Science.gov

Sample records for accuracy spatial resolution

  1. Forest Classification Accuracy as Influenced by Multispectral Scanner Spatial Resolution. [Sam Houston National Forest, Texas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nalepka, R. F. (Principal Investigator); Sadowski, F. E.; Sarno, J. E.

    1976-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. A supervised classification within two separate ground areas of the Sam Houston National Forest was carried out for two sq meters spatial resolution MSS data. Data were progressively coarsened to simulate five additional cases of spatial resolution ranging up to 64 sq meters. Similar processing and analysis of all spatial resolutions enabled evaluations of the effect of spatial resolution on classification accuracy for various levels of detail and the effects on area proportion estimation for very general forest features. For very coarse resolutions, a subset of spectral channels which simulated the proposed thematic mapper channels was used to study classification accuracy.

  2. Additional studies of forest classification accuracy as influenced by multispectral scanner spatial resolution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sadowski, F. E.; Sarno, J. E.

    1976-01-01

    First, an analysis of forest feature signatures was used to help explain the large variation in classification accuracy that can occur among individual forest features for any one case of spatial resolution and the inconsistent changes in classification accuracy that were demonstrated among features as spatial resolution was degraded. Second, the classification rejection threshold was varied in an effort to reduce the large proportion of unclassified resolution elements that previously appeared in the processing of coarse resolution data when a constant rejection threshold was used for all cases of spatial resolution. For the signature analysis, two-channel ellipse plots showing the feature signature distributions for several cases of spatial resolution indicated that the capability of signatures to correctly identify their respective features is dependent on the amount of statistical overlap among signatures. Reductions in signature variance that occur in data of degraded spatial resolution may not necessarily decrease the amount of statistical overlap among signatures having large variance and small mean separations. Features classified by such signatures may thus continue to have similar amounts of misclassified elements in coarser resolution data, and thus, not necessarily improve in classification accuracy.

  3. The effect of spatial resolution on decoding accuracy in fMRI multivariate pattern analysis.

    PubMed

    Gardumi, Anna; Ivanov, Dimo; Hausfeld, Lars; Valente, Giancarlo; Formisano, Elia; Uludağ, Kâmil

    2016-05-15

    Multivariate pattern analysis (MVPA) in fMRI has been used to extract information from distributed cortical activation patterns, which may go undetected in conventional univariate analysis. However, little is known about the physical and physiological underpinnings of MVPA in fMRI as well as about the effect of spatial smoothing on its performance. Several studies have addressed these issues, but their investigation was limited to the visual cortex at 3T with conflicting results. Here, we used ultra-high field (7T) fMRI to investigate the effect of spatial resolution and smoothing on decoding of speech content (vowels) and speaker identity from auditory cortical responses. To that end, we acquired high-resolution (1.1mm isotropic) fMRI data and additionally reconstructed them at 2.2 and 3.3mm in-plane spatial resolutions from the original k-space data. Furthermore, the data at each resolution were spatially smoothed with different 3D Gaussian kernel sizes (i.e. no smoothing or 1.1, 2.2, 3.3, 4.4, or 8.8mm kernels). For all spatial resolutions and smoothing kernels, we demonstrate the feasibility of decoding speech content (vowel) and speaker identity at 7T using support vector machine (SVM) MVPA. In addition, we found that high spatial frequencies are informative for vowel decoding and that the relative contribution of high and low spatial frequencies is different across the two decoding tasks. Moderate smoothing (up to 2.2mm) improved the accuracies for both decoding of vowels and speakers, possibly due to reduction of noise (e.g. residual motion artifacts or instrument noise) while still preserving information at high spatial frequency. In summary, our results show that - even with the same stimuli and within the same brain areas - the optimal spatial resolution for MVPA in fMRI depends on the specific decoding task of interest. PMID:26899782

  4. Impact of spatial resolution on correlation between segmentation evaluation metrics and forest classification accuracy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Švab Lenarčič, Andreja; Ritlop, Klemen; Äńurić, Nataša.; Čotar, Klemen; Oštir, Krištof

    2015-10-01

    Slovenia is one of the most forested countries in Europe. Its forest management authorities need information about the forest extent and state, as their responsibility lies in forest observation and preservation. Together with appropriate geographic information system mapping methods the remotely sensed data represent essential tool for an effective and sustainable forest management. Despite the large data availability, suitable mapping methods still present big challenge in terms of their speed which is often affected by the huge amount of data. The speed of the classification method could be maximised, if each of the steps in object-based classification was automated. However, automation is hard to achieve, since segmentation requires choosing optimum parameter values for optimal classification results. This paper focuses on the analysis of segmentation and classification performance and their correlation in a range of segmentation parameter values applied in the segmentation step. In order to find out which spatial resolution is still suitable for forest classification, forest classification accuracies obtained by using four images with different spatial resolutions were compared. Results of this study indicate that all high or very high spatial resolutions are suitable for optimal forest segmentation and classification, as long as appropriate scale and merge parameters combinations are used in the object-based classification. If computation interval includes all segmentation parameter combinations, all segmentation-classification correlations are spatial resolution independent and are generally high. If computation interval includes over- or optimal-segmentation parameter combinations, most segmentation-classification correlations are spatial resolution dependent.

  5. Edge technique lidar for high accuracy, high spatial resolution wind measurement in the Planetary Boundary Layer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Korb, C. L.; Gentry, Bruce M.

    1995-01-01

    The goal of the Army Research Office (ARO) Geosciences Program is to measure the three dimensional wind field in the planetary boundary layer (PBL) over a measurement volume with a 50 meter spatial resolution and with measurement accuracies of the order of 20 cm/sec. The objective of this work is to develop and evaluate a high vertical resolution lidar experiment using the edge technique for high accuracy measurement of the atmospheric wind field to meet the ARO requirements. This experiment allows the powerful capabilities of the edge technique to be quantitatively evaluated. In the edge technique, a laser is located on the steep slope of a high resolution spectral filter. This produces large changes in measured signal for small Doppler shifts. A differential frequency technique renders the Doppler shift measurement insensitive to both laser and filter frequency jitter and drift. The measurement is also relatively insensitive to the laser spectral width for widths less than the width of the edge filter. Thus, the goal is to develop a system which will yield a substantial improvement in the state of the art of wind profile measurement in terms of both vertical resolution and accuracy and which will provide a unique capability for atmospheric wind studies.

  6. Accuracy levels of land cover classified maps derived from mid and high spatial resolution remote sensing data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, Bonnie J.

    This dissertation compares the accuracy of results of classifying data from mid-level to very high spatial resolutions (Landsat ETM+, SPOT 4, ASTER, SPOT 5, and QuickBird). Data from all of these sensors were classified for both urban and rural settings. The dissertation also examines accuracy levels between spectral and radiometric resolutions. Finally, it investigates the role that shadow plays in affecting accuracy levels from higher spatial resolution satellites. To compare as to whether there were significant differences in the accuracy levels between different sensors, each map's accuracy percentages were analyzed using Z-scores and kappa as described in the methodology section. QuickBird, with the highest spatial resolution, performed significantly more poorly in terms of providing accurate classification than any other sensor with respect to the rural environment. It also was significantly worse than Landsat ETM+ in providing accurate classification in the urban environment. In order to control for radiometric resolution, the 11-bit QuickBird data were converted to 8-bit data since QuickBird is the only sensor that does not have the same radiometric resolution. The resulting classification accuracy percentages were no better than that of random chance. When testing for accuracy in classification using only the three bands common to all sensors (green, red, and near-infrared) the result was there was essentially no difference between any of the sensors. This outcome supports the hypothesis that spectral resolution plays an important role in land cover accuracy. Using simple linear regression, the relationship between the percentage of shadow pixels and spatial resolution is examined. There is a moderate relationship between the spatial resolution of sensors and the percentages of shadow pixels where sensors with higher spatial resolution have a higher percentage of shadow pixels. These results agreed with literature from other studies in similar environments.

  7. Estimating Temperature Retrieval Accuracy Associated With Thermal Band Spatial Resolution Requirements for Center Pivot Irrigation Monitoring and Management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ryan, Robert E.; Irons, James; Spruce, Joseph P.; Underwood, Lauren W.; Pagnutti, Mary

    2006-01-01

    This study explores the use of synthetic thermal center pivot irrigation scenes to estimate temperature retrieval accuracy for thermal remote sensed data, such as data acquired from current and proposed Landsat-like thermal systems. Center pivot irrigation is a common practice in the western United States and in other parts of the world where water resources are scarce. Wide-area ET (evapotranspiration) estimates and reliable water management decisions depend on accurate temperature information retrieval from remotely sensed data. Spatial resolution, sensor noise, and the temperature step between a field and its surrounding area impose limits on the ability to retrieve temperature information. Spatial resolution is an interrelationship between GSD (ground sample distance) and a measure of image sharpness, such as edge response or edge slope. Edge response and edge slope are intuitive, and direct measures of spatial resolution are easier to visualize and estimate than the more common Modulation Transfer Function or Point Spread Function. For these reasons, recent data specifications, such as those for the LDCM (Landsat Data Continuity Mission), have used GSD and edge response to specify spatial resolution. For this study, we have defined a 400-800 m diameter center pivot irrigation area with a large 25 K temperature step associated with a 300 K well-watered field surrounded by an infinite 325 K dry area. In this context, we defined the benchmark problem as an easily modeled, highly common stressing case. By parametrically varying GSD (30-240 m) and edge slope, we determined the number of pixels and field area fraction that meet a given temperature accuracy estimate for 400-m, 600-m, and 800-m diameter field sizes. Results of this project will help assess the utility of proposed specifications for the LDCM and other future thermal remote sensing missions and for water resource management.

  8. Measurement accuracy and Cerenkov removal for high performance, high spatial resolution scintillation dosimetry

    SciTech Connect

    Archambault, Louis; Beddar, A. Sam; Gingras, Luc

    2006-01-15

    With highly conformal radiation therapy techniques such as intensity-modulated radiation therapy, radiosurgery, and tomotherapy becoming more common in clinical practice, the use of these narrow beams requires a higher level of precision in quality assurance and dosimetry. Plastic scintillators with their water equivalence, energy independence, and dose rate linearity have been shown to possess excellent qualities that suit the most complex and demanding radiation therapy treatment plans. The primary disadvantage of plastic scintillators is the presence of Cerenkov radiation generated in the light guide, which results in an undesired stem effect. Several techniques have been proposed to minimize this effect. In this study, we compared three such techniques--background subtraction, simple filtering, and chromatic removal--in terms of reproducibility and dose accuracy as gauges of their ability to remove the Cerenkov stem effect from the dose signal. The dosimeter used in this study comprised a 6-mm{sup 3} plastic scintillating fiber probe, an optical fiber, and a color charge-coupled device camera. The whole system was shown to be linear and the total light collected by the camera was reproducible to within 0.31% for 5-s integration time. Background subtraction and chromatic removal were both found to be suitable for precise dose evaluation, with average absolute dose discrepancies of 0.52% and 0.67%, respectively, from ion chamber values. Background subtraction required two optical fibers, but chromatic removal used only one, thereby preventing possible measurement artifacts when a strong dose gradient was perpendicular to the optical fiber. Our findings showed that a plastic scintillation dosimeter could be made free of the effect of Cerenkov radiation.

  9. Effects of spatial resolution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abrams, M.

    1982-01-01

    Studies of the effects of spatial resolution on extraction of geologic information are woefully lacking but spatial resolution effects can be examined as they influence two general categories: detection of spatial features per se; and the effects of IFOV on the definition of spectral signatures and on general mapping abilities.

  10. Accuracy Sampling Design Bias on Coarse Spatial Resolution Land Cover Data in the Great Lakes Region (United States and Canada)

    EPA Science Inventory

    A number of articles have investigated the impact of sampling design on remotely sensed landcover accuracy estimates. Gong and Howarth (1990) found significant differences for Kappa accuracy values when comparing purepixel sampling, stratified random sampling, and stratified sys...

  11. MAPPING SPATIAL THEMATIC ACCURACY WITH FUZZY SETS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Thematic map accuracy is not spatially homogenous but variable across a landscape. Properly analyzing and representing spatial pattern and degree of thematic map accuracy would provide valuable information for using thematic maps. However, current thematic map accuracy measures (...

  12. Particle detector spatial resolution

    DOEpatents

    Perez-Mendez, Victor

    1992-01-01

    Method and apparatus for producing separated columns of scintillation layer material, for use in detection of X-rays and high energy charged particles with improved spatial resolution. A pattern of ridges or projections is formed on one surface of a substrate layer or in a thin polyimide layer, and the scintillation layer is grown at controlled temperature and growth rate on the ridge-containing material. The scintillation material preferentially forms cylinders or columns, separated by gaps conforming to the pattern of ridges, and these columns direct most of the light produced in the scintillation layer along individual columns for subsequent detection in a photodiode layer. The gaps may be filled with a light-absorbing material to further enhance the spatial resolution of the particle detector.

  13. Computer-based classification accuracy due to the spatial resolution using per-point versus per-field classification techniques. [for photomapping

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Latty, R. S.; Hoffer, R. M.

    1981-01-01

    Data sets simulating three different spatial resolutions (SR's) are computed from data with a 15-m nominal SR that were obtained with NASA's Thermatic Mapper Simulator from an altitude of about 6 km. The classification accuracies (CA's) achieved with the data of each of the four different SR's using a per-point Gaussian maximum likelihood classifier (GMLC) are intercompared. The CA's obtained using simulated 30-m SR data with the per-point GMLC are compared with the CA's achieved with a per-field classifier. It is found that: (1) the use of successively higher SR data resulted in lower overall CA's for classifications with the per-point GMLC, especially in cover classes associated with relatively higher spectral variability across adjacent pixels; (2) higher CA's were achieved using the per-field classifier with 30-m SR data than were achieved with the per-point GMLC; and (3) the largest increases in CA's were achieved with the per-field classifier in cover classes associated with relatively high levels of spectral variability across adjacent pixels.

  14. Accuracy of the geometric-mean method for determining spatial resolutions of tracking detectors in the presence of multiple Coulomb scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, A.; Hohlmann, M.

    2016-06-01

    The geometric-mean method is often used to estimate the spatial resolution of a position-sensitive detector probed by tracks. It calculates the resolution solely from measured track data without using a detailed tracking simulation and without considering multiple Coulomb scattering effects. Two separate linear track fits are performed on the same data, one excluding and the other including the hit from the probed detector. The geometric mean of the widths of the corresponding exclusive and inclusive residual distributions for the probed detector is then taken as a measure of the intrinsic spatial resolution of the probed detector: σ=√σex·σin. The validity of this method is examined for a range of resolutions with a stand-alone Geant4 Monte Carlo simulation that specifically takes multiple Coulomb scattering in the tracking detector materials into account. Using simulated as well as actual tracking data from a representative beam test scenario, we find that the geometric-mean method gives systematically inaccurate spatial resolution results. Good resolutions are estimated as poor and vice versa. The more the resolutions of reference detectors and probed detector differ, the larger the systematic bias. An attempt to correct this inaccuracy by statistically subtracting multiple-scattering effects from geometric-mean results leads to resolutions that are typically too optimistic by 10–50%. This supports an earlier critique of this method based on simulation studies that did not take multiple scattering into account.

  15. The influence of the spatial resolution of topographic input data on the accuracy of 3-D UV actinic flux and irradiance calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weihs, P.; Wagner, J. E.; Schreier, S. F.; Rieder, H. E.; Angelini, F.; Blumthaler, M.; Fitzka, M.; Gobbi, G. P.; Kift, R.; Kreuter, A.; Simic, S.; Webb, A. R.

    2012-03-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the influence of the spatial resolution of a digital elevation map (DEM) on the three-dimensional (3-D) radiative transfer performance for both spectral ultraviolet (UV) irradiance and actinic flux at 305 nm. Model simulations were performed for clear sky conditions for three case studies: the first and second one using three sites in the Innsbruck area and the third one using three sites at the Sonnblick observatory and surrounding area. It was found that the DEM resolution may change the altitude at some locations by up to 500 m, resulting in changes in the sky obscured by the horizon of up to 15%. The geographical distribution of UV irradiance and actinic flux shows that with larger pixel size, uncertainties in UV irradiance and actinic flux determination of up to 100% are possible. These large changes in incident irradiance and actinic flux with changing pixel size are strongly connected to shading effects. The effect of the DEM pixel size on irradiance and actinic flux was studied at the six locations, and it was found that significant increases in irradiance and actinic flux with increasing DEM pixel size occurred at one valley location at high solar zenith angles in the Innsbruck area as well as for one steep valley location in the Sonnblick area. This increase in irradiance and actinic flux with increasing DEM resolution is most likely to be connected to shading effects affecting the reflections from the surroundings.

  16. The influence of the spatial resolution of topographic input data on the accuracy of 3-D UV actinic flux and irradiance calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weihs, P.; Wagner, J. E.; Schreier, S. F.; Rieder, H. E.; Angelini, F.; Blumthaler, M.; Fitzka, M.; Gobbi, G. P.; Kift, R.; Kreuter, A.; Simic, S.; Webb, A. R.

    2011-10-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of the spatial resolution of a digital elevation map (DEM) on the three-dimensional (3-D) radiative transfer performance for both spectral ultraviolet (UV) irradiance and actinic flux at 305 nm. Model simulations were performed for clear sky conditions for three case studies: the first and second one using three sites in the Innsbruck area and the third one using three sites at the Sonnblick Observatory and surrounding area. It was found that DEM resolution may change the altitude at some locations by up to 500 m, resulting in changes in the sky obscured by the horizon of up to 15%. The geographical distribution of UV irradiance and actinic flux shows that with larger pixel size, uncertainties in UV irradiance and actinic flux determination of up to 100% are possible. These large changes in incident irradiance and actinic flux with changing pixel size are strongly connected to shading effects. The effect of DEM pixel size on irradiance and actinic flux was studied at the six locations, and it was found that significant increases in irradiance and actinic flux with increasing DEM pixel size occurred at one valley location at high solar zenith angles in the Innsbruck area as well as for one steep valley location in the Sonnblick area. This increase in irradiance and actinic flux with increasing DEM resolution is most likely to be connected to shading effects affecting the reflections from the surroundings.

  17. How Attention Affects Spatial Resolution

    PubMed Central

    Carrasco, Marisa; Barbot, Antoine

    2015-01-01

    We summarize and discuss a series of psychophysical studies on the effects of spatial covert attention on spatial resolution, our ability to discriminate fine patterns. Heightened resolution is beneficial in most, but not all, visual tasks. We show how endogenous attention (voluntary, goal driven) and exogenous attention (involuntary, stimulus driven) affect performance on a variety of tasks mediated by spatial resolution, such as visual search, crowding, acuity, and texture segmentation. Exogenous attention is an automatic mechanism that increases resolution regardless of whether it helps or hinders performance. In contrast, endogenous attention flexibly adjusts resolution to optimize performance according to task demands. We illustrate how psychophysical studies can reveal the underlying mechanisms of these effects and allow us to draw linking hypotheses with known neurophysiological effects of attention. PMID:25948640

  18. High spatial resolution restoration of IRAS images

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grasdalen, Gary L.; Inguva, R.; Dyck, H. Melvin; Canterna, R.; Hackwell, John A.

    1990-01-01

    A general technique to improve the spatial resolution of the IRAS AO data was developed at The Aerospace Corporation using the Maximum Entropy algorithm of Skilling and Gull. The technique has been applied to a variety of fields and several individual AO MACROS. With this general technique, resolutions of 15 arcsec were achieved in 12 and 25 micron images and 30 arcsec in 60 and 100 micron images. Results on galactic plane fields show that both photometric and positional accuracy achieved in the general IRAS survey are also achieved in the reconstructed images.

  19. Accuracy of stream habitat interpolations across spatial scales

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sheehan, Kenneth R.; Welsh, Stuart

    2013-01-01

    Stream habitat data are often collected across spatial scales because relationships among habitat, species occurrence, and management plans are linked at multiple spatial scales. Unfortunately, scale is often a factor limiting insight gained from spatial analysis of stream habitat data. Considerable cost is often expended to collect data at several spatial scales to provide accurate evaluation of spatial relationships in streams. To address utility of single scale set of stream habitat data used at varying scales, we examined the influence that data scaling had on accuracy of natural neighbor predictions of depth, flow, and benthic substrate. To achieve this goal, we measured two streams at gridded resolution of 0.33 × 0.33 meter cell size over a combined area of 934 m2 to create a baseline for natural neighbor interpolated maps at 12 incremental scales ranging from a raster cell size of 0.11 m2 to 16 m2 . Analysis of predictive maps showed a logarithmic linear decay pattern in RMSE values in interpolation accuracy for variables as resolution of data used to interpolate study areas became coarser. Proportional accuracy of interpolated models (r2 ) decreased, but it was maintained up to 78% as interpolation scale moved from 0.11 m2 to 16 m2 . Results indicated that accuracy retention was suitable for assessment and management purposes at various scales different from the data collection scale. Our study is relevant to spatial modeling, fish habitat assessment, and stream habitat management because it highlights the potential of using a single dataset to fulfill analysis needs rather than investing considerable cost to develop several scaled datasets.

  20. Spatial resolution in visual memory.

    PubMed

    Ben-Shalom, Asaf; Ganel, Tzvi

    2015-04-01

    Representations in visual short-term memory are considered to contain relatively elaborated information on object structure. Conversely, representations in earlier stages of the visual hierarchy are thought to be dominated by a sensory-based, feed-forward buildup of information. In four experiments, we compared the spatial resolution of different object properties between two points in time along the processing hierarchy in visual short-term memory. Subjects were asked either to estimate the distance between objects or to estimate the size of one of the objects' features under two experimental conditions, of either a short or a long delay period between the presentation of the target stimulus and the probe. When different objects were referred to, similar spatial resolution was found for the two delay periods, suggesting that initial processing stages are sensitive to object-based properties. Conversely, superior resolution was found for the short, as compared with the long, delay when features were referred to. These findings suggest that initial representations in visual memory are hybrid in that they allow fine-grained resolution for object features alongside normal visual sensitivity to the segregation between objects. The findings are also discussed in reference to the distinction made in earlier studies between visual short-term memory and iconic memory. PMID:25112394

  1. A study of spatial resolution in pollution exposure modelling

    PubMed Central

    Stroh, Emilie; Harrie, Lars; Gustafsson, Susanna

    2007-01-01

    Background This study is part of several ongoing projects concerning epidemiological research into the effects on health of exposure to air pollutants in the region of Scania, southern Sweden. The aim is to investigate the optimal spatial resolution, with respect to temporal resolution, for a pollutant database of NOx-values which will be used mainly for epidemiological studies with durations of days, weeks or longer periods. The fact that a pollutant database has a fixed spatial resolution makes the choice critical for the future use of the database. Results The results from the study showed that the accuracy between the modelled concentrations of the reference grid with high spatial resolution (100 m), denoted the fine grid, and the coarser grids (200, 400, 800 and 1600 meters) improved with increasing spatial resolution. When the pollutant values were aggregated in time (from hours to days and weeks) the disagreement between the fine grid and the coarser grids were significantly reduced. The results also illustrate a considerable difference in optimal spatial resolution depending on the characteristic of the study area (rural or urban areas). To estimate the accuracy of the modelled values comparison were made with measured NOx values. The mean difference between the modelled and the measured value were 0.6 μg/m3 and the standard deviation 5.9 μg/m3 for the daily difference. Conclusion The choice of spatial resolution should not considerably deteriorate the accuracy of the modelled NOx values. Considering the comparison between modelled and measured values we estimate that an error due to coarse resolution greater than 1 μg/m3 is inadvisable if a time resolution of one day is used. Based on the study of different spatial resolutions we conclude that for urban areas a spatial resolution of 200–400 m is suitable; and for rural areas the spatial resolution could be coarser (about 1600 m). This implies that we should develop a pollutant database that allows

  2. Improving Nano-MRI Spatial Resolution with Phase Multiplexing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moores, Brad; Eichler, Alex; Degen, Christian

    2015-03-01

    Magnetic resonance force microscopy (MRFM) is a scanning probe technique that allows measuring nuclear spin densities with resolution better than 10nm. Detecting such small volumes of spins (less than (10nm)3 corresponds to approximately 20,000 spins) requires long averaging of signals from statistically polarized nuclei. For instance, previous work demonstrated that imaging a single isotope (1H) of a Tobacco Mosaic Virus required averaging for 2 weeks, and therefore the chemical contrast abilities of MRFM had to be forfeited to enable higher spatial resolution. In order to reconcile the chemical selectivity of MRFM along with the proven high spatial resolution, we have developed a phase multiplexing technique capable of simultaneously acquiring spin signals from multiple isotopes and from up to six spatial locations. We have demonstrated this method using a nanowire test sample, and have achieved one-dimensional imaging resolution of less than 5 nm and subnanometer positional accuracy.

  3. Effect of temporal resolution on the accuracy of ADCP measurements

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gonzalez-Castro, J. A.; Oberg, K.; Duncker, J.J.

    2004-01-01

    The application of acoustic Doppler current profilers (ADCP's) in river flow measurements is promoting a great deal of progress in hydrometry. ADCP's not only require shorter times to collect data than traditional current meters, but also allow streamflow measurements at sites where the use of conventional meters is either very expensive, unsafe, or simply not possible. Moreover, ADCP's seem to offer a means for collecting flow data with spatial and temporal resolutions that cannot be achieved with traditional current-meters. High-resolution data is essential to characterize the mean flow and turbulence structure of streams, which can in turn lead to a better understanding of the hydrodynamic and transport processes in rivers. However, to properly characterize the mean flow and turbulence intensities of stationary flows in natural turbulent boundary layers, velocities need to be sampled over a long-enough time span. The question then arises, how long should velocities be sampled in the flow field to achieve an adequate temporal resolution? Theoretically, since velocities cannot be sampled over an infinitely long time interval, the error due to finite integration time must be considered. This error can be estimated using the integral time scale. The integral time scale is not only a measure of the time interval over which a fluctuating function is correlated with itself but also a measure of the time span over which the function is dependent on itself. This time scale, however, is not a constant but varies spatially in the flow field. In this paper we present an analysis of the effect of the temporal resolution (sampling time span) on the accuracy of ADCP measurements based on the integral time scale. Single ping velocity profiles collected with frequencies of 1 Hz in the Chicago River at Columbus Drive using an uplooking 600 kHz ADCP are used in this analysis. The integral time scale at different depths is estimated based on the autocorrelation function of the

  4. The Crustal Thickness of Mars: Accuracy and Resolution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, D. E.; Zuber, M. T.

    2002-01-01

    The accuracy of the most recent crustal thickness models of Mars is investigated along with their resolution. Evidence is presented of noise-like features in the maps and spectra that suggest the basic data only represent features down to resolutions of about 300 to 600 km. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  5. The spatial resolution of epidemic peaks.

    PubMed

    Mills, Harriet L; Riley, Steven

    2014-04-01

    The emergence of novel respiratory pathogens can challenge the capacity of key health care resources, such as intensive care units, that are constrained to serve only specific geographical populations. An ability to predict the magnitude and timing of peak incidence at the scale of a single large population would help to accurately assess the value of interventions designed to reduce that peak. However, current disease-dynamic theory does not provide a clear understanding of the relationship between: epidemic trajectories at the scale of interest (e.g. city); population mobility; and higher resolution spatial effects (e.g. transmission within small neighbourhoods). Here, we used a spatially-explicit stochastic meta-population model of arbitrary spatial resolution to determine the effect of resolution on model-derived epidemic trajectories. We simulated an influenza-like pathogen spreading across theoretical and actual population densities and varied our assumptions about mobility using Latin-Hypercube sampling. Even though, by design, cumulative attack rates were the same for all resolutions and mobilities, peak incidences were different. Clear thresholds existed for all tested populations, such that models with resolutions lower than the threshold substantially overestimated population-wide peak incidence. The effect of resolution was most important in populations which were of lower density and lower mobility. With the expectation of accurate spatial incidence datasets in the near future, our objective was to provide a framework for how to use these data correctly in a spatial meta-population model. Our results suggest that there is a fundamental spatial resolution for any pathogen-population pair. If underlying interactions between pathogens and spatially heterogeneous populations are represented at this resolution or higher, accurate predictions of peak incidence for city-scale epidemics are feasible. PMID:24722420

  6. Spatial Classification of Orchards and Vineyards with High Spatial Resolution Panchromatic Imagery

    SciTech Connect

    Warner, Timothy; Steinmaus, Karen L.

    2005-02-01

    New high resolution single spectral band imagery offers the capability to conduct image classifications based on spatial patterns in imagery. A classification algorithm based on autocorrelation patterns was developed to automatically extract orchards and vineyards from satellite imagery. The algorithm was tested on IKONOS imagery over Granger, WA, which resulted in a classification accuracy of 95%.

  7. Full Spatial Resolution Infrared Sounding Application in the Preconvection Environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, C.; Liu, G.; Lin, T.

    2013-12-01

    Advanced infrared (IR) sounders such as the Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) and Infrared Atmospheric Sounding Interferometer (IASI) provide atmospheric temperature and moisture profiles with high vertical resolution and high accuracy in preconvection environments. The derived atmospheric stability indices such as convective available potential energy (CAPE) and lifted index (LI) from advanced IR soundings can provide critical information 1 ; 6 h before the development of severe convective storms. Three convective storms are selected for the evaluation of applying AIRS full spatial resolution soundings and the derived products on providing warning information in the preconvection environments. In the first case, the AIRS full spatial resolution soundings revealed local extremely high atmospheric instability 3 h ahead of the convection on the leading edge of a frontal system, while the second case demonstrates that the extremely high atmospheric instability is associated with the local development of severe thunderstorm in the following hours. The third case is a local severe storm that occurred on 7-8 August 2010 in Zhou Qu, China, which caused more than 1400 deaths and left another 300 or more people missing. The AIRS full spatial resolution LI product shows the atmospheric instability 3.5 h before the storm genesis. The CAPE and LI from AIRS full spatial resolution and operational AIRS/AMSU soundings along with Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES) Sounder derived product image (DPI) products were analyzed and compared. Case studies show that full spatial resolution AIRS retrievals provide more useful warning information in the preconvection environments for determining favorable locations for convective initiation (CI) than do the coarser spatial resolution operational soundings and lower spectral resolution GOES Sounder retrievals. The retrieved soundings are also tested in a regional data assimilation WRF 3D-var system to evaluate the

  8. High Spatial Resolution Thermal Satellite Technologies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ryan, Robert

    2003-01-01

    This document in the form of viewslides, reviews various low-cost alternatives to high spatial resolution thermal satellite technologies. There exists no follow-on to Landsat 7 or ASTER high spatial resolution thermal systems. This document reviews the results of the investigation in to the use of new technologies to create a low-cost useful alternative. Three suggested technologies are examined. 1. Conventional microbolometer pushbroom modes offers potential for low cost Landsat Data Continuity Mission (LDCM) thermal or ASTER capability with at least 60-120 ground sampling distance (GSD). 2. Backscanning could produce MultiSpectral Thermal Imager performance without cooled detectors. 3. Cooled detector could produce hyperspectral thermal class system or extremely high spatial resolution class instrument.

  9. The effect of spatial, spectral and radiometric factors on classification accuracy using thematic mapper data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wrigley, R. C.; Acevedo, W.; Alexander, D.; Buis, J.; Card, D.

    1984-01-01

    An experiment of a factorial design was conducted to test the effects on classification accuracy of land cover types due to the improved spatial, spectral and radiometric characteristics of the Thematic Mapper (TM) in comparison to the Multispectral Scanner (MSS). High altitude aircraft scanner data from the Airborne Thematic Mapper instrument was acquired over central California in August, 1983 and used to simulate Thematic Mapper data as well as all combinations of the three characteristics for eight data sets in all. Results for the training sites (field center pixels) showed better classification accuracies for MSS spatial resolution, TM spectral bands and TM radiometry in order of importance.

  10. A Stable and Conservative Interface Treatment of Arbitrary Spatial Accuracy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carpenter, Mark H.; Nordstrom, Jan; Gottlieb, David

    1998-01-01

    Stable and accurate interface conditions are derived for the linear advection-diffusion equation. The conditions are functionally independent of the spatial order of accuracy and rely only on the form of the discrete operator. We focus on high-order finite-difference operators that satisfy the summation-by-parts (SBP) property. We prove that stability is a natural consequence of the SBP operators used in conjunction with the new boundary conditions. In addition, we show that the interface treatments are conservative. New finite-difference operators of spatial accuracy up to sixth order are constructed: these operators satisfy the SBP property. Finite-difference operators are shown to admit design accuracy (p(sup th)-order global accuracy) when (p - 1)(sup th)-order stencil closures are used near the boundaries if the physical boundary conditions are implemented to at least p(sup th)-order accuracy. Stability and accuracy are demonstrated on the nonlinear Burgers' equation for an twelve-subdomain problem with randomly distributed interfaces.

  11. Bioelasticity imaging:II. Spatial resolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cook, Larry T.; Zhu, Yanning; Hall, Timothy J.; Insana, Michael F.

    2000-04-01

    The large elasticity contrast possible with strain imaging promises new diagnostic information to augment x-ray, MRI, and ultrasound for the detection of tumors in soft tissue. In the past, we described the design of an elastographic system using the Fourier crosstalk concept introduced by Barrett and Gifford. The diagonal of the crosstalk matrix is related to the pre-sampled modulation transfer function (MTF) of the strain image. Another approach to measuring the spatial resolution of an elasticity image employs a linear frequency- modulated (chirp) strain pattern imposed upon a simulated ultrasonic echo field to study the strain modulation over a range of spatial frequencies in the image. In experiments, high contrast inclusions positioned at varying separations were imaged to apply the Rayleigh criterion for resolution measurement. We measured MTF curves that fell to 0.2 at a spatial frequency of 0.5 mm-1 to 1 mm-1 under realistic conditions. The spatial resolution for ultrasonic strain imaging strongly depends on the transducer properties and deformation patterns applied to the object. Experiments with tissue-like phantoms mimicking the properties of early breast cancer show that 2 mm spheres three times stiffer than the background can be readily resolved. Thus, the potential for using elasticity imaging to detect early breast cancers is excellent.

  12. The Crustal Thickness of Mars: Accuracy and Resolution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, David E.; Zuber, Maria T.

    2002-01-01

    Since the arrival of the Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) spacecraft at Mars and its entry into its mapping orbit in February 1999, the radio tracking and altimetry data from the mission have been part of the systematic mapping of the planet and used to develop very precise models of the gravity field and topography of Mars. Until the altimetry function of Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter (MOLA) failed on June 30, 2001, the instrument had acquired close to 700 million measurements of the planet's radius, the majority of which have been used to develop a model of the topography with horizontal resolution of about 500 m and radial accuracy of better than 1 m. Concurrently, Doppler and range tracking of MGS by the Deep Space Network at X-band frequencies, with accuracies of about 50 microns/s and about 5 m respectively, have provided orbital knowledge of MGS to the few meter level and enabled the gravity perturbations of the spacecraft to be used to develop a improved gravity models of Mars. The recent models have horizontal resolutions of about 200 km, or degree 65, when expressed in spherical harmonics, and have accuracies of the order of a few mGals at the poles and about 10 mGals at the equator at the highest resolution.

  13. Polarization imaging with enhanced spatial resolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peinado, A.; Lizana, A.; Iemmi, C.; Campos, J.

    2015-03-01

    We present the design and the experimental implementation of a new imaging set-up, based on Liquid Crystal technology, able to obtain super-resolved polarimetric images of polarimetric samples when the resolution is detector limited. The proposed set-up is a combination of two modules. One of them is an imaging Stokes polarimeter, based on Ferroelectric Liquid Crystal cells, which is used to analyze the polarization spatial distribution of an incident beam. The other module is used to obtain high resolved intensity images of the sample in an optical system whose resolution is mainly limited by the CCD pixel geometry. It contains a calibrated Parallel Aligned Liquid Crystal on Silicon display employed to introduce controlled linear phases. As a result, a set of different low resolved intensity images with sub-pixel displacements are captured by the CCD. By properly combining these images and after applying a deconvolution process, a super-resolved intensity image of the object is obtained. Finally, the combination of the two different optical modules permits to employ super-resolved images during the polarimetric data reduction calculation, leading to a final polarization image with enhanced spatial resolution. The proposed optical set-up performance is implemented and experimentally validated by providing super-resolved images of an amplitude resolution test and a birefringent resolution test. A significant improvement in the spatial resolution (by a factor of 1.4) of the obtained polarimetric images, in comparison with the images obtained with the regular imaging system, is clearly observed when applying our proposed technique.

  14. Combined adjustment of multi-resolution satellite imagery for improved geo-positioning accuracy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Shengjun; Wu, Bo; Zhu, Qing

    2016-04-01

    Due to the widespread availability of satellite imagery nowadays, it is common for regions to be covered by satellite imagery from multiple sources with multiple resolutions. This paper presents a combined adjustment approach to integrate multi-source multi-resolution satellite imagery for improved geo-positioning accuracy without the use of ground control points (GCPs). Instead of using all the rational polynomial coefficients (RPCs) of images for processing, only those dominating the geo-positioning accuracy are used in the combined adjustment. They, together with tie points identified in the images, are used as observations in the adjustment model. Proper weights are determined for each observation, and ridge parameters are determined for better convergence of the adjustment solution. The outputs from the combined adjustment are the improved dominating RPCs of images, from which improved geo-positioning accuracy can be obtained. Experiments using ZY-3, SPOT-7 and Pleiades-1 imagery in Hong Kong, and Cartosat-1 and Worldview-1 imagery in Catalonia, Spain demonstrate that the proposed method is able to effectively improve the geo-positioning accuracy of satellite images. The combined adjustment approach offers an alternative method to improve geo-positioning accuracy of satellite images. The approach enables the integration of multi-source and multi-resolution satellite imagery for generating more precise and consistent 3D spatial information, which permits the comparative and synergistic use of multi-resolution satellite images from multiple sources.

  15. The Effects of Spatial Resolution on the Maize acreage estimation by Remote Sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huanxue, Zhang; Qiangzi, Li; Miao, Zhang

    2014-03-01

    Crop acreage estimation is essential to forecast crop production using remote sensing. The different spatial resolution of remotely sensed data directly affects the accuracy of crop acreage estimation. It is necessary and valuable to study the effect of resolution on crop acreage estimation, from both qualitative and quantitative points of view. Therefore, this paper analysed the resolution effect on the accuracy of acreage estimation by using CBERS-02B imagery. Spatial statistics methods and manifold accuracy evaluation indices were used respectively to analyse the data with different spatial resolutions and crop proportion statistics. The study results indicate that decreased spatial resolution will lead to reduced regional accuracy in addition to increased standard deviation, RMSE and bias due to the augmentation of mixed pixels. A replacement of higher resolution data by lower resolution data will have an important impact on the derived crop proportions. The regional accuracy of crop statistics can remain higher than 88%, when the crop proportion is higher than 40%. In summary, the higher resolution of the imagery can lead to increased average regional accuracy. The results of this paper also provide academic and experimental reference to resolve the problem of data selection in crop acreage estimation by remote sensing.

  16. Proceedings of the 2004 High Spatial Resolution Commercial Imagery Workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    Topics covered include: NASA Applied Sciences Program; USGS Land Remote Sensing: Overview; QuickBird System Status and Product Overview; ORBIMAGE Overview; IKONOS 2004 Calibration and Validation Status; OrbView-3 Spatial Characterization; On-Orbit Modulation Transfer Function (MTF) Measurement of QuickBird; Spatial Resolution Characterization for QuickBird Image Products 2003-2004 Season; Image Quality Evaluation of QuickBird Super Resolution and Revisit of IKONOS: Civil and Commercial Application Project (CCAP); On-Orbit System MTF Measurement; QuickBird Post Launch Geopositional Characterization Update; OrbView-3 Geometric Calibration and Geopositional Accuracy; Geopositional Statistical Methods; QuickBird and OrbView-3 Geopositional Accuracy Assessment; Initial On-Orbit Spatial Resolution Characterization of OrbView-3 Panchromatic Images; Laboratory Measurement of Bidirectional Reflectance of Radiometric Tarps; Stennis Space Center Verification and Validation Capabilities; Joint Agency Commercial Imagery Evaluation (JACIE) Team; Adjacency Effects in High Resolution Imagery; Effect of Pulse Width vs. GSD on MTF Estimation; Camera and Sensor Calibration at the USGS; QuickBird Geometric Verification; Comparison of MODTRAN to Heritage-based Results in Vicarious Calibration at University of Arizona; Using Remotely Sensed Imagery to Determine Impervious Surface in Sioux Falls, South Dakota; Estimating Sub-Pixel Proportions of Sagebrush with a Regression Tree; How Do YOU Use the National Land Cover Dataset?; The National Map Hazards Data Distribution System; Recording a Troubled World; What Does This-Have to Do with This?; When Can a Picture Save a Thousand Homes?; InSAR Studies of Alaska Volcanoes; Earth Observing-1 (EO-1) Data Products; Improving Access to the USGS Aerial Film Collections: High Resolution Scanners; Improving Access to the USGS Aerial Film Collections: Phoenix Digitizing System Product Distribution; System and Product Characterization: Issues Approach

  17. Incorporating the effect of DEM resolution and accuracy for improved flood inundation mapping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saksena, Siddharth; Merwade, Venkatesh

    2015-11-01

    Topography plays a major role in determining the accuracy of flood inundation areas. However, many areas in the United States and around the world do not have access to high quality topographic data in the form of Digital Elevation Models (DEM). For such areas, an improved understanding of the effects of DEM properties such as horizontal resolution and vertical accuracy on flood inundation maps may eventually lead to improved flood inundation modeling and mapping. This study attempts to relate the errors arising from DEM properties such as spatial resolution and vertical accuracy to flood inundation maps, and then use this relationship to create improved flood inundation maps from coarser resolution DEMs with low accuracy. The results from the five stream reaches used in this study show that water surface elevations (WSE) along the stream and the flood inundation area have a linear relationship with both DEM resolution and accuracy. This linear relationship is then used to extrapolate the water surface elevations from coarser resolution DEMs to get water surface elevations corresponding to a finer resolution DEM. Application of this approach show that improved results can be obtained from flood modeling by using coarser and less accurate DEMs, including public domain datasets such as the National Elevation Dataset and Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) DEMs. The improvement in the WSE and its application to obtain better flood inundation maps is dependent on the study reach characteristics such as land use, valley shape, reach length and width. Application of the approach presented in this study on more reaches may lead to development of guidelines for flood inundation mapping using coarser resolution and less accurate topographic datasets.

  18. Accuracy Enhancement of Inertial Sensors Utilizing High Resolution Spectral Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Noureldin, Aboelmagd; Armstrong, Justin; El-Shafie, Ahmed; Karamat, Tashfeen; McGaughey, Don; Korenberg, Michael; Hussain, Aini

    2012-01-01

    In both military and civilian applications, the inertial navigation system (INS) and the global positioning system (GPS) are two complementary technologies that can be integrated to provide reliable positioning and navigation information for land vehicles. The accuracy enhancement of INS sensors and the integration of INS with GPS are the subjects of widespread research. Wavelet de-noising of INS sensors has had limited success in removing the long-term (low-frequency) inertial sensor errors. The primary objective of this research is to develop a novel inertial sensor accuracy enhancement technique that can remove both short-term and long-term error components from inertial sensor measurements prior to INS mechanization and INS/GPS integration. A high resolution spectral analysis technique called the fast orthogonal search (FOS) algorithm is used to accurately model the low frequency range of the spectrum, which includes the vehicle motion dynamics and inertial sensor errors. FOS models the spectral components with the most energy first and uses an adaptive threshold to stop adding frequency terms when fitting a term does not reduce the mean squared error more than fitting white noise. The proposed method was developed, tested and validated through road test experiments involving both low-end tactical grade and low cost MEMS-based inertial systems. The results demonstrate that in most cases the position accuracy during GPS outages using FOS de-noised data is superior to the position accuracy using wavelet de-noising.

  19. Spatial augmented reality based high accuracy human face projection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Dong; Xie, Jinghui; Li, Yufeng; Weng, Dongdong; Liu, Yue

    2015-08-01

    This paper discusses the imaging principles and the technical difficulties of spatial augmented reality based human face projection. A novel geometry correction method is proposed to realize fast, high-accuracy face model projection. Using a depth camera to reconstruct the projected object, the relative position from the rendered model to the projector can be accessed and the initial projection image is generated. Then the projected image is distorted by using Bezier interpolation to guarantee that the projected texture matches with the object surface. The proposed method is under a simple process flow and can achieve high perception registration of virtual and real object. In addition, this method has a good performance in the condition that the reconstructed model is not exactly same with the rendered virtual model which extends its application area in the spatial augmented reality based human face projection.

  20. High Spatial Resolution Commercial Satellite Imaging Product Characterization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ryan, Robert E.; Pagnutti, Mary; Blonski, Slawomir; Ross, Kenton W.; Stnaley, Thomas

    2005-01-01

    NASA Stennis Space Center's Remote Sensing group has been characterizing privately owned high spatial resolution multispectral imaging systems, such as IKONOS, QuickBird, and OrbView-3. Natural and man made targets were used for spatial resolution, radiometric, and geopositional characterizations. Higher spatial resolution also presents significant adjacency effects for accurate reliable radiometry.

  1. Automated electrostatic probe device of high resolution and accuracy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aleiferis, S.; Svarnas, P.

    2014-12-01

    In this work, an automated apparatus for driving single electrostatic probes and acquiring the plasma-related data has been designed and fabricated. The voltage range of the present system is ±110 V with an adjustable voltage step as low as 3 mV. Voltage and current measurements are carried out with high resolution and high accuracy circuits, both based on 16 bit analog-to-digital converters. The code embedded in a micro-controller, schedules the operation of the device and transfers the experimental data to a personal computer. The modular design of the system makes possible its modification and thus increases its adaptability to different plasma setups. Finally, the reliable operation of the entire device is confirmed by tests in Electron Cyclotron Resonance plasma.

  2. Automated electrostatic probe device of high resolution and accuracy

    SciTech Connect

    Aleiferis, S.

    2014-12-15

    In this work, an automated apparatus for driving single electrostatic probes and acquiring the plasma-related data has been designed and fabricated. The voltage range of the present system is ±110 V with an adjustable voltage step as low as 3 mV. Voltage and current measurements are carried out with high resolution and high accuracy circuits, both based on 16 bit analog-to-digital converters. The code embedded in a micro-controller, schedules the operation of the device and transfers the experimental data to a personal computer. The modular design of the system makes possible its modification and thus increases its adaptability to different plasma setups. Finally, the reliable operation of the entire device is confirmed by tests in Electron Cyclotron Resonance plasma.

  3. MAPPING SPATIAL ACCURACY AND ESTIMATING LANDSCAPE INDICATORS FROM THEMATIC LAND COVER MAPS USING FUZZY SET THEORY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The accuracy of thematic map products is not spatially homogenous, but instead variable across most landscapes. Properly analyzing and representing the spatial distribution (pattern) of thematic map accuracy would provide valuable user information for assessing appropriate applic...

  4. Spatial resolution effect of light coupling structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Juntao; Li, Kezheng; Schuster, Christian; Su, Rongbin; Wang, Xuehua; Borges, Ben-Hur V.; Krauss, Thomas F.; Martins, Emiliano R.

    2015-12-01

    The coupling of light between free space and thin film semiconductors is an essential requirement of modern optoelectronic technology. For monochromatic and single mode devices, high performance grating couplers have been developed that are well understood. For broadband and multimode devices, however, more complex structures, here referred to as “coupling surfaces”, are required, which are often difficult to realise technologically. We identify general design rules based on the Fourier properties of the coupling surface and show how they can be used to determine the spatial resolution required for the coupler’s fabrication. To our knowledge, this question has not been previously addressed, but it is important for the understanding of diffractive nanostructures and their technological realisation. We exemplify our insights with solar cells and UV photodetectors, where high-performance nanostructures that can be realised cost-effectively are essential.

  5. Positron Emission Tomography with improved spatial resolution

    SciTech Connect

    Drukier, A.K.

    1990-04-01

    Applied Research Corporation (ARC) proposed the development of a new class of solid state detectors called Superconducting Granular Detectors (SGD). These new detectors permit considerable improvements in medical imaging, e.g. Positron Emission Tomography (PET). The biggest impact of this technique will be in imaging of the brain. It should permit better clinical diagnosis of such important diseases as Altzheimer's or schizophrenia. More specifically, we will develop an improved PET-imager; a spatial resolution 2 mm may be achievable with SGD. A time-of-flight capability(t {approx} 100 psec) will permit better contrast and facilitate 3D imaging. In the following, we describe the results of the first 9 months of the development.

  6. Spatial resolution effect of light coupling structures

    PubMed Central

    Li, Juntao; Li, Kezheng; Schuster, Christian; Su, Rongbin; Wang, Xuehua; Borges, Ben-Hur V.; Krauss, Thomas F.; Martins, Emiliano R.

    2015-01-01

    The coupling of light between free space and thin film semiconductors is an essential requirement of modern optoelectronic technology. For monochromatic and single mode devices, high performance grating couplers have been developed that are well understood. For broadband and multimode devices, however, more complex structures, here referred to as “coupling surfaces”, are required, which are often difficult to realise technologically. We identify general design rules based on the Fourier properties of the coupling surface and show how they can be used to determine the spatial resolution required for the coupler’s fabrication. To our knowledge, this question has not been previously addressed, but it is important for the understanding of diffractive nanostructures and their technological realisation. We exemplify our insights with solar cells and UV photodetectors, where high-performance nanostructures that can be realised cost-effectively are essential. PMID:26678574

  7. Mapping Land Cover and Land Use Changes in the Congo Basin Forests with Optical Satellite Remote Sensing: a Pilot Project Exploring Methodologies that Improve Spatial Resolution and Map Accuracy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Molinario, G.; Baraldi, A.; Altstatt, A. L.; Nackoney, J.

    2011-12-01

    The University of Maryland has been a USAID Central Africa Rregional Program for the Environment (CARPE) cross-cutting partner for many years, providing remote sensing derived information on forest cover and forest cover changes in support of CARPE's objectives of diminishing forest degradation, loss and biodiversity loss as a result of poor or inexistent land use planning strategies. Together with South Dakota State University, Congo Basin-wide maps have been provided that map forest cover loss at a maximum of 60m resolution, using Landsat imagery and higher resolution imagery for algorithm training and validation. However, to better meet the needs within the CARPE Landscapes, which call for higher resolution, more accurate land cover change maps, UMD has been exploring the use of the SIAM automatic spectral -rule classifier together with pan-sharpened Landsat data (15m resolution) and Very High Resolution imagery from various sources. The pilot project is being developed in collaboration with the African Wildlife Foundation in the Maringa Lopori Wamba CARPE Landscape. If successful in the future this methodology will make the creation of high resolution change maps faster and easier, making it accessible to other entities in the Congo Basin that need accurate land cover and land use change maps in order, for example, to create sustainable land use plans, conserve biodiversity and resources and prepare Reducing Emissions from forest Degradation and Deforestation (REDD) Measurement, Reporting and Verification (MRV) projects. The paper describes the need for higher resolution land cover change maps that focus on forest change dynamics such as the cycling between primary forests, secondary forest, agriculture and other expanding and intensifying land uses in the Maringa Lopori Wamba CARPE Landscape in the Equateur Province of the Democratic Republic of Congo. The Methodology uses the SIAM remote sensing imagery automatic spectral rule classifier, together with pan

  8. High Spatial Resolution Spectroscopy of Semiconductor Nanostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harris, Timothy D.; Gershoni, David; Pfeiffer, Loren N.

    1996-03-01

    Several recent reports employing high spatial resolution have revealed the dominance of exciton localization in the low temperature luminescence of semiconductor quantum structures.^[1-3] Understanding this localization is of critical importance for the reliable studies of low dimensional structures such as quantum wells, quantum wires and quantum dots. We report on low temperature and high spatial resolution photoluminescence and photoluminescence excitation studies of cleaved edge overgrown (CEO) single quantum wires. These samples permit the direct and unambiguous comparison between the optical properties of a (100) oriented quantum well, a (110) oriented quantum well, and the quantum wire which is formed at their intersection. Using low temperature near field optical spectroscopy, and a novel diffraction limited far field apparatus, we determine the carrier diffusion length dependence on pump wavelength and sample temperature in both the 2d systems and the genuinely 1D wire system. We also measure the absorption strength of the 1D system and find it to be a factor of 3 stronger than the absorption of the associated 2D systems.^[2] Using low temperature near field optical spectroscopy, and a novel diffraction limited far field apparatus, we also determine the carrier diffusion length dependence on pump wavelength and sample temperature. ^[1] H. F. Hess, E. Betzig, T. D. Harris, L. N. Pfeiffer, and K. W. West, Science 264, 1740 (1994). ^[2] T. D. Harris, D. Gershoni, R. D. Grober, L. Pfeiffer, K. West, and N. Chand, Appl. Phys. Lett, in press (1996) ^[3] D. Gammon, E. S. Snow, and D. S. Katzer, Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 2391 (1995)

  9. Resolution and quantitative accuracy improvements in ultrasound transmission imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chenevert, T. L.

    The type of ultrasound transmission imaging, referred to as ultrasonic computed tomography (UCT), reconstructs distributions of tissue speed of sound and sound attenuation properties from measurements of acoustic pulse time of flight (TCF) and energy received through tissue. Although clinical studies with experimental UCT scanners have demonstrated UCT is sensitive to certain tissue pathologies not easily detected with conventional ultrasound imaging, they have also shown UCT to suffer from artifacts due to physical differences between the acoustic beam and its ray model implicit in image reconstruction algorithms. Artifacts are expressed as large quantitative errors in attenuation images, and poor spatial resolution and size distortion (exaggerated size of high speed of sound regions) in speed of sound images. Methods are introduced and investigated which alleviate these problems in UCT imaging by providing improved measurements of pulse TCF and energy.

  10. Atmospheric Correction Prototype Algorithm for High Spatial Resolution Multispectral Earth Observing Imaging Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pagnutti, Mary

    2006-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews the creation of a prototype algorithm for atmospheric correction using high spatial resolution earth observing imaging systems. The objective of the work was to evaluate accuracy of a prototype algorithm that uses satellite-derived atmospheric products to generate scene reflectance maps for high spatial resolution (HSR) systems. This presentation focused on preliminary results of only the satellite-based atmospheric correction algorithm.

  11. Using remote sensing products to classify landscape. A multi-spatial resolution approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    García-Llamas, Paula; Calvo, Leonor; Álvarez-Martínez, José Manuel; Suárez-Seoane, Susana

    2016-08-01

    The European Landscape Convention encourages the inventory and characterization of landscapes for environmental management and planning actions. Among the range of data sources available for landscape classification, remote sensing has substantial applicability, although difficulties might arise when available data are not at the spatial resolution of operational interest. We evaluated the applicability of two remote sensing products informing on land cover (the categorical CORINE map at 30 m resolution and the continuous NDVI spectral index at 1 km resolution) in landscape classification across a range of spatial resolutions (30 m, 90 m, 180 m, 1 km), using the Cantabrian Mountains (NW Spain) as study case. Separate landscape classifications (using topography, urban influence and land cover as inputs) were accomplished, one per each land cover dataset and spatial resolution. Classification accuracy was estimated through confusion matrixes and uncertainty in terms of both membership probability and confusion indices. Regarding landscape classifications based on CORINE, both typology and number of landscape classes varied across spatial resolutions. Classification accuracy increased from 30 m (the original resolution of CORINE) to 90m, decreasing towards coarser resolutions. Uncertainty followed the opposite pattern. In the case of landscape classifications based on NDVI, the identified landscape patterns were geographically structured and showed little sensitivity to changes across spatial resolutions. Only the change from 1 km (the original resolution of NDVI) to 180 m improved classification accuracy. The value of confusion indices increased with resolution. We highlight the need for greater effort in selecting data sources at the suitable spatial resolution, matching regional peculiarities and minimizing error and uncertainty.

  12. Improving spatial updating accuracy in absence of external feedback.

    PubMed

    Mackrous, I; Simoneau, M

    2015-08-01

    Updating the position of an earth-fixed target during whole-body rotation seems to rely on cognitive processes such as the utilization of external feedback. According to perceptual learning models, improvement in performance can also occur without external feedback. The aim of this study was to assess spatial updating improvement in the absence and in the presence of external feedback. While being rotated counterclockwise (CCW), participants had to predict when their body midline had crossed the position of a memorized target. Four experimental conditions were tested: (1) Pre-test: the target was presented 30° in the CCW direction from participant's midline. (2) Practice: the target was located 45° in the CCW direction from participant's midline. One group received external feedback about their spatial accuracy (Mackrous and Simoneau, 2014) while the other group did not. (3) Transfer T(30)CCW: the target was presented 30° in the CCW direction to evaluate whether improvement in performance, during practice, generalized to other target eccentricity. (4) Transfer T(30)CW: the target was presented 30° in the clockwise (CW) direction and participants were rotated CW. This transfer condition evaluated whether improvement in performance generalized to the untrained rotation direction. With practice, performance improved in the absence of external feedback (p=0.004). Nonetheless, larger improvement occurred when external feedback was provided (ps=0.002). During T(30)CCW, performance remained better for the feedback than the no-feedback group (p=0.005). However, no group difference was observed for the untrained direction (p=0.22). We demonstrated that spatial updating improved without external feedback but less than when external feedback was given. These observations are explained by a mixture of calibration processes and supervised vestibular learning. PMID:25987200

  13. Effects of spatial resolution ratio in image fusion

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ling, Y.; Ehlers, M.; Usery, E.L.; Madden, M.

    2008-01-01

    In image fusion, the spatial resolution ratio can be defined as the ratio between the spatial resolution of the high-resolution panchromatic image and that of the low-resolution multispectral image. This paper attempts to assess the effects of the spatial resolution ratio of the input images on the quality of the fused image. Experimental results indicate that a spatial resolution ratio of 1:10 or higher is desired for optimal multisensor image fusion provided the input panchromatic image is not downsampled to a coarser resolution. Due to the synthetic pixels generated from resampling, the quality of the fused image decreases as the spatial resolution ratio decreases (e.g. from 1:10 to 1:30). However, even with a spatial resolution ratio as small as 1:30, the quality of the fused image is still better than the original multispectral image alone for feature interpretation. In cases where the spatial resolution ratio is too small (e.g. 1:30), to obtain better spectral integrity of the fused image, one may downsample the input high-resolution panchromatic image to a slightly lower resolution before fusing it with the multispectral image.

  14. Enhanced spatial resolution on figures versus grounds.

    PubMed

    Hecht, Lauren N; Cosman, Joshua D; Vecera, Shaun P

    2016-07-01

    Much is known about the cues that determine figure-ground assignment, but less is known about the consequences of figure-ground assignment on later visual processing. Previous work has demonstrated that regions assigned figural status are subjectively more shape-like and salient than background regions. The increase in subjective salience of figural regions could be caused by a number of processes, one of which may be enhanced perceptual processing (e.g., an enhanced neural representation) of figures relative to grounds. We explored this hypothesis by having observers perform a perceptually demanding spatial resolution task in which targets appeared on either figure or ground regions. To rule out a purely attentional account of figural salience, observers discriminated targets on the basis of a region's color (red or green), which was equally likely to define the figure or the ground. The results of our experiments showed that targets appearing on figures were discriminated more accurately than those appearing in ground regions. In addition, targets appearing on figures were discriminated better than those presented in regions considered figurally neutral, but targets appearing within ground regions were discriminated more poorly than those appearing in figurally neutral regions. Taken together, our findings suggest that when two regions share a contour, regions assigned as figure are perceptually enhanced, whereas regions assigned as ground are perceptually suppressed. PMID:27048441

  15. Analysis of the impact of spatial resolution on land/water classifications using high-resolution aerial imagery

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Enwright, Nicholas M.; Jones, William R.; Garber, Adrienne L.; Keller, Matthew J.

    2014-01-01

    Long-term monitoring efforts often use remote sensing to track trends in habitat or landscape conditions over time. To most appropriately compare observations over time, long-term monitoring efforts strive for consistency in methods. Thus, advances and changes in technology over time can present a challenge. For instance, modern camera technology has led to an increasing availability of very high-resolution imagery (i.e. submetre and metre) and a shift from analogue to digital photography. While numerous studies have shown that image resolution can impact the accuracy of classifications, most of these studies have focused on the impacts of comparing spatial resolution changes greater than 2 m. Thus, a knowledge gap exists on the impacts of minor changes in spatial resolution (i.e. submetre to about 1.5 m) in very high-resolution aerial imagery (i.e. 2 m resolution or less). This study compared the impact of spatial resolution on land/water classifications of an area dominated by coastal marsh vegetation in Louisiana, USA, using 1:12,000 scale colour-infrared analogue aerial photography (AAP) scanned at four different dot-per-inch resolutions simulating ground sample distances (GSDs) of 0.33, 0.54, 1, and 2 m. Analysis of the impact of spatial resolution on land/water classifications was conducted by exploring various spatial aspects of the classifications including density of waterbodies and frequency distributions in waterbody sizes. This study found that a small-magnitude change (1–1.5 m) in spatial resolution had little to no impact on the amount of water classified (i.e. percentage mapped was less than 1.5%), but had a significant impact on the mapping of very small waterbodies (i.e. waterbodies ≤ 250 m2). These findings should interest those using temporal image classifications derived from very high-resolution aerial photography as a component of long-term monitoring programs.

  16. Strategy to attain high spatial accuracy in Forest Cover Classification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gupta, R. K.; Vijayan, D.; Prasad, T. S.

    Forest cover and its type have primary role in the processes associated with land and global change Not only the area statistics for the different type of forest covers but also the correctness of their spatial distribution matching of classified output with GIS overlay are important for process studies As maximum likelihood ML is widely practiced classification algorithm for extracting thematic information from satellite images critical evaluation was undertaken using IRS LISS-III image of Antilova tropical moist deciduous forest bounded by 17 r 50 to 17 r 56 N in latitude and 81 r 45 to 81 r 54 E in longitude for which 100 ground information in the from of GIS overlay was available GIS overlay has 9 thematic classes i e 27 13 dense DF 25 60 Semi-evergreen SE 29 38 mixed MF 0 25 bamboo BA 5 70 teak TK forests 5 88 grassland GL 4 83 podu blank PO 1 21 Settlements SET and water 0 026 WA ML classifier in general starts with equal a priori probability for all the classes method a Availability of information on cover under each thematic class enables assigning of a priori probability to each thematic class method b Method b always gave better results as compared to method a With the goal to improve classification accuracy CA the GL and MF classes that had high standard deviation of 10 29 and 11 29 in NIR band were divided into subclasses Inclusion of sub-classes in GR improved the area statistics and spatial

  17. IMPROVING THE ACCURACY OF HISTORIC SATELLITE IMAGE CLASSIFICATION BY COMBINING LOW-RESOLUTION MULTISPECTRAL DATA WITH HIGH-RESOLUTION PANCHROMATIC DATA

    SciTech Connect

    Getman, Daniel J

    2008-01-01

    Many attempts to observe changes in terrestrial systems over time would be significantly enhanced if it were possible to improve the accuracy of classifications of low-resolution historic satellite data. In an effort to examine improving the accuracy of historic satellite image classification by combining satellite and air photo data, two experiments were undertaken in which low-resolution multispectral data and high-resolution panchromatic data were combined and then classified using the ECHO spectral-spatial image classification algorithm and the Maximum Likelihood technique. The multispectral data consisted of 6 multispectral channels (30-meter pixel resolution) from Landsat 7. These data were augmented with panchromatic data (15m pixel resolution) from Landsat 7 in the first experiment, and with a mosaic of digital aerial photography (1m pixel resolution) in the second. The addition of the Landsat 7 panchromatic data provided a significant improvement in the accuracy of classifications made using the ECHO algorithm. Although the inclusion of aerial photography provided an improvement in accuracy, this improvement was only statistically significant at a 40-60% level. These results suggest that once error levels associated with combining aerial photography and multispectral satellite data are reduced, this approach has the potential to significantly enhance the precision and accuracy of classifications made using historic remotely sensed data, as a way to extend the time range of efforts to track temporal changes in terrestrial systems.

  18. Simulation-based evaluation of the resolution and quantitative accuracy of temperature-modulated fluorescence tomography

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Yuting; Nouizi, Farouk; Kwong, Tiffany C.; Gulsen, Gultekin

    2016-01-01

    Conventional fluorescence tomography (FT) can recover the distribution of fluorescent agents within a highly scattering medium. However, poor spatial resolution remains its foremost limitation. Previously, we introduced a new fluorescence imaging technique termed “temperature-modulated fluorescence tomography” (TM-FT), which provides high-resolution images of fluorophore distribution. TM-FT is a multimodality technique that combines fluorescence imaging with focused ultrasound to locate thermo-sensitive fluorescence probes using a priori spatial information to drastically improve the resolution of conventional FT. In this paper, we present an extensive simulation study to evaluate the performance of the TM-FT technique on complex phantoms with multiple fluorescent targets of various sizes located at different depths. In addition, the performance of the TM-FT is tested in the presence of background fluorescence. The results obtained using our new method are systematically compared with those obtained with the conventional FT. Overall, TM-FT provides higher resolution and superior quantitative accuracy, making it an ideal candidate for in vivo preclinical and clinical imaging. For example, a 4 mm diameter inclusion positioned in the middle of a synthetic slab geometry phantom (D:40 mm × W :100 mm) is recovered as an elongated object in the conventional FT (x = 4.5 mm; y = 10.4 mm), while TM-FT recovers it successfully in both directions (x = 3.8 mm; y = 4.6 mm). As a result, the quantitative accuracy of the TM-FT is superior because it recovers the concentration of the agent with a 22% error, which is in contrast with the 83% error of the conventional FT. PMID:26368884

  19. Automated Verification of Spatial Resolution in Remotely Sensed Imagery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, Bruce; Ryan, Robert; Holekamp, Kara; Vaughn, Ronald

    2011-01-01

    Image spatial resolution characteristics can vary widely among sources. In the case of aerial-based imaging systems, the image spatial resolution characteristics can even vary between acquisitions. In these systems, aircraft altitude, speed, and sensor look angle all affect image spatial resolution. Image spatial resolution needs to be verified with estimators that include the ground sample distance (GSD), the modulation transfer function (MTF), and the relative edge response (RER), all of which are key components of image quality, along with signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and dynamic range. Knowledge of spatial resolution parameters is important to determine if features of interest are distinguishable in imagery or associated products, and to develop image restoration algorithms. An automated Spatial Resolution Verification Tool (SRVT) was developed to rapidly determine the spatial resolution characteristics of remotely sensed aerial and satellite imagery. Most current methods for assessing spatial resolution characteristics of imagery rely on pre-deployed engineered targets and are performed only at selected times within preselected scenes. The SRVT addresses these insufficiencies by finding uniform, high-contrast edges from urban scenes and then using these edges to determine standard estimators of spatial resolution, such as the MTF and the RER. The SRVT was developed using the MATLAB programming language and environment. This automated software algorithm assesses every image in an acquired data set, using edges found within each image, and in many cases eliminating the need for dedicated edge targets. The SRVT automatically identifies high-contrast, uniform edges and calculates the MTF and RER of each image, and when possible, within sections of an image, so that the variation of spatial resolution characteristics across the image can be analyzed. The automated algorithm is capable of quickly verifying the spatial resolution quality of all images within a data

  20. Systematic Neighborhood Observations at High Spatial Resolution: Methodology and Assessment of Potential Benefits

    PubMed Central

    Leonard, Tammy C. M.; Caughy, Margaret O'Brien; Mays, Judith K.; Murdoch, James C.

    2011-01-01

    There is a growing body of public health research documenting how characteristics of neighborhoods are associated with differences in the health status of residents. However, little is known about how the spatial resolution of neighborhood observational data or community audits affects the identification of neighborhood differences in health. We developed a systematic neighborhood observation instrument for collecting data at very high spatial resolution (we observe each parcel independently) and used it to collect data in a low-income minority neighborhood in Dallas, TX. In addition, we collected data on the health status of individuals residing in this neighborhood. We then assessed the inter-rater reliability of the instrument and compared the costs and benefits of using data at this high spatial resolution. Our instrument provides a reliable and cost-effect method for collecting neighborhood observational data at high spatial resolution, which then allows researchers to explore the impact of varying geographic aggregations. Furthermore, these data facilitate a demonstration of the predictive accuracy of self-reported health status. We find that ordered logit models of health status using observational data at different spatial resolution produce different results. This implies a need to analyze the variation in correlative relationships at different geographic resolutions when there is no solid theoretical rational for choosing a particular resolution. We argue that neighborhood data at high spatial resolution greatly facilitates the evaluation of alternative geographic specifications in studies of neighborhood and health. PMID:21673983

  1. Study of the spatial resolution for binary readout detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yonamine, R.; Maerschalk, T.; Lentdecker, G. De

    2016-07-01

    Often the binary readout is proposed for high granularity detectors to reduce the generated data volume to be readout at the price of a somewhat reduced spatial resolution compared to an analogue readout. We have been studying single hit resolutions obtained with a binary readout using simulations as well as analytical approaches. In this note we show that the detector geometry could be optimized to offer an equivalent spatial resolution than with an analogue readout.

  2. Inverse Kriging to Enhance Spatial Resolution of Imagery

    SciTech Connect

    Petrie, Gregg M. ); Heasler, Patrick G. ); Perry, Eileen M. ); Thompson, Sandra E. ); Daly, Don S. )

    2002-12-15

    We describe a unique approach to image resolution enhancement, inverse kriging (IK), which takes advantage of the spatial relationship between high- and low-resolution images within an area of overlap. Once established, this mathematical relationship then can be applied across the entire low-resolution image to significantly sharpen the image. The mathematical relationship uses the spatial correlations within the low-resolution image and between the low and high spatial-resolution imagery. Two of the most important requirements of the technique are that the images be co-registered well within the resolution of the larger pixels and that the spatial structure of the training area (where the spatial correlation statistics are compared) is similar to the structure of the remaining image area where it will be applied. Testing was performed using same-sensor and multi-sensor imagery. We show results that indicate that the method does improve the low spatial-resolution imagery. The selection of a training area spatial structure similar to the area being processed is important, as areas with different spatial structure (e.g., vegetation versus buildings and roads) will produce poor results. Comparisons with bilinear interpolation demonstrate that IK could be used as an improved interpolation tool, for example, in the image-registration process.

  3. Solar system events at high spatial resolution

    SciTech Connect

    Baines, K H; Gavel, D T; Getz, A M; Gibbartd, S G; MacIntosh, B; Max, C E; McKay, C P; Young, E F; de Pater, I

    1999-02-19

    Until relatively recent advances in technology, astronomical observations from the ground were limited in image resolution by the blurring effects of earth's atmosphere. The blur extent, ranging typically from 0.5 to 2 seconds of arc at the best astronomical sights, precluded ground-based observations of the details of the solar system's moons, asteroids, and outermost planets. With the maturing of a high resolution image processing technique called speckle imaging the resolution limitation of the atmosphere can now be largely overcome. Over the past three years they have used speckle imaging to observe Titan, a moon of Saturn with an atmospheric density comparable to Earth's, Io, the volcanically active innermost moon of Jupiter, and Neptune, a gas giant outer planet which has continually changing planet-encircling storms. These observations were made at the world's largest telescope, the Keck telescope in Hawaii and represent the highest resolution infrared images of these objects ever taken.

