hairong; Gracia, Jose R; Ewing, Paul D
2015-01-01
This paper analyzes the theoretical accuracy limitation of synchrophasors measurements on phase angle and frequency of the power grid. Factors that cause the measurement error are analyzed, including error sources in the instruments and in the power grid signal. Different scenarios of these factors are evaluated according to the normal operation status of power grid measurement. Based on the evaluation and simulation, the errors of phase angle and frequency caused by each factor are calculated and discussed.
Secure Fingerprint Identification of High Accuracy
2014-01-01
work on secure face recognition ([12], [29] and others), DNA matching ([35], [6], and others), iris code comparisons ([9], [7]), fingerprint ...1 Secure Fingerprint Identification of High Accuracy Marina Blanton and Siddharth Saraph Department of Computer Science and Engineering University of...In this work, we treat the problem of privacy- preserving matching of two fingerprints , which can be used for secure fingerprint authentication and
Arizona Vegetation Resource Inventory (AVRI) accuracy assessment
Szajgin, John; Pettinger, L.R.; Linden, D.S.; Ohlen, D.O.
1982-01-01
A quantitative accuracy assessment was performed for the vegetation classification map produced as part of the Arizona Vegetation Resource Inventory (AVRI) project. This project was a cooperative effort between the Bureau of Land Management (BLM) and the Earth Resources Observation Systems (EROS) Data Center. The objective of the accuracy assessment was to estimate (with a precision of ?10 percent at the 90 percent confidence level) the comission error in each of the eight level II hierarchical vegetation cover types. A stratified two-phase (double) cluster sample was used. Phase I consisted of 160 photointerpreted plots representing clusters of Landsat pixels, and phase II consisted of ground data collection at 80 of the phase I cluster sites. Ground data were used to refine the phase I error estimates by means of a linear regression model. The classified image was stratified by assigning each 15-pixel cluster to the stratum corresponding to the dominant cover type within each cluster. This method is known as stratified plurality sampling. Overall error was estimated to be 36 percent with a standard error of 2 percent. Estimated error for individual vegetation classes ranged from a low of 10 percent ?6 percent for evergreen woodland to 81 percent ?7 percent for cropland and pasture. Total cost of the accuracy assessment was $106,950 for the one-million-hectare study area. The combination of the stratified plurality sampling (SPS) method of sample allocation with double sampling provided the desired estimates within the required precision levels. The overall accuracy results confirmed that highly accurate digital classification of vegetation is difficult to perform in semiarid environments, due largely to the sparse vegetation cover. Nevertheless, these techniques show promise for providing more accurate information than is presently available for many BLM-administered lands.
Accuracy of Stokes integration for geoid computation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ismail, Zahra; Jamet, Olivier; Altamimi, Zuheir
2014-05-01
Geoid determination by remove-compute-restore (RCR) technique involves the application of Stokes's integral on reduced gravity anomalies. Reduced gravity anomalies are obtained through interpolation after removing low degree gravity signal from space spherical harmonic model and high frequency from topographical effects and cover a spectre ranging from degree 150-200. Stokes's integral is truncated to a limited region around the computation point producing an error that will be reducing by a modification of Stokes's kernel. We study Stokes integral accuracy on synthetic signal of various frequency ranges, produced with EGM2008 spherical harmonic coefficients up to degree 2000. We analyse the integration error according to the frequency range of signal, the resolution of gravity anomaly grid and the radius of Stokes integration. The study shows that the behaviour of the relative errors is frequency independent. The standard Stokes kernel is though insufficient to produce 1cm geoid accuracy without a removal of the major part of the gravity signal up to degree 600. The Integration over an area of radius greater than 3 degree does not improve accuracy improvement. The results are compared to a similar experiment using the modified Stokes kernel formula (Ellmann2004, Sjöberg2003). References: Ellmann, A. (2004) The geoid for the Baltic countries determined by least-squares modification of Stokes formula. Sjöberg, LE (2003). A general model of modifying Stokes formula and its least-squares solution Journal of Geodesy, 77. 459-464.
Speed versus accuracy in collective decision making.
