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Sample records for accuracy tandem mass

  1. MS Amanda, a Universal Identification Algorithm Optimized for High Accuracy Tandem Mass Spectra

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Today’s highly accurate spectra provided by modern tandem mass spectrometers offer considerable advantages for the analysis of proteomic samples of increased complexity. Among other factors, the quantity of reliably identified peptides is considerably influenced by the peptide identification algorithm. While most widely used search engines were developed when high-resolution mass spectrometry data were not readily available for fragment ion masses, we have designed a scoring algorithm particularly suitable for high mass accuracy. Our algorithm, MS Amanda, is generally applicable to HCD, ETD, and CID fragmentation type data. The algorithm confidently explains more spectra at the same false discovery rate than Mascot or SEQUEST on examined high mass accuracy data sets, with excellent overlap and identical peptide sequence identification for most spectra also explained by Mascot or SEQUEST. MS Amanda, available at http://ms.imp.ac.at/?goto=msamanda, is provided free of charge both as standalone version for integration into custom workflows and as a plugin for the Proteome Discoverer platform. PMID:24909410

  2. Using ProSight PTM and related tools for targeted protein identification and characterization with high mass accuracy tandem MS data.

    PubMed

    Leduc, Richard D; Kelleher, Neil L

    2007-09-01

    ProSight PTM v2.0, neuroProSight, and the Sequence Gazer allow the identification and characterization of proteins from high mass accuracy tandem mass spectrometric data of intact proteins and large peptides. Input data consists of one or more neutral precursor ion masses and a set of neutral b/y or c/z(.) fragment ions masses. This data is compared against "shotgun annotated" proteome databases or known protein sequences. With these tools it is possible to not only identify unknown proteins, but to determine the location of post-translational modifications (PTM) with 100% sequence coverage. Collectively, the tools create a search environment that allows five different search modes, including absolute mass and sequence tag searching, which are conveniently employed via a graphical user interface. Data management and chemical noise reduction tools are also available. These tools provide a complete environment for the identification and characterization of proteins from high resolution tandem mass spectrometry of intact proteins and large peptides.

  3. A Multivariate Mixture Model to Estimate the Accuracy of Glycosaminoglycan Identifications Made by Tandem Mass Spectrometry (MS/MS) and Database Search.

    PubMed

    Chiu, Yulun; Schliekelman, Paul; Orlando, Ron; Sharp, Joshua S

    2017-02-01

    We present a statistical model to estimate the accuracy of derivatized heparin and heparan sulfate (HS) glycosaminoglycan (GAG) assignments to tandem mass (MS/MS) spectra made by the first published database search application, GAG-ID. Employing a multivariate expectation-maximization algorithm, this statistical model distinguishes correct from ambiguous and incorrect database search results when computing the probability that heparin/HS GAG assignments to spectra are correct based upon database search scores. Using GAG-ID search results for spectra generated from a defined mixture of 21 synthesized tetrasaccharide sequences as well as seven spectra of longer defined oligosaccharides, we demonstrate that the computed probabilities are accurate and have high power to discriminate between correctly, ambiguously, and incorrectly assigned heparin/HS GAGs. This analysis makes it possible to filter large MS/MS database search results with predictable false identification error rates.

  4. Quality evaluation of tandem mass spectral libraries.

    PubMed

    Oberacher, Herbert; Weinmann, Wolfgang; Dresen, Sebastian

    2011-06-01

    Tandem mass spectral libraries are gaining more and more importance for the identification of unknowns in different fields of research, including metabolomics, forensics, toxicology, and environmental analysis. Particularly, the recent invention of reliable, robust, and transferable libraries has increased the general acceptance of these tools. Herein, we report on results obtained from thorough evaluation of the match reliabilities of two tandem mass spectral libraries: the MSforID library established by the Oberacher group in Innsbruck and the Weinmann library established by the Weinmann group in Freiburg. Three different experiments were performed: (1) Spectra of the libraries were searched against their corresponding library after excluding either this single compound-specific spectrum or all compound-specific spectra prior to searching; (2) the libraries were searched against each other using either library as reference set or sample set; (3) spectra acquired on different mass spectrometric instruments were matched to both libraries. Almost 13,000 tandem mass spectra were included in this study. The MSforID search algorithm was used for spectral matching. Statistical evaluation of the library search results revealed that principally both libraries enable the sensitive and specific identification of compounds. Due to higher mass accuracy of the QqTOF compared with the QTrap instrument, matches to the MSforID library were more reliable when comparing spectra with both libraries. Furthermore, only the MSforID library was shown to be efficiently transferable to different kinds of tandem mass spectrometers, including "tandem-in-time" instruments; this is due to the coverage of a large range of different collision energy settings-including the very low range-which is an outstanding characteristics of the MSforID library.

  5. Portable Tandem Mass Spectrometer Analyzer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-07-01

    The planned instrument was to be small enough to be portable in small vehicles and was to be able to use either an atmospheric pressure ion source or a...conventional electron impact/chemical ionization ion source. In order to accomplish these developments an atmospheric pressure ionization source was...developed for a compact, commercially available tandem quadrupole mass spectrometer. This ion source could be readily exchanged with the conventional

  6. Mechanism of [m+h]+ formation in atmospheric pressure photoionization mass spectrometry: identification of propionitrile in acetonitrile with high mass accuracy measurement and tandem mass spectrometry and evidence for its involvement in the protonation phenomenon.

    PubMed

    Kamel, Amin; Jeanville, Patrick; Colizza, Kevin; J-Rivera, Lauren Elizabeth

    2008-11-01

    The role of propionitrile in the production of [M+H]+ under atmospheric pressure photoionization (APPI) was investigated. In dopant-assisted APPI using acetone and anisole, protonated acetone and anisole radical cations were the most prominent ions observed. In dopant-free or direct APPI in acetonitrile, however, a major ion in acetonitrile was detected and identified as propionitrile, using high accuracy mass measurement and collision induced dissociation studies. Vaporizing ca. 10(-5) M althiazide and bendroflumethazide under direct APPI in acetonitrile produced their corresponding protonated species [M+H]+. In addition to protonated acetonitrile, its dimers, and acetonitrile/water clusters, protonated propionitrile, propionitrile dimer, and propionitrile/water clusters were also observed. The role of propionitrile, an impurity in acetonitrile and/or a possible product of ion-molecule reaction, in the production of [M+H]+ of althiazide and bendroflumethazide was further investigated in the absence of dopant using propionitrile-d5. The formation of [M+D]+ species was observed, suggesting a possible role of propionitrile in the protonation process. Additionally, an increase in the [M+H]+ signal of althiazide and bendroflumethazide was observed as a function of propionitrile concentration in acetonitrile. Theoretical data from the literature supported the assumption that one possible mechanism, among others, for the formation of [M+H]+ could be attributed to photo-initiated isomerization of propionitrile. The most stable isomers of propionitrile, based on their calculated ionization energy (IE) and relative energy (DeltaE), were assumed to undergo proton transfer to the analytes, and mechanisms were proposed.

  7. Electrospray tandem mass spectrometric investigations of morphinans.

    PubMed

    Raith, Klaus; Neubert, Reinhard; Poeaknapo, Chotima; Boettcher, Christian; Zenk, Meinhart H; Schmidt, Jürgen

    2003-11-01

    In this study positive ESI tandem mass spectra of the [M + H]+ ions of morphinan alkaloids obtained using an ion trap MS were compared with those from a triple quadrupole MS. This allows to assess the differences of the tandem-in-time versus the tandem-in-space principle, often hampering the development of ESI MS/MS libraries. Fragmentation pathways and possible fragment ion structures were discussed. In order to obtain elemental composition, accurate mass measurements were performed. According to the MS/MS fragmentation pathway, the investigated compounds can be grouped into 4 subsets: (1) morphine and codeine, (2) morphinone, codeinone, and neopinone, (3) thebaine and oripavine, (4) salutaridine and salutaridinol. Salutaridinol-7-O-acetate shows a different fragmentation behavior because of the favored loss of acetic acid. Although most fragment ions occur in both ion trap and triple quad tandem mass spectra, some are exclusively seen in either type. For triple quad, quadrupole time-of-flight and FT-ICR MS/MS, the base peak of morphine results from an ion at m/z 165 that contains neither nitrogen nor oxygen. This ion is not found in ion trap MS/MS, but in subsequential MS3 and MS4.

  8. Verification of automated peptide identifications from proteomic tandem mass spectra

    PubMed Central

    Tabb, David L; Friedman, David B; Ham, Amy-Joan L

    2010-01-01

    Shotgun proteomics yields tandem mass spectra of peptides that can be identified by database search algorithms. When only a few observed peptides suggest the presence of a protein, establishing the accuracy of the peptide identifications is necessary for accepting or rejecting the protein identification. In this protocol, we describe the properties of peptide identifications that can differentiate legitimately identified peptides from spurious ones. The chemistry of fragmentation, as embodied in the ‘mobile proton’ and ‘pathways in competition’ models, informs the process of confirming or rejecting each spectral match. Examples of ion-trap and tandem time-of-flight (TOF/TOF) mass spectra illustrate these principles of fragmentation. PMID:17406459

  9. MassMatrix: A Database Search Program for Rapid Characterization of Proteins and Peptides from Tandem Mass Spectrometry Data

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Hua; Freitas, Michael A.

    2009-01-01

    MassMatrix is a program that matches tandem mass spectra with theoretical peptide sequences derived from a protein database. The program uses a mass accuracy sensitive probabilistic score model to rank peptide matches. The tandem mass spectrometry search software was evaluated by use of a high mass accuracy data set and its results compared with those from Mascot, SEQUEST, X!Tandem, and OMSSA. For the high mass accuracy data, MassMatrix provided better sensitivity than Mascot, SEQUEST, X!Tandem, and OMSSA for a given specificity and the percentage of false positives was 2%. More importantly all manually validated true positives corresponded to a unique peptide/spectrum match. The presence of decoy sequence and additional variable post-translational modifications did not significantly affect the results from the high mass accuracy search. MassMatrix performs well when compared with Mascot, SEQUEST, X!Tandem, and OMSSA with regard to search time. MassMatrix was also run on a distributed memory clusters and achieved search speeds of ~100,000 spectra per hour when searching against a complete human database with 8 variable modifications. The algorithm is available for public searches at http://www.massmatrix.net. PMID:19235167

  10. Electrospray and tandem mass spectrometry in biochemistry.

    PubMed Central

    Griffiths, W J; Jonsson, A P; Liu, S; Rai, D K; Wang, Y

    2001-01-01

    Over the last 20 years, biological MS has changed out of all recognition. This is primarily due to the development in the 1980s of 'soft ionization' methods that permit the ionization and vaporization of large, polar, and thermally labile biomolecules. These developments in ionization mode have driven the design and manufacture of smaller and cheaper mass analysers, making the mass spectrometer a routine instrument in the biochemistry laboratory today. In the present review the revolutionary 'soft ionization' methods will be discussed with particular reference to electrospray. The mass analysis of ions will be described, and the concept of tandem MS introduced. Where appropriate, examples of the application of MS in biochemistry will be provided. Although the present review will concentrate on the MS of peptides/proteins and lipids, all classes of biomolecules can be analysed, and much excellent work has been done in the fields of carbohydrate and nucleic acid biochemistry. PMID:11311115

  11. Estimating the Efficiency of Phosphopeptide Identification by Tandem Mass Spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsu, Chuan-Chih; Xue, Liang; Arrington, Justine V.; Wang, Pengcheng; Paez Paez, Juan Sebastian; Zhou, Yuan; Zhu, Jian-Kang; Tao, W. Andy

    2017-03-01

    Mass spectrometry has played a significant role in the identification of unknown phosphoproteins and sites of phosphorylation in biological samples. Analyses of protein phosphorylation, particularly large scale phosphoproteomic experiments, have recently been enhanced by efficient enrichment, fast and accurate instrumentation, and better software, but challenges remain because of the low stoichiometry of phosphorylation and poor phosphopeptide ionization efficiency and fragmentation due to neutral loss. Phosphoproteomics has become an important dimension in systems biology studies, and it is essential to have efficient analytical tools to cover a broad range of signaling events. To evaluate current mass spectrometric performance, we present here a novel method to estimate the efficiency of phosphopeptide identification by tandem mass spectrometry. Phosphopeptides were directly isolated from whole plant cell extracts, dephosphorylated, and then incubated with one of three purified kinases—casein kinase II, mitogen-activated protein kinase 6, and SNF-related protein kinase 2.6—along with 16O4- and 18O4-ATP separately for in vitro kinase reactions. Phosphopeptides were enriched and analyzed by LC-MS. The phosphopeptide identification rate was estimated by comparing phosphopeptides identified by tandem mass spectrometry with phosphopeptide pairs generated by stable isotope labeled kinase reactions. Overall, we found that current high speed and high accuracy mass spectrometers can only identify 20%-40% of total phosphopeptides primarily due to relatively poor fragmentation, additional modifications, and low abundance, highlighting the urgent need for continuous efforts to improve phosphopeptide identification efficiency.

  12. Protein Sequencing with Tandem Mass Spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ziady, Assem G.; Kinter, Michael

    The recent introduction of electrospray ionization techniques that are suitable for peptides and whole proteins has allowed for the design of mass spectrometric protocols that provide accurate sequence information for proteins. The advantages gained by these approaches over traditional Edman Degradation sequencing include faster analysis and femtomole, sometimes attomole, sensitivity. The ability to efficiently identify proteins has allowed investigators to conduct studies on their differential expression or modification in response to various treatments or disease states. In this chapter, we discuss the use of electrospray tandem mass spectrometry, a technique whereby protein-derived peptides are subjected to fragmentation in the gas phase, revealing sequence information for the protein. This powerful technique has been instrumental for the study of proteins and markers associated with various disorders, including heart disease, cancer, and cystic fibrosis. We use the study of protein expression in cystic fibrosis as an example.

  13. Structural Characterization of Carbohydrates by Fourier Transform Tandem Mass Spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Wen; Håkansson, Kristina

    2012-01-01

    Fourier transform tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) provides high mass accuracy, high sensitivity, and analytical versatility and has therefore emerged as an indispensable tool for structural elucidation of biomolecules. Glycosylation is one of the most common posttranslational modifications, occurring in ~50% of proteins. However, due to the structural diversity of carbohydrates, arising from non-template driven biosynthesis, achievement of detailed structural insight is highly challenging. This review briefly discusses carbohydrate sample preparation and ionization methods, and highlights recent developments in alternative high-resolution MS/MS strategies, including infrared multiphoton dissociation (IRMPD), electron capture dissociation (ECD), and electron detachment dissociation (EDD), for carbohydrates with a focus on glycans and proteoglycans from mammalian glycoproteins. PMID:22389641

  14. Mass spectrometry and tandem mass spectrometry of citrus limonoids.

    PubMed

    Tian, Qingguo; Schwartz, Steven J

    2003-10-15

    Methods for atmospheric pressure chemical ionization tandem mass spectrometry (APCI-MS/MS) of citrus limonoid aglycones and electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (ESI-MS/MS) of limonoid glucosides are reported. The fragmentation patterns of four citrus limonoid aglycones (limonin, nomilin, obacunone, and deacetylnomilin) and six limonoid glucosides, that is, limonin 17-beta-D-glucopyranoside (LG), nomilin 17-beta-D-glucopyranoside (NG), nomilinic acid 17-beta-D-glucopyranoside (NAG), deacetyl nomilinic acid 17-beta-D-glucopyranoside (DNAG), obacunone 17-beta-D-glucopyranoside (OG), and obacunoic acid 17-beta-D-glucopyranoside (OAG) were investigated using a quadruple mass spectrometer in low-energy collisionally activated dissociation (CAD). The four limonoid aglycones and four limonoid glucosides (LG, OG, NAG, and DNAG) were purified from citrus seeds; the other two limonoid glucosides (NG and OAG) were tentatively identified in the crude extract of grapefruit seeds by ESI mass spectrometry in both positive and negative ion analysis. Ammonium hydroxide or acetic acid was added to the mobile phase to facilitate ionization. During positive ion APCI analysis of limonoid aglycones, protonated molecular ion, [M + H]+, or adduct ion, [M + NH3 + H]-, was formed as base peaks when ammonium hydroxide was added to the mobile phase. Molecular anions or adduct ions with acetic acid ([M + HOAc - H] and [M + HOAc]-) or a deprotonated molecular ion were produced during negative ion APCI analysis of limonoid aglycones, depending on the mobile-phase modifier used. Positive ion ESI-MS of limonoid glucosides produced adduct ions of [M + H + NH3]+, [M + Na]+, and [M + K]+ when ammonium hydroxide was added to the mobile phase. After collisionally activated dissociation (CAD) of the limonoid aglycone molecular ions in negative ion APCI analysis, fragment ions indicated structural information of the precursor ions, showing the presence of methyl, carboxyl, and oxygenated ring

  15. Improved Isobaric Tandem Mass Tag Quantification by Ion Mobility-Mass Spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    Li, Lingjun

    2014-01-01

    Isobaric tandem mass tags are an attractive alternative to mass difference tags and label free approaches for quantitative proteomics due to the high degree of multiplexing that can be performed with their implementation. A drawback of tandem mass tags are that the co-isolation and co-fragmentation of labeled peptide precursors can result in chimeric MS/MS spectra that can underestimate the fold-change expression of each peptide. Two methods (QuantMode and MS3) have addressed this concern for ion trap and orbitrap instruments, but there is still a need to solve this problem for quadrupole time-of-flight (Q-TOF) instruments. Ion mobility (IM) separations coupled to Q-TOF instruments have the potential to mitigate MS/MS spectra chimeracy since IM-MS has the ability to separate ions based on charge, m/z, and collision cross section (CCS). This work presents results that showcase the power of IM-MS to improve tandem mass tag peptide quantitation accuracy by resolving co-isolated differently charged and same charged peptides prior to MS/MS fragmentation. PMID:24677527

  16. Chemical ionization tandem mass spectrometer for the in situ measurement of methyl hydrogen peroxide

    SciTech Connect

    St Clair, Jason M.; McCabe, David C.; Crounse, John D.; Steiner, Urs; Wennberg, Paul O.

