Science.gov

Sample records for accuracy spatial resolution

  1. Forest Classification Accuracy as Influenced by Multispectral Scanner Spatial Resolution. [Sam Houston National Forest, Texas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nalepka, R. F. (Principal Investigator); Sadowski, F. E.; Sarno, J. E.

    1976-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. A supervised classification within two separate ground areas of the Sam Houston National Forest was carried out for two sq meters spatial resolution MSS data. Data were progressively coarsened to simulate five additional cases of spatial resolution ranging up to 64 sq meters. Similar processing and analysis of all spatial resolutions enabled evaluations of the effect of spatial resolution on classification accuracy for various levels of detail and the effects on area proportion estimation for very general forest features. For very coarse resolutions, a subset of spectral channels which simulated the proposed thematic mapper channels was used to study classification accuracy.

  2. Additional studies of forest classification accuracy as influenced by multispectral scanner spatial resolution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sadowski, F. E.; Sarno, J. E.

    1976-01-01

    First, an analysis of forest feature signatures was used to help explain the large variation in classification accuracy that can occur among individual forest features for any one case of spatial resolution and the inconsistent changes in classification accuracy that were demonstrated among features as spatial resolution was degraded. Second, the classification rejection threshold was varied in an effort to reduce the large proportion of unclassified resolution elements that previously appeared in the processing of coarse resolution data when a constant rejection threshold was used for all cases of spatial resolution. For the signature analysis, two-channel ellipse plots showing the feature signature distributions for several cases of spatial resolution indicated that the capability of signatures to correctly identify their respective features is dependent on the amount of statistical overlap among signatures. Reductions in signature variance that occur in data of degraded spatial resolution may not necessarily decrease the amount of statistical overlap among signatures having large variance and small mean separations. Features classified by such signatures may thus continue to have similar amounts of misclassified elements in coarser resolution data, and thus, not necessarily improve in classification accuracy.

  3. Impact of spatial resolution on correlation between segmentation evaluation metrics and forest classification accuracy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Švab Lenarčič, Andreja; Ritlop, Klemen; Äńurić, Nataša.; Čotar, Klemen; Oštir, Krištof

    2015-10-01

    Slovenia is one of the most forested countries in Europe. Its forest management authorities need information about the forest extent and state, as their responsibility lies in forest observation and preservation. Together with appropriate geographic information system mapping methods the remotely sensed data represent essential tool for an effective and sustainable forest management. Despite the large data availability, suitable mapping methods still present big challenge in terms of their speed which is often affected by the huge amount of data. The speed of the classification method could be maximised, if each of the steps in object-based classification was automated. However, automation is hard to achieve, since segmentation requires choosing optimum parameter values for optimal classification results. This paper focuses on the analysis of segmentation and classification performance and their correlation in a range of segmentation parameter values applied in the segmentation step. In order to find out which spatial resolution is still suitable for forest classification, forest classification accuracies obtained by using four images with different spatial resolutions were compared. Results of this study indicate that all high or very high spatial resolutions are suitable for optimal forest segmentation and classification, as long as appropriate scale and merge parameters combinations are used in the object-based classification. If computation interval includes all segmentation parameter combinations, all segmentation-classification correlations are spatial resolution independent and are generally high. If computation interval includes over- or optimal-segmentation parameter combinations, most segmentation-classification correlations are spatial resolution dependent.

  4. Quantifying the Effect of 3D Spatial Resolution on the Accuracy of Microstructural Distributions (PREPRINT)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-08-01

    Michael D. Uchic and Michael Groeber Metals Branch Structural Materials Division Megna Shah UES, Inc. Gregory Loughnane, Raghavan Srinivasan...AUTHOR(S) Michael D. Uchic and Michael Groeber (AFRL/RXCM) Megna Shah (UES, Inc.) Gregory Loughnane, Raghavan Srinivasan, and Ramana Grandhi (Wright...effect of 3D spatial resolution on the accuracy of microstructural distributions Gregory Loughnane 1 , Michael Groeber 2 , Michael Uchic 2 , Matthew

  5. Prioritizing spatial accuracy in high-resolution fMRI data using multivariate feature weight mapping

    PubMed Central

    Buschmann, Tilo; Lohmann, Gabriele; Margulies, Daniel S.; Trampel, Robert; Turner, Robert

    2014-01-01

    Although ultra-high-field fMRI at field strengths of 7T or above provides substantial gains in BOLD contrast-to-noise ratio, when very high-resolution fMRI is required such gains are inevitably reduced. The improvement in sensitivity provided by multivariate analysis techniques, as compared with univariate methods, then becomes especially welcome. Information mapping approaches are commonly used, such as the searchlight technique, which take into account the spatially distributed patterns of activation in order to predict stimulus conditions. However, the popular searchlight decoding technique, in particular, has been found to be prone to spatial inaccuracies. For instance, the spatial extent of informative areas is generally exaggerated, and their spatial configuration is distorted. We propose the combination of a non-parametric and permutation-based statistical framework with linear classifiers. We term this new combined method Feature Weight Mapping (FWM). The main goal of the proposed method is to map the specific contribution of each voxel to the classification decision while including a correction for the multiple comparisons problem. Next, we compare this new method to the searchlight approach using a simulation and ultra-high-field 7T experimental data. We found that the searchlight method led to spatial inaccuracies that are especially noticeable in high-resolution fMRI data. In contrast, FWM was more spatially precise, revealing both informative anatomical structures as well as the direction by which voxels contribute to the classification. By maximizing the spatial accuracy of ultra-high-field fMRI results, global multivariate methods provide a substantial improvement for characterizing structure-function relationships. PMID:24795548

  6. Estimating Temperature Retrieval Accuracy Associated With Thermal Band Spatial Resolution Requirements for Center Pivot Irrigation Monitoring and Management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ryan, Robert E.; Irons, James; Spruce, Joseph P.; Underwood, Lauren W.; Pagnutti, Mary

    2006-01-01

    This study explores the use of synthetic thermal center pivot irrigation scenes to estimate temperature retrieval accuracy for thermal remote sensed data, such as data acquired from current and proposed Landsat-like thermal systems. Center pivot irrigation is a common practice in the western United States and in other parts of the world where water resources are scarce. Wide-area ET (evapotranspiration) estimates and reliable water management decisions depend on accurate temperature information retrieval from remotely sensed data. Spatial resolution, sensor noise, and the temperature step between a field and its surrounding area impose limits on the ability to retrieve temperature information. Spatial resolution is an interrelationship between GSD (ground sample distance) and a measure of image sharpness, such as edge response or edge slope. Edge response and edge slope are intuitive, and direct measures of spatial resolution are easier to visualize and estimate than the more common Modulation Transfer Function or Point Spread Function. For these reasons, recent data specifications, such as those for the LDCM (Landsat Data Continuity Mission), have used GSD and edge response to specify spatial resolution. For this study, we have defined a 400-800 m diameter center pivot irrigation area with a large 25 K temperature step associated with a 300 K well-watered field surrounded by an infinite 325 K dry area. In this context, we defined the benchmark problem as an easily modeled, highly common stressing case. By parametrically varying GSD (30-240 m) and edge slope, we determined the number of pixels and field area fraction that meet a given temperature accuracy estimate for 400-m, 600-m, and 800-m diameter field sizes. Results of this project will help assess the utility of proposed specifications for the LDCM and other future thermal remote sensing missions and for water resource management.

  7. Measurement accuracy and Cerenkov removal for high performance, high spatial resolution scintillation dosimetry

    SciTech Connect

    Archambault, Louis; Beddar, A. Sam; Gingras, Luc

    2006-01-15

    With highly conformal radiation therapy techniques such as intensity-modulated radiation therapy, radiosurgery, and tomotherapy becoming more common in clinical practice, the use of these narrow beams requires a higher level of precision in quality assurance and dosimetry. Plastic scintillators with their water equivalence, energy independence, and dose rate linearity have been shown to possess excellent qualities that suit the most complex and demanding radiation therapy treatment plans. The primary disadvantage of plastic scintillators is the presence of Cerenkov radiation generated in the light guide, which results in an undesired stem effect. Several techniques have been proposed to minimize this effect. In this study, we compared three such techniques--background subtraction, simple filtering, and chromatic removal--in terms of reproducibility and dose accuracy as gauges of their ability to remove the Cerenkov stem effect from the dose signal. The dosimeter used in this study comprised a 6-mm{sup 3} plastic scintillating fiber probe, an optical fiber, and a color charge-coupled device camera. The whole system was shown to be linear and the total light collected by the camera was reproducible to within 0.31% for 5-s integration time. Background subtraction and chromatic removal were both found to be suitable for precise dose evaluation, with average absolute dose discrepancies of 0.52% and 0.67%, respectively, from ion chamber values. Background subtraction required two optical fibers, but chromatic removal used only one, thereby preventing possible measurement artifacts when a strong dose gradient was perpendicular to the optical fiber. Our findings showed that a plastic scintillation dosimeter could be made free of the effect of Cerenkov radiation.

  8. Differential Brillouin gain for improving the temperature accuracy and spatial resolution in a long-distance distributed fiber sensor.

    PubMed

    Dong, Yongkang; Bao, Xiaoyi; Li, Wenhai

    2009-08-01

    We demonstrate a 12 km differential pulse-width pair Brillouin optical time-domain analysis (DPP-BOTDA) using 40 ns and 50 ns pulses with DC-coupled detection. A spatial resolution of 1 m and a narrowband Brillouin gain spectrum of 33 MHz are obtained simultaneously compared with 88 MHz with the use of 10 ns pulses in a conventional BOTDA. The experimental results show that the differential Brillouin gain of a 40/50 ns pulse pair is 7 times stronger than the direct Brillouin gain of BOTDA with the use of a 10 ns pulse, and the temperature uncertainty is 0.25 degrees C compared with 1.8 degrees C for a 10 ns pulse. As the pulse-width difference decreases from 10 ns to 1 ns, corresponding to a spatial resolution from 1 m to 10 cm, the prediction of temperature uncertainty will only increase from 0.25 degrees C to 0.8 degrees C for DPP-BOTDA over a 12 km long single-mode fiber.

  9. Quantification and correction of the error due to limited PIV resolution on the accuracy of non-intrusive spatial pressure measurement using a DNS channel flow database

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Xiaofeng; Siddle-Mitchell, Seth

    2016-11-01

    The effect of the subgrid-scale (SGS) stress due to limited PIV resolution on pressure measurement accuracy is quantified using data from a direct numerical simulation database of turbulent channel flow (JHTDB). A series of 2000 consecutive realizations of sample block data with 512x512x49 grid nodal points were selected and spatially filtered with a coarse 17x17x17 and a fine 5x5x5 box averaging, respectively, giving rise to corresponding PIV resolutions of roughly 62.6 and 18.4 times of the viscous length scale. Comparison of the reconstructed pressure at different levels of pressure gradient approximation with the filtered pressure shows that the neglect of the viscous term leads to a small but noticeable change in the reconstructed pressure, especially in regions near the channel walls. As a contrast, the neglect of the SGS stress results in a more significant increase in both the bias and the random errors, indicating the SGS term must be accounted for in PIV pressure measurement. Correction using similarity SGS modeling reduces the random error due to the omission of SGS stress from 114.5% of the filtered pressure r.m.s. fluctuation to 89.1% for the coarse PIV resolution, and from 66.5% to 35.9% for the fine PIV resolution, respectively, confirming the benefit of the error compensation method and the positive influence of increasing PIV resolution on pressure measurement accuracy improvement.

  10. LiDAR-Landsat data fusion for large-area assessment of urban land cover: Balancing spatial resolution, data volume and mapping accuracy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Kunwar K.; Vogler, John B.; Shoemaker, Douglas A.; Meentemeyer, Ross K.

    2012-11-01

    The structural characteristics of Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) data are increasingly used to classify urban environments at fine scales, but have been underutilized for distinguishing heterogeneous land covers over large urban regions due to high cost, limited spectral information, and the computational difficulties posed by inherently large data volumes. Here we explore tradeoffs between potential gains in mapping accuracy with computational costs by integrating structural and intensity surface models extracted from LiDAR data with Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) imagery and evaluating the degree to which TM, LiDAR, and LiDAR-TM fusion data discriminated land covers in the rapidly urbanizing region of Charlotte, North Carolina, USA. Using supervised maximum likelihood (ML) and classification tree (CT) methods, we classified TM data at 30 m and LiDAR data and LiDAR-TM fusions at 1 m, 5 m, 10 m, 15 m and 30 m resolutions. We assessed the relative contributions of LiDAR structural and intensity surface models to classification map accuracy and identified optimal spatial resolution of LiDAR surface models for large-area assessments of urban land cover. ML classification of 1 m LiDAR-TM fusions using both structural and intensity surface models increased total accuracy by 32% compared to LiDAR alone and by 8% over TM at 30 m. Fusion data using all LiDAR surface models improved class discrimination of spectrally similar forest, farmland, and managed clearings and produced the highest total accuracies at 1 m, 5 m, and 10 m resolutions (87.2%, 86.3% and 85.4%, respectively). At all resolutions of fusion data and using either ML or CT classifier, the relative contribution of the LiDAR structural surface models (canopy height and normalized digital surface model) to classification accuracy is greater than the intensity surface. Our evaluation of tradeoffs between data volume and thematic map accuracy for this study system suggests that a spatial resolution of 5 m for Li

  11. Accuracy Sampling Design Bias on Coarse Spatial Resolution Land Cover Data in the Great Lakes Region (United States and Canada)

    EPA Science Inventory

    A number of articles have investigated the impact of sampling design on remotely sensed landcover accuracy estimates. Gong and Howarth (1990) found significant differences for Kappa accuracy values when comparing purepixel sampling, stratified random sampling, and stratified sys...

  12. MAPPING SPATIAL THEMATIC ACCURACY WITH FUZZY SETS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Thematic map accuracy is not spatially homogenous but variable across a landscape. Properly analyzing and representing spatial pattern and degree of thematic map accuracy would provide valuable information for using thematic maps. However, current thematic map accuracy measures (...

  13. Particle detector spatial resolution

    DOEpatents

    Perez-Mendez, V.

    1992-12-15

    Method and apparatus for producing separated columns of scintillation layer material, for use in detection of X-rays and high energy charged particles with improved spatial resolution is disclosed. A pattern of ridges or projections is formed on one surface of a substrate layer or in a thin polyimide layer, and the scintillation layer is grown at controlled temperature and growth rate on the ridge-containing material. The scintillation material preferentially forms cylinders or columns, separated by gaps conforming to the pattern of ridges, and these columns direct most of the light produced in the scintillation layer along individual columns for subsequent detection in a photodiode layer. The gaps may be filled with a light-absorbing material to further enhance the spatial resolution of the particle detector. 12 figs.

  14. Measuring the spatial accuracy of the spatial scan statistic.

    PubMed

    Read, Simon; Bath, Peter; Willett, Peter; Maheswaran, Ravi

    2011-06-01

    The spatial scan statistic is well established in spatial epidemiology. However, studies of its spatial accuracy are infrequent and vary in approach, often using multiple measures which complicate the objective ranking of different implementations of the statistic. We address this with three novel contributions. Firstly, a modular framework into which different definitions of spatial accuracy can be compared and hybridised. Secondly, we derive a new single measure, Ω, which takes account of all true and detected clusters, without the need for arbitrary weightings and irrespective of any chosen significance threshold. Thirdly, we demonstrate the new measure, alongside existing ones, in a study of the six output filter options provided by SaTScan™. The study suggests filtering overlapping detected clusters tends to reduce spatial accuracy, and visualising overlapping clusters may be better than filtering them out. Although we only address spatial accuracy, the framework and Ω may be extendible to spatio-temporal accuracy.

  15. The influence of the spatial resolution of topographic input data on the accuracy of 3-D UV actinic flux and irradiance calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weihs, P.; Wagner, J. E.; Schreier, S. F.; Rieder, H. E.; Angelini, F.; Blumthaler, M.; Fitzka, M.; Gobbi, G. P.; Kift, R.; Kreuter, A.; Simic, S.; Webb, A. R.

    2011-10-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of the spatial resolution of a digital elevation map (DEM) on the three-dimensional (3-D) radiative transfer performance for both spectral ultraviolet (UV) irradiance and actinic flux at 305 nm. Model simulations were performed for clear sky conditions for three case studies: the first and second one using three sites in the Innsbruck area and the third one using three sites at the Sonnblick Observatory and surrounding area. It was found that DEM resolution may change the altitude at some locations by up to 500 m, resulting in changes in the sky obscured by the horizon of up to 15%. The geographical distribution of UV irradiance and actinic flux shows that with larger pixel size, uncertainties in UV irradiance and actinic flux determination of up to 100% are possible. These large changes in incident irradiance and actinic flux with changing pixel size are strongly connected to shading effects. The effect of DEM pixel size on irradiance and actinic flux was studied at the six locations, and it was found that significant increases in irradiance and actinic flux with increasing DEM pixel size occurred at one valley location at high solar zenith angles in the Innsbruck area as well as for one steep valley location in the Sonnblick area. This increase in irradiance and actinic flux with increasing DEM resolution is most likely to be connected to shading effects affecting the reflections from the surroundings.

  16. The influence of the spatial resolution of topographic input data on the accuracy of 3-D UV actinic flux and irradiance calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weihs, P.; Wagner, J. E.; Schreier, S. F.; Rieder, H. E.; Angelini, F.; Blumthaler, M.; Fitzka, M.; Gobbi, G. P.; Kift, R.; Kreuter, A.; Simic, S.; Webb, A. R.

    2012-03-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the influence of the spatial resolution of a digital elevation map (DEM) on the three-dimensional (3-D) radiative transfer performance for both spectral ultraviolet (UV) irradiance and actinic flux at 305 nm. Model simulations were performed for clear sky conditions for three case studies: the first and second one using three sites in the Innsbruck area and the third one using three sites at the Sonnblick observatory and surrounding area. It was found that the DEM resolution may change the altitude at some locations by up to 500 m, resulting in changes in the sky obscured by the horizon of up to 15%. The geographical distribution of UV irradiance and actinic flux shows that with larger pixel size, uncertainties in UV irradiance and actinic flux determination of up to 100% are possible. These large changes in incident irradiance and actinic flux with changing pixel size are strongly connected to shading effects. The effect of the DEM pixel size on irradiance and actinic flux was studied at the six locations, and it was found that significant increases in irradiance and actinic flux with increasing DEM pixel size occurred at one valley location at high solar zenith angles in the Innsbruck area as well as for one steep valley location in the Sonnblick area. This increase in irradiance and actinic flux with increasing DEM resolution is most likely to be connected to shading effects affecting the reflections from the surroundings.

  17. How Attention Affects Spatial Resolution

    PubMed Central

    Carrasco, Marisa; Barbot, Antoine

    2015-01-01

    We summarize and discuss a series of psychophysical studies on the effects of spatial covert attention on spatial resolution, our ability to discriminate fine patterns. Heightened resolution is beneficial in most, but not all, visual tasks. We show how endogenous attention (voluntary, goal driven) and exogenous attention (involuntary, stimulus driven) affect performance on a variety of tasks mediated by spatial resolution, such as visual search, crowding, acuity, and texture segmentation. Exogenous attention is an automatic mechanism that increases resolution regardless of whether it helps or hinders performance. In contrast, endogenous attention flexibly adjusts resolution to optimize performance according to task demands. We illustrate how psychophysical studies can reveal the underlying mechanisms of these effects and allow us to draw linking hypotheses with known neurophysiological effects of attention. PMID:25948640

  18. Spatial resolution in plantar pressure measurement revisited.

    PubMed

    Pataky, Todd C

    2012-08-09

    Plantar pressures are typically measured using sensors of finite area, so the accuracy with which one can measure true maximum pressure is dependent on sensor size. Measurement accuracy has been modeled previously for one patient's metatarsals (Lord, 1997), but has not been modeled either for general subjects or for other parts of the foot. The purposes of this study were (i) to determine whether Lord's (1997) model is also valid for heel and hallux pressures, and (ii) to examine how sensor size relates to measurement accuracy in the context of four factors common to many measurement settings: pressure pulse size, foot positioning, pressure change quantification, and gross pressure redistribution. Lord's (1997) model was first generalized and was then validated using 10 healthy walking subjects, with relatively low RMSE values on the order of 20 kPa. Next, postural data were used to show that gross pressure redistributions can be accurately quantified (p<0.002), even with rather gross sensor sizes of 30 mm. Finally, numerical analyses revealed that the relation between sensor size and measurement accuracy is highly complex, with deep dependency on the measurement context. In particular, the critical sensor widths required to achieve 90% accuracy ranged from 1.7 mm to 17.4 mm amongst the presently investigated scenarios. Since measurement accuracy varies so extensively with so many factors, the current results cannot yield specific recommendations regarding spatial resolution. It is concluded simply that no particular spatial resolution can yield a constant measurement accuracy across common plantar pressure measurement tasks.

  19. Accuracy of stream habitat interpolations across spatial scales

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sheehan, Kenneth R.; Welsh, Stuart

    2013-01-01

    Stream habitat data are often collected across spatial scales because relationships among habitat, species occurrence, and management plans are linked at multiple spatial scales. Unfortunately, scale is often a factor limiting insight gained from spatial analysis of stream habitat data. Considerable cost is often expended to collect data at several spatial scales to provide accurate evaluation of spatial relationships in streams. To address utility of single scale set of stream habitat data used at varying scales, we examined the influence that data scaling had on accuracy of natural neighbor predictions of depth, flow, and benthic substrate. To achieve this goal, we measured two streams at gridded resolution of 0.33 × 0.33 meter cell size over a combined area of 934 m2 to create a baseline for natural neighbor interpolated maps at 12 incremental scales ranging from a raster cell size of 0.11 m2 to 16 m2 . Analysis of predictive maps showed a logarithmic linear decay pattern in RMSE values in interpolation accuracy for variables as resolution of data used to interpolate study areas became coarser. Proportional accuracy of interpolated models (r2 ) decreased, but it was maintained up to 78% as interpolation scale moved from 0.11 m2 to 16 m2 . Results indicated that accuracy retention was suitable for assessment and management purposes at various scales different from the data collection scale. Our study is relevant to spatial modeling, fish habitat assessment, and stream habitat management because it highlights the potential of using a single dataset to fulfill analysis needs rather than investing considerable cost to develop several scaled datasets.

  20. SPATIAL AND SPECTRAL RESOLUTION IN GEOBOTANY.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Milton, Nancy M.; Mouat, D.A.

    1984-01-01

    Remotely sensed data are now available from a wide variety of instruments, each data set having a particular spectral and spatial resolution. The changes in vegetation associated with changes in lithology or the presence of mineral deposits can also occur at different scales. The task of geobotanical remote sensing is to choose or adapt the remotely sensed data to the appropriate geobotanical technique to solve the geological problem of interest. Examples are given of a number of applications of data sets of different spectral and spatial resolution. The relative importance of spectral and spatial resolution is discussed.

  1. Improving Nano-MRI Spatial Resolution with Phase Multiplexing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moores, Brad; Eichler, Alex; Degen, Christian

    2015-03-01

    Magnetic resonance force microscopy (MRFM) is a scanning probe technique that allows measuring nuclear spin densities with resolution better than 10nm. Detecting such small volumes of spins (less than (10nm)3 corresponds to approximately 20,000 spins) requires long averaging of signals from statistically polarized nuclei. For instance, previous work demonstrated that imaging a single isotope (1H) of a Tobacco Mosaic Virus required averaging for 2 weeks, and therefore the chemical contrast abilities of MRFM had to be forfeited to enable higher spatial resolution. In order to reconcile the chemical selectivity of MRFM along with the proven high spatial resolution, we have developed a phase multiplexing technique capable of simultaneously acquiring spin signals from multiple isotopes and from up to six spatial locations. We have demonstrated this method using a nanowire test sample, and have achieved one-dimensional imaging resolution of less than 5 nm and subnanometer positional accuracy.

  2. Effect of temporal resolution on the accuracy of ADCP measurements

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gonzalez-Castro, J. A.; Oberg, K.; Duncker, J.J.

    2004-01-01

    The application of acoustic Doppler current profilers (ADCP's) in river flow measurements is promoting a great deal of progress in hydrometry. ADCP's not only require shorter times to collect data than traditional current meters, but also allow streamflow measurements at sites where the use of conventional meters is either very expensive, unsafe, or simply not possible. Moreover, ADCP's seem to offer a means for collecting flow data with spatial and temporal resolutions that cannot be achieved with traditional current-meters. High-resolution data is essential to characterize the mean flow and turbulence structure of streams, which can in turn lead to a better understanding of the hydrodynamic and transport processes in rivers. However, to properly characterize the mean flow and turbulence intensities of stationary flows in natural turbulent boundary layers, velocities need to be sampled over a long-enough time span. The question then arises, how long should velocities be sampled in the flow field to achieve an adequate temporal resolution? Theoretically, since velocities cannot be sampled over an infinitely long time interval, the error due to finite integration time must be considered. This error can be estimated using the integral time scale. The integral time scale is not only a measure of the time interval over which a fluctuating function is correlated with itself but also a measure of the time span over which the function is dependent on itself. This time scale, however, is not a constant but varies spatially in the flow field. In this paper we present an analysis of the effect of the temporal resolution (sampling time span) on the accuracy of ADCP measurements based on the integral time scale. Single ping velocity profiles collected with frequencies of 1 Hz in the Chicago River at Columbus Drive using an uplooking 600 kHz ADCP are used in this analysis. The integral time scale at different depths is estimated based on the autocorrelation function of the

  3. The Crustal Thickness of Mars: Accuracy and Resolution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, D. E.; Zuber, M. T.

    2002-01-01

    The accuracy of the most recent crustal thickness models of Mars is investigated along with their resolution. Evidence is presented of noise-like features in the maps and spectra that suggest the basic data only represent features down to resolutions of about 300 to 600 km. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  4. Fundamental Limits of Spatial Resolution in PET

    PubMed Central

    Moses, William W.

    2010-01-01

    The fundamental limits of spatial resolution in positron emission tomography (PET) have been understood for many years. The physical size of the detector element usually plays the dominant role in determining resolution, but the combined contributions from acollinearity, positron range, penetration into the detector ring, and decoding errors in the detector modules often combine to be of similar size. In addition, the sampling geometry and statistical noise further degrade the effective resolution. This paper describes quantitatively describes these effects, discusses potential methods for reducing the magnitude of these effects, and computes the ultimately achievable spatial resolution for clinical and pre-clinical PET cameras. PMID:21804677

  5. Spatial Classification of Orchards and Vineyards with High Spatial Resolution Panchromatic Imagery

    SciTech Connect

    Warner, Timothy; Steinmaus, Karen L.

    2005-02-01

    New high resolution single spectral band imagery offers the capability to conduct image classifications based on spatial patterns in imagery. A classification algorithm based on autocorrelation patterns was developed to automatically extract orchards and vineyards from satellite imagery. The algorithm was tested on IKONOS imagery over Granger, WA, which resulted in a classification accuracy of 95%.

  6. Full Spatial Resolution Infrared Sounding Application in the Preconvection Environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, C.; Liu, G.; Lin, T.

    2013-12-01

    Advanced infrared (IR) sounders such as the Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) and Infrared Atmospheric Sounding Interferometer (IASI) provide atmospheric temperature and moisture profiles with high vertical resolution and high accuracy in preconvection environments. The derived atmospheric stability indices such as convective available potential energy (CAPE) and lifted index (LI) from advanced IR soundings can provide critical information 1 ; 6 h before the development of severe convective storms. Three convective storms are selected for the evaluation of applying AIRS full spatial resolution soundings and the derived products on providing warning information in the preconvection environments. In the first case, the AIRS full spatial resolution soundings revealed local extremely high atmospheric instability 3 h ahead of the convection on the leading edge of a frontal system, while the second case demonstrates that the extremely high atmospheric instability is associated with the local development of severe thunderstorm in the following hours. The third case is a local severe storm that occurred on 7-8 August 2010 in Zhou Qu, China, which caused more than 1400 deaths and left another 300 or more people missing. The AIRS full spatial resolution LI product shows the atmospheric instability 3.5 h before the storm genesis. The CAPE and LI from AIRS full spatial resolution and operational AIRS/AMSU soundings along with Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES) Sounder derived product image (DPI) products were analyzed and compared. Case studies show that full spatial resolution AIRS retrievals provide more useful warning information in the preconvection environments for determining favorable locations for convective initiation (CI) than do the coarser spatial resolution operational soundings and lower spectral resolution GOES Sounder retrievals. The retrieved soundings are also tested in a regional data assimilation WRF 3D-var system to evaluate the

  7. High Spatial Resolution Thermal Satellite Technologies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ryan, Robert

    2003-01-01

    This document in the form of viewslides, reviews various low-cost alternatives to high spatial resolution thermal satellite technologies. There exists no follow-on to Landsat 7 or ASTER high spatial resolution thermal systems. This document reviews the results of the investigation in to the use of new technologies to create a low-cost useful alternative. Three suggested technologies are examined. 1. Conventional microbolometer pushbroom modes offers potential for low cost Landsat Data Continuity Mission (LDCM) thermal or ASTER capability with at least 60-120 ground sampling distance (GSD). 2. Backscanning could produce MultiSpectral Thermal Imager performance without cooled detectors. 3. Cooled detector could produce hyperspectral thermal class system or extremely high spatial resolution class instrument.

  8. Accuracy and Resolution in Micro-earthquake Tomographic Inversion Studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hutchings, L. J.; Ryan, J.

    2010-12-01

    Accuracy and resolution are complimentary properties necessary to interpret the results of earthquake location and tomography studies. Accuracy is the how close an answer is to the “real world”, and resolution is who small of node spacing or earthquake error ellipse one can achieve. We have modified SimulPS (Thurber, 1986) in several ways to provide a tool for evaluating accuracy and resolution of potential micro-earthquake networks. First, we provide synthetic travel times from synthetic three-dimensional geologic models and earthquake locations. We use this to calculate errors in earthquake location and velocity inversion results when we perturb these models and try to invert to obtain these models. We create as many stations as desired and can create a synthetic velocity model with any desired node spacing. We apply this study to SimulPS and TomoDD inversion studies. “Real” travel times are perturbed with noise and hypocenters are perturbed to replicate a starting location away from the “true” location, and inversion is performed by each program. We establish travel times with the pseudo-bending ray tracer and use the same ray tracer in the inversion codes. This, of course, limits our ability to test the accuracy of the ray tracer. We developed relationships for the accuracy and resolution expected as a function of the number of earthquakes and recording stations for typical tomographic inversion studies. Velocity grid spacing started at 1km, then was decreased to 500m, 100m, 50m and finally 10m to see if resolution with decent accuracy at that scale was possible. We considered accuracy to be good when we could invert a velocity model perturbed by 50% back to within 5% of the original model, and resolution to be the size of the grid spacing. We found that 100 m resolution could obtained by using 120 stations with 500 events, bu this is our current limit. The limiting factors are the size of computers needed for the large arrays in the inversion and a

  9. Research Relative to High Spatial Resolution Passive Microwave Sounding Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Staelin, D. H.; Rosenkranz, P. W.

    1984-01-01

    Methods to obtain high resolution passive microwave weather observations, and understanding of their probable impact on numerical weather prediction accuracy were investigated. The development of synthetic aperture concepts for geosynchronous passive microwave sounders were studied. The effects of clouds, precipitation, surface phenomena, and atmospheric thermal fine structure on a scale of several kilometers were examined. High resolution passive microwave sounders (e.g., AMSU) with an increased number of channels will produce initialization data for numerical weather prediction (NWP) models with both increased spatial resolution and coverage. The development of statistical models for error growth in high resolution primitive equation NWP models which permit the consequences of various observing system alternatives, including sensors and assimilation times and procedures is discussed. A high resolution three dimensional primitive equation NWP model to determine parameters in an error growth model similar to that formulated by Lorenz, but with more degrees of freedom is utilized.

  10. Spatial resolution considerations for urban hydrological modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krebs, G.; Kokkonen, T.; Valtanen, M.; Setälä, H.; Koivusalo, H.

    2014-05-01

    Hydrological model simulations can be applied to evaluate the performance of low impact development (LID) tools in urban areas. However, the assessment for large-scale urban areas remains a challenge due to the required high spatial resolution and limited availability of field measurements for model calibration. This study proposes a methodology to parameterize a hydrological model (SWMM) with sufficiently high spatial resolution and direct accessibility of model parameters for LID performance simulation applicable to a large-scale ungauged urban area. Based on calibrated high-resolution models for three small-scale study catchments (6-12 ha), we evaluated how constraints implied by large-scale urban modelling, such as data limitations, affect the model results. The high-resolution surface representation, resulting in subcatchments of uniform surface types, reduced the number of calibration parameters. Calibration conducted independently for all catchments yielded similar parameter values for same surface types in each study catchment. These results suggest the applicability of the parameter values calibrated for high resolution models to be regionalized to larger, ungauged urban areas. The accessibility of surface specific model parameters for LID simulation is then also retained. Conducted perturbations in spatial resolution through sewer network truncation showed that while the runoff volume was mostly unaffected by resolution perturbations, lower resolutions resulted in over-simulation of peak flows due to excessively rapid catchment response to storm events. Our results suggest that a hydrological model where parameter values are adopted from high-resolution models and that is developed based on a minimum conduit diameter of 300 mm provides good simulation performance and is applicable to large-scale urban areas with reasonable effort.

  11. High accuracy and contrast resolution in ultra-low field magnetic resonance imaging.

    PubMed

    Agartz, I; Sääf, J; Wahlund, B; Wahlund, L O; Wetterberg, L

    1986-01-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) at low magnetic field strengths is known to have a comparatively high contrast resolution. Current techniques increasing the signal to noise ratio 3 to 4 times allow for an improvement in the spatial resolution still maintaining the high contrast resolution. The contributing features to this advancement are improvements in software, development of new radiofrequency coils and image processing computors. The subsequent improvement in image evaluation and the access to added information make for a high accuracy in clinical diagnosis and research. The present potential of imaging at ultra-low (0.02 tesla) magnetic field strengths is illustrated with examples from clinical practice and research.

  12. The effect of spatial, spectral and radiometric factors on classification accuracy using thematic mapper data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wrigley, R. C.; Acevedo, W.; Alexander, D.; Buis, J.; Card, D.

    1984-01-01

    An experiment of a factorial design was conducted to test the effects on classification accuracy of land cover types due to the improved spatial, spectral and radiometric characteristics of the Thematic Mapper (TM) in comparison to the Multispectral Scanner (MSS). High altitude aircraft scanner data from the Airborne Thematic Mapper instrument was acquired over central California in August, 1983 and used to simulate Thematic Mapper data as well as all combinations of the three characteristics for eight data sets in all. Results for the training sites (field center pixels) showed better classification accuracies for MSS spatial resolution, TM spectral bands and TM radiometry in order of importance.

  13. A Stable and Conservative Interface Treatment of Arbitrary Spatial Accuracy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carpenter, Mark H.; Nordstrom, Jan; Gottlieb, David

    1998-01-01

    Stable and accurate interface conditions are derived for the linear advection-diffusion equation. The conditions are functionally independent of the spatial order of accuracy and rely only on the form of the discrete operator. We focus on high-order finite-difference operators that satisfy the summation-by-parts (SBP) property. We prove that stability is a natural consequence of the SBP operators used in conjunction with the new boundary conditions. In addition, we show that the interface treatments are conservative. New finite-difference operators of spatial accuracy up to sixth order are constructed: these operators satisfy the SBP property. Finite-difference operators are shown to admit design accuracy (p(sup th)-order global accuracy) when (p - 1)(sup th)-order stencil closures are used near the boundaries if the physical boundary conditions are implemented to at least p(sup th)-order accuracy. Stability and accuracy are demonstrated on the nonlinear Burgers' equation for an twelve-subdomain problem with randomly distributed interfaces.

  14. Effects of Spatial Resolution on Image Registration

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Can; Carass, Aaron; Jog, Amod; Prince, Jerry L.

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a theoretical analysis of the effect of spatial resolution on image registration. Based on the assumption of additive Gaussian noise on the images, the mean and variance of the distribution of the sum of squared differences (SSD) were estimated. Using these estimates, we evaluate a distance between the SSD distributions of aligned images and non-aligned images. The experimental results show that by matching the resolutions of the moving and fixed images one can get a better image registration result. The results agree with our theoretical analysis of SSD, but also suggest that it may be valid for mutual information as well. PMID:27773960

  15. Combined adjustment of multi-resolution satellite imagery for improved geo-positioning accuracy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Shengjun; Wu, Bo; Zhu, Qing

    2016-04-01

    Due to the widespread availability of satellite imagery nowadays, it is common for regions to be covered by satellite imagery from multiple sources with multiple resolutions. This paper presents a combined adjustment approach to integrate multi-source multi-resolution satellite imagery for improved geo-positioning accuracy without the use of ground control points (GCPs). Instead of using all the rational polynomial coefficients (RPCs) of images for processing, only those dominating the geo-positioning accuracy are used in the combined adjustment. They, together with tie points identified in the images, are used as observations in the adjustment model. Proper weights are determined for each observation, and ridge parameters are determined for better convergence of the adjustment solution. The outputs from the combined adjustment are the improved dominating RPCs of images, from which improved geo-positioning accuracy can be obtained. Experiments using ZY-3, SPOT-7 and Pleiades-1 imagery in Hong Kong, and Cartosat-1 and Worldview-1 imagery in Catalonia, Spain demonstrate that the proposed method is able to effectively improve the geo-positioning accuracy of satellite images. The combined adjustment approach offers an alternative method to improve geo-positioning accuracy of satellite images. The approach enables the integration of multi-source and multi-resolution satellite imagery for generating more precise and consistent 3D spatial information, which permits the comparative and synergistic use of multi-resolution satellite images from multiple sources.

  16. Effect of positron range on spatial resolution.

    PubMed

    Phelps, M E; Hoffman, E J; Huang, S C; Ter-Pogossian, M M

    1975-07-01

    The effect of beta+ range on spatial resolution of imaging systems employing the detection of 511-keV annihilation radiation was determined by measuring the variation in the line-spread functions (LSFs) of positron-emitting radionuclides of 64Cu, 11C, and 15O as compared with the 514-keV gamma-ray emitter 85Sr. These radionuclides have maximum beta+ energies of 0.656, 0.960, and 1.72 MeV, respectively. The LSFs were measured in a tissue-equivalent phantom with high-resolution (approximately 2.4 mm FWHM) and low-resolution (approximately 8.8 mm FWHM) straightbore collimators coupled to a NaI(Tl) detector. Theoretical LSFs for the beta+ ranges were also calculated and convolved with the 85Sr LSF to yield the predicted LSFs for 11C and 15O. The high-resolution study showed a 0% and 2.3% increase in the full-width half-maximum (FWHM) and full-width tenth-maximum (FWO.1M) for the low-energy beta+ of 64Cu and a 37% (FWHM) and 52% (FWO.1M) increase for the high energy beta+ of 15O as compared with 85Sr. However, when the system resolution was decreased to 8.8 mm FWHM, the 64Cu showed no change at FWHM or FWO.1M and the 15O showed a 2.3% (FWHM) and 7.8% (FWO.1M) relative to 85Sr. The predicted LSFs were in good agreement with the experimental. These data indicate that the effect of beta+ range on spatial resolution is minimal unless the beta+ energy is larger than or equal to 1.5 MeV and the system resolution is on the order of a few millimeters.

  17. Incorporating the effect of DEM resolution and accuracy for improved flood inundation mapping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saksena, Siddharth; Merwade, Venkatesh

    2015-11-01

    Topography plays a major role in determining the accuracy of flood inundation areas. However, many areas in the United States and around the world do not have access to high quality topographic data in the form of Digital Elevation Models (DEM). For such areas, an improved understanding of the effects of DEM properties such as horizontal resolution and vertical accuracy on flood inundation maps may eventually lead to improved flood inundation modeling and mapping. This study attempts to relate the errors arising from DEM properties such as spatial resolution and vertical accuracy to flood inundation maps, and then use this relationship to create improved flood inundation maps from coarser resolution DEMs with low accuracy. The results from the five stream reaches used in this study show that water surface elevations (WSE) along the stream and the flood inundation area have a linear relationship with both DEM resolution and accuracy. This linear relationship is then used to extrapolate the water surface elevations from coarser resolution DEMs to get water surface elevations corresponding to a finer resolution DEM. Application of this approach show that improved results can be obtained from flood modeling by using coarser and less accurate DEMs, including public domain datasets such as the National Elevation Dataset and Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) DEMs. The improvement in the WSE and its application to obtain better flood inundation maps is dependent on the study reach characteristics such as land use, valley shape, reach length and width. Application of the approach presented in this study on more reaches may lead to development of guidelines for flood inundation mapping using coarser resolution and less accurate topographic datasets.

  18. Proceedings of the 2004 High Spatial Resolution Commercial Imagery Workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    Topics covered include: NASA Applied Sciences Program; USGS Land Remote Sensing: Overview; QuickBird System Status and Product Overview; ORBIMAGE Overview; IKONOS 2004 Calibration and Validation Status; OrbView-3 Spatial Characterization; On-Orbit Modulation Transfer Function (MTF) Measurement of QuickBird; Spatial Resolution Characterization for QuickBird Image Products 2003-2004 Season; Image Quality Evaluation of QuickBird Super Resolution and Revisit of IKONOS: Civil and Commercial Application Project (CCAP); On-Orbit System MTF Measurement; QuickBird Post Launch Geopositional Characterization Update; OrbView-3 Geometric Calibration and Geopositional Accuracy; Geopositional Statistical Methods; QuickBird and OrbView-3 Geopositional Accuracy Assessment; Initial On-Orbit Spatial Resolution Characterization of OrbView-3 Panchromatic Images; Laboratory Measurement of Bidirectional Reflectance of Radiometric Tarps; Stennis Space Center Verification and Validation Capabilities; Joint Agency Commercial Imagery Evaluation (JACIE) Team; Adjacency Effects in High Resolution Imagery; Effect of Pulse Width vs. GSD on MTF Estimation; Camera and Sensor Calibration at the USGS; QuickBird Geometric Verification; Comparison of MODTRAN to Heritage-based Results in Vicarious Calibration at University of Arizona; Using Remotely Sensed Imagery to Determine Impervious Surface in Sioux Falls, South Dakota; Estimating Sub-Pixel Proportions of Sagebrush with a Regression Tree; How Do YOU Use the National Land Cover Dataset?; The National Map Hazards Data Distribution System; Recording a Troubled World; What Does This-Have to Do with This?; When Can a Picture Save a Thousand Homes?; InSAR Studies of Alaska Volcanoes; Earth Observing-1 (EO-1) Data Products; Improving Access to the USGS Aerial Film Collections: High Resolution Scanners; Improving Access to the USGS Aerial Film Collections: Phoenix Digitizing System Product Distribution; System and Product Characterization: Issues Approach

  19. Theoretical informational estimation of spatial signal restoration accuracy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shultz, Sergey V.; Bakut, Peter A.; Shumilov, Yurij P.

    1994-12-01

    In the article the relationship between the accuracy of random spatial signal restoration and information quantity about signal, that is inherent in the random observing function, is considered on the base of information and statistical decision theory notions. It is shown that in special case of statistically homogeneous strong correlated signal in the observing area the obtained lower bound of signal restoration error dispersion is analogous to the lower bound defined with Cramer-Rao inequality which is widely used in statistical estimation theory for analysing of the discrete parameters potential accu- racy. The obtained results are used for accuracy analysis of satellite information systems which are employed in the optical wavelength region. The image restoration accuracy is considered in dependence of the influence of small particles ejected from satellite and the quantum noise being, the result of irradiance-photodetector substance interaction.

  20. Influence of spatial temperature distribution on high accuracy interferometric metrology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gu, Yongqiang; Miao, Erlong; Yan, Feng; Zhang, Jian; Yang, Huaijiang

    2010-10-01

    We calculate the influence of temperature change on the refractive index of air, establish a model of air temperature distribution and analyze the effect of different temperature distribution on the high accuracy interferometric metrology. First, a revised Edlen formula is employed to acquire the relation between temperature and refractive index of air, followed by introducing the fixed temperature gradient distribution among the spatial grid within the optical cavity between the reference flat and the test flat of the Fizeau interferometer, accompanied by a temperature change random function within each grid. Finally, all the rays through the air layer with different incident angles are traced by Matlab program in order to obtain the final output position, angle and OPD for each ray. The influence of different temperature distribution and the length of the optical cavity in on the testing accuracy can be analyzed through the RMS value that results from repeatable rays tracing. As a result, the horizontal distribution (vertical to optical axis) has a large effect on the testing accuracy. Thus, to realize the high accuracy figure metrology, the horizontal distribution of temperature must be rigorously controlled as well as to shorten the length of the optical cavity to a large extent. The results from our simulation are of great significant for the accuracy analysis of interferometric testing and the research of manufacturing a interferometer.

  1. Classification of High Spatial Resolution, Hyperspectral ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA announced the availability of the final report,Spatial Resolution, Hyperspectral Remote Sensing Imagery of the Little Miami River Watershed in Southwest Ohio, USA . This report and associated land use/land cover (LULC) coverage is the result of a collaborative effort among an interdisciplinary team of scientists with the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (U.S. EPA's) Office of Research and Development in Cincinnati, Ohio. A primary goal of this project is to enhance the use of geography and spatial analytic tools in risk assessment, and to improve the scientific basis for risk management decisions affecting drinking water and water quality. The land use/land cover classification is derived from 82 flight lines of Compact Airborne Spectrographic Imager (CASI) hyperspectral imagery acquired from July 24 through August 9, 2002 via fixed-wing aircraft.

  2. A Climate Record of Enhanced Spatial Resolution Radiometer Data (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paget, A. C.; Long, D. G.; Brodzik, M.

    2013-12-01

    Satellite radiometers, such SMMR, SSM/I, SSMIS, and AMSR, provide a multi-decadal time series of observations of the globe to support studies of climate change. Unfortunately, spatial resolution and sampling characteristics differ between sensors, which complicate compiling a single climate record. Resolution concerns can be ameliorated by reconstructing radiometer brightness temperature measurement (Tb) data onto daily-averaged compatible grids. We consider and contrast two widely used methods for image reconstruction: a radiometer version of the scatterometer image reconstruction (SIR) algorithm and Backus-Gilbert (BG). Both require detailed information about the spatial response function (antenna gain pattern) and the sampling geometry. We discuss considerations for an optimum gridding scheme based on the EASE-Grid 2.0 map projection. The EASE-Grid 2.0 simplifies the application of the Tb images in derived products since the reconstruction for each radiometer channel is implement on the same grid. This has the effect of optimally interpolating low-resolution measurements to locations of the highest resolution measurements. By employing reconstruction techniques rather than 'drop in the bucket' (dib) gridding, the effective resolution of the images is spatially enhanced compared to dib images, at the expense of additional computation required for the reconstruction processing. We evaluate the sensitivity of the radiometric accuracy of the resulting Tb images to uncertainties in the antenna gain pattern as well as variations in local-time-of-day. We briefly consider a number of applications of reconstructed Tb images. As part of the NASA-MEASUREs project 'An improved, enhanced-resolution, gridded passive microwave ESDR for monitoring cryospheric and hydrologic time series' we are processing all available satellite radiometer data to generate a consistently calibrated and processed time series of gridded images spanning from the 1970's to the present.

  3. High Spatial Resolution Commercial Satellite Imaging Product Characterization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ryan, Robert E.; Pagnutti, Mary; Blonski, Slawomir; Ross, Kenton W.; Stnaley, Thomas

    2005-01-01

    NASA Stennis Space Center's Remote Sensing group has been characterizing privately owned high spatial resolution multispectral imaging systems, such as IKONOS, QuickBird, and OrbView-3. Natural and man made targets were used for spatial resolution, radiometric, and geopositional characterizations. Higher spatial resolution also presents significant adjacency effects for accurate reliable radiometry.

  4. Automated electrostatic probe device of high resolution and accuracy

    SciTech Connect

    Aleiferis, S.

    2014-12-15

    In this work, an automated apparatus for driving single electrostatic probes and acquiring the plasma-related data has been designed and fabricated. The voltage range of the present system is ±110 V with an adjustable voltage step as low as 3 mV. Voltage and current measurements are carried out with high resolution and high accuracy circuits, both based on 16 bit analog-to-digital converters. The code embedded in a micro-controller, schedules the operation of the device and transfers the experimental data to a personal computer. The modular design of the system makes possible its modification and thus increases its adaptability to different plasma setups. Finally, the reliable operation of the entire device is confirmed by tests in Electron Cyclotron Resonance plasma.

  5. Spatial augmented reality based high accuracy human face projection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Dong; Xie, Jinghui; Li, Yufeng; Weng, Dongdong; Liu, Yue

    2015-08-01

    This paper discusses the imaging principles and the technical difficulties of spatial augmented reality based human face projection. A novel geometry correction method is proposed to realize fast, high-accuracy face model projection. Using a depth camera to reconstruct the projected object, the relative position from the rendered model to the projector can be accessed and the initial projection image is generated. Then the projected image is distorted by using Bezier interpolation to guarantee that the projected texture matches with the object surface. The proposed method is under a simple process flow and can achieve high perception registration of virtual and real object. In addition, this method has a good performance in the condition that the reconstructed model is not exactly same with the rendered virtual model which extends its application area in the spatial augmented reality based human face projection.

  6. Selecting a spatial resolution for estimation of per-field green leaf area index

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Curran, Paul J.; Williamson, H. Dawn

    1988-01-01

    For any application of multispectral scanner (MSS) data, a user is faced with a number of choices concerning the characteristics of the data; one of these is their spatial resolution. A pilot study was undertaken to determine the spatial resolution that would be optimal for the per-field estimation of green leaf area index (GLAI) in grassland. By reference to empirically-derived data from three areas of grassland, the suitable spatial resolution was hypothesized to lie in the lower portion of a 2-18 m range. To estimate per-field GLAI, airborne MSS data were collected at spatial resolutions of 2 m, 5 m and 10 m. The highest accuracies of per-field GLAI estimation were achieved using MSS data with spatial resolutions of 2 m and 5 m.

  7. An effect of spatial resolution of remotely sensed data for vegetation analysis over an arid zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oguro, Y.; Tsuchiya, K.; Setoguchi, R.

    1997-05-01

    One of the recent trends in the development of an optical sensor of earth observation satellite is a great importance of spatial resolution and the order of 1 - 2 meter resolution sensor is under development. To cope with this trend analyses are made on the effect of extremely fine spatial resolution of land cover classification accuracy utilizing spatial resolution of 20 cm and 1 meter aerial multi-sensor data of an arid reddish land where desertification is taking place in small spatial scale. Applied methods are supervised classification with combination of multi-level slice(pallarelpiped classification) and the Mahalanobis distance. The result of analysis indicates that the difference is within several percentage for 3 categories of bare land, vegetation and shadow. It was also found that small dried sparse grass land which can be recognized in 20 cm resolution image is difficult to extract in 1 meter resolution image.

  8. Positron Emission Tomography with improved spatial resolution

    SciTech Connect

    Drukier, A.K.

    1990-04-01

    Applied Research Corporation (ARC) proposed the development of a new class of solid state detectors called Superconducting Granular Detectors (SGD). These new detectors permit considerable improvements in medical imaging, e.g. Positron Emission Tomography (PET). The biggest impact of this technique will be in imaging of the brain. It should permit better clinical diagnosis of such important diseases as Altzheimer's or schizophrenia. More specifically, we will develop an improved PET-imager; a spatial resolution 2 mm may be achievable with SGD. A time-of-flight capability(t {approx} 100 psec) will permit better contrast and facilitate 3D imaging. In the following, we describe the results of the first 9 months of the development.

  9. High Spatial Resolution Spectroscopy of Semiconductor Nanostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harris, Timothy D.; Gershoni, David; Pfeiffer, Loren N.

    1996-03-01

    Several recent reports employing high spatial resolution have revealed the dominance of exciton localization in the low temperature luminescence of semiconductor quantum structures.^[1-3] Understanding this localization is of critical importance for the reliable studies of low dimensional structures such as quantum wells, quantum wires and quantum dots. We report on low temperature and high spatial resolution photoluminescence and photoluminescence excitation studies of cleaved edge overgrown (CEO) single quantum wires. These samples permit the direct and unambiguous comparison between the optical properties of a (100) oriented quantum well, a (110) oriented quantum well, and the quantum wire which is formed at their intersection. Using low temperature near field optical spectroscopy, and a novel diffraction limited far field apparatus, we determine the carrier diffusion length dependence on pump wavelength and sample temperature in both the 2d systems and the genuinely 1D wire system. We also measure the absorption strength of the 1D system and find it to be a factor of 3 stronger than the absorption of the associated 2D systems.^[2] Using low temperature near field optical spectroscopy, and a novel diffraction limited far field apparatus, we also determine the carrier diffusion length dependence on pump wavelength and sample temperature. ^[1] H. F. Hess, E. Betzig, T. D. Harris, L. N. Pfeiffer, and K. W. West, Science 264, 1740 (1994). ^[2] T. D. Harris, D. Gershoni, R. D. Grober, L. Pfeiffer, K. West, and N. Chand, Appl. Phys. Lett, in press (1996) ^[3] D. Gammon, E. S. Snow, and D. S. Katzer, Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 2391 (1995)

  10. Atmospheric Correction Prototype Algorithm for High Spatial Resolution Multispectral Earth Observing Imaging Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pagnutti, Mary

    2006-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews the creation of a prototype algorithm for atmospheric correction using high spatial resolution earth observing imaging systems. The objective of the work was to evaluate accuracy of a prototype algorithm that uses satellite-derived atmospheric products to generate scene reflectance maps for high spatial resolution (HSR) systems. This presentation focused on preliminary results of only the satellite-based atmospheric correction algorithm.

  11. Mapping Land Cover and Land Use Changes in the Congo Basin Forests with Optical Satellite Remote Sensing: a Pilot Project Exploring Methodologies that Improve Spatial Resolution and Map Accuracy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Molinario, G.; Baraldi, A.; Altstatt, A. L.; Nackoney, J.

    2011-12-01

    The University of Maryland has been a USAID Central Africa Rregional Program for the Environment (CARPE) cross-cutting partner for many years, providing remote sensing derived information on forest cover and forest cover changes in support of CARPE's objectives of diminishing forest degradation, loss and biodiversity loss as a result of poor or inexistent land use planning strategies. Together with South Dakota State University, Congo Basin-wide maps have been provided that map forest cover loss at a maximum of 60m resolution, using Landsat imagery and higher resolution imagery for algorithm training and validation. However, to better meet the needs within the CARPE Landscapes, which call for higher resolution, more accurate land cover change maps, UMD has been exploring the use of the SIAM automatic spectral -rule classifier together with pan-sharpened Landsat data (15m resolution) and Very High Resolution imagery from various sources. The pilot project is being developed in collaboration with the African Wildlife Foundation in the Maringa Lopori Wamba CARPE Landscape. If successful in the future this methodology will make the creation of high resolution change maps faster and easier, making it accessible to other entities in the Congo Basin that need accurate land cover and land use change maps in order, for example, to create sustainable land use plans, conserve biodiversity and resources and prepare Reducing Emissions from forest Degradation and Deforestation (REDD) Measurement, Reporting and Verification (MRV) projects. The paper describes the need for higher resolution land cover change maps that focus on forest change dynamics such as the cycling between primary forests, secondary forest, agriculture and other expanding and intensifying land uses in the Maringa Lopori Wamba CARPE Landscape in the Equateur Province of the Democratic Republic of Congo. The Methodology uses the SIAM remote sensing imagery automatic spectral rule classifier, together with pan

  12. Enhancing spatial detection accuracy for syndromic surveillance with street level incidence data

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The Department of Defense Military Health System operates a syndromic surveillance system that monitors medical records at more than 450 non-combat Military Treatment Facilities (MTF) worldwide. The Electronic Surveillance System for Early Notification of Community-based Epidemics (ESSENCE) uses both temporal and spatial algorithms to detect disease outbreaks. This study focuses on spatial detection and attempts to improve the effectiveness of the ESSENCE implementation of the spatial scan statistic by increasing the spatial resolution of incidence data from zip codes to street address level. Methods Influenza-Like Illness (ILI) was used as a test syndrome to develop methods to improve the spatial accuracy of detected alerts. Simulated incident clusters of various sizes were superimposed on real ILI incidents from the 2008/2009 influenza season. Clusters were detected using the spatial scan statistic and their displacement from simulated loci was measured. Detected cluster size distributions were also evaluated for compliance with simulated cluster sizes. Results Relative to the ESSENCE zip code based method, clusters detected using street level incidents were displaced on average 65% less for 2 and 5 mile radius clusters and 31% less for 10 mile radius clusters. Detected cluster size distributions for the street address method were quasi normal and sizes tended to slightly exceed simulated radii. ESSENCE methods yielded fragmented distributions and had high rates of zero radius and oversized clusters. Conclusions Spatial detection accuracy improved notably with regard to both location and size when incidents were geocoded to street addresses rather than zip code centroids. Since street address geocoding success rates were only 73.5%, zip codes were still used for more than one quarter of ILI cases. Thus, further advances in spatial detection accuracy are dependant on systematic improvements in the collection of individual address information. PMID

  13. A method of spatial mapping and reclassification for high-spatial-resolution remote sensing image classification.

    PubMed

    Wang, Guizhou; Liu, Jianbo; He, Guojin

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a new classification method for high-spatial-resolution remote sensing images based on a strategic mechanism of spatial mapping and reclassification. The proposed method includes four steps. First, the multispectral image is classified by a traditional pixel-based classification method (support vector machine). Second, the panchromatic image is subdivided by watershed segmentation. Third, the pixel-based multispectral image classification result is mapped to the panchromatic segmentation result based on a spatial mapping mechanism and the area dominant principle. During the mapping process, an area proportion threshold is set, and the regional property is defined as unclassified if the maximum area proportion does not surpass the threshold. Finally, unclassified regions are reclassified based on spectral information using the minimum distance to mean algorithm. Experimental results show that the classification method for high-spatial-resolution remote sensing images based on the spatial mapping mechanism and reclassification strategy can make use of both panchromatic and multispectral information, integrate the pixel- and object-based classification methods, and improve classification accuracy.

  14. Using remote sensing products to classify landscape. A multi-spatial resolution approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    García-Llamas, Paula; Calvo, Leonor; Álvarez-Martínez, José Manuel; Suárez-Seoane, Susana

    2016-08-01

    The European Landscape Convention encourages the inventory and characterization of landscapes for environmental management and planning actions. Among the range of data sources available for landscape classification, remote sensing has substantial applicability, although difficulties might arise when available data are not at the spatial resolution of operational interest. We evaluated the applicability of two remote sensing products informing on land cover (the categorical CORINE map at 30 m resolution and the continuous NDVI spectral index at 1 km resolution) in landscape classification across a range of spatial resolutions (30 m, 90 m, 180 m, 1 km), using the Cantabrian Mountains (NW Spain) as study case. Separate landscape classifications (using topography, urban influence and land cover as inputs) were accomplished, one per each land cover dataset and spatial resolution. Classification accuracy was estimated through confusion matrixes and uncertainty in terms of both membership probability and confusion indices. Regarding landscape classifications based on CORINE, both typology and number of landscape classes varied across spatial resolutions. Classification accuracy increased from 30 m (the original resolution of CORINE) to 90m, decreasing towards coarser resolutions. Uncertainty followed the opposite pattern. In the case of landscape classifications based on NDVI, the identified landscape patterns were geographically structured and showed little sensitivity to changes across spatial resolutions. Only the change from 1 km (the original resolution of NDVI) to 180 m improved classification accuracy. The value of confusion indices increased with resolution. We highlight the need for greater effort in selecting data sources at the suitable spatial resolution, matching regional peculiarities and minimizing error and uncertainty.

  15. MAPPING SPATIAL ACCURACY AND ESTIMATING LANDSCAPE INDICATORS FROM THEMATIC LAND COVER MAPS USING FUZZY SET THEORY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The accuracy of thematic map products is not spatially homogenous, but instead variable across most landscapes. Properly analyzing and representing the spatial distribution (pattern) of thematic map accuracy would provide valuable user information for assessing appropriate applic...

  16. Effects of spatial resolution ratio in image fusion

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ling, Y.; Ehlers, M.; Usery, E.L.; Madden, M.

    2008-01-01

    In image fusion, the spatial resolution ratio can be defined as the ratio between the spatial resolution of the high-resolution panchromatic image and that of the low-resolution multispectral image. This paper attempts to assess the effects of the spatial resolution ratio of the input images on the quality of the fused image. Experimental results indicate that a spatial resolution ratio of 1:10 or higher is desired for optimal multisensor image fusion provided the input panchromatic image is not downsampled to a coarser resolution. Due to the synthetic pixels generated from resampling, the quality of the fused image decreases as the spatial resolution ratio decreases (e.g. from 1:10 to 1:30). However, even with a spatial resolution ratio as small as 1:30, the quality of the fused image is still better than the original multispectral image alone for feature interpretation. In cases where the spatial resolution ratio is too small (e.g. 1:30), to obtain better spectral integrity of the fused image, one may downsample the input high-resolution panchromatic image to a slightly lower resolution before fusing it with the multispectral image.

  17. Accuracy of the PAR corneal topography system with spatial misalignment.

    PubMed

    Belin, M W; Zloty, P

    1993-01-01

    The PAR Corneal Topography System is a computerized corneal imaging system which uses close-range raster photogrammetry to measure and produce a topographic map of the corneal surface. Raster photogrammetry is a standard method of extracting object information by projecting a known pattern onto an object and recording the distortion when viewed from an oblique angle. Unlike placido disc based videokeratoscopes, the PAR system requires neither a smooth reflective surface nor precise spatial alignment for accurate imaging. We studied both the accuracy of the system with purposeful misalignment (defocusing) of the test object and determined the ability to image freshly deepithelialized, keratectomized, and photoablated corneas. The PAR system was both accurate and reproducible in imaging calibrated spheres within a defined zone in space. Whole cadaver eyes were imaged both before and immediately after removal of the epithelium, lamellar keratectomy, and laser photoablation. The system demonstrated the ability to image irregular, deepithelialized, and keratectomized corneas. The ability to maintain accuracy without precise alignment and the facility to image freshly deepithelialized and keratectomized corneas may make the system suitable for intraoperative refractive monitoring.

  18. Analysis of the impact of spatial resolution on land/water classifications using high-resolution aerial imagery

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Enwright, Nicholas M.; Jones, William R.; Garber, Adrienne L.; Keller, Matthew J.

    2014-01-01

    Long-term monitoring efforts often use remote sensing to track trends in habitat or landscape conditions over time. To most appropriately compare observations over time, long-term monitoring efforts strive for consistency in methods. Thus, advances and changes in technology over time can present a challenge. For instance, modern camera technology has led to an increasing availability of very high-resolution imagery (i.e. submetre and metre) and a shift from analogue to digital photography. While numerous studies have shown that image resolution can impact the accuracy of classifications, most of these studies have focused on the impacts of comparing spatial resolution changes greater than 2 m. Thus, a knowledge gap exists on the impacts of minor changes in spatial resolution (i.e. submetre to about 1.5 m) in very high-resolution aerial imagery (i.e. 2 m resolution or less). This study compared the impact of spatial resolution on land/water classifications of an area dominated by coastal marsh vegetation in Louisiana, USA, using 1:12,000 scale colour-infrared analogue aerial photography (AAP) scanned at four different dot-per-inch resolutions simulating ground sample distances (GSDs) of 0.33, 0.54, 1, and 2 m. Analysis of the impact of spatial resolution on land/water classifications was conducted by exploring various spatial aspects of the classifications including density of waterbodies and frequency distributions in waterbody sizes. This study found that a small-magnitude change (1–1.5 m) in spatial resolution had little to no impact on the amount of water classified (i.e. percentage mapped was less than 1.5%), but had a significant impact on the mapping of very small waterbodies (i.e. waterbodies ≤ 250 m2). These findings should interest those using temporal image classifications derived from very high-resolution aerial photography as a component of long-term monitoring programs.

  19. VLBI observations of single stars, spatial resolution and astrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pestalozzi, M.; Benz, A. O.; Conway, J. E.; Gudel, M.; Smith, K.

    VLBI studies can both spatially resolve single dMe stars and measure their positions at submilliarcsecond accuracy. The spatial resolution gives the brightness temperature and allows us to draw co nclusions about the nature of the emitting processes. In particular it is possib le to distinguish between thermal or non-thermal emission. The position accuracy gives better knowledge about the astrometric properties (like proper motion and parallax) especially for nearby stars. In this contribution recent results of c ontinuum VLBI observations towards two dMe stars (YZ CMi and AD Leo) at 8.4 GHz are presented. For YZ CMi an estimate of the size of the coronal emission is giv en (0.98 mas in diameter or 0.7 ±0.3 Rstar above the photosphere where Rstar refers to the photospheric radius). For AD Leo an upper limit is gi ven, i.e. the emitting region is shown to be < 0.8 Rstar. The position o f YZ CMi is found to differ by 32 mas form the Hipparcos catalogue, a discrepanc y mostly due to large errors in the listed proper motion (Pestalozzi et al. 2000 ).

  20. IMPROVING THE ACCURACY OF HISTORIC SATELLITE IMAGE CLASSIFICATION BY COMBINING LOW-RESOLUTION MULTISPECTRAL DATA WITH HIGH-RESOLUTION PANCHROMATIC DATA

    SciTech Connect

    Getman, Daniel J

    2008-01-01

    Many attempts to observe changes in terrestrial systems over time would be significantly enhanced if it were possible to improve the accuracy of classifications of low-resolution historic satellite data. In an effort to examine improving the accuracy of historic satellite image classification by combining satellite and air photo data, two experiments were undertaken in which low-resolution multispectral data and high-resolution panchromatic data were combined and then classified using the ECHO spectral-spatial image classification algorithm and the Maximum Likelihood technique. The multispectral data consisted of 6 multispectral channels (30-meter pixel resolution) from Landsat 7. These data were augmented with panchromatic data (15m pixel resolution) from Landsat 7 in the first experiment, and with a mosaic of digital aerial photography (1m pixel resolution) in the second. The addition of the Landsat 7 panchromatic data provided a significant improvement in the accuracy of classifications made using the ECHO algorithm. Although the inclusion of aerial photography provided an improvement in accuracy, this improvement was only statistically significant at a 40-60% level. These results suggest that once error levels associated with combining aerial photography and multispectral satellite data are reduced, this approach has the potential to significantly enhance the precision and accuracy of classifications made using historic remotely sensed data, as a way to extend the time range of efforts to track temporal changes in terrestrial systems.

  1. High spatial resolution probes for neurobiology applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gunning, D. E.; Kenney, C. J.; Litke, A. M.; Mathieson, K.

    2009-06-01

    Position-sensitive biological neural networks, such as the brain and the retina, require position-sensitive detection methods to identify, map and study their behavior. Traditionally, planar microelectrodes have been employed to record the cell's electrical activity with device limitations arising from the electrode's 2-D nature. Described here is the development and characterization of an array of electrically conductive micro-needles aimed at addressing the limitations of planar electrodes. The capability of this array to penetrate neural tissue improves the electrode-cell electrical interface and allows more complicated 3-D networks of neurons, such as those found in brain slices, to be studied. State-of-the-art semiconductor fabrication techniques were used to etch and passivate conformally the metal coat and fill high aspect ratio holes in silicon. These are subsequently transformed into needles with conductive tips. This process has enabled the fabrication of arrays of unprecedented dimensions: 61 hexagonally close-packed electrodes, ˜200 μm tall with 60 μm spacing. Electroplating the tungsten tips with platinum ensure suitable impedance values (˜600 kΩ at 1 kHz) for the recording of neuronal signals. Without compromising spatial resolution of the neuronal recordings, this array adds a new and exciting dimension to the study of biological neural networks.

  2. Using a high spatial resolution tactile sensor for intention detection.

    PubMed

    Castellini, Claudio; Koiva, Risto

    2013-06-01

    Intention detection is the interpretation of biological signals with the aim of automatically, reliably and naturally understanding what a human subject desires to do. Although intention detection is not restricted to disabled people, such methods can be crucial in improving a patient's life, e.g., aiding control of a robotic wheelchair or of a self-powered prosthesis. Traditionally, intention detection is done using, e.g., gaze tracking, surface electromyography and electroencephalography. In this paper we present exciting initial results of an experiment aimed at intention detection using a high-spatial-resolution, high-dynamic-range tactile sensor. The tactile image of the ventral side of the forearm of 9 able-bodied participants was recorded during a variable-force task stimulated at the fingertip. Both the forces at the fingertip and at the forearm were synchronously recorded. We show that a standard dimensionality reduction technique (Principal Component Analysis) plus a Support Vector Machine attain almost perfect detection accuracy of the direction and the intensity of the intended force. This paves the way for high spatial resolution tactile sensors to be used as a means for intention detection.