  4. Strain mapping accuracy improvement using super-resolution techniques.

    PubMed

    Bárcena-González, G; Guerrero-Lebrero, M P; Guerrero, E; Fernández-Reyes, D; González, D; Mayoral, A; Utrilla, A D; Ulloa, J M; Galindo, P L

    2016-04-01

    Super-resolution (SR) software-based techniques aim at generating a final image by combining several noisy frames with lower resolution from the same scene. A comparative study on high-resolution high-angle annular dark field images of InAs/GaAs QDs has been carried out in order to evaluate the performance of the SR technique. The obtained SR images present enhanced resolution and higher signal-to-noise (SNR) ratio and sharpness regarding the experimental images. In addition, SR is also applied in the field of strain analysis using digital image processing applications such as geometrical phase analysis and peak pairs analysis. The precision of the strain mappings can be improved when SR methodologies are applied to experimental images. PMID:26501744

  5. The influence of multispectral scanner spatial resolution on forest feature classification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sadowski, F. G.; Malila, W. A.; Sarno, J. E.; Nalepka, R. F.

    1977-01-01

    Inappropriate spatial resolution and corresponding data processing techniques may be major causes for non-optimal forest classification results frequently achieved from multispectral scanner (MSS) data. Procedures and results of empirical investigations are studied to determine the influence of MSS spatial resolution on the classification of forest features into levels of detail or hierarchies of information that might be appropriate for nationwide forest surveys and detailed in-place inventories. Two somewhat different, but related studies are presented. The first consisted of establishing classification accuracies for several hierarchies of features as spatial resolution was progressively coarsened from (2 meters) squared to (64 meters) squared. The second investigated the capabilities for specialized processing techniques to improve upon the results of conventional processing procedures for both coarse and fine resolution data.

  6. MAPPING SPATIAL ACCURACY AND ESTIMATING LANDSCAPE INDICATORS FROM THEMATIC LAND COVER MAPS USING FUZZY SET THEORY

    EPA Science Inventory

    This paper presents a fuzzy set-based method of mapping spatial accuracy of thematic map and computing several ecological indicators while taking into account spatial variation of accuracy associated with different land cover types and other factors (e.g., slope, soil type, etc.)...

  7. Pixels, Blocks of Pixels, and Polygons: Choosing a Spatial Unit for Thematic Accuracy Assessment

    EPA Science Inventory

    Pixels, polygons, and blocks of pixels are all potentially viable spatial assessment units for conducting an accuracy assessment. We develop a statistical population-based framework to examine how the spatial unit chosen affects the outcome of an accuracy assessment. The populati...

  8. Results of the spatial resolution simulation for multispectral data (resolution brochures)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    The variable information content of Earth Resource products at different levels of spatial resolution and in different spectral bands is addressed. A low-cost brochure that scientists and laymen could use to visualize the effects of increasing the spatial resolution of multispectral scanner images was produced.

  9. Radiometric and Spatial Characterization of High-Spatial Resolution Sensors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thome, Kurtis; Zanoni, Vicki (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The development and improvement of commercial hyperspatial sensors in recent years has increased the breadth of information that can be retrieved from spaceborne and airborne imagery. NASA, through it's Scientific Data Purchases, has successfully provided such data sets to its user community. A key element to the usefulness of these data are an understanding of the radiometric and spatial response quality of the imagery. This proposal seeks funding to examine the absolute radiometric calibration of the Ikonos sensor operated by Space Imaging and the recently-launched Quickbird sensor from DigitalGlobe. In addition, we propose to evaluate the spatial response of the two sensors. The proposed methods rely on well-understood, ground-based targets that have been used by the University of Arizona for more than a decade.

  10. ASSESSING THE ACCURACY OF NATIONAL LAND COVER DATASET AREA ESTIMATES AT MULTIPLE SPATIAL EXTENTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Site specific accuracy assessments provide fine-scale evaluation of the thematic accuracy of land use/land cover (LULC) datasets; however, they provide little insight into LULC accuracy across varying spatial extents. Additionally, LULC data are typically used to describe lands...

  11. Development of high accuracy and resolution geoid and gravity maps

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gaposchkin, E. M.

    1986-01-01

    Precision satellite to satellite tracking can be used to obtain high precision and resolution maps of the geoid. A method is demonstrated to use data in a limited region to map the geopotential at the satellite altitude. An inverse method is used to downward continue the potential to the Earth surface. The method is designed for both satellites in the same low orbit.

  12. Iterative algorithm for reconstructing rotationally asymmetric surface deviation with pixel-level spatial resolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quan, Haiyang; Wu, Fan; Hou, Xi

    2015-10-01

    New method for reconstructing rotationally asymmetric surface deviation with pixel-level spatial resolution is proposed. It is based on basic iterative scheme and accelerates the Gauss-Seidel method by introducing an acceleration parameter. This modified Successive Over-relaxation (SOR) is effective for solving the rotationally asymmetric components with pixel-level spatial resolution, without the usage of a fitting procedure. Compared to the Jacobi and Gauss-Seidel method, the modified SOR method with an optimal relaxation factor converges much faster and saves more computational costs and memory space without reducing accuracy. It has been proved by real experimental results.

  13. Analysis of DOA estimation spatial resolution using MUSIC algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Yue; Wang, Hongyuan; Luo, Bin

    2005-11-01

    This paper presents a performance analysis of the spatial resolution of the direction of arrival (DOA) estimates attained by the multiple signal classification (MUSIC) algorithm for uncorrelated sources. The confidence interval of estimation angle which is much more intuitionistic will be considered as the new evaluation standard for the spatial resolution. Then, based on the statistic method, the qualitative analysis reveals the factors influencing the performance of the MUSIC algorithm. At last, quantitative simulations prove the theoretical analysis result exactly.

  14. High spatial resolution passive microwave sounding systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Staelin, D. H.; Rosenkranz, P. W.; Bonanni, P. G.; Gasiewski, A. W.

    1986-01-01

    Two extensive series of flights aboard the ER-2 aircraft were conducted with the MIT 118 GHz imaging spectrometer together with a 53.6 GHz nadir channel and a TV camera record of the mission. Other microwave sensors, including a 183 GHz imaging spectrometer were flown simultaneously by other research groups. Work also continued on evaluating the impact of high-resolution passive microwave soundings upon numerical weather prediction models.

  15. Super Spatial Resolution (SSR) method for scintigraphic imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trinci, G.; Massari, R.; Scandellari, M.; Scopinaro, F.; Soluri, A.

    2011-01-01

    This work describes an innovative patented Super Spatial Resolution (SSR) method applied to scintigraphic devices. The aim of Super Resolution (SR) techniques is to enhance the resolution of an imaging system, using information from several images. SR reconstruction may be considered as a second generation problem of Image Restoration. It combines several slightly different Low Resolution (LR) images to obtain a High Resolution (HR) image. SR techniques are, widely, described in scientific literature mainly for applications in video communication, object recognition and image compression. In this paper we focus to apply the SR task to the scintigraphic imaging. Specifically, it is described as a patented method that uses a High Resolution Scintigraphic Camera (HRSC) to collect and process a set of scintigraphic images, in view of obtaining a very high resolution image. The HRSC device, which is currently used in Medical Imaging, is based on a parallel square holes collimator and on a Hamamatsu H8500 Position Sensitive Photomultiplier Tubes (PSPMT). The SSR method is applied to the synthetic images of three different phantoms, to verify the effective spatial resolution values. The results confirm that it is possible to achieve optimal spatial resolution values at different depths, useful in small object and small animal imaging. Our study confirms the feasibility of a very high resolution system in scintigraphic imaging and the possibility to have gamma cameras using the SSR method, to perform clinical applications on patients.

  16. Spatial accuracy of a rapid defense behavior in caterpillars.

    PubMed

    van Griethuijsen, Linnea I; Banks, Kelly M; Trimmer, Barry A

    2013-02-01

    Aimed movements require that an animal accurately locates the target and correctly reaches that location. One such behavior is the defensive strike seen in Manduca sexta larva. These caterpillars respond to noxious mechanical stimuli applied to their abdomen with a strike of the mandibles towards the location of the stimulus. The accuracy with which the first strike movement reaches the stimulus site depends on the location of the stimulus. Reponses to dorsal stimuli are less accurate than those to ventral stimuli and the mandibles generally land ventral to the stimulus site. Responses to stimuli applied to anterior abdominal segments are less accurate than responses to stimuli applied to more posterior segments and the mandibles generally land posterior to the stimulus site. A trade-off between duration of the strike and radial accuracy is only seen in the anterior stimulus location (body segment A4). The lower accuracy of the responses to anterior and dorsal stimuli can be explained by the morphology of the animal; to reach these areas the caterpillar needs to move its body into a tight curve. Nevertheless, the accuracy is not exact in locations that the animal has shown it can reach, which suggests that consistently aiming more ventral and posterior of the stimulation site might be a defense strategy. PMID:23325858

  17. Accuracy, Precision, and Resolution in Strain Measurements on Diffraction Instruments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Polvino, Sean M.

    Diffraction stress analysis is a commonly used technique to evaluate the properties and performance of different classes of materials from engineering materials, such as steels and alloys, to electronic materials like Silicon chips. Often to better understand the performance of these materials at operating conditions they are also commonly subjected to elevated temperatures and different loading conditions. The validity of any measurement under these conditions is only as good as the control of the conditions and the accuracy and precision of the instrument being used to measure the properties. What is the accuracy and precision of a typical diffraction system and what is the best way to evaluate these quantities? Is there a way to remove systematic and random errors in the data that are due to problems with the control system used? With the advent of device engineering employing internal stress as a method for increasing performance the measurement of stress from microelectronic structures has become of enhanced importance. X-ray diffraction provides an ideal method for measuring these small areas without the need for modifying the sample and possibly changing the strain state. Micro and nano diffraction experiments on Silicon-on-Insulator samples revealed changes to the material under investigation and raised significant concerns about the usefulness of these techniques. This damage process and the application of micro and nano diffraction is discussed.

  18. Monte Carlo code for high spatial resolution ocean color simulations.

    PubMed

    D'Alimonte, Davide; Zibordi, Giuseppe; Kajiyama, Tamito; Cunha, José C

    2010-09-10

    A Monte Carlo code for ocean color simulations has been developed to model in-water radiometric fields of downward and upward irradiance (E(d) and E(u)), and upwelling radiance (L(u)) in a two-dimensional domain with a high spatial resolution. The efficiency of the code has been optimized by applying state-of-the-art computing solutions, while the accuracy of simulation results has been quantified through benchmark with the widely used Hydrolight code for various values of seawater inherent optical properties and different illumination conditions. Considering a seawater single scattering albedo of 0.9, as well as surface waves of 5 m width and 0.5 m height, the study has shown that the number of photons required to quantify uncertainties induced by wave focusing effects on E(d), E(u), and L(u) data products is of the order of 10(6), 10(9), and 10(10), respectively. On this basis, the effects of sea-surface geometries on radiometric quantities have been investigated for different surface gravity waves. Data products from simulated radiometric profiles have finally been analyzed as a function of the deployment speed and sampling frequency of current free-fall systems in view of providing recommendations to improve measurement protocols. PMID:20830183

  19. IKONOS Spatial Resolution and Image Interpretability Characterization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ryan, Robert; Baldridge, Braxton; Schowengerdt, Robert A.; Choi, Taeyoung; Helder, Dennis L.; Blonski, Slawomir

    2003-01-01

    This paper contains research from five individual projects to characterize the spatial performance of the IKONOS commercial imaging sensor. The end result of the projects is determination of the spatial image quality of IKONOS data prodicts in terms of the National Imagery Interpretability Rating Scale (NIIRS), the system Modulation Transfer Function (MTF), the system stability over the first year, the characteristics of the Space Imaging MTF Compensation (MTFC) procedure, and the application-specific capabilities of IKONOS imagery. Both panchromatic and multispectral imagery were evaluated. Major conclusions of this work are that the system was stable im imaging performance during the first year of operation, tha its MTF meets the specification for the NASA Scientific Data Purchase program, that the initial MTFC processing appears to be transposed in the in-track and the cross-track directions, that the MTFC results in a noise amplification of 2x to 4x in addition to sharpening the imagery, and that IKONOS panchromatic imagery achieves an average NIIRS rating of 4.5.

  20. Accuracy Analysis on Large Blocks of High Resolution Images

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Passini, Richardo M.

    2007-01-01

    Although high altitude frequencies effects are removed at the time of basic image generation, low altitude (Yaw) effects are still present in form of affinity/angular affinity. They are effectively removed by additional parameters. Bundle block adjustment based on properly weighted ephemeris/altitude quaternions (BBABEQ) are not enough to remove the systematic effect. Moreover, due to the narrow FOV of the HRSI, position and altitude are highly correlated making it almost impossible to separate and remove their systematic effects without extending the geometric model (Self-Calib.) The systematic effects gets evident on the increase of accuracy (in terms of RMSE at GCPs) for looser and relaxed ground control at the expense of large and strong block deformation with large residuals at check points. Systematic errors are most freely distributed and their effects propagated all over the block.

  1. Spatially Regularized Compressed Sensing for High Angular Resolution Diffusion Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Rathi, Yogesh; Dolui, Sudipto

    2013-01-01

    Despite the relative recency of its inception, the theory of compressive sampling (aka compressed sensing) (CS) has already revolutionized multiple areas of applied sciences, a particularly important instance of which is medical imaging. Specifically, the theory has provided a different perspective on the important problem of optimal sampling in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), with an ever-increasing body of works reporting stable and accurate reconstruction of MRI scans from the number of spectral measurements which would have been deemed unacceptably small as recently as five years ago. In this paper, the theory of CS is employed to palliate the problem of long acquisition times, which is known to be a major impediment to the clinical application of high angular resolution diffusion imaging (HARDI). Specifically, we demonstrate that a substantial reduction in data acquisition times is possible through minimization of the number of diffusion encoding gradients required for reliable reconstruction of HARDI scans. The success of such a minimization is primarily due to the availability of spherical ridgelet transformation, which excels in sparsifying HARDI signals. What makes the resulting reconstruction procedure even more accurate is a combination of the sparsity constraints in the diffusion domain with additional constraints imposed on the estimated diffusion field in the spatial domain. Accordingly, the present paper describes an original way to combine the diffusion-and spatial-domain constraints to achieve a maximal reduction in the number of diffusion measurements, while sacrificing little in terms of reconstruction accuracy. Finally, details are provided on an efficient numerical scheme which can be used to solve the aforementioned reconstruction problem by means of standard and readily available estimation tools. The paper is concluded with experimental results which support the practical value of the proposed reconstruction methodology. PMID:21536524

  2. Accuracy VS Performance: Finding the Sweet Spot in the Geospatial Resolution of Satellite Metadata

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baskin, W. E.; Mangosing, D. C.; Rinsland, P. L.

    2010-12-01

    NASA’s Atmospheric Science Data Center (ASDC) and the Cloud-Aerosol LIDAR and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observation (CALIPSO) team at the NASA Langley Research Center recently collaborated in the development of a new CALIPSO Search and Subset web application. The web application is comprised of three elements: (1) A PostGIS-enabled PostgreSQL database system, which is used to store temporal and geospatial metadata from CALIPSO’s LIDAR, Infrared, and Wide Field Camera datasets, (2) the SciFlo engine, which is a data flow engine that enables semantic, scientific data flow executions in a grid or clustered network computational environment, and (3) PHP-based web application that incorporates some Web 2.0 / AJAX technologies used in the web interface. The search portion of the web application leverages geodetic indexing and search capabilities that became available in the February 2010 release of PostGIS version1.5. This presentation highlights the lessons learned in experimenting with various geospatial resolutions of CALIPSO’s LIDAR sensor ground track metadata. Details of the various spatial resolutions, spatial database schema designs, spatial indexing strategies, and performance results will be discussed. The focus will be on illustrating our findings on the spatial resolutions for ground track metadata that optimized search time and search accuracy in the CALIPSO Search and Subset Application. The CALIPSO satellite provides new insight into the role that clouds and atmospheric aerosols (airborne particles) play in regulating Earth's weather, climate, and air quality. CALIPSO combines an active LIDAR instrument with passive infrared and visible imagers to probe the vertical structure and properties of thin clouds and aerosols over the globe. The CALIPSO satellite was launched on April 28, 2006 and is part of the A-train satellite constellation. The ASDC in Langley’s Science Directorate leads NASA’s program for the processing, archival and

  3. A Very High Spatial Resolution Detector for Small Animal PET

    SciTech Connect

    Kanai Shah, M.S.

    2007-03-06

    Positron Emission Tomography (PET) is an in vivo analog of autoradiography and has the potential to become a powerful new tool in imaging biological processes in small laboratory animals. PET imaging of small animals can provide unique information that can help in advancement of human disease models as well as drug development. Clinical PET scanners used for human imaging are bulky, expensive and do not have adequate spatial resolution for small animal studies. Hence, dedicated, low cost instruments are required for conducting small animal studies with higher spatial resolution than what is currently achieved with clinical as well as dedicated small animal PET scanners. The goal of the proposed project is to investigate a new all solid-state detector design for small animal PET imaging. Exceptionally high spatial resolution, good timing resolution, and excellent energy resolution are expected from the proposed detector design. The Phase I project was aimed at demonstrating the feasibility of producing high performance solid-state detectors that provide high sensitivity, spatial resolution, and timing characteristics. Energy resolution characteristics of the new detector were also investigated. The goal of the Phase II project is to advance the promising solid-state detector technology for small animal PET and determine its full potential. Detectors modules will be built and characterized and finally, a bench-top small animal PET system will be assembled and evaluated.

  4. Spatial Structure of Above-Ground Biomass Limits Accuracy of Carbon Mapping in Rainforest but Large Scale Forest Inventories Can Help to Overcome

    PubMed Central

    Guitet, Stéphane; Hérault, Bruno; Molto, Quentin; Brunaux, Olivier; Couteron, Pierre

    2015-01-01

    Precise mapping of above-ground biomass (AGB) is a major challenge for the success of REDD+ processes in tropical rainforest. The usual mapping methods are based on two hypotheses: a large and long-ranged spatial autocorrelation and a strong environment influence at the regional scale. However, there are no studies of the spatial structure of AGB at the landscapes scale to support these assumptions. We studied spatial variation in AGB at various scales using two large forest inventories conducted in French Guiana. The dataset comprised 2507 plots (0.4 to 0.5 ha) of undisturbed rainforest distributed over the whole region. After checking the uncertainties of estimates obtained from these data, we used half of the dataset to develop explicit predictive models including spatial and environmental effects and tested the accuracy of the resulting maps according to their resolution using the rest of the data. Forest inventories provided accurate AGB estimates at the plot scale, for a mean of 325 Mg.ha-1. They revealed high local variability combined with a weak autocorrelation up to distances of no more than10 km. Environmental variables accounted for a minor part of spatial variation. Accuracy of the best model including spatial effects was 90 Mg.ha-1 at plot scale but coarse graining up to 2-km resolution allowed mapping AGB with accuracy lower than 50 Mg.ha-1. Whatever the resolution, no agreement was found with available pan-tropical reference maps at all resolutions. We concluded that the combined weak autocorrelation and weak environmental effect limit AGB maps accuracy in rainforest, and that a trade-off has to be found between spatial resolution and effective accuracy until adequate “wall-to-wall” remote sensing signals provide reliable AGB predictions. Waiting for this, using large forest inventories with low sampling rate (<0.5%) may be an efficient way to increase the global coverage of AGB maps with acceptable accuracy at kilometric resolution. PMID

  5. Spatial Structure of Above-Ground Biomass Limits Accuracy of Carbon Mapping in Rainforest but Large Scale Forest Inventories Can Help to Overcome.

    PubMed

    Guitet, Stéphane; Hérault, Bruno; Molto, Quentin; Brunaux, Olivier; Couteron, Pierre

    2015-01-01

    Precise mapping of above-ground biomass (AGB) is a major challenge for the success of REDD+ processes in tropical rainforest. The usual mapping methods are based on two hypotheses: a large and long-ranged spatial autocorrelation and a strong environment influence at the regional scale. However, there are no studies of the spatial structure of AGB at the landscapes scale to support these assumptions. We studied spatial variation in AGB at various scales using two large forest inventories conducted in French Guiana. The dataset comprised 2507 plots (0.4 to 0.5 ha) of undisturbed rainforest distributed over the whole region. After checking the uncertainties of estimates obtained from these data, we used half of the dataset to develop explicit predictive models including spatial and environmental effects and tested the accuracy of the resulting maps according to their resolution using the rest of the data. Forest inventories provided accurate AGB estimates at the plot scale, for a mean of 325 Mg.ha-1. They revealed high local variability combined with a weak autocorrelation up to distances of no more than10 km. Environmental variables accounted for a minor part of spatial variation. Accuracy of the best model including spatial effects was 90 Mg.ha-1 at plot scale but coarse graining up to 2-km resolution allowed mapping AGB with accuracy lower than 50 Mg.ha-1. Whatever the resolution, no agreement was found with available pan-tropical reference maps at all resolutions. We concluded that the combined weak autocorrelation and weak environmental effect limit AGB maps accuracy in rainforest, and that a trade-off has to be found between spatial resolution and effective accuracy until adequate "wall-to-wall" remote sensing signals provide reliable AGB predictions. Waiting for this, using large forest inventories with low sampling rate (<0.5%) may be an efficient way to increase the global coverage of AGB maps with acceptable accuracy at kilometric resolution. PMID:26402522

  6. High-Resolution Image Classification Integrating Spectral-Spatial-Location Cues by Conditional Random Fields.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Ji; Zhong, Yanfei; Shu, Hong; Zhang, Liangpei

    2016-09-01

    With the increase in the availability of high-resolution remote sensing imagery, classification is becoming an increasingly useful technique for providing a large area of detailed land-cover information by the use of these high-resolution images. High-resolution images have the characteristics of abundant geometric and detail information, which are beneficial to detailed classification. In order to make full use of these characteristics, a classification algorithm based on conditional random fields (CRFs) is presented in this paper. The proposed algorithm integrates spectral, spatial contextual, and spatial location cues by modeling the probabilistic potentials. The spectral cues modeled by the unary potentials can provide basic information for discriminating the various land-cover classes. The pairwise potentials consider the spatial contextual information by establishing the neighboring interactions between pixels to favor spatial smoothing. The spatial location cues are explicitly encoded in the higher order potentials. The higher order potentials consider the nonlocal range of the spatial location interactions between the target pixel and its nearest training samples. This can provide useful information for the classes that are easily confused with other land-cover types in the spectral appearance. The proposed algorithm integrates spectral, spatial contextual, and spatial location cues within a CRF framework to provide complementary information from varying perspectives, so that it can address the common problem of spectral variability in remote sensing images, which is directly reflected in the accuracy of each class and the average accuracy. The experimental results with three high-resolution images show the validity of the algorithm, compared with the other state-of-the-art classification algorithms. PMID:27295673

  7. FISM 2.0: Improved Spectral Range, Resolution, and Accuracy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chamberlin, Phillip C.

    2012-01-01

    The Flare Irradiance Spectral Model (FISM) was first released in 2005 to provide accurate estimates of the solar VUV (0.1-190 nm) irradiance to the Space Weather community. This model was based on TIMED SEE as well as UARS and SORCE SOLSTICE measurements, and was the first model to include a 60 second temporal variation to estimate the variations due to solar flares. Along with flares, FISM also estimates the tradition solar cycle and solar rotational variations over months and decades back to 1947. This model has been highly successful in providing driving inputs to study the affect of solar irradiance variations on the Earth's ionosphere and thermosphere, lunar dust charging, as well as the Martian ionosphere. The second version of FISM, FISM2, is currently being updated to be based on the more accurate SDO/EVE data, which will provide much more accurate estimations in the 0.1-105 nm range, as well as extending the 'daily' model variation up to 300 nm based on the SOLSTICE measurements. with the spectral resolution of SDO/EVE along with SOLSTICE and the TIMED and SORCE XPS 'model' products, the entire range from 0.1-300 nm will also be available at 0.1 nm, allowing FISM2 to be improved a similar 0.1nm spectral bins. FISM also will have a TSI component that will estimate the total radiated energy during flares based on the few TSI flares observed to date. Presented here will be initial results of the FISM2 modeling efforts, as well as some challenges that will need to be overcome in order for FISM2 to accurately model the solar variations on time scales of seconds to decades.

  8. Measurement of spatial and density resolutions in x-ray nanocomputed tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawata, Y.; Kageyama, K.; Nakaya, Y.; Niki, N.; Umetani, K.; Yada, K.; Ohmatsu, H.; Eguchi, K.; Kaneko, M.; Moriyama, N.

    2009-02-01

    The latest generation of nano computed tomography (nano-CT) systems with sub-micrometer focus X-ray source is expected to yield non-invasive imaging of internal microstructure of objects with isotropic spatial resolution in the range of hundreds nanometers. Most recently commercial systems have become available for purchase. The quantitative characterization of the performance of nano-CT systems is important for evaluating the accuracy of size and density measurements of fine details in nano-CT images. The point spread function (PSF) and modulation transfer function (MTF) are calculated most commonly from the measurement of thin wire phantom for measuring the spatial resolution of clinical CT systems. However, a consistent method for describing the spatial resolution of nano-CT has not been utilized due to the requirement of a nanowire which is a wire of diameter of the order of tens of nanometers. This paper presents a method to characterize the spatial resolution in x/y-scan plane (transversal orientation) of nano-CT systems using a relatively large microwire in the PSF measurement. In this method, the MTF computed from the PSF is estimated on the basis of a two-Gaussian PSF model. Experimenting with microwire images with three different diameter sizes (3μm, 10μm, 30μm) obtained by the synchrotron radiation CT, we demonstrate the potential usefulness of the method for describing the spatial resolutions of nano-CT systems.

  9. High spatial resolution measurements of ram accelerator gas dynamic phenomena

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hinkey, J. B.; Burnham, E. A.; Bruckner, A. P.

    1992-01-01

    High spatial resolution experimental tube wall pressure measurements of ram accelerator gas dynamic phenomena are presented. The projectile resembles the centerbody of a ramjet and travels supersonically through a tube filled with a combustible gaseous mixture, with the tube acting as the outer cowling. Pressure data are recorded as the projectile passes by sensors mounted in the tube wall at various locations along the tube. Data obtained by using a special highly instrumented section of tube has allowed the recording of gas dynamic phenomena with a spatial resolution on the order of one tenth the projectile length. High spatial resolution tube wall pressure data from the three regimes of propulsion studied to date (subdetonative, transdetonative, and superdetonative) are presented and reveal the 3D character of the flowfield induced by projectile fins and the canting of the projectile body relative to the tube wall. Also presented for comparison to the experimental data are calculations made with an inviscid, 3D CFD code.

  10. Radiometric Calibration Assessment of Commercial High Spatial Resolution Multispectral Image Products

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thome, Kurt; Leisso, Nathan; Buchanan, John

    2007-01-01

    This paper describes the results of commercial high spatial resolution sensors. The topics include: 1) Reflectance-based approach; 2) U of A test sites; 3) Test Site Selection; 4) Resort Living; 5) Aerosol parameters; 6) Surface reflectance retrieval; 7) Accuracy/precision; 8) Data sets; 9) June 23, 2005 for Ikonos; 10) QuickBird Results; 11) Ikonos results; 12) Orbview results; 13) Ikonos redux; and 14) Overall results.

  11. Lenses and effective spatial resolution in macroscopic optical mapping.

    PubMed

    Bien, Harold; Parikh, Puja; Entcheva, Emilia

    2007-02-21

    Optical mapping of excitation dynamically tracks electrical waves travelling through cardiac or brain tissue by the use of fluorescent dyes. There are several characteristics that set optical mapping apart from other imaging modalities: dynamically changing signals requiring short exposure times, dim fluorescence demanding sensitive sensors and wide fields of view (low magnification) resulting in poor optical performance. These conditions necessitate the use of optics with good light gathering ability, i.e. lenses having high numerical aperture. Previous optical mapping studies often used sensor resolution to estimate the minimum spatial feature resolvable, assuming perfect optics and infinite contrast. We examine here the influence of finite contrast and real optics on the effective spatial resolution in optical mapping under broad-field illumination for both lateral (in-plane) resolution and axial (depth) resolution of collected fluorescence signals. PMID:17264363

  12. Improved Spatial Resolution For Reflection Mode Infrared Spectromicroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Bechtel, Hans A; Martin, Michael C.; May, T. E.; Lerch, Philippe

    2009-08-13

    Standard commercial infrared microscopes operating in reflection mode use a mirror to direct the reflected light from the sample to the detector. This mirror blocks about half of the incident light, however, and thus degrades the spatial resolution by reducing the numerical aperture of the objective. Here, we replace the mirror with a 50% beamsplitter to allow full illumination of the objective and retain a way to direct the reflected light to the detector. The improved spatial resolution is demonstrated using a microscope coupled to a synchrotron source.

  13. Performance measurements of a high-spatial-resolution YAP camera.

    PubMed

    Uzunov, N; Bello, M; Boccaccio, P; Moschini, G; Baldazzi, G; Bollini, D; de Notaristefani, F; Mazzi, U; Riondato, M

    2005-02-01

    Physical properties of a position-sensitive camera for the analysis of biodistributions of gamma- and beta-emitting radiopharmaceuticals in small animals have been studied, in order to achieve optimal operating conditions. The camera consisted of a highly segmented yttrium-aluminate perovskite (YAP) scintillator, coupled to a position-sensitive photomultiplier. The energy resolution, the detection efficiency, the spatial resolution, the spatial linearity and the count-rate linearity of the YAP camera have been determined. Images related to initial activity levels and successive biodistribution evolution in mice organs are presented as an illustration of the camera performance. PMID:15773730

  14. Reconstruction algorithm improving the spatial resolution of Micro-CT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fu, Jian; Wei, Dongbo; Li, Bing; Zhang, Lei

    2008-03-01

    X-ray Micro computed tomography (Micro-CT) enables nondestructive visualization of the internal structure of objects with high-resolution images and plays an important role for industrial nondestructive testing, material evaluation and medical researches. Because the micro focus is much smaller than the ordinary focus, the geometry un-sharpness of Micro-CT projection is several decuples less than that of ordinary CT systems. So the scan conditions with high geometry magnification can be adopted to acquire the projection data with high sampling frequency. Based on this feature, a new filter back projection reconstruction algorithm is researched to improve the spatial resolution of Micro-CT. This algorithm permits the reconstruction center at any point on the line connecting the focus and the rotation center. It can reconstruct CT images with different geometry magnification by adjusting the position of the reconstruction center. So it can make the best of the above feature to improve the spatial resolution of Micro-CT. The computer simulation and the CT experiment of a special spatial resolution phantom are executed to check the validity of this method. The results demonstrate the effect of the new algorithm. Analysis shows that the spatial resolution can be improved 50%.

  15. Spatial Collective Intelligence? credibility, accuracy, and Volunteered Geographic Information

    PubMed Central

    Spielman, Seth E.

    2014-01-01

    Collective intelligence is the idea that under the right circumstances collections of individuals are smarter than even the smartest individuals in the group (Suroweiki 2004), that is a group has an “intelligence” that is independent of the intelligence of its members. The ideology of collective intelligence undergirds much of the enthusiasm about the use of “volunteered” or crowdsourced geographic information. Literature from a variety of fields makes clear that not all groups possess collective intelligence, this paper identifies four pre-conditions for the emergence of collective intelligence and then examine the extent to which collectively generated mapping systems satisfy these conditions. However, the “intelligence” collectively generated maps is hard to assess because there are two difficult to reconcile perspectives on map quality- the credibility perspective and the accuracy perspective. Much of the current literature on user generated maps focuses on assessing the quality of individual contributions. However, because user generated maps are complex social systems and because the quality of a contribution is difficult to assess this strategy may not yield an “intelligent” end product. The existing literature on collective intelligence suggests that the structure of groups more important that the intelligence of group members. Applying this idea to user generated suggests that systems should be designed to foster conditions known to produce collective intelligence rather than privileging particular contributions/contributors. The paper concludes with some design recommendations and by considering the implications of collectively generated maps for both expert knowledge and traditional state sponsored mapping programs. PMID:25419184

  16. Rotational Mobility of Single Molecules Affects Localization Accuracy in Super-Resolution Fluorescence Microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Lew, Matthew D.; Backlund, Mikael P.; Moerner, W. E.

    2013-01-01

    The asymmetric nature of single-molecule (SM) dipole emission patterns limits the accuracy of position determination in localization-based super-resolution fluorescence microscopy. The degree of mislocalization depends highly on the rotational mobility of SMs; only for SMs rotating within a cone half angle α > 60° can mislocalization errors be bounded to ≤ 10 nm. Simulations demonstrate how low or high rotational mobility can cause resolution degradation or distortion in super-resolution reconstructions. PMID:23360306

  17. The criteria for measuring average density by x-ray attenuation: The role of spatial resolution

    SciTech Connect

    Friedman, W.

    1999-07-29

    It is well known that the attenuation of X-rays as they pass through a material can be used to quantify the amount of matter in their path. This is the basis for the gamma ray densitometer which can measure the amount of material on a moving conveyor belt. It is also the rationale for using X-rays for medical imaging as the attenuation can discriminate between tissue of different density and composition, yielding images of great diagnostic utility. Spatial resolution is obviously important with regard to detecting small features. However, it is less obvious that it plays an important role in obtaining quantitative information from the X-ray transmission data since the spatial resolution of the instrument can affect the accuracy of those measurements. This problem is particularly severe in the case of computed tomography where the accuracy of the reconstruction is dependent on the accuracy of the initial projection data. It should be noted that spatial resolution is not a concern for the case where the material is uniform. Here uniform is defined by small variations related to either the scale size of the resolution element in the detector, or to the size of a collimated X-ray beam. However, if the material has non-homogeneous composition or changes in density on the scale size of the systems spatial resolution, then there can be effects that will compromise the transmission data before it is acquired and these errors can not be corrected by any subsequent data processing. A method is presented for computing the density measurement error which parameterizes the effect in terms of the actual modulation on the face of the detector and the attenuation in the material. For cases like stacks of lead plates the errors can exceed 80%.

  18. Theoretical limit of spatial resolution in diffuse optical tomography using a perturbation model

    SciTech Connect

    Konovalov, A B; Vlasov, V V

    2014-03-28

    We have assessed the limit of spatial resolution of timedomain diffuse optical tomography (DOT) based on a perturbation reconstruction model. From the viewpoint of the structure reconstruction accuracy, three different approaches to solving the inverse DOT problem are compared. The first approach involves reconstruction of diffuse tomograms from straight lines, the second – from average curvilinear trajectories of photons and the third – from total banana-shaped distributions of photon trajectories. In order to obtain estimates of resolution, we have derived analytical expressions for the point spread function and modulation transfer function, as well as have performed a numerical experiment on reconstruction of rectangular scattering objects with circular absorbing inhomogeneities. It is shown that in passing from reconstruction from straight lines to reconstruction using distributions of photon trajectories we can improve resolution by almost an order of magnitude and exceed the accuracy of reconstruction of multi-step algorithms used in DOT. (optical tomography)

  19. Quantifying mangrove chlorophyll from high spatial resolution imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heenkenda, Muditha K.; Joyce, Karen E.; Maier, Stefan W.; de Bruin, Sytze

    2015-10-01

    Lower than expected chlorophyll concentration of a plant can directly limit photosynthetic activity, and resultant primary production. Low chlorophyll concentration may also indicate plant physiological stress. Compared to other terrestrial vegetation, mangrove chlorophyll variations are poorly understood. This study quantifies the spatial distribution of mangrove canopy chlorophyll variation using remotely sensed data and field samples over the Rapid Creek mangrove forest in Darwin, Australia. Mangrove leaf samples were collected and analyzed for chlorophyll content in the laboratory. Once the leaf area index (LAI) of sampled trees was estimated using the digital cover photography method, the canopy chlorophyll contents were calculated. Then, the nonlinear random forests regression algorithm was used to describe the relationship between canopy chlorophyll content and remotely sensed data (WorldView-2 satellite image bands and their spectral transformations), and to estimate the spatial distribution of canopy chlorophyll variation. The imagery was evaluated at full 2 m spatial resolution, as well as at decreased resampled resolutions of 5 m and 10 m. The root mean squared errors with validation samples were 0.82, 0.64 and 0.65 g/m2 for maps at 2 m, 5 m and 10 m spatial resolution respectively. The correlation coefficient was analyzed for the relationship between measured and predicted chlorophyll values. The highest correlation: 0.71 was observed at 5 m spatial resolution (R2 = 0.5). We therefore concluded that estimating mangrove chlorophyll content from remotely sensed data is possible using red, red-edge, NIR1 and NIR2 bands and their spectral transformations as predictors at 5 m spatial resolution.

  20. Spatial resolution requirements for automated cartographic road extraction

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Benjamin, S.; Gaydos, L.

    1990-01-01

    Ground resolution requirements for detection and extraction of road locations in a digitized large-scale photographic database were investigated. A color infrared photograph of Sunnyvale, California was scanned, registered to a map grid, and spatially degraded to 1- to 5-metre resolution pixels. Road locations in each data set were extracted using a combination of image processing and CAD programs. These locations were compared to a photointerpretation of road locations to determine a preferred pixel size for the extraction method. Based on road pixel omission error computations, a 3-metre pixel resolution appears to be the best choice for this extraction method. -Authors

  1. Spatial Resolution Characterization for QuickBird Image Products 2003-2004 Season

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blonski, Slawomir

    2006-01-01

    This presentation focuses on spatial resolution characterization for QuickBird panochromatic images in 2003-2004 and presents data measurements and analysis of SSC edge target deployment and edge response extraction and modeling. The results of the characterization are shown as values of the Modulation Transfer Function (MTF) at the Nyquist spatial frequency and as the Relative Edge Response (RER) components. The results show that RER is much less sensitive to accuracy of the curve fitting than the value of MTF at Nyquist frequency. Therefore, the RER/edge response slope is a more robust estimator of the digital image spatial resolution than the MTF. For the QuickBird panochromatic images, the RER is consistently equal to 0.5 for images processed with the Cubic Convolution resampling and to 0.8 for the MTF resampling.

  2. Spatial super-resolution in code aperture spectral imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arguello, Henry; Rueda, Hoover F.; Arce, Gonzalo R.

    2012-06-01

    The Code Aperture Snapshot Spectral Imaging system (CASSI) senses the spectral information of a scene using the underlying concepts of compressive sensing (CS). The random projections in CASSI are localized such that each measurement contains spectral information only from a small spatial region of the data cube. The goal of this paper is to translate high-resolution hyperspectral scenes into compressed signals measured by a low-resolution detector. Spatial super-resolution is attained as an inverse problem from a set of low-resolution coded measurements. The proposed system not only offers significant savings in size, weight and power, but also in cost as low resolution detectors can be used. The proposed system can be efficiently exploited in the IR region where the cost of detectors increases rapidly with resolution. The simulations of the proposed system show an improvement of up to 4 dB in PSNR. Results also show that the PSNR of the reconstructed data cubes approach the PSNR of the reconstructed data cubes attained with high-resolution detectors, at the cost of using additional measurements.

  3. Measurement of residual stresses on ceramic materials with high spatial resolution

    SciTech Connect

    Kozaczek, K.J.; Ruud, C.O.; Fitting, J.D.

    1993-12-31

    A fast x-ray diffraction technique has been developed for measuring the residual stresses with high spatial resolution in ceramic materials. This resolution is limited by the mean size of grains and the radiation type. The effective diffraction elastic constants were experimentally determined for alumina as (E/l+{nu})){sub (1016)} = 200 GPa. The accuracy of XRD measurement of residual stresses with the spatial resolution of 170 {mu}m and precision {plus_minus} 15 MPa was verified experimentally by strain gauge measurements. The stress field around a singular Kovar pin brazed to alumina was asymmetric with high tangential stresses in the vicinity of the pin decreasing with the distance from the pin.

  4. Space Age Geodesy: Global Earth Observations of Ever Improving resolution and Accuracy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carter, W. E.

    2007-12-01

    The launch of Sputnik-I by the USSR in 1957, and the resulting competitive US-USSR space exploration and weapons programs, led to the need for global geodetic measurements of unprecedented accuracy, and the means to develop new observing techniques to meet those needs. By the 1970s the geodetic community developed very long baseline interferometry (VLBI), lunar laser ranging (LLR), and satellite laser ranging (SLR), and launched international tests that led to the establishment of the International Earth Rotation Service (IERS). Today the IERS provides a stable International Celestial Reference Frame (ICRF), and accurate earth orientation parameters (EOP) values, using a combination of VLBI, LLR, SLR, and the Global Positioning System (GPS). There are hundreds of continuously operating GPS stations around the world, providing centimeter station locations and millimeter per year station velocities, in the International Terrestrial Reference Frame (ITRF). The location of any point on earth can be determined relative to the ITRF to within a few centimeters from a few days of GPS observations, and using kinematic GPS, the positions of moving objects can be tracked to a few centimeters at distances of tens of kilometers from the nearest GPS ground stations. This geodetic infrastructure and space age technology has led to the development of new airborne topographic mapping techniques, most significantly, airborne laser swath mapping (ALSM). With ALSM, it is now possible to map thousands of square kilometers of terrain with sub-decimeter vertical accuracy in hours. For example, the entire length of the San Andreas fault, in California, was mapped in a few hundred hours of flying time. Within the next few decades, global ALSM observations will make it possible for scientists to immediately access (by the internet) data bases containing the locations (cm accuracy) and rates of motion (mm per year accuracy) of points on the surface of earth, with sub-meter spatial resolution

  5. Research on the classification result and accuracy of building windows in high resolution satellite images: take the typical rural buildings in Guangxi, China, as an example

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Baishou; Gao, Yujiu

    2015-12-01

    The information extracted from the high spatial resolution remote sensing images has become one of the important data sources of the GIS large scale spatial database updating. The realization of the building information monitoring using the high resolution remote sensing, building small scale information extracting and its quality analyzing has become an important precondition for the applying of the high-resolution satellite image information, because of the large amount of regional high spatial resolution satellite image data. In this paper, a clustering segmentation classification evaluation method for the high resolution satellite images of the typical rural buildings is proposed based on the traditional KMeans clustering algorithm. The factors of separability and building density were used for describing image classification characteristics of clustering window. The sensitivity of the factors influenced the clustering result was studied from the perspective of the separability between high image itself target and background spectrum. This study showed that the number of the sample contents is the important influencing factor to the clustering accuracy and performance, the pixel ratio of the objects in images and the separation factor can be used to determine the specific impact of cluster-window subsets on the clustering accuracy, and the count of window target pixels (Nw) does not alone affect clustering accuracy. The result can provide effective research reference for the quality assessment of the segmentation and classification of high spatial resolution remote sensing images.

  6. High-resolution spatial mapping of shear properties in cartilage.

    PubMed

    Buckley, Mark R; Bergou, Attila J; Fouchard, Jonathan; Bonassar, Lawrence J; Cohen, Itai

    2010-03-01

    Structural properties of articular cartilage such as proteoglycan content, collagen content and collagen alignment are known to vary over length scales as small as a few microns (Bullough and Goodfellow, 1968; Bi et al., 2006). Characterizing the resulting variation in mechanical properties is critical for understanding how the inhomogeneous architecture of this tissue gives rise to its function. Previous studies have measured the depth-dependent shear modulus of articular cartilage using methods such as particle image velocimetry (PIV) that rely on cells and cell nuclei as fiducial markers to track tissue deformation (Buckley et al., 2008; Wong et al., 2008a). However, such techniques are limited by the density of trackable markers, which may be too low to take full advantage of optical microscopy. This limitation leads to noise in the acquired data, which is often exacerbated when the data is manipulated. In this study, we report on two techniques for increasing the accuracy of tissue deformation measurements. In the first technique, deformations were tracked in a grid that was photobleached on each tissue sample (Bruehlmann et al., 2004). In the second, a numerical technique was implemented that allowed for accurate differentiation of optical displacement measurements by minimizing the propagated experimental error while ensuring that truncation error associated with local averaging of the data remained small. To test their efficacy, we employed these techniques to compare the depth-dependent shear moduli of neonatal bovine and adult human articular cartilage. Using a photobleached grid and numerical optimization to gather and analyze data led to results consistent with those reported previously (Buckley et al., 2008; Wong et al., 2008a), but with increased spatial resolution and characteristic coefficients of variation that were reduced up to a factor of 3. This increased resolution allowed us to determine that the shear modulus of neonatal bovine and adult

  7. Spatial Resolution Characterization for AWiFS Multispectral Images

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blonski, Slawomir; Ryan, Robert E.; Pagnutti, Mary; Stanley, Thomas

    2007-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation describes the spatial resolution of the AWiFS multispectral images characterized by an estimation of the Modulation Transfer Function (MTF) at Nyquist frequency. The contents include: 1) MTF Analysis; 2) Target Analysis; 3) "Pulse Target"; 4) "Pulse" Method; 5) Target Images; 6) Bridge Profiles; 7) MTF Calculation; 8) MTF Results; and 9) Results Summary.

  8. Decoding Rich Spatial Information with High Temporal Resolution

    PubMed Central

    Stokes, Mark G.; Wolff, Michael J.; Spaak, Eelke

    2015-01-01

    New research suggests that magnetoencephalography (MEG) contains rich spatial information for decoding neural states. Even small differences in the angle of neighbouring dipoles generate subtle, but statistically separable field patterns. This implies MEG (and electroencephalography: EEG) is ideal for decoding neural states with high-temporal resolution in the human brain. PMID:26440122

  9. Spatially Patterned Electrical Stimulation to Enhance Resolution of Retinal Prostheses

    PubMed Central

    Hottowy, Paweł; Mathieson, Keith; Gunning, Deborah E.; Dąbrowski, Władysław; Litke, Alan M.; Chichilnisky, E. J.

    2014-01-01

    Retinal prostheses electrically stimulate neurons to produce artificial vision in people blinded by photoreceptor degenerative diseases. The limited spatial resolution of current devices results in indiscriminate stimulation of interleaved cells of different types, precluding veridical reproduction of natural activity patterns in the retinal output. Here we investigate the use of spatial patterns of current injection to increase the spatial resolution of stimulation, using high-density multielectrode recording and stimulation of identified ganglion cells in isolated macaque retina. As previously shown, current passed through a single electrode typically induced a single retinal ganglion cell spike with submillisecond timing precision. Current passed simultaneously through pairs of neighboring electrodes modified the probability of activation relative to injection through a single electrode. This modification could be accurately summarized by a piecewise linear model of current summation, consistent with a simple biophysical model based on multiple sites of activation. The generalizability of the piecewise linear model was tested by using the measured responses to stimulation with two electrodes to predict responses to stimulation with three electrodes. Finally, the model provided an accurate prediction of which among a set of spatial stimulation patterns maximized selective activation of a cell while minimizing activation of a neighboring cell. The results demonstrate that tailored multielectrode stimulation patterns based on a piecewise linear model may be useful in increasing the spatial resolution of retinal prostheses. PMID:24695706

  10. Spatial resolution of MFM measurements of penetration depth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spanton, Eric; Luan, Lan; Kirtley, John; Moler, Kathryn

    2012-02-01

    The penetration depth and its temperature dependence are key ways to characterize superconductors. Measurements of the local Meissner response of a superconductor can determine the local penetration depth. To quantify the spatial resolution of such measurements, we seek to characterize the point spread function of magnetic force microscope (MFM) measurements of the penetration depth both numerically and experimentally. Modeling various geometries of MFM tips (pyramid, dipole, and long thin cylinder) in the presence of various geometries of spatial variation in the penetration depth (point variation, columnar defects, and planar defects or twin boundaries) shows the importance of the MFM tip geometry to achieving both excellent spatial resolution and quantitatively interpretable results. We compare these models to experimental data on pnictides and cuprates to set upper limits on the sub-micron-scale variation of the penetration depth. These results demonstrate both the feasibility and the technical challenges of submicron penetration depth mapping.

  11. Improved Spatial Resolution for Reflection Mode Infrared Microscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Bechtel, Hans A.; Martin, Michael C.; May, T.E.; Lerch, Philippe

    2009-10-09

    Standard commercial infrared microscopes operating in reflection mode use a mirror to direct the reflected light from the sample to the detector. This mirror blocks about half of the incident light, however, and thus degrades the spatial resolution by reducing the umerical aperture of the objective. Here, we replace the mirror with a 50% beamsplitter to allow full illumination of the objective and retain a way to direct the reflected light to the detector. The improved spatial resolution is demonstrated using two different microscopes apable of diffraction-limited resolution: the first microscope is coupled to a synchrotron source and utilizes a single point detector, whereas the second microscope has a standard blackbody source and uses a focal planetarray (FPA) detector.

  12. High cognitive reserve is associated with a reduced age-related deficit in spatial conflict resolution

    PubMed Central

    Puccioni, Olga; Vallesi, Antonino

    2012-01-01

    Several studies support the existence of a specific age-related difficulty in suppressing potentially distracting information. The aim of the present study is to investigate whether spatial conflict resolution is selectively affected by aging. The way aging affects individuals could be modulated by many factors determined by the socieconomic status: we investigated whether factors such as cognitive reserve (CR) and years of education may play a compensatory role against age-related deficits in the spatial domain. A spatial Stroop task with no feature repetitions was administered to a sample of 17 non-demented older adults (69–79 years-old) and 18 younger controls (18–34 years-old) matched for gender and years of education. The two age groups were also administered with measures of intelligence and CR. The overall spatial Stroop effect did not differ according to age, neither for speed nor for accuracy. The two age groups equally showed sequential effects for congruent trials: reduced response times (RTs) if another congruent trial preceded them, and accuracy at ceiling. For incongruent trials, older adults, but not younger controls, were influenced by congruency of trialn−1, since RTs increased with preceding congruent trials. Interestingly, such an age-related modulation negatively correlated with CR. These findings suggest that spatial conflict resolution in aging is predominantly affected by general slowing, rather than by a more specific deficit. However, a high level of CR seems to play a compensatory role for both factors. PMID:23248595

  13. The spatial accuracy of cellular dose estimates obtained from 3D reconstructed serial tissue autoradiographs.

    PubMed

    Humm, J L; Macklis, R M; Lu, X Q; Yang, Y; Bump, K; Beresford, B; Chin, L M

    1995-01-01

    In order to better predict and understand the effects of radiopharmaceuticals used for therapy, it is necessary to determine more accurately the radiation absorbed dose to cells in tissue. Using thin-section autoradiography, the spatial distribution of sources relative to the cells can be obtained from a single section with micrometre resolution. By collecting and analysing serial sections, the 3D microscopic distribution of radionuclide relative to the cellular histology, and therefore the dose rate distribution, can be established. In this paper, a method of 3D reconstruction of serial sections is proposed, and measurements are reported of (i) the accuracy and reproducibility of quantitative autoradiography and (ii) the spatial precision with which tissue features from one section can be related to adjacent sections. Uncertainties in the activity determination for the specimen result from activity losses during tissue processing (4-11%), and the variation of grain count per unit activity between batches of serial sections (6-25%). Correlation of the section activity to grain count densities showed deviations ranging from 6-34%. The spatial alignment uncertainties were assessed using nylon fibre fiduciary markers incorporated into the tissue block, and compared to those for alignment based on internal tissue landmarks. The standard deviation for the variation in nylon fibre fiduciary alignment was measured to be 41 microns cm-1, compared to 69 microns cm-1 when internal tissue histology landmarks were used. In addition, tissue shrinkage during histological processing of up to 10% was observed. The implications of these measured activity and spatial distribution uncertainties upon the estimate of cellular dose rate distribution depends upon the range of the radiation emissions. For long-range beta particles, uncertainties in both the activity and spatial distribution translate linearly to the uncertainty in dose rate of < 15%. For short-range emitters (< 100

  14. Spatial Resolution Requirements for MODIS-N. [Polar Platform Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MODIS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Townshend, J. R. G.; Justice, C. O.; Markham, B. L.; Briggs, S. A.

    1988-01-01

    An empirical investigation of the required spatial resolution for MODIS-N is outlined. It is based on 5 LANDSAT multispectral scanner system images of the normalized difference vegetation index degraded to resolutions between 250 m and 4000 m. Pairs of images from different dates were registered and difference images were generated. Fourier analysis indicates that resolutions finer than 1 km are highly desirable for change detection. A sensor with a resolution of 500 m is recommended as providing the best compromise between detail of changes detected and the size of the resultant data volume, but other options are also suggested.

  15. Evolution of spatial resolution in breast CT at UC Davis

    SciTech Connect

    Gazi, Peymon M.; Yang, Kai; Burkett, George W.; Aminololama-Shakeri, Shadi; Anthony Seibert, J.; Boone, John M.

    2015-04-15

    Purpose: Dedicated breast computed tomography (bCT) technology for the purpose of breast cancer screening has been a focus of research at UC Davis since the late 1990s. Previous studies have shown that improvement in spatial resolution characteristics of this modality correlates with greater microcalcification detection, a factor considered a potential limitation of bCT. The aim of this study is to improve spatial resolution as characterized by the modulation transfer function (MTF) via changes in the scanner hardware components and operational schema. Methods: Four prototypes of pendant-geometry, cone-beam breast CT scanners were designed and developed spanning three generations of design evolution. To improve the system MTF in each bCT generation, modifications were made to the imaging components (x-ray tube and flat-panel detector), system geometry (source-to-isocenter and detector distance), and image acquisition parameters (technique factors, number of projections, system synchronization scheme, and gantry rotational speed). Results: Characterization of different generations of bCT systems shows these modifications resulted in a 188% improvement of the limiting MTF properties from the first to second generation and an additional 110% from the second to third. The intrinsic resolution degradation in the azimuthal direction observed in the first generation was corrected by changing the acquisition from continuous to pulsed x-ray acquisition. Utilizing a high resolution detector in the third generation, along with modifications made in system geometry and scan protocol, resulted in a 125% improvement in limiting resolution. An additional 39% improvement was obtained by changing the detector binning mode from 2 × 2 to 1 × 1. Conclusions: These results underscore the advancement in spatial resolution characteristics of breast CT technology. The combined use of a pulsed x-ray system, higher resolution flat-panel detector and changing the scanner geometry and image

  16. Evolution of spatial resolution in breast CT at UC Davis

    PubMed Central

    Gazi, Peymon M.; Yang, Kai; Burkett, George W.; Aminololama-Shakeri, Shadi; Anthony Seibert, J.; Boone, John M.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Dedicated breast computed tomography (bCT) technology for the purpose of breast cancer screening has been a focus of research at UC Davis since the late 1990s. Previous studies have shown that improvement in spatial resolution characteristics of this modality correlates with greater microcalcification detection, a factor considered a potential limitation of bCT. The aim of this study is to improve spatial resolution as characterized by the modulation transfer function (MTF) via changes in the scanner hardware components and operational schema. Methods: Four prototypes of pendant-geometry, cone-beam breast CT scanners were designed and developed spanning three generations of design evolution. To improve the system MTF in each bCT generation, modifications were made to the imaging components (x-ray tube and flat-panel detector), system geometry (source-to-isocenter and detector distance), and image acquisition parameters (technique factors, number of projections, system synchronization scheme, and gantry rotational speed). Results: Characterization of different generations of bCT systems shows these modifications resulted in a 188% improvement of the limiting MTF properties from the first to second generation and an additional 110% from the second to third. The intrinsic resolution degradation in the azimuthal direction observed in the first generation was corrected by changing the acquisition from continuous to pulsed x-ray acquisition. Utilizing a high resolution detector in the third generation, along with modifications made in system geometry and scan protocol, resulted in a 125% improvement in limiting resolution. An additional 39% improvement was obtained by changing the detector binning mode from 2 × 2 to 1 × 1. Conclusions: These results underscore the advancement in spatial resolution characteristics of breast CT technology. The combined use of a pulsed x-ray system, higher resolution flat-panel detector and changing the scanner geometry and image

  17. Investigation of LANDSAT follow-on thematic mapper spatial, radiometric and spectral resolution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nalepka, R. F. (Principal Investigator); Morgenstern, J. P.; Kent, E. R.; Erickson, J. D.

    1976-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Fine resolution M7 multispectral scanner data collected during the Corn Blight Watch Experiment in 1971 served as the basis for this study. Different locations and times of year were studied. Definite improvement using 30-40 meter spatial resolution over present LANDSAT 1 resolution and over 50-60 meter resolution was observed, using crop area mensuration as the measure. Simulation studies carried out to extrapolate the empirical results to a range of field size distributions confirmed this effect, showing the improvement to be most pronounced for field sizes of 1-4 hectares. Radiometric sensitivity study showed significant degradation of crop classification accuracy immediately upon relaxation from the nominally specified values of 0.5% noise equivalent reflectance. This was especially the case for data which were spectrally similar such as that collected early in the growing season and also when attempting to accomplish crop stress detection.

  18. Analysis and improvement of accuracy, sensitivity, and resolution of the coherent gradient sensing method.

    PubMed

    Dong, Xuelin; Zhang, Changxing; Feng, Xue; Duan, Zhiyin

    2016-06-10

    The coherent gradient sensing (CGS) method, one kind of shear interferometry sensitive to surface slope, has been applied to full-field curvature measuring for decades. However, its accuracy, sensitivity, and resolution have not been studied clearly. In this paper, we analyze the accuracy, sensitivity, and resolution for the CGS method based on the derivation of its working principle. The results show that the sensitivity is related to the grating pitch and distance, and the accuracy and resolution are determined by the wavelength of the laser beam and the diameter of the reflected beam. The sensitivity is proportional to the ratio of grating distance to its pitch, while the accuracy will decline as this ratio increases. In addition, we demonstrate that using phase gratings as the shearing element can improve the interferogram and enhance accuracy, sensitivity, and resolution. The curvature of a spherical reflector is measured by CGS with Ronchi gratings and phase gratings under different experimental parameters to illustrate this analysis. All of the results are quite helpful for CGS applications. PMID:27409035

  19. High-spatial-resolution nanoparticle x-ray fluorescence tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larsson, Jakob C.; Vâgberg, William; Vogt, Carmen; Lundström, Ulf; Larsson, Daniel H.; Hertz, Hans M.

    2016-03-01

    X-ray fluorescence tomography (XFCT) has potential for high-resolution 3D molecular x-ray bio-imaging. In this technique the fluorescence signal from targeted nanoparticles (NPs) is measured, providing information about the spatial distribution and concentration of the NPs inside the object. However, present laboratory XFCT systems typically have limited spatial resolution (>1 mm) and suffer from long scan times and high radiation dose even at high NP concentrations, mainly due to low efficiency and poor signal-to-noise ratio. We have developed a laboratory XFCT system with high spatial resolution (sub-100 μm), low NP concentration and vastly decreased scan times and dose, opening up the possibilities for in-vivo small-animal imaging research. The system consists of a high-brightness liquid-metal-jet microfocus x-ray source, x-ray focusing optics and an energy-resolving photon-counting detector. By using the source's characteristic 24 keV line-emission together with carefully matched molybdenum nanoparticles the Compton background is greatly reduced, increasing the SNR. Each measurement provides information about the spatial distribution and concentration of the Mo nanoparticles. A filtered back-projection method is used to produce the final XFCT image.

  20. Spatial resolution of a hard x-ray CCD detector

    SciTech Connect

    Seely, John F.; Pereira, Nino R.; Weber, Bruce V.; Schumer, Joseph W.; Apruzese, John P.; Hudson, Lawrence T.; Szabo, Csilla I.; Boyer, Craig N.; Skirlo, Scott

    2010-08-10

    The spatial resolution of an x-ray CCD detector was determined from the widths of the tungsten x-ray lines in the spectrum formed by a crystal spectrometer in the 58 to 70 keV energy range. The detector had 20{mu}m pixel, 1700 by 1200 pixel format, and a CsI x-ray conversion scintillator. The spectral lines from a megavolt x-ray generator were focused on the spectrometer's Rowland circle by a curved transmission crystal. The line shapes were Lorentzian with an average width after removal of the natural and instrumental line widths of 95{mu}m (4.75 pixels). A high spatial frequency background, primarily resulting from scattered gamma rays, was removed from the spectral image by Fourier analysis. The spectral lines, having low spatial frequency in the direction perpendicular to the dispersion, were enhanced by partially removing the Lorentzian line shape and by fitting Lorentzian curves to broad unresolved spectral features. This demonstrates the ability to improve the spectral resolution of hard x-ray spectra that are recorded by a CCD detector with well-characterized intrinsic spatial resolution.

  1. Spatial resolution limits for synchrotron-based infrared spectromicroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Levenson, Erika; Lerch, Philippe; Martin, Michael C.

    2007-10-15

    Detailed spatial resolution tests were performed on beamline 1.4.4 at the Advanced Light Source synchrotron facility in Berkeley, CA. The high-brightness synchrotron source is coupled at this beamline to a Thermo-Electron Continumum XL infrared microscope. Two types of resolution tests in both the mid-IR (using a KBr beamsplitter and an MCT-A* detector) and in the near-IR (using a CaF2 beamsplitter and an InGaAS detector) were performed and compared to a simple diffraction-limited spot size model. At the shorter wavelengths in the near-IR the experimental results begin to deviate from only diffraction-limited. The entire data set is fit using a combined diffraction-limit and demagnified electron beam source size model. This description experimentally verifies how the physical electron beam size of the synchrotron source demagnified to the sample stage on the endstation begins to dominate the focussed spot size and therefore spatial resolution at higher energies. We discuss how different facilities, beamlines, and microscopes will affect the achievable spatial resolution.

  2. Spatially resolved and observer-free experimental quantification of spatial resolution in tomographic images

    SciTech Connect

    Tsekenis, S. A.; McCann, H.; Tait, N.

    2015-03-15

    We present a novel framework and experimental method for the quantification of spatial resolution of a tomography system. The framework adopts the “black box” view of an imaging system, considering only its input and output. The tomography system is locally stimulated with a step input, viz., a sharp edge. The output, viz., the reconstructed images, is analysed by Fourier decomposition of their spatial frequency components, and the local limiting spatial resolution is determined using a cut-off threshold. At no point is an observer involved in the process. The framework also includes a means of translating the quantification region in the imaging space, thus creating a spatially resolved map of objectively quantified spatial resolution. As a case-study, the framework is experimentally applied using a gaseous propane phantom measured by a well-established chemical species tomography system. A spatial resolution map consisting of 28 regions is produced. In isolated regions, the indicated performance is 4-times better than that suggested in the literature and varies by 57% across the imaging space. A mechanism based on adjacent but non-interacting beams is hypothesised to explain the observed behaviour. The mechanism suggests that, as also independently concluded by other methods, a geometrically regular beam array maintains maximum objectivity in reconstructions. We believe that the proposed framework, methodology, and findings will be of value in the design and performance evaluation of tomographic imaging arrays and systems.

  3. Accuracy assessment of high resolution satellite imagery orientation by leave-one-out method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brovelli, Maria Antonia; Crespi, Mattia; Fratarcangeli, Francesca; Giannone, Francesca; Realini, Eugenio

    Interest in high-resolution satellite imagery (HRSI) is spreading in several application fields, at both scientific and commercial levels. Fundamental and critical goals for the geometric use of this kind of imagery are their orientation and orthorectification, processes able to georeference the imagery and correct the geometric deformations they undergo during acquisition. In order to exploit the actual potentialities of orthorectified imagery in Geomatics applications, the definition of a methodology to assess the spatial accuracy achievable from oriented imagery is a crucial topic. In this paper we want to propose a new method for accuracy assessment based on the Leave-One-Out Cross-Validation (LOOCV), a model validation method already applied in different fields such as machine learning, bioinformatics and generally in any other field requiring an evaluation of the performance of a learning algorithm (e.g. in geostatistics), but never applied to HRSI orientation accuracy assessment. The proposed method exhibits interesting features which are able to overcome the most remarkable drawbacks involved by the commonly used method (Hold-Out Validation — HOV), based on the partitioning of the known ground points in two sets: the first is used in the orientation-orthorectification model (GCPs — Ground Control Points) and the second is used to validate the model itself (CPs — Check Points). In fact the HOV is generally not reliable and it is not applicable when a low number of ground points is available. To test the proposed method we implemented a new routine that performs the LOOCV in the software SISAR, developed by the Geodesy and Geomatics Team at the Sapienza University of Rome to perform the rigorous orientation of HRSI; this routine was tested on some EROS-A and QuickBird images. Moreover, these images were also oriented using the world recognized commercial software OrthoEngine v. 10 (included in the Geomatica suite by PCI), manually performing the LOOCV

  4. Accuracy, resolution, and cost comparisons between small format and mapping cameras for environmental mapping

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clegg, R. H.; Scherz, J. P.

    1975-01-01

    Successful aerial photography depends on aerial cameras providing acceptable photographs within cost restrictions of the job. For topographic mapping where ultimate accuracy is required only large format mapping cameras will suffice. For mapping environmental patterns of vegetation, soils, or water pollution, 9-inch cameras often exceed accuracy and cost requirements, and small formats may be better. In choosing the best camera for environmental mapping, relative capabilities and costs must be understood. This study compares resolution, photo interpretation potential, metric accuracy, and cost of 9-inch, 70mm, and 35mm cameras for obtaining simultaneous color and color infrared photography for environmental mapping purposes.

  5. 3D spatial resolution and spectral resolution of interferometric 3D imaging spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Obara, Masaki; Yoshimori, Kyu

    2016-04-01

    Recently developed interferometric 3D imaging spectrometry (J. Opt. Soc. Am A18, 765 [2001]1084-7529JOAOD610.1364/JOSAA.18.000765) enables obtainment of the spectral information and 3D spatial information for incoherently illuminated or self-luminous object simultaneously. Using this method, we can obtain multispectral components of complex holograms, which correspond directly to the phase distribution of the wavefronts propagated from the polychromatic object. This paper focuses on the analysis of spectral resolution and 3D spatial resolution in interferometric 3D imaging spectrometry. Our analysis is based on a novel analytical impulse response function defined over four-dimensional space. We found that the experimental results agree well with the theoretical prediction. This work also suggests a new criterion and estimate method regarding 3D spatial resolution of digital holography. PMID:27139648

  6. Effects of spatial order of accuracy on the computation of vortical flowfields

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ekaterinaris, J. A.

    1993-01-01

    The effect of the order-of-accuracy, used for the spatial discretization, on the resolution of the leading edge vortices over sharp-edged delta wings is investigated. The flowfield is computed using a viscous/inviscid zonal approach. The viscous flow in the vicinity of the wing is computed using the conservative formulation of the compressible, thin-layer Navier-Stokes equations. The leeward-side vortical flowfield and the other flow regions away from the surface are computed as inviscid. The time integration is performed with both an explicit fourth-order Runge-Kutta scheme and an implicit, factorized, iterative scheme. High-order-accurate inviscid fluxes are computed using both a conservative and a non-conservative (primitive variable) formulation. The nonlinear, inviscid terms of the primitive variable form of the governing equations are evaluated with a finite-difference numerical scheme based on the sign of the eigenvalues. High-order, upwind-biased, finite difference formulas are used to evaluate the derivatives of the nonlinear convective terms. Computed results are compared with available experimental data, and comparisons of the flowfield in the vicinity of the vortex cores are presented.

  7. Subcell resolution in simplex stochastic collocation for spatial discontinuities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Witteveen, Jeroen A. S.; Iaccarino, Gianluca

    2013-10-01

    Subcell resolution has been used in the Finite Volume Method (FVM) to obtain accurate approximations of discontinuities in the physical space. Stochastic methods are usually based on local adaptivity for resolving discontinuities in the stochastic dimensions. However, the adaptive refinement in the probability space is ineffective in the non-intrusive uncertainty quantification framework, if the stochastic discontinuity is caused by a discontinuity in the physical space with a random location. The dependence of the discontinuity location in the probability space on the spatial coordinates then results in a staircase approximation of the statistics, which leads to first-order error convergence and an underprediction of the maximum standard deviation. To avoid these problems, we introduce subcell resolution into the Simplex Stochastic Collocation (SSC) method for obtaining a truly discontinuous representation of random spatial discontinuities in the interior of the cells discretizing the probability space. The presented SSC-SR method is based on resolving the discontinuity location in the probability space explicitly as function of the spatial coordinates and extending the stochastic response surface approximations up to the predicted discontinuity location. The applications to a linear advection problem, the inviscid Burgers' equation, a shock tube problem, and the transonic flow over the RAE 2822 airfoil show that SSC-SR resolves random spatial discontinuities with multiple stochastic and spatial dimensions accurately using a minimal number of samples.

  8. Subcell resolution in simplex stochastic collocation for spatial discontinuities

    SciTech Connect

    Witteveen, Jeroen A.S.; Iaccarino, Gianluca

    2013-10-15

    Subcell resolution has been used in the Finite Volume Method (FVM) to obtain accurate approximations of discontinuities in the physical space. Stochastic methods are usually based on local adaptivity for resolving discontinuities in the stochastic dimensions. However, the adaptive refinement in the probability space is ineffective in the non-intrusive uncertainty quantification framework, if the stochastic discontinuity is caused by a discontinuity in the physical space with a random location. The dependence of the discontinuity location in the probability space on the spatial coordinates then results in a staircase approximation of the statistics, which leads to first-order error convergence and an underprediction of the maximum standard deviation. To avoid these problems, we introduce subcell resolution into the Simplex Stochastic Collocation (SSC) method for obtaining a truly discontinuous representation of random spatial discontinuities in the interior of the cells discretizing the probability space. The presented SSC–SR method is based on resolving the discontinuity location in the probability space explicitly as function of the spatial coordinates and extending the stochastic response surface approximations up to the predicted discontinuity location. The applications to a linear advection problem, the inviscid Burgers’ equation, a shock tube problem, and the transonic flow over the RAE 2822 airfoil show that SSC–SR resolves random spatial discontinuities with multiple stochastic and spatial dimensions accurately using a minimal number of samples.

  9. Improving PET spatial resolution and detectability for prostate cancer imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bal, H.; Guerin, L.; Casey, M. E.; Conti, M.; Eriksson, L.; Michel, C.; Fanti, S.; Pettinato, C.; Adler, S.; Choyke, P.

    2014-08-01

    Prostate cancer, one of the most common forms of cancer among men, can benefit from recent improvements in positron emission tomography (PET) technology. In particular, better spatial resolution, lower noise and higher detectability of small lesions could be greatly beneficial for early diagnosis and could provide a strong support for guiding biopsy and surgery. In this article, the impact of improved PET instrumentation with superior spatial resolution and high sensitivity are discussed, together with the latest development in PET technology: resolution recovery and time-of-flight reconstruction. Using simulated cancer lesions, inserted in clinical PET images obtained with conventional protocols, we show that visual identification of the lesions and detectability via numerical observers can already be improved using state of the art PET reconstruction methods. This was achieved using both resolution recovery and time-of-flight reconstruction, and a high resolution image with 2 mm pixel size. Channelized Hotelling numerical observers showed an increase in the area under the LROC curve from 0.52 to 0.58. In addition, a relationship between the simulated input activity and the area under the LROC curve showed that the minimum detectable activity was reduced by more than 23%.