    2010-09-15

    A new approach for measuring gas-phase methyl hydrogen peroxide [(MHP) CH{sub 3}OOH] utilizing chemical ionization mass spectrometry is presented. Tandem mass spectrometry is used to avoid mass interferences that hindered previous attempts to measure atmospheric CH{sub 3}OOH with CF{sub 3}O{sup -} clustering chemistry. CH{sub 3}OOH has been successfully measured in situ using this technique during both airborne and ground-based campaigns. The accuracy and precision for the MHP measurement are a function of water vapor mixing ratio. Typical precision at 500 pptv MHP and 100 ppmv H{sub 2}O is {+-}80 pptv (2 sigma) for a 1 s integration period. The accuracy at 100 ppmv H{sub 2}O is estimated to be better than {+-}40%. Chemical ionization tandem mass spectrometry shows considerable promise for the determination of in situ atmospheric trace gas mixing ratios where isobaric compounds or mass interferences impede accurate measurements.

  17. High Mass Accuracy and High Mass Resolving Power FT-ICR Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry for Biological Tissue Imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, Donald F.; Kiss, Andras; Leach, Franklin E.; Robinson, Errol W.; Pasa-Tolic, Ljiljana; Heeren, Ronald M.

    2013-07-01

    Biological tissue imaging by secondary ion mass spectrometry has seen rapid development with the commercial availability of polyatomic primary ion sources. Endogenous lipids and other small bio-molecules can now be routinely mapped on the micrometer scale. Such experiments are typically performed on time-of-flight mass spectrometers for high sensitivity and high repetition rate imaging. However, such mass analyzers lack the mass resolving power to ensure separation of isobaric ions and the mass accuracy for exact mass elemental formula assignment. We have recently reported a secondary ion mass spectrometer with the combination of a C60 primary ion gun with a Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometer (FT-ICR MS) for high mass resolving power, high mass measurement accuracy and tandem mass spectrometry capabilities. In this work, high specificity and high sensitivity secondary ion FT-ICR MS was applied to chemical imaging of biological tissue. An entire rat brain tissue was measured with 150 μm spatial resolution (75 μm primary ion spot size) with mass resolving power (m/Δm50%) of 67,500 (at m/z 750) and root-mean-square measurement accuracy less than two parts-per-million for intact phospholipids, small molecules and fragments. For the first time, ultra-high mass resolving power SIMS has been demonstrated, with m/Δm50% > 3,000,000. Higher spatial resolution capabilities of the platform were tested at a spatial resolution of 20 μm. The results represent order of magnitude improvements in mass resolving power and mass measurement accuracy for SIMS imaging and the promise of the platform for ultra-high mass resolving power and high spatial resolution imaging.

  18. Challenges and developments in tandem mass spectrometry based clinical metabolomics.

    PubMed

    Ceglarek, Uta; Leichtle, Alexander; Brügel, Mathias; Kortz, Linda; Brauer, Romy; Bresler, Kristin; Thiery, Joachim; Fiedler, Georg Martin

    2009-03-25

    'Clinical metabolomics' aims at evaluating and predicting health and disease risk in an individual by investigating metabolic signatures in body fluids or tissues, which are influenced by genetics, epigenetics, environmental exposures, diet, and behaviour. Powerful analytical techniques like liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) offers a rapid, effective and economical way to analyze metabolic alterations of pre-defined target metabolites in biological samples. Novel hyphenated technical approaches like the combination of tandem mass spectrometry combined with linear ion trap (QTrap mass spectrometry) combines both identification and quantification of known and unknown metabolic targets. We describe new concepts and developments of mass spectrometry based multi-target metabolome profiling in the field of clinical diagnostics and research. Particularly, the experiences from newborn screening provided important insights about the diagnostic potential of metabolite profiling arrays and directs to the clinical aim of predictive, preventive and personalized medicine by metabolomics.

  19. Protein identification using nano liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Negroni, Luc

    2007-01-01

    Tandem mass spectrometry is an efficient technique for the identification of peptides on the basis of their fragmentation pattern (MS/MS scan). It can generate individual spectra for each peptide, thereby creating a powerful tool for protein identification on the basis of peptide characterization. This important advance in automatic data acquisition has allowed an efficient association between liquid chromatography and tandem mass spectrometry, and the use of nanocolumns and nanoelectrospray ionization has dramatically increased the efficiency of this method. Now large sets of peptides can be identified at a femtomole level. At the end of the process, batch processing of the MS/MS spectra produces peptide lists that identify purified proteins or protein mixtures with high confidence.

  20. Biological Matrix Effects in Quantitative Tandem Mass Spectrometry-Based Analytical Methods: Advancing Biomonitoring

    PubMed Central

    Panuwet, Parinya; Hunter, Ronald E.; D’Souza, Priya E.; Chen, Xianyu; Radford, Samantha A.; Cohen, Jordan R.; Marder, M. Elizabeth; Kartavenka, Kostya; Ryan, P. Barry; Barr, Dana Boyd

    2015-01-01

    The ability to quantify levels of target analytes in biological samples accurately and precisely, in biomonitoring, involves the use of highly sensitive and selective instrumentation such as tandem mass spectrometers and a thorough understanding of highly variable matrix effects. Typically, matrix effects are caused by co-eluting matrix components that alter the ionization of target analytes as well as the chromatographic response of target analytes, leading to reduced or increased sensitivity of the analysis. Thus, before the desired accuracy and precision standards of laboratory data are achieved, these effects must be characterized and controlled. Here we present our review and observations of matrix effects encountered during the validation and implementation of tandem mass spectrometry-based analytical methods. We also provide systematic, comprehensive laboratory strategies needed to control challenges posed by matrix effects in order to ensure delivery of the most accurate data for biomonitoring studies assessing exposure to environmental toxicants. PMID:25562585

  1. Development of an advanced spacecraft tandem mass spectrometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Drew, Russell C.

    1992-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to apply current advanced technology in electronics and materials to the development of a miniaturized Tandem Mass Spectrometer that would have the potential for future development into a package suitable for spacecraft use. The mass spectrometer to be used as a basis for the tandem instrument would be a magnetic sector instrument, of Nier-Johnson configuration, as used on the Viking Mars Lander mission. This instrument configuration would then be matched with a suitable second stage MS to provide the benefits of tandem MS operation for rapid identification of unknown organic compounds. This tandem instrument is configured with a newly designed GC system to aid in separation of complex mixtures prior to MS analysis. A number of important results were achieved in the course of this project. Among them were the development of a miniaturized GC subsystem, with a unique desorber-injector, fully temperature feedback controlled oven with powered cooling for rapid reset to ambient conditions, a unique combination inlet system to the MS that provides for both membrane sampling and direct capillary column sample transfer, a compact and ruggedized alignment configuration for the MS, an improved ion source design for increased sensitivity, and a simple, rugged tandem MS configuration that is particularly adaptable to spacecraft use because of its low power and low vacuum pumping requirements. The potential applications of this research include use in manned spacecraft like the space station as a real-time detection and warning device for the presence of potentially harmful trace contaminants of the spacecraft atmosphere, use as an analytical device for evaluating samples collected on the Moon or a planetary surface, or even use in connection with monitoring potentially hazardous conditions that may exist in terrestrial locations such as launch pads, environmental test chambers or other sensitive areas. Commercial development of the technology

  2. Building and Searching Tandem Mass Spectral Libraries for Peptide Identification*

    PubMed Central

    Lam, Henry

    2011-01-01

    Spectral library searching is an emerging approach in peptide identifications from tandem mass spectra, a critical step in proteomic data analysis. Conceptually, the premise of this approach is that the tandem MS fragmentation pattern of a peptide under some fixed conditions is a reproducible fingerprint of that peptide, such that unknown spectra acquired under the same conditions can be identified by spectral matching. In actual practice, a spectral library is first meticulously compiled from a large collection of previously observed and identified tandem MS spectra, usually obtained from shotgun proteomics experiments of complex mixtures. Then, a query spectrum is then identified by spectral matching using recently developed spectral search engines. This review discusses the basic principles of the two pillars of this approach: spectral library construction, and spectral library searching. An overview of the software tools available for these two tasks, as well as a high-level description of the underlying algorithms, will be given. Finally, several new methods that utilize spectral libraries for peptide identification in ways other than straightforward spectral matching will also be described. PMID:21900153

  3. Cloud parallel processing of tandem mass spectrometry based proteomics data.

    PubMed

    Mohammed, Yassene; Mostovenko, Ekaterina; Henneman, Alex A; Marissen, Rob J; Deelder, André M; Palmblad, Magnus

    2012-10-05

    Data analysis in mass spectrometry based proteomics struggles to keep pace with the advances in instrumentation and the increasing rate of data acquisition. Analyzing this data involves multiple steps requiring diverse software, using different algorithms and data formats. Speed and performance of the mass spectral search engines are continuously improving, although not necessarily as needed to face the challenges of acquired big data. Improving and parallelizing the search algorithms is one possibility; data decomposition presents another, simpler strategy for introducing parallelism. We describe a general method for parallelizing identification of tandem mass spectra using data decomposition that keeps the search engine intact and wraps the parallelization around it. We introduce two algorithms for decomposing mzXML files and recomposing resulting pepXML files. This makes the approach applicable to different search engines, including those relying on sequence databases and those searching spectral libraries. We use cloud computing to deliver the computational power and scientific workflow engines to interface and automate the different processing steps. We show how to leverage these technologies to achieve faster data analysis in proteomics and present three scientific workflows for parallel database as well as spectral library search using our data decomposition programs, X!Tandem and SpectraST.

  4. Non-Target Screening of Veterinary Drugs Using Tandem Mass Spectrometry on SmartMass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xia, Bing; Liu, Xin; Gu, Yu-Cheng; Zhang, Zhao-Hui; Wang, Hai-Yan; Ding, Li-Sheng; Zhou, Yan

    2013-05-01

    Non-target screening of veterinary drugs using tandem mass spectrometric data was performed on the SmartMass platform. This newly developed software uses the characteristic fragmentation patterns (CFP) to identify chemicals, especially those containing particular substructures. A mixture of 17 sulfonamides was separated by ultra performance liquid chromatography (UPLC), and SmartMass was used to process the tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) data acquired on an Orbitrap mass spectrometer. The data were automatically extracted, and each sulfonamide was recognized and analyzed with a prebuilt analysis rule. By using this software, over 98 % of the false candidate structures were eliminated, and all the correct structures were found within the top 10 of the ranking lists. Furthermore, SmartMass could also be used to identify slightly modified contraband drugs and metabolites with simple prebuilt rules. [Figure not available: see fulltext.

  5. Analysis of amprolium by hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Villalba, Anna; Moyano, Encarnación; Galceran, M Teresa

    2010-09-10

    We present a fast liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method for the analysis of the coccidiostat amprolium in food samples. Tandem mass spectrometry in a triple quadrupole was used for quantitative purposes, and the information from multiple-stage mass spectrometry in an ion-trap mass analyzer contributed to fragmentation studies. Hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography (HILIC) in a Fused-Core column using isocratic elution (acetonitrile:formic acid/ammonium formate buffer pH 4, 50 mM (60:40)) successfully analyzed this compound in less than 3 min. The HILIC system was coupled to heated electrospray-MS/MS using highly selective-selected reaction monitoring (H-SRM) to improve sensitivity and selectivity for the analysis of amprolium, after a simple sample treatment based on an "extract and shoot" strategy. Accurate mass measurements were performed to identify the interfering compound responsible for causing matrix ion enhancement in the signal of amprolium. The addition of l-carnitine (the interfering compound) (1 microg L(-1)) to standards and sample extracts allowed the use of the external calibration method for quantitative purposes. The LC-MS/MS (H-SRM) method showed good precision (relative standard deviation, RSD, lower than 13%), accuracy and linearity and allowed the determination of amprolium down to the ppb level (LODs between 0.1 and 0.6 microg kg(-1)).

  6. Quantitative Comparison of Tandem Mass Spectra Obtained on Various Instruments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bazsó, Fanni Laura; Ozohanics, Oliver; Schlosser, Gitta; Ludányi, Krisztina; Vékey, Károly; Drahos, László

    2016-08-01

    The similarity between two tandem mass spectra, which were measured on different instruments, was compared quantitatively using the similarity index (SI), defined as the dot product of the square root of peak intensities in the respective spectra. This function was found to be useful for comparing energy-dependent tandem mass spectra obtained on various instruments. Spectral comparisons show the similarity index in a 2D "heat map", indicating which collision energy combinations result in similar spectra, and how good this agreement is. The results and methodology can be used in the pharma industry to design experiments and equipment well suited for good reproducibility. We suggest that to get good long-term reproducibility, it is best to adjust the collision energy to yield a spectrum very similar to a reference spectrum. It is likely to yield better results than using the same tuning file, which, for example, does not take into account that contamination of the ion source due to extended use may influence instrument tuning. The methodology may be used to characterize energy dependence on various instrument types, to optimize instrumentation, and to study the influence or correlation between various experimental parameters.

  7. Sequencing of Oligourea Foldamers by Tandem Mass Spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bathany, Katell; Owens, Neil W.; Guichard, Gilles; Schmitter, Jean-Marie

    2013-03-01

    This study is focused on sequence analysis of peptidomimetic helical oligoureas by means of tandem mass spectrometry, to build a basis for de novo sequencing for future high-throughput combinatorial library screening of oligourea foldamers. After the evaluation of MS/MS spectra obtained for model compounds with either MALDI or ESI sources, we found that the MALDI-TOF-TOF instrument gave more satisfactory results. MS/MS spectra of oligoureas generated by decay of singly charged precursor ions show major ion series corresponding to fragmentation across both CO-NH and N'H-CO urea bonds. Oligourea backbones fragment to produce a pattern of a, x, b, and y type fragment ions. De novo decoding of spectral information is facilitated by the occurrence of low mass reporter ions, representative of constitutive monomers, in an analogous manner to the use of immonium ions for peptide sequencing.

  8. Exploiting the multiplexing capabilities of tandem mass tags for high-throughput estimation of cellular protein abundances by mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Ahrné, Erik; Martinez-Segura, Amalia; Syed, Afzal Pasha; Vina-Vilaseca, Arnau; Gruber, Andreas J; Marguerat, Samuel; Schmidt, Alexander

    2015-09-01

    The generation of dynamic models of biological processes critically depends on the determination of precise cellular concentrations of biomolecules. Measurements of system-wide absolute protein levels are particularly valuable information in systems biology. Recently, mass spectrometry based proteomics approaches have been developed to estimate protein concentrations on a proteome-wide scale. However, for very complex proteomes, fractionation steps are required, increasing samples number and instrument analysis time. As a result, the number of full proteomes that can be routinely analyzed is limited. Here we combined absolute quantification strategies with the multiplexing capabilities of isobaric tandem mass tags to determine cellular protein abundances in a high throughput and proteome-wide scale even for highly complex biological systems, such as a whole human cell line. We generated two independent data sets to demonstrate the power of the approach regarding sample throughput, dynamic range, quantitative precision and accuracy as well as proteome coverage in comparison to existing mass spectrometry based strategies.