  3. Mapping seagrass coverage and spatial patterns with high spatial resolution IKONOS imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pu, Ruiliang; Bell, Susan

    2017-02-01

    Seagrass habitats in subtidal coastal waters provide a variety of ecosystem functions and services and there is an increasing need to acquire information on spatial and temporal dynamics of this resource. Here, we explored the capability of IKONOS (IKO) data of high resolution (4 m) for mapping seagrass cover [submerged aquatic vegetation (%SAV) cover] along the mid-western coast of Florida, USA. We also compared seagrass maps produced with IKO data with that obtained using the Landsat TM sensor with lower resolution (30 m). Both IKO and TM data, collected in October 2009, were preprocessed to calculate water depth invariant bands to normalize the effect of varying depth on bottom spectra recorded by the two satellite sensors and further the textural information was extracted from IKO data. Our results demonstrate that the high resolution IKO sensor produced a higher accuracy than the TM sensor in a three-class % SAV cover classification. Of note is that the OA of %SAV cover mapping at our study area created with IKO data was 5-20% higher than that from other studies published. We also examined the spatial distribution of seagrass over a spatial range of 4-240 m using the Ripley's K function [L(d)] and IKO data that represented four different grain sizes [4 m (one IKO pixel), 8 m (2 × 2 IKO pixels), 12 m (3 × 3 IKO pixels), and 16 m (4 × 4 IKO pixels)] from moderate-dense seagrass cover along a set of six transects. The Ripley's K metric repeatedly indicated that seagrass cover representing 4 m × 4 m pixels displayed a dispersed (or slightly dispersed) pattern over distances of <4-8 m, and a random or slightly clustered pattern of cover over 9-240 m. The spatial pattern of seagrass cover created with the three additional grain sizes (i.e., 2 × 24 m IKO pixels, 3 × 34 m IKO pixels, and 4 × 4 m IKO pixels) show a dispersed (or slightly dispersed) pattern across 4-32 m and a random or slightly clustered pattern across 33-240 m. Given the first report on using

  4. Simulation-based evaluation of the resolution and quantitative accuracy of temperature-modulated fluorescence tomography

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Yuting; Nouizi, Farouk; Kwong, Tiffany C.; Gulsen, Gultekin

    2016-01-01

    Conventional fluorescence tomography (FT) can recover the distribution of fluorescent agents within a highly scattering medium. However, poor spatial resolution remains its foremost limitation. Previously, we introduced a new fluorescence imaging technique termed “temperature-modulated fluorescence tomography” (TM-FT), which provides high-resolution images of fluorophore distribution. TM-FT is a multimodality technique that combines fluorescence imaging with focused ultrasound to locate thermo-sensitive fluorescence probes using a priori spatial information to drastically improve the resolution of conventional FT. In this paper, we present an extensive simulation study to evaluate the performance of the TM-FT technique on complex phantoms with multiple fluorescent targets of various sizes located at different depths. In addition, the performance of the TM-FT is tested in the presence of background fluorescence. The results obtained using our new method are systematically compared with those obtained with the conventional FT. Overall, TM-FT provides higher resolution and superior quantitative accuracy, making it an ideal candidate for in vivo preclinical and clinical imaging. For example, a 4 mm diameter inclusion positioned in the middle of a synthetic slab geometry phantom (D:40 mm × W :100 mm) is recovered as an elongated object in the conventional FT (x = 4.5 mm; y = 10.4 mm), while TM-FT recovers it successfully in both directions (x = 3.8 mm; y = 4.6 mm). As a result, the quantitative accuracy of the TM-FT is superior because it recovers the concentration of the agent with a 22% error, which is in contrast with the 83% error of the conventional FT. PMID:26368884

  5. Automated Verification of Spatial Resolution in Remotely Sensed Imagery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, Bruce; Ryan, Robert; Holekamp, Kara; Vaughn, Ronald

    2011-01-01

    Image spatial resolution characteristics can vary widely among sources. In the case of aerial-based imaging systems, the image spatial resolution characteristics can even vary between acquisitions. In these systems, aircraft altitude, speed, and sensor look angle all affect image spatial resolution. Image spatial resolution needs to be verified with estimators that include the ground sample distance (GSD), the modulation transfer function (MTF), and the relative edge response (RER), all of which are key components of image quality, along with signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and dynamic range. Knowledge of spatial resolution parameters is important to determine if features of interest are distinguishable in imagery or associated products, and to develop image restoration algorithms. An automated Spatial Resolution Verification Tool (SRVT) was developed to rapidly determine the spatial resolution characteristics of remotely sensed aerial and satellite imagery. Most current methods for assessing spatial resolution characteristics of imagery rely on pre-deployed engineered targets and are performed only at selected times within preselected scenes. The SRVT addresses these insufficiencies by finding uniform, high-contrast edges from urban scenes and then using these edges to determine standard estimators of spatial resolution, such as the MTF and the RER. The SRVT was developed using the MATLAB programming language and environment. This automated software algorithm assesses every image in an acquired data set, using edges found within each image, and in many cases eliminating the need for dedicated edge targets. The SRVT automatically identifies high-contrast, uniform edges and calculates the MTF and RER of each image, and when possible, within sections of an image, so that the variation of spatial resolution characteristics across the image can be analyzed. The automated algorithm is capable of quickly verifying the spatial resolution quality of all images within a data

  6. A Comparison of Spatial and Spectral Image Resolution for Mapping Invasive Plants in Coastal California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Underwood, Emma C.; Ustin, Susan L.; Ramirez, Carlos M.

    2007-01-01

    We explored the potential of detecting three target invasive species: iceplant ( Carpobrotus edulis), jubata grass ( Cortaderia jubata), and blue gum ( Eucalyptus globulus) at Vandenberg Air Force Base, California. We compared the accuracy of mapping six communities (intact coastal scrub, iceplant invaded coastal scrub, iceplant invaded chaparral, jubata grass invaded chaparral, blue gum invaded chaparral, and intact chaparral) using four images with different combinations of spatial and spectral resolution: hyperspectral AVIRIS imagery (174 wavebands, 4 m spatial resolution), spatially degraded AVIRIS (174 bands, 30 m), spectrally degraded AVIRIS (6 bands, 4 m), and both spatially and spectrally degraded AVIRIS (6 bands, 30 m, i.e., simulated Landsat ETM data). Overall success rates for classifying the six classes was 75% (kappa 0.7) using full resolution AVIRIS, 58% (kappa 0.5) for the spatially degraded AVIRIS, 42% (kappa 0.3) for the spectrally degraded AVIRIS, and 37% (kappa 0.3) for the spatially and spectrally degraded AVIRIS. A true Landsat ETM image was also classified to illustrate that the results from the simulated ETM data were representative, which provided an accuracy of 50% (kappa 0.4). Mapping accuracies using different resolution images are evaluated in the context of community heterogeneity (species richness, diversity, and percent species cover). Findings illustrate that higher mapping accuracies are achieved with images possessing high spectral resolution, thus capturing information across the visible and reflected infrared solar spectrum. Understanding the tradeoffs in spectral and spatial resolution can assist land managers in deciding the most appropriate imagery with respect to target invasives and community characteristics.

  7. A comparison of spatial and spectral image resolution for mapping invasive plants in coastal california.

    PubMed

    Underwood, Emma C; Ustin, Susan L; Ramirez, Carlos M

    2007-01-01

    We explored the potential of detecting three target invasive species: iceplant (Carpobrotus edulis), jubata grass (Cortaderia jubata), and blue gum (Eucalyptus globulus) at Vandenberg Air Force Base, California. We compared the accuracy of mapping six communities (intact coastal scrub, iceplant invaded coastal scrub, iceplant invaded chaparral, jubata grass invaded chaparral, blue gum invaded chaparral, and intact chaparral) using four images with different combinations of spatial and spectral resolution: hyperspectral AVIRIS imagery (174 wavebands, 4 m spatial resolution), spatially degraded AVIRIS (174 bands, 30 m), spectrally degraded AVIRIS (6 bands, 4 m), and both spatially and spectrally degraded AVIRIS (6 bands, 30 m, i.e., simulated Landsat ETM data). Overall success rates for classifying the six classes was 75% (kappa 0.7) using full resolution AVIRIS, 58% (kappa 0.5) for the spatially degraded AVIRIS, 42% (kappa 0.3) for the spectrally degraded AVIRIS, and 37% (kappa 0.3) for the spatially and spectrally degraded AVIRIS. A true Landsat ETM image was also classified to illustrate that the results from the simulated ETM data were representative, which provided an accuracy of 50% (kappa 0.4). Mapping accuracies using different resolution images are evaluated in the context of community heterogeneity (species richness, diversity, and percent species cover). Findings illustrate that higher mapping accuracies are achieved with images possessing high spectral resolution, thus capturing information across the visible and reflected infrared solar spectrum. Understanding the tradeoffs in spectral and spatial resolution can assist land managers in deciding the most appropriate imagery with respect to target invasives and community characteristics.

  8. Potential accuracy of measuring the angular coordinates of signal sources and accuracy of measuring them using optimal spatial filtration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalenov, E. N.

    2015-03-01

    The paper investigates the potential accuracy of measuring the angular coordinates of a signal source in the presence of interference sources, as well as the accuracy of measuring these coordinates via the formation of a signal's spatial spectrum using optimal spatial filtration. For a linear equidistant array, analytical solutions are obtained that determine the dependence of the accuracies in measuring the angular coordinates on the array parameters, the angular distance to the noise source, and spectral power densities of a signal, noise, and an interference source.

  9. Study of the spatial resolution for binary readout detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yonamine, R.; Maerschalk, T.; Lentdecker, G. De

    2016-07-01

    Often the binary readout is proposed for high granularity detectors to reduce the generated data volume to be readout at the price of a somewhat reduced spatial resolution compared to an analogue readout. We have been studying single hit resolutions obtained with a binary readout using simulations as well as analytical approaches. In this note we show that the detector geometry could be optimized to offer an equivalent spatial resolution than with an analogue readout.

  10. Scanning SQUID susceptometers with sub-micron spatial resolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirtley, John R.; Paulius, Lisa; Rosenberg, Aaron J.; Palmstrom, Johanna C.; Holland, Connor M.; Spanton, Eric M.; Schiessl, Daniel; Jermain, Colin L.; Gibbons, Jonathan; Fung, Y.-K.-K.; Huber, Martin E.; Ralph, Daniel C.; Ketchen, Mark B.; Gibson, Gerald W.; Moler, Kathryn A.

    2016-09-01

    Superconducting QUantum Interference Device (SQUID) microscopy has excellent magnetic field sensitivity, but suffers from modest spatial resolution when compared with other scanning probes. This spatial resolution is determined by both the size of the field sensitive area and the spacing between this area and the sample surface. In this paper we describe scanning SQUID susceptometers that achieve sub-micron spatial resolution while retaining a white noise floor flux sensitivity of ≈2μΦ0/Hz1/2. This high spatial resolution is accomplished by deep sub-micron feature sizes, well shielded pickup loops fabricated using a planarized process, and a deep etch step that minimizes the spacing between the sample surface and the SQUID pickup loop. We describe the design, modeling, fabrication, and testing of these sensors. Although sub-micron spatial resolution has been achieved previously in scanning SQUID sensors, our sensors not only achieve high spatial resolution but also have integrated modulation coils for flux feedback, integrated field coils for susceptibility measurements, and batch processing. They are therefore a generally applicable tool for imaging sample magnetization, currents, and susceptibilities with higher spatial resolution than previous susceptometers.

  11. ROLE OF SPATIAL RESOLUTION AND SPECTRAL CONTENT IN CHANGE DETECTION.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Milazzo, Valerie A.

    1984-01-01

    Summary form only given, as follows. Advancements in remote sensing technology have brought improvements and sophistication to modern remote sensor systems, especially those aboard earth resources satellites. These improvements have considerbly expanded the capabilities of the newer sensor systems, particularly the capability to achieve greatly increased spatial and spectral resolution levels. The debate still lingers, however, over whether future systems should maximize spatial resolution or spectral information, or both. As yet, the high costs and large volumes of data associated with even modest incremental improvements in spatial and spectral content have precluded the design of a single system that attempts to fully optimize both. Thus, the user is faced with having to choose between those systems providing high spatial resolutions but limited spectral information and those which offer a broad range of spectral data but hold spatial resolution to a less than optimum level. In this study, the contribution of both spatial resolution and spectral content to land cover change detection is examined. Ten-meter SPOT simulation imagery is compared with multispectral images acquired by the Thematic Mapper sensor system for use in the visual interpretation and mapping of changes. Several image processing and enhancement techniques are utilized to maximize the spatial and spectral data content offered by each system. Results indicate that when using visual image interpretation techniques to detect change, higher spatial resolutions are generally preferred over increased spectral content.

  12. Solar system events at high spatial resolution

    SciTech Connect

    Baines, K H; Gavel, D T; Getz, A M; Gibbartd, S G; MacIntosh, B; Max, C E; McKay, C P; Young, E F; de Pater, I

    1999-02-19

    Until relatively recent advances in technology, astronomical observations from the ground were limited in image resolution by the blurring effects of earth's atmosphere. The blur extent, ranging typically from 0.5 to 2 seconds of arc at the best astronomical sights, precluded ground-based observations of the details of the solar system's moons, asteroids, and outermost planets. With the maturing of a high resolution image processing technique called speckle imaging the resolution limitation of the atmosphere can now be largely overcome. Over the past three years they have used speckle imaging to observe Titan, a moon of Saturn with an atmospheric density comparable to Earth's, Io, the volcanically active innermost moon of Jupiter, and Neptune, a gas giant outer planet which has continually changing planet-encircling storms. These observations were made at the world's largest telescope, the Keck telescope in Hawaii and represent the highest resolution infrared images of these objects ever taken.

  13. Development of high accuracy and resolution geoid and gravity maps

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gaposchkin, E. M.

    1986-01-01

    Precision satellite to satellite tracking can be used to obtain high precision and resolution maps of the geoid. A method is demonstrated to use data in a limited region to map the geopotential at the satellite altitude. An inverse method is used to downward continue the potential to the Earth surface. The method is designed for both satellites in the same low orbit.

  14. Analysis of DOA estimation spatial resolution using MUSIC algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Yue; Wang, Hongyuan; Luo, Bin

    2005-11-01

    This paper presents a performance analysis of the spatial resolution of the direction of arrival (DOA) estimates attained by the multiple signal classification (MUSIC) algorithm for uncorrelated sources. The confidence interval of estimation angle which is much more intuitionistic will be considered as the new evaluation standard for the spatial resolution. Then, based on the statistic method, the qualitative analysis reveals the factors influencing the performance of the MUSIC algorithm. At last, quantitative simulations prove the theoretical analysis result exactly.

  15. Iterative algorithm for reconstructing rotationally asymmetric surface deviation with pixel-level spatial resolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quan, Haiyang; Wu, Fan; Hou, Xi

    2015-10-01

    New method for reconstructing rotationally asymmetric surface deviation with pixel-level spatial resolution is proposed. It is based on basic iterative scheme and accelerates the Gauss-Seidel method by introducing an acceleration parameter. This modified Successive Over-relaxation (SOR) is effective for solving the rotationally asymmetric components with pixel-level spatial resolution, without the usage of a fitting procedure. Compared to the Jacobi and Gauss-Seidel method, the modified SOR method with an optimal relaxation factor converges much faster and saves more computational costs and memory space without reducing accuracy. It has been proved by real experimental results.

  16. High spatial resolution passive microwave sounding systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Staelin, D. H.; Rosenkranz, P. W.; Bonanni, P. G.; Gasiewski, A. W.

    1986-01-01

    Two extensive series of flights aboard the ER-2 aircraft were conducted with the MIT 118 GHz imaging spectrometer together with a 53.6 GHz nadir channel and a TV camera record of the mission. Other microwave sensors, including a 183 GHz imaging spectrometer were flown simultaneously by other research groups. Work also continued on evaluating the impact of high-resolution passive microwave soundings upon numerical weather prediction models.

  17. Pixels, Blocks of Pixels, and Polygons: Choosing a Spatial Unit for Thematic Accuracy Assessment

    EPA Science Inventory

    Pixels, polygons, and blocks of pixels are all potentially viable spatial assessment units for conducting an accuracy assessment. We develop a statistical population-based framework to examine how the spatial unit chosen affects the outcome of an accuracy assessment. The populati...

  18. MAPPING SPATIAL ACCURACY AND ESTIMATING LANDSCAPE INDICATORS FROM THEMATIC LAND COVER MAPS USING FUZZY SET THEORY

    EPA Science Inventory

    This paper presents a fuzzy set-based method of mapping spatial accuracy of thematic map and computing several ecological indicators while taking into account spatial variation of accuracy associated with different land cover types and other factors (e.g., slope, soil type, etc.)...

  19. ASSESSING THE ACCURACY OF NATIONAL LAND COVER DATASET AREA ESTIMATES AT MULTIPLE SPATIAL EXTENTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Site specific accuracy assessments provide fine-scale evaluation of the thematic accuracy of land use/land cover (LULC) datasets; however, they provide little insight into LULC accuracy across varying spatial extents. Additionally, LULC data are typically used to describe lands...

  20. Accuracy Analysis on Large Blocks of High Resolution Images

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Passini, Richardo M.

    2007-01-01

    Although high altitude frequencies effects are removed at the time of basic image generation, low altitude (Yaw) effects are still present in form of affinity/angular affinity. They are effectively removed by additional parameters. Bundle block adjustment based on properly weighted ephemeris/altitude quaternions (BBABEQ) are not enough to remove the systematic effect. Moreover, due to the narrow FOV of the HRSI, position and altitude are highly correlated making it almost impossible to separate and remove their systematic effects without extending the geometric model (Self-Calib.) The systematic effects gets evident on the increase of accuracy (in terms of RMSE at GCPs) for looser and relaxed ground control at the expense of large and strong block deformation with large residuals at check points. Systematic errors are most freely distributed and their effects propagated all over the block.

  1. Monte Carlo code for high spatial resolution ocean color simulations.

    PubMed

    D'Alimonte, Davide; Zibordi, Giuseppe; Kajiyama, Tamito; Cunha, José C

    2010-09-10

    A Monte Carlo code for ocean color simulations has been developed to model in-water radiometric fields of downward and upward irradiance (E(d) and E(u)), and upwelling radiance (L(u)) in a two-dimensional domain with a high spatial resolution. The efficiency of the code has been optimized by applying state-of-the-art computing solutions, while the accuracy of simulation results has been quantified through benchmark with the widely used Hydrolight code for various values of seawater inherent optical properties and different illumination conditions. Considering a seawater single scattering albedo of 0.9, as well as surface waves of 5 m width and 0.5 m height, the study has shown that the number of photons required to quantify uncertainties induced by wave focusing effects on E(d), E(u), and L(u) data products is of the order of 10(6), 10(9), and 10(10), respectively. On this basis, the effects of sea-surface geometries on radiometric quantities have been investigated for different surface gravity waves. Data products from simulated radiometric profiles have finally been analyzed as a function of the deployment speed and sampling frequency of current free-fall systems in view of providing recommendations to improve measurement protocols.

  2. Accuracy VS Performance: Finding the Sweet Spot in the Geospatial Resolution of Satellite Metadata

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baskin, W. E.; Mangosing, D. C.; Rinsland, P. L.

    2010-12-01

    NASA’s Atmospheric Science Data Center (ASDC) and the Cloud-Aerosol LIDAR and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observation (CALIPSO) team at the NASA Langley Research Center recently collaborated in the development of a new CALIPSO Search and Subset web application. The web application is comprised of three elements: (1) A PostGIS-enabled PostgreSQL database system, which is used to store temporal and geospatial metadata from CALIPSO’s LIDAR, Infrared, and Wide Field Camera datasets, (2) the SciFlo engine, which is a data flow engine that enables semantic, scientific data flow executions in a grid or clustered network computational environment, and (3) PHP-based web application that incorporates some Web 2.0 / AJAX technologies used in the web interface. The search portion of the web application leverages geodetic indexing and search capabilities that became available in the February 2010 release of PostGIS version1.5. This presentation highlights the lessons learned in experimenting with various geospatial resolutions of CALIPSO’s LIDAR sensor ground track metadata. Details of the various spatial resolutions, spatial database schema designs, spatial indexing strategies, and performance results will be discussed. The focus will be on illustrating our findings on the spatial resolutions for ground track metadata that optimized search time and search accuracy in the CALIPSO Search and Subset Application. The CALIPSO satellite provides new insight into the role that clouds and atmospheric aerosols (airborne particles) play in regulating Earth's weather, climate, and air quality. CALIPSO combines an active LIDAR instrument with passive infrared and visible imagers to probe the vertical structure and properties of thin clouds and aerosols over the globe. The CALIPSO satellite was launched on April 28, 2006 and is part of the A-train satellite constellation. The ASDC in Langley’s Science Directorate leads NASA’s program for the processing, archival and

  3. The Accuracy of Shock Capturing in Two Spatial Dimensions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carpenter, Mark H.; Casper, Jay H.

    1997-01-01

    An assessment of the accuracy of shock capturing schemes is made for two-dimensional steady flow around a cylindrical projectile. Both a linear fourth-order method and a nonlinear third-order method are used in this study. It is shown, contrary to conventional wisdom, that captured two-dimensional shocks are asymptotically first-order, regardless of the design accuracy of the numerical method. The practical implications of this finding are discussed in the context of the efficacy of high-order numerical methods for discontinuous flows.

  4. Spatially Regularized Compressed Sensing for High Angular Resolution Diffusion Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Rathi, Yogesh; Dolui, Sudipto

    2013-01-01

    Despite the relative recency of its inception, the theory of compressive sampling (aka compressed sensing) (CS) has already revolutionized multiple areas of applied sciences, a particularly important instance of which is medical imaging. Specifically, the theory has provided a different perspective on the important problem of optimal sampling in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), with an ever-increasing body of works reporting stable and accurate reconstruction of MRI scans from the number of spectral measurements which would have been deemed unacceptably small as recently as five years ago. In this paper, the theory of CS is employed to palliate the problem of long acquisition times, which is known to be a major impediment to the clinical application of high angular resolution diffusion imaging (HARDI). Specifically, we demonstrate that a substantial reduction in data acquisition times is possible through minimization of the number of diffusion encoding gradients required for reliable reconstruction of HARDI scans. The success of such a minimization is primarily due to the availability of spherical ridgelet transformation, which excels in sparsifying HARDI signals. What makes the resulting reconstruction procedure even more accurate is a combination of the sparsity constraints in the diffusion domain with additional constraints imposed on the estimated diffusion field in the spatial domain. Accordingly, the present paper describes an original way to combine the diffusion-and spatial-domain constraints to achieve a maximal reduction in the number of diffusion measurements, while sacrificing little in terms of reconstruction accuracy. Finally, details are provided on an efficient numerical scheme which can be used to solve the aforementioned reconstruction problem by means of standard and readily available estimation tools. The paper is concluded with experimental results which support the practical value of the proposed reconstruction methodology. PMID:21536524

  5. Differential pulse-width pair BOTDA for high spatial resolution sensing.

    PubMed

    Li, Wenhai; Bao, Xiaoyi; Li, Yun; Chen, Liang

    2008-12-22

    A differential pulse-width pair Brillouin optical time domain analysis (DPP-BOTDA) for centimeter spatial resolution sensing using meter equivalent pulses is proposed. This scheme uses the time domain waveform subtraction at the same scanned Brillouin frequency obtained from pulse lights with different pulse-widths (e.g. 50ns and 49ns) to form the differential Brillouin gain spectrum (BGS) at each fiber location. The spatial resolution is defined by the average of the rise and fall time equivalent fiber length for a small stress section rather than the pulse-width difference equivalent length. The spatial resolution of 0.18m for the 50/49ns pulse pair and 0.15m for 20/19ns pulse pair over 1km sensing length with Brillouin frequency shift accuracy of 2.6MHz are demonstrated.

  6. A Very High Spatial Resolution Detector for Small Animal PET

    SciTech Connect

    Kanai Shah, M.S.

    2007-03-06

    Positron Emission Tomography (PET) is an in vivo analog of autoradiography and has the potential to become a powerful new tool in imaging biological processes in small laboratory animals. PET imaging of small animals can provide unique information that can help in advancement of human disease models as well as drug development. Clinical PET scanners used for human imaging are bulky, expensive and do not have adequate spatial resolution for small animal studies. Hence, dedicated, low cost instruments are required for conducting small animal studies with higher spatial resolution than what is currently achieved with clinical as well as dedicated small animal PET scanners. The goal of the proposed project is to investigate a new all solid-state detector design for small animal PET imaging. Exceptionally high spatial resolution, good timing resolution, and excellent energy resolution are expected from the proposed detector design. The Phase I project was aimed at demonstrating the feasibility of producing high performance solid-state detectors that provide high sensitivity, spatial resolution, and timing characteristics. Energy resolution characteristics of the new detector were also investigated. The goal of the Phase II project is to advance the promising solid-state detector technology for small animal PET and determine its full potential. Detectors modules will be built and characterized and finally, a bench-top small animal PET system will be assembled and evaluated.

  7. Spatial accuracy of a rapid defense behavior in caterpillars.

    PubMed

    van Griethuijsen, Linnea I; Banks, Kelly M; Trimmer, Barry A

    2013-02-01

    Aimed movements require that an animal accurately locates the target and correctly reaches that location. One such behavior is the defensive strike seen in Manduca sexta larva. These caterpillars respond to noxious mechanical stimuli applied to their abdomen with a strike of the mandibles towards the location of the stimulus. The accuracy with which the first strike movement reaches the stimulus site depends on the location of the stimulus. Reponses to dorsal stimuli are less accurate than those to ventral stimuli and the mandibles generally land ventral to the stimulus site. Responses to stimuli applied to anterior abdominal segments are less accurate than responses to stimuli applied to more posterior segments and the mandibles generally land posterior to the stimulus site. A trade-off between duration of the strike and radial accuracy is only seen in the anterior stimulus location (body segment A4). The lower accuracy of the responses to anterior and dorsal stimuli can be explained by the morphology of the animal; to reach these areas the caterpillar needs to move its body into a tight curve. Nevertheless, the accuracy is not exact in locations that the animal has shown it can reach, which suggests that consistently aiming more ventral and posterior of the stimulation site might be a defense strategy.

  8. Spatial Structure of Above-Ground Biomass Limits Accuracy of Carbon Mapping in Rainforest but Large Scale Forest Inventories Can Help to Overcome

    PubMed Central

    Guitet, Stéphane; Hérault, Bruno; Molto, Quentin; Brunaux, Olivier; Couteron, Pierre

    2015-01-01

    Precise mapping of above-ground biomass (AGB) is a major challenge for the success of REDD+ processes in tropical rainforest. The usual mapping methods are based on two hypotheses: a large and long-ranged spatial autocorrelation and a strong environment influence at the regional scale. However, there are no studies of the spatial structure of AGB at the landscapes scale to support these assumptions. We studied spatial variation in AGB at various scales using two large forest inventories conducted in French Guiana. The dataset comprised 2507 plots (0.4 to 0.5 ha) of undisturbed rainforest distributed over the whole region. After checking the uncertainties of estimates obtained from these data, we used half of the dataset to develop explicit predictive models including spatial and environmental effects and tested the accuracy of the resulting maps according to their resolution using the rest of the data. Forest inventories provided accurate AGB estimates at the plot scale, for a mean of 325 Mg.ha-1. They revealed high local variability combined with a weak autocorrelation up to distances of no more than10 km. Environmental variables accounted for a minor part of spatial variation. Accuracy of the best model including spatial effects was 90 Mg.ha-1 at plot scale but coarse graining up to 2-km resolution allowed mapping AGB with accuracy lower than 50 Mg.ha-1. Whatever the resolution, no agreement was found with available pan-tropical reference maps at all resolutions. We concluded that the combined weak autocorrelation and weak environmental effect limit AGB maps accuracy in rainforest, and that a trade-off has to be found between spatial resolution and effective accuracy until adequate “wall-to-wall” remote sensing signals provide reliable AGB predictions. Waiting for this, using large forest inventories with low sampling rate (<0.5%) may be an efficient way to increase the global coverage of AGB maps with acceptable accuracy at kilometric resolution. PMID

  9. Spatial Structure of Above-Ground Biomass Limits Accuracy of Carbon Mapping in Rainforest but Large Scale Forest Inventories Can Help to Overcome.

    PubMed

    Guitet, Stéphane; Hérault, Bruno; Molto, Quentin; Brunaux, Olivier; Couteron, Pierre

    2015-01-01

    Precise mapping of above-ground biomass (AGB) is a major challenge for the success of REDD+ processes in tropical rainforest. The usual mapping methods are based on two hypotheses: a large and long-ranged spatial autocorrelation and a strong environment influence at the regional scale. However, there are no studies of the spatial structure of AGB at the landscapes scale to support these assumptions. We studied spatial variation in AGB at various scales using two large forest inventories conducted in French Guiana. The dataset comprised 2507 plots (0.4 to 0.5 ha) of undisturbed rainforest distributed over the whole region. After checking the uncertainties of estimates obtained from these data, we used half of the dataset to develop explicit predictive models including spatial and environmental effects and tested the accuracy of the resulting maps according to their resolution using the rest of the data. Forest inventories provided accurate AGB estimates at the plot scale, for a mean of 325 Mg.ha-1. They revealed high local variability combined with a weak autocorrelation up to distances of no more than10 km. Environmental variables accounted for a minor part of spatial variation. Accuracy of the best model including spatial effects was 90 Mg.ha-1 at plot scale but coarse graining up to 2-km resolution allowed mapping AGB with accuracy lower than 50 Mg.ha-1. Whatever the resolution, no agreement was found with available pan-tropical reference maps at all resolutions. We concluded that the combined weak autocorrelation and weak environmental effect limit AGB maps accuracy in rainforest, and that a trade-off has to be found between spatial resolution and effective accuracy until adequate "wall-to-wall" remote sensing signals provide reliable AGB predictions. Waiting for this, using large forest inventories with low sampling rate (<0.5%) may be an efficient way to increase the global coverage of AGB maps with acceptable accuracy at kilometric resolution.

  10. Improved spatial resolution in PET scanners using sampling techniques

    PubMed Central

    Surti, Suleman; Scheuermann, Ryan; Werner, Matthew E.; Karp, Joel S.

    2009-01-01

    Increased focus towards improved detector spatial resolution in PET has led to the use of smaller crystals in some form of light sharing detector design. In this work we evaluate two sampling techniques that can be applied during calibrations for pixelated detector designs in order to improve the reconstructed spatial resolution. The inter-crystal positioning technique utilizes sub-sampling in the crystal flood map to better sample the Compton scatter events in the detector. The Compton scatter rejection technique, on the other hand, rejects those events that are located further from individual crystal centers in the flood map. We performed Monte Carlo simulations followed by measurements on two whole-body scanners for point source data. The simulations and measurements were performed for scanners using scintillators with Zeff ranging from 46.9 to 63 for LaBr3 and LYSO, respectively. Our results show that near the center of the scanner, inter-crystal positioning technique leads to a gain of about 0.5-mm in reconstructed spatial resolution (FWHM) for both scanner designs. In a small animal LYSO scanner the resolution improves from 1.9-mm to 1.6-mm with the inter-crystal technique. The Compton scatter rejection technique shows higher gains in spatial resolution but at the cost of reduction in scanner sensitivity. The inter-crystal positioning technique represents a modest acquisition software modification for an improvement in spatial resolution, but at a cost of potentially longer data correction and reconstruction times. The Compton scatter rejection technique, while also requiring a modest acquisition software change with no increased data correction and reconstruction times, will be useful in applications where the scanner sensitivity is very high and larger improvements in spatial resolution are desirable. PMID:19779586

  11. FISM 2.0: Improved Spectral Range, Resolution, and Accuracy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chamberlin, Phillip C.

    2012-01-01

    The Flare Irradiance Spectral Model (FISM) was first released in 2005 to provide accurate estimates of the solar VUV (0.1-190 nm) irradiance to the Space Weather community. This model was based on TIMED SEE as well as UARS and SORCE SOLSTICE measurements, and was the first model to include a 60 second temporal variation to estimate the variations due to solar flares. Along with flares, FISM also estimates the tradition solar cycle and solar rotational variations over months and decades back to 1947. This model has been highly successful in providing driving inputs to study the affect of solar irradiance variations on the Earth's ionosphere and thermosphere, lunar dust charging, as well as the Martian ionosphere. The second version of FISM, FISM2, is currently being updated to be based on the more accurate SDO/EVE data, which will provide much more accurate estimations in the 0.1-105 nm range, as well as extending the 'daily' model variation up to 300 nm based on the SOLSTICE measurements. with the spectral resolution of SDO/EVE along with SOLSTICE and the TIMED and SORCE XPS 'model' products, the entire range from 0.1-300 nm will also be available at 0.1 nm, allowing FISM2 to be improved a similar 0.1nm spectral bins. FISM also will have a TSI component that will estimate the total radiated energy during flares based on the few TSI flares observed to date. Presented here will be initial results of the FISM2 modeling efforts, as well as some challenges that will need to be overcome in order for FISM2 to accurately model the solar variations on time scales of seconds to decades.

  12. Improving the quantification at high spatial resolution using a field emission electron microprobe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pinard, P. T.; Richter, S.

    2014-03-01

    The capabilities of field emitter electron microprobes to perform quantitative measurements at high spatial resolution are discussed. Using Fe-Cr-C particles in a bearing steel (SAE 52100) as example, a generic procedure was established to find the optimal analytical conditions (beam energy, beam current and acquisition time). The influence of these parameters on the accuracy, precision and spatial resolution was evaluated using experimental measurements and Monte Carlo simulations. A quantification procedure was developed for soft X-ray lines, taking into account the overlap of high order X-ray lines and background anomalies. The accuracy of Ka- and La-lines was verified using reference materials. A relationship between experimental and simulated X-ray intensities was determined to evaluate the measurement precision. The spatial resolution of each X-ray line was calculated from the simulated lateral and depth X-ray intensity distribution using simulations integrating experimentally measured beam diameters. The optimal analytical conditions for the studied sample were found to be 5 keV, 10 nA and 10 s acquisition time. Further specialized techniques to improve the spatial resolution are presented: focused ion beam preparation of thin lamella and wedge, and Monte Carlo based reconstruction. The feasibility of the latter to quantify features smaller than the X-ray emission volume was demonstrated.

  13. Hotbeds of crime and the search for spatial accuracy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ratcliffe, J. H.; McCullagh, M. J.

    One of the most important aspects of spatial crime analysis is the identification of hotspots: areas of the highest crime concentration. This paper advances a methodology for hotspot detection based on a global moving window approach combined with the use of local statistics to define the hotspot limit. This technique generates hotspots that both follow the urban morphology of the crime distribution and ensures their spatial segregation. The hypothesis that police officers can construct an accurate perception of crime distribution from exposure to daily policing practices is used to demonstrate an application in the use of hotspot analysis. Significant regions generated from recorded crime data are compared with perceived local hotspots catalogued from surveys with police officers. Results from this study show two discrete types of hotspot, here termed hotpoints and hotbeds. The morphology of these crime hotpoints and hotbeds is discussed and possible causes documented.

  14. High spatial resolution measurements of ram accelerator gas dynamic phenomena

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hinkey, J. B.; Burnham, E. A.; Bruckner, A. P.

    1992-01-01

    High spatial resolution experimental tube wall pressure measurements of ram accelerator gas dynamic phenomena are presented. The projectile resembles the centerbody of a ramjet and travels supersonically through a tube filled with a combustible gaseous mixture, with the tube acting as the outer cowling. Pressure data are recorded as the projectile passes by sensors mounted in the tube wall at various locations along the tube. Data obtained by using a special highly instrumented section of tube has allowed the recording of gas dynamic phenomena with a spatial resolution on the order of one tenth the projectile length. High spatial resolution tube wall pressure data from the three regimes of propulsion studied to date (subdetonative, transdetonative, and superdetonative) are presented and reveal the 3D character of the flowfield induced by projectile fins and the canting of the projectile body relative to the tube wall. Also presented for comparison to the experimental data are calculations made with an inviscid, 3D CFD code.

  15. Duality between noise and spatial resolution in linear systems.

    PubMed

    Gureyev, Timur E; Nesterets, Yakov I; de Hoog, Frank; Schmalz, Gerd; Mayo, Sheridan C; Mohammadi, Sara; Tromba, Giuliana

    2014-04-21

    It is shown that in a broad class of linear systems, including general linear shift-invariant systems, the spatial resolution and the noise satisfy a duality relationship, resembling the uncertainty principle in quantum mechanics. The product of the spatial resolution and the standard deviation of output noise in such systems represents a type of phase-space volume that is invariant with respect to linear scaling of the point-spread function, and it cannot be made smaller than a certain positive absolute lower limit. A corresponding intrinsic "quality" characteristic is introduced and then evaluated for the cases of some popular imaging systems, including computed tomography, generic image convolution and phase-contrast imaging. It is shown that in the latter case the spatial resolution and the noise can sometimes be decoupled, potentially leading to a substantial increase in the imaging quality.

  16. Temporal and spatial resolution of HF ocean radars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heron, Malcom L.; Atwater, Daniel P.

    2013-03-01

    The spatial and temporal resolutions of the two main types of HF radar are compared, with reference to the phasedarray and the crossed-loop direction-finding systems which make up the Australian Coastal Ocean radar Network. Both genres use a swept frequency "chirp" modulation to define the range of a pixel being observed but the method for determining the azimuth direction of the pixel is a strong point of differentiation. The phased-array systems produce independent maps of surface currents in about 1/7 of the time for the crossed-loop systems because of contrasting noise performance of the antennas. The use of beam-forming analysis in the phased-arrays is shown to give spatial resolutions, for vector currents, of about 10 km close to the shore, and 25 km at ranges of 150 km. The corresponding vector current spatial resolutions for the crossed-loop systems are 40 km and 60 km respectively.

  17. Radiometric Calibration Assessment of Commercial High Spatial Resolution Multispectral Image Products

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thome, Kurt; Leisso, Nathan; Buchanan, John

    2007-01-01

    This paper describes the results of commercial high spatial resolution sensors. The topics include: 1) Reflectance-based approach; 2) U of A test sites; 3) Test Site Selection; 4) Resort Living; 5) Aerosol parameters; 6) Surface reflectance retrieval; 7) Accuracy/precision; 8) Data sets; 9) June 23, 2005 for Ikonos; 10) QuickBird Results; 11) Ikonos results; 12) Orbview results; 13) Ikonos redux; and 14) Overall results.

  18. Simplex-coded BOTDA fiber sensor with 1 m spatial resolution over a 50 km range.

    PubMed

    Soto, Marcelo A; Bolognini, Gabriele; Di Pasquale, Fabrizio; Thévenaz, Luc

    2010-01-15

    In this Letter, we propose the use of optical pulse coding techniques for long-range distributed sensors based on Brillouin optical time-domain analysis (BOTDA). Compared to conventional BOTDA sensors, optical coding provides a significant sensing-range enhancement, allowing for temperature and strain measurements with 1 m spatial resolution over 50 km of standard single-mode fiber, with an accuracy of 2.2 degrees C/44 muepsilon, respectively.

  19. Modeling Spatial Dependencies in High-Resolution Overhead Imagery

    SciTech Connect

    Cheriyadat, Anil M; Bright, Eddie A; Vatsavai, Raju

    2011-01-01

    Human settlement regions with different physical and socio-economic attributes exhibit unique spatial characteristics that are often illustrated in high-resolution overhead imageries. For example- size, shape and spatial arrangements of man-made structures are key attributes that vary with respect to the socioeconomic profile of the neighborhood. Successfully modeling these attributes is crucial in developing advanced image understanding systems for interpreting complex aerial scenes. In this paper we present three different approaches to model the spatial context in the overhead imagery. First, we show that the frequency domain of the image can be used to model the spatial context [1]. The shape of the spectral energy contours characterize the scene context and can be exploited as global features. Secondly, we explore a discriminative framework based on the Conditional Random Fields (CRF) [2] to model the spatial context in the overhead imagery. The features derived from the edge orientation distribution calculated for a neighborhood and the associated class labels are used as input features to model the spatial context. Our third approach is based on grouping spatially connected pixels based on the low-level edge primitives to form support-regions [3]. The statistical parameters generated from the support-region feature distributions characterize different geospatial neighborhoods. We apply our approaches on high-resolution overhead imageries. We show that proposed approaches characterize the spatial context in overhead imageries.

  20. Solar Flares at High Spatial and Temporal Resolution

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-11-01

    AFRL-AFOSR-UK-TR-2012-0055 Solar Flares at High Spatial and Temporal Resolution Professor Mihalis Mathioudakis Queen’s...2012 2. REPORT TYPE Final Report 3. DATES COVERED (From – To) 20 July 2009 – 19 July 2012 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Solar Flares at High Spatial and...Distribution A: Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. 13. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 14. ABSTRACT Solar flares vary in

  1. Spatial resolution analysis for time-domain diffuse optical tomography based on a perturbation model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Konovalov, Alexander B.; Vlasov, Vitaly V.

    2014-01-01

    We estimate a limit to spatial resolution in time-domain diffuse optical tomography (DOT) based on a perturbation model by Lyubimov. In the context of structure reconstruction accuracy we consider and compare three approaches to the inverse DOT problem. The first reconstructs diffuse tomograms from straight lines; the second does it from curvilinear average trajectories of photons; and the third uses the total banana-like distributions of photon trajectories. For getting estimates to resolution, we derive analytical expressions for the point spread function and the modulation transfer function, and perform a numerical experiment to reconstruct rectangular scattering objects with circular absorbing inhomogeneities. It is shown that reconstruction with photon trajectory distributions instead of straight lines gives a gain of about order of magnitude in resolution and attains the accuracy of multistep nonlinear DOT algorithms.

  2. Theoretical limit of spatial resolution in diffuse optical tomography using a perturbation model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Konovalov, A. B.; Vlasov, V. V.

    2014-03-01

    We have assessed the limit of spatial resolution of timedomain diffuse optical tomography (DOT) based on a perturbation reconstruction model. From the viewpoint of the structure reconstruction accuracy, three different approaches to solving the inverse DOT problem are compared. The first approach involves reconstruction of diffuse tomograms from straight lines, the second - from average curvilinear trajectories of photons and the third - from total banana-shaped distributions of photon trajectories. In order to obtain estimates of resolution, we have derived analytical expressions for the point spread function and modulation transfer function, as well as have performed a numerical experiment on reconstruction of rectangular scattering objects with circular absorbing inhomogeneities. It is shown that in passing from reconstruction from straight lines to reconstruction using distributions of photon trajectories we can improve resolution by almost an order of magnitude and exceed the accuracy of reconstruction of multi-step algorithms used in DOT.

  3. Spatially adaptive regularized iterative high-resolution image reconstruction algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lim, Won Bae; Park, Min K.; Kang, Moon Gi

    2000-12-01

    High resolution images are often required in applications such as remote sensing, frame freeze in video, military and medical imaging. Digital image sensor arrays, which are used for image acquisition in many imaging systems, are not dense enough to prevent aliasing, so the acquired images will be degraded by aliasing effects. To prevent aliasing without loss of resolution, a dense detector array is required. But it may be very costly or unavailable, thus, many imaging systems are designed to allow some level of aliasing during image acquisition. The purpose of our work is to reconstruct an unaliased high resolution image from the acquired aliased image sequence. In this paper, we propose a spatially adaptive regularized iterative high resolution image reconstruction algorithm for blurred, noisy and down-sampled image sequences. The proposed approach is based on a Constrained Least Squares (CLS) high resolution reconstruction algorithm, with spatially adaptive regularization operators and parameters. These regularization terms are shown to improve the reconstructed image quality by forcing smoothness, while preserving edges in the reconstructed high resolution image. Accurate sub-pixel motion registration is the key of the success of the high resolution image reconstruction algorithm. However, sub-pixel motion registration may have some level of registration error. Therefore, a reconstruction algorithm which is robust against the registration error is required. The registration algorithm uses a gradient based sub-pixel motion estimator which provides shift information for each of the recorded frames. The proposed algorithm is based on a technique of high resolution image reconstruction, and it solves spatially adaptive regularized constrained least square minimization functionals. In this paper, we show that the reconstruction algorithm gives dramatic improvements in the resolution of the reconstructed image and is effective in handling the aliased information. The

  4. Spatial resolution requirements for automated cartographic road extraction

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Benjamin, S.; Gaydos, L.

    1990-01-01

    Ground resolution requirements for detection and extraction of road locations in a digitized large-scale photographic database were investigated. A color infrared photograph of Sunnyvale, California was scanned, registered to a map grid, and spatially degraded to 1- to 5-metre resolution pixels. Road locations in each data set were extracted using a combination of image processing and CAD programs. These locations were compared to a photointerpretation of road locations to determine a preferred pixel size for the extraction method. Based on road pixel omission error computations, a 3-metre pixel resolution appears to be the best choice for this extraction method. -Authors

  5. Quantifying mangrove chlorophyll from high spatial resolution imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heenkenda, Muditha K.; Joyce, Karen E.; Maier, Stefan W.; de Bruin, Sytze

    2015-10-01

    Lower than expected chlorophyll concentration of a plant can directly limit photosynthetic activity, and resultant primary production. Low chlorophyll concentration may also indicate plant physiological stress. Compared to other terrestrial vegetation, mangrove chlorophyll variations are poorly understood. This study quantifies the spatial distribution of mangrove canopy chlorophyll variation using remotely sensed data and field samples over the Rapid Creek mangrove forest in Darwin, Australia. Mangrove leaf samples were collected and analyzed for chlorophyll content in the laboratory. Once the leaf area index (LAI) of sampled trees was estimated using the digital cover photography method, the canopy chlorophyll contents were calculated. Then, the nonlinear random forests regression algorithm was used to describe the relationship between canopy chlorophyll content and remotely sensed data (WorldView-2 satellite image bands and their spectral transformations), and to estimate the spatial distribution of canopy chlorophyll variation. The imagery was evaluated at full 2 m spatial resolution, as well as at decreased resampled resolutions of 5 m and 10 m. The root mean squared errors with validation samples were 0.82, 0.64 and 0.65 g/m2 for maps at 2 m, 5 m and 10 m spatial resolution respectively. The correlation coefficient was analyzed for the relationship between measured and predicted chlorophyll values. The highest correlation: 0.71 was observed at 5 m spatial resolution (R2 = 0.5). We therefore concluded that estimating mangrove chlorophyll content from remotely sensed data is possible using red, red-edge, NIR1 and NIR2 bands and their spectral transformations as predictors at 5 m spatial resolution.

  6. Detection efficiency, spatial and timing resolution of thermal and cold neutron counting MCP detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tremsin, A. S.; McPhate, J. B.; Vallerga, J. V.; Siegmund, O. H. W.; Hull, J. S.; Feller, W. B.; Lehmann, E.

    2009-06-01

    Neutron counting detectors with boron or gadolinium doped microchannel plates (MCPs) have very high detection efficiency, spatial and temporal resolution, and have a very low readout noise. In this paper we present the results of both theoretical predictions and experimental evaluations of detection efficiency and spatial resolution measured at cold and thermal neutron beamlines. The quantum detection efficiency of a detector (not fully optimized) was measured to be 43% and 16% for the cold and thermal beamlines, respectively. The experiments also demonstrate that the spatial resolution can be better than 15 μm—highest achievable with the particular MCP pore dimension used in the experiment, although more electronics development is required in order to increase the counting rate capabilities of those <15 μm resolution devices. The timing accuracy of neutron detection is on the scale of few μs and is limited by the neutron absorption depth in the detector. The good agreement between the predicted and measured performance allows the optimization of the detector parameters in order to achieve the highest spatial resolution and detection efficiency in future devices.

  7. Spatial Resolution Characterization for QuickBird Image Products 2003-2004 Season

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blonski, Slawomir

    2006-01-01

    This presentation focuses on spatial resolution characterization for QuickBird panochromatic images in 2003-2004 and presents data measurements and analysis of SSC edge target deployment and edge response extraction and modeling. The results of the characterization are shown as values of the Modulation Transfer Function (MTF) at the Nyquist spatial frequency and as the Relative Edge Response (RER) components. The results show that RER is much less sensitive to accuracy of the curve fitting than the value of MTF at Nyquist frequency. Therefore, the RER/edge response slope is a more robust estimator of the digital image spatial resolution than the MTF. For the QuickBird panochromatic images, the RER is consistently equal to 0.5 for images processed with the Cubic Convolution resampling and to 0.8 for the MTF resampling.

  8. Spatial Resolution Characterization for AWiFS Multispectral Images

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blonski, Slawomir; Ryan, Robert E.; Pagnutti, Mary; Stanley, Thomas

    2007-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation describes the spatial resolution of the AWiFS multispectral images characterized by an estimation of the Modulation Transfer Function (MTF) at Nyquist frequency. The contents include: 1) MTF Analysis; 2) Target Analysis; 3) "Pulse Target"; 4) "Pulse" Method; 5) Target Images; 6) Bridge Profiles; 7) MTF Calculation; 8) MTF Results; and 9) Results Summary.

  9. Spatial Collective Intelligence? credibility, accuracy, and Volunteered Geographic Information

    PubMed Central

    Spielman, Seth E.

    2014-01-01

    Collective intelligence is the idea that under the right circumstances collections of individuals are smarter than even the smartest individuals in the group (Suroweiki 2004), that is a group has an “intelligence” that is independent of the intelligence of its members. The ideology of collective intelligence undergirds much of the enthusiasm about the use of “volunteered” or crowdsourced geographic information. Literature from a variety of fields makes clear that not all groups possess collective intelligence, this paper identifies four pre-conditions for the emergence of collective intelligence and then examine the extent to which collectively generated mapping systems satisfy these conditions. However, the “intelligence” collectively generated maps is hard to assess because there are two difficult to reconcile perspectives on map quality- the credibility perspective and the accuracy perspective. Much of the current literature on user generated maps focuses on assessing the quality of individual contributions. However, because user generated maps are complex social systems and because the quality of a contribution is difficult to assess this strategy may not yield an “intelligent” end product. The existing literature on collective intelligence suggests that the structure of groups more important that the intelligence of group members. Applying this idea to user generated suggests that systems should be designed to foster conditions known to produce collective intelligence rather than privileging particular contributions/contributors. The paper concludes with some design recommendations and by considering the implications of collectively generated maps for both expert knowledge and traditional state sponsored mapping programs. PMID:25419184

  10. Improved Spatial Resolution for Reflection Mode Infrared Microscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Bechtel, Hans A.; Martin, Michael C.; May, T.E.; Lerch, Philippe

    2009-10-09

    Standard commercial infrared microscopes operating in reflection mode use a mirror to direct the reflected light from the sample to the detector. This mirror blocks about half of the incident light, however, and thus degrades the spatial resolution by reducing the umerical aperture of the objective. Here, we replace the mirror with a 50% beamsplitter to allow full illumination of the objective and retain a way to direct the reflected light to the detector. The improved spatial resolution is demonstrated using two different microscopes apable of diffraction-limited resolution: the first microscope is coupled to a synchrotron source and utilizes a single point detector, whereas the second microscope has a standard blackbody source and uses a focal planetarray (FPA) detector.

  11. Spatial Resolution Requirements for MODIS-N. [Polar Platform Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MODIS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Townshend, J. R. G.; Justice, C. O.; Markham, B. L.; Briggs, S. A.

    1988-01-01

    An empirical investigation of the required spatial resolution for MODIS-N is outlined. It is based on 5 LANDSAT multispectral scanner system images of the normalized difference vegetation index degraded to resolutions between 250 m and 4000 m. Pairs of images from different dates were registered and difference images were generated. Fourier analysis indicates that resolutions finer than 1 km are highly desirable for change detection. A sensor with a resolution of 500 m is recommended as providing the best compromise between detail of changes detected and the size of the resultant data volume, but other options are also suggested.

  12. High cognitive reserve is associated with a reduced age-related deficit in spatial conflict resolution

    PubMed Central

    Puccioni, Olga; Vallesi, Antonino

    2012-01-01

    Several studies support the existence of a specific age-related difficulty in suppressing potentially distracting information. The aim of the present study is to investigate whether spatial conflict resolution is selectively affected by aging. The way aging affects individuals could be modulated by many factors determined by the socieconomic status: we investigated whether factors such as cognitive reserve (CR) and years of education may play a compensatory role against age-related deficits in the spatial domain. A spatial Stroop task with no feature repetitions was administered to a sample of 17 non-demented older adults (69–79 years-old) and 18 younger controls (18–34 years-old) matched for gender and years of education. The two age groups were also administered with measures of intelligence and CR. The overall spatial Stroop effect did not differ according to age, neither for speed nor for accuracy. The two age groups equally showed sequential effects for congruent trials: reduced response times (RTs) if another congruent trial preceded them, and accuracy at ceiling. For incongruent trials, older adults, but not younger controls, were influenced by congruency of trialn−1, since RTs increased with preceding congruent trials. Interestingly, such an age-related modulation negatively correlated with CR. These findings suggest that spatial conflict resolution in aging is predominantly affected by general slowing, rather than by a more specific deficit. However, a high level of CR seems to play a compensatory role for both factors. PMID:23248595

  13. Evolution of spatial resolution in breast CT at UC Davis

    SciTech Connect

    Gazi, Peymon M.; Yang, Kai; Burkett, George W.; Aminololama-Shakeri, Shadi; Anthony Seibert, J.; Boone, John M.

    2015-04-15

    Purpose: Dedicated breast computed tomography (bCT) technology for the purpose of breast cancer screening has been a focus of research at UC Davis since the late 1990s. Previous studies have shown that improvement in spatial resolution characteristics of this modality correlates with greater microcalcification detection, a factor considered a potential limitation of bCT. The aim of this study is to improve spatial resolution as characterized by the modulation transfer function (MTF) via changes in the scanner hardware components and operational schema. Methods: Four prototypes of pendant-geometry, cone-beam breast CT scanners were designed and developed spanning three generations of design evolution. To improve the system MTF in each bCT generation, modifications were made to the imaging components (x-ray tube and flat-panel detector), system geometry (source-to-isocenter and detector distance), and image acquisition parameters (technique factors, number of projections, system synchronization scheme, and gantry rotational speed). Results: Characterization of different generations of bCT systems shows these modifications resulted in a 188% improvement of the limiting MTF properties from the first to second generation and an additional 110% from the second to third. The intrinsic resolution degradation in the azimuthal direction observed in the first generation was corrected by changing the acquisition from continuous to pulsed x-ray acquisition. Utilizing a high resolution detector in the third generation, along with modifications made in system geometry and scan protocol, resulted in a 125% improvement in limiting resolution. An additional 39% improvement was obtained by changing the detector binning mode from 2 × 2 to 1 × 1. Conclusions: These results underscore the advancement in spatial resolution characteristics of breast CT technology. The combined use of a pulsed x-ray system, higher resolution flat-panel detector and changing the scanner geometry and image

  14. Influence of Elevation Data Resolution on Spatial Prediction of Colluvial Soils in a Luvisol Region

    PubMed Central

    Penížek, Vít; Zádorová, Tereza; Kodešová, Radka; Vaněk, Aleš

    2016-01-01

    The development of a soil cover is a dynamic process. Soil cover can be altered within a few decades, which requires updating of the legacy soil maps. Soil erosion is one of the most important processes quickly altering soil cover on agriculture land. Colluvial soils develop in concave parts of the landscape as a consequence of sedimentation of eroded material. Colluvial soils are recognised as important soil units because they are a vast sink of soil organic carbon. Terrain derivatives became an important tool in digital soil mapping and are among the most popular auxiliary data used for quantitative spatial prediction. Prediction success rates are often directly dependent on raster resolution. In our study, we tested how raster resolution (1, 2, 3, 5, 10, 20 and 30 meters) influences spatial prediction of colluvial soils. Terrain derivatives (altitude, slope, plane curvature, topographic position index, LS factor and convergence index) were calculated for the given raster resolutions. Four models were applied (boosted tree, neural network, random forest and Classification/Regression Tree) to spatially predict the soil cover over a 77 ha large study plot. Models training and validation was based on 111 soil profiles surveyed on a regular sampling grid. Moreover, the predicted real extent and shape of the colluvial soil area was examined. In general, no clear trend in the accuracy prediction was found without the given raster resolution range. Higher maximum prediction accuracy for colluvial soil, compared to prediction accuracy of total soil cover of the study plot, can be explained by the choice of terrain derivatives that were best for Colluvial soils differentiation from other soil units. Regarding the character of the predicted Colluvial soils area, maps of 2 to 10 m resolution provided reasonable delineation of the colluvial soil as part of the cover over the study area. PMID:27846230

  15. Parameter Transferability Across Spatial and Temporal Resolutions in Hydrological Modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Melsen, L. A.; Teuling, R.; Torfs, P. J.; Zappa, M.; Mizukami, N.; Clark, M. P.; Uijlenhoet, R.

    2015-12-01

    Improvements in computational power and data availability provided new opportunities for hydrological modeling. The increased complexity of hydrological models, however, also leads to time consuming optimization procedures. Moreover, observations are still required to calibrate the model. Both to decrease calculation time of the optimization and to be able to apply the model in poorly gauged basins, many studies have focused on transferability of parameters. We adopted a probabilistic approach to systematically investigate parameter transferability across both temporal and spatial resolution. A Variable Infiltration Capacity model for the Thur basin (1703km2, Switzerland) was set-up and run at four different spatial resolutions (1x1, 5x5, 10x10km, lumped) and three different temporal resolutions (hourly, daily, monthly). Three objective functions were used to evaluate the model: Kling-Gupta Efficiency (KGE(Q)), Nash-Sutcliffe Efficiency (NSE(Q)) and NSE(logQ). We used a Hierarchical Latin Hypercube Sample (Vorechovsky, 2014) to efficiently sample the most sensitive parameters. The model was run 3150 times and the best 1% of the runs was selected as behavioral. The overlap in selected behavioral sets for different spatial and temporal resolutions was used as indicators for parameter transferability. There was a large overlap in selected sets for the different spatial resolutions, implying that parameters were to a large extent transferable across spatial resolutions. The temporal resolution, however, had a larger impact on the parameters; it significantly affected the parameter distributions for at least four out of seven parameters. The parameter values for the monthly time step were found to be substantially different from those for daily and hourly time steps. This suggests that the output from models which are calibrated on a monthly time step, cannot be interpreted or analysed on an hourly or daily time step. It was also shown that the selected objective

  16. Investigation of LANDSAT follow-on thematic mapper spatial, radiometric and spectral resolution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nalepka, R. F. (Principal Investigator); Morgenstern, J. P.; Kent, E. R.; Erickson, J. D.

    1976-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Fine resolution M7 multispectral scanner data collected during the Corn Blight Watch Experiment in 1971 served as the basis for this study. Different locations and times of year were studied. Definite improvement using 30-40 meter spatial resolution over present LANDSAT 1 resolution and over 50-60 meter resolution was observed, using crop area mensuration as the measure. Simulation studies carried out to extrapolate the empirical results to a range of field size distributions confirmed this effect, showing the improvement to be most pronounced for field sizes of 1-4 hectares. Radiometric sensitivity study showed significant degradation of crop classification accuracy immediately upon relaxation from the nominally specified values of 0.5% noise equivalent reflectance. This was especially the case for data which were spectrally similar such as that collected early in the growing season and also when attempting to accomplish crop stress detection.

  17. Spatial resolution of a hard x-ray CCD detector

    SciTech Connect

    Seely, John F.; Pereira, Nino R.; Weber, Bruce V.; Schumer, Joseph W.; Apruzese, John P.; Hudson, Lawrence T.; Szabo, Csilla I.; Boyer, Craig N.; Skirlo, Scott

    2010-08-10

    The spatial resolution of an x-ray CCD detector was determined from the widths of the tungsten x-ray lines in the spectrum formed by a crystal spectrometer in the 58 to 70 keV energy range. The detector had 20{mu}m pixel, 1700 by 1200 pixel format, and a CsI x-ray conversion scintillator. The spectral lines from a megavolt x-ray generator were focused on the spectrometer's Rowland circle by a curved transmission crystal. The line shapes were Lorentzian with an average width after removal of the natural and instrumental line widths of 95{mu}m (4.75 pixels). A high spatial frequency background, primarily resulting from scattered gamma rays, was removed from the spectral image by Fourier analysis. The spectral lines, having low spatial frequency in the direction perpendicular to the dispersion, were enhanced by partially removing the Lorentzian line shape and by fitting Lorentzian curves to broad unresolved spectral features. This demonstrates the ability to improve the spectral resolution of hard x-ray spectra that are recorded by a CCD detector with well-characterized intrinsic spatial resolution.

  18. High-spatial-resolution nanoparticle x-ray fluorescence tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larsson, Jakob C.; Vâgberg, William; Vogt, Carmen; Lundström, Ulf; Larsson, Daniel H.; Hertz, Hans M.

    2016-03-01

    X-ray fluorescence tomography (XFCT) has potential for high-resolution 3D molecular x-ray bio-imaging. In this technique the fluorescence signal from targeted nanoparticles (NPs) is measured, providing information about the spatial distribution and concentration of the NPs inside the object. However, present laboratory XFCT systems typically have limited spatial resolution (>1 mm) and suffer from long scan times and high radiation dose even at high NP concentrations, mainly due to low efficiency and poor signal-to-noise ratio. We have developed a laboratory XFCT system with high spatial resolution (sub-100 μm), low NP concentration and vastly decreased scan times and dose, opening up the possibilities for in-vivo small-animal imaging research. The system consists of a high-brightness liquid-metal-jet microfocus x-ray source, x-ray focusing optics and an energy-resolving photon-counting detector. By using the source's characteristic 24 keV line-emission together with carefully matched molybdenum nanoparticles the Compton background is greatly reduced, increasing the SNR. Each measurement provides information about the spatial distribution and concentration of the Mo nanoparticles. A filtered back-projection method is used to produce the final XFCT image.

  19. Accuracy, resolution, and cost comparisons between small format and mapping cameras for environmental mapping

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clegg, R. H.; Scherz, J. P.

    1975-01-01

    Successful aerial photography depends on aerial cameras providing acceptable photographs within cost restrictions of the job. For topographic mapping where ultimate accuracy is required only large format mapping cameras will suffice. For mapping environmental patterns of vegetation, soils, or water pollution, 9-inch cameras often exceed accuracy and cost requirements, and small formats may be better. In choosing the best camera for environmental mapping, relative capabilities and costs must be understood. This study compares resolution, photo interpretation potential, metric accuracy, and cost of 9-inch, 70mm, and 35mm cameras for obtaining simultaneous color and color infrared photography for environmental mapping purposes.

  20. Spatially resolved and observer-free experimental quantification of spatial resolution in tomographic images

    SciTech Connect

    Tsekenis, S. A.; McCann, H.; Tait, N.

    2015-03-15

    We present a novel framework and experimental method for the quantification of spatial resolution of a tomography system. The framework adopts the “black box” view of an imaging system, considering only its input and output. The tomography system is locally stimulated with a step input, viz., a sharp edge. The output, viz., the reconstructed images, is analysed by Fourier decomposition of their spatial frequency components, and the local limiting spatial resolution is determined using a cut-off threshold. At no point is an observer involved in the process. The framework also includes a means of translating the quantification region in the imaging space, thus creating a spatially resolved map of objectively quantified spatial resolution. As a case-study, the framework is experimentally applied using a gaseous propane phantom measured by a well-established chemical species tomography system. A spatial resolution map consisting of 28 regions is produced. In isolated regions, the indicated performance is 4-times better than that suggested in the literature and varies by 57% across the imaging space. A mechanism based on adjacent but non-interacting beams is hypothesised to explain the observed behaviour. The mechanism suggests that, as also independently concluded by other methods, a geometrically regular beam array maintains maximum objectivity in reconstructions. We believe that the proposed framework, methodology, and findings will be of value in the design and performance evaluation of tomographic imaging arrays and systems.

  1. Improving PET spatial resolution and detectability for prostate cancer imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bal, H.; Guerin, L.; Casey, M. E.; Conti, M.; Eriksson, L.; Michel, C.; Fanti, S.; Pettinato, C.; Adler, S.; Choyke, P.

    2014-08-01

    Prostate cancer, one of the most common forms of cancer among men, can benefit from recent improvements in positron emission tomography (PET) technology. In particular, better spatial resolution, lower noise and higher detectability of small lesions could be greatly beneficial for early diagnosis and could provide a strong support for guiding biopsy and surgery. In this article, the impact of improved PET instrumentation with superior spatial resolution and high sensitivity are discussed, together with the latest development in PET technology: resolution recovery and time-of-flight reconstruction. Using simulated cancer lesions, inserted in clinical PET images obtained with conventional protocols, we show that visual identification of the lesions and detectability via numerical observers can already be improved using state of the art PET reconstruction methods. This was achieved using both resolution recovery and time-of-flight reconstruction, and a high resolution image with 2 mm pixel size. Channelized Hotelling numerical observers showed an increase in the area under the LROC curve from 0.52 to 0.58. In addition, a relationship between the simulated input activity and the area under the LROC curve showed that the minimum detectable activity was reduced by more than 23%.

  2. Subcell resolution in simplex stochastic collocation for spatial discontinuities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Witteveen, Jeroen A. S.; Iaccarino, Gianluca

    2013-10-01

    Subcell resolution has been used in the Finite Volume Method (FVM) to obtain accurate approximations of discontinuities in the physical space. Stochastic methods are usually based on local adaptivity for resolving discontinuities in the stochastic dimensions. However, the adaptive refinement in the probability space is ineffective in the non-intrusive uncertainty quantification framework, if the stochastic discontinuity is caused by a discontinuity in the physical space with a random location. The dependence of the discontinuity location in the probability space on the spatial coordinates then results in a staircase approximation of the statistics, which leads to first-order error convergence and an underprediction of the maximum standard deviation. To avoid these problems, we introduce subcell resolution into the Simplex Stochastic Collocation (SSC) method for obtaining a truly discontinuous representation of random spatial discontinuities in the interior of the cells discretizing the probability space. The presented SSC-SR method is based on resolving the discontinuity location in the probability space explicitly as function of the spatial coordinates and extending the stochastic response surface approximations up to the predicted discontinuity location. The applications to a linear advection problem, the inviscid Burgers' equation, a shock tube problem, and the transonic flow over the RAE 2822 airfoil show that SSC-SR resolves random spatial discontinuities with multiple stochastic and spatial dimensions accurately using a minimal number of samples.

  3. Effect of spatial resolution of radar-based inundation maps on the calibration of a spatial inundation model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gobeyn, Sacha; Vernieuwe, Hilde; De Baets, Bernard; Bates, Paul; Verhoest Niko E., C.

    2013-04-01

    With advances in both flood mapping with satellite radar and computational science, the use of real-time spatial flood data holds the potential to support decision making during flood events. With recent improvements in satellite radar technology, current and future radar images are/will be delivered with higher spatial resolution. It is expected that these higher resolutions should improve the accuracy of the calibration and the prediction through data assimilation as more detailed information is available. However, these finer resolution data will result in an increased computational cost. Still, radar data of coarser resolution will remain available, and the question may then arise whether the calibration of a 2D-hydraulic model is significantly influenced by the resolution of the remotely-sensed inundation map. In order to answer this question, the raster-based inundation model, LISFLOOD-FP (Bates et al., 2000) is calibrated using a high resolution synthetic aperture radar image (ERS-2 SAR) of a flood event of the river Dee, Wales, in December 2006. Different radar resolutions are simulated through coarsening this image to different resolutions and retrieving the flood extent maps for the different resolutions. These flood maps are then used for calibrating the hydraulic model using the generalized likelihood uncertainty estimation (GLUE) framework presented by Aronica et al. (2002) as well as alternative calibration methods (e.g. Particle Swarm Optimization, PSO) to assess the possible impact of spatial resolution of the observed flood extent on the floodplain and channel Manning coefficient. Furthermore, the sensitivity of the calibration surface to error sources in radar measurement is evaluated by applying different magnitudes of noise to the radar image. References Aronica, G., Bates, P. D. and Horritt, M. S. (2002). Assessing the uncertainty in distributed model predictions using observed binary pattern information within GLUE. Hydrological Processes, 16

  4. High-Resolution Cortical Dipole Imaging Using Spatial Inverse Filter Based on Filtering Property

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Cortical dipole imaging has been developed to visualize brain electrical activity in high spatial resolution. It is necessary to solve an inverse problem to estimate the cortical dipole distribution from the scalp potentials. In the present study, the accuracy of cortical dipole imaging was improved by focusing on filtering property of the spatial inverse filter. We proposed an inverse filter that optimizes filtering property using a sigmoid function. The ability of the proposed method was compared with the traditional inverse techniques, such as Tikhonov regularization, truncated singular value decomposition (TSVD), and truncated total least squares (TTLS), in a computer simulation. The proposed method was applied to human experimental data of visual evoked potentials. As a result, the estimation accuracy was improved and the localized dipole distribution was obtained with less noise. PMID:27688747

  5. High spatial and temporal resolution photon/electron counting detector for synchrotron radiation research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tremsin, A. S.; Lebedev, G. V.; Siegmund, O. H. W.; Vallerga, J. V.; Hull, J. S.; McPhate, J. B.; Jozwiak, C.; Chen, Y.; Guo, J. H.; Shen, Z. X.; Hussain, Z.