Franks, Nigel R; Dornhaus, Anna; Fitzsimmons, Jon P; Stevens, Martin
2003-01-01
We demonstrate a speed versus accuracy trade-off in collective decision making. House-hunting ant colonies choose a new nest more quickly in harsh conditions than in benign ones and are less discriminating. The errors that occur in a harsh environment are errors of judgement not errors of omission because the colonies have discovered all of the alternative nests before they initiate an emigration. Leptothorax albipennis ants use quorum sensing in their house hunting. They only accept a nest, and begin rapidly recruiting members of their colony, when they find within it a sufficient number of their nest-mates. Here we show that these ants can lower their quorum thresholds between benign and harsh conditions to adjust their speed-accuracy trade-off. Indeed, in harsh conditions these ants rely much more on individual decision making than collective decision making. Our findings show that these ants actively choose to take their time over judgements and employ collective decision making in benign conditions when accuracy is more important than speed. PMID:14667335
Solving Nonlinear Euler Equations with Arbitrary Accuracy
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Dyson, Rodger W.
2005-01-01
A computer program that efficiently solves the time-dependent, nonlinear Euler equations in two dimensions to an arbitrarily high order of accuracy has been developed. The program implements a modified form of a prior arbitrary- accuracy simulation algorithm that is a member of the class of algorithms known in the art as modified expansion solution approximation (MESA) schemes. Whereas millions of lines of code were needed to implement the prior MESA algorithm, it is possible to implement the present MESA algorithm by use of one or a few pages of Fortran code, the exact amount depending on the specific application. The ability to solve the Euler equations to arbitrarily high accuracy is especially beneficial in simulations of aeroacoustic effects in settings in which fully nonlinear behavior is expected - for example, at stagnation points of fan blades, where linearizing assumptions break down. At these locations, it is necessary to solve the full nonlinear Euler equations, and inasmuch as the acoustical energy is of the order of 4 to 5 orders of magnitude below that of the mean flow, it is necessary to achieve an overall fractional error of less than 10-6 in order to faithfully simulate entropy, vortical, and acoustical waves.
On the Accuracy of Genomic Selection
Rabier, Charles-Elie; Barre, Philippe; Asp, Torben; Charmet, Gilles; Mangin, Brigitte
2016-01-01
Genomic selection is focused on prediction of breeding values of selection candidates by means of high density of markers. It relies on the assumption that all quantitative trait loci (QTLs) tend to be in strong linkage disequilibrium (LD) with at least one marker. In this context, we present theoretical results regarding the accuracy of genomic selection, i.e., the correlation between predicted and true breeding values. Typically, for individuals (so-called test individuals), breeding values are predicted by means of markers, using marker effects estimated by fitting a ridge regression model to a set of training individuals. We present a theoretical expression for the accuracy; this expression is suitable for any configurations of LD between QTLs and markers. We also introduce a new accuracy proxy that is free of the QTL parameters and easily computable; it outperforms the proxies suggested in the literature, in particular, those based on an estimated effective number of independent loci (Me). The theoretical formula, the new proxy, and existing proxies were compared for simulated data, and the results point to the validity of our approach. The calculations were also illustrated on a new perennial ryegrass set (367 individuals) genotyped for 24,957 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). In this case, most of the proxies studied yielded similar results because of the lack of markers for coverage of the entire genome (2.7 Gb). PMID:27322178
Ultra-wideband ranging precision and accuracy
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
MacGougan, Glenn; O'Keefe, Kyle; Klukas, Richard
2009-09-01
This paper provides an overview of ultra-wideband (UWB) in the context of ranging applications and assesses the precision and accuracy of UWB ranging from both a theoretical perspective and a practical perspective using real data. The paper begins with a brief history of UWB technology and the most current definition of what constitutes an UWB signal. The potential precision of UWB ranging is assessed using Cramer-Rao lower bound analysis. UWB ranging methods are described and potential error sources are discussed. Two types of commercially available UWB ranging radios are introduced which are used in testing. Actual ranging accuracy is assessed from line-of-sight testing under benign signal conditions by comparison to high-accuracy electronic distance measurements and to ranges derived from GPS real-time kinematic positioning. Range measurements obtained in outdoor testing with line-of-sight obstructions and strong reflection sources are compared to ranges derived from classically surveyed positions. The paper concludes with a discussion of the potential applications for UWB ranging.