  9. Electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry of ammonium cationized polyethers.

    PubMed

    Nasioudis, Andreas; Heeren, Ron M A; van Doormalen, Irene; de Wijs-Rot, Nicolette; van den Brink, Oscar F

    2011-05-01

    Quaternary ammonium salts (Quats) and amines are known to facilitate the MS analysis of high molar mass polyethers by forming low charge state adduct ions. The formation, stability, and behavior upon collision-induced dissociation (CID) of adduct ions of polyethers with a variety of Quats and amines were studied by electrospray ionization quadrupole time-of-flight, quadrupole ion trap, and linear ion trap tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS). The linear ion trap instrument was part of an Orbitrap hybrid mass spectrometer that allowed accurate mass MS/MS measurements. The Quats and amines studied were of different degree of substitution, structure, and size. The stability of the adduct ions was related to the structure of the cation, especially the amine's degree of substitution. CID of singly/doubly charged primary and tertiary ammonium cationized polymers resulted in the neutral loss of the amine followed by fragmentation of the protonated product ions. The latter reveals information about the monomer unit, polymer sequence, and endgroup structure. In addition, the detection of product ions retaining the ammonium ion was observed. The predominant process in the CID of singly charged quaternary ammonium cationized polymers was cation detachment, whereas their doubly charged adduct ions provided the same information as the primary and tertiary ammonium cationized adduct ions. This study shows the potential of specific amines as tools for the structural elucidation of high molar mass polyethers.

  10. Electrospray Ionization Tandem Mass Spectrometry of Ammonium Cationized Polyethers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nasioudis, Andreas; Heeren, Ron M. A.; van Doormalen, Irene; de Wijs-Rot, Nicolette; van den Brink, Oscar F.

    2011-05-01

    Quaternary ammonium salts (Quats) and amines are known to facilitate the MS analysis of high molar mass polyethers by forming low charge state adduct ions. The formation, stability, and behavior upon collision-induced dissociation (CID) of adduct ions of polyethers with a variety of Quats and amines were studied by electrospray ionization quadrupole time-of-flight, quadrupole ion trap, and linear ion trap tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS). The linear ion trap instrument was part of an Orbitrap hybrid mass spectrometer that allowed accurate mass MS/MS measurements. The Quats and amines studied were of different degree of substitution, structure, and size. The stability of the adduct ions was related to the structure of the cation, especially the amine's degree of substitution. CID of singly/doubly charged primary and tertiary ammonium cationized polymers resulted in the neutral loss of the amine followed by fragmentation of the protonated product ions. The latter reveals information about the monomer unit, polymer sequence, and endgroup structure. In addition, the detection of product ions retaining the ammonium ion was observed. The predominant process in the CID of singly charged quaternary ammonium cationized polymers was cation detachment, whereas their doubly charged adduct ions provided the same information as the primary and tertiary ammonium cationized adduct ions. This study shows the potential of specific amines as tools for the structural elucidation of high molar mass polyethers.

  11. Direct Analysis in Real Time (DART) of an Organothiophosphate at Ultrahigh Resolution by Fourier Transform Ion Cyclotron Resonance Mass Spectrometry and Tandem Mass Spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    Prokai, Laszlo; Stevens, Stanley M.

    2016-01-01

    Direct analysis in real time (DART) is a recently developed ambient ionization technique for mass spectrometry to enable rapid and sensitive analyses with little or no sample preparation. After swab-based field sampling, the organothiophosphate malathion was analyzed using DART-Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance (FT-ICR) mass spectrometry (MS) and tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS). Mass resolution was documented to be over 800,000 in full-scan MS mode and over 1,000,000 for an MS/MS product ion produced by collision-induced dissociation of the protonated analyte. Mass measurement accuracy below 1 ppm was obtained for all DART-generated ions that belonged to the test compound in the mass spectra acquired using only external mass calibration. This high mass measurement accuracy, achievable at present only through FTMS, was required for unequivocal identification of the corresponding molecular formulae. PMID:26784186

  12. Direct Analysis in Real Time (DART) of an Organothiophosphate at Ultrahigh Resolution by Fourier Transform Ion Cyclotron Resonance Mass Spectrometry and Tandem Mass Spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Prokai, Laszlo; Stevens, Stanley M

    2016-01-16

    Direct analysis in real time (DART) is a recently developed ambient ionization technique for mass spectrometry to enable rapid and sensitive analyses with little or no sample preparation. After swab-based field sampling, the organothiophosphate malathion was analyzed using DART-Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance (FT-ICR) mass spectrometry (MS) and tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS). Mass resolution was documented to be over 800,000 in full-scan MS mode and over 1,000,000 for an MS/MS product ion produced by collision-induced dissociation of the protonated analyte. Mass measurement accuracy below 1 ppm was obtained for all DART-generated ions that belonged to the test compound in the mass spectra acquired using only external mass calibration. This high mass measurement accuracy, achievable at present only through FTMS, was required for unequivocal identification of the corresponding molecular formulae.

  13. Liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry in the clinical laboratory.

    PubMed

    Adaway, Joanne E; Keevil, Brian G; Owen, Laura J

    2015-01-01

    Clinical laboratory medicine has seen the introduction and evolution of liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry in routine clinical laboratories over the last 10-15 years. There still exists a wide diversity of assays from very esoteric and highly specialist manual assays to more simplified kit-based assays. The technology is not static as manufacturers are continually making improvements. Mass spectrometry is now commonly used in several areas of diagnostics including therapeutic drug monitoring, toxicology, endocrinology, paediatrics and microbiology. Some of the most high throughput analyses or common analytes include vitamin D, immunosuppressant monitoring, androgen measurement and newborn screening. It also offers flexibility for the measurement of analytes in a variety of different matrices which would prove difficult with immunoassays. Unlike immunoassays or high-pressure liquid chromatography assays using ultraviolet or fluorescence detection, mass spectrometry offers better specificity and reduced interferences if attention is paid to potential isobaric compounds. Furthermore, multiplexing, which enables multiple analytes to be measured with the same volume of serum is advantageous, and the requirement for large sample volumes is decreasing as instrument sensitivity increases. There are many emerging applications in the literature. Using mass spectrometry to identify novel isoforms or modified peptides is possible as is quantification of proteins and peptides, with or without protein digests. Future developments by the manufacturers may also include mechanisms to improve the throughput of samples and strategies to decrease the level of skill required by the operators.

  14. Scandium analysis in silicon-containing minerals by inductively coupled plasma tandem mass spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whitty-Léveillé, Laurence; Drouin, Elisabeth; Constantin, Marc; Bazin, Claude; Larivière, Dominic

    2016-04-01

    This article reports on the development of a new method for the accurate and precise determination of the amount of scandium, Sc, in silicon-containing minerals, based on the use of tandem quadrupole inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS/MS). The tandem quadrupole instrument enables new mass filtering configurations, which can reduce polyatomic interferences during the determination of Sc in mineral matrices. He and O2 were used and compared as collision and reaction gases for the removal of interferences at m/z 45 and 61. Using helium gas was ineffective to overcome all of the spectral interferences observed at m/z 45 and particularly for Si-based interferences. However, conversion of Sc+ ions into ScO+ ions (after bombardment with O2 in the octopole reaction system coupled with the use of the instrument in MS/MS mass-shift mode) provided interference-free conditions and sufficiently low limits of detection, down to 3 ng L- 1, to accurately detect Sc. The accuracy of the proposed methodology was assessed by analyzing five different reference materials (BX-N, OKA-2, NIM-L, SY-3 and GH).

  15. Simulation of Two Dimensional Electrophoresis and Tandem Mass Spectrometry for Teaching Proteomics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fisher, Amanda; Sekera, Emily; Payne, Jill; Craig, Paul

    2012-01-01

    In proteomics, complex mixtures of proteins are separated (usually by chromatography or electrophoresis) and identified by mass spectrometry. We have created 2DE Tandem MS, a computer program designed for use in the biochemistry, proteomics, or bioinformatics classroom. It contains two simulations--2D electrophoresis and tandem mass spectrometry.…

  16. A tandem mass spectrometer for collision-induced dissociation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1982-02-01

    A tandem mass spectrometer is described for studies of collision-induced dissociation. This instrument is especially suited for investigations on organic molecules, e.g., biochemical substances, for m/z values up to 1000. The first stage is formed by a conventional EI source and a sector magnet, and has a mass resolution of about 600. The first stage is provided with a collision gas cell at the site of the detector slit. In the second stage the fragment ions are post-accelerated in order to reduce the relative energy-spread and to increase the resolution and transmission. The fragment spectrum is analyzed by a second magnet (R = 750 mm, deflection angle = 15 deg) and simultaneously recorded. Quadrupoles are added in order to vary the dispersion and to aid focussing. The ratio between the highest and lowest masses in a simultaneously detected spectrum may vary from 4 : 1 to 1.06 : 1. The resolution can be as high as 600, and the transmission from the collision cell to the CEMA ranges from 60 to 100%; the detection sensitivity can be as high as 1 ion per 10 s.

  17. Fast atom bombardment tandem mass spectrometry of carotenoids

    SciTech Connect

    van Breeman, R.B.; Schmitz, H.H.; Schwartz, S.J.

    1995-02-01

    Positive ion fast atom bombardment (FAB) tandem mass spectrometry (MS-MS) using a double-focusing mass spectrometer with linked scanning at constant B/E and high-energy collisionally activated dissociation (CAD) was used to differentiate 17 different cartenoids, including {beta}-apo-8{prime}- carotenal, astaxanthin, {alpha}-carotene, {beta}-carotene, {gamma}-carotene, {zeta}-carotene, canthaxanthin, {beta}-cryptoxanthin, isozeaxanthin bis (pelargonate), neoxanthin, neurosporene, nonaprene, lutein, lycopene, phytoene, phytofluene, and zeaxanthin. The carotenoids were either synthetic or isolated from plant tissues. The use of FAB ionization minimized degradation or rearrangement of the carotenoid structures due to the inherent thermal instability generally ascribed to these compounds. Instead of protonated molecules, both polar xanthophylls and nonpolar carotenes formed molecular ions, M{sup {center_dot}+}, during FAB ionization. Following collisionally activated dissociation, fragment ions of selected molecular ion precursors showed structural features indicative of the presence of hydroxyl groups, ring systems, ester groups, and aldehyde groups and the extent of aliphatic polyene conjugation. The fragmentation patterns observed in the mass spectra herein may be used as a reference for the structural determination of carotenoids isolated from plant and animal tissues. 18 refs., 4 figs.

  18. An unsupervised machine learning method for assessing quality of tandem mass spectra

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background In a single proteomic project, tandem mass spectrometers can produce hundreds of millions of tandem mass spectra. However, majority of tandem mass spectra are of poor quality, it wastes time to search them for peptides. Therefore, the quality assessment (before database search) is very useful in the pipeline of protein identification via tandem mass spectra, especially on the reduction of searching time and the decrease of false identifications. Most existing methods for quality assessment are supervised machine learning methods based on a number of features which describe the quality of tandem mass spectra. These methods need the training datasets with knowing the quality of all spectra, which are usually unavailable for the new datasets. Results This study proposes an unsupervised machine learning method for quality assessment of tandem mass spectra without any training dataset. This proposed method estimates the conditional probabilities of spectra being high quality from the quality assessments based on individual features. The probabilities are estimated through a constraint optimization problem. An efficient algorithm is developed to solve the constraint optimization problem and is proved to be convergent. Experimental results on two datasets illustrate that if we search only tandem spectra with the high quality determined by the proposed method, we can save about 56 % and 62% of database searching time while losing only a small amount of high-quality spectra. Conclusions Results indicate that the proposed method has a good performance for the quality assessment of tandem mass spectra and the way we estimate the conditional probabilities is effective. PMID:22759570

  19. iPE-MMR: An integrated approach to accurately assign monoisotopic precursor masses to tandem mass spectrometric data

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Hee-Jung; Purvine, Samuel O.; Kim, Hokeun; Petyuk, Vladislav A.; Hyung, Seok-Won; Monroe, Matthew E.; Mun, Dong-Gi; Kim, Kyong-Chul; Park, Jong-Moon; Kim, Su-Jin; Tolic, Nikola; Slysz, Gordon W.; Moore, Ronald J.; Zhao, Rui; Adkins, Joshua N.; Anderson, Gordon A.; Lee, Hookeun; Camp, David G.; Yu, Myeong-Hee; Smith, Richard D.; Lee, Sang-Won

    2010-01-01

    Accurate assignment of monoisotopic precursor masses to tandem mass spectrometric (MS/MS) data is a fundamental and critically important step for successful peptide identifications in mass spectrometry based proteomics. Here we describe an integrated approach that combines three previously reported methods of treating MS/MS data for precursor mass refinement. This combined method, “integrated Post-Experiment Monoisotopic Mass Refinement” (iPE-MMR), integrates steps: 1) generation of refined MS/MS data by DeconMSn; 2) additional refinement of the resultant MS/MS data by a modified version of PE-MMR; 3) elimination of systematic errors of precursor masses using DtaRefinery. iPE-MMR is the first method that utilizes all MS information from multiple MS scans of a precursor ion including multiple charge states, in an MS scan, to determine precursor mass. By combining these methods, iPE-MMR increases sensitivity in peptide identification and provides increased accuracy when applied to complex high-throughput proteomics data. PMID:20863060

  20. Probabilistic consensus scoring improves tandem mass spectrometry peptide identification.

    PubMed

    Nahnsen, Sven; Bertsch, Andreas; Rahnenführer, Jörg; Nordheim, Alfred; Kohlbacher, Oliver

    2011-08-05

    Database search is a standard technique for identifying peptides from their tandem mass spectra. To increase the number of correctly identified peptides, we suggest a probabilistic framework that allows the combination of scores from different search engines into a joint consensus score. Central to the approach is a novel method to estimate scores for peptides not found by an individual search engine. This approach allows the estimation of p-values for each candidate peptide and their combination across all search engines. The consensus approach works better than any single search engine across all different instrument types considered in this study. Improvements vary strongly from platform to platform and from search engine to search engine. Compared to the industry standard MASCOT, our approach can identify up to 60% more peptides. The software for consensus predictions is implemented in C++ as part of OpenMS, a software framework for mass spectrometry. The source code is available in the current development version of OpenMS and can easily be used as a command line application or via a graphical pipeline designer TOPPAS.

  1. Identification of degradation products of indigoids by tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Witkoś, Katarzyna; Lech, Katarzyna; Jarosz, Maciej

    2015-11-01

    The study concerns identification of photodegradation products of indigotin, indirubin and isoindigo. Experimental methodology consists of degradation of standard solutions of indigoids in a solar box and analysis of samples taken at different aging time by using capillary high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometric and spectrophotometric detectors. Identification of the formed compounds was based on careful interpretation of the electrospray ionization MS/MS spectra. Apart from the well-known degradation products of indigoids: isatin, isatoic anhydride and anthranilic acid, another seven species were also identified, and their proposed structures were confirmed by high-resolution molecular masses measurements; according to the best knowledge of authors, they have not been reported so far. The obtained results formed the basis for postulating mechanism of the process. Moreover, the MRM (Multiple Reaction Monitoring) method was developed for the identification of natural dyes and their degradation products in textiles of historical value. Apart from such colorants as indigotin and flavonoids, also presence of degradation products of indigoids was confirmed.

  2. Determination of parabens in serum by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry: Correlation with lipstick use.

    PubMed

    Tahan, Gabriella Padovani; Santos, Nayara de Kássia Souza; Albuquerque, Ana Carolina; Martins, Isarita

    2016-08-01

    Parabens are the most widely used preservative and are considered to be relatively safe compounds. However, studies have demonstrated that they may have estrogenic activity, and there is ongoing debate regarding the safety and potential cancer risk of using products containing these compounds. In the present work, liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry was applied to determine methylparaben and propylparaben concentrations in serum, and the results were correlated with lipstick application. Samples were analyzed using liquid-liquid extraction, followed by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. The validation results demonstrated the linearity of the method over a range of 1-20 ng/mL, in addition to the method's precision and accuracy. A statistically significant difference was demonstrated between serum parabens in women who used lipstick containing these substances compared with those not using this cosmetic (p = 0.0005 and 0.0016, respectively), and a strong association was observed between serum parabens and lipstick use (Spearman correlation = 0.7202).