    2007-10-01

    This paper reports on the development of a high resolution electron/photon/ion imaging system which detects events with a timing accuracy of <160 ps FWHM and a two-dimensional spatial accuracy of ˜50 μm FWHM. The event counting detector uses microchannel plates for signal amplification and can sustain counting rates exceeding 1.5 MHz for evenly distributed events (0.4 MHz with 10% dead time for randomly distributed events). The detector combined with a time-of-flight angular resolved photoelectron energy analyzer was tested at a synchrotron beamline. The results of these measurements illustrate the unique capabilities of the analytical system, allowing simultaneous imaging of photoelectrons in momentum space and measurement of the energy spectrum, as well as filtering the data in user defined temporal and/or spatial windows.

  6. Trade-offs between data resolution, accuracy, and cost when choosing information to plan reserves for coral reef ecosystems.

    PubMed

    Tulloch, Vivitskaia J; Klein, Carissa J; Jupiter, Stacy D; Tulloch, Ayesha I T; Roelfsema, Chris; Possingham, Hugh P

    2017-03-01

    Conservation planners must reconcile trade-offs associated with using biodiversity data of differing qualities to make decisions. Coarse habitat classifications are commonly used as surrogates to design marine reserve networks when fine-scale biodiversity data are incomplete or unavailable. Although finely-classified habitat maps provide more detail, they may have more misclassification errors, a common problem when remotely-sensed imagery is used. Despite these issues, planners rarely consider the effects of errors when choosing data for spatially explicit conservation prioritizations. Here we evaluate trade-offs between accuracy and resolution of hierarchical coral reef habitat data (geomorphology and benthic substrate) derived from remote sensing, in spatial planning for Kubulau District, Fiji. For both, we use accuracy information describing the probability that a mapped habitat classification is correct to design marine reserve networks that achieve habitat conservation targets, and demonstrate inadequacies of using habitat maps without accuracy data. We show that using more detailed habitat information ensures better representation of biogenic habitats (i.e. coral and seagrass), but leads to larger and more costly reserves, because these data have more misclassification errors, and are also more expensive to obtain. Reduced impacts on fishers are possible using coarsely-classified data, which are also more cost-effective for planning reserves if we account for data collection costs, but using these data may under-represent reef habitats that are important for fisheries and biodiversity, due to the maps low thematic resolution. Finally, we show that explicitly accounting for accuracy information in decisions maximizes the chance of successful conservation outcomes by reducing the risk of missing conservation representation targets, particularly when using finely classified data.

  7. Ameliorating the spatial resolution of Hyperion hyperspectral data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nikolakopoulos, Konstantinos G.; Tsombos, Panagiotis I.; Skianis, George A.; Vaiopoulos, Dimitrios A.

    2009-09-01

    In this study seven fusion techniques and more especially the Ehlers, Gram-Schmidt, High Pass Filter, Local Mean Matching (LMM), Local Mean and Variance Matching (LMVM), Pansharp and PCA, were used for the fusion of Hyperion hyperspectral data with ALI panchromatic data. Both sensors are onboard on EO-1 satellite and the data are collected simultaneously. The panchromatic data has a spatial resolution of 10m while the hyperspectral data has a spatial resolution of 30m. All the fusion techniques are designed for use with classical multispectral data. Thus, it is quite interesting to investigate the assessment of the common used fusion algorithms with the hyperspectral data. The area of study is the broader area of North Western Athens near to Thrakomakedones village.

  8. HIGH SPATIAL RESOLUTION OBSERVATIONS OF LOOPS IN THE SOLAR CORONA

    SciTech Connect

    Brooks, David H.; Ugarte-Urra, Ignacio; Warren, Harry P.; Winebarger, Amy R.

    2013-08-01

    Understanding how the solar corona is structured is of fundamental importance to determine how the Sun's upper atmosphere is heated to high temperatures. Recent spectroscopic studies have suggested that an instrument with a spatial resolution of 200 km or better is necessary to resolve coronal loops. The High Resolution Coronal Imager (Hi-C) achieved this performance on a rocket flight in 2012 July. We use Hi-C data to measure the Gaussian widths of 91 loops observed in the solar corona and find a distribution that peaks at about 270 km. We also use Atmospheric Imaging Assembly data for a subset of these loops and find temperature distributions that are generally very narrow. These observations provide further evidence that loops in the solar corona are often structured at a scale of several hundred kilometers, well above the spatial scale of many proposed physical mechanisms.

  9. Imaging metals in biology: balancing sensitivity, selectivity and spatial resolution.

    PubMed

    Hare, Dominic J; New, Elizabeth J; de Jonge, Martin D; McColl, Gawain

    2015-10-07

    Metal biochemistry drives a diverse range of cellular processes associated with development, health and disease. Determining metal distribution, concentration and flux defines our understanding of these fundamental processes. A comprehensive analysis of biological systems requires a balance of analytical techniques that inform on metal quantity (sensitivity), chemical state (selectivity) and location (spatial resolution) with a high degree of certainty. A number of approaches are available for imaging metals from whole tissues down to subcellular organelles, as well as mapping metal turnover, protein association and redox state within these structures. Technological advances in micro- and nano-scale imaging are striving to achieve multi-dimensional and in vivo measures of metals while maintaining the native biochemical environment and physiological state. This Tutorial Review discusses state-of-the-art imaging technology as a guide to obtaining novel insight into the biology of metals, with sensitivity, selectivity and spatial resolution in focus.

  10. Sub-pixel spatial resolution wavefront phase imaging

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stahl, H. Philip (Inventor); Mooney, James T. (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    A phase imaging method for an optical wavefront acquires a plurality of phase images of the optical wavefront using a phase imager. Each phase image is unique and is shifted with respect to another of the phase images by a known/controlled amount that is less than the size of the phase imager's pixels. The phase images are then combined to generate a single high-spatial resolution phase image of the optical wavefront.

  11. Accuracy and Resolution of Kinect Depth Data for Indoor Mapping Applications

    PubMed Central

    Khoshelham, Kourosh; Elberink, Sander Oude

    2012-01-01

    Consumer-grade range cameras such as the Kinect sensor have the potential to be used in mapping applications where accuracy requirements are less strict. To realize this potential insight into the geometric quality of the data acquired by the sensor is essential. In this paper we discuss the calibration of the Kinect sensor, and provide an analysis of the accuracy and resolution of its depth data. Based on a mathematical model of depth measurement from disparity a theoretical error analysis is presented, which provides an insight into the factors influencing the accuracy of the data. Experimental results show that the random error of depth measurement increases with increasing distance to the sensor, and ranges from a few millimeters up to about 4 cm at the maximum range of the sensor. The quality of the data is also found to be influenced by the low resolution of the depth measurements. PMID:22438718

  12. Accuracy Remote-Sensing of Aerosol Spatial Distribution in the Lower Troposphere by Twin Scanning Lidars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, F.; Hua, D.; Li, Y.; Li, W.; Wang, L.

    2015-12-01

    Aerosols in the lower troposphere play an important role in the absorption and scattering of atmospheric radiation, the forming of precipitation and the circulation of chemistry. Due to the influence of solar heating at the surface, the aerosol distribution is inhomogeneous and variation with time. Lidar is proven to be a powerful tool in the application of remote sensing of atmospheric properties (Klett 1981). However, the existing of overlap function in lidar equation limits the fine detection of aerosol optical properties in the lower troposphere by vertical measurement, either by Raman lidar (Whiteman 2003) or by high spectral resolution lidar (Imaki 2005). Although the multi-angle method can succeed the aerosol measurement from the ground, the homogeneous atmospheric is needed (Pahlow 2004). Aiming to detect the inhomogeneous aerosols in the lower troposphere and to retrieve the aerosol extinction and backscatter coefficients in the lidar equation, a novel method for accuracy remote-sensing of aerosol properties based on twin scanning lidars has been proposed. In order to realize the fine detection of the aerosol spatial distribution from the ground to the height of interest of atmosphere, the scanning lidar is utilized as the remote sensing tool combined with the cross scanning by the twin systems, which makes the exact solutions of those two unknown parameters retrievable. Figure shows the detection method for aerosol spatial distribution using twin scanning lidars. As two lidar equations are provided simultaneously, the aerosol extinction and backscatter coefficients are retrievable. Moreover, by selecting the transmitting laser wavelength, the presented method can realize the fine detection of aerosol at any spectrum, even the theoretical and technical analysis of the aerosol characteristics by applying multi-spectra.

  13. Spatial and spectral resolution necessary for remotely sensed vegetation studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rock, B. N.

    1982-01-01

    An outline is presented of the required spatial and spectral resolution needed for accurate vegetation discrimination and mapping studies as well as for determination of state of health (i.e., detection of stress symptoms) of actively growing vegetation. Good success was achieved in vegetation discrimination and mapping of a heterogeneous forest cover in the ridge and valley portion of the Appalachians using multispectral data acquired with a spatial resolution of 15 m (IFOV). A sensor system delivering 10 to 15 m spatial resolution is needed for both vegetation mapping and detection of stress symptoms. Based on the vegetation discrimination and mapping exercises conducted at the Lost River site, accurate products (vegetation maps) are produced using broad-band spectral data ranging from the .500 to 2.500 micron portion of the spectrum. In order of decreasing utility for vegetation discrimination, the four most valuable TM simulator VNIR bands are: 6 (1.55 to 1.75 microns), 3 (0.63 to 0.69 microns), 5 (1.00 to 1.30 microns) and 4 (0.76 to 0.90 microns).

  14. Experimental Estimation of CLASP Spatial and Spectral Resolutions: Results of the Instrument's Optical Alignment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Giono, G.; Katsukawa, Y.; Ishikawa, R.; Narukage, N.; Bando, T.; Kano, R.; Suematsu, Y.; Winebarger, A.; Kobayashi, K.; Auchere, F.

    2015-01-01

    The Chromospheric Lyman-Alpha SpectroPolarimeter is a sounding rocket experiment design to measure for the first time the polarization signal of the Lyman-Alpha line (121.6nm), emitted in the solar upper-chromosphere and transition region. This instrument aims to detect the Hanle effect's signature hidden in the Ly-alpha polarization, as a tool to probe the chromospheric magnetic field. Hence, an unprecedented polarization accuracy is needed ((is) less than 10 (exp -3). Nevertheless, spatial and spectral resolutions are also crucial to observe chhromospheric feature such as spicules, and to have precise measurement of the Ly-alpha line core and wings. Hence, this poster will present how the telescope and the spectrograph were separately aligned, and their combined spatial and spectral resolutions.

  15. Theoretical study of the effect of slow light on BOTDA spatial resolution.

    PubMed

    Ravet, Fabien; Chen, Liang; Bao, Xiaoyi; Zou, Lufan; Kalosha, V P

    2006-10-30

    Due to the resonant nature of Brillouin scattering, delay occurs while pulse is propagating in an optical fiber. This effect influences the location accuracy of distributed Brillouin sensors. The maximum delay in sensing fibers depends on length, position, pump and Stokes powers. Considering pump depletion, we have obtained integral solutions for the coupled amplitude equations under steady state conditions and then calculated the group delay. The results show that moderate pump depletion (which is the optimized sensor working range) mitigates significantly the delay, and the maximum delay induced at resonance is only a fraction of Brillouin Optical Time Domain (BOTDA) spatial resolution, which means that the use of pulse width to define the spatial resolution is valid when Brillouin slow light is considered. We have shown that uniform strain and temperature distribution in a fiber gives the maximum delay induced uncertainty.

  16. Spatial resolution requirements for urban land cover mapping from space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Todd, William J.; Wrigley, Robert C.

    1986-01-01

    Very low resolution (VLR) satellite data (Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer, DMSP Operational Linescan System), low resolution (LR) data (Landsat MSS), medium resolution (MR) data (Landsat TM), and high resolution (HR) satellite data (Spot HRV, Large Format Camera) were evaluated and compared for interpretability at differing spatial resolutions. VLR data (500 m - 1.0 km) is useful for Level 1 (urban/rural distinction) mapping at 1:1,000,000 scale. Feature tone/color is utilized to distinguish generalized urban land cover using LR data (80 m) for 1:250,000 scale mapping. Advancing to MR data (30 m) and 1:100,000 scale mapping, confidence in land cover mapping is greatly increased, owing to the element of texture/pattern which is now evident in the imagery. Shape and shadow contribute to detailed Level II/III urban land use mapping possible if the interpreter can use HR (10-15 m) satellite data; mapping scales can be 1:25,000 - 1:50,000.

  17. Ground mapping resolution accuracy of a scanning radiometer from a geostationary satellite.

    PubMed

    Stremler, F G; Khalil, M A; Parent, R J

    1977-06-01

    Measures of the spatial and spatial rate (frequency) mapping of scanned visual imagery from an earth reference system to a spin-scan geostationary satellite are examined. Mapping distortions and coordinate inversions to correct for these distortions are formulated in terms of geometric transformations between earth and satellite frames of reference. Probabilistic methods are used to develop relations for obtainable mapping resolution when coordinate inversions are employed.

  18. Science with High Spatial Resolution Far-Infrared Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Terebey, Susan (Editor); Mazzarella, Joseph M. (Editor)

    1994-01-01

    The goal of this workshop was to discuss new science and techniques relevant to high spatial resolution processing of far-infrared data, with particular focus on high resolution processing of IRAS data. Users of the maximum correlation method, maximum entropy, and other resolution enhancement algorithms applicable to far-infrared data gathered at the Infrared Processing and Analysis Center (IPAC) for two days in June 1993 to compare techniques and discuss new results. During a special session on the third day, interested astronomers were introduced to IRAS HIRES processing, which is IPAC's implementation of the maximum correlation method to the IRAS data. Topics discussed during the workshop included: (1) image reconstruction; (2) random noise; (3) imagery; (4) interacting galaxies; (5) spiral galaxies; (6) galactic dust and elliptical galaxies; (7) star formation in Seyfert galaxies; (8) wavelet analysis; and (9) supernova remnants.

  19. Ameliorating the spatial resolution of GeoEye data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nikolakopoulos, Konstantinos G.; Vaiopoulos, A. D.; Tsombos, P. I.

    2010-10-01

    GeoEye-1 is the first commercial satellite that collects images at nadir with 0.41m panchromatic and 1.65m multispectral resolution (panchromatic imagery sold to commercial customers is resampled to 0.5m resolution). In this study nine fusion techniques and more especially the Ehlers, Gram-Schmidt, High Pass Filter, Local Mean Matching (LMM), Local Mean and Variance Matching (LMVM), Modified IHS (ModIHS), Pansharp, PCA and Wavelet were used for the fusion of Geoeye panchromatic and multispectral data. The panchromatic data have a spatial resolution of 0.5m while the multispectral data have a spatial resolution of 2.0m. The optical result, the statistical parameters and different quality indexes such as ERGAS, Q and entropy were examined and the results are presented. The broader area of Agrinio city in Western Greece was selected for this comparison. It has a complex geomorphology. At the west the area is flat and the elevation ranges between 5 and 20 meters. At the east there are many hills and the elevation rises to more than 450 meters. The area combines at the same time the characteristics of an urban and a rural area thus it is suitable for a comparison of different fusion algorithms.

  20. Photoacoustic lymphatic imaging with high spatial-temporal resolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martel, Catherine; Yao, Junjie; Huang, Chih-Hsien; Zou, Jun; Randolph, Gwendalyn J.; Wang, Lihong V.

    2014-11-01

    Despite its critical function in coordinating the egress of inflammatory and immune cells out of tissues and maintaining fluid balance, the causative role of lymphatic network dysfunction in pathological settings is still understudied. Engineered-animal models and better noninvasive high spatial-temporal resolution imaging techniques in both preclinical and clinical studies will help to improve our understanding of different lymphatic-related pathologic disorders. Our aim was to take advantage of our newly optimized noninvasive wide-field fast-scanning photoacoustic (PA) microcopy system to coordinately image the lymphatic vasculature and its flow dynamics, while maintaining high resolution and detection sensitivity. Here, by combining the optical-resolution PA microscopy with a fast-scanning water-immersible microelectromechanical system scanning mirror, we have imaged the lymph dynamics over a large field-of-view, with high spatial resolution and advanced detection sensitivity. Depending on the application, lymphatic vessels (LV) were spectrally or temporally differentiated from blood vessels. Validation experiments were performed on phantoms and in vivo to identify the LV. Lymphatic flow dynamics in nonpathological and pathological conditions were also visualized. These results indicate that our newly developed PA microscopy is a promising tool for lymphatic-related biological research.

  1. Spatial resolution effects of CARS in turbulent premixed combustion thermometry

    SciTech Connect

    Shepherd, I.G. . Applied Science Div.); Porter, F.M.; Greenhalgh, D.A. )

    1990-10-01

    Coherent Anti-Stokes Raman Scattering CARS nitrogen thermometry has proved to be a successful technique to obtain point temperature measurements with high temporal resolution in hot reactive gases. It has significant advantages over other probe methods, such as thermocouples, where access, physical and/or chemical perturbation and a lack of sufficient temperature range may create problems. The longitudinal or axial resolution of a CARS measurement, in the preferred BOXCARS geometry, is determined by the zone of perfect overlap of the intersecting laser beams (typically 1-5 mm). The length squared dependence of the CARS signal, however, can limit the spatial resolution if usable signal-to-noise rations are to be obtained. This can be a particular problem when probing systems where steep temperature gradients exist. In this numerical study of a premixed turbulent flame zone the effect of spatial resolution on CARS temperature probability density functions (pdfs) and mean temperature profile measurements is assessed, and possible means to overcome this problem are presented.

  2. Estimating Carbon Storage and Sequestration by Urban Trees at Multiple Spatial Resolutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, J.; Tran, A.; Liao, A.

    2010-12-01

    Urban forests are an important component of urban-suburban environments. Urban trees provide not only a full range of social and psychological benefits to city dwellers, but also valuable ecosystem services to communities, such as removing atmospheric carbon dioxide, improving air quality, and reducing storm water runoff. There is an urgent need for developing strategic conservation plans for environmentally sustainable urban-suburban development based on the scientific understanding of the extent and function of urban forests. However, several challenges remain to accurately quantify various environmental benefits provided by urban trees, among which is to deal with the effect of changing spatial resolution and/or scale. In this study, we intended to examine the uncertainties of carbon storage and sequestration associated with the tree canopy coverage of different spatial resolutions. Multi-source satellite imagery data were acquired for the City of Fullerton, located in Orange County of California. The tree canopy coverage of the study area was classified at three spatial resolutions, ranging from 30 m (Landsat-5 Thematic Mapper), 15 m (Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer), to 2.5 m (QuickBird). We calculated the amount of carbon stored in the trees represented on the individual tree coverage maps and the annual carbon taken up by the trees with a model (i.e., CITYgreen) developed by the U.S. Forest Service. The results indicate that urban trees account for significant proportions of land cover in the study area even with the low spatial resolution data. The estimated carbon fixation benefits vary greatly depending on the details of land use and land cover classification. The extrapolation of estimation from the fine-resolution stand-level to the low-resolution landscape-scale will likely not preserve reasonable accuracy.

  3. Using high spatial resolution satellite imagery to map forest burn severity across spatial scales in a Pine Barrens ecosystem

    DOE PAGES

    Meng, Ran; Wu, Jin; Schwager, Kathy L.; ...

    2017-01-21

    As a primary disturbance agent, fire significantly influences local processes and services of forest ecosystems. Although a variety of remote sensing based approaches have been developed and applied to Landsat mission imagery to infer burn severity at 30 m spatial resolution, forest burn severity have still been seldom assessed at fine spatial scales (≤ 5 m) from very-high-resolution (VHR) data. Here we assessed a 432 ha forest fire that occurred in April 2012 on Long Island, New York, within the Pine Barrens region, a unique but imperiled fire-dependent ecosystem in the northeastern United States. The mapping of forest burn severitymore » was explored here at fine spatial scales, for the first time using remotely sensed spectral indices and a set of Multiple Endmember Spectral Mixture Analysis (MESMA) fraction images from bi-temporal — pre- and post-fire event — WorldView-2 (WV-2) imagery at 2 m spatial resolution. We first evaluated our approach using 1 m by 1 m validation points at the sub-crown scale per severity class (i.e. unburned, low, moderate, and high severity) from the post-fire 0.10 m color aerial ortho-photos; then, we validated the burn severity mapping of geo-referenced dominant tree crowns (crown scale) and 15 m by 15 m fixed-area plots (inter-crown scale) with the post-fire 0.10 m aerial ortho-photos and measured crown information of twenty forest inventory plots. Our approach can accurately assess forest burn severity at the sub-crown (overall accuracy is 84% with a Kappa value of 0.77), crown (overall accuracy is 82% with a Kappa value of 0.76), and inter-crown scales (89% of the variation in estimated burn severity ratings (i.e. Geo-Composite Burn Index (CBI)). Lastly, this work highlights that forest burn severity mapping from VHR data can capture heterogeneous fire patterns at fine spatial scales over the large spatial extents. This is important since most ecological processes associated with fire effects vary at the < 30 m scale and

  4. Spatially adaptive probabilistic computation of a sub-kilometre resolution lightning climatology for New Zealand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Etherington, Thomas R.; Perry, George L. W.

    2017-01-01

    Lightning is a key component of the Earth's atmosphere and climate systems, and there is a potential positive feedback between a warming climate and increased lightning activity. In the biosphere, lightning is important as the main natural ignition source for wildfires and because of its contribution to the nitrogen cycle. Therefore, it is important to develop lightning climatologies to characterise and monitor lightning activity. While traditional methods for constructing lightning climatologies are suitable for examining lightning's influence on atmospheric processes, they are less well suited for examining questions about biosphere-lightning interactions. For example, examining the interaction between lightning and wildfires requires linking atmospheric processes to finer scale terrestrial processes and patterns. Most wildfires ignited by lightning are less than one hectare in size, and so require lightning climatologies at a comparable spatial resolution. However, such high resolution lightning climatologies cannot be derived using the traditional cell-count methodology. Here we present a novel geocomputational approach for analysing lightning data at high spatial resolutions. Our approach is based on probabilistic computational methods and is capable of producing a sub-kilometre lightning climatology that honours the spatial accuracy of the strike locations and is adaptive to underlying spatial patterns. We demonstrate our methods by applying them to the mid-latitude oceanic landmass of New Zealand, an area with geographic conditions that are under-represented in existing lightning climatologies. Our resulting lightning climatology has unparalleled spatial resolution, and the spatial and temporal patterns we observe in it are consistent with other continental and tropical lightning climatologies. To encourage further use and development of our probabilistic approach, we provide Python scripts that demonstrate the method alongside our resulting New Zealand

  5. Mediterranean Land Use and Land Cover Classification Assessment Using High Spatial Resolution Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elhag, Mohamed; Boteva, Silvena

    2016-10-01

    Landscape fragmentation is noticeably practiced in Mediterranean regions and imposes substantial complications in several satellite image classification methods. To some extent, high spatial resolution data were able to overcome such complications. For better classification performances in Land Use Land Cover (LULC) mapping, the current research adopts different classification methods comparison for LULC mapping using Sentinel-2 satellite as a source of high spatial resolution. Both of pixel-based and an object-based classification algorithms were assessed; the pixel-based approach employs Maximum Likelihood (ML), Artificial Neural Network (ANN) algorithms, Support Vector Machine (SVM), and, the object-based classification uses the Nearest Neighbour (NN) classifier. Stratified Masking Process (SMP) that integrates a ranking process within the classes based on spectral fluctuation of the sum of the training and testing sites was implemented. An analysis of the overall and individual accuracy of the classification results of all four methods reveals that the SVM classifier was the most efficient overall by distinguishing most of the classes with the highest accuracy. NN succeeded to deal with artificial surface classes in general while agriculture area classes, and forest and semi-natural area classes were segregated successfully with SVM. Furthermore, a comparative analysis indicates that the conventional classification method yielded better accuracy results than the SMP method overall with both classifiers used, ML and SVM.

  6. Improved localization accuracy in stochastic super-resolution fluorescence microscopy by K-factor image deshadowing.

    PubMed

    Ilovitsh, Tali; Meiri, Amihai; Ebeling, Carl G; Menon, Rajesh; Gerton, Jordan M; Jorgensen, Erik M; Zalevsky, Zeev

    2013-12-16

    Localization of a single fluorescent particle with sub-diffraction-limit accuracy is a key merit in localization microscopy. Existing methods such as photoactivated localization microscopy (PALM) and stochastic optical reconstruction microscopy (STORM) achieve localization accuracies of single emitters that can reach an order of magnitude lower than the conventional resolving capabilities of optical microscopy. However, these techniques require a sparse distribution of simultaneously activated fluorophores in the field of view, resulting in larger time needed for the construction of the full image. In this paper we present the use of a nonlinear image decomposition algorithm termed K-factor, which reduces an image into a nonlinear set of contrast-ordered decompositions whose joint product reassembles the original image. The K-factor technique, when implemented on raw data prior to localization, can improve the localization accuracy of standard existing methods, and also enable the localization of overlapping particles, allowing the use of increased fluorophore activation density, and thereby increased data collection speed. Numerical simulations of fluorescence data with random probe positions, and especially at high densities of activated fluorophores, demonstrate an improvement of up to 85% in the localization precision compared to single fitting techniques. Implementing the proposed concept on experimental data of cellular structures yielded a 37% improvement in resolution for the same super-resolution image acquisition time, and a decrease of 42% in the collection time of super-resolution data with the same resolution.

  7. Spatial resolution recovery utilizing multi-ray tracing and graphic processing unit in PET image reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Liang, Yicheng; Peng, Hao

    2015-02-07

    Depth-of-interaction (DOI) poses a major challenge for a PET system to achieve uniform spatial resolution across the field-of-view, particularly for small animal and organ-dedicated PET systems. In this work, we implemented an analytical method to model system matrix for resolution recovery, which was then incorporated in PET image reconstruction on a graphical processing unit platform, due to its parallel processing capacity. The method utilizes the concepts of virtual DOI layers and multi-ray tracing to calculate the coincidence detection response function for a given line-of-response. The accuracy of the proposed method was validated for a small-bore PET insert to be used for simultaneous PET/MR breast imaging. In addition, the performance comparisons were studied among the following three cases: 1) no physical DOI and no resolution modeling; 2) two physical DOI layers and no resolution modeling; and 3) no physical DOI design but with a different number of virtual DOI layers. The image quality was quantitatively evaluated in terms of spatial resolution (full-width-half-maximum and position offset), contrast recovery coefficient and noise. The results indicate that the proposed method has the potential to be used as an alternative to other physical DOI designs and achieve comparable imaging performances, while reducing detector/system design cost and complexity.

  8. Prospects for higher spatial resolution quantitative X-ray analysis using transition element L-lines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Statham, P.; Holland, J.

    2014-03-01

    Lowering electron beam kV reduces electron scattering and improves spatial resolution of X-ray analysis. However, a previous round robin analysis of steels at 5 - 6 kV using Lα-lines for the first row transition elements gave poor accuracies. Our experiments on SS63 steel using Lα-lines show similar biases in Cr and Ni that cannot be corrected with changes to self-absorption coefficients or carbon coating. The inaccuracy may be caused by different probabilities for emission and anomalous self-absorption for the La-line between specimen and pure element standard. Analysis using Ll(L3-M1)-lines gives more accurate results for SS63 plausibly because the M1-shell is not so vulnerable to the atomic environment as the unfilled M4,5-shell. However, Ll-intensities are very weak and WDS analysis may be impractical for some applications. EDS with large area SDD offers orders of magnitude faster analysis and achieves similar results to WDS analysis with Lα-lines but poorer energy resolution precludes the use of Ll-lines in most situations. EDS analysis of K-lines at low overvoltage is an alternative strategy for improving spatial resolution that could give higher accuracy. The trade-off between low kV versus low overvoltage is explored in terms of sensitivity for element detection for different elements.

  9. High spatial resolution measurements in a single stage ram accelerator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hinkey, J. B.; Burnham, E. A.; Bruckner, A. P.

    1992-01-01

    High spatial resolution experimental tube wall pressure measurements of ram accelerator gas dynamic phenomena are presented in this paper. The ram accelerator is a ramjet-in-tube device which operates in a manner similar to that of a conventional ramjet. The projectile resembles the centerbody of a ramjet and travels supersonically through a tube filled with a combustible gaseous mixture, with the tube acting as the outer cowling. Pressure data are recorded as the projectile passes by sensors mounted in the tube wall at various locations along the tube. Utilization of special highly instrumented sections of tube has allowed the recording of gas dynamic phenomena with high resolution. High spatial resolution tube wall pressure data from the three regimes of propulsion studied to date (subdetonative, transdetonative, and superdetonative) in a single stage gas mixture are presented and reveal the three-dimensional character of the flow field induced by projectile fins and the canting of the fins and the canting of the projectile body relative to the tube wall. Also presented for comparison to the experimental data are calculations made with an inviscid, three-dimensional CFD code. The knowledge gained from these experiments and simulations is useful in understanding the underlying nature of ram accelerator propulsive regimes, as well as assisting in the validation of three-dimensional CFD coded which model unsteady, chemically reactive flows.

  10. Spatial-temperature high resolution map for early cancer diagnosis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gavriloaia, Gheorghe V.; Hurduc, Anca; Ghimigean, Ana-Maria; Fumarel, Radu

    2009-02-01

    Heat is one of the most important parameters of living beings. Skin temperature is not the same on the entire body and so, a thermal signature can be got. Infrared map on serial imaging can constitute an early sign of an abnormality. Thermography detects changes in tissue that appear before and accompany many diseases including cancer. As this map has a better resolution an early cancer diagnosis can be done. The temperature of neoplasic tissue is different up to 1.5 °C than that of the healthy tissue as a result of the specific metabolic rate. The infrared camera images show very quickly the heat transferred by radiation. A lot of factors disturb the temperature conversion to pixel intensity. A sensitive temperature sensor with a 10 Mpixels video camera, showing its spatial position, and a computer fusion program were used for the map with high spatial-temperature resolution. A couple of minutes are necessary to get a high resolution map. The asymmetry and borders were the main parameters analyzed. The right cancer diagnosis was for about 78.4% of patients with thyroid cancer, and more than 89.6% from patients with breast cancer. In the near future, the medical prognosis will be improved by fractal analysis.

  11. High resolution spatial map imaging of a gaseous target

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stei, Martin; von Vangerow, Johannes; Otto, Rico; Kelkar, Aditya H.; Carrascosa, Eduardo; Best, Thorsten; Wester, Roland

    2013-06-01

    Electrostatic ion imaging with the velocity map imaging mode is a widely used method in atomic and molecular physics and physical chemistry. In contrast, the spatial map imaging (SMI) mode has received very little attention, despite the fact that it has been proposed earlier [A. T. J. B. Eppink and D. H. Parker, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 68, 3477 (1997)], 10.1063/1.1148310. Here, we present a detailed parametric characterization of SMI both by simulation and experiment. One-, two- and three-dimensional imaging modes are described. The influence of different parameters on the imaging process is described by means of a Taylor expansion. To experimentally quantify elements of the Taylor expansion and to infer the spatial resolution of our spectrometer, photoionization of toluene with a focused laser beam has been carried out. A spatial resolution of better than 4 μm out of a focal volume of several mm in diameter has been achieved. Our results will be useful for applications of SMI to the characterization of laser beams, the overlap control of multiple particle or light beams, and the determination of absolute collision cross sections.

  12. Measuring true localization accuracy in super resolution microscopy with DNA-origami nanostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reuss, Matthias; Fördős, Ferenc; Blom, Hans; Öktem, Ozan; Högberg, Björn; Brismar, Hjalmar

    2017-02-01

    A common method to assess the performance of (super resolution) microscopes is to use the localization precision of emitters as an estimate for the achieved resolution. Naturally, this is widely used in super resolution methods based on single molecule stochastic switching. This concept suffers from the fact that it is hard to calibrate measures against a real sample (a phantom), because true absolute positions of emitters are almost always unknown. For this reason, resolution estimates are potentially biased in an image since one is blind to true position accuracy, i.e. deviation in position measurement from true positions. We have solved this issue by imaging nanorods fabricated with DNA-origami. The nanorods used are designed to have emitters attached at each end in a well-defined and highly conserved distance. These structures are widely used to gauge localization precision. Here, we additionally determined the true achievable localization accuracy and compared this figure of merit to localization precision values for two common super resolution microscope methods STED and STORM.

  13. Regional spatially adaptive total variation super-resolution with spatial information filtering and clustering.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Qiangqiang; Zhang, Liangpei; Shen, Huanfeng

    2013-06-01

    Total variation is used as a popular and effective image prior model in the regularization-based image processing fields. However, as the total variation model favors a piecewise constant solution, the processing result under high noise intensity in the flat regions of the image is often poor, and some pseudoedges are produced. In this paper, we develop a regional spatially adaptive total variation model. Initially, the spatial information is extracted based on each pixel, and then two filtering processes are added to suppress the effect of pseudoedges. In addition, the spatial information weight is constructed and classified with k-means clustering, and the regularization strength in each region is controlled by the clustering center value. The experimental results, on both simulated and real datasets, show that the proposed approach can effectively reduce the pseudoedges of the total variation regularization in the flat regions, and maintain the partial smoothness of the high-resolution image. More importantly, compared with the traditional pixel-based spatial information adaptive approach, the proposed region-based spatial information adaptive total variation model can better avoid the effect of noise on the spatial information extraction, and maintains robustness with changes in the noise intensity in the super-resolution process.

  14. Radiometric Calibration Assessment of Commercial High Spatial Resolution Multispectral Image Products

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holekamp, Kara; Aaron, David; Thome, Kurtis

    2006-01-01

    Radiometric calibration of commercial imaging satellite products is required to ensure that science and application communities can better understand their properties. Inaccurate radiometric calibrations can lead to erroneous decisions and invalid conclusions and can limit intercomparisons with other systems. To address this calibration need, satellite at-sensor radiance values were compared to those estimated by each independent team member to determine the sensor's radiometric accuracy. The combined results of this evaluation provide the user community with an independent assessment of these commercially available high spatial resolution sensors' absolute calibration values.

  15. Cumulus cloud base height estimation from high spatial resolution Landsat data - A Hough transform approach

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berendes, Todd; Sengupta, Sailes K.; Welch, Ron M.; Wielicki, Bruce A.; Navar, Murgesh

    1992-01-01

    A semiautomated methodology is developed for estimating cumulus cloud base heights on the basis of high spatial resolution Landsat MSS data, using various image-processing techniques to match cloud edges with their corresponding shadow edges. The cloud base height is then estimated by computing the separation distance between the corresponding generalized Hough transform reference points. The differences between the cloud base heights computed by these means and a manual verification technique are of the order of 100 m or less; accuracies of 50-70 m may soon be possible via EOS instruments.

  16. A new vehicle emission inventory for China with high spatial and temporal resolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, B.; Huo, H.; Zhang, Q.; Yao, Z. L.; Wang, X. T.; Yang, X. F.; Liu, H.; He, K. B.

    2013-12-01

    This study is the first in a series of papers that aim to develop high-resolution emission databases for different anthropogenic sources in China. Here we focus on on-road transportation. Because of the increasing impact of on-road transportation on regional air quality, developing an accurate and high-resolution vehicle emission inventory is important for both the research community and air quality management. This work proposes a new inventory methodology to improve the spatial and temporal accuracy and resolution of vehicle emissions in China. We calculate, for the first time, the monthly vehicle emissions (CO, NMHC, NOx, and PM2.5) for 2008 in 2364 counties (an administrative unit one level lower than city) by developing a set of approaches to estimate vehicle stock and monthly emission factors at county-level, and technology distribution at provincial level. We then introduce allocation weights for the vehicle kilometers traveled to assign the county-level emissions onto 0.05° × 0.05° grids based on the China Digital Road-network Map (CDRM). The new methodology overcomes the common shortcomings of previous inventory methods, including neglecting the geographical differences between key parameters and using surrogates that are weakly related to vehicle activities to allocate vehicle emissions. The new method has great advantages over previous methods in depicting the spatial distribution characteristics of vehicle activities and emissions. This work provides a better understanding of the spatial representation of vehicle emissions in China and can benefit both air quality modeling and management with improved spatial accuracy.

  17. High spatial resolution soft-x-ray microscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Meyer-Ilse, W.; Medecki, H.; Brown, J.T.

    1997-04-01

    A new soft x-ray microscope (XM-1) with high spatial resolution has been constructed by the Center for X-ray Optics. It uses bending magnet radiation from beamline 6.1 at the Advanced Light Source, and is used in a variety of projects and applications in the life and physical sciences. Most of these projects are ongoing. The instrument uses zone plate lenses and achieves a resolution of 43 nm, measured over 10% to 90% intensity with a knife edge test sample. X-ray microscopy permits the imaging of relatively thick samples, up to 10 {mu}m thick, in water. XM-1 has an easy to use interface, that utilizes visible light microscopy to precisely position and focus the specimen. The authors describe applications of this device in the biological sciences, as well as in studying industrial applications including structured polymer samples.

  18. Developing an efficient technique for satellite image denoising and resolution enhancement for improving classification accuracy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thangaswamy, Sree Sharmila; Kadarkarai, Ramar; Thangaswamy, Sree Renga Raja

    2013-01-01

    Satellite images are corrupted by noise during image acquisition and transmission. The removal of noise from the image by attenuating the high-frequency image components removes important details as well. In order to retain the useful information, improve the visual appearance, and accurately classify an image, an effective denoising technique is required. We discuss three important steps such as image denoising, resolution enhancement, and classification for improving accuracy in a noisy image. An effective denoising technique, hybrid directional lifting, is proposed to retain the important details of the images and improve visual appearance. The discrete wavelet transform based interpolation is developed for enhancing the resolution of the denoised image. The image is then classified using a support vector machine, which is superior to other neural network classifiers. The quantitative performance measures such as peak signal to noise ratio and classification accuracy show the significance of the proposed techniques.

  19. EBSD spatial resolution for detecting sigma phase in steels.

    PubMed

    Bordín, S Fernandez; Limandri, S; Ranalli, J M; Castellano, G

    2016-12-01

    The spatial resolution of the electron backscatter diffraction signal is explored by Monte Carlo simulation for the sigma phase in steel at a typical instrumental set-up. In order to estimate the active volume corresponding to the diffracted electrons, the fraction of the backscattered electrons contributing to the diffraction signal was inferred by extrapolating the Kikuchi pattern contrast measured by other authors, as a function of the diffracted electron energy. In the resulting estimation, the contribution of the intrinsic incident beam size and the software capability to deconvolve patterns were included. A strong influence of the beam size on the lateral resolution was observed, resulting in 20nm for the aperture considered. For longitudinal and depth directions the resolutions obtained were 75nm and 16nm, respectively. The reliability of this last result is discussed in terms of the survey of the last large-angle deflection undergone by the backscattered electrons involved in the diffraction process. Bearing in mind the mean transversal resolution found, it was possible to detect small area grains of sigma phase by EBSD measurements, for a stabilized austenitic AISI 347 stainless steel under heat treatments, simulating post welding (40h at 600°C) and aging (284h at 484°C) effects-as usually occurring in nuclear reactor pressure vessels.

  20. Development of auditory localization accuracy and auditory spatial discrimination in children and adolescents.

    PubMed

    Kühnle, S; Ludwig, A A; Meuret, S; Küttner, C; Witte, C; Scholbach, J; Fuchs, M; Rübsamen, R

    2013-01-01

    The present study investigated the development of two parameters of spatial acoustic perception in children and adolescents with normal hearing, aged 6-18 years. Auditory localization accuracy was quantified by means of a sound source identification task and auditory spatial discrimination acuity by measuring minimum audible angles (MAA). Both low- and high-frequency noise bursts were employed in the tests, thereby separately addressing auditory processing based on interaural time and intensity differences. Setup consisted of 47 loudspeakers mounted in the frontal azimuthal hemifield, ranging from 90° left to 90° right (-90°, +90°). Target signals were presented from 8 loudspeaker positions in the left and right hemifields (±4°, ±30°, ±60° and ±90°). Localization accuracy and spatial discrimination acuity showed different developmental courses. Localization accuracy remained stable from the age of 6 onwards. In contrast, MAA thresholds and interindividual variability of spatial discrimination decreased significantly with increasing age. Across all age groups, localization was most accurate and MAA thresholds were lower for frontal than for lateral sound sources, and for low-frequency compared to high-frequency noise bursts. The study also shows better performance in spatial hearing based on interaural time differences rather than on intensity differences throughout development. These findings confirm that specific aspects of central auditory processing show continuous development during childhood up to adolescence.

  1. Metadevice for intensity modulation with sub-wavelength spatial resolution

    PubMed Central

    Cencillo-Abad, Pablo; Zheludev, Nikolay I.; Plum, Eric

    2016-01-01

    Effectively continuous control over propagation of a beam of light requires light modulation with pixelation that is smaller than the optical wavelength. Here we propose a spatial intensity modulator with sub-wavelength resolution in one dimension. The metadevice combines recent advances in reconfigurable nanomembrane metamaterials and coherent all-optical control of metasurfaces. It uses nanomechanical actuation of metasurface absorber strips placed near a mirror in order to control their interaction with light from perfect absorption to negligible loss, promising a path towards dynamic diffraction and focusing of light as well as holography without unwanted diffraction artefacts. PMID:27857221

  2. Parallel Reaction Monitoring: A Targeted Experiment Performed Using High Resolution and High Mass Accuracy Mass Spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    Rauniyar, Navin

    2015-01-01

    The parallel reaction monitoring (PRM) assay has emerged as an alternative method of targeted quantification. The PRM assay is performed in a high resolution and high mass accuracy mode on a mass spectrometer. This review presents the features that make PRM a highly specific and selective method for targeted quantification using quadrupole-Orbitrap hybrid instruments. In addition, this review discusses the label-based and label-free methods of quantification that can be performed with the targeted approach. PMID:26633379

  3. High Spatial Resolution Laser Desorption/Ionization Mass Spectrometry Imaging of Organic Layers in an Organic Light-Emitting Diode

    PubMed Central

    Tachibana, Yuko; Nakajima, Yoji; Isemura, Tsuguhide; Yamamoto, Kiyoshi; Satoh, Takaya; Aoki, Jun; Toyoda, Michisato

    2016-01-01

    To improve the durability of organic materials in electronic devices, an analytical method that can obtain information about the molecular structure directly from specific areas on a device is desired. For this purpose, laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry imaging (LDI-MSI) is one of the most promising methods. The high spatial resolution stigmatic LDI-MSI with MULTUM-IMG2 in the direct analysis of organic light-emitting diodes was shown to obtain a detailed mass image of organic material in the degraded area after air exposure. The mass image was observed to have a noticeably improved spatial resolution over typical X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, generally used technique in analysis of electronic devices. A prospective m/z was successfully deduced from the high spatial resolution MSI data. Additionally, mass resolution and accuracy using a spiral-orbit TOF mass spectrometer, SpiralTOF, were also investigated. The monoisotopic mass for the main component, N,N′-di-1-naphthalenyl-N,N′-diphenyl-1,1′-biphenyl-4,4′-diamine (m/z 588), was measured with a mass resolution of approximately 80,000 and a mass error of about 5 mDa using an external calibrant. This high mass resolution and accuracy data successfully deduced a possible elemental composition of partially remained material in the degraded area, C36H24, which was determined as anthracene, 9-[1,1′-biphenyl]-4-yl-10-(2-naphthalenyl) by combining structural information with high-energy CID data. The high spatial resolution of 1 μm in LDI-MSI along with high mass resolution and accuracy could be useful in obtaining molecular structure information directly from specific areas on a device, and is expected to contribute to the evolution of electrical device durability. PMID:28101440

  4. Fourier domain design of microgrid imaging polarimeters with improved spatial resolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirakawa, Keigo; LeMaster, Daniel A.

    2014-05-01

    Microgrid polarimetric imagers sacrifice spatial resolution for sensitivity to states of linear polarization. We have recently shown that a 2 × 4 microgrid analyzer pattern sacrifices less spatial resolution than the conventional 2× 2 case without compromising polarization sensitivity. In this paper, we discuss the design strategy that uncovered the spatial resolution benefits of the 2 × 4 array.

  5. Horizontal Positional Accuracy of Google Earth's High-Resolution Imagery Archive.

    PubMed

    Potere, David

    2008-12-08

    Google Earth now hosts high-resolution imagery that spans twenty percent of the Earth's landmass and more than a third of the human population. This contemporary highresolution archive represents a significant, rapidly expanding, cost-free and largely unexploited resource for scientific inquiry. To increase the scientific utility of this archive, we address horizontal positional accuracy (georegistration) by comparing Google Earth with Landsat GeoCover scenes over a global sample of 436 control points located in 109 cities worldwide. Landsat GeoCover is an orthorectified product with known absolute positional accuracy of less than 50 meters root-mean-squared error (RMSE). Relative to Landsat GeoCover, the 436 Google Earth control points have a positional accuracy of 39.7 meters RMSE (error magnitudes range from 0.4 to 171.6 meters). The control points derived from satellite imagery have an accuracy of 22.8 meters RMSE, which is significantly more accurate than the 48 control-points based on aerial photography (41.3 meters RMSE; t-test p-value < 0.01). The accuracy of control points in more-developed countries is 24.1 meters RMSE, which is significantly more accurate than the control points in developing countries (44.4 meters RMSE; t-test p-value < 0.01). These findings indicate that Google Earth highresolution imagery has a horizontal positional accuracy that is sufficient for assessing moderate-resolution remote sensing products across most of the world's peri-urban areas.

  6. Mapping urban and peri-urban agriculture using high spatial resolution satellite data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Forster, Dionys; Buehler, Yves; Kellenberger, Tobias W.

    2009-03-01

    In rapidly changing peri-urban environments where biophysical and socio-economic processes lead to spatial fragmentation of agricultural land, remote sensing offers an efficient tool to collect land cover/land use (LCLU) data for decision-making. Compared to traditional pixel-based approaches, remote sensing with object-based classification methods is reported to achieve improved classification results in complex heterogeneous landscapes. This study assessed the usefulness of object-oriented analysis of Quickbird high spatial resolution satellite data to classify urban and peri-urban agriculture in a limited peri-urban area of Hanoi, Vietnam. The results revealed that segmentation was essential in developing the object-oriented classification approach. Accurate segmentation of shape and size of an object enhanced classification with spectral, textural, morphological, and topological features. A qualitative, visual comparison of the classification results showed successful localisation and identification of most LCLU classes. Quantitative evaluation was conducted with a classification error matrix reaching an overall accuracy of 67% and a kappa coefficient of 0.61. In general, object-oriented classification of high spatial resolution satellite data proved the promising approach for LCLU analysis at village level. Capturing small-scale urban and peri-urban agricultural diversity offers a considerable potential for environmental monitoring. Challenges remain with the delineation of field boundaries and LCLU diversity on more spatially extensive datasets.

  7. Spatial Resolution Characterization for AWiFS Multispectral Images

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blonski, Slawomir; Ryan, Robert E.; Pagnutti, Mary; Stanley, Thomas

    2006-01-01

    Within the framework of the Joint Agency Commercial Imagery Evaluation program, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration, the National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency, and the U.S. Geological Survey cooperate in the characterization of high-to-moderate-resolution commercial imagery of mutual interest. One of the systems involved in this effort is the Advanced Wide Field Sensor (AWiFS) onboard the Indian Remote Sensing (IRS) Reourcesat-1 satellite, IRS-P6. Spatial resolution of the AWiFS multispectral images was characterized by estimating the value of the system Modulation Transfer Function (MTF) at the Nyquist spatial frequency. The Nyquist frequency is defined as half the sampling frequency, and the sampling frequency is equal to the inverse of the ground sample distance. The MTF was calculated as a ratio of the Fourier transform of a profile across an AWiFS image of the Lake Pontchartrain Causeway Bridge and the Fourier transform of a profile across an idealized model of the bridge for each spectral band evaluated. The mean MTF value for the AWiFS imagery evaluated was estimated to be 0.1.

  8. Efficiency and spatial resolution of the CASCADE thermal neutron detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Köhli, M.; Allmendinger, F.; Häußler, W.; Schröder, T.; Klein, M.; Meven, M.; Schmidt, U.

    2016-08-01

    We report on the CASCADE project - a detection system, which has been designed for the purposes of neutron Spin Echo spectroscopy and which is continuously further developed and adapted to various applications. It features 2D spatially resolved detection of thermal neutrons at high rates. The CASCADE detector is composed of a stack of solid 10B coated Gas Electron Multiplier foils, which serve both as a neutron converter and as an amplifier for the primary ionization deposited in the standard counting gas environment. This multi-layer setup efficiently increases the detection efficiency and by extracting the signal of the charge traversing the stack the conversion layer can be identified allowing a precise determination of the time-of-flight. The spatial resolution is found by optical contrast determination to be σ =(1.39 ± 0.05) mm and by divergence corrected aperture measurements σ =(1.454 ± 0.007) mm , which is in agreement with the simulated detector model. Furthermore this enabled to investigate and describe the non-Gaussian resolution function. At the HEiDi diffractometer the absolute detection efficiency has been studied. At 0.6 Å for the 6 layer detector, which is currently part of the RESEDA spectrometer, an efficiency of 7.8% has been measured, which by means of Monte Carlo simulations translates to (21.0±1.5)% for thermal neutrons at 1.8 Å and (46.9±3.3)% at 5.4 Å.

  9. Spatial and temporal resolution of fluid flows: LDRD final report

    SciTech Connect

    Tieszen, S.R.; O`Hern, T.J.; Schefer, R.W.; Perea, L.D.

    1998-02-01

    This report describes a Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) activity to develop a diagnostic technique for simultaneous temporal and spatial resolution of fluid flows. The goal is to obtain two orders of magnitude resolution in two spatial dimensions and time simultaneously. The approach used in this study is to scale up Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) and Planar Laser Induced Fluorescence (PLIF) to acquire meter-size images at up to 200 frames/sec. Experiments were conducted in buoyant, fully turbulent, non-reacting and reacting plumes with a base diameter of one meter. The PIV results were successful in the ambient gas for all flows, and in the plume for non-reacting helium and reacting methane, but not reacting hydrogen. No PIV was obtained in the hot combustion product region as the seed particles chosen vaporized. Weak signals prevented PLIF in the helium. However, in reacting methane flows, PLIF images speculated to be from Poly-Aromatic-Hydrocarbons were obtained which mark the flame sheets. The results were unexpected and very insightful. A natural fluorescence from the seed particle vapor was also noted in the hydrogen tests.

  10. Contrast and spatial resolution in MREIT using low amplitude current.

    PubMed

    Birgul, Ozlem; Hamamura, Mark J; Muftuler, L Tugan; Nalcioglu, Orhan

    2006-10-07

    Magnetic resonance-electrical impedance tomography employs low amplitude currents injected or induced inside an object. The additional magnetic field due to these currents results in a phase in the MR images. In this study, a modified fast spin-echo sequence was used to measure this magnetic field, which is obtained by scaling the MR phase image. A finite element method with first order triangular elements was used for the solution of the forward problem. An iterated sensitivity matrix-based algorithm was developed for the inverse problem. The resulting ill-conditioned matrix equation was regularized using the Tikhonov method and solved using a conjugate gradient solver. The spatial and contrast resolution of the technique was tested using agarose gel phantoms. A circular phantom with 7 cm diameter and 1 cm thickness is used in the phantom experiments. The amplitude of the injected current was 1 mA. 3, 5 and 8 mm diameter insulators and high conductor objects are used for the spatial resolution study and an average full-width half-maximum value of 4.7 mm is achieved for the 3 mm insulator case. For the contrast analysis, the conductivity of a 15 mm object is varied between 44% and 500% with respect to the background and results are compared to the ideal reconstruction.

  11. [Assessment of overall spatial accuracy in image guided stereotactic body radiotherapy using a spine registration method].

    PubMed

    Nakazawa, Hisato; Uchiyama, Yukio; Komori, Masataka; Hayashi, Naoki

    2014-06-01

    Stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) for lung and liver tumors is always performed under image guidance, a technique used to confirm the accuracy of setup positioning by fusing planning digitally reconstructed radiographs with X-ray, fluoroscopic, or computed tomography (CT) images, using bony structures, tumor shadows, or metallic markers as landmarks. The Japanese SBRT guidelines state that bony spinal structures should be used as the main landmarks for patient setup. In this study, we used the Novalis system as a linear accelerator for SBRT of lung and liver tumors. The current study compared the differences between spine registration and target registration and calculated total spatial accuracy including setup uncertainty derived from our image registration results and the geometric uncertainty of the Novalis system. We were able to evaluate clearly whether overall spatial accuracy is achieved within a setup margin (SM) for planning target volume (PTV) in treatment planning. After being granted approval by the Hospital and University Ethics Committee, we retrospectively analyzed eleven patients with lung tumor and seven patients with liver tumor. The results showed the total spatial accuracy to be within a tolerable range for SM of treatment planning. We therefore regard our method to be suitable for image fusion involving 2-dimensional X-ray images during the treatment planning stage of SBRT for lung and liver tumors.

  12. A Critical Test of Temporal and Spatial Accuracy of the Tobii T60XL Eye Tracker

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morgante, James D.; Zolfaghari, Rahman; Johnson, Scott P.

    2012-01-01

    Infant eye tracking is becoming increasingly popular for its presumed precision relative to traditional looking time paradigms and potential to yield new insights into developmental processes. However, there is strong reason to suspect that the temporal and spatial resolution of popular eye tracking systems is not entirely accurate, potentially…

  13. Progress toward accurate high spatial resolution actinide analysis by EPMA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jercinovic, M. J.; Allaz, J. M.; Williams, M. L.

    2010-12-01

    High precision, high spatial resolution EPMA of actinides is a significant issue for geochronology, resource geochemistry, and studies involving the nuclear fuel cycle. Particular interest focuses on understanding of the behavior of Th and U in the growth and breakdown reactions relevant to actinide-bearing phases (monazite, zircon, thorite, allanite, etc.), and geochemical fractionation processes involving Th and U in fluid interactions. Unfortunately, the measurement of minor and trace concentrations of U in the presence of major concentrations of Th and/or REEs is particularly problematic, especially in complexly zoned phases with large compositional variation on the micro or nanoscale - spatial resolutions now accessible with modern instruments. Sub-micron, high precision compositional analysis of minor components is feasible in very high Z phases where scattering is limited at lower kV (15kV or less) and where the beam diameter can be kept below 400nm at high current (e.g. 200-500nA). High collection efficiency spectrometers and high performance electron optics in EPMA now allow the use of lower overvoltage through an exceptional range in beam current, facilitating higher spatial resolution quantitative analysis. The U LIII edge at 17.2 kV precludes L-series analysis at low kV (high spatial resolution), requiring careful measurements of the actinide M series. Also, U-La detection (wavelength = 0.9A) requires the use of LiF (220) or (420), not generally available on most instruments. Strong peak overlaps of Th on U make highly accurate interference correction mandatory, with problems compounded by the ThMIV and ThMV absorption edges affecting peak, background, and interference calibration measurements (especially the interference of the Th M line family on UMb). Complex REE bearing phases such as monazite, zircon, and allanite have particularly complex interference issues due to multiple peak and background overlaps from elements present in the activation

  14. COMPLEX ORGANIC MOLECULES AT HIGH SPATIAL RESOLUTION TOWARD ORION-KL. I. SPATIAL SCALES

    SciTech Connect

    Widicus Weaver, Susanna L.; Friedel, Douglas N. E-mail: friedel@astro.illinois.edu

    2012-08-01

    Here we present high spatial resolution (<1'') observations of molecular emission in Orion-KL conducted using the Combined Array for Research in Millimeter-wave Astronomy. This work was motivated by recent millimeter continuum imaging studies of this region conducted at a similarly high spatial resolution, which revealed that the bulk of the emission arises from numerous compact sources, rather than the larger-scale extended structures typically associated with the Orion Hot Core and Compact Ridge. Given that the spatial extent of molecular emission greatly affects the determination of molecular abundances, it is important to determine the true spatial scale for complex molecules in this region. Additionally, it has recently been suggested that the relative spatial distributions of complex molecules in a source might give insight into the chemical mechanisms that drive complex chemistry in star-forming regions. In order to begin to address these issues, this study seeks to determine the spatial distributions of ethyl cyanide [C{sub 2}H{sub 5}CN], dimethyl ether [(CH{sub 3}){sub 2}O], methyl formate [HCOOCH{sub 3}], formic acid [HCOOH], acetone [(CH{sub 3}){sub 2}CO], SiO, methanol [CH{sub 3}OH], and methyl cyanide [CH{sub 3}CN] in Orion-KL at {lambda} = 3 mm. We find that for all observed molecules, the molecular emission arises from multiple components of the cloud that include a range of spatial scales and physical conditions. Here, we present the results of these observations and discuss the implications for studies of complex molecules in star-forming regions.

  15. High Spatial Resolution Fe XII Observations of Solar Active Regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Testa, Paola; De Pontieu, Bart; Hansteen, Viggo

    2016-08-01

    We use UV spectral observations of active regions with the Interface Region Imaging Spectrograph (IRIS) to investigate the properties of the coronal Fe xii 1349.4 Å emission at unprecedented high spatial resolution (˜0.33″). We find that by using appropriate observational strategies (i.e., long exposures, lossless compression), Fe xii emission can be studied with IRIS at high spatial and spectral resolution, at least for high-density plasma (e.g., post-flare loops and active region moss). We find that upper transition region (TR; moss) Fe xii emission shows very small average Doppler redshifts ({v}{{D}} ˜ 3 km s-1) as well as modest non-thermal velocities (with an average of ˜24 km s-1 and the peak of the distribution at ˜15 km s-1). The observed distribution of Doppler shifts appears to be compatible with advanced three-dimensional radiative MHD simulations in which impulsive heating is concentrated at the TR footpoints of a hot corona. While the non-thermal broadening of Fe xii 1349.4 Å peaks at similar values as lower resolution simultaneous Hinode Extreme Ultraviolet Imaging Spectrometer (EIS) measurements of Fe xii 195 Å, IRIS observations show a previously undetected tail of increased non-thermal broadening that might be suggestive of the presence of subarcsecond heating events. We find that IRIS and EIS non-thermal line broadening measurements are affected by instrumental effects that can only be removed through careful analysis. Our results also reveal an unexplained discrepancy between observed 195.1/1349.4 Å Fe xii intensity ratios and those predicted by the CHIANTI atomic database.

  16. A reference dataset for deformable image registration spatial accuracy evaluation using the COPDgene study archive.

    PubMed

    Castillo, Richard; Castillo, Edward; Fuentes, David; Ahmad, Moiz; Wood, Abbie M; Ludwig, Michelle S; Guerrero, Thomas

    2013-05-07

    Landmark point-pairs provide a strategy to assess deformable image registration (DIR) accuracy in terms of the spatial registration of the underlying anatomy depicted in medical images. In this study, we propose to augment a publicly available database (www.dir-lab.com) of medical images with large sets of manually identified anatomic feature pairs between breath-hold computed tomography (BH-CT) images for DIR spatial accuracy evaluation. Ten BH-CT image pairs were randomly selected from the COPDgene study cases. Each patient had received CT imaging of the entire thorax in the supine position at one-fourth dose normal expiration and maximum effort full dose inspiration. Using dedicated in-house software, an imaging expert manually identified large sets of anatomic feature pairs between images. Estimates of inter- and intra-observer spatial variation in feature localization were determined by repeat measurements of multiple observers over subsets of randomly selected features. 7298 anatomic landmark features were manually paired between the 10 sets of images. Quantity of feature pairs per case ranged from 447 to 1172. Average 3D Euclidean landmark displacements varied substantially among cases, ranging from 12.29 (SD: 6.39) to 30.90 (SD: 14.05) mm. Repeat registration of uniformly sampled subsets of 150 landmarks for each case yielded estimates of observer localization error, which ranged in average from 0.58 (SD: 0.87) to 1.06 (SD: 2.38) mm for each case. The additions to the online web database (www.dir-lab.com) described in this work will broaden the applicability of the reference data, providing a freely available common dataset for targeted critical evaluation of DIR spatial accuracy performance in multiple clinical settings. Estimates of observer variance in feature localization suggest consistent spatial accuracy for all observers across both four-dimensional CT and COPDgene patient cohorts.

  17. Mapping Spatial Variability in Health and Wealth Indicators in Accra, Ghana Using High Spatial Resolution Imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Engstrom, R.; Ashcroft, E.

    2014-12-01

    There has been a tremendous amount of research conducted that examines disparities in health and wealth of persons between urban and rural areas however, relatively little research has been undertaken to examine variations within urban areas. A major limitation to elucidating differences with urban areas is the lack of social and demographic data at a sufficiently high spatial resolution to determine these differences. Generally the only available data that contain this information are census data which are collected at most every ten years and are often difficult to obtain at a high enough spatial resolution to allow for examining in depth variability in health and wealth indicators at high spatial resolutions, especially in developing countries. High spatial resolution satellite imagery may be able to provide timely and synoptic information that is related to health and wealth variability within a city. In this study we use two dates of Quickbird imagery (2003 and 2010) classified into the vegetation-impervious surface-soil (VIS) model introduced by Ridd (1995). For 2003 we only have partial coverage of the city, while for 2010 we have a mosaic, which covers the entire city of Accra, Ghana. Variations in the VIS values represent the physical variations within the city and these are compared to variations in economic, and/or sociodemographic data derived from the 2000 Ghanaian census at two spatial resolutions, the enumeration area (approximately US Census Tract) and the neighborhood for the city. Results indicate a significant correlation between both vegetation and impervious surface to type of cooking fuel used in the household, population density, housing density, availability of sewers, cooking space usage, and other variables. The correlations are generally stronger at the neighborhood level and the relationships are stable through time and space. Overall, the results indicate that information derived from high resolution satellite data is related to

  18. High resolution autofocus for spatial temporal biomedical research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Sihong; Cui, Xiaodong; Huang, Wei

    2013-11-01

    Maintaining focus has been a critical but challenging issue in optical microscopy, particularly for microscopic imaging systems currently used in biomedical research. During live cell imaging, environmental temperature fluctuations and other factors contribute to the unavoidable focus drift. For single molecular imaging and super resolution, focus drift can be significant even over short durations. The current commercial and experimental solutions are either optically complicated, expensive, or with limited axial resolution. Here, we present a simple autofocus solution based on low cost solid state laser and imaging sensor. By improving the optical train design and using real-time data analysis, improvement in axial resolution by approximately two orders of magnitudes over the focal depth of microscope objectives can be achieved. This solution has been tested for prolonged live cell imaging for fast ramping up in environmental chamber temperature and large daily swing in room temperature. In addition, this system can be used to spatial-temporally measure the surface for three-dimensional cell culture and tissue engineering, with flexibility that exceeds commercially available systems.

  19. Generation of remotely sensed reference data using low altitude, high spatial resolution hyperspectral imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, McKay D.; van Aardt, Jan; Kerekes, John P.

    2016-05-01

    Exploitation of imaging spectroscopy (hyperspectral) data using classification and spectral unmixing algorithms is a major research area in remote sensing, with reference data required to assess algorithm performance. However, we are limited by our inability to generate rapid, accurate, and consistent reference data, thus making quantitative algorithm analysis difficult. As a result, many investigators present either limited quantitative results, use synthetic imagery, or provide qualitative results using real imagery. Existing reference data typically classify large swaths of imagery pixel-by-pixel, per cover type. While this type of mapping provides a first order understanding of scene composition, it is not detailed enough to include complexities such as mixed pixels, intra-end-member variability, and scene anomalies. The creation of more detailed ground reference data based on field work, on the other hand, is complicated by the spatial scale of common hyperspectral data sets. This research presents a solution to this challenge via classification of low altitude, high spatial resolution (1m GSD) National Ecological Observatory Network (NEON) hyperspectral imagery, on a pixel-by-pixel basis, to produce sub-pixel reference data for high altitude, lower spatial resolution (15m GSD) AVIRIS imagery. This classification is performed using traditional classification techniques, augmented by (0.3m GSD) NEON RGB data. This paper provides a methodology for generating large scale, sub-pixel reference data for AVIRIS imagery using NEON imagery. It also addresses challenges related to the fusion of multiple remote sensing modalities (e.g., different sensors, sensor look angles, spatial registration, varying scene illumination, etc.). A new algorithm for spatial registration of hyperspectral imagery with disparate resolutions is presented. Several versions of reference data results are compared to each other and to direct spectral unmixing of AVIRIS data. Initial results are

  20. Impact of the cameras radiometric resolution on the accuracy of determining spectral reflectance coefficients

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orych, A.; Walczykowski, P.; Jenerowicz, A.; Zdunek, Z.

    2014-11-01

    Nowadays remote sensing plays a very important role in many different study fields, i.e. environmental studies, hydrology, mineralogy, ecosystem studies, etc. One of the key areas of remote sensing applications is water quality monitoring. Understanding and monitoring of the water quality parameters and detecting different water contaminants is an important issue in water management and protection of whole environment and especially the water ecosystem. There are many remote sensing methods to monitor water quality and detect water pollutants. One of the most widely used method for substance detection with remote sensing techniques is based on usage of spectral reflectance coefficients. They are usually acquired using discrete methods such as spectrometric measurements. These however can be very time consuming, therefore image-based methods are used more and more often. In order to work out the proper methodology of obtaining spectral reflectance coefficients from hyperspectral and multispectral images, it is necessary to verify the impact of cameras radiometric resolution on the accuracy of determination of them. This paper presents laboratory experiments that were conducted using two monochromatic XEVA video sensors (400-1700 nm spectral data registration) with two different radiometric resolutions (12 and 14 bits). In view of determining spectral characteristics from images, the research team used set of interferometric filters. All data collected with multispectral digital video cameras were compared with spectral reflectance coefficients obtained with spectroradiometer. The objective of this research is to find the impact of cameras radiometric resolution on reflectance values in chosen wavelength. The main topic of this study is the analysis of accuracy of spectral coefficients from sensors with different radiometric resolution. By comparing values collected from images acquired with XEVA sensors and with the curves obtained with spectroradiometer it

  1. Evaluation of the accuracy and angular resolution of q-ball imaging.

    PubMed

    Cho, Kuan-Hung; Yeh, Chun-Hung; Tournier, Jacques-Donald; Chao, Yi-Ping; Chen, Jyh-Horng; Lin, Ching-Po

    2008-08-01

    Q-ball imaging (QBI) has been proposed for the mapping of multiple intravoxel fiber structures using the Funk-Radon transform on high angular resolution diffusion images (HARDI). However, the accuracy and the angular resolution of QBI to define fiber orientations and its dependence on diffusion imaging parameters remain unclear. The phantom models, made up of sheets of parallel capillaries filled with water, were designed to evaluate the accuracy and the angular resolution of QBI at different |q| values. With an inner diameter of 20 mum and an outer diameter of 90 mum, the capillaries afforded a restrictive environment compared with the diffusion measurement scale. Further, the angular resolutions of QBI at various |q| value were also quantified on the corpus callosum in the human brain. The full width at half maximum (FWHM) of the main lobe of normalized orientation distribution function (nODF) was calculated and adopted to quantify the angular resolution of QBI. With the phantom model, a higher |q| value resulted in worse accuracy but better angular resolution for QBI. The same trend where a higher |q| value yielded a better angular resolution was also observed in the human study. Upon comparison of QBI with T2WI, QBI with |q|=277 cm(-1) (b=3000 s/mm(2)) was found to be insufficient to differentiate capillaries crossing at 45 degrees . However, when encoding with |q|=320, 358, and 392 cm(-1) (b=4000, 5000, and 6000 s/mm(2)), the deviation angles between the primary ODF and the 45 degrees phantoms were -4.91 degrees +/-2.72 degrees , -1.37 degrees +/-2.32 degrees , and -0.69 degrees +/-1.54 degrees with adequate signal-to-noise ratio (SNR). These results were consistent with the FWHM-nODF, which showed that a |q| value of 320 cm(-1) was the threshold to resolve capillaries intersecting at 45 degrees . Additionally, it was demonstrated in both the phantom model and the human brain that QBI encoding with lower |q| values may result in underestimation of the

  2. High-spatial resolution multispectral and panchromatic satellite imagery for mapping perennial desert plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alsharrah, Saad A.; Bruce, David A.; Bouabid, Rachid; Somenahalli, Sekhar; Corcoran, Paul A.