  10. Effect of spatial resolution of radar-based inundation maps on the calibration of a spatial inundation model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gobeyn, Sacha; Vernieuwe, Hilde; De Baets, Bernard; Bates, Paul; Verhoest Niko E., C.

    2013-04-01

    With advances in both flood mapping with satellite radar and computational science, the use of real-time spatial flood data holds the potential to support decision making during flood events. With recent improvements in satellite radar technology, current and future radar images are/will be delivered with higher spatial resolution. It is expected that these higher resolutions should improve the accuracy of the calibration and the prediction through data assimilation as more detailed information is available. However, these finer resolution data will result in an increased computational cost. Still, radar data of coarser resolution will remain available, and the question may then arise whether the calibration of a 2D-hydraulic model is significantly influenced by the resolution of the remotely-sensed inundation map. In order to answer this question, the raster-based inundation model, LISFLOOD-FP (Bates et al., 2000) is calibrated using a high resolution synthetic aperture radar image (ERS-2 SAR) of a flood event of the river Dee, Wales, in December 2006. Different radar resolutions are simulated through coarsening this image to different resolutions and retrieving the flood extent maps for the different resolutions. These flood maps are then used for calibrating the hydraulic model using the generalized likelihood uncertainty estimation (GLUE) framework presented by Aronica et al. (2002) as well as alternative calibration methods (e.g. Particle Swarm Optimization, PSO) to assess the possible impact of spatial resolution of the observed flood extent on the floodplain and channel Manning coefficient. Furthermore, the sensitivity of the calibration surface to error sources in radar measurement is evaluated by applying different magnitudes of noise to the radar image. References Aronica, G., Bates, P. D. and Horritt, M. S. (2002). Assessing the uncertainty in distributed model predictions using observed binary pattern information within GLUE. Hydrological Processes, 16

  11. Decoding algorithms and spatial resolution Monte Carlo simulation of cross strip anode for UV astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deng, Guobao; Zhu, Xiangping

    2015-02-01

    The development decoding algorithms of two-dimensional cross strip anodes image readouts for applications in UV astronomy are described. We present results with Monte Carlo simulation by GEANT4 toolkit, the results show that when the cross strip anode period is 0.5mm and the electrode width is 0.4mm, the spatial resolution accuracy is sufficient to reach better than 5 μm, the temporal resolution accuracy of the event detection can be as low as 100 ps. The influences of the cross strip detector parameters, such as the anode period, the width of anode fingers (electrode), the width of the charge footprint at the anode (determined by the distance and the field between the MCP and the anode), the gain of the MCP and equivalent noise charge (ENC) are also discussed. The development decoding algorithms and simulation results can be useful for the designing and performance improvement of future photon counting imaging detectors for UV Astronomy.

  12. Modelling malaria risk in East Africa at high-spatial resolution

    PubMed Central

    Omumbo, J. A.; Hay, S. I.; Snow, R. W.; Tatem, A. J.; Rogers, D. J.

    2011-01-01

    Summary OBJECTIVES Malaria risk maps have re-emerged as an important tool for appropriately targeting the limited resources available for malaria control. In Sub-Saharan Africa empirically derived maps using standardized criteria are few and this paper considers the development of a model of malaria risk for East Africa. METHODS Statistical techniques were applied to high spatial resolution remotely sensed, human settlement and land-use data to predict the intensity of malaria transmission as defined according to the childhood parasite ratio (PR) in East Africa. Discriminant analysis was used to train environmental and human settlement predictor variables to distinguish between four classes of PR risk shown to relate to disease outcomes in the region. RESULTS Independent empirical estimates of the PR were identified from Kenya, Tanzania and Uganda (n = 330). Surrogate markers of climate recorded on-board earth orbiting satellites, population settlement, elevation and water bodies all contributed significantly to the predictive models of malaria transmission intensity in the sub-region. The accuracy of the model was increased by stratifying East Africa into two ecological zones. In addition, the inclusion of urbanization as a predictor of malaria prevalence, whilst reducing formal accuracy statistics, nevertheless improved the consistency of the predictive map with expert opinion malaria maps. The overall accuracy achieved with ecological zone and urban stratification was 62% with surrogates of precipitation and temperature being among the most discriminating predictors of the PR. CONCLUSIONS It is possible to achieve a high degree of predictive accuracy for Plasmodium falciparum parasite prevalence in East Africa using high-spatial resolution environmental data. However, discrepancies were evident from mapped outputs from the models which were largely due to poor coverage of malaria training data and the comparable spatial resolution of predictor data. These

  13. HIGH SPATIAL RESOLUTION OBSERVATIONS OF LOOPS IN THE SOLAR CORONA

    SciTech Connect

    Brooks, David H.; Ugarte-Urra, Ignacio; Warren, Harry P.; Winebarger, Amy R.

    2013-08-01

    Understanding how the solar corona is structured is of fundamental importance to determine how the Sun's upper atmosphere is heated to high temperatures. Recent spectroscopic studies have suggested that an instrument with a spatial resolution of 200 km or better is necessary to resolve coronal loops. The High Resolution Coronal Imager (Hi-C) achieved this performance on a rocket flight in 2012 July. We use Hi-C data to measure the Gaussian widths of 91 loops observed in the solar corona and find a distribution that peaks at about 270 km. We also use Atmospheric Imaging Assembly data for a subset of these loops and find temperature distributions that are generally very narrow. These observations provide further evidence that loops in the solar corona are often structured at a scale of several hundred kilometers, well above the spatial scale of many proposed physical mechanisms.

  14. A multipinhole small animal SPECT system with submillimeter spatial resolution

    SciTech Connect

    Funk, Tobias; Despres, Philippe; Barber, William C.; Shah, Kanai S.; Hasegawa, Bruce H.

    2006-05-15

    Single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) is an important technology for molecular imaging studies of small animals. In this arena, there is an increasing demand for high performance imaging systems that offer improved spatial resolution and detection efficiency. We have designed a multipinhole small animal imaging system based on position sensitive avalanche photodiode (PSAPD) detectors with the goal of submillimeter spatial resolution and high detection efficiency, which will allow us to minimize the radiation dose to the animal and to shorten the time needed for the imaging study. Our design will use 8x24 mm{sup 2} PSAPD detector modules coupled to thallium-doped cesium iodide [CsI(Tl)] scintillators, which can achieve an intrinsic spatial resolution of 0.5 mm at 140 keV. These detectors will be arranged in rings of 24 modules each; the animal is positioned in the center of the 9 stationary detector rings which capture projection data from the animal with a cylindrical tungsten multipinhole collimator. The animal is supported on a bed which can be rocked about the central axis to increase angular sampling of the object. In contrast to conventional SPECT pinhole systems, in our design each pinhole views only a portion of the object. However, the ensemble of projection data from all of the multipinhole detectors provide angular sampling that is sufficient to reconstruct tomographic data from the object. The performance of this multipinhole PSAPD imaging system was simulated using a ray tracing program that models the appropriate point spread functions and then was compared against the performance of a dual-headed pinhole SPECT system. The detection efficiency of both systems was simulated and projection data of a hot rod phantom were generated and reconstructed to assess spatial resolution. Appropriate Poisson noise was added to the data to simulate an acquisition time of 15 min and an activity of 18.5 MBq distributed in the phantom. Both sets of data

  15. Imaging metals in biology: balancing sensitivity, selectivity and spatial resolution.

    PubMed

    Hare, Dominic J; New, Elizabeth J; de Jonge, Martin D; McColl, Gawain

    2015-10-01

    Metal biochemistry drives a diverse range of cellular processes associated with development, health and disease. Determining metal distribution, concentration and flux defines our understanding of these fundamental processes. A comprehensive analysis of biological systems requires a balance of analytical techniques that inform on metal quantity (sensitivity), chemical state (selectivity) and location (spatial resolution) with a high degree of certainty. A number of approaches are available for imaging metals from whole tissues down to subcellular organelles, as well as mapping metal turnover, protein association and redox state within these structures. Technological advances in micro- and nano-scale imaging are striving to achieve multi-dimensional and in vivo measures of metals while maintaining the native biochemical environment and physiological state. This Tutorial Review discusses state-of-the-art imaging technology as a guide to obtaining novel insight into the biology of metals, with sensitivity, selectivity and spatial resolution in focus. PMID:26505053

  16. Sub-pixel spatial resolution wavefront phase imaging

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stahl, H. Philip (Inventor); Mooney, James T. (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    A phase imaging method for an optical wavefront acquires a plurality of phase images of the optical wavefront using a phase imager. Each phase image is unique and is shifted with respect to another of the phase images by a known/controlled amount that is less than the size of the phase imager's pixels. The phase images are then combined to generate a single high-spatial resolution phase image of the optical wavefront.

  17. Spatial and spectral resolution necessary for remotely sensed vegetation studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rock, B. N.

    1982-01-01

    An outline is presented of the required spatial and spectral resolution needed for accurate vegetation discrimination and mapping studies as well as for determination of state of health (i.e., detection of stress symptoms) of actively growing vegetation. Good success was achieved in vegetation discrimination and mapping of a heterogeneous forest cover in the ridge and valley portion of the Appalachians using multispectral data acquired with a spatial resolution of 15 m (IFOV). A sensor system delivering 10 to 15 m spatial resolution is needed for both vegetation mapping and detection of stress symptoms. Based on the vegetation discrimination and mapping exercises conducted at the Lost River site, accurate products (vegetation maps) are produced using broad-band spectral data ranging from the .500 to 2.500 micron portion of the spectrum. In order of decreasing utility for vegetation discrimination, the four most valuable TM simulator VNIR bands are: 6 (1.55 to 1.75 microns), 3 (0.63 to 0.69 microns), 5 (1.00 to 1.30 microns) and 4 (0.76 to 0.90 microns).

  18. Wide band focusing x-ray spectrograph with spatial resolution

    SciTech Connect

    Pikuz, S. A.; Douglass, J. D.; Shelkovenko, T. A.; Sinars, D. B.; Hammer, D. A.

    2008-01-15

    A new, wide spectral bandwidth x-ray spectrograph, the wide-bandwidth focusing spectrograph with spatial resolution (WB-FSSR), based on spherically bent mica crystals, is described. The wide bandwidth is achieved by combining three crystals to form a large aperture dispersive element. Since the WB-FSSR covers a wide spectral band, it is very convenient for application as a routine diagnostic tool in experiments in which the desired spectral coverage is different from one test to the next. The WB-FSSR has been tested in imploding wire-array experiments on a 1 MA pulsed power machine, and x-ray spectra were recorded in the 1-20 A spectral band using different orders of mica crystal reflection. Using a two mirror-symmetrically placed WB-FSSR configuration, it was also possible to distinguish between a real spectral shift and a shift of recorded spectral lines caused by the spatial distribution of the radiating plasma. A spectral resolution of about 2000 was demonstrated and a spatial resolution of {approx}100 {mu}m was achieved in the spectral band of 5-10 A in second order of mica reflection. A simple method of numerical analysis of spectrograph capability is proposed.

  19. Experimental Estimation of CLASP Spatial and Spectral Resolutions: Results of the Instrument's Optical Alignment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Giono, G.; Katsukawa, Y.; Ishikawa, R.; Narukage, N.; Bando, T.; Kano, R.; Suematsu, Y.; Winebarger, A.; Kobayashi, K.; Auchere, F.

    2015-01-01

    The Chromospheric Lyman-Alpha SpectroPolarimeter is a sounding rocket experiment design to measure for the first time the polarization signal of the Lyman-Alpha line (121.6nm), emitted in the solar upper-chromosphere and transition region. This instrument aims to detect the Hanle effect's signature hidden in the Ly-alpha polarization, as a tool to probe the chromospheric magnetic field. Hence, an unprecedented polarization accuracy is needed ((is) less than 10 (exp -3). Nevertheless, spatial and spectral resolutions are also crucial to observe chhromospheric feature such as spicules, and to have precise measurement of the Ly-alpha line core and wings. Hence, this poster will present how the telescope and the spectrograph were separately aligned, and their combined spatial and spectral resolutions.

  20. Accuracy and Resolution of Kinect Depth Data for Indoor Mapping Applications

    PubMed Central

    Khoshelham, Kourosh; Elberink, Sander Oude

    2012-01-01

    Consumer-grade range cameras such as the Kinect sensor have the potential to be used in mapping applications where accuracy requirements are less strict. To realize this potential insight into the geometric quality of the data acquired by the sensor is essential. In this paper we discuss the calibration of the Kinect sensor, and provide an analysis of the accuracy and resolution of its depth data. Based on a mathematical model of depth measurement from disparity a theoretical error analysis is presented, which provides an insight into the factors influencing the accuracy of the data. Experimental results show that the random error of depth measurement increases with increasing distance to the sensor, and ranges from a few millimeters up to about 4 cm at the maximum range of the sensor. The quality of the data is also found to be influenced by the low resolution of the depth measurements. PMID:22438718

  1. Effects of spatial configurations on the resolution of spatial working memory.

    PubMed

    Mutluturk, Aysu; Boduroglu, Aysecan

    2014-11-01

    Recent research demonstrated that people represent spatial information configurally and preservation of configural cues at retrieval helps memory for spatial locations (Boduroğlu & Shah, Memory & Cognition, 37(8), 1120-1131 2009; Jiang, Olson, & Chun, Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 26(3), 683-702 2000). The present study investigated the effects of spatial configurations on the resolution of individual location representations. In an open-ended task, participants first studied a set of object locations (three and five locations). Then, in a test display where available configural cues were manipulated, participants were asked to determine the original location of a target object whose color was auditorially cued. The difference between the reported location and the original location was taken as a measure of spatial resolution. In three experiments, we consistently observed that the resolution of spatial representations was facilitated by the preservation of spatial configurations at retrieval. We argue that participants may be using available configural cues in conjunction with the summary representation (e.g., centroid) of the original display in the computation of target locations. PMID:24939236

  2. Advanced Remote-Sensing Imaging Emission Spectrometer (ARIES): AIRS Spectral Resolution with MODIS Spatial Resolution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pagano, Thomas S.; Chahine, Moustafa T.; Aumann, Hartmut H.; OCallaghan, Fred

    2006-01-01

    The Advanced Remote-sensing Imaging Emission Spectrometer (ARIES) will measure a wide range of earth quantities fundamental to the study of global climate change. It will build upon the success of the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) and the Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) instruments currently flying on the EOS Aqua Spacecraft. Both instruments are facility instruments for NASA providing data to thousands of scientists investigating land, ocean and atmospheric Earth System processes. ARIES will meet all the requirements of AIRS and MODIS in a single compact instrument, while providing the next-generation capability of improved spatial resolution for AIRS and improved spectral resolution for MODIS.

  3. Impact of spatial resolution on thermal blooming phase compensation instability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spencer, Mark F.; Cusumano, Salvatore J.; Schmidt, Jason D.; Fiorino, Steven T.

    2010-08-01

    Phase compensation instability (PCI) is the time-dependent development of spatial perturbations that occur within thermally bloomed high-energy laser (HEL) beams. These types of spatial perturbations act as local hot spots that create small negative lenses within the HEL beam. Closed-loop adaptive optics (AO) corrects for these spatial perturbations by applying small positive-lens phase compensations, which only increases the strength of the local hot spots and leads to runaway in the adaptive-optics servo. This study uses a straightforward wave-optics code to model horizontal propagation with the effects of thermal blooming for a focused Gaussian beam. The strength of the thermal blooming effects is characterized using the classic dimensionless distortion number. A nominal AO system is used to mitigate phase distortions accumulated from thermal blooming. Parameters within the AO system, such as the number of actuators on the deformable mirror and the resolution of the wavefront sensor, are varied to determine the impact of spatial resolution in the development of the PCI. A discussion is given on the potential use of control theory to diminish the effects of the PCI.

  4. A spatial-temporal Hopfield neural network approach for super-resolution land cover mapping with multi-temporal different resolution remotely sensed images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xiaodong; Ling, Feng; Du, Yun; Feng, Qi; Zhang, Yihang

    2014-07-01

    The mixed pixel problem affects the extraction of land cover information from remotely sensed images. Super-resolution mapping (SRM) can produce land cover maps with a finer spatial resolution than the remotely sensed images, and reduce the mixed pixel problem to some extent. Traditional SRMs solely adopt a single coarse-resolution image as input. Uncertainty always exists in resultant fine-resolution land cover maps, due to the lack of information about detailed land cover spatial patterns. The development of remote sensing technology has enabled the storage of a great amount of fine spatial resolution remotely sensed images. These data can provide fine-resolution land cover spatial information and are promising in reducing the SRM uncertainty. This paper presents a spatial-temporal Hopfield neural network (STHNN) based SRM, by employing both a current coarse-resolution image and a previous fine-resolution land cover map as input. STHNN considers the spatial information, as well as the temporal information of sub-pixel pairs by distinguishing the unchanged, decreased and increased land cover fractions in each coarse-resolution pixel, and uses different rules in labeling these sub-pixels. The proposed STHNN method was tested using synthetic images with different class fraction errors and real Landsat images, by comparing with pixel-based classification method and several popular SRM methods including pixel-swapping algorithm, Hopfield neural network based method and sub-pixel land cover change mapping method. Results show that STHNN outperforms pixel-based classification method, pixel-swapping algorithm and Hopfield neural network based model in most cases. The weight parameters of different STHNN spatial constraints, temporal constraints and fraction constraint have important functions in the STHNN performance. The heterogeneity degree of the previous map and the fraction images errors affect the STHNN accuracy, and can be served as guidances of selecting the

  5. Photoacoustic lymphatic imaging with high spatial-temporal resolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martel, Catherine; Yao, Junjie; Huang, Chih-Hsien; Zou, Jun; Randolph, Gwendalyn J.; Wang, Lihong V.

    2014-11-01

    Despite its critical function in coordinating the egress of inflammatory and immune cells out of tissues and maintaining fluid balance, the causative role of lymphatic network dysfunction in pathological settings is still understudied. Engineered-animal models and better noninvasive high spatial-temporal resolution imaging techniques in both preclinical and clinical studies will help to improve our understanding of different lymphatic-related pathologic disorders. Our aim was to take advantage of our newly optimized noninvasive wide-field fast-scanning photoacoustic (PA) microcopy system to coordinately image the lymphatic vasculature and its flow dynamics, while maintaining high resolution and detection sensitivity. Here, by combining the optical-resolution PA microscopy with a fast-scanning water-immersible microelectromechanical system scanning mirror, we have imaged the lymph dynamics over a large field-of-view, with high spatial resolution and advanced detection sensitivity. Depending on the application, lymphatic vessels (LV) were spectrally or temporally differentiated from blood vessels. Validation experiments were performed on phantoms and in vivo to identify the LV. Lymphatic flow dynamics in nonpathological and pathological conditions were also visualized. These results indicate that our newly developed PA microscopy is a promising tool for lymphatic-related biological research.

  6. High-resolution TFT-LCD for spatial light modulator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, JaeWon; Kim, Yong-Hae; Byun, Chun-Won; Pi, Jae-Eun; Oh, Himchan; Kim, GiHeon; Lee, Myung-Lae; Chu, Hye-Yong; Hwang, Chi-Sun

    2014-06-01

    SLM with very fine pixel pitch is needed for the holographic display system. Among various kinds of SLMs, commercially available high resolution LCoS has been widely used as a spatial light modulator. But the size of commercially available LCoS SLM is limited because the manufacturing technology of LCoS is based on the semiconductor process developed on small size Si wafer. Recently very high resolution flat panel display panel (~500ppi) was developed as a "retina display". Until now, the pixel pitch of flat panel display is several times larger than the pixel pitch of LCoS. But considering the possibility of shrink down the pixel pitch with advanced lithographic tools, the application of flat panel display will make it possible to build a SLM with high spatial bandwidth product. We simulated High resolution TFT-LCD panel on glass substrate using oxide semiconductor TFT with pixel pitch of 20um. And we considered phase modulation behavior of LC(ECB) mode. The TFT-LCD panel is reflective type with 4-metal structure with organic planarization layers. The technical challenge for high resolution large area SLM will be discussed with very fine pixel.

  7. Science with High Spatial Resolution Far-Infrared Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Terebey, Susan (Editor); Mazzarella, Joseph M. (Editor)

    1994-01-01

    The goal of this workshop was to discuss new science and techniques relevant to high spatial resolution processing of far-infrared data, with particular focus on high resolution processing of IRAS data. Users of the maximum correlation method, maximum entropy, and other resolution enhancement algorithms applicable to far-infrared data gathered at the Infrared Processing and Analysis Center (IPAC) for two days in June 1993 to compare techniques and discuss new results. During a special session on the third day, interested astronomers were introduced to IRAS HIRES processing, which is IPAC's implementation of the maximum correlation method to the IRAS data. Topics discussed during the workshop included: (1) image reconstruction; (2) random noise; (3) imagery; (4) interacting galaxies; (5) spiral galaxies; (6) galactic dust and elliptical galaxies; (7) star formation in Seyfert galaxies; (8) wavelet analysis; and (9) supernova remnants.

  8. Advanced Remote-sensing Imaging Emission Spectrometer (ARIES): AIRS Spectral Resolution with MODIS Spatial Resolution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pagano, Thomas S.; Chahine, Moustafa T.; Aumann, Hartmut H.; OCallaghan, Fred G.; Broberg, Steve E.

    2006-01-01

    This paper describes a space based instrument concept that will provide scientists with data needed to support key ongoing and future Earth System Science investigations. The measurement approach builds on the observations made by AIRS and MODIS and exceeds their capability with improved spatial and spectral resolution. This paper describes the expected products and the instrument concept that can meet those requirements.

  9. COS External Spectroscopic Performance: Spectral and Spatial Resolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghavamian, Parviz; Froning, Cynthia; Osterman, Steve; Keyes, Charles (Tony); Sahnow, Dave

    2010-07-01

    During the SM4 Servicing Mission Observatory Verification (SMOV) we discovered that the on-orbit shape of the COS LSF with the HST optical telescope assembly (OTA) exhibits broad wings. The wings are caused by mid-frequency wave-front errors (MFWFEs) that are produced by the zonal (polishing) errors on the HST primary and secondary mirrors; these errors could not be simulated during ground testing. The MFWFEs are particularly noticeable in the FUV. The on-orbit LSF has up to 40% of its total power distributed in non-Gaussian wings (as compared to 26% for a Gaussian). The power in these wings is largest at the shortest wavelengths covered by the COS FUV medium-resolution gratings ( 1150 Å). The effect decreases with increasing wavelength but has a non-negligible effect on encircled energies even at the longest wavelengths. We have calculated optical models incorporating the MFWFE effects into the LSF for the whole spectral range covered by the FUV and NUV medium-resolution gratings. We show that for the FUV, the convolution of these model LSFs with high-resolution STIS echelle spectra yields an excellent match to the on-orbit COS spectra of the same targets. The model LSFs are available online and can be used by COS observers to assess the impact of the MFWFE broadening on their COS spectra. In ground tests it was shown that COS can spatially resolve two equally bright objects separated by 1 00 in the cross-dispersion direction in the FUV. Using the FUV spectra of white dwarfs acquired during the Cycle 17 COS Spectroscopic Sensitivity Monitoring program, we show the on-orbit spatial resolution (as defined by the full-width half maximum of the spectrum along cross-dispersion) meets this specification, though in a wavelength-dependent manner. The wavelength dependence is primarily due the astigmatism introduced by the FUV gratings in cross-dispersion. The spatial resolution also depends on the central wavelength (CENWAVE) setting used, with spatial resolution

  10. Estimating Carbon Storage and Sequestration by Urban Trees at Multiple Spatial Resolutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, J.; Tran, A.; Liao, A.

    2010-12-01

    Urban forests are an important component of urban-suburban environments. Urban trees provide not only a full range of social and psychological benefits to city dwellers, but also valuable ecosystem services to communities, such as removing atmospheric carbon dioxide, improving air quality, and reducing storm water runoff. There is an urgent need for developing strategic conservation plans for environmentally sustainable urban-suburban development based on the scientific understanding of the extent and function of urban forests. However, several challenges remain to accurately quantify various environmental benefits provided by urban trees, among which is to deal with the effect of changing spatial resolution and/or scale. In this study, we intended to examine the uncertainties of carbon storage and sequestration associated with the tree canopy coverage of different spatial resolutions. Multi-source satellite imagery data were acquired for the City of Fullerton, located in Orange County of California. The tree canopy coverage of the study area was classified at three spatial resolutions, ranging from 30 m (Landsat-5 Thematic Mapper), 15 m (Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer), to 2.5 m (QuickBird). We calculated the amount of carbon stored in the trees represented on the individual tree coverage maps and the annual carbon taken up by the trees with a model (i.e., CITYgreen) developed by the U.S. Forest Service. The results indicate that urban trees account for significant proportions of land cover in the study area even with the low spatial resolution data. The estimated carbon fixation benefits vary greatly depending on the details of land use and land cover classification. The extrapolation of estimation from the fine-resolution stand-level to the low-resolution landscape-scale will likely not preserve reasonable accuracy.

  11. Sensitivity of watershed attributes to spatial resolution and interpolation method of LiDAR DEMs in three distinct landscapes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goulden, T.; Hopkinson, C.; Jamieson, R.; Sterling, S.

    2014-03-01

    This study investigates scaling relationships of watershed area and stream networks delineated from LiDAR DEMs. The delineations are tested against spatial resolution, including 1, 5, 10, 25, and 50 m, and interpolation method, including Inverse Distance Weighting (IDW), Moving Average (MA), Universal Kriging (UK), Natural Neighbor (NN), and Triangular Irregular Networks (TIN). Study sites include Mosquito Creek, Scotty Creek, and Thomas Brook, representing landscapes with high, low, and moderate change in elevation, respectively. Results show scale-dependent irregularities in watershed area due to spatial resolution at Thomas Brook and Mosquito Creek. The highest sensitivity of watershed area to spatial resolution occurred at Scotty Creek, due to high incidence of LiDAR sensor measurement error and subtle changes in elevation. Length of drainage networks did not show a scaling relationship with spatial resolution, due to algorithmic complications of the stream initiation threshold. Stream lengths of main channels at Thomas Brook and Mosquito Creek displayed systematic increases in length with increasing spatial resolution, described through an average fractal dimension of 1.059. The scaling relationship between stream length and DEM resolution allows estimation of stream lengths from low-resolution DEMs in the absence of high-resolution DEMs. Single stream validation at Thomas Brook showed the 1 m DEM produced the lowest length error and highest spatial accuracy, at 3.7% and 71.3%, respectively. Single stream validation at Mosquito Creek showed the 25 m DEM produced the lowest length error, and the 1 m DEM the highest spatial accuracy, at 0.6% and 61.0%, respectively.

  12. Evaluation of spatial resolution in image acquisition by optical flatbed scanners for radiochromic film dosimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asero, G.; Greco, C.; Gueli, A. M.; Raffaele, L.; Spampinato, S.

    2016-03-01

    Introduction: Radiochromic films are two-dimensional dosimeters that do not require developing and give values of absorbed dose with accuracy and precision. Since this dosimeter colours directly after irradiation, it can be digitized with commercial optical flatbed scanners to obtain a calibration curve that links blackening of the film with dose. Although the film has an intrinsic high spatial resolution, the scanner determines the actual resolution of this dosimeter, in particular the "dot per inch" (dpi) parameter. The present study investigates the effective spatial resolution of a scanner used for Gafchromic® XR-QA2 film (designed for radiology Quality Assurance) analysis. Material and methods: The quantitative evaluation of the resolution was performed with the Modulation Transfer Function (MTF) method, comparing the nominal resolution with the experimental one. The analysis was performed with two procedures. First, the 1951 USAF resolution test chart, a tool that tests the performance of optical devices, was used. Secondly, a combined system of mammography X-ray tube, XR-QA2 film and a bar pattern object was used. In both cases the MTF method has been applied and the results were compared. Results: The USAF and the film images have been acquired with increasing dpi and a standard protocol for radiochromic analysis, to evaluate horizontal and vertical and resolution. The effective resolution corresponds to the value of the MTF at 50%. In both cases and for both procedures, it was verified that, starting from a dpi value, the effective resolution saturates. Conclusion: The study found that, for dosimetric applications, the dpi of the scanner have to be adjusted to a reasonable value because, if too high, it requires high scanning and computational time without providing additional information.

  13. Spatial resolution recovery utilizing multi-ray tracing and graphic processing unit in PET image reconstruction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, Yicheng; Peng, Hao

    2015-02-01

    Depth-of-interaction (DOI) poses a major challenge for a PET system to achieve uniform spatial resolution across the field-of-view, particularly for small animal and organ-dedicated PET systems. In this work, we implemented an analytical method to model system matrix for resolution recovery, which was then incorporated in PET image reconstruction on a graphical processing unit platform, due to its parallel processing capacity. The method utilizes the concepts of virtual DOI layers and multi-ray tracing to calculate the coincidence detection response function for a given line-of-response. The accuracy of the proposed method was validated for a small-bore PET insert to be used for simultaneous PET/MR breast imaging. In addition, the performance comparisons were studied among the following three cases: 1) no physical DOI and no resolution modeling; 2) two physical DOI layers and no resolution modeling; and 3) no physical DOI design but with a different number of virtual DOI layers. The image quality was quantitatively evaluated in terms of spatial resolution (full-width-half-maximum and position offset), contrast recovery coefficient and noise. The results indicate that the proposed method has the potential to be used as an alternative to other physical DOI designs and achieve comparable imaging performances, while reducing detector/system design cost and complexity.

  14. Spatial resolution recovery utilizing multi-ray tracing and graphic processing unit in PET image reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Liang, Yicheng; Peng, Hao

    2015-02-01

    Depth-of-interaction (DOI) poses a major challenge for a PET system to achieve uniform spatial resolution across the field-of-view, particularly for small animal and organ-dedicated PET systems. In this work, we implemented an analytical method to model system matrix for resolution recovery, which was then incorporated in PET image reconstruction on a graphical processing unit platform, due to its parallel processing capacity. The method utilizes the concepts of virtual DOI layers and multi-ray tracing to calculate the coincidence detection response function for a given line-of-response. The accuracy of the proposed method was validated for a small-bore PET insert to be used for simultaneous PET/MR breast imaging. In addition, the performance comparisons were studied among the following three cases: 1) no physical DOI and no resolution modeling; 2) two physical DOI layers and no resolution modeling; and 3) no physical DOI design but with a different number of virtual DOI layers. The image quality was quantitatively evaluated in terms of spatial resolution (full-width-half-maximum and position offset), contrast recovery coefficient and noise. The results indicate that the proposed method has the potential to be used as an alternative to other physical DOI designs and achieve comparable imaging performances, while reducing detector/system design cost and complexity. PMID:25591118

  15. The spatial resolution of dual-tracer fluorescence thermometry in volumetrically illuminated channels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Myeongsub; Yoda, Minami

    2014-01-01

    This study estimates the spatial resolution and accuracy of dual-tracer fluorescence thermometry (DFT) for measuring water temperature fields in channels where the entire channel is illuminated as is typical in microfluidics. Temperature fields are measured in heated laminar Poiseuille flow through a 1 mm2 channel. The working fluid, an aqueous solution of the temperature-sensitive fluorophores fluorescein (Fl) and sulforhodamine B (SrB), is volumetrically illuminated over the entire channel cross-section at a wavelength of 514 nm, and the temperature of the solution is estimated from images of the longer-wavelength fluorescence from Fl and SrB. These temperature data are compared with numerical simulations of the same flow where the heat transferred to the water is estimated from independent measurements of wall surface temperature to determine the accuracy and the spatial resolution of the DFT results. The results suggest that temperature measurements in the volumetrically illuminated channel are significantly corrupted by the fluorescence emissions from beyond the focal plane. A model based on the point spread function for an aberration-free lens is employed to estimate the effect of the background "noise," i.e., the signal from beyond the object plane, on the accuracy of these DFT measurements. The results show that this background is about 30 times the signal from the focal plane. Further experiments where the channel is illuminated by a light sheet over about 40 % of the channel cross-section give estimates of the water temperature field that are on average within about 0.3 °C of the numerical predictions at an in-plane spatial resolution of 50 μm. The model is used to estimate the signal-to-background ratio for this case, as well as for a variety of commercially available microscope objectives.

  16. Anaphor resolution as a function of spatial distance and priming: exploring the spatial distance effect in situation models.

    PubMed

    Dutke, Stephan

    2003-01-01

    Anaphor resolution has been found to depend on the spatial distance between the reader's focus of attention and the location of the anaphor referent in a spatially organized situation model (spatial distance effect; Rinck & Bower, 1995). This effect implies that a) the situation model is spatially organized and b) spatial distance has a stronger effect on the resolution of anaphoric reference than the text priming the anaphor referent. In three experiments, adult participants read 12 short narratives about protagonists moving around a building. Mentionning the location of the anaphor referent in text prior to the anaphoric sentence facilitated anaphor resolution. Decreased spatial distance consistently facilitated anaphor resolution, even when priming the anaphor referent affected anaphor resolution more strongly than spatial distance. Results are discussed with regard to the interpretation and reliability of the spatial distance effect and the interaction of different representational levels in the context of multi-level theories of text comprehension. PMID:14587174

  17. Prospects for higher spatial resolution quantitative X-ray analysis using transition element L-lines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Statham, P.; Holland, J.

    2014-03-01

    Lowering electron beam kV reduces electron scattering and improves spatial resolution of X-ray analysis. However, a previous round robin analysis of steels at 5 - 6 kV using Lα-lines for the first row transition elements gave poor accuracies. Our experiments on SS63 steel using Lα-lines show similar biases in Cr and Ni that cannot be corrected with changes to self-absorption coefficients or carbon coating. The inaccuracy may be caused by different probabilities for emission and anomalous self-absorption for the La-line between specimen and pure element standard. Analysis using Ll(L3-M1)-lines gives more accurate results for SS63 plausibly because the M1-shell is not so vulnerable to the atomic environment as the unfilled M4,5-shell. However, Ll-intensities are very weak and WDS analysis may be impractical for some applications. EDS with large area SDD offers orders of magnitude faster analysis and achieves similar results to WDS analysis with Lα-lines but poorer energy resolution precludes the use of Ll-lines in most situations. EDS analysis of K-lines at low overvoltage is an alternative strategy for improving spatial resolution that could give higher accuracy. The trade-off between low kV versus low overvoltage is explored in terms of sensitivity for element detection for different elements.

  18. Spatial resolution and chest nodule detection: an interesting incidental finding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toomey, R. J.; McEntee, M. F.; Ryan, J. T.; Evanoff, M. G.; Hayes, A.; Brennan, P. C.

    2010-02-01

    This study reports an incidental finding from a larger work. It examines the relationship between spatial resolution and nodule detection for chest radiographs. Twelve examining radiologists with the American Board of Radiology read thirty chest radiographs in two conditions - full (1500 × 1500 pixel) resolution, and 300 × 300 pixel resolution linearly interpolated to 1500 × 1500 pixels. All images were surrounded by a 10-pixel sharp grey border to aid in focussing the observer's eye when viewing the comparatively unsharp interpolated images. Fifteen of the images contained a single simulated pulmonary nodule. Observers were asked to rate their confidence that a nodule was present on each radiograph on a scale of 1 (least confidence, certain no lesion is present) to 6 (most confidence, certain a lesion was present). All other abnormalities were to be ignored. No windowing, levelling or magnification of the images was permitted and viewing distance was constrained to approximately 70cm. Images were displayed on a 3 megapixel greyscale monitor. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis was applied to the results of the readings using the Dorfman-Berbaum-Metz multiplereader, multiple-case method. No statistically significant differences were found with either readers and cases treated as random or with cases treated as fixed. Low spatial frequency information appears to be sufficient for the detection of chest lesion of the type used in this study.

  19. Lidar imaging with on-the-fly adaptable spatial resolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riu, J.; Royo, S.

    2013-10-01

    We present our work in the design and construction of a novel type of lidar device capable of measuring 3D range images with an spatial resolution which can be reconfigured through an on-the-fly configuration approach, adjustable by software and on the image area, and which can reach the 2Mpixel value. A double-patented novel concept of scanning system enables to change dynamically the image resolution depending on external information provided by the image captured in a previous cycle or on other sensors like greyscale or hyperspectral 2D imagers. A prototype of an imaging lidar system which can modify its spatial resolution on demand from one image to the next according to the target nature and state has been developed, and indoor and outdoor sample images showing its performance are presented. Applications in object detection, tracking and identification through a real-time adaptable scanning system for each situation and target behaviour are currently being pursued in different areas.

  20. Cumulus cloud base height estimation from high spatial resolution Landsat data - A Hough transform approach

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berendes, Todd; Sengupta, Sailes K.; Welch, Ron M.; Wielicki, Bruce A.; Navar, Murgesh

    1992-01-01

    A semiautomated methodology is developed for estimating cumulus cloud base heights on the basis of high spatial resolution Landsat MSS data, using various image-processing techniques to match cloud edges with their corresponding shadow edges. The cloud base height is then estimated by computing the separation distance between the corresponding generalized Hough transform reference points. The differences between the cloud base heights computed by these means and a manual verification technique are of the order of 100 m or less; accuracies of 50-70 m may soon be possible via EOS instruments.

  1. Radiometric Calibration Assessment of Commercial High Spatial Resolution Multispectral Image Products

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holekamp, Kara; Aaron, David; Thome, Kurtis

    2006-01-01

    Radiometric calibration of commercial imaging satellite products is required to ensure that science and application communities can better understand their properties. Inaccurate radiometric calibrations can lead to erroneous decisions and invalid conclusions and can limit intercomparisons with other systems. To address this calibration need, satellite at-sensor radiance values were compared to those estimated by each independent team member to determine the sensor's radiometric accuracy. The combined results of this evaluation provide the user community with an independent assessment of these commercially available high spatial resolution sensors' absolute calibration values.

  2. The Grayscale/Spatial Resolution Trade-Off and Its Impact on Display System Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gille, Jennifer; Larimer, Jim; Martin, Russel; Statler, Irving C. (Technical Monitor)

    1994-01-01

    We examine technology trade-offs related to the grayscale/spatial resolution trade-off for AMLCD-based display systems. We present new empirical results from our study of the human grayscale/spatial resolution trade-off.

  3. Spatial resolution of gated x-ray pinhole cameras

    SciTech Connect

    Robey, H.F.; Budil, K.S.; Remington, B.A.

    1996-05-15

    The new camera FXI was investigated. Spatial resolution, or its Fourier transform, the modulation transfer function (MTF), is critical for quantitative interpretation of recent hydrodynamic instability data taken on the Nova laser. We have taken data corresponding to backlit straight edges, pinholes, and grids, both on the bench and {ital in}{ital situ} on Nova. For both the pinhole and edge data, the MTF at all wavelengths of interest can be deduced from a single image. Grids are of more limited usefulness, giving the MTF value only at the spatial period of the grid. These different techniques for characterizing the MTF of gated x-ray pinhole cameras are discussed, with results specific to the FXI presented.

  4. Detection of the spatial accuracy of an O-arm in the region of surgical interest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koivukangas, Tapani; Katisko, Jani P. A.; Koivukangsa, John P.

    2013-03-01

    Medical imaging is an essential component of a wide range of surgical procedures1. For image guided surgical (IGS) procedures, medical images are the main source of information2. The IGS procedures rely largely on obtained image data, so the data needs to provide differentiation between normal and abnormal tissues, especially when other surgical guidance devices are used in the procedures. The image data also needs to provide accurate spatial representation of the patient3. This research has concentrated on the concept of accuracy assessment of IGS devices to meet the needs of quality assurance in the hospital environment. For this purpose, two precision engineered accuracy assessment phantoms have been developed as advanced materials and methods for the community. The phantoms were designed to mimic the volume of a human head as the common region of surgical interest (ROSI). This paper introduces the utilization of the phantoms in spatial accuracy assessment of a commercial surgical 3D CT scanner, the O-Arm. The study presents methods and results of image quality detection of possible geometrical distortions in the region of surgical interest. The results show that in the pre-determined ROSI there are clear image distortion and artefacts using too high imaging parameters when scanning the objects. On the other hand, when using optimal parameters, the O-Arm causes minimal error in IGS accuracy. The detected spatial inaccuracy of the O-Arm with used parameters was in the range of less than 1.00 mm.

  5. High spatial resolution soft-x-ray microscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Meyer-Ilse, W.; Medecki, H.; Brown, J.T.

    1997-04-01

    A new soft x-ray microscope (XM-1) with high spatial resolution has been constructed by the Center for X-ray Optics. It uses bending magnet radiation from beamline 6.1 at the Advanced Light Source, and is used in a variety of projects and applications in the life and physical sciences. Most of these projects are ongoing. The instrument uses zone plate lenses and achieves a resolution of 43 nm, measured over 10% to 90% intensity with a knife edge test sample. X-ray microscopy permits the imaging of relatively thick samples, up to 10 {mu}m thick, in water. XM-1 has an easy to use interface, that utilizes visible light microscopy to precisely position and focus the specimen. The authors describe applications of this device in the biological sciences, as well as in studying industrial applications including structured polymer samples.

  6. Variable resolution imaging fiber probe using digital spatial light modulator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shinde, Anant; Perinchery, Sandeep M.; Vadakke Matham, Murukeshan

    2015-07-01

    Flexible fiber optic imaging systems including fiber optic confocal probes have found tremendous significance in the recent past for its applications in high resolution imaging. However, motorized stage is required for scanning the sample or tip of the fiber in fiber based confocal probes. In this context, we propose a fiber probe confocal system using digital spatial light modulator devoid of using a mechanical scanning stage. Each fiberlet in the image fiber acts not only as a light conduit but also as a confocal pinhole. The paper also introduces the variation in the contrast by varying the number of illuminated fiberlets which effectively implies variation in the effective pinhole size. This approach has enabled the probe to act as an imaging unit with resolution that can be controlled and varied from a wide-field to a confocal.

  7. Spatial resolution requirements for traffic-related air pollutant exposure evaluations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Batterman, Stuart; Chambliss, Sarah; Isakov, Vlad

    2014-09-01

    -related pollutants accurately, data should be geocoded or estimated at the most-resolved spatial level; census tract and larger zones have little if any ability to represent intraurban variation in traffic-related air pollutant concentrations. These results are based on one of the most comprehensive intraurban modeling studies in the literature and results are robust. Additional recommendations address the value of dispersion models to portray spatial and temporal variation of air pollutants in epidemiology and other studies; techniques to improve accuracy and reduce the computational burden in urban scale modeling; the necessary spatial resolution for health surveillance, demographic, and pollution data; and the consequences of low resolution data in terms of exposure misclassification.

  8. X-Ray tomography with micrometer spatial resolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raven, Carsten; Snigirev, Anatoly A.; Koch, Andreas; Snigireva, Irina; Kohn, Victor

    1997-10-01

    3D computed tomographic images with micrometer resolution were made in phase-contrast mode with high energy x-rays at a third generation synchrotron source. The phase-contrast technique enables one to obtain information not only about the amplitude of the wave field behind the object and thus about the absorption, but also about the refractive index distribution inside the sample. Increasing the x-ray energy from the soft x-ray region up to 10-60 keV simplifies the experimental setup and opens the possibility to study organic samples at room-temperature and under normal pressure conditions. The projection data is recorded with a fast, high-resolution x-ray camera consisting of a 5 micrometers thin YAG scintillator crystal, a visible light microscope optics and a slow scan 1k X 1k CCD camera. The spatial resolution of phase-contrast microtomography is currently limited by the resolution of the x-ray detector to about 1-2 micrometers . First applications in biology and geophysics are shown.

  9. Effect of measurement noise and electrode density on the spatial resolution of cortical potential distribution with different resistivity values for the skull.

    PubMed

    Ryynänen, Outi R M; Hyttinen, Jari A K; Malmivuo, Jaakko A

    2006-09-01

    The purpose of the present theoretical study was to examine the spatial resolution of electroencephalography (EEG) by means of the accuracy of the inverse cortical EEG solution. The study focused on effect of the amount of measurement noise and the number of electrodes on the spatial resolution with different resistivity ratios for the scalp, skull and brain. The results show that if the relative skull resistivity is lower than earlier believed, the spatial resolution of different electrode systems is less sensitive to the measurement noise. Furthermore, there is then also greater advantage to be obtained with high-resolution EEG at realistic noise levels. PMID:16941841

  10. A reference dataset for deformable image registration spatial accuracy evaluation using the COPDgene study archive

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castillo, Richard; Castillo, Edward; Fuentes, David; Ahmad, Moiz; Wood, Abbie M.; Ludwig, Michelle S.; Guerrero, Thomas

    2013-05-01

    Landmark point-pairs provide a strategy to assess deformable image registration (DIR) accuracy in terms of the spatial registration of the underlying anatomy depicted in medical images. In this study, we propose to augment a publicly available database (www.dir-lab.com) of medical images with large sets of manually identified anatomic feature pairs between breath-hold computed tomography (BH-CT) images for DIR spatial accuracy evaluation. Ten BH-CT image pairs were randomly selected from the COPDgene study cases. Each patient had received CT imaging of the entire thorax in the supine position at one-fourth dose normal expiration and maximum effort full dose inspiration. Using dedicated in-house software, an imaging expert manually identified large sets of anatomic feature pairs between images. Estimates of inter- and intra-observer spatial variation in feature localization were determined by repeat measurements of multiple observers over subsets of randomly selected features. 7298 anatomic landmark features were manually paired between the 10 sets of images. Quantity of feature pairs per case ranged from 447 to 1172. Average 3D Euclidean landmark displacements varied substantially among cases, ranging from 12.29 (SD: 6.39) to 30.90 (SD: 14.05) mm. Repeat registration of uniformly sampled subsets of 150 landmarks for each case yielded estimates of observer localization error, which ranged in average from 0.58 (SD: 0.87) to 1.06 (SD: 2.38) mm for each case. The additions to the online web database (www.dir-lab.com) described in this work will broaden the applicability of the reference data, providing a freely available common dataset for targeted critical evaluation of DIR spatial accuracy performance in multiple clinical settings. Estimates of observer variance in feature localization suggest consistent spatial accuracy for all observers across both four-dimensional CT and COPDgene patient cohorts.

  11. Parallel Reaction Monitoring: A Targeted Experiment Performed Using High Resolution and High Mass Accuracy Mass Spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    Rauniyar, Navin

    2015-01-01

    The parallel reaction monitoring (PRM) assay has emerged as an alternative method of targeted quantification. The PRM assay is performed in a high resolution and high mass accuracy mode on a mass spectrometer. This review presents the features that make PRM a highly specific and selective method for targeted quantification using quadrupole-Orbitrap hybrid instruments. In addition, this review discusses the label-based and label-free methods of quantification that can be performed with the targeted approach. PMID:26633379

  12. A Critical Test of Temporal and Spatial Accuracy of the Tobii T60XL Eye Tracker

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morgante, James D.; Zolfaghari, Rahman; Johnson, Scott P.

    2012-01-01

    Infant eye tracking is becoming increasingly popular for its presumed precision relative to traditional looking time paradigms and potential to yield new insights into developmental processes. However, there is strong reason to suspect that the temporal and spatial resolution of popular eye tracking systems is not entirely accurate, potentially…

  13. Accuracy evaluation of segmentation for high resolution imagery and 3D laser point cloud data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ni, Nina; Chen, Ninghua; Chen, Jianyu

    2014-09-01

    High resolution satellite imagery and 3D laser point cloud data provide precise geometry, rich spectral information and clear texture of feature. The segmentation of high resolution remote sensing images and 3D laser point cloud is the basis of object-oriented remote sensing image analysis, for the segmentation results will directly influence the accuracy of subsequent analysis and discrimination. Currently, there still lacks a common segmentation theory to support these algorithms. So when we face a specific problem, we should determine applicability of the segmentation method through segmentation accuracy assessment, and then determine an optimal segmentation. To today, the most common method for evaluating the effectiveness of a segmentation method is subjective evaluation and supervised evaluation. For providing a more objective evaluation result, we have carried out following work. Analysis and comparison previous proposed image segmentation accuracy evaluation methods, which are area-based metrics, location-based metrics and combinations metrics. 3D point cloud data, which was gathered by Reigl VZ1000, was used to make two-dimensional transformation of point cloud data. The object-oriented segmentation result of aquaculture farm, building and farmland polygons were used as test object and adopted to evaluate segmentation accuracy.

  14. Mapping urban and peri-urban agriculture using high spatial resolution satellite data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Forster, Dionys; Buehler, Yves; Kellenberger, Tobias W.

    2009-03-01

    In rapidly changing peri-urban environments where biophysical and socio-economic processes lead to spatial fragmentation of agricultural land, remote sensing offers an efficient tool to collect land cover/land use (LCLU) data for decision-making. Compared to traditional pixel-based approaches, remote sensing with object-based classification methods is reported to achieve improved classification results in complex heterogeneous landscapes. This study assessed the usefulness of object-oriented analysis of Quickbird high spatial resolution satellite data to classify urban and peri-urban agriculture in a limited peri-urban area of Hanoi, Vietnam. The results revealed that segmentation was essential in developing the object-oriented classification approach. Accurate segmentation of shape and size of an object enhanced classification with spectral, textural, morphological, and topological features. A qualitative, visual comparison of the classification results showed successful localisation and identification of most LCLU classes. Quantitative evaluation was conducted with a classification error matrix reaching an overall accuracy of 67% and a kappa coefficient of 0.61. In general, object-oriented classification of high spatial resolution satellite data proved the promising approach for LCLU analysis at village level. Capturing small-scale urban and peri-urban agricultural diversity offers a considerable potential for environmental monitoring. Challenges remain with the delineation of field boundaries and LCLU diversity on more spatially extensive datasets.

  15. Spatial Resolution Characterization for AWiFS Multispectral Images

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blonski, Slawomir; Ryan, Robert E.; Pagnutti, Mary; Stanley, Thomas

    2006-01-01

    Within the framework of the Joint Agency Commercial Imagery Evaluation program, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration, the National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency, and the U.S. Geological Survey cooperate in the characterization of high-to-moderate-resolution commercial imagery of mutual interest. One of the systems involved in this effort is the Advanced Wide Field Sensor (AWiFS) onboard the Indian Remote Sensing (IRS) Reourcesat-1 satellite, IRS-P6. Spatial resolution of the AWiFS multispectral images was characterized by estimating the value of the system Modulation Transfer Function (MTF) at the Nyquist spatial frequency. The Nyquist frequency is defined as half the sampling frequency, and the sampling frequency is equal to the inverse of the ground sample distance. The MTF was calculated as a ratio of the Fourier transform of a profile across an AWiFS image of the Lake Pontchartrain Causeway Bridge and the Fourier transform of a profile across an idealized model of the bridge for each spectral band evaluated. The mean MTF value for the AWiFS imagery evaluated was estimated to be 0.1.

  16. Spatial and temporal resolution of fluid flows: LDRD final report

    SciTech Connect

    Tieszen, S.R.; O`Hern, T.J.; Schefer, R.W.; Perea, L.D.

    1998-02-01

    This report describes a Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) activity to develop a diagnostic technique for simultaneous temporal and spatial resolution of fluid flows. The goal is to obtain two orders of magnitude resolution in two spatial dimensions and time simultaneously. The approach used in this study is to scale up Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) and Planar Laser Induced Fluorescence (PLIF) to acquire meter-size images at up to 200 frames/sec. Experiments were conducted in buoyant, fully turbulent, non-reacting and reacting plumes with a base diameter of one meter. The PIV results were successful in the ambient gas for all flows, and in the plume for non-reacting helium and reacting methane, but not reacting hydrogen. No PIV was obtained in the hot combustion product region as the seed particles chosen vaporized. Weak signals prevented PLIF in the helium. However, in reacting methane flows, PLIF images speculated to be from Poly-Aromatic-Hydrocarbons were obtained which mark the flame sheets. The results were unexpected and very insightful. A natural fluorescence from the seed particle vapor was also noted in the hydrogen tests.

  17. Efficiency and spatial resolution of the CASCADE thermal neutron detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Köhli, M.; Allmendinger, F.; Häußler, W.; Schröder, T.; Klein, M.; Meven, M.; Schmidt, U.

    2016-08-01

    We report on the CASCADE project - a detection system, which has been designed for the purposes of neutron Spin Echo spectroscopy and which is continuously further developed and adapted to various applications. It features 2D spatially resolved detection of thermal neutrons at high rates. The CASCADE detector is composed of a stack of solid 10B coated Gas Electron Multiplier foils, which serve both as a neutron converter and as an amplifier for the primary ionization deposited in the standard counting gas environment. This multi-layer setup efficiently increases the detection efficiency and by extracting the signal of the charge traversing the stack the conversion layer can be identified allowing a precise determination of the time-of-flight. The spatial resolution is found by optical contrast determination to be σ =(1.39 ± 0.05) mm and by divergence corrected aperture measurements σ =(1.454 ± 0.007) mm , which is in agreement with the simulated detector model. Furthermore this enabled to investigate and describe the non-Gaussian resolution function. At the HEiDi diffractometer the absolute detection efficiency has been studied. At 0.6 Å for the 6 layer detector, which is currently part of the RESEDA spectrometer, an efficiency of 7.8% has been measured, which by means of Monte Carlo simulations translates to (21.0±1.5)% for thermal neutrons at 1.8 Å and (46.9±3.3)% at 5.4 Å.

  18. COMPLEX ORGANIC MOLECULES AT HIGH SPATIAL RESOLUTION TOWARD ORION-KL. I. SPATIAL SCALES

    SciTech Connect

    Widicus Weaver, Susanna L.; Friedel, Douglas N. E-mail: friedel@astro.illinois.edu

    2012-08-01

    Here we present high spatial resolution (<1'') observations of molecular emission in Orion-KL conducted using the Combined Array for Research in Millimeter-wave Astronomy. This work was motivated by recent millimeter continuum imaging studies of this region conducted at a similarly high spatial resolution, which revealed that the bulk of the emission arises from numerous compact sources, rather than the larger-scale extended structures typically associated with the Orion Hot Core and Compact Ridge. Given that the spatial extent of molecular emission greatly affects the determination of molecular abundances, it is important to determine the true spatial scale for complex molecules in this region. Additionally, it has recently been suggested that the relative spatial distributions of complex molecules in a source might give insight into the chemical mechanisms that drive complex chemistry in star-forming regions. In order to begin to address these issues, this study seeks to determine the spatial distributions of ethyl cyanide [C{sub 2}H{sub 5}CN], dimethyl ether [(CH{sub 3}){sub 2}O], methyl formate [HCOOCH{sub 3}], formic acid [HCOOH], acetone [(CH{sub 3}){sub 2}CO], SiO, methanol [CH{sub 3}OH], and methyl cyanide [CH{sub 3}CN] in Orion-KL at {lambda} = 3 mm. We find that for all observed molecules, the molecular emission arises from multiple components of the cloud that include a range of spatial scales and physical conditions. Here, we present the results of these observations and discuss the implications for studies of complex molecules in star-forming regions.

  19. a Kernel Method Based on Topic Model for Very High Spatial Resolution (vhsr) Remote Sensing Image Classification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Linmei; Shen, Li; Li, Zhipeng

    2016-06-01

    A kernel-based method for very high spatial resolution remote sensing image classification is proposed in this article. The new kernel method is based on spectral-spatial information and structure information as well, which is acquired from topic model, Latent Dirichlet Allocation model. The final kernel function is defined as K = u1Kspec + u2Kspat + u3Kstru, in which Kspec, Kspat, Kstru are radial basis function (RBF) and u1 + u2 + u3 = 1. In the experiment, comparison with three other kernel methods, including the spectral-based, the spectral- and spatial-based and the spectral- and structure-based method, is provided for a panchromatic QuickBird image of a suburban area with a size of 900 × 900 pixels and spatial resolution of 0.6 m. The result shows that the overall accuracy of the spectral- and structure-based kernel method is 80 %, which is higher than the spectral-based kernel method, as well as the spectral- and spatial-based which accuracy respectively is 67 % and 74 %. What's more, the accuracy of the proposed composite kernel method that jointly uses the spectral, spatial, and structure information is highest among the four methods which is increased to 83 %. On the other hand, the result of the experiment also verifies the validity of the expression of structure information about the remote sensing image.

  20. Impact of spatial input data resolution on hydrological and erosion modeling: Recommendations from a global assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chaplot, V.

    spatial input data resolution needed, to achieve accurate modeling results can be predicted from watersheds' terrain declivity and mean annual precipitation. These results are expected to help modelers weight the level of investment to be made in generating spatial input data and in subdividing their watersheds as a function of both watersheds' environmental conditions and desired level of accuracy in the output variables.

  1. Mapping Spatial Variability in Health and Wealth Indicators in Accra, Ghana Using High Spatial Resolution Imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Engstrom, R.; Ashcroft, E.

    2014-12-01

    There has been a tremendous amount of research conducted that examines disparities in health and wealth of persons between urban and rural areas however, relatively little research has been undertaken to examine variations within urban areas. A major limitation to elucidating differences with urban areas is the lack of social and demographic data at a sufficiently high spatial resolution to determine these differences. Generally the only available data that contain this information are census data which are collected at most every ten years and are often difficult to obtain at a high enough spatial resolution to allow for examining in depth variability in health and wealth indicators at high spatial resolutions, especially in developing countries. High spatial resolution satellite imagery may be able to provide timely and synoptic information that is related to health and wealth variability within a city. In this study we use two dates of Quickbird imagery (2003 and 2010) classified into the vegetation-impervious surface-soil (VIS) model introduced by Ridd (1995). For 2003 we only have partial coverage of the city, while for 2010 we have a mosaic, which covers the entire city of Accra, Ghana. Variations in the VIS values represent the physical variations within the city and these are compared to variations in economic, and/or sociodemographic data derived from the 2000 Ghanaian census at two spatial resolutions, the enumeration area (approximately US Census Tract) and the neighborhood for the city. Results indicate a significant correlation between both vegetation and impervious surface to type of cooking fuel used in the household, population density, housing density, availability of sewers, cooking space usage, and other variables. The correlations are generally stronger at the neighborhood level and the relationships are stable through time and space. Overall, the results indicate that information derived from high resolution satellite data is related to

  2. High Spatial Resolution Fe XII Observations of Solar Active Regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Testa, Paola; De Pontieu, Bart; Hansteen, Viggo

    2016-08-01

    We use UV spectral observations of active regions with the Interface Region Imaging Spectrograph (IRIS) to investigate the properties of the coronal Fe xii 1349.4 Å emission at unprecedented high spatial resolution (∼0.33″). We find that by using appropriate observational strategies (i.e., long exposures, lossless compression), Fe xii emission can be studied with IRIS at high spatial and spectral resolution, at least for high-density plasma (e.g., post-flare loops and active region moss). We find that upper transition region (TR; moss) Fe xii emission shows very small average Doppler redshifts ({v}{{D}} ∼ 3 km s‑1) as well as modest non-thermal velocities (with an average of ∼24 km s‑1 and the peak of the distribution at ∼15 km s‑1). The observed distribution of Doppler shifts appears to be compatible with advanced three-dimensional radiative MHD simulations in which impulsive heating is concentrated at the TR footpoints of a hot corona. While the non-thermal broadening of Fe xii 1349.4 Å peaks at similar values as lower resolution simultaneous Hinode Extreme Ultraviolet Imaging Spectrometer (EIS) measurements of Fe xii 195 Å, IRIS observations show a previously undetected tail of increased non-thermal broadening that might be suggestive of the presence of subarcsecond heating events. We find that IRIS and EIS non-thermal line broadening measurements are affected by instrumental effects that can only be removed through careful analysis. Our results also reveal an unexplained discrepancy between observed 195.1/1349.4 Å Fe xii intensity ratios and those predicted by the CHIANTI atomic database.

  3. High Spatial Resolution Fe XII Observations of Solar Active Regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Testa, Paola; De Pontieu, Bart; Hansteen, Viggo

    2016-08-01

    We use UV spectral observations of active regions with the Interface Region Imaging Spectrograph (IRIS) to investigate the properties of the coronal Fe xii 1349.4 Å emission at unprecedented high spatial resolution (˜0.33″). We find that by using appropriate observational strategies (i.e., long exposures, lossless compression), Fe xii emission can be studied with IRIS at high spatial and spectral resolution, at least for high-density plasma (e.g., post-flare loops and active region moss). We find that upper transition region (TR; moss) Fe xii emission shows very small average Doppler redshifts ({v}{{D}} ˜ 3 km s‑1) as well as modest non-thermal velocities (with an average of ˜24 km s‑1 and the peak of the distribution at ˜15 km s‑1). The observed distribution of Doppler shifts appears to be compatible with advanced three-dimensional radiative MHD simulations in which impulsive heating is concentrated at the TR footpoints of a hot corona. While the non-thermal broadening of Fe xii 1349.4 Å peaks at similar values as lower resolution simultaneous Hinode Extreme Ultraviolet Imaging Spectrometer (EIS) measurements of Fe xii 195 Å, IRIS observations show a previously undetected tail of increased non-thermal broadening that might be suggestive of the presence of subarcsecond heating events. We find that IRIS and EIS non-thermal line broadening measurements are affected by instrumental effects that can only be removed through careful analysis. Our results also reveal an unexplained discrepancy between observed 195.1/1349.4 Å Fe xii intensity ratios and those predicted by the CHIANTI atomic database.

  4. Spatial resolution effects on the assessment of evapotranspiration in olive orchards using high resolution thermal imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santos, Cristina; Zarco-Tejada, Pablo J.; Lorite, Ignacio J.; Allen, Richard G.

    2013-04-01

    The use of remote sensing techniques for estimating surface energy balance and water consumption has significantly improved the characterization of the agricultural systems by determining accurate information about crop evapotranspiration and stress, mainly for extensive crops. However the use of these methodologies for woody crops has been low due to the difficulty in the accurate characterization of these crops, mainly caused by a coarse resolution of the imagery provided by the most widely used satellites (such as Landsat 5 and 7). The coarse spatial resolution provided by these satellite sensors aggregates into a single pixel the tree crown, sunlit and shaded soil components. These surfaces can each exhibit huge differences in temperature, albedo and vegetation indexes calculated in the visible, near infrared and short-wave infrared regions. Recent studies have found that the use of energy balance approaches can provide useful results for non-homogeneous crops (Santos et al., 2012) but detailed analysis is required to determine the effect of the spatial resolution and the aggregation of the scene components in these heterogeneous canopies. In this study a comparison between different spatial resolutions has been conducted using images from Landsat 7 (with thermal resolution of 60m) and from an airborne thermal (with resolution of 80 cm) flown over olive orchards at different dates coincident with the Landsat overpass. The high resolution thermal imagery was resampled at different scales to generate images with spatial resolution ranging from 0.8 m up to 120m (thermal resolution for Landsat 5 images). The selection of the study area was made to avoid those areas with missing Landsat 7 data caused by SLC-off gaps. The selected area has a total area of around 2500 ha and is located in Southern Spain, in the province of Malaga. The selected area is mainly cultivated with olive orchards with different crop practices (rainfed, irrigated, high density, young and adult

  5. On the Spatial and Temporal Accuracy of Overset Grid Methods for Moving Body Problems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meakin, Robert L.

    1996-01-01

    A study of numerical attributes peculiar to an overset grid approach to unsteady aerodynamics prediction is presented. Attention is focused on the effect of spatial error associated with interpolation of intergrid boundary conditions and temporal error associated with explicit update of intergrid boundary points on overall solution accuracy. A set of numerical experiments are used to verify whether or not the use of simple interpolation for intergrid boundary conditions degrades the formal accuracy of a conventional second-order flow solver, and to quantify the error associated with explicit updating of intergrid boundary points. Test conditions correspond to the transonic regime. The validity of the numerical results presented here are established by comparison with existing numerical results of documented accuracy, and by direct comparison with experimental results.

  6. Development of a portable deflectometry system for high spatial resolution surface measurements.

    PubMed

    Maldonado, Alejandro V; Su, Peng; Burge, James H

    2014-06-20

    The Slope-Measuring Portable Optical Test System (SPOTS) is a new, portable, high-resolution, deflectometry device that achieves mid to high (20 to 1000 cyc/m) spatial frequency optical surface metrology with very little filtering and very little noise. Using a proof of concept system, we achieved 1 nm RMS surface accuracy for mid to high spatial frequencies, and 300 nrad RMS slope precision. SPOTS offers a turnkey solution for measuring errors on a wide variety of optical surfaces including the large mirrors fabricated at The University of Arizona. This paper defines and discusses SPOTS, including the principles of operation, measurement modes, design, performance, error analysis, and experimental results. PMID:24979436

  7. Spatial resolution enhancement of EO-1 ALI bands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nikolakopoulos, Konstantinos G.

    2006-09-01

    spectral characteristics, they do not take into account the resolution ratio of the input images. Usually the spatial resolution of the panchromatic image is two (Landsat 7, Spot 1-4) or four times (Ikonos, Quickbird) better than the size of the multispectral images. This paper is an attempt to fuse high-resolution panchromatic and low-resolution multispectral bands of the EO-1 ALI sensor. ALI collects nine multispectral bands with 30m resolution and a panchromatic band with 3 times better resolution (10m). ALI has a panchromatic band narrower than the respective band of Landsat7. It has also two narrower bands in the spectral range of Landsat7 band 4. It has also an extra narrower band near the spectral range of Landsat7 band 1. In this study we compare the efficiency of seven fusion techniques and more especially the efficiency of Gram Schmidt, Modified IHS, PCA, Pansharp, Wavelet and LMM (Local Mean Matching) LMVM (Local Mean and Variance Matching) fusion techniques for the fusion of ALI data. Two ALI images collected over the same area have been used. In order to quantitatively measure the quality of the fused images we have made the following controls: Firstly, we have examined the optical qualitative result. Then, we examined the correlation between the original multispectral and the fused images and all the statistical parameters of the histograms of the various frequency bands. All the fusion techniques improve the resolution and the optical result. In contrary to the fusion of other data (ETM, Spot5, Ikonos and Quickbird) all the algorithms provoke small changes to the statistical parameters.

  8. Full-field spatially incoherent illumination interferometry: a spatial resolution almost insensitive to aberrations.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Peng; Fink, Mathias; Boccara, A Claude

    2016-09-01

    We show that with spatially incoherent illumination, the point spread function (PSF) width/spatial resolution of an imaging interferometer like that used in full-field optical coherence tomography (OCT) is almost insensitive to aberrations. In these systems, aberrations mostly induce a reduction of the signal level that leads to a loss of the signal-to-noise ratio without broadening the system PSF. This is demonstrated by comparison with traditional scanning OCT and wide-field OCT with spatially coherent illuminations. Theoretical analysis and numerical calculation as well as experimental results are provided to show this specific merit of incoherent illumination in full-field OCT. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first time that such a result has been demonstrated. PMID:27607937

  9. High-spatial resolution multispectral and panchromatic satellite imagery for mapping perennial desert plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alsharrah, Saad A.; Bruce, David A.; Bouabid, Rachid; Somenahalli, Sekhar; Corcoran, Paul A.

    2015-10-01

    The use of remote sensing techniques to extract vegetation cover information for the assessment and monitoring of land degradation in arid environments has gained increased interest in recent years. However, such a task can be challenging, especially for medium-spatial resolution satellite sensors, due to soil background effects and the distribution and structure of perennial desert vegetation. In this study, we utilised Pleiades high-spatial resolution, multispectral (2m) and panchromatic (0.5m) imagery and focused on mapping small shrubs and low-lying trees using three classification techniques: 1) vegetation indices (VI) threshold analysis, 2) pre-built object-oriented image analysis (OBIA), and 3) a developed vegetation shadow model (VSM). We evaluated the success of each approach using a root of the sum of the squares (RSS) metric, which incorporated field data as control and three error metrics relating to commission, omission, and percent cover. Results showed that optimum VI performers returned good vegetation cover estimates at certain thresholds, but failed to accurately map the distribution of the desert plants. Using the pre-built IMAGINE Objective OBIA approach, we improved the vegetation distribution mapping accuracy, but this came at the cost of over classification, similar to results of lowering VI thresholds. We further introduced the VSM which takes into account shadow for further refining vegetation cover classification derived from VI. The results showed significant improvements in vegetation cover and distribution accuracy compared to the other techniques. We argue that the VSM approach using high-spatial resolution imagery provides a more accurate representation of desert landscape vegetation and should be considered in assessments of desertification.

  10. Improving spatial resolution of convergent beam electron diffraction strain mapping in silicon microstructures

    SciTech Connect

    Armigliato, A.; Balboni, R.; Frabboni, S.

    2005-02-07

    Despite the use of nanometer-sized probes in field emission transmission electron microscopes, the spatial resolution in strain analysis performed by convergent beam electron diffraction is limited in one direction by the need for tilting the cross-sectional sample in the electron microscope off the vertical <110> direction. We demonstrate that it is possible to improve this resolution by using the <340> zone axis, instead of the <230> one, which has recently become of common use in the analysis of silicon microdevices. Quantitative strain information with good sensitivity and accuracy can be obtained in the new axis. An example of application to the two-dimensional strain mapping in shallow trench isolation structures, obtained with a scanning attachment and a high-angle annular dark-field detector, is reported.

  11. Impact of the cameras radiometric resolution on the accuracy of determining spectral reflectance coefficients

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orych, A.; Walczykowski, P.; Jenerowicz, A.; Zdunek, Z.

    2014-11-01

    Nowadays remote sensing plays a very important role in many different study fields, i.e. environmental studies, hydrology, mineralogy, ecosystem studies, etc. One of the key areas of remote sensing applications is water quality monitoring. Understanding and monitoring of the water quality parameters and detecting different water contaminants is an important issue in water management and protection of whole environment and especially the water ecosystem. There are many remote sensing methods to monitor water quality and detect water pollutants. One of the most widely used method for substance detection with remote sensing techniques is based on usage of spectral reflectance coefficients. They are usually acquired using discrete methods such as spectrometric measurements. These however can be very time consuming, therefore image-based methods are used more and more often. In order to work out the proper methodology of obtaining spectral reflectance coefficients from hyperspectral and multispectral images, it is necessary to verify the impact of cameras radiometric resolution on the accuracy of determination of them. This paper presents laboratory experiments that were conducted using two monochromatic XEVA video sensors (400-1700 nm spectral data registration) with two different radiometric resolutions (12 and 14 bits). In view of determining spectral characteristics from images, the research team used set of interferometric filters. All data collected with multispectral digital video cameras were compared with spectral reflectance coefficients obtained with spectroradiometer. The objective of this research is to find the impact of cameras radiometric resolution on reflectance values in chosen wavelength. The main topic of this study is the analysis of accuracy of spectral coefficients from sensors with different radiometric resolution. By comparing values collected from images acquired with XEVA sensors and with the curves obtained with spectroradiometer it

  12. Spectral sensitivity, spatial resolution and temporal resolution and their implications for conspecific signalling in cleaner shrimp.