  3. Improved liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method for the analysis of eptifibatide in human plasma.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Zhi-Ling; Yu, Xi-Yong; Yang, Min; Mai, Li-Ping; Lin, Qiu-Xiong; Deng, Chun-Yu; Shan, Zhi-Xin; Kuang, Su-Juan; Zhu, Ping; Huang, Xiao-Zhong; Li, Xiao-Hong; Chen, Tie-Feng; Lin, Shu-Guang

    2010-08-01

    A rapid, selective and highly sensitive high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method (LC-MS/MS) was developed and validated for the determination and pharmacokinetic investigation of eptifibatide in human plasma. Eptifibatide and the internal standard (IS), EPM-05, were extracted from plasma samples using solid phase extraction. Chromatographic separation was performed on a C(18) column at a flow rate of 0.5 mL/min. Detection of eptifibatide and the IS was achieved by tandem mass spectrometry with an electrospray ionization (ESI) interface in positive ion mode. Traditional multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) using the transition of m/z 832.6-->m/z 646.4 and m/z 931.6-->m/z 159.4 was performed to quantify eptifibatide and the IS, respectively. The calibration curves were linear over the range of 1-1000 ng/mL with the lower limit of quantitation validated at 1 ng/mL. The intra- and inter-day precisions were within 13.3%, while the accuracy was within +/-7.6% of nominal values. The validated LC-MS/MS method was successfully applied for the evaluation of pharmacokinetic parameters of eptifibatide after intravenous (i.v.) administration of a 45 microg/kg bolus of eptifibatide to 8 healthy volunteers.

  4. Determination of tolperisone in human plasma by liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry for clinical application.

    PubMed

    Choi, Chang-Ik; Park, Jung-In; Lee, Hye-In; Lee, Yun-Jeong; Jang, Choon-Gon; Bae, Jung-Woo; Lee, Seok-Yong

    2012-12-12

    We have developed and validated a simple, rapid, and sensitive liquid chromatography analytical method employing tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) for the determination of tolperisone, a centrally acting muscle relaxant, in human plasma. After liquid-liquid extraction with methyl t-butyl ether, chromatographic separation of tolperisone was performed using a reversed-phase Luna C(18) column (2.0mm×50mm, 5μm particles) with a mobile phase of 10mM ammonium formate buffer (pH 3.5) - methanol (12:88, v/v) and quantified by tandem mass detection in ESI positive ion mode. The flow rate of the mobile phase was 250μL/min and the retention times of tolperisone and the internal standard (IS, dibucaine) were both 0.6min. The calibration curves were linear over a range of 0.5-300ng/mL (r>0.999). The lower limit of quantification, using 200μL human plasma, was 0.5ng/mL. The mean accuracy and precision for intra- and inter-day validation of tolperisone were within acceptable limits. The LC-MS/MS method reported here showed improved sensitivity for quantification of tolperisone in human plasma compared with previously described analytical methods. Lastly, the validated method was successfully applied to a pharmacokinetic study in humans.

  5. Determination of carbocysteine in human plasma by liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry employing precolumn derivatization.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xiaoyan; Zhong, Dafang; Han, Ying; Xie, Zhiyong

    2003-01-01

    A sensitive liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS) method was developed to determine carbocysteine in human plasma using 2-pyridylacetic acid as the internal standard (IS). The method employed derivatization with 10 M hydrochloric acid/methanol, which significantly improved the ionization efficiency of carbocysteine. After methanol-induced protein precipitation of plasma samples, carbocysteine and the IS were derivatized and subjected to LC/MS/MS analysis using atmospheric pressure chemical ionization. The method has a lower limit of quantitation of 20 ng/mL for a 0.2-mL plasma aliquot. The intra- and inter-day precision (RSD), calculated from quality control (QC) samples, was less than 7%. The accuracy, determined using QC samples, was within +/- 1%. The method offered increased sensitivity, selectivity and speed of analysis over existing methods. The method was utilized to support clinical pharmacokinetic studies of carbocysteine in volunteers following oral administration.

  6. Free amino acids analysis by liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry in several botanicals with antioxidant character.

    PubMed

    Moldoveanu, Serban C; Zhu, Jeff; Qian, Nancy

    2015-07-01

    A novel method based on liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry for the analysis of 19 amino acids in plant materials is described. For the analysis, the plant material is extracted with 0.1 N hydrochloric acid with internal standards present in the extraction solution. The filtered extracts are injected using no clean-up into the liquid chromatographic system coupled with a triple-quadrupole tandem mass spectrometer with an electrospray ionization source. The analytes are separated using ion pair chromatography on a reversed-phase column. The detection is performed in multiple-reaction monitoring positive-ion mode. Quantitation is obtained using calibrations. The validated procedure has been applied for the analysis of amino acids in 18 samples of plant material including botanicals with antioxidant character. The analysis requires 16 min separation time, has excellent precision and accuracy allowing amino acid analysis in a wide range of concentrations.

  7. Implementation of Ion/Ion Reactions in a Quadrupole/Time-of-Flight Tandem Mass Spectrometer

    PubMed Central

    Xia, Yu; Chrisman, Paul A.; Erickson, David E.; Liu, Jian; Liang, Xiaorong; Londry, Frank A.; Yang, Min J.; McLuckey, Scott A.

    2008-01-01

    A commercial quadrupole/time-of-flight (QqTOF) tandem mass spectrometer has been adapted for ion/ion reaction studies. To enable mutual storage of oppositely charged ions in a linear ion trap, the oscillating quadrupole field of the second quadrupole of the system (Q2) serves to store ions in the radial dimension while auxiliary RF is superposed on the end lenses of Q2 during the reaction period to create barriers in the axial dimension. A pulsed dual electrospray (ESI) source is directly coupled to the instrument interface for the purpose of proton transfer reactions. Singly and doubly charged protein ions as high in mass as 66 kDa are readily formed and observed after proton transfer reactions. For the modified instrument, the mass resolving power is about 8000 for a wide m/z range and the mass accuracy is ~20 ppm for external calibration and ~5 ppm for internal calibration after ion/ion reactions. Parallel ion parking is demonstrated with a six-component protein mixture, which shows the potential application of reducing spectral complexity and concentrating certain charge states. The current system has high flexibility with respect to defining MSn experiments involving collision-induced dissociation (CID) and ion/ion reactions. Protein precursor and CID product masses can be determined with good accuracy, providing an attractive platform for top-down proteomics. Electron transfer dissociation (ETD) ion/ion reactions are implemented by using a pulsed nano-ESI/atmospheric pressure chemical ionization (APCI) dual source for ionization. The reaction between protonated peptide ions and radical anions of 1,3-dinitrobenzene formed exclusively c- and z- type fragment ions. PMID:16771545

  8. 10 K Ring Electrode Trap - Tandem Mass Spectrometer for Infrared Spectroscopy of Mass Selected Ions

    SciTech Connect

    Goebbert, Daniel J.; Meijer, Gerard; Asmis, Knut R.

    2009-03-17

    A novel instrumental setup for measuring infrared photodissociation spectra of buffer gas cooled, mass-selected ions is described and tested. It combines a cryogenically cooled, linear radio frequency ion trap with a tandem mass spectrometer, optimally coupling continuous ion sources to pulsed laser experiments. The use of six independently adjustable DC potentials superimposed over the trapping radio frequency field provides control over the ion distribution within, as well as the kinetic energy distribution of the ions extracted from the ion trap. The scheme allows focusing the ions in space and time, such that they can be optimally irradiated by a pulsed, widely tunable infrared photodissociation laser. Ion intensities are monitored with a time-of-flight mass spectrometer mounted orthogonally to the ion trap axis.

  9. High-accuracy mass spectrometry for fundamental studies.

    PubMed

    Kluge, H-Jürgen

    2010-01-01

    Mass spectrometry for fundamental studies in metrology and atomic, nuclear and particle physics requires extreme sensitivity and efficiency as well as ultimate resolving power and accuracy. An overview will be given on the global status of high-accuracy mass spectrometry for fundamental physics and metrology. Three quite different examples of modern mass spectrometric experiments in physics are presented: (i) the retardation spectrometer KATRIN at the Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe, employing electrostatic filtering in combination with magnetic-adiabatic collimation-the biggest mass spectrometer for determining the smallest mass, i.e. the mass of the electron anti-neutrino, (ii) the Experimental Cooler-Storage Ring at GSI-a mass spectrometer of medium size, relative to other accelerators, for determining medium-heavy masses and (iii) the Penning trap facility, SHIPTRAP, at GSI-the smallest mass spectrometer for determining the heaviest masses, those of super-heavy elements. Finally, a short view into the future will address the GSI project HITRAP at GSI for fundamental studies with highly-charged ions.

  10. A proteomics search algorithm specifically designed for high-resolution tandem mass spectra.

    PubMed

    Wenger, Craig D; Coon, Joshua J

    2013-03-01

    The acquisition of high-resolution tandem mass spectra (MS/MS) is becoming more prevalent in proteomics, but most researchers employ peptide identification algorithms that were designed prior to this development. Here, we demonstrate new software, Morpheus, designed specifically for high-mass accuracy data, based on a simple score that is little more than the number of matching products. For a diverse collection of data sets from a variety of organisms (E. coli, yeast, human) acquired on a variety of instruments (quadrupole-time-of-flight, ion trap-orbitrap, and quadrupole-orbitrap) in different laboratories, Morpheus gives more spectrum, peptide, and protein identifications at a 1% false discovery rate (FDR) than Mascot, Open Mass Spectrometry Search Algorithm (OMSSA), and Sequest. Additionally, Morpheus is 1.5 to 4.6 times faster, depending on the data set, than the next fastest algorithm, OMSSA. Morpheus was developed in C# .NET and is available free and open source under a permissive license.

  11. Ultra-high-pressure liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method for the determination of alkylphenols in soil.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jing; Pan, Hefang; Liu, Zhengzheng; Ge, Fei

    2009-03-20

    A novel method has been developed for the determination of alkylphenols in soil by ultra-high-pressure liquid chromatography employing small particle sizes, combined with tandem mass spectrometry. Soil samples were extracted with pressurized liquid extraction (PLE) and then cleaned with solid-phase extraction (SPE). The extracts were separated on C18 column (1.7 microm, 50 mm x 2.1mm) with a gradient elution and a mobile phase consisting of water and acetonitrile, and then detected by an electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry in negative ion mode with multiple reaction monitoring (MRM). Compared with traditional liquid chromatography, it took ultra-high-pressure liquid chromatography much less time to analyze alkylphenols. Additionally, the ultra-high-pressure liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry method produces satisfactory reliability, sensitivity, and accuracy. The average recoveries of the three target analytes were 74.0-103.4%, with the RSD<15%. The calibration curves for alkylphenols were linear within the range of 0.01-0.4 microg/ml, with the correlation coefficients greater than 0.99. When 10 g soil sample was used for analysis, the limits of quantification (LOQs) of the three alkylphenols were all 1.0 microg/kg.

  12. Determination of azatadine in human plasma by liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Yan-Rong; Jia, Yan-Yan; Jiang, Ling; Wang, Chao; Ding, Li-Kun; Yang, Jing; Li, Liang; Zhao, Pei-Xi; Liu, Wen-Xin; Yi-Ding; Wang, Li; Wen, Ai-Dong

    2011-08-01

    A sensitive method using liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometric detection (LC-MS/MS) was developed and validated for the analysis of antihistamine drug azatadine in human plasma. Loratadine was used as internal standard (IS). Analytes were extracted from human plasma by liquid/liquid extraction using ethyl acetate. The organic phase was reduced to dryness under a stream of nitrogen at 30 °C and the residue was reconstituted with the mobile phase. 5 μL of the resulting solution was injected onto the LC-MS/MS system. A 4.6 mm × 150 mm, I.D. 5 μm, Agilent TC-C(18) column was used to perform the chromatographic analysis. The mobile phase consisted of ammonium formate buffer 0.010 M (adjusted to pH 4.3 with 1M formic acid)/acetonitrile (20:80, v/v) The chromatographic run time was 5 min per injection and flow rate was 0.6 mL/min. The retention time was 2.4 and 4.4 min for azatadine and IS, respectively. The tandem mass spectrometric detection mode was achieved with electrospray ionization (ESI) iron source and the multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) (291.3 → 248.2m/z for azatadine, 383.3 → 337.3m/z for IS) was operated in positive ion modes. The low limit of quantitation (LLOQ) was 0.05 ng/mL. The intra-day and inter-day precision of the quality control (QC) samples was 8.93-11.57% relative standard deviation (RSD). The inter-day accuracy of the QC samples was 96.83-105.07% of the nominal values.

  13. Determination of salivary efavirenz by liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Theron, Anri; Cromarty, Duncan; Rheeders, Malie; Viljoen, Michelle

    2010-10-15

    A novel and robust screening method for the determination of the non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor, efavirenz (EFV), in human saliva has been developed and validated based on high performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). Sample preparation of the saliva involved solid-phase extraction (SPE) on C18 cartridges. The analytes were separated by high performance liquid chromatography (Phenomenex Kinetex C18, 150mm×3mm internal diameter, 2.6μm particle size) and detected with tandem mass spectrometry in electrospray positive ionization mode with multiple reaction monitoring. Gradient elution with increasing methanol (MeOH) concentration was used to elute the analytes, at a flow-rate of 0.4mL/min. The total run time was 8.4min and the retention times for the internal standard (reserpine) was 5.4min and for EFV was 6.5min. The calibration curves showed linearity (r(2), 0.989-0.992) over the concentration range of 3.125-100μg/L. Mean intra- and inter-assay relative standard deviation, accuracy, mean extraction recovery, limit of detection (LOD) and limit of quantification (LOQ) were 0.46-9.43%, 80-120%, 60% (±7.95), 1.84 and 6.11μg/L respectively. The working range was defined as 6.25-100μg/L. This novel LC-MS/MS assay is suitable for reliable detection of low EFV concentrations in saliva and can be used as a screening tool for monitoring EFV compliance.

  14. Investigation of an enhanced resolution triple quadrupole mass spectrometer for high-throughput liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry assays.

    PubMed

    Yang, Liyu; Amad, Ma'an; Winnik, Witold M; Schoen, Alan E; Schweingruber, Hans; Mylchreest, Iain; Rudewicz, Patrick J

    2002-01-01

    Triple quadrupole mass spectrometers, when operated in multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) mode, offer a unique combination of sensitivity, specificity, and dynamic range. Consequently, the triple quadrupole is the workhorse for high-throughput quantitation within the pharmaceutical industry. However, in the past, the unit mass resolution of quadrupole instruments has been a limitation when interference from matrix or metabolites cannot be eliminated. With recent advances in instrument design, triple quadrupole instruments now afford mass resolution of less than 0.1 Dalton (Da) full width at half maximum (FWHM). This paper describes the evaluation of an enhanced resolution triple quadrupole mass spectrometer for high-throughput bioanalysis with emphasis on comparison of selectivity, sensitivity, dynamic range, precision, accuracy, and stability under both unit mass (1 Da FWHM) and enhanced (mass resolution, the transmitted precursor ion from the first quadrupole contained not only protonated molecules from mometasone, but also PPG interference. At enhanced resolution only selected mometasone peaks were transmitted, and no interference from PPG was detected. Sensitivity of the instrument was demonstrated with 10 femtograms of descarboethoxyloratadine injected on-column, for which a signal-to-noise (S/N) ratio of 24 was obtained for MRM chromatograms at both unit and enhanced resolution. Absolute signals obtained at enhanced resolution were about one-third those obtained at unit mass resolution. However, S/N was maintained at enhanced resolution due to the proportional decrease in noise level. Finally, the stability of the instrument operating at enhanced resolution was demonstrated during an overnight 17 h period that was used to validate a liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS) assay for

  15. DeMix Workflow for Efficient Identification of Cofragmented Peptides in High Resolution Data-dependent Tandem Mass Spectrometry*

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Bo; Pirmoradian, Mohammad; Chernobrovkin, Alexey; Zubarev, Roman A.