Wind measurement accuracy for the NASA scatterometer
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Long, David G.; Oliphant, Travis
1997-09-01
The NASA Scatterometer (NSCAT) is designed to make measurements of the normalized radar backscatter coefficient ((sigma) o) of the ocean's surface. The measured (sigma) o is a function of the viewing geometry and the surface roughness due to wind-generated waves. By making multiple measurements of the same location from different azimuth angles it is possible to retrieve the near-surface wind speed and direction with the aid of a Geophysical Model Function (GMF) which relates wind and (sigma) o. The wind is estimated from the noisy (sigma) o measurements using maximum likelihood techniques. The probability density of the measured (sigma) o is assumed to be Gaussian with a variance that depends on the true (sigma) o and therefore the wind through the GMF and the measurements from different azimuth angles are assumed independent in estimating the wind. In order to estimate the accuracy of the retrieved wind, we derive the Cramer-Reo (CR) bound for wind estimation from scatterometer measurements. We show that the CR bound can be used as an error bar on the estimated wind. The role of geophysical modeling error in the GMF is considered and shown to play a significant role in the wind accuracy. Estimates of the accuracy of NSCAT measurements are given along with other scatterometer geometries and types.
Determination of GPS orbits to submeter accuracy
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Bertiger, W. I.; Lichten, S. M.; Katsigris, E. C.
1988-01-01
Orbits for satellites of the Global Positioning System (GPS) were determined with submeter accuracy. Tests used to assess orbital accuracy include orbit comparisons from independent data sets, orbit prediction, ground baseline determination, and formal errors. One satellite tracked 8 hours each day shows rms error below 1 m even when predicted more than 3 days outside of a 1-week data arc. Differential tracking of the GPS satellites in high Earth orbit provides a powerful relative positioning capability, even when a relatively small continental U.S. fiducial tracking network is used with less than one-third of the full GPS constellation. To demonstrate this capability, baselines of up to 2000 km in North America were also determined with the GPS orbits. The 2000 km baselines show rms daily repeatability of 0.3 to 2 parts in 10 to the 8th power and agree with very long base interferometry (VLBI) solutions at the level of 1.5 parts in 10 to the 8th power. This GPS demonstration provides an opportunity to test different techniques for high-accuracy orbit determination for high Earth orbiters. The best GPS orbit strategies included data arcs of at least 1 week, process noise models for tropospheric fluctuations, estimation of GPS solar pressure coefficients, and combine processing of GPS carrier phase and pseudorange data. For data arc of 2 weeks, constrained process noise models for GPS dynamic parameters significantly improved the situation.
A SVD-based method to assess the uniqueness and accuracy of SPECT geometrical calibration.
Ma, Tianyu; Yao, Rutao; Shao, Yiping; Zhou, Rong
2009-12-01
Geometrical calibration is critical to obtaining high resolution and artifact-free reconstructed image for SPECT and CT systems. Most published calibration methods use analytical approach to determine the uniqueness condition for a specific calibration problem, and the calibration accuracy is often evaluated through empirical studies. In this work, we present a general method to assess the characteristics of both the uniqueness and the quantitative accuracy of the calibration. The method uses a singular value decomposition (SVD) based approach to analyze the Jacobian matrix from a least-square cost function for the calibration. With this method, the uniqueness of the calibration can be identified by assessing the nonsingularity of the Jacobian matrix, and the estimation accuracy of the calibration parameters can be quantified by analyzing the SVD components. A direct application of this method is that the efficacy of a calibration configuration can be quantitatively evaluated by choosing a figure-of-merit, e.g., the minimum required number of projection samplings to achieve desired calibration accuracy. The proposed method was validated with a slit-slat SPECT system through numerical simulation studies and experimental measurements with point sources and an ultra-micro hot-rod phantom. The predicted calibration accuracy from the numerical studies was confirmed by the experimental point source calibrations at approximately 0.1 mm for both the center of rotation (COR) estimation of a rotation stage and the slit aperture position (SAP) estimation of a slit-slat collimator by an optimized system calibration protocol. The reconstructed images of a hot rod phantom showed satisfactory spatial resolution with a proper calibration and showed visible resolution degradation with artificially introduced 0.3 mm COR estimation error. The proposed method can be applied to other SPECT and CT imaging systems to analyze calibration method assessment and calibration protocol
The Astrobiology Matrix and the "Drake Matrix" in Education
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Mizser, A.; Kereszturi, A.
2003-01-01
We organized astrobiology lectures in the Eotvos Lorand University of Sciences and the Polaris Observatory in 2002. We present here the "Drake matrix" for the comparison of the astrobiological potential of different bodies [1], and astrobiology matrix for the visualization of the interdisciplinary connections between different fields of astrobiology. Conclusion: In Hungary it is difficult to integrate astrobiology in the education system but the great advantage is that it can connect different scientific fields and improve the view of students. We would like to get in contact with persons and organizations who already have experience in the education of astrobiology.
Extracellular matrix components in peripheral nerve regeneration.