    2015-10-01

    The use of remote sensing techniques to extract vegetation cover information for the assessment and monitoring of land degradation in arid environments has gained increased interest in recent years. However, such a task can be challenging, especially for medium-spatial resolution satellite sensors, due to soil background effects and the distribution and structure of perennial desert vegetation. In this study, we utilised Pleiades high-spatial resolution, multispectral (2m) and panchromatic (0.5m) imagery and focused on mapping small shrubs and low-lying trees using three classification techniques: 1) vegetation indices (VI) threshold analysis, 2) pre-built object-oriented image analysis (OBIA), and 3) a developed vegetation shadow model (VSM). We evaluated the success of each approach using a root of the sum of the squares (RSS) metric, which incorporated field data as control and three error metrics relating to commission, omission, and percent cover. Results showed that optimum VI performers returned good vegetation cover estimates at certain thresholds, but failed to accurately map the distribution of the desert plants. Using the pre-built IMAGINE Objective OBIA approach, we improved the vegetation distribution mapping accuracy, but this came at the cost of over classification, similar to results of lowering VI thresholds. We further introduced the VSM which takes into account shadow for further refining vegetation cover classification derived from VI. The results showed significant improvements in vegetation cover and distribution accuracy compared to the other techniques. We argue that the VSM approach using high-spatial resolution imagery provides a more accurate representation of desert landscape vegetation and should be considered in assessments of desertification.

  3. Ship detection in high spatial resolution remote sensing image based on improved sea-land segmentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Na; Zhang, Qiaochu; Zhao, Huijie; Dong, Chao; Meng, Lingjie

    2016-10-01

    A new method to detect ship target at sea based on improved segmentation algorithm is proposed in this paper, in which the improved segmentation algorithm is applied to precisely segment land and sea. Firstly, mean value is replaced instead of average variance value in Otsu method in order to improve the adaptability. Secondly, Mean Shift algorithm is performed to separate the original high spatial resolution remote sensing image into several homogeneous regions. At last, the final sea-land segmentation result can be located combined with the regions in preliminary sea-land segmentation result. The proposed segmentation algorithm performs well on the segment between water and land with affluent texture features and background noise, and produces a result that can be well used in shape and context analyses. Ships are detected with settled shape characteristics, including width, length and its compactness. Mean Shift algorithm can smooth the background noise, utilize the wave's texture features and helps highlight offshore ships. Mean shift algorithm is combined with improved Otsu threshold method in order to maximizes their advantages. Experimental results show that the improved sea-land segmentation algorithm on high spatial resolution remote sensing image with complex texture and background noise performs well in sea-land segmentation, not only enhances the accuracy of land and sea boarder, but also preserves detail characteristic of ships. Compared with traditional methods, this method can achieve accuracy over 90 percent. Experiments on Worldview images show the superior, robustness and precision of the proposed method.

  4. Spectral sensitivity, spatial resolution and temporal resolution and their implications for conspecific signalling in cleaner shrimp.

    PubMed

    Caves, Eleanor M; Frank, Tamara M; Johnsen, Sönke

    2016-02-01

    Cleaner shrimp (Decapoda) regularly interact with conspecifics and client reef fish, both of which appear colourful and finely patterned to human observers. However, whether cleaner shrimp can perceive the colour patterns of conspecifics and clients is unknown, because cleaner shrimp visual capabilities are unstudied. We quantified spectral sensitivity and temporal resolution using electroretinography (ERG), and spatial resolution using both morphological (inter-ommatidial angle) and behavioural (optomotor) methods in three cleaner shrimp species: Lysmata amboinensis, Ancylomenes pedersoni and Urocaridella antonbruunii. In all three species, we found strong evidence for only a single spectral sensitivity peak of (mean ± s.e.m.) 518 ± 5, 518 ± 2 and 533 ± 3 nm, respectively. Temporal resolution in dark-adapted eyes was 39 ± 1.3, 36 ± 0.6 and 34 ± 1.3 Hz. Spatial resolution was 9.9 ± 0.3, 8.3 ± 0.1 and 11 ± 0.5 deg, respectively, which is low compared with other compound eyes of similar size. Assuming monochromacy, we present approximations of cleaner shrimp perception of both conspecifics and clients, and show that cleaner shrimp visual capabilities are sufficient to detect the outlines of large stimuli, but not to detect the colour patterns of conspecifics or clients, even over short distances. Thus, conspecific viewers have probably not played a role in the evolution of cleaner shrimp appearance; rather, further studies should investigate whether cleaner shrimp colour patterns have evolved to be viewed by client reef fish, many of which possess tri- and tetra-chromatic colour vision and relatively high spatial acuity.

  5. Recent advances in the determination of a high spatial resolution geopotential model using chronometric geodesy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lion, Guillaume; Guerlin, Christine; Bize, Sébastien; Wolf, Peter; Delva, Pacôme; Panet, Isabelle

    2016-04-01

    Current methods to determine the geopotential are mainly based on indirect approaches using gravimetric, gradiometric and topographic data. Satellite missions (GRACE, GOCE) have contributed significantly to improve the knowledge of the Earth's gravity field with a spatial resolution of about 90 km, but it is not enough to access, for example, to the geoid variation in hilly regions. While airborne and ground-based gravimeters provide the high resolution, the problem of these technics is that the accuracy is hampered by the heterogeneous coverage of gravity data (ground and offshore). Recent technological advances in atomic clocks are opening new perspectives in the determination of the geopotential. To date, the best of them reach a stability of 1.6×10-18 (NIST, RIKEN + Univ. Tokyo) in just 7 hours of integration, an accuracy of 2.0×10-18 (JILA). Using the relation of the relativistic gravitational redshift, this corresponds to a determination of geopotential differences at the 0.1 m²/s² level (or 1 cm in geoid height). In this context, the present work aims at evaluating the contribution of optical atomic clocks for the determination of the geopotential at high spatial resolution. To do that, we have studied a test area surrounding the Massif Central in the middle of southern of France. This region, consists in low mountain ranges and plateaus, is interesting because, the gravitational field strength varies greatly from place to place at high resolution due to the relief. Here, we present the synthetic tests methodology: generation of synthetic gravity and potential data, then estimation of the potential from these data using the least-squares collocation and assessment of the clocks contribution. We shall see how the coverage of the data points (realistic or not) can affect the results, and discuss how to quantify the trade-off between the noise level and the number of data points used.

  6. Assessment of the Effects of Spatial Resolutions on Daily Water Flux Simulations

    SciTech Connect

    Liang, Xu; Guo, Jianzhong; Leung, Lai R.

    2004-10-01

    Impacts of spatially distributed precipitation and soil heterogeneity on modeling water fluxes at different spatial resolutions are investigated using the Three-layer Variable Infiltration Capacity (VIC-3L) land surface model at the Blue River watershed in Oklahoma. In this study, hourly grid-based NEXRAD (Next Generation Radar) Stage III radar precipitation data approximately at 4 x 4 km2 resolution are used to compute daily precipitation at spatial resolutions of 1/32, 1/16, 1/8, 1/4, 1/2 and 1 degree based on an area weighted average method. Soil parameters at the corresponding six spatial resolutions are derived from the State Soil Geographic (STATSGO) soil data. The forcing data of daily maximum and minimum temperature, wind speed, and vegetation parameters are disaggregated/aggregated directly to finer/coarser spatial resolutions based on the University of Washington (UW) data, which are gridded at 1/8 degree spatial resolution. Our study suggests that a critical spatial resolution for the VIC-3L model may exist for the study watershed. For spatial resolutions finer than the critical resolution, one does not necessarily obtain better model performance in terms of runoff, evapotranspiration, and total zone soil moisture with increasing spatial resolution if the VIC-3L model parameters are calibrated at each spatial resolution. Also, model parameters calibrated at a coarse resolution can be applied to finer resolutions to obtain generally comparable results. However, model parameters calibrated at finer resolutions cannot result in comparable results when applied to resolutions coarser than the identified critical resolution. In addition, while soil moisture of the total zone is more sensitive to the spatial distributions of soil properties, runoff and evaporation are more sensitive to the spatial distribution of daily precipitation at the watershed being studied.

  7. Prediction of brain maturity based on cortical thickness at different spatial resolutions.

    PubMed

    Khundrakpam, Budhachandra S; Tohka, Jussi; Evans, Alan C

    2015-05-01

    Several studies using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans have shown developmental trajectories of cortical thickness. Cognitive milestones happen concurrently with these structural changes, and a delay in such changes has been implicated in developmental disorders such as attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Accurate estimation of individuals' brain maturity, therefore, is critical in establishing a baseline for normal brain development against which neurodevelopmental disorders can be assessed. In this study, cortical thickness derived from structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans of a large longitudinal dataset of normally growing children and adolescents (n=308), were used to build a highly accurate predictive model for estimating chronological age (cross-validated correlation up to R=0.84). Unlike previous studies which used kernelized approach in building prediction models, we used an elastic net penalized linear regression model capable of producing a spatially sparse, yet accurate predictive model of chronological age. Upon investigating different scales of cortical parcellation from 78 to 10,240 brain parcels, we observed that the accuracy in estimated age improved with increased spatial scale of brain parcellation, with the best estimations obtained for spatial resolutions consisting of 2560 and 10,240 brain parcels. The top predictors of brain maturity were found in highly localized sensorimotor and association areas. The results of our study demonstrate that cortical thickness can be used to estimate individuals' brain maturity with high accuracy, and the estimated ages relate to functional and behavioural measures, underscoring the relevance and scope of the study in the understanding of biological maturity.

  8. On the Spatial and Temporal Accuracy of Overset Grid Methods for Moving Body Problems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meakin, Robert L.

    1996-01-01

    A study of numerical attributes peculiar to an overset grid approach to unsteady aerodynamics prediction is presented. Attention is focused on the effect of spatial error associated with interpolation of intergrid boundary conditions and temporal error associated with explicit update of intergrid boundary points on overall solution accuracy. A set of numerical experiments are used to verify whether or not the use of simple interpolation for intergrid boundary conditions degrades the formal accuracy of a conventional second-order flow solver, and to quantify the error associated with explicit updating of intergrid boundary points. Test conditions correspond to the transonic regime. The validity of the numerical results presented here are established by comparison with existing numerical results of documented accuracy, and by direct comparison with experimental results.

  9. [Resolution of spatial constraints during replication of peripheral chromatin].

    PubMed

    Zhironkina, O A; Kurchashova, S Yu; Bratseva, A L; Cherepanynets, V D; Strelkova, O S; Belmont, A S; Kireev, I I

    2014-01-01

    Tight association of peripheral chromatin with nuclear lamina unavoidably creates topological constraints during replication. Additional complications are associated with high stability of lamina meshwork, which may hinder an access of replication factors to the sites of DNA synthesis in highly condensed template with limited mobility. In the current work we studied structural organization and dynamics of lamina as a function of replicative status of associated peripheral heterochromatin. The studies of molecular mobility of laminas at various stages of S-phase in vivo and using super-resolution microscopy showed no correlation between lamina dynamics and replicative status of attached heterochromatin. These data support the hypothesis that lamina-chromatin interactions during S-phase are regulated at the level of adapter proteins. Ultrastructural studies have demonstrated that temporal break of lamina-chromatin connections during replication does not cause noticeable spatial separation of replicating domains from nuclear periphery.

  10. Tactile Feedback Display with Spatial and Temporal Resolutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vishniakou, Siarhei; Lewis, Brian W.; Niu, Xiaofan; Kargar, Alireza; Sun, Ke; Kalajian, Michael; Park, Namseok; Yang, Muchuan; Jing, Yi; Brochu, Paul; Sun, Zhelin; Li, Chun; Nguyen, Truong; Pei, Qibing; Wang, Deli

    2013-08-01

    We report the electronic recording of the touch contact and pressure using an active matrix pressure sensor array made of transparent zinc oxide thin-film transistors and tactile feedback display using an array of diaphragm actuators made of an interpenetrating polymer elastomer network. Digital replay, editing and manipulation of the recorded touch events were demonstrated with both spatial and temporal resolutions. Analog reproduction of the force is also shown possible using the polymer actuators, despite of the high driving voltage. The ability to record, store, edit, and replay touch information adds an additional dimension to digital technologies and extends the capabilities of modern information exchange with the potential to revolutionize physical learning, social networking, e-commerce, robotics, gaming, medical and military applications.

  11. Tactile feedback display with spatial and temporal resolutions.

    PubMed

    Vishniakou, Siarhei; Lewis, Brian W; Niu, Xiaofan; Kargar, Alireza; Sun, Ke; Kalajian, Michael; Park, Namseok; Yang, Muchuan; Jing, Yi; Brochu, Paul; Sun, Zhelin; Li, Chun; Nguyen, Truong; Pei, Qibing; Wang, Deli

    2013-01-01

    We report the electronic recording of the touch contact and pressure using an active matrix pressure sensor array made of transparent zinc oxide thin-film transistors and tactile feedback display using an array of diaphragm actuators made of an interpenetrating polymer elastomer network. Digital replay, editing and manipulation of the recorded touch events were demonstrated with both spatial and temporal resolutions. Analog reproduction of the force is also shown possible using the polymer actuators, despite of the high driving voltage. The ability to record, store, edit, and replay touch information adds an additional dimension to digital technologies and extends the capabilities of modern information exchange with the potential to revolutionize physical learning, social networking, e-commerce, robotics, gaming, medical and military applications.

  12. Accuracy and reliability of map-matched GPS coordinates: the dependence on terrain model resolution and interpolation algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Jing; Taylor, George; Kidner, David B.

    2005-03-01

    The global positioning system (GPS) has become the most extensively used positioning and navigation tool in the world. Applications of GPS abound in surveying, mapping, transportation, agriculture, military planning, GIS, and the geosciences. However, the positional and elevation accuracy of any given GPS location is prone to error, due to a number of factors. This has serious implications for some applications, such as real-time navigational systems. GPS accuracy can be significantly improved with additional data, possibly from multiple sources, and especially from multiple receivers. In the case of a single GPS receiver, its position and elevation can be considerably improved with the use of spatial data. For vehicle tracking, map matching can be employed to intelligently snap the GPS location to a road centreline, while height aiding can augment the GPS solution by utilising a digital terrain model (DTM), thereby reducing the number of satellites required to determine a position. This paper describes the use of map matching and height aiding, and examines the effect of different terrain resolutions (Ordnance Survey 1:50,000 and 1:10,000 scale DTMs) on plan position and elevation accuracy for vehicle tracking. Furthermore, the user's choice of interpolation algorithm for estimating heights from the DTM is investigated. The results of the experiments described in this paper demonstrate that height aiding alone reduces the mean error in elevation from 22.5 to 17.5 m for of a single GPS receiver, and the mean error in plan position from 6 to 5 m. However, map matching and height aiding combined, reduces the elevation RMSE of a single GPS receiver from 22.5 m to approximately 4 m (1:50,000 scale DTM) and down to 0.8 m (1:10,000 scale DTM), while the plan position RMSE is reduced from 5.9 to 3.2 m (either DTM). It is also demonstrated that when the number of satellites visible to the receiver is reduced, or the satellite geometry is poor, map matching and height

  13. The Role of a High-Resolution Spatial Sensor in an Educational Setting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kay, Leslie; And Others

    1984-01-01

    A pilot study involving 16 visually handicapped children (6-14 years old) suggested that a new high-resolution acoustic sensory aid may be useful as a training aid for developing spatial perception. Tasks in spatial location, spatial orientation, and spatial transfer were executed using the spatial sensor in a classroom program. (Author/CL)

  14. Flexible hydrological modeling - Disaggregation from lumped catchment scale to higher spatial resolutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tran, Quoc Quan; Willems, Patrick; Pannemans, Bart; Blanckaert, Joris; Pereira, Fernando; Nossent, Jiri; Cauwenberghs, Kris; Vansteenkiste, Thomas

    2015-04-01

    Based on an international literature review on model structures of existing rainfall-runoff and hydrological models, a generalized model structure is proposed. It consists of different types of meteorological components, storage components, splitting components and routing components. They can be spatially organized in a lumped way, or on a grid, spatially interlinked by source-to-sink or grid-to-grid (cell-to-cell) routing. The grid size of the model can be chosen depending on the application. The user can select/change the spatial resolution depending on the needs and/or the evaluation of the accuracy of the model results, or use different spatial resolutions in parallel for different applications. Major research questions addressed during the study are: How can we assure consistent results of the model at any spatial detail? How can we avoid strong or sudden changes in model parameters and corresponding simulation results, when one moves from one level of spatial detail to another? How can we limit the problem of overparameterization/equifinality when we move from the lumped model to the spatially distributed model? The proposed approach is a step-wise one, where first the lumped conceptual model is calibrated using a systematic, data-based approach, followed by a disaggregation step where the lumped parameters are disaggregated based on spatial catchment characteristics (topography, land use, soil characteristics). In this way, disaggregation can be done down to any spatial scale, and consistently among scales. Only few additional calibration parameters are introduced to scale the absolute spatial differences in model parameters, but keeping the relative differences as obtained from the spatial catchment characteristics. After calibration of the spatial model, the accuracies of the lumped and spatial models were compared for peak, low and cumulative runoff total and sub-flows (at downstream and internal gauging stations). For the distributed models, additional

  15. The influence of spectral and spatial resolution in classification approaches: Landsat TM data vs. Hyperspectral data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodríguez-Galiano, Víctor; Garcia-Soldado, Maria José; Chica-Olmo, Mario

    The importance of accurate and timely information describing the nature and extent of land and natural resources is increasing especially in rapidly growing metropolitan areas. While metropolitan area decision makers are in constant need of current geospatial information on patterns and trends in land cover and land use, relatively little researchers has investigated the influence of the satellite data resolution for monitoring geo-enviromental information. In this research a suite of remote sensing and GIS techniques is applied in a land use mapping study. The main task is to asses the influence of the spatial and spectral resolution in the separability between classes and in the classificatiońs accuracy. This study has been focused in a very dynamical area with respect to land use, located in the province of Granada (SE of Spain). The classifications results of the Airborne Hyperspectral Scanner (AHS, Daedalus Enterprise Inc., WA, EEUU) at different spatial resolutions: 2, 4 and 6 m and Landsat 5 TM data have been compared.

  16. High accuracy heat capacity measurements through the lambda transition of helium with very high temperature resolution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fairbanks, W. M.; Lipa, J. A.

    1984-01-01

    A measurement of the heat capacity singularity of helium at the lambda transition was performed with the aim of improving tests of the Renormalization Group (RG) predictions for the static thermodynamic behavior near the singularity. The goal was to approach as closely as possible to the lambda-point while making heat capacity measurements of high accuracy. To do this, a new temperature sensor capable of unprecedented resolution near the lambda-point, and two thermal control systems were used. A short description of the theoretical background and motivation is given. The initial apparatus and results are also described.

  17. Object-Based Arctic Sea Ice Feature Extraction through High Spatial Resolution Aerial photos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miao, X.; Xie, H.

    2015-12-01

    High resolution aerial photographs used to detect and classify sea ice features can provide accurate physical parameters to refine, validate, and improve climate models. However, manually delineating sea ice features, such as melt ponds, submerged ice, water, ice/snow, and pressure ridges, is time-consuming and labor-intensive. An object-based classification algorithm is developed to automatically extract sea ice features efficiently from aerial photographs taken during the Chinese National Arctic Research Expedition in summer 2010 (CHINARE 2010) in the MIZ near the Alaska coast. The algorithm includes four steps: (1) the image segmentation groups the neighboring pixels into objects based on the similarity of spectral and textural information; (2) the random forest classifier distinguishes four general classes: water, general submerged ice (GSI, including melt ponds and submerged ice), shadow, and ice/snow; (3) the polygon neighbor analysis separates melt ponds and submerged ice based on spatial relationship; and (4) pressure ridge features are extracted from shadow based on local illumination geometry. The producer's accuracy of 90.8% and user's accuracy of 91.8% are achieved for melt pond detection, and shadow shows a user's accuracy of 88.9% and producer's accuracies of 91.4%. Finally, pond density, pond fraction, ice floes, mean ice concentration, average ridge height, ridge profile, and ridge frequency are extracted from batch processing of aerial photos, and their uncertainties are estimated.

  18. A sensitivity analysis using different spatial resolution terrain models and flood inundation models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Papaioannou, George; Aronica, Giuseppe T.; Loukas, Athanasios; Vasiliades, Lampros

    2014-05-01

    The impact of terrain spatial resolution and accuracy on the hydraulic flood modeling can pervade the water depth and the flood extent accuracy. Another significant factor that can affect the hydraulic flood modeling outputs is the selection of the hydrodynamic models (1D,2D,1D/2D). Human mortality, ravaged infrastructures and other damages can be derived by extreme flash flood events that can be prevailed in lowlands at suburban and urban areas. These incidents make the necessity of a detailed description of the terrain and the use of advanced hydraulic models essential for the accurate spatial distribution of the flooded areas. In this study, a sensitivity analysis undertaken using different spatial resolution of Digital Elevation Models (DEMs) and several hydraulic modeling approaches (1D, 2D, 1D/2D) including their effect on the results of river flow modeling and mapping of floodplain. Three digital terrain models (DTMs) were generated from the different elevation variation sources: Terrestrial Laser Scanning (TLS) point cloud data, classic land surveying and digitization of elevation contours from 1:5000 scale topographic maps. HEC-RAS and MIKE 11 are the 1-dimensional hydraulic models that are used. MLFP-2D (Aronica et al., 1998) and MIKE 21 are the 2-dimensional hydraulic models. The last case consist of the integration of MIKE 11/MIKE 21 where 1D-MIKE 11 and 2D-MIKE 21 hydraulic models are coupled through the MIKE FLOOD platform. The validation process of water depths and flood extent is achieved through historical flood records. Observed flood inundation areas in terms of simulated maximum water depth and flood extent were used for the validity of each application result. The methodology has been applied in the suburban section of Xerias river at Volos-Greece. Each dataset has been used to create a flood inundation map for different cross-section configurations using different hydraulic models. The comparison of resulting flood inundation maps indicates

  19. Super-accuracy and super-resolution getting around the diffraction limit.

    PubMed

    Toprak, Erdal; Kural, Comert; Selvin, Paul R

    2010-01-01

    In many research areas such as biology, biochemistry, and biophysics, measuring distances or identifying and counting objects can be of great importance. To do this, researchers often need complicated and expensive tools in order to have accurate measurements. In addition, these measurements are often done under nonphysiological settings. X-ray diffraction, for example, gets Angstrom-level structures, but it requires crystallizing a biological specimen. Electron microscopy (EM) has about 10A resolution, but often requires frozen (liquid nitrogen) samples. Optical microscopy, while coming closest to physiologically relevant conditions, has been limited by the minimum distances to be measured, typically about the diffraction limit, or approximately 200 nm. However, most biological molecules are <5-10nm in diameter, and getting molecular details requires imaging at this scale. In this chapter, we will describe some of the experimental approaches, from our lab and others, that push the limits of localization accuracy and optical resolution in fluorescence microscopy.

  20. Development of an Objective High Spatial Resolution Soil Moisture Index

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zavodsky, B.; Case, J.; White, K.; Bell, J. R.

    2015-12-01

    Drought detection, analysis, and mitigation has become a key challenge for a diverse set of decision makers, including but not limited to operational weather forecasters, climatologists, agricultural interests, and water resource management. One tool that is heavily used is the United States Drought Monitor (USDM), which is derived from a complex blend of objective data and subjective analysis on a state-by-state basis using a variety of modeled and observed precipitation, soil moisture, hydrologic, and vegetation and crop health data. The NASA Short-term Prediction Research and Transition (SPoRT) Center currently runs a real-time configuration of the Noah land surface model (LSM) within the NASA Land Information System (LIS) framework. The LIS-Noah is run at 3-km resolution for local numerical weather prediction (NWP) and situational awareness applications at select NOAA/National Weather Service (NWS) forecast offices over the Continental U.S. (CONUS). To enhance the practicality of the LIS-Noah output for drought monitoring and assessing flood potential, a 30+-year soil moisture climatology has been developed in an attempt to place near real-time soil moisture values in historical context at county- and/or watershed-scale resolutions. This LIS-Noah soil moisture climatology and accompanying anomalies is intended to complement the current suite of operational products, such as the North American Land Data Assimilation System phase 2 (NLDAS-2), which are generated on a coarser-resolution grid that may not capture localized, yet important soil moisture features. Daily soil moisture histograms are used to identify the real-time soil moisture percentiles at each grid point according to the county or watershed in which the grid point resides. Spatial plots are then produced that map the percentiles as proxies to the different USDM categories. This presentation will highlight recent developments of this gridded, objective soil moisture index, comparison to subjective

  1. Optoelectronic image scanning with high spatial resolution and reconstruction fidelity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Craubner, Siegfried I.

    2002-02-01

    In imaging systems the detector arrays deliver at the output time-discrete signals, where the spatial frequencies of the object scene are mapped into the electrical signal frequencies. Since the spatial frequency spectrum cannot be bandlimited by the front optics, the usual detector arrays perform a spatial undersampling and as a consequence aliasing occurs. A means to partially suppress the backfolded alias band is bandwidth limitation in the reconstruction low-pass, at the price of resolution loss. By utilizing a bilinear detector array in a pushbroom-type scanner, undersampling and aliasing can be overcome. For modeling the perception, the theory of discrete systems and multirate digital filter banks is applied, where aliasing cancellation and perfect reconstruction play an important role. The discrete transfer function of a bilinear array can be imbedded into the scheme of a second-order filter bank. The detector arrays already build the analysis bank and the overall filter bank is completed with the synthesis bank, for which stabilized inverse filters are proposed, to compensate for the low-pass characteristics and to approximate perfect reconstruction. The synthesis filter branch can be realized in a so-called `direct form,' or the `polyphase form,' where the latter is an expenditure-optimal solution, which gives advantages when implemented in a signal processor. This paper attempts to introduce well-established concepts of the theory of multirate filter banks into the analysis of scanning imagers, which is applicable in a much broader sense than for the problems addressed here. To the author's knowledge this is also a novelty.

  2. Improving the accuracy of macromolecular structure refinement at 7 Å resolution.

    PubMed

    Brunger, Axel T; Adams, Paul D; Fromme, Petra; Fromme, Raimund; Levitt, Michael; Schröder, Gunnar F

    2012-06-06

    In X-ray crystallography, molecular replacement and subsequent refinement is challenging at low resolution. We compared refinement methods using synchrotron diffraction data of photosystem I at 7.4 Å resolution, starting from different initial models with increasing deviations from the known high-resolution structure. Standard refinement spoiled the initial models, moving them further away from the true structure and leading to high R(free)-values. In contrast, DEN refinement improved even the most distant starting model as judged by R(free), atomic root-mean-square differences to the true structure, significance of features not included in the initial model, and connectivity of electron density. The best protocol was DEN refinement with initial segmented rigid-body refinement. For the most distant initial model, the fraction of atoms within 2 Å of the true structure improved from 24% to 60%. We also found a significant correlation between R(free) values and the accuracy of the model, suggesting that R(free) is useful even at low resolution.

  3. The effect of riverine terrain spatial resolution on flood modeling and mapping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Papaioannou, George; Loukas, Athanasios; Georgiadis, Charalambos

    2013-08-01

    Spatial resolution of river and riverine area is an important aspect of hydraulic flood modeling that affects the accuracy of flood extent. This study compares the accuracy of Digital Elevation Models (DEMs) produced from three methods of land surveying measurements and their effect on the results of river flow modeling and mapping of floodplain. Four data sets have been used for the creation of the DEMs: Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) point cloud data (raw data and processed), classic land surveying and digitization of elevation contours from 1:5000 scale topographic maps. LiDAR offers advantages over traditional methods for representing a terrain. Optech ILRIS-3D (Intelligent Laser Ranging and Imaging System) is a land based LiDAR system and has been used in this study. Separating LiDAR points into ground and non-ground is the most critical and difficult step for DEM generation from LiDAR data. In this study, geomorphologic filters, GIS operations and expert knowledge have been applied to produce the bare earth DEM. The HEC-GeoRAS and HEC-RAS software have been used as pre- and post-processing tools to prepare model inputs, simulate of river flow, and delineate flood inundation maps. The methodology has been applied in the suburban part of Xerias river at Volos-Greece, where typical hydrologic and hydraulic methods for ungauged watersheds have been used for flood modeling and inundation mapping. The results show that flood inundation area is significantly affected by the accuracy of DEM spatial resolution and could have significant impact on the delineation and mapping of flood hazard areas.

  4. Device for high spatial resolution chemical analysis of a sample and method of high spatial resolution chemical analysis

    DOEpatents

    Van Berkel, Gary J.

    2015-10-06

    A system and method for analyzing a chemical composition of a specimen are described. The system can include at least one pin; a sampling device configured to contact a liquid with a specimen on the at least one pin to form a testing solution; and a stepper mechanism configured to move the at least one pin and the sampling device relative to one another. The system can also include an analytical instrument for determining a chemical composition of the specimen from the testing solution. In particular, the systems and methods described herein enable chemical analysis of specimens, such as tissue, to be evaluated in a manner that the spatial-resolution is limited by the size of the pins used to obtain tissue samples, not the size of the sampling device used to solubilize the samples coupled to the pins.

  5. High-spatial-resolution mapping of precipitable water vapour using SAR interferograms, GPS observations and ERA-Interim reanalysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Wei; Liao, Mingsheng; Zhang, Lu; Li, Wei; Yu, Weimin

    2016-09-01

    A high spatial and temporal resolution of the precipitable water vapour (PWV) in the atmosphere is a key requirement for the short-scale weather forecasting and climate research. The aim of this work is to derive temporally differenced maps of the spatial distribution of PWV by analysing the tropospheric delay "noise" in interferometric synthetic aperture radar (InSAR). Time series maps of differential PWV were obtained by processing a set of ENVISAT ASAR (Advanced Synthetic Aperture Radar) images covering the area of southern California, USA from 6 October 2007 to 29 November 2008. To get a more accurate PWV, the component of hydrostatic delay was calculated and subtracted by using ERA-Interim reanalysis products. In addition, the ERA-Interim was used to compute the conversion factors required to convert the zenith wet delay to water vapour. The InSAR-derived differential PWV maps were calibrated by means of the GPS PWV measurements over the study area. We validated our results against the measurements of PWV derived from the Medium Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MERIS) which was located together with the ASAR sensor on board the ENVISAT satellite. Our comparative results show strong spatial correlations between the two data sets. The difference maps have Gaussian distributions with mean values close to zero and standard deviations below 2 mm. The advantage of the InSAR technique is that it provides water vapour distribution with a spatial resolution as fine as 20 m and an accuracy of ˜ 2 mm. Such high-spatial-resolution maps of PWV could lead to much greater accuracy in meteorological understanding and quantitative precipitation forecasts. With the launch of Sentinel-1A and Sentinel-1B satellites, every few days (6 days) new SAR images can be acquired with a wide swath up to 250 km, enabling a unique operational service for InSAR-based water vapour maps with unprecedented spatial and temporal resolution.

  6. Evaluation of the accuracy of land-use based ecosystem service assessments for different thematic resolutions.

    PubMed

    Van der Biest, K; Vrebos, D; Staes, J; Boerema, A; Bodí, M B; Fransen, E; Meire, P

    2015-06-01

    The demand for pragmatic tools for mapping ecosystem services (ES) has led to the widespread application of land-use based proxy methods, mostly using coarse thematic resolution classification systems. Although various studies have demonstrated the limited reliability of land use as an indicator of service delivery, this does not prevent the method from being frequently applied on different institutional levels. It has recently been argued that a more detailed land use classification system may increase the accuracy of this approach. This research statistically compares maps of predicted ES delivery based on land use scoring for three different thematic resolutions (number of classes) with maps of ES delivery produced by biophysical models. Our results demonstrate that using a more detailed land use classification system does not significantly increase the accuracy of land-use based ES assessments for the majority of the considered ES. Correlations between land-use based assessments and biophysical model outcomes are relatively strong for provisioning services, independent of the classification system. However, large discrepancies occur frequently between the score and the model-based estimate. We conclude that land use, as a simple indicator, is not effective enough to be used in environmental management as it cannot capture differences in abiotic conditions and ecological processes that explain differences in service delivery. Using land use as a simple indicator will therefore result in inappropriate management decisions, even if a highly detailed land use classification system is used.

  7. Analysis of spatial inhomogeneities in cumulus clouds using high spatial resolution Landsat data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parker, Lindsay; Welch, R. M.; Musil, D. J.

    1986-01-01

    Aircraft observations and high resolution Landsat MSS digital data are used to determine the sizes of spatial inhomogeneities ('holes') in cumulus clouds. The majority of holes are found near cloud edges, but the larger holes tend to be found in cloud interiors. Aircraft measurements show these cloud spatial inhomogeneities in the range of 100 to 500 m, while Landsat data show them in the range of 100 m to 3 km. The number of holes per cloud decreases exponentially with increasing hole diameter. Small clouds not only have smaller holes, but also fewer holes than large clouds. Large clouds have large holes in them, as well as large numbers of the smaller holes. The total cloud area occupied by holes increases with increasing cloud size.

  8. Spatializing vineyard hydric status within heterogeneous Mediterranean watershed from high spatial resolution optical remote sensing.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galleguillos, M.; Jacob, F.; Prevot, L.; Lagacherie, P.

    2009-04-01

    Land surface evapotranspiration is one of key hydrological inputs that determine hydric status within Mediterranean vineyards. Its knowledge in a spatially distributed manner is of interest for the monitoring of vine activity throughout the cultural cycle, and for the acquainting of hydrological modeling as upper boundary conditions. Due to vineyard landscape structures, mostly including small fields, the use of remote sensing has not been extensively investigated, apart from airborne observations. Spaceborne ASTER data, collected over the optical domain at high spatial resolution, are of strong interest for the mapping of vineyard hydric status in relation with surface and soil properties, provided vine thermal and hydric status are strongly linked. The objective of this study is to assess the performances of two spatialized approaches devoted to the mapping of instantaneous surface energy fluxes from optical remote sensing. Amongst the candidate methods to be foreseen for the mapping of vineyard water status from remote sensing, we consider two single layer methods characterized by their simplicities and feasibilities, in terms of implementation and input requirements. The first method is the Simplified Surface Energy Balance Index (S-SEBI, proposed by Roerink et al., 2000) and the second is the Water Deficit Index (WDI, designed by Moran et al., 1994). They differ by the way they use the spatial information captured over the solar and thermal domains, for the differentiating based retrieving of water status and evapotranspiration. First, the spatial information can be characterized through the temperature - vegetation index triangle that is controlled by soil moisture (WDI), or through the temperature - albedo diagram that is controlled by radiative and evaporative processes (S-SEBI). Second, evaporative extremes can be determined according to theoretical considerations and related formalisms (WDI), or assigned according to variabilities captured through thermal

  9. Statistical model based iterative reconstruction (MBIR) in clinical CT systems. Part II. Experimental assessment of spatial resolution performance

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Ke; Chen, Guang-Hong; Garrett, John; Ge, Yongshuai

    2014-07-15

    FBP (and vice versa); the value of this transitional contrast highly depended on the dose level. (3) The PSFs of MBIR could be approximated as Gaussian functions with reasonably good accuracy. (4) Thez resolution of MBIR showed similar contrast and dose dependence. (5) Noise standard deviation assessed on the edges of objects demonstrated a trade-off with spatial resolution in MBIR. (5) When both spatial resolution and image noise were considered using the CHO analysis, MBIR led to significant improvement in the overall CT image quality for both high and low contrast detection tasks at both standard and low dose levels. Conclusions: Due to the intrinsic nonlinearity of the MBIR method, many well-known CT spatial resolution and noise properties have been modified. In particular, dose dependence and contrast dependence have been introduced to the spatial resolution of CT images by MBIR. The method has also introduced some novel noise-resolution trade-off not seen in traditional CT images. While the benefits of MBIR regarding the overall image quality, as demonstrated in this work, are significant, the optimal use of this method in clinical practice demands a thorough understanding of its unique physical characteristics.

  10. modern global models of the earth's gravity field: analysis of their accuracy and resolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ganagina, Irina; Karpik, Alexander; Kanushin, Vadim; Goldobin, Denis; Kosareva, Alexandra; Kosarev, Nikolay; Mazurova, Elena

    2015-04-01

    Introduction: Accurate knowledge of the fine structure of the Earth's gravity field extends opportunities in geodynamic problem-solving and high-precision navigation. In the course of our investigations have been analyzed the resolution and accuracy of 33 modern global models of the Earth's gravity field and among them 23 combined models and 10 satellite models obtained by the results of GOCE, GRACE, and CHAMP satellite gravity mission. The Earth's geopotential model data in terms of normalized spherical harmonic coefficients were taken from the web-site of the International Centre for Global Earth Models (ICGEM) in Potsdam. Theory: Accuracy and resolution estimation of global Earth's gravity field models is based on the analysis of degree variances of geopotential coefficients and their errors. During investigations for analyzing models were obtained dependences of approximation errors for gravity anomalies on the spherical harmonic expansion of the geopotential, relative errors of geopotential's spherical harmonic coefficients, degree variances for geopotential coefficients, and error variances of potential coefficients obtained from gravity anomalies. Delphi 7-based software developed by authors was used for the analysis of global Earth's gravity field models. Experience: The results of investigations show that spherical harmonic coefficients of all matched. Diagrams of degree variances for spherical harmonic coefficients and their errors bring us to the conclusion that the degree variances of most models equal to their error variances for a degree less than that declared by developers. The accuracy of normalized spherical harmonic coefficients of geopotential models is estimated as 10-9. This value characterizes both inherent errors of models, and the difference of coefficients in various models, as well as a scale poor predicted instability of the geopotential, and resolution. Furthermore, we compared the gravity anomalies computed by models with those

  11. Will it Blend? Visualization and Accuracy Evaluation of High-Resolution Fuzzy Vegetation Maps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zlinszky, A.; Kania, A.

    2016-06-01

    Instead of assigning every map pixel to a single class, fuzzy classification includes information on the class assigned to each pixel but also the certainty of this class and the alternative possible classes based on fuzzy set theory. The advantages of fuzzy classification for vegetation mapping are well recognized, but the accuracy and uncertainty of fuzzy maps cannot be directly quantified with indices developed for hard-boundary categorizations. The rich information in such a map is impossible to convey with a single map product or accuracy figure. Here we introduce a suite of evaluation indices and visualization products for fuzzy maps generated with ensemble classifiers. We also propose a way of evaluating classwise prediction certainty with "dominance profiles" visualizing the number of pixels in bins according to the probability of the dominant class, also showing the probability of all the other classes. Together, these data products allow a quantitative understanding of the rich information in a fuzzy raster map both for individual classes and in terms of variability in space, and also establish the connection between spatially explicit class certainty and traditional accuracy metrics. These map products are directly comparable to widely used hard boundary evaluation procedures, support active learning-based iterative classification and can be applied for operational use.

  12. An improved coverage and spatial resolution--using dual injection dynamic contrast-enhanced (ICE-DICE) MRI: a novel dynamic contrast-enhanced technique for cerebral tumors.

    PubMed

    Li, Ka-Loh; Buonaccorsi, Giovanni; Thompson, Gerard; Cain, John R; Watkins, Amy; Russell, David; Qureshi, Salman; Evans, D Gareth; Lloyd, Simon K; Zhu, Xiaoping; Jackson, Alan

    2012-08-01

    A new dual temporal resolution-based, high spatial resolution, pharmacokinetic parametric mapping method is described--improved coverage and spatial resolution using dual injection dynamic contrast-enhanced (ICE-DICE) MRI. In a dual-bolus dynamic contrast-enhanced-MRI acquisition protocol, a high temporal resolution prebolus is followed by a high spatial resolution main bolus to allow high spatial resolution parametric mapping for cerebral tumors. The measured plasma concentration curves from the dual-bolus data were used to reconstruct a high temporal resolution arterial input function. The new method reduces errors resulting from uncertainty in the temporal alignment of the arterial input function, tissue response function, and sampling grid. The technique provides high spatial resolution 3D pharmacokinetic maps (voxel size 1.0 × 1.0 × 2.0 mm(3)) with whole brain coverage and greater parameter accuracy than that was possible with the conventional single temporal resolution methods. High spatial resolution imaging of brain lesions is highly desirable for small lesions and to support investigation of heterogeneity within pathological tissue and peripheral invasion at the interface between diseased and normal brain. The new method has the potential to be used to improve dynamic contrast-enhanced-MRI techniques in general.

  13. Model Accuracy Comparison for High Resolution Insar Coherence Statistics Over Urban Areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yue; Fu, Kun; Sun, Xian; Xu, Guangluan; Wang, Hongqi

    2016-06-01

    The interferometric coherence map derived from the cross-correlation of two complex registered synthetic aperture radar (SAR) images is the reflection of imaged targets. In many applications, it can act as an independent information source, or give additional information complementary to the intensity image. Specially, the statistical properties of the coherence are of great importance in land cover classification, segmentation and change detection. However, compared to the amount of work on the statistical characters of SAR intensity, there are quite fewer researches on interferometric SAR (InSAR) coherence statistics. And to our knowledge, all of the existing work that focuses on InSAR coherence statistics, models the coherence with Gaussian distribution with no discrimination on data resolutions or scene types. But the properties of coherence may be different for different data resolutions and scene types. In this paper, we investigate on the coherence statistics for high resolution data over urban areas, by making a comparison of the accuracy of several typical statistical models. Four typical land classes including buildings, trees, shadow and roads are selected as the representatives of urban areas. Firstly, several regions are selected from the coherence map manually and labelled with their corresponding classes respectively. Then we try to model the statistics of the pixel coherence for each type of region, with different models including Gaussian, Rayleigh, Weibull, Beta and Nakagami. Finally, we evaluate the model accuracy for each type of region. The experiments on TanDEM-X data show that the Beta model has a better performance than other distributions.

  14. Analysis of the influence of system parameters on the measurement accuracy of a high spectral resolution lidar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Changbo; Boselli, Antonella; Sannino, Alessia; Zhao, Yiming; Spinelli, Nicola; Wang, Xuan

    2016-10-01

    Atmospheric aerosols play very important roles in climate change and air particulate pollution. Lidars based on elastic scattering have been widely used to measure aerosol spatial distribution and to retrieve the profiles of aerosol optical properties by an assumption of the aerosol extinction-to-backscatter ratio. High Spectral Resolution Lidar (HSRL) is one of methods that can be used to measure aerosol optical properties without a-priori hypotheses. Compared to Raman lidar, HSRL has the advantage of day and night measurements and can be adapted to many kinds of carrying platforms. Unlike ordinary elastic backscatter lidar, HSRL needs to separate the Mie signal scattered by atmospheric aerosol and the Rayleigh signal scattered by atmospheric molecules. Due to small spectral difference between Mie and Rayleigh signals, there are three difficulties: firstly, the laser source must have a narrow bandwidth, high energy and stable center wavelength; secondly, the receiver should have a very narrow spectral filter to separate aerosol scattering and molecular scattering; thirdly, the center wavelength of the receiver must be real-time locked to laser source. In order to study the influence of system parameters on the measurement accuracy of a high spectral resolution lidar and to optimize their values, a simulation and analysis has been done and will be presented in this paper. In this paper, the system parameters including the linewidth of emission laser, the bandwidth of the Fabry-Pérot interferometric filter in the receiver and the spectral tracking accuracy between the receiver and laser are mainly analyzed. At the same time, several environmental factors have been considered, including atmospheric temperature and wind, pointing accuracy of platform, aerosol concentration range etc. A typical vertical distribution of atmospheric aerosol optical properties is considered and the received signals of high spectral channels are simulated. From the simulated signals, the

  15. Global anthropogenic heat flux database with high spatial resolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, Y.; Varquez, A. C. G.; Kanda, M.

    2017-02-01

    This study developed a top-down method for estimating global anthropogenic heat emission (AHE), with a high spatial resolution of 30 arc-seconds and temporal resolution of 1 h. Annual average AHE was derived from human metabolic heating and primary energy consumption, which was further divided into three components based on consumer sector. The first and second components were heat loss and heat emissions from industrial sectors equally distributed throughout the country and populated areas, respectively. The third component comprised the sum of emissions from commercial, residential, and transportation sectors (CRT). Bulk AHE from the CRT was proportionally distributed using a global population dataset, with a radiance-calibrated nighttime lights adjustment. An empirical function to estimate monthly fluctuations of AHE based on gridded monthly temperatures was derived from various Japanese and American city measurements. Finally, an AHE database with a global coverage was constructed for the year 2013. Comparisons between our proposed AHE and other existing datasets revealed that the problem of overestimation of AHE intensity in previous top-down models was mitigated by the separation of energy consumption sectors; furthermore, the problem of AHE underestimation at central urban areas was solved by the nighttime lights adjustment. A strong agreement in the monthly profiles of AHE between our database and other bottom-up datasets further proved the validity of the current methodology. Investigations of AHE for the 29 largest urban agglomerations globally highlighted that the share of heat emissions from CRT sectors to the total AHE at the city level was 40-95%; whereas that of metabolic heating varied with the city's level of development by a range of 2-60%. A negative correlation between gross domestic product (GDP) and the share of metabolic heating to a city's total AHE was found. Globally, peak AHE values were found to occur between December and February, while

  16. Methods of photoelectrode characterization with high spatial and temporal resolution

    DOE PAGES

    Esposito, Daniel V.; Baxter, Jason B.; John, Jimmy; ...

    2015-06-19

    Here, materials and photoelectrode architectures that are highly efficient, extremely stable, and made from low cost materials are required for commercially viable photoelectrochemical (PEC) water-splitting technology. A key challenge is the heterogeneous nature of real-world materials, which often possess spatial variation in their crystal structure, morphology, and/or composition at the nano-, micro-, or macro-scale. Different structures and compositions can have vastly different properties and can therefore strongly influence the overall performance of the photoelectrode through complex structure–property relationships. A complete understanding of photoelectrode materials would also involve elucidation of processes such as carrier collection and electrochemical charge transfer that occurmore » at very fast time scales. We present herein an overview of a broad suite of experimental and computational tools that can be used to define the structure–property relationships of photoelectrode materials at small dimensions and on fast time scales. A major focus is on in situ scanning-probe measurement (SPM) techniques that possess the ability to measure differences in optical, electronic, catalytic, and physical properties with nano- or micro-scale spatial resolution. In situ ultrafast spectroscopic techniques, used to probe carrier dynamics involved with processes such as carrier generation, recombination, and interfacial charge transport, are also discussed. Complementing all of these experimental techniques are computational atomistic modeling tools, which can be invaluable for interpreting experimental results, aiding in materials discovery, and interrogating PEC processes at length and time scales not currently accessible by experiment. In addition to reviewing the basic capabilities of these experimental and computational techniques, we highlight key opportunities and limitations of applying these tools for the development of PEC materials.« less

  17. Methods of photoelectrode characterization with high spatial and temporal resolution

    SciTech Connect

    Esposito, Daniel V.; Baxter, Jason B.; John, Jimmy; Lewis, Nathan S.; Moffat, Thomas P.; Ogitsu, Tadashi; O'Neil, Glen D.; Pham, Tuan Anh; Talin, A. Alec; Velazquez, Jesus M.; Wood, Brandon C.

    2015-06-19

    Here, materials and photoelectrode architectures that are highly efficient, extremely stable, and made from low cost materials are required for commercially viable photoelectrochemical (PEC) water-splitting technology. A key challenge is the heterogeneous nature of real-world materials, which often possess spatial variation in their crystal structure, morphology, and/or composition at the nano-, micro-, or macro-scale. Different structures and compositions can have vastly different properties and can therefore strongly influence the overall performance of the photoelectrode through complex structure–property relationships. A complete understanding of photoelectrode materials would also involve elucidation of processes such as carrier collection and electrochemical charge transfer that occur at very fast time scales. We present herein an overview of a broad suite of experimental and computational tools that can be used to define the structure–property relationships of photoelectrode materials at small dimensions and on fast time scales. A major focus is on in situ scanning-probe measurement (SPM) techniques that possess the ability to measure differences in optical, electronic, catalytic, and physical properties with nano- or micro-scale spatial resolution. In situ ultrafast spectroscopic techniques, used to probe carrier dynamics involved with processes such as carrier generation, recombination, and interfacial charge transport, are also discussed. Complementing all of these experimental techniques are computational atomistic modeling tools, which can be invaluable for interpreting experimental results, aiding in materials discovery, and interrogating PEC processes at length and time scales not currently accessible by experiment. In addition to reviewing the basic capabilities of these experimental and computational techniques, we highlight key opportunities and limitations of applying these tools for the development of PEC materials.

  18. Development of a large-area Multigap RPC with adequate spatial resolution for muon tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, J.; Wang, Y.; Wang, X.; Zeng, M.; Xie, B.; Han, D.; Lyu, P.; Wang, F.; Li, Y.

    2016-11-01

    We study the performance of a large-area 2-D Multigap Resistive Plate Chamber (MRPC) designed for muon tomography with high spatial resolution. An efficiency up to 98% and a spatial resolution of around 270 μ m are obtained in cosmic ray and X-ray tests. The performance of the MRPC is also investigated for two working gases: standard gas and pure Freon. The result shows that the MRPC working in pure Freon can provide higher efficiency and better spatial resolution.

  19. Increased genomic prediction accuracy in wheat breeding through spatial adjustment of field trial data.

    PubMed

    Lado, Bettina; Matus, Ivan; Rodríguez, Alejandra; Inostroza, Luis; Poland, Jesse; Belzile, François; del Pozo, Alejandro; Quincke, Martín; Castro, Marina; von Zitzewitz, Jarislav

    2013-12-09

    In crop breeding, the interest of predicting the performance of candidate cultivars in the field has increased due to recent advances in molecular breeding technologies. However, the complexity of the wheat genome presents some challenges for applying new technologies in molecular marker identification with next-generation sequencing. We applied genotyping-by-sequencing, a recently developed method to identify single-nucleotide polymorphisms, in the genomes of 384 wheat (Triticum aestivum) genotypes that were field tested under three different water regimes in Mediterranean climatic conditions: rain-fed only, mild water stress, and fully irrigated. We identified 102,324 single-nucleotide polymorphisms in these genotypes, and the phenotypic data were used to train and test genomic selection models intended to predict yield, thousand-kernel weight, number of kernels per spike, and heading date. Phenotypic data showed marked spatial variation. Therefore, different models were tested to correct the trends observed in the field. A mixed-model using moving-means as a covariate was found to best fit the data. When we applied the genomic selection models, the accuracy of predicted traits increased with spatial adjustment. Multiple genomic selection models were tested, and a Gaussian kernel model was determined to give the highest accuracy. The best predictions between environments were obtained when data from different years were used to train the model. Our results confirm that genotyping-by-sequencing is an effective tool to obtain genome-wide information for crops with complex genomes, that these data are efficient for predicting traits, and that correction of spatial variation is a crucial ingredient to increase prediction accuracy in genomic selection models.

  20. Experimental Estimation of CLASP Spatial Resolution: Results of the Instrument's Optical Alignment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Giono, Gabrial; Katsukawa, Yukio; Ishikawa, Ryoko; Narukage, Noriyuki; Bando, Takamasa; Kano, Ryohei; Suematsu, Yoshinori; Kobayashi, Ken; Winebarger, Amy; Auchere, Frederic

    2015-01-01

    The Chromospheric Lyman-Alpha SpectroPolarimeter (CLASP) is a sounding-rocket experiment currently being built at the National Astronomical Observatory of Japan. This instrument aims to probe for the first time the magnetic field strength and orientation in the solar upper-chromosphere and lower-transition region. CLASP will measure the polarization of the Lyman-Alpha line (121.6nm) with an unprecedented accuracy, and derive the magnetic field information through the Hanle effect. Although polarization accuracy and spectral resolution are crucial for the Hanle effect detection, spatial resolution is also important to get reliable context image via the slit-jaw camera. As spatial resolution is directly related with the alignment of optics, it is also a good way of ensuring the alignment of the instrument to meet the scientific requirement. This poster will detail the experiments carried out to align CLASP's optics (telescope and spectrograph), as both part of the instrument were aligned separately. The telescope was aligned in double-pass mode, and a laser interferometer (He-Ne) was used to measure the telescope's wavefront error (WFE). The secondary mirror tilt and position were adjusted to remove comas and defocus aberrations from the WFE. Effect of gravity on the WFE measurement was estimated and the final WFE derived in zero-g condition for CLASP telescope will be presented. In addition, an estimation of the spot shape and size derived from the final WFE will also be shown. The spectrograph was aligned with a custom procedure: because Ly-??light is absorbed by air, the spectrograph's off-axis parabolic mirrors were aligned in Visible Light (VL) using a custom-made VL grating instead of the flight Ly-? grating. Results of the alignment in Visible Light will be shown and the spot shape recorded with CCDs at various position along the slit will be displayed. Results from both alignment experiment will be compared to the design requirement, and will be combined in

  1. Color camera computed tomography imaging spectrometer for improved spatial-spectral image accuracy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, Daniel W. (Inventor); Bearman, Gregory H. (Inventor); Johnson, William R. (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    Computed tomography imaging spectrometers ("CTIS"s) having color focal plane array detectors are provided. The color FPA detector may comprise a digital color camera including a digital image sensor, such as a Foveon X3.RTM. digital image sensor or a Bayer color filter mosaic. In another embodiment, the CTIS includes a pattern imposed either directly on the object scene being imaged or at the field stop aperture. The use of a color FPA detector and the pattern improves the accuracy of the captured spatial and spectral information.

  2. An evaluation of the spatial resolution of soil moisture information

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hardy, K. R.; Cohen, S. H.; Rogers, L. K.; Burke, H. H. K.; Leupold, R. C.; Smallwood, M. D.

    1981-01-01

    Rainfall-amount patterns in the central regions of the U.S. were assessed. The spatial scales of surface features and their corresponding microwave responses in the mid western U.S. were investigated. The usefulness for U.S. government agencies of soil moisture information at scales of 10 km and 1 km. was ascertained. From an investigation of 494 storms, it was found that the rainfall resulting from the passage of most types of storms produces patterns which can be resolved on a 10 km scale. The land features causing the greatest problem in the sensing of soil moisture over large agricultural areas with a radiometer are bodies of water. Over the mid-western portions of the U.S., water occupies less than 2% of the total area, the consequently, the water bodies will not have a significant impact on the mapping of soil moisture. Over most of the areas, measurements at a 10-km resolution would adequately define the distribution of soil moisture. Crop yield models and hydrological models would give improved results if soil moisture information at scales of 10 km was available.

  3. Land cover changed object detection in remote sensing data with medium spatial resolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Xiao tong; Liu, Huiping; Gao, Xiaofeng

    2015-06-01

    Land cover change information is crucial to analyse the process and the change patterns of environments and ecological systems. Recent studies have incorporated object-based image analysis for its ability to generate meaningful geographical objects into studies of change detection. In this research, we developed a systematic methodology to realise multi-type land cover changed object detection with medium spatial resolution remote sensing images in Beijing, China. Optimum index factor (OIF) was applied to determine the best change indicators and the chi-square transformation was carried out to determine the change threshold of the 4 classes of changed object. The clustering change vectors in the feature space were proposed to discriminate the change types. According to the accuracy assessment, the overall accuracy of changed/unchanged object detection was approximately 93.9% with an overall kappa of 0.824, and the change type discrimination also achieved an overall accuracy of 81.67%, indicating the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  4. High spatial resolution two-dimensional position sensitive detector for the performance of coincidence experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Ceolin, D.; Chaplier, G.; Lemonnier, M.; Garcia, G.A.; Miron, C.; Nahon, L.; Simon, M.; Leclercq, N.; Morin, P.

    2005-04-01

    A position sensitive detector (PSD) adapted to the technical and mechanical specifications of our angle and energy resolved electron-ion(s) coincidence experiments is described in this article. The device, whose principle is very similar to the one detailed by J. H. D. Eland [Meas. Sci. Technol. 5, 1501 (1994)], is composed by a set of microchannel plates and a delay line anode. The originality comes from the addition in front of the encoding surface of a ceramic disk covered by a resistive surface. The capacitive coupling between the anode and the resistive plane has the double advantage of eliminating the spatial modulations due to the lattice of the anode and also of sensitizing a greater number of electrodes, increasing thus considerably the accuracy of the position measurements. The tests carried out with a time to digital conversion module of 250 ps resolution showed that a spatial resolution better than 50 {mu}m and a dead time of 160 ns can be achieved. Typical images obtained with the help of the EPICEA and DELICIOUS coincidence setups are also shown.

  5. Accuracy of high-resolution peripheral quantitative computed tomography for measurement of bone quality.

    PubMed

    MacNeil, Joshua A; Boyd, Steven K

    2007-12-01

    The introduction of three-dimensional high-resolution peripheral in vivo quantitative computed tomography (HR-pQCT) (XtremeCT, Scanco Medical, Switzerland; voxel size 82 microm) provides a new approach to monitor micro-architectural bone changes longitudinally. The accuracy of HR-pQCT for three important determinants of bone quality, including bone mineral density (BMD), architectural measurements and bone mechanics, was determined through a comparison with micro-computed tomography (microCT) and dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). Forty measurements from 10 cadaver radii with low bone mass were scanned using the three modalities, and image registration was used for 3D data to ensure identical regions were analyzed. The areal BMD of DXA correlated well with volumetric BMD by HR-pQCT despite differences in dimensionality (R(2) = 0.69), and the correlation improved when non-dimensional bone mineral content was assessed (R(2) = 0.80). Morphological parameters measured by HR-pQCT in a standard patient analysis, including bone volume ratio, trabecular number, derived trabecular thickness, derived trabecular separation, and cortical thickness correlated well with muCT measures (R(2) = 0.59-0.96). Additionally, some non-metric parameters such as connectivity density (R(2) = 0.90) performed well. The mechanical stiffness assessed by finite element analysis of HR-pQCT images was generally higher than for microCT data due to resolution differences, and correlated well at the continuum level (R(2) = 0.73). The validation here of HR-pQCT against gold-standards microCT and DXA provides insight into the accuracy of the system, and suggests that in addition to the standard patient protocol, additional indices of bone quality including connectivity density and mechanical stiffness may be appropriate to include as part of a standard patient analysis for clinical monitoring of bone quality.

  6. High-spatial-resolution passive microwave sounding systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Staelin, D. H.; Rosenkranz, P. W.

    1994-01-01

    The principal contributions of this combined theoretical and experimental effort were to advance and demonstrate new and more accurate techniques for sounding atmospheric temperature, humidity, and precipitation profiles at millimeter wavelengths, and to improve the scientific basis for such soundings. Some of these techniques are being incorporated in both research and operational systems. Specific results include: (1) development of the MIT Microwave Temperature Sounder (MTS), a 118-GHz eight-channel imaging spectrometer plus a switched-frequency spectrometer near 53 GHz, for use on the NASA ER-2 high-altitude aircraft, (2) conduct of ER-2 MTS missions in multiple seasons and locations in combination with other instruments, mapping with unprecedented approximately 2-km lateral resolution atmospheric temperature and precipitation profiles, atmospheric transmittances (at both zenith and nadir), frontal systems, and hurricanes, (3) ground based 118-GHz 3-D spectral images of wavelike structure within clouds passing overhead, (4) development and analysis of approaches to ground- and space-based 5-mm wavelength sounding of the upper stratosphere and mesosphere, which supported the planning of improvements to operational weather satellites, (5) development of improved multidimensional and adaptive retrieval methods for atmospheric temperature and humidity profiles, (6) development of combined nonlinear and statistical retrieval techniques for 183-GHz humidity profile retrievals, (7) development of nonlinear statistical retrieval techniques for precipitation cell-top altitudes, and (8) numerical analyses of the impact of remote sensing data on the accuracy of numerical weather predictions; a 68-km gridded model was used to study the spectral properties of error growth.

  7. Mapping ephemeral stream networks in desert environments using very-high-spatial-resolution multispectral remote sensing

    DOE PAGES

    Hamada, Yuki; O'Connor, Ben L.; Orr, Andrew B.; ...

    2016-03-26

    In this paper, understanding the spatial patterns of ephemeral streams is crucial for understanding how hydrologic processes influence the abundance and distribution of wildlife habitats in desert regions. Available methods for mapping ephemeral streams at the watershed scale typically underestimate the size of channel networks. Although remote sensing is an effective means of collecting data and obtaining information on large, inaccessible areas, conventional techniques for extracting channel features are not sufficient in regions that have small topographic gradients and subtle target-background spectral contrast. By using very high resolution multispectral imagery, we developed a new algorithm that applies landscape information tomore » map ephemeral channels in desert regions of the Southwestern United States where utility-scale solar energy development is occurring. Knowledge about landscape features and structures was integrated into the algorithm using a series of spectral transformation and spatial statistical operations to integrate information about landscape features and structures. The algorithm extracted ephemeral stream channels at a local scale, with the result that approximately 900% more ephemeral streams was identified than what were identified by using the U.S. Geological Survey’s National Hydrography Dataset. The accuracy of the algorithm in detecting channel areas was as high as 92%, and its accuracy in delineating channel center lines was 91% when compared to a subset of channel networks that were digitized by using the very high resolution imagery. Although the algorithm captured stream channels in desert landscapes across various channel sizes and forms, it often underestimated stream headwaters and channels obscured by bright soils and sparse vegetation. While further improvement is warranted, the algorithm provides an effective means of obtaining detailed information about ephemeral streams, and it could make a significant contribution

  8. Mapping ephemeral stream networks in desert environments using very-high-spatial-resolution multispectral remote sensing

    SciTech Connect

    Hamada, Yuki; O'Connor, Ben L.; Orr, Andrew B.; Wuthrich, Kelsey K.

    2016-03-26

    In this paper, understanding the spatial patterns of ephemeral streams is crucial for understanding how hydrologic processes influence the abundance and distribution of wildlife habitats in desert regions. Available methods for mapping ephemeral streams at the watershed scale typically underestimate the size of channel networks. Although remote sensing is an effective means of collecting data and obtaining information on large, inaccessible areas, conventional techniques for extracting channel features are not sufficient in regions that have small topographic gradients and subtle target-background spectral contrast. By using very high resolution multispectral imagery, we developed a new algorithm that applies landscape information to map ephemeral channels in desert regions of the Southwestern United States where utility-scale solar energy development is occurring. Knowledge about landscape features and structures was integrated into the algorithm using a series of spectral transformation and spatial statistical operations to integrate information about landscape features and structures. The algorithm extracted ephemeral stream channels at a local scale, with the result that approximately 900% more ephemeral streams was identified than what were identified by using the U.S. Geological Survey’s National Hydrography Dataset. The accuracy of the algorithm in detecting channel areas was as high as 92%, and its accuracy in delineating channel center lines was 91% when compared to a subset of channel networks that were digitized by using the very high resolution imagery. Although the algorithm captured stream channels in desert landscapes across various channel sizes and forms, it often underestimated stream headwaters and channels obscured by bright soils and sparse vegetation. While further improvement is warranted, the algorithm provides an effective means of obtaining detailed information about ephemeral streams, and it could make a significant contribution toward

  9. Object Based Image Analysis Combining High Spatial Resolution Imagery and Laser Point Clouds for Urban Land Cover

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zou, Xiaoliang; Zhao, Guihua; Li, Jonathan; Yang, Yuanxi; Fang, Yong

    2016-06-01

    With the rapid developments of the sensor technology, high spatial resolution imagery and airborne Lidar point clouds can be captured nowadays, which make classification, extraction, evaluation and analysis of a broad range of object features available. High resolution imagery, Lidar dataset and parcel map can be widely used for classification as information carriers. Therefore, refinement of objects classification is made possible for the urban land cover. The paper presents an approach to object based image analysis (OBIA) combing high spatial resolution imagery and airborne Lidar point clouds. The advanced workflow for urban land cover is designed with four components. Firstly, colour-infrared TrueOrtho photo and laser point clouds were pre-processed to derive the parcel map of water bodies and nDSM respectively. Secondly, image objects are created via multi-resolution image segmentation integrating scale parameter, the colour and shape properties with compactness criterion. Image can be subdivided into separate object regions. Thirdly, image objects classification is performed on the basis of segmentation and a rule set of knowledge decision tree. These objects imagery are classified into six classes such as water bodies, low vegetation/grass, tree, low building, high building and road. Finally, in order to assess the validity of the classification results for six classes, accuracy assessment is performed through comparing randomly distributed reference points of TrueOrtho imagery with the classification results, forming the confusion matrix and calculating overall accuracy and Kappa coefficient. The study area focuses on test site Vaihingen/Enz and a patch of test datasets comes from the benchmark of ISPRS WG III/4 test project. The classification results show higher overall accuracy for most types of urban land cover. Overall accuracy is 89.5% and Kappa coefficient equals to 0.865. The OBIA approach provides an effective and convenient way to combine high

  10. High spatial resolution mid-infrared studies of planetary systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skemer, Andrew

    I present the results of six papers related the formation and evolution of planets and planetary systems, all of which are based on high-resolution, ground-based, mid-infrared observations. The first three chapters are studies of T Tauri binaries. T Tauri stars are young, low mass stars, whose disks form the building blocks of extrasolar planets. The first chapter is a study of the 0.68"/0.12" triple system, T Tauri. Our spatially resolved N-band photometry reveals silicate absorption towards one component, T Tau Sa, indicating the presence of an edge-on disk, which is in contrast to the other components. The second chapter is an adaptive optics fed N-band spectroscopy study of the 0.88" binary, UY Aur. We find that the dust grains around UY Aur A are ISM-like, while the mineralogy of the dust around UY Aur B is more uncertain, due to self-extinction. The third chapter presents a survey of spatially resolved silicate spectroscopy for nine T Tauri binaries. We find with 90%-95% confidence that the silicate features of the binaries are more similar than those of randomly paired single stars. This implies that a shared binary property, such as age or composition, is an important parameter in dust grain evolution. The fourth chapter is a study of the planetary system, 2MASS 1207. We explore the source of 2MASS 1207 b's under-luminosity, which has typically been explained as the result of an edge-on disk of large, grey-extincting dust grains. We find that the edge-on disk theory is incompatible with several lines of evidence, and suggest that 2MASS 1207 b's appearance can be explained by a thick cloudy atmosphere, which might be typical among young, planetary systems. The fifth chapter is a study of the white dwarf, Sirius B, which in the context of this thesis is being studied as a post-planetary system. Our N-band imaging demonstrates that Sirius B does not have an infrared excess, in contrast to previous results. The sixth chapter is a study of mid

  11. Extraction Of Hydrological Parameters Using High Spatial Resolution Remote Sensing For KINEROS2 Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sadeh, Yuval; Blumberg, Dan G.; Cohen, Hai; Morin, Efrat; Maman, Shimrit

    2016-04-01

    Arid and semi-arid environments cover more than one-third of Earth's land surface; these environments are especially vulnerable to flash flood hazards due to the poor understanding of the phenomenon and the lack of meteorological, geomorphological, and hydrological data. For many years, catchment characteristics have been observed using point-based measurements such as rain gauges and soil sample analysis. Furthermore, flood modeling techniques are not always available in ungauged catchments or in regions where data are sparse. In comparison to point-based observations, using remote sensing technologies can provide continuous spatial hydrological parameters and variables. The advances in remote sensing technologies including weather radar-based quantitative precipitation estimation (QPE) and Earth observing satellites, provide new geo-spatial data using high spatial and temporal resolution for basin-scale geomorphological analysis and hydrological models. This study used high spatial resolution remote sensing to extract some of the main input parameters of Kinematic Runoff and Erosion Model (KINEROS2), for the arid medium size Rahaf watershed (76 km^2}), located in the Judean Desert, Israel. During the research a high resolution land cover map of Rahaf basin was created using WorldView-2 multispectral satellite imageries; surface roughness was estimated using SIR-C and COSMO-SkyMed Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) spaceborne sensors; and rainstorm characteristics were extracted from ground-based meteorological radar. Finally, all the remotely sensed extracted data were used as inputs for the KINEROS2 through Automated Geospatial Watershed Assessment (AGWA) tool. The model-simulated peak flow and volume were then compared to runoff measurements from the watershed's pouring point. This research demonstrates the ability of using remotely sensed extracted data as inputs for the KINEROS2 model. Using AGWA, each simulated storm was successfully calibrated, when the average

  12. Evaluation of spatial resolution of satellite data on snow cover estimates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Porhemmat, J.; Saghafian, B.