    2014-01-01

    Based on conventional data-dependent acquisition strategy of shotgun proteomics, we present a new workflow DeMix, which significantly increases the efficiency of peptide identification for in-depth shotgun analysis of complex proteomes. Capitalizing on the high resolution and mass accuracy of Orbitrap-based tandem mass spectrometry, we developed a simple deconvolution method of “cloning” chimeric tandem spectra for cofragmented peptides. Additional to a database search, a simple rescoring scheme utilizes mass accuracy and converts the unwanted cofragmenting events into a surprising advantage of multiplexing. With the combination of cloning and rescoring, we obtained on average nine peptide-spectrum matches per second on a Q-Exactive workbench, whereas the actual MS/MS acquisition rate was close to seven spectra per second. This efficiency boost to 1.24 identified peptides per MS/MS spectrum enabled analysis of over 5000 human proteins in single-dimensional LC-MS/MS shotgun experiments with an only two-hour gradient. These findings suggest a change in the dominant “one MS/MS spectrum - one peptide” paradigm for data acquisition and analysis in shotgun data-dependent proteomics. DeMix also demonstrated higher robustness than conventional approaches in terms of lower variation among the results of consecutive LC-MS/MS runs. PMID:25100859

  16. Quantitative analysis of phenibut in rat brain tissue extracts by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Grinberga, Solveiga; Zvejniece, Liga; Liepinsh, Edgars; Dambrova, Maija; Pugovics, Osvalds

    2008-12-01

    Phenibut (3-phenyl-4-aminobutyric acid) is a gamma-aminobutyric acid mimetic drug, which is used clinically as a mood elevator and tranquilizer. In the present work, a rapid, selective and sensitive liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method for quantification of phenibut in biological matrices has been developed. The method is based on protein precipitation with acidic acetonitrile followed by isocratic chromatographic separation using acetonitrile-formic acid (0.1% in water; 8:92, v/v) mobile phase on a reversed-phase column. Detection of the analyte was performed by electrospray ionization mass spectrometry in multiple reaction monitoring mode with the precursor-to-product ion transition m/z 180.3 --> m/z 117.2. The calibration curve was linear over the concentration range 50-2000 ng/mL. The lower limit of quantification for phenibut in rat brain extracts was 50 ng/mL. Acceptable precision and accuracy were obtained over the whole concentration range. The validated method was successfully applied in a pharmacological study to analyze phenibut concentration in rat brain tissue extract samples.

  17. Chiral purity assay for Flindokalner using tandem mass spectrometry: method development, validation, and benchmarking.

    PubMed

    Young, Brandy L; Cooks, R G; Madden, Michelle C; Bair, Michael; Jia, Jingpin; Aubry, Anne-Françoise; Miller, Scott A

    2007-04-11

    The present work demonstrates the application and validation of a mass spectrometry method for quantitative chiral purity determination. The particular compound analyzed is Flindokalner, a Bristol-Myers Squibb drug candidate for post-stroke neuroprotection. Chiral quantification of Flindokalner was achieved using tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) and the kinetic method, a gas phase method used for thermochemical and chiral determinations. The MS/MS method was validated and benchmarked against two separate chromatographic techniques, chiral high performance liquid chromatography with ultra-violet detection (LC/UV) and achiral high performance liquid chromatography with circular dichroism detection (LC/CD). The chiral purity determination of Flindokalner using MS/MS proved to be rapid (3 min run time for each sample) and to have accuracy and precision comparable to the chiral LC/UV and achiral LC/CD methods. This method represents an alternative to commonly used chromatographic techniques as a means of chiral purity determination and is particularly useful in rapid screening experiments.

  18. Tandem mass spectrometric analysis of a complex triterpene saponin mixture of Chenopodium quinoa.

    PubMed

    Madl, Tobias; Sterk, Heinz; Mittelbach, Martin; Rechberger, Gerald N

    2006-06-01

    A nano-HPLC electrospray ionization multi-stage tandem mass spectrometry (nLC-ESI-MS/MS) approach was applied to a complex crude triterpene saponin extract of Chenopodium quinoa seed coats. In ESI-MS/MS spectra of triterpene saponins, characteristic fragmentation reactions are observed and allow the determination of aglycones, saccharide sequences, compositions, and branching. Fragmentation of aglycones provided further structural information. The chemical complexity of the mixture was resolved by a complete profiling. Eighty-seven triterpene saponins comprising 19 reported and 68 novel components were identified and studied by MS. In addition to four reported, five novel triterpene aglycones were detected and characterized according to their fragmentation reactions in ESI-MS/MS and electron ionization mass spectrometry (EI-MS). As a novelty fragmentation pathways were proposed and analyzed based upon quantum chemical calculations using a hybrid Hartree-Fock density functional method. Accuracy of the assignment procedure was proven by isolation and structure determination of a novel compound. As the relative distribution and composition of saponins varies between different cultivars and soils, the presented strategy allows a rapid and complete analysis of Chenopodium quinoa saponin distribution and composition, and is particularly suitable for quality control and screening of extracts designated for pharmaceutical, agricultural, and industrial applications.

  19. Dynamic Bayesian Network for Accurate Detection of Peptides from Tandem Mass Spectra.

    PubMed

    Halloran, John T; Bilmes, Jeff A; Noble, William S

    2016-08-05

    A central problem in mass spectrometry analysis involves identifying, for each observed tandem mass spectrum, the corresponding generating peptide. We present a dynamic Bayesian network (DBN) toolkit that addresses this problem by using a machine learning approach. At the heart of this toolkit is a DBN for Rapid Identification (DRIP), which can be trained from collections of high-confidence peptide-spectrum matches (PSMs). DRIP's score function considers fragment ion matches using Gaussians rather than fixed fragment-ion tolerances and also finds the optimal alignment between the theoretical and observed spectrum by considering all possible alignments, up to a threshold that is controlled using a beam-pruning algorithm. This function not only yields state-of-the art database search accuracy but also can be used to generate features that significantly boost the performance of the Percolator postprocessor. The DRIP software is built upon a general purpose DBN toolkit (GMTK), thereby allowing a wide variety of options for user-specific inference tasks as well as facilitating easy modifications to the DRIP model in future work. DRIP is implemented in Python and C++ and is available under Apache license at http://melodi-lab.github.io/dripToolkit .

  20. Increased Throughput of Proteomics Analysis by Multiplexing High-resolution Tandem Mass Spectra

    PubMed Central

    Ledvina, A. R.; Savitski, M. M.; Zubarev, A. R.; Good, D. M.; Coon, J. J.; Zubarev, R. A.

    2014-01-01

    High-resolution and accuracy Fourier-transform mass spectrometry (FTMS) is becoming increasingly attractive due to its specificity. However, the speed of tandem FTMS analysis severely limits the competitive advantage of this approach relative to faster low-resolution quadrupole ion trap MS/MS instruments. Here we demonstrate an entirely FTMS-based analysis method with a 2.5–3.0 fold greater throughput than a conventional FT MS/MS approach. The method consists of accumulating together the MS/MS fragments ions from multiple precursors, with subsequent high-resolution analysis of the mixture. Following acquisition, the multiplexed spectrum is deconvoluted into individual MS/MS datasets which are separately submitted for peptide identification to a search engine. The method is tested both in silico using a database of MS/MS spectra as well as in situ using a modified LTQ-Orbitrap mass spectrometer. The performance of the method in the experiment was consistent with theoretical expectations. PMID:21913643

  1. Increased throughput of proteomics analysis by multiplexing high-resolution tandem mass spectra.

    PubMed

    Ledvina, A R; Savitski, M M; Zubarev, A R; Good, D M; Coon, J J; Zubarev, R A

    2011-10-15

    High-resolution and high-accuracy Fourier transform mass spectrometry (FTMS) is becoming increasingly attractive due to its specificity. However, the speed of tandem FTMS analysis severely limits the competitive advantage of this approach relative to faster low-resolution quadrupole ion trap MS/MS instruments. Here we demonstrate an entirely FTMS-based analysis method with a 2.5-3.0-fold greater throughput than a conventional FT MS/MS approach. The method consists of accumulating together the MS/MS fragments ions from multiple precursors, with subsequent high-resolution analysis of the mixture. Following acquisition, the multiplexed spectrum is deconvoluted into individual MS/MS spectra which are then combined into a single concatenated file and submitted for peptide identification to a search engine. The method is tested both in silico using a database of MS/MS spectra as well as in situ using a modified LTQ Orbitrap mass spectrometer. The performance of the method in the experiment was consistent with theoretical expectations.

  2. Analysis of 2-methylthio-derivatives of isoprenoid cytokinins by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Tarkowski, Petr; Václavíková, Kateřina; Novák, Ondřej; Pertry, Ine; Hanuš, Jan; Whenham, Robert; Vereecke, Danny; Šebela, Marek; Strnad, Miroslav

    2010-11-08

    A sensitive and reliable high-performance liquid chromatographic method with tandem mass spectrometric detection has been developed and used for the determination of 2-methylthio-cytokinin derivatives produced by the phytopathogenic actinomycete Rhodococcus fascians. The cultivation medium containing secreted cytokinins was concentrated and subjected to a solid-phase extraction (C18 and ion-exchange). The purified samples were further separated and analyzed by HPLC-ESI-MS/MS. This allowed to achieve chromatographic resolution of six highly hydrophobic cytokinin species including 2-methylthio-isopentenyladenine, 2-methylthio-isopentenyladenosine, 2-methylthio-trans-zeatin and 2-methylthio-trans-zeatin riboside and their cis-isomers when a reversed-phase chromatographic column (C4) and a mobile phase consisting of acetonitrile and 20 mM ammonium formate, pH 5, were used. Quantification was performed by a standard isotope dilution method using a multiple-reaction monitoring (MRM) mode. In the MRM mode, limits of detection reached 20-30 fmol and linear ranges spanned four orders of magnitude. Recovery values were between 35% and 65% and the analytical accuracy between 95% and 149%. The proposed bioanalytical method, which takes advantage of effective chromatographic separation of six 2-methyltio-derivatives (including isomers of zeatin-type cytokinins) and sensitive mass spectrometric detection, may become useful for plant biologists studying the significance of these substances in plant-microbe interactions.

  3. Determination of thalidomide concentration in human plasma by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Bai, Nan; Cui, Xiang-Yong; Wang, Jin; Sun, Chun-Guang; Mei, He-Kun; Liang, Bei-Bei; Cai, Yun; Song, Xiu-Jie; Gu, Jing-Kai; Wang, Rui

    2013-02-01

    A rapid, sensitive and specific analytical method based on high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) has been developed for the determination of thalidomide concentration in human plasma. The analyte and internal standard were extracted by liquid-liquid extraction with ether-dichloromethane (3:2, v/v) and separated on a TC-C(18) column using methanol-10 mM ammonium acetate-formic acid (60:40:0.04, v/v/v) as the mobile phase at a flow rate of 0.9 ml/min. The detection was performed using an API 4000 triple quadrupole mass spectrometer in the positive electrospray ionization (ESI) mode and completed within 3.0 min. The multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) transitions were m/z 259.1→84.0 for the analyte and m/z 195.9→138.9 for temozolomide. The calibration curve exhibited a linear dynamic range of 2-1500 ng/ml (r>0.9991). The intra-and inter-day precisions (as relative standard deviation; RSD) were 6.8-13.5% and 4.3-5.0% respectively and the accuracy (as relative error; RE) was 2.0-3.5%. The recoveries and matrix effects were satisfactory in all the biological matrices examined. This method was successfully used in a pharmacokinetic study of thalidomide in healthy male volunteers receiving an oral administration of a 200-mg dose.

  4. ANALYSIS OF POLYCYCLIC AROMATIC HYDROCARBONS BY ION TRAP TANDEM MASS SPECTROMETRY

    EPA Science Inventory

    An ion-trap mass spectrometer with a wave board and tandem mass spectrometry software was used to analyze gas chromatographically separated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) by using collision-induced dissociation (CID). The nonresonant (multiple collision) mode was used to...

  5. High-Speed Tandem Mass Spectrometric in Situ Imaging by Nanospray Desorption Electrospray Ionization Mass Spectrometry

    SciTech Connect

    Lanekoff, Ingela T.; Burnum-Johnson, Kristin E.; Thomas, Mathew; Short, Joshua TL; Carson, James P.; Cha, Jeeyeon; Dey, Sudhansu K.; Yang, Pengxiang; Prieto Conaway, Maria C.; Laskin, Julia

    2013-10-15

    Nanospray desorption electrospray ionization (nano-DESI) combined with tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS), high-resolution mass analysis (m/m=17,500 at m/z 200), and rapid spectral acquisition enabled simultaneous imaging and identification of more than 300 molecules from 92 selected m/z windows (± 1 Da) with a spatial resolution of better than 150 um. Uterine sections of implantation sites on day 6 of pregnancy were analyzed in the ambient environment without any sample pre-treatment. MS/MS imaging was performed by scanning the sample under the nano-DESI probe at 10 um/s while acquiring higher-energy collision-induced dissociation (HCD) spectra for a targeted inclusion list of 92 m/z values at a rate of ~6.3 spectra/s. Molecular ions and their corresponding fragments, separated using high-resolution mass analysis, were assigned based on accurate mass measurement. Using this approach, we were able to identify and image both abundant and low-abundance isobaric species within each m/z window. MS/MS analysis enabled efficient separation and identification of isobaric sodium and potassium adducts of phospholipids. Furthermore, we identified several metabolites associated with early pregnancy and obtained the first 2D images of these molecules.

  6. High-speed tandem mass spectrometric in situ imaging by nanospray desorption electrospray ionization mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Lanekoff, Ingela; Burnum-Johnson, Kristin; Thomas, Mathew; Short, Joshua; Carson, James P; Cha, Jeeyeon; Dey, Sudhansu K; Yang, Pengxiang; Prieto Conaway, Maria C; Laskin, Julia

    2013-10-15

    Nanospray desorption electrospray ionization (nano-DESI) combined with tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS), high-resolution mass analysis of the fragment ions (m/Δm = 17 500 at m/z 200), and rapid spectral acquisition enabled simultaneous imaging and identification of a large number of metabolites and lipids from 92 selected m/z windows (±1 Da) with a spatial resolution of better than 150 μm. Mouse uterine sections of implantation sites on day 6 of pregnancy were analyzed in the ambient environment without any sample pretreatment. MS/MS imaging was performed by scanning the sample under the nano-DESI probe at 10 μm/s, while higher-energy collision-induced dissociation (HCD) spectra were acquired for a targeted inclusion list of 92 m/z values at a rate of ∼6.3 spectra/s. Molecular ions and their corresponding fragments, separated by high-resolution mass analysis, were assigned on the basis of accurate mass measurement. Using this approach, we were able to identify and image both abundant and low-abundance isobaric and isomeric species within each m/z window. MS/MS analysis enabled efficient separation and identification of isomeric and isobaric phospholipids that are difficult to separate in full-scan mode. Furthermore, we identified several metabolites associated with early pregnancy and obtained the first 2D images of these molecules.

  7. Determination of loperamide in human plasma and saliva by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Arafat, Tawfiq; Arafat, Basil; awad, Riad; awwad, Ahmad Abu

    2014-12-01

    A simple and sensitive liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometric method for quantification of loperamide in human plasma and saliva was developed and validated, and then successfully applied in pharmacokinetic clinical study to investigate and correlate bioavailability of Imodium(®) 2mg quartet tablet dose in both human plasma and saliva. Loperamide with labeled internal standard was extracted from its biological matrix by methanol as protein direct precipitant in single extraction step. Adequate chromatographic separation for analytes from plasma and saliva matrices was achieved using ACE C18 (50mm×2.1mm, 5μm) column, eluted by water/methanol/formic acid (30:70:0.1%, v/v), delivered isocratically at constant flow rate of 0.75ml/min. The method validation intends to investigate specificity, sensitivity, linearity, precision, accuracy, recovery, matrix effect and stability according to European guideline, and partial validation was applied on saliva, specificity, matrix effect, recovery, sensitivity, within and between day precision and accuracy. The calibration curve was linear through the range of 20-3000pg/ml in both plasma and saliva using a 50μl sample volume. The partial validation sections outcome in saliva was so close to those in plasma. The within- and between-day precisions were all below 8.7% for plasma and below 11.4% for saliva. Accuracies ranged from 94 to 105% for both matrices. In this study, 26 healthy volunteers participated in the clinical study, and 6 of gave their saliva samples in addition to plasma at the same time schedule. The pharmacokinetic parameters of Cmax, AUC0-t and AUC0-∞, Tmax and T1/2 in both plasma and saliva were calculated and correlated.