    PubMed

    Caves, Eleanor M; Frank, Tamara M; Johnsen, Sönke

    2016-02-01

    Cleaner shrimp (Decapoda) regularly interact with conspecifics and client reef fish, both of which appear colourful and finely patterned to human observers. However, whether cleaner shrimp can perceive the colour patterns of conspecifics and clients is unknown, because cleaner shrimp visual capabilities are unstudied. We quantified spectral sensitivity and temporal resolution using electroretinography (ERG), and spatial resolution using both morphological (inter-ommatidial angle) and behavioural (optomotor) methods in three cleaner shrimp species: Lysmata amboinensis, Ancylomenes pedersoni and Urocaridella antonbruunii. In all three species, we found strong evidence for only a single spectral sensitivity peak of (mean ± s.e.m.) 518 ± 5, 518 ± 2 and 533 ± 3 nm, respectively. Temporal resolution in dark-adapted eyes was 39 ± 1.3, 36 ± 0.6 and 34 ± 1.3 Hz. Spatial resolution was 9.9 ± 0.3, 8.3 ± 0.1 and 11 ± 0.5 deg, respectively, which is low compared with other compound eyes of similar size. Assuming monochromacy, we present approximations of cleaner shrimp perception of both conspecifics and clients, and show that cleaner shrimp visual capabilities are sufficient to detect the outlines of large stimuli, but not to detect the colour patterns of conspecifics or clients, even over short distances. Thus, conspecific viewers have probably not played a role in the evolution of cleaner shrimp appearance; rather, further studies should investigate whether cleaner shrimp colour patterns have evolved to be viewed by client reef fish, many of which possess tri- and tetra-chromatic colour vision and relatively high spatial acuity. PMID:26747903

  13. Recent advances in the determination of a high spatial resolution geopotential model using chronometric geodesy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lion, Guillaume; Guerlin, Christine; Bize, Sébastien; Wolf, Peter; Delva, Pacôme; Panet, Isabelle

    2016-04-01

    Current methods to determine the geopotential are mainly based on indirect approaches using gravimetric, gradiometric and topographic data. Satellite missions (GRACE, GOCE) have contributed significantly to improve the knowledge of the Earth's gravity field with a spatial resolution of about 90 km, but it is not enough to access, for example, to the geoid variation in hilly regions. While airborne and ground-based gravimeters provide the high resolution, the problem of these technics is that the accuracy is hampered by the heterogeneous coverage of gravity data (ground and offshore). Recent technological advances in atomic clocks are opening new perspectives in the determination of the geopotential. To date, the best of them reach a stability of 1.6×10‑18 (NIST, RIKEN + Univ. Tokyo) in just 7 hours of integration, an accuracy of 2.0×10‑18 (JILA). Using the relation of the relativistic gravitational redshift, this corresponds to a determination of geopotential differences at the 0.1 m²/s² level (or 1 cm in geoid height). In this context, the present work aims at evaluating the contribution of optical atomic clocks for the determination of the geopotential at high spatial resolution. To do that, we have studied a test area surrounding the Massif Central in the middle of southern of France. This region, consists in low mountain ranges and plateaus, is interesting because, the gravitational field strength varies greatly from place to place at high resolution due to the relief. Here, we present the synthetic tests methodology: generation of synthetic gravity and potential data, then estimation of the potential from these data using the least-squares collocation and assessment of the clocks contribution. We shall see how the coverage of the data points (realistic or not) can affect the results, and discuss how to quantify the trade-off between the noise level and the number of data points used.

  14. Non Local Spatial and Angular Matching: Enabling higher spatial resolution diffusion MRI datasets through adaptive denoising.

    PubMed

    St-Jean, Samuel; Coupé, Pierrick; Descoteaux, Maxime

    2016-08-01

    Diffusion magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) datasets suffer from low Signal-to-Noise Ratio (SNR), especially at high b-values. Acquiring data at high b-values contains relevant information and is now of great interest for microstructural and connectomics studies. High noise levels bias the measurements due to the non-Gaussian nature of the noise, which in turn can lead to a false and biased estimation of the diffusion parameters. Additionally, the usage of in-plane acceleration techniques during the acquisition leads to a spatially varying noise distribution, which depends on the parallel acceleration method implemented on the scanner. This paper proposes a novel diffusion MRI denoising technique that can be used on all existing data, without adding to the scanning time. We first apply a statistical framework to convert both stationary and non stationary Rician and non central Chi distributed noise to Gaussian distributed noise, effectively removing the bias. We then introduce a spatially and angular adaptive denoising technique, the Non Local Spatial and Angular Matching (NLSAM) algorithm. Each volume is first decomposed in small 4D overlapping patches, thus capturing the spatial and angular structure of the diffusion data, and a dictionary of atoms is learned on those patches. A local sparse decomposition is then found by bounding the reconstruction error with the local noise variance. We compare against three other state-of-the-art denoising methods and show quantitative local and connectivity results on a synthetic phantom and on an in-vivo high resolution dataset. Overall, our method restores perceptual information, removes the noise bias in common diffusion metrics, restores the extracted peaks coherence and improves reproducibility of tractography on the synthetic dataset. On the 1.2 mm high resolution in-vivo dataset, our denoising improves the visual quality of the data and reduces the number of spurious tracts when compared to the noisy acquisition. Our

  15. Classification of high resolution satellite images using spatial constraints-based fuzzy clustering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Pankaj Pratap; Garg, Rahul Dev

    2014-01-01

    A spatial constraints-based fuzzy clustering technique is introduced in the paper and the target application is classification of high resolution multispectral satellite images. This fuzzy-C-means (FCM) technique enhances the classification results with the help of a weighted membership function (Wmf). Initially, spatial fuzzy clustering (FC) is used to segment the targeted vegetation areas with the surrounding low vegetation areas, which include the information of spatial constraints (SCs). The performance of the FCM image segmentation is subject to appropriate initialization of Wmf and SC. It is able to evolve directly from the initial segmentation by spatial fuzzy clustering. The controlling parameters in fuzziness of the FCM approach, Wmf and SC, help to estimate the segmented road results, then the Stentiford thinning algorithm is used to estimate the road network from the classified results. Such improvements facilitate FCM method manipulation and lead to segmentation that is more robust. The results confirm its effectiveness for satellite image classification, which extracts useful information in suburban and urban areas. The proposed approach, spatial constraint-based fuzzy clustering with a weighted membership function (SCFCWmf), has been used to extract the information of healthy trees with vegetation and shadows showing elevated features in satellite images. The performance values of quality assessment parameters show a good degree of accuracy for segmented roads using the proposed hybrid SCFCWmf-MO (morphological operations) approach which also occluded nonroad parts.

  16. Decision Accuracy and the Role of Spatial Interaction in Opinion Dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torney, Colin J.; Levin, Simon A.; Couzin, Iain D.

    2013-04-01

    The opinions and actions of individuals within interacting groups are frequently determined by both social and personal information. When sociality (or the pressure to conform) is strong and individual preferences are weak, groups will remain cohesive until a consensus decision is reached. When group decisions are subject to a bias, representing for example private information known by some members of the population or imperfect information known by all, then the accuracy achieved for a fixed level of bias will increase with population size. In this work we determine how the scaling between accuracy and group size can be related to the microscopic properties of the decision-making process. By simulating a spatial model of opinion dynamics we show that the relationship between the instantaneous fraction of leaders in the population ( L), system size ( N), and accuracy depends on the frequency of individual opinion switches and the level of population viscosity. When social mixing is slow, and individual opinion changes are frequent, accuracy is determined by the absolute number of informed individuals. As mixing rates increase, or the rate of opinion updates decrease, a transition occurs to a regime where accuracy is determined by the value of L√{ N}. We investigate the transition between different scaling regimes analytically by examining a well-mixed limit.

  17. Tactile feedback display with spatial and temporal resolutions.

    PubMed

    Vishniakou, Siarhei; Lewis, Brian W; Niu, Xiaofan; Kargar, Alireza; Sun, Ke; Kalajian, Michael; Park, Namseok; Yang, Muchuan; Jing, Yi; Brochu, Paul; Sun, Zhelin; Li, Chun; Nguyen, Truong; Pei, Qibing; Wang, Deli

    2013-01-01

    We report the electronic recording of the touch contact and pressure using an active matrix pressure sensor array made of transparent zinc oxide thin-film transistors and tactile feedback display using an array of diaphragm actuators made of an interpenetrating polymer elastomer network. Digital replay, editing and manipulation of the recorded touch events were demonstrated with both spatial and temporal resolutions. Analog reproduction of the force is also shown possible using the polymer actuators, despite of the high driving voltage. The ability to record, store, edit, and replay touch information adds an additional dimension to digital technologies and extends the capabilities of modern information exchange with the potential to revolutionize physical learning, social networking, e-commerce, robotics, gaming, medical and military applications. PMID:23982053

  18. Tactile Feedback Display with Spatial and Temporal Resolutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vishniakou, Siarhei; Lewis, Brian W.; Niu, Xiaofan; Kargar, Alireza; Sun, Ke; Kalajian, Michael; Park, Namseok; Yang, Muchuan; Jing, Yi; Brochu, Paul; Sun, Zhelin; Li, Chun; Nguyen, Truong; Pei, Qibing; Wang, Deli

    2013-08-01

    We report the electronic recording of the touch contact and pressure using an active matrix pressure sensor array made of transparent zinc oxide thin-film transistors and tactile feedback display using an array of diaphragm actuators made of an interpenetrating polymer elastomer network. Digital replay, editing and manipulation of the recorded touch events were demonstrated with both spatial and temporal resolutions. Analog reproduction of the force is also shown possible using the polymer actuators, despite of the high driving voltage. The ability to record, store, edit, and replay touch information adds an additional dimension to digital technologies and extends the capabilities of modern information exchange with the potential to revolutionize physical learning, social networking, e-commerce, robotics, gaming, medical and military applications.

  19. Tactile Feedback Display with Spatial and Temporal Resolutions

    PubMed Central

    Vishniakou, Siarhei; Lewis, Brian W.; Niu, Xiaofan; Kargar, Alireza; Sun, Ke; Kalajian, Michael; Park, Namseok; Yang, Muchuan; Jing, Yi; Brochu, Paul; Sun, Zhelin; Li, Chun; Nguyen, Truong; Pei, Qibing; Wang, Deli

    2013-01-01

    We report the electronic recording of the touch contact and pressure using an active matrix pressure sensor array made of transparent zinc oxide thin-film transistors and tactile feedback display using an array of diaphragm actuators made of an interpenetrating polymer elastomer network. Digital replay, editing and manipulation of the recorded touch events were demonstrated with both spatial and temporal resolutions. Analog reproduction of the force is also shown possible using the polymer actuators, despite of the high driving voltage. The ability to record, store, edit, and replay touch information adds an additional dimension to digital technologies and extends the capabilities of modern information exchange with the potential to revolutionize physical learning, social networking, e-commerce, robotics, gaming, medical and military applications. PMID:23982053

  20. Flexible hydrological modeling - Disaggregation from lumped catchment scale to higher spatial resolutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tran, Quoc Quan; Willems, Patrick; Pannemans, Bart; Blanckaert, Joris; Pereira, Fernando; Nossent, Jiri; Cauwenberghs, Kris; Vansteenkiste, Thomas

    2015-04-01

    Based on an international literature review on model structures of existing rainfall-runoff and hydrological models, a generalized model structure is proposed. It consists of different types of meteorological components, storage components, splitting components and routing components. They can be spatially organized in a lumped way, or on a grid, spatially interlinked by source-to-sink or grid-to-grid (cell-to-cell) routing. The grid size of the model can be chosen depending on the application. The user can select/change the spatial resolution depending on the needs and/or the evaluation of the accuracy of the model results, or use different spatial resolutions in parallel for different applications. Major research questions addressed during the study are: How can we assure consistent results of the model at any spatial detail? How can we avoid strong or sudden changes in model parameters and corresponding simulation results, when one moves from one level of spatial detail to another? How can we limit the problem of overparameterization/equifinality when we move from the lumped model to the spatially distributed model? The proposed approach is a step-wise one, where first the lumped conceptual model is calibrated using a systematic, data-based approach, followed by a disaggregation step where the lumped parameters are disaggregated based on spatial catchment characteristics (topography, land use, soil characteristics). In this way, disaggregation can be done down to any spatial scale, and consistently among scales. Only few additional calibration parameters are introduced to scale the absolute spatial differences in model parameters, but keeping the relative differences as obtained from the spatial catchment characteristics. After calibration of the spatial model, the accuracies of the lumped and spatial models were compared for peak, low and cumulative runoff total and sub-flows (at downstream and internal gauging stations). For the distributed models, additional

  1. A sensitivity analysis using different spatial resolution terrain models and flood inundation models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Papaioannou, George; Aronica, Giuseppe T.; Loukas, Athanasios; Vasiliades, Lampros

    2014-05-01

    The impact of terrain spatial resolution and accuracy on the hydraulic flood modeling can pervade the water depth and the flood extent accuracy. Another significant factor that can affect the hydraulic flood modeling outputs is the selection of the hydrodynamic models (1D,2D,1D/2D). Human mortality, ravaged infrastructures and other damages can be derived by extreme flash flood events that can be prevailed in lowlands at suburban and urban areas. These incidents make the necessity of a detailed description of the terrain and the use of advanced hydraulic models essential for the accurate spatial distribution of the flooded areas. In this study, a sensitivity analysis undertaken using different spatial resolution of Digital Elevation Models (DEMs) and several hydraulic modeling approaches (1D, 2D, 1D/2D) including their effect on the results of river flow modeling and mapping of floodplain. Three digital terrain models (DTMs) were generated from the different elevation variation sources: Terrestrial Laser Scanning (TLS) point cloud data, classic land surveying and digitization of elevation contours from 1:5000 scale topographic maps. HEC-RAS and MIKE 11 are the 1-dimensional hydraulic models that are used. MLFP-2D (Aronica et al., 1998) and MIKE 21 are the 2-dimensional hydraulic models. The last case consist of the integration of MIKE 11/MIKE 21 where 1D-MIKE 11 and 2D-MIKE 21 hydraulic models are coupled through the MIKE FLOOD platform. The validation process of water depths and flood extent is achieved through historical flood records. Observed flood inundation areas in terms of simulated maximum water depth and flood extent were used for the validity of each application result. The methodology has been applied in the suburban section of Xerias river at Volos-Greece. Each dataset has been used to create a flood inundation map for different cross-section configurations using different hydraulic models. The comparison of resulting flood inundation maps indicates

  2. The influence of spectral and spatial resolution in classification approaches: Landsat TM data vs. Hyperspectral data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodríguez-Galiano, Víctor; Garcia-Soldado, Maria José; Chica-Olmo, Mario

    The importance of accurate and timely information describing the nature and extent of land and natural resources is increasing especially in rapidly growing metropolitan areas. While metropolitan area decision makers are in constant need of current geospatial information on patterns and trends in land cover and land use, relatively little researchers has investigated the influence of the satellite data resolution for monitoring geo-enviromental information. In this research a suite of remote sensing and GIS techniques is applied in a land use mapping study. The main task is to asses the influence of the spatial and spectral resolution in the separability between classes and in the classificatiońs accuracy. This study has been focused in a very dynamical area with respect to land use, located in the province of Granada (SE of Spain). The classifications results of the Airborne Hyperspectral Scanner (AHS, Daedalus Enterprise Inc., WA, EEUU) at different spatial resolutions: 2, 4 and 6 m and Landsat 5 TM data have been compared.

  3. High accuracy heat capacity measurements through the lambda transition of helium with very high temperature resolution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fairbanks, W. M.; Lipa, J. A.

    1984-01-01

    A measurement of the heat capacity singularity of helium at the lambda transition was performed with the aim of improving tests of the Renormalization Group (RG) predictions for the static thermodynamic behavior near the singularity. The goal was to approach as closely as possible to the lambda-point while making heat capacity measurements of high accuracy. To do this, a new temperature sensor capable of unprecedented resolution near the lambda-point, and two thermal control systems were used. A short description of the theoretical background and motivation is given. The initial apparatus and results are also described.

  4. Development of an Objective High Spatial Resolution Soil Moisture Index

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zavodsky, B.; Case, J.; White, K.; Bell, J. R.

    2015-12-01

    Drought detection, analysis, and mitigation has become a key challenge for a diverse set of decision makers, including but not limited to operational weather forecasters, climatologists, agricultural interests, and water resource management. One tool that is heavily used is the United States Drought Monitor (USDM), which is derived from a complex blend of objective data and subjective analysis on a state-by-state basis using a variety of modeled and observed precipitation, soil moisture, hydrologic, and vegetation and crop health data. The NASA Short-term Prediction Research and Transition (SPoRT) Center currently runs a real-time configuration of the Noah land surface model (LSM) within the NASA Land Information System (LIS) framework. The LIS-Noah is run at 3-km resolution for local numerical weather prediction (NWP) and situational awareness applications at select NOAA/National Weather Service (NWS) forecast offices over the Continental U.S. (CONUS). To enhance the practicality of the LIS-Noah output for drought monitoring and assessing flood potential, a 30+-year soil moisture climatology has been developed in an attempt to place near real-time soil moisture values in historical context at county- and/or watershed-scale resolutions. This LIS-Noah soil moisture climatology and accompanying anomalies is intended to complement the current suite of operational products, such as the North American Land Data Assimilation System phase 2 (NLDAS-2), which are generated on a coarser-resolution grid that may not capture localized, yet important soil moisture features. Daily soil moisture histograms are used to identify the real-time soil moisture percentiles at each grid point according to the county or watershed in which the grid point resides. Spatial plots are then produced that map the percentiles as proxies to the different USDM categories. This presentation will highlight recent developments of this gridded, objective soil moisture index, comparison to subjective

  5. Improved spatial accuracy of functional maps in the rat olfactory bulb using supervised machine learning approach.

    PubMed

    Murphy, Matthew C; Poplawsky, Alexander J; Vazquez, Alberto L; Chan, Kevin C; Kim, Seong-Gi; Fukuda, Mitsuhiro

    2016-08-15

    Functional MRI (fMRI) is a popular and important tool for noninvasive mapping of neural activity. As fMRI measures the hemodynamic response, the resulting activation maps do not perfectly reflect the underlying neural activity. The purpose of this work was to design a data-driven model to improve the spatial accuracy of fMRI maps in the rat olfactory bulb. This system is an ideal choice for this investigation since the bulb circuit is well characterized, allowing for an accurate definition of activity patterns in order to train the model. We generated models for both cerebral blood volume weighted (CBVw) and blood oxygen level dependent (BOLD) fMRI data. The results indicate that the spatial accuracy of the activation maps is either significantly improved or at worst not significantly different when using the learned models compared to a conventional general linear model approach, particularly for BOLD images and activity patterns involving deep layers of the bulb. Furthermore, the activation maps computed by CBVw and BOLD data show increased agreement when using the learned models, lending more confidence to their accuracy. The models presented here could have an immediate impact on studies of the olfactory bulb, but perhaps more importantly, demonstrate the potential for similar flexible, data-driven models to improve the quality of activation maps calculated using fMRI data. PMID:27236085

  6. The effect of riverine terrain spatial resolution on flood modeling and mapping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Papaioannou, George; Loukas, Athanasios; Georgiadis, Charalambos

    2013-08-01

    Spatial resolution of river and riverine area is an important aspect of hydraulic flood modeling that affects the accuracy of flood extent. This study compares the accuracy of Digital Elevation Models (DEMs) produced from three methods of land surveying measurements and their effect on the results of river flow modeling and mapping of floodplain. Four data sets have been used for the creation of the DEMs: Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) point cloud data (raw data and processed), classic land surveying and digitization of elevation contours from 1:5000 scale topographic maps. LiDAR offers advantages over traditional methods for representing a terrain. Optech ILRIS-3D (Intelligent Laser Ranging and Imaging System) is a land based LiDAR system and has been used in this study. Separating LiDAR points into ground and non-ground is the most critical and difficult step for DEM generation from LiDAR data. In this study, geomorphologic filters, GIS operations and expert knowledge have been applied to produce the bare earth DEM. The HEC-GeoRAS and HEC-RAS software have been used as pre- and post-processing tools to prepare model inputs, simulate of river flow, and delineate flood inundation maps. The methodology has been applied in the suburban part of Xerias river at Volos-Greece, where typical hydrologic and hydraulic methods for ungauged watersheds have been used for flood modeling and inundation mapping. The results show that flood inundation area is significantly affected by the accuracy of DEM spatial resolution and could have significant impact on the delineation and mapping of flood hazard areas.

  7. Accuracy comparison of spatial interpolation methods for estimation of air temperatures in South Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Y.; Shim, K.; Jung, M.; Kim, S.

    2013-12-01

    Because of complex terrain, micro- as well as meso-climate variability is extreme by locations in Korea. In particular, air temperature of agricultural fields are influenced by topographic features of the surroundings making accurate interpolation of regional meteorological data from point-measured data. This study was conducted to compare accuracy of a spatial interpolation method to estimate air temperature in Korean Peninsula with the rugged terrains in South Korea. Four spatial interpolation methods including Inverse Distance Weighting (IDW), Spline, Kriging and Cokriging were tested to estimate monthly air temperature of unobserved stations. Monthly measured data sets (minimum and maximum air temperature) from 456 automatic weather station (AWS) locations in South Korea were used to generate the gridded air temperature surface. Result of cross validation showed that using Exponential theoretical model produced a lower root mean square error (RMSE) than using Gaussian theoretical model in case of Kriging and Cokriging and Spline produced the lowest RMSE of spatial interpolation methods in both maximum and minimum air temperature estimation. In conclusion, Spline showed the best accuracy among the methods, but further experiments which reflect topography effects such as temperature lapse rate are necessary to improve the prediction.

  8. Evaluation of spatial filtering on the accuracy of wheat area estimate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dejesusparada, N. (Principal Investigator); Moreira, M. A.; Chen, S. C.; Delima, A. M.

    1982-01-01

    A 3 x 3 pixel spatial filter for postclassification was used for wheat classification to evaluate the effects of this procedure on the accuracy of area estimation using LANDSAT digital data obtained from a single pass. Quantitative analyses were carried out in five test sites (approx 40 sq km each) and t tests showed that filtering with threshold values significantly decreased errors of commission and omission. In area estimation filtering improved the overestimate of 4.5% to 2.7% and the root-mean-square error decreased from 126.18 ha to 107.02 ha. Extrapolating the same procedure of automatic classification using spatial filtering for postclassification to the whole study area, the accuracy in area estimate was improved from the overestimate of 10.9% to 9.7%. It is concluded that when single pass LANDSAT data is used for crop identification and area estimation the postclassification procedure using a spatial filter provides a more accurate area estimate by reducing classification errors.

  9. Device for high spatial resolution chemical analysis of a sample and method of high spatial resolution chemical analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Van Berkel, Gary J.

    2015-10-06

    A system and method for analyzing a chemical composition of a specimen are described. The system can include at least one pin; a sampling device configured to contact a liquid with a specimen on the at least one pin to form a testing solution; and a stepper mechanism configured to move the at least one pin and the sampling device relative to one another. The system can also include an analytical instrument for determining a chemical composition of the specimen from the testing solution. In particular, the systems and methods described herein enable chemical analysis of specimens, such as tissue, to be evaluated in a manner that the spatial-resolution is limited by the size of the pins used to obtain tissue samples, not the size of the sampling device used to solubilize the samples coupled to the pins.

  10. Spatial and Temporal Data Fusion for Generating High-Resolution Land Cover Imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Yong

    change research. (3) There are two main issues related to spatial and temporal data fusion theory. The first is that there are inconsistencies in different images, such as the different levels of land surface reflectance and different degrees of reliability of multi-source satellite data. The second is the rule of phonological variation/land cover variation in both the spatial and temporal dimensions, particularly in areas with heterogeneous landscapes. When considering these issues, an improved STARFM (spatial and temporal adaptive reflectance fusion model) is proposed, based on the original model, and the preliminary results show that it is more efficient and accurate in generating high-resolution land surface imagery than its predecessor. (4) Mixed pixels is a common issue in relation to satellite data processing, as one pixel in a coarse resolution image will constitute several pixels in a high-resolution image of the same size, so different levels of land surface reflectance will be acquired from multi-source satellite data because of the mixed pixel effect on the coarse resolution data, and the final accuracy of the fused result will be affected if these data are subjected to data fusion. In order to solve the mixed pixel issue in multi-source data fusion, an improved spatial and temporal data fusion approach, based on the constraint unmixing technique, was developed in this thesis. The experimental results show that it is well-suited to the phenological monitoring task when a prior land cover map is available. (5) Based on the high-resolution reflectance images generated from spatial and temporal fusion, a spatial and temporal classification method based on the spatial and temporal Markov random field was developed to produce a high-resolution land cover product, in which both spatial and temporal contextual information are included within the classification scheme. This method provides a new strategy for generating high-resolution land cover products in the area

  11. Analysis of spatial variability of near-surface soil moisture to increase rainfall-runoff modelling accuracy in SW Hungary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hegedüs, P.; Czigány, S.; Pirkhoffer, E.; Balatonyi, L.; Hickey, R.

    2015-04-01

    Between September 5, 2008 and September 5, 2009, near-surface soil moisture time series were collected in the northern part of a 1.7 km2 watershed in SWHungary at 14 monitoring locations using a portable TDR-300 soil moisture sensor. The objectives of this study are to increase the accuracy of soil moisture measurement at watershed scale, to improve flood forecasting accuracy, and to optimize soil moisture sensor density. According to our results, in 10 of 13 cases, a strong correlation exists between the measured soil moisture data of Station 5 and all other monitoring stations; Station 5 is considered representative for the entire watershed. Logically, the selection of the location of the representative measurement point(s) is essential for obtaining representative and accurate soil moisture values for the given watershed. This could be done by (i) employing monitoring stations of higher number at the exploratory phase of the monitoring, (ii) mapping soil physical properties at watershed scale, and (iii) running cross-relational statistical analyses on the obtained data. Our findings indicate that increasing the number of soil moisture data points available for interpolation increases the accuracy of watershed-scale soil moisture estimation. The data set used for interpolation (and estimation of mean antecedent soil moisture values) could be improved (thus, having a higher number of data points) by selecting points of similar properties to the measurement points from the DEM and soil databases. By using a higher number of data points for interpolation, both interpolation accuracy and spatial resolution have increased for the measured soil moisture values for the Pósa Valley.

  12. Increased Genomic Prediction Accuracy in Wheat Breeding Through Spatial Adjustment of Field Trial Data

    PubMed Central

    Lado, Bettina; Matus, Ivan; Rodríguez, Alejandra; Inostroza, Luis; Poland, Jesse; Belzile, François; del Pozo, Alejandro; Quincke, Martín; Castro, Marina; von Zitzewitz, Jarislav

    2013-01-01

    In crop breeding, the interest of predicting the performance of candidate cultivars in the field has increased due to recent advances in molecular breeding technologies. However, the complexity of the wheat genome presents some challenges for applying new technologies in molecular marker identification with next-generation sequencing. We applied genotyping-by-sequencing, a recently developed method to identify single-nucleotide polymorphisms, in the genomes of 384 wheat (Triticum aestivum) genotypes that were field tested under three different water regimes in Mediterranean climatic conditions: rain-fed only, mild water stress, and fully irrigated. We identified 102,324 single-nucleotide polymorphisms in these genotypes, and the phenotypic data were used to train and test genomic selection models intended to predict yield, thousand-kernel weight, number of kernels per spike, and heading date. Phenotypic data showed marked spatial variation. Therefore, different models were tested to correct the trends observed in the field. A mixed-model using moving-means as a covariate was found to best fit the data. When we applied the genomic selection models, the accuracy of predicted traits increased with spatial adjustment. Multiple genomic selection models were tested, and a Gaussian kernel model was determined to give the highest accuracy. The best predictions between environments were obtained when data from different years were used to train the model. Our results confirm that genotyping-by-sequencing is an effective tool to obtain genome-wide information for crops with complex genomes, that these data are efficient for predicting traits, and that correction of spatial variation is a crucial ingredient to increase prediction accuracy in genomic selection models. PMID:24082033

  13. Agricultural case studies of classification accuracy, spectral resolution, and model over-fitting.

    PubMed

    Nansen, Christian; Geremias, Leandro Delalibera; Xue, Yingen; Huang, Fangneng; Parra, Jose Roberto

    2013-11-01

    This paper describes the relationship between spectral resolution and classification accuracy in analyses of hyperspectral imaging data acquired from crop leaves. The main scope is to discuss and reduce the risk of model over-fitting. Over-fitting of a classification model occurs when too many and/or irrelevant model terms are included (i.e., a large number of spectral bands), and it may lead to low robustness/repeatability when the classification model is applied to independent validation data. We outline a simple way to quantify the level of model over-fitting by comparing the observed classification accuracies with those obtained from explanatory random data. Hyperspectral imaging data were acquired from two crop-insect pest systems: (1) potato psyllid (Bactericera cockerelli) infestations of individual bell pepper plants (Capsicum annuum) with the acquisition of hyperspectral imaging data under controlled-light conditions (data set 1), and (2) sugarcane borer (Diatraea saccharalis) infestations of individual maize plants (Zea mays) with the acquisition of hyperspectral imaging data from the same plants under two markedly different image-acquisition conditions (data sets 2a and b). For each data set, reflectance data were analyzed based on seven spectral resolutions by dividing 160 spectral bands from 405 to 907 nm into 4, 16, 32, 40, 53, 80, or 160 bands. In the two data sets, similar classification results were obtained with spectral resolutions ranging from 3.1 to 12.6 nm. Thus, the size of the initial input data could be reduced fourfold with only a negligible loss of classification accuracy. In the analysis of data set 1, several validation approaches all demonstrated consistently that insect-induced stress could be accurately detected and that therefore there was little indication of model over-fitting. In the analyses of data set 2, inconsistent validation results were obtained and the observed classification accuracy (81.06%) was only a few percentage

  14. Will it Blend? Visualization and Accuracy Evaluation of High-Resolution Fuzzy Vegetation Maps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zlinszky, A.; Kania, A.

    2016-06-01

    Instead of assigning every map pixel to a single class, fuzzy classification includes information on the class assigned to each pixel but also the certainty of this class and the alternative possible classes based on fuzzy set theory. The advantages of fuzzy classification for vegetation mapping are well recognized, but the accuracy and uncertainty of fuzzy maps cannot be directly quantified with indices developed for hard-boundary categorizations. The rich information in such a map is impossible to convey with a single map product or accuracy figure. Here we introduce a suite of evaluation indices and visualization products for fuzzy maps generated with ensemble classifiers. We also propose a way of evaluating classwise prediction certainty with "dominance profiles" visualizing the number of pixels in bins according to the probability of the dominant class, also showing the probability of all the other classes. Together, these data products allow a quantitative understanding of the rich information in a fuzzy raster map both for individual classes and in terms of variability in space, and also establish the connection between spatially explicit class certainty and traditional accuracy metrics. These map products are directly comparable to widely used hard boundary evaluation procedures, support active learning-based iterative classification and can be applied for operational use.

  15. Color camera computed tomography imaging spectrometer for improved spatial-spectral image accuracy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, Daniel W. (Inventor); Bearman, Gregory H. (Inventor); Johnson, William R. (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    Computed tomography imaging spectrometers ("CTIS"s) having color focal plane array detectors are provided. The color FPA detector may comprise a digital color camera including a digital image sensor, such as a Foveon X3.RTM. digital image sensor or a Bayer color filter mosaic. In another embodiment, the CTIS includes a pattern imposed either directly on the object scene being imaged or at the field stop aperture. The use of a color FPA detector and the pattern improves the accuracy of the captured spatial and spectral information.

  16. modern global models of the earth's gravity field: analysis of their accuracy and resolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ganagina, Irina; Karpik, Alexander; Kanushin, Vadim; Goldobin, Denis; Kosareva, Alexandra; Kosarev, Nikolay; Mazurova, Elena

    2015-04-01

    Introduction: Accurate knowledge of the fine structure of the Earth's gravity field extends opportunities in geodynamic problem-solving and high-precision navigation. In the course of our investigations have been analyzed the resolution and accuracy of 33 modern global models of the Earth's gravity field and among them 23 combined models and 10 satellite models obtained by the results of GOCE, GRACE, and CHAMP satellite gravity mission. The Earth's geopotential model data in terms of normalized spherical harmonic coefficients were taken from the web-site of the International Centre for Global Earth Models (ICGEM) in Potsdam. Theory: Accuracy and resolution estimation of global Earth's gravity field models is based on the analysis of degree variances of geopotential coefficients and their errors. During investigations for analyzing models were obtained dependences of approximation errors for gravity anomalies on the spherical harmonic expansion of the geopotential, relative errors of geopotential's spherical harmonic coefficients, degree variances for geopotential coefficients, and error variances of potential coefficients obtained from gravity anomalies. Delphi 7-based software developed by authors was used for the analysis of global Earth's gravity field models. Experience: The results of investigations show that spherical harmonic coefficients of all matched. Diagrams of degree variances for spherical harmonic coefficients and their errors bring us to the conclusion that the degree variances of most models equal to their error variances for a degree less than that declared by developers. The accuracy of normalized spherical harmonic coefficients of geopotential models is estimated as 10-9. This value characterizes both inherent errors of models, and the difference of coefficients in various models, as well as a scale poor predicted instability of the geopotential, and resolution. Furthermore, we compared the gravity anomalies computed by models with those

  17. Statistical model based iterative reconstruction (MBIR) in clinical CT systems. Part II. Experimental assessment of spatial resolution performance

    PubMed Central

    Li, Ke; Garrett, John; Ge, Yongshuai; Chen, Guang-Hong

    2014-01-01

    versa); the value of this transitional contrast highly depended on the dose level. (3) The PSFs of MBIR could be approximated as Gaussian functions with reasonably good accuracy. (4) Thez resolution of MBIR showed similar contrast and dose dependence. (5) Noise standard deviation assessed on the edges of objects demonstrated a trade-off with spatial resolution in MBIR. (5) When both spatial resolution and image noise were considered using the CHO analysis, MBIR led to significant improvement in the overall CT image quality for both high and low contrast detection tasks at both standard and low dose levels. Conclusions: Due to the intrinsic nonlinearity of the MBIR method, many well-known CT spatial resolution and noise properties have been modified. In particular, dose dependence and contrast dependence have been introduced to the spatial resolution of CT images by MBIR. The method has also introduced some novel noise-resolution trade-off not seen in traditional CT images. While the benefits of MBIR regarding the overall image quality, as demonstrated in this work, are significant, the optimal use of this method in clinical practice demands a thorough understanding of its unique physical characteristics. PMID:24989389

  18. Statistical model based iterative reconstruction (MBIR) in clinical CT systems. Part II. Experimental assessment of spatial resolution performance

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Ke; Chen, Guang-Hong; Garrett, John; Ge, Yongshuai

    2014-07-15

    FBP (and vice versa); the value of this transitional contrast highly depended on the dose level. (3) The PSFs of MBIR could be approximated as Gaussian functions with reasonably good accuracy. (4) Thez resolution of MBIR showed similar contrast and dose dependence. (5) Noise standard deviation assessed on the edges of objects demonstrated a trade-off with spatial resolution in MBIR. (5) When both spatial resolution and image noise were considered using the CHO analysis, MBIR led to significant improvement in the overall CT image quality for both high and low contrast detection tasks at both standard and low dose levels. Conclusions: Due to the intrinsic nonlinearity of the MBIR method, many well-known CT spatial resolution and noise properties have been modified. In particular, dose dependence and contrast dependence have been introduced to the spatial resolution of CT images by MBIR. The method has also introduced some novel noise-resolution trade-off not seen in traditional CT images. While the benefits of MBIR regarding the overall image quality, as demonstrated in this work, are significant, the optimal use of this method in clinical practice demands a thorough understanding of its unique physical characteristics.

  19. Model Accuracy Comparison for High Resolution Insar Coherence Statistics Over Urban Areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yue; Fu, Kun; Sun, Xian; Xu, Guangluan; Wang, Hongqi

    2016-06-01

    The interferometric coherence map derived from the cross-correlation of two complex registered synthetic aperture radar (SAR) images is the reflection of imaged targets. In many applications, it can act as an independent information source, or give additional information complementary to the intensity image. Specially, the statistical properties of the coherence are of great importance in land cover classification, segmentation and change detection. However, compared to the amount of work on the statistical characters of SAR intensity, there are quite fewer researches on interferometric SAR (InSAR) coherence statistics. And to our knowledge, all of the existing work that focuses on InSAR coherence statistics, models the coherence with Gaussian distribution with no discrimination on data resolutions or scene types. But the properties of coherence may be different for different data resolutions and scene types. In this paper, we investigate on the coherence statistics for high resolution data over urban areas, by making a comparison of the accuracy of several typical statistical models. Four typical land classes including buildings, trees, shadow and roads are selected as the representatives of urban areas. Firstly, several regions are selected from the coherence map manually and labelled with their corresponding classes respectively. Then we try to model the statistics of the pixel coherence for each type of region, with different models including Gaussian, Rayleigh, Weibull, Beta and Nakagami. Finally, we evaluate the model accuracy for each type of region. The experiments on TanDEM-X data show that the Beta model has a better performance than other distributions.

  20. An Improved Multi-Temporal Insar Method for Increasing Spatial Resolution of Surface Deformation Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, T.; Liu, G.; Jia, H.; Lin, H.; Zhang, R.; Yu, B.; Luo, Q.

    2013-10-01

    The multi-temporal interferometric synthetic aperture radar (InSAR) technology has proven very useful in extracting surface deformation with time series of SAR images over a study area. To increase spatial resolution of deformation information, this paper presents an improved multi-temporal InSAR (MTI) method by tracking both the point-like targets (PTs) and the distributed targets (DTs) with temporal steadiness of radar backscattering. The valid pixels corresponding to PTs and DTs are identified mainly by thresholding of the amplitude dispersion index (ADI) and the Pearson correlation coefficient (PCC). To efficiently reduce error propagation, a hierarchical analysis strategy is applied to extract deformation rates at the valid pixels. For the pixels with lower ADI values, the deformation rates are estimated on an optimized network by a least squared estimator and a region growing method. For the pixels with higher ADI values, they are classified into several groups by the ADI intervals, and the deformation rates are estimated through the multi-levels of processing. The nonlinear deformation values at all the valid pixels are estimated by spatiotemporally filtering and spatially integrating. The proposed MTI algorithm has been tested for subsidence detection over Tianjin in China using the 40 high resolution TerraSAR-X images acquired between 2009 and 2010, and validated by using the ground-based leveling measurements. The testing results indicate that the spatial resolution and coverage of subsidence data can be increased dramatically by the hierarchical analysis, and the accuracy in subsidence values derived from the MTI solution can reach up to a millimeter level.

  1. Experimental Estimation of CLASP Spatial Resolution: Results of the Instrument's Optical Alignment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Giono, Gabrial; Katsukawa, Yukio; Ishikawa, Ryoko; Narukage, Noriyuki; Bando, Takamasa; Kano, Ryohei; Suematsu, Yoshinori; Kobayashi, Ken; Winebarger, Amy; Auchere, Frederic

    2015-01-01

    The Chromospheric Lyman-Alpha SpectroPolarimeter (CLASP) is a sounding-rocket experiment currently being built at the National Astronomical Observatory of Japan. This instrument aims to probe for the first time the magnetic field strength and orientation in the solar upper-chromosphere and lower-transition region. CLASP will measure the polarization of the Lyman-Alpha line (121.6nm) with an unprecedented accuracy, and derive the magnetic field information through the Hanle effect. Although polarization accuracy and spectral resolution are crucial for the Hanle effect detection, spatial resolution is also important to get reliable context image via the slit-jaw camera. As spatial resolution is directly related with the alignment of optics, it is also a good way of ensuring the alignment of the instrument to meet the scientific requirement. This poster will detail the experiments carried out to align CLASP's optics (telescope and spectrograph), as both part of the instrument were aligned separately. The telescope was aligned in double-pass mode, and a laser interferometer (He-Ne) was used to measure the telescope's wavefront error (WFE). The secondary mirror tilt and position were adjusted to remove comas and defocus aberrations from the WFE. Effect of gravity on the WFE measurement was estimated and the final WFE derived in zero-g condition for CLASP telescope will be presented. In addition, an estimation of the spot shape and size derived from the final WFE will also be shown. The spectrograph was aligned with a custom procedure: because Ly-??light is absorbed by air, the spectrograph's off-axis parabolic mirrors were aligned in Visible Light (VL) using a custom-made VL grating instead of the flight Ly-? grating. Results of the alignment in Visible Light will be shown and the spot shape recorded with CCDs at various position along the slit will be displayed. Results from both alignment experiment will be compared to the design requirement, and will be combined in

  2. An evaluation of the spatial resolution of soil moisture information

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hardy, K. R.; Cohen, S. H.; Rogers, L. K.; Burke, H. H. K.; Leupold, R. C.; Smallwood, M. D.

    1981-01-01

    Rainfall-amount patterns in the central regions of the U.S. were assessed. The spatial scales of surface features and their corresponding microwave responses in the mid western U.S. were investigated. The usefulness for U.S. government agencies of soil moisture information at scales of 10 km and 1 km. was ascertained. From an investigation of 494 storms, it was found that the rainfall resulting from the passage of most types of storms produces patterns which can be resolved on a 10 km scale. The land features causing the greatest problem in the sensing of soil moisture over large agricultural areas with a radiometer are bodies of water. Over the mid-western portions of the U.S., water occupies less than 2% of the total area, the consequently, the water bodies will not have a significant impact on the mapping of soil moisture. Over most of the areas, measurements at a 10-km resolution would adequately define the distribution of soil moisture. Crop yield models and hydrological models would give improved results if soil moisture information at scales of 10 km was available.

  3. Spatial resolution attainable in germanium detectors by pulse shape analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Blair, J., Bechtel, NV; Beckedahl, D.; Kammeraad, J.; Schmid, G., LLNL

    1998-05-01

    There are several applications for which it is desirable to calculate the locations and energies of individual gamma-ray interactions within a high purity germanium (HPGe) detector. These include gamma-ray imaging and Compton suppression. With a segmented detector this can be accomplished by analyzing the pulse shapes of the signals from the various segments. We examine the fundamental limits to the spatial resolution attainable with this approach. The primary source of error is the series noise of the field effect transistors (FETs) at the inputs of the charge amplifiers. We show how to calculate the noise spectral density at the output of the charge amplifiers due to an optimally selected FET. This calculation is based only on the detector capacitance and a noise constant for the FET technology. We show how to use this spectral density to calculate the uncertainties in parameters, such as interaction locations and energies, that are derived from pulse shape analysis using maximum likelihood estimation (MLE) applied to filtered and digitized recordings of the charge signals. Example calculations are given to illustrate our approach. Experimental results are given that demonstrate that one can construct complete systems, from detector through data analysis, that come near the theoretical limits.

  4. High spatial resolution spectrometry of rafting macroalgae (Sargassum)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szekielda, Karl H.; Marmorino, George O.; Bowles, Jeffrey H.; Gillis, David

    2010-04-01

    Data with 0.4-m spatial resolution acquired ~2 km off the southeast Florida coast using the airborne Portable Hyperspectral Imager for Low-Light Spectroscopy (PHILLS) have been analyzed with the objective of identifying drifting surface macroalgae (Sargassum) through its spectral signature in at-sensor radiance. The observed spectral features of Sargassum include a peak at a wavelength of ~0.570 μm and a photosynthetic 'red edge' between 0.673 and 0.699 μm. Sargassum also exhibits high radiance in the reflected near-infrared but is impacted by the atmospheric absorption bands of water vapor at 0.720 μm and oxygen at 0.756 μm. The spectral signature is clearest and largest in amplitude where the Sargassum occurs as small surface aggregations, or rafts, which tend to lie at the downwind ends of narrow Sargassum windrows. The quantity of floating Sargassum was estimated within a single pixel by linearly mixing a spectrum of Sargassum-free water with varying percentages of a spectrum from a pixel assumed completely filled with floating plants. For our study site about 2.3% of the ocean area is classified as having some Sargassum coverage, with pixels completely filled with Sargassum being rare (only 0.2% of the classified Sargassum pixels) and pixels with the least-resolvable amount of Sargassum (~10% filled) being the most common.

  5. Spatial Resolution of Conscious Visual Perception in Infants

    PubMed Central

    Farzin, Faraz; Rivera, Susan M.; Whitney, David

    2011-01-01

    Conscious awareness of objects in the visual periphery is limited. This limit is not entirely the result of reduced visual acuity, but is primarily caused by crowding—the inability to identify an object when surrounded by clutter. Crowding represents a fundamental limitation of the visual system, and has to date been unexplored in infants. Do infants have a fine-grained “spotlight”, similar to adults, or a diffuse “lantern” that sets limits on what they can register in the periphery? An eye-tracking paradigm was designed to psychophysically measure crowding in 6- to 15-month-olds by showing pairs of faces at three eccentricities, in the presence or absence of flankers, and recording infants’ first saccade from central fixation to either face. Results reveal that infants can discriminate faces in the periphery, and flankers impair this ability as close as 3 degrees; the effective spatial resolution of visual perception increased with age but was only half that of adults. PMID:20817914

  6. Magnetic soft X-ray microscopy at 10nm spatial resolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fischer, Peter; Chao, Weilun; Im, Mi-Young; Anderson, Erik

    2011-03-01

    Magnetic soft X-ray microscopy, which combines high spatial and temporal resolution with elemental specificity by utilizing the specific features of X-ray magnetic circular dichroism effects is a unique and powerful analytical technique to image fast spin dynamics of nanoscale magnetism. The spatial resolution is determined by Fresnel zone plate lenses used as diffractive optics. FZPs are fabricated by state-of-the-art lithography techniques and the challenge is to produce a dense, circular line pattern with a high aspect ratio to achieve high efficiency. Using an overlay technique [2-3], which requires high position accuracy of the e-beam writer, FZPs with 12nm outermost zone width could be fabricated. Implementing this optic at BL 6.1.2 at the ALS in Berkeley CA, we have demonstrated that a 10nm line and space test pattern can be clearly resolved. First magnetic images of a PtCo film with a pronounced perpendicular anisotropy will be presented. Further progress to below 10nm can be anticipated in the near future. This work was supported by the U.S. Department of Energy under Contract No. DE-AC02-05-CH11231.

  7. High spatial resolution two-dimensional position sensitive detector for the performance of coincidence experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Ceolin, D.; Chaplier, G.; Lemonnier, M.; Garcia, G.A.; Miron, C.; Nahon, L.; Simon, M.; Leclercq, N.; Morin, P.

    2005-04-01

    A position sensitive detector (PSD) adapted to the technical and mechanical specifications of our angle and energy resolved electron-ion(s) coincidence experiments is described in this article. The device, whose principle is very similar to the one detailed by J. H. D. Eland [Meas. Sci. Technol. 5, 1501 (1994)], is composed by a set of microchannel plates and a delay line anode. The originality comes from the addition in front of the encoding surface of a ceramic disk covered by a resistive surface. The capacitive coupling between the anode and the resistive plane has the double advantage of eliminating the spatial modulations due to the lattice of the anode and also of sensitizing a greater number of electrodes, increasing thus considerably the accuracy of the position measurements. The tests carried out with a time to digital conversion module of 250 ps resolution showed that a spatial resolution better than 50 {mu}m and a dead time of 160 ns can be achieved. Typical images obtained with the help of the EPICEA and DELICIOUS coincidence setups are also shown.

  8. High-spatial-resolution passive microwave sounding systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Staelin, D. H.; Rosenkranz, P. W.

    1994-01-01

    The principal contributions of this combined theoretical and experimental effort were to advance and demonstrate new and more accurate techniques for sounding atmospheric temperature, humidity, and precipitation profiles at millimeter wavelengths, and to improve the scientific basis for such soundings. Some of these techniques are being incorporated in both research and operational systems. Specific results include: (1) development of the MIT Microwave Temperature Sounder (MTS), a 118-GHz eight-channel imaging spectrometer plus a switched-frequency spectrometer near 53 GHz, for use on the NASA ER-2 high-altitude aircraft, (2) conduct of ER-2 MTS missions in multiple seasons and locations in combination with other instruments, mapping with unprecedented approximately 2-km lateral resolution atmospheric temperature and precipitation profiles, atmospheric transmittances (at both zenith and nadir), frontal systems, and hurricanes, (3) ground based 118-GHz 3-D spectral images of wavelike structure within clouds passing overhead, (4) development and analysis of approaches to ground- and space-based 5-mm wavelength sounding of the upper stratosphere and mesosphere, which supported the planning of improvements to operational weather satellites, (5) development of improved multidimensional and adaptive retrieval methods for atmospheric temperature and humidity profiles, (6) development of combined nonlinear and statistical retrieval techniques for 183-GHz humidity profile retrievals, (7) development of nonlinear statistical retrieval techniques for precipitation cell-top altitudes, and (8) numerical analyses of the impact of remote sensing data on the accuracy of numerical weather predictions; a 68-km gridded model was used to study the spectral properties of error growth.

  9. Accuracy enhancement of GPS time series using principal component analysis and block spatial filtering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Xiaoxing; Hua, Xianghong; Yu, Kegen; Xuan, Wei; Lu, Tieding; Zhang, W.; Chen, X.

    2015-03-01

    This paper focuses on performance analysis and accuracy enhancement of long-term position time series of a regional network of GPS stations with two near sub-blocks, one block of 8 stations in Cascadia region and another block of 14 stations in Southern California. We have analyzed the seasonal variations of the 22 IGS site positions between 2004 and 2011. The Green's function is used to calculate the station-site displacements induced by the environmental loading due to atmospheric pressure, soil moisture, snow depth and nontidal ocean. The analysis has revealed that these loading factors can result in position shift of centimeter level, the displacement time series exhibit a periodic pattern, which can explain about 12.70-21.78% of the seasonal amplitude on vertical GPS time series, and the loading effect is significantly different among the two nearby geographical regions. After the loading effect is corrected, the principal component analysis (PCA)-based block spatial filtering is proposed to filter out the remaining common mode error (CME) of the GPS time series. The results show that the PCA-based block spatial filtering can extract the CME more accurately and effectively than the conventional overall filtering method, reducing more of the uncertainty. With the loading correction and block spatial filtering, about 68.34-73.20% of the vertical GPS seasonal power can be separated and removed, improving the reliability of the GPS time series and hence enabling better deformation analysis and higher precision geodetic applications.

  10. Impact of spatial resolution on cirrus infrared satellite retrievals in the presence of cloud heterogeneity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fauchez, T.; Platnick, S. E.; Meyer, K.; Zhang, Z.; Cornet, C.; Szczap, F.; Dubuisson, P.

    2015-12-01

    Cirrus clouds are an important part of the Earth radiation budget but an accurate assessment of their role remains highly uncertain. Cirrus optical properties such as Cloud Optical Thickness (COT) and ice crystal effective particle size are often retrieved with a combination of Visible/Near InfraRed (VNIR) and ShortWave-InfraRed (SWIR) reflectance channels. Alternatively, Thermal InfraRed (TIR) techniques, such as the Split Window Technique (SWT), have demonstrated better accuracy for thin cirrus effective radius retrievals with small effective radii. However, current global operational algorithms for both retrieval methods assume that cloudy pixels are horizontally homogeneous (Plane Parallel Approximation (PPA)) and independent (Independent Pixel Approximation (IPA)). The impact of these approximations on ice cloud retrievals needs to be understood and, as far as possible, corrected. Horizontal heterogeneity effects in the TIR spectrum are mainly dominated by the PPA bias that primarily depends on the COT subpixel heterogeneity; for solar reflectance channels, in addition to the PPA bias, the IPA can lead to significant retrieval errors due to a significant photon horizontal transport between cloudy columns, as well as brightening and shadowing effects that are more difficult to quantify. Furthermore TIR retrievals techniques have demonstrated better retrieval accuracy for thin cirrus having small effective radii over solar reflectance techniques. The TIR range is thus particularly relevant in order to characterize, as accurately as possible, thin cirrus clouds. Heterogeneity effects in the TIR are evaluated as a function of spatial resolution in order to estimate the optimal spatial resolution for TIR retrieval applications. These investigations are performed using a cirrus 3D cloud generator (3DCloud), a 3D radiative transfer code (3DMCPOL), and two retrieval algorithms, namely the operational MODIS retrieval algorithm (MOD06) and a research-level SWT algorithm.

  11. A high-resolution measurement device for detecting the positioning accuracy of the optical fiber positioner

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gu, Yonggang; Xu, Jianlei; Jin, Yi; Zhai, Chao

    2012-09-01

    The optical fiber positioner with double revolving mechanism is driven by two stepping motors. One stepping motor drives center revolving mechanism and the other drives decentered slewing mechanism. Photogrammetry is currently used to detect the positioning accuracy of the optical fiber positioner, but it cannot achieve high precision because of the small size of the fiber’s diameter. So, a new measurement device, which mainly contained optical microscope, CCD camera and two-dimensional precision mobile platform, was established in this paper. One end of the optical fiber (the other end was lighted by integrating sphere light source) was imaged on the CCD sensor in a magnified way through the optical microscope, and the image was processed to build the position feedback mechanism in real time. Then the two-dimensional mobile platform was controlled by PID control method to track the optical fiber, and the fiber was always kept to locate in center of the CCD image in order to eliminate the aberrations of the optical microscope lens. Finally, the position changes of the moving fiber could be obtained by the coordinates of the two-dimensional precision mobile platform. The experimental results demonstrate that the resolution of this measurement device is 0.1μm and the accuracy of repeat positioning is 1.5μm. The measurement device could satisfy the testing requirement.

  12. Centimeter spatial resolution of distributed optical fiber sensor for structural health monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zou, Lufan; Bao, Xiaoyi; Wan, Yidun; Ravet, Fabien; Chen, Liang

    2004-11-01

    We present a sensing principle of the coherent probe-pump based Brillouin sensor (CPPBBS) that offers a new method to achieve centimeter spatial resolution with high frequency resolution. A combination of continuous wave (cw) and pulse source as the probe (Stokes) beam and cw laser as the pump beam have resulted in stronger Brillouin interaction of Stokes and pump inside the pulse-length in the form of cw-pump and pulse-pump interactions. We find that the coherent portion inside the pulse-length of these two interactions due to the same phase has a very high Brillouin amplification. The Brillouin profile originating from the coherent interaction of pulse-pump with cw-pump results in high temperature and strain accuracy with centimeter resolution, which allows us to detect 1.5 cm out-layer crack on an optical ground wire (OPGW) cable. The out-layer damaged regions on an optical ground wire (OPGW) cable have been identified successfully by measuring the strain distributions every 5 cm using this technology. The stress increased to 127 kN which corresponds to more than 7500 micro-strain in the fibers. The locations of structural indentations comprising repaired and undamaged regions are found and distinguished using their corresponding strain data. The elongation of repaired region increases with time on the stress of 127 kN. These results are quantified in terms of the fiber orientation, stress, and behavior relative to undamaged sections.

  13. Object Based Image Analysis Combining High Spatial Resolution Imagery and Laser Point Clouds for Urban Land Cover

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zou, Xiaoliang; Zhao, Guihua; Li, Jonathan; Yang, Yuanxi; Fang, Yong

    2016-06-01

    With the rapid developments of the sensor technology, high spatial resolution imagery and airborne Lidar point clouds can be captured nowadays, which make classification, extraction, evaluation and analysis of a broad range of object features available. High resolution imagery, Lidar dataset and parcel map can be widely used for classification as information carriers. Therefore, refinement of objects classification is made possible for the urban land cover. The paper presents an approach to object based image analysis (OBIA) combing high spatial resolution imagery and airborne Lidar point clouds. The advanced workflow for urban land cover is designed with four components. Firstly, colour-infrared TrueOrtho photo and laser point clouds were pre-processed to derive the parcel map of water bodies and nDSM respectively. Secondly, image objects are created via multi-resolution image segmentation integrating scale parameter, the colour and shape properties with compactness criterion. Image can be subdivided into separate object regions. Thirdly, image objects classification is performed on the basis of segmentation and a rule set of knowledge decision tree. These objects imagery are classified into six classes such as water bodies, low vegetation/grass, tree, low building, high building and road. Finally, in order to assess the validity of the classification results for six classes, accuracy assessment is performed through comparing randomly distributed reference points of TrueOrtho imagery with the classification results, forming the confusion matrix and calculating overall accuracy and Kappa coefficient. The study area focuses on test site Vaihingen/Enz and a patch of test datasets comes from the benchmark of ISPRS WG III/4 test project. The classification results show higher overall accuracy for most types of urban land cover. Overall accuracy is 89.5% and Kappa coefficient equals to 0.865. The OBIA approach provides an effective and convenient way to combine high

  14. Extraction Of Hydrological Parameters Using High Spatial Resolution Remote Sensing For KINEROS2 Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sadeh, Yuval; Blumberg, Dan G.; Cohen, Hai; Morin, Efrat; Maman, Shimrit

    2016-04-01

    Arid and semi-arid environments cover more than one-third of Earth's land surface; these environments are especially vulnerable to flash flood hazards due to the poor understanding of the phenomenon and the lack of meteorological, geomorphological, and hydrological data. For many years, catchment characteristics have been observed using point-based measurements such as rain gauges and soil sample analysis. Furthermore, flood modeling techniques are not always available in ungauged catchments or in regions where data are sparse. In comparison to point-based observations, using remote sensing technologies can provide continuous spatial hydrological parameters and variables. The advances in remote sensing technologies including weather radar-based quantitative precipitation estimation (QPE) and Earth observing satellites, provide new geo-spatial data using high spatial and temporal resolution for basin-scale geomorphological analysis and hydrological models. This study used high spatial resolution remote sensing to extract some of the main input parameters of Kinematic Runoff and Erosion Model (KINEROS2), for the arid medium size Rahaf watershed (76 km^2}), located in the Judean Desert, Israel. During the research a high resolution land cover map of Rahaf basin was created using WorldView-2 multispectral satellite imageries; surface roughness was estimated using SIR-C and COSMO-SkyMed Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) spaceborne sensors; and rainstorm characteristics were extracted from ground-based meteorological radar. Finally, all the remotely sensed extracted data were used as inputs for the KINEROS2 through Automated Geospatial Watershed Assessment (AGWA) tool. The model-simulated peak flow and volume were then compared to runoff measurements from the watershed's pouring point. This research demonstrates the ability of using remotely sensed extracted data as inputs for the KINEROS2 model. Using AGWA, each simulated storm was successfully calibrated, when the average

  15. The role of the spatial scale and data accuracy on deep-seated gravitational slope deformation modeling: The Ronco landslide, Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Longoni, Laura; Papini, Monica; Brambilla, Davide; Arosio, Diego; Zanzi, Luigi

    2016-01-01

    In recent decades numerical models have been developed and extensively used for landslide hazard and risk assessment. The reliability of the outcomes of these numerical simulations must be evaluated carefully as it mainly depends on the soundness of the physical model of the landslide that in turn often requires the integration of several surface and subsurface surveys in order to achieve a satisfactory spatial resolution. Merging diverse sources of data may be particularly complex for large landslides, because of intrinsic heterogeneity and possible great data uncertainty. In this paper, we assess the spatial scale and data accuracy required for effective numerical landslide modeling. We focus on two particular aspects: the model extent and the accuracy of input datasets. The Ronco landslide, a deep-seated gravitational slope deformation (DSGSD) located in the North of Italy, was used as a test-bed. Geological, geomorphological and geophysical data were combined and, as a result, eight models with different spatial scales and data accuracies were obtained. The models were used to run a back analysis of an event in 2002, during which part of the slope moved after intense rainfalls. The results point to the key role of a proper geomorphological zonation to properly set the model extent. The accuracy level of the input datasets should also be tuned. We suggest applying the approach presented here to other DSGSDs with different geological and geomorphological settings to test the reliability of our findings.

  16. The French proposal for a high spatial resolution Hyperspectral mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carrère, Véronique; Briottet, Xavier; Jacquemoud, Stéphane; Marion, Rodolphe; Bourguignon, Anne; Chami, Malik; Chanussot, Jocelyn; Chevrel, Stéphane; Deliot, Philippe; Dumont, Marie; Foucher, Pierre-Yves; Gomez, Cécile; Roman-Minghelli, Audrey; Sheeren, David; Weber, Christiane; Lefèvre, Marie-José; Mandea, Mioara

    2014-05-01

    More than 25 years of airborne imaging spectroscopy and spaceborne sensors such as Hyperion or HICO have clearly demonstrated the ability of such a remote sensing technique to produce value added information regarding surface composition and physical properties for a large variety of applications. Scheduled missions such as EnMAP and PRISMA prove the increased interest of the scientific community for such a type of remote sensing data. In France, a group of Science and Defence users of imaging spectrometry data (Groupe de Synthèse Hyperspectral, GSH) established an up-to-date review of possible applications, define instrument specifications required for accurate, quantitative retrieval of diagnostic parameters, and identify fields of application where imaging spectrometry is a major contribution. From these conclusions, CNES (French Space Agency) decided a phase 0 study for an hyperspectral mission concept, named at this time HYPXIM (HYPerspectral-X IMagery), the main fields of applications are vegetation biodiversity, coastal and inland waters, geosciences, urban environment, atmospheric sciences, cryosphere and Defence. Results pointed out applications where high spatial resolution was necessary and would not be covered by the other foreseen hyperspectral missions. The phase A started at the beginning of 2013 based on the following HYPXIM characteristics: a hyperspectral camera covering the [0.4 - 2.5 µm] spectral range with a 8 m ground sampling distance (GSD) and a PAN camera with a 1.85 m GSD, onboard a mini-satellite platform. This phase A is currently stopped due to budget constraints. Nevertheless, the Science team is currently focusing on the preparation for the next CNES prospective meeting (March, 2014), an important step for the future of the mission. This paper will provide an update of the status of this mission and of new results obtained by the Science team.

  17. Auditory spatial resolution in horizontal, vertical, and diagonal planes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grantham, D. Wesley; Hornsby, Benjamin W. Y.; Erpenbeck, Eric A.

    2003-08-01

    Minimum audible angle (MAA) and minimum audible movement angle (MAMA) thresholds were measured for stimuli in horizontal, vertical, and diagonal (60°) planes. A pseudovirtual technique was employed in which signals were recorded through KEMAR's ears and played back to subjects through insert earphones. Thresholds were obtained for wideband, high-pass, and low-pass noises. Only 6 of 20 subjects obtained wideband vertical-plane MAAs less than 10°, and only these 6 subjects were retained for the complete study. For all three filter conditions thresholds were lowest in the horizontal plane, slightly (but significantly) higher in the diagonal plane, and highest for the vertical plane. These results were similar in magnitude and pattern to those reported by Perrott and Saberi [J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 87, 1728-1731 (1990)] and Saberi and Perrott [J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 88, 2639-2644 (1990)], except that these investigators generally found that thresholds for diagonal planes were as good as those for the horizontal plane. The present results are consistent with the hypothesis that diagonal-plane performance is based on independent contributions from a horizontal-plane system (sensitive to interaural differences) and a vertical-plane system (sensitive to pinna-based spectral changes). Measurements of the stimuli recorded through KEMAR indicated that sources presented from diagonal planes can produce larger interaural level differences (ILDs) in certain frequency regions than would be expected based on the horizontal projection of the trajectory. Such frequency-specific ILD cues may underlie the very good performance reported in previous studies for diagonal spatial resolution. Subjects in the present study could apparently not take advantage of these cues in the diagonal-plane condition, possibly because they did not externalize the images to their appropriate positions in space or possibly because of the absence of a patterned visual field.

  18. Optimal Exploitation of the Temporal and Spatial Resolution of SEVIRI for the Nowcasting of Clouds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sirch, Tobias; Bugliaro, Luca

    2015-04-01

    Optimal Exploitation of the Temporal and Spatial Resolution of SEVIRI for the Nowcasting of Clouds An algorithm was developed to forecast the development of water and ice clouds for the successive 5-120 minutes separately using satellite data from SEVIRI (Spinning Enhanced Visible and Infrared Imager) aboard Meteosat Second Generation (MSG). In order to derive cloud cover, optical thickness and cloud top height of high ice clouds "The Cirrus Optical properties derived from CALIOP and SEVIRI during day and night" (COCS, Kox et al. [2014]) algorithm is applied. For the determination of the liquid water clouds the APICS ("Algorithm for the Physical Investigation of Clouds with SEVIRI", Bugliaro e al. [2011]) cloud algorithm is used, which provides cloud cover, optical thickness and effective radius. The forecast rests upon an optical flow method determining a motion vector field from two satellite images [Zinner et al., 2008.] With the aim of determining the ideal time separation of the satellite images that are used for the determination of the cloud motion vector field for every forecast horizon time the potential of the better temporal resolution of the Meteosat Rapid Scan Service (5 instead of 15 minutes repetition rate) has been investigated. Therefore for the period from March to June 2013 forecasts up to 4 hours in time steps of 5 min based on images separated by a time interval of 5 min, 10 min, 15 min, 30 min have been created. The results show that Rapid Scan data produces a small reduction of errors for a forecast horizon up to 30 minutes. For the following time steps forecasts generated with a time interval of 15 min should be used and for forecasts up to several hours computations with a time interval of 30 min provide the best results. For a better spatial resolution the HRV channel (High Resolution Visible, 1km instead of 3km maximum spatial resolution at the subsatellite point) has been integrated into the forecast. To detect clouds the difference of

  19. High accuracy thermal conductivity measurements near the lambda transition of helium with very high temperature resolution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fairbank, William M.; Lipa, John A.

    1989-01-01

    Over the past few years extensive thermal conductivity measurements near the lambda point of helium were made. The original goal of measuring the thermal conductivity with a resolution of t = T/T sub lambda -1 of 3 x 10(-8) was reached, but with somewhat less accuracy than was hoped. Subtle effects in the apparatus near the transition were observed which reduced the ability to interpret the results. Nevertheless, for resolution of t is greater than or equal to 10(-7) reliable data was obtained, extending previous measurements by more than an order of magnitude. Deviations from theoretical predictions were observed for t is less than or equal to 3 x 10(-6) leading to the question of the validity of the present renormalization group analysis of transport properties, at least for the case of helium. This anomaly led to closer examination of the boundary effects in the measurements. During the experiments a totally unexpected effect in the very dilute He-3 - He-4 mixtures was observed which led to the explanation of the anomalous results. The concentration dependence of the thermal conductivity near T sub lambda in the superfluid phase was found to deviate strongly from the predictions. The results gave an independent verification of this behavior and caused reanalysis of the Khalatnikov theory of hydrodynamics of the mixtures. An alternative solution was found which is in better agreement with the experiment.

  20. Prediction of brain maturity based on cortical thickness at different spatial resolutions.

    PubMed

    Khundrakpam, Budhachandra S; Tohka, Jussi; Evans, Alan C

    2015-05-01

    Several studies using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans have shown developmental trajectories of cortical thickness. Cognitive milestones happen concurrently with these structural changes, and a delay in such changes has been implicated in developmental disorders such as attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Accurate estimation of individuals' brain maturity, therefore, is critical in establishing a baseline for normal brain development against which neurodevelopmental disorders can be assessed. In this study, cortical thickness derived from structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans of a large longitudinal dataset of normally growing children and adolescents (n=308), were used to build a highly accurate predictive model for estimating chronological age (cross-validated correlation up to R=0.84). Unlike previous studies which used kernelized approach in building prediction models, we used an elastic net penalized linear regression model capable of producing a spatially sparse, yet accurate predictive model of chronological age. Upon investigating different scales of cortical parcellation from 78 to 10,240 brain parcels, we observed that the accuracy in estimated age improved with increased spatial scale of brain parcellation, with the best estimations obtained for spatial resolutions consisting of 2560 and 10,240 brain parcels. The top predictors of brain maturity were found in highly localized sensorimotor and association areas. The results of our study demonstrate that cortical thickness can be used to estimate individuals' brain maturity with high accuracy, and the estimated ages relate to functional and behavioural measures, underscoring the relevance and scope of the study in the understanding of biological maturity. PMID:25731999

  1. Trade-off between angular and spatial resolutions in in vivo fiber tractography.

    PubMed

    Vos, Sjoerd B; Aksoy, Murat; Han, Zhaoying; Holdsworth, Samantha J; Maclaren, Julian; Viergever, Max A; Leemans, Alexander; Bammer, Roland

    2016-04-01

    Tractography is becoming an increasingly popular method to reconstruct white matter connections in vivo. The diffusion MRI data that tractography is based on requires a high angular resolution to resolve crossing fibers whereas high spatial resolution is required to distinguish kissing from crossing fibers. However, scan time increases with increasing spatial and angular resolutions, which can become infeasible in clinical settings. Here we investigated the trade-off between spatial and angular resolutions to determine which of these factors is most worth investing scan time in. We created a unique diffusion MRI dataset with 1.0 mm isotropic resolution and a high angular resolution (100 directions) using an advanced 3D diffusion-weighted multi-slab EPI acquisition. This dataset was reconstructed to create subsets of lower angular (75, 50, and 25 directions) and lower spatial (1.5, 2.0, and 2.5 mm) resolution. Using all subsets, we investigated the effects of angular and spatial resolutions in three fiber bundles-the corticospinal tract, arcuate fasciculus and corpus callosum-by analyzing the volumetric bundle overlap and anatomical correspondence between tracts. Our results indicate that the subsets of 25 and 50 directions provided inferior tract reconstructions compared with the datasets with 75 and 100 directions. Datasets with spatial resolutions of 1.0, 1.5, and 2.0 mm were comparable, while the lowest resolution (2.5 mm) datasets had discernible inferior quality. In conclusion, we found that angular resolution appeared to be more influential than spatial resolution in improving tractography results. Spatial resolutions higher than 2.0 mm only appear to benefit multi-fiber tractography methods if this is not at the cost of decreased angular resolution. PMID:26774615

  2. Spatial, High-Accuracy, Positioning-Encoding Sensor (SHAPES) for large space system control applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mclauchlan, J. M.

    1982-01-01

    The Spatial, High-Accuracy, Position-Encoding Sensor is a controls sensor suitable for the determination of the static shape and vibrational motion of large space structures and similar systems and for the determination of position and velocity in rendezvous and docking. It uses a combination of electro-optical techniques to measure the three-dimensional coordinates distributed over the structure at reading rates high compared to the rates at which the coordinates are changing. The technical approach is that of measuring the distance to and the direction of points on the structure from a single sensor head. Many points can be measured simultaneously from a single head without significantly increasing the complexity of the system.

  3. Technical Note: Spatial resolution of proton tomography: Impact of air gap between patient and detector

    SciTech Connect

    Schneider, Uwe; Besserer, Juergen; Hartmann, Matthias

    2012-02-15

    Purpose: Proton radiography and tomography were investigated since the early 1970s because of its low radiation dose, high density resolution, and ability to image directly proton stopping power. However, spatial resolution is still a limiting factor. In this note, preliminary results of the impact of an air gap between detector system and patient on spatial resolution are presented. Methods: Spatial resolution of proton radiography and tomography is governed by multiple Coulomb scattering (MCS) of the protons in the patient. In this note, the authors employ Monte Carlo simulations of protons traversing a 20 cm thick water box. Entrance and exit proton coordinate measurements were simulated for improved spatial resolution. The simulations were performed with and without a 5 cm air gap in front of and behind the patient. Loss of spatial resolution due to the air gap was studied for protons with different initial angular confusion. Results: It was found that spatial resolution is significantly deteriorated when a 5 cm air gap between the position sensitive detector and the patient is included. For a perfect parallel beam spatial resolution worsens by about 40%. Spatial resolution is getting worse with increasing angular confusion and can reach 80%. Conclusions: When proton radiographies are produced by measuring the entrance and exit coordinates of the protons in front of and behind the patient the air gap between the detector and the patient can significantly deteriorate the spatial resolution of the system by up to 80%. An alternative would be to measure in addition to the coordinates also the exit and entrance angles of each proton. In principle, using the air gap size and proton angle, images can be reconstructed with the same spatial resolution than without air gap.