    2003-04-01

    Snow cover area is one of the most important components in snowmelt runoff modelling. Snow cover extent and its variation can not be reasonably detected by ground survey. Therefore, remote sensing is an important alternative for snow cover extent estimates and its spatial and temporal variation. Despite having many satellites scanning earth surface, most do not meet the needs of producing time series of daily snow cover needed in hydrology and water resources planning. The satellites such as SPOT and Landsat with high spatial resolution (28.5 and 10-15 meters per pixel) pass over earth every 16 and 26 days, respectively. This means that if a pass was affected by cloudy condition, the time interval of receiving a suitable image could be more than one month. However, the pass made by NOAA is every 12 hours with a nominal resolution of 1100 meters per pixel. Thus the effect of spatial resolution of remotely sensed data on accuracy of snow cover area must be assessed. This research involves selection of a high-resolution and a low-resolution sensor, which are respectively Landsat TM (Thematic Mapper) and NOAA AVHRR (Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometers). Landsat can detect small parcels of snow, which may not be detected by NOAA AVHRR. Zagross high lands, upstream of Karun river basin in southwest of Iran, is a seasonally covered by snow and are selected for the study area. Two simultaneous passes of Landsat and NOAA are chosen for evaluation of snow cover. The dates of these passes are 13 April 1997 and 18 May 1998. The first one corresponds to the early stage of snowmelt period and the second one to the end stage of snowmelt period. The whole study area corresponds to a full scene of Landsat, which cover an area of about 34000 Km2. There were many scattered and separate snow parcels on both dates. Snow area was detected by two methods. First method was interpretation and digitizing snow line on monitor screen and the second one was supervised classification

  13. Accuracy improvement of quantitative analysis by spatial confinement in laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Guo, L B; Hao, Z Q; Shen, M; Xiong, W; He, X N; Xie, Z Q; Gao, M; Li, X Y; Zeng, X Y; Lu, Y F

    2013-07-29

    To improve the accuracy of quantitative analysis in laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy, the plasma produced by a Nd:YAG laser from steel targets was confined by a cavity. A number of elements with low concentrations, such as vanadium (V), chromium (Cr), and manganese (Mn), in the steel samples were investigated. After the optimization of the cavity dimension and laser fluence, significant enhancement factors of 4.2, 3.1, and 2.87 in the emission intensity of V, Cr, and Mn lines, respectively, were achieved at a laser fluence of 42.9 J/cm(2) using a hemispherical cavity (diameter: 5 mm). More importantly, the correlation coefficient of the V I 440.85/Fe I 438.35 nm was increased from 0.946 (without the cavity) to 0.981 (with the cavity); and similar results for Cr I 425.43/Fe I 425.08 nm and Mn I 476.64/Fe I 492.05 nm were also obtained. Therefore, it was demonstrated that the accuracy of quantitative analysis with low concentration elements in steel samples was improved, because the plasma became uniform with spatial confinement. The results of this study provide a new pathway for improving the accuracy of quantitative analysis of LIBS.

  14. Trade-off between angular and spatial resolutions in in vivo fiber tractography.

    PubMed

    Vos, Sjoerd B; Aksoy, Murat; Han, Zhaoying; Holdsworth, Samantha J; Maclaren, Julian; Viergever, Max A; Leemans, Alexander; Bammer, Roland

    2016-04-01

    Tractography is becoming an increasingly popular method to reconstruct white matter connections in vivo. The diffusion MRI data that tractography is based on requires a high angular resolution to resolve crossing fibers whereas high spatial resolution is required to distinguish kissing from crossing fibers. However, scan time increases with increasing spatial and angular resolutions, which can become infeasible in clinical settings. Here we investigated the trade-off between spatial and angular resolutions to determine which of these factors is most worth investing scan time in. We created a unique diffusion MRI dataset with 1.0 mm isotropic resolution and a high angular resolution (100 directions) using an advanced 3D diffusion-weighted multi-slab EPI acquisition. This dataset was reconstructed to create subsets of lower angular (75, 50, and 25 directions) and lower spatial (1.5, 2.0, and 2.5 mm) resolution. Using all subsets, we investigated the effects of angular and spatial resolutions in three fiber bundles-the corticospinal tract, arcuate fasciculus and corpus callosum-by analyzing the volumetric bundle overlap and anatomical correspondence between tracts. Our results indicate that the subsets of 25 and 50 directions provided inferior tract reconstructions compared with the datasets with 75 and 100 directions. Datasets with spatial resolutions of 1.0, 1.5, and 2.0 mm were comparable, while the lowest resolution (2.5 mm) datasets had discernible inferior quality. In conclusion, we found that angular resolution appeared to be more influential than spatial resolution in improving tractography results. Spatial resolutions higher than 2.0 mm only appear to benefit multi-fiber tractography methods if this is not at the cost of decreased angular resolution.

  15. Classification accuracy of multiple visual spatial measures in the detection of suspect effort.

    PubMed

    Whiteside, Douglas; Wald, Danielle; Busse, Michelle

    2011-02-01

    A wide variety of cognitive measures, particularly memory measures, have been studied for their ability to detect suspect effort, or biased responding on neuropsychological assessment instruments. However, visual spatial measures have received less attention. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the classification accuracy of several commonly used visual spatial measures, including the Judgment of Line Orientation Test, the Benton Facial Recognition Test, the Hooper Visual Organization Test, and the Rey Complex Figure Test-Copy and Recognition trials. Participants included 491 consecutive referrals who participated in a comprehensive neuropsychological assessment and met study criteria. Participants were divided into two groups identified as either unbiased responding (UR, N = 415) or biased responding (BR, N = 30) based on their performance on two measures of effort. The remaining participants (N = 46) had discrepant performance on the symptom validity measures and were excluded from further analysis. The groups differed significantly on all measures. Additionally, receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis indicated all of the measures had acceptable classification accuracy, but a measure combining scores from all of the measures had excellent classification accuracy. Results indicated that various cut-off scores on the measures could be used depending on the context of the evaluation. Suggested cut-off scores for the measures had sensitivity levels of approximately 32-46%, when specificity was at least 87%. When combined, the measures suggested cut-off scores had sensitivity increase to 57% while maintaining the same level of specificity (87%). The results were discussed in the context of research advocating the use of multiple measures of effort.

  16. Breast density estimation from high spectral and spatial resolution MRI.

    PubMed

    Li, Hui; Weiss, William A; Medved, Milica; Abe, Hiroyuki; Newstead, Gillian M; Karczmar, Gregory S; Giger, Maryellen L

    2016-10-01

    A three-dimensional breast density estimation method is presented for high spectral and spatial resolution (HiSS) MR imaging. Twenty-two patients were recruited (under an Institutional Review Board--approved Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act-compliant protocol) for high-risk breast cancer screening. Each patient received standard-of-care clinical digital x-ray mammograms and MR scans, as well as HiSS scans. The algorithm for breast density estimation includes breast mask generating, breast skin removal, and breast percentage density calculation. The inter- and intra-user variabilities of the HiSS-based density estimation were determined using correlation analysis and limits of agreement. Correlation analysis was also performed between the HiSS-based density estimation and radiologists' breast imaging-reporting and data system (BI-RADS) density ratings. A correlation coefficient of 0.91 ([Formula: see text]) was obtained between left and right breast density estimations. An interclass correlation coefficient of 0.99 ([Formula: see text]) indicated high reliability for the inter-user variability of the HiSS-based breast density estimations. A moderate correlation coefficient of 0.55 ([Formula: see text]) was observed between HiSS-based breast density estimations and radiologists' BI-RADS. In summary, an objective density estimation method using HiSS spectral data from breast MRI was developed. The high reproducibility with low inter- and low intra-user variabilities shown in this preliminary study suggest that such a HiSS-based density metric may be potentially beneficial in programs requiring breast density such as in breast cancer risk assessment and monitoring effects of therapy.

  17. Comparison of alternative spatial resolutions in the application of a spatially distributed biogeochemical model over complex terrain

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Turner, D.P.; Dodson, R.; Marks, D.

    1996-01-01

    Spatially distributed biogeochemical models may be applied over grids at a range of spatial resolutions, however, evaluation of potential errors and loss of information at relatively coarse resolutions is rare. In this study, a georeferenced database at the 1-km spatial resolution was developed to initialize and drive a process-based model (Forest-BGC) of water and carbon balance over a gridded 54976 km2 area covering two river basins in mountainous western Oregon. Corresponding data sets were also prepared at 10-km and 50-km spatial resolutions using commonly employed aggregation schemes. Estimates were made at each grid cell for climate variables including daily solar radiation, air temperature, humidity, and precipitation. The topographic structure, water holding capacity, vegetation type and leaf area index were likewise estimated for initial conditions. The daily time series for the climatic drivers was developed from interpolations of meteorological station data for the water year 1990 (1 October 1989-30 September 1990). Model outputs at the 1-km resolution showed good agreement with observed patterns in runoff and productivity. The ranges for model inputs at the 10-km and 50-km resolutions tended to contract because of the smoothed topography. Estimates for mean evapotranspiration and runoff were relatively insensitive to changing the spatial resolution of the grid whereas estimates of mean annual net primary production varied by 11%. The designation of a vegetation type and leaf area at the 50-km resolution often subsumed significant heterogeneity in vegetation, and this factor accounted for much of the difference in the mean values for the carbon flux variables. Although area wide means for model outputs were generally similar across resolutions, difference maps often revealed large areas of disagreement. Relatively high spatial resolution analyses of biogeochemical cycling are desirable from several perspectives and may be particularly important in the

  18. Cumulus cloud field morphology and spatial patterns derived from high spatial resolution Landsat imagery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sengupta, S. K.; Welch, R. M.; Navar, M. S.; Berendes, T. A.; Chen, D. W.

    1990-01-01

    Using high-spatial-resolution Landsat MSS imagery, the cumulus cloud morphology, cloud nearest-neighbor distributions, and cloud clumping scales were investigated. It is shown that the cloud-size distribution can be represented by a mixture of two power laws; clouds of diameters less than 1 km have power-law slope range of 1.4-2.3, while larger clouds have slopes from 2.1 to 4.75. The break in power-law slope occurs at the cloud size that makes the largest contribution to cloud cover. Results suggest that larger clouds grow at the expense of smaller clouds. It was also found that the cloud inhomogeneities have significant impact on radiative fluxes.

  19. Error Estimation in an Optimal Interpolation Scheme for High Spatial and Temporal Resolution SST Analyses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rigney, Matt; Jedlovec, Gary; LaFontaine, Frank; Shafer, Jaclyn

    2010-01-01

    Heat and moisture exchange between ocean surface and atmosphere plays an integral role in short-term, regional NWP. Current SST products lack both spatial and temporal resolution to accurately capture small-scale features that affect heat and moisture flux. NASA satellite is used to produce high spatial and temporal resolution SST analysis using an OI technique.

  20. Improvement of spatial resolution in the longitudinal direction for isotropic imaging in helical CT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsukagoshi, Shinsuke; Ota, Takamasa; Fujii, Misako; Kazama, Masahiro; Okumura, Miwa; Johkoh, Takeshi

    2007-02-01

    Experiments were conducted to confirm the isotropic spatial resolution of multislice CT with a 0.5 mm slice thickness. Isotropic spatial resolution means that the spatial resolution in the transaxial plane (X-Y plane) and that in the longitudinal direction (Z direction) are equivalent. To obtain point spread function (PSF) values in the X-Y-Z directions, three-dimensional voxel data were obtained by helical scanning of a bead phantom. The modulation transfer function (MTF) values were then obtained by three-dimensional Fourier transform of the PSF. Evaluation of the spatial resolution in the X-Y-Z directions by the MTF values showed that the spatial resolution in the Z direction does not depend on the reconstruction kernel used. It was also found that the spatial resolution in the Z direction, as compared with that in the X-Y plane, is superior with the standard kernel for the abdomen and is inferior with the high-definition kernel for the ears/bones. By performing sharpening filter processing in the Z direction with a high-definition kernel, comparable spatial resolution could be obtained in the X-Y-Z directions. It was confirmed that adjusting the spatial resolution in the Z direction with the reconstruction kernel used is an effective method for isotropic imaging.

  1. Spatial resolution in CBCT machines for dental/maxillofacial applications-what do we know today?

    PubMed

    Brüllmann, D; Schulze, R K W

    2015-01-01

    Spatial resolution is one of the most important parameters objectively defining image quality, particularly in dental imaging, where fine details often have to be depicted. Here, we review the current status on assessment parameters for spatial resolution and on published data regarding spatial resolution in CBCT images. The current concepts of visual [line-pair (lp) measurements] and automated [modulation transfer function (MTF)] assessment of spatial resolution in CBCT images are summarized and reviewed. Published measurement data on spatial resolution in CBCT are evaluated and analysed. Effective (i.e. actual) spatial resolution available in CBCT images is being influenced by the two-dimensional detector, the three-dimensional reconstruction process, patient movement during the scan and various other parameters. In the literature, the values range between 0.6 and 2.8 lp mm(-1) (visual assessment; median, 1.7 lp mm(-1)) vs MTF (range, 0.5-2.3 cycles per mm; median, 2.1 lp mm(-1)). Spatial resolution of CBCT images is approximately one order of magnitude lower than that of intraoral radiographs. Considering movement, scatter effects and other influences in real-world scans of living patients, a realistic spatial resolution of just above 1 lp mm(-1) could be expected.

  2. Determination of a high spatial resolution geopotential model using atomic clock comparisons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lion, G.; Panet, I.; Wolf, P.; Guerlin, C.; Bize, S.; Delva, P.

    2017-01-01

    Recent technological advances in optical atomic clocks are opening new perspectives for the direct determination of geopotential differences between any two points at a centimeter-level accuracy in geoid height. However, so far detailed quantitative estimates of the possible improvement in geoid determination when adding such clock measurements to existing data are lacking. We present a first step in that direction with the aim and hope of triggering further work and efforts in this emerging field of chronometric geodesy and geophysics. We specifically focus on evaluating the contribution of this new kind of direct measurements in determining the geopotential at high spatial resolution (≈ 10 km). We studied two test areas, both located in France and corresponding to a middle (Massif Central) and high (Alps) mountainous terrain. These regions are interesting because the gravitational field strength varies greatly from place to place at high spatial resolution due to the complex topography. Our method consists in first generating a synthetic high-resolution geopotential map, then drawing synthetic measurement data (gravimetry and clock data) from it, and finally reconstructing the geopotential map from that data using least squares collocation. The quality of the reconstructed map is then assessed by comparing it to the original one used to generate the data. We show that adding only a few clock data points (less than 1% of the gravimetry data) reduces the bias significantly and improves the standard deviation by a factor 3. The effect of the data coverage and data quality on the results is investigated, and the trade-off between the measurement noise level and the number of data points is discussed.

  3. Angular versus spatial resolution trade-offs for diffusion imaging under time constraints.

    PubMed

    Zhan, Liang; Jahanshad, Neda; Ennis, Daniel B; Jin, Yan; Bernstein, Matthew A; Borowski, Bret J; Jack, Clifford R; Toga, Arthur W; Leow, Alex D; Thompson, Paul M

    2013-10-01

    Diffusion weighted magnetic resonance imaging (DW-MRI) are now widely used to assess brain integrity in clinical populations. The growing interest in mapping brain connectivity has made it vital to consider what scanning parameters affect the accuracy, stability, and signal-to-noise of diffusion measures. Trade-offs between scan parameters can only be optimized if their effects on various commonly-derived measures are better understood. To explore angular versus spatial resolution trade-offs in standard tensor-derived measures, and in measures that use the full angular information in diffusion signal, we scanned eight subjects twice, 2 weeks apart, using three protocols that took the same amount of time (7 min). Scans with 3.0, 2.7, 2.5 mm isotropic voxels were collected using 48, 41, and 37 diffusion-sensitized gradients to equalize scan times. A specially designed DTI phantom was also scanned with the same protocols, and different b-values. We assessed how several diffusion measures including fractional anisotropy (FA), mean diffusivity (MD), and the full 3D orientation distribution function (ODF) depended on the spatial/angular resolution and the SNR. We also created maps of stability over time in the FA, MD, ODF, skeleton FA of 14 TBSS-derived ROIs, and an information uncertainty index derived from the tensor distribution function, which models the signal using a continuous mixture of tensors. In scans of the same duration, higher angular resolution and larger voxels boosted SNR and improved stability over time. The increased partial voluming in large voxels also led to bias in estimating FA, but this was partially addressed by using "beyond-tensor" models of diffusion.

  4. Spatial Scaling of Snow Observations and Microwave Emission Modeling During CLPX and Appropriate Satellite Sensor Resolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, E. J.; Tedesco, M.

    2005-12-01

    Accurate estimates of snow water equivalent and other properties play an important role in weather, natural hazard, and hydrological forecasting and climate modeling over a range of scales in space and time. Remote sensing-derived estimates have traditionally been of the 'snapshot' type, but techniques involving models with assimilation are also being explored. In both cases, forward emission models are useful to understand the observed passive microwave signatures and developing retrieval algorithms. However, mismatches between passive microwave sensor resolutions and the scales of processes controlling subpixel heterogeneity can affect the accuracy of the estimates. Improving the spatial resolution of new passive microwave satellite sensors is a major desire in order to (literally) resolve such subpixel heterogeneity, but limited spacecraft and mission resources impose severe constraints and tradeoffs. In order to maximize science return while mitigating risk for a satellite concept, it is essential to understand the scaling behavior of snow in terms of what the sensor sees (brightness temperature) as well as in terms of the actual variability of snow. NASA's Cold Land Processes Experiment-1 (CLPX-1: Colorado, 2002 and 2003) was designed to provide data to measure these scaling behaviors for varying snow conditions in areas with forested, alpine, and meadow/pasture land cover. We will use observations from CLPX-1 ground, airborne, and satellite passive microwave sensors to examine and evaluate the scaling behavior of observed and modeled brightness temperatures and observed and retrieved snow parameters across scales from meters to 10's of kilometers. The conclusions will provide direct examples of the appropriate spatial sampling scales of new sensors for snow remote sensing. The analyses will also illustrate the effects and spatial scales of the underlying phenomena (e.g., land cover) that control subpixel heterogeneity.

  5. Spatial Scaling of Snow Observations and Microwave Emission Modeling During CLPX and Appropriate Satellite Sensor Resolution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kim, Edward J.; Tedesco, Marco

    2005-01-01

    Accurate estimates of snow water equivalent and other properties play an important role in weather, natural hazard, and hydrological forecasting and climate modeling over a range of scales in space and time. Remote sensing-derived estimates have traditionally been of the "snapshot" type, but techniques involving models with assimilation are also being explored. In both cases, forward emission models are useful to understand the observed passive microwave signatures and developing retrieval algorithms. However, mismatches between passive microwave sensor resolutions and the scales of processes controlling subpixel heterogeneity can affect the accuracy of the estimates. Improving the spatial resolution of new passive microwave satellite sensors is a major desire in order to (literally) resolve such subpixel heterogeneity, but limited spacecraft and mission resources impose severe constraints and tradeoffs. In order to maximize science return while mitigating risk for a satellite concept, it is essential to understand the scaling behavior of snow in terms of what the sensor sees (brightness temperature) as well as in terms of the actual variability of snow. NASA's Cold Land Processes Experiment-1 (CLPX-1: Colorado, 2002 and 2003) was designed to provide data to measure these scaling behaviors for varying snow conditions in areas with forested, alpine, and meadow/pasture land cover. We will use observations from CLPX-1 ground, airborne, and satellite passive microwave sensors to examine and evaluate the scaling behavior of observed and modeled brightness temperatures and observed and retrieved snow parameters across scales from meters to 10's of kilometers. The conclusions will provide direct examples of the appropriate spatial sampling scales of new sensors for snow remote sensing. The analyses will also illustrate the effects and spatial scales of the underlying phenomena (e.g., land cover) that control subpixel heterogeneity.

  6. High-resolution full-field spatial coherence gated optical tomography using monochromatic light source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Srivastava, Vishal; Nandy, Sreyankar; Singh Mehta, Dalip

    2013-09-01

    We demonstrate dispersion free, high-resolution full-field spatial coherence gated optical tomography using spatially incoherent monochromatic light source. Spatial coherence properties of light source were synthesized by means of combining a static diffuser and vibrating multi mode fiber bundle. Due to low spatial coherence of light source, the axial resolution of the system was achieved similar to that of conventional optical coherence tomography which utilizes low temporal coherence. Experimental results of fringe visibility versus optical path difference are presented for varying numerical apertures objective lenses. High resolution optically sectioned images of multilayer onion skin, and red blood cells are presented.

  7. Evaluating the Value of High Spatial Resolution in National Capacity Expansion Models using ReEDS

    SciTech Connect

    Krishnan, Venkat; Cole, Wesley

    2016-11-14

    Power sector capacity expansion models (CEMs) have a broad range of spatial resolutions. This paper uses the Regional Energy Deployment System (ReEDS) model, a long-term national scale electric sector CEM, to evaluate the value of high spatial resolution for CEMs. ReEDS models the United States with 134 load balancing areas (BAs) and captures the variability in existing generation parameters, future technology costs, performance, and resource availability using very high spatial resolution data, especially for wind and solar modeled at 356 resource regions. In this paper we perform planning studies at three different spatial resolutions--native resolution (134 BAs), state-level, and NERC region level--and evaluate how results change under different levels of spatial aggregation in terms of renewable capacity deployment and location, associated transmission builds, and system costs. The results are used to ascertain the value of high geographically resolved models in terms of their impact on relative competitiveness among renewable energy resources.

  8. The space-math link in preschool boys and girls: Importance of mental transformation, targeting accuracy, and spatial anxiety.

    PubMed

    Wong, Wang I

    2016-10-20

    Spatial abilities are pertinent to mathematical competence, but evidence of the space-math link has largely been confined to older samples and intrinsic spatial abilities (e.g., mental transformation). The roles of gender and affective factors are also unclear. This study examined the correlations between counting ability, mental transformation, and targeting accuracy in 182 Hong Kong preschoolers, and whether these relationships were weaker at higher spatial anxiety levels. Both spatial abilities related with counting similarly for boys and girls. Targeting accuracy also mediated the male advantage in counting. Interestingly, spatial anxiety moderated the space-math links, but differently for boys and girls. For boys, spatial abilities were irrelevant to counting at high anxiety levels; for girls, the role of anxiety on the space-math link is less clear. Results extend the evidence base of the space-math link to include an extrinsic spatial ability (targeting accuracy) and have implications for intervention programmes. Statement of contribution What is already known on this subject? Much evidence of a space-math link in adolescent and adult samples and for intrinsic spatial abilities. What does this study add? Extended the space-math link to include both intrinsic and extrinsic spatial abilities in a preschool sample. Showed how spatial anxiety moderated the space-math link differently for boys and girls.

  9. Achieving High Spatial Resolution Surface Plasmon Resonance Microscopy with Image Reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Yu, Hui; Shan, Xiaonan; Wang, Shaopeng; Tao, Nongjian

    2017-03-07

    Surface plasmon resonance microscopy (SPRM) is a powerful platform for biomedical imaging and molecular binding kinetics analysis. However, the spatial resolution of SPRM along the plasmon propagation direction (longitudinal) is determined by the decaying length of the plasmonic wave, which can be as large as tens of microns. Different methods have been proposed to improve the spatial resolution, but each at the expense of decreased sensitivity or temporal resolution. Here we present a method to achieve high spatial resolution SPRM based on deconvolution of complex field. The method does not require additional optical setup and improves the spatial resolution in the longitudinal direction. We applied the method to image nanoparticles and achieved close-to-diffraction limit resolution in both longitudinal and transverse directions.

  10. Selecting the spatial resolution of satellite sensors required for global monitoring of land transformations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Townshend, J. R. G.; Justice, C. O.

    1988-01-01

    The paper provides preliminary evidence for the spatial resolutions required to monitor land transformations at broad scales. This is obtained from simulations of imagery at various spatial resolutions between 125 and 4000 m derived from Landsat MSS imagery. Consideration is given to the various types of spatial images detectable by remotely-sensed systems, as well as to the difficulties associated in disentangling permanent land transformations from shorter term changes such as phenological and interannual changes.

  11. Holographic tomography with scanning of illumination: space-domain reconstruction for spatially invariant accuracy

    PubMed Central

    Kostencka, Julianna; Kozacki, Tomasz; Kuś, Arkadiusz; Kemper, Björn; Kujawińska, Małgorzata

    2016-01-01

    The paper presents two novel, space-domain reconstruction algorithms for holographic tomography utilizing scanning of illumination and a fixed detector that is highly suitable for imaging of living biomedical specimens. The first proposed algorithm is an adaptation of the filtered backpropagation to the scanning illumination tomography. Its space-domain implementation enables avoiding the error-prone interpolation in the Fourier domain, which is a significant problem of the state-of-the-art tomographic algorithm. The second proposed algorithm is a modified version of the former, which ensures the spatially invariant reconstruction accuracy. The utility of the proposed algorithms is demonstrated with numerical simulations and experimental measurement of a cancer cell. PMID:27867717

  12. Use of UAS remote sensing data to estimate crop ET at high spatial resolution

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Estimation of the spatial distribution of evapotranspiration (ET) based on remotely sensed imagery has become useful for managing water in irrigated agricultural at various spatial scales. However, data acquired by conventional satellites (Landsat, ASTER, etc.) lack the spatial resolution to capture...

  13. Spatially adaptive block-based super-resolution.

    PubMed

    Su, Heng; Tang, Liang; Wu, Ying; Tretter, Daniel; Zhou, Jie

    2012-03-01

    Super-resolution technology provides an effective way to increase image resolution by incorporating additional information from successive input images or training samples. Various super-resolution algorithms have been proposed based on different assumptions, and their relative performances can differ in regions of different characteristics within a single image. Based on this observation, an adaptive algorithm is proposed in this paper to integrate a higher level image classification task and a lower level super-resolution process, in which we incorporate reconstruction-based super-resolution algorithms, single-image enhancement, and image/video classification into a single comprehensive framework. The target high-resolution image plane is divided into adaptive-sized blocks, and different suitable super-resolution algorithms are automatically selected for the blocks. Then, a deblocking process is applied to reduce block edge artifacts. A new benchmark is also utilized to measure the performance of super-resolution algorithms. Experimental results with real-life videos indicate encouraging improvements with our method.

  14. Applications of high-resolution spatial discretization scheme and Jacobian-free Newton–Krylov method in two-phase flow problems

    SciTech Connect

    Zou, Ling; Zhao, Haihua; Zhang, Hongbin

    2015-09-01

    The majority of the existing reactor system analysis codes were developed using low-order numerical schemes in both space and time. In many nuclear thermal–hydraulics applications, it is desirable to use higher-order numerical schemes to reduce numerical errors. High-resolution spatial discretization schemes provide high order spatial accuracy in smooth regions and capture sharp spatial discontinuity without nonphysical spatial oscillations. In this work, we adapted an existing high-resolution spatial discretization scheme on staggered grids in two-phase flow applications. Fully implicit time integration schemes were also implemented to reduce numerical errors from operator-splitting types of time integration schemes. The resulting nonlinear system has been successfully solved using the Jacobian-free Newton–Krylov (JFNK) method. The high-resolution spatial discretization and high-order fully implicit time integration numerical schemes were tested and numerically verified for several two-phase test problems, including a two-phase advection problem, a two-phase advection with phase appearance/disappearance problem, and the water faucet problem. Numerical results clearly demonstrated the advantages of using such high-resolution spatial and high-order temporal numerical schemes to significantly reduce numerical diffusion and therefore improve accuracy. Our study also demonstrated that the JFNK method is stable and robust in solving two-phase flow problems, even when phase appearance/disappearance exists.

  15. System for processing of airborne images of forest ecosystems using high spectral and spatial resolution data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kozoderov, V. V.; Dmitriev, E. V.; Kamentsev, V. P.

    2014-12-01

    The developed hardware and software system for the recognition of natural and man-made objects based on the airborne hyperspectral sensing implements flight tasks on selected survey routes and computational procedures for solving applied problems that occur in data processing. The basics of object recognition based on obtained images of high spectral and spatial resolution in mathematical terms of sets of sites and labels and the basics of interrelations between separate resolution elements (pixels) for selected object classes are presented. Features of energy minimization of the processed scene are depicted as a target function of the optimization of computation and regularization of the solution of the considered problems as a theoretical basis for distinguishing between classes of objects in the presence of boundaries between them. Examples of the formation of information layers of recorded spectra for selected "pure species" of pine and birch forests are cited, with the separation of illuminated and shaded pixels, which increases the accuracy of object recognition in the processing of the images.

  16. 2 cm spatial-resolution and 2 km range Brillouin optical fiber sensor using a transient differential pulse pair.

    PubMed

    Dong, Yongkang; Zhang, Hongying; Chen, Liang; Bao, Xiaoyi

    2012-03-20

    We report a high-spatial-resolution and long-range distributed temperature sensor through optimizing differential pulse-width pair Brillouin optical time-domain analysis (DPP-BOTDA). In DPP-BOTDA, the differential signal suffers from a signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) reduction with respect to the original signals, and for a fixed pulse-width difference the SNR reduction increases with the pulse width. Through reducing the pulse width to a transient regime (near to or less than the phonon lifetime) to decrease the SNR reduction after the differential process, the optimized 8/8.2 ns pulse pair is applied to realize a 2 cm spatial resolution, where a pulse generator with a 150 ps fall-time is used to ensure the effective resolution of DPP-BOTDA. In the experiment, a 2 cm spatial-resolution hot-spot detection with a 2 °C temperature accuracy is demonstrated over a 2 km sensing fiber.

  17. Investigating the tradeoffs between spatial resolution and diffusion sampling for brain mapping with diffusion tractography: time well spent?

    PubMed

    Calabrese, Evan; Badea, Alexandra; Coe, Christopher L; Lubach, Gabriele R; Styner, Martin A; Johnson, G Allan

    2014-11-01

    Interest in mapping white matter pathways in the brain has peaked with the recognition that altered brain connectivity may contribute to a variety of neurologic and psychiatric diseases. Diffusion tractography has emerged as a popular method for postmortem brain mapping initiatives, including the ex-vivo component of the human connectome project, yet it remains unclear to what extent computer-generated tracks fully reflect the actual underlying anatomy. Of particular concern is the fact that diffusion tractography results vary widely depending on the choice of acquisition protocol. The two major acquisition variables that consume scan time, spatial resolution, and diffusion sampling, can each have profound effects on the resulting tractography. In this analysis, we determined the effects of the temporal tradeoff between spatial resolution and diffusion sampling on tractography in the ex-vivo rhesus macaque brain, a close primate model for the human brain. We used the wealth of autoradiography-based connectivity data available for the rhesus macaque brain to assess the anatomic accuracy of six time-matched diffusion acquisition protocols with varying balance between spatial and diffusion sampling. We show that tractography results vary greatly, even when the subject and the total acquisition time are held constant. Further, we found that focusing on either spatial resolution or diffusion sampling at the expense of the other is counterproductive. A balanced consideration of both sampling domains produces the most anatomically accurate and consistent results.

  18. Sub-pixel spatial resolution micro-roughness measurements with interlaced stitching

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mooney, James T.; Stahl, H. Philip

    2005-08-01

    In this paper we describe a method to increase the spatial resolution of surface micro-roughness measurements. As the surface specifications for precision optics become more demanding, the metrology instruments must cover a broad spatial frequency range. Generally, multiple instruments are used to cover the full range of the specifications. For example, an interferometer (Fizeau, Michelson, etc.) would be used to test low spatial frequency surface errors, an interferometric microscope (such as a white light interferomenter) would be used for higher spatial frequency errors, and an AFM would be used for even higher spatial frequency errors. For some precision optics, three or more instruments would be necessary. However, an increase in the resolvable spatial frequency bandwidth of a metrology instrument could reduce the number of instruments necessary to characterize the optical surface over the spatial frequency bands defined by the optical specifications. A solution to increase the resolvable spatial frequency bandwidth of micro-roughness measurements will be presented. This will be accomplished by implementing an interferometric microscope and a process called "sub-pixel spatial resolution interferometry" (SSRI) with interlaced stitching. In this process, multiple interferometric measurements are made as the optic under test (or the CCD array) is laterally shifted at sub-pixel increments. The measurements are then combined to construct a measurement with higher spatial resolution. Initial results obtained implementing a similar process used to increase the spatial resolution of measurements made with a commercially available Fizeau interferometer will be presented.

  19. Daily air temperature interpolated at high spatial resolution over a large mountainous region

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dodson, R.; Marks, D.

    1997-01-01

    Two methods are investigated for interpolating daily minimum and maximum air temperatures (Tmin and Tmax) at a 1 km spatial resolution over a large mountainous region (830 000 km2) in the U.S. Pacific Northwest. The methods were selected because of their ability to (1) account for the effect of elevation on temperature and (2) efficiently handle large volumes of data. The first method, the neutral stability algorithm (NSA), used the hydrostatic and potential temperature equations to convert measured temperatures and elevations to sea-level potential temperatures. The potential temperatures were spatially interpolated using an inverse-squared-distance algorithm and then mapped to the elevation surface of a digital elevation model (DEM). The second method, linear lapse rate adjustment (LLRA), involved the same basic procedure as the NSA, but used a constant linear lapse rate instead of the potential temperature equation. Cross-validation analyses were performed using the NSA and LLRA methods to interpolate Tmin and Tmax each day for the 1990 water year, and the methods were evaluated based on mean annual interpolation error (IE). The NSA method showed considerable bias for sites associated with vertical extrapolation. A correction based on climate station/grid cell elevation differences was developed and found to successfully remove the bias. The LLRA method was tested using 3 lapse rates, none of which produced a serious extrapolation bias. The bias-adjusted NSA and the 3 LLRA methods produced almost identical levels of accuracy (mean absolute errors between 1.2 and 1.3??C), and produced very similar temperature surfaces based on image difference statistics. In terms of accuracy, speed, and ease of implementation, LLRA was chosen as the best of the methods tested.

  20. Spatial Structure of a Braided River: Metric Resolution Hydrodynamic Modeling Reveals What SWOT Might See

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schubert, J.; Sanders, B. F.; Andreadis, K.

    2013-12-01

    The Surface Water and Ocean Topography (SWOT) mission, currently under study by NASA (National Aeronautics and Space Administration) and CNES (Centre National d'Etudes Spatiales), is designed to provide global spatial measurements of surface water properties at resolutions better than 10 m and with centimetric accuracy. The data produced by SWOT will include irregularly spaced point clouds of the water surface height, with point spacings from roughly 2-50 m depending on a point's location within SWOT's swath. This could offer unprecedented insight into the spatial structure of rivers. Features that may be resolved include backwater profiles behind dams, drawdown profiles, uniform flow sections, critical flow sections, and even riffle-pool flow structures. In the event that SWOT scans a river during a major flood, it becomes possible to delineate the limits of the flood as well as the spatial structure of the water surface elevation, yielding insight into the dynamic interaction of channels and flood plains. The Platte River in Nebraska, USA, is a braided river with a width and slope of approximately 100 m and 100 cm/km, respectively. A 1 m resolution Digital Terrain Model (DTM) of the river basin, based on airborne lidar collected during low-flow conditions, was used to parameterize a two-dimensional, variable resolution, unstructured grid, hydrodynamic model that uses 3 m resolution triangles in low flow channels and 10 m resolution triangles in the floodplain. Use of a fine resolution mesh guarantees that local variability in topography is resolved, and after applying the hydrodynamic model, the effects of topographic variability are expressed as variability in the water surface height, depth-averaged velocity and flow depth. Flow is modeled over a reach length of 10 km for multi-day durations to capture both frequent (diurnal variations associated with regulated flow) and infrequent (extreme flooding) flow phenomena. Model outputs reveal a number of interesting

  1. Sub-pixel Spatial Resolution Micro-roughness Measurements with Interlaced Stitching

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mooney, James T.; Stahl, H. Philip

    2005-01-01

    In this paper we describe a method to increase the spatial resolution of surface micro-roughness measurements. As the surface specifications for precision optics become more demanding, the metrology instruments must cover a broad spatial frequency range. Generally, multiple instruments are used to cover the full range of the specifications. For example, a Fizeau interferometer would be used to test low spatial frequency surface errors, a white light interferometer would be used for mid spatial frequency errors, and an AFM would be used for high spatial frequency errors. For some precision optics, three instruments would be necessary. However, in many applications, an increase in the spatial resolution of a metrology instrument could negate the need for multiple instruments. A solution to increase the spatial resolution of micro-roughness measurements obtained using white light interferometry with "interlaced stitching" will be presented. In "interlaced stitching", multiple interferometric measurements are made as the optic under test (or the CCD array) is laterally shifted at sub-pixel increments. The measurements are then combined to construct a measurement with higher spatial resolution. Initial results obtained while implementing a similar process used to increase the spatial resolution of measurements made with a commercially available Fizeau interferometer will be presented.

  2. Spatial resolution and information transfer in scanning transmission electron microscopy.

    PubMed

    Peng, Yiping; Oxley, Mark P; Lupini, Andrew R; Chisholm, Matthew F; Pennycook, Stephen J

    2008-02-01

    The relation between image resolution and information transfer is explored. It is shown that the existence of higher frequency transfer in the image is just a necessary but not sufficient condition for the achievement of higher resolution. Adopting a two-point resolution criterion, we suggest that a 10% contrast level between two features in an image should be used as a practical definition of resolution. In the context of scanning transmission electron microscopy, it is shown that the channeling effect does not have a direct connection with image resolution because sharp channeling peaks do not move with the scanning probe. Through a quantitative comparison between experimental image and simulation, a Fourier-space approach is proposed to estimate defocus and sample thickness. The effective atom size in Z-contrast imaging depends on the annular detector's inner angle. Therefore, an optimum angle exists for the highest resolution as a trade-off between reduced atom size and reduced signal with limited information transfer due to noise.

  3. High spatial resolution magnetic resonance imaging of cystic adventitial disease of the popliteal artery.

    PubMed

    Maged, Ismaeel M; Turba, Ulku C; Housseini, Ahmed M; Kern, John A; Kron, Irving L; Hagspiel, Klaus D

    2010-02-01

    High spatial resolution magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of patients with cystic adventitial disease can demonstrate connections between cysts in the adventitia and the adjacent joint, which is important for successful treatment. The inability to identify these during surgery can lead to a recurrence; thus, high spatial resolution MRI has the potential to affect therapy. This article presents the high spatial resolution MRI findings of cystic adventitial disease in a series of three consecutive patients and discusses the relevance of these findings to the etiology and therapy.

  4. Spatial Resolution and Refractive Index Contrast of Resonant Photonic Crystal Surfaces for Biosensing

    PubMed Central

    Triggs, G. J.; Fischer, M.; Stellinga, D.; Scullion, M. G.; Evans, G. J. O.; Krauss, T. F.

    2015-01-01

    By depositing a resolution test pattern on top of a Si3N4 photonic crystal resonant surface, we have measured the dependence of spatial resolution on refractive index contrast Δn. Our experimental results and finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) simulations at different refractive index contrasts show that the spatial resolution of our device reduces with reduced contrast, which is an important consideration in biosensing, where the contrast may be of order 10−2. We also compare 1-D and 2-D gratings, taking into account different incidence polarizations, leading to a better understanding of the excitation and propagation of the resonant modes in these structures, as well as how this contributes to the spatial resolution. At Δn = 0.077, we observe resolutions of 2 and 6 μm parallel to and perpendicular to the grooves of a 1-D grating, respectively, and show that for polarized illumination of a 2-D grating, resolution remains asymmetrical. Illumination of a 2-D grating at 45° results in symmetric resolution. At very low index contrast, the resolution worsens dramatically, particularly for Δn < 0.01, where we observe a resolution exceeding 10 μm for our device. In addition, we measure a reduction in the resonance linewidth as the index contrast becomes lower, corresponding to a longer resonant mode propagation length in the structure and contributing to the change in spatial resolution. PMID:26356353

  5. Characterizing the resolution and accuracy of a second-generation traveling-wave ion mobility separator for biomolecular ions.

    PubMed

    Zhong, Yueyang; Hyung, Suk-Joon; Ruotolo, Brandon T

    2011-09-07

    High-accuracy, high-resolution ion mobility measurements enable a vast array of important contemporary applications in biological chemistry. With the recent advent of both new, widely available commercial instrumentation and also new calibration datasets tailored for the aforementioned commercial instrumentation, the possibilities for extending such high performance measurements to a diverse set of applications have never been greater. Here, we assess the performance characteristics of a second-generation traveling-wave ion mobility separator, focusing on those figures of merit that lead to making measurements of collision cross-section having both high precision and high accuracy. Through performing a comprehensive survey of instrument parameters and settings, we find instrument conditions for optimized drift time resolution, cross-section resolution, and cross-section accuracy for a range of peptide, protein and multi-protein complex ions. Moreover, the conditions for high accuracy IM results are significantly different from those optimized for separation resolution, indicating that a balance between these two metrics must be attained for traveling wave IM separations of biomolecules. We also assess the effect of ion heating during IM separation on instrument performance.

  6. Exploring the spatial resolution of position-sensitive microchannel plate detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiggins, Blake; Siwal, Davinder; Desouza, Romualdo

    2016-03-01

    High amplification and excellent timing make microchannel plate (MCP) detectors excellent devices for detection of photons, electrons, and ions. In addition to providing sub-nanosecond time resolution MCP detectors can also provide spatial resolution, thus making them useful in imaging applications. Use of a resistive anode (RA) is a routinely used approach to make an MCP position-sensitive. The spatial resolution of the RA associated with detection of a single incident electron was determined. Factors impacting the spatial resolution obtained with the RA will be discussed and the achieved spatial resolution of 64 μm (FWHM) will be presented. Recently, a novel approach has been developed to provide position-sensitivity for an MCP detector. In this approach, namely the induced signal approach, the position of the incident particle is determined by sensing the electron cloud emanating from a MCP stack. By utilizing the zero-crossing point of the inherently bipolar signals, a spatial resolution of 466 μm (FWHM) has been achieved. Work to improve the spatial resolution of the induced signal approach further will be presented. Supported by the US DOE NNSA under Award No. DE-NA0002012.

  7. Zoom lens design for a novel imaging spectrometer that controls spatial and spectral resolution individually.

    PubMed

    Choi, Jin; Kim, T H; Kong, H J; Lee, Jong Ung

    2006-05-20

    A novel imaging spectrometer can individually control spatial and spectral resolution by using zoom lenses as the foreoptics of the system and a focusing lens. By varying the focal length we can use the focusing lens to change the spatial and spectral dimensions; with the foreoptics, however, we can change only the spatial dimension. Therefore the spectral resolution and the spectral range are affected by the zoom ratio of the focusing lens, whereas the spatial resolution and the field of view are affected by the multiplication of the zoom ratios of the foreoptics and the focusing lens. By properly combining two zoom ratios, we can control the spectral resolution with a fixed spatial resolution or the spatial resolution with a fixed spectral resolution. For an imaging spectrometer with this novel zooming function, we used the lens module method and third-order aberration theory to design an initial four-group zoom system with an external entrance pupil for the focusing lens. Furthermore, using the optical design software CODE V, we obtained an optimized zoom lens with a focal-length range of 50 to 150 mm. Finally, the zoom system with its transmission grating in the Littrow configuration performs satisfactorily as the focusing lens of an imaging spectrometer in the wavelength range 450-900 nm.

  8. TDDA technology for high spatial resolution SWIR InGaAs imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jia, Jianxin; Wang, Yueming; Zhuang, Xiaoqiong; Yao, Yi; Wang, Shengwei; Zhao, Ding; Shu, Rong; Wang, Jianyu

    2016-11-01

    With the development of remote sensing technology, shortwave infrared (SWIR) imaging technology has got more and more attention because of its ability through the fog and high spatial resolution. High spatial resolution SWIR imaging often requires high frame frequency. If the frame frequency is too high, it could cause the shortage of the image's signal to noise ratio (SNR), seriously affecting image quality. In order to solve the contradiction between high spatial resolution and sensitivity, time delay and digital accumulation (TDDA) technology is proposed in this paper to improve system's SNR and image quality. A prototype of SWIR imaging system based on a large format area InGaAs detector is designed, which demonstrates TDDA technology. The experiment results indicate that TDDA technology can increase system's SNR of the square root of accumulative stage and improve image's uniformity. The results in this paper are helpful for the improvement and application of high spatial resolution SWIR imaging technology.

  9. Multiwavelength fiber lasers based on spatial mode beating for high resolution linear and angular displacement sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Nan-Kuang; Chang, Yung-Hsiang; Cheng, Wood-Hi; Guo, Tuan; Guan, Bai-Ou

    2014-05-01

    We demonstrate multiwavelength fiber lasers by incorporating the micro Michelson interferometer with spatial mode beating phenomenon, which comes from the interferences among cladding modes, into ring cavity for high resolution linear and angular displacement sensing.

  10. Definition of the Spatial Resolution of X-Ray Microanalysis in Thin Foils

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, D. B.; Michael, J. R.; Goldstein, J. I.; Romig, A. D., Jr.

    1992-01-01

    The spatial resolution of X-ray microanalysis in thin foils is defined in terms of the incident electron beam diameter and the average beam broadening. The beam diameter is defined as the full width tenth maximum of a Gaussian intensity distribution. The spatial resolution is calculated by a convolution of the beam diameter and the average beam broadening. This definition of the spatial resolution can be related simply to experimental measurements of composition profiles across interphase interfaces. Monte Carlo calculations using a high-speed parallel supercomputer show good agreement with this definition of the spatial resolution and calculations based on this definition. The agreement is good over a range of specimen thicknesses and atomic number, but is poor when excessive beam tailing distorts the assumed Gaussian electron intensity distributions. Beam tailing occurs in low-Z materials because of fast secondary electrons and in high-Z materials because of plural scattering.

  11. Action-video-game experience alters the spatial resolution of vision.

    PubMed

    Green, C S; Bavelier, D

    2007-01-01

    Playing action video games enhances several different aspects of visual processing; however, the mechanisms underlying this improvement remain unclear. Here we show that playing action video games can alter fundamental characteristics of the visual system, such as the spatial resolution of visual processing across the visual field. To determine the spatial resolution of visual processing, we measured the smallest distance a distractor could be from a target without compromising target identification. This approach exploits the fact that visual processing is hindered as distractors are brought close to the target, a phenomenon known as crowding. Compared with nonplayers, action-video-game players could tolerate smaller target-distractor distances. Thus, the spatial resolution of visual processing is enhanced in this population. Critically, similar effects were observed in non-video-game players who were trained on an action video game; this result verifies a causative relationship between video-game play and augmented spatial resolution.

  12. Quantifying tree mortality in a mixed species woodland using multitemporal high spatial resolution satellite imagery

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Garrity, Steven R.; Allen, Craig D.; Brumby, Steven P.; Gangodagamage, Chandana; McDowell, Nate G.; Cai, D. Michael

    2013-01-01

    Widespread tree mortality events have recently been observed in several biomes. To effectively quantify the severity and extent of these events, tools that allow for rapid assessment at the landscape scale are required. Past studies using high spatial resolution satellite imagery have primarily focused on detecting green, red, and gray tree canopies during and shortly after tree damage or mortality has occurred. However, detecting trees in various stages of death is not always possible due to limited availability of archived satellite imagery. Here we assess the capability of high spatial resolution satellite imagery for tree mortality detection in a southwestern U.S. mixed species woodland using archived satellite images acquired prior to mortality and well after dead trees had dropped their leaves. We developed a multistep classification approach that uses: supervised masking of non-tree image elements; bi-temporal (pre- and post-mortality) differencing of normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) and red:green ratio (RGI); and unsupervised multivariate clustering of pixels into live and dead tree classes using a Gaussian mixture model. Classification accuracies were improved in a final step by tuning the rules of pixel classification using the posterior probabilities of class membership obtained from the Gaussian mixture model. Classifications were produced for two images acquired post-mortality with overall accuracies of 97.9% and 98.5%, respectively. Classified images were combined with land cover data to characterize the spatiotemporal characteristics of tree mortality across areas with differences in tree species composition. We found that 38% of tree crown area was lost during the drought period between 2002 and 2006. The majority of tree mortality during this period was concentrated in piñon-juniper (Pinus edulis-Juniperus monosperma) woodlands. An additional 20% of the tree canopy died or was removed between 2006 and 2011, primarily in areas

  13. Imaging at high spatial resolution: Soft x-ray microscopy to 15nm

    SciTech Connect

    Attwood, D.; Chao, W.; Anderson, E.; Liddle, J.A.; Harteneck, B.; Fischer, P.; Schneider, G.; Le Gros, M.; Larabell, C.

    2006-04-05

    Soft x-ray microscopy has now achieved 15 nm spatial resolution with new zone plates and bending magnet radiation. Combined with elemental sensitivity and flexible sample environment (applied magnetic or electric fields, wet samples, windows, overcoatings) this emerges as a valuable tool for nanoscience and nanotechnology, complimenting common electron and scanning tip microscopies. In this presentation we describe recent advances in spatial resolution, expectations for the near future, and applications to magnetic materials, bio-tomography, etc.

  14. Use of shadow for enhancing mapping of perennial desert plants from high-spatial resolution multispectral and panchromatic satellite imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alsharrah, Saad A.; Bouabid, Rachid; Bruce, David A.; Somenahalli, Sekhar; Corcoran, Paul A.

    2016-07-01

    Satellite remote-sensing techniques face challenges in extracting vegetation-cover information in desert environments. The limitations in detection are attributed to three major factors: (1) soil background effect, (2) distribution and structure of perennial desert vegetation, and (3) tradeoff between spatial and spectral resolutions of the satellite sensor. In this study, a modified vegetation shadow model (VSM-2) is proposed, which utilizes vegetation shadow as a contextual classifier to counter the limiting factors. Pleiades high spatial resolution, multispectral (2 m), and panchromatic (0.5 m) images were utilized to map small and scattered perennial arid shrubs and trees. We investigated the VSM-2 method in addition to conventional techniques, such as vegetation indices and prebuilt object-based image analysis. The success of each approach was evaluated using a root sum square error metric, which incorporated field data as control and three error metrics related to commission, omission, and percent cover. Results of the VSM-2 revealed significant improvements in perennial vegetation cover and distribution accuracy compared with the other techniques and its predecessor VSM-1. Findings demonstrated that the VSM-2 approach, using high-spatial resolution imagery, can be employed to provide a more accurate representation of perennial arid vegetation and, consequently, should be considered in assessments of desertification.

  15. Study of satellite retrieved aerosol optical depth spatial resolution effect on particulate matter concentration prediction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strandgren, J.; Mei, L.; Vountas, M.; Burrows, J. P.; Lyapustin, A.; Wang, Y.

    2014-10-01

    The Aerosol Optical Depth (AOD) spatial resolution effect is investigated for the linear correlation between satellite retrieved AOD and ground level particulate matter concentrations (PM2.5). The Multi-Angle Implementation of Atmospheric Correction (MAIAC) algorithm was developed for the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) for obtaining AOD with a high spatial resolution of 1 km and provides a good dataset for the study of the AOD spatial resolution effect on the particulate matter concentration prediction. 946 Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) ground monitoring stations across the contiguous US have been used to investigate the linear correlation between AOD and PM2.5 using AOD at different spatial resolutions (1, 3 and 10 km) and for different spatial scales (urban scale, meso-scale and continental scale). The main conclusions are: (1) for both urban, meso- and continental scale the correlation between PM2.5 and AOD increased significantly with increasing spatial resolution of the AOD, (2) the correlation between AOD and PM2.5 decreased significantly as the scale of study region increased for the eastern part of the US while vice versa for the western part of the US, (3) the correlation between PM2.5 and AOD is much more stable and better over the eastern part of the US compared to western part due to the surface characteristics and atmospheric conditions like the fine mode fraction.

  16. Spatial and temporal analysis on the distribution of active radio-frequency identification (RFID) tracking accuracy with the Kriging method.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xin; Shannon, Jeremy; Voun, Howard; Truijens, Martijn; Chi, Hung-Lin; Wang, Xiangyu

    2014-10-29

    Radio frequency identification (RFID) technology has already been applied in a number of areas to facilitate the tracking process. However, the insufficient tracking accuracy of RFID is one of the problems that impedes its wider application. Previous studies focus on examining the accuracy of discrete points RFID, thereby leaving the tracking accuracy of the areas between the observed points unpredictable. In this study, spatial and temporal analysis is applied to interpolate the continuous distribution of RFID tracking accuracy based on the Kriging method. An implementation trial has been conducted in the loading and docking area in front of a warehouse to validate this approach. The results show that the weak signal area can be easily identified by the approach developed in the study. The optimum distance between two RFID readers and the effect of the sudden removal of readers are also presented by analysing the spatial and temporal variation of RFID tracking accuracy. This study reveals the correlation between the testing time and the stability of RFID tracking accuracy. Experimental results show that the proposed approach can be used to assist the RFID system setup process to increase tracking accuracy.

  17. Spatial and Temporal Analysis on the Distribution of Active Radio-Frequency Identification (RFID) Tracking Accuracy with the Kriging Method

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Xin; Shannon, Jeremy; Voun, Howard; Truijens, Martijn; Chi, Hung-Lin; Wang, Xiangyu

    2014-01-01

    Radio frequency identification (RFID) technology has already been applied in a number of areas to facilitate the tracking process. However, the insufficient tracking accuracy of RFID is one of the problems that impedes its wider application. Previous studies focus on examining the accuracy of discrete points RFID, thereby leaving the tracking accuracy of the areas between the observed points unpredictable. In this study, spatial and temporal analysis is applied to interpolate the continuous distribution of RFID tracking accuracy based on the Kriging method. An implementation trial has been conducted in the loading and docking area in front of a warehouse to validate this approach. The results show that the weak signal area can be easily identified by the approach developed in the study. The optimum distance between two RFID readers and the effect of the sudden removal of readers are also presented by analysing the spatial and temporal variation of RFID tracking accuracy. This study reveals the correlation between the testing time and the stability of RFID tracking accuracy. Experimental results show that the proposed approach can be used to assist the RFID system setup process to increase tracking accuracy. PMID:25356648

  18. Impact of spatial resolution of ocean models in depicting climate change patterns of the North Sea.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Narayan, Nikesh; Klein, Birgit; Mathis, Moritz; Klein, Holger; Mikolajewicz, Uwe

    2016-04-01

    The impact of enhanced spatial resolution of models in simulating large scale climate change has been of interest for the modeling community for quite some time. It has been noticed in previous studies that the pattern of Sea Surface Temperature anomalies are better captured by higher resolution models. Significant changes in simulating sea-ice loss associated with global warming was also noticed when the spatial resolution of climate models were enhanced. Spatial resolution is a particular important issue in climate change scenarios of shelf seas such as the North Sea. The North Sea is strongly influenced by its water mass exchanges with North Atlantic to the west and north and Baltic Sea to east. Furthermore, local forcing and changes in advected water masses significantly affect the thermodynamics and stratification patterns in the North Sea, making it a challenging area to study. Under the newly started RACE2 project we are looking at global simulations of Representative Concentration Pathway (RCP) scenarios 4.5 and 8.5 at lower and higher resolutions, performed using the Max Planck Institute Earth System Model (MPIESM). The model resolution is non uniform and achieves the highest resolution over the European Seas by shifting the model poles over Chicago and Central Europe. In the high resolution run, the grid reaches up to a spatial resolution of up to 4 km in part of the German Bight and close to 20 km in the Northern part of North Sea. The placement of model poles at specific locations enables the global model to obtain higher resolution at regional scales (North Sea), without the inherent complications of open boundary conditions. High and low resolution simulations will be compared to determine differences in spatial and temporal pattern of temperature anomalies, fresh water intrusion from the Baltic Sea to North Sea etc. Also taken into consideration will be the changes in simulating local sea level change and response to basin scale oscillations like NAO.

  19. Spatial Covariance Reconstructive (SCORE) Super-Resolution Fluorescence Microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Deng, Yi; Sun, Mingzhai; Lin, Pei-Hui; Ma, Jianjie; Shaevitz, Joshua W.

    2014-01-01

    Super-resolution fluorescence microscopy has become a powerful tool to resolve structural information that is not accessible to traditional diffraction-limited imaging techniques such as confocal microscopy. Stochastic optical reconstruction microscopy (STORM) and photoactivation localization microscopy (PALM) are promising super-resolution techniques due to their relative ease of implementation and instrumentation on standard microscopes. However, the application of STORM is critically limited by its long sampling time. Several recent works have been focused on improving the STORM imaging speed by making use of the information from emitters with overlapping point spread functions (PSF). In this work, we present a fast and efficient algorithm that takes into account the blinking statistics of independent fluorescence emitters. We achieve sub-diffraction lateral resolution of 100 nm from 5 to 7 seconds of imaging. Our method is insensitive to background and can be applied to different types of fluorescence sources, including but not limited to the organic dyes and quantum dots that we demonstrate in this work. PMID:24788039

  20. Super Resolution from Hyperview Image Stack by Spatial Multiplexing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grasnick, Armin

    2016-09-01

    An image stack for a hyperview representation could contain millions of different perspective views with extreme image similarity. The recording of all views from a computational 3d model implicates a lateral displacement of the virtual camera. Because of the huge number of views, the offset in between two adjoining camera positions can be very minor. If such a virtual setup reproduces a real hyperview screen setup, the offset can be below the wavelength of the visible light. But even with such small changes, there is an intrinsic probability for a measurable difference in between two neighbour images. Such image dissimilarity can be proofed successfully also in very basic 3d scenes. By using a quantity of juxtapositional images from the hyperview image stack, the resolution of the rendered images can be considerably improved, which is commonly known as super resolution. The utilisation of super resolution images in hyperview could cut the necessity of full frame computing and will reduce the effective render time.

  1. Spatial covariance reconstructive (SCORE) super-resolution fluorescence microscopy.

    PubMed

    Deng, Yi; Sun, Mingzhai; Lin, Pei-Hui; Ma, Jianjie; Shaevitz, Joshua W

    2014-01-01

    Super-resolution fluorescence microscopy has become a powerful tool to resolve structural information that is not accessible to traditional diffraction-limited imaging techniques such as confocal microscopy. Stochastic optical reconstruction microscopy (STORM) and photoactivation localization microscopy (PALM) are promising super-resolution techniques due to their relative ease of implementation and instrumentation on standard microscopes. However, the application of STORM is critically limited by its long sampling time. Several recent works have been focused on improving the STORM imaging speed by making use of the information from emitters with overlapping point spread functions (PSF). In this work, we present a fast and efficient algorithm that takes into account the blinking statistics of independent fluorescence emitters. We achieve sub-diffraction lateral resolution of 100 nm from 5 to 7 seconds of imaging. Our method is insensitive to background and can be applied to different types of fluorescence sources, including but not limited to the organic dyes and quantum dots that we demonstrate in this work.

  2. Spatial resolution limits for the isotropic-3D PET detector X’tal cube

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoshida, Eiji; Tashima, Hideaki; Hirano, Yoshiyuki; Inadama, Naoko; Nishikido, Fumihiko; Murayama, Hideo; Yamaya, Taiga

    2013-11-01

    Positron emission tomography (PET) has become a popular imaging method in metabolism, neuroscience, and molecular imaging. For dedicated human brain and small animal PET scanners, high spatial resolution is needed to visualize small objects. To improve the spatial resolution, we are developing the X’tal cube, which is our new PET detector to achieve isotropic 3D positioning detectability. We have shown that the X’tal cube can achieve 1 mm3 uniform crystal identification performance with the Anger-type calculation even at the block edges. We plan to develop the X’tal cube with even smaller 3D grids for sub-millimeter crystal identification. In this work, we investigate spatial resolution of a PET scanner based on the X’tal cube using Monte Carlo simulations for predicting resolution performance in smaller 3D grids. For spatial resolution evaluation, a point source emitting 511 keV photons was simulated by GATE for all physical processes involved in emission and interaction of positrons. We simulated two types of animal PET scanners. The first PET scanner had a detector ring 14.6 cm in diameter composed of 18 detectors. The second PET scanner had a detector ring 7.8 cm in diameter composed of 12 detectors. After the GATE simulations, we converted the interacting 3D position information to digitalized positions for realistic segmented crystals. We simulated several X’tal cubes with cubic crystals from (0.5 mm)3 to (2 mm)3 in size. Also, for evaluating the effect of DOI resolution, we simulated several X’tal cubes with crystal thickness from (0.5 mm)3 to (9 mm)3. We showed that sub-millimeter spatial resolution was possible using cubic crystals smaller than (1.0 mm)3 even with the assumed physical processes. Also, the weighted average spatial resolutions of both PET scanners with (0.5 mm)3 cubic crystals were 0.53 mm (14.6 cm ring diameter) and 0.48 mm (7.8 cm ring diameter). For the 7.8 cm ring diameter, spatial resolution with 0.5×0.5×1.0 mm3 crystals

  3. Spatial resolution is dependent on image content for SPECT with iterative reconstruction incorporating distance dependent resolution (DDR) correction.

    PubMed

    Badger, Daniel; Barnden, Leighton

    2014-09-01

    The aim of this study is to determine the dependence of single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) spatial resolution on the content of images for iterative reconstruction with distance dependent resolution (DDR) correction. An experiment was performed using a perturbation technique to measure change in resolution of line sources in simple and complex images with iterative reconstruction with increasing iteration. Projections of the line sources were reconstructed alone and again after the addition of projections of a uniform flood or a complex phantom. An alternative experiment used images of a realistic brain phantom and evaluated an effective spatial resolution by matching the images to the digital version of the phantom convolved with 3D Gaussian kernels. The experiments were performed using ordered subset expectation maximisation iterative reconstruction with and without the use of DDR correction. The results show a significant difference in reconstructed resolution between images of line sources depending on the content of the added image. The full width at half maximum of images of a line source reconstructed using DDR correction increased by 20-30 % when the added image was complex. Without DDR this difference was much smaller and disappeared with increasing iteration. Reported SPECT resolution should be taken as indicative only with regard to clinical imaging if the measurement is made using a point or line source alone and an iterative reconstruction algorithm is used.

  4. Spatial Resolution, Grayscale, and Error Diffusion Trade-offs: Impact on Display System Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gille, Jennifer L. (Principal Investigator)

    1996-01-01

    We examine technology trade-offs related to grayscale resolution, spatial resolution, and error diffusion for tessellated display systems. We present new empirical results from our psychophysical study of these trade-offs and compare them to the predictions of a model of human vision.

  5. Sub-10 nm lateral spatial resolution in scanning capacitance microscopy achieved with solid platinum probes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bussmann, E.; Williams, C. C.

    2004-02-01

    Sub-10 nm resolution can be obtained in scanning capacitance microscopy (SCM) if the probe tip is approximately of the same size. Such resolution is observed, although infrequently, with present commercially available probes. To acquire routine sub-10 nm resolution, a solid Pt metal probe has been developed with a sub-10 nm tip radius. The probe is demonstrated by SCM imaging on a cross-sectioned 70 nm gatelength field-effect transistor (FET), a shallow implant (n+/p, 24 nm junction depth), and an epitaxial staircase (p, ˜75 nm steps). Sub-10 nm resolution is demonstrated on the FET device over the abrupt meeting between a silicon-on-insulator oxide layer and a neighboring Si region. Comparable resolution is observed on the implant structure, and quantitative SCM dopant profiling is performed on it with sub-10 nm accuracy. Finally, the epitaxial staircase structure is quantitatively profiled demonstrating the accuracy obtained in quantitative profiling with the tips.

  6. Spatial representativeness of ground-based solar radiation measurements estimated from high-resolution Meteosat data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zyta Hakuba, Maria; Folini, Doris; Sanchez-Lorenzo, Arturo; Wild, Martin

    2014-05-01

    The validation of gridded surface solar radiation (SSR) data often relies on the comparison with ground-based in-situ measurements. This poses the question on how representative a point measurement is for a larger-scale surrounding. We use the high-resolution (0.03° ) SIS MVIRI data from the Satellite Application Facility on Climate Monitoring (CM SAF) to study the spatial sub-grid variability in all-sky surface solar radiation (SSR) over Europe, Africa, and parts of South America as covered by the Meteosat disk. This is done for the CERES EBAF 1° standard grid and two equal-angle grids of 0.25° and 3° resolution. Furthermore, we quantify the spatial representativeness of numerous surface sites from the BSRN and the GEBA for their site-centered larger surroundings varying in size from 0.25° to 3°, as well as with respect to the given standard grids. These analyses are done on a climatological annual and monthly mean basis over the period 2001-2005. The annual mean sub-grid variability (mean absolute deviation) in the 1° standard grid over European land is on average 1.6% (2.4 Wm¯²), with a maximum of up to 10% in Northern Spain (Hakuba et al. 2013). As expected, highest sub-grid variability is found in mountainous and coastal regions. The annual mean representation error of point values at 143 surface sites in Europe with respect to their 1° surrounding and the 1° standard grid is on average 2% (3 Wm¯² ). For larger surroundings of 3°, the representation error increases to 3% (4.8 Wm¯²), which is of similar order as the measurement accuracy of in-situ observations. Most of the sites can thus be considered as representative for their larger surroundings of up to 3°, which holds also true for the majority of BSRN sites located in Africa and South America. This representation error can be reduced if site-specific correction factors are applied or when multiple sites are available in the same grid cell, i.e., three more sites reduce the error by 50

  7. Automated laser registration in image-guided surgery: evaluation of the correlation between laser scan resolution and navigation accuracy.

    PubMed

    Marmulla, R; Lüth, T; Mühling, J; Hassfeld, S

    2004-10-01

    Markerless patient registration based on the facial skin surface makes logistics prior to image-guided surgery much easier, as it is not necessary to place and measure registration markers. A laser scan registration of the surgical site takes the place of conventional marker-based registration. In a clinical study, the stability and accuracy of markerless patient registration was evaluated in 12 patients. Intraoral titanium markers served as targets for the infrared-pointer of the navigation system in order to check the accuracy of the markerless registration process. The correlation between laser scan resolution and navigation accuracy was checked using seven different laser scan resolutions (a cloud of 300,000 laser scan points down to 3750 laser scan points of the surgical site). The markerless patient registration was successful as long as high laser scan resolution was used (30,000 laser scan points and more): the titanium markers were detected with a mean deviation of 1.1 +/- 0.2 mm. Low resolution laser scans (6000 laser scan points of the surgical site and less) revealed inaccuracies up to 6 mm.

  8. Simulation of heat and mass transfer in turbulent channel flow using the spectral-element method: effect of spatial resolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryzhenkov, V.; Ivashchenko, V.; Vinuesa, R.; Mullyadzhanov, R.

    2016-10-01

    We use the open-source code nek5000 to assess the accuracy of high-order spectral element large-eddy simulations (LES) of a turbulent channel flow depending on the spatial resolution compared to the direct numerical simulation (DNS). The Reynolds number Re = 6800 is considered based on the bulk velocity and half-width of the channel. The filtered governing equations are closed with the dynamic Smagorinsky model for subgrid stresses and heat flux. The results show very good agreement between LES and DNS for time-averaged velocity and temperature profiles and their fluctuations. Even the coarse LES grid which contains around 30 times less points than the DNS one provided predictions of the friction velocity within 2.0% accuracy interval.

  9. Improved mass resolution and mass accuracy in TOF-SIMS spectra and images using argon gas cluster ion beams.

    PubMed

    Shon, Hyun Kyong; Yoon, Sohee; Moon, Jeong Hee; Lee, Tae Geol

    2016-06-09

    The popularity of argon gas cluster ion beams (Ar-GCIB) as primary ion beams in time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (TOF-SIMS) has increased because the molecular ions of large organic- and biomolecules can be detected with less damage to the sample surfaces. However, Ar-GCIB is limited by poor mass resolution as well as poor mass accuracy. The inferior quality of the mass resolution in a TOF-SIMS spectrum obtained by using Ar-GCIB compared to the one obtained by a bismuth liquid metal cluster ion beam and others makes it difficult to identify unknown peaks because of the mass interference from the neighboring peaks. However, in this study, the authors demonstrate improved mass resolution in TOF-SIMS using Ar-GCIB through the delayed extraction of secondary ions, a method typically used in TOF mass spectrometry to increase mass resolution. As for poor mass accuracy, although mass calibration using internal peaks with low mass such as hydrogen and carbon is a common approach in TOF-SIMS, it is unsuited to the present study because of the disappearance of the low-mass peaks in the delayed extraction mode. To resolve this issue, external mass calibration, another regularly used method in TOF-MS, was adapted to enhance mass accuracy in the spectrum and image generated by TOF-SIMS using Ar-GCIB in the delayed extraction mode. By producing spectra analyses of a peptide mixture and bovine serum albumin protein digested with trypsin, along with image analyses of rat brain samples, the authors demonstrate for the first time the enhancement of mass resolution and mass accuracy for the purpose of analyzing large biomolecules in TOF-SIMS using Ar-GCIB through the use of delayed extraction and external mass calibration.

  10. Spatial resolution estimation of LANDSAT-4 TM and MSS data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcgillem, C. D.; Anuta, P. E.; Yu, K. B.

    1983-01-01

    In order to verify that the LANDSAT-4 sensors are operating within specifications, it is useful to estimate the system parameters by analysis of the measured data. One parameter of particular interest is the sensor point-spread function (PSF) which determines the resolution of the system. A method of estimating the PSF is described that utilizes data obtained during scanning of ground elements having identifiable geometric and radiometric structure. These data are then processed in such a manner as to recover either the PSF itself or to estimate the parameters of an assumed functional representation of the PSF.

  11. Local Optical Spectroscopies for Subnanometer Spatial Resolution Chemical Imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Weiss, Paul

    2014-01-20

    The evanescently coupled photon scanning tunneling microscopes (STMs) have special requirements in terms of stability and optical access. We have made substantial improvements to the stability, resolution, and noise floor of our custom-built visible-photon STM, and will translate these advances to our infrared instrument. Double vibration isolation of the STM base with a damping system achieved increased rigidity, giving high tunneling junction stability for long-duration and high-power illumination. Light frequency modulation with an optical chopper and phase-sensitive detection now enhance the signal-to-noise ratio of the tunneling junction during irradiation.

  12. Note: Spatial resolution of Fuji BAS-TR and BAS-SR imaging plates

    SciTech Connect

    Fiksel, G.; Marshall, F. J.; Mileham, C.; Stoeckl, C.