  8. Interpretation of collision-induced fragmentation tandem mass spectra of posttranslationally modified peptides.

    PubMed

    Bunkenborg, Jakob; Matthiesen, Rune

    2007-01-01

    Tandem collision-induced dissociation (CID) mass spectrometry (MS) provides a sensitive means of analyzing the amino acid sequence of peptides. Modern MS instrumentation is capable of rapidly generating many thousands of tandem mass spectra, and protein database search engines have been developed to cope with this avalanche of data. In most studies, there is a schism between discarding perfectly valid data and including nonsensical peptide identifications--this is currently a major bottleneck in data analysis and it calls for manual evaluation of the data. Especially for posttranslationally modified peptides, there is a need for manual validation of the data because search algorithms seldom have been optimized for the identification of modified peptides and because there are many pitfalls for the unwary. This chapter describes some of the issues that should be considered when interpreting and validating low-energy CID tandem mass spectra and gives some useful tables to aid this process.

  9. Reliability of veterinary drug residue confirmation: high resolution mass spectrometry versus tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Kaufmann, A; Butcher, P; Maden, K; Walker, S; Widmer, M

    2015-01-26

    Confirmation of suspected residues has been a long time domain of tandem triple quadrupole mass spectrometry (QqQ). The currently most widely used confirmation strategy relies on the use of two selected reaction monitoring signals (SRM). The details of this confirmation procedure are described in detail in the Commission Decision 93/256/EC (CD). On the other hand, high resolution mass spectrometry (HRMS) is nowadays increasingly used for trace analysis. Yet its utility for confirmatory purposes has not been well explored and utilized, since established confirmation strategies like the CD do not yet include rules for modern HRMS technologies. It is the focus of this paper to evaluate the likelihood of false positive and false negative confirmation results, when using a variety of HRMS based measurement modes as compared to conventional QqQ mass spectrometry. The experimental strategy relies on the chromatographic separation of a complex blank sample (bovine liver extract) and the subsequent monitoring of a number of dummy transitions respectively dummy accurate masses. The term "dummy" refers to precursor and derived product ions (based on a realistic neutral loss) whose elemental compositions (CxHyNzOdCle) were produced by a random number generator. Monitoring a large number of such hypothetical SRM's, or accurate masses inevitably produces a number of mass traces containing chromatographic peaks (false detects) which are caused by eluting matrix compounds. The number and intensity of these peaks were recorded and standardized to permit a comparison among the two employed MS technologies. QqQ performance (compounds which happen to produce a response in two SRM traces at identical retention time) was compared with a number of different HRMS(1) and HRMS(2) detection based modes. A HRMS confirmation criterion based on two full scans (an unfragmented and an all ion fragmented) was proposed. Compared to the CD criteria, a significantly lower probability of false

  10. Comparison of High Resolution and Tandem Mass Spectrometry for the Analysis of Nerve Agent Metabolites in Urine

    PubMed Central

    Hamelin, Elizabeth I.; Bragg, William; Shaner, Rebecca L.; Swaim, Leigh L.; Johnson, Rudolph C.

    2015-01-01

    Rationale Although use is prohibited, concerns remain for human exposure to nerve agents during decommissioning, research, and warfare. High-resolution mass spectrometry (HRMS) was compared to tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) analysis for the quantitation of five urinary metabolites specific to VX, Russian VX, soman, sarin and cyclosarin nerve agents. The HRMS method was further evaluated for qualitative screening of metabolites not included in the test panel. Methods Nerve agent metabolites were extracted from urine using solid phase extraction, separated using hydrophilic interaction chromatography and analyzed using both tandem and high resolution mass spectrometry. MS/MS results were obtained using selected reaction monitoring with unit resolution; HRMS results were obtained using a mass extraction window of 10 ppm at a mass resolution of 50,000. The benchtop Orbitrap HRMS instrument was operated in full scan mode, to measure the presence of unexpected agents. Results The assessment of two quality control samples demonstrated high accuracy (99.5-104%) and high precision (2-9%) for both HRMS and MS/MS. Sensitivity, as described by the limit of detection, was overlapping for both detectors (0.2-0.7 ng/mL). Additionally, the HRMS method positively confirmed the presence of a nerve agent metabolite, not included in the test panel, using the accurate mass and relative retention time. Conclusions The precision, accuracy, and sensitivity were comparable between the current MS/MS method and this newly developed HRMS analysis for five nerve agent metabolites. HRMS showed additional capabilities beyond the current method by confirming the presence of a metabolite not included in the test panel. PMID:23821563

  11. Liquid chromatography-mass spectrometric and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometric determination of hallucinogenic indoles psilocin and psilocybin in "magic mushroom" samples.

    PubMed

    Kamata, Tooru; Nishikawa, Mayumi; Katagi, Munehiro; Tsuchihashi, Hitoshi

    2005-03-01

    Accurate and sensitive analytical methods for psilocin (PC) and psilocybin (PB), tryptamine-type hallucinogens contained in "magic mushrooms," were investigated using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS-MS). The chromatographic separation on an ODS column and mass spectral information gave complete discrimination between PC and PB without derivatization. The mass spectrometric detection had a high sensitivity, and the tandem mass spectrometric detection provided more specificity and accuracy, as well as high sensitivity. The detection limits ranged from 1 to 25 pg by LC-MS in the selected ion monitoring mode, and the intra- and inter-day coefficients of variation were estimated to be 4.21-5.93% by LC-MS-MS in the selected reaction monitoring mode. By applying the present LC-MS-MS technique to four real samples, the contents of PC and PB were found to vary over a wide range (0.60-1.4 and 0.18-3.8 mg/g dry wt. for PC and PB, respectively) between samples.

  12. High explosives vapor detection by atmospheric sampling glow discharge ionization/tandem mass spectrometry

    SciTech Connect

    McLuckey, S.A.; Goeringer, D.E.; Asano, K.G.

    1996-02-01

    The combination of atmospheric sampling glow discharge ionization with tandem mass spectrometry for the detection of traces of high explosives is described. Particular emphasis is placed on use of the quadrupole ion trap as the type of tandem mass spectrometer. Atmospheric sampling glow discharge provides a simple, rugged, and efficient means for anion formation while the quadrupole ion trap provides for efficient tandem mass spectrometry. Mass selective ion accumulation and non-specific ion activation methods can be used to overcome deleterious effects arising from ion/ion interactions. Such interactions constitute the major potential technical barrier to the use of the ion trap for real-time monitoring of targeted compounds in uncontrolled and highly variable matrices. Tailored waveforms can be used to effect both mass selective ion accumulation and ion activation. Concatenated tailored waveforms allow for both functions in a single experiment thereby providing the capability for monitoring several targeted species simultaneously. The combination of atmospheric sampling glow discharge ionization with a state-of-the-art analytical quadrupole ion trap is a highly sensitive and specific detector for traces of high explosives. The combination is also small and inexpensive relative to virtually any other form of tandem mass spectrometry. The science and technology underlying the glow discharge/ion trap combination is sufficiently mature to form the basis for an engineering effort to make the detector portable. 85 refs.

  13. Determination of aflatoxins in hazelnuts by various sample preparation methods and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Bacaloni, Alessandro; Cavaliere, Chiara; Cucci, Francesca; Foglia, Patrizia; Samperi, Roberto; Laganà, Aldo

    2008-02-01

    A sensitive and reliable liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometric with electrospray ionization method for determining aflatoxins in hazelnuts has been developed. Three different extraction techniques, such as homogenization, ultrasonic extraction, and matrix solid phase dispersion have been tested and compared in terms of recovery, matrix effect, accuracy and precision. Ultrasound extraction was the most performing sample preparation method. Absolute recoveries for analytes and I.S. ranged from 93 to 101%. Accuracy and precision were calculated using matrix matched calibration, and ranged 91-102% and 2-11%, respectively. CC alpha and CC beta for aflatoxin B1 (EU limit=2 microg/kg) were 2.15 and 2.33 microg/kg, respectively. A ruggedness test performed on three other matrices demonstrated that sonication time was critical and a matrix matched calibration must be constructed for every sort of matrix.

  14. High performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry determination of perfluorinated acids in cow milk.

    PubMed

    Capriotti, Anna Laura; Cavaliere, Chiara; Cavazzini, Alberto; Foglia, Patrizia; Laganà, Aldo; Piovesana, Susy; Samperi, Roberto

    2013-12-06

    A new and sensitive liquid chromatography/electrospray-tandem mass spectrometric (LC/ESI-MS/MS) method for the determination of 12 perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) in cow milk is described. Milk samples were extracted with acetone and cleaned-up by a graphitized carbon black solid-phase extraction cartridge, optimizing the entire procedure by using a screening experimental design. LC/ESI-MS/MS was performed in negative ion mode using multiple reaction monitoring mode. The performance of the method was evaluated under the optimized conditions in terms of matrix effects, range of linearity, accuracy, and repeatability. For all compounds, linearity in matrix was observed in the range LOQ-10μgL(-1), and coefficients of determination R(2) ranged from 0.9982 to 0.9999. The analytical recoveries, relative to the isotopic internal standard, measured at 10 and 50ngL(-1) were in the range of 91-105%, with relative standard deviations below 6% and method detection limit, based on the blank value +3 times the standard deviation of the blank, ranged from 0.5 to 3ngL(-1). The final method developed was used to determine the concentration of PFCs in 15 retail milk samples. None of these compounds were detected in cow milk analyzed samples.

  15. Analysis of acrylamide in coffee and cocoa by isotope dilution liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Aguas, Patricia C; Fitzhenry, Matthew J; Giannikopoulos, Georgina; Varelis, Peter

    2006-08-01

    An accurate and precise method for the quantification of acrylamide using stable isotope dilution liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry was developed and used to measure acrylamide in coffee and cocoa samples. The sample preparation involved extraction of the analyte and its internal standard, 13C3-acrylamide, into water and subsequent defatting of the aqueous extract with dichloromethane. An aliquot of the resulting aqueous extract was then azeotropically dried under reduced pressure and subsequently purified using an aminopropyl-bonded silica cartridge. The purified extracts were then chromatographed on a 5-microm 2.1 x 150 mm Hypercarb column, the effluent of which was monitored for the analyte and its internal standard using positive-ion APCI-selected reaction monitoring. The intra-laboratory reproducibility of the method, expressed as a relative coefficient of variation (%, n=5), was determined at four levels of concentration (12.3, 42.3, 139.3 and 464.8 microg kg(-1)) and was found to vary between 0.6-2.5%. The accuracy of the method was assessed using a reference sample of coffee. The average result obtained using our method differed from the assigned value of the reference material by less than 1%. An analysis of a cocoa sample revealed that the method is capable of precisely estimating acrylamide in challenging matrices down to a level of at least 12.3 microg kg(-1).

  16. Determination of PF-04928473 in human plasma using liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    Jain, Lokesh; Gardner, Erin R.; Venitz, Jürgen; Giaccone, Giuseppe; Houk, Brett E.; Figg, William D.

    2010-01-01

    A simple, rapid and sensitive liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometric (LC/MS/MS) analytical method was developed for quantification of Hsp90 inhibitor PF-04928473 in human plasma, following administration of its prodrug, PF-04929113. Sample processing involved protein precipitation by addition of 0.4 mL of methanol containing internal standard (PF-04972487) to 50 μL volume of plasma sample. Chromatographic separation of PF-04928473 and PF-04972487 was achieved on a Phenomenex® Luna C18(2) (2.0×50 mm, 5 μm) column using a gradient elution method with mobile phase solvents: methanol containing 0.1% formic acid and 0.1% formic acid at a flow rate of 0.25 mL/min. Detection was performed in electrospray positive ionization mode, monitoring the ion transitions from m/z 465.1→350.1 (PF-04928473) and m/z 447.0→329.1 (PF-04972487). The retention times for PF-04928473 and PF-04972487 were 1.86 and 2.85 minutes, respectively. Calibration curves were generated in the range of 2–2000 ng/mL. The accuracy and precision ranged from 94.1–99.0% and 86.7–97.6%, respectively, which were calculated using quality control samples of three different concentrations analyzed in quintuplicate on four different days. PMID:20951100

  17. Analysis of nerve agent metabolites from nail clippings by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Appel, Amanda S; Logue, Brian A

    2016-09-15

    While several methods for the bioanalysis of nerve agents or their metabolites have been developed for the verification of nerve agent exposure, these methods are generally limited in the amount of time after an exposure that markers of exposure can be detected (due to rapid metabolism from biological matrices). In this study, a method for the analysis of nerve agent hydrolysis products from nail clippings was developed to allow evaluation of nails as a long-term repository of these markers. Pinacolyl methylphosphonic acid (PMPA) and isopropyl methylphosphonic acid (IMPA) were extracted from nail samples with N,N-dimethylformamide and subsequently analyzed by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Limits of detection for PMPA and IMPA were 0.3μg/kg and 7.5μg/kg and linear ranges were 0.75-300μg/kg and 30-1500μg/kg, respectively. Precision was within 10% and 8% for PMPA and IMPA, respectively, and accuracy was 100±12% for both analytes. The approach presented here is complementary to current methods for nerve agent exposure verification, and should allow for long-term determination of nerve agent poisoning.

  18. Faster and more accurate graphical model identification of tandem mass spectra using trellises

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Shengjie; Halloran, John T.; Bilmes, Jeff A.; Noble, William S.

    2016-01-01

    Tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) is the dominant high throughput technology for identifying and quantifying proteins in complex biological samples. Analysis of the tens of thousands of fragmentation spectra produced by an MS/MS experiment begins by assigning to each observed spectrum the peptide that is hypothesized to be responsible for generating the spectrum. This assignment is typically done by searching each spectrum against a database of peptides. To our knowledge, all existing MS/MS search engines compute scores individually between a given observed spectrum and each possible candidate peptide from the database. In this work, we use a trellis, a data structure capable of jointly representing a large set of candidate peptides, to avoid redundantly recomputing common sub-computations among different candidates. We show how trellises may be used to significantly speed up existing scoring algorithms, and we theoretically quantify the expected speedup afforded by trellises. Furthermore, we demonstrate that compact trellis representations of whole sets of peptides enables efficient discriminative learning of a dynamic Bayesian network for spectrum identification, leading to greatly improved spectrum identification accuracy. Contact: bilmes@uw.edu or william-noble@uw.edu Supplementary information: Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. PMID:27307634

  19. Simultaneous determination of zidovudine and lamivudine in human serum using HPLC with tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Kenney, K B; Wring, S A; Carr, R M; Wells, G N; Dunn, J A

    2000-07-01

    A method employing high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with tandem mass spectrometry (MS) has been developed and validated for the simultaneous determination of clinically relevant levels of zidovudine (AZT) and lamivudine (3TC) in human serum. The method incorporates a fully automated ultrafiltration sample preparation step that replaces the solid-phase extraction step typically used for HPLC with UV detection. The calibration range of the dual-analyte LC-MS/MS method is 2.5-2,500 and 2.5-5,000 ng ml-1 for AZT and 3TC, respectively, using 0.25 ml of human serum. The lower limit of quantification was 2.5 ng ml-1 for each analyte, with a chromatographic run time of approximately 6 min. Overall accuracy, expressed as bias, and inter- and intra-assay precision are < +/- 7 and < 10% for AZT, and < +/- 5 and < 12.1% for 3TC over the full concentration ranges. A cross-validation study demonstrated that the LC-MS/MS method afforded equivalent results to established methods consisting of a radioimmuno-assay for AZT and an HPLC-UV method for 3TC. Moreover, the LC-MS/MS was more sensitive, allowed markedly higher-throughput, and required smaller sample volumes (for 3TC only). The validated method has been used to support post-marketing clinical studies for Combivir a combination tablet containing AZT and 3TC.