  4. Spatial Scaling of Snow Observations and Microwave Emission Modeling During CLPX and Appropriate Satellite Sensor Resolution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kim, Edward J.; Tedesco, Marco

    2005-01-01

    Accurate estimates of snow water equivalent and other properties play an important role in weather, natural hazard, and hydrological forecasting and climate modeling over a range of scales in space and time. Remote sensing-derived estimates have traditionally been of the "snapshot" type, but techniques involving models with assimilation are also being explored. In both cases, forward emission models are useful to understand the observed passive microwave signatures and developing retrieval algorithms. However, mismatches between passive microwave sensor resolutions and the scales of processes controlling subpixel heterogeneity can affect the accuracy of the estimates. Improving the spatial resolution of new passive microwave satellite sensors is a major desire in order to (literally) resolve such subpixel heterogeneity, but limited spacecraft and mission resources impose severe constraints and tradeoffs. In order to maximize science return while mitigating risk for a satellite concept, it is essential to understand the scaling behavior of snow in terms of what the sensor sees (brightness temperature) as well as in terms of the actual variability of snow. NASA's Cold Land Processes Experiment-1 (CLPX-1: Colorado, 2002 and 2003) was designed to provide data to measure these scaling behaviors for varying snow conditions in areas with forested, alpine, and meadow/pasture land cover. We will use observations from CLPX-1 ground, airborne, and satellite passive microwave sensors to examine and evaluate the scaling behavior of observed and modeled brightness temperatures and observed and retrieved snow parameters across scales from meters to 10's of kilometers. The conclusions will provide direct examples of the appropriate spatial sampling scales of new sensors for snow remote sensing. The analyses will also illustrate the effects and spatial scales of the underlying phenomena (e.g., land cover) that control subpixel heterogeneity.

  5. Spatial resolution of the PEP-4 time projection chamber - The PEP-4 TPC collaboration

    SciTech Connect

    Aihara, H.; Alston-Garnjost, M.; Badtke, D.H.; Bakken, J.A.; Barbaro-Galtier, A.; Barnes, A.V.; Barnett, B.A.; Blumenfeld, B.

    1983-02-01

    The spatial resolution and response of the segmented cathode pads of the PEP- 4 TPC have been measured with data taken at 8.5 atmospheres of 80% Argon-20% Methane gas with a 4kG magnetic field. The dependence of the spatial resolution and pad response on drift distance and track-anode crossing angle is presented.

  6. Error Estimation in an Optimal Interpolation Scheme for High Spatial and Temporal Resolution SST Analyses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rigney, Matt; Jedlovec, Gary; LaFontaine, Frank; Shafer, Jaclyn

    2010-01-01

    Heat and moisture exchange between ocean surface and atmosphere plays an integral role in short-term, regional NWP. Current SST products lack both spatial and temporal resolution to accurately capture small-scale features that affect heat and moisture flux. NASA satellite is used to produce high spatial and temporal resolution SST analysis using an OI technique.

  7. Spatial resolution in CBCT machines for dental/maxillofacial applications—what do we know today?

    PubMed Central

    Schulze, R K W

    2015-01-01

    Spatial resolution is one of the most important parameters objectively defining image quality, particularly in dental imaging, where fine details often have to be depicted. Here, we review the current status on assessment parameters for spatial resolution and on published data regarding spatial resolution in CBCT images. The current concepts of visual [line-pair (lp) measurements] and automated [modulation transfer function (MTF)] assessment of spatial resolution in CBCT images are summarized and reviewed. Published measurement data on spatial resolution in CBCT are evaluated and analysed. Effective (i.e. actual) spatial resolution available in CBCT images is being influenced by the two-dimensional detector, the three-dimensional reconstruction process, patient movement during the scan and various other parameters. In the literature, the values range between 0.6 and 2.8 lp mm−1 (visual assessment; median, 1.7 lp mm−1) vs MTF (range, 0.5–2.3 cycles per mm; median, 2.1 lp mm−1). Spatial resolution of CBCT images is approximately one order of magnitude lower than that of intraoral radiographs. Considering movement, scatter effects and other influences in real-world scans of living patients, a realistic spatial resolution of just above 1 lp mm−1 could be expected. PMID:25168812

  8. Ionization statistics and diffusion: analytical estimate of their contribution to spatial resolution of drift chambers

    SciTech Connect

    Tarnopolsky, G.J.

    1983-01-01

    The spatial resolution of a drift chamber often is the foremost design parameter. The calculation described here - a design tool - permits us to estimate the contributions of ionization statistics and diffusion to the spatial resolution when actually sampling the drift pulse waveform. Useful formulae are derived for the cylindrical and jet-chamber cell geometries.

  9. Accuracy of the spatial representation of the seafloor with bathymetric sidescan sonars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cervenka, Pierre; Herzfeld, Ute Christina; de Moustier, Christian

    1994-12-01

    When isobath maps of the seafloor are constructed with a bathymetric sidescan sonar system the position of each sounding is derived from estimates of range and elevation. The location of each pixel forming the acoustic backscatter image is calculated from the same estimates. The accuracy of the resulting maps depends on the acoustic array geometry, on the performances of the acoustic signal processing, and on knowledge of other parameters including: the platform's navigation, the sonar transducer's attitude, and the sound rays' trajectory between the sonar and the seafloor. The relative importance of these factors in the estimation of target location is assesed. The effects of the platform motions (e.g. roll, pitch, yaw, sway, surge and heave) and of the uncertainties in the elevation angle measurements are analyzed in detail. The variances associated with the representation (orientation and depth) of a plane, rectangular patch of the seafloor are evaluated, depending on the geometry of the patch. The inverse problem is addressed. Its solution gives the lateral dimensions of the spatial filter that must be applied to the bathymetric data to obtain specified accuracies of the slopes and depths. The uncertainty in the estimate of elevation angle, mostly due to the acoustic noise, is found to bring the main error contribution in across-track slope estimates. It can also be critical for along-track slope estimates, overshadowing error contributions due to the platform's attitude. Numerical examples are presented.

  10. Accuracy and Resolution of In Vitro Imaging Based Porcine Lens Volumetric Measurements

    PubMed Central

    Wendt, Mark; Bockhorst, Kurt; He, Lin; Glasser, Adrian

    2013-01-01

    There is considerable interest in determining lens volume in the living eye. Lens volume is of interest to understand accommodative changes in the lens and to size accommodative IOLs (A-IOLs) to fit the capsular bag. Some studies have suggested lens volume change during accommodation. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) is the only method available to determine lens volume in vivo. MRI is, by its nature, relatively low in temporal and spatial resolution. Therefore analysis often requires determining lens volume from single image slices with relatively low resolution on which only simple image analysis methods can be used and without repeated measures. In this study, 7T MRI scans encompassing the full lens volume were performed on 19 enucleated pig eyes. The eyes were then dissected to isolate and photograph the lens in profile and the lens volumes were measured empirically using a fluid displacement method. Lens volumes were calculated from two- and three-dimensional (2D & 3D) MR and 2D photographic profile images of the isolated lenses using several different analysis methods. Image based and actual measured lens volumes were compared. The average image-based volume of all lenses varied from the average measured volume of all lenses by 0.6% to 6.4% depending on the image analysis method. Image analysis methods that use gradient based edge detection showed higher precision with actual volumes (r2: 0.957 to 0.990), while threshold based segmentation had poorer correlations (r2: 0.759 to 0.828). The root-mean-square (RMS) difference between image analysis based volumes and fluid displacement measured volumes ranged from 8.51 µl to 25.79 µl. This provides an estimate of the error of previously published methods used to calculate lens volume. Immobilized, enucleated porcine eyes permit improved MR image resolution relative to living eyes and therefore improved image analysis methods to calculate lens volume. The results show that some of the accommodative changes in

  11. Spatial resolution characterization of a X-ray microCT system.

    PubMed

    Rueckel, J; Stockmar, M; Pfeiffer, F; Herzen, J

    2014-12-01

    We report on an experimental characterization of the spatial resolution of a commercial X-ray micro-computed tomography scanner. We have measured the full modulation transfer function (MTF) to assess the spatial resolution. The MTF and those spatial frequencies corresponding to a contrast loss of 50% were determined as a function of different applied X-ray tube parameters and magnification-dependent pixel sizes. A significant influence of the focal spot enlargement on the achievable spatial resolution could be shown. Our results allow for the designation of optimal X-ray tube parameters for a specific application requirement. PMID:25233529

  12. Spatial distribution of soil heavy metal pollution estimated by different interpolation methods: accuracy and uncertainty analysis.

    PubMed

    Xie, Yunfeng; Chen, Tong-bin; Lei, Mei; Yang, Jun; Guo, Qing-jun; Song, Bo; Zhou, Xiao-yong

    2011-01-01

    Mapping the spatial distribution of contaminants in soils is the basis of pollution evaluation and risk control. Interpolation methods are extensively applied in the mapping processes to estimate the heavy metal concentrations at unsampled sites. The performances of interpolation methods (inverse distance weighting, local polynomial, ordinary kriging and radial basis functions) were assessed and compared using the root mean square error for cross validation. The results indicated that all interpolation methods provided a high prediction accuracy of the mean concentration of soil heavy metals. However, the classic method based on percentages of polluted samples, gave a pollution area 23.54-41.92% larger than that estimated by interpolation methods. The difference in contaminated area estimation among the four methods reached 6.14%. According to the interpolation results, the spatial uncertainty of polluted areas was mainly located in three types of region: (a) the local maxima concentration region surrounded by low concentration (clean) sites, (b) the local minima concentration region surrounded with highly polluted samples; and (c) the boundaries of the contaminated areas. PMID:20970158

  13. An advanced image processing method to improve the spatial resolution of ion radiographies.

    PubMed

    Krah, N; Testa, M; Brons, S; Jäkel, O; Parodi, K; Voss, B; Rinaldi, I

    2015-11-01

    We present an optimization method to improve the spatial resolution and the water equivalent thickness (WET) accuracy of ion radiographies. The method is designed for imaging systems measuring for each actively scanned beam spot the lateral position of the pencil beam and at the same time the Bragg curve (behind the target) in discrete steps without relying on tracker detectors to determine the ion trajectory before and after the irradiated volume. Specifically, the method was used for an imaging set-up consisting of a stack of 61 parallel-plate ionization chambers (PPIC) interleaved with absorber plates of polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) working as a range telescope. The method uses not only the Bragg peak position, but approximates the entire measured Bragg curve as a superposition of differently shifted Bragg curves. Their relative weights allow to reconstruct the distribution of thickness around each scan spot of a heterogeneous phantom. The approach also allows merging the ion radiography with the geometric information of a co-registered x-ray radiography in order to increase its spatial resolution. The method was tested using Monte Carlo simulated and experimental proton radiographies of a PMMA step phantom and an anthropomorphic head phantom. For the step phantom, the effective spatial resolution was found to be 6 and 4 times higher than the nominal resolution for the simulated and experimental radiographies, respectively. For the head phantom, a gamma index was calculated to quantify the conformity of the simulated proton radiographies with a digitally reconstructed radiography (DRR) obtained from an x-ray CT and properly converted into WET. For a distance-to-agreement (DTA) of 2.5 mm and a relative WET difference (RWET) of 2.5%, the passing ratio was 100%/85% for the optimized/non-optimized case, respectively. When the optimized proton radiography was merged with the co-registered DRR, the passing ratio was 100% at DTA  =  1.3 mm and RWET

  14. An advanced image processing method to improve the spatial resolution of ion radiographies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krah, N.; Testa, M.; Brons, S.; Jäkel, O.; Parodi, K.; Voss, B.; Rinaldi, I.

    2015-11-01

    We present an optimization method to improve the spatial resolution and the water equivalent thickness (WET) accuracy of ion radiographies. The method is designed for imaging systems measuring for each actively scanned beam spot the lateral position of the pencil beam and at the same time the Bragg curve (behind the target) in discrete steps without relying on tracker detectors to determine the ion trajectory before and after the irradiated volume. Specifically, the method was used for an imaging set-up consisting of a stack of 61 parallel-plate ionization chambers (PPIC) interleaved with absorber plates of polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) working as a range telescope. The method uses not only the Bragg peak position, but approximates the entire measured Bragg curve as a superposition of differently shifted Bragg curves. Their relative weights allow to reconstruct the distribution of thickness around each scan spot of a heterogeneous phantom. The approach also allows merging the ion radiography with the geometric information of a co-registered x-ray radiography in order to increase its spatial resolution. The method was tested using Monte Carlo simulated and experimental proton radiographies of a PMMA step phantom and an anthropomorphic head phantom. For the step phantom, the effective spatial resolution was found to be 6 and 4 times higher than the nominal resolution for the simulated and experimental radiographies, respectively. For the head phantom, a gamma index was calculated to quantify the conformity of the simulated proton radiographies with a digitally reconstructed radiography (DRR) obtained from an x-ray CT and properly converted into WET. For a distance-to-agreement (DTA) of 2.5 mm and a relative WET difference (RWET) of 2.5%, the passing ratio was 100%/85% for the optimized/non-optimized case, respectively. When the optimized proton radiography was merged with the co-registered DRR, the passing ratio was 100% at DTA  =  1.3 mm and RWET

  15. Selecting the spatial resolution of satellite sensors required for global monitoring of land transformations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Townshend, J. R. G.; Justice, C. O.

    1988-01-01

    The paper provides preliminary evidence for the spatial resolutions required to monitor land transformations at broad scales. This is obtained from simulations of imagery at various spatial resolutions between 125 and 4000 m derived from Landsat MSS imagery. Consideration is given to the various types of spatial images detectable by remotely-sensed systems, as well as to the difficulties associated in disentangling permanent land transformations from shorter term changes such as phenological and interannual changes.

  16. Use of UAS remote sensing data to estimate crop ET at high spatial resolution

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Estimation of the spatial distribution of evapotranspiration (ET) based on remotely sensed imagery has become useful for managing water in irrigated agricultural at various spatial scales. However, data acquired by conventional satellites (Landsat, ASTER, etc.) lack the spatial resolution to capture...

  17. Extraction of residential information from high-spatial resolution image integrated with upscaling methods and object multi-features

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, Lixin; Wu, Bingfang

    2007-11-01

    Monitoring residential areas at a regional scale, and even at a global scale, has become an increasingly important topic. However, extraction of residential information was still a difficulty and challenging task, such as multiple usable data selection and automatic or semi-automatic techniques. In metropolitan area, such as Beijing, urban sprawl has brought enormous pressure on rural and natural environments. Given a case study, a new strategy of extracting of residential information integrating the upscaling methods and object multi-features was introduced in high resolution SPOT fused image. Multi-resolution dataset were built using upscaling methods, and optimal resolution image was selected by semi-variance analysis approach. Relevant optimal spatial resolution images were adopted for different type of residential area (city, town and rural residence). Secondly, object multi-features, including spectral information, generic shape features, class related features, and new computed features, were introduced. An efficient decision tree and Class Semantic Representation were set up based on object multi-features. And different classes of residential area were extracted from multi-resolution image. Afterwards, further discussion and comparison about improving the efficiency and accuracy of classification with the proposed approach were presented. The results showed that the optimal resolution image selected by upscaling and semi-variance method successfully decreased the heterogeneous, smoothed the noise influence, decreased computational, storage burdens and improved classification efficiency in high spatial resolution image. The Class Semantic Representation and decision tree based on object multi-features improved the overall accuracy and diminished the 'salt and pepper effect'. The new image analysis approach offered a satisfactory solution for extracting residential information quickly and efficiently.

  18. Improving accuracy of Eutrophication State Index estimation in Chaohu Lake by moderate resolution remote sensing data driven method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiang, Bo; Song, Jing-Wei; Wang, Xin-Yuan; Zhen, Jing; Gao, Rui

    2014-11-01

    Trophic Level Index (TLI) calculated from several water quality monitoring indicators is often used to assess the general eutrophication state of inland-lake. In this paper, we proposed a data driven inland-lake eutrophication mapping method by using artificial neural network (ANN) to build relationship from remote sensing data and in-situ TLI sampling. Low spatial resolution remote sensing data (MODIS, 250-m and 500-m) and moderate spatial resolution remote sensing data (OLI, 30-m) together with in-situ observations are acquired to train the net. Result demonstrates that TLI obtained from medium-resolution remote sensing images is more accurate than which from low resolution remote sensing data, and more accurate than TLI calculated from the water quality factors retrieved from remote sensing images. This method provides an efficient way of mapping the TLI spatial distribution in-inland lake.

  19. Applications of high-resolution spatial discretization scheme and Jacobian-free Newton–Krylov method in two-phase flow problems

    SciTech Connect

    Zou, Ling; Zhao, Haihua; Zhang, Hongbin

    2015-09-01

    The majority of the existing reactor system analysis codes were developed using low-order numerical schemes in both space and time. In many nuclear thermal–hydraulics applications, it is desirable to use higher-order numerical schemes to reduce numerical errors. High-resolution spatial discretization schemes provide high order spatial accuracy in smooth regions and capture sharp spatial discontinuity without nonphysical spatial oscillations. In this work, we adapted an existing high-resolution spatial discretization scheme on staggered grids in two-phase flow applications. Fully implicit time integration schemes were also implemented to reduce numerical errors from operator-splitting types of time integration schemes. The resulting nonlinear system has been successfully solved using the Jacobian-free Newton–Krylov (JFNK) method. The high-resolution spatial discretization and high-order fully implicit time integration numerical schemes were tested and numerically verified for several two-phase test problems, including a two-phase advection problem, a two-phase advection with phase appearance/disappearance problem, and the water faucet problem. Numerical results clearly demonstrated the advantages of using such high-resolution spatial and high-order temporal numerical schemes to significantly reduce numerical diffusion and therefore improve accuracy. Our study also demonstrated that the JFNK method is stable and robust in solving two-phase flow problems, even when phase appearance/disappearance exists.

  20. On the accuracy of CO line positions for high resolution IR stellar spectroscopy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sauval, A. J.; Farrenq, R.; Guelachvili, G.; Grevesse, N.; Farmer, C. B.; Norton, R. H.

    1992-01-01

    The paper demonstrates the high accuracy of line positions derived from improved sets of Dunham coefficients for the four more abundant isotopic species of carbon monoxide - (C-12)(O-16), (C-13)(O-16), (C-12)(O-18), and (C-12)(O-17) - which are present in the sun and in cool stellar atmospheres. These new spectroscopic constants make it possible to predict very accurate positions of CO lines at any J-values, especially at very high rotational excitation (up to J around 135). Earlier proposed identifications of CO lines at large J-values are checked, and some incorrect identifications in sunspot spectra are found. The present accurate line positions are also compared with predictions from other available sets of molecular constants. It is concluded that the present improved sets of molecular constants are the most appropriate to all problems of high-resolution stellar and solar spectroscopy at any J- and v-values, particularly for synthetic spectra of cool stars.

  1. Daily air temperature interpolated at high spatial resolution over a large mountainous region

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dodson, R.; Marks, D.

    1997-01-01

    Two methods are investigated for interpolating daily minimum and maximum air temperatures (Tmin and Tmax) at a 1 km spatial resolution over a large mountainous region (830 000 km2) in the U.S. Pacific Northwest. The methods were selected because of their ability to (1) account for the effect of elevation on temperature and (2) efficiently handle large volumes of data. The first method, the neutral stability algorithm (NSA), used the hydrostatic and potential temperature equations to convert measured temperatures and elevations to sea-level potential temperatures. The potential temperatures were spatially interpolated using an inverse-squared-distance algorithm and then mapped to the elevation surface of a digital elevation model (DEM). The second method, linear lapse rate adjustment (LLRA), involved the same basic procedure as the NSA, but used a constant linear lapse rate instead of the potential temperature equation. Cross-validation analyses were performed using the NSA and LLRA methods to interpolate Tmin and Tmax each day for the 1990 water year, and the methods were evaluated based on mean annual interpolation error (IE). The NSA method showed considerable bias for sites associated with vertical extrapolation. A correction based on climate station/grid cell elevation differences was developed and found to successfully remove the bias. The LLRA method was tested using 3 lapse rates, none of which produced a serious extrapolation bias. The bias-adjusted NSA and the 3 LLRA methods produced almost identical levels of accuracy (mean absolute errors between 1.2 and 1.3??C), and produced very similar temperature surfaces based on image difference statistics. In terms of accuracy, speed, and ease of implementation, LLRA was chosen as the best of the methods tested.

  2. Improving the quantification of land cover pressure on stream ecological status at the riparian scale using High Spatial Resolution Imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tormos, T.; Kosuth, P.; Durrieu, S.; Villeneuve, B.; Wasson, J. G.

    The aim of this paper is to demonstrate the interest of High Spatial Resolution Imagery (HSRI) and the limits of coarse land cover data such as CORINE Land Cover (CLC), for the accurate characterization of land cover structure along river corridors and of its functional links with freshwater ecological status on a large scale. For this purpose, we compared several spatial indicators built from two land cover maps of the Herault River corridor (southern France): one derived from the CLC database, the other derived from HSRI. The HSRI-derived map was obtained using a supervised object-based classification of multi-source remotely-sensed images (SPOT 5 XS-10 m and aerial photography-0.5 m) and presents an overall accuracy of 70%. The comparison between the two sets of spatial indicators highlights that the HSRI-derived map allows more accuracy in the quantification of land cover pressures near the stream: the spatial structure of the river landscape is finely resolved and the main attributes of riparian vegetation can be quantified in a reliable way. The next challenge will consist in developing an operational methodology using HSRI for large-scale mapping of river corridor land cover, for spatial indicator computation and for the development of related pressure/impact models, in order to improve the prediction of stream ecological status.

  3. Standard Reticle Slide To Objectively Evaluate Spatial Resolution and Instrument Performance in Imaging Mass Spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Zubair, Faizan; Prentice, Boone M; Norris, Jeremy L; Laibinis, Paul E; Caprioli, Richard M

    2016-07-19

    Spatial resolution is a key parameter in imaging mass spectrometry (IMS). Aside from being a primary determinant in overall image quality, spatial resolution has important consequences on the acquisition time of the IMS experiment and the resulting file size. Hardware and software modifications during instrumentation development can dramatically affect the spatial resolution achievable using a given imaging mass spectrometer. As such, an accurate and objective method to determine the working spatial resolution is needed to guide instrument development and ensure quality IMS results. We have used lithographic and self-assembly techniques to fabricate a pattern of crystal violet as a standard reticle slide for assessing spatial resolution in matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) IMS experiments. The reticle is used to evaluate spatial resolution under user-defined instrumental conditions. Edgespread analysis measures the beam diameter for a Gaussian profile and line scans measure an "effective" spatial resolution that is a convolution of beam optics and sampling frequency. The patterned crystal violet reticle was also used to diagnose issues with IMS instrumentation such as intermittent losses of pixel data. PMID:27299987

  4. Distributed fiber Brillouin strain and temperature sensor with centimeter spatial resolution by coherent probe-pump technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zou, Lufan; Bao, Xiaoyi; Wan, Yidun; Ravet, Fabien; Chen, Liang

    2005-05-01

    We present a sensing principle of the distributed fiber Brillouin strain and temperature sensor by coherent probe-pump technique that offers a new method to achieve centimeter spatial resolution with high frequency resolution. A combination of continuous wave (cw) and pulse source as the probe (Stokes) beam and cw laser as the pump beam have resulted in stronger Brillouin interaction of Stokes and pump inside the pulse-length in the form of cw-pump and pulse-pump interactions. We find that the coherent portion inside the pulse-length of these two interactions due to the same phase has a very high Brillouin amplification. The Brillouin profile originating from the coherent interaction of pulse-pump with cw-pump results in high temperature and strain accuracy with centimeter resolution, which has been verified by successfully detecting 1.5 cm out-layer crack on an optical ground wire (OPGW) cable.

  5. Change of spatial information under rescaling: A case study using multi-resolution image series

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Weirong; Henebry, Geoffrey M.

    Spatial structure in imagery depends on a complicated interaction between the observational regime and the types and arrangements of entities within the scene that the image portrays. Although block averaging of pixels has commonly been used to simulate coarser resolution imagery, relatively little attention has been focused on the effects of simple rescaling on spatial structure and the explanation and a possible solution to the problem. Yet, if there are significant differences in spatial variance between rescaled and observed images, it may affect the reliability of retrieved biogeophysical quantities. To investigate these issues, a nested series of high spatial resolution digital imagery was collected at a research site in eastern Nebraska in 2001. An airborne Kodak DCS420IR camera acquired imagery at three altitudes, yielding nominal spatial resolutions ranging from 0.187 m to 1 m. The red and near infrared (NIR) bands of the co-registered image series were normalized using pseudo-invariant features, and the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) was calculated. Plots of grain sorghum planted in orthogonal crop row orientations were extracted from the image series. The finest spatial resolution data were then rescaled by averaging blocks of pixels to produce a rescaled image series that closely matched the spatial resolution of the observed image series. Spatial structures of the observed and rescaled image series were characterized using semivariogram analysis. Results for NDVI and its component bands show, as expected, that decreasing spatial resolution leads to decreasing spatial variability and increasing spatial dependence. However, compared to the observed data, the rescaled images contain more persistent spatial structure that exhibits limited variation in both spatial dependence and spatial heterogeneity. Rescaling via simple block averaging fails to consider the effect of scene object shape and extent on spatial information. As the features

  6. Spatial Structure of a Braided River: Metric Resolution Hydrodynamic Modeling Reveals What SWOT Might See

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schubert, J.; Sanders, B. F.; Andreadis, K.

    2013-12-01

    The Surface Water and Ocean Topography (SWOT) mission, currently under study by NASA (National Aeronautics and Space Administration) and CNES (Centre National d'Etudes Spatiales), is designed to provide global spatial measurements of surface water properties at resolutions better than 10 m and with centimetric accuracy. The data produced by SWOT will include irregularly spaced point clouds of the water surface height, with point spacings from roughly 2-50 m depending on a point's location within SWOT's swath. This could offer unprecedented insight into the spatial structure of rivers. Features that may be resolved include backwater profiles behind dams, drawdown profiles, uniform flow sections, critical flow sections, and even riffle-pool flow structures. In the event that SWOT scans a river during a major flood, it becomes possible to delineate the limits of the flood as well as the spatial structure of the water surface elevation, yielding insight into the dynamic interaction of channels and flood plains. The Platte River in Nebraska, USA, is a braided river with a width and slope of approximately 100 m and 100 cm/km, respectively. A 1 m resolution Digital Terrain Model (DTM) of the river basin, based on airborne lidar collected during low-flow conditions, was used to parameterize a two-dimensional, variable resolution, unstructured grid, hydrodynamic model that uses 3 m resolution triangles in low flow channels and 10 m resolution triangles in the floodplain. Use of a fine resolution mesh guarantees that local variability in topography is resolved, and after applying the hydrodynamic model, the effects of topographic variability are expressed as variability in the water surface height, depth-averaged velocity and flow depth. Flow is modeled over a reach length of 10 km for multi-day durations to capture both frequent (diurnal variations associated with regulated flow) and infrequent (extreme flooding) flow phenomena. Model outputs reveal a number of interesting

  7. Spatial accuracy of a simplified disaggregation method for traffic emissions applied in seven mid-sized Chilean cities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ossés de Eicker, Margarita; Zah, Rainer; Triviño, Rubén; Hurni, Hans

    The spatial accuracy of top-down traffic emission inventory maps obtained with a simplified disaggregation method based on street density was assessed in seven mid-sized Chilean cities. Each top-down emission inventory map was compared against a reference, namely a more accurate bottom-up emission inventory map from the same study area. The comparison was carried out using a combination of numerical indicators and visual interpretation. Statistically significant differences were found between the seven cities with regard to the spatial accuracy of their top-down emission inventory maps. In compact cities with a simple street network and a single center, a good accuracy of the spatial distribution of emissions was achieved with correlation values>0.8 with respect to the bottom-up emission inventory of reference. In contrast, the simplified disaggregation method is not suitable for complex cities consisting of interconnected nuclei, resulting in correlation values<0.5. Although top-down disaggregation of traffic emissions generally exhibits low accuracy, the accuracy is significantly higher in compact cities and might be further improved by applying a correction factor for the city center. Therefore, the method can be used by local environmental authorities in cities with limited resources and with little knowledge on the pollution situation to get an overview on the spatial distribution of the emissions generated by traffic activities.

  8. Spatial Resolution and Refractive Index Contrast of Resonant Photonic Crystal Surfaces for Biosensing

    PubMed Central

    Triggs, G. J.; Fischer, M.; Stellinga, D.; Scullion, M. G.; Evans, G. J. O.; Krauss, T. F.

    2015-01-01

    By depositing a resolution test pattern on top of a Si3N4 photonic crystal resonant surface, we have measured the dependence of spatial resolution on refractive index contrast Δn. Our experimental results and finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) simulations at different refractive index contrasts show that the spatial resolution of our device reduces with reduced contrast, which is an important consideration in biosensing, where the contrast may be of order 10−2. We also compare 1-D and 2-D gratings, taking into account different incidence polarizations, leading to a better understanding of the excitation and propagation of the resonant modes in these structures, as well as how this contributes to the spatial resolution. At Δn = 0.077, we observe resolutions of 2 and 6 μm parallel to and perpendicular to the grooves of a 1-D grating, respectively, and show that for polarized illumination of a 2-D grating, resolution remains asymmetrical. Illumination of a 2-D grating at 45° results in symmetric resolution. At very low index contrast, the resolution worsens dramatically, particularly for Δn < 0.01, where we observe a resolution exceeding 10 μm for our device. In addition, we measure a reduction in the resonance linewidth as the index contrast becomes lower, corresponding to a longer resonant mode propagation length in the structure and contributing to the change in spatial resolution. PMID:26356353

  9. Effects of the resolution of soil dataset and precipitation dataset on SWAT2005 streamflow calibration parameters and simulation accuracy

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The resultant calibration parameter values and simulation accuracy of hydrologic models such as the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT2005) depends on how well spatial input parameters describe the characteristics of the study area. The objectives of this study were to: 1) investigate the effect o...

  10. Spatial resolution enhancement of fiber-optic scanning white-light interferometer by use of a Vernier principle.

    PubMed

    Sun, Changsen; Zhao, Yang; Tennant, Adam; Ansari, Farhad

    2003-08-01

    A Vernier principle is employed to improve the spatial resolution of a fiber-optic white-light interferometer to the accuracy of 0.2 microm. The Vernier principle is implemented by combination of interference fringes itself and a virtual fringe that is generated by means of software tracing the scanning mirror. Two rulers are read with respect to each other. This design is insensitive to intensity fluctuation of the interference fringe. The applications, submicrometer estimation for the quadrature-locking selection and the tolerance of the relative measurement, demonstrate its effectiveness. PMID:12916606

  11. Characterizing the resolution and accuracy of a second-generation traveling-wave ion mobility separator for biomolecular ions.

    PubMed

    Zhong, Yueyang; Hyung, Suk-Joon; Ruotolo, Brandon T

    2011-09-01

    High-accuracy, high-resolution ion mobility measurements enable a vast array of important contemporary applications in biological chemistry. With the recent advent of both new, widely available commercial instrumentation and also new calibration datasets tailored for the aforementioned commercial instrumentation, the possibilities for extending such high performance measurements to a diverse set of applications have never been greater. Here, we assess the performance characteristics of a second-generation traveling-wave ion mobility separator, focusing on those figures of merit that lead to making measurements of collision cross-section having both high precision and high accuracy. Through performing a comprehensive survey of instrument parameters and settings, we find instrument conditions for optimized drift time resolution, cross-section resolution, and cross-section accuracy for a range of peptide, protein and multi-protein complex ions. Moreover, the conditions for high accuracy IM results are significantly different from those optimized for separation resolution, indicating that a balance between these two metrics must be attained for traveling wave IM separations of biomolecules. We also assess the effect of ion heating during IM separation on instrument performance. PMID:21445388

  12. Spatial and Temporal Analysis on the Distribution of Active Radio-Frequency Identification (RFID) Tracking Accuracy with the Kriging Method

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Xin; Shannon, Jeremy; Voun, Howard; Truijens, Martijn; Chi, Hung-Lin; Wang, Xiangyu

    2014-01-01

    Radio frequency identification (RFID) technology has already been applied in a number of areas to facilitate the tracking process. However, the insufficient tracking accuracy of RFID is one of the problems that impedes its wider application. Previous studies focus on examining the accuracy of discrete points RFID, thereby leaving the tracking accuracy of the areas between the observed points unpredictable. In this study, spatial and temporal analysis is applied to interpolate the continuous distribution of RFID tracking accuracy based on the Kriging method. An implementation trial has been conducted in the loading and docking area in front of a warehouse to validate this approach. The results show that the weak signal area can be easily identified by the approach developed in the study. The optimum distance between two RFID readers and the effect of the sudden removal of readers are also presented by analysing the spatial and temporal variation of RFID tracking accuracy. This study reveals the correlation between the testing time and the stability of RFID tracking accuracy. Experimental results show that the proposed approach can be used to assist the RFID system setup process to increase tracking accuracy. PMID:25356648

  13. Spatial and temporal analysis on the distribution of active radio-frequency identification (RFID) tracking accuracy with the Kriging method.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xin; Shannon, Jeremy; Voun, Howard; Truijens, Martijn; Chi, Hung-Lin; Wang, Xiangyu

    2014-01-01

    Radio frequency identification (RFID) technology has already been applied in a number of areas to facilitate the tracking process. However, the insufficient tracking accuracy of RFID is one of the problems that impedes its wider application. Previous studies focus on examining the accuracy of discrete points RFID, thereby leaving the tracking accuracy of the areas between the observed points unpredictable. In this study, spatial and temporal analysis is applied to interpolate the continuous distribution of RFID tracking accuracy based on the Kriging method. An implementation trial has been conducted in the loading and docking area in front of a warehouse to validate this approach. The results show that the weak signal area can be easily identified by the approach developed in the study. The optimum distance between two RFID readers and the effect of the sudden removal of readers are also presented by analysing the spatial and temporal variation of RFID tracking accuracy. This study reveals the correlation between the testing time and the stability of RFID tracking accuracy. Experimental results show that the proposed approach can be used to assist the RFID system setup process to increase tracking accuracy. PMID:25356648

  14. Exploring the spatial resolution of position-sensitive microchannel plate detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiggins, Blake; Siwal, Davinder; Desouza, Romualdo

    2016-03-01

    High amplification and excellent timing make microchannel plate (MCP) detectors excellent devices for detection of photons, electrons, and ions. In addition to providing sub-nanosecond time resolution MCP detectors can also provide spatial resolution, thus making them useful in imaging applications. Use of a resistive anode (RA) is a routinely used approach to make an MCP position-sensitive. The spatial resolution of the RA associated with detection of a single incident electron was determined. Factors impacting the spatial resolution obtained with the RA will be discussed and the achieved spatial resolution of 64 μm (FWHM) will be presented. Recently, a novel approach has been developed to provide position-sensitivity for an MCP detector. In this approach, namely the induced signal approach, the position of the incident particle is determined by sensing the electron cloud emanating from a MCP stack. By utilizing the zero-crossing point of the inherently bipolar signals, a spatial resolution of 466 μm (FWHM) has been achieved. Work to improve the spatial resolution of the induced signal approach further will be presented. Supported by the US DOE NNSA under Award No. DE-NA0002012.

  15. Accuracy of sea ice temperature derived from the advanced very high resolution radiometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Y.; Rothrock, D. A.; Lindsay, R. W.

    1995-03-01

    The accuracy of Arctic sea ice surface temperatures Ts derived from advanced very high resolution radiometer (AVHRR) thermal channels is evaluated in the cold seasons by comparing them with surface air temperatures Tair from drifting buoys and ice stations. We use three different estimates of satellite surface temperatures, a direct estimate from AVHRR channel 4 with only correction for the snow surface emissivity but not for the atmosphere, a single-channel regression of Ts with Tair, and Key and Haefliger's (1992) polar multichannel algorithm. We find no measurable bias in any of these estimates and few differences in their statistics. The similar performance of all three methods indicates that an atmospheric water vapor correction is not important for the dry winter atmosphere in the central Arctic, given the other sources of error that remain in both the satellite and the comparison data. The errors are not reduced by regression with both thermal channels and the satellite scan angle. A record of drifting station data shows winter air temperature to be 1.4°C wanner than the snow surface temperature. "Correcting" air temperatures to skin temperature by subtracting this amount implies that satellite Ts estimates are biased warm with respect to skin temperature by about this amount. A case study with low-flying aircraft data suggests that ice crystal precipitation can cause satellite estimates of Ts to be several degrees warmer than radiometric measurements taken close to the surface, presumably below the ice crystal precipitation layer. An analysis in which errors are assumed to exist in all measurements, not just the satellite measurements, gives a standard deviation in the satellite estimates of 0.9°C, about half the standard deviation of 1.7°C estimated by assigning all the variation between Ts and Tair to errors in Ts.

  16. Accuracy of sea ice temperature derived from the advanced very high resolution radiometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yu, Y.; Rothrock, D. A.; Lindsay, R. W.

    1995-01-01

    The accuracy of Arctic sea ice surface temperatures T(sub s) dericed from advanced very high resolution radiometer (AVHRR) thermal channels is evaluated in the cold seasons by comparing them with surface air temperatures T(sub air) from drifting buoys and ice stations. We use three different estimates of satellite surface temperatures, a direct estimate from AVHRR channel 4 with only correction for the snow surface emissivity but not for the atmosphere, a single-channel regression of T(sub s) with T(sub air), and Key and Haefliger's (1992) polar multichannel algorithm. We find no measurable bias in any of these estimates and few differences in their statistics. The similar performance of all three methods indicates that an atmospheric water vapor correction is not important for the dry winter atmosphere in the central Arctic, given the other sources of error that remain in both the satellite and the comparison data. A record of drifting station data shows winter air temperature to be 1.4 C warmer than the snow surface temperature. `Correcting' air temperatures to skin temperature by subtracting this amount implies that satellite T(sub s) estimates are biased warm with respect to skin temperature by about this amount. A case study with low-flying aircraft data suggests that ice crystal precipitation can cause satellite estimates of T(sub s) to be several degrees warmer than radiometric measurements taken close to the surface, presumably below the ice crystal precipitation layer. An analysis in which errors are assumed to exist in all measurements, not just the satellite measurements, gives a standard deviation in the satellite estimates of 0.9 C, about half the standard deviation of 1.7 C estimated by assigning all the variation between T(sub s) and T(sub air) to errors in T(sub s).

  17. Improvement of spatial resolution in surface-EMG: a theoretical and experimental comparison of different spatial filters.

    PubMed

    Disselhorst-Klug, C; Silny, J; Rau, G

    1997-07-01

    The conventional bipolar surface electromyography (EMG) technique detects, due to its low spatial resolution, the superimposed electromyographic activity of a large number of motor units (MU's). In superficial muscles the isolated action potentials of the most superficial MU's can be recorded noninvasively by means of surface electrodes, if the method of spatial filtering, in connection with electrode arrays, is used. Up to now, only filters with an anisotropic transfer function have been used. As the surface potential distribution generated by the excitation of the MU's contains spatial frequencies in the anisotropic range of those filters, it can be assumed that isotropic spatial filters detect the single MU activity more effectively. In the present study, different isotropic and anisotropic filters have been compared by means of theoretical field simulations and experiments in volunteers. A tripole model for an excited MU was used as the basis for simulating the spatial extension of the filter response for each of the investigated filters. The spatial extension is an indicative of the spatial resolution. For the experimental validation, the total number of single motor units was not directly investigated, but the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) has been determined. Therefore, the potential distribution generated on the skin surface during maximum voluntary contraction has been simultaneous spatially filtered with each of the investigated filters. The simulations show that an isotropic spatial filtering procedure reduces the spatial extension of the filter response and improves the spatial resolution of the EMG-recording arrangement in comparison to anisotropic spatial filters up to 30%. In other words, the spatial selectivity of the arrangement is increased. This improvement in the filter performance is more pronounced for MU's located close to the skin surface than for MU's more distantly located. Additionally, this theoretical improvement in selectivity depends on

  18. Quantifying tree mortality in a mixed species woodland using multitemporal high spatial resolution satellite imagery

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Garrity, Steven R.; Allen, Craig D.; Brumby, Steven P.; Gangodagamage, Chandana; McDowell, Nate G.; Cai, D. Michael

    2013-01-01

    Widespread tree mortality events have recently been observed in several biomes. To effectively quantify the severity and extent of these events, tools that allow for rapid assessment at the landscape scale are required. Past studies using high spatial resolution satellite imagery have primarily focused on detecting green, red, and gray tree canopies during and shortly after tree damage or mortality has occurred. However, detecting trees in various stages of death is not always possible due to limited availability of archived satellite imagery. Here we assess the capability of high spatial resolution satellite imagery for tree mortality detection in a southwestern U.S. mixed species woodland using archived satellite images acquired prior to mortality and well after dead trees had dropped their leaves. We developed a multistep classification approach that uses: supervised masking of non-tree image elements; bi-temporal (pre- and post-mortality) differencing of normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) and red:green ratio (RGI); and unsupervised multivariate clustering of pixels into live and dead tree classes using a Gaussian mixture model. Classification accuracies were improved in a final step by tuning the rules of pixel classification using the posterior probabilities of class membership obtained from the Gaussian mixture model. Classifications were produced for two images acquired post-mortality with overall accuracies of 97.9% and 98.5%, respectively. Classified images were combined with land cover data to characterize the spatiotemporal characteristics of tree mortality across areas with differences in tree species composition. We found that 38% of tree crown area was lost during the drought period between 2002 and 2006. The majority of tree mortality during this period was concentrated in piñon-juniper (Pinus edulis-Juniperus monosperma) woodlands. An additional 20% of the tree canopy died or was removed between 2006 and 2011, primarily in areas

  19. Some effects of finite spatial resolution on skin friction measurements in turbulent boundary layers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Westphal, Russell V.

    1988-01-01

    The effects of finite spatial resolution often cause serious errors in measurements in turbulent boundary layers, with particularly large effects for measurements of fluctuating skin friction and velocities within the sublayer. However, classical analyses of finite spatial resolution effects have generally not accounted for the substantial inhomogeneity and anisotropy of near-wall turbulence. The present study has made use of results from recent computational simulations of wall-bounded turbulent flows to examine spatial resolution effects for measurements made at a wall using both single-sensor probes and those employing two sensing volumes in a V shape. Results are presented to show the effects of finite spatial resolution on a variety of quantitites deduced from the skin friction field.

  20. Definition of the Spatial Resolution of X-Ray Microanalysis in Thin Foils

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, D. B.; Michael, J. R.; Goldstein, J. I.; Romig, A. D., Jr.

    1992-01-01

    The spatial resolution of X-ray microanalysis in thin foils is defined in terms of the incident electron beam diameter and the average beam broadening. The beam diameter is defined as the full width tenth maximum of a Gaussian intensity distribution. The spatial resolution is calculated by a convolution of the beam diameter and the average beam broadening. This definition of the spatial resolution can be related simply to experimental measurements of composition profiles across interphase interfaces. Monte Carlo calculations using a high-speed parallel supercomputer show good agreement with this definition of the spatial resolution and calculations based on this definition. The agreement is good over a range of specimen thicknesses and atomic number, but is poor when excessive beam tailing distorts the assumed Gaussian electron intensity distributions. Beam tailing occurs in low-Z materials because of fast secondary electrons and in high-Z materials because of plural scattering.

  1. Numerical Experiment with Time and Spatial Accuracy of Navier-Stokes Computation For Helicopter Problems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ahmad, Jasim; Aiken, Edwin, W. (Technical Monitor)

    1998-01-01

    Helicopter flowfields are highly unsteady, nonlinear and three-dimensional. In forward flight and in hover, the rotor blades interact with the tip vortex and wake sheet developed by either itself or the other blades. This interaction, known as blade-vortex interactions (BVI), results in unsteady loading of the blades and can cause a distinctive acoustic signature. Accurate and cost-effective computational fluid dynamic solutions that capture blade-vortex interactions can help rotor designers and engineers to predict rotor performance and to develop designs for low acoustic signature. Such a predictive method must preserve a blade's shed vortex for several blade revolutions before being dissipated. A number of researchers have explored the requirements for this task. This paper will outline some new capabilities that have been added to the NASA Ames' OVERFLOW code to improve its overall accuracy for both vortex capturing and unsteady flows. To highlight these improvements, a number of case studies will be presented. These case studies consist of free convection of a 2-dimensional vortex, dynamically pitching 2-D airfoil including light-stall, and a full 3-D unsteady viscous solution of a helicopter rotor in forward flight In this study both central and upwind difference schemes are modified to be more accurate. Central difference scheme is chosen for this simulation because the flowfield is not dominated by strong shocks. The feature of shock-vortex interaction in such a flow is less important than the dominant blade-vortex interaction. The scheme is second-order accurate in time and solves the thin-layer Navier-Stokes equations in fully-implicit manner at each time-step. The spatial accuracy is either second and fourth-order central difference or third-order upwind difference using Roe-flux and MUSCLE scheme. This paper will highlight and demonstrate the methods for several sample cases and for a helicopter rotor. Preliminary computations on a rotor were performed

  2. Imaging at high spatial resolution: Soft x-ray microscopy to 15nm

    SciTech Connect

    Attwood, D.; Chao, W.; Anderson, E.; Liddle, J.A.; Harteneck, B.; Fischer, P.; Schneider, G.; Le Gros, M.; Larabell, C.

    2006-04-05

    Soft x-ray microscopy has now achieved 15 nm spatial resolution with new zone plates and bending magnet radiation. Combined with elemental sensitivity and flexible sample environment (applied magnetic or electric fields, wet samples, windows, overcoatings) this emerges as a valuable tool for nanoscience and nanotechnology, complimenting common electron and scanning tip microscopies. In this presentation we describe recent advances in spatial resolution, expectations for the near future, and applications to magnetic materials, bio-tomography, etc.

  3. A condition on the spatial resolution of IR collimators for testing of thermal imaging systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chrzanowski, Krzysztof; Lee, Hee Chul; Wrona, Wieslaw

    2000-05-01

    A precise condition on the spatial resolution of the IR collimator for testing thermal imaging systems is presented. The condition can be used even if only the spatial resolution of the IR collimator and that of the system under test, measured using popular definitions, are known. It is shown that when the condition is fulfilled, the thermal image degradation caused by the IR collimator is negligible.

  4. Developing a virtual sensor (VS) for mapping soil moisture at high spatial and temporal resolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hossain, A. K. M. Azad

    Mapping soil moisture at both high spatial and temporal resolution has not been possible due to lack of sensors with these combined capabilities. We transformed the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) into a virtual sensor (VS) for quantitative soil moisture mapping and monitoring at 1 km and 250 m resolution daily. The Vegetation Index (VI) - Land Surface Temperature (LST) triangle model was used as the governing algorithm for VS. We used a time series of 13 data sets from August 01, 2006 to November 06, 2006 of MODIS reflective and thermal imagery and AMSR-E Level 3 soil moisture imagery to develop the VS in the semi-arid environment of southeastern New Mexico. We used Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) derived soil moisture imagery for five corresponding dates of the MODIS/AMSR-E imagery to evaluate the performance of VS for soil moisture estimation along with near real time in situ soil moisture measurements. In situ soil moisture measurements, vegetation density/distribution maps, digital elevation model (DEM), soil type map and soil salinity measurements were used in both linear and non-linear numerical models with the Radarsat 1 SAR fine imagery. The numerical models based on multiple linear regressions improved soil moisture estimation for the entire study site. We found, however, that vegetation, soil type and elevation have stronger combined effect on microwave soil moisture remote sensing by non-linear regressions (neural networks). The accuracy of the soil moisture data was evaluated using Kappa statistics. A soil moisture prediction surface prepared by kriging the in situ soil moisture 2 measurements was used as the reference. We obtained the overall accuracy of 75.67% and 77.67% with a Kappa coefficient of 0.43 and 0.61 for the August 02 and November 06 data sets of 2006, respectively. We evaluated the application of VS generated soil moisture data in mapping the spatio-temporal variation in soil moisture in southeastern New Mexico. The

  5. Spatial resolution of anthropogenic heat fluxes into urban aquifers.

    PubMed

    Benz, Susanne A; Bayer, Peter; Menberg, Kathrin; Jung, Stephan; Blum, Philipp

    2015-08-15

    Urban heat islands in the subsurface contain large quantities of energy in the form of elevated groundwater temperatures caused by anthropogenic heat fluxes (AHFS) into the subsurface. The objective of this study is to quantify these AHFS and the heat flow they generate in two German cities, Karlsruhe and Cologne. Thus, statistical and spatial analytical heat flux models were developed for both cities. The models include the spatial representation of various sources of AHFS: (1) elevated ground surface temperatures, (2) basements, (3) sewage systems, (4) sewage leakage, (5) subway tunnels, and (6) district heating networks. The results show that the district heating networks induce the largest AHFS with values greater than 60 W/m(2) and one order of magnitude higher than fluxes from other sources. A covariance analysis indicates that the spatial distribution of the total flux depends mainly on the thermal gradient in the unsaturated zone. On a citywide scale, basements and elevated ground surface temperatures are the dominant sources of heat flow. Overall, 2.1 PJ/a and 1.0 PJ/a of heat are accumulated on average in Karlsruhe and the western part of Cologne, respectively. Extracting this anthropogenically originated energy could sustainably supply significant parts of the urban heating demand. Furthermore, using this heat could also keep groundwater temperatures from rising further. PMID:25930242

  6. Study of satellite retrieved aerosol optical depth spatial resolution effect on particulate matter concentration prediction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strandgren, J.; Mei, L.; Vountas, M.; Burrows, J. P.; Lyapustin, A.; Wang, Y.

    2014-10-01

    The Aerosol Optical Depth (AOD) spatial resolution effect is investigated for the linear correlation between satellite retrieved AOD and ground level particulate matter concentrations (PM2.5). The Multi-Angle Implementation of Atmospheric Correction (MAIAC) algorithm was developed for the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) for obtaining AOD with a high spatial resolution of 1 km and provides a good dataset for the study of the AOD spatial resolution effect on the particulate matter concentration prediction. 946 Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) ground monitoring stations across the contiguous US have been used to investigate the linear correlation between AOD and PM2.5 using AOD at different spatial resolutions (1, 3 and 10 km) and for different spatial scales (urban scale, meso-scale and continental scale). The main conclusions are: (1) for both urban, meso- and continental scale the correlation between PM2.5 and AOD increased significantly with increasing spatial resolution of the AOD, (2) the correlation between AOD and PM2.5 decreased significantly as the scale of study region increased for the eastern part of the US while vice versa for the western part of the US, (3) the correlation between PM2.5 and AOD is much more stable and better over the eastern part of the US compared to western part due to the surface characteristics and atmospheric conditions like the fine mode fraction.

  7. Calculation of the spatial resolution in two-photon absorption spectroscopy applied to plasma diagnosis

    SciTech Connect

    Garcia-Lechuga, M.; Fuentes, L. M.; Grützmacher, K.; Pérez, C. Rosa, M. I. de la

    2014-10-07

    We report a detailed characterization of the spatial resolution provided by two-photon absorption spectroscopy suited for plasma diagnosis via the 1S-2S transition of atomic hydrogen for optogalvanic detection and laser induced fluorescence (LIF). A precise knowledge of the spatial resolution is crucial for a correct interpretation of measurements, if the plasma parameters to be analysed undergo strong spatial variations. The present study is based on a novel approach which provides a reliable and realistic determination of the spatial resolution. Measured irradiance distribution of laser beam waists in the overlap volume, provided by a high resolution UV camera, are employed to resolve coupled rate equations accounting for two-photon excitation, fluorescence decay and ionization. The resulting three-dimensional yield distributions reveal in detail the spatial resolution for optogalvanic and LIF detection and related saturation due to depletion. Two-photon absorption profiles broader than the Fourier transform-limited laser bandwidth are also incorporated in the calculations. The approach allows an accurate analysis of the spatial resolution present in recent and future measurements.

  8. Super Resolution from Hyperview Image Stack by Spatial Multiplexing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grasnick, Armin

    2016-09-01

    An image stack for a hyperview representation could contain millions of different perspective views with extreme image similarity. The recording of all views from a computational 3d model implicates a lateral displacement of the virtual camera. Because of the huge number of views, the offset in between two adjoining camera positions can be very minor. If such a virtual setup reproduces a real hyperview screen setup, the offset can be below the wavelength of the visible light. But even with such small changes, there is an intrinsic probability for a measurable difference in between two neighbour images. Such image dissimilarity can be proofed successfully also in very basic 3d scenes. By using a quantity of juxtapositional images from the hyperview image stack, the resolution of the rendered images can be considerably improved, which is commonly known as super resolution. The utilisation of super resolution images in hyperview could cut the necessity of full frame computing and will reduce the effective render time.

  9. Spatial resolution of confocal XRF technique using capillary optics

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    XRF (X-ray fluorescence) is a powerful technique for elemental analysis with a high sensitivity. The resolution is presently limited by the size of the primary excitation X-ray beam. A test-bed for confocal-type XRF has been developed to estimate the ultimate lateral resolution which could be reached in chemical mapping using this technique. A polycapillary lens is used to tightly focus the primary X-ray beam of a low power rhodium X-ray source, while the fluorescence signal is collected by a SDD detector through a cylindrical monocapillary. This system was used to characterize the geometry of the fluorescent zone. Capillary radii ranging from 50 μm down to 5 μm were used to investigate the fluorescence signal maximum level This study allows to estimate the ultimate resolution which could be reached in-lab or on a synchrotron beamline. A new tool combining local XRF and scanning probe microscopy is finally proposed. PMID:23758858

  10. Spatial resolution of confocal XRF technique using capillary optics.

    PubMed

    Dehlinger, Maël; Fauquet, Carole; Lavandier, Sebastien; Aumporn, Orawan; Jandard, Franck; Arkadiev, Vladimir; Bjeoumikhov, Aniouar; Tonneau, Didier

    2013-01-01

    XRF (X-ray fluorescence) is a powerful technique for elemental analysis with a high sensitivity. The resolution is presently limited by the size of the primary excitation X-ray beam. A test-bed for confocal-type XRF has been developed to estimate the ultimate lateral resolution which could be reached in chemical mapping using this technique. A polycapillary lens is used to tightly focus the primary X-ray beam of a low power rhodium X-ray source, while the fluorescence signal is collected by a SDD detector through a cylindrical monocapillary. This system was used to characterize the geometry of the fluorescent zone. Capillary radii ranging from 50 μm down to 5 μm were used to investigate the fluorescence signal maximum level This study allows to estimate the ultimate resolution which could be reached in-lab or on a synchrotron beamline. A new tool combining local XRF and scanning probe microscopy is finally proposed. PMID:23758858

  11. Impact of spatial resolution of ocean models in depicting climate change patterns of the North Sea.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Narayan, Nikesh; Klein, Birgit; Mathis, Moritz; Klein, Holger; Mikolajewicz, Uwe

    2016-04-01

    The impact of enhanced spatial resolution of models in simulating large scale climate change has been of interest for the modeling community for quite some time. It has been noticed in previous studies that the pattern of Sea Surface Temperature anomalies are better captured by higher resolution models. Significant changes in simulating sea-ice loss associated with global warming was also noticed when the spatial resolution of climate models were enhanced. Spatial resolution is a particular important issue in climate change scenarios of shelf seas such as the North Sea. The North Sea is strongly influenced by its water mass exchanges with North Atlantic to the west and north and Baltic Sea to east. Furthermore, local forcing and changes in advected water masses significantly affect the thermodynamics and stratification patterns in the North Sea, making it a challenging area to study. Under the newly started RACE2 project we are looking at global simulations of Representative Concentration Pathway (RCP) scenarios 4.5 and 8.5 at lower and higher resolutions, performed using the Max Planck Institute Earth System Model (MPIESM). The model resolution is non uniform and achieves the highest resolution over the European Seas by shifting the model poles over Chicago and Central Europe. In the high resolution run, the grid reaches up to a spatial resolution of up to 4 km in part of the German Bight and close to 20 km in the Northern part of North Sea. The placement of model poles at specific locations enables the global model to obtain higher resolution at regional scales (North Sea), without the inherent complications of open boundary conditions. High and low resolution simulations will be compared to determine differences in spatial and temporal pattern of temperature anomalies, fresh water intrusion from the Baltic Sea to North Sea etc. Also taken into consideration will be the changes in simulating local sea level change and response to basin scale oscillations like NAO.

  12. Spatial resolution limits for the isotropic-3D PET detector X’tal cube

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoshida, Eiji; Tashima, Hideaki; Hirano, Yoshiyuki; Inadama, Naoko; Nishikido, Fumihiko; Murayama, Hideo; Yamaya, Taiga

    2013-11-01

    Positron emission tomography (PET) has become a popular imaging method in metabolism, neuroscience, and molecular imaging. For dedicated human brain and small animal PET scanners, high spatial resolution is needed to visualize small objects. To improve the spatial resolution, we are developing the X’tal cube, which is our new PET detector to achieve isotropic 3D positioning detectability. We have shown that the X’tal cube can achieve 1 mm3 uniform crystal identification performance with the Anger-type calculation even at the block edges. We plan to develop the X’tal cube with even smaller 3D grids for sub-millimeter crystal identification. In this work, we investigate spatial resolution of a PET scanner based on the X’tal cube using Monte Carlo simulations for predicting resolution performance in smaller 3D grids. For spatial resolution evaluation, a point source emitting 511 keV photons was simulated by GATE for all physical processes involved in emission and interaction of positrons. We simulated two types of animal PET scanners. The first PET scanner had a detector ring 14.6 cm in diameter composed of 18 detectors. The second PET scanner had a detector ring 7.8 cm in diameter composed of 12 detectors. After the GATE simulations, we converted the interacting 3D position information to digitalized positions for realistic segmented crystals. We simulated several X’tal cubes with cubic crystals from (0.5 mm)3 to (2 mm)3 in size. Also, for evaluating the effect of DOI resolution, we simulated several X’tal cubes with crystal thickness from (0.5 mm)3 to (9 mm)3. We showed that sub-millimeter spatial resolution was possible using cubic crystals smaller than (1.0 mm)3 even with the assumed physical processes. Also, the weighted average spatial resolutions of both PET scanners with (0.5 mm)3 cubic crystals were 0.53 mm (14.6 cm ring diameter) and 0.48 mm (7.8 cm ring diameter). For the 7.8 cm ring diameter, spatial resolution with 0.5×0.5×1.0 mm3 crystals

  13. Combining microwave radiometer and wind profiler radar measurements to improve accuracy and resolution of atmospheric humidity profiling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bianco, L.; Cimini, D.; Ware, R.; Marzano, F.

    2003-04-01

    37'N, longitude: 97^o30'W, altitude: 313 m ASL). Results show that the synergy of microwave radiometer and wind profiler measurements significantly improves both the accuracy and spatial vertical resolution of atmospheric humidity profiles. Bianco, L., and J. M. Wilczak, 2002: Convective boundary layer depth: Improved measurement by Doppler Radar Wind Profiler using fuzzy logic methods, J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol., 19, 1745-1758. Stankov, B. B., E. E. Gossard, B. L. Weber, R. J. Lataitis, A. B. White, D. E. Wolfe, and D. C. Welsh, 2002: Humidity gradient profiles from Wind Profiling Radars using the NOAA/ETL advanced Signal Processing System (SPS), Accepted for publication in JTECH. White, A. B., R. J. Lataitis, and R. S. Lawrence, 1999: Space and time filtering of remotely sensed velocity turbulence, J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol., 16, 1967-1971. Han, Y., and E. R. Westwater, 1995: Remote sensing of tropospheric water vapor and cloud liquid water by integrated ground-based sensors, J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol., 12, 1050-1059.

  14. Combining Microwave Radiometer and Wind Profiler Radar Measurements to Improve Accuracy and Resolution of Atmospheric Humidity Profiling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bianco, L.; Cimini, D.; Ware, R.; Marzano, F.

    2003-04-01

    37'N, longitude: 97^o 30'W, altitude: 313 m ASL). Results show that the synergy of microwave radiometer and wind profiler measurements significantly improves both the accuracy and spatial vertical resolution of atmospheric humidity profiles. Bianco, L., and J. M. Wilczak, 2002: Convective boundary layer depth: Improved measurement by Doppler Radar Wind Profiler using fuzzy logic methods, J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol., 19, 1745-1758. Stankov, B. B., E. E. Gossard, B. L. Weber, R. J. Lataitis, A. B. White, D. E. Wolfe, and D. C. Welsh, 2002: Humidity gradient profiles from Wind Profiling Radars using the NOAA/ETL advanced Signal Processing System (SPS), Accepted for publication in JTECH. White, A. B., R. J. Lataitis, and R. S. Lawrence, 1999: Space and time filtering of remotely sensed velocity turbulence, J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol., 16, 1967-1971. Han, Y., and E. R. Westwater, 1995: Remote sensing of tropospheric water vapor and cloud liquid water by integrated ground-based sensors, J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol., 12, 1050-1059.

  15. Spatial Resolution, Grayscale, and Error Diffusion Trade-offs: Impact on Display System Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gille, Jennifer L. (Principal Investigator)

    1996-01-01

    We examine technology trade-offs related to grayscale resolution, spatial resolution, and error diffusion for tessellated display systems. We present new empirical results from our psychophysical study of these trade-offs and compare them to the predictions of a model of human vision.

  16. Local Optical Spectroscopies for Subnanometer Spatial Resolution Chemical Imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Weiss, Paul

    2014-01-20

    The evanescently coupled photon scanning tunneling microscopes (STMs) have special requirements in terms of stability and optical access. We have made substantial improvements to the stability, resolution, and noise floor of our custom-built visible-photon STM, and will translate these advances to our infrared instrument. Double vibration isolation of the STM base with a damping system achieved increased rigidity, giving high tunneling junction stability for long-duration and high-power illumination. Light frequency modulation with an optical chopper and phase-sensitive detection now enhance the signal-to-noise ratio of the tunneling junction during irradiation.

  17. Improved mass resolution and mass accuracy in TOF-SIMS spectra and images using argon gas cluster ion beams.

    PubMed

    Shon, Hyun Kyong; Yoon, Sohee; Moon, Jeong Hee; Lee, Tae Geol

    2016-06-01

    The popularity of argon gas cluster ion beams (Ar-GCIB) as primary ion beams in time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (TOF-SIMS) has increased because the molecular ions of large organic- and biomolecules can be detected with less damage to the sample surfaces. However, Ar-GCIB is limited by poor mass resolution as well as poor mass accuracy. The inferior quality of the mass resolution in a TOF-SIMS spectrum obtained by using Ar-GCIB compared to the one obtained by a bismuth liquid metal cluster ion beam and others makes it difficult to identify unknown peaks because of the mass interference from the neighboring peaks. However, in this study, the authors demonstrate improved mass resolution in TOF-SIMS using Ar-GCIB through the delayed extraction of secondary ions, a method typically used in TOF mass spectrometry to increase mass resolution. As for poor mass accuracy, although mass calibration using internal peaks with low mass such as hydrogen and carbon is a common approach in TOF-SIMS, it is unsuited to the present study because of the disappearance of the low-mass peaks in the delayed extraction mode. To resolve this issue, external mass calibration, another regularly used method in TOF-MS, was adapted to enhance mass accuracy in the spectrum and image generated by TOF-SIMS using Ar-GCIB in the delayed extraction mode. By producing spectra analyses of a peptide mixture and bovine serum albumin protein digested with trypsin, along with image analyses of rat brain samples, the authors demonstrate for the first time the enhancement of mass resolution and mass accuracy for the purpose of analyzing large biomolecules in TOF-SIMS using Ar-GCIB through the use of delayed extraction and external mass calibration. PMID:26861497

  18. Compensation of Phase Nonlinearity of Liquid Crystal Spatial Light Modulator for High-Resolution Wavefront Correction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, H.; Zhou, H.; Li, J.; Qiao, Y. J.; Si, J.; Gao, W.

    2015-07-01

    The ability of phase modulation enables liquid crystal spatial light modulator (LCSLM) to control wavefront. However, the disadvantage of its inherent nonlinear phase response will decrease the wavefront control accuracy. In this paper, a compensation for the nonlinear phase response is proposed based on Inverse Interpolation method. Characteristic curve of phase retardation versus gray levels for a 256x256 pixels phase-only LCSLM has been measured and calibrated by Inverse Interpolation. A mapping relationship between input gray levels and driving gray levels has been built and recorded by a linear look-up table ANTI2.LUT. The nonlinear error of the phase drops from 15.9% to 2.42% by using ANTI2.LUT. Further more, the mapping curve of ANTI2.LUT is almost consistent with 290.LUT from the manufacturer, which proved the efficiency of the compensation of phase nonlinearity. Finally, the distorted wavefront caused by a liquid crystal flake is corrected using LCSLM based on ANTI2.LUT. Experimental results show that the peak-valley value of the distorted wavefront decreases from 1.56l to 0.26l (l =0.6328 λm), the root-mean-square value decreases from 0.25l to 0.02l and the Strehl ratio of diffractive spots increases from 0.08 to 0.97. So LCSLM can be applied to realize high-precision and high-resolution wavefront correction with linear phase response.

  19. Spatial Resolution of Combined Wavelength Modulation Spectroscopy with Integrated Cavity Output Spectroscopy for Atomic Oxygen Detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsui, Makoto; Nakajima, Daisuke

    2015-09-01

    For developments of thermal protection system, atomic oxygen plays important role. However, its measurement method has not been established because the pressure in front of TPS test materials is as high as a few kPa. Our group proposed combined wavelength modulation and integrated output spectroscopies based on the forbidden transition at OI 636 nm to measure the ground-state number densities. In this study, WM-ICOS system is developed and applied to a microwave oxygen plasma to evaluate measurable region. As a result, the estimated number density by ICOS could be measured as low as 1021 m21. For the condition, WM-ICOS was applied. The signal to noise ratio of the 2f signal was 40.4. Then, the sensitivity was improved about 26. This result corresponding to the measurement limit of the partial atomic oxygen pressure of 250 Pa. The sensitivity of WM-ICOS was found to enough to diagnose the shock layer in high enthalpy flows. However, the spatial resolution was as large as 8 mm. The size of the beam pattern depends on the cavity length, robust ness of the cavity and accuracy of the cavity alignment. In this presentation, the relationship among these parameters will be discussed.

  20. High spatial and temporal resolution cell manipulation techniques in microchannels.

    PubMed

    Novo, Pedro; Dell'Aica, Margherita; Janasek, Dirk; Zahedi, René P

    2016-03-21

    The advent of microfluidics has enabled thorough control of cell manipulation experiments in so called lab on chips. Lab on chips foster the integration of actuation and detection systems, and require minute sample and reagent amounts. Typically employed microfluidic structures have similar dimensions as cells, enabling precise spatial and temporal control of individual cells and their local environments. Several strategies for high spatio-temporal control of cells in microfluidics have been reported in recent years, namely methods relying on careful design of the microfluidic structures (e.g. pinched flow), by integration of actuators (e.g. electrodes or magnets for dielectro-, acousto- and magneto-phoresis), or integrations thereof. This review presents the recent developments of cell experiments in microfluidics divided into two parts: an introduction to spatial control of cells in microchannels followed by special emphasis in the high temporal control of cell-stimulus reaction and quenching. In the end, the present state of the art is discussed in line with future perspectives and challenges for translating these devices into routine applications. PMID:26891209

  1. Virtual electrode design for increasing spatial resolution in retinal prosthesis.

    PubMed

    Loizos, Kyle; Cela, Carlos; Marc, Robert; Lazzi, Gianluca

    2016-06-01

    Retinal prostheses systems are currently used to restore partial vision to patients blinded by degenerative diseases by electrically stimulating surviving retinal cells. To obtain likely maximum resolution, electrode size is minimised, allowing for a large quantity on an array and localised stimulation regions. Besides the small size leading to fabrication difficulties and higher electrochemical charge density, there are challenges associated with the number of drivers needed for a large electrode count as well as the strategies to deliver sufficient power to these drivers wirelessly. In hopes to increase electrode resolution while avoiding these issues, the authors propose a new 'virtual electrode' design to increase locations of likely stimulation. Passive metallisation strategically placed between disk electrodes, combined with alternating surrounding stimuli, channel current into a location between electrodes, producing a virtual stimulation site. A computational study was conducted to optimise the passive metal element geometry, quantify the expected current density output, and simulate retinal ganglion cell activity due to virtual electrode stimulation. Results show that this procedure leads to array geometry that focuses injected current and achieves retinal ganglion cell stimulation in a region beneath the 'virtual electrode,' creating an alternate stimulation site without additional drivers. PMID:27382477

  2. Measurement of velocity fluctuations in microfluidics with simultaneously ultrahigh spatial and temporal resolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Wei; Yang, Fang; Khan, Jamil; Reifsnider, Ken; Wang, Guiren

    2016-01-01

    Although unsteady and electrokinetic flows are widely used in microfluidics, there is unfortunately no velocimeter today that can measure the random velocity fluctuation at high temporal and spatial resolution simultaneously in microfluidics. Here we, for the first time, theoretically study the temporal resolution of laser induced fluorescence photobleaching anemometer (LIFPA) and experimentally verify that LIFPA can have simultaneously ultrahigh temporal ({˜ } 4 \\upmu s) and spatial ({˜ }203 nm) resolution and can measure velocity fluctuation up to at least 2 kHz, whose corresponding wave number is about 6× 10^6 {/}m in an electrokinetically forced unsteady flow in microfluidics.

  3. Study and optimization of the spatial resolution for detectors with binary readout

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yonamine, R.; Maerschalk, T.; Lentdecker, G. De

    2016-09-01

    Using simulations and analytical approaches, we have studied single hit resolutions obtained with a binary readout, which is often proposed for high granularity detectors to reduce the generated data volume. Our simulations considering several parameters (e.g. strip pitch) show that the detector geometry and an electronics parameter of the binary readout chips could be optimized for binary readout to offer an equivalent spatial resolution to the one with an analog readout. To understand the behavior as a function of simulation parameters, we developed analytical models that reproduce simulation results with a few parameters. The models can be used to optimize detector designs and operation conditions with regard to the spatial resolution.