    2012-08-15

    The spatial resolution of two types of imaging plates, Fuji BAS-TR and Fuji BAS-SR, has been measured using a knife-edge x-ray source of 8-keV Cu K{sub {alpha}} radiation. The values for the spatial resolution, defined as the distance between 10% and 90% levels of the edge spread function, are 94 {mu}m and 109 {mu}m, respectively. The resolution values are important for quantitative analysis of x-ray and particle imaging and spectroscopic diagnostics.

  13. The Spatial Resolution of Mass Distributions Required For Forward Gravity Field Modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuhn, M.

    In forward gravity field modelling all parameters can be derived from the Earth's mass distribution using Newton's law of gravitation. Now more and more information on the Earth's mass distribution is available such, as fine digital elevation models, dig- ital density models and models of the crustal thickness. Apart from the theoretical restriction that the Earth's mass distribution will never be completely known, this con- tribution studies the spatial resolution of different mass distributions of the Earth's crust in view of deriving gravity field quantities in a forward model with a given accu- racy. Here the influence of the topographic masses, mass anomalies above the geoid, compensation masses and crustal mass anomalies below the geoid will be studied by the spherical harmonic expansion of their corresponding potential effect. Using New- ton's law, these spherical harmonic expansions can be expressed directly by that of height, depth or density of the corresponding mass distributions. This representation is well suited to study the spectral sensitivity of different mass distributions on gravity field quantities. Numerical results will be presented in order to give an optimal data spacing required to forward model the gravity field of the Earth to a desired accuracy.

  14. Virtual electrode design for increasing spatial resolution in retinal prosthesis.

    PubMed

    Loizos, Kyle; Cela, Carlos; Marc, Robert; Lazzi, Gianluca

    2016-06-01

    Retinal prostheses systems are currently used to restore partial vision to patients blinded by degenerative diseases by electrically stimulating surviving retinal cells. To obtain likely maximum resolution, electrode size is minimised, allowing for a large quantity on an array and localised stimulation regions. Besides the small size leading to fabrication difficulties and higher electrochemical charge density, there are challenges associated with the number of drivers needed for a large electrode count as well as the strategies to deliver sufficient power to these drivers wirelessly. In hopes to increase electrode resolution while avoiding these issues, the authors propose a new 'virtual electrode' design to increase locations of likely stimulation. Passive metallisation strategically placed between disk electrodes, combined with alternating surrounding stimuli, channel current into a location between electrodes, producing a virtual stimulation site. A computational study was conducted to optimise the passive metal element geometry, quantify the expected current density output, and simulate retinal ganglion cell activity due to virtual electrode stimulation. Results show that this procedure leads to array geometry that focuses injected current and achieves retinal ganglion cell stimulation in a region beneath the 'virtual electrode,' creating an alternate stimulation site without additional drivers.

  15. Estimation of Orbital Neutron Detector Spatial Resolution by Systematic Shifting of Differential Topographic Masks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McClanahan, T. P.; Mitrofanov, I. G.; Boynton, W. V.; Chin, G.; Livengood, T.; Starr, R. D.; Evans, L. G.; Mazarico, E.; Smith, D. E.

    2012-01-01

    We present a method and preliminary results related to determining the spatial resolution of orbital neutron detectors using epithermal maps and differential topographic masks. Our technique is similar to coded aperture imaging methods for optimizing photonic signals in telescopes [I]. In that approach photon masks with known spatial patterns in a telescope aperature are used to systematically restrict incoming photons which minimizes interference and enhances photon signal to noise. Three orbital neutron detector systems with different stated spatial resolutions are evaluated. The differing spatial resolutions arise due different orbital altitudes and the use of neutron collimation techniques. 1) The uncollimated Lunar Prospector Neutron Spectrometer (LPNS) system has spatial resolution of 45km FWHM from approx. 30km altitude mission phase [2]. The Lunar Rennaissance Orbiter (LRO) Lunar Exploration Neutron Detector (LEND) with two detectors at 50km altitude evaluated here: 2) the collimated 10km FWHM spatial resolution detector CSETN and 3) LEND's collimated Sensor for Epithermal Neutrons (SETN). Thus providing two orbital altitudes to study factors of: uncollimated vs collimated and two average altitudes for their effect on fields-of-view.

  16. Hyperspectral Imagery Super-Resolution by Compressive Sensing Inspired Dictionary Learning and Spatial-Spectral Regularization

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Wei; Xiao, Liang; Liu, Hongyi; Wei, Zhihui

    2015-01-01

    Due to the instrumental and imaging optics limitations, it is difficult to acquire high spatial resolution hyperspectral imagery (HSI). Super-resolution (SR) imagery aims at inferring high quality images of a given scene from degraded versions of the same scene. This paper proposes a novel hyperspectral imagery super-resolution (HSI-SR) method via dictionary learning and spatial-spectral regularization. The main contributions of this paper are twofold. First, inspired by the compressive sensing (CS) framework, for learning the high resolution dictionary, we encourage stronger sparsity on image patches and promote smaller coherence between the learned dictionary and sensing matrix. Thus, a sparsity and incoherence restricted dictionary learning method is proposed to achieve higher efficiency sparse representation. Second, a variational regularization model combing a spatial sparsity regularization term and a new local spectral similarity preserving term is proposed to integrate the spectral and spatial-contextual information of the HSI. Experimental results show that the proposed method can effectively recover spatial information and better preserve spectral information. The high spatial resolution HSI reconstructed by the proposed method outperforms reconstructed results by other well-known methods in terms of both objective measurements and visual evaluation. PMID:25608212

  17. Full field spatially-variant image-based resolution modelling reconstruction for the HRRT.

    PubMed

    Angelis, Georgios I; Kotasidis, Fotis A; Matthews, Julian C; Markiewicz, Pawel J; Lionheart, William R; Reader, Andrew J

    2015-03-01

    Accurate characterisation of the scanner's point spread function across the entire field of view (FOV) is crucial in order to account for spatially dependent factors that degrade the resolution of the reconstructed images. The HRRT users' community resolution modelling reconstruction software includes a shift-invariant resolution kernel, which leads to transaxially non-uniform resolution in the reconstructed images. Unlike previous work to date in this field, this work is the first to model the spatially variant resolution across the entire FOV of the HRRT, which is the highest resolution human brain PET scanner in the world. In this paper we developed a spatially variant image-based resolution modelling reconstruction dedicated to the HRRT, using an experimentally measured shift-variant resolution kernel. Previously, the system response was measured and characterised in detail across the entire FOV of the HRRT, using a printed point source array. The newly developed resolution modelling reconstruction was applied on measured phantom, as well as clinical data and was compared against the HRRT users' community resolution modelling reconstruction, which is currently in use. Results demonstrated improvements both in contrast and resolution recovery, particularly for regions close to the edges of the FOV, with almost uniform resolution recovery across the entire transverse FOV. In addition, because the newly measured resolution kernel is slightly broader with wider tails, compared to the deliberately conservative kernel employed in the HRRT users' community software, the reconstructed images appear to have not only improved contrast recovery (up to 20% for small regions), but also better noise characteristics.

  18. High resolution Hall measurements across the VO2 metal-insulator transition reveal impact of spatial phase separation

    PubMed Central

    Yamin, Tony; Strelniker, Yakov M.; Sharoni, Amos

    2016-01-01

    Many strongly correlated transition metal oxides exhibit a metal-insulator transition (MIT), the manipulation of which is essential for their application as active device elements. However, such manipulation is hindered by lack of microscopic understanding of mechanisms involved in these transitions. A prototypical example is VO2, where previous studies indicated that the MIT resistance change correlate with changes in carrier density and mobility. We studied the MIT using Hall measurements with unprecedented resolution and accuracy, simultaneously with resistance measurements. Contrast to prior reports, we find that the MIT is not correlated with a change in mobility, but rather, is a macroscopic manifestation of the spatial phase separation which accompanies the MIT. Our results demonstrate that, surprisingly, properties of the nano-scale spatially-separated metallic and semiconducting domains actually retain their bulk properties. This study highlights the importance of taking into account local fluctuations and correlations when interpreting transport measurements in highly correlated systems. PMID:26783076

  19. Spatial heterogeneity in the Mediterranean Biodiversity Hotspot affects barcoding accuracy of its freshwater fishes.

    PubMed

    Geiger, M F; Herder, F; Monaghan, M T; Almada, V; Barbieri, R; Bariche, M; Berrebi, P; Bohlen, J; Casal-Lopez, M; Delmastro, G B; Denys, G P J; Dettai, A; Doadrio, I; Kalogianni, E; Kärst, H; Kottelat, M; Kovačić, M; Laporte, M; Lorenzoni, M; Marčić, Z; Özuluğ, M; Perdices, A; Perea, S; Persat, H; Porcelotti, S; Puzzi, C; Robalo, J; Šanda, R; Schneider, M; Šlechtová, V; Stoumboudi, M; Walter, S; Freyhof, J

    2014-11-01

    Incomplete knowledge of biodiversity remains a stumbling block for conservation planning and even occurs within globally important Biodiversity Hotspots (BH). Although technical advances have boosted the power of molecular biodiversity assessments, the link between DNA sequences and species and the analytics to discriminate entities remain crucial. Here, we present an analysis of the first DNA barcode library for the freshwater fish fauna of the Mediterranean BH (526 spp.), with virtually complete species coverage (498 spp., 98% extant species). In order to build an identification system supporting conservation, we compared species determination by taxonomists to multiple clustering analyses of DNA barcodes for 3165 specimens. The congruence of barcode clusters with morphological determination was strongly dependent on the method of cluster delineation, but was highest with the general mixed Yule-coalescent (GMYC) model-based approach (83% of all species recovered as GMYC entity). Overall, genetic morphological discontinuities suggest the existence of up to 64 previously unrecognized candidate species. We found reduced identification accuracy when using the entire DNA-barcode database, compared with analyses on databases for individual river catchments. This scale effect has important implications for barcoding assessments and suggests that fairly simple identification pipelines provide sufficient resolution in local applications. We calculated Evolutionarily Distinct and Globally Endangered scores in order to identify candidate species for conservation priority and argue that the evolutionary content of barcode data can be used to detect priority species for future IUCN assessments. We show that large-scale barcoding inventories of complex biotas are feasible and contribute directly to the evaluation of conservation priorities.

  20. High spatial resolution distributed sensing in optical fibers by Brillouin gain-profile tracing.

    PubMed

    Sperber, Tom; Eyal, Avishay; Tur, Moshe; Thévenaz, Luc

    2010-04-12

    A novel BOTDA technique for distributed sensing of the Brillouin frequency in optical fibers with cm-order spatial resolution is proposed. The technique is based upon a simple modulation scheme, requiring only a single long pump pulse for acoustic excitation, and no subsequent interrogating pulse. Instead, the desired spatial mapping of the Brillouin response is extracted by taking the derivative of the probe signal. As a result, the spatial resolution is limited by the fall-time of the pump modulation, and the phenomena of secondary "echo" signals, typically appearing in BOTDA sensing methods based upon pre-excitation, is mitigated. Experimental demonstration of the detection of a Brillouin frequency variation significantly smaller than the natural Brillouin linewidth, with a 2cm spatial resolution, is presented.

  1. SAPHIRE (scintillator avalanche photoconductor with high resolution emitter readout) for low dose x-ray imaging: Spatial resolution

    SciTech Connect

    Li Dan; Zhao Wei

    2008-07-15

    An indirect flat panel imager (FPI) with programmable avalanche gain and field emitter array (FEA) readout is being investigated for low-dose and high resolution x-ray imaging. It is made by optically coupling a structured x-ray scintillator, e.g., thallium (Tl) doped cesium iodide (CsI), to an amorphous selenium (a-Se) avalanche photoconductor called high-gain avalanche rushing amorphous photoconductor (HARP). The charge image created by the scintillator/HARP (SHARP) combination is read out by the electron beams emitted from the FEA. The proposed detector is called scintillator avalanche photoconductor with high resolution emitter readout (SAPHIRE). The programmable avalanche gain of HARP can improve the low dose performance of indirect FPI while the FEA can be made with pixel sizes down to 50 {mu}m. Because of the avalanche gain, a high resolution type of CsI (Tl), which has not been widely used in indirect FPI due to its lower light output, can be used to improve the high spatial frequency performance. The purpose of the present article is to investigate the factors affecting the spatial resolution of SAPHIRE. Since the resolution performance of the SHARP combination has been well studied, the focus of the present work is on the inherent resolution of the FEA readout method. The lateral spread of the electron beam emitted from a 50 {mu}mx50 {mu}m pixel FEA was investigated with two different electron-optical designs: mesh-electrode-only and electrostatic focusing. Our results showed that electrostatic focusing can limit the lateral spread of electron beams to within the pixel size of down to 50 {mu}m. Since electrostatic focusing is essentially independent of signal intensity, it will provide excellent spatial uniformity.

  2. Super-resolution reconstruction to increase the spatial resolution of diffusion weighted images from orthogonal anisotropic acquisitions

    PubMed Central

    Scherrer, Benoit; Gholipour, Ali; Warfield, Simon K.

    2012-01-01

    Diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) enables non-invasive investigation and characterization of the white matter but suffers from a relatively poor spatial resolution. Increasing the spatial resolution in DWI is challenging with a single-shot EPI acquisition due to the decreased signal-to-noise ratio and T2* relaxation effect amplified with increased echo time. In this work we propose a super-resolution reconstruction (SRR) technique based on the acquisition of multiple anisotropic orthogonal DWI scans. DWI scans acquired in different planes are not typically closely aligned due to the geometric distortion introduced by magnetic susceptibility differences in each phase-encoding direction. We compensate each scan for geometric distortion by acquisition of a dual echo gradient echo field map, providing an estimate of the field inhomogeneity. We address the problem of patient motion by aligning the volumes in both space and q-space. The SRR is formulated as a maximum a posteriori problem. It relies on a volume acquisition model which describes how the acquired scans are observations of an unknown high-resolution image which we aim to recover. Our model enables the introduction of image priors that exploit spatial homogeneity and enables regularized solutions. We detail our SRR optimization procedure and report experiments including numerical simulations, synthetic SRR and real world SRR. In particular, we demonstrate that combining distortion compensation and SRR provides better results than acquisition of a single isotropic scan for the same acquisition duration time. Importantly, SRR enables DWI with resolution beyond the scanner hardware limitations. This work provides the first evidence that SRR, which employs conventional single shot EPI techniques, enables resolution enhancement in DWI, and may dramatically impact the role of DWI in both neuroscience and clinical applications. PMID:22770597

  3. SAPHIRE (scintillator avalanche photoconductor with high resolution emitter readout) for low dose x-ray imaging: spatial resolution.

    PubMed

    Li, Dan; Zhao, Wei

    2008-07-01

    An indirect flat panel imager (FPI) with programmable avalanche gain and field emitter array (FEA) readout is being investigated for low-dose and high resolution x-ray imaging. It is made by optically coupling a structured x-ray scintillator, e.g., thallium (Tl) doped cesium iodide (CsI), to an amorphous selenium (a-Se) avalanche photoconductor called high-gain avalanche rushing amorphous photoconductor (HARP). The charge image created by the scintillator/HARP (SHARP) combination is read out by the electron beams emitted from the FEA. The proposed detector is called scintillator avalanche photoconductor with high resolution emitter readout (SAPHIRE). The programmable avalanche gain of HARP can improve the low dose performance of indirect FPI while the FEA can be made with pixel sizes down to 50 microm. Because of the avalanche gain, a high resolution type of CsI (Tl), which has not been widely used in indirect FPI due to its lower light output, can be used to improve the high spatial frequency performance. The purpose of the present article is to investigate the factors affecting the spatial resolution of SAPHIRE. Since the resolution performance of the SHARP combination has been well studied, the focus of the present work is on the inherent resolution of the FEA readout method. The lateral spread of the electron beam emitted from a 50 microm x 50 microm pixel FEA was investigated with two different electron-optical designs: mesh-electrode-only and electrostatic focusing. Our results showed that electrostatic focusing can limit the lateral spread of electron beams to within the pixel size of down to 50 microm. Since electrostatic focusing is essentially independent of signal intensity, it will provide excellent spatial uniformity.

  4. Impact of spatial resolution of the precipitation data on hydrological Forecast

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davis, M.; Bardossy, A.; Sudheer, K.

    2013-05-01

    Flooding is a devastating problem for many countries all over the world. Real time forecasting is a necessary non-structural measure to fight against the damage. Adequate quantitative forecasting of the flood is necessary to provide enough precaution for the affected population. Time lead in the forecast is also a matter of concern considering its significance in the preparedness. The time-lead of forecast depends on the computational time along with the various other issues. The computation time depends on the whether the model is data intensive or process intensive. Considering the use of spatially distributed models in the forecast, the main dynamic data involved in the rainfall runoff models are the precipitation measurement. The data intensity of that depends on the spatial and temporal resolution of the precipitation data. The spatial resolution of the precipitation has the significance in the spatially distributed hydrological models. Neither should the resolution be so less that the quantitative prediction is disturbed nor too much to affect the time lead considerably. Finer spatial resolution of precipitation data may not even yield better forecast (A.Bardossy and T.Das, 2008). So the current study focuses on the impact of spatial and temporal resolution of the hydrological forecast. The spatially distributed model of HBV and HYMOD is being used for the analysis. Spatial resolutions from 1, 4, 9 and 25 square kilometers and a temporal resolution of daily to hourly time-series is also being analysed for their respective effects on prediction. The data from rain gauges are interpolated using the External Drift Kriging Method (EDK). The calibrations of the models are carried out using the Robust Parameter Estimation (ROPE) algorithm (S.K Singh and A. Bardossy, 2010). The framework is illustrated on the Upper Neckar catchment with 13 sub-catchments located in South West Germany. Preliminary results are encouraging. The optimum spatial resolution can be

  5. Advanced Extraction of Spatial Information from High Resolution Satellite Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pour, T.; Burian, J.; Miřijovský, J.

    2016-06-01

    In this paper authors processed five satellite image of five different Middle-European cities taken by five different sensors. The aim of the paper was to find methods and approaches leading to evaluation and spatial data extraction from areas of interest. For this reason, data were firstly pre-processed using image fusion, mosaicking and segmentation processes. Results going into the next step were two polygon layers; first one representing single objects and the second one representing city blocks. In the second step, polygon layers were classified and exported into Esri shapefile format. Classification was partly hierarchical expert based and partly based on the tool SEaTH used for separability distinction and thresholding. Final results along with visual previews were attached to the original thesis. Results are evaluated visually and statistically in the last part of the paper. In the discussion author described difficulties of working with data of large size, taken by different sensors and different also thematically.

  6. Practical Considerations for High Spatial and Temporal Resolution Dynamic Transmission Electron Microscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Armstrong, M; Boyden, K; Browning, N D; Campbell, G H; Colvin, J D; DeHope, B; Frank, A M; Gibson, D J; Hartemann, F; Kim, J S; King, W E; LaGrange, T B; Pyke, B J; Reed, B W; Shuttlesworth, R M; Stuart, B C; Torralva, B R

    2006-05-01

    Although recent years have seen significant advances in the spatial resolution possible in the transmission electron microscope (TEM), the temporal resolution of most microscopes is limited to video rate at best. This lack of temporal resolution means that our understanding of dynamic processes in materials is extremely limited. High temporal resolution in the TEM can be achieved, however, by replacing the normal thermionic or field emission source with a photoemission source. In this case the temporal resolution is limited only by the ability to create a short pulse of photoexcited electrons in the source, and this can be as short as a few femtoseconds. The operation of the photo-emission source and the control of the subsequent pulse of electrons (containing as many as 5 x 10{sup 7} electrons) create significant challenges for a standard microscope column that is designed to operate with a single electron in the column at any one time. In this paper, the generation and control of electron pulses in the TEM to obtain a temporal resolution <10{sup -6} s will be described and the effect of the pulse duration and current density on the spatial resolution of the instrument will be examined. The potential of these levels of temporal and spatial resolution for the study of dynamic materials processes will also be discussed.

  7. Impact of rainfall spatial distribution and resolution on flash floods response

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zoccatelli, Davide; Marra, Francesco; Nikolopoulos, Efthymios

    2013-04-01

    Uncertainty in flash flood forecasting critically depends on the space-time monitoring resolution of the flood-triggering rainfall. Hence, it is important to better understand at what space-time scales rainfall has to be monitored, given certain catchment and storm characteristics, and what are the effects of space-time aggregations on model simulations and forecasts. This work exploits the concept of spatial moments of catchment rainfall to quantify the dependence between rainfall spatial distribution, rainfall resolution, catchment morphology, and runoff response. The spatial moments of catchment rainfall describe rainfall organization in terms of concentration and dispersion along the flow distance coordinate. Assuming that rainfall distribution at equal flow distance is averaged by runoff propagation, these statistics provide a useful metric to examine how the catchment filters out rainfall spatial variability into runoff response. The effect of a variation in spatial rainfall resolution on spatial moments of catchment rainfall should therefore explain, at least partially, the pattern of runoff model sensitivity to spatial rainfall resolution. Since these statistics can capture the interactions between rainfall distribution and basin morphology, they can also be useful to compare its influence across scales and events. High resolution radar observations and a distributed hydrological model have been used to apply these statistics in five extreme flash floods occurred in various European regions in the period 2002-2007. This application allowed to verify the assumptions and to quantify how effective are these statistics in describing the role of spatial rainfall organization and of spatial resolution for flash flood modeling. The size of the study catchments ranges between 36 to 982 km2. The timing error introduced by neglecting the rainfall spatial variability, that ranges between -30% to 72% of the corresponding catchment response time, is well explained by

  8. Spatial resolution of subsurface anthropogenic heat fluxes in cities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benz, Susanne; Bayer, Peter; Menberg, Kathrin; Blum, Philipp

    2015-04-01

    Urban heat islands in the subsurface contain large quantities of energy in the form of elevated groundwater temperatures caused by anthropogenic heat fluxes (AHFS) into the subsurface. Hence, the objective of this study is to exemplarily quantify these AHFS and the generated thermal powers in two German cities, Karlsruhe and Cologne. A two-dimensional (2D) statistical analytical model of the vertical subsurface anthropogenic heat fluxes across the unsaturated zone was developed. The model consists of a so-called Local Monte Carlo approach that introduces a spatial representation of the following sources of AHFS: (1) elevated ground surface temperatures, (2) basements, (3) sewage systems, (4) sewage leakage, (5) subway tunnels, and (6) district heating networks. The results show that district heating networks induce the largest local AHFS with values larger than 60 W/m2 and one order of magnitude higher than the other evaluated heat sources. Only sewage pipes and basements reaching into the groundwater cause equally high heat fluxes, with maximal values of 40.37 W/m2 and 13.60 W/m2, respectively. While dominating locally, the district heating network is rather insignificant for the citywide energy budget in both urban subsurfaces. Heat from buildings (1.51 ± 1.36 PJ/a in Karlsruhe; 0.31 ± 0.14 PJ/a in Cologne) and elevated GST (0.34 ± 0.10 PJ/a in Karlsruhe; 0.42 ± 0.13 PJ/a in Cologne) are dominant contributors to the anthropogenic thermal power of the urban aquifer. In Karlsruhe, buildings are the source of 70% of the annual heat transported into the groundwater, which is mainly caused by basements reaching into the groundwater. A variance analysis confirms these findings: basement depth is the most influential factor to citywide thermal power in the studied cities with high groundwater levels. The spatial distribution of fluxes, however, is mostly influenced by the prevailing thermal gradient across the unsaturated zone. A relatively cold groundwater

  9. Ultrashort microwave-induced thermoacoustic imaging: a breakthrough in excitation efficiency and spatial resolution.

    PubMed

    Lou, Cunguang; Yang, Sihua; Ji, Zhong; Chen, Qun; Xing, Da

    2012-11-21

    With theoretical prediction and experimental validation, we propose a novel approach to significantly enhance the conversion efficiency of thermoacoustic (TA) imaging by using an ultrashort microwave pulse. The implementation of the ultrashort microwave pulse leads to orders of magnitude enhancement in excitation efficiency and spatial resolution, compared to that from existing TA imaging techniques. This allows high-resolution (~ 100 micron resolution) TA imaging to be acquired noninvasively. The present work represents a major breakthrough in the conversion efficiency of the TA effect and the resolution of TA imaging, which can potentially be used for clinical imaging.

  10. High-spatial-resolution passive microwave sounding systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Staelin, David H.; Barrett, J. W.; Bonanni, Pierino Gianni; Chiarchiaro, W. J., II; Rosenkranz, P. W.

    1991-01-01

    During this period the emphasis was on the following: (1) further design, construction, and testing of the improved 54-GHz portion of the 54-118 GHz microwave temperature sounder (MTS) aircraft radiometer system in preparation for ER-2 observations in July 1991; and (2) final analysis and documentation of procedures for detecting and analyzing thermal waves in our 118-GHz MTS imagery. In addition, we have new unpublished measurements of dry-air attenuation at frequencies of 54 to 66 GHz and over a temperature range of 280K to 326K; these measurements should enable us to improve further our atmospheric transmittance models. It was further noted that the proposed SSMIS conical-scanning microwave spectrometer on the military DMSP Block 5D-3 spacecraft designed to measure stratospheric and mesospheric temperature profiles will be observing the Zeeman-split oxygen lines with sufficient spectral resolution that the changing Doppler shifts with view angle will substantially degrade the potential system performance unless remedied; this was briefly studied and documented.

  11. The Importance of High Spatial and Appropriate Spectral Resolution Spectroscopy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gull, Theodore

    2007-01-01

    Many diverse astronomical sources are resolved with diffraction-limited large telescopes. Application of appropriate dispersion spectroscopy unveils much information on the physics of these objects ranging from gamma ray bursters in host galaxies, star-formation regions and central engines in nearby galaxies, structures in galactic nebulae, resolved binaries with mass exchange, extended winds of massive stars, protoplanetary systems, and comets, asteroids and planets within our own solar system. Active optics and interferometers coupled with spectrographs can provide near-diffraction-limited spectroscopy from the ground but only longward of one micron. Below one micron, and certainly below 6000A, we must turn to space-based large telescopes equipped with spectrographs capable of providing spatially diffraction-limited spectroscopy of astronomical sources. Examples will be presented from the HST/STIS, ground-based and other instruments on science that has been accomplished. Suggestions will be made of what might be possible, and limitations thereof, with future large monolithic, multiple mirror or interferometric telescopes equipped with spectrographs that would be matched to the diffraction limit of the telescope.

  12. Spatial resolution of a spherical x-ray crystal spectrometer at various magnifications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Lan; Hill, K. W.; Bitter, M.; Efthimion, P. C.; Delgado-Aparicio, L.; Pablant, N. A.; Baronova, E. O.; Pereira, N. R.

    2016-11-01

    A high spatial resolution of a few μm is often required for probing small-scale high-energy-density plasmas using high resolution x-ray imaging spectroscopy. This resolution can be achieved by adjusting system magnification to overcome the inherent limitation of the detector pixel size. Laboratory experiments on investigating the relation between spatial resolution and system magnification for a spherical crystal spectrometer are presented. Tungsten Lβ2 rays from a tungsten-target micro-focus x-ray tube were diffracted by a Ge 440 crystal, which was spherically bent to a radius of 223 mm, and imaged onto an x-ray CCD with 13-μm pixel size. The source-to-crystal (p) and crystal-to-detector (q) distances were varied to produce spatial magnifications (M = q/p) ranging from 2 to 10. The inferred instrumental spatial width reduces with increasing system magnification M. However, the experimental measurement at each M is larger than the theoretical value of pixel size divided by M. Future work will focus on investigating possible broadening mechanisms that limit the spatial resolution.

  13. Evaluating the Value of High Spatial Resolution in National Capacity Expansion Models using ReEDS

    SciTech Connect

    Krishnan, Venkat; Cole, Wesley

    2016-07-18

    This poster is based on the paper of the same name, presented at the IEEE Power & Energy Society General Meeting, July18, 2016. Power sector capacity expansion models (CEMs) have a broad range of spatial resolutions. This paper uses the Regional Energy Deployment System (ReEDS) model, a long-term national scale electric sector CEM, to evaluate the value of high spatial resolution for CEMs. ReEDS models the United States with 134 load balancing areas (BAs) and captures the variability in existing generation parameters, future technology costs, performance, and resource availability using very high spatial resolution data, especially for wind and solar modeled at 356 resource regions. In this paper we perform planning studies at three different spatial resolutions - native resolution (134 BAs), state-level, and NERC region level - and evaluate how results change under different levels of spatial aggregation in terms of renewable capacity deployment and location, associated transmission builds, and system costs. The results are used to ascertain the value of high geographically resolved models in terms of their impact on relative competitiveness among renewable energy resources.

  14. The effect of spatial resolution upon cloud optical property retrievals. I - Optical thickness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Feind, Rand E.; Christopher, Sundar A.; Welch, Ronald M.

    1992-01-01

    High spectral and spatial resolution Airborne Visible/Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS) imagery is used to study the effects of spatial resolution upon fair weather cumulus cloud optical thickness retrievals. As a preprocessing step, a variation of the Gao and Goetz three-band ratio technique is used to discriminate clouds from the background. The combination of the elimination of cloud shadow pixels and using the first derivative of the histogram allows for accurate cloud edge discrimination. The data are progressively degraded from 20 m to 960 m spatial resolution. The results show that retrieved cloud area increases with decreasing spatial resolution. The results also show that there is a monotonic decrease in retrieved cloud optical thickness with decreasing spatial resolution. It is also demonstrated that the use of a single, monospectral reflectance threshold is inadequate for identifying cloud pixels in fair weather cumulus scenes and presumably in any inhomogeneous cloud field. Cloud edges have a distribution of reflectance thresholds. The incorrect identification of cloud edges significantly impacts the accurate retrieval of cloud optical thickness values.

  15. Classification and Accuracy Assessment for Coarse Resolution Mapping within the Great Lakes Basin, USA

    EPA Science Inventory

    This study applied a phenology-based land-cover classification approach across the Laurentian Great Lakes Basin (GLB) using time-series data consisting of 23 Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) composite images (250 ...

  16. Study of spatial resolution of coordinate detectors based on Gas Electron Multipliers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kudryavtsev, V. N.; Maltsev, T. V.; Shekhtman, L. I.

    2017-02-01

    Spatial resolution of GEM-based tracking detectors is determined in the simulation and measured in the experiments. The simulation includes GEANT4 implemented transport of high energy electrons with careful accounting of atomic relaxation processes including emission of fluorescent photons and Auger electrons and custom post-processing with accounting of diffusion, gas amplification fluctuations, distribution of signals on readout electrodes, electronics noise and particular algorithm of final coordinate calculation (center of gravity). The simulation demonstrates that the minimum of spatial resolution of about 10 μm can be achieved with a gas mixture of Ar -CO2 (75-25 %) at a strips pitch from 250 μm to 300 μm. At a larger pitch the resolution quickly degrades reaching 80-100 μm at a pitch of 460-500 μm. Spatial resolution of low-material triple-GEM detectors for the DEUTERON facility at the VEPP-3 storage ring is measured at the extracted beam facility of the VEPP-4 M collider. One-coordinate resolution of the DEUTERON detector is measured with electron beam of 500 MeV, 1 GeV and 3.5 GeV energies. The determined value of spatial resolution varies in the range from approximately 35 μm to 50 μm for orthogonal tracks in the experiments.

  17. Effects of configural processing on the perceptual spatial resolution for face features.

    PubMed

    Namdar, Gal; Avidan, Galia; Ganel, Tzvi

    2015-11-01

    Configural processing governs human perception across various domains, including face perception. An established marker of configural face perception is the face inversion effect, in which performance is typically better for upright compared to inverted faces. In two experiments, we tested whether configural processing could influence basic visual abilities such as perceptual spatial resolution (i.e., the ability to detect spatial visual changes). Face-related perceptual spatial resolution was assessed by measuring the just noticeable difference (JND) to subtle positional changes between specific features in upright and inverted faces. The results revealed robust inversion effect for spatial sensitivity to configural-based changes, such as the distance between the mouth and the nose, or the distance between the eyes and the nose. Critically, spatial resolution for face features within the region of the eyes (e.g., the interocular distance between the eyes) was not affected by inversion, suggesting that the eye region operates as a separate 'gestalt' unit which is relatively immune to manipulations that would normally hamper configural processing. Together these findings suggest that face orientation modulates fundamental psychophysical abilities including spatial resolution. Furthermore, they indicate that classic psychophysical methods can be used as a valid measure of configural face processing.

  18. An angle encoder for super-high resolution and super-high accuracy using SelfA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watanabe, Tsukasa; Kon, Masahito; Nabeshima, Nobuo; Taniguchi, Kayoko

    2014-06-01

    Angular measurement technology at high resolution for applications such as in hard disk drive manufacturing machines, precision measurement equipment and aspherical process machines requires a rotary encoder with high accuracy, high resolution and high response speed. However, a rotary encoder has angular deviation factors during operation due to scale error or installation error. It has been assumed to be impossible to achieve accuracy below 0.1″ in angular measurement or control after the installation onto the rotating axis. Self-calibration (Lu and Trumper 2007 CIRP Ann. 56 499; Kim et al 2011 Proc. MacroScale; Probst 2008 Meas. Sci. Technol. 19 015101; Probst et al Meas. Sci. Technol. 9 1059; Tadashi and Makoto 1993 J. Robot. Mechatronics 5 448; Ralf et al 2006 Meas. Sci. Technol. 17 2811) and cross-calibration (Probst et al 1998 Meas. Sci. Technol. 9 1059; Just et al 2009 Precis. Eng. 33 530; Burnashev 2013 Quantum Electron. 43 130) technologies for a rotary encoder have been actively discussed on the basis of the principle of circular closure. This discussion prompted the development of rotary tables which achieve reliable and high accuracy angular verification. We apply these technologies for the development of a rotary encoder not only to meet the requirement of super-high accuracy but also to meet that of super-high resolution. This paper presents the development of an encoder with 221 = 2097 152 resolutions per rotation (360°), that is, corresponding to a 0.62″ signal period, achieved by the combination of a laser rotary encoder supplied by Magnescale Co., Ltd and a self-calibratable encoder (SelfA) supplied by The National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science & Technology (AIST). In addition, this paper introduces the development of a rotary encoder to guarantee ±0.03″ accuracy at any point of the interpolated signal, with respect to the encoder at the minimum resolution of 233, that is, corresponding to a 0.0015″ signal period after

  19. WE-EF-303-04: An Advanced Image Processing Method to Improve the Spatial Resolution of Proton Radiographies

    SciTech Connect

    Rinaldi, I; Parodi, K; Krah, N

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: We present an optimization method to improve the spatial resolution and the water equivalent thickness accuracy of proton radiographies. Methods: The method is designed for imaging systems measuring only the residual range of protons without relying on tracker detectors to determine the beam trajectory before and after the target. Specifically, the method was used for an imaging set-up consisting of a stack of 61 parallel-plate ionization chambers (PPIC) working as a range telescope. The method uses a decomposition approach of the residual range signal measured by the PPIC and constructs subimages with small size pixels geometrically rearranged and appropriately averaged to be merged into a final single radiography. The method was tested using Monte Carlo simulated and experimental proton radiographies of a PMMA step phantom and an anthropomorphic head phantom. Results: For the step phantom, the effective spatial resolution was found to be 4 and 3 times higher than the nominal resolution for the simulated and experimental radiographies, respectively. For the head phantom, a gamma index was calculated to quantify the conformity of the simulated proton radiographies with a digitally reconstructed X-ray radiography convolved with a Gaussian kernel equal to the proton beam spot-size. For DTA=2.5 mm and RD=2.5%, the passing ratio was 100%/85% for the optimized/non-optimized case, respectively. An extension of the method allows reducing the dose given to the patient during radiography acquisition. We show that despite a dose reduction of 25 times (leading to a dose of 0.016 mGy for the current imaging set-up), the image quality of the optimized radiographies remains fairly unaffected for both the simulated and experimental results. Conclusion: The optimization method leads to a significant increase of the spatial resolution allowing recovering image details that are unresolved in non-optimized radiographies. These results represent a major step towards clinical

  20. The variation of intrinsic spatial resolution across the UFOV of scintillation cameras.

    PubMed

    Papanastassiou, Emmanouil K; Psarrakos, Kyriakos; Sioundas, Anastasios; Ballas, Apostolos; Koufogiannis, Dimitrios; Hatziioannou, Konstantinos

    2006-12-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate in detail the variation of the intrinsic spatial resolution across the useful field of view (UFOV) of gamma-cameras and to explore whether this variation could lead to observable effects in clinical images. Two gamma-cameras were used, without their collimators, to acquire 560 (99m)Tc point source images at different points across their UFOVs, in order to measure the intrinsic spatial resolution at each point. Possible clinical effects of the resolution variation were examined on images of a thyroid phantom using a LEHR collimator, acquired at different locations on the UFOV and at various distances from the collimator. The gamma-camera intrinsic resolution varied significantly across the UFOV, being generally lower at the central region and deteriorating at the edges. Pronounced local maxima and minima were found at points corresponding to the centers of the photomultiplier tubes (PMTs) and halfway in between. Maximum differences of more than 50% were observed between the points presenting the best and worst intrinsic resolution. Differences between neighboring points reached 17%. The effects of resolution variation were clearly observable on the thyroid phantom images. It was concluded that an appropriate correction algorithm might be necessary in order to correct for the variation of the intrinsic spatial resolution across the UFOV of gamma-cameras.

  1. Multimodality hard-x-ray imaging of a chromosome with nanoscale spatial resolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Hanfei; Nazaretski, Evgeny; Lauer, Kenneth; Huang, Xiaojing; Wagner, Ulrich; Rau, Christoph; Yusuf, Mohammed; Robinson, Ian; Kalbfleisch, Sebastian; Li, Li; Bouet, Nathalie; Zhou, Juan; Conley, Ray; Chu, Yong S.

    2016-02-01

    We developed a scanning hard x-ray microscope using a new class of x-ray nano-focusing optic called a multilayer Laue lens and imaged a chromosome with nanoscale spatial resolution. The combination of the hard x-ray’s superior penetration power, high sensitivity to elemental composition, high spatial-resolution and quantitative analysis creates a unique tool with capabilities that other microscopy techniques cannot provide. Using this microscope, we simultaneously obtained absorption-, phase-, and fluorescence-contrast images of Pt-stained human chromosome samples. The high spatial-resolution of the microscope and its multi-modality imaging capabilities enabled us to observe the internal ultra-structures of a thick chromosome without sectioning it.

  2. Multimodality hard-x-ray imaging of a chromosome with nanoscale spatial resolution

    PubMed Central

    Yan, Hanfei; Nazaretski, Evgeny; Lauer, Kenneth; Huang, Xiaojing; Wagner, Ulrich; Rau, Christoph; Yusuf, Mohammed; Robinson, Ian; Kalbfleisch, Sebastian; Li, Li; Bouet, Nathalie; Zhou, Juan; Conley, Ray; Chu, Yong S.

    2016-01-01

    We developed a scanning hard x-ray microscope using a new class of x-ray nano-focusing optic called a multilayer Laue lens and imaged a chromosome with nanoscale spatial resolution. The combination of the hard x-ray’s superior penetration power, high sensitivity to elemental composition, high spatial-resolution and quantitative analysis creates a unique tool with capabilities that other microscopy techniques cannot provide. Using this microscope, we simultaneously obtained absorption-, phase-, and fluorescence-contrast images of Pt-stained human chromosome samples. The high spatial-resolution of the microscope and its multi-modality imaging capabilities enabled us to observe the internal ultra-structures of a thick chromosome without sectioning it. PMID:26846188

  3. Multimodality hard-x-ray imaging of a chromosome with nanoscale spatial resolution

    DOE PAGES

    Yan, Hanfei; Nazaretski, Evgeny; Lauer, Kenneth R.; ...

    2016-02-05

    Here, we developed a scanning hard x-ray microscope using a new class of x-ray nano-focusing optic called a multilayer Laue lens and imaged a chromosome with nanoscale spatial resolution. The combination of the hard x-ray's superior penetration power, high sensitivity to elemental composition, high spatial-resolution and quantitative analysis creates a unique tool with capabilities that other microscopy techniques cannot provide. Using this microscope, we simultaneously obtained absorption-, phase-, and fluorescence-contrast images of Pt-stained human chromosome samples. The high spatial-resolution of the microscope and its multi-modality imaging capabilities enabled us to observe the internal ultra-structures of a thick chromosome without sectioningmore » it.« less

  4. Multimodality hard-x-ray imaging of a chromosome with nanoscale spatial resolution

    SciTech Connect

    Yan, Hanfei; Nazaretski, Evgeny; Lauer, Kenneth R.; Huang, Xiaojing; Wagner, Ulrich; Rau, Christoph; Yusuf, Mohammed; Robinson, Ian K.; Kalbfleisch, Sebastian; Li, Li; Bouet, Nathalie; Zhou, Juan; Conley, Ray; Chu, Yong S.

    2016-02-05

    Here, we developed a scanning hard x-ray microscope using a new class of x-ray nano-focusing optic called a multilayer Laue lens and imaged a chromosome with nanoscale spatial resolution. The combination of the hard x-ray's superior penetration power, high sensitivity to elemental composition, high spatial-resolution and quantitative analysis creates a unique tool with capabilities that other microscopy techniques cannot provide. Using this microscope, we simultaneously obtained absorption-, phase-, and fluorescence-contrast images of Pt-stained human chromosome samples. The high spatial-resolution of the microscope and its multi-modality imaging capabilities enabled us to observe the internal ultra-structures of a thick chromosome without sectioning it.

  5. Direct Imaging of Single Cells and Tissue at Subcellular Spatial Resolution Using Transmission Geometry MALDI MS

    PubMed Central

    Zavalin, Andre; Todd, Erik M.; Rawhouser, Patrick D.; Yang, Junhai; Norris, Jeremy L.; Caprioli, Richard M.

    2012-01-01

    The need of cellular and sub-cellular spatial resolution in LDI / MALDI Imaging Mass Spectrometry (IMS) necessitates micron and sub-micron laser spot sizes at biologically relevant sensitivities, introducing significant challenges for MS technology. To this end we have developed a transmission geometry vacuum ion source that allows the laser beam to irradiate the back side of the sample. This arrangement obviates the mechanical / ion optic complications in the source by completely separating the optical lens and ion optic structures. We have experimentally demonstrated the viability of transmission geometry MALDI MS for imaging biological tissues and cells with sub-cellular spatial resolution. Furthermore, we demonstrate that in conjunction with new sample preparation protocols, the sensitivity of this instrument is sufficient to obtain molecular images at sub-micron spatial resolution. PMID:23147833

  6. High Spatial Resolution Isotopic Abundance Measurements by Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry: Status and Prospects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McKeegan, K. D.

    2007-12-01

    volcanology to biogeochemistry and cosmochemistry. Multiple collector (static magnetic field) measurements at high mass resolving power have enabled high precision (sub-permil) for several stable isotopes systems (e.g., C, O, Mg, S). Applied to geochronology, the multiple collector approach permits very rapid survey of zircon Pb-Pb ages to identify candidate Hadean grains for further detailed analysis. Ion imaging has been used to correlate isotope compositions with biochemistry (e.g., FISH-SIMS) or to search for especially rare samples among larger populations (e.g., supernova grains of Stardust). For favorable sample geometries with lateral homogeneity, SIMS isotope analyses may be conducted in depth-profiling mode which brings spatial resolution into the tens of nm range. Applications of this approach include experimental petrology, thermochronology, and isotopic analyses of shallowly-implanted solar wind ions. New approaches to removal of molecular ion interferences include reverse- geometry instrumentation and accelerator-based SIMS. There always exists trade-offs between microanalysis and trace analysis on the one hand, and high precision on the other. In this contribution, I will review current status for isotope precision and accuracy of SIMS for applications in stable and radiogenic isotopes as a function of spatial scale. A discussion of current limits and future prospects for improvement in understanding matrix effects will be given. Examples from ion imaging/ depth profiling/ geochronology and cosmochemistry will be provided.

  7. Accuracy assessment of airborne photogrammetrically derived high-resolution digital elevation models in a high mountain environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Müller, Johann; Gärtner-Roer, Isabelle; Thee, Patrick; Ginzler, Christian

    2014-12-01

    High-resolution digital elevation models (DEMs) generated by airborne remote sensing are frequently used to analyze landform structures (monotemporal) and geomorphological processes (multitemporal) in remote areas or areas of extreme terrain. In order to assess and quantify such structures and processes it is necessary to know the absolute accuracy of the available DEMs. This study assesses the absolute vertical accuracy of DEMs generated by the High Resolution Stereo Camera-Airborne (HRSC-A), the Leica Airborne Digital Sensors 40/80 (ADS40 and ADS80) and the analogue camera system RC30. The study area is located in the Turtmann valley, Valais, Switzerland, a glacially and periglacially formed hanging valley stretching from 2400 m to 3300 m a.s.l. The photogrammetrically derived DEMs are evaluated against geodetic field measurements and an airborne laser scan (ALS). Traditional and robust global and local accuracy measurements are used to describe the vertical quality of the DEMs, which show a non Gaussian distribution of errors. The results show that all four sensor systems produce DEMs with similar accuracy despite their different setups and generations. The ADS40 and ADS80 (both with a ground sampling distance of 0.50 m) generate the most accurate DEMs in complex high mountain areas with a RMSE of 0.8 m and NMAD of 0.6 m They also show the highest accuracy relating to flying height (0.14‰). The pushbroom scanning system HRSC-A produces a RMSE of 1.03 m and a NMAD of 0.83 m (0.21‰ accuracy of the flying height and 10 times the ground sampling distance). The analogue camera system RC30 produces DEMs with a vertical accuracy of 1.30 m RMSE and 0.83 m NMAD (0.17‰ accuracy of the flying height and two times the ground sampling distance). It is also shown that the performance of the DEMs strongly depends on the inclination of the terrain. The RMSE of areas up to an inclination <40° is better than 1 m. In more inclined areas the error and outlier occurrence

  8. Sensitivity of ecosystem models to the spatial resolution of the NCAR Community Climate Model CCM2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ciret, C.; Henderson-Sellers, A.

    This study evaluates the sensitivity of ecosystem models to changes in the horizontal resolution of version 2 of the National Centre for Atmospheric Research Community Climate Model (CCM2). A previous study has shown that the distributions of natural ecosystems predicted by vegetation models using coarse resolution present-day climate simulations are poorly simulated. It is usually assumed that increasing the spatial resolution of general circulation models (GCMs) will improve the simulation of climate, and hence will increase our level of confidence in the use of GCM output for impacts studies. The principal goals of this study is to investigate this hypothesis and to identify which biomes are more affected by the changes in spatial resolution of the forcing climate. The ecosystem models used are the BIOME-1 model and a version of the Holdridge scheme. The climate simulations come from a set of experiments in which CCM2 was run with increasing horizontal resolutions. The biome distributions predicted using CCM2 climates are compared against biome distributions predicted using observed climate datasets. Results show that increasing the resolution of CCM2 produces a significant improvement of the global-scale vegetation prediction, indicating that a higher level of confidence can be vested in the global-scale prediction of natural ecosystems using medium and high resolution GCMs. However, not all biomes are equally affected by the increased spatial resolution, and although certain biome distributions are improved (e.g. hot desert, tropical seasonal forest), others remain globally poorly predicted even at high resolution (e.g. grasses and xerophytic woods). In addition, these results show that some climatic biases are enhanced with increasing resolution (e.g. in mountain ranges), resulting in the inadequate prediction of biomes.

  9. Performance and characterization of the prototype nm-scale spatial resolution scanning multilayer Laue lenses microscope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nazaretski, E.; Kim, Jungdae; Yan, H.; Lauer, K.; Eom, D.; Shu, D.; Maser, J.; Pešić, Z.; Wagner, U.; Rau, C.; Chu, Y. S.

    2013-03-01

    Synchrotron based x-ray microscopy established itself as a prominent tool for noninvasive investigations in many areas of science and technology. Many facilities around the world routinely achieve sub-micrometer resolution with a few instruments capable of imaging with the spatial resolution better than 100 nm. With an ongoing effort to push the 2D/3D resolution down to 10 nm in the hard x-ray regime both fabrication of the nano-focusing optics and stability of a microscope become extremely challenging. In this work we present our approach to overcome technical challenges on the path towards high spatial resolution hard x-ray microscopy and demonstrate the performance of a scanning fluorescence microscope equipped with the multilayer Laue lenses focusing optics.

  10. Fundamental x-ray interaction limits in diagnostic imaging detectors: Spatial resolution

    SciTech Connect

    Hajdok, G.; Battista, J. J.; Cunningham, I. A.

    2008-07-15

    The practice of diagnostic x-ray imaging has been transformed with the emergence of digital detector technology. Although digital systems offer many practical advantages over conventional film-based systems, their spatial resolution performance can be a limitation. The authors present a Monte Carlo study to determine fundamental resolution limits caused by x-ray interactions in four converter materials: Amorphous silicon (a-Si), amorphous selenium, cesium iodide, and lead iodide. The ''x-ray interaction'' modulation transfer function (MTF) was determined for each material and compared in terms of the 50% MTF spatial frequency and Wagner's effective aperture for incident photon energies between 10 and 150 keV and various converter thicknesses. Several conclusions can be drawn from their Monte Carlo study. (i) In low-Z (a-Si) converters, reabsorption of Compton scatter x rays limits spatial resolution with a sharp MTF drop at very low spatial frequencies (<0.3 cycles/mm), especially above 60 keV; while in high-Z materials, reabsorption of characteristic x rays plays a dominant role, resulting in a mid-frequency (1-5 cycles/mm) MTF drop. (ii) Coherent scatter plays a minor role in the x-ray interaction MTF. (iii) The spread of energy due to secondary electron (e.g., photoelectrons) transport is significant only at very high spatial frequencies. (iv) Unlike the spread of optical light in phosphors, the spread of absorbed energy from x-ray interactions does not significantly degrade spatial resolution as converter thickness is increased. (v) The effective aperture results reported here represent fundamental spatial resolution limits of the materials tested and serve as target benchmarks for the design and development of future digital x-ray detectors.

  11. Fundamental x-ray interaction limits in diagnostic imaging detectors: spatial resolution.

    PubMed

    Hajdok, G; Battista, J J; Cunningham, I A

    2008-07-01

    The practice of diagnostic x-ray imaging has been transformed with the emergence of digital detector technology. Although digital systems offer many practical advantages over conventional film-based systems, their spatial resolution performance can be a limitation. The authors present a Monte Carlo study to determine fundamental resolution limits caused by x-ray interactions in four converter materials: Amorphous silicon (a-Si), amorphous selenium, cesium iodide, and lead iodide. The "x-ray interaction" modulation transfer function (MTF) was determined for each material and compared in terms of the 50% MTF spatial frequency and Wagner's effective aperture for incident photon energies between 10 and 150 keV and various converter thicknesses. Several conclusions can be drawn from their Monte Carlo study. (i) In low-Z (a-Si) converters, reabsorption of Compton scatter x rays limits spatial resolution with a sharp MTF drop at very low spatial frequencies (< 0.3 cycles/mm), especially above 60 keV; while in high-Z materials, reabsorption of characteristic x rays plays a dominant role, resulting in a mid-frequency (1-5 cycles/mm) MTF drop. (ii) Coherent scatter plays a minor role in the x-ray interaction MTF. (iii) The spread of energy due to secondary electron (e.g., photoelectrons) transport is significant only at very high spatial frequencies. (iv) Unlike the spread of optical light in phosphors, the spread of absorbed energy from x-ray interactions does not significantly degrade spatial resolution as converter thickness is increased. (v) The effective aperture results reported here represent fundamental spatial resolution limits of the materials tested and serve as target benchmarks for the design and development of future digital x-ray detectors.

  12. Large-scale proton radiography with micrometer spatial resolution using femtosecond petawatt laser system

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, W. P.; Shen, B. F. Zhang, H.; Lu, X. M.; Wang, C.; Liu, Y. Q.; Yu, L. H.; Chu, Y. X.; Li, Y. Y.; Xu, T. J.; Zhang, H.; Zhai, S. H.; Leng, Y. X.; Liang, X. Y.; Li, R. X.; Xu, Z. Z.

    2015-10-15

    An image of dragonfly with many details is obtained by the fundamental property of the high-energy proton source on a femtosecond petawatt laser system. Equal imaging of the dragonfly and high spatial resolution on the micrometer scale are simultaneously obtained. The head, wing, leg, tail, and even the internal tissue structures are clearly mapped in detail by the proton beam. Experiments show that image blurring caused by multiple Coulomb scattering can be reduced to a certain extent and the spatial resolution can be increased by attaching the dragonfly to the RCFs, which is consistent with theoretical assumptions.

  13. [Spatial resolution standardization of payload on board of remote sensing satellite based on application requirements].

    PubMed

    Wei, Xiang-qin; Gu, Xing-fa; Yu, Tao; Meng, Qing-yan; Li, Bin; Guo, Hong

    2012-03-01

    Remote sensing application requirements are the starting point for design of payload on board earth observation satellite. The generalization, standardization and serialization of payload are the future development trend for payload design. In the present paper, based on the analysis of remote sensing application requirements, the spatial resolution standardization of satellite remote sensing payload, which is the main concerned indicator, was investigated. The design standards of national payload spatial resolution of earth observation satellite are presented, which are important to the promotion of satellite payload production and saving in design cost.

  14. Electron-Beam Mapping of Vibrational Modes with Nanometer Spatial Resolution.

    PubMed

    Dwyer, C; Aoki, T; Rez, P; Chang, S L Y; Lovejoy, T C; Krivanek, O L

    2016-12-16

    We demonstrate that a focused beam of high-energy electrons can be used to map the vibrational modes of a material with a spatial resolution of the order of one nanometer. Our demonstration is performed on boron nitride, a polar dielectric which gives rise to both localized and delocalized electron-vibrational scattering, either of which can be selected in our off-axial experimental geometry. Our experimental results are well supported by our calculations, and should reconcile current controversy regarding the spatial resolution achievable in vibrational mapping with focused electron beams.

  15. Electron-Beam Mapping of Vibrational Modes with Nanometer Spatial Resolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dwyer, C.; Aoki, T.; Rez, P.; Chang, S. L. Y.; Lovejoy, T. C.; Krivanek, O. L.

    2016-12-01

    We demonstrate that a focused beam of high-energy electrons can be used to map the vibrational modes of a material with a spatial resolution of the order of one nanometer. Our demonstration is performed on boron nitride, a polar dielectric which gives rise to both localized and delocalized electron-vibrational scattering, either of which can be selected in our off-axial experimental geometry. Our experimental results are well supported by our calculations, and should reconcile current controversy regarding the spatial resolution achievable in vibrational mapping with focused electron beams.

  16. Ultrafast laser induced breakdown spectroscopy for high spatial resolution chemical analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zorba, Vassilia; Mao, Xianglei; Russo, Richard E.

    2011-02-01

    Femtosecond laser induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) was used to identify the spatial resolution limitations and assess the minimal detectable mass restrictions in laser-ablation based chemical analysis. The atomic emission of sodium (Na) and potassium (K) dopants in transparent dielectric Mica matrices was studied, to find that both these elements could be detected from 450 nm diameter ablation craters, full-width-at-half-maximum (FWHM). Under optimal conditions, mass as low as 220 ag was measured, demonstrating the feasibility of using laser-ablation based chemical analysis to achieve high spatial resolution elemental analysis in real-time and at atmospheric pressure conditions.

  17. Investigating the Effects of Higher Spatial Resolution on Benthic Classification Accuracy at Midway Atoll

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-09-01

    monospecific F. DEEP ESCARPMENT massive branching mixed G. LAGOON e. other invertebrates- sea urchins , sponges H. BACK REEF f. artificial- North South West...et al., 2004). When this technique is applied to describing the features of the sea bottom, it is called a benthic classification. Unfortunately...Stamnes, 1999). The effects of atmospheric attenuation and scattering, the air- sea interface, and elements in the water column must all be

  18. Simulations of the temporal and spatial resolution for a compact time-resolved electron diffractometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robinson, Matthew S.; Lane, Paul D.; Wann, Derek A.

    2016-02-01

    A novel compact electron gun for use in time-resolved gas electron diffraction experiments has recently been designed and commissioned. In this paper we present and discuss the extensive simulations that were performed to underpin the design in terms of the spatial and temporal qualities of the pulsed electron beam created by the ionisation of a gold photocathode using a femtosecond laser. The response of the electron pulses to a solenoid lens used to focus the electron beam has also been studied. The simulated results show that focussing the electron beam affects the overall spatial and temporal resolution of the experiment in a variety of ways, and that factors that improve the resolution of one parameter can often have a negative effect on the other. A balance must, therefore, be achieved between spatial and temporal resolution. The optimal experimental time resolution for the apparatus is predicted to be 416 fs for studies of gas-phase species, while the predicted spatial resolution of better than 2 nm-1 compares well with traditional time-averaged electron diffraction set-ups.

  19. Arranging optical fibres for the spatial resolution improvement of topographical images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamamoto, Tsuyoshi; Maki, Atsushi; Kadoya, Takuma; Tanikawa, Yukari; Yamada, Yukio; Okada, Eiji; Koizumi, Hideaki

    2002-09-01

    Optical topography is a method for visualization of cortical activity. Ways of improving the spatial resolution of the topographical image with three arrangements of optical fibres are discussed. A distribution of sensitivity is obtained from the phantom experiment, and used to reconstruct topographical images of an activation area of the brain with the fibres in each arrangement. The correlations between the activated area and the corresponding topographical images are obtained, and the effective arrangement of the optical fibres for improved resolution is discussed.

  20. Accessibility versus Accuracy in Retrieving Spatial Memory: Evidence for Suboptimal Assumed Headings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yerramsetti, Ashok; Marchette, Steven A.; Shelton, Amy L.

    2013-01-01

    Orientation dependence in spatial memory has often been interpreted in terms of accessibility: Object locations are encoded relative to a reference orientation that affords the most accurate access to spatial memory. An open question, however, is whether people naturally use this "preferred" orientation whenever recalling the space. We…

  1. Spatial perception of sound fields recorded by spherical microphone arrays with varying spatial resolution.

    PubMed

    Avni, Amir; Ahrens, Jens; Geier, Matthias; Spors, Sascha; Wierstorf, Hagen; Rafaely, Boaz

    2013-05-01

    The area of sound field synthesis has significantly advanced in the past decade, facilitated by the development of high-quality sound-field capturing and re-synthesis systems. Spherical microphone arrays are among the most recently developed systems for sound field capturing, enabling processing and analysis of three-dimensional sound fields in the spherical harmonics domain. In spite of these developments, a clear relation between sound fields recorded by spherical microphone arrays and their perception with a re-synthesis system has not yet been established, although some relation to scalar measures of spatial perception was recently presented. This paper presents an experimental study of spatial sound perception with the use of a spherical microphone array for sound recording and headphone-based binaural sound synthesis. Sound field analysis and processing is performed in the spherical harmonics domain with the use of head-related transfer functions and simulated enclosed sound fields. The effect of several factors, such as spherical harmonics order, frequency bandwidth, and spatial sampling, are investigated by applying the repertory grid technique to the results of the experiment, forming a clearer relation between sound-field capture with a spherical microphone array and its perception using binaural synthesis regarding space, frequency, and additional artifacts. The experimental study clearly shows that a source will be perceived more spatially sharp and more externalized when represented by a binaural stimuli reconstructed with a higher spherical harmonics order. This effect is apparent from low spherical harmonics orders. Spatial aliasing, as a result of sound field capturing with a finite number of microphones, introduces unpleasant artifacts which increased with the degree of aliasing error.

  2. The Role of Shallow Convection in Tropical Climate via Impacts of the Model Spatial Resolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bui, H. X.; Chou, C.

    2014-12-01

    We examine the role of shallow convection in tropical climate, using different spatial resolutions as sensitivity studies. After examining the vertical structure and spatial distribution of tropical convection, we found that a coarser resolution produces less partition of shallow convection, while a finer resolution tends to produce greater one in convective regions. We further examine the influence of shallow convection strength on precipitation by comparing the western and eastern Pacific ITCZ. In the western Pacific ITCZ, where is dominated by deep convection, the variation of precipitation among the spatial-resolution experiments is mainly due to the contribution of thermodynamic processes. The warmer climate found in coarser resolutions enhances precipitation frequency and intensity, and then the corresponding precipitation amount. In the eastern Pacific ITCZ, which has more shallow convection, shallow convection becomes the dominant factor to determine the variation of precipitation. More partition of shallow convection found in finer resolutions tends to enhance precipitation frequency and intensity, and the total precipitation amount. This provides potential evidence that shallow convection first affects the occurrence and intensity of precipitation, and then the total amount of precipitation in the region.

  3. Evaluation of eight high spatial resolution gridded precipitation products in Adige Basin (Italy) at multiple temporal and spatial scales.

    PubMed

    Duan, Zheng; Liu, Junzhi; Tuo, Ye; Chiogna, Gabriele; Disse, Markus

    2016-12-15

    This study provides a comprehensive evaluation of eight high spatial resolution gridded precipitation products in Adige Basin located in Italy within 45-47.1°N. The Adige Basin is characterized by a complex topography, and independent ground data are available from a network of 101 rain gauges during 2000-2010. The eight products include the Version 7 TRMM (Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission) Multi-satellite Precipitation Analysis 3B42 product, three products from CMORPH (the Climate Prediction Center MORPHing technique), i.e., CMORPH_RAW, CMORPH_CRT and CMORPH_BLD, PCDR (Precipitation Estimation from Remotely Sensed Information using Artificial Neural Networks-Climate Data Record), PGF (Global Meteorological Forcing Dataset for land surface modelling developed by Princeton University), CHIRPS (Climate Hazards Group InfraRed Precipitation with Station data) and GSMaP_MVK (Global Satellite Mapping of Precipitation project Moving Vector with Kalman-filter product). All eight products are evaluated against interpolated rain gauge data at the common 0.25° spatial resolution, and additional evaluations at native finer spatial resolution are conducted for CHIRPS (0.05°) and GSMaP_MVK (0.10°). Evaluation is performed at multiple temporal (daily, monthly and annual) and spatial scales (grid and watershed). Evaluation results show that in terms of overall statistical metrics the CHIRPS, TRMM and CMORPH_BLD comparably rank as the top three best performing products, while the PGF performs worst. All eight products underestimate and overestimate the occurrence frequency of daily precipitation for some intensity ranges. All products tend to show higher error in the winter months (December-February) when precipitation is low. Very slight difference can be observed in the evaluation metrics and aspects between at the aggregated 0.25° spatial resolution and at the native finer resolutions (0.05°) for CHIRPS and (0.10°) for GSMaP_MVK products. This study has implications

  4. End-to-end test of spatial accuracy in Gamma Knife treatments for trigeminal neuralgia

    SciTech Connect

    Brezovich, Ivan A. Wu, Xingen; Duan, Jun; Popple, Richard A.; Shen, Sui; Benhabib, Sidi; Huang, Mi; Christian Dobelbower, M.; Fisher III, Winfield S.

    2014-11-01

    Purpose: Spatial accuracy is most crucial when small targets like the trigeminal nerve are treated. Although current quality assurance procedures typically verify that individual apparatus, like the MRI scanner, CT scanner, Gamma Knife, etc., are meeting specifications, the cumulative error of all equipment and procedures combined may exceed safe margins. This study uses an end-to-end approach to assess the overall targeting errors that may have occurred in individual patients previously treated for trigeminal neuralgia. Methods: The trigeminal nerve is simulated by a 3 mm long, 3.175 mm (1/8 in.) diameter MRI-contrast filled cavity embedded within a PMMA plastic capsule. The capsule is positioned within the head frame such that the location of the cavity matches the Gamma Knife coordinates of an arbitrarily chosen, previously treated patient. Gafchromic EBT2 film is placed at the center of the cavity in coronal and sagittal orientations. The films are marked with a pinprick to identify the cavity center. Treatments are planned for radiation delivery with 4 mm collimators according to MRI and CT scans using the clinical localizer boxes and acquisition protocols. Shots are planned so that the 50% isodose surface encompasses the cavity. Following irradiation, the films are scanned and analyzed. Targeting errors are defined as the distance between the pinprick, which represents the intended target, and the centroid of the 50% isodose line, which is the center of the radiation field that was actually delivered. Results: Averaged over ten patient simulations, targeting errors along the x, y, and z coordinates (patient’s left-to-right, posterior-to-anterior, and head-to-foot) were, respectively, −0.060 ± 0.363, −0.350 ± 0.253, and 0.348 ± 0.204 mm when MRI was used for treatment planning. Planning according to CT exhibited generally smaller errors, namely, 0.109 ± 0.167, −0.191 ± 0.144, and 0.211 ± 0.094 mm. The largest errors along individual axes in MRI

  5. On the sensitivity of urban hydrodynamic modelling to rainfall spatial and temporal resolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bruni, G.; Reinoso, R.; van de Giesen, N. C.; Clemens, F. H. L. R.; ten Veldhuis, J. A. E.

    2015-02-01

    Cities are increasingly vulnerable to floods generated by intense rainfall, because of urbanisation of flood-prone areas and ongoing urban densification. Accurate information of convective storm characteristics at high spatial and temporal resolution is a crucial input for urban hydrological models to be able to simulate fast runoff processes and enhance flood prediction in cities. In this paper, a detailed study of the sensitivity of urban hydrodynamic response to high resolution radar rainfall was conducted. Rainfall rates derived from X-band dual polarimetric weather radar were used as input into a detailed hydrodynamic sewer model for an urban catchment in the city of Rotterdam, the Netherlands. The aim was to characterise how the effect of space and time aggregation on rainfall structure affects hydrodynamic modelling of urban catchments, for resolutions ranging from 100 to 2000 m and from 1 to 10 min. Dimensionless parameters were derived to compare results between different storm conditions and to describe the effect of rainfall spatial resolution in relation to storm characteristics and hydrodynamic model properties: rainfall sampling number (rainfall resolution vs. storm size), catchment sampling number (rainfall resolution vs. catchment size), runoff and sewer sampling number (rainfall resolution vs. runoff and sewer model resolution respectively). Results show that for rainfall resolution lower than half the catchment size, rainfall volumes mean and standard deviations decrease as a result of smoothing of rainfall gradients. Moreover, deviations in maximum water depths, from 10 to 30% depending on the storm, occurred for rainfall resolution close to storm size, as a result of rainfall aggregation. Model results also showed that modelled runoff peaks are more sensitive to rainfall resolution than maximum in-sewer water depths as flow routing has a damping effect on in-sewer water level variations. Temporal resolution aggregation of rainfall inputs led to

  6. The Sun at high spatial resolution: The physics of small spatial structures in a magnetized medium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rosner, R. T.

    1986-01-01

    An attempt is made to provide a perspective on the problem of spatial structuring on scales smaller than can presently be directly and regularly observed from the ground or with which current space-based instrumentation can be anticipated. There is abundant evidence from both observations and theory that such spatial structuring of the solar outer atmosphere is ubiquitous not only on the observed scales, but also on spatial scales down to (at least) the subarcsecond range. This is not to say that the results to be obtained from observations on these small scales can be anticipated: quite the opposite. What is clear instead is that many of the classic problems of coronal and chromospheric activity - involving the basic dissipative nature of magnetized plasmas - will be seen from a novel perspective at these scales, and that there are reasons for believing that dynamical processes of importance to activity on presently-resolved scales will themselves begin to be resolved on the sub-arcsecond level. Since the Sun is the only astrophysical laboratory for which there is any hope of studying these processes in any detail, this observatioinal opportunity is an exciting prospect for any student of magnetic activity in astrophysics.

  7. Numerical analysis of single pulse and differential pulse-width pair BOTDA systems in the high spatial resolution regime.

    PubMed

    Minardo, Aldo; Bernini, Romeo; Zeni, Luigi

    2011-09-26

    A numerical analysis of conventional and differential pulse-width pair Brillouin optical time domain analysis systems is reported. The tests are focused on determining the performance of these systems especially in terms of spatial resolution, as a function of the pulse characteristics. A new definition of spatial resolution is given, based on analysis of the shape of the Brillouin gain spectrum. The influence of the rise/fall time of the pulse light to the spatial resolution is also studied.

  8. Noise Removal with Maintained Spatial Resolution in Raman Images of Cells Exposed to Submicron Polystyrene Particles

    PubMed Central

    Ahlinder, Linnea; Wiklund Lindström, Susanne; Lejon, Christian; Geladi, Paul; Österlund, Lars

    2016-01-01

    The biodistribution of 300 nm polystyrene particles in A549 lung epithelial cells has been studied with confocal Raman spectroscopy. This is a label-free method in which particles and cells can be imaged without using dyes or fluorescent labels. The main drawback with Raman imaging is the comparatively low spatial resolution, which is aggravated in heterogeneous systems such as biological samples, which in addition often require long measurement times because of their weak Raman signal. Long measurement times may however induce laser-induced damage. In this study we use a super-resolution algorithm with Tikhonov regularization, intended to improve the image quality without demanding an increased number of collected pixels. Images of cells exposed to polystyrene particles have been acquired with two different step lengths, i.e., the distance between pixels, and compared to each other and to corresponding images treated with the super-resolution algorithm. It is shown that the resolution after application of super-resolution algorithms is not significantly improved compared to the theoretical limit for optical microscopy. However, to reduce noise and artefacts in the hyperspectral Raman images while maintaining the spatial resolution, we show that it is advantageous to use short mapping step lengths and super-resolution algorithms with appropriate regularization. The proposed methodology should be generally applicable for Raman imaging of biological samples and other photo-sensitive samples.