  20. Determination of benidipine in human plasma using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Kang, Wonku; Yun, Hwi-Yeol; Liu, Kwang-Hyeon; Kwon, Kwang-Il; Shin, Jae-Gook

    2004-06-15

    We developed a method for determining benidipine, a dihydropyridine analogue calcium-channel blocker, in plasma using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS-MS). Benidipine and benidipine-d5, an internal standard, were extracted from plasma using diethyl ether in the presence of 5M NaOH. After drying the organic layer, the residue was reconstituted in acetonitrile and injected onto a reversed-phase C18 column. The isocratic mobile phase (acetonitrile-5mM ammonium acetate, 90:10, v/v) was eluted at 0.2 ml/min. The ion transitions monitored in multiple reaction-monitoring mode were m/z 506-174 for benidipine and m/z 511-179 for the internal standard. The coefficient of variation of the assay precision was less than 13%, and the accuracy exceeded 92%, except at the limit of quantification, 0.05 ng/ml with 1ml of plasma, when it was 85%. This method was used to measure the benidipine concentration in plasma from healthy subjects after a single 4-mg oral dose of benidipine. This method is a very simple, sensitive, and accurate way to determine the plasma benidipine concentration.

  1. Measurement of trimethylamine-N-oxide by stable isotope dilution liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Zeneng; Levison, Bruce S.; Hazen, Jennie E.; Donahue, Lillian; Li, Xin-Min; Hazen, Stanley L.

    2014-01-01

    Trimethylamine-N-oxide (TMAO) levels in blood predict future risk for major adverse cardiac events including myocardial infarction, stroke and death. Thus, the rapid determination of circulating TMAO concentration is of clinical interest. Here we report a method to measure TMAO in biological matrices by stable isotope dilution liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS) with lower and upper limits of quantification of 0.05 and >200 µM, respectively. Spike and recovery studies demonstrate an accuracy at low (0.5 µM), mid (5 µM) and high (100 µM) levels of 98.2%, 97.3% and 101.6%, respectively. Additional assay performance metrics include intra-day and inter-day coefficients of variance of < 6.4% and < 9.9%, respectively, across the range of TMAO levels. Stability studies reveal TMAO in plasma is stable both during storage at −80 °C for 5 years and to multiple freeze thaw cycles. Fasting plasma normal range studies among apparently healthy subjects (n=349) shows a range of 0.73 – 126 µM, median (interquartile range) levels of 3.45 (2.25–5.79) µM, and increasing values with age. The LC/MS/MS based assay reported should be of value for further studies evaluating TMAO as a risk marker and for examining the effect of dietary, pharmacologic and environmental factors on TMAO levels. PMID:24704102

  2. Isotopologue Distributions of Peptide Product Ions by Tandem Mass Spectrometry: Quantitation of Low Levels of Deuterium Incorporation1

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Benlian; Sun, Gang; Anderson, David R.; Jia, Minghong; Previs, Stephen; Anderson, Vernon E.

    2007-01-01

    Protonated molecular peptide ions and their product ions generated by tandem mass spectrometry appear as isotopologue clusters due to the natural isotopic variations of carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen, oxygen and sulfur. Quantitation of the isotopic composition of peptides can be employed in experiments involving isotope effects, isotope exchange, isotopic labeling by chemical reactions, and studies of metabolism by stable isotope incorporation. Both ion trap and quadrupole-time of flight mass spectrometry are shown to be capable of determining the isotopic composition of peptide product ions obtained by tandem mass spectrometry with both precision and accuracy. Tandem mass spectra obtained in profile-mode of clusters of isotopologue ions are fit by non-linear least squares to a series of Gaussian peaks (described in the accompanying manuscript) which quantify the Mn/M0 values which define the isotopologue distribution (ID). To determine the isotopic composition of product ions from their ID, a new algorithm that predicts the Mn/M0 ratios is developed which obviates the need to determine the intensity of all of the ions of an ID. Consequently a precise and accurate determination of the isotopic composition a product ion may be obtained from only the initial values of the ID, however the entire isotopologue cluster must be isolated prior to fragmentation. Following optimization of the molecular ion isolation width, fragmentation energy and detector sensitivity, the presence of isotopic excess (2H, 13C, 15N, 18O) is readily determined within 1%. The ability to determine the isotopic composition of sequential product ions permits the isotopic composition of individual amino acid residues in the precursor ion to be determined. PMID:17559791

  3. Silver Coating for High-Mass-Accuracy Imaging Mass Spectrometry of Fingerprints on Nanostructured Silicon.

    PubMed

    Guinan, Taryn M; Gustafsson, Ove J R; McPhee, Gordon; Kobus, Hilton; Voelcker, Nicolas H

    2015-11-17

    Nanostructure imaging mass spectrometry (NIMS) using porous silicon (pSi) is a key technique for molecular imaging of exogenous and endogenous low molecular weight compounds from fingerprints. However, high-mass-accuracy NIMS can be difficult to achieve as time-of-flight (ToF) mass analyzers, which dominate the field, cannot sufficiently compensate for shifts in measured m/z values. Here, we show internal recalibration using a thin layer of silver (Ag) sputter-coated onto functionalized pSi substrates. NIMS peaks for several previously reported fingerprint components were selected and mass accuracy was compared to theoretical values. Mass accuracy was improved by more than an order of magnitude in several cases. This straightforward method should form part of the standard guidelines for NIMS studies for spatial characterization of small molecules.

  4. Analysis of small carbohydrates in several bioactive botanicals by gas chromatography with mass spectrometry and liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Moldoveanu, Serban; Scott, Wayne; Zhu, Jeff

    2015-11-01

    Bioactive botanicals contain natural compounds with specific biological activity, such as antibacterial, antioxidant, immune stimulating, and taste improving. A full characterization of the chemical composition of these botanicals is frequently necessary. A study of small carbohydrates from the plant materials of 18 bioactive botanicals is further described. The study presents the identification of the carbohydrate using a gas chromatographic-mass spectrometric analysis that allows detection of molecules as large as maltotetraose, after changing them into trimethylsilyl derivatives. A number of carbohydrates in the plant (fructose, glucose, mannose, sucrose, maltose, xylose, sorbitol, and myo-, chiro-, and scyllo-inositols) were quantitated using a novel liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometric technique. Both techniques involved new method developments. The gas chromatography with mass spectrometric analysis involved derivatization and separation on a Rxi(®)-5Sil MS column with H2 as a carrier gas. The liquid chromatographic separation was obtained using a hydrophilic interaction type column, YMC-PAC Polyamine II. The tandem mass spectrometer used an electrospray ionization source in multiple reaction monitoring positive ion mode with the detection of the adducts of the carbohydrates with Cs(+) ions. The validated quantitative procedure showed excellent precision and accuracy allowing the analysis in a wide range of concentrations of the analytes.

  5. High Performance Liquid Chromatography Tandem Mass Spectrometry Assay for the Determination of Cobinamide in Pig Plasma

    PubMed Central

    McCracken, Brent A.; Brittain, Matthew K.

    2015-01-01

    Liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) has been widely utilized for the analysis of compounds in biological matrices due to its selectivity and sensitivity. This study describes the application of an LC-MS/MS-based approach toward the analysis of cobinamide in Yorkshire pig plasma. The selectivity, accuracy, precision, recovery, linearity, range, carryover, sensitivity, matrix effect, interference, stability, reproducibility, and ruggedness of the method were investigated in pig plasma. The accuracy and precision of the method was determined to be within 10% over three different days over a range of concentrations (25–10,000 ng/mL) that spanned more than two orders of magnitude. The lower limit of quantitation (LLOQ) for dicyanocobinamide was determined to be 25 ng/mL in pig plasma. Carryover was acceptable, as the area response of the carryover blanks were ≤15% of the area response of the nearest LLOQ standard for the analyte, while it was nonexistent for the internal standard. Specificity was ensured using six different lots of pig plasma. While the matrix effects of dicyanocobinamide in plasma were enhanced, ginsenoside Rb1 experienced signal suppression under the described conditions. The absolute recovery results for both compounds were consistent, precise, and reproducibly lower than expected at ~60% for dicyanocobinamide and ~22% for ginsenoside Rb1, confirming that a matrix standard curve was required for accurate quantitation. Cobinamide was shown to be very stable in matrix at various storage conditions including room temperature, refrigerated, and frozen at time intervals of 20 hours, 4 days, and 60 days respectively. This method was demonstrated to be sensitive, reproducible, stable, and rugged, and it should be applicable to the analysis of cobinamide in other biological matrices and species. PMID:26540437

  6. Determination of Heterocyclic Amines and Acrylamide in Agricultural Products with Liquid Chromatography-Tandem Mass Spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Lee, Kyung-Jun; Lee, Gae-Ho; Kim, HaeSol; Oh, Min-Seok; Chu, Seok; Hwang, In Ju; Lee, Jee-Yeon; Choi, Ari; Kim, Cho-Il; Park, Hyun-Mee

    2015-09-01

    Heterocyclic amines (HCAs) and acrylamide are unintended hazardous substances generated by heating or processing of foods and are known as carcinogenic and mutagenic agents by the animal experiments. A simple method was established for a rapid and accurate determination of 12 types of HCAs (IQ, MeIQ, Glu-P-1, Glu-P-2, MeIQx, Trp-P-1, Trp-P-2, PhIP, AαC, MeAαC, Harman and Norharman) and acrylamide in three food matrices (non-fat liquid, non-fat solid and fat solid) by isotope dilution liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). In every sample, a mixture of internal standards including IQ-d3, MeIQx-d3, PhIP-d3, Trp-P-2-(13)C2-(15)N and MeAαC-d3 was spiked for quantification of HCAs and (13)C3-acrylamide was also spiked for the analysis of acrylamide. HCAs and acrylamide in sample were extracted with acetonitrile and water, respectively, and then two solid-phase extraction cartridges, ChemElut: HLB for HCAs and Accucat: HLB for acrylamide, were used for efficiently removing interferences such as pigment, lipid, polar, nonpolar and ionic compounds. Established method was validated in terms of recovery, accuracy, precision, limit of detection, limit of quantitation, and linearity. This method showed good precision (RSD < 20%), accuracy (71.8~119.1%) and recovery (66.0~118.9%). The detection limits were < 3.1 ng/g for all analytes. The correlation coefficients for all the HCAs and acrylamide were > 0.995, showing excellent linearity. These methods for the detection of HCAs and acrylamide by LC-MS/MS were applied to real samples and were successfully used for quantitative monitoring in the total diet study and this can be applied to risk assessment in various food matrices.

  7. Determination of Heterocyclic Amines and Acrylamide in Agricultural Products with Liquid Chromatography-Tandem Mass Spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Kyung-Jun; Lee, Gae-Ho; Kim, HaeSol; Oh, Min-Seok; Chu, Seok; Hwang, In Ju; Lee, Jee-yeon; Choi, Ari; Kim, Cho-il

    2015-01-01

    Heterocyclic amines (HCAs) and acrylamide are unintended hazardous substances generated by heating or processing of foods and are known as carcinogenic and mutagenic agents by the animal experiments. A simple method was established for a rapid and accurate determination of 12 types of HCAs (IQ, MeIQ, Glu-P-1, Glu-P-2, MeIQx, Trp-P-1, Trp-P-2, PhIP, AαC, MeAαC, Harman and Norharman) and acrylamide in three food matrices (non-fat liquid, non-fat solid and fat solid) by isotope dilution liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). In every sample, a mixture of internal standards including IQ-d3, MeIQx-d3, PhIP-d3, Trp-P-2-13C2-15N and MeAαC-d3 was spiked for quantification of HCAs and 13C3-acrylamide was also spiked for the analysis of acrylamide. HCAs and acrylamide in sample were extracted with acetonitrile and water, respectively, and then two solid-phase extraction cartridges, ChemElut: HLB for HCAs and Accucat: HLB for acrylamide, were used for efficiently removing interferences such as pigment, lipid, polar, nonpolar and ionic compounds. Established method was validated in terms of recovery, accuracy, precision, limit of detection, limit of quantitation, and linearity. This method showed good precision (RSD < 20%), accuracy (71.8~119.1%) and recovery (66.0~118.9%). The detection limits were < 3.1 ng/g for all analytes. The correlation coefficients for all the HCAs and acrylamide were > 0.995, showing excellent linearity. These methods for the detection of HCAs and acrylamide by LC-MS/MS were applied to real samples and were successfully used for quantitative monitoring in the total diet study and this can be applied to risk assessment in various food matrices. PMID:26483884

  8. Quantification of citalopram or escitalopram and their demethylated metabolites in neonatal hair samples by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Frison, Giampietro; Favretto, Donata; Vogliardi, Susanna; Terranova, Claudio; Ferrara, Santo Davide

    2008-08-01

    Citalopram and escitalopram are highly selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors widely used in the treatment of depression. They exhibit adverse drug reactions and side effects, however, and the development of specific methods for their determination is of great interest in clinical and forensic toxicology. A liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method has been developed and validated for the assay of citalopram, escitalopram, and their demethylated metabolites in 10-mg hair samples. The analytes were extracted by incubation in methanol and liquid/liquid extraction with diethyl ether/dichloromethane. Gradient elution on a narrow bore C18 column was realized using clomipramine-d3 as an internal standard. Positive ion electrospray ionization and tandem mass spectrometry determination by collision-induced dissociation were performed in an ion trap mass spectrometer. The method exhibited a linear range of 25 to 2000 pg/mg, a quantification limit of 25 pg/mg for all analytes, relative standard deviations in the range of 12.10 to 9.80 (intraassay), and 13.80 to 11.78 (interassay), and accuracies (as percent recovery of the spiked standards) in the range of 90% to 110%; it was applied to the determination of citalopram and escitalopram and their metabolites in hair samples of two newborns to document their in utero exposure to the drugs. The method proved suitable for neonatal hair analysis of citalopram or escitalopram and was applied to two real cases of gestational exposure.

  9. Simulation of two dimensional electrophoresis and tandem mass spectrometry for teaching proteomics.

    PubMed

    Fisher, Amanda; Sekera, Emily; Payne, Jill; Craig, Paul

    2012-01-01

    In proteomics, complex mixtures of proteins are separated (usually by chromatography or electrophoresis) and identified by mass spectrometry. We have created 2DE Tandem MS, a computer program designed for use in the biochemistry, proteomics, or bioinformatics classroom. It contains two simulations-2D electrophoresis and tandem mass spectrometry. The two simulations are integrated together and are designed to teach the concept of proteome analysis of prokaryotic and eukaryotic organisms. 2DE-Tandem MS can be used as a freestanding simulation, or in conjunction with a wet lab, to introduce proteomics in the undergraduate classroom. 2DE Tandem MS is a free program available on Sourceforge at https://sourceforge.net/projects/jbf/. It was developed using Java Swing and functions in Mac OSX, Windows, and Linux, ensuring that every student sees a consistent and informative graphical user interface no matter the computer platform they choose. Java must be installed on the host computer to run 2DE Tandem MS. Example classroom exercises are provided in the Supporting Information.

  10. MEASUREMENT OF OXIDATIVE STRESS PARAMETERS USING LIQUID CHROMATOGRAPHY - TANDEM MASS SPECTROSCOPY (LC-MS/MS)

    EPA Science Inventory

    What is the study?
    An invited review article. Measurement of oxidative stress parameters using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectroscopy (LC-MS/MS)
    Why was it done?
    Although oxidative stress is frequently cited as a cause of various adverse biological eff...

  11. Making the Case for Objective Performance Metrics in Newborn Screening by Tandem Mass Spectrometry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rinaldo, Piero; Zafari, Saba; Tortorelli, Silvia; Matern, Dietrich

    2006-01-01

    The expansion of newborn screening programs to include multiplex testing by tandem mass spectrometry requires understanding and close monitoring of performance metrics. This is not done consistently because of lack of defined targets, and interlaboratory comparison is almost nonexistent. Between July 2004 and April 2006 (N = 176,185 cases), the…

  12. Multiresidue analysis of pesticides in straw roughage by liquid chromatography - tandem mass spectrometry

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A multiresidue analytical method using a modification of the “quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged, and safe” (QuEChERS) sample preparation approach combined with liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) analysis was established and validated for the rapid determination of 69 pesti...

  13. Combined Dynamic Arrays for Storing and Searching Semi-Ordered Tandem Mass Spectrometry Data

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    When performing bioinformatics analysis on tandem mass spectrometry data, there is a computational need to efficiently store and sort these semi-ordered data sets. To solve this problem, a new data structure based on dynamic arrays was designed and implemented in an algorithm that parses semi-order...

  14. Tandem mass spectrometry newborn screening for inborn errors of intermediary metabolism: abnormal profile interpretation.