  4. High resolution Hall measurements across the VO2 metal-insulator transition reveal impact of spatial phase separation

    PubMed Central

    Yamin, Tony; Strelniker, Yakov M.; Sharoni, Amos

    2016-01-01

    Many strongly correlated transition metal oxides exhibit a metal-insulator transition (MIT), the manipulation of which is essential for their application as active device elements. However, such manipulation is hindered by lack of microscopic understanding of mechanisms involved in these transitions. A prototypical example is VO2, where previous studies indicated that the MIT resistance change correlate with changes in carrier density and mobility. We studied the MIT using Hall measurements with unprecedented resolution and accuracy, simultaneously with resistance measurements. Contrast to prior reports, we find that the MIT is not correlated with a change in mobility, but rather, is a macroscopic manifestation of the spatial phase separation which accompanies the MIT. Our results demonstrate that, surprisingly, properties of the nano-scale spatially-separated metallic and semiconducting domains actually retain their bulk properties. This study highlights the importance of taking into account local fluctuations and correlations when interpreting transport measurements in highly correlated systems. PMID:26783076

  5. High resolution Hall measurements across the VO2 metal-insulator transition reveal impact of spatial phase separation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamin, Tony; Strelniker, Yakov M.; Sharoni, Amos

    2016-01-01

    Many strongly correlated transition metal oxides exhibit a metal-insulator transition (MIT), the manipulation of which is essential for their application as active device elements. However, such manipulation is hindered by lack of microscopic understanding of mechanisms involved in these transitions. A prototypical example is VO2, where previous studies indicated that the MIT resistance change correlate with changes in carrier density and mobility. We studied the MIT using Hall measurements with unprecedented resolution and accuracy, simultaneously with resistance measurements. Contrast to prior reports, we find that the MIT is not correlated with a change in mobility, but rather, is a macroscopic manifestation of the spatial phase separation which accompanies the MIT. Our results demonstrate that, surprisingly, properties of the nano-scale spatially-separated metallic and semiconducting domains actually retain their bulk properties. This study highlights the importance of taking into account local fluctuations and correlations when interpreting transport measurements in highly correlated systems.

  6. Estimation of Orbital Neutron Detector Spatial Resolution by Systematic Shifting of Differential Topographic Masks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McClanahan, T. P.; Mitrofanov, I. G.; Boynton, W. V.; Chin, G.; Livengood, T.; Starr, R. D.; Evans, L. G.; Mazarico, E.; Smith, D. E.

    2012-01-01

    We present a method and preliminary results related to determining the spatial resolution of orbital neutron detectors using epithermal maps and differential topographic masks. Our technique is similar to coded aperture imaging methods for optimizing photonic signals in telescopes [I]. In that approach photon masks with known spatial patterns in a telescope aperature are used to systematically restrict incoming photons which minimizes interference and enhances photon signal to noise. Three orbital neutron detector systems with different stated spatial resolutions are evaluated. The differing spatial resolutions arise due different orbital altitudes and the use of neutron collimation techniques. 1) The uncollimated Lunar Prospector Neutron Spectrometer (LPNS) system has spatial resolution of 45km FWHM from approx. 30km altitude mission phase [2]. The Lunar Rennaissance Orbiter (LRO) Lunar Exploration Neutron Detector (LEND) with two detectors at 50km altitude evaluated here: 2) the collimated 10km FWHM spatial resolution detector CSETN and 3) LEND's collimated Sensor for Epithermal Neutrons (SETN). Thus providing two orbital altitudes to study factors of: uncollimated vs collimated and two average altitudes for their effect on fields-of-view.

  7. Hyperspectral imagery super-resolution by compressive sensing inspired dictionary learning and spatial-spectral regularization.

    PubMed

    Huang, Wei; Xiao, Liang; Liu, Hongyi; Wei, Zhihui

    2015-01-01

    Due to the instrumental and imaging optics limitations, it is difficult to acquire high spatial resolution hyperspectral imagery (HSI). Super-resolution (SR) imagery aims at inferring high quality images of a given scene from degraded versions of the same scene. This paper proposes a novel hyperspectral imagery super-resolution (HSI-SR) method via dictionary learning and spatial-spectral regularization. The main contributions of this paper are twofold. First, inspired by the compressive sensing (CS) framework, for learning the high resolution dictionary, we encourage stronger sparsity on image patches and promote smaller coherence between the learned dictionary and sensing matrix. Thus, a sparsity and incoherence restricted dictionary learning method is proposed to achieve higher efficiency sparse representation. Second, a variational regularization model combing a spatial sparsity regularization term and a new local spectral similarity preserving term is proposed to integrate the spectral and spatial-contextual information of the HSI. Experimental results show that the proposed method can effectively recover spatial information and better preserve spectral information. The high spatial resolution HSI reconstructed by the proposed method outperforms reconstructed results by other well-known methods in terms of both objective measurements and visual evaluation. PMID:25608212

  8. Hyperspectral Imagery Super-Resolution by Compressive Sensing Inspired Dictionary Learning and Spatial-Spectral Regularization

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Wei; Xiao, Liang; Liu, Hongyi; Wei, Zhihui

    2015-01-01

    Due to the instrumental and imaging optics limitations, it is difficult to acquire high spatial resolution hyperspectral imagery (HSI). Super-resolution (SR) imagery aims at inferring high quality images of a given scene from degraded versions of the same scene. This paper proposes a novel hyperspectral imagery super-resolution (HSI-SR) method via dictionary learning and spatial-spectral regularization. The main contributions of this paper are twofold. First, inspired by the compressive sensing (CS) framework, for learning the high resolution dictionary, we encourage stronger sparsity on image patches and promote smaller coherence between the learned dictionary and sensing matrix. Thus, a sparsity and incoherence restricted dictionary learning method is proposed to achieve higher efficiency sparse representation. Second, a variational regularization model combing a spatial sparsity regularization term and a new local spectral similarity preserving term is proposed to integrate the spectral and spatial-contextual information of the HSI. Experimental results show that the proposed method can effectively recover spatial information and better preserve spectral information. The high spatial resolution HSI reconstructed by the proposed method outperforms reconstructed results by other well-known methods in terms of both objective measurements and visual evaluation. PMID:25608212

  9. Advanced Extraction of Spatial Information from High Resolution Satellite Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pour, T.; Burian, J.; Miřijovský, J.

    2016-06-01

    In this paper authors processed five satellite image of five different Middle-European cities taken by five different sensors. The aim of the paper was to find methods and approaches leading to evaluation and spatial data extraction from areas of interest. For this reason, data were firstly pre-processed using image fusion, mosaicking and segmentation processes. Results going into the next step were two polygon layers; first one representing single objects and the second one representing city blocks. In the second step, polygon layers were classified and exported into Esri shapefile format. Classification was partly hierarchical expert based and partly based on the tool SEaTH used for separability distinction and thresholding. Final results along with visual previews were attached to the original thesis. Results are evaluated visually and statistically in the last part of the paper. In the discussion author described difficulties of working with data of large size, taken by different sensors and different also thematically.

  10. Two-photon imaging of spatially extended neuronal network dynamics with high temporal resolution

    PubMed Central

    Lillis, Kyle P.; Eng, Alfred; White, John A.; Mertz, Jerome

    2008-01-01

    We describe a simple two-photon fluorescence imaging strategy, called targeted path scanning (TPS), to monitor the dynamics of spatially extended neuronal networks with high spatiotemporal resolution. Our strategy combines the advantages of mirror-based scanning, minimized dead time, ease of implementation, and compatibility with high-resolution low-magnification objectives. To demonstrate the performance of TPS, we monitor the calcium dynamics distributed across an entire juvenile rat hippocampus (>1.5mm), at scan rates of 100Hz, with single cell resolution and single action potential sensitivity. Our strategy for fast, efficient two-photon microscopy over spatially extended regions provides a particularly attractive solution for monitoring neuronal population activity in thick tissue, without sacrificing the signal to noise ratio or high spatial resolution associated with standard two-photon microscopy. Finally, we provide the code to make our technique generally available. PMID:18539336

  11. In-air ion beam analysis with high spatial resolution proton microbeam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jakšić, M.; Chokheli, D.; Fazinić, S.; Grilj, V.; Skukan, N.; Sudić, I.; Tadić, T.; Antičić, T.

    2016-03-01

    One of the possible ways to maintain the micrometre spatial resolution while performing ion beam analysis in the air is to increase the energy of ions. In order to explore capabilities and limitations of this approach, we have tested a range of proton beam energies (2-6 MeV) using in-air STIM (Scanning Ion Transmission Microscopy) setup. Measurements of the spatial resolution dependence on proton energy have been compared with SRIM simulation and modelling of proton multiple scattering by different approaches. Results were used to select experimental conditions in which 1 micrometre spatial resolution could be obtained. High resolution in-air microbeam could be applied for IBIC (Ion Beam Induced Charge) tests of large detectors used in nuclear and high energy physics that otherwise cannot be tested in relatively small microbeam vacuum chambers.

  12. Full field spatially-variant image-based resolution modelling reconstruction for the HRRT.

    PubMed

    Angelis, Georgios I; Kotasidis, Fotis A; Matthews, Julian C; Markiewicz, Pawel J; Lionheart, William R; Reader, Andrew J

    2015-03-01

    Accurate characterisation of the scanner's point spread function across the entire field of view (FOV) is crucial in order to account for spatially dependent factors that degrade the resolution of the reconstructed images. The HRRT users' community resolution modelling reconstruction software includes a shift-invariant resolution kernel, which leads to transaxially non-uniform resolution in the reconstructed images. Unlike previous work to date in this field, this work is the first to model the spatially variant resolution across the entire FOV of the HRRT, which is the highest resolution human brain PET scanner in the world. In this paper we developed a spatially variant image-based resolution modelling reconstruction dedicated to the HRRT, using an experimentally measured shift-variant resolution kernel. Previously, the system response was measured and characterised in detail across the entire FOV of the HRRT, using a printed point source array. The newly developed resolution modelling reconstruction was applied on measured phantom, as well as clinical data and was compared against the HRRT users' community resolution modelling reconstruction, which is currently in use. Results demonstrated improvements both in contrast and resolution recovery, particularly for regions close to the edges of the FOV, with almost uniform resolution recovery across the entire transverse FOV. In addition, because the newly measured resolution kernel is slightly broader with wider tails, compared to the deliberately conservative kernel employed in the HRRT users' community software, the reconstructed images appear to have not only improved contrast recovery (up to 20% for small regions), but also better noise characteristics. PMID:25596999

  13. Spatial variability of the Black Sea surface temperature from high resolution modeling and satellite measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mizyuk, Artem; Senderov, Maxim; Korotaev, Gennady

    2016-04-01

    Large number of numerical ocean models were implemented for the Black Sea basin during last two decades. They reproduce rather similar structure of synoptical variability of the circulation. Since 00-s numerical studies of the mesoscale structure are carried out using high performance computing (HPC). With the growing capacity of computing resources it is now possible to reconstruct the Black Sea currents with spatial resolution of several hundreds meters. However, how realistic these results can be? In the proposed study an attempt is made to understand which spatial scales are reproduced by ocean model in the Black Sea. Simulations are made using parallel version of NEMO (Nucleus for European Modelling of the Ocean). A two regional configurations with spatial resolutions 5 km and 2.5 km are described. Comparison of the SST from simulations with two spatial resolutions shows rather qualitative difference of the spatial structures. Results of high resolution simulation are compared also with satellite observations and observation-based products from Copernicus using spatial correlation and spectral analysis. Spatial scales of correlations functions for simulated and observed SST are rather close and differs much from satellite SST reanalysis. Evolution of spectral density for modelled SST and reanalysis showed agreed time periods of small scales intensification. Using of the spectral analysis for satellite measurements is complicated due to gaps. The research leading to this results has received funding from Russian Science Foundation (project № 15-17-20020)

  14. Intercomparison of snow density measurements: bias, precision and spatial resolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Proksch, M.; Rutter, N.; Fierz, C.; Schneebeli, M.

    2015-07-01

    Density is a fundamental property of porous media such as snow. A wide range of snow properties and physical processes are linked to density, but few studies have addressed the uncertainty in snow density measurements. No study has yet considered the recent advances in snow measurement methods such as micro-computed tomography (CT). During the MicroSnow Davos 2014 workshop different approaches to measure snow density were applied in a controlled laboratory environment and in the field. Overall, the agreement between CT and gravimetric methods (density cutters) was 5 to 9 %, with a bias of -5 to 2 %, expressed as percentage of the mean CT density. In the field, the density cutters tend to overestimate (1 to 6 %) densities below and underestimate (1 to 6 %) densities above 296 to 350 kg m-3, respectively, depending on the cutter type. Using the mean per layer of all measurement methods applied in the field (CT, box, wedge and cylinder cutter) and ignoring ice layers, the variation of layer density between the methods was 2 to 5 % with a bias of -1 to 1 %. In general, our result suggests that snow densities measured by different methods agree within 9 %. However, the density profiles resolved by the measurement methods differed considerably. In particular, the millimeter scale density variations revealed by the high resolution CT contrasted the thick layers with sharp boundaries introduced by the observer. In this respect, the unresolved variation, i.e. the density variation within a layer, which is lost by sampling with lower resolution or layer aggregation, is critical when snow density measurements are used as boundary or initial conditions in numerical simulations.

  15. Influences of temporal rainfall radar and spatial rainfall-runoff model resolution on flood prediction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weiler, Markus; Steinbrich, Andreas

    2013-04-01

    The rainfall-runoff-model DROGen (Distributed RunOff Generation) was developed to simulate runoff generation processes during floods and flash floods generation with a very high spatial resolution for the whole state of Baden-Württemberg in Southwest Germany. The model connects available spatial geo information with detailed process understanding at the plot and hillslope scale and is not calibrated. The model was successfully validated in 8 meso-scale watersheds with different geology, soils, topography and land-use and the results were very satisfying. We believe that the high spatial resolution of 1*1m² and a temporal resolution of 1 hour especially improved flow dynamics and the runoff concentration behaviour of the different runoff components. Some spatial information used by DROGen is available in very high resolution of 1*1m² (e.g. DEM and degree of sealing of land surface). Other data are much more generalized (e.g. soil information at the scale of 1:200.000) or at a fixed temporal resolution of one hour (e.g. calibrated precipitation radar data of the German weather survey (RADOLAN)). In order to find the adequate temporal and spatial resolution we investigated how the the spatial resolution of the geo data and the temporal resolution of the rainfall radar data effects the model result. Regarding the spatial resolution, we found, that the processes of runoff generation and runoff concentration are sensitive at different spatial scales. A decrease of spatial resolution from 1m to 25m lead to an implausible increase of the generation of saturation overland flow and to an accelerated concentration of subsurface flow, while Hortonian overland flow was almost not affected by the spatial resolution. For the model validation runs we realized that for short convective rain events a one hour resolution of the rainfall data might be not sufficient because of severe underestimation of peak intensities. We developed and tested a new method to estimate the temporal

  16. Impact of spatial resolution of the precipitation data on hydrological Forecast

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davis, M.; Bardossy, A.; Sudheer, K.

    2013-05-01

    Flooding is a devastating problem for many countries all over the world. Real time forecasting is a necessary non-structural measure to fight against the damage. Adequate quantitative forecasting of the flood is necessary to provide enough precaution for the affected population. Time lead in the forecast is also a matter of concern considering its significance in the preparedness. The time-lead of forecast depends on the computational time along with the various other issues. The computation time depends on the whether the model is data intensive or process intensive. Considering the use of spatially distributed models in the forecast, the main dynamic data involved in the rainfall runoff models are the precipitation measurement. The data intensity of that depends on the spatial and temporal resolution of the precipitation data. The spatial resolution of the precipitation has the significance in the spatially distributed hydrological models. Neither should the resolution be so less that the quantitative prediction is disturbed nor too much to affect the time lead considerably. Finer spatial resolution of precipitation data may not even yield better forecast (A.Bardossy and T.Das, 2008). So the current study focuses on the impact of spatial and temporal resolution of the hydrological forecast. The spatially distributed model of HBV and HYMOD is being used for the analysis. Spatial resolutions from 1, 4, 9 and 25 square kilometers and a temporal resolution of daily to hourly time-series is also being analysed for their respective effects on prediction. The data from rain gauges are interpolated using the External Drift Kriging Method (EDK). The calibrations of the models are carried out using the Robust Parameter Estimation (ROPE) algorithm (S.K Singh and A. Bardossy, 2010). The framework is illustrated on the Upper Neckar catchment with 13 sub-catchments located in South West Germany. Preliminary results are encouraging. The optimum spatial resolution can be

  17. On the assessment of spatial resolution of PET systems with iterative image reconstruction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gong, Kuang; Cherry, Simon R.; Qi, Jinyi

    2016-03-01

    Spatial resolution is an important metric for performance characterization in PET systems. Measuring spatial resolution is straightforward with a linear reconstruction algorithm, such as filtered backprojection, and can be performed by reconstructing a point source scan and calculating the full-width-at-half-maximum (FWHM) along the principal directions. With the widespread adoption of iterative reconstruction methods, it is desirable to quantify the spatial resolution using an iterative reconstruction algorithm. However, the task can be difficult because the reconstruction algorithms are nonlinear and the non-negativity constraint can artificially enhance the apparent spatial resolution if a point source image is reconstructed without any background. Thus, it was recommended that a background should be added to the point source data before reconstruction for resolution measurement. However, there has been no detailed study on the effect of the point source contrast on the measured spatial resolution. Here we use point source scans from a preclinical PET scanner to investigate the relationship between measured spatial resolution and the point source contrast. We also evaluate whether the reconstruction of an isolated point source is predictive of the ability of the system to resolve two adjacent point sources. Our results indicate that when the point source contrast is below a certain threshold, the measured FWHM remains stable. Once the contrast is above the threshold, the measured FWHM monotonically decreases with increasing point source contrast. In addition, the measured FWHM also monotonically decreases with iteration number for maximum likelihood estimate. Therefore, when measuring system resolution with an iterative reconstruction algorithm, we recommend using a low-contrast point source and a fixed number of iterations.

  18. SAPHIRE (scintillator avalanche photoconductor with high resolution emitter readout) for low dose x-ray imaging: Spatial resolution

    PubMed Central

    Li, Dan; Zhao, Wei

    2008-01-01

    An indirect flat panel imager (FPI) with programmable avalanche gain and field emitter array (FEA) readout is being investigated for low-dose and high resolution x-ray imaging. It is made by optically coupling a structured x-ray scintillator, e.g., thallium (Tl) doped cesium iodide (CsI), to an amorphous selenium (a-Se) avalanche photoconductor called high-gain avalanche rushing amorphous photoconductor (HARP). The charge image created by the scintillator∕HARP (SHARP) combination is read out by the electron beams emitted from the FEA. The proposed detector is called scintillator avalanche photoconductor with high resolution emitter readout (SAPHIRE). The programmable avalanche gain of HARP can improve the low dose performance of indirect FPI while the FEA can be made with pixel sizes down to 50 μm. Because of the avalanche gain, a high resolution type of CsI (Tl), which has not been widely used in indirect FPI due to its lower light output, can be used to improve the high spatial frequency performance. The purpose of the present article is to investigate the factors affecting the spatial resolution of SAPHIRE. Since the resolution performance of the SHARP combination has been well studied, the focus of the present work is on the inherent resolution of the FEA readout method. The lateral spread of the electron beam emitted from a 50 μm×50 μm pixel FEA was investigated with two different electron-optical designs: mesh-electrode-only and electrostatic focusing. Our results showed that electrostatic focusing can limit the lateral spread of electron beams to within the pixel size of down to 50 μm. Since electrostatic focusing is essentially independent of signal intensity, it will provide excellent spatial uniformity. PMID:18697540

  19. SAPHIRE (scintillator avalanche photoconductor with high resolution emitter readout) for low dose x-ray imaging: Spatial resolution

    SciTech Connect

    Li Dan; Zhao Wei

    2008-07-15

    An indirect flat panel imager (FPI) with programmable avalanche gain and field emitter array (FEA) readout is being investigated for low-dose and high resolution x-ray imaging. It is made by optically coupling a structured x-ray scintillator, e.g., thallium (Tl) doped cesium iodide (CsI), to an amorphous selenium (a-Se) avalanche photoconductor called high-gain avalanche rushing amorphous photoconductor (HARP). The charge image created by the scintillator/HARP (SHARP) combination is read out by the electron beams emitted from the FEA. The proposed detector is called scintillator avalanche photoconductor with high resolution emitter readout (SAPHIRE). The programmable avalanche gain of HARP can improve the low dose performance of indirect FPI while the FEA can be made with pixel sizes down to 50 {mu}m. Because of the avalanche gain, a high resolution type of CsI (Tl), which has not been widely used in indirect FPI due to its lower light output, can be used to improve the high spatial frequency performance. The purpose of the present article is to investigate the factors affecting the spatial resolution of SAPHIRE. Since the resolution performance of the SHARP combination has been well studied, the focus of the present work is on the inherent resolution of the FEA readout method. The lateral spread of the electron beam emitted from a 50 {mu}mx50 {mu}m pixel FEA was investigated with two different electron-optical designs: mesh-electrode-only and electrostatic focusing. Our results showed that electrostatic focusing can limit the lateral spread of electron beams to within the pixel size of down to 50 {mu}m. Since electrostatic focusing is essentially independent of signal intensity, it will provide excellent spatial uniformity.

  20. Super-resolution reconstruction to increase the spatial resolution of diffusion weighted images from orthogonal anisotropic acquisitions.

    PubMed

    Scherrer, Benoit; Gholipour, Ali; Warfield, Simon K

    2012-10-01

    Diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) enables non-invasive investigation and characterization of the white matter but suffers from a relatively poor spatial resolution. Increasing the spatial resolution in DWI is challenging with a single-shot EPI acquisition due to the decreased signal-to-noise ratio and T2(∗) relaxation effect amplified with increased echo time. In this work we propose a super-resolution reconstruction (SRR) technique based on the acquisition of multiple anisotropic orthogonal DWI scans. DWI scans acquired in different planes are not typically closely aligned due to the geometric distortion introduced by magnetic susceptibility differences in each phase-encoding direction. We compensate each scan for geometric distortion by acquisition of a dual echo gradient echo field map, providing an estimate of the field inhomogeneity. We address the problem of patient motion by aligning the volumes in both space and q-space. The SRR is formulated as a maximum a posteriori problem. It relies on a volume acquisition model which describes how the acquired scans are observations of an unknown high-resolution image which we aim to recover. Our model enables the introduction of image priors that exploit spatial homogeneity and enables regularized solutions. We detail our SRR optimization procedure and report experiments including numerical simulations, synthetic SRR and real world SRR. In particular, we demonstrate that combining distortion compensation and SRR provides better results than acquisition of a single isotropic scan for the same acquisition duration time. Importantly, SRR enables DWI with resolution beyond the scanner hardware limitations. This work provides the first evidence that SRR, which employs conventional single shot EPI techniques, enables resolution enhancement in DWI, and may dramatically impact the role of DWI in both neuroscience and clinical applications. PMID:22770597

  1. Spatial resolution of subsurface anthropogenic heat fluxes in cities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benz, Susanne; Bayer, Peter; Menberg, Kathrin; Blum, Philipp

    2015-04-01

    Urban heat islands in the subsurface contain large quantities of energy in the form of elevated groundwater temperatures caused by anthropogenic heat fluxes (AHFS) into the subsurface. Hence, the objective of this study is to exemplarily quantify these AHFS and the generated thermal powers in two German cities, Karlsruhe and Cologne. A two-dimensional (2D) statistical analytical model of the vertical subsurface anthropogenic heat fluxes across the unsaturated zone was developed. The model consists of a so-called Local Monte Carlo approach that introduces a spatial representation of the following sources of AHFS: (1) elevated ground surface temperatures, (2) basements, (3) sewage systems, (4) sewage leakage, (5) subway tunnels, and (6) district heating networks. The results show that district heating networks induce the largest local AHFS with values larger than 60 W/m2 and one order of magnitude higher than the other evaluated heat sources. Only sewage pipes and basements reaching into the groundwater cause equally high heat fluxes, with maximal values of 40.37 W/m2 and 13.60 W/m2, respectively. While dominating locally, the district heating network is rather insignificant for the citywide energy budget in both urban subsurfaces. Heat from buildings (1.51 ± 1.36 PJ/a in Karlsruhe; 0.31 ± 0.14 PJ/a in Cologne) and elevated GST (0.34 ± 0.10 PJ/a in Karlsruhe; 0.42 ± 0.13 PJ/a in Cologne) are dominant contributors to the anthropogenic thermal power of the urban aquifer. In Karlsruhe, buildings are the source of 70% of the annual heat transported into the groundwater, which is mainly caused by basements reaching into the groundwater. A variance analysis confirms these findings: basement depth is the most influential factor to citywide thermal power in the studied cities with high groundwater levels. The spatial distribution of fluxes, however, is mostly influenced by the prevailing thermal gradient across the unsaturated zone. A relatively cold groundwater

  2. Practical Considerations for High Spatial and Temporal Resolution Dynamic Transmission Electron Microscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Armstrong, M; Boyden, K; Browning, N D; Campbell, G H; Colvin, J D; DeHope, B; Frank, A M; Gibson, D J; Hartemann, F; Kim, J S; King, W E; LaGrange, T B; Pyke, B J; Reed, B W; Shuttlesworth, R M; Stuart, B C; Torralva, B R

    2006-05-01

    Although recent years have seen significant advances in the spatial resolution possible in the transmission electron microscope (TEM), the temporal resolution of most microscopes is limited to video rate at best. This lack of temporal resolution means that our understanding of dynamic processes in materials is extremely limited. High temporal resolution in the TEM can be achieved, however, by replacing the normal thermionic or field emission source with a photoemission source. In this case the temporal resolution is limited only by the ability to create a short pulse of photoexcited electrons in the source, and this can be as short as a few femtoseconds. The operation of the photo-emission source and the control of the subsequent pulse of electrons (containing as many as 5 x 10{sup 7} electrons) create significant challenges for a standard microscope column that is designed to operate with a single electron in the column at any one time. In this paper, the generation and control of electron pulses in the TEM to obtain a temporal resolution <10{sup -6} s will be described and the effect of the pulse duration and current density on the spatial resolution of the instrument will be examined. The potential of these levels of temporal and spatial resolution for the study of dynamic materials processes will also be discussed.

  3. The Importance of High Spatial and Appropriate Spectral Resolution Spectroscopy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gull, Theodore

    2007-01-01

    Many diverse astronomical sources are resolved with diffraction-limited large telescopes. Application of appropriate dispersion spectroscopy unveils much information on the physics of these objects ranging from gamma ray bursters in host galaxies, star-formation regions and central engines in nearby galaxies, structures in galactic nebulae, resolved binaries with mass exchange, extended winds of massive stars, protoplanetary systems, and comets, asteroids and planets within our own solar system. Active optics and interferometers coupled with spectrographs can provide near-diffraction-limited spectroscopy from the ground but only longward of one micron. Below one micron, and certainly below 6000A, we must turn to space-based large telescopes equipped with spectrographs capable of providing spatially diffraction-limited spectroscopy of astronomical sources. Examples will be presented from the HST/STIS, ground-based and other instruments on science that has been accomplished. Suggestions will be made of what might be possible, and limitations thereof, with future large monolithic, multiple mirror or interferometric telescopes equipped with spectrographs that would be matched to the diffraction limit of the telescope.

  4. A High Spatial Resolution CT Scanner for Small Animal Imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cicalini, E.; Baldazzi, G.; Belcari, N.; Del Guerra, A.; Gombia, M.; Motta, A.; Panetta, D.

    2006-01-01

    We have built a micro-CT system that will be integrated with a small animal PET scanner. The components are: an X-ray source with a peak voltage of up to 60 kV, a power of 10 W and a focal spot size of 30 μm; a CCD coupled to CsI(Tl) scintillator, subdivided into 128×3072 square pixels, each with a size of 48 μm; stepping motors for the sample roto-translation; a PCI acquisition board; electronic boards to control and read-out the CCD. A program in Lab VIEW controls the data acquisition. Reconstruction algorithms have been implemented for fan-beam and cone-beam configurations. Images of a bar pattern have been acquired to evaluate the detector performance: the CTF curve has been extracted from the data, obtaining a value of 10 % at 5 lp/mm and about 3 % at 10 lp/mm. Tomographic acquisitions have been performed with a test phantom consisting of a Plexiglas cylinder, 3 cm in diameter, with holes ranging from 3 mm down to 0.6 mm in diameter, filled with different materials. The contrast resolution has been extracted from the reconstructed images: a value of 6 % (in water) for a cubic voxel size of 80 μm has been obtained.

  5. Modern high spatial resolution approaches to crustal evolution studies - pitfalls and progress

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whitehouse, M. J.

    2012-12-01

    Developments in analytical techniques for in situ geochronology and isotope geochemistry over the past few decades have contributed greatly to our understanding of the processes of Precambrian crustal evolution, plate tectonics, the development of Earth's hydrosphere and atmosphere and conditions for the development of life on Earth. The further back in time we go, however, the more complex the geology, requiring that we unravel and/or try to see through multiple phases of disturbance. Such geological complexity complicates interpretation and can lead to conflicting viewpoints on such key questions as when plate tectonics began on Earth, when it evolved to a process essentially similar to that of today and the nature and habitability of a potentially pre-plate tectonic Earth in the Hadean. This presentation will review, with case studies, some of the crucial aspects of applying and interpreting high spatial resolution in situ methods and some of the potential pitfalls. Obtaining accurate and precise geochronology is an essential first step in any study of Precambrian geology, whether it is the primary goal or provides a supporting framework to other diverse applications. To this end, high spatial resolution secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) and laser ablation inductiively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICPMS), typically combined with relevant imaging methods such as cathode luminescence (CL) are widely used to investigate the U-Pb systematics of complex zircon. In general precision is merely an analytical hurdle that we are good (and continually getting better) at clearing, but accuracy commonly contains not just an analytical element (e.g. calibration of standards) but also a considerable subjective element in order to unravel the commonly polyphase evolution of early Precambrian zircon. Examples of such problematic interpretations from the Neoarchean Lewisian Complex of northwest Scotland and the Paleoarchean Napier Complex of Antarctica will be

  6. Investigation of spatial resolution characteristics of an in vivo microcomputed tomography system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghani, Muhammad U.; Zhou, Zhongxing; Ren, Liqiang; Wong, Molly; Li, Yuhua; Zheng, Bin; Yang, Kai; Liu, Hong

    2016-01-01

    The spatial resolution characteristics of an in vivo microcomputed tomography (CT) system was investigated in the in-plane (x-y), cross plane (z) and projection imaging modes. The microCT system utilized in this study employs a flat panel detector with a 127 μm pixel pitch, a microfocus x-ray tube with a focal spot size ranging from 5-30 μm, and accommodates three geometric magnifications (M) of 1.72, 2.54 and 5.10. The in-plane modulation transfer function (MTF) curves were measured as a function of the number of projections, geometric magnification (M), detector binning and reconstruction magnification (MRecon). The in plane cutoff frequency (10% MTF) ranged from 2.31 lp/mm (M=1.72, 2×2 binning) to 12.56 lp/mm (M=5.10, 1×1 binning) and a bar pattern phantom validated those measurements. A slight degradation in the spatial resolution was observed when comparing the image reconstruction with 511 and 918 projections, whose effect was visible at the lower frequencies. Small value of MRecon has little or no impact on the in-plane spatial resolution owning to a stable system. Large value of MRecon has implications on the spatial resolution and it was evident when comparing the bar pattern images reconstructed with MRecon=1.25 and 2.5. The cross plane MTF curves showed that the spatial resolution increased as the slice thickness decreased. The cutoff frequencies in the projection imaging mode yielded slightly higher values as compared to the in-plane and cross plane modes at all the geometric magnifications (M). At M=5.10, the cutoff resolution of the projection and cross plane on an ultra-high contrast resolution bar chip phantom were 14.9 lp/mm and 13-13.5 lp/mm. Due to the finite focal spot size of the x-ray tube, the detector blur and the reconstruction kernel functions, the system's spatial resolution does not reach the limiting spatial resolution as defined by the Nyquist's detector criteria with an ideal point source. The geometric magnification employed in

  7. HIGH SPATIAL RESOLUTION IMAGING OF THERMAL EMISSION FROM DEBRIS DISKS

    SciTech Connect

    Moerchen, Margaret M.; Telesco, Charles M.; Packham, Christopher

    2010-11-10

    We have obtained subarcsecond mid-IR images of a sample of debris disks within 100 pc. For our sample of 19 A-type debris disk candidates chosen for their IR excess, we have resolved, for the first time, five sources plus the previously resolved disk around HD 141569. Two other sources in our sample have been ruled out as debris disks since the time of sample selection. Three of the six resolved sources have inferred radii of 1-4 AU (HD 38678, HD 71155, and HD 181869), and one source has an inferred radius {approx}10-30 AU (HD 141569). Among the resolved sources with detections of excess IR emission, HD 71155 appears to be comparable in size (r {approx} 2 AU) to the solar system's asteroid belt, thus joining {zeta} Lep (HD 38678, reported previously) to comprise the only two resolved sources of that class. Two additional sources (HD 95418 and HD 139006) show spatial extents that imply disk radii of {approx}1-3 AU, although the excess IR fluxes are not formally detected with better than 2{sigma} significance. For the unresolved sources, the upper limits on the maximum radii of mid-IR disk emission are in the range {approx}1-20 AU, four of which are comparable in radius to the asteroid belt. We have compared the global color temperatures of the dust to that expected for the dust in radiative equilibrium at the distances corresponding to the observed sizes or limits on the sizes. In most cases, the temperatures estimated via these two methods are comparable, and therefore, we see a generally consistent picture of the inferred morphology and the global mid-IR emission. Finally, while our sample size is not statistically significant, we note that the older sources (>200 Myr) host much warmer dust (T {approx}> 400 K) than younger sources (in the tens of Myr).

  8. Preliminary frequency-domain analysis for the reconstructed spatial resolution of muon tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, B.; Zhao, Z.; Wang, X.; Wang, Y.; Wu, D.; Zeng, Z.; Zeng, M.; Yi, H.; Luo, Z.; Yue, X.; Cheng, J.

    2014-11-01

    Muon tomography is an advanced technology to non-destructively detect high atomic number materials. It exploits the multiple Coulomb scattering information of muon to reconstruct the scattering density image of the traversed object. Because of the statistics of muon scattering, the measurement error of system and the data incompleteness, the reconstruction is always accompanied with a certain level of interference, which will influence the reconstructed spatial resolution. While statistical noises can be reduced by extending the measuring time, system parameters determine the ultimate spatial resolution that one system can reach. In this paper, an effective frequency-domain model is proposed to analyze the reconstructed spatial resolution of muon tomography. The proposed method modifies the resolution analysis in conventional computed tomography (CT) to fit the different imaging mechanism in muon scattering tomography. The measured scattering information is described in frequency domain, then a relationship between the measurements and the original image is proposed in Fourier domain, which is named as "Muon Central Slice Theorem". Furthermore, a preliminary analytical expression of the ultimate reconstructed spatial is derived, and the simulations are performed for validation. While the method is able to predict the ultimate spatial resolution of a given system, it can also be utilized for the optimization of system design and construction.

  9. Effects of configural processing on the perceptual spatial resolution for face features.

    PubMed

    Namdar, Gal; Avidan, Galia; Ganel, Tzvi

    2015-11-01

    Configural processing governs human perception across various domains, including face perception. An established marker of configural face perception is the face inversion effect, in which performance is typically better for upright compared to inverted faces. In two experiments, we tested whether configural processing could influence basic visual abilities such as perceptual spatial resolution (i.e., the ability to detect spatial visual changes). Face-related perceptual spatial resolution was assessed by measuring the just noticeable difference (JND) to subtle positional changes between specific features in upright and inverted faces. The results revealed robust inversion effect for spatial sensitivity to configural-based changes, such as the distance between the mouth and the nose, or the distance between the eyes and the nose. Critically, spatial resolution for face features within the region of the eyes (e.g., the interocular distance between the eyes) was not affected by inversion, suggesting that the eye region operates as a separate 'gestalt' unit which is relatively immune to manipulations that would normally hamper configural processing. Together these findings suggest that face orientation modulates fundamental psychophysical abilities including spatial resolution. Furthermore, they indicate that classic psychophysical methods can be used as a valid measure of configural face processing. PMID:25998751

  10. Using High Spatial Resolution to Improve BOLD fMRI Detection at 3T

    PubMed Central

    Claise, Béatrice; Jean, Betty

    2015-01-01

    For different functional magnetic resonance imaging experiments using blood oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD) contrast, the acquisition of T2*-weighted scans at a high spatial resolution may be advantageous in terms of time-course signal-to-noise ratio and of BOLD sensitivity when the regions are prone to susceptibility artifacts. In this study, we explore this solution by examining how spatial resolution influences activations elicited when appetizing food pictures are viewed. Twenty subjects were imaged at 3 T with two different voxel volumes, 3.4 μl and 27 μl. Despite the diminution of brain coverage, we found that high-resolution acquisition led to a better detection of activations. Though known to suffer to different degrees from susceptibility artifacts, the activations detected by high spatial resolution were notably consistent with those reported in published activation likelihood estimation meta-analyses, corresponding to taste-responsive regions. Furthermore, these regions were found activated bilaterally, in contrast with previous findings. Both the reduction of partial volume effect, which improves BOLD contrast, and the mitigation of susceptibility artifact, which boosts the signal to noise ratio in certain regions, explained the better detection noted with high resolution. The present study provides further evidences that high spatial resolution is a valuable solution for human BOLD fMRI, especially for studying food-related stimuli. PMID:26550990

  11. Classification and Accuracy Assessment for Coarse Resolution Mapping within the Great Lakes Basin, USA

    EPA Science Inventory

    This study applied a phenology-based land-cover classification approach across the Laurentian Great Lakes Basin (GLB) using time-series data consisting of 23 Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) composite images (250 ...

  12. Ground-based differential absorption lidar for water-vapor profiling: assessment of accuracy, resolution, and meteorological applications.

    PubMed

    Wulfmeyer, V; Bösenberg, J

    1998-06-20

    The accuracy and the resolution of water-vapor measurements by use of the ground-based differential absorption lidar (DIAL) system of the Max-Planck-Institute (MPI) are determined. A theoretical analysis, intercomparisons with radiosondes, and measurements in high-altitude clouds allow the conclusion that, with the MPI DIAL system, water-vapor measurements with a systematic error of <5% in the whole troposphere can be performed. Special emphasis is laid on the outstanding daytime and nighttime performance of the DIAL system in the lower troposphere. With a time resolution of 1 min the statistical error varies between 0.05 g/m(3) in the near range using 75 m and-depending on the meteorological conditions-approximately 0.25 g/m(3) at 2 km using 150-m vertical resolution. When the eddy correlation method is applied, this accuracy and resolution are sufficient to determine water-vapor flux profiles in the convective boundary layer with a statistical error of <10% in each data point to approximately 1700 m. The results have contributed to the fact that the DIAL method has finally won recognition as an excellent tool for tropospheric research, in particular for boundary layer research and as a calibration standard for radiosondes and satellites. PMID:18273352

  13. An angle encoder for super-high resolution and super-high accuracy using SelfA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watanabe, Tsukasa; Kon, Masahito; Nabeshima, Nobuo; Taniguchi, Kayoko

    2014-06-01

    Angular measurement technology at high resolution for applications such as in hard disk drive manufacturing machines, precision measurement equipment and aspherical process machines requires a rotary encoder with high accuracy, high resolution and high response speed. However, a rotary encoder has angular deviation factors during operation due to scale error or installation error. It has been assumed to be impossible to achieve accuracy below 0.1″ in angular measurement or control after the installation onto the rotating axis. Self-calibration (Lu and Trumper 2007 CIRP Ann. 56 499; Kim et al 2011 Proc. MacroScale; Probst 2008 Meas. Sci. Technol. 19 015101; Probst et al Meas. Sci. Technol. 9 1059; Tadashi and Makoto 1993 J. Robot. Mechatronics 5 448; Ralf et al 2006 Meas. Sci. Technol. 17 2811) and cross-calibration (Probst et al 1998 Meas. Sci. Technol. 9 1059; Just et al 2009 Precis. Eng. 33 530; Burnashev 2013 Quantum Electron. 43 130) technologies for a rotary encoder have been actively discussed on the basis of the principle of circular closure. This discussion prompted the development of rotary tables which achieve reliable and high accuracy angular verification. We apply these technologies for the development of a rotary encoder not only to meet the requirement of super-high accuracy but also to meet that of super-high resolution. This paper presents the development of an encoder with 221 = 2097 152 resolutions per rotation (360°), that is, corresponding to a 0.62″ signal period, achieved by the combination of a laser rotary encoder supplied by Magnescale Co., Ltd and a self-calibratable encoder (SelfA) supplied by The National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science & Technology (AIST). In addition, this paper introduces the development of a rotary encoder to guarantee ±0.03″ accuracy at any point of the interpolated signal, with respect to the encoder at the minimum resolution of 233, that is, corresponding to a 0.0015″ signal period after

  14. Accessibility versus Accuracy in Retrieving Spatial Memory: Evidence for Suboptimal Assumed Headings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yerramsetti, Ashok; Marchette, Steven A.; Shelton, Amy L.

    2013-01-01

    Orientation dependence in spatial memory has often been interpreted in terms of accessibility: Object locations are encoded relative to a reference orientation that affords the most accurate access to spatial memory. An open question, however, is whether people naturally use this "preferred" orientation whenever recalling the space. We…

  15. The Effects of Spatial Stimulus-Response Compatibility on Choice Time Production Accuracy and Variability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rakitin, Brian C.

    2005-01-01

    Five experiments examined the relations between timing and attention using a choice time production task in which the latency of a spatial choice response is matched to a target interval (3 or 5 s). Experiments 1 and 2 indicated that spatial stimulus-response incompatibility increased nonscalar timing variability without affecting timing accuracy…

  16. Full-field spatially incoherent illumination interferometry: a spatial resolution almost insensitive to aberrations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiao, Peng; Fink, Mathias; Boccara, A. Claude

    2016-09-01

    We show that with spatially incoherent illumination, the point spread function width of an imaging interferometer like that used in full-field optical coherence tomography (FFOCT) is almost insensitive to aberrations that mostly induce a reduction of the signal level without broadening. This is demonstrated by comparison with traditional scanning OCT and wide-field OCT with spatially coherent illuminations. Theoretical analysis, numerical calculation as well as experimental results are provided to show this specific merit of incoherent illumination in full-field OCT. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first time that such result has been demonstrated.

  17. High Spatial Resolution Isotopic Abundance Measurements by Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry: Status and Prospects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McKeegan, K. D.

    2007-12-01

    volcanology to biogeochemistry and cosmochemistry. Multiple collector (static magnetic field) measurements at high mass resolving power have enabled high precision (sub-permil) for several stable isotopes systems (e.g., C, O, Mg, S). Applied to geochronology, the multiple collector approach permits very rapid survey of zircon Pb-Pb ages to identify candidate Hadean grains for further detailed analysis. Ion imaging has been used to correlate isotope compositions with biochemistry (e.g., FISH-SIMS) or to search for especially rare samples among larger populations (e.g., supernova grains of Stardust). For favorable sample geometries with lateral homogeneity, SIMS isotope analyses may be conducted in depth-profiling mode which brings spatial resolution into the tens of nm range. Applications of this approach include experimental petrology, thermochronology, and isotopic analyses of shallowly-implanted solar wind ions. New approaches to removal of molecular ion interferences include reverse- geometry instrumentation and accelerator-based SIMS. There always exists trade-offs between microanalysis and trace analysis on the one hand, and high precision on the other. In this contribution, I will review current status for isotope precision and accuracy of SIMS for applications in stable and radiogenic isotopes as a function of spatial scale. A discussion of current limits and future prospects for improvement in understanding matrix effects will be given. Examples from ion imaging/ depth profiling/ geochronology and cosmochemistry will be provided.

  18. Multimodality hard-x-ray imaging of a chromosome with nanoscale spatial resolution

    PubMed Central

    Yan, Hanfei; Nazaretski, Evgeny; Lauer, Kenneth; Huang, Xiaojing; Wagner, Ulrich; Rau, Christoph; Yusuf, Mohammed; Robinson, Ian; Kalbfleisch, Sebastian; Li, Li; Bouet, Nathalie; Zhou, Juan; Conley, Ray; Chu, Yong S.

    2016-01-01

    We developed a scanning hard x-ray microscope using a new class of x-ray nano-focusing optic called a multilayer Laue lens and imaged a chromosome with nanoscale spatial resolution. The combination of the hard x-ray’s superior penetration power, high sensitivity to elemental composition, high spatial-resolution and quantitative analysis creates a unique tool with capabilities that other microscopy techniques cannot provide. Using this microscope, we simultaneously obtained absorption-, phase-, and fluorescence-contrast images of Pt-stained human chromosome samples. The high spatial-resolution of the microscope and its multi-modality imaging capabilities enabled us to observe the internal ultra-structures of a thick chromosome without sectioning it. PMID:26846188

  19. HIGH SPATIAL-RESOLUTION IMAGING OF TE INCLUSIONS IN CZT MATERIAL.

    SciTech Connect

    CAMARDA, G.S.; BOLOTNIKOV, A.E.; CARINI, G.A.; CUI, Y.; KOHMAN, K.T.; LI, L.; JAMES, R.B.

    2006-08-13

    We present new results from our studies of defects in current single-crystal CdZnTe material. Our previous measurements, carried out on thin ({approx}1 mm) and long (>12 mm) CZT detectors, indicated that small (1-20 {micro}m) Te inclusions can significantly degrade the device's energy resolution and detection efficiency. We are conducting detailed studies of the effects of Te inclusions by employing different characterization techniques with better spatial resolution, such as quantitative fluorescence mapping, X-ray micro-diffraction, and TEM. Also, IR microscopy and gamma-mapping with pulse-shape analysis with higher spatial resolution generated more accurate results in the areas surrounding the micro-defects (Te inclusions). Our results reveal how the performance of CdZnTe detectors is influenced by Te inclusions, such as their spatial distribution, concentration, and size. We also discuss a model of charge transport through areas populated with Te inclusions.

  20. Multimodality hard-x-ray imaging of a chromosome with nanoscale spatial resolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Hanfei; Nazaretski, Evgeny; Lauer, Kenneth; Huang, Xiaojing; Wagner, Ulrich; Rau, Christoph; Yusuf, Mohammed; Robinson, Ian; Kalbfleisch, Sebastian; Li, Li; Bouet, Nathalie; Zhou, Juan; Conley, Ray; Chu, Yong S.

    2016-02-01

    We developed a scanning hard x-ray microscope using a new class of x-ray nano-focusing optic called a multilayer Laue lens and imaged a chromosome with nanoscale spatial resolution. The combination of the hard x-ray’s superior penetration power, high sensitivity to elemental composition, high spatial-resolution and quantitative analysis creates a unique tool with capabilities that other microscopy techniques cannot provide. Using this microscope, we simultaneously obtained absorption-, phase-, and fluorescence-contrast images of Pt-stained human chromosome samples. The high spatial-resolution of the microscope and its multi-modality imaging capabilities enabled us to observe the internal ultra-structures of a thick chromosome without sectioning it.

  1. Multimodality hard-x-ray imaging of a chromosome with nanoscale spatial resolution

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Yan, Hanfei; Nazaretski, Evgeny; Lauer, Kenneth R.; Huang, Xiaojing; Wagner, Ulrich; Rau, Christoph; Yusuf, Mohammed; Robinson, Ian K.; Kalbfleisch, Sebastian; Li, Li; et al

    2016-02-05

    Here, we developed a scanning hard x-ray microscope using a new class of x-ray nano-focusing optic called a multilayer Laue lens and imaged a chromosome with nanoscale spatial resolution. The combination of the hard x-ray's superior penetration power, high sensitivity to elemental composition, high spatial-resolution and quantitative analysis creates a unique tool with capabilities that other microscopy techniques cannot provide. Using this microscope, we simultaneously obtained absorption-, phase-, and fluorescence-contrast images of Pt-stained human chromosome samples. The high spatial-resolution of the microscope and its multi-modality imaging capabilities enabled us to observe the internal ultra-structures of a thick chromosome without sectioningmore » it.« less

  2. Effect of electrode density and measurement noise on the spatial resolution of cortical potential distribution.

    PubMed

    Ryynänen, Outi R M; Hyttinen, Jari A K; Laarne, Päivi H; Malmivuo, Jaakko A

    2004-09-01

    The purpose of the present study was to examine the spatial resolution of electroencephalography (EEG) by means of inverse cortical EEG solution. The main interest was to study how the number of measurement electrodes and the amount of measurement noise affects the spatial resolution. A three-layer spherical head model was used to obtain the source-field relationship of cortical potentials and scalp EEG field. Singular value decomposition was used to evaluate the spatial resolution with various measurement noise estimates. The results suggest that as the measurement noise increases the advantage of dense electrode systems is decreased. With low realistic measurement noise, a more accurate inverse cortical potential distribution can be obtained with an electrode system where the distance between two electrodes is as small as 16 mm, corresponding to as many as 256 measurement electrodes. In clinical measurement environments, it is always beneficial to have at least 64 measurement electrodes. PMID:15376503

  3. Study of spatial resolution of proton computed tomography using a silicon strip detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saraya, Y.; Izumikawa, T.; Goto, J.; Kawasaki, T.; Kimura, T.

    2014-01-01

    Proton computed tomography (CT) is an imaging technique using a high-energy proton beam penetrating the human body and shows promise for improving the quality of cancer therapy with high-energy particle beams because more accurate electron density distribution measurements can be achieved with proton CT. The deterioration of the spatial resolution owing to multiple Coulomb scattering is, however, a crucial issue. The control of the radiation dose and the long exposure time are also problems to be solved. We have developed a prototype system for proton CT with a silicon strip detector and performed a beam test for imaging. The distribution of the electron density has been measured precisely. We also demonstrated an improvement in spatial resolution by reconstructing the proton trajectory. A spatial resolution of 0.45 mm is achieved for a 25-mm-thick polyethylene object. This will be a useful result for upgrading proton CT application for practical use.

  4. End-to-end test of spatial accuracy in Gamma Knife treatments for trigeminal neuralgia

    SciTech Connect

    Brezovich, Ivan A. Wu, Xingen; Duan, Jun; Popple, Richard A.; Shen, Sui; Benhabib, Sidi; Huang, Mi; Christian Dobelbower, M.; Fisher III, Winfield S.

    2014-11-01

    Purpose: Spatial accuracy is most crucial when small targets like the trigeminal nerve are treated. Although current quality assurance procedures typically verify that individual apparatus, like the MRI scanner, CT scanner, Gamma Knife, etc., are meeting specifications, the cumulative error of all equipment and procedures combined may exceed safe margins. This study uses an end-to-end approach to assess the overall targeting errors that may have occurred in individual patients previously treated for trigeminal neuralgia. Methods: The trigeminal nerve is simulated by a 3 mm long, 3.175 mm (1/8 in.) diameter MRI-contrast filled cavity embedded within a PMMA plastic capsule. The capsule is positioned within the head frame such that the location of the cavity matches the Gamma Knife coordinates of an arbitrarily chosen, previously treated patient. Gafchromic EBT2 film is placed at the center of the cavity in coronal and sagittal orientations. The films are marked with a pinprick to identify the cavity center. Treatments are planned for radiation delivery with 4 mm collimators according to MRI and CT scans using the clinical localizer boxes and acquisition protocols. Shots are planned so that the 50% isodose surface encompasses the cavity. Following irradiation, the films are scanned and analyzed. Targeting errors are defined as the distance between the pinprick, which represents the intended target, and the centroid of the 50% isodose line, which is the center of the radiation field that was actually delivered. Results: Averaged over ten patient simulations, targeting errors along the x, y, and z coordinates (patient’s left-to-right, posterior-to-anterior, and head-to-foot) were, respectively, −0.060 ± 0.363, −0.350 ± 0.253, and 0.348 ± 0.204 mm when MRI was used for treatment planning. Planning according to CT exhibited generally smaller errors, namely, 0.109 ± 0.167, −0.191 ± 0.144, and 0.211 ± 0.094 mm. The largest errors along individual axes in MRI

  5. Accuracy assessment of airborne photogrammetrically derived high-resolution digital elevation models in a high mountain environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Müller, Johann; Gärtner-Roer, Isabelle; Thee, Patrick; Ginzler, Christian

    2014-12-01

    High-resolution digital elevation models (DEMs) generated by airborne remote sensing are frequently used to analyze landform structures (monotemporal) and geomorphological processes (multitemporal) in remote areas or areas of extreme terrain. In order to assess and quantify such structures and processes it is necessary to know the absolute accuracy of the available DEMs. This study assesses the absolute vertical accuracy of DEMs generated by the High Resolution Stereo Camera-Airborne (HRSC-A), the Leica Airborne Digital Sensors 40/80 (ADS40 and ADS80) and the analogue camera system RC30. The study area is located in the Turtmann valley, Valais, Switzerland, a glacially and periglacially formed hanging valley stretching from 2400 m to 3300 m a.s.l. The photogrammetrically derived DEMs are evaluated against geodetic field measurements and an airborne laser scan (ALS). Traditional and robust global and local accuracy measurements are used to describe the vertical quality of the DEMs, which show a non Gaussian distribution of errors. The results show that all four sensor systems produce DEMs with similar accuracy despite their different setups and generations. The ADS40 and ADS80 (both with a ground sampling distance of 0.50 m) generate the most accurate DEMs in complex high mountain areas with a RMSE of 0.8 m and NMAD of 0.6 m They also show the highest accuracy relating to flying height (0.14‰). The pushbroom scanning system HRSC-A produces a RMSE of 1.03 m and a NMAD of 0.83 m (0.21‰ accuracy of the flying height and 10 times the ground sampling distance). The analogue camera system RC30 produces DEMs with a vertical accuracy of 1.30 m RMSE and 0.83 m NMAD (0.17‰ accuracy of the flying height and two times the ground sampling distance). It is also shown that the performance of the DEMs strongly depends on the inclination of the terrain. The RMSE of areas up to an inclination <40° is better than 1 m. In more inclined areas the error and outlier occurrence

  6. A new reduced-reference metric for measuring spatial resolution enhanced images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qian, Shen-En; Chen, Guangyi

    2012-10-01

    Assessment of image quality is critical for many image processing algorithms, such as image acquisition, compression, restoration, enhancement, and reproduction. In general, image quality assessment algorithms are classified into three categories: full-reference (FR), reduced-reference (RR), and no-reference (NR) algorithms. The design of NR metrics is extremely difficult and little progress has been made. FR metrics are easier to design and the majority of image quality assessment algorithms are of this type. A FR metric requires the reference image and the test image to have the same size. This may not the case in real life of image processing. In spatial resolution enhancement of hyperspectral images, such as pan-sharpening, the size of the enhanced images is larger than that of the original image. Thus, the FR metric cannot be used. A common approach in practice is to first down-sample an original image to a low resolution image, then to spatially enhance the down-sampled low resolution image using a subject enhancement technique. In this way, the original image and the enhanced image have the same size and the FR metric can be applied to them. However, this common approach can never directly assess the image quality of the spatially enhanced image that is produced directly from the original image. In this paper, a new RR metric was proposed for measuring the visual fidelity of an image with higher spatial resolution. It does not require the sizes of the reference image and the test image to be the same. The iterative back projection (IBP) technique was chosen to enhance the spatial resolution of an image. Experimental results showed that the proposed RR metrics work well for measuring the visual quality of spatial resolution enhanced hyperspectral images. They are consistent with the corresponding FR metrics.

  7. Fundamental x-ray interaction limits in diagnostic imaging detectors: spatial resolution.

    PubMed

    Hajdok, G; Battista, J J; Cunningham, I A

    2008-07-01

    The practice of diagnostic x-ray imaging has been transformed with the emergence of digital detector technology. Although digital systems offer many practical advantages over conventional film-based systems, their spatial resolution performance can be a limitation. The authors present a Monte Carlo study to determine fundamental resolution limits caused by x-ray interactions in four converter materials: Amorphous silicon (a-Si), amorphous selenium, cesium iodide, and lead iodide. The "x-ray interaction" modulation transfer function (MTF) was determined for each material and compared in terms of the 50% MTF spatial frequency and Wagner's effective aperture for incident photon energies between 10 and 150 keV and various converter thicknesses. Several conclusions can be drawn from their Monte Carlo study. (i) In low-Z (a-Si) converters, reabsorption of Compton scatter x rays limits spatial resolution with a sharp MTF drop at very low spatial frequencies (< 0.3 cycles/mm), especially above 60 keV; while in high-Z materials, reabsorption of characteristic x rays plays a dominant role, resulting in a mid-frequency (1-5 cycles/mm) MTF drop. (ii) Coherent scatter plays a minor role in the x-ray interaction MTF. (iii) The spread of energy due to secondary electron (e.g., photoelectrons) transport is significant only at very high spatial frequencies. (iv) Unlike the spread of optical light in phosphors, the spread of absorbed energy from x-ray interactions does not significantly degrade spatial resolution as converter thickness is increased. (v) The effective aperture results reported here represent fundamental spatial resolution limits of the materials tested and serve as target benchmarks for the design and development of future digital x-ray detectors. PMID:18697543

  8. Fundamental x-ray interaction limits in diagnostic imaging detectors: Spatial resolution

    SciTech Connect

    Hajdok, G.; Battista, J. J.; Cunningham, I. A.

    2008-07-15

    The practice of diagnostic x-ray imaging has been transformed with the emergence of digital detector technology. Although digital systems offer many practical advantages over conventional film-based systems, their spatial resolution performance can be a limitation. The authors present a Monte Carlo study to determine fundamental resolution limits caused by x-ray interactions in four converter materials: Amorphous silicon (a-Si), amorphous selenium, cesium iodide, and lead iodide. The ''x-ray interaction'' modulation transfer function (MTF) was determined for each material and compared in terms of the 50% MTF spatial frequency and Wagner's effective aperture for incident photon energies between 10 and 150 keV and various converter thicknesses. Several conclusions can be drawn from their Monte Carlo study. (i) In low-Z (a-Si) converters, reabsorption of Compton scatter x rays limits spatial resolution with a sharp MTF drop at very low spatial frequencies (<0.3 cycles/mm), especially above 60 keV; while in high-Z materials, reabsorption of characteristic x rays plays a dominant role, resulting in a mid-frequency (1-5 cycles/mm) MTF drop. (ii) Coherent scatter plays a minor role in the x-ray interaction MTF. (iii) The spread of energy due to secondary electron (e.g., photoelectrons) transport is significant only at very high spatial frequencies. (iv) Unlike the spread of optical light in phosphors, the spread of absorbed energy from x-ray interactions does not significantly degrade spatial resolution as converter thickness is increased. (v) The effective aperture results reported here represent fundamental spatial resolution limits of the materials tested and serve as target benchmarks for the design and development of future digital x-ray detectors.

  9. Research on the affect of differential-images technique to the resolution of infrared spatial camera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, Guang; An, Yuan; Qi, Yingchun; Hu, Fusheng

    2007-12-01

    The optical system of infrared spatial camera adopts bigger relative aperture and bigger pixel size on focal plane element. These make the system have bulky volume and low resolution. The potential of the optical systems can not be exerted adequately. So, one method for improving resolution of infrared spatial camera based on multi-frame difference-images is introduced in the dissertation. The method uses more than one detectors to acquire several difference images, and then reconstructs a new high-resolution image from these images through the relationship of pixel grey value. The technique of difference-images that uses more than two detectors is researched, and it can improve the resolution 2.5 times in theory. The relationship of pixel grey value between low-resolution difference-images and high-resolution image is found by analyzing the energy of CCD sampling, a general relationship between the enhanced times of the resolution of the detected figure with differential method and the least count of CCD that will be used to detect figure is given. Based on the research of theory, the implementation process of utilizing difference-images technique to improve the resolution of the figure was simulated used Matlab software by taking a personality image as the object, and the software can output the result as an image. The result gotten from the works we have finished proves that the technique is available in high-resolution image reconstruction. The resolution of infrared spatial camera can be improved evidently when holding the size of optical structure or using big size detector by applying for difference image technique. So the technique has a high value in optical remote fields.

  10. Spatial resolution of tip-enhanced Raman spectroscopy - DFT assessment of the chemical effect.

    PubMed

    Latorre, Federico; Kupfer, Stephan; Bocklitz, Thomas; Kinzel, Daniel; Trautmann, Steffen; Gräfe, Stefanie; Deckert, Volker

    2016-05-21

    Experimental evidence of extremely high spatial resolution of tip-enhanced Raman scattering (TERS) has been recently demonstrated. Here, we present a full quantum chemical description (at the density functional level of theory) of the non-resonant chemical effects on the Raman spectrum of an adenine molecule mapped by a tip, modeled as a single silver atom or a small silver cluster. We show pronounced changes in the Raman pattern and its intensities depending on the conformation of the nanoparticle-substrate system, concluding that the spatial resolution of the chemical contribution of TERS can be in the sub-nm range. PMID:27123952

  11. Large-scale proton radiography with micrometer spatial resolution using femtosecond petawatt laser system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, W. P.; Shen, B. F.; Zhang, H.; Lu, X. M.; Wang, C.; Liu, Y. Q.; Yu, L. H.; Chu, Y. X.; Li, Y. Y.; Xu, T. J.; Zhang, H.; Zhai, S. H.; Leng, Y. X.; Liang, X. Y.; Li, R. X.; Xu, Z. Z.

    2015-10-01

    An image of dragonfly with many details is obtained by the fundamental property of the high-energy proton source on a femtosecond petawatt laser system. Equal imaging of the dragonfly and high spatial resolution on the micrometer scale are simultaneously obtained. The head, wing, leg, tail, and even the internal tissue structures are clearly mapped in detail by the proton beam. Experiments show that image blurring caused by multiple Coulomb scattering can be reduced to a certain extent and the spatial resolution can be increased by attaching the dragonfly to the RCFs, which is consistent with theoretical assumptions.

  12. Ultrafast laser induced breakdown spectroscopy for high spatial resolution chemical analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zorba, Vassilia; Mao, Xianglei; Russo, Richard E.

    2011-02-01

    Femtosecond laser induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) was used to identify the spatial resolution limitations and assess the minimal detectable mass restrictions in laser-ablation based chemical analysis. The atomic emission of sodium (Na) and potassium (K) dopants in transparent dielectric Mica matrices was studied, to find that both these elements could be detected from 450 nm diameter ablation craters, full-width-at-half-maximum (FWHM). Under optimal conditions, mass as low as 220 ag was measured, demonstrating the feasibility of using laser-ablation based chemical analysis to achieve high spatial resolution elemental analysis in real-time and at atmospheric pressure conditions.

  13. Cost-effective infrared thermography protocol for 40 μm spatial resolution quantitative microelectronic imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boué, Christine; Fournier, Danièle

    2006-06-01

    In this article, we will show that the absolute temperature of electrical components under test can be measured with an infrared camera. An easy and cost-effective modification of the optical set-up and a software correction of the artefacts induced by the modification of the aperture of the objective allow to improve the spatial resolution. Calibrations with a Peltier system allow to obtain quantitative measurements. Consequently, it becomes easy to obtain a mapping of the absolute temperature of the surface of an integrated circuit from its infrared radiation, independently of its surface emissivity with a spatial resolution better than 40 μm.

  14. Large-scale proton radiography with micrometer spatial resolution using femtosecond petawatt laser system

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, W. P.; Shen, B. F. Zhang, H.; Lu, X. M.; Wang, C.; Liu, Y. Q.; Yu, L. H.; Chu, Y. X.; Li, Y. Y.; Xu, T. J.; Zhang, H.; Zhai, S. H.; Leng, Y. X.; Liang, X. Y.; Li, R. X.; Xu, Z. Z.

    2015-10-15

    An image of dragonfly with many details is obtained by the fundamental property of the high-energy proton source on a femtosecond petawatt laser system. Equal imaging of the dragonfly and high spatial resolution on the micrometer scale are simultaneously obtained. The head, wing, leg, tail, and even the internal tissue structures are clearly mapped in detail by the proton beam. Experiments show that image blurring caused by multiple Coulomb scattering can be reduced to a certain extent and the spatial resolution can be increased by attaching the dragonfly to the RCFs, which is consistent with theoretical assumptions.

  15. Magnetoacoustic Imaging of Electrical Conductivity of Biological Tissues at a Spatial Resolution Better than 2 mm

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Gang; He, Bin

    2011-01-01

    Magnetoacoustic tomography with magnetic induction (MAT-MI) is an emerging approach for noninvasively imaging electrical impedance properties of biological tissues. The MAT-MI imaging system measures ultrasound waves generated by the Lorentz force, having been induced by magnetic stimulation, which is related to the electrical conductivity distribution in tissue samples. MAT-MI promises to provide fine spatial resolution for biological tissue imaging as compared to ultrasound resolution. In the present study, we first estimated the imaging spatial resolution by calculating the full width at half maximum (FWHM) of the system point spread function (PSF). The actual spatial resolution of our MAT-MI system was experimentally determined to be 1.51 mm by a parallel-line-source phantom with Rayleigh criterion. Reconstructed images made from tissue-mimicking gel phantoms, as well as animal tissue samples, were consistent with the morphological structures of the samples. The electrical conductivity value of the samples was determined directly by a calibrated four-electrode system. It has been demonstrated that MAT-MI is able to image the electrical impedance properties of biological tissues with better than 2 mm spatial resolution. These results suggest the potential of MAT-MI for application to early detection of small-size diseased tissues (e.g. small breast cancer). PMID:21858111

  16. Simulations of the temporal and spatial resolution for a compact time-resolved electron diffractometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robinson, Matthew S.; Lane, Paul D.; Wann, Derek A.

    2016-02-01

    A novel compact electron gun for use in time-resolved gas electron diffraction experiments has recently been designed and commissioned. In this paper we present and discuss the extensive simulations that were performed to underpin the design in terms of the spatial and temporal qualities of the pulsed electron beam created by the ionisation of a gold photocathode using a femtosecond laser. The response of the electron pulses to a solenoid lens used to focus the electron beam has also been studied. The simulated results show that focussing the electron beam affects the overall spatial and temporal resolution of the experiment in a variety of ways, and that factors that improve the resolution of one parameter can often have a negative effect on the other. A balance must, therefore, be achieved between spatial and temporal resolution. The optimal experimental time resolution for the apparatus is predicted to be 416 fs for studies of gas-phase species, while the predicted spatial resolution of better than 2 nm-1 compares well with traditional time-averaged electron diffraction set-ups.

  17. Learning Linear Spatial-Numeric Associations Improves Accuracy of Memory for Numbers

    PubMed Central

    Thompson, Clarissa A.; Opfer, John E.

    2016-01-01

    Memory for numbers improves with age and experience. One potential source of improvement is a logarithmic-to-linear shift in children’s representations of magnitude. To test this, Kindergartners and second graders estimated the location of numbers on number lines and recalled numbers presented in vignettes (Study 1). Accuracy at number-line estimation predicted memory accuracy on a numerical recall task after controlling for the effect of age and ability to approximately order magnitudes (mapper status). To test more directly whether linear numeric magnitude representations caused improvements in memory, half of children were given feedback on their number-line estimates (Study 2). As expected, learning linear representations was again linked to memory for numerical information even after controlling for age and mapper status. These results suggest that linear representations of numerical magnitude may be a causal factor in development of numeric recall accuracy. PMID:26834688

  18. Classification of high spatial resolution images by means of a Gabor wavelet decomposition and a support vector machine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baraldi, Andrea; Bruzzone, Lorenzo

    2004-11-01

    Very high spatial resolution satellite images, acquired by third-generation commercial remote sensing (RS) satellites (like Ikonos and QuickBird), are characterized by a tremendous spatial complexity, i.e. surface objects are described by a combination of spectral, textural and shape information. Potentially capable of dealing with the spatial complexity of such images, context-sensitive data mapping systems, e.g. employing filter sets designed for texture feature analysis/synthesis, have been extensively studied in pattern recognition literature in recent years. In this work, four implementations of a two-stage classification scheme for the analysis of high spatial resolution images are compared. Competing first stage (feature extraction) implementations of increasing complexity are: 1) a standard multi-scale dyadic Gaussian pyramid image decomposition, and 2) an original almost complete (near-orthogonal) basis for the Gabor wavelet transform of an input image at selected spatial frequencies (i.e. band-pass filter central frequency and filter orientation pairs). The second stage of the classification scheme consists of: a) an ensemble of pixel-based two-class support vector machines (SVMs) applied to the multi-class classification problem according to the one-against-one strategy, exploiting the well-known SVM's capability of dealing with high dimensional mapping problems; and b) a traditional two-phase supervised learning pixel-based Radial Basis Function (RBF) network. In a badly-posed Ikonos image classification experiment, SVM combined with the two filter sets provide an interesting compromise between ease of use (i.e. easy free parameter selection), classification accuracy, robustness to changes in surface properties, capability of detecting genuine, but small, image details as well as linear structures. Qualitatively and quantitatively, the multi-scale multi-orientation almost complete Gabor wavelet transform appears superior to the dyadic multi

  19. Design and performance of a high spatial resolution, time-of-flight PET detector

    PubMed Central

    Krishnamoorthy, Srilalan; LeGeyt, Benjamin; Werner, Matthew E.; Kaul, Madhuri; Newcomer, F. M.; Karp, Joel S.; Surti, Suleman

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes the design and performance of a high spatial resolution PET detector with time-of-flight capabilities. With an emphasis on high spatial resolution and sensitivity, we initially evaluated the performance of several 1.5 × 1.5 and 2.0 × 2.0 mm2 and 12–15 mm long LYSO crystals read out by several appropriately sized PMTs. Experiments to evaluate the impact of reflector on detector performance were performed and the final detector consisted of a 32 × 32 array of 1.5 × 1.5 × 15 mm3 LYSO crystals packed with a diffuse reflector and read out by a single Hamamatsu 64 channel multi-anode PMT. Such a design made it compact, modular and offered a cost-effective solution to obtaining excellent energy and timing resolution. To minimize the number of readout signals, a compact front-end readout electronics that summed anode signals along each of the orthogonal directions was also developed. Experimental evaluation of detector performance demonstrates clear discrimination of the crystals within the detector. An average energy resolution (FWHM) of 12.7 ± 2.6% and average coincidence timing resolution (FWHM) of 348 ps was measured, demonstrating suitability for use in the development of a high spatial resolution time-of-flight scanner for dedicated breast PET imaging. PMID:25246711

  20. Pushing the limits of spatial resolution with the Kuiper Airborne observatory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lester, Daniel

    1994-01-01

    The study of astronomical objects at high spatial resolution in the far-IR is one of the most serious limitations to our work at these wavelengths, which carry information about the luminosity of dusty and obscured sources. At IR wavelengths shorter than 30 microns, ground based telescopes with large apertures at superb sites achieve diffraction-limited performance close to the seeing limit in the optical. At millimeter wavelengths, ground based interferometers achieve resolution that is close to this. The inaccessibility of the far-IR from the ground makes it difficult, however, to achieve complementary resolution in the far-IR. The 1983 IRAS survey, while extraordinarily sensitive, provides us with a sky map at a spatial resolution that is limited by detector size on a spatial scale that is far larger than that available in other wavelengths on the ground. The survey resolution is of order 4 min in the 100 micron bandpass, and 2 min at 60 microns (IRAS Explanatory Supplement, 1988). Information on a scale of 1' is available on some sources from the CPC. Deconvolution and image resolution using this database is one of the subjects of this workshop.