  9. Resolution and Brightness Characteristics of Short-Lag Spatial Coherence (SLSC) Images

    PubMed Central

    Lediju Bell, Muyinatu A.; Dahl, Jeremy J.; Trahey, Gregg E.

    2016-01-01

    We previously described a novel beamforming method that images the spatial correlation of an echo wave field with demonstrated applications to clutter reduction in high-noise environments. In this paper, several characteristics of the resolution and brightness of short-lag spatial coherence (SLSC) images formed by this method are compared with B-mode images formed by conventional delay-and-sum beamforming methods. Point target widths were measured to estimate resolution, the autocorrelation of image texture was measured to estimate texture size, and the contrast (i.e., brightness ratio) of clinically relevant targets was assessed. SLSC images demonstrate improved resolution and contrast with increasing values of channel noise and clutter, whereas B-mode resolution was degraded in the presence of high noise (i.e., > −12 dB channel noise-to-signal ratios) and high clutter magnitudes (i.e., > −21 dB relative to point target magnitude). Lateral resolution in SLSC images was improved with increasing lag value, whereas axial resolution was degraded with increasing correlation kernel length. The texture size of SLSC images was smaller than that of matched B-mode images. Results demonstrate that the resolution and contrast of coherence-based images depend on a range of parameters, but are generally superior to those of matched B-mode images under challenging imaging conditions. PMID:26168173

  10. Fast Vascular Ultrasound Imaging with Enhanced Spatial Resolution and Background Rejection.

    PubMed

    Bar-Zion, Avinoam; Tremblay-Darveau, Charles; Solomon, Oren; Adam, Dan; Eldar, Yonina

    2016-08-15

    Ultrasound super-localization microscopy techniques presented in the last few years enable non-invasive imaging of vascular structures at the capillary level by tracking the flow of ultrasound contrast agents (gas microbubbles). However, these techniques are currently limited by low temporal resolution and long acquisition times. Super-resolution optical fluctuation imaging (SOFI) is a fluorescence microscopy technique enabling sub-diffraction limit imaging with high temporal resolution by calculating high order statistics of the fluctuating optical signal. The aim of this work is to achieve fast acoustic imaging with enhanced resolution by applying the tools used in SOFI to contrast-enhance ultrasound (CEUS) plane-wave scans. The proposed method was tested using numerical simulations and evaluated using two in-vivo rabbit models: scans of healthy kidneys and VX-2 tumor xenografts. Improved spatial resolution was observed with a reduction of up to 50% in the full width half max of the point spread function. In addition, substantial reduction in the background level was achieved compared to standard mean amplitude persistence images, revealing small vascular structures within tumors. The scan duration of the proposed method is less than a second while current superlocalization techniques require acquisition duration of several minutes. As a result, the proposed technique may be used to obtain scans with enhanced spatial resolution and high temporal resolution, facilitating flow-dynamics monitoring. Our method can also be applied during a breath-hold, reducing the sensitivity to motion artifacts.

  11. Fast Vascular Ultrasound Imaging With Enhanced Spatial Resolution and Background Rejection.

    PubMed

    Bar-Zion, Avinoam; Tremblay-Darveau, Charles; Solomon, Oren; Adam, Dan; Eldar, Yonina C

    2017-01-01

    Ultrasound super-localization microscopy techniques presented in the last few years enable non-invasive imaging of vascular structures at the capillary level by tracking the flow of ultrasound contrast agents (gas microbubbles). However, these techniques are currently limited by low temporal resolution and long acquisition times. Super-resolution optical fluctuation imaging (SOFI) is a fluorescence microscopy technique enabling sub-diffraction limit imaging with high temporal resolution by calculating high order statistics of the fluctuating optical signal. The aim of this work is to achieve fast acoustic imaging with enhanced resolution by applying the tools used in SOFI to contrast-enhance ultrasound (CEUS) plane-wave scans. The proposed method was tested using numerical simulations and evaluated using two in-vivo rabbit models: scans of healthy kidneys and VX-2 tumor xenografts. Improved spatial resolution was observed with a reduction of up to 50% in the full width half max of the point spread function. In addition, substantial reduction in the background level was achieved compared to standard mean amplitude persistence images, revealing small vascular structures within tumors. The scan duration of the proposed method is less than a second while current super-localization techniques require acquisition duration of several minutes. As a result, the proposed technique may be used to obtain scans with enhanced spatial resolution and high temporal resolution, facilitating flow-dynamics monitoring. Our method can also be applied during a breath-hold, reducing the sensitivity to motion artifacts.

  12. Comparison of Detector Intrinsic Spatial Resolution Characteristics for Sensor on the Entrance Surface and Conventional Readout Designs

    PubMed Central

    Miyaoka, Robert S.; Li, Xiaoli; Lockhart, Cate; Lewellen, Tom K.

    2011-01-01

    We report on a high resolution, monolithic crystal PET detector design concept that provides depth of interaction (DOI) positioning within the crystal. Our design utilizes a novel sensor on the entrance surface (SES) approach combined with a maximum likelihood positioning algorithm. We compare the intrinsic spatial resolution characteristics (i.e., X, Y and Z) using our SES design versus conventional placement of the photo-sensors on the rear surface of the crystal. The sensors can be any two-dimensional array of solid state readout devices (e.g., silicon photomultipliers (SiPM) or avalanche photodiodes (APD)). SiPMs are a new type of solid-state photodetector with Geiger mode operation that can provide signal gain similar to a photomltipiler tube (PMT). Utilizing a multi-step simulation process, we determined the intrinsic spatial resolution characteristics for a variety of detector configurations. The SES design was evaluated via simulation for three different two-dimensional array sizes: 8×8 with 5.8×5.8 mm2 pads; 12×12 with 3.8×3.8mm2 pads; and 16×16 with 2.8×2.8 mm2 pads. To reduce the number of signal channels row-column summing readout was used for the 12×12 and 16×16 channel array devices. The crystal was modeled as a 15 mm monolithic slab of a lutetium-based scintillator with the large area surface varying from 48.8×48.8 mm2 up to 49.6×49.6 mm2 depending upon the dimensions of the two-dimensional photo-sensor array. The intrinsic spatial resolution for the 8×8 array is 0.88 mm FWHM in X and Y, and 1.83 mm FWHM in Z (i.e., DOI). Comparing the results versus using a conventional design with the photo-sensors on the backside of the crystal, an average improvement of ~24% in X and Y and 20% in Z is achieved. The X, Y intrinsic spatial resolution improved to 0.67 mm and 0.64 mm FWHM for the 12×12 and 16×16 arrays using row-column readout. Using the 12×12 and 16×16 arrays also led to a slight improvement in the DOI positioning accuracy. PMID

  13. Use of High Spatial Resolution Remote Sensing for Hydro-Geomorphologic Analysis of Medium-sized Arid Basins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sadeh, Yuval; Blumberg, Dan G.; Cohen, Hai; Morin, Efrat; Maman, Shimrit

    2016-04-01

    Arid environments are often remote, expansive, difficult to access and especially vulnerable to flash flood hazards due to the poor understanding of the phenomenon and the lack of meteorological, geomorphological, and hydrological data. For many years, catchment characteristics have been observed using point-based measurements such as rain gauges and soil sample analysis; on the other hand, use of remote sensing technologies can provide spatially continuous hydrological parameters and variables. The advances in remote sensing technologies can provide new geo-spatial data using high spatial and temporal resolution for basin-scale geomorphological analysis and hydrological models. This study used high spatial resolution remote sensing for hydro-geomorphologic analysis of the arid medium size Rahaf watershed (76 km2), located in the Judean Desert, Israel. During the research a high resolution geomorphological map of Rahaf basin was created using WorldView-2 multispectral satellite imageries; surface roughness was estimated using SIR-C and COSMO-SkyMed Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) spaceborne sensors; and rainstorm characteristics were extracted using ground-based meteorological radar. The geomorphological mapping of Rahaf into 17 classes with good accuracy. The surface roughness extraction using SAR over the basin showed that the correlation between the COSMO-SkyMed backscatter coefficient and the surface roughness was very strong with an R2 of 0.97. This study showed that using x-band spaceborne sensors with high spatial resolution, such as COSMO-SkyMed, are more suitable for surface roughness evaluation in flat arid environments and should be in favor with longer wavelength operating sensors such as the SIR-C. The current study presents an innovative method to evaluate Manning's hydraulic roughness coefficient (n) in arid environments using radar backscattering. The weather radar rainfall data was calibrated using rain gauges located in the watershed. The

  14. Spatial Distribution of Attentional Modulation at Columnar Resolution in Macaque Area V4

    PubMed Central

    Tanigawa, Hisashi; Chen, Gang; Roe, Anna W.

    2016-01-01

    Attention to a location in a visual scene affects neuronal responses in visual cortical areas in a retinotopically specific manner. Optical imaging studies have revealed that cortical responses consist of two components of different sizes: the stimulus-nonspecific global signal and the stimulus-specific mapping signal (domain activity). It remains unclear whether either or both of these components are modulated by spatial attention. In this study, to determine the spatial distribution of attentional modulation at columnar resolution, we performed cerebral blood volume (CBV)-based optical imaging in area V4 of monkeys performing a color change detection task in which spatial attention was manipulated. We found that spatial attention enhanced global signals of the hemodynamic responses, but did not affect stimulus-selective domain activities. These results indicate the involvement of global signals in neural processing of spatial attention. We propose that global signals reflect the neural substrate of the normalization pool in normalization models of attention. PMID:28018181

  15. Exploring Small Spatial Scales in the Transition Region and Solar Corona with the Very High Angular Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (VERIS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chua, D. H.; Korendyke, C. M.; Vourlidas, A.; Brown, C. M.; Tun-Beltran, S.; Klimchuk, J. A.; Landi, E.; Seely, J.; Davila, J. M.; Hagood, R.; Roberts, D.; Shepler, E.; Feldman, R.; Moser, J.; Shea, J.

    2012-12-01

    Theoretical and experimental investigations of the transition region and coronal loops point to the importance of processes occurring on small spatial scales in governing the strong dynamics and impulsive energy release in these regions. As a consequence, high spatial, temporal, and temperature resolution over a broad temperature range, and accuracy in velocity and density determinations are all critical observational parameters. Current instruments lack one or more of these properties. These observational deficiencies have created a wide array of opposing descriptions of coronal loop heating and questions such as whether or not the plasma within coronal loops is multi-thermal or isothermal. High spectral and spatial resolution spectroscopic data are absolutely required to resolve these controversies and to advance our understanding of the dynamics within the solar atmosphere. We will achieve this with the Very High Angular Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (VERIS) sounding rocket payload. VERIS consists of an off-axis paraboloid telescope feeding a very high angular resolution, extreme ultraviolet (EUV) imaging spectrometer that will provide the first ever, simultaneous sub-arcsecond (0.16 arcsecond/pixel) spectra in bright lines needed to study plasma structures in the transition region, quiet corona, and active region core. It will do so with a spectral resolution of >5000 to allow Doppler velocity determinations to better than 3 km/s. VERIS uses a novel two-element, normal incidence optical design with highly reflective, broad wavelength coverage EUV coatings to access a spectral range with broad temperature coverage (0.03-15 MK) and density-sensitive line ratios. Combined with Hinode Solar Optical Telescope (SOT) and ground based observatories, VERIS will deliver simultaneous observations of the entire solar atmosphere from the photosphere to the multi-million degree corona at sub-arcsecond resolution for the first time ever, allowing us to understand the

  16. High spatial resolution X-ray and gamma ray imaging system using diffraction crystals

    DOEpatents

    Smither, Robert K.

    2011-05-17

    A method and a device for high spatial resolution imaging of a plurality of sources of x-ray and gamma-ray radiation are provided. The device comprises a plurality of arrays, with each array comprising a plurality of elements comprising a first collimator, a diffracting crystal, a second collimator, and a detector.

  17. Spatial resolution of tip-enhanced Raman spectroscopy - DFT assessment of the chemical effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Latorre, Federico; Kupfer, Stephan; Bocklitz, Thomas; Kinzel, Daniel; Trautmann, Steffen; Gräfe, Stefanie; Deckert, Volker

    2016-05-01

    Experimental evidence of extremely high spatial resolution of tip-enhanced Raman scattering (TERS) has been recently demonstrated. Here, we present a full quantum chemical description (at the density functional level of theory) of the non-resonant chemical effects on the Raman spectrum of an adenine molecule mapped by a tip, modeled as a single silver atom or a small silver cluster. We show pronounced changes in the Raman pattern and its intensities depending on the conformation of the nanoparticle-substrate system, concluding that the spatial resolution of the chemical contribution of TERS can be in the sub-nm range.Experimental evidence of extremely high spatial resolution of tip-enhanced Raman scattering (TERS) has been recently demonstrated. Here, we present a full quantum chemical description (at the density functional level of theory) of the non-resonant chemical effects on the Raman spectrum of an adenine molecule mapped by a tip, modeled as a single silver atom or a small silver cluster. We show pronounced changes in the Raman pattern and its intensities depending on the conformation of the nanoparticle-substrate system, concluding that the spatial resolution of the chemical contribution of TERS can be in the sub-nm range. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c6nr00093b

  18. Scaling field data to calibrate and validate moderate spatial resolution remote sensing models

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Baccini, A.; Friedl, M.A.; Woodcock, C.E.; Zhu, Z.

    2007-01-01

    Validation and calibration are essential components of nearly all remote sensing-based studies. In both cases, ground measurements are collected and then related to the remote sensing observations or model results. In many situations, and particularly in studies that use moderate resolution remote sensing, a mismatch exists between the sensor's field of view and the scale at which in situ measurements are collected. The use of in situ measurements for model calibration and validation, therefore, requires a robust and defensible method to spatially aggregate ground measurements to the scale at which the remotely sensed data are acquired. This paper examines this challenge and specifically considers two different approaches for aggregating field measurements to match the spatial resolution of moderate spatial resolution remote sensing data: (a) landscape stratification; and (b) averaging of fine spatial resolution maps. The results show that an empirically estimated stratification based on a regression tree method provides a statistically defensible and operational basis for performing this type of procedure. 

  19. A system for optically controlling neural circuits with very high spatial and temporal resolution

    PubMed Central

    Pandarinath, Chethan; Carlson, Eric T.; Nirenberg, Sheila

    2015-01-01

    Optogenetics offers a powerful new approach for controlling neural circuits. It has a vast array of applications in both basic and clinical science. For basic science, it opens the door to unraveling circuit operations, since one can perturb specific circuit components with high spatial (single cell) and high temporal (millisecond) resolution. For clinical applications, it allows new kinds of selective treatments, because it provides a method to inactivate or activate specific components in a malfunctioning circuit and bring it back into a normal operating range [1–3]. To harness the power of optogenetics, though, one needs stimulating tools that work with the same high spatial and temporal resolution as the molecules themselves, the channelrhodopsins. To date, most stimulating tools require a tradeoff between spatial and temporal precision and are prohibitively expensive to integrate into a stimulating/recording setup in a laboratory or a device in a clinical setting [4, 5]. Here we describe a Digital Light Processing (DLP)-based system capable of extremely high temporal resolution (sub-millisecond), without sacrificing spatial resolution. Furthermore, it is constructed using off-the-shelf components, making it feasible for a broad range of biology and bioengineering labs. Using transgenic mice that express channelrhodopsin-2 (ChR2), we demonstrate the system’s capability for stimulating channelrhodopsin-expressing neurons in tissue with single cell and sub-millisecond precision. PMID:25699292

  20. Real space soft x-ray imaging at 10 nm spatial resolution

    SciTech Connect

    Chao, Weilun; Fischer, Peter; Tyliszczak, T.; Rekawa, Senajith; Anderson, Erik; Naulleau, Patrick

    2011-04-24

    Using Fresnel zone plates made with our robust nanofabrication processes, we have successfully achieved 10 nm spatial resolution with soft x-ray microscopy. The result, obtained with both a conventional full-field and scanning soft x-ray microscope, marks a significant step forward in extending the microscopy to truly nanoscale studies.

  1. Spatial and temporal resolution effects on urban catchments with different imperviousness degrees

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cristiano, Elena; ten Veldhuis, Marie-Claire; van de Giesen, Nick C.

    2015-04-01

    One of the main problems in urban hydrological analysis is to measure the rainfall at urban scale with high resolution and use these measurements to model urban runoff processes to predict flows and reduce flood risk. With the aim of building a semi-distribute hydrological sewer model for an urban catchment, high resolution rainfall data are required as input. In this study, the sensitivity of hydrological response to high resolution precipitation data for hydrodynamic models at urban scale is evaluated with different combinations of spatial and temporal resolutions. The aim is to study sensitivity in relation to catchment characteristics, especially drainage area size, imperviousness degree and hydraulic properties such as special structures (weirs, pumping stations). Rainfall data of nine storms are considered with 4 different spatial resolutions (3000m, 1000m, 500m and 100m) combined with 4 different temporal resolutions (10min, 5min, 3min and 1min). The dual polarimetric X-band weather radar, located in the Cabauw Experimental Site for Atmospheric Research (CESAR) provided the high resolution rainfall data of these rainfall events, used to improve the sewer model. The effects of spatial-temporal rainfall input resolution on response is studied in three Districts of Rotterdam (NL): Kralingen, Spaanse Polder and Centrum district. These catchments have different average drainage area size (from 2km2 to 7km2), and different general characteristics. Centrum district and Kralingen are, indeed, more various and include residential and commercial areas, big green areas and a small industrial area, while Spaanse Polder is a industrial area, densely urbanized, and presents a high percentage of imperviousness.

  2. Multi-storm, multi-catchment investigation of rainfall spatial resolution requirements for urban hydrological applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ochoa Rodriguez, Susana; ten Veldhuis, Marie-Claire; Bruni, Guendalina; Gires, Auguste; van Assel, Johan; Wang, Lipen; Reinoso-Rodinel, Ricardo; Ichiba, Abdellah; Kroll, Stefan; Schertzer, Daniel; Onof, Christian; Willems, Patrick

    2014-05-01

    Rainfall estimates of the highest possible resolution are required for urban hydrological applications, given the small size and fast response which characterise urban catchments. While significant progress has been made over the last few decades in high resolution measurement of rainfall at urban scales and in the modelling of urban runoff processes, a number of questions as to the actual resolution requirements for input data and models remain to be answered. With the aim of answering some of these questions, this work investigates the impact of rainfall estimates of different spatial resolutions and structures on the hydraulic outputs of models of several urban catchments with different characteristics. For this purpose multiple storm events, including convective and stratiform ones, measured by a polarimetric X-band radar located in Cabauw (NL) were selected for analysis. The original radar estimates, at 100 m and 1 min resolutions, were aggregated to coarser spatial resolutions of up to 1000 m. These estimates were then applied to the high-resolution semi distributed hydraulic models of four urban catchments of similar size (approx. 7 km2), but different morphological and land use characteristics; these are: the Herent catchment (Belgium), the Cranbrook catchment (UK), the Morée Sausset catchment (France) and the Kralingen District of Rotterdam (The Netherlands). When doing so, methodologies for standardising rainfall inputs and making results comparable were implemented. Moreover, the results were analysed considering different points at each catchment, while also taking into account the particular storm and catchment characteristics. The results obtained for the storms used in this study show that flat and less compact catchments (e.g. polder areas) may be more sensitive to the spatial resolution of rainfall estimates, as compared to catchments with higher slopes and compactness, which in general show little sensitivity to changes in spatial resolution

  3. High spatial resolution brain functional MRI using submillimeter balanced steady-state free precession acquisition

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, Pei-Hsin; Chung, Hsiao-Wen; Tsai, Ping-Huei; Wu, Ming-Long; Chuang, Tzu-Chao; Shih, Yi-Yu; Huang, Teng-Yi

    2013-12-15

    Purpose: One of the technical advantages of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) is its precise localization of changes from neuronal activities. While current practice of fMRI acquisition at voxel size around 3 × 3 × 3 mm{sup 3} achieves satisfactory results in studies of basic brain functions, higher spatial resolution is required in order to resolve finer cortical structures. This study investigated spatial resolution effects on brain fMRI experiments using balanced steady-state free precession (bSSFP) imaging with 0.37 mm{sup 3} voxel volume at 3.0 T. Methods: In fMRI experiments, full and unilateral visual field 5 Hz flashing checkerboard stimulations were given to healthy subjects. The bSSFP imaging experiments were performed at three different frequency offsets to widen the coverage, with functional activations in the primary visual cortex analyzed using the general linear model. Variations of the spatial resolution were achieved by removing outerk-space data components. Results: Results show that a reduction in voxel volume from 3.44 × 3.44 × 2 mm{sup 3} to 0.43 × 0.43 × 2 mm{sup 3} has resulted in an increase of the functional activation signals from (7.7 ± 1.7)% to (20.9 ± 2.0)% at 3.0 T, despite of the threefold SNR decreases in the original images, leading to nearly invariant functional contrast-to-noise ratios (fCNR) even at high spatial resolution. Activation signals aligning nicely with gray matter sulci at high spatial resolution would, on the other hand, have possibly been mistaken as noise at low spatial resolution. Conclusions: It is concluded that the bSSFP sequence is a plausible technique for fMRI investigations at submillimeter voxel widths without compromising fCNR. The reduction of partial volume averaging with nonactivated brain tissues to retain fCNR is uniquely suitable for high spatial resolution applications such as the resolving of columnar organization in the brain.

  4. High-Spatial-Resolution Thermal Infrared Satellite Images for Lake Studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steissberg, T. E.; Hook, S. J.; Schladow, G.

    2006-12-01

    Thermal infrared (TIR) satellite images can be used to study transport processes in lakes, such as wind-driven upwelling and surface circulation, providing a measure of spatial variability and horizontal distribution of water temperature that conventional field-based measurements cannot provide. High-spatial-resolution TIR images provide a detailed view of fine-scale processes, such as surface jets, that cannot be clearly resolved in moderate-resolution images, and they enable the accurate measurement of surface transport and circulation patterns. The surface temperature maps derived from high-resolution thermal infrared ASTER and Landsat ETM+ images, in conjunction with moderate-resolution TIR images acquired by MODIS, enabled the characterization of wind-driven upwelling and the measurement of surface currents and circulation at Lake Tahoe, California-Nevada, USA. The images, paired with in situ surface temperature and meteorological data, have shown that wind-driven partial upwelling events occur at least twice monthly throughout the spring and summer stratified period, transporting water from intermediate depths to the surface. These are important events that contribute to the patchiness and heterogeneity that characterize natural aquatic systems. The high spatial resolution of ASTER and ETM+ and the small time separation between their subsequent overpasses allow the surface currents and general circulation in lakes and coastal environments to be accurately quantified using the maximum cross-correlation method. The surface currents and circulation at Lake Tahoe were measured using a pair of cross-platform high-resolution TIR images acquired 38 minutes apart by ETM+ and ASTER. Mean currents of 5--10 cm/s were measured, with maximum currents approaching 35 cm/s. The eastward transport of a surface jet extending from an upwelling front was clearly apparent, with 15--30 cm/s currents. The vector field delineated three gyres, consistent with surface drifter

  5. Evaluation of charge -sharing effects on the spatial resolution of the PICASSO detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rigon, L.; Arfelli, F.; Bergamaschi, A.; Chen, R. C.; Dreossi, D.; Longo, R.; Menk, R.-H.; Schmitt, B.; Vallazza, E.; Castelli, E.

    2010-05-01

    A double -layer "edge-on" silicon microstrip detector has been designed and realized in the frame of the PICASSO (Phase Imaging for Clinical Application with Silicon detector and Synchrotron radiatiOn) project at the SYRMEP (SYnchrotron Radiation for MEdical Physics) beamline of Elettra (Trieste, Italy). The detector meets the requirements for synchrotron radiation mammography with patients inregarding: (a) size, since it covers the full beam width (210 mm); (b) spatial resolution, determined by the 0.05 mm strip pitch; (c) single-photon counting capabilities, because it is able to handle more than 10 6 photons/(pixel×s); (d) contrast resolution, thanks to a threshold trim DAC that equalizes the channel sensitivity; (e) efficiency, due to the high absorption in the 15-20 mm sensor depth. Experimental measurements evidence charge sharing, though not compromising the spatial resolution.

  6. Spatial and frequency-based super-resolution of ultrasound images.

    PubMed

    Wu, Mon-Ju; Karls, Joseph; Duenwald-Kuehl, Sarah; Vanderby, Ray; Sethares, William

    2014-07-01

    Modern ultrasound systems can output video images containing more spatial and temporal information than still images. Super-resolution techniques can exploit additional information but face two challenges: image registration and complex motion. In addition, information from multiple available frequencies is unexploited. Herein, we utilised these information sources to create better ultrasound images and videos, extending existing technologies for image capture. Spatial and frequency-based super-resolution processing using multiple motion estimation and frequency combination was applied to ultrasound videos of deforming models. Processed images are larger, have greater clarity and detail, and less variability in intensity between frames. Significantly, strain measurements are more accurate and precise than those from raw videos, and have a higher contrast ratio between 'tumour' and 'surrounding tissue' in a phantom model. We attribute improvements to reduced noise and increased resolution in processed images. Our methods can significantly improve quantitative and qualitative assessments of ultrasound images when compared assessments of standard images.

  7. Photoelectron range limitations to the spatial resolution for x-rays in gas proportional chambers

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, G.C.; Fischer, J.; Radeka, V.

    1983-11-01

    Measurements have been made, for x-ray energies from a few keV to 18 keV, of the limiting spatial resolution caused by the finite range of the photoelectron, or electrons, created when an x-ray is absorbed in the gas of a proportional chamber. In hydrocarbon gases such as methane and ethane, where the photoelectron receives the bulk of the x-ray energy, the limiting spatial resolution is found to vary as a power law of x-ray energy. In argon and xenon, at an x-ray energy approximately twice that of the A/sub K/ edge and the Xe/sub L/ edge respectively, the measured limiting resolution is better than expected from an equivalent power law behavior.

  8. High-resolution measurements of the spatial and temporal scalar structure of a turbulent plume

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crimaldi, J. P.; Koseff, J. R.

    Two techniques are described for measuring the scalar structure of turbulent flows. A planar laser-induced fluorescence technique is used to make highly resolved measurements of scalar spatial structure, and a single-point laser-induced fluorescence probe is used to make highly resolved measurements of scalar temporal structure. The techniques are used to measure the spatial and temporal structure of an odor plume released from a low-momentum, bed-level source in a turbulent boundary layer. For the experimental setup used in this study, a spatial resolution of 150μm and a temporal resolution of 1,000Hz are obtained. The results show a wide range of turbulent structures in rich detail; the nature of the structure varies significantly in different regions of the plume.

  9. Cyclical thinning of black phosphorus with high spatial resolution for heterostructure devices.

    PubMed

    Robbins, Matthew C; Namgung, Seon; Oh, Sang-Hyun; Koester, Steven J

    2017-03-13

    A high-spatial resolution, cyclical thinning method for realizing black phosphorus (BP) heterostructures is reported. This process utilizes a cyclic technique involving BP surface oxidation and vacuum annealing to create BP flakes as thin as 1.6 nm. The process also utilizes a spatially patternable mask created by evaporating Al that oxidizes to form Al2O3 which stabilizes the unetched BP regions and enables the formation of lateral heterostructures with spatial resolution as small as 150 nm. This thinning/patterning technique has also been used to create the first ever lateral heterostructure BP MOSFET in which half of a BP flake was thinned in order to increase its band gap. This heterostructure MOSFET showed an on-to-off current ratio improvement of 1000× compared to homojunction MOSFETs.

  10. Fusing Multi-Source Urban Maps Under Consideration of Spatial Resolution and Environmental Characteristics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salentinig, Andreas; Gamba, Paolo

    2016-08-01

    In this work a decision level fusion algorithm incorporating multispectral- and SAR- based urban maps from different spatial resolutions is presented. A variety of urban maps from SAR as well optical EO data with spatial resolutions ranging between 12 and 75 meters are combined in order to produce accurate urban area extractions of the Chinese 'Megacities' of Beijing and Guangzhou. The influence of spatial posting of the data, climate region and season at image acquisition has been evaluated and reflected in optimized weights of the input data in the fusion process. Therefore, the weights are determined based on the assumption that the usability and reliability of EO data products depends on the intended scale of analysis as well as on the fact that their sensor-specific advantages and limitations are strongly connected to the environmental characteristics of the area under investigation. Results show that improved built-up area extractions can be achieved with the proposed method.

  11. [The radial velocity measurement accuracy of different spectral type low resolution stellar spectra at different signal-to-noise ratio].

    PubMed

    Wang, Feng-Fei; Luo, A-Li; Zhao, Yong-Heng

    2014-02-01

    The radial velocity of the star is very important for the study of the dynamics structure and chemistry evolution of the Milky Way, is also an useful tool for looking for variable or special objects. In the present work, we focus on calculating the radial velocity of different spectral types of low-resolution stellar spectra by adopting a template matching method, so as to provide effective and reliable reference to the different aspects of scientific research We choose high signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) spectra of different spectral type stellar from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS), and add different noise to simulate the stellar spectra with different SNR. Then we obtain theradial velocity measurement accuracy of different spectral type stellar spectra at different SNR by employing a template matching method. Meanwhile, the radial velocity measurement accuracy of white dwarf stars is analyzed as well. We concluded that the accuracy of radial velocity measurements of early-type stars is much higher than late-type ones. For example, the 1-sigma standard error of radial velocity measurements of A-type stars is 5-8 times as large as K-type and M-type stars. We discuss the reason and suggest that the very narrow lines of late-type stars ensure the accuracy of measurement of radial velocities, while the early-type stars with very wide Balmer lines, such as A-type stars, become sensitive to noise and obtain low accuracy of radial velocities. For the spectra of white dwarfs stars, the standard error of radial velocity measurement could be over 50 km x s(-1) because of their extremely wide Balmer lines. The above conclusion will provide a good reference for stellar scientific study.

  12. Using experts feedback in clinical case resolution and arbitration as accuracy diagnosis methodology.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-González, Alejandro; Torres-Niño, Javier; Valencia-Garcia, Rafael; Mayer, Miguel A; Alor-Hernandez, Giner

    2013-09-01

    This paper proposes a new methodology for assessing the efficiency of medical diagnostic systems and clinical decision support systems by using the feedback/opinions of medical experts. The methodology behind this work is based on a comparison between the expert feedback that has helped solve different clinical cases and the expert system that has evaluated these same cases. Once the results are returned, an arbitration process is carried out in order to ensure the correctness of the results provided by both methods. Once this process has been completed, the results are analyzed using Precision, Recall, Accuracy, Specificity and Matthews Correlation Coefficient (MCC) (PRAS-M) metrics. When the methodology is applied, the results obtained from a real diagnostic system allow researchers to establish the accuracy of the system based on objective facts. The methodology returns enough information to analyze the system's behavior for each disease in the knowledge base or across the entire knowledge base. It also returns data on the efficiency of the different assessors involved in the evaluation process, analyzing their behavior in the diagnostic process. The proposed work facilitates the evaluation of medical diagnostic systems, having a reliable process based on objective facts. The methodology presented in this research makes it possible to identify the main characteristics that define a medical diagnostic system and their values, allowing for system improvement. A good example of the results provided by the application of the methodology is shown in this paper. A diagnosis system was evaluated by means of this methodology, yielding positive results (statistically significant) when comparing the system with the assessors that participated in the evaluation process of the system through metrics such as recall (+27.54%) and MCC (+32.19%). These results demonstrate the real applicability of the methodology used.

  13. Estimation of surface soil moisture in alpine areas based on medium spatial resolution SAR time-series and upscaled in-situ measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greifeneder, F.; Notarnicola, C.; Cuozzo, G.; Bertoldi, G.; Della Chiesa, S.; Niedrist, G.; Stamenkovic, J.; Wagner, W.

    2014-10-01

    The goal of this study was to assess the applicability of medium resolution SAR time-series, in combination with in-situ point measurements and machine learning, for the estimation of soil moisture content (SMC). One of the main challenges was the combination of SMC point measurements and satellite data. Due to the high spatial variability of soil moisture a direct linkage can be inappropriate. Data used in this study were a combination of in-situ data, satellite data and modelled SMC from the hydrological model GEOtop. To relate the point measurements with the satellite pixel footprint resolution, a spatial upscaling method was developed. It was found that both temporal and spatial SMC patterns obtained from various data sources (ASAR WS, GEOtop and meteorological stations) show similar behaviors. Furthermore, it was possible to increase the absolute accuracy of the estimated SMC through spatial upscaling of the obtained in-situ data. Introducing information on the temporal behavior of the SAR signal proves to be a promising method to increase the confidence and accuracy of SMC estimations. Following steps were identified as critical for the retrieval process: the topographic correction and geocoding of SAR data, the calibration of the meteorological stations and the spatial upscaling.

  14. On the sensitivity of urban hydrodynamic modelling to rainfall spatial and temporal resolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bruni, G.; Reinoso, R.; van de Giesen, N. C.; Clemens, F. H. L. R.; ten Veldhuis, J. A. E.

    2014-06-01

    Cities are increasingly vulnerable to floods generated by intense rainfall, because of their high degree of imperviousness, implementation of infrastructures, and changes in precipitation patterns due to climate change. Accurate information of convective storm characteristics at high spatial and temporal resolution is a crucial input for urban hydrological models to be able to simulate fast runoff processes and enhance flood prediction. In this paper, a detailed study of the sensitivity of urban hydrological response to high resolution radar rainfall was conducted. Rainfall rates derived from X-band dual polarimetric weather radar for four rainstorms were used as input into a detailed hydrodynamic sewer model for an urban catchment in Rotterdam, the Netherlands. Dimensionless parameters were derived to compare results between different storm conditions and to describe the effect of rainfall spatial resolution in relation to storm and hydrodynamic model properties: rainfall sampling number (rainfall resolution vs. storm size), catchment sampling number (rainfall resolution vs. catchment size), runoff and sewer sampling number (rainfall resolution vs. runoff and sewer model resolution respectively). Results show catchment smearing effect for rainfall resolution approaching half the catchment size, i.e. for catchments sampling numbers greater than 0.5 averaged rainfall volumes decrease about 20%. Moreover, deviations in maximum water depths, form 10 to 30% depending on the storm, occur for rainfall resolution close to storm size, describing storm smearing effect due to rainfall coarsening. Model results also show the sensitivity of modelled runoff peaks and maximum water depths to the resolution of the runoff areas and sewer density respectively. Sensitivity to temporal resolution of rainfall input seems low compared to spatial resolution, for the storms analysed in this study. Findings are in agreement with previous studies on natural catchments, thus the sampling

  15. Improving the spatial resolution of magnetic resonance inverse imaging via the blipped-CAIPI acquisition scheme.

    PubMed

    Chang, Wei-Tang; Setsompop, Kawin; Ahveninen, Jyrki; Belliveau, John W; Witzel, Thomas; Lin, Fa-Hsuan

    2014-05-01

    Using simultaneous acquisition from multiple channels of a radio-frequency (RF) coil array, magnetic resonance inverse imaging (InI) achieves functional MRI acquisitions at a rate of 100ms per whole-brain volume. InI accelerates the scan by leaving out partition encoding steps and reconstructs images by solving under-determined inverse problems using RF coil sensitivity information. Hence, the correlated spatial information available in the coil array causes spatial blurring in the InI reconstruction. Here, we propose a method that employs gradient blips in the partition encoding direction during the acquisition to provide extra spatial encoding in order to better differentiate signals from different partitions. According to our simulations, this blipped-InI (bInI) method can increase the average spatial resolution by 15.1% (1.3mm) across the whole brain and from 32.6% (4.2mm) in subcortical regions, as compared to the InI method. In a visual fMRI experiment, we demonstrate that, compared to InI, the spatial distribution of bInI BOLD response is more consistent with that of a conventional echo-planar imaging (EPI) at the level of individual subjects. With the improved spatial resolution, especially in subcortical regions, bInI can be a useful fMRI tool for obtaining high spatiotemporal information for clinical and cognitive neuroscience studies.

  16. Spatial Resolution Versus Data Acquisition Efficiency in Mapping an Inhomogeneous System with Species Diffusion

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Fengxiang; Zhang, Yong; Gfroerer, T. H.; Finger, A. N.; Mark W. Wanlass

    2015-06-02

    Traditionally, spatially-resolved photoluminescence (PL) has been performed using a point-by-point scan mode with both excitation and detection occurring at the same spatial location. But with the availability of high quality detector arrays like CCDs, an imaging mode has become popular for performing spatially-resolved PL. By illuminating the entire area of interest and collecting the data simultaneously from all spatial locations, the measurement efficiency can be greatly improved. However, this new approach has proceeded under the implicit assumption of comparable spatial resolution. We show here that when carrier diffusion is present, the spatial resolution can actually differ substantially between the two modes, with the less efficient scan mode being far superior. We apply both techniques in investigation of defects in a GaAs epilayer – where isolated singlet and doublet dislocations can be identified. A superposition principle is developed for solving the diffusion equation to extract the intrinsic carrier diffusion length, which can be applied to a system with arbitrarily distributed defects. The understanding derived from this work is significant for a broad range of problems in physics and beyond (for instance biology) – whenever the dynamics of generation, diffusion, and annihilation of species can be probed with either measurement mode.

  17. Spatial resolution versus data acquisition efficiency in mapping an inhomogeneous system with species diffusion.

    PubMed

    Chen, Fengxiang; Zhang, Yong; Gfroerer, T H; Finger, A N; Wanlass, M W

    2015-06-02

    Traditionally, spatially-resolved photoluminescence (PL) has been performed using a point-by-point scan mode with both excitation and detection occurring at the same spatial location. But with the availability of high quality detector arrays like CCDs, an imaging mode has become popular for performing spatially-resolved PL. By illuminating the entire area of interest and collecting the data simultaneously from all spatial locations, the measurement efficiency can be greatly improved. However, this new approach has proceeded under the implicit assumption of comparable spatial resolution. We show here that when carrier diffusion is present, the spatial resolution can actually differ substantially between the two modes, with the less efficient scan mode being far superior. We apply both techniques in investigation of defects in a GaAs epilayer - where isolated singlet and doublet dislocations can be identified. A superposition principle is developed for solving the diffusion equation to extract the intrinsic carrier diffusion length, which can be applied to a system with arbitrarily distributed defects. The understanding derived from this work is significant for a broad range of problems in physics and beyond (for instance biology) - whenever the dynamics of generation, diffusion, and annihilation of species can be probed with either measurement mode.

  18. Spatial Resolution Versus Data Acquisition Efficiency in Mapping an Inhomogeneous System with Species Diffusion

    DOE PAGES

    Chen, Fengxiang; Zhang, Yong; Gfroerer, T. H.; ...

    2015-06-02

    Traditionally, spatially-resolved photoluminescence (PL) has been performed using a point-by-point scan mode with both excitation and detection occurring at the same spatial location. But with the availability of high quality detector arrays like CCDs, an imaging mode has become popular for performing spatially-resolved PL. By illuminating the entire area of interest and collecting the data simultaneously from all spatial locations, the measurement efficiency can be greatly improved. However, this new approach has proceeded under the implicit assumption of comparable spatial resolution. We show here that when carrier diffusion is present, the spatial resolution can actually differ substantially between the twomore » modes, with the less efficient scan mode being far superior. We apply both techniques in investigation of defects in a GaAs epilayer – where isolated singlet and doublet dislocations can be identified. A superposition principle is developed for solving the diffusion equation to extract the intrinsic carrier diffusion length, which can be applied to a system with arbitrarily distributed defects. The understanding derived from this work is significant for a broad range of problems in physics and beyond (for instance biology) – whenever the dynamics of generation, diffusion, and annihilation of species can be probed with either measurement mode.« less

  19. Improving the spatial resolution of Magnetic Resonance Inverse Imaging via the blipped-CAIPI acquisition scheme

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Wei-Tang; Setsompop, Kawin; Ahveninen, Jyrki; Belliveau, John W.; Witzel, Thomas; Lin, Fa-Hsuan

    2014-01-01

    Using simultaneous acquisition from multiple channels of a radio-frequency (RF) coil array, magnetic resonance inverse imaging (InI) achieves functional MRI acquisitions at a rate of 100 ms per whole-brain volume. InI accelerates the scan by leaving out partition encoding steps and reconstructs images by solving under-determined inverse problems using RF coil sensitivity information. Hence, the correlated spatial information available in the coil array causes spatial blurring in the InI reconstruction. Here, we propose a method that employs gradient blips in the partition encoding direction during the acquisition to provide extra spatial encoding in order to better differentiate signals from different partitions. According to our simulations, this blipped-InI (bInI) method can increase the average spatial resolution by 15.1% (1.3 mm) across the whole brain and from 32.6% (4.2 mm) in subcortical regions, as compared to the InI method. In a visual fMRI experiment, we demonstrate that, compared to InI, the spatial distribution of bInI BOLD response is more consistent with that of a conventional echo-planar imaging (EPI) at the level of individual subjects. With the improved spatial resolution, especially in subcortical regions, bInI can be a useful fMRI tool for obtaining high spatiotemporal information for clinical and cognitive neuroscience studies. PMID:24374076

  20. Autonomous agricultural remote sensing systems with high spatial and temporal resolutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiang, Haitao

    . It suggested that a 16.5% forward overlap and a 15% lateral overlap were required to avoiding missing desired mapping area when the UAV flies above 45 m high with 4.5 mm lens. A whole field mosaic image can be generated according to the individual image georeferencing information. A 0.569 m mosaic error has been achieved and this accuracy is sufficient for many of the intended precision agricultural applications. With careful interpretation, the UAV images are an excellent source of high spatial and temporal resolution data for precision agricultural applications. (Abstract shortened by UMI.)

  1. High spatial resolution upgrade of the electron cyclotron emission radiometer for the DIII-D tokamak

    SciTech Connect

    Truong, D. D.; Austin, M. E.

    2014-11-01

    The 40-channel DIII-D electron cyclotron emission (ECE) radiometer provides measurements of Te(r,t) at the tokamak midplane from optically thick, second harmonic X-mode emission over a frequency range of 83-130 GHz. Heterodyning divides this frequency range into three 2-18 GHz intermediate frequency (IF) bands. The frequency spacing of the radiometer’s channels results in a spatial resolution of ~1-3 cm, depending on local magnetic field and electron temperature. A new high resolution subsystem has been added to the DIII-D ECE radiometer to make sub-centimeter (0.6-0.8 cm) resolution Te measurements. The high resolution subsystem branches off from the regular channels’ IF bands and consists of a microwave switch to toggle between IF bands, a switched filter bank for frequency selectivity, an adjustable local oscillator and mixer for further frequency down-conversion, and a set of eight microwave filters in the 2-4 GHz range. We achieved a higher spatial resolution through the use of a narrower (200 MHz) filter bandwidth and closer spacing between the filters’ center frequencies (250 MHz). This configuration allows for full coverage of the 83-130 GHz frequency range in 2 GHz bands. Depending on the local magnetic field, this translates into a “zoomed-in” analysis of a ~2-4 cm radial region. These high resolution channels will be most useful in the low-field side edge region where modest Te values (1-2 keV) result in a minimum of relativistic broadening. Some expected uses of these channels include mapping the spatial dependence of Alfven eigenmodes, geodesic acoustic modes, and externally applied magnetic perturbations. Initial Te measurements, which demonstrate that the desired resolution is achieved, is presented.

  2. High spatial resolution upgrade of the electron cyclotron emission radiometer for the DIII-D tokamak

    DOE PAGES

    Truong, D. D.; Austin, M. E.

    2014-11-01

    The 40-channel DIII-D electron cyclotron emission (ECE) radiometer provides measurements of Te(r,t) at the tokamak midplane from optically thick, second harmonic X-mode emission over a frequency range of 83-130 GHz. Heterodyning divides this frequency range into three 2-18 GHz intermediate frequency (IF) bands. The frequency spacing of the radiometer’s channels results in a spatial resolution of ~1-3 cm, depending on local magnetic field and electron temperature. A new high resolution subsystem has been added to the DIII-D ECE radiometer to make sub-centimeter (0.6-0.8 cm) resolution Te measurements. The high resolution subsystem branches off from the regular channels’ IF bands andmore » consists of a microwave switch to toggle between IF bands, a switched filter bank for frequency selectivity, an adjustable local oscillator and mixer for further frequency down-conversion, and a set of eight microwave filters in the 2-4 GHz range. We achieved a higher spatial resolution through the use of a narrower (200 MHz) filter bandwidth and closer spacing between the filters’ center frequencies (250 MHz). This configuration allows for full coverage of the 83-130 GHz frequency range in 2 GHz bands. Depending on the local magnetic field, this translates into a “zoomed-in” analysis of a ~2-4 cm radial region. These high resolution channels will be most useful in the low-field side edge region where modest Te values (1-2 keV) result in a minimum of relativistic broadening. Some expected uses of these channels include mapping the spatial dependence of Alfven eigenmodes, geodesic acoustic modes, and externally applied magnetic perturbations. Initial Te measurements, which demonstrate that the desired resolution is achieved, is presented.« less

  3. Mapping global land cover in 2001 and 2010 with spatial-temporal consistency at 250 m resolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jie; Zhao, Yuanyuan; Li, Congcong; Yu, Le; Liu, Desheng; Gong, Peng

    2015-05-01

    Global land cover types in 2001 and 2010 were mapped at 250 m resolution with multiple year time series Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MODIS) data. The map for each single year was produced not only from data of that particular year but also from data acquired in the preceding and subsequent years as temporal context. Slope data and geographical coordinates of pixels were also used. The classification system was derived from the finer resolution observation and monitoring of global land cover (FROM-GLC) project. Samples were based on the 2010 FROM-GLC project and samples for other years were obtained by excluding those changed from 2010. A random forest classifier was used to obtain original class labels and to estimate class probabilities for 2000-2002, and 2009-2011. The overall accuracies estimated from cross validation of samples are 74.93% for 2001 and 75.17% for 2010. The classification results were further improved through post processing. A spatial-temporal consistency model, Maximum a Posteriori Markov Random Fields (MAP-MRF), was first applied to improve land cover classification for each 3 consecutive years. The MRF outputs for 2001 and 2010 were then processed with a rule-based label adjustment method with MOD44B, slope and composited EVI series as auxiliary data. The label adjustment process relabeled the over-classified forests, water bodies and barren lands to alternative classes with maximum probabilities.

  4. Improved accuracy of quantitative parameter estimates in dynamic contrast-enhanced CT study with low temporal resolution

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Sun Mo; Jaffray, David A.

    2016-01-15

    Purpose: A previously proposed method to reduce radiation dose to patient in dynamic contrast-enhanced (DCE) CT is enhanced by principal component analysis (PCA) filtering which improves the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of time-concentration curves in the DCE-CT study. The efficacy of the combined method to maintain the accuracy of kinetic parameter estimates at low temporal resolution is investigated with pixel-by-pixel kinetic analysis of DCE-CT data. Methods: The method is based on DCE-CT scanning performed with low temporal resolution to reduce the radiation dose to the patient. The arterial input function (AIF) with high temporal resolution can be generated with a coarsely sampled AIF through a previously published method of AIF estimation. To increase the SNR of time-concentration curves (tissue curves), first, a region-of-interest is segmented into squares composed of 3 × 3 pixels in size. Subsequently, the PCA filtering combined with a fraction of residual information criterion is applied to all the segmented squares for further improvement of their SNRs. The proposed method was applied to each DCE-CT data set of a cohort of 14 patients at varying levels of down-sampling. The kinetic analyses using the modified Tofts’ model and singular value decomposition method, then, were carried out for each of the down-sampling schemes between the intervals from 2 to 15 s. The results were compared with analyses done with the measured data in high temporal resolution (i.e., original scanning frequency) as the reference. Results: The patients’ AIFs were estimated to high accuracy based on the 11 orthonormal bases of arterial impulse responses established in the previous paper. In addition, noise in the images was effectively reduced by using five principal components of the tissue curves for filtering. Kinetic analyses using the proposed method showed superior results compared to those with down-sampling alone; they were able to maintain the accuracy in the

  5. COMPARISON OF THE ACCURACY OF VARIOUS SPATIAL DISCRETIZATION SCHEMES OF THE DISCRETE ORDINATES EQUATIONS IN 2D CARTESIAN GEOMETRY

    SciTech Connect

    Sebastian Schunert; Yousry Y. Azmy; Damien Fournier

    2011-05-01

    We present a comprehensive error estimation of four spatial discretization schemes of the two-dimensional Discrete Ordinates (SN) equations on Cartesian grids utilizing a Method of Manufactured Solution (MMS) benchmark suite based on variants of Larsen’s benchmark featuring different orders of smoothness of the underlying exact solution. The considered spatial discretization schemes include the arbitrarily high order transport methods of the nodal (AHOTN) and characteristic (AHOTC) types, the discontinuous Galerkin Finite Element method (DGFEM) and the recently proposed higher order diamond difference method (HODD) of spatial expansion orders 0 through 3. While AHOTN and AHOTC rely on approximate analytical solutions of the transport equation within a mesh cell, DGFEM and HODD utilize a polynomial expansion to mimick the angular flux profile across each mesh cell. Intuitively, due to the higher degree of analyticity, we expect AHOTN and AHOTC to feature superior accuracy compared with DGFEM and HODD, but at the price of potentially longer grind times and numerical instabilities. The latter disadvantages can result from the presence of exponential terms evaluated at the cell optical thickness that arise from the semianalytical solution process. This work quantifies the order of accuracy and the magnitude of the error of all four discretization methods for different optical thicknesses, scattering ratios and degrees of smoothness of the underlying exact solutions in order to verify or contradict the aforementioned intuitive expectation.

  6. Exploration of very high spatial resolution data for vegetation mapping using cartographic ontologies: Identifying life forms to mapping formations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodriguez-Gallegos, Hugo Benigno

    Vegetation mapping is often considered the process of identifying landscape patterns of individuals or clusters of species or life forms (LF). At the landscape scale, the larger pattern represented by individuals or clusters represents the conceptualization of "vegetation mapping" and can be used as a building block to describe an ecosystem. To represent these building blocks or LF a "common entity (CE)" concept is introduced to represent the components of Formations as described by the National Vegetation Classification (NVC) system. The NVC has established protocols to consistently represent plant communities and promote coordinated management, particularly across jurisdictional boundaries. However, it is not a universal standard and the methods of producing detailed maps of vegetation CE from very high spatial resolution (VHR) remote sensing data are important research questions. This research addressed how best to understand and represent plant cover in arid regions, the most effective methods of mapping vegetation cover using high spatial resolution data, how to assess the accuracy of these maps, and their value in establishing more standardized mapping protocols across ecosystems. Utilizing VHR products from the IKONOS and QuickBird sensors the study focused on the Coronado National Memorial and Chiricahua National Monument in Arizona and Los Ajos and Pinacate - Grand Desierto Biosphere Reserves in Mexico. Individual CE were semi-automatically mapped incorporating spectral, textural and geostatistical variables. The results were evaluated across sensors, study sites, and input variables. In addition, multiple methods of acquiring field data for accuracy assessment were evaluated and then an evaluation was made of a semi-automatic determination of Formation based on CE. The results of the study suggest consistency across study sites using the IKONOS data. A comparison between VHR products from the same place is feasible but sensor spectral differences may

  7. High-spatial-resolution microwave and related observations as diagnostics of coronal loops

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holman, Gordon D.

    1986-01-01

    High spatial resolution microwave observations of coronal loops, together with theoretical models for the loop emission, can provide detailed information about the temperature, density, and magnetic field within the loop, as well as the environment around the loop. The capability for studying magnetic fields is particularly important, since there is no comparable method for obtaining direct information about coronal magnetic fields. Knowledge of the magnetic field strength and structure in coronal loops is important for understanding both coronal heating and flares. With arc-second-resolution microwave observations from the Very Large Array (VLA), supplemental high-spectral-resolution microwave data from a facility such as the Owens Valley frequency-agile interferometer, and the ability to obtain second-of-arc resolution EUV aor soft X ray images, the capability already exists for obtaining much more detailed information about coronal plasma and magnetic structures than is presently available. This capability is discussed.

  8. Enhancing spatial resolution of infrared imagery using overlap of sequence images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Jiahao; Li, Chunlai; Jin, Jian; Ji, Hongzhen; Zhang, Xudong; Wang, Jianyu

    2016-05-01

    The high-resolution thermal infrared image, by which the information of a scene can be described in details, is extensively used in many fields including computer vision process, medicine, and remote sensing, etc. This paper introduces a super-resolution reconstruction algorithm in combination of phase related motion estimating algorithm and iterative back-projecting algorithm. Continuous frames of the thermal infrared image aerially shot are extracted, the subpixel displacement of each frame of image relative to the reference image is estimated with the phase related motion estimating algorithm, and then the subpixel displacement data acquired is combined with the iterative back-projecting algorithm to actualize the super-resolution reconstruction of thermal infrared image aerially shot. The thermal infrared images were aerially shot above Zhoushan. The experimental result has proven the image spatial resolution can be effectively improved by this algorithm.

  9. Long-distance super-resolution imaging assisted by enhanced spatial Fourier transform.

    PubMed

    Tang, Heng-He; Liu, Pu-Kun

    2015-09-07

    A new gradient-index (GRIN) lens that can realize enhanced spatial Fourier transform (FT) over optically long distances is demonstrated. By using an anisotropic GRIN metamaterial with hyperbolic dispersion, evanescent wave in free space can be transformed into propagating wave in the metamaterial and then focused outside due to negative-refraction. Both the results based on the ray tracing and the finite element simulation show that the spatial frequency bandwidth of the spatial FT can be extended to 2.7k(0) (k(0) is the wave vector in free space). Furthermore, assisted by the enhanced spatial FT, a new long-distance (in the optical far-field region) super-resolution imaging scheme is also proposed and the super resolved capability of λ/5 (λ is the wavelength in free space) is verified. The work may provide technical support for designing new-type high-speed microscopes with long working distances.

  10. Compressed sensing for super-resolution spatial and temporal laser detection and ranging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laurenzis, Martin; Schertzer, Stephane; Christnacher, Frank

    2016-10-01

    In the past decades, laser aided electro-optical sensing has reached high maturity and several commercial systems are available at the market for various but specific applications. These systems can be used for detection i.e. imaging as well as ranging. They cover laser scanning devices like LiDAR and staring full frame imaging systems like laser gated viewing or LADAR. The sensing capabilities of these systems is limited by physical parameter (like FPA array size, temporal band width, scanning rate, sampling rate) and is adapted to specific applications. Change of system parameter like an increase of spatial resolution implies the setup of a new sensing device with high development cost or the purchase and installation of a complete new sensor unit. Computational imaging approaches can help to setup sensor devices with flexible or adaptable sensing capabilities. Especially, compressed sensing is an emerging computational method which is a promising candidate to realize super-resolution sensing with the possibility to adapt its performance to various sensing tasks. It is possible to increase sensing capabilities with compressed sensing to gain either higher spatial and/or temporal resolution. Then, the sensing capabilities depend no longer only on the physical performance of the device but also on the computational effort and can be adapted to the application. In this paper, we demonstrate and discuss laser aided imaging using CS for super-resolution tempo-spatial imaging and ranging.

  11. Effect of microscope parameter and specimen thickness of spatial resolution of transmission electron backscatter diffraction.

    PubMed

    Wang, Y Z; Kong, M G; Liu, Z W; Lin, C C; Zeng, Y

    2016-10-01

    The spatial resolution of transmission electron backscatter diffraction (t-EBSD) with a standard conventional EBSD detector was evaluated quantitatively based on the calculation of the correlation coefficient of transmission patterns which were acquired across a twin boundary in the sample of austenitic steel. The results showed that the resolution of t-EBSD improved from tens of nanometres to below 10 nm with increasing accelerating voltage and thinning of specimen thickness. High voltage could enhance the penetration depth and reduce the scattering angle. And the thinning of specimen thickness would result in decreasing of the scattering events according to the theory of thermal diffuse scattering (TDS). In addition, the transmission patterns were found to be weak and noisy if the specimen was too thin, because of the decreasing intensity detected by the screen. Consequently, in this work, the best spatial resolution of 7 nm was achieved at 30 kV and 41 nm thickness. Moreover, the specimen thickness range was also discussed using Monte-Carlo simulation. This approach was helpful to account for the differences of measured spatial resolutions, by t-EBSD, of lamellas with different thickness.

  12. High Spatial Resolution Auger Spectroscopy and Nucleation and Growth Studies of SILVER/SILICON(100)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Frank C. H.

    1990-01-01

    The ability to analyse the composition of a sample at high spatial resolution using Auger Electron Spectroscopy is very desirable for both industrial and academic research. The spatial resolution of the traditional Auger instrument is typically limited by the incident beam size to the range of 0.1-1 mum. This dissertation reports the efforts of construction, testing and utilizing a new Auger spectrometer with a nanometer incident probe in a scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM). In order to use the 100 keV electron beam of the STEM for the Auger experiment, a low energy electron beam deflection system was designed and constructed. The testing of such deflection system and the spectrometer, both in a test chamber with different hardware configuration and in the microscope, was very extensive. Both Auger spectra and images can be obtained in the microscope with excellent energy resolution in a relatively short time. Quantitative analysis of the data showed a spatial resolution of less than 10 nm was achieved with a good collection efficiency. More quantitative work was carried on the Silver/Silicon(100) system as the application of the Auger instrument. Nucleation and growth phenomena of Ag on Si at both room and elevated temperatures was studied with the microscope operating both in Auger and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) mode. Suggestions for the further improvement of the Auger instrument and the Ag/Si(100) case study are made.

  13. Low-Cost Ultra-High Spatial and Temporal Resolution Mapping of Intertidal Rock Platforms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bryson, M.; Johnson-Roberson, M.; Murphy, R.

    2012-07-01

    Intertidal ecosystems have primarily been studied using field-based sampling; remote sensing offers the ability to collect data over large areas in a snapshot of time which could compliment field-based sampling methods by extrapolating them into the wider spatial and temporal context. Conventional remote sensing tools (such as satellite and aircraft imaging) provide data at relatively course, sub-meter resolutions or with limited temporal resolutions and relatively high costs for small-scale environmental science and ecology studies. In this paper, we describe a low-cost, kite-based imaging system and photogrammetric pipeline that was developed for constructing highresolution, 3D, photo-realistic terrain models of intertidal rocky shores. The processing pipeline uses automatic image feature detection and matching, structure-from-motion and photo-textured terrain surface reconstruction algorithms that require minimal human input and only a small number of ground control points and allow the use of cheap, consumer-grade digital cameras. The resulting maps combine colour and topographic information at sub-centimeter resolutions over an area of approximately 100m, thus enabling spatial properties of the intertidal environment to be determined across a hierarchy of spatial scales. Results of the system are presented for an intertidal rock platform at Cape Banks, Sydney, Australia. Potential uses of this technique include mapping of plant (micro- and macro-algae) and animal (e.g. gastropods) assemblages at multiple spatial and temporal scales.

  14. Spatial resolution effect on the simulated results of watershed scale models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Epelde, Ane; Antiguedad, Iñaki; Brito, David; Jauch, Eduardo; Neves, Ramiro; Sauvage, Sabine; Sánchez-Pérez, José Miguel

    2016-04-01

    Numerical models are useful tools for water resources planning, development and management. Currently, their use is being spread and more complex modeling systems are being employed for these purposes. The adding of complexity allows the simulation of water quality related processes. Nevertheless, this implies a considerable increase on the computational requirements, which usually is compensated on the models by a decrease on their spatial resolution. The spatial resolution of the models is known to affect the simulation of hydrological processes and therefore, also the nutrient exportation and cycling processes. However, the implication of the spatial resolution on the simulated results is rarely assessed. In this study, we examine the effect of the change in the grid size on the integrated and distributed results of the Alegria River watershed model (Basque Country, Northern Spain). Variables such as discharge, water table level, relative water content of soils, nitrogen exportation and denitrification are analyzed in order to quantify the uncertainty involved in the spatial discretization of the watershed scale models. This is an aspect that needs to be carefully considered when numerical models are employed in watershed management studies or quality programs.

  15. Significant improvements to the GBT surface accuracy via high-resolution radio holography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hunter, Todd R.; Schwab, Fred R.; White, Steve D.; Ford, John M.; Ghigo, Frank D.; Maddalena, Ron J.; Mason, Brian S.; Nelson, J. D.; Ray, Jason; Simon, Bob

    2010-01-01

    The 100-m diameter Green Bank Telescope (GBT) was built with an active surface of 2209 actuators in order to achieve and maintain an accurate paraboloidal shape. The actuator home positions were set originally via photogrammetry performed 10 years ago, which resulted in a surface accuracy of about 400 microns rms. In order to improve this performance, in late Fall 2008 we installed a Ku-band holography system on the telescope, composed of two external-reference low-noise block converters attached to linearly-polarized feeds, and followed by down conversion stages, anti-aliasing filters, and a digital correlator. The primary receiver illuminates the subreflector from the standard Gregorian focus while the reference receiver is coupled to an upward-looking 30cm diameter feed located at the tip of the vertical feed arm (above the subreflector). The system is tunable over the typical geostationary satellite downlink frequency band (11.7-12.2 GHz) and the correlated bandwidth is 10 kHz. We performed a spectral survey of a few dozen satellites visible from Green Bank, and identified a number of strong and stable continuous wave beacons near 11.700 GHz suitable for holographic mapping. The typical phase stability of the system is 2 degrees rms in 36 millisecond integrations, and is mostly limited by atmosphere. We began the holography campaign in January 2009. Maps are made with on-the-fly raster scanning over a 2 degree region with 1400 points in the scan direction and 201 points in the perpendicular direction, requiring approximately 3 hours. Surface features as small as 0.5m are visible, compared to the typical panel size of 2m by 2.5m. A number of large features coincident with specific actuators were identified, and traced to electrical problems either with the actuator motors, position sensors or cabling. These problems were repaired during the following months as the campaign continued through several iterations of holography mapping, surface adjustments, and

  16. Improving Accuracy and Temporal Resolution of Learning Curve Estimation for within- and across-Session Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Tabelow, Karsten; König, Reinhard; Polzehl, Jörg

    2016-01-01

    Estimation of learning curves is ubiquitously based on proportions of correct responses within moving trial windows. Thereby, it is tacitly assumed that learning performance is constant within the moving windows, which, however, is often not the case. In the present study we demonstrate that violations of this assumption lead to systematic errors in the analysis of learning curves, and we explored the dependency of these errors on window size, different statistical models, and learning phase. To reduce these errors in the analysis of single-subject data as well as on the population level, we propose adequate statistical methods for the estimation of learning curves and the construction of confidence intervals, trial by trial. Applied to data from an avoidance learning experiment with rodents, these methods revealed performance changes occurring at multiple time scales within and across training sessions which were otherwise obscured in the conventional analysis. Our work shows that the proper assessment of the behavioral dynamics of learning at high temporal resolution can shed new light on specific learning processes, and, thus, allows to refine existing learning concepts. It further disambiguates the interpretation of neurophysiological signal changes recorded during training in relation to learning. PMID:27303809

  17. Fiber-optical sensor with miniaturized probe head and nanometer accuracy based on spatially modulated low-coherence interferogram analysis.

    PubMed

    Depiereux, Frank; Lehmann, Peter; Pfeifer, Tilo; Schmitt, Robert

    2007-06-10

    Fiber-optical sensors have some crucial advantages compared with rigid optical systems. They allow miniaturization and flexibility of system setups. Nevertheless, optical principles such as low-coherence interferometry can be realized by use of fiber optics. We developed and realized an approach for a fiber-optical sensor, which is based on the analysis of spatially modulated low-coherence interferograms. The system presented consists of three units, a miniaturized sensing probe, a broadband fiber-coupled light source, and an adapted Michelson interferometer, which is used as an optical receiver. Furthermore, the signal processing procedure, which was developed for the interferogram analysis in order to achieve nanometer measurement accuracy, is discussed. A system prototype has been validated thoroughly in different experiments. The results approve the accuracy of the sensor.

  18. High Resolution Ice Surface of the Ross Ice Shelf: Accuracy and Links to Basal Processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Starke, S. E.

    2015-12-01

    We use airborne laser altimetry data from IcePod and IceBridge to map the surface across the Ross Ice Shelf in Antarctica. Laser altimetry and radar data is analyzed from the IcePod 2014 and 2015 field campaigns as well as IceBridge 2013. Icepod is a multi sensor suite that includes ice penetrating radars, a swath scanning laser, visible and IR cameras as well as GPS mounted on a LC-130. Using shallow ice radar data from both IcePod and IceBridge we identify the base of the ice shelf. Across the shelf we observe distinct areas of high reflectivity in the radar data suggesting basal crevassing. In some regions, the basal reflector is not well defined. Laser altimetry profiles correlate surface morphology with features at the base including basal crevasses and marine ice formed by freezing on to the base of the ice shelf. Building Digital Elevation Models (DEMs) from the laser altimetry data, we investigate the relationship between the surface expressions of these ice shelf dynamics including thickness changes, potential sites of marine ice at the base and basal morphology in regions where a well defined basal reflector does not exist in the radar profiles. We present accuracy of the IcePod laser altimetry dataset using ground control points and GPS grids from Greenland and Antarctica as well as Photogrammetric DEMs. Our laser altimetry analysis resolves sub-meter surface features which, combined with coincident radar, provides a link between basal processes and their surface expressions.

  19. A comparison of two downscaling procedures to increase the spatial resolution of mapping actual evapotranspiration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahour, Milad; Tolpekin, Valentyn; Stein, Alfred; Sharifi, Ali

    2017-04-01

    This research addressed the effects of downscaling cokriging Land Surface Temperature (LST) on estimation of Actual Evapotranspiration (AET) from remote sensing images. Two procedures were followed. We first applied downscaling cokriging to a coarse resolution LST product of MODIS at 1000 m. With its outcome, daily AET of a medium spatial resolution (250 m) was obtained using the Surface Energy Balance System (SEBS). Second, we downscaled a coarse AET map to medium spatial resolution (250 m). For both procedures, the 250 m resolution MODIS NDVI product was used as a co-variable. Validation was carried out using Landsat 8 images, from which LST was derived from the thermal bands. The two procedures were applied to an agricultural area with a traditional irrigation network in Iran. We obtained an average LST value of 305.8 K as compared to a downscaled LST value of 307.0 K. Reference AET estimated with SEBS using Landsat 8 data was equal to 5.756 mm day-1, as compared with a downscaled AET value of 5.571 mm day-1. The RMSE between reference AET and downscaled AET was equal to 1.26 mm day-1 (r = 0.49) and between reference and downscaled LST to 3.67 K (r = 0.48). The study showed that AET values obtained with the two downscaling procedures were similar to each other, but that AET showed a higher spatial variability if obtained with downscaled LST. We concluded that LST had a large effect on producing AET maps from Remote Sensing (RS) images, and that downscaling cokriging was helpful to provide daily AET maps at medium spatial resolution.

  20. In-Flight Edge Response Measurements for High Spatial Resolution Remote Sensing Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blonski, Slawomir; Pagnutti, Mary; Ryan, Robert; Zanoni, Vicki

    2001-01-01

    In-flight measurement of spatial resolution were conducted as part of the ASA Scientific Data Purchase (SDP) Validation and Verification (V&V) process. Characterization included remote sensing systems with ground sample distance (GSD) of 1 meter or less, such as the panchromatic imager on-board the ICONOS satellite and the airborne ADAR System 5500 multispectral instrument. Final image products were used to evaluate the effect of both the image acquisition system (e.g., optics, electronics, motion, jitter, atmosphere) and image post-processing (e.g., resampling, modulation trasfer function (MTF) compensator). Spatial resolution was characterized by full width at half maximum (FWHM) of an edge response-derived line spread function. This was found to be a more robust measure of spatial resolution than the value of NTF at Nyquist frequency The edge responses were analysed using the tilted-edge technique that ovecomes the spatial sampling limitations of the digital imaging systems. As an enhancement to existing algorithms, the slope of the edge response and the orientation of the edge target were determined by a single computational process. Adjacent black and white square panels, either painted on a flat surface or deployed as traps, formed the ground-based edge targets used in the tests. Orientation of the deployable tarps was optimized beforehand, based on simulations of the imaging system. Numerous edge target images were analyzed for each of the tested sensors. The effect of such factors as acquisition geometry, temporal variability, MTF compensation, and GSD on spatial resolution were investigated.