Gonzalez-Perez, Francisco; Udina, Esther; Navarro, Xavier
2013-01-01
Injured axons of the peripheral nerve are able to regenerate and, eventually, reinnervate target organs. However, functional recovery is usually poor after severe nerve injuries. The switch of Schwann cells to a proliferative state, secretion of trophic factors, and the presence of extracellular matrix (ECM) molecules (such as collagen, laminin, or fibronectin) in the distal stump are key elements to create a permissive environment for axons to grow. In this review, we focus attention on the ECM components and their tropic role in axonal regeneration. These components can also be used as molecular cues to guide the axons through artificial nerve guides in attempts to better mimic the natural environment found in a degenerating nerve. Most used scaffolds tested are based on natural molecules that form the ECM, but use of synthetic polymers and functionalization of hydrogels are bringing new options. Progress in tissue engineering will eventually lead to the design of composite artificial nerve grafts that may replace the use of autologous nerve grafts to sustain regeneration over long gaps.
Relativistic Dipole Matrix Element Zeros
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lajohn, L. A.; Pratt, R. H.
2002-05-01
There is a special class of relativistic high energy dipole matrix element zeros (RZ), whose positions with respect to photon energy ω , only depend on the bound state l quantum number according to ω^0=mc^2/(l_b+1) (independent of primary quantum number n, nuclear charge Z, central potential V and dipole retardation). These RZ only occur in (n,l_b,j_b)arrow (ɛ , l_b+1,j_b) transitions such as ns_1/2arrow ɛ p_1/2; np_3/2arrow ɛ d_3/2: nd_5/2arrow ɛ f_5/2 etc. The nonrelativistic limit of these matrix elements can be established explicitly in the Coulomb case. Within the general matrix element formalism (such as that in [1]); when |κ | is substituted for γ in analytic expressions for matrix elements, the zeros remain, but ω^0 now becomes dependent on n and Z. When the reduction to nonrelativistic form is completed by application of the low energy approximation ω mc^2 mc^2, the zeros disappear. This nonzero behavior was noted in nonrelativistic dipole Coulomb matrix elements by Fano and Cooper [2] and later proven by Oh and Pratt[3]. (J. H. Scofield, Phys. Rev. A 40), 3054 (1989 (U. Fano and J. W. Cooper, Rev. Mod. Phys. 40), 441 (1968). (D. Oh and R. H. Pratt, Phys. Rev. A 34), 2486 (1986); 37, 1524 (1988); 45, 1583 (1992).
Matrix factorizations and elliptic fibrations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Omer, Harun
2016-09-01
I use matrix factorizations to describe branes at simple singularities of elliptic fibrations. Each node of the corresponding Dynkin diagrams of the ADE-type singularities is associated with one indecomposable matrix factorization which can be deformed into one or more factorizations of lower rank. Branes with internal fluxes arise naturally as bound states of the indecomposable factorizations. Describing branes in such a way avoids the need to resolve singularities. This paper looks at gauge group breaking from E8 fibers down to SU (5) fibers due to the relevance of such fibrations for local F-theory GUT models. A purpose of this paper is to understand how the deformations of the singularity are understood in terms of its matrix factorizations. By systematically factorizing the elliptic fiber equation, this paper discusses geometries which are relevant for building semi-realistic local models. In the process it becomes evident that breaking patterns which are identical at the level of the Kodaira type of the fibers can be inequivalent at the level of matrix factorizations. Therefore the matrix factorization picture supplements information which the conventional less detailed descriptions lack.
Naik, Ganesh R; Nguyen, Hung T
2015-03-01
Surface electromyography (sEMG) is widely used in evaluating the functional status of the hand to assist in hand gesture recognition, prosthetics and rehabilitation applications. The sEMG is a noninvasive, easy to record signal of superficial muscles from the skin surface. Considering the nonstationary characteristics of sEMG, recent feature selection of hand gesture recognition using sEMG signals necessitate designers to use nonnegative matrix factorization (NMF)-based methods. This method exploits both the additive and sparse nature of signals by extracting accurate and reliable measurements of sEMG features using a minimum number of sensors. The testing has been conducted for simple and complex finger flexions using several experiments with artificial neural network classification scheme. It is shown, both by simulation and experimental studies, that the proposed algorithm is able to classify ten finger flexions (five simple and five complex finger flexions) recorded from two sEMG sensors up to 92% (95% for simple and 87% for complex flexions) accuracy. The recognition performances of simple and complex finger flexions are also validated with NMF permutation matrix analysis.