  1. High spatial resolution upgrade of the electron cyclotron emission radiometer for the DIII-D tokamak.

    PubMed

    Truong, D D; Austin, M E

    2014-11-01

    The 40-channel DIII-D electron cyclotron emission (ECE) radiometer provides measurements of Te(r,t) at the tokamak midplane from optically thick, second harmonic X-mode emission over a frequency range of 83-130 GHz. The frequency spacing of the radiometer's channels results in a spatial resolution of ∼1-3 cm, depending on local magnetic field and electron temperature. A new high resolution subsystem has been added to the DIII-D ECE radiometer to make sub-centimeter (0.6-0.8 cm) resolution Te measurements. The high resolution subsystem branches off from the regular channels' IF bands and consists of a microwave switch to toggle between IF bands, a switched filter bank for frequency selectivity, an adjustable local oscillator and mixer for further frequency down-conversion, and a set of eight microwave filters in the 2-4 GHz range. Higher spatial resolution is achieved through the use of a narrower (200 MHz) filter bandwidth and closer spacing between the filters' center frequencies (250 MHz). This configuration allows for full coverage of the 83-130 GHz frequency range in 2 GHz bands. Depending on the local magnetic field, this translates into a "zoomed-in" analysis of a ∼2-4 cm radial region. Expected uses of these channels include mapping the spatial dependence of Alfven eigenmodes, geodesic acoustic modes, and externally applied magnetic perturbations. Initial Te measurements, which demonstrate that the desired resolution is achieved, are presented. PMID:25430227

  2. Effects of spatial resolution in the simulation of daily and subdaily precipitation in the southwestern US

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tripathi, Om P.; Dominguez, Francina

    2013-07-01

    We evaluate the effects of spatial resolution on the ability of a regional climate model to reproduce observed extreme precipitation for a region in the Southwestern United States. A total of 73 National Climate Data Center observational sites spread throughout Arizona and New Mexico are compared with regional climate simulations at the spatial resolutions of 50 km and 10 km for a 31 year period from 1980 to 2010. We analyze mean, 3-hourly and 24-hourly extreme precipitation events using WRF regional model simulations driven by NCEP-2 reanalysis. The mean climatological spatial structure of precipitation in the Southwest is well represented by the 10 km resolution but missing in the coarse (50 km resolution) simulation. However, the fine grid has a larger positive bias in mean summer precipitation than the coarse-resolution grid. The large overestimation in the simulation is in part due to scale-dependent deficiencies in the Kain-Fritsch convective parameterization scheme that generate excessive precipitation and induce a slow eastward propagation of the moist convective summer systems in the high-resolution simulation. Despite this overestimation in the mean, the 10 km simulation captures individual extreme summer precipitation events better than the 50 km simulation. In winter, however, the two simulations appear to perform equally in simulating extremes.

  3. Optimal Spatial Resolution of Omnidirectional Imaging Systems for Pipe Inspection Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dehghan Tezerjani, Abbasali; Mehrandezh, Mehran; Paranjape, Raman

    2015-10-01

    Achieving optimal spatial resolution in imaging systems plays a major role in the design of vision-based industrial inspection tools. Single-view omnidirectional imaging systems provide a cost-effective and computationally-traceable solution for real-time inspection of infrastructure with a favorable size factor. We formulate, for the first time, the spatial cylindrical resolution of omnidirectional Catadioptric and Dioptric imaging systems with the focus on pipe inspection applications. We also provide a design guideline to achieve the highest resolution in these systems. First, we deliver a comprehensive study on optimal resolution in Catadioptric imaging systems which consist of a perspective pinhole camera, a collimated laser as the light source, and a reflective surface (i.e., hyperbolic mirror). Variation of the spatial resolution in terms of the camera's focal length, the mirror curvature, and the relative position between the laser projector and the camera is fully investigated via simulation and experiments. Also, the optimal resolution in Dioptric systems, which consist of a camera with compound refractive lenses (i.e., fish-eye lens) is studied and compared with that in Catadioptric systems. Tests were conducted on a 40-cm-diameter PVC pipe in a controlled laboratory environment.

  4. The Sun at high spatial resolution: The physics of small spatial structures in a magnetized medium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rosner, R. T.

    1986-01-01

    An attempt is made to provide a perspective on the problem of spatial structuring on scales smaller than can presently be directly and regularly observed from the ground or with which current space-based instrumentation can be anticipated. There is abundant evidence from both observations and theory that such spatial structuring of the solar outer atmosphere is ubiquitous not only on the observed scales, but also on spatial scales down to (at least) the subarcsecond range. This is not to say that the results to be obtained from observations on these small scales can be anticipated: quite the opposite. What is clear instead is that many of the classic problems of coronal and chromospheric activity - involving the basic dissipative nature of magnetized plasmas - will be seen from a novel perspective at these scales, and that there are reasons for believing that dynamical processes of importance to activity on presently-resolved scales will themselves begin to be resolved on the sub-arcsecond level. Since the Sun is the only astrophysical laboratory for which there is any hope of studying these processes in any detail, this observatioinal opportunity is an exciting prospect for any student of magnetic activity in astrophysics.

  5. On the sensitivity of urban hydrodynamic modelling to rainfall spatial and temporal resolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bruni, G.; Reinoso, R.; van de Giesen, N. C.; Clemens, F. H. L. R.; ten Veldhuis, J. A. E.

    2015-02-01

    Cities are increasingly vulnerable to floods generated by intense rainfall, because of urbanisation of flood-prone areas and ongoing urban densification. Accurate information of convective storm characteristics at high spatial and temporal resolution is a crucial input for urban hydrological models to be able to simulate fast runoff processes and enhance flood prediction in cities. In this paper, a detailed study of the sensitivity of urban hydrodynamic response to high resolution radar rainfall was conducted. Rainfall rates derived from X-band dual polarimetric weather radar were used as input into a detailed hydrodynamic sewer model for an urban catchment in the city of Rotterdam, the Netherlands. The aim was to characterise how the effect of space and time aggregation on rainfall structure affects hydrodynamic modelling of urban catchments, for resolutions ranging from 100 to 2000 m and from 1 to 10 min. Dimensionless parameters were derived to compare results between different storm conditions and to describe the effect of rainfall spatial resolution in relation to storm characteristics and hydrodynamic model properties: rainfall sampling number (rainfall resolution vs. storm size), catchment sampling number (rainfall resolution vs. catchment size), runoff and sewer sampling number (rainfall resolution vs. runoff and sewer model resolution respectively). Results show that for rainfall resolution lower than half the catchment size, rainfall volumes mean and standard deviations decrease as a result of smoothing of rainfall gradients. Moreover, deviations in maximum water depths, from 10 to 30% depending on the storm, occurred for rainfall resolution close to storm size, as a result of rainfall aggregation. Model results also showed that modelled runoff peaks are more sensitive to rainfall resolution than maximum in-sewer water depths as flow routing has a damping effect on in-sewer water level variations. Temporal resolution aggregation of rainfall inputs led to

  6. High spatial and temporal resolution 4D FEM simulation of the thoracic bioimpedance using MRI scans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ulbrich, Mark; Marleaux, Bastian; Mühlsteff, Jens; Schoth, Felix; Koos, Ralf; Teichmann, Daniel; Leonhardt, Steffen

    2013-04-01

    In this work, a finite element model was created using MRI scans of the main author to analyze sources of the dynamic thoracic bioimpedance. This model can be used to identify limitations of impedance cardiography (ICG) in practice. Heart beat (8.3 ms temporal resolution) and aortic wave propagation (2.6 ms temporal resolution) were implemented. The static volume contains all major organs of the thorax in high spatial resolution. Simulations were successfully conducted and a high correlation (r = 0.9) between the simulated aortic ICG signal and a measured signal of the same subject was obtained.

  7. Use of High Spatial Resolution Remote Sensing for Hydro-Geomorphologic Analysis of Medium-sized Arid Basins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sadeh, Yuval; Blumberg, Dan G.; Cohen, Hai; Morin, Efrat; Maman, Shimrit

    2016-04-01

    Arid environments are often remote, expansive, difficult to access and especially vulnerable to flash flood hazards due to the poor understanding of the phenomenon and the lack of meteorological, geomorphological, and hydrological data. For many years, catchment characteristics have been observed using point-based measurements such as rain gauges and soil sample analysis; on the other hand, use of remote sensing technologies can provide spatially continuous hydrological parameters and variables. The advances in remote sensing technologies can provide new geo-spatial data using high spatial and temporal resolution for basin-scale geomorphological analysis and hydrological models. This study used high spatial resolution remote sensing for hydro-geomorphologic analysis of the arid medium size Rahaf watershed (76 km2), located in the Judean Desert, Israel. During the research a high resolution geomorphological map of Rahaf basin was created using WorldView-2 multispectral satellite imageries; surface roughness was estimated using SIR-C and COSMO-SkyMed Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) spaceborne sensors; and rainstorm characteristics were extracted using ground-based meteorological radar. The geomorphological mapping of Rahaf into 17 classes with good accuracy. The surface roughness extraction using SAR over the basin showed that the correlation between the COSMO-SkyMed backscatter coefficient and the surface roughness was very strong with an R2 of 0.97. This study showed that using x-band spaceborne sensors with high spatial resolution, such as COSMO-SkyMed, are more suitable for surface roughness evaluation in flat arid environments and should be in favor with longer wavelength operating sensors such as the SIR-C. The current study presents an innovative method to evaluate Manning's hydraulic roughness coefficient (n) in arid environments using radar backscattering. The weather radar rainfall data was calibrated using rain gauges located in the watershed. The

  8. Resolution and Brightness Characteristics of Short-Lag Spatial Coherence (SLSC) Images

    PubMed Central

    Lediju Bell, Muyinatu A.; Dahl, Jeremy J.; Trahey, Gregg E.

    2016-01-01

    We previously described a novel beamforming method that images the spatial correlation of an echo wave field with demonstrated applications to clutter reduction in high-noise environments. In this paper, several characteristics of the resolution and brightness of short-lag spatial coherence (SLSC) images formed by this method are compared with B-mode images formed by conventional delay-and-sum beamforming methods. Point target widths were measured to estimate resolution, the autocorrelation of image texture was measured to estimate texture size, and the contrast (i.e., brightness ratio) of clinically relevant targets was assessed. SLSC images demonstrate improved resolution and contrast with increasing values of channel noise and clutter, whereas B-mode resolution was degraded in the presence of high noise (i.e., > −12 dB channel noise-to-signal ratios) and high clutter magnitudes (i.e., > −21 dB relative to point target magnitude). Lateral resolution in SLSC images was improved with increasing lag value, whereas axial resolution was degraded with increasing correlation kernel length. The texture size of SLSC images was smaller than that of matched B-mode images. Results demonstrate that the resolution and contrast of coherence-based images depend on a range of parameters, but are generally superior to those of matched B-mode images under challenging imaging conditions. PMID:26168173

  9. [Fundamental study of helical scanning CT--evaluation of spatial resolution in the longitudinal axis].

    PubMed

    Anno, H; Katada, K; Tsujioka, K; Ida, Y; Ohashi, I; Takeuchi, A; Koga, S

    1992-11-25

    We evaluated spatial resolution in the longitudinal axis with helical scanning CT using a fourth-generation fast CT scanner. We made a phantom by stringing acrylic balls (65 mm phi x 8 and 9 mm phi x 6). The acquired images were processed by MPR and assessed visually to evaluate axis resolution. With the conventional scanning method, the partial volume effect varied with the starting position, but helical scanning was able to reconstruct high-resolution images using continuous raw data. During helical scanning, axis resolution varied depending on the slice width and sliding speed of the couch top. Even if the sliding speed was kept constant at 4 mm/sec, axis resolution was superior with a slice width of 2 mm than with one of 5 mm. PMID:1465334

  10. Confidence-accuracy resolution in the misinformation paradigm is influenced by the availability of source cues.

    PubMed

    Horry, Ruth; Colton, Lisa-Marie; Williamson, Paul

    2014-09-01

    After witnessing an event, people often report having seen details that were merely suggested to them. Evidence is mixed regarding how well participants can use confidence judgments to discriminate between their correct and misled memory reports. We tested the prediction that the confidence-accuracy relationship for misled details depends upon the availability of source cues at retrieval. In Experiment 1, participants (N=77) viewed a videotaped staged crime before reading a misleading narrative. After seven minutes or one week, the participants completed a cued recall test for the details of the original event. Prior to completing the test, all participants were warned that the narrative contained misleading details to encourage source monitoring. The results showed that the strength of the confidence-accuracy relationship declined significantly over the delay. We interpret our results in the source monitoring framework. After an extended delay, fewer diagnostic source details were available to participants, increasing reliance on retrieval fluency as a basis for memory and metamemory decisions. We tested this interpretation in a second experiment, in which participants (N=42) completed a source monitoring test instead of a cued recall test. We observed a large effect of retention interval on source monitoring, and no significant effect on item memory. This research emphasizes the importance of securing eyewitness statements as soon as possible after an event, when witnesses are most able to discriminate between information that was personally seen and information obtained from secondary sources. PMID:24983514

  11. High spatial resolution X-ray and gamma ray imaging system using diffraction crystals

    DOEpatents

    Smither, Robert K.

    2011-05-17

    A method and a device for high spatial resolution imaging of a plurality of sources of x-ray and gamma-ray radiation are provided. The device comprises a plurality of arrays, with each array comprising a plurality of elements comprising a first collimator, a diffracting crystal, a second collimator, and a detector.

  12. Implementation of soft x-ray microscopy with several tens nanometers spatial resolution at NSRL

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Shiping; Chen, Liang

    2009-09-01

    A transmission soft x-ray microscope (TXM), which is similar to the full-field x-ray microscopes installed on other synchrotron radiation sources in the world, was developed at National Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory (NSRL) in Hefei. An x-ray image taken with the microscope was acquired and its spatial resolution was estimated to be better than 70nm.

  13. Real space soft x-ray imaging at 10 nm spatial resolution

    SciTech Connect

    Chao, Weilun; Fischer, Peter; Tyliszczak, T.; Rekawa, Senajith; Anderson, Erik; Naulleau, Patrick

    2011-04-24

    Using Fresnel zone plates made with our robust nanofabrication processes, we have successfully achieved 10 nm spatial resolution with soft x-ray microscopy. The result, obtained with both a conventional full-field and scanning soft x-ray microscope, marks a significant step forward in extending the microscopy to truly nanoscale studies.

  14. Multipoint Thomson Scattering Diagnostic For The TCABR Tokamak With Centimeter Spatial Resolution

    SciTech Connect

    Alonso, M. P.; Varandas, C. A. F.; Berni, L. A.; Severo, J. H.; Borges, F. O.; Elizondo, J. I.; Galvao, R. M. O.; Machida, M.

    2008-04-07

    This paper describes a multi-point Thomson scattering system that is being developed for the TCABR tokamak based on a signal delay technique, which allows the determination of the electron temperature and plasma density radial profiles, with approximately 1 cm spatial resolution, employing just one spectrometer.

  15. Spatial resolution of tip-enhanced Raman spectroscopy - DFT assessment of the chemical effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Latorre, Federico; Kupfer, Stephan; Bocklitz, Thomas; Kinzel, Daniel; Trautmann, Steffen; Gräfe, Stefanie; Deckert, Volker

    2016-05-01

    Experimental evidence of extremely high spatial resolution of tip-enhanced Raman scattering (TERS) has been recently demonstrated. Here, we present a full quantum chemical description (at the density functional level of theory) of the non-resonant chemical effects on the Raman spectrum of an adenine molecule mapped by a tip, modeled as a single silver atom or a small silver cluster. We show pronounced changes in the Raman pattern and its intensities depending on the conformation of the nanoparticle-substrate system, concluding that the spatial resolution of the chemical contribution of TERS can be in the sub-nm range.Experimental evidence of extremely high spatial resolution of tip-enhanced Raman scattering (TERS) has been recently demonstrated. Here, we present a full quantum chemical description (at the density functional level of theory) of the non-resonant chemical effects on the Raman spectrum of an adenine molecule mapped by a tip, modeled as a single silver atom or a small silver cluster. We show pronounced changes in the Raman pattern and its intensities depending on the conformation of the nanoparticle-substrate system, concluding that the spatial resolution of the chemical contribution of TERS can be in the sub-nm range. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c6nr00093b

  16. A system for optically controlling neural circuits with very high spatial and temporal resolution

    PubMed Central

    Pandarinath, Chethan; Carlson, Eric T.; Nirenberg, Sheila

    2015-01-01

    Optogenetics offers a powerful new approach for controlling neural circuits. It has a vast array of applications in both basic and clinical science. For basic science, it opens the door to unraveling circuit operations, since one can perturb specific circuit components with high spatial (single cell) and high temporal (millisecond) resolution. For clinical applications, it allows new kinds of selective treatments, because it provides a method to inactivate or activate specific components in a malfunctioning circuit and bring it back into a normal operating range [1–3]. To harness the power of optogenetics, though, one needs stimulating tools that work with the same high spatial and temporal resolution as the molecules themselves, the channelrhodopsins. To date, most stimulating tools require a tradeoff between spatial and temporal precision and are prohibitively expensive to integrate into a stimulating/recording setup in a laboratory or a device in a clinical setting [4, 5]. Here we describe a Digital Light Processing (DLP)-based system capable of extremely high temporal resolution (sub-millisecond), without sacrificing spatial resolution. Furthermore, it is constructed using off-the-shelf components, making it feasible for a broad range of biology and bioengineering labs. Using transgenic mice that express channelrhodopsin-2 (ChR2), we demonstrate the system’s capability for stimulating channelrhodopsin-expressing neurons in tissue with single cell and sub-millisecond precision. PMID:25699292

  17. Effect of skull resistivity on the spatial resolutions of EEG and MEG.

    PubMed

    Malmivuo, Jaakko A; Suihko, Veikko E

    2004-07-01

    The resistivity values of the different tissues of the head affect the lead fields of electroencephalography (EEG). When the head is modeled with a concentric spherical model, the different resistivity values have no effect on the lead fields of the magnetoencephalography (MEG). Recent publications indicate that the resistivity of the skull is much lower than what was estimated by Rush and Driscoll. At the moment, this information on skull resistivity is, however, slightly controversial. We have compared the spatial resolution of EEG and MEG for cortical sources by calculating the half-sensitivity volumes (HSVs) of EEG and MEG as a function of electrode and magnetometer distance, respectively, with the relative skull resistivity as a parameter. Because the spatial resolution is related to the HSV, these data give an overview of the effect of these parameters on the spatial resolution of both techniques. Our calculations show that, with the new information on the resistivity of the skull, in the spherical model for cortical sources the spatial resolution of the EEG is better than that of the MEG. PMID:15248545

  18. High Spatial Resolution Isotope Ratio Imaging and 3D Reconstruction of Presolar SiC Grains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lyon, I. C.; Henkel, T.; Clarke, A.

    2015-07-01

    Presolar SiC grains have been analysed with a new NanoSIMS for isotope ratio measurements of C, N and Si. High spatial resolution imaging suggests that nitrogen isotope heterogeneity within the grains may lead to anomalous results in the literature.

  19. Exploring Small Spatial Scales in the Transition Region and Solar Corona with the Very High Angular Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (VERIS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chua, D. H.; Korendyke, C. M.; Vourlidas, A.; Brown, C. M.; Tun-Beltran, S.; Klimchuk, J. A.; Landi, E.; Seely, J.; Davila, J. M.; Hagood, R.; Roberts, D.; Shepler, E.; Feldman, R.; Moser, J.; Shea, J.

    2012-12-01

    Theoretical and experimental investigations of the transition region and coronal loops point to the importance of processes occurring on small spatial scales in governing the strong dynamics and impulsive energy release in these regions. As a consequence, high spatial, temporal, and temperature resolution over a broad temperature range, and accuracy in velocity and density determinations are all critical observational parameters. Current instruments lack one or more of these properties. These observational deficiencies have created a wide array of opposing descriptions of coronal loop heating and questions such as whether or not the plasma within coronal loops is multi-thermal or isothermal. High spectral and spatial resolution spectroscopic data are absolutely required to resolve these controversies and to advance our understanding of the dynamics within the solar atmosphere. We will achieve this with the Very High Angular Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (VERIS) sounding rocket payload. VERIS consists of an off-axis paraboloid telescope feeding a very high angular resolution, extreme ultraviolet (EUV) imaging spectrometer that will provide the first ever, simultaneous sub-arcsecond (0.16 arcsecond/pixel) spectra in bright lines needed to study plasma structures in the transition region, quiet corona, and active region core. It will do so with a spectral resolution of >5000 to allow Doppler velocity determinations to better than 3 km/s. VERIS uses a novel two-element, normal incidence optical design with highly reflective, broad wavelength coverage EUV coatings to access a spectral range with broad temperature coverage (0.03-15 MK) and density-sensitive line ratios. Combined with Hinode Solar Optical Telescope (SOT) and ground based observatories, VERIS will deliver simultaneous observations of the entire solar atmosphere from the photosphere to the multi-million degree corona at sub-arcsecond resolution for the first time ever, allowing us to understand the

  20. Spatial and temporal resolution effects on urban catchments with different imperviousness degrees

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cristiano, Elena; ten Veldhuis, Marie-Claire; van de Giesen, Nick C.

    2015-04-01

    One of the main problems in urban hydrological analysis is to measure the rainfall at urban scale with high resolution and use these measurements to model urban runoff processes to predict flows and reduce flood risk. With the aim of building a semi-distribute hydrological sewer model for an urban catchment, high resolution rainfall data are required as input. In this study, the sensitivity of hydrological response to high resolution precipitation data for hydrodynamic models at urban scale is evaluated with different combinations of spatial and temporal resolutions. The aim is to study sensitivity in relation to catchment characteristics, especially drainage area size, imperviousness degree and hydraulic properties such as special structures (weirs, pumping stations). Rainfall data of nine storms are considered with 4 different spatial resolutions (3000m, 1000m, 500m and 100m) combined with 4 different temporal resolutions (10min, 5min, 3min and 1min). The dual polarimetric X-band weather radar, located in the Cabauw Experimental Site for Atmospheric Research (CESAR) provided the high resolution rainfall data of these rainfall events, used to improve the sewer model. The effects of spatial-temporal rainfall input resolution on response is studied in three Districts of Rotterdam (NL): Kralingen, Spaanse Polder and Centrum district. These catchments have different average drainage area size (from 2km2 to 7km2), and different general characteristics. Centrum district and Kralingen are, indeed, more various and include residential and commercial areas, big green areas and a small industrial area, while Spaanse Polder is a industrial area, densely urbanized, and presents a high percentage of imperviousness.

  1. Improving geolocation and spatial accuracies with the modular integrated avionics group (MIAG)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, Einar; Souter, Keith

    1996-05-01

    The modular integrated avionics group (MIAG) is a single unit approach to combining position, inertial and baro-altitude/air data sensors to provide optimized navigation, guidance and control performance. Lear Astronics Corporation is currently working within the navigation community to upgrade existing MIAG performance with precise GPS positioning mechanization tightly integrated with inertial, baro and other sensors. Among the immediate benefits are the following: (1) accurate target location in dynamic conditions; (2) autonomous launch and recovery using airborne avionics only; (3) precise flight path guidance; and (4) improved aircraft and payload stability information. This paper will focus on the impact of using the MIAG with its multimode navigation accuracies on the UAV targeting mission. Gimbaled electro-optical sensors mounted on a UAV can be used to determine ground coordinates of a target at the center of the field of view by a series of vector rotation and scaling computations. The accuracy of the computed target coordinates is dependent on knowing the UAV position and the UAV-to-target offset computation. Astronics performed a series of simulations to evaluate the effects that the improved angular and position data available from the MIAG have on target coordinate accuracy.

  2. COMPARISON OF THE ACCURACY OF VARIOUS SPATIAL DISCRETIZATION SCHEMES OF THE DISCRETE ORDINATES EQUATIONS IN 2D CARTESIAN GEOMETRY

    SciTech Connect

    Sebastian Schunert; Yousry Y. Azmy; Damien Fournier

    2011-05-01

    We present a comprehensive error estimation of four spatial discretization schemes of the two-dimensional Discrete Ordinates (SN) equations on Cartesian grids utilizing a Method of Manufactured Solution (MMS) benchmark suite based on variants of Larsen’s benchmark featuring different orders of smoothness of the underlying exact solution. The considered spatial discretization schemes include the arbitrarily high order transport methods of the nodal (AHOTN) and characteristic (AHOTC) types, the discontinuous Galerkin Finite Element method (DGFEM) and the recently proposed higher order diamond difference method (HODD) of spatial expansion orders 0 through 3. While AHOTN and AHOTC rely on approximate analytical solutions of the transport equation within a mesh cell, DGFEM and HODD utilize a polynomial expansion to mimick the angular flux profile across each mesh cell. Intuitively, due to the higher degree of analyticity, we expect AHOTN and AHOTC to feature superior accuracy compared with DGFEM and HODD, but at the price of potentially longer grind times and numerical instabilities. The latter disadvantages can result from the presence of exponential terms evaluated at the cell optical thickness that arise from the semianalytical solution process. This work quantifies the order of accuracy and the magnitude of the error of all four discretization methods for different optical thicknesses, scattering ratios and degrees of smoothness of the underlying exact solutions in order to verify or contradict the aforementioned intuitive expectation.

  3. High spatial resolution brain functional MRI using submillimeter balanced steady-state free precession acquisition

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, Pei-Hsin; Chung, Hsiao-Wen; Tsai, Ping-Huei; Wu, Ming-Long; Chuang, Tzu-Chao; Shih, Yi-Yu; Huang, Teng-Yi

    2013-12-15

    Purpose: One of the technical advantages of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) is its precise localization of changes from neuronal activities. While current practice of fMRI acquisition at voxel size around 3 × 3 × 3 mm{sup 3} achieves satisfactory results in studies of basic brain functions, higher spatial resolution is required in order to resolve finer cortical structures. This study investigated spatial resolution effects on brain fMRI experiments using balanced steady-state free precession (bSSFP) imaging with 0.37 mm{sup 3} voxel volume at 3.0 T. Methods: In fMRI experiments, full and unilateral visual field 5 Hz flashing checkerboard stimulations were given to healthy subjects. The bSSFP imaging experiments were performed at three different frequency offsets to widen the coverage, with functional activations in the primary visual cortex analyzed using the general linear model. Variations of the spatial resolution were achieved by removing outerk-space data components. Results: Results show that a reduction in voxel volume from 3.44 × 3.44 × 2 mm{sup 3} to 0.43 × 0.43 × 2 mm{sup 3} has resulted in an increase of the functional activation signals from (7.7 ± 1.7)% to (20.9 ± 2.0)% at 3.0 T, despite of the threefold SNR decreases in the original images, leading to nearly invariant functional contrast-to-noise ratios (fCNR) even at high spatial resolution. Activation signals aligning nicely with gray matter sulci at high spatial resolution would, on the other hand, have possibly been mistaken as noise at low spatial resolution. Conclusions: It is concluded that the bSSFP sequence is a plausible technique for fMRI investigations at submillimeter voxel widths without compromising fCNR. The reduction of partial volume averaging with nonactivated brain tissues to retain fCNR is uniquely suitable for high spatial resolution applications such as the resolving of columnar organization in the brain.

  4. Spatial Resolution and Catchment Size Interaction of Soil Hydrological Properties for Hydrological Modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Libohova, Zamir; Bowling, Laura C.; Owens, Phillip R.; Schoeneberger, Philip; Wysocki, Douglas; Wills, Skye; Lindbo, David

    2016-04-01

    Spatial resolution of soil hydrologic properties is critical for distributed hydrological model streamflow simulations. Soils from US Soil Survey Geographic (SSURGO) Database are mapped at scales varying from 1:12,000 to 65,000. Related to these scales are also soil hydrological properties, which could vary spatially outside of the common SSURGO scale range. The objective of this research was to assess the role of the spatial resolution of soil depth on simulated hydrological response for various watershed sizes using the Distributed Hydrology Soil Vegetation Model (DHSVM). The study site was Hall Creek watershed a 56 km2 in size located in Dubois County in southern Indiana, USA. The watershed size was divided in 55 sub-watersheds varying in size from less than 5 km2 to 56 km2. The grid size spatial resolution of soil hydrological properties varied from 10x10, 30x30 and 90x90m. The simulated streamflow metrics were annual mean, minimum and maximum streamflow, and R-B Flashiness, which measures the variability in streamflow between successive days highlighting the fluctuation of discharge relative to total discharge. The slopes of the regression of simulated stream discharge parameters versus watershed size were used to assess the presence of interaction. In addition, the coefficient of variation was used to assess the variability for the R-B index, annual mean, annual minimum and maximum stream discharge across different model resolutions within each watershed category. The slope for 10x10 and 30x30m spatial resolution for annual mean, and minimum streamflow were not significantly different from zero across all watershed sizes indicating lack of interaction. However, slope for the R-B flashiness was significantly different from zero for the 90x90 m grid size indicating that watershed size change is sensitive at this spatial resolution. The variability of R-B index, annual mean and annual minimum hydrologic metrics decreased with increasing watershed size but

  5. A spatially coherent global soil moisture product with improved temporal resolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Jeu, Richard A. M.; Holmes, Thomas R. H.; Parinussa, Robert M.; Owe, Manfred

    2014-08-01

    Global soil moisture products that are completely independent of any type of ancillary data and solely rely on satellite observations are presented. Additionally, we further develop an existing downscaling technique that enhances the spatial resolution of such products to approximately 11 km. These products are based on internal modules of the Land Parameter Retrieval Model (LPRM), an algorithm that uses the radiative transfer equation to link soil moisture, vegetation optical depth and land surface temperature to observed brightness temperatures. The soil moisture product that is independent of any type of ancillary data uses the internally calculated dielectric constant as a soil moisture proxy. This data product is not influenced by errors associated with coarse-scale global soil property maps or by any other type of forcing (e.g. re-analysis) data and is therefore solely based on satellite microwave observations. The second step builds upon recent developments to increase the spatial resolution of the LPRM retrievals using a smoothing filter downscaling method. With this method we can attain a spatial resolution that can be more useful at the scale of local and regional hydrological studies as well. The steps presented in this paper were applied to observations from the Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer-Earth Observing System (AMSR-E). The newly derived data sets were validated using ground-based observations from the International Soil Moisture Network (ISMN). The internally calculated dielectric constant product results in significantly more days with valid retrievals than the original soil moisture data products, in particular over arid regions. The dielectric constant product resulted in similar correlations with in situ data as the original soil moisture data product. Together, these findings demonstrate the usefulness of this new dielectric constant product for the hydrological modeling community and climate studies. A case study on the Australian

  6. [The radial velocity measurement accuracy of different spectral type low resolution stellar spectra at different signal-to-noise ratio].

    PubMed

    Wang, Feng-Fei; Luo, A-Li; Zhao, Yong-Heng

    2014-02-01

    The radial velocity of the star is very important for the study of the dynamics structure and chemistry evolution of the Milky Way, is also an useful tool for looking for variable or special objects. In the present work, we focus on calculating the radial velocity of different spectral types of low-resolution stellar spectra by adopting a template matching method, so as to provide effective and reliable reference to the different aspects of scientific research We choose high signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) spectra of different spectral type stellar from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS), and add different noise to simulate the stellar spectra with different SNR. Then we obtain theradial velocity measurement accuracy of different spectral type stellar spectra at different SNR by employing a template matching method. Meanwhile, the radial velocity measurement accuracy of white dwarf stars is analyzed as well. We concluded that the accuracy of radial velocity measurements of early-type stars is much higher than late-type ones. For example, the 1-sigma standard error of radial velocity measurements of A-type stars is 5-8 times as large as K-type and M-type stars. We discuss the reason and suggest that the very narrow lines of late-type stars ensure the accuracy of measurement of radial velocities, while the early-type stars with very wide Balmer lines, such as A-type stars, become sensitive to noise and obtain low accuracy of radial velocities. For the spectra of white dwarfs stars, the standard error of radial velocity measurement could be over 50 km x s(-1) because of their extremely wide Balmer lines. The above conclusion will provide a good reference for stellar scientific study. PMID:24822441

  7. Improved localization accuracy in double-helix point spread function super-resolution fluorescence microscopy using selective-plane illumination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Jie; Cao, Bo; Li, Heng; Yu, Bin; Chen, Danni; Niu, Hanben

    2014-09-01

    Recently, three-dimensional (3D) super resolution imaging of cellular structures in thick samples has been enabled with the wide-field super-resolution fluorescence microscopy based on double helix point spread function (DH-PSF). However, when the sample is Epi-illuminated, much background fluorescence from those excited molecules out-of-focus will reduce the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of the image in-focus. In this paper, we resort to a selective-plane illumination strategy, which has been used for tissue-level imaging and single molecule tracking, to eliminate out-of-focus background and to improve SNR and the localization accuracy of the standard DH-PSF super-resolution imaging in thick samples. We present a novel super-resolution microscopy that combine selective-plane illumination and DH-PSF. The setup utilizes a well-defined laser light sheet which theoretical thickness is 1.7μm (FWHM) at 640nm excitation wavelength. The image SNR of DH-PSF microscopy between selective-plane illumination and Epi-illumination are compared. As we expect, the SNR of the DH-PSF microscopy based selective-plane illumination is increased remarkably. So, 3D localization precision of DH-PSF would be improved significantly. We demonstrate its capabilities by studying 3D localizing of single fluorescent particles. These features will provide high thick samples compatibility for future biomedical applications.

  8. Distributed Brillouin sensing with sub-meter spatial resolution: modeling and processing.

    PubMed

    Beugnot, Jean-Charles; Tur, Moshe; Mafang, Stella Foaleng; Thévenaz, Luc

    2011-04-11

    A general analytic solution for Brillouin distributed sensing in optical fibers with sub-meter spatial resolution is obtained by solving the acoustical-optical coupled wave equations by a perturbation method. The Brillouin interaction of a triad of square pump pulses with a continuous signal is described, covering a wide range of pumping schemes. The model predicts how the acoustic wave, the signal amplitude and the optical gain spectral profile depend upon the pumping scheme. Sub-meter spatial resolution is demonstrated for bright-, dark- and π-shifted interrogating pump pulses, together with disturbing echo effects, and the results compare favorably with experimental data. This analytic solution is an excellent tool not only for optimizing the pumping scheme but also for post-processing the measured data to remove resolution degrading features. PMID:21503049

  9. Evidencing the need for high spatial resolution in angle-resolved photoemission experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joucken, Frédéric; Reckinger, Nicolas; Lorcy, Stéphane; Avila, José; Chen, Chaoyu; Lagoute, Jérôme; Colomer, Jean-François; Ghijsen, Jacques; Asensio, Maria Carmen; Sporken, Robert

    2016-06-01

    Angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy (ARPES) is the most direct tool to measure the electronic structure of materials. In particular, fine features of the spectra can be analyzed for evaluating the electron self-energy. Owing to a setup allowing ARPES investigation with submicron resolution and state-of-the-art energy and momentum resolution, we show here first that ARPES spectra of pristine and virtually undoped monolayer graphene acquired on a small spot do not display manifestations of self-energy. We next demonstrate that, although the region of the sample investigated is a unique graphene domain, it displays faint spatial inhomogeneity, both in its crystallographic orientation and its thickness, which is undetectable with conventional ARPES but renders the spectra improper for self-energy extraction. These results indicate that care should be taken when analyzing ARPES spectra obtained with poor spatial resolution.

  10. Evaluation of charge -sharing effects on the spatial resolution of the PICASSO detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rigon, L.; Arfelli, F.; Bergamaschi, A.; Chen, R. C.; Dreossi, D.; Longo, R.; Menk, R.-H.; Schmitt, B.; Vallazza, E.; Castelli, E.

    2010-05-01

    A double -layer "edge-on" silicon microstrip detector has been designed and realized in the frame of the PICASSO (Phase Imaging for Clinical Application with Silicon detector and Synchrotron radiatiOn) project at the SYRMEP (SYnchrotron Radiation for MEdical Physics) beamline of Elettra (Trieste, Italy). The detector meets the requirements for synchrotron radiation mammography with patients inregarding: (a) size, since it covers the full beam width (210 mm); (b) spatial resolution, determined by the 0.05 mm strip pitch; (c) single-photon counting capabilities, because it is able to handle more than 10 6 photons/(pixel×s); (d) contrast resolution, thanks to a threshold trim DAC that equalizes the channel sensitivity; (e) efficiency, due to the high absorption in the 15-20 mm sensor depth. Experimental measurements evidence charge sharing, though not compromising the spatial resolution.

  11. Linear mixing model applied to coarse spatial resolution data from multispectral satellite sensors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holben, Brent N.; Shimabukuro, Yosio E.

    1993-01-01

    A linear mixing model was applied to coarse spatial resolution data from the NOAA Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer. The reflective component of the 3.55-3.95 micron channel was used with the two reflective channels 0.58-0.68 micron and 0.725-1.1 micron to run a constrained least squares model to generate fraction images for an area in the west central region of Brazil. The fraction images were compared with an unsupervised classification derived from Landsat TM data acquired on the same day. The relationship between the fraction images and normalized difference vegetation index images show the potential of the unmixing techniques when using coarse spatial resolution data for global studies.

  12. Using experts feedback in clinical case resolution and arbitration as accuracy diagnosis methodology.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-González, Alejandro; Torres-Niño, Javier; Valencia-Garcia, Rafael; Mayer, Miguel A; Alor-Hernandez, Giner

    2013-09-01

    This paper proposes a new methodology for assessing the efficiency of medical diagnostic systems and clinical decision support systems by using the feedback/opinions of medical experts. The methodology behind this work is based on a comparison between the expert feedback that has helped solve different clinical cases and the expert system that has evaluated these same cases. Once the results are returned, an arbitration process is carried out in order to ensure the correctness of the results provided by both methods. Once this process has been completed, the results are analyzed using Precision, Recall, Accuracy, Specificity and Matthews Correlation Coefficient (MCC) (PRAS-M) metrics. When the methodology is applied, the results obtained from a real diagnostic system allow researchers to establish the accuracy of the system based on objective facts. The methodology returns enough information to analyze the system's behavior for each disease in the knowledge base or across the entire knowledge base. It also returns data on the efficiency of the different assessors involved in the evaluation process, analyzing their behavior in the diagnostic process. The proposed work facilitates the evaluation of medical diagnostic systems, having a reliable process based on objective facts. The methodology presented in this research makes it possible to identify the main characteristics that define a medical diagnostic system and their values, allowing for system improvement. A good example of the results provided by the application of the methodology is shown in this paper. A diagnosis system was evaluated by means of this methodology, yielding positive results (statistically significant) when comparing the system with the assessors that participated in the evaluation process of the system through metrics such as recall (+27.54%) and MCC (+32.19%). These results demonstrate the real applicability of the methodology used. PMID:23816170

  13. From high spatial resolution imagery to spatial indicators : Application for hydromorphy follow-up on Bourgneuf wetland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bailly, J. S.; Puech, C.; Lukac, F.; Massé, J.

    2003-04-01

    On Atlantic coastal wetlands, the understanding of hydrological processes may refer to hydraulic surface structures characterization as small ditches or channels networks, permanent and temporary water bodies. Moreover to improve the understanding, this characerization should be realized regarding different seasons and different spatial scales: elementary parcel, managment unit and whole wetland scales. In complement to usual observations on a few local ground points, high spatial resolution remote sensing may be a good information support for extraction and characterization on elementary objects, especially water bodies, permanents or temporary ones and ditches. To carry out a floow-up on wetlands, a seasonal image acquisition rate, reachable from most of satelite systems, is in that case informative for hydrological needs. In this work, georeferencing methods on openfield wetlands have been handled with care in order to use diachronic images or combined geographical data; lack of relief, short vegetation and well structured landscape make this preprocess easier in comparison to other landscape situations. In this presentation we focus on spatial hydromorphy parameters constructed from images with specific processes. Especially, hydromorphy indicators for parcels or managment units have been developped using an IRC winter-spring-summer metric resolution set of images: these descriptors are based on water areas evolution or hydrophyl vegetations presence traducing hydrodynamic submersion behaviour in temporary water bodies. An other example presents a surface water network circulation indicator elaborated on IRC aerial photography combined with vectorized geographic database. This indicator is based on ditches width and vegetation presence : a specific process uses vectorized geo data set to define transects across ditches on which classified image analysis is carried out (supervised classification). These first results proposing hydromorphy descriptors from very

  14. Autonomous agricultural remote sensing systems with high spatial and temporal resolutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiang, Haitao

    . It suggested that a 16.5% forward overlap and a 15% lateral overlap were required to avoiding missing desired mapping area when the UAV flies above 45 m high with 4.5 mm lens. A whole field mosaic image can be generated according to the individual image georeferencing information. A 0.569 m mosaic error has been achieved and this accuracy is sufficient for many of the intended precision agricultural applications. With careful interpretation, the UAV images are an excellent source of high spatial and temporal resolution data for precision agricultural applications. (Abstract shortened by UMI.)

  15. Spatial Resolution Versus Data Acquisition Efficiency in Mapping an Inhomogeneous System with Species Diffusion

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Fengxiang; Zhang, Yong; Gfroerer, T. H.; Finger, A. N.; Mark W. Wanlass

    2015-06-02

    Traditionally, spatially-resolved photoluminescence (PL) has been performed using a point-by-point scan mode with both excitation and detection occurring at the same spatial location. But with the availability of high quality detector arrays like CCDs, an imaging mode has become popular for performing spatially-resolved PL. By illuminating the entire area of interest and collecting the data simultaneously from all spatial locations, the measurement efficiency can be greatly improved. However, this new approach has proceeded under the implicit assumption of comparable spatial resolution. We show here that when carrier diffusion is present, the spatial resolution can actually differ substantially between the two modes, with the less efficient scan mode being far superior. We apply both techniques in investigation of defects in a GaAs epilayer – where isolated singlet and doublet dislocations can be identified. A superposition principle is developed for solving the diffusion equation to extract the intrinsic carrier diffusion length, which can be applied to a system with arbitrarily distributed defects. The understanding derived from this work is significant for a broad range of problems in physics and beyond (for instance biology) – whenever the dynamics of generation, diffusion, and annihilation of species can be probed with either measurement mode.

  16. Spatial Resolution Versus Data Acquisition Efficiency in Mapping an Inhomogeneous System with Species Diffusion

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Chen, Fengxiang; Zhang, Yong; Gfroerer, T. H.; Finger, A. N.; Mark W. Wanlass

    2015-06-02

    Traditionally, spatially-resolved photoluminescence (PL) has been performed using a point-by-point scan mode with both excitation and detection occurring at the same spatial location. But with the availability of high quality detector arrays like CCDs, an imaging mode has become popular for performing spatially-resolved PL. By illuminating the entire area of interest and collecting the data simultaneously from all spatial locations, the measurement efficiency can be greatly improved. However, this new approach has proceeded under the implicit assumption of comparable spatial resolution. We show here that when carrier diffusion is present, the spatial resolution can actually differ substantially between the twomore » modes, with the less efficient scan mode being far superior. We apply both techniques in investigation of defects in a GaAs epilayer – where isolated singlet and doublet dislocations can be identified. A superposition principle is developed for solving the diffusion equation to extract the intrinsic carrier diffusion length, which can be applied to a system with arbitrarily distributed defects. The understanding derived from this work is significant for a broad range of problems in physics and beyond (for instance biology) – whenever the dynamics of generation, diffusion, and annihilation of species can be probed with either measurement mode.« less

  17. Accuracy in strategy imitations promotes the evolution of fairness in the spatial ultimatum game

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szolnoki, Attila; Perc, Matjaž; Szabó, György

    2012-10-01

    Spatial structure has a profound effect on the outcome of evolutionary games. In the ultimatum game, it leads to the dominance of much fairer players than those predicted to evolve in well-mixed settings. Here we show that spatiality leads to fair ultimatums only if the intervals from which the players are able to choose how much to offer and how little to accept are sufficiently fine-grained. Small sets of discrete strategies lead to the stable coexistence of the two most rational strategies in the set, while larger sets lead to the dominance of a single yet not necessarily the fairest strategy. The fairest outcome is obtained for the most accurate strategy imitation, that is in the limit of a continuous strategy set. Having a multitude of choices is thus crucial for the evolution of fairness, but not necessary for the evolution of empathy.

  18. Accurate optical wavefront reconstruction based on reciprocity of an optical path using low resolution spatial light modulators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Zhiyang

    2010-10-01

    A method for high precision optical wavefront reconstruction using low resolution spatial light modulators (SLMs) was proposed. It utilizes an adiabatic waveguide taper consisting of a plurality of single-mode waveguides to decompose an incident light field into simple fundamental modes of the single-mode waveguides. By digital generation of the conjugate fields of those simple fundamental modes a field proportional to the original incident light field might be reconstructed accurately based on reciprocity. Devices based on the method using transparent and reflective SLMs possess no aberration like that of a conventional optic lens and are able to achieve diffraction limited resolution. Specifically on the surface of the narrow end of a taper a resolution much higher than half of the wavelength is attainable. The device may work in linear mode and possesses unlimited theoretical 3D space-bandwidth product (SBP). The SBP of a real device is limited by the accuracy of SLMs. A pair of 8-bit SLMs with 1000 × 1000 = 10 6 pixels could provide a SBP of about 5 × 10 4. The SBP may expand by 16 times if 10-bit SLMs with the same number of pixels are employed or 16 successive frames are used to display one scene. The device might be used as high precision optical tweezers, or employed for continuous or discrete real-time 3D display, 3D measurement, machine vision, etc.

  19. Exploration of very high spatial resolution data for vegetation mapping using cartographic ontologies: Identifying life forms to mapping formations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodriguez-Gallegos, Hugo Benigno

    Vegetation mapping is often considered the process of identifying landscape patterns of individuals or clusters of species or life forms (LF). At the landscape scale, the larger pattern represented by individuals or clusters represents the conceptualization of "vegetation mapping" and can be used as a building block to describe an ecosystem. To represent these building blocks or LF a "common entity (CE)" concept is introduced to represent the components of Formations as described by the National Vegetation Classification (NVC) system. The NVC has established protocols to consistently represent plant communities and promote coordinated management, particularly across jurisdictional boundaries. However, it is not a universal standard and the methods of producing detailed maps of vegetation CE from very high spatial resolution (VHR) remote sensing data are important research questions. This research addressed how best to understand and represent plant cover in arid regions, the most effective methods of mapping vegetation cover using high spatial resolution data, how to assess the accuracy of these maps, and their value in establishing more standardized mapping protocols across ecosystems. Utilizing VHR products from the IKONOS and QuickBird sensors the study focused on the Coronado National Memorial and Chiricahua National Monument in Arizona and Los Ajos and Pinacate - Grand Desierto Biosphere Reserves in Mexico. Individual CE were semi-automatically mapped incorporating spectral, textural and geostatistical variables. The results were evaluated across sensors, study sites, and input variables. In addition, multiple methods of acquiring field data for accuracy assessment were evaluated and then an evaluation was made of a semi-automatic determination of Formation based on CE. The results of the study suggest consistency across study sites using the IKONOS data. A comparison between VHR products from the same place is feasible but sensor spectral differences may

  20. Watershed Runoff Model Uncertainty as affected by Spatial Climate Data Resolution for McKenzie River, OR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Epps, T. H.; Chang, H.; Jung, I.; Nolin, A. W.; Roth, T.

    2012-12-01

    Climate change and the potential impacts that it will have on water resources must be assessed through watershed modeling and forecasting to guide effective management strategies that will accommodate future uncertainty in climate patterns. Watershed modeling is a valuable method to assess potential changes in the timing and quantity of streamflow and the impacts that shifts in streamflow dynamics may have on the availability of local water resources. This has been observed for the Pacific Northwest's Willamette River Basin (WRB) in previous studies that display substantial potential for local changes in streamflow due to a changing climate. Precipitation Runoff Modeling System (PRMS), a semi-distributed physically-based hydrologic model, was used to simulate runoff in sub-basins of the Willamette River that originate in the Cascades region of Oregon. These sub-basins have displayed high sensitivity to parameters associated with snowpack accumulation and evolution processes due to larger annual snowfall amounts than in lower elevations. Snowpack acts as a temporal storage for hydrologic inputs in these sub-basins and snowpack evolution processes, subject to ambient climate conditions, influence the timing of streamflows and the seasonal resiliency of water resources in these areas. Accuracy in modeling these snowpack processes is important in forecasting changes in streamflow timing and magnitude that will occur under climate change scenarios. PRMS models snowpack evolution using daily measurements of precipitation, solar radiation, and the maximum and minimum temperatures. Measured precipitation is apportioned between rainfall and snowfall based on measured daily temperature ranges and spatial parameters linked to topography and land cover. The McKenzie River (MCK) sub-basin of the WRB has its headwaters in the high Cascades region and is influenced by annual snowpack accumulation and snowmelt processes. This study will assess the uncertainty in PRMS modeling

  1. High-spatial-resolution microwave and related observations as diagnostics of coronal loops

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holman, Gordon D.

    1986-01-01

    High spatial resolution microwave observations of coronal loops, together with theoretical models for the loop emission, can provide detailed information about the temperature, density, and magnetic field within the loop, as well as the environment around the loop. The capability for studying magnetic fields is particularly important, since there is no comparable method for obtaining direct information about coronal magnetic fields. Knowledge of the magnetic field strength and structure in coronal loops is important for understanding both coronal heating and flares. With arc-second-resolution microwave observations from the Very Large Array (VLA), supplemental high-spectral-resolution microwave data from a facility such as the Owens Valley frequency-agile interferometer, and the ability to obtain second-of-arc resolution EUV aor soft X ray images, the capability already exists for obtaining much more detailed information about coronal plasma and magnetic structures than is presently available. This capability is discussed.

  2. Optical magnetometry with sub-wavelength spatial resolution using individual spins in diamond

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maze, Jeronimo; Maurer, Peter; Stanwix, Paul; Jiang, Liang; Hodges, Jonathan; Gorshkov, Alexey; Zibrov, Alexander; Walsworth, Ronald; Lukin, Mikhail

    2009-05-01

    The ability to map weak magnetic fields with nanometer resolution is of great importance in biological science and high precision metrology of nanoscale structures. We describe and demonstrate a new technique that combines high spatial resolution in the spirit of stimulating-emission-depletion (STED) fluorescence microscopy [1] and nanoscale magnetic sensing with individual spins in diamond [2,3]. This new magnetic sensing and nanometer resolution fluorescence microscopy approach (m-STED) will allow detection of single electronic spins at a distance of 10 nm with 5-7 folds improvement beyond the diffraction limit lateral resolution. [4pt] [1] Hell, S. W. and J. Wichmann, Opt. Lett. 19, 780 (1994).[2] J.R. Maze, et al., Nature 455, 644 (2008).[3] J.M. Taylor, et al., Nature Physics 4, 810 (2008).

  3. Spatial resolution effect on the simulated results of watershed scale models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Epelde, Ane; Antiguedad, Iñaki; Brito, David; Jauch, Eduardo; Neves, Ramiro; Sauvage, Sabine; Sánchez-Pérez, José Miguel

    2016-04-01

    Numerical models are useful tools for water resources planning, development and management. Currently, their use is being spread and more complex modeling systems are being employed for these purposes. The adding of complexity allows the simulation of water quality related processes. Nevertheless, this implies a considerable increase on the computational requirements, which usually is compensated on the models by a decrease on their spatial resolution. The spatial resolution of the models is known to affect the simulation of hydrological processes and therefore, also the nutrient exportation and cycling processes. However, the implication of the spatial resolution on the simulated results is rarely assessed. In this study, we examine the effect of the change in the grid size on the integrated and distributed results of the Alegria River watershed model (Basque Country, Northern Spain). Variables such as discharge, water table level, relative water content of soils, nitrogen exportation and denitrification are analyzed in order to quantify the uncertainty involved in the spatial discretization of the watershed scale models. This is an aspect that needs to be carefully considered when numerical models are employed in watershed management studies or quality programs.

  4. Low-Cost Ultra-High Spatial and Temporal Resolution Mapping of Intertidal Rock Platforms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bryson, M.; Johnson-Roberson, M.; Murphy, R.

    2012-07-01

    Intertidal ecosystems have primarily been studied using field-based sampling; remote sensing offers the ability to collect data over large areas in a snapshot of time which could compliment field-based sampling methods by extrapolating them into the wider spatial and temporal context. Conventional remote sensing tools (such as satellite and aircraft imaging) provide data at relatively course, sub-meter resolutions or with limited temporal resolutions and relatively high costs for small-scale environmental science and ecology studies. In this paper, we describe a low-cost, kite-based imaging system and photogrammetric pipeline that was developed for constructing highresolution, 3D, photo-realistic terrain models of intertidal rocky shores. The processing pipeline uses automatic image feature detection and matching, structure-from-motion and photo-textured terrain surface reconstruction algorithms that require minimal human input and only a small number of ground control points and allow the use of cheap, consumer-grade digital cameras. The resulting maps combine colour and topographic information at sub-centimeter resolutions over an area of approximately 100m, thus enabling spatial properties of the intertidal environment to be determined across a hierarchy of spatial scales. Results of the system are presented for an intertidal rock platform at Cape Banks, Sydney, Australia. Potential uses of this technique include mapping of plant (micro- and macro-algae) and animal (e.g. gastropods) assemblages at multiple spatial and temporal scales.

  5. Experimental calibration of x-ray camera performance: spatial resolution, flat field response, and radiation sensitivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, Hongwei; Chen, Jinchuan; Li, Linbo; Zhang, Faqiang; Chen, Dingyang

    2014-11-01

    Major parameters of X-rays camera include spatial resolution, flat field response and dynamic range. Such parameters were calibrated on a pulsed X-rays source with about 0.3MeV energy. Fluorophotometric method was used for the measurement of spatial resolutions of the penetrating lights and reflecting lights. Results indicated they were both basically same. And the spatial resolution of the camera was measured with edge method. Corresponding to 10% intensity, the modulator transfer function (MTS) of the resolution was about 5lp/mm, while the size of the point spread function (PSF) was about 0.8mm. Due to the system design with both short distance and big filed of view, the flat field non-homogeneity was about 15%. In addition, because of the relatively big gain of the scintillator and MCP image intensifier and the limited detecting efficiency of the X-rays and scintillator, the image intensity of the flat field response demonstrated a big standard deviation of about 1375. Due to the crosstalk throughout the system, the maximal signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of the X-rays camera was about 10:1.These results could provide important technical specifications for both applications of X-rays camera and data processing of other relevant images.

  6. Improving spatial-resolution in high cone-angle micro-CT by source deblurring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Heyang; Kingston, Andrew; Myers, Glenn; Recur, Benoit; Turner, Michael; Sheppard, Andrian

    2014-09-01

    Micro scale computed tomography (CT) can resolve many features in cellular structures, bone formations, minerals properties and composite materials not seen at lower spatial-resolution. Those features enable us to build a more comprehensive model for the object of interest. CT resolution is limited by a fundamental trade off between source size and signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) for a given acquisition time. There is a limit on the X-ray flux that can be emitted from a certain source size, and fewer photons cause a lower SNR. A large source size creates penumbral blurring in the radiograph, limiting the effective spatial-resolution in the reconstruction. High cone-angle CT improves SNR by increasing the X-ray solid angle that passes through the sample. In the high cone-angle regime current source deblurring methods break down due to incomplete modelling of the physical process. This paper presents high cone-angle source de-blurring models. We implement these models using a novel multi-slice Richardson-Lucy (M-RL) and 3D Conjugate Gradient deconvolution on experimental high cone-angle data to improve the spatial-resolution of the reconstructed volume. In M-RL, we slice the back projection volume into subsets which can be considered to have a relative uniform convolution kernel. We compare these results to those obtained from standard reconstruction techniques and current source deblurring methods (i.e. 2D Richardson-Lucy in the radiograph and the volume respectively).

  7. The effects of spatial resolution on integral field spectrograph surveys at different redshifts - The CALIFA perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mast, D.; Rosales-Ortega, F. F.; Sánchez, S. F.; Vílchez, J. M.; Iglesias-Paramo, J.; Walcher, C. J.; Husemann, B.; Márquez, I.; Marino, R. A.; Kennicutt, R. C.; Monreal-Ibero, A.; Galbany, L.; de Lorenzo-Cáceres, A.; Mendez-Abreu, J.; Kehrig, C.; del Olmo, A.; Relaño, M.; Wisotzki, L.; Mármol-Queraltó, E.; Bekeraitè, S.; Papaderos, P.; Wild, V.; Aguerri, J. A. L.; Falcón-Barroso, J.; Bomans, D. J.; Ziegler, B.; García-Lorenzo, B.; Bland-Hawthorn, J.; López-Sánchez, Á. R.; van de Ven, G.

    2014-01-01

    Context. Over the past decade, 3D optical spectroscopy has become the preferred tool for understanding the properties of galaxies and is now increasingly used to carry out galaxy surveys. Low redshift surveys include SAURON, DiskMass, ATLAS3D, PINGS, and VENGA. At redshifts above 0.7, surveys such as MASSIV, SINS, GLACE, and IMAGES have targeted the most luminous galaxies to study mainly their kinematic properties. The on-going CALIFA survey (z ~ 0.02) is the first of a series of upcoming integral field spectroscopy (IFS) surveys with large samples representative of the entire population of galaxies. Others include SAMI and MaNGA at lower redshift and the upcoming KMOS surveys at higher redshift. Given the importance of spatial scales in IFS surveys, the study of the effects of spatial resolution on the recovered parameters becomes important. Aims: We explore the capability of the CALIFA survey and a hypothetical higher redshift survey to reproduce the properties of a sample of objects observed with better spatial resolution at lower redshift. Methods: Using a sample of PINGS galaxies, we simulated observations at different redshifts. We then studied the behaviour of different parameters as the spatial resolution degrades with increasing redshift. Results: We show that at the CALIFA resolution, we are able to measure and map common observables in a galaxy study: the number and distribution of H ii regions (Hα flux structure), the gas metallicity (using the O3N2 method), the gas ionization properties (through the [N ii]/Hα and [O iii]/Hβ line ratios), and the age of the underlying stellar population (using the D4000 index). This supports the aim of the survey to characterise the observable properties of galaxies in the Local Universe. Our analysis of simulated IFS data cubes at higher redshifts highlights the importance of the projected spatial scale per spaxel as the most important figure of merit in the design of an integral field survey.

  8. Improving Accuracy and Temporal Resolution of Learning Curve Estimation for within- and across-Session Analysis.

    PubMed

    Deliano, Matthias; Tabelow, Karsten; König, Reinhard; Polzehl, Jörg

    2016-01-01

    Estimation of learning curves is ubiquitously based on proportions of correct responses within moving trial windows. Thereby, it is tacitly assumed that learning performance is constant within the moving windows, which, however, is often not the case. In the present study we demonstrate that violations of this assumption lead to systematic errors in the analysis of learning curves, and we explored the dependency of these errors on window size, different statistical models, and learning phase. To reduce these errors in the analysis of single-subject data as well as on the population level, we propose adequate statistical methods for the estimation of learning curves and the construction of confidence intervals, trial by trial. Applied to data from an avoidance learning experiment with rodents, these methods revealed performance changes occurring at multiple time scales within and across training sessions which were otherwise obscured in the conventional analysis. Our work shows that the proper assessment of the behavioral dynamics of learning at high temporal resolution can shed new light on specific learning processes, and, thus, allows to refine existing learning concepts. It further disambiguates the interpretation of neurophysiological signal changes recorded during training in relation to learning. PMID:27303809

  9. Improving Accuracy and Temporal Resolution of Learning Curve Estimation for within- and across-Session Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Tabelow, Karsten; König, Reinhard; Polzehl, Jörg

    2016-01-01

    Estimation of learning curves is ubiquitously based on proportions of correct responses within moving trial windows. Thereby, it is tacitly assumed that learning performance is constant within the moving windows, which, however, is often not the case. In the present study we demonstrate that violations of this assumption lead to systematic errors in the analysis of learning curves, and we explored the dependency of these errors on window size, different statistical models, and learning phase. To reduce these errors in the analysis of single-subject data as well as on the population level, we propose adequate statistical methods for the estimation of learning curves and the construction of confidence intervals, trial by trial. Applied to data from an avoidance learning experiment with rodents, these methods revealed performance changes occurring at multiple time scales within and across training sessions which were otherwise obscured in the conventional analysis. Our work shows that the proper assessment of the behavioral dynamics of learning at high temporal resolution can shed new light on specific learning processes, and, thus, allows to refine existing learning concepts. It further disambiguates the interpretation of neurophysiological signal changes recorded during training in relation to learning. PMID:27303809

  10. Influence of spatial accuracy constraints on reaction time and maximum speed of performance of unilateral movements.

    PubMed

    Gutnik, B; Skurvydas, A; Zuoza, A; Zuoziene, I; Mickevičienė, D; Alekrinskis, B A; Pukenas, K; Nash, D

    2015-04-01

    The goal was to study reaction time and maximal velocity of upper limbs of healthy young adults of both sexes during transition from a simple to a more involved task. Performance of dominant and non-dominant arms was recorded. Participants were 43 healthy, right-handed, untrained men (n=22) and women (n=21), 18-22 years old. The simple task required a single jerk-like movement. The involved task required both speed and accuracy where necessity for high speed of performance was emphasized. The effectiveness of transition between tasks was calculated for both reaction time and maximal velocity. No lateral differences were found. Men usually had a shorter reaction time on both tasks and a higher maximal velocity in the simple task. Women were more effective at modifying velocity. PMID:25799027

  11. In vivo diagnostic accuracy of high resolution microendoscopy in differentiating neoplastic from non-neoplastic colorectal polyps: a prospective study

    PubMed Central

    Parikh, Neil; Perl, Daniel; Lee, Michelle H.; Shah, Brijen; Young, Yuki; Chang, Shannon S.; Shukla, Richa; Polydorides, Alexandros D.; Moshier, Erin; Godbold, James; Zhou, Elinor; Mitchaml, Josephine; Richards-Kortum, Rebecca; Anandasabapathy, Sharmila

    2013-01-01

    High-resolution microendoscopy (HRME) is a low-cost, “optical biopsy” technology that allows for subcellular imaging. The purpose of this study was to determine the in vivo diagnostic accuracy of the HRME for the differentiation of neoplastic from non-neoplastic colorectal polyps and compare it to that of high-definition white-light endoscopy (WLE) with histopathology as the gold standard. Three endoscopists prospectively detected a total of 171 polyps from 94 patients that were then imaged by HRME and classified in real-time as neoplastic (adenomatous, cancer) or non-neoplastic (normal, hyperplastic, inflammatory). HRME had a significantly higher accuracy (94%), specificity (95%), and positive predictive value (87%) for the determination of neoplastic colorectal polyps compared to WLE (65%, 39%, and 55%, respectively). When looking at small colorectal polyps (less than 10 mm), HRME continued to significantly outperform WLE in terms of accuracy (95% vs. 64%), specificity (98% vs. 40%) and positive predictive value (92% vs. 55%). These trends continued when evaluating diminutive polyps (less than 5 mm) as HRME's accuracy (95%), specificity (98%), and positive predictive value (93%) were all significantly greater than their WLE counterparts (62%, 41%, and 53%, respectively). In conclusion, this in vivo study demonstrates that HRME can be a very effective modality in the differentiation of neoplastic and non-neoplastic colorectal polyps. A combination of standard white-light colonoscopy for polyp detection and HRME for polyp classification has the potential to truly allow the endoscopist to selectively determine which lesions can be left in situ, which lesions can simply be discarded, and which lesions need formal histopathologic analysis. PMID:24296752

  12. Robustness of Well-Verified, Spatially-Explicit High Resolution Climate Reconstructions: Characterization of Issues and Potential for Their Resolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wahl, E. R.; Anchukaitis, K. J.; Frank, D.

    2009-04-01

    High-resolution, spatially-explicit reconstructions of climate over the past 1-2 millennia offer the potential to achieve two key goals of paleoclimatology: 1) joining the instrumental and paleo records in a systematic way, to facilitate an extended synoptic-scale perspective on climate variability at regional scales; and 2) elucidating spatial patterns of the response to forcing changes over much longer time spans than possible with instrumental data, allowing for a greater range of responses to be included in composite analyses of forcings impacts on climate. A suite of spatially-explicit reconstruction methods coupled with experimental examination of long-term reconstruction performance in climate model simulation environments now provide a rich set of resources with which to move towards these goals, and also to examine likely situations of good and poor performance. A key concern of all paleo-reconstruction methods is that even well-calibrated and well-verified models of the same phenomenon over the same spatial and temporal domains can diverge outside of the calibration and verification periods. Divergence can occur simply by altering proxy data richness within the same reconstruction model. This suite of problems is relatively well characterized for regional, hemispheric, and global average temperature time series, and even has a well-known visual representation - the so-called "spaghetti diagrams". These issues also exist in spatially-explicit reconstructions, but are not as well characterized as they are for spatially-averaged time series; their potential impacts on achieving the goals described above are also not as well understood. We present examples of these issues from our current work in western North America and the South Asia/Indian Ocean region, along with ways to better characterize and deal with them. An intensive empirical approach is taken that examines a large variety of reconstruction situations for a given spatial-temporal domain - using

  13. High spatial resolution remote sensing imagery improves GPP predictions in disturbed, semi-arid woodlands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krofcheck, D. J.; Eitel, J.; Vierling, L. A.; Schulthess, U.; Litvak, M. E.

    2012-12-01

    Climate across the globe is changing and consequently the productivity of terrestrial vegetation is changing with it. Gross primary productivity (GPP) is an integral part of the carbon cycle, yet challenging to measure everywhere, all the time. Efforts to estimate GPP in the context of climate change are becoming continually more salient of the need for models sensitive to the heterogeneous nature of drought and pest induced disturbance. Given the increased availability of high spatial resolution remotely sensed imagery, their use in ecosystem scale GPP estimation is becoming increasingly viable. We used a simple linear model with inputs derived from RapidEye time series data (5 meter spatial resolution) as compared to MODIS inputs (250 meter spatial resolution) to estimate GPP in intact and girdled PJ woodland to simulate drought and pest induced disturbance. An area equal to the MODIS pixels measured was aggregated using RapidEye data centered on the flux towers for comparison purposes. We generated four model runs, two using only MODIS or RapidEye spectral vegetation indices (VIs) and two using MODIS and RapidEye VIs combined at both the control and disturbed tower site. Our results suggest that for undisturbed regions, MODIS derived VIs perform better than the higher spatial resolution RapidEye VIs when a moisture sensitive index is incorporated into the model (RMSE of 17.51for MODIS vs. 22.71 for RapidEye). Modeling GPP in disturbed regions however benefits from the inclusion of high spatial resolution data (RMSE of 14.83 for MODIS vs. 14.70 for RapidEye). This discrepancy may have to do with the disparate scale of a MODIS pixel and the size of the tower fetch. Our results suggest that the best source of VI's for the modeling GPP in semi-arid woodlands depends on the level of disturbance in the landscape. Given that the rate and extent of drought and insect induced mortality events in terrestrial forests are projected to increase with our changing climate

  14. A HIGH SPATIAL RESOLUTION STUDY OF THE {lambda} = 3 mm CONTINUUM OF ORION-KL

    SciTech Connect

    Friedel, D. N.; Widicus Weaver, S. L. E-mail: susanna.widicus.weaver@emory.edu

    2011-12-01

    Recent interferometric observations have called into question the traditional view of the Orion-KL region, which displays one of the most well-defined cases of chemical differentiation in a star-forming region. Previous lower-resolution images of Orion-KL show emission signatures for oxygen-bearing organic molecules toward the Orion Compact Ridge and emission for nitrogen-bearing organic molecules toward the Orion Hot Core. However, more recent observations at higher spatial resolution indicate that the bulk of the molecular emission arises from many smaller, compact clumps that are spatially distinct from the traditional Hot Core and Compact Ridge sources. It is this type of observational information that is critical for guiding astrochemical models, as the spatial distribution of molecules and their relation to energetic sources will govern the chemical mechanisms at play in star-forming regions. We have conducted millimeter-imaging studies of Orion-KL with various beam sizes using the Combined Array for Research in Millimeter-Wave Astronomy in order to investigate the continuum structure. These {lambda} = 3 mm observations have synthesized beam sizes of {approx}0.''5-5.''0. These observations reveal the complex continuum structure of this region, which stands in sharp contrast to the previous structural models assumed for Orion-KL based on lower spatial resolution images. The new results indicate that the spatial scaling previously used in determination of molecular abundances for this region are in need of complete revision. Here we present the results of the continuum observations, discuss the sizes and structures of the detected sources, and suggest an observational strategy for determining the proper spatial scaling to accurately determine molecular abundances in the Orion-KL region.

  15. Tomographic retrieval for scattered light limb measurements: multiple spectral fit windows to improve the spatial resolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pukite, Janis; Dörner, Steffen; Wagner, Thomas

    2015-04-01

    The Scanning Imaging Absorption spectroMeter for Atmospheric CHartographY (SCIAMACHY) on the ENVISAT satellite probed the atmosphere at the day side of Earth in alternating sequences of nadir and limb measurements from August 2002 to April 2012. Limb measurements allow the retrieval of stratospheric profiles of various trace gases on a global scale. It has been shown that combining measurements of the same air volume from different viewing positions along the orbit, 2D distribution fields of stratospheric trace gases can be acquired in one inversion step. Since the atmospheric scattering and absorption processes are wavelength dependent, the spatial sensitivity for limb observations also varies with wavelength. In general, for longer wavelengths, photons from more remote areas along the line of sight are contributing stronger to the measurement than for shorter wavelengths because of the lower probability of Rayleigh scattering. In addition, the radiative transfer is modified by the ozone absorption structures making longer light paths less probable within strong ozone absorption bands. In this study, additional information on the spatial distribution of NO2 is investigated by analysing results obtained by Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy (DOAS) in various spectral fit windows. Combing the fit results in one profile retrieval algorithm helps to improve the spatial sensitivity and resolution of the measurements. The largest improvements for the spatial resolution and sensitivity are expected for the upper troposphere/ lower stratosphere (UTLS) region where the variation of the spatial sensitivity with wavelength is strongest.

  16. High spatial resolution upgrade of the electron cyclotron emission radiometer for the DIII-D tokamak

    SciTech Connect

    Truong, D. D.; Austin, M. E.

    2014-11-15

    The 40-channel DIII-D electron cyclotron emission (ECE) radiometer provides measurements of T{sub e}(r,t) at the tokamak midplane from optically thick, second harmonic X-mode emission over a frequency range of 83–130 GHz. The frequency spacing of the radiometer's channels results in a spatial resolution of ∼1–3 cm, depending on local magnetic field and electron temperature. A new high resolution subsystem has been added to the DIII-D ECE radiometer to make sub-centimeter (0.6–0.8 cm) resolution T{sub e} measurements. The high resolution subsystem branches off from the regular channels’ IF bands and consists of a microwave switch to toggle between IF bands, a switched filter bank for frequency selectivity, an adjustable local oscillator and mixer for further frequency down-conversion, and a set of eight microwave filters in the 2–4 GHz range. Higher spatial resolution is achieved through the use of a narrower (200 MHz) filter bandwidth and closer spacing between the filters’ center frequencies (250 MHz). This configuration allows for full coverage of the 83–130 GHz frequency range in 2 GHz bands. Depending on the local magnetic field, this translates into a “zoomed-in” analysis of a ∼2–4 cm radial region. Expected uses of these channels include mapping the spatial dependence of Alfven eigenmodes, geodesic acoustic modes, and externally applied magnetic perturbations. Initial T{sub e} measurements, which demonstrate that the desired resolution is achieved, are presented.

  17. 3D resolution enhancement of deep-tissue imaging based on virtual spatial overlap modulation microscopy.