  1. In vivo diagnostic accuracy of high resolution microendoscopy in differentiating neoplastic from non-neoplastic colorectal polyps: a prospective study

    PubMed Central

    Parikh, Neil; Perl, Daniel; Lee, Michelle H.; Shah, Brijen; Young, Yuki; Chang, Shannon S.; Shukla, Richa; Polydorides, Alexandros D.; Moshier, Erin; Godbold, James; Zhou, Elinor; Mitchaml, Josephine; Richards-Kortum, Rebecca; Anandasabapathy, Sharmila

    2013-01-01

    High-resolution microendoscopy (HRME) is a low-cost, “optical biopsy” technology that allows for subcellular imaging. The purpose of this study was to determine the in vivo diagnostic accuracy of the HRME for the differentiation of neoplastic from non-neoplastic colorectal polyps and compare it to that of high-definition white-light endoscopy (WLE) with histopathology as the gold standard. Three endoscopists prospectively detected a total of 171 polyps from 94 patients that were then imaged by HRME and classified in real-time as neoplastic (adenomatous, cancer) or non-neoplastic (normal, hyperplastic, inflammatory). HRME had a significantly higher accuracy (94%), specificity (95%), and positive predictive value (87%) for the determination of neoplastic colorectal polyps compared to WLE (65%, 39%, and 55%, respectively). When looking at small colorectal polyps (less than 10 mm), HRME continued to significantly outperform WLE in terms of accuracy (95% vs. 64%), specificity (98% vs. 40%) and positive predictive value (92% vs. 55%). These trends continued when evaluating diminutive polyps (less than 5 mm) as HRME's accuracy (95%), specificity (98%), and positive predictive value (93%) were all significantly greater than their WLE counterparts (62%, 41%, and 53%, respectively). In conclusion, this in vivo study demonstrates that HRME can be a very effective modality in the differentiation of neoplastic and non-neoplastic colorectal polyps. A combination of standard white-light colonoscopy for polyp detection and HRME for polyp classification has the potential to truly allow the endoscopist to selectively determine which lesions can be left in situ, which lesions can simply be discarded, and which lesions need formal histopathologic analysis. PMID:24296752

  2. Optimal attributes for the object based detection of giant reed in riparian habitats: A comparative study between Airborne High Spatial Resolution and WorldView-2 imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernandes, Maria Rosário; Aguiar, Francisca C.; Silva, João M. N.; Ferreira, Maria Teresa; Pereira, José M. C.

    2014-10-01

    Giant reed is an aggressive invasive plant of riparian ecosystems in many sub-tropical and warm-temperate regions, including Mediterranean Europe. In this study we tested a set of geometric, spectral and textural attributes in an object based image analysis (OBIA) approach to map giant reed invasions in riparian habitats. Bagging Classification and Regression Tree were used to select the optimal attributes and to build the classification rules sets. Mapping accuracy was performed using landscape metrics and the Kappa coefficient to compare the topographical and geometric similarity between the giant reed patches obtained with the OBIA map and with a validation map derived from on-screen digitizing. The methodology was applied in two high spatial resolution images: an airborne multispectral imagery and the newly WorldView-2 imagery. A temporal coverage of the airborne multispectral images was radiometrically calibrated with the IR-Mad transformation and used to assess the influence of the phenological variability of the invader. We found that optimal attributes for giant reed OBIA detection are a combination of spectral, geometric and textural information, with different scoring selection depending on the spectral and spatial characteristics of the imagery. WorldView-2 showed higher mapping accuracy (Kappa coefficient of 77%) and spectral attributes, including the newly yellow band, were preferentially selected, although a tendency to overestimate the total invaded area, due to the low spatial resolution (2 m of pixel size vs. 50 cm) was observed. When airborne images were used, geometric attributes were primarily selected and a higher spatial detail of the invasive patches was obtained, due to the higher spatial resolution. However, in highly heterogeneous landscapes, the low spectral resolution of the airborne images (4 bands instead of the 8 of WorldView-2) reduces the capability to detect giant reed patches. Giant reed displays peculiar spectral and geometric

  3. Statistical Mechanics Model of the Speed - Accuracy Tradeoff in Spatial and Lexical Memory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaufman, Miron; Allen, Philip

    2000-03-01

    The molar neural network model of P. Allen, M. Kaufman, A. F. Smith, R. E. Popper, Psychology and Aging 13, 501 (1998) and Experimental Aging Research, 24, 307 (1998) is extended to incorporate reaction times. In our model the entropy associated with a particular task determines the reaction time. We use this molar neural model to directly analyze experimental data on episodic (spatial) memory and semantic (lexical) memory tasks. In particular we are interested in the effect of aging on the two types of memory. We find that there is no difference in performance levels for lexical memory tasks between younger and older adults. In the case spatial memory tasks we find that aging has a detrimental effect on the performance level. This work is supported by NIH/NIA grant AG09282-06.

  4. Ultra-High Spatial Resolution, Multi-Energy CT using Photon Counting Detector Technology

    PubMed Central

    Leng, S.; Gutjahr, R.; Ferrero, A.; Kappler, S.; Henning, A.; Halaweish, A.; Zhou, W.; Montoya, J.; McCollough, C.

    2017-01-01

    Two ultra-high-resolution (UHR) imaging modes, each with two energy thresholds, were implemented on a research, whole-body photon-counting-detector (PCD) CT scanner, referred to as sharp and UHR, respectively. The UHR mode has a pixel size of 0.25 mm at iso-center for both energy thresholds, with a collimation of 32 × 0.25 mm. The sharp mode has a 0.25 mm pixel for the low-energy threshold and 0.5 mm for the high-energy threshold, with a collimation of 48 × 0.25 mm. Kidney stones with mixed mineral composition and lung nodules with different shapes were scanned using both modes, and with the standard imaging mode, referred to as macro mode (0.5 mm pixel and 32 × 0.5 mm collimation). Evaluation and comparison of the three modes focused on the ability to accurately delineate anatomic structures using the high-spatial resolution capability and the ability to quantify stone composition using the multi-energy capability. The low-energy threshold images of the sharp and UHR modes showed better shape and texture information due to the achieved higher spatial resolution, although noise was also higher. No noticeable benefit was shown in multi-energy analysis using UHR compared to standard resolution (macro mode) when standard doses were used. This was due to excessive noise in the higher resolution images. However, UHR scans at higher dose showed improvement in multi-energy analysis over macro mode with regular dose. To fully take advantage of the higher spatial resolution in multi-energy analysis, either increased radiation dose, or application of noise reduction techniques, is needed. PMID:28392615

  5. High spatial resolution upgrade of the electron cyclotron emission radiometer for the DIII-D tokamak

    SciTech Connect

    Truong, D. D.; Austin, M. E.

    2014-11-15

    The 40-channel DIII-D electron cyclotron emission (ECE) radiometer provides measurements of T{sub e}(r,t) at the tokamak midplane from optically thick, second harmonic X-mode emission over a frequency range of 83–130 GHz. The frequency spacing of the radiometer's channels results in a spatial resolution of ∼1–3 cm, depending on local magnetic field and electron temperature. A new high resolution subsystem has been added to the DIII-D ECE radiometer to make sub-centimeter (0.6–0.8 cm) resolution T{sub e} measurements. The high resolution subsystem branches off from the regular channels’ IF bands and consists of a microwave switch to toggle between IF bands, a switched filter bank for frequency selectivity, an adjustable local oscillator and mixer for further frequency down-conversion, and a set of eight microwave filters in the 2–4 GHz range. Higher spatial resolution is achieved through the use of a narrower (200 MHz) filter bandwidth and closer spacing between the filters’ center frequencies (250 MHz). This configuration allows for full coverage of the 83–130 GHz frequency range in 2 GHz bands. Depending on the local magnetic field, this translates into a “zoomed-in” analysis of a ∼2–4 cm radial region. Expected uses of these channels include mapping the spatial dependence of Alfven eigenmodes, geodesic acoustic modes, and externally applied magnetic perturbations. Initial T{sub e} measurements, which demonstrate that the desired resolution is achieved, are presented.

  6. Ultra-High Spatial Resolution, Multi-Energy CT using Photon Counting Detector Technology.

    PubMed

    Leng, S; Gutjahr, R; Ferrero, A; Kappler, S; Henning, A; Halaweish, A; Zhou, W; Montoya, J; McCollough, C

    2017-02-11

    Two ultra-high-resolution (UHR) imaging modes, each with two energy thresholds, were implemented on a research, whole-body photon-counting-detector (PCD) CT scanner, referred to as sharp and UHR, respectively. The UHR mode has a pixel size of 0.25 mm at iso-center for both energy thresholds, with a collimation of 32 × 0.25 mm. The sharp mode has a 0.25 mm pixel for the low-energy threshold and 0.5 mm for the high-energy threshold, with a collimation of 48 × 0.25 mm. Kidney stones with mixed mineral composition and lung nodules with different shapes were scanned using both modes, and with the standard imaging mode, referred to as macro mode (0.5 mm pixel and 32 × 0.5 mm collimation). Evaluation and comparison of the three modes focused on the ability to accurately delineate anatomic structures using the high-spatial resolution capability and the ability to quantify stone composition using the multi-energy capability. The low-energy threshold images of the sharp and UHR modes showed better shape and texture information due to the achieved higher spatial resolution, although noise was also higher. No noticeable benefit was shown in multi-energy analysis using UHR compared to standard resolution (macro mode) when standard doses were used. This was due to excessive noise in the higher resolution images. However, UHR scans at higher dose showed improvement in multi-energy analysis over macro mode with regular dose. To fully take advantage of the higher spatial resolution in multi-energy analysis, either increased radiation dose, or application of noise reduction techniques, is needed.

  7. Investigation of the Intrinsic Spatial Resolution of an Intensified EMCCD Scintillation Camera

    PubMed Central

    Meng, L. J.; Fu, G.

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we present an experimental and Monte Carlo investigation of the intrinsic spatial resolution that can be achieved with the intensified electron-multiplying charge-coupled device (I-EMCCD) gamma camera [1]–[4]. This detector has a very low readout noise, an ultra-high spatial resolution and a large active area of ~ 80 mm diameter, which is well-suited for small animal imaging applications. The intrinsic detector resolutions achieved with different scintillators and under different experimental conditions were compared. In this study, the simple centroiding method was compared with two model-fitting approaches for finding the locations of gamma ray interactions. The results from Monte Carlo simulation have demonstrated that with an appropriate detector configuration, it is possible to achieve an intrinsic resolution of ~ 30 µm FWHM for detecting 27–35 keV gamma rays. The I-EMCCD scintillation camera offers a promising candidate for future ultra-high resolution SPECT imaging applications. PMID:27660372

  8. Minimum detection limit and spatial resolution of thin-sample field-emission electron probe microanalysis.

    PubMed

    Kubo, Yugo; Hamada, Kotaro; Urano, Akira

    2013-12-01

    The minimum detection limit and spatial resolution for a thinned semiconductor sample were determined by electron probe microanalysis (EPMA) using a Schottky field emission (FE) electron gun and wavelength dispersive X-ray spectrometry. Comparison of the FE-EPMA results with those obtained using energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry in conjunction with scanning transmission electron microscopy, confirmed that FE-EPMA is largely superior in terms of detection sensitivity. Thin-sample FE-EPMA is demonstrated as a very effective method for high resolution, high sensitivity analysis in a laboratory environment because a high probe current and high signal-to-noise ratio can be achieved.

  9. A versatile fluorescence lifetime imaging system for scanning large areas with high time and spatial resolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bernardo, César; Belsley, Michael; de Matos Gomes, Etelvina; Gonçalves, Hugo; Isakov, Dmitry; Liebold, Falk; Pereira, Eduardo; Pires, Vladimiro; Samantilleke, Anura; Vasilevskiy, Mikhail; Schellenberg, Peter

    2014-08-01

    We present a flexible fluorescence lifetime imaging device which can be employed to scan large sample areas with a spatial resolution adjustable from many micrometers down to sub-micrometers and a temporal resolution of 20 picoseconds. Several different applications of the system will be presented including protein microarrays analysis, the scanning of historical samples, evaluation of solar cell surfaces and nanocrystalline organic crystals embedded in electrospun polymeric nanofibers. Energy transfer processes within semiconductor quantum dot superstructures as well as between dye probes and graphene layers were also investigated.

  10. A new method for spatial resolution enhancement of hyperspectral images using sparse coding and linear spectral unmixing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hashemi, Nezhad Z.; Karami, A.

    2015-10-01

    Hyperspectral images (HSI) have high spectral and low spatial resolutions. However, multispectral images (MSI) usually have low spectral and high spatial resolutions. In various applications HSI with high spectral and spatial resolutions are required. In this paper, a new method for spatial resolution enhancement of HSI using high resolution MSI based on sparse coding and linear spectral unmixing (SCLSU) is introduced. In the proposed method (SCLSU), high spectral resolution features of HSI and high spatial resolution features of MSI are fused. In this case, the sparse representation of some high resolution MSI and linear spectral unmixing (LSU) model of HSI and MSI is simultaneously used in order to construct high resolution HSI (HRHSI). The fusion process of HSI and MSI is formulated as an ill-posed inverse problem. It is solved by the Split Augmented Lagrangian Shrinkage Algorithm (SALSA) and an orthogonal matching pursuit (OMP) algorithm. Finally, the proposed algorithm is applied to the Hyperion and ALI datasets. Compared with the other state-of-the-art algorithms such as Coupled Nonnegative Matrix Factorization (CNMF) and local spectral unmixing, the SCLSU has significantly increased the spatial resolution and in addition the spectral content of HSI is well maintained.

  11. Evaluating the Value of High Spatial Resolution in National Capacity Expansion Models using ReEDS: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Krishnan, Venkat; Cole, Wesley

    2016-07-01

    Power sector capacity expansion models (CEMs) have a broad range of spatial resolutions. This paper uses the Regional Energy Deployment System (ReEDS) model, a long-term national scale electric sector CEM, to evaluate the value of high spatial resolution for CEMs. ReEDS models the United States with 134 load balancing areas (BAs) and captures the variability in existing generation parameters, future technology costs, performance, and resource availability using very high spatial resolution data, especially for wind and solar modeled at 356 resource regions. In this paper we perform planning studies at three different spatial resolutions--native resolution (134 BAs), state-level, and NERC region level--and evaluate how results change under different levels of spatial aggregation in terms of renewable capacity deployment and location, associated transmission builds, and system costs. The results are used to ascertain the value of high geographically resolved models in terms of their impact on relative competitiveness among renewable energy resources.

  12. Atmospheric Moisture Budget and Spatial Resolution Dependence of Precipitation Extremes in Aquaplanet Simulations

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Qing; Leung, Lai-Yung R.; Rauscher, Sara; Ringler, Todd; Taylor, Mark

    2014-05-01

    data aggregation effect in omega, thermodynamic changes become relatively significant in offsetting the effect of dynamics leading to reduce differences between the simulated and aggregated results. Compared to MPAS, the simulated stronger vertical motion with HOMME also results in larger resolution dependency. Compared to the simulation at fine resolution, the vertical motion during extremes is insufficiently resolved/parameterized at the coarser resolution even after accounting for the natural reduction in variability with coarser resolution, and this is more distinct in the simulation with HOMME. To reduce uncertainties in simulated precipitation extremes, future development in cloud parameterizations must address their sensitivity to spatial resolution as well as dynamical cores.

  13. 3D high spectral and spatial resolution imaging of ex vivo mouse brain

    SciTech Connect

    Foxley, Sean Karczmar, Gregory S.; Domowicz, Miriam; Schwartz, Nancy

    2015-03-15

    Purpose: Widely used MRI methods show brain morphology both in vivo and ex vivo at very high resolution. Many of these methods (e.g., T{sub 2}{sup *}-weighted imaging, phase-sensitive imaging, or susceptibility-weighted imaging) are sensitive to local magnetic susceptibility gradients produced by subtle variations in tissue composition. However, the spectral resolution of commonly used methods is limited to maintain reasonable run-time combined with very high spatial resolution. Here, the authors report on data acquisition at increased spectral resolution, with 3-dimensional high spectral and spatial resolution MRI, in order to analyze subtle variations in water proton resonance frequency and lineshape that reflect local anatomy. The resulting information compliments previous studies based on T{sub 2}{sup *} and resonance frequency. Methods: The proton free induction decay was sampled at high resolution and Fourier transformed to produce a high-resolution water spectrum for each image voxel in a 3D volume. Data were acquired using a multigradient echo pulse sequence (i.e., echo-planar spectroscopic imaging) with a spatial resolution of 50 × 50 × 70 μm{sup 3} and spectral resolution of 3.5 Hz. Data were analyzed in the spectral domain, and images were produced from the various Fourier components of the water resonance. This allowed precise measurement of local variations in water resonance frequency and lineshape, at the expense of significantly increased run time (16–24 h). Results: High contrast T{sub 2}{sup *}-weighted images were produced from the peak of the water resonance (peak height image), revealing a high degree of anatomical detail, specifically in the hippocampus and cerebellum. In images produced from Fourier components of the water resonance at −7.0 Hz from the peak, the contrast between deep white matter tracts and the surrounding tissue is the reverse of the contrast in water peak height images. This indicates the presence of a shoulder in

  14. Measurement Sets and Sites Commonly Used for High Spatial Resolution Image Product Characterization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pagnutti, Mary

    2006-01-01

    Scientists within NASA's Applied Sciences Directorate have developed a well-characterized remote sensing Verification & Validation (V&V) site at the John C. Stennis Space Center (SSC). This site has enabled the in-flight characterization of satellite high spatial resolution remote sensing system products form Space Imaging IKONOS, Digital Globe QuickBird, and ORBIMAGE OrbView, as well as advanced multispectral airborne digital camera products. SSC utilizes engineered geodetic targets, edge targets, radiometric tarps, atmospheric monitoring equipment and their Instrument Validation Laboratory to characterize high spatial resolution remote sensing data products. This presentation describes the SSC characterization capabilities and techniques in the visible through near infrared spectrum and examples of calibration results.

  15. Laser beam filtration for high spatial resolution MALDI imaging mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Zavalin, Andre; Yang, Junhai; Caprioli, Richard

    2013-07-01

    We describe an easy and inexpensive way to provide a highly defined Gaussian shaped laser spot on target of 5 μm diameter for imaging mass spectrometry using a commercial MALDI TOF instrument that is designed to produce a 20 μm diameter laser beam on target at its lowest setting. A 25 μm pinhole filter on a swivel arm was installed in the laser beam optics outside the vacuum ion source chamber so it is easily flipped into or out of the beam as desired by the operator. The resulting ion images at 5 μm spatial resolution are sharp since the satellite secondary laser beam maxima have been removed by the filter. Ion images are shown to demonstrate the performance and are compared with the method of oversampling to achieve higher spatial resolution when only a larger laser beam spot on target is available.

  16. Are long stimulus pulse durations the answer to improving spatial resolution in retinal prostheses?

    PubMed Central

    Petoe, Matthew A.

    2016-01-01

    Retinal prostheses can provide artificial vision to patients with degenerate retinae by electrically stimulating the remaining inner retinal neurons. The evoked perception is generally adequate for light localization, but of limited spatial resolution owing to the indiscriminate activation of multiple retinal cell types, leading to distortions in the perceived image. Here we present a perspective on a recent work by Weitz and colleagues who demonstrate a focal confinement of retinal ganglion cell (RGC) activation when using extended pulse durations in the stimulation waveform. Using real-time calcium imaging, they provide evidence that long pulse durations selectively stimulate inner retinal neurons, whilst avoiding unwanted axonal activations. The application of this stimulation technique may provide enhanced spatial resolution for retinal prosthesis users. These experiments provide a robust analysis of the effects of increasing pulse duration and introduce the potential for alternative stimulation paradigms in retinal prostheses. PMID:27942525

  17. Laser Beam Filtration for High Spatial Resolution MALDI Imaging Mass Spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    Zavalin, Andre; Yang, Junhai; Caprioli, Richard

    2013-01-01

    We describe an easy and inexpensive way to provide a highly defined Gaussian shaped laser spot on target of 5 μm diameter for Imaging Mass Spectrometry using a commercial MALDI TOF instrument that is designed to produce a 20 μm diameter laser beam on target at its lowest setting. A 25 μm pinhole filter on a swivel arm was installed in the laser beam optics outside the vacuum ion source chamber so it is easily flipped into or out of the beam as desired by the operator. The resulting ion images at 5 μm spatial resolution are sharp since the satellite secondary laser beam maxima have been removed by the filter. Ion images are shown to demonstrate the performance and are compared to the method of oversampling to achieve higher spatial resolution when only a larger laser beam spot on target is available. PMID:23661425

  18. Matrix Sublimation/Recrystallization for Imaging Proteins by Mass Spectrometry at High Spatial Resolution

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Junhai; Caprioli, Richard M.

    2011-01-01

    We have employed matrix deposition by sublimation for protein image analysis on tissue sections using a hydration/recrystallization process that produces high quality MALDI mass spectra and high spatial resolution ion images. We systematically investigated different washing protocols, the effect of tissue section thickness, the amount of sublimated matrix per unit area and different recrystallization conditions. The results show that an organic solvent rinse followed by ethanol/water rinses substantially increased sensitivity for the detection of proteins. Both the thickness of tissue section and amount of sinapinic acid sublimated per unit area have optimal ranges for maximal protein signal intensity. Ion images of mouse and rat brain sections at 50, 20 and 10 µm spatial resolution are presented and are correlated with H&E stained optical images. For targeted analysis, histology directed imaging can be performed using this protocol where MS analysis and H&E staining are performed on the same section. PMID:21639088

  19. Spatial resolution of imaging plate with flash X-rays and its utilization for radiography

    SciTech Connect

    Shaikh, A. M.; Romesh, C.; Kolage, T. S.; Sharma, Archana

    2015-06-24

    A flash X-ray source developed using pulsed electron accelerator with electron energy range of 400keV to 1030keV and a field emission cathode is characterized using X-ray imaging plates. Spatial resolution of the imaging system is measured using edge spread function fitted to data obtained from radiograph of Pb step wedge. A spatial resolution of 150±6 µm is obtained. The X-ray beam size is controlled by the anode-cathode configuration. Optimum source size of ∼13±2 mm diameter covering an area with intensity of ∼27000 PSL/mm{sup 2} is obtained on the imaging plate kept at a distance of ∼200 mm from the tip of the anode. It is used for recording radiographs of objects like satellite cable cutter, aero-engine turbine blade and variety of pyro-devices used in aerospace industry.

  20. Impulse Response Estimation for Spatial Resolution Enhancement in Ultrasonic NDE Imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Clark, G A

    2004-06-25

    This report describes a signal processing algorithm and MATLAB software for improving spatial resolution in ultrasonic nondestructive evaluation (NDE) imaging of materials. Given a measured reflection signal and an associated reference signal, the algorithm produces an optimal least-squares estimate of the impulse response of the material under test. This estimated impulse response, when used in place of the raw reflection signal, enhances the spatial resolution of the ultrasonic measurements by removing distortion caused by the limited-bandwidth transducers and the materials under test. The theory behind the processing algorithms is briefly presented, while the reader is referred to the bibliography for details. The main focus of the report is to describe how to use the MATLAB software. Two processing examples using actual ultrasonic measurements are provided for tutorial purposes.

  1. High Spatial Resolution STXM at 6.2 keV Photon Energy

    SciTech Connect

    Vila-Comamala, Joan; Kewish, Cameron M.; Thibault, Pierre; Guzenko, Vitaliy; Gorelick, Sergey; Menzel, Andreas; Bunk, Oliver; David, Christian; Dierolf, Martin; Pfeiffer, Franz; Pilvi, Tero; Faerm, Elina; Ritala, Mikko

    2010-04-06

    We report on a zone-doubling technique that bypasses the electron-beam lithography limitations for the production of X-ray diffractive optics and enables the fabrication of Fresnel zone plates with smaller outermost zone widths than other well-established approaches. We have applied this method to manufacture hard X-ray Fresnel zone plates with outermost zone widths of 25 and 20 nm. These lenses have been tested in scanning transmission X-ray microscopy (STXM) at energies up to 6.2 keV, producing images of test structures that demonstrate a spatial resolution of 25 nm. High spatial resolution STXM images of several biological specimens have been acquired in transmission, dark-field and differential phase contrast modes.

  2. High spatial resolution BOTDA using simultaneously launched gain and loss pump pulses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Motil, A.; Danon, O.; Peled, Y.; Tur, M.

    2013-05-01

    We report a 10cm spatial resolution in a Brillouin-based distributed sensing system using two simultaneously launched gain and loss pump pulses, having slightly different durations. Post-recording subtraction of the probe signal, excited by the shorter pulse, from the corresponding one, obtained from the longer pump pulse, is no longer required, since it is done automatically by the overlapping parts of the gain and loss pump pulses. Using a 30ns gain pump pulse and a 29ns loss pump pulse we were able to improve upon previously published results, achieving a distributed strain measurement along a standard single mode optical fiber with a spatial resolution of ~10cm. This technique does not broaden the involved Brillouin gain spectra so that the strain/temperature sensitivity is not compromised.

  3. Distinguishing and quantification of the human visual pathways using high spatial resolution diffusion tensor tractography

    PubMed Central

    Kamali, Arash; Hasan, Khader M.; Adapa, Pavani; Razmandi, Azadeh; Keser, Zafer; Lincoln, John; Kramer, Larry A.

    2014-01-01

    Quantification of the living human visual system using MRI methods has been challenging, but several applications demand a reliable and time-efficient data acquisition protocol. In this study, we demonstrate the utility of high spatial resolution diffusion tensor fiber tractography (DTT) in reconstructing and quantifying the human visual pathways. Five healthy males, age range 24–37 years, were studied after approval of the Institutional Review Board (IRB) at The University of Texas Health Science Center at Houston. We acquired diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) data with 1-mm slice thickness on a 3.0 Tesla clinical MRI scanner and analyzed the data using DTT with the fiber assignment by continuous tractography (FACT) algorithm. By utilizing the high spatial resolution DTI protocol with FACT algorithm, we were able to reconstruct and quantify bilateral optic pathways including the optic chiasm, optic tract, optic radiations free of contamination from neighboring white matter tracts. PMID:24856625

  4. The sensitivity of landscape evolution models to spatial and temporal rainfall resolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coulthard, Tom J.; Skinner, Christopher J.

    2016-09-01

    Climate is one of the main drivers for landscape evolution models (LEMs), yet its representation is often basic with values averaged over long time periods and frequently lumped to the same value for the whole basin. Clearly, this hides the heterogeneity of precipitation - but what impact does this averaging have on erosion and deposition, topography, and the final shape of LEM landscapes? This paper presents results from the first systematic investigation into how the spatial and temporal resolution of precipitation affects LEM simulations of sediment yields and patterns of erosion and deposition. This is carried out by assessing the sensitivity of the CAESAR-Lisflood LEM to different spatial and temporal precipitation resolutions - as well as how this interacts with different-size drainage basins over short and long timescales. A range of simulations were carried out, varying rainfall from 0.25 h × 5 km to 24 h × Lump resolution over three different-sized basins for 30-year durations. Results showed that there was a sensitivity to temporal and spatial resolution, with the finest leading to > 100 % increases in basin sediment yields. To look at how these interactions manifested over longer timescales, several simulations were carried out to model a 1000-year period. These showed a systematic bias towards greater erosion in uplands and deposition in valley floors with the finest spatial- and temporal-resolution data. Further tests showed that this effect was due solely to the data resolution, not orographic factors. Additional research indicated that these differences in sediment yield could be accounted for by adding a compensation factor to the model sediment transport law. However, this resulted in notable differences in the topographies generated, especially in third-order and higher streams. The implications of these findings are that uncalibrated past and present LEMs using lumped and time-averaged climate inputs may be under-predicting basin sediment

  5. Improving detector spatial resolution using pixelated scintillators with a barrier rib structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Langechuan; Lu, Minghui; Cao, Wanqing; Peng, Luke; Chen, Arthur

    2016-03-01

    Indirect conversion flat panel detectors (FPDs) based on amorphous silicon (a-Si) technology are widely used in digital X-ray imaging. In such FPDs a scintillator layer is used for converting X-rays into visible light photons. However, the lateral spread of these photons inside the scintillator layer reduces spatial resolution of the FPD. In this study, FPDs incorporating pixelated scintillators with a barrier rib structure were developed to limit lateral spread of light photons thereby improving spatial resolution. For the pixelated scintillator, a two-dimensional barrier rib structure was first manufactured on a substrate layer, coated with reflective materials, and filled to the rim with the scintillating material of gadolinium oxysulfide (GOS). Several scintillator samples were fabricated, with pitch size varying from 160 to 280 μm and rib height from 200 to 280 μm. The samples were directly coupled to an a-Si flat panel photodiode array with a pitch of 200 μm to convert optical photons to electronic signals. With the pixelated scintillator, the detector modulation transfer function was shown to improve significantly (by 94% at 2 cycle/mm) compared to a detector using an unstructured GOS layer. However, the prototype does show lower sensitivity due to the decrease in scintillator fill factor. The preliminary results demonstrated the feasibility of using the barrier-rib structure to improve the spatial resolution of FPDs. Such an improvement would greatly benefit nondestructive testing applications where the spatial resolution is the most important parameter. Further investigation will focus on improving the detector sensitivity and exploring its medical applications.

  6. Quantitative metrics for assessment of chemical image quality and spatial resolution

    DOE PAGES

    Kertesz, Vilmos; Cahill, John F.; Van Berkel, Gary J.

    2016-02-28

    Rationale: Currently objective/quantitative descriptions of the quality and spatial resolution of mass spectrometry derived chemical images are not standardized. Development of these standardized metrics is required to objectively describe chemical imaging capabilities of existing and/or new mass spectrometry imaging technologies. Such metrics would allow unbiased judgment of intra-laboratory advancement and/or inter-laboratory comparison for these technologies if used together with standardized surfaces. Methods: We developed two image metrics, viz., chemical image contrast (ChemIC) based on signal-to-noise related statistical measures on chemical image pixels and corrected resolving power factor (cRPF) constructed from statistical analysis of mass-to-charge chronograms across features of interest inmore » an image. These metrics, quantifying chemical image quality and spatial resolution, respectively, were used to evaluate chemical images of a model photoresist patterned surface collected using a laser ablation/liquid vortex capture mass spectrometry imaging system under different instrument operational parameters. Results: The calculated ChemIC and cRPF metrics determined in an unbiased fashion the relative ranking of chemical image quality obtained with the laser ablation/liquid vortex capture mass spectrometry imaging system. These rankings were used to show that both chemical image contrast and spatial resolution deteriorated with increasing surface scan speed, increased lane spacing and decreasing size of surface features. Conclusions: ChemIC and cRPF, respectively, were developed and successfully applied for the objective description of chemical image quality and spatial resolution of chemical images collected from model surfaces using a laser ablation/liquid vortex capture mass spectrometry imaging system.« less

  7. Quantitative metrics for assessment of chemical image quality and spatial resolution

    SciTech Connect

    Kertesz, Vilmos; Cahill, John F.; Van Berkel, Gary J.

    2016-02-28

    Rationale: Currently objective/quantitative descriptions of the quality and spatial resolution of mass spectrometry derived chemical images are not standardized. Development of these standardized metrics is required to objectively describe chemical imaging capabilities of existing and/or new mass spectrometry imaging technologies. Such metrics would allow unbiased judgment of intra-laboratory advancement and/or inter-laboratory comparison for these technologies if used together with standardized surfaces. Methods: We developed two image metrics, viz., chemical image contrast (ChemIC) based on signal-to-noise related statistical measures on chemical image pixels and corrected resolving power factor (cRPF) constructed from statistical analysis of mass-to-charge chronograms across features of interest in an image. These metrics, quantifying chemical image quality and spatial resolution, respectively, were used to evaluate chemical images of a model photoresist patterned surface collected using a laser ablation/liquid vortex capture mass spectrometry imaging system under different instrument operational parameters. Results: The calculated ChemIC and cRPF metrics determined in an unbiased fashion the relative ranking of chemical image quality obtained with the laser ablation/liquid vortex capture mass spectrometry imaging system. These rankings were used to show that both chemical image contrast and spatial resolution deteriorated with increasing surface scan speed, increased lane spacing and decreasing size of surface features. Conclusions: ChemIC and cRPF, respectively, were developed and successfully applied for the objective description of chemical image quality and spatial resolution of chemical images collected from model surfaces using a laser ablation/liquid vortex capture mass spectrometry imaging system.

  8. Effect of Spatial Resolution for Characterizing Soil Properties from Imaging Spectrometer Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dutta, D.; Kumar, P.; Greenberg, J. A.

    2015-12-01

    The feasibility of quantifying soil constituents over large areas using airborne hyperspectral data [0.35 - 2.5 μm] in an ensemble bootstrapping lasso algorithmic framework has been demonstrated previously [1]. However the effects of coarsening the spatial resolution of hyperspectral data on the quantification of soil constituents are unknown. We use Airborne Visible Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS) data collected at 7.6m resolution over Birds Point New Madrid (BPNM) floodway for up-scaling and generating multiple coarser resolution datasets including the 60m Hyperspectral Infrared Imager (HyspIRI) like data. HyspIRI is a proposed visible shortwave/thermal infrared mission, which will provide global data over a spectral range of 0.35 - 2.5μm at a spatial resolution of 60m. Our results show that the lasso method, which is based on point scale observational data, is scalable. We found consistent good model performance (R2) values (0.79 < R2 < 0.82) and correct classifications as per USDA soil texture classes at multiple spatial resolutions. The results further demonstrate that the attributes of the pdf for different soil constituents across the landscape and the within-pixel variance are well preserved across scales. Our analysis provides a methodological framework with a sufficient set of metrics for assessing the performance of scaling up analysis from point scale observational data and may be relevant for other similar remote sensing studies. [1] Dutta, D.; Goodwell, A.E.; Kumar, P.; Garvey, J.E.; Darmody, R.G.; Berretta, D.P.; Greenberg, J.A., "On the Feasibility of Characterizing Soil Properties From AVIRIS Data," Geoscience and Remote Sensing, IEEE Transactions on, vol.53, no.9, pp.5133,5147, Sept. 2015. doi: 10.1109/TGRS.2015.2417547.

  9. Fourier transform infrared absorption spectroscopy characterization of gaseous atmospheric pressure plasmas with 2 mm spatial resolution

    SciTech Connect

    Laroche, G.; Vallade, J.; Bazinette, R.; Hernandez, E.; Hernandez, G.; Massines, F.; Nijnatten, P. van

    2012-10-15

    This paper describes an optical setup built to record Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) absorption spectra in an atmospheric pressure plasma with a spatial resolution of 2 mm. The overall system consisted of three basic parts: (1) optical components located within the FTIR sample compartment, making it possible to define the size of the infrared beam (2 mm Multiplication-Sign 2 mm over a path length of 50 mm) imaged at the site of the plasma by (2) an optical interface positioned between the spectrometer and the plasma reactor. Once through the plasma region, (3) a retro-reflector module, located behind the plasma reactor, redirected the infrared beam coincident to the incident path up to a 45 Degree-Sign beamsplitter to reflect the beam toward a narrow-band mercury-cadmium-telluride detector. The antireflective plasma-coating experiments performed with ammonia and silane demonstrated that it was possible to quantify 42 and 2 ppm of these species in argon, respectively. In the case of ammonia, this was approximately three times less than this gas concentration typically used in plasma coating experiments while the silane limit of quantification was 35 times lower. Moreover, 70% of the incoming infrared radiation was focused within a 2 mm width at the site of the plasma, in reasonable agreement with the expected spatial resolution. The possibility of reaching this spatial resolution thus enabled us to measure the gaseous precursor consumption as a function of their residence time in the plasma.

  10. Compact hybrid real-time hyperspectral imaging system with high effective spatial, spectral, and temporal resolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roth, Filip; Abbadi, Ahmad; Herman, Ondrej; Pavelek, Martin; Prenosil, Vaclav

    2016-10-01

    Medical endoscopes for image-guided surgery commonly use standard color image sensors, discarding any more detailed spectral information. Medical spectroscopy devices with various spectral working ranges are specialized to specific medical procedures and in general are not usable for image-guided surgery due to limitations in spatial or temporal resolution. In this paper, we present an initial demonstrator of hyperspectral endoscope, composed of two image sensors with complementing parameters. Using this hybrid approach, combining sensors with different spatial and spectral resolutions and spectral ranges, we obtain improved coverage of all the respective parameters. After digitally processing and merging the video streams, while maintaining the better features of both, we obtain an imaging system providing high effective spatial, spectral, and temporal resolution. The system is based on field programmable gate arrays. It provides real-time video output (60 Hz), which is usable for navigation during image-guided surgery. The flexible system architecture allows for an easy extension of the processing algorithms and enables minimal video signal latency. Physical dimensions and portability of the system are comparable to standard off-the-shelf medical endoscope cameras. The device can output both processed video and standard visible light video signals on one or more video outputs of the system. The resulting processed video signal obtained from the combined image sensor data greatly increases the amount of useful information available to the end user.

  11. A Simple Method for Improving the Spatial Resolution in Infrared Laser Ablation Mass Spectrometry Imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hieta, Juha-Pekka; Vaikkinen, Anu; Auno, Samuli; Räikkönen, Heikki; Haapala, Markus; Scotti, Gianmario; Kopra, Jaakko; Piepponen, Petteri; Kauppila, Tiina J.

    2017-01-01

    In mass spectrometry imaging of tissues, the size of structures that can be distinguished is determined by the spatial resolution of the imaging technique. Here, the spatial resolution of IR laser ablation is markedly improved by increasing the distance between the laser and the focusing lens. As the distance between the laser and the lens is increased from 1 to 18 m, the ablation spot size decreases from 440 to 44 μm. This way, only the collimated center of the divergent laser beam is directed on the focusing lens, which results in better focusing of the beam. Part of the laser energy is lost at longer distance, but this is compensated by focusing of the radiation to a smaller area on the sample surface. The long distance can also be achieved by a set of mirrors, between which the radiation travels before it is directed to the focusing lens and the sample. This method for improving the spatial resolution can be utilized in mass spectrometry imaging of tissues by techniques that utilize IR laser ablation, such as laser ablation electrospray ionization, laser ablation atmospheric pressure photoionization, and matrix-assisted laser desorption electrospray ionization.

  12. Resolution of spatial and temporal visual attention in infants with fragile X syndrome.

    PubMed

    Farzin, Faraz; Rivera, Susan M; Whitney, David

    2011-11-01

    Fragile X syndrome is the most common cause of inherited intellectual impairment and the most common single-gene cause of autism. Individuals with fragile X syndrome present with a neurobehavioural phenotype that includes selective deficits in spatiotemporal visual perception associated with neural processing in frontal-parietal networks of the brain. The goal of the current study was to examine whether reduced resolution of spatial and/or temporal visual attention may underlie perceptual deficits related to fragile X syndrome. Eye tracking was used to psychophysically measure the limits of spatial and temporal attention in infants with fragile X syndrome and age-matched neurotypically developing infants. Results from these experiments revealed that infants with fragile X syndrome experience drastically reduced resolution of temporal attention in a genetic dose-sensitive manner, but have a spatial resolution of attention that is not impaired. Coarse temporal attention could have significant knock-on effects for the development of perceptual, cognitive and motor abilities in individuals with the disorder.

  13. High spatial resolution shortwave infrared imaging technology based on time delay and digital accumulation method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jia, Jianxin; Wang, Yueming; Zhuang, Xiaoqiong; Yao, Yi; Wang, Shengwei; Zhao, Ding; Shu, Rong; Wang, Jianyu

    2017-03-01

    Shortwave infrared (SWIR) imaging technology attracts more and more attention by its fascinating ability of penetrating haze and smoke. For application of spaceborne remote sensing, spatial resolution of SWIR is lower compared with that of visible light (VIS) wavelength. It is difficult to balance between the spatial resolution and signal to noise ratio (SNR). Some conventional methods, such as enlarging aperture of telescope, image motion compensation, and analog time delay and integration (TDI) technology are used to gain SNR. These techniques bring in higher cost of satellite, complexity of system or other negative factors. In this paper, time delay and digital accumulation (TDDA) method is proposed to achieve higher spatial resolution. The method can enhance the SNR and non-uniformity of system theoretically. A prototype of SWIR imager consists of opto-mechanical, 1024 × 128 InGaAs detector, and electronics is designed and integrated to prove TDDA method. Both of measurements and experimental results indicate TDDA method can promote SNR of system approximated of the square root of accumulative stage. The results exhibit that non-uniformity of system is also improved by this approach to some extent. The experiment results are corresponded with the theoretical analysis. Based on the experiments results, it is proved firstly that the goal of 1 m ground sample distance (GSD) in orbit of 500 km is feasible with the TDDA stage of 30 for SWIR waveband (0.9-1.7 μm).

  14. Fourier transform infrared absorption spectroscopy characterization of gaseous atmospheric pressure plasmas with 2 mm spatial resolution.

    PubMed

    Laroche, G; Vallade, J; Bazinette, R; van Nijnatten, P; Hernandez, E; Hernandez, G; Massines, F

    2012-10-01

    This paper describes an optical setup built to record Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) absorption spectra in an atmospheric pressure plasma with a spatial resolution of 2 mm. The overall system consisted of three basic parts: (1) optical components located within the FTIR sample compartment, making it possible to define the size of the infrared beam (2 mm × 2 mm over a path length of 50 mm) imaged at the site of the plasma by (2) an optical interface positioned between the spectrometer and the plasma reactor. Once through the plasma region, (3) a retro-reflector module, located behind the plasma reactor, redirected the infrared beam coincident to the incident path up to a 45° beamsplitter to reflect the beam toward a narrow-band mercury-cadmium-telluride detector. The antireflective plasma-coating experiments performed with ammonia and silane demonstrated that it was possible to quantify 42 and 2 ppm of these species in argon, respectively. In the case of ammonia, this was approximately three times less than this gas concentration typically used in plasma coating experiments while the silane limit of quantification was 35 times lower. Moreover, 70% of the incoming infrared radiation was focused within a 2 mm width at the site of the plasma, in reasonable agreement with the expected spatial resolution. The possibility of reaching this spatial resolution thus enabled us to measure the gaseous precursor consumption as a function of their residence time in the plasma.

  15. High-spatial-resolution mapping of catalytic reactions on single particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Chung-Yeh; Wolf, William J.; Levartovsky, Yehonatan; Bechtel, Hans A.; Martin, Michael C.; Toste, F. Dean; Gross, Elad

    2017-01-01

    The critical role in surface reactions and heterogeneous catalysis of metal atoms with low coordination numbers, such as found at atomic steps and surface defects, is firmly established. But despite the growing availability of tools that enable detailed in situ characterization, so far it has not been possible to document this role directly. Surface properties can be mapped with high spatial resolution, and catalytic conversion can be tracked with a clear chemical signature; however, the combination of the two, which would enable high-spatial-resolution detection of reactions on catalytic surfaces, has rarely been achieved. Single-molecule fluorescence spectroscopy has been used to image and characterize single turnover sites at catalytic surfaces, but is restricted to reactions that generate highly fluorescing product molecules. Herein the chemical conversion of N-heterocyclic carbene molecules attached to catalytic particles is mapped using synchrotron-radiation-based infrared nanospectroscopy with a spatial resolution of 25 nanometres, which enabled particle regions that differ in reactivity to be distinguished. These observations demonstrate that, compared to the flat regions on top of the particles, the peripheries of the particles—which contain metal atoms with low coordination numbers—are more active in catalysing oxidation and reduction of chemically active groups in surface-anchored N-heterocyclic carbene molecules.

  16. Study of Raman amplification in DPP-BOTDA sensing employing Simplex coding for sub-meter scale spatial resolution over long fiber distances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taki, Mohammad; Soto, Marcelo A.; Bolognini, Gabriele; Di Pasquale, Fabrizio

    2013-09-01

    The impact of Raman amplification and Simplex coding is studied in combination with differential pulse-width pair Brillouin optical time-domain analysis (DPP-BOTDA) to achieve sub-meter spatial resolution over very long sensing distances. An optimization of the power levels for the Raman pumps, Brillouin pump and signal has been carried out through numerical simulations, maximizing the signal levels and avoiding at the same time nonlinear effects and pump depletion. A reduction of acoustic-wave-induced distortions in the Brillouin gain spectrum down to negligible levels has also been achieved by numerical optimization of the pulse width and duty cycle of return-to-zero Simplex coding, providing significant signal-to-noise ratio enhancement. Strain-temperature sensing over 93 km standard SMF is achieved with a strain/temperature accuracy of 34µɛ/1.7 °C, and 50 cm spatial resolution throughout the fiber length.

  17. fMRI at High Spatial Resolution: Implications for BOLD-Models

    PubMed Central

    Goense, Jozien; Bohraus, Yvette; Logothetis, Nikos K.

    2016-01-01

    As high-resolution functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and fMRI of cortical layers become more widely used, the question how well high-resolution fMRI signals reflect the underlying neural processing, and how to interpret laminar fMRI data becomes more and more relevant. High-resolution fMRI has shown laminar differences in cerebral blood flow (CBF), volume (CBV), and neurovascular coupling. Features and processes that were previously lumped into a single voxel become spatially distinct at high resolution. These features can be vascular compartments such as veins, arteries, and capillaries, or cortical layers and columns, which can have differences in metabolism. Mesoscopic models of the blood oxygenation level dependent (BOLD) response therefore need to be expanded, for instance, to incorporate laminar differences in the coupling between neural activity, metabolism and the hemodynamic response. Here we discuss biological and methodological factors that affect the modeling and interpretation of high-resolution fMRI data. We also illustrate with examples from neuropharmacology and the negative BOLD response how combining BOLD with CBF- and CBV-based fMRI methods can provide additional information about neurovascular coupling, and can aid modeling and interpretation of high-resolution fMRI. PMID:27445782

  18. Preparing a landslide and shadow inventory map from high-spatial-resolution imagery facilitated by an expert system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Cheng-Chien

    2015-01-01

    An expert system was developed to integrate all useful spatial information and help the interpreters determine the landslide and shaded areas quickly and accurately. The intersection of two spectral indices, namely the normalized difference vegetation index and the normalized green red difference index, as well as the first principle component of the panchromatic band, is employed to automatically determine the regional thresholds of nonvegetation and dark areas. These boundaries are overlaid on the locally enhanced image and the digital topography model to closely inspect each area with a preferred viewing direction. The other geospatial information can be switched on and off to facilitate interpretation. This new approach is tested with 2 m pan-sharpened multispectral imagery from Formosat-2 taken on August 24, 2009, for several disaster areas of Typhoon Morakot. The generated inventory of landslide and shadow areas is validated with the one manually delineated from the 25 cm aerial photos taken on the same day. The production, user, and overall accuracies are higher than 82%, 85%, and 98%, respectively. The fall in production and user accuracies mainly comes from the differences in resolution. This new approach is as accurate as the general approach of manual delineation and visual interpretation, yet significantly reduces the required time.

  19. Spatial resolution improvement for Lamb wave-based damage detection using frequency dependency compensation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeng, Liang; Lin, Jing; Bao, Jingjing; Joseph, Roshan Prakash; Huang, Liping

    2017-04-01

    In Lamb wave inspection systems, the transfer functions of the transmitter and receiver, and the attenuation as Lamb wave propagates through the structure, result in frequency dependency in the amplitude of Lamb modes. This frequency dependency in amplitude also influences the testing resolution and complicates the damage evaluation. With the goal of spatial resolution improving, a frequency dependency compensation method is proposed. In this method, an accurate estimation of the frequency-dependent amplitude is firstly obtained, then a refined inverse filter is designed and applied to the raw Lamb mode signals to compensate the frequency dependency. An experimental example is introduced to illustrate the process of the proposed method. Besides, its sensitivity to the propagation distance and Taylor expansion order is thoroughly investigated. Finally, the proposed method is employed for damage detection. Its effectiveness in testing resolution improvement and damage identification could be obviously demonstrated by the imaging result of the damage.

  20. A targeted contrast agent for magnetic resonance imaging of thrombus: implications of spatial resolution.

    PubMed

    Johansson, L O; Bjørnerud, A; Ahlström, H K; Ladd, D L; Fujii, D K

    2001-04-01

    A preparation of ultra-small superparamagnetic iron oxide (USPIO) particles coupled to an RGD peptide (RGD-USPIO) was investigated as an MR contrast agent, targeted to activated platelets, in both ex vivo and in vivo thrombus models. Thrombus visualization ex vivo was compared using RGD-USPIO and a non-targeted UPSIO. The influence of thrombus visualization on thrombus exposure time to RGD-USPIO (ex vivo) and on the spatial resolution of the MR image (ex vivo and in vivo) was assessed. RGD-USPIO resulted in better thrombus visualization than non-targeted USPIO ex vivo, and maximum enhancement was achieved after approximately one hour exposure time of the thrombus to RGD-USPIO. The ability to visualize the clots was highly dependent on the spatial resolution of the image. In vivo, an in-plane resolution of less than 0.2 x 0.2 mm(2) was required for good clot visualization after contrast enhancement. It is concluded that the achievable resolution and sensitivity is a potential limitation to the usefulness of active vascular targeting in MRI.

  1. Application of spatially resolved high resolution crystal spectrometry to inertial confinement fusion plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Hill, K. W.; Bitter, M.; Delgado-Aparacio, L.; Pablant, N. A.; Beiersdorfer, P.; Schneider, M.; Widmann, K.; Sanchez del Rio, M.; Zhang, L.

    2012-10-15

    High resolution ({lambda}/{Delta}{lambda}{approx} 10 000) 1D imaging x-ray spectroscopy using a spherically bent crystal and a 2D hybrid pixel array detector is used world wide for Doppler measurements of ion-temperature and plasma flow-velocity profiles in magnetic confinement fusion plasmas. Meter sized plasmas are diagnosed with cm spatial resolution and 10 ms time resolution. This concept can also be used as a diagnostic of small sources, such as inertial confinement fusion plasmas and targets on x-ray light source beam lines, with spatial resolution of micrometers, as demonstrated by laboratory experiments using a 250-{mu}m {sup 55}Fe source, and by ray-tracing calculations. Throughput calculations agree with measurements, and predict detector counts in the range 10{sup -8}-10{sup -6} times source x-rays, depending on crystal reflectivity and spectrometer geometry. Results of the lab demonstrations, application of the technique to the National Ignition Facility (NIF), and predictions of performance on NIF will be presented.

  2. Beyond spicule dynamics: spicule and fibril spectroscopy at high spatial and temporal resolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mendes Domingos Pereira, T.; Rouppe van der Voort, L.

    2015-12-01

    Solar spicules are chromospheric fibrils observed at the solar limb. They are observed everywhere in the Sun, but their origin is not yet understood. Much of our understanding of spicules has been obtained through filtergram observations and/or focused on the dynamics of spicules. Spectroscopic studies have been usually limited by spatial extent/resolution, temporal resolution, or variable seeing. In this work we make use of a unique time series of imaging spectroscopy at high spatial and temporal resolution, obtained with the Swedish Solar Telescope under excellent seeing and coordinated with the IRIS mission. With these data we characterize the evolution of spectra along quiet Sun fibrils and spicules, and discuss what makes them visible in filtergrams and sets them apart from other chromospheric fibrils. With combined H-alpha and Ca II H high-resolution observations we also discuss how spicules appear in these two lines, a long standing issue that has been interpreted in conflicting ways. Finally, using the wide range of IRIS diagnostics we put together the spectral evolution of spicules through the chromosphere and transition region.

  3. High-resolution heteronuclear multi-dimensional NMR spectroscopy in magnetic fields with unknown spatial variations.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhiyong; Huang, Yuqing; Smith, Pieter E S; Wang, Kaiyu; Cai, Shuhui; Chen, Zhong

    2014-05-01

    Heteronuclear NMR spectroscopy is an extremely powerful tool for determining the structures of organic molecules and is of particular significance in the structural analysis of proteins. In order to leverage the method's potential for structural investigations, obtaining high-resolution NMR spectra is essential and this is generally accomplished by using very homogeneous magnetic fields. However, there are several situations where magnetic field distortions and thus line broadening is unavoidable, for example, the samples under investigation may be inherently heterogeneous, and the magnet's homogeneity may be poor. This line broadening can hinder resonance assignment or even render it impossible. We put forth a new class of pulse sequences for obtaining high-resolution heteronuclear spectra in magnetic fields with unknown spatial variations based on distant dipolar field modulations. This strategy's capabilities are demonstrated with the acquisition of high-resolution 2D gHSQC and gHMBC spectra. These sequences' performances are evaluated on the basis of their sensitivities and acquisition efficiencies. Moreover, we show that by encoding and decoding NMR observables spatially, as is done in ultrafast NMR, an extra dimension containing J-coupling information can be obtained without increasing the time necessary to acquire a heteronuclear correlation spectrum. Since the new sequences relax magnetic field homogeneity constraints imposed upon high-resolution NMR, they may be applied in portable NMR sensors and studies of heterogeneous chemical and biological materials.

  4. FREND neutron telescope for mapping the Martian water with fine spatial resolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitrofanov, Igor; Malakhov, Alexey; Mokrousov, Maxim; Golovin, Dmitry; Fedosov, Fedor; Kozyrev, Alexandr; Lisov, Denis; Litvak, Maxim; Nikiforov, Sergey; Sanin, Anton; Tret'yakov, Vlad; Vostrukhin, Andrey

    2016-04-01

    The concept of Fine Resolution Exploration Neutron Detector (FREND) is presented, as the Russian contributed instrument for the first element of ESA ExoMars mission, the TGO. FREND is the neutron collimated telescope, which is capable to measure the prompt neutron radiation of Mars from the 400 km orbit with the spatial resolution of about 40 km. The flux of epithermal neutrons is known to depend on the content of water in the shallow subsurface about 1 meter, so such measurements could allow to study the ground water distribution with fine spatial resolution over the entire martian surface from 70 degrees of the north latitude down to 70 degree of the south latitude. The resolution of tens of km is necessary to characterize the particular relief features on the surface by the content of water in the soil. Such mapping data should resolve the water distribution within the Gale crater, which is necessary to explain the paradoxic difefrence between the estimated contents of water in this crater, as about 5% by HEND on the Mars Odyssy and the ground data about 2 -3 % by DAN on the Curiosity. Also, the FREND mapping data of the ground water should be useful for the landing site selection of future Mars rovers, such as ExoMars or Mars 2020.

  5. Drought planning and management: using high spatial resolution as part of the solution.

    PubMed

    Duncan, Leslie Lyons; Perrone, Debra; Jacobi, John H; Hornberger, George M

    2015-03-03

    Water scarcity is intensified by drought, a phenomenon that impacts many sectors of society and affects virtually all climate zones. The Palmer drought indices are widely used by scientists and policy makers to understand drought and model its components. Despite the spatial heterogeneity and variability in variables required by the Palmer model, regional index values are most commonly used for real-time drought assessment. Local stakeholders charged with developing flexible and tailored water management policies have articulated the need for drought indices calculated at finer spatial resolutions than a regional scale. We use the Pacific Northwest United States (U.S.) as a study area to demonstrate the differences between drought indices calculated for U.S. climate divisions with those calculated at a 0.5° by 0.5° latitude/longitude resolution. Our results indicate that regional values of the two cumulative Palmer drought indices do not represent finer-resolution values well. For half of the study area, the pictures of drought (as determined by regional and finer-resolution values) are drastically different more than 30% of the time. Thus, quite often water managers do not have a clear understanding of the relative severity of drought in their area, which can have serious implications for drought mitigation and adaptation.

  6. THE INFLUENCE OF SPATIAL RESOLUTION ON NONLINEAR FORCE-FREE MODELING

    SciTech Connect

    DeRosa, M. L.; Schrijver, C. J.; Leka, K. D.; Barnes, G.; Amari, T.; Canou, A.; Thalmann, J. K.; Wiegelmann, T.; Malanushenko, A.; Sun, X.; Régnier, S.

    2015-10-01

    The nonlinear force-free field (NLFFF) model is often used to describe the solar coronal magnetic field, however a series of earlier studies revealed difficulties in the numerical solution of the model in application to photospheric boundary data. We investigate the sensitivity of the modeling to the spatial resolution of the boundary data, by applying multiple codes that numerically solve the NLFFF model to a sequence of vector magnetogram data at different resolutions, prepared from a single Hinode/Solar Optical Telescope Spectro-Polarimeter scan of NOAA Active Region 10978 on 2007 December 13. We analyze the resulting energies and relative magnetic helicities, employ a Helmholtz decomposition to characterize divergence errors, and quantify changes made by the codes to the vector magnetogram boundary data in order to be compatible with the force-free model. This study shows that NLFFF modeling results depend quantitatively on the spatial resolution of the input boundary data, and that using more highly resolved boundary data yields more self-consistent results. The free energies of the resulting solutions generally trend higher with increasing resolution, while relative magnetic helicity values vary significantly between resolutions for all methods. All methods require changing the horizontal components, and for some methods also the vertical components, of the vector magnetogram boundary field in excess of nominal uncertainties in the data. The solutions produced by the various methods are significantly different at each resolution level. We continue to recommend verifying agreement between the modeled field lines and corresponding coronal loop images before any NLFFF model is used in a scientific setting.

  7. High-accuracy, high-resolution gravity profiles from 2 years of the Geosat Exact Repeat Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sandwell, David T.; Mcadoo, David C.

    1990-01-01

    Satellite altimeter data from the first 44 repeat cycles (2 years) of the Geosat Exact Repeat Mission (EWRM) were averaged to improve accuracy, resolution and coverage of the marine gravity field. Individual 17-day repeat cycles were first edited and differentiated, resulting in the along-track vertical deflection (i.e., gravity disturbance). To increase the signal-to-noise ratio, 44 of these cycles were then averaged to form a single highly accurate vertical deflection profile. The largest contribution to the vertical deflection error is short-wavelength altimeter noise and longer-wavelength oceanographic variability; the combined noise level is typically 6 microrad. Both types of noise are reduced by averaging many repeat cycles. Over most ocean areas the uncertainty of the average profile is less than 1 microrad which corresponds to 1 mgal of along-track gravity disturbance. However, in areas of seasonal ice coverage, its uncertainty can exceed 5 microrad. To assess the resolution of individual and average Geosat gravity profiles, the cross-spectral analysis technique was applied to repeat profiles. Individual Geosat repeat cycles are coherent (greater than 0.5) for wavelengths greater than about 30 km and become increasingly incoherent at shorter wavelengths.

  8. Spatial Distribution of Accuracy of Aerosol Retrievals from Multiple Satellite Sensors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Petrenko, Maksym; Ichoku, Charles

    2012-01-01

    Remote sensing of aerosols from space has been a subject of extensive research, with multiple sensors retrieving aerosol properties globally on a daily or weekly basis. The diverse algorithms used for these retrievals operate on different types of reflected signals based on different assumptions about the underlying physical phenomena. Depending on the actual retrieval conditions and especially on the geographical location of the sensed aerosol parcels, the combination of these factors might be advantageous for one or more of the sensors and unfavorable for others, resulting in disagreements between similar aerosol parameters retrieved from different sensors. In this presentation, we will demonstrate the use of the Multi-sensor Aerosol Products Sampling System (MAPSS) to analyze and intercompare aerosol retrievals from multiple spaceborne sensors, including MODIS (on Terra and Aqua), MISR, OMI, POLDER, CALIOP, and SeaWiFS. Based on this intercomparison, we are determining geographical locations where these products provide the greatest accuracy of the retrievals and identifying the products that are the most suitable for retrieval at these locations. The analyses are performed by comparing quality-screened satellite aerosol products to available collocated ground-based aerosol observations from the Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET) stations, during the period of 2006-2010 when all the satellite sensors were operating concurrently. Furthermore, we will discuss results of a statistical approach that is applied to the collocated data to detect and remove potential data outliers that can bias the results of the analysis.

  9. The Effects of Spatial Resolution and Dimensionality on Modeling Braided River Hydraulics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Altenau, E. H.; Pavelsky, T.; Bates, P. D.

    2015-12-01

    Braided rivers are challenging features to quantify due to their dynamic morphology and dominance in remote locations. Advances in hydrodynamic modeling and remote sensing over the past few decades offer opportunities to explore braided river processes at finer resolutions with increased efficiency. These methods allow us to address questions such as: What model structure is necessary to accurately reproduce inundation extent and water surface elevations in a braided river? What effects do the smaller channels within a braided river have on simulating wave propagation and slope? How much accuracy is lost as model resolution and dimension are decreased? Here, we use the raster-based hydrodynamic model LISFLOOD-FP to simulate water surface elevations, inundation extent, and slope at various resolutions and dimensions over a ~90 km reach of the Tanana River, Alaska. Model input and validation data were collected during two field campaigns in the summers of 2013 and 2015. Field data included water surface elevation, discharge, velocity, slope, and bathymetric measurements. Six models are run to simulate flood waves across the study reach over a two-month timespan. The model structures vary in complexity from a full 2D model at 10 m resolution to a coupled 1D/2D model at 100 m resolution where the channel is represented in 1D by an effective centerline within a 2D floodplain grid. Results from the different models are compared to assess the effects on inundation extent, wave celerity, water elevations and slope. Digital elevation model (DEM) quality and resolution have major effects on inundation extent and water surface elevations, while model dimensionality has a larger effect on wave celerity and slope. Future work will compare model outputs with AirSWOT data, an airborne analog for the Surface Water and Ocean Topography (SWOT) mission, which aims to provide high-resolution measurements of terrestrial and ocean water surface elevations globally.

  10. Effect of Electric Field Gradient on Sub-nanometer Spatial Resolution of Tip-enhanced Raman Spectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Meng, Lingyan; Yang, Zhilin; Chen, Jianing; Sun, Mengtao

    2015-01-01

    Tip-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (TERS) with sub-nanometer spatial resolution has been recently demonstrated experimentally. However, the physical mechanism underlying is still under discussion. Here we theoretically investigate the electric field gradient of a coupled tip-substrate system. Our calculations suggest that the ultra-high spatial resolution of TERS can be partially attributed to the electric field gradient effect owning to its tighter spatial confinement and sensitivity to the infrared (IR)-active of molecules. Particularly, in the case of TERS of flat-lying H2TBPP molecules,we find the electric field gradient enhancement is the dominating factor for the high spatial resolution, which qualitatively coincides with previous experimental report. Our theoretical study offers a new paradigm for understanding the mechanisms of the ultra-high spatial resolution demonstrated in tip-enhanced spectroscopy which is of importance but neglected. PMID:25784161

  11. Multi-temporal topographic models in fluvial systems: are accuracies enough to change the temporal and spatial scales of our studies?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vericat, Damià; Ramos, Ester; Brasington, James; Muñoz, Efrén; Béjar, María; Gibbins, Chris; Batalla, Ramon J.; Tena, Álvaro; Smith, Mark; Wheaton, Joe

    2015-04-01

    Recent advances in topography are offering a set of opportunities that deserve a critical evaluation before being successfully applied. Terrestrial Laser Scanning opened a new world by offering the opportunity to obtain topographic models at unprecedented resolutions. The time involved in data acquisition, although has substantially improved by means of fast scanners and new mobile platforms, limited the spatial and temporal scales in which such technique could be applied. Automatic Digital Photogrammetry or Structure from Motion is now offering a new set of opportunities and challenges. This technique possesses the trilogy a geomorphologist is looking to fully understand how landforms change and which are the main causes and consequences: speed, cost and resolution. But, a set of questions arise after all post-processing involved in these novel datasets: are accuracies enough to jump at large spatial scales? Can we repeat topographic surveys and depict small magnitude but relatively high frequent landform deformations overcoming the minimum level of detection of our comparisons? In this paper we present some of the preliminary results obtained in the background of MorphSed (www.morphsed.es). Morphsed is analysing the morpho-sedimentary dynamics of a fluvial system at multiple temporal scales. Multi-event topographic models (DEMs) are obtained by means of Structure from Motion using close range aerial photography obtained in a 12-km channel reach of the wandering Upper River Cinca (Southern Pyrenees, Iberian Peninsula). Topographic channel changes are critically analysed based on the quality of the developed models. DEMs obtained at different periods are compared (DoD). Two general comparisons are performed: (a) comparison of topographic models obtained before and after low magnitude channel changes, and (b) comparison of models acquired before and after major channel disturbances. Special attention is paid to the role of the ground control, data density and

  12. Increasing spatial resolution of CHIRPS rainfall datasets for Cyprus with artificial neural networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tymvios, Filippos; Michaelides, Silas; Retalis, Adrianos; Katsanos, Dimitrios; Lelieveld, Jos

    2016-08-01

    The use of high resolution rainfall datasets is an alternative way of studying climatological regions where conventional rain measurements are sparse or not available. Starting in 1981 to near-present, the CHIRPS (Climate Hazards Group InfraRed Precipitation with Station data) dataset incorporates a 5km×5km resolution satellite imagery with in-situ station data to create gridded rainfall time series for trend analysis, severe events and seasonal drought monitoring. The aim of this work is to further increase the resolution of the rainfall dataset for Cyprus to 1km×1km, by correlating the CHIRPS dataset with elevation information, the NDVI index (Normalized Difference Vegetation Index) from satellite images at 1km×1km and precipitation measurements from the official raingauge network of the Cyprus' Department of Meteorology, utilizing Artificial Neural Networks. The Artificial Neural Networks' architecture that was implemented is the Multi-Layer Perceptron (MLP) trained with the back propagation method, which is widely used in environmental studies. Seven different network architectures were tested, all with two hidden layers. The number of neurons ranged from 3 to10 in the first hidden layer and from 5 to 25 in the second hidden layer. The dataset was separated into a randomly selected training set, a validation set and a testing set; the latter is independently used for the final assessment of the models' performance. Using the Artificial Neural Network approach, a new map of the spatial analysis of rainfall is constructed which exhibits a considerable increase in its spatial resolution. A statistical assessment of the new spatial analysis was made using the rainfall ground measurements from the raingauge network. The assessment indicates that the methodology is promising for several applications.

  13. Spatial resolution dependence on spectral frequency in human speech cortex electrocorticography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muller, Leah; Hamilton, Liberty S.; Edwards, Erik; Bouchard, Kristofer E.; Chang, Edward F.

    2016-10-01

    Objective. Electrocorticography (ECoG) has become an important tool in human neuroscience and has tremendous potential for emerging applications in neural interface technology. Electrode array design parameters are outstanding issues for both research and clinical applications, and these parameters depend critically on the nature of the neural signals to be recorded. Here, we investigate the functional spatial resolution of neural signals recorded at the human cortical surface. We empirically derive spatial spread functions to quantify the shared neural activity for each frequency band of the electrocorticogram. Approach. Five subjects with high-density (4 mm center-to-center spacing) ECoG grid implants participated in speech perception and production tasks while neural activity was recorded from the speech cortex, including superior temporal gyrus, precentral gyrus, and postcentral gyrus. The cortical surface field potential was decomposed into traditional EEG frequency bands. Signal similarity between electrode pairs for each frequency band was quantified using a Pearson correlation coefficient. Main results. The correlation of neural activity between electrode pairs was inversely related to the distance between the electrodes; this relationship was used to quantify spatial falloff functions for cortical subdomains. As expected, lower frequencies remained correlated over larger distances than higher frequencies. However, both the envelope and phase of gamma and high gamma frequencies (30-150 Hz) are largely uncorrelated (<90%) at 4 mm, the smallest spacing of the high-density arrays. Thus, ECoG arrays smaller than 4 mm have significant promise for increasing signal resolution at high frequencies, whereas less additional gain is achieved for lower frequencies. Significance. Our findings quantitatively demonstrate the dependence of ECoG spatial resolution on the neural frequency of interest. We demonstrate that this relationship is consistent across patients and

  14. Why Is Non-thermal Line Broadening of Lower Transition Region Lines Independent of Spatial Resolution?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Pontieu, B.; Mcintosh, S. W.; Martínez-Sykora, J.; Peter, H.; Pereira, T. M. D.

    2014-12-01

    Spectral observations of the solar transition region (TR) and corona typically show broadening of the spectral lines beyond what is expected from thermal and instrumental broadening. The remaining non-thermal broadening is significant (10-30 km/s), correlated with the intensity, and has been attributed to waves, macro and micro turbulence, nanoflares, etc... Here we study spectra of the low TR Si IV 1403 Angstrom line obtained at high spatial and spectral resolution with the Interface Region Imaging Spectrograph (IRIS). We find that the large improvement in spatial resolution (0.33 arcsec) of IRIS compared to previous spectrographs (2 arcsec) does not resolve the non-thermal line broadening which remains at pre-IRIS levels of 20 km/s. This surprising invariance to spatial resolution indicates that the physical processes behind the non-thermal line broadening either occur along the line-of-sight (LOS) and/or on spatial scales (perpendicular to the LOS) smaller than 250 km. Both effects appear to play a role. Comparison with IRIS chromospheric observations shows that, in regions where the LOS is more parallel to the field, magneto-acoustic shocks driven from below impact the low TR leading to strong non-thermal line broadening from line-of-sight integration across the shock at the time of impact. This scenario is confirmed by advanced MHD simulations. In regions where the LOS is perpendicular to the field, the prevalence of small-scale twist is likely to play a significant role in explaining the invariance and the correlation with intensity.

  15. An Efficient Approach for Pixel Decomposition to Increase the Spatial Resolution of Land Su