    PubMed

    Su, I-Cheng; Hsu, Kuo-Jen; Shen, Po-Ting; Lin, Yen-Yin; Chu, Shi-Wei

    2016-07-25

    During the last decades, several resolution enhancement methods for optical microscopy beyond diffraction limit have been developed. Nevertheless, those hardware-based techniques typically require strong illumination, and fail to improve resolution in deep tissue. Here we develop a high-speed computational approach, three-dimensional virtual spatial overlap modulation microscopy (3D-vSPOM), which immediately solves the strong-illumination issue. By amplifying only the spatial frequency component corresponding to the un-scattered point-spread-function at focus, plus 3D nonlinear value selection, 3D-vSPOM shows significant resolution enhancement in deep tissue. Since no iteration is required, 3D-vSPOM is much faster than iterative deconvolution. Compared to non-iterative deconvolution, 3D-vSPOM does not need a priori information of point-spread-function at deep tissue, and provides much better resolution enhancement plus greatly improved noise-immune response. This method is ready to be amalgamated with two-photon microscopy or other laser scanning microscopy to enhance deep-tissue resolution. PMID:27464077

  18. Effects of sensor spatial resolution on cloud properties retrieved from imagery data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coakley, J. A., Jr.

    1986-01-01

    Techniques being applied to test the sensitivity of the physical characteristics of clouds, as determined by remote sensing, to the spatial resolution of the scans are described. The sensitivity is being evaluated with an error assessment of data from the AVHRR instrument on Nimbus-7. A spatial coherence analysis is being applied to AVHRR data for a 250 sq km region in the Pacific off the Mexican coast. Errors in the derived cloud cover and radiances from which cloud-free regions and cloud-covered regions are being estimated on the basis of radiance values in pixel-sized areas.

  19. A versatile fluorescence lifetime imaging system for scanning large areas with high time and spatial resolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bernardo, César; Belsley, Michael; de Matos Gomes, Etelvina; Gonçalves, Hugo; Isakov, Dmitry; Liebold, Falk; Pereira, Eduardo; Pires, Vladimiro; Samantilleke, Anura; Vasilevskiy, Mikhail; Schellenberg, Peter

    2014-08-01

    We present a flexible fluorescence lifetime imaging device which can be employed to scan large sample areas with a spatial resolution adjustable from many micrometers down to sub-micrometers and a temporal resolution of 20 picoseconds. Several different applications of the system will be presented including protein microarrays analysis, the scanning of historical samples, evaluation of solar cell surfaces and nanocrystalline organic crystals embedded in electrospun polymeric nanofibers. Energy transfer processes within semiconductor quantum dot superstructures as well as between dye probes and graphene layers were also investigated.

  20. High spatial resolution gamma imaging detector based on a 5 inch diameter R3292 Hamamatsu PSPMT

    SciTech Connect

    Wojcik, R.; Majewski, S.; Kross, B.; Weisenberger, A.G.; Steinbach, D.

    1998-06-01

    High resolution imaging gamma-ray detectors were developed using Hamamatsu`s 5 inch diameter R3292 position sensitive PMT (PSPMT) and a variety of crystal scintillator arrays. Special readout techniques were used to maximize the active imaging area while reducing the number of readout channels. Spatial resolutions approaching 1 mm were obtained in a broad energy range from 20 to 511 keV. Results are also presented of coupling the scintillator arrays to the PMT via imaging light guides consisting of acrylic optical fibers.

  1. A 30 year High -Spatial Resolution Cloud Climatology from NOAA's PATMOS-x Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heidinger, A. K.; Walther, A.; Foster, M. J.

    2010-12-01

    The Pathfinder Atmospheres Extended (PATMOS-x) project at NOAA has recently developed a new higher spatial resolution data set derived from over 30 years of data from the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer. The PATMOS-x data is now online and has been submitted into the GEWEX cloud climatology assessment library of cloud climate data sets. This data also benefits from a recent recalibration of the solar reflectance channels. This work will present our latest analysis and provide our insights into the strengths and limitations of this new data. Comparisons with GEWEX data sets and to the recently generated AVHRR cloud climatology from EUMETSAT will be shown.

  2. A new method for spatial resolution enhancement of hyperspectral images using sparse coding and linear spectral unmixing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hashemi, Nezhad Z.; Karami, A.

    2015-10-01

    Hyperspectral images (HSI) have high spectral and low spatial resolutions. However, multispectral images (MSI) usually have low spectral and high spatial resolutions. In various applications HSI with high spectral and spatial resolutions are required. In this paper, a new method for spatial resolution enhancement of HSI using high resolution MSI based on sparse coding and linear spectral unmixing (SCLSU) is introduced. In the proposed method (SCLSU), high spectral resolution features of HSI and high spatial resolution features of MSI are fused. In this case, the sparse representation of some high resolution MSI and linear spectral unmixing (LSU) model of HSI and MSI is simultaneously used in order to construct high resolution HSI (HRHSI). The fusion process of HSI and MSI is formulated as an ill-posed inverse problem. It is solved by the Split Augmented Lagrangian Shrinkage Algorithm (SALSA) and an orthogonal matching pursuit (OMP) algorithm. Finally, the proposed algorithm is applied to the Hyperion and ALI datasets. Compared with the other state-of-the-art algorithms such as Coupled Nonnegative Matrix Factorization (CNMF) and local spectral unmixing, the SCLSU has significantly increased the spatial resolution and in addition the spectral content of HSI is well maintained.

  3. Influence of Scale Effect and Model Performance in Downscaling ASTER Land Surface Temperatures to a Very High Spatial Resolution in an Agricultural Area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, J.; Li, G.; Liu, S.; Zhan, W.; Zhang, X.

    2015-12-01

    At present land surface temperatures (LSTs) can be generated from thermal infrared remote sensing with spatial resolutions from ~100 m to tens of kilometers. However, LSTs with high spatial resolution, e.g. tens of meters, are still lack. The purpose of LST downscaling is to generate LSTs with finer spatial resolutions than their native spatial resolutions. The statistical linear or nonlinear regression models are most frequently used for LST downscaling. The basic assumption of these models is the scale-invariant relationships between LST and its descriptors, which is questioned but rare researches have been reported. In addition, few researches can be found for downscaling satellite LST or TIR data to a high spatial resolution, i.e. better than 100 m or even finer. The lack of LST with high spatial resolution cannot satisfy the requirements of applications such as evapotranspiration mapping at the field scale. By selecting a dynamically developing agricultural oasis as the study area, the aim of this study is to downscale the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) LSTs to 15 m, to satisfy the requirement of evapotranspiration mapping at the field scale. Twelve ASTER images from May to September in 2012, covering the entire growth stage of maize, were selected. Four statistical models were evaluated, including one global model, one piecewise model, and two local models. The influence from scale effect in downscaling LST was quantified. The downscaled LSTs are evaluated from accuracy and image quality. Results demonstrate that the influence from scale effect varies according to models and the maize growth stage. Significant influence about -4 K to 6 K existed at the early stage and weaker influence existed in the middle stage. When compared with the ground measured LSTs, the downscaled LSTs resulted from the global and local models yielded higher accuracies and better image qualities than the local models. In addition to the

  4. 3D high spectral and spatial resolution imaging of ex vivo mouse brain

    SciTech Connect

    Foxley, Sean Karczmar, Gregory S.; Domowicz, Miriam; Schwartz, Nancy

    2015-03-15

    Purpose: Widely used MRI methods show brain morphology both in vivo and ex vivo at very high resolution. Many of these methods (e.g., T{sub 2}{sup *}-weighted imaging, phase-sensitive imaging, or susceptibility-weighted imaging) are sensitive to local magnetic susceptibility gradients produced by subtle variations in tissue composition. However, the spectral resolution of commonly used methods is limited to maintain reasonable run-time combined with very high spatial resolution. Here, the authors report on data acquisition at increased spectral resolution, with 3-dimensional high spectral and spatial resolution MRI, in order to analyze subtle variations in water proton resonance frequency and lineshape that reflect local anatomy. The resulting information compliments previous studies based on T{sub 2}{sup *} and resonance frequency. Methods: The proton free induction decay was sampled at high resolution and Fourier transformed to produce a high-resolution water spectrum for each image voxel in a 3D volume. Data were acquired using a multigradient echo pulse sequence (i.e., echo-planar spectroscopic imaging) with a spatial resolution of 50 × 50 × 70 μm{sup 3} and spectral resolution of 3.5 Hz. Data were analyzed in the spectral domain, and images were produced from the various Fourier components of the water resonance. This allowed precise measurement of local variations in water resonance frequency and lineshape, at the expense of significantly increased run time (16–24 h). Results: High contrast T{sub 2}{sup *}-weighted images were produced from the peak of the water resonance (peak height image), revealing a high degree of anatomical detail, specifically in the hippocampus and cerebellum. In images produced from Fourier components of the water resonance at −7.0 Hz from the peak, the contrast between deep white matter tracts and the surrounding tissue is the reverse of the contrast in water peak height images. This indicates the presence of a shoulder in

  5. Spatial Distribution of Accuracy of Aerosol Retrievals from Multiple Satellite Sensors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Petrenko, Maksym; Ichoku, Charles

    2012-01-01

    Remote sensing of aerosols from space has been a subject of extensive research, with multiple sensors retrieving aerosol properties globally on a daily or weekly basis. The diverse algorithms used for these retrievals operate on different types of reflected signals based on different assumptions about the underlying physical phenomena. Depending on the actual retrieval conditions and especially on the geographical location of the sensed aerosol parcels, the combination of these factors might be advantageous for one or more of the sensors and unfavorable for others, resulting in disagreements between similar aerosol parameters retrieved from different sensors. In this presentation, we will demonstrate the use of the Multi-sensor Aerosol Products Sampling System (MAPSS) to analyze and intercompare aerosol retrievals from multiple spaceborne sensors, including MODIS (on Terra and Aqua), MISR, OMI, POLDER, CALIOP, and SeaWiFS. Based on this intercomparison, we are determining geographical locations where these products provide the greatest accuracy of the retrievals and identifying the products that are the most suitable for retrieval at these locations. The analyses are performed by comparing quality-screened satellite aerosol products to available collocated ground-based aerosol observations from the Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET) stations, during the period of 2006-2010 when all the satellite sensors were operating concurrently. Furthermore, we will discuss results of a statistical approach that is applied to the collocated data to detect and remove potential data outliers that can bias the results of the analysis.

  6. Atmospheric Moisture Budget and Spatial Resolution Dependence of Precipitation Extremes in Aquaplanet Simulations

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Qing; Leung, Lai-Yung R.; Rauscher, Sara; Ringler, Todd; Taylor, Mark

    2014-05-01

    data aggregation effect in omega, thermodynamic changes become relatively significant in offsetting the effect of dynamics leading to reduce differences between the simulated and aggregated results. Compared to MPAS, the simulated stronger vertical motion with HOMME also results in larger resolution dependency. Compared to the simulation at fine resolution, the vertical motion during extremes is insufficiently resolved/parameterized at the coarser resolution even after accounting for the natural reduction in variability with coarser resolution, and this is more distinct in the simulation with HOMME. To reduce uncertainties in simulated precipitation extremes, future development in cloud parameterizations must address their sensitivity to spatial resolution as well as dynamical cores.

  7. Spatial resolution of imaging plate with flash X-rays and its utilization for radiography

    SciTech Connect

    Shaikh, A. M.; Romesh, C.; Kolage, T. S.; Sharma, Archana

    2015-06-24

    A flash X-ray source developed using pulsed electron accelerator with electron energy range of 400keV to 1030keV and a field emission cathode is characterized using X-ray imaging plates. Spatial resolution of the imaging system is measured using edge spread function fitted to data obtained from radiograph of Pb step wedge. A spatial resolution of 150±6 µm is obtained. The X-ray beam size is controlled by the anode-cathode configuration. Optimum source size of ∼13±2 mm diameter covering an area with intensity of ∼27000 PSL/mm{sup 2} is obtained on the imaging plate kept at a distance of ∼200 mm from the tip of the anode. It is used for recording radiographs of objects like satellite cable cutter, aero-engine turbine blade and variety of pyro-devices used in aerospace industry.

  8. Hard X-ray Microscopy with sub 30 nm Spatial Resolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Mau-Tsu; Song, Yen-Fang; Yin, Gung-Chian; Chen, Fu-Rong; Chen, Jian-Hua; Chen, Yi-Ming; Liang, Keng S.; Duewer, F.; Yun, Wenbing

    2007-01-01

    A transmission X-ray microscope (TXM) has been installed at the BL01B beamline at National Synchrotron Radiation Research Center in Taiwan. This state-of-the-art TXM operational in a range 8-11 keV provides 2D images and 3D tomography with spatial resolution 60 nm, and with the Zernike-phase contrast mode for imaging light materials such as biological specimens. A spatial resolution of the TXM better than 30 nm, apparently the best result in hard X-ray microscopy, has been achieved by employing the third diffraction order of the objective zone plate. The TXM has been applied in diverse research fields, including analysis of failure mechanisms in microelectronic devices, tomographic structures of naturally grown photonic specimens, and the internal structure of fault zone gouges from an earthquake core. Here we discuss the scope and prospects of the project, and the progress of the TXM in NSRRC.

  9. Hard X-ray Microscopy with sub 30 nm Spatial Resolution

    SciTech Connect

    Tang, M.-T.; Song, Y.-F.; Yin, G.-C.; Chen, J.-H.; Chen, Y.-M.; Liang, Keng S.; Chen, F.-R.; Duewer, F.; Yun Wenbing

    2007-01-19

    A transmission X-ray microscope (TXM) has been installed at the BL01B beamline at National Synchrotron Radiation Research Center in Taiwan. This state-of-the-art TXM operational in a range 8-11 keV provides 2D images and 3D tomography with spatial resolution 60 nm, and with the Zernike-phase contrast mode for imaging light materials such as biological specimens. A spatial resolution of the TXM better than 30 nm, apparently the best result in hard X-ray microscopy, has been achieved by employing the third diffraction order of the objective zone plate. The TXM has been applied in diverse research fields, including analysis of failure mechanisms in microelectronic devices, tomographic structures of naturally grown photonic specimens, and the internal structure of fault zone gouges from an earthquake core. Here we discuss the scope and prospects of the project, and the progress of the TXM in NSRRC.

  10. Working memory-driven attention improves spatial resolution: Support for perceptual enhancement.

    PubMed

    Pan, Yi; Luo, Qianying; Cheng, Min

    2016-08-01

    Previous research has indicated that attention can be biased toward those stimuli matching the contents of working memory and thereby facilitates visual processing at the location of the memory-matching stimuli. However, whether this working memory-driven attentional modulation takes place on early perceptual processes remains unclear. Our present results showed that working memory-driven attention improved identification of a brief Landolt target presented alone in the visual field. Because the suprathreshold target appeared without any external noise added (i.e., no distractors or masks), the results suggest that working memory-driven attention enhances the target signal at early perceptual stages of visual processing. Furthermore, given that performance in the Landolt target identification task indexes spatial resolution, this attentional facilitation indicates that working memory-driven attention can boost early perceptual processing via enhancement of spatial resolution at the attended location. PMID:27192995

  11. Study on the spatial resolution of EEG--effect of electrode density and measurement noise.

    PubMed

    Ryynänen, O; Hyttinen, J; Malmivuo, J

    2004-01-01

    The spatial resolution of electroencephalography (EEG) is studied by means of inverse cortical EEG solution. Special attention is paid to the effect of electrode density and the effect of measurement noise on the spatial resolution. A three-layer spherical head model is used as a volume conductor to obtain the source-field relationship of cortical potentials and scalp potential field. Effect of measurement noise is evaluated with truncated singular value decomposition (TSVD). Also simulations about different electrode systems' ability to separate cortical sources are performed. The results show that as the measurement noise increases the advantage of dense electrode systems decreases. Our results suggest that in clinical measurement environment it is always beneficial to use at least 64 measurement electrodes. In low-noise realistic measurement environment the use of even 256 measurement electrodes is beneficial. PMID:17271283

  12. Spatial resolution of imaging plate with flash X-rays and its utilization for radiography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shaikh, A. M.; Romesh, C.; Kolage, T. S.; Sharma, Archana

    2015-06-01

    A flash X-ray source developed using pulsed electron accelerator with electron energy range of 400keV to 1030keV and a field emission cathode is characterized using X-ray imaging plates. Spatial resolution of the imaging system is measured using edge spread function fitted to data obtained from radiograph of Pb step wedge. A spatial resolution of 150±6 µm is obtained. The X-ray beam size is controlled by the anode-cathode configuration. Optimum source size of ˜13±2 mm diameter covering an area with intensity of ˜27000 PSL/mm2 is obtained on the imaging plate kept at a distance of ˜200 mm from the tip of the anode. It is used for recording radiographs of objects like satellite cable cutter, aero-engine turbine blade and variety of pyro-devices used in aerospace industry

  13. Impulse Response Estimation for Spatial Resolution Enhancement in Ultrasonic NDE Imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Clark, G A

    2004-06-25

    This report describes a signal processing algorithm and MATLAB software for improving spatial resolution in ultrasonic nondestructive evaluation (NDE) imaging of materials. Given a measured reflection signal and an associated reference signal, the algorithm produces an optimal least-squares estimate of the impulse response of the material under test. This estimated impulse response, when used in place of the raw reflection signal, enhances the spatial resolution of the ultrasonic measurements by removing distortion caused by the limited-bandwidth transducers and the materials under test. The theory behind the processing algorithms is briefly presented, while the reader is referred to the bibliography for details. The main focus of the report is to describe how to use the MATLAB software. Two processing examples using actual ultrasonic measurements are provided for tutorial purposes.

  14. Concept for room temperature single-spin tunneling force microscopy with atomic spatial resolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Payne, Adam

    A study of a force detected single-spin magnetic resonance measurement concept with atomic spatial resolution is presented. The method is based upon electrostatic force detection of spin-selection rule controlled single electron tunneling between two electrically isolated paramagnetic states. Single-spin magnetic resonance detection is possible by measuring the force detected tunneling charge noise on and off spin resonance. Simulation results of this charge noise, based upon physical models of the tunneling and spin physics, are directly compared to measured atomic force microscopy (AFM) system noise. The results show that the approach could provide single-spin measurement of electrically isolated defect states with atomic spatial resolution at room temperature.

  15. Comparison of spatial resolutions obtained with different signal components in scanning electron microscopy.

    PubMed

    Merli, P G; Migliori, A; Nacucchi, M; Vittor Antisari, M

    1996-09-01

    Comparative studies on the ultimate spatial resolution of the Scanning Electron Microscope, using different components of the electron signal have been performed on specimens providing compositional contrast. By operating the microscope in conventional way as well as with a specifically designed set-up we have ascertained that the delocalized components of the signal provide a spatial resolution of the order of the beam size, even if the practical use can be limited by the noise. To amplify the contribution of the delocalized components of the signal, as backscattered electrons by a bulk specimen or forward scattered electrons by a thin specimen, we used a device consisting of a plate of a material with high secondary yield placed above or below the sample. An important practical implication arises from this study. A detecting system consisting of a standard Everhart-Thornley detector coupled with a converter of backscattered or transmitted electrons represents a high performance detecting device for low voltage observations. PMID:8961547

  16. High Spatial Resolution STXM at 6.2 keV Photon Energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vila-Comamala, Joan; Dierolf, Martin; Kewish, Cameron M.; Thibault, Pierre; Pilvi, Tero; Färm, Elina; Guzenko, Vitaliy; Gorelick, Sergey; Menzel, Andreas; Bunk, Oliver; Ritala, Mikko; Pfeiffer, Franz; David, Christian

    2010-04-01

    We report on a zone-doubling technique that bypasses the electron-beam lithography limitations for the production of X-ray diffractive optics and enables the fabrication of Fresnel zone plates with smaller outermost zone widths than other well-established approaches. We have applied this method to manufacture hard X-ray Fresnel zone plates with outermost zone widths of 25 and 20 nm. These lenses have been tested in scanning transmission X-ray microscopy (STXM) at energies up to 6.2 keV, producing images of test structures that demonstrate a spatial resolution of 25 nm. High spatial resolution STXM images of several biological specimens have been acquired in transmission, dark-field and differential phase contrast modes.

  17. Measurement Sets and Sites Commonly Used for High Spatial Resolution Image Product Characterization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pagnutti, Mary

    2006-01-01

    Scientists within NASA's Applied Sciences Directorate have developed a well-characterized remote sensing Verification & Validation (V&V) site at the John C. Stennis Space Center (SSC). This site has enabled the in-flight characterization of satellite high spatial resolution remote sensing system products form Space Imaging IKONOS, Digital Globe QuickBird, and ORBIMAGE OrbView, as well as advanced multispectral airborne digital camera products. SSC utilizes engineered geodetic targets, edge targets, radiometric tarps, atmospheric monitoring equipment and their Instrument Validation Laboratory to characterize high spatial resolution remote sensing data products. This presentation describes the SSC characterization capabilities and techniques in the visible through near infrared spectrum and examples of calibration results.

  18. Improving the spatial and temporal resolution with quantification of uncertainty and errors in earth observation data sets using Data Interpolating Empirical Orthogonal Functions methodology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El Serafy, Ghada; Gaytan Aguilar, Sandra; Ziemba, Alexander

    2016-04-01

    There is an increasing use of process-based models in the investigation of ecological systems and scenario predictions. The accuracy and quality of these models are improved when run with high spatial and temporal resolution data sets. However, ecological data can often be difficult to collect which manifests itself through irregularities in the spatial and temporal domain of these data sets. Through the use of Data INterpolating Empirical Orthogonal Functions(DINEOF) methodology, earth observation products can be improved to have full spatial coverage within the desired domain as well as increased temporal resolution to daily and weekly time step, those frequently required by process-based models[1]. The DINEOF methodology results in a degree of error being affixed to the refined data product. In order to determine the degree of error introduced through this process, the suspended particulate matter and chlorophyll-a data from MERIS is used with DINEOF to produce high resolution products for the Wadden Sea. These new data sets are then compared with in-situ and other data sources to determine the error. Also, artificial cloud cover scenarios are conducted in order to substantiate the findings from MERIS data experiments. Secondly, the accuracy of DINEOF is explored to evaluate the variance of the methodology. The degree of accuracy is combined with the overall error produced by the methodology and reported in an assessment of the quality of DINEOF when applied to resolution refinement of chlorophyll-a and suspended particulate matter in the Wadden Sea. References [1] Sirjacobs, D.; Alvera-Azcárate, A.; Barth, A.; Lacroix, G.; Park, Y.; Nechad, B.; Ruddick, K.G.; Beckers, J.-M. (2011). Cloud filling of ocean colour and sea surface temperature remote sensing products over the Southern North Sea by the Data Interpolating Empirical Orthogonal Functions methodology. J. Sea Res. 65(1): 114-130. Dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.seares.2010.08.002

  19. Optimal attributes for the object based detection of giant reed in riparian habitats: A comparative study between Airborne High Spatial Resolution and WorldView-2 imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernandes, Maria Rosário; Aguiar, Francisca C.; Silva, João M. N.; Ferreira, Maria Teresa; Pereira, José M. C.

    2014-10-01

    Giant reed is an aggressive invasive plant of riparian ecosystems in many sub-tropical and warm-temperate regions, including Mediterranean Europe. In this study we tested a set of geometric, spectral and textural attributes in an object based image analysis (OBIA) approach to map giant reed invasions in riparian habitats. Bagging Classification and Regression Tree were used to select the optimal attributes and to build the classification rules sets. Mapping accuracy was performed using landscape metrics and the Kappa coefficient to compare the topographical and geometric similarity between the giant reed patches obtained with the OBIA map and with a validation map derived from on-screen digitizing. The methodology was applied in two high spatial resolution images: an airborne multispectral imagery and the newly WorldView-2 imagery. A temporal coverage of the airborne multispectral images was radiometrically calibrated with the IR-Mad transformation and used to assess the influence of the phenological variability of the invader. We found that optimal attributes for giant reed OBIA detection are a combination of spectral, geometric and textural information, with different scoring selection depending on the spectral and spatial characteristics of the imagery. WorldView-2 showed higher mapping accuracy (Kappa coefficient of 77%) and spectral attributes, including the newly yellow band, were preferentially selected, although a tendency to overestimate the total invaded area, due to the low spatial resolution (2 m of pixel size vs. 50 cm) was observed. When airborne images were used, geometric attributes were primarily selected and a higher spatial detail of the invasive patches was obtained, due to the higher spatial resolution. However, in highly heterogeneous landscapes, the low spectral resolution of the airborne images (4 bands instead of the 8 of WorldView-2) reduces the capability to detect giant reed patches. Giant reed displays peculiar spectral and geometric

  20. Impact of feature selection on the accuracy and spatial uncertainty of per-field crop classification using Support Vector Machines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Löw, F.; Michel, U.; Dech, S.; Conrad, C.

    2013-11-01

    Crop mapping is one major component of agricultural resource monitoring using remote sensing. Yield or water demand modeling requires that both, the total surface that is cultivated and the accurate distribution of crops, respectively is known. Map quality is crucial and influences the model outputs. Although the use of multi-spectral time series data in crop mapping has been acknowledged, the potentially high dimensionality of the input data remains an issue. In this study Support Vector Machines (SVM) are used for crop classification in irrigated landscapes at the object-level. Input to the classifications is 71 multi-seasonal spectral and geostatistical features computed from RapidEye time series. The random forest (RF) feature importance score was used to select a subset of features that achieved optimal accuracies. The relationship between the hard result accuracy and the soft output from the SVM is investigated by employing two measures of uncertainty, the maximum a posteriori probability and the alpha quadratic entropy. Specifically the effect of feature selection on map uncertainty is investigated by looking at the soft outputs of the SVM, in addition to classical accuracy metrics. Overall the SVMs applied to the reduced feature subspaces that were composed of the most informative multi-seasonal features led to a clear increase in classification accuracy up to 4.3%, and to a significant decline in thematic uncertainty. SVM was shown to be affected by feature space size and could benefit from RF-based feature selection. Uncertainty measures from SVM are an informative source of information on the spatial distribution of error in the crop maps.

  1. High-resolution wavefront control using liquid crystal spatial light modulators

    SciTech Connect

    Bauman, B J; Brase, J M; Brown, C G; Cooke, J B; Kartz, M W; Olivier, S S; Pennington, D M; Silva, D A

    1999-07-20

    Liquid crystal spatial light modulator technology appropriate for high-resolution wavefront control has recently become commercially available. Some of these devices have several hundred thousand controllable degrees of freedom, more than two orders of magnitude greater than the largest conventional deformable mirror. We will present results of experiments to characterize the optical properties of these devices and to utilize them to correct aberrations in an optical system. We will also present application scenarios for these devices in high-power laser systems.

  2. Improving detector spatial resolution using pixelated scintillators with a barrier rib structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Langechuan; Lu, Minghui; Cao, Wanqing; Peng, Luke; Chen, Arthur

    2016-03-01

    Indirect conversion flat panel detectors (FPDs) based on amorphous silicon (a-Si) technology are widely used in digital X-ray imaging. In such FPDs a scintillator layer is used for converting X-rays into visible light photons. However, the lateral spread of these photons inside the scintillator layer reduces spatial resolution of the FPD. In this study, FPDs incorporating pixelated scintillators with a barrier rib structure were developed to limit lateral spread of light photons thereby improving spatial resolution. For the pixelated scintillator, a two-dimensional barrier rib structure was first manufactured on a substrate layer, coated with reflective materials, and filled to the rim with the scintillating material of gadolinium oxysulfide (GOS). Several scintillator samples were fabricated, with pitch size varying from 160 to 280 μm and rib height from 200 to 280 μm. The samples were directly coupled to an a-Si flat panel photodiode array with a pitch of 200 μm to convert optical photons to electronic signals. With the pixelated scintillator, the detector modulation transfer function was shown to improve significantly (by 94% at 2 cycle/mm) compared to a detector using an unstructured GOS layer. However, the prototype does show lower sensitivity due to the decrease in scintillator fill factor. The preliminary results demonstrated the feasibility of using the barrier-rib structure to improve the spatial resolution of FPDs. Such an improvement would greatly benefit nondestructive testing applications where the spatial resolution is the most important parameter. Further investigation will focus on improving the detector sensitivity and exploring its medical applications.

  3. Effect of optical tissue clearing on spatial resolution and sensitivity of bioluminescence imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jansen, Eric D.; Pickett, Patrick M.; Mackanos, Mark A.; Virostko, Jack

    2006-07-01

    In vivo bioluminescence imaging (BLI) is a powerful method of in vivo molecular imaging based on the use of optically active luciferase reporter genes. Although this method provides superior sensitivity relative to other in vivo imaging methods, spatial resolution is poor due to light scattering. The objective of this study was to use hyperosmotic agents to reduce the scattering coefficient and hence improve spatial resolution of the BLI method. A diffusing fiber tip was used to simulate an isotropic point source of bioluminescence emission (550 to 650 nm). Mouse skin was treated in vitro and in vivo with glycerol (50%, 30 min) and measurements of optical properties, and imaging photon counts were made before, during, and after application of glycerol to the skin sample. Glycerol application to mouse skin had little effect on the absorption coefficient but reduced the reduced scattering coefficient by more than one order of magnitude. This effect was reversible. Consequently, the spot size (i.e., spatial resolution) of the bioluminescence point source imaged through the skin decreased by a factor of 2 (550-nm light) to 3 (650-nm light) after 30 min. Simultaneously, an almost twofold decrease in the amount of light detected by the BLI system was observed, despite the fact that total transmission increased 1.7 times. We have shown here that multiply scattered light is responsible for both observations. We have shown that applying a hyperosmotic clearing agent to the skin of small rodents has the potential to improve spatial resolution of BLI owing to a reduction in the reduced scattering coefficient in the skin by one order of magnitude. However, reducing the scattering coefficient reduces the amount of light reaching the camera due to a reduction in the amount of multiply scattered light that reaches the camera aperture and thus reducing the sensitivity of the method.

  4. An adaptive spectral estimation technique to detect cavitation in HIFU with high spatial resolution.

    PubMed

    Hsieh, Chang-Yu; Probert Smith, Penny; Mayia, Fares; Ye, Guoliang

    2011-07-01

    In ultrasound-guided high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) therapy, the changes observed on tissue are subtle during treatment; some ultrasound-guided HIFU protocols rely on the observation of significant brightness changes as the indicator of tissue lesions. The occurrence of a distinct hyperechogenic region ("bright-up") around the focus is often associated with acoustic cavitation resulting in microbubble formation, but it may indicate different physical events such as larger bubbles from boiling (known to alter acoustic impedance) or sometimes lesion formation. A reliable method to distinguish and spatially localize these causes within the tissue would assist the control of HIFU delivery, which is the subject of this paper. Spectral analysis of the radio frequency (RF) signal underlying the B-mode image provides more information on the physical cause, but the usual techniques that are methods on the Fourier transform require a long series for good spectral resolution and so they give poor spatial resolution. This paper introduces an active spectral cavitation detection method to attain high spatial resolution (0.15 × 0.15 mm per pixel) through a parametric statistical method (ARMA modeling) used on finite-length data sets, which enables local changes to be identified more easily. This technique uses the characteristics of the signal itself to optimize the model parameters and structure. Its performance is assessed using synthesized cavitation RF data, and it is then demonstrated in ex vivo bovine liver during and after HIFU exposure. The results suggest that good spatial and spectral resolution can be obtained by the design of suitable algorithms. In ultrasound-guided HIFU, the technique provides a useful supplement to B-mode analysis, with no additional time penalty in data acquisition. PMID:21684454

  5. An optical setup for electric field measurements in MRI with high spatial resolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reiss, Simon; Bitzer, Andreas; Bock, Michael

    2015-06-01

    Electric field measurements in the magnetic resonance (MR) imaging environment are important to assess potentially dangerous radio-frequency (RF) heating in the vicinity of metallic structures such as coils, implants or catheters. So far, E-field measurements have been performed with dipole antennas that lag of limited spatial resolution and which are difficult to use in the magnet bore as they interfere with the RF transmit field of the MRI system. In this work an electro-optic sensor is presented that utilizes the Pockels effect to measure the E-field in a clinical MR system with high spatial resolution. This sensor consists of dielectric materials only and thus, it only minimally influences the measured E-field distribution. A 10 m long flexible optical fiber connects the small sensor head to a remote processing unit where the optical signal is transformed into an electrical output signal. Spatially resolved qualitative E-field measurements were performed in a 1.5 T clinical MR system in the vicinity of metallic samples and an active tracking catheter with a resolution of up to 1 mm. The near-field pattern of a resonant U-shaped metallic sample was clearly identified and compared with numerical simulations. A more complex field behavior was found for the tracking catheter where strong E-field enhancements were observed at the distal tip and at its proximal part outside the phantom solution. Due to its sub-mm spatial resolution the optical sensor approach provides detailed insight into the complex and difficult to access field distributions close to implants and metallic structures and has turned out to be promising tool for MRI field and safety inspections.

  6. An optical setup for electric field measurements in MRI with high spatial resolution.

    PubMed

    Reiss, Simon; Bitzer, Andreas; Bock, Michael

    2015-06-01

    Electric field measurements in the magnetic resonance (MR) imaging environment are important to assess potentially dangerous radio-frequency (RF) heating in the vicinity of metallic structures such as coils, implants or catheters. So far, E-field measurements have been performed with dipole antennas that lag of limited spatial resolution and which are difficult to use in the magnet bore as they interfere with the RF transmit field of the MRI system. In this work an electro-optic sensor is presented that utilizes the Pockels effect to measure the E-field in a clinical MR system with high spatial resolution. This sensor consists of dielectric materials only and thus, it only minimally influences the measured E-field distribution. A 10 m long flexible optical fiber connects the small sensor head to a remote processing unit where the optical signal is transformed into an electrical output signal. Spatially resolved qualitative E-field measurements were performed in a 1.5 T clinical MR system in the vicinity of metallic samples and an active tracking catheter with a resolution of up to 1 mm. The near-field pattern of a resonant U-shaped metallic sample was clearly identified and compared with numerical simulations. A more complex field behavior was found for the tracking catheter where strong E-field enhancements were observed at the distal tip and at its proximal part outside the phantom solution. Due to its sub-mm spatial resolution the optical sensor approach provides detailed insight into the complex and difficult to access field distributions close to implants and metallic structures and has turned out to be promising tool for MRI field and safety inspections. PMID:25984961

  7. Quantitative metrics for assessment of chemical image quality and spatial resolution

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Kertesz, Vilmos; Cahill, John F.; Van Berkel, Gary J.

    2016-02-28

    Rationale: Currently objective/quantitative descriptions of the quality and spatial resolution of mass spectrometry derived chemical images are not standardized. Development of these standardized metrics is required to objectively describe chemical imaging capabilities of existing and/or new mass spectrometry imaging technologies. Such metrics would allow unbiased judgment of intra-laboratory advancement and/or inter-laboratory comparison for these technologies if used together with standardized surfaces. Methods: We developed two image metrics, viz., chemical image contrast (ChemIC) based on signal-to-noise related statistical measures on chemical image pixels and corrected resolving power factor (cRPF) constructed from statistical analysis of mass-to-charge chronograms across features of interest inmore » an image. These metrics, quantifying chemical image quality and spatial resolution, respectively, were used to evaluate chemical images of a model photoresist patterned surface collected using a laser ablation/liquid vortex capture mass spectrometry imaging system under different instrument operational parameters. Results: The calculated ChemIC and cRPF metrics determined in an unbiased fashion the relative ranking of chemical image quality obtained with the laser ablation/liquid vortex capture mass spectrometry imaging system. These rankings were used to show that both chemical image contrast and spatial resolution deteriorated with increasing surface scan speed, increased lane spacing and decreasing size of surface features. Conclusions: ChemIC and cRPF, respectively, were developed and successfully applied for the objective description of chemical image quality and spatial resolution of chemical images collected from model surfaces using a laser ablation/liquid vortex capture mass spectrometry imaging system.« less

  8. Quantitative comparison of spatial resolution in step-and-shoot and continuous motion digital breast tomosynthesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghani, Muhammad U.; Wu, Di; Wong, Molly D.; Ren, Liqiang; Zheng, Bin; Yang, Kai; Wu, Xizeng; Liu, Hong

    2016-03-01

    This study compares the spatial resolution in step-and-shoot and continuous motion acquisition modes of digital tomosynthesis using a bench-top prototype designed for breast phantoms imaging. The prototype employs a flat panel detector with a 50 μm pixel pitch, a micro focus x-ray tube and a motorized stage. A sharp metal edge with a thickness of 0.2 mm was used to measure the modulation transfer function (MTF). The edge was rotated from -7.5° to +7.5° with 1.5° increments to acquire 11 angular projections using 40 kVp, 500 μA with 5.55 s per projection. In continuous motion mode, the motorized stage moved the test object for the whole exposure time at a speed of 0.377 mm/s. The impact of acquisition speed in continuous DBT was also investigated, and a high speed of 0.753 mm/s was used. In step-and-shoot mode, the cutoff frequencies (10% MTF) in projection view (0°) and reconstructed DBT slices were 5.55 lp/mm and 4.95 lp/mm. Spatial resolution dropped in the continuous motion mode of the DBT due to the blur caused by the rotation of the stage and the cutoff frequencies reduced to 3.6 lp/mm and 3.18 lp/mm in the projection view (0º) and reconstructed DBT slices. At high rotational speed in continuous motion mode, the cutoff frequencies in the DBT slices dropped by 17 % to 2.65 lp/mm. Rotational speed of the rotation stage and spatial resolution are interconnected. Hence, reducing the motion blur in the continuous acquisition mode is important to maintain high spatial resolution for diagnostic purposes.

  9. Detection of Local Anomalies in High Resolution Hyperspectral Imagery Using Geostatistical Filtering and Local Spatial Statistics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goovaerts, P.; Jacquez, G. M.; Marcus, A. W.

    2004-12-01

    Spatial data are periodically collected and processed to monitor, analyze and interpret developments in our changing environment. Remote sensing is a modern way of data collecting and has seen an enormous growth since launching of modern satellites and development of airborne sensors. In particular, the recent availability of high spatial resolution hyperspectral imagery (spatial resolution of less than 5 meters and including data collected over 64 or more bands of electromagnetic radiation for each pixel offers a great potential to significantly enhance environmental mapping and our ability to model spatial systems. High spatial resolution imagery contains a remarkable quantity of information that could be used to analyze spatial breaks (boundaries), areas of similarity (clusters), and spatial autocorrelation (associations) across the landscape. This paper addresses the specific issue of soil disturbance detection, which could indicate the presence of land mines or recent movements of troop and heavy equipment. A challenge presented by soil detection is to retain the measurement of fine-scale features (i.e. mineral soil changes, organic content changes, vegetation disturbance related changes, aspect changes) while still covering proportionally large spatial areas. An additional difficulty is that no ground data might be available for the calibration of spectral signatures, and little might be known about the size of patches of disturbed soils to be detected. This paper describes a new technique for automatic target detection which capitalizes on both spatial and across spectral bands correlation, does not require any a priori information on the target spectral signature but does not allow discrimination between targets. This approach involves successively a multivariate statistical analysis (principal component analysis) of all spectral bands, a geostatistical filtering of noise and regional background in the first principal components using factorial kriging, and

  10. Effect of Spatial Resolution for Characterizing Soil Properties from Imaging Spectrometer Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dutta, D.; Kumar, P.; Greenberg, J. A.

    2015-12-01

    The feasibility of quantifying soil constituents over large areas using airborne hyperspectral data [0.35 - 2.5 μm] in an ensemble bootstrapping lasso algorithmic framework has been demonstrated previously [1]. However the effects of coarsening the spatial resolution of hyperspectral data on the quantification of soil constituents are unknown. We use Airborne Visible Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS) data collected at 7.6m resolution over Birds Point New Madrid (BPNM) floodway for up-scaling and generating multiple coarser resolution datasets including the 60m Hyperspectral Infrared Imager (HyspIRI) like data. HyspIRI is a proposed visible shortwave/thermal infrared mission, which will provide global data over a spectral range of 0.35 - 2.5μm at a spatial resolution of 60m. Our results show that the lasso method, which is based on point scale observational data, is scalable. We found consistent good model performance (R2) values (0.79 < R2 < 0.82) and correct classifications as per USDA soil texture classes at multiple spatial resolutions. The results further demonstrate that the attributes of the pdf for different soil constituents across the landscape and the within-pixel variance are well preserved across scales. Our analysis provides a methodological framework with a sufficient set of metrics for assessing the performance of scaling up analysis from point scale observational data and may be relevant for other similar remote sensing studies. [1] Dutta, D.; Goodwell, A.E.; Kumar, P.; Garvey, J.E.; Darmody, R.G.; Berretta, D.P.; Greenberg, J.A., "On the Feasibility of Characterizing Soil Properties From AVIRIS Data," Geoscience and Remote Sensing, IEEE Transactions on, vol.53, no.9, pp.5133,5147, Sept. 2015. doi: 10.1109/TGRS.2015.2417547.

  11. Dual window method for processing spectroscopic optical coherence tomography signals with high spectral and spatial resolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robles, Francisco E.; Graf, Robert N.; Wax, Adam

    2009-02-01

    The generation of spectroscopic optical coherence tomography (SOCT) signals suffers from an inherent trade off between spatial and spectral resolution. Here, we present a dual window (DW) method that uses two Gaussian windows to simultaneously obtain high spectral and spatial resolution. We show that the DW method probes the Winger time-frequency distribution (TFD) with two orthogonal windows set by the standard deviation of the Gaussian windows used for processing. We also show that in the limit of an infinitesimally narrow window, combined with a large window, this method is equivalent to the Kirkwood & Richaczek TFD and, if the real part is taken, it is equivalent to the Margenau & Hill (MH) TFD. We demonstrate the effectiveness of the method by simulating a signal with four components separated in depth or center frequency. Six TFD are compared: the ideal, the Wigner, the MH, narrow window short time Fourier transform (STFT), wide window STFT, and the DW. The results show that the DW method contains features of the Wigner TFD, and that it contains the highest spatial and spectral resolution that is free of artifacts. This method can enable powerful applications, including accurate acquisition of the spectral information for cancer diagnosis.

  12. Fourier transform infrared absorption spectroscopy characterization of gaseous atmospheric pressure plasmas with 2 mm spatial resolution

    SciTech Connect

    Laroche, G.; Vallade, J.; Bazinette, R.; Hernandez, E.; Hernandez, G.; Massines, F.; Nijnatten, P. van

    2012-10-15

    This paper describes an optical setup built to record Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) absorption spectra in an atmospheric pressure plasma with a spatial resolution of 2 mm. The overall system consisted of three basic parts: (1) optical components located within the FTIR sample compartment, making it possible to define the size of the infrared beam (2 mm Multiplication-Sign 2 mm over a path length of 50 mm) imaged at the site of the plasma by (2) an optical interface positioned between the spectrometer and the plasma reactor. Once through the plasma region, (3) a retro-reflector module, located behind the plasma reactor, redirected the infrared beam coincident to the incident path up to a 45 Degree-Sign beamsplitter to reflect the beam toward a narrow-band mercury-cadmium-telluride detector. The antireflective plasma-coating experiments performed with ammonia and silane demonstrated that it was possible to quantify 42 and 2 ppm of these species in argon, respectively. In the case of ammonia, this was approximately three times less than this gas concentration typically used in plasma coating experiments while the silane limit of quantification was 35 times lower. Moreover, 70% of the incoming infrared radiation was focused within a 2 mm width at the site of the plasma, in reasonable agreement with the expected spatial resolution. The possibility of reaching this spatial resolution thus enabled us to measure the gaseous precursor consumption as a function of their residence time in the plasma.

  13. Spatially resolved high resolution x-ray spectroscopy for magnetically confined fusion plasmas (invited)

    SciTech Connect

    Ince-Cushman, A.; Rice, J. E.; Reinke, M. L.; Podpaly, Y.; Marmar, E. S.; Bitter, M.; Hill, K. W.; Scott, S.; Gu, M. F.; Eikenberry, E.; Broennimann, Ch.; Lee, S. G.

    2008-10-15

    The use of high resolution x-ray crystal spectrometers to diagnose fusion plasmas has been limited by the poor spatial localization associated with chord integrated measurements. Taking advantage of a new x-ray imaging spectrometer concept [M. Bitter et al., Rev. Sci. Instrum. 75, 3660 (2004)], and improvements in x-ray detector technology [Ch. Broennimann et al., J. Synchrotron Radiat. 13, 120 (2006)], a spatially resolving high resolution x-ray spectrometer has been built and installed on the Alcator C-Mod tokamak. This instrument utilizes a spherically bent quartz crystal and a set of two dimensional x-ray detectors arranged in the Johann configuration [H. H. Johann, Z. Phys. 69, 185 (1931)] to image the entire plasma cross section with a spatial resolution of about 1 cm. The spectrometer was designed to measure line emission from H-like and He-like argon in the wavelength range 3.7 and 4.0 A with a resolving power of approximately 10 000 at frame rates up to 200 Hz. Using spectral tomographic techniques [I. Condrea, Phys. Plasmas 11, 2427 (2004)] the line integrated spectra can be inverted to infer profiles of impurity emissivity, velocity, and temperature. From these quantities it is then possible to calculate impurity density and electron temperature profiles. An overview of the instrument, analysis techniques, and example profiles are presented.

  14. Energy-filtering TEM at high magnification: spatial resolution and detection limits.

    PubMed

    Grogger, Werner; Schaffer, Bernhard; Krishnan, Kannan M; Hofer, Ferdinand

    2003-09-01

    Energy-filtering TEM (EFTEM) has turned out to be a very efficient and rapid tool for the chemical characterization of a specimen on a nanometer and even subnanometer length scale. Especially, the detection and measurement of very thin layers has become a great application of this technique in many materials science fields, e.g. semiconductors and hard disk technology. There, the reliability of compositional profiles is an important issue. However, the experimentally obtainable spatial resolution strongly influences the appearance of a thin layer in an EFTEM image, when dimensions reach subnanometer levels, which mainly leads to a broadening of the layer in the image. This fact has to be taken into account, when measuring the thickness of such a thin layer. Additionally, the convolution decreases contrast which makes the layer less visible in the image and finally determines the detection limit. In this work we present a systematic study on specifically designed Mn/PdMn multilayer test specimens to explore the practical aspects of spatial resolution and detection limits in EFTEM. Although specific to the ionization edges used, we will present general conclusions about the practical limitations in terms of EFTEM spatial resolution. Additionally, work will be shown about low energy-loss imaging of thin oxide layers, where delocalization is the main factor responsible for broadening. PMID:12871810

  15. Preparing a landslide and shadow inventory map from high-spatial-resolution imagery facilitated by an expert system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Cheng-Chien

    2015-01-01

    An expert system was developed to integrate all useful spatial information and help the interpreters determine the landslide and shaded areas quickly and accurately. The intersection of two spectral indices, namely the normalized difference vegetation index and the normalized green red difference index, as well as the first principle component of the panchromatic band, is employed to automatically determine the regional thresholds of nonvegetation and dark areas. These boundaries are overlaid on the locally enhanced image and the digital topography model to closely inspect each area with a preferred viewing direction. The other geospatial information can be switched on and off to facilitate interpretation. This new approach is tested with 2 m pan-sharpened multispectral imagery from Formosat-2 taken on August 24, 2009, for several disaster areas of Typhoon Morakot. The generated inventory of landslide and shadow areas is validated with the one manually delineated from the 25 cm aerial photos taken on the same day. The production, user, and overall accuracies are higher than 82%, 85%, and 98%, respectively. The fall in production and user accuracies mainly comes from the differences in resolution. This new approach is as accurate as the general approach of manual delineation and visual interpretation, yet significantly reduces the required time.

  16. Evaluating the influence of spatial resolutions of DEM on watershed runoff and sediment yield using SWAT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reddy, A. Sivasena; Reddy, M. Janga

    2015-10-01

    Digital elevation model (DEM) of a watershed forms key basis for hydrologic modelling and its resolution plays a key role in accurate prediction of various hydrological processes. This study appraises the effect of different DEMs with varied spatial resolutions (namely TOPO 20 m, CARTO 30 m, ASTER 30 m, SRTM 90 m, GEO-AUS 500 m and USGS 1000 m) on hydrological response of watershed using Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) and applied for a case study of Kaddam watershed in India for estimating runoff and sediment yield. From the results of case study, it was observed that reach lengths, reach slopes, minimum and maximum elevations, sub-watershed areas, land use mapping areas within the sub-watershed and number of HRUs varied substantially due to DEM resolutions, and consequently resulted in a considerable variability in estimated daily runoff and sediment yields. It was also observed that, daily runoff values have increased (decreased) on low (high) rainy days respectively with coarser resolution of DEM. The daily sediment yield values from each sub-watershed decreased with coarser resolution of the DEM. The study found that the performance of SWAT model prediction was not influenced much for finer resolution DEMs up to 90 m for estimation of runoff, but it certainly influenced the estimation of sediment yields. The DEMs of TOPO 20 m and CARTO 30 m provided better estimates of sub-watershed areas, runoff and sediment yield values over other DEMs.

  17. fMRI at High Spatial Resolution: Implications for BOLD-Models

    PubMed Central

    Goense, Jozien; Bohraus, Yvette; Logothetis, Nikos K.

    2016-01-01

    As high-resolution functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and fMRI of cortical layers become more widely used, the question how well high-resolution fMRI signals reflect the underlying neural processing, and how to interpret laminar fMRI data becomes more and more relevant. High-resolution fMRI has shown laminar differences in cerebral blood flow (CBF), volume (CBV), and neurovascular coupling. Features and processes that were previously lumped into a single voxel become spatially distinct at high resolution. These features can be vascular compartments such as veins, arteries, and capillaries, or cortical layers and columns, which can have differences in metabolism. Mesoscopic models of the blood oxygenation level dependent (BOLD) response therefore need to be expanded, for instance, to incorporate laminar differences in the coupling between neural activity, metabolism and the hemodynamic response. Here we discuss biological and methodological factors that affect the modeling and interpretation of high-resolution fMRI data. We also illustrate with examples from neuropharmacology and the negative BOLD response how combining BOLD with CBF- and CBV-based fMRI methods can provide additional information about neurovascular coupling, and can aid modeling and interpretation of high-resolution fMRI. PMID:27445782

  18. fMRI at High Spatial Resolution: Implications for BOLD-Models.

    PubMed

    Goense, Jozien; Bohraus, Yvette; Logothetis, Nikos K

    2016-01-01

    As high-resolution functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and fMRI of cortical layers become more widely used, the question how well high-resolution fMRI signals reflect the underlying neural processing, and how to interpret laminar fMRI data becomes more and more relevant. High-resolution fMRI has shown laminar differences in cerebral blood flow (CBF), volume (CBV), and neurovascular coupling. Features and processes that were previously lumped into a single voxel become spatially distinct at high resolution. These features can be vascular compartments such as veins, arteries, and capillaries, or cortical layers and columns, which can have differences in metabolism. Mesoscopic models of the blood oxygenation level dependent (BOLD) response therefore need to be expanded, for instance, to incorporate laminar differences in the coupling between neural activity, metabolism and the hemodynamic response. Here we discuss biological and methodological factors that affect the modeling and interpretation of high-resolution fMRI data. We also illustrate with examples from neuropharmacology and the negative BOLD response how combining BOLD with CBF- and CBV-based fMRI methods can provide additional information about neurovascular coupling, and can aid modeling and interpretation of high-resolution fMRI. PMID:27445782

  19. Assessing spatial resolution versus sensitivity from laser speckle contrast imaging: application to frequency analysis.

    PubMed

    Bricq, Stéphanie; Mahé, Guillaume; Rousseau, David; Humeau-Heurtier, Anne; Chapeau-Blondeau, François; Varela, Julio Rojas; Abraham, Pierre

    2012-10-01

    For blood perfusion monitoring, laser speckle contrast (LSC) imaging is a recent non-contact technique that has the characteristic of delivering noise-like speckled images. To exploit LSC images for quantitative physiological measurements, we developed an approach that implements controlled spatial averaging to reduce the detrimental impact of the noise and improve measurement sensitivity. By this approach, spatial resolution and measurement sensitivity can be traded-off in a flexible way depending on the quantitative prospect of the study. As an application, detectability of the cardiac activity from LSC images of forearm using power spectrum analysis is studied through the construction of spatial activity maps offering a window on the blood flow perfusion and its regional distribution. Comparisons with results obtained with signals of laser Doppler flowmetry probes are performed. PMID:22644256

  20. High Resolution Spatial and Temporal Mapping of Traffic-Related Air Pollutants

    PubMed Central

    Batterman, Stuart; Ganguly, Rajiv; Harbin, Paul

    2015-01-01

    Vehicle traffic is one of the most significant emission sources of air pollutants in urban areas. While the influence of mobile source emissions is felt throughout an urban area, concentrations from mobile emissions can be highest near major roadways. At present, information regarding the spatial and temporal patterns and the share of pollution attributable to traffic-related air pollutants is limited, in part due to concentrations that fall sharply with distance from roadways, as well as the few monitoring sites available in cities. This study uses a newly developed dispersion model (RLINE) and a spatially and temporally resolved emissions inventory to predict hourly PM2.5 and NOx concentrations across Detroit (MI, USA) at very high spatial resolution. Results for annual averages and high pollution days show contrasting patterns, the need for spatially resolved analyses, and the limitations of surrogate metrics like proximity or distance to roads. Data requirements, computational and modeling issues are discussed. High resolution pollutant data enable the identification of pollutant “hotspots”, “project-level” analyses of transportation options, development of exposure measures for epidemiology studies, delineation of vulnerable and susceptible populations, policy analyses examining risks and benefits of mitigation options, and the development of sustainability indicators integrating environmental, social, economic and health information. PMID:25837345

  1. FREND neutron telescope for mapping the Martian water with fine spatial resolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitrofanov, Igor; Malakhov, Alexey; Mokrousov, Maxim; Golovin, Dmitry; Fedosov, Fedor; Kozyrev, Alexandr; Lisov, Denis; Litvak, Maxim; Nikiforov, Sergey; Sanin, Anton; Tret'yakov, Vlad; Vostrukhin, Andrey

    2016-04-01

    The concept of Fine Resolution Exploration Neutron Detector (FREND) is presented, as the Russian contributed instrument for the first element of ESA ExoMars mission, the TGO. FREND is the neutron collimated telescope, which is capable to measure the prompt neutron radiation of Mars from the 400 km orbit with the spatial resolution of about 40 km. The flux of epithermal neutrons is known to depend on the content of water in the shallow subsurface about 1 meter, so such measurements could allow to study the ground water distribution with fine spatial resolution over the entire martian surface from 70 degrees of the north latitude down to 70 degree of the south latitude. The resolution of tens of km is necessary to characterize the particular relief features on the surface by the content of water in the soil. Such mapping data should resolve the water distribution within the Gale crater, which is necessary to explain the paradoxic difefrence between the estimated contents of water in this crater, as about 5% by HEND on the Mars Odyssy and the ground data about 2 -3 % by DAN on the Curiosity. Also, the FREND mapping data of the ground water should be useful for the landing site selection of future Mars rovers, such as ExoMars or Mars 2020.

  2. Drought planning and management: using high spatial resolution as part of the solution.

    PubMed

    Duncan, Leslie Lyons; Perrone, Debra; Jacobi, John H; Hornberger, George M

    2015-03-01

    Water scarcity is intensified by drought, a phenomenon that impacts many sectors of society and affects virtually all climate zones. The Palmer drought indices are widely used by scientists and policy makers to understand drought and model its components. Despite the spatial heterogeneity and variability in variables required by the Palmer model, regional index values are most commonly used for real-time drought assessment. Local stakeholders charged with developing flexible and tailored water management policies have articulated the need for drought indices calculated at finer spatial resolutions than a regional scale. We use the Pacific Northwest United States (U.S.) as a study area to demonstrate the differences between drought indices calculated for U.S. climate divisions with those calculated at a 0.5° by 0.5° latitude/longitude resolution. Our results indicate that regional values of the two cumulative Palmer drought indices do not represent finer-resolution values well. For half of the study area, the pictures of drought (as determined by regional and finer-resolution values) are drastically different more than 30% of the time. Thus, quite often water managers do not have a clear understanding of the relative severity of drought in their area, which can have serious implications for drought mitigation and adaptation. PMID:25607691

  3. Large area event counting detectors with high spatial and temporal resolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siegmund, O. H. W.; McPhate, J. B.; Vallerga, J. V.; Tremsin, A. S.; Frisch, H. E.; Elam, J. W.; Mane, A. U.; Wagner, R. G.

    2014-04-01

    Novel large area microchannel plates (MCPs) constructed using micro-capillary arrays functionalized by atomic layer deposition (ALD) have been successfully demonstrated in large format detectors (10 cm and 20 cm) with cross delay line and cross strip readouts. Borosilicate micro-capillary substrates allow robust MCPs to be made in sizes to 20 cm, the intrinsic background rates are low ( < 0.06 events cm-2 sec-1), the channel open area can be made as high as 85%, and the gain after preconditioning (vacuum bake and burn-in) shows virtually no change over > 7 C cm-2 extracted charge. We have constructed a number of detectors with these novel MCPs, including a 10 × 10 cm cross strip readout device and 20 × 20 cm delay line readout sensors. The cross strip detector has very high spatial resolution (the 20 μm MCP pores can be resolved, thus obtaining ~ 5k × 5k resolution elements), good time resolution ( < 1 ns), and high event rate ( > 5 million counts/s at 20% dead time), while operating at relatively low gain ( ~ 106). The 20 × 20 cm delay line detectors have achieved spatial resolutions of ~ 50 μm and event rates of several MHz, with good gain and background uniformity and < 200 ps event time tagging. Progress has also been made in construction of a 20 × 20 cm sealed tube optical imager, and we have achieved > 20% quantum efficiency and good uniformity for large area (20 cm) bialkali photocathodes.

  4. High-resolution digital holographic imaging by using a spatial light modulator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Bin; Wang, Da-Yong; Wang, Yun-Xin; Rong, Lu

    2014-09-01

    Digital holography is the product of the optical holography, computer technology and photoelectric detection technology, and has the advantage of high-speed, real-time, full field of view, non-contact and quantitative phase contrast imaging. However, the numerical aperture of the hologram is limited due to the smaller sensitive area of the photoelectric sensor and the larger pixel size, and it is uneasy to meet the practical requirement on the imaging resolution. An approach is presented to achieve the high-resolution digital holographic imaging based on a spatial light modulator(SLM). An amplitude spatial light modulator is placed between the object and the CCD in the lensless Fourier transform digital holographic imaging system. The distribution of a diffraction grating is loaded into the SLM. In this way, more light including the high-frequency content, diffracted from the object, can be collected by the CCD. The standard resolution target is used as the object. The reconstructed image is obtained by the Fresnel diffraction propagation algorithm, which exhibits three diffraction orders. The results show that the resolution is improved from 62.5 μm to 31.3 μm.

  5. High-resolution heteronuclear multi-dimensional NMR spectroscopy in magnetic fields with unknown spatial variations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Zhiyong; Huang, Yuqing; Smith, Pieter E. S.; Wang, Kaiyu; Cai, Shuhui; Chen, Zhong

    2014-05-01

    Heteronuclear NMR spectroscopy is an extremely powerful tool for determining the structures of organic molecules and is of particular significance in the structural analysis of proteins. In order to leverage the method’s potential for structural investigations, obtaining high-resolution NMR spectra is essential and this is generally accomplished by using very homogeneous magnetic fields. However, there are several situations where magnetic field distortions and thus line broadening is unavoidable, for example, the samples under investigation may be inherently heterogeneous, and the magnet’s homogeneity may be poor. This line broadening can hinder resonance assignment or even render it impossible. We put forth a new class of pulse sequences for obtaining high-resolution heteronuclear spectra in magnetic fields with unknown spatial variations based on distant dipolar field modulations. This strategy’s capabilities are demonstrated with the acquisition of high-resolution 2D gHSQC and gHMBC spectra. These sequences’ performances are evaluated on the basis of their sensitivities and acquisition efficiencies. Moreover, we show that by encoding and decoding NMR observables spatially, as is done in ultrafast NMR, an extra dimension containing J-coupling information can be obtained without increasing the time necessary to acquire a heteronuclear correlation spectrum. Since the new sequences relax magnetic field homogeneity constraints imposed upon high-resolution NMR, they may be applied in portable NMR sensors and studies of heterogeneous chemical and biological materials.

  6. Fundamental limits to the accuracy of deuterium isotopes for identifying the spatial origin of migratory animals

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Farmer, A.; Cade, B.S.; Torres-Dowdall, J.

    2008-01-01

    Deuterium isotope analyses have revolutionized the study of migratory connectivity because global gradients of deuterium in precipitation (??DP) are expressed on a continental scale. Several authors have constructed continental scale base maps of ??DP to provide a spatial reference for studying the movement patterns of migratory species and, although they are very useful, these maps present a static, 40-year average view of the landscape that ignores much underlying inter-annual variation. To more fully understand the consequences of this underlying variation, we analyzed the GNIP deuterium data, the source for all current ??DP maps, to estimate the minimum separation in ??DP (and latitude) necessary to conclude with a given level of confidence that distinct ??DP values represent different geographic sites. Extending analyses of ??DP successfully to deuterium in tissues of living organisms, e.g., feathers in migratory birds (??DF), is dependent on the existence of geographic separation of ??DP, where every geographic location has a distribution of values associated with temporal variability in ??DP. Analyses were conducted for three distinct geographic regions: North America, eastern North America (east of longitude 100??W), and Argentina. At the 80% confidence level, the minimum separation values were 12, 7, and 14?? of latitude (equivalent to 53, 31, and 32???) for North America, eastern North America, and Argentina, respectively. Hence, in eastern North America, for example, one may not be able to accurately assign individual samples to sites separated by less than about 7?? of latitude as the distributions of ??DP were not distinct at latitudes <7?? apart. Moreover, two samples that differ by less than 31??? cannot be confidently said to originate from different latitudes. These estimates of minimum separation for ??DP do not include other known sources of variation in feather deuterium (??D F) and hence are a first order approximation that may be useful, in

  7. High-resolution heteronuclear correlation spectroscopy based on spatial encoding and coherence transfer in inhomogeneous fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Kaiyu; Zhang, Zhiyong; Chen, Hao; Cai, Shuhui; Chen, Zhong

    2015-11-01

    Two-dimensional (2D) nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy has been proven to be a powerful technique for chemical, biological, and medical studies. Heteronuclear single quantum correlation (HSQC) and heteronuclear multiple bond correlation (HMBC) are two frequently used 2D NMR methods. In combination with spatially encoded techniques, a heteronuclear 2D NMR spectrum can be acquired in several seconds and may be applied to monitoring chemical reactions. However, it is difficult to obtain high-resolution NMR spectra in inhomogeneous fields. Inspired by the idea of tracing the difference of precession frequencies between two different spins to yield high-resolution spectra, we propose a method with correlation acquisition option and J-resolved-like acquisition option to ultrafast obtain high-resolution HSQC/HMBC spectra and heteronuclear J-resolved-like spectra in inhomogeneous fields.

  8. Multi-temporal topographic models in fluvial systems: are accuracies enough to change the temporal and spatial scales of our studies?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vericat, Damià; Ramos, Ester; Brasington, James; Muñoz, Efrén; Béjar, María; Gibbins, Chris; Batalla, Ramon J.; Tena, Álvaro; Smith, Mark; Wheaton, Joe

    2015-04-01

    Recent advances in topography are offering a set of opportunities that deserve a critical evaluation before being successfully applied. Terrestrial Laser Scanning opened a new world by offering the opportunity to obtain topographic models at unprecedented resolutions. The time involved in data acquisition, although has substantially improved by means of fast scanners and new mobile platforms, limited the spatial and temporal scales in which such technique could be applied. Automatic Digital Photogrammetry or Structure from Motion is now offering a new set of opportunities and challenges. This technique possesses the trilogy a geomorphologist is looking to fully understand how landforms change and which are the main causes and consequences: speed, cost and resolution. But, a set of questions arise after all post-processing involved in these novel datasets: are accuracies enough to jump at large spatial scales? Can we repeat topographic surveys and depict small magnitude but relatively high frequent landform deformations overcoming the minimum level of detection of our comparisons? In this paper we present some of the preliminary results obtained in the background of MorphSed (www.morphsed.es). Morphsed is analysing the morpho-sedimentary dynamics of a fluvial system at multiple temporal scales. Multi-event topographic models (DEMs) are obtained by means of Structure from Motion using close range aerial photography obtained in a 12-km channel reach of the wandering Upper River Cinca (Southern Pyrenees, Iberian Peninsula). Topographic channel changes are critically analysed based on the quality of the developed models. DEMs obtained at different periods are compared (DoD). Two general comparisons are performed: (a) comparison of topographic models obtained before and after low magnitude channel changes, and (b) comparison of models acquired before and after major channel disturbances. Special attention is paid to the role of the ground control, data density and

  9. Improving the spatial resolution of soft X-ray detection using an Electron-Multiplying Charge-Coupled Device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soman, M. R.; Hall, D. J.; Tutt, J. H.; Murray, N. J.; Holland, A. D.; Schmitt, T.; Raabe, J.; Schmitt, B.

    2013-01-01

    The Super Advanced X-ray Emission Spectrometer (SAXES) is an instrument at the Swiss Light Source designed for Resonant Inelastic X-ray Scattering with an energy resolution (E/ΔE) better than 12000 at 930 eV. Improvements to the instrument have been predicted that could allow the energy resolution to be improved by a factor of two. To achieve this, the spatial resolution of the detector (currently a Charge-Coupled Device, CCD) over which the energy spectrum is dispersed would have to be improved to better than 5 μm. X-ray photons with energies between a few hundred to a few thousand electron volts primarily interact within the field-free region of back-illuminated CCDs, where each photon forms an electron cloud that diffuses isotropically before reaching the depleted region close to the electrodes. Each photon's electron cloud is likely to be detected as an event with signal split across multiple pixels. Analysing these split events using centroiding techniques allows the photon's interaction position to be determined to a sub-pixel level. PolLux is a soft X-ray microspectroscopy endstation at the Swiss Light Source that can focus 200 eV to 1200 eV X-rays to a spot size of approximately 20 nm. Previous studies using data taken with a linear scan across the centre of a pixel in 3 μm steps predicted an improved resolution by applying centroiding techniques and using an Electron-Multiplying CCD (EM-CCD). In this study, a full 2D map of the centroiding accuracy in the pixel is presented, formed by rastering in two dimensions across the image plane in single micron steps. The improved spatial resolution from centroiding events in the EM-CCD in all areas of the pixel over the standard CCD is attributed to the improved signal to noise ratio provided by the multiplication register even at high pixel readout speeds (tens of MHz).

  10. High-Spatial-Resolution Imaging Combining High-Order Adaptive Optics, Frame Selection, and Speckle Masking Reconstruction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Denker, Carsten; Mascarinas, Dulce; Xu, Yan; Cao, Wenda; Yang, Guo; Wang, Haimin; Goode, Philip R.; Rimmele, Thomas

    2005-04-01

    We present, for the first time, high-spatial-resolution observations combining high-order adaptive optics (AO), frame selection, and post-facto image correction via speckle masking. The data analysis is based on observations of solar active region NOAA 10486 taken with the Dunn Solar Telescope (DST) at the Sacramento Peak Observatory (SPO) of the National Solar Observatory (NSO) on 29 October 2003. The high Strehl ratio encountered in AO corrected short-exposure images provides highly improved signal-to-noise ratios leading to a superior recovery of the object’s Fourier phases. This allows reliable detection of small-scale solar features near the diffraction limit of the telescope. Speckle masking imaging provides access to high-order wavefront aberrations, which predominantly originate at high atmospheric layers and are only partially corrected by the AO system. In addition, the observations provided qualitative measures of the image correction away from the lock point of the AO system. We further present a brief inspection of the underlying imaging theory discussing the limitations and prospects of this multi-faceted image reconstruction approach in terms of the recovery of spatial information, photometric accuracy, and spectroscopic applications.

  11. The Effects of Spatial Resolution and Dimensionality on Modeling Braided River Hydraulics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Altenau, E. H.; Pavelsky, T.; Bates, P. D.

    2015-12-01

    Braided rivers are challenging features to quantify due to their dynamic morphology and dominance in remote locations. Advances in hydrodynamic modeling and remote sensing over the past few decades offer opportunities to explore braided river processes at finer resolutions with increased efficiency. These methods allow us to address questions such as: What model structure is necessary to accurately reproduce inundation extent and water surface elevations in a braided river? What effects do the smaller channels within a braided river have on simulating wave propagation and slope? How much accuracy is lost as model resolution and dimension are decreased? Here, we use the raster-based hydrodynamic model LISFLOOD-FP to simulate water surface elevations, inundation extent, and slope at various resolutions and dimensions over a ~90 km reach of the Tanana River, Alaska. Model input and validation data were collected during two field campaigns in the summers of 2013 and 2015. Field data included water surface elevation, discharge, velocity, slope, and bathymetric measurements. Six models are run to simulate flood waves across the study reach over a two-month timespan. The model structures vary in complexity from a full 2D model at 10 m resolution to a coupled 1D/2D model at 100 m resolution where the channel is represented in 1D by an effective centerline within a 2D floodplain grid. Results from the different models are compared to assess the effects on inundation extent, wave celerity, water elevations and slope. Digital elevation model (DEM) quality and resolution have major effects on inundation extent and water surface elevations, while model dimensionality has a larger effect on wave celerity and slope. Future work will compare model outputs with AirSWOT data, an airborne analog for the Surface Water and Ocean Topography (SWOT) mission, which aims to provide high-resolution measurements of terrestrial and ocean water surface elevations globally.

  12. Objective Delineation of River Bed Surface Patches from High-Resolution Spatial Grain Size Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nelson, P. A.; Bellugi, D.; Dietrich, W. E.

    2010-12-01

    Gravel-bed rivers commonly display distinct sorting patterns on their beds. Visually, this heterogeneity often appears to form an organization of distinct textural patches or facies. The local bed surface grain size, and therefore bed surface patchiness, exerts considerable influence on local bed mobility, bedload transport rates, hydrodynamic roughness, and benthic microhabitats. Despite the ecological and morphodynamic importance of bed surface patchiness, we lack accurate and objective methods to delineate bed patches. However, recent advances in photographic measurement of bed surface grain size distributions are capable of providing data at a spatial resolution high enough to allow us an opportunity to answer the question: what is a patch? Here, we explore a variety of techniques that can be applied to high-resolution spatial grain size data to automatically generate maps of grain size patches. We apply a state-of-the-art image processing and machine learning procedure to a photographic survey of the bed surface of a near-field scale flume to extract grain size data and to generate a spatial grid of bed surface grain size distributions. The flume bed was composed of gravel 2-45 mm in diameter and it featured clearly identifiable sorting features. Using this dataset, we investigate several possible methods of patch delineation. The grid of grain size distributions can be represented by a graph of nodes (grain size distributions) connected by edges whose weight is a function of the similarity between two nodes. Spectral graph theory is then used to optimally cut the edges in order to produce a spatial structure of patches that minimizes the association between patches and maximizes the association of nodes within a patch. In a different approach, agglomerative clustering of spatially adjacent grain size distributions is used to produce a hierarchical dendrogram that can be thresholded to partition the bed into patches. We also explore using the k-means algorithm

  13. Effect of Electric Field Gradient on Sub-nanometer Spatial Resolution of Tip-enhanced Raman Spectrosc