    PubMed

    Fernández-Lainez, C; Aguilar-Lemus, J J; Vela-Amieva, M; Ibarra-González, I

    2012-01-01

    Expanded newborn screening for inherited metabolic disorders using tandem mass spectrometry was introduced in 1990's and is widely used around the world. In contrast to conventional screening methods, tandem mass spectrometry does not measure single analytes but identifies and quantifies metabolite profiles; one single blood spot analyzed provides information of about 60 metabolites including amino acids, acylcarnitines and related ratios that enable the diagnosis of approximately 50 different diseases. However, the interpretation of these profiles can become quite complex. The aim of this work is to present in an easy and practical manner a comprehensive compilation of information needed for tandem mass neonatal screening profile interpretation, and basic actions for immediate follow up of abnormal results, including the tests that are required for confirmatory purposes. Other conditions not attributable to metabolic disorders which can lead to an abnormal profile of these markers are also described as well as a series of general recommendations which would be useful for health professionals who are beginning newborn screening for inborn errors of intermediary metabolism using tandem mass spectrometry.

  15. Determination of bedaquiline in human serum using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Alffenaar, Jan-Willem C; Bolhuis, Mathieu; van Hateren, Kai; Sturkenboom, Marieke; Akkerman, Onno; de Lange, Wiel; Greijdanus, Ben; van der Werf, Tjip; Touw, Daan

    2015-09-01

    Bedaquiline, a diarylquinoline for the treatment of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (TB), relies on exposure-dependent killing. As data on drug exposure in specific populations are scarce, pharmacokinetic studies may be of interest. No simple and robust validated liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method has been reported to date. Therefore, a new method using a quadrupole mass spectrometer was developed for analysis of bedaquiline and N-monodesmethyl bedaquiline (M2) in human serum, using deuterated bedaquiline as the internal standard. The calibration curve was linear over a range of 0.05 (lower limit of quantification [LLOQ]) to 6.00 mg/liter for both bedaquiline and M2, with correlation coefficient values of 0.997 and 0.999, respectively. The calculated accuracy ranged from 1.9% to 13.6% for bedaquiline and 2.9% to 8.5% for M2. Within-run precision ranged from 3.0% to 7.2% for bedaquiline and 3.1% to 5.2% for M2, and between-run precision ranged from 0.0% to 4.3% for bedaquiline and 0.0% to 4.6% for M2. Evaluation of serum concentrations in a patient receiving bedaquiline showed high levels at the end of treatment, reflecting accumulation of the drug. More observational pharmacokinetic data are needed to relate altered drug concentrations to clinical outcome or adverse drug effects. A simple LC-MS/MS method to quantify bedaquiline and M2 levels in human serum using a deuterated internal standard has been validated. This method can be used in clinical studies and daily practice.

  16. Accurate characterization of carcinogenic DNA adducts using MALDI tandem time-of-flight mass spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barnes, Charles A.; Chiu, Norman H. L.

    2009-01-01

    Many chemical carcinogens and their in vivo activated metabolites react readily with genomic DNA, and form covalently bound carcinogen-DNA adducts. Clinically, carcinogen-DNA adducts have been linked to various cancer diseases. Among the current methods for DNA adduct analysis, mass spectroscopic method allows the direct measurement of unlabeled DNA adducts. The goal of this study is to explore the use of matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization tandem time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF/TOF MS) to determine the identity of carcinogen-DNA adducts. Two of the known carcinogenic DNA adducts, namely N-(2'-deoxyguanosin-8-yl)-2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenyl-imidazo [4,5-b] pyridine (dG-C8-PhIP) and N-(2'-deoxyguanosin-8yl)-4-aminobiphenyl (dG-C8-ABP), were selected as our models. In MALDI-TOF MS measurements, the small matrix ion and its cluster ions did not interfere with the measurements of both selected dG adducts. To achieve a higher accuracy for the characterization of selected dG adducts, 1 keV collision energy in MALDI-TOF/TOF MS/MS was used to measure the adducts. In comparison to other MS/MS techniques with lower collision energies, more extensive precursor ion dissociations were observed. The detection of the corresponding fragment ions allowed the identities of guanine, PhIP or ABP, and the position of adduction to be confirmed. Some of the fragment ions of dG-C8-PhIP have not been reported by other MS/MS techniques.

  17. Real-time PCR and PCR-tandem Mass Spectrometry for Biodetection

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-10-01

    Real - time PCR and PCR- tandem mass spectrometry for biodetection Alvin Fox, University of South Carolina, School of Medicine Report Documentation...TYPE N/A 3. DATES COVERED - 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Real - time PCR and PCRtandem mass spectrometry for biodetection 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b...interspace region Bacillus subtilis W23 standard Blank Barn dust House dust Cycle Real - time PCR (16s rRNA) - environmental samples Real - time

  18. Atmospheric sampling glow discharge ionizataion and triple quadrupole tandem mass spectrometry for explosives vapor detection

    SciTech Connect

    McLuckey, S.A.; Goeringer, D.E.; Asano, K.G.; Hart, K.J.; Glish, G.L.; Grant, B.C.; Chambers, D.M.

    1993-08-01

    The detection and identification of trace vapors of hidden high explosives is an excellent example of a targeted analysis problem. It is desirable to push to ever lower levels the quantity or concentration of explosives material that provides an analytical signal, while at the same time discriminating against all other uninteresting material. The detection system must therefore combine high sensitivity with high specificity. This report describes the philosophy behind the use of atmospheric sampling glow discharge ionization, which is a sensitive, rugged, and convenient means for forming anions from explosives molecules, with tandem mass spectrometry, which provides unparalleled specificity in the identification of explosives-related ions. Forms of tandem mass spectrometry are compared and contrasted to provide a summary of the characteristics to be expected from an explosives detector employing mass spectrometry/mass spectrometry. The instrument developed for the FAA, an atmospheric sampling glow discharge/triple quadrupole mass spectrometer, is described in detail with particular emphasis on the ion source/spectrometer interface and on the capabilities of the spectrometer. Performance characteristics of the system are also described as they pertain to explosives of interest including a description of an automated procedure for the detection and identification of specific explosives. A comparison of various tandem mass spectrometers mated with atmospheric sampling glow discharge is then described and preliminary studies with a vapor preconcentration system provided by the FAA will be described.

  19. Chemical modification of deoxyribonucleic acids: Quantitation of 3-methylthymidine and O4-methylthymidine by tandem mass spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wood, Joe M.; Hoke, Steven H., II; Graham Cooks, R.; Chae, Whi-Gun; Chang, Ching-Jer

    1991-12-01

    Quantitation of 3-methylthymidine and O4-methylthymidine generated in the reaction of calf thymus DNA with methyl methanesulfonate (MeMS) and 1-methyl-1nitrosourea (MeNU) by mass spectrometry is reported. Quantitative precision of 7% or better is achieved on samples of 10-12 -10-13 mole in the HPLC and a final stage of separation before quantification by tandem mass spectrometry using desorption chemical ionization. Synthetic CD3-labeled nucleosides were used as internal standards for mass spectral quantification. A unique mass spectrometric scanning procedure, which allowed simultaneous MS--MS product ion analysis of both the analyte and the internal standard, was utilized to enchance precision and accuracy in these low level determinations. MeNU (a potent carcinogen) resulted in 18&%; 3-methylation and 0.17% O4-methylation of deoxythymidine whereas MeMS (a weak carcinogen) produced only 6.8% 3-methylation and 0.005% of deoxythymidine. These results demonstrate that the sensitivity and accuracy of this method should be adequate for the detection and quantification of methyl-nucleosides at the sub-picomole level at which mutation is induced in cell cultures.

  20. Noncovalent Shiga-like toxin assemblies: characterization by means of mass spectrometry and tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Williams, Jonathan P; Green, Brian N; Smith, Daniel C; Jennings, Keith R; Moore, Katherine A H; Slade, Susan E; Roberts, Lynne M; Scrivens, James H

    2005-06-14

    Shiga-like toxin 1 (SLTx), produced by enterohemorrhagic strains of Escherichia coli (EHEC), belongs to a family of structurally and functionally related AB(5) protein toxins that are associated with human disease. EHEC infection often gives rise to hemolytic colitis, while toxin-induced kidney damage is one of the major causes of hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS) and acute renal failure in children. As such, an understanding and analysis of the noncovalent interactions that maintain the quaternary structure of this toxin are fundamentally important since such interactions have significant biochemical and medical implications. This paper reports on the analysis of the noncovalent homopentameric complex of Shiga-like toxin B chain (SLTx-B(5)) using electrospray ionization (ESI) triple-quadrupole (QqQ) mass spectrometry (MS) and tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) and the analysis of the noncovalent hexameric holotoxin (SLTx-AB(5)) using ESI time-of-flight (TOF) MS. The triple-quadrupole analysis revealed highly charged monomer ions dissociate from the multiprotein complex to form dimer, trimer, and tetramer product ions, which were also seen to further dissociate. The ESI-TOFMS analysis of SLTx-AB(5) revealed the complex remained intact and was observed in the gas phase over a range of pHs. Theses findings demonstrate that the gas-phase structure observed for both the holotoxin and the isoloated B chains correlates well with the structures reported to exist in the solution phase for these proteins. Such analysis provides a rapid screening technique for assessing the noncovalent structure of this family of proteins and other structurally related toxins.

  1. High energy collisions on tandem time-of-flight mass spectrometers.

    PubMed

    Cotter, Robert J

    2013-05-01

    Long before the introduction of matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI), electrospray ionization (ESI), Orbitraps, and any of the other tools that are now used ubiquitously for proteomics and metabolomics, the highest performance mass spectrometers were sector instruments, providing high resolution mass measurements by combining an electrostatic energy analyzer (E) with a high field magnet (B). In its heyday, the four sector mass spectrometer (or EBEB) was the crown jewel, providing the highest performance tandem mass spectrometry using single, high energy collisions to induce fragmentation. During a time in which quadrupole and tandem triple quadrupole instruments were also enjoying increased usage and popularity, there were, nonetheless, some clear advantages for sectors over their low collision energy counterparts. Time-of-flight (TOF) mass spectrometers are high voltage, high vacuum instruments that have much in common with sectors and have inspired the development of tandem instruments exploiting single high energy collisions. In this retrospective, we recount our own journey to produce high performance TOFs and tandem TOFs, describing the basic theory, problems, and the advantages for such instruments. An experiment testing impulse collision theory (ICT) underscores the similarities with sector mass spectrometers where this concept was first developed. Applications provide examples of more extensive fragmentation, side chain cleavages, and charge-remote fragmentation, also characteristic of high energy sector mass spectrometers. Moreover, the so-called curved-field reflectron has enabled the design of instruments that are simpler, collect and focus all of the ions, and may provide the future technology for the clinic, for tissue imaging, and the characterization of microorganisms.

  2. Quantitative determination of total methamphetamine and active metabolites in rat tissue by liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometric detection.

    PubMed

    Hendrickson, Howard; Laurenzana, Elizabeth; Owens, S Michael

    2006-11-22

    High-throughput liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometric detection (LC-MS/MS) methodology for the determination of methamphetamine (METH), amphetamine (AMP), 4-hydroxymethamphetamine (4-OH-METH), and 4-hydroxyamphetamine (4-OH-AMP) was developed and validated using simple trichloroacetic acid sample treatment. The method was validated in rat serum, brain, and testis. Lower limits-of-quantitation (LOQ) for METH and AMP were 1 ng x mL(-1) using positive ion electrospray tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS). The accuracy of the method was within 25% of the actual values over a wide range of analyte concentrations. The within-assay precision was better than 12% (coefficient of variation). The method was linear over a wide dynamic range (0.3-1000 ng x mL(-1)). Quantitation was possible in all 3 matrices using only serum standards because of minimal matrix-associated ion effects or the use of an internal standard. Finally, the LC-MS/MS method was used to determine serum, brain, and testis METH and AMP concentrations during a subcutaneous infusion (5.6 mg kg(-1) day(-1)) of METH in rats. Concentrations of 4-OH-AMP and 4-OH-METH were below the LOQ in experimental samples. The bias introduced by using serum calibrators for the determination of METH and AMP concentrations in testis and brain was less than 8% and insignificant relative to the interanimal variability.

  3. Determination of dimenhydrinate in human plasma by liquid chromatography-electrospray tandem mass spectrometry: application to a relative bioavailability study.

    PubMed

    Tavares, V; Macedo, C C; Montanhez, L; Barros, F A P; Meurer, E C; Campos, D R; Coelho, E C; Calaffati, S A; Pedrazzoli, J

    2007-06-15

    Here we present a sensitive and specific liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometric method for the quantification of dimenhydrinate (I) in human plasma. Sample preparation is conducted using citalopram (II) addition as an internal standard (IS), liquid-liquid extraction with basified plasma using a mixture hexane/acetate (1:1, v/v) as the extracting solvent, and the final extract reconstituted in the mobile phase. I and II (IS) were injected in a C8 column with the mobile phase composed of methanol:isopropanol:water:formic acid (78.00:19.92:2.00:0.08, v/v/v/v) and monitored using a positive electrospray source with tandem mass spectrometry analyses. The selected reaction monitoring (SRM) was set using precursor ion and product ion combinations of m/z 256.0>167.0 and m/z 325.0>109.0 for I and II, respectively. The limit of quantification (LOQ) was 0.4 ng/mL, the dynamic range being 0.4-200 ng/mL. Validation results on linearity, specificity, accuracy, precision and stability, as well as on application to the analysis of plasma samples taken up to 24 h after oral administration of 100 mg of dimenhydrinate in healthy volunteers demonstrated its applicability to bioavailability studies.

  4. Determination of levocetirizine in human plasma by liquid chromatography-electrospray tandem mass spectrometry: application to a bioequivalence study.

    PubMed

    Morita, M R; Berton, D; Boldin, R; Barros, F A P; Meurer, E C; Amarante, A R; Campos, D R; Calafatti, S A; Pereira, R; Abib, E; Pedrazolli, J

    2008-02-01

    We describe a liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometric method (LC-MS/MS) for levocetirizine quantification (I) in human plasma. Sample preparation was made using a fexofenadine (II) addition as internal standard (IS), liquid-liquid extraction using cold dichloromethane, and dissolving the final extract in acetonitrile. I and II (IS) were injected in a C18 column and the mobile phase composed of acetonitrile:water:formic acid (80.00:19.90:0.10, v/v/v) and monitored using positive electrospray source with tandem mass spectrometry analyses. The selected reaction monitoring (SRM) was set using precursor ion and product ion combinations of m/z 389>201 for I and m/z 502>467 for II. The limit of quantification and the dynamic range achieved were 0.5ng/mL and 0.5-500.0ng/mL. Validation results on linearity, specificity, accuracy, precision and stability, as well as its application to the analysis of plasma samples taken up to 48h after oral administration of 5mg of levocetirizine dichloridrate in healthy volunteers demonstrate its applicability to bioavailability studies.

  5. Enantioselective determination of protein amino acids in fertilizers by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry on chiral teicoplanin stationary phase.

    PubMed

    Taujenis, Lukas; Olšauskaitė, Vilma; Padarauskas, Audrius

    2014-11-19

    High-performance liquid chromatography on a glycopeptide antibiotic teicoplanin-based chiral stationary phase coupled with tandem mass spectrometry was developed for fast and reliable enantioseparation and determination of protein amino acids in hydrolyzed fertilizer samples. The effect of the mobile phase parameters (type and content of organic modifier and pH) and the column temperature on the enantioselectivity was investigated. Under optimized conditions, the majority (15 of 19) of d/l-amino acid pairs were resolved with a resolution factor (Rs) higher than 1.5 with a run time of 15 min. A triple quadrupole tandem mass spectrometer operating in multiple reaction monitoring mode with an electrospray ionization (ESI) ion source was employed for detection. The method was validated in terms of linearity, limits of detection, limits of quantitation, precision, and accuracy. Linear responses were obtained with determination coefficients higher than 0.998 for all analytes, and limits of detection were from 0.04 to 0.24 μg/mL. Sample spike/recovery experiments gave recovery values ranging from 73% for d-threonine to 116% for L-tryptophan. Relative standard deviations for inter- and intraday precision experiments were lower than 21.7%. The developed method was successfully applied for determination of the free amino acid enantiomers in five commercially available hydrolyzed protein fertilizer samples.

  6. Highly sensitive and accurate screening of 40 dyes in soft drinks by liquid chromatography-electrospray tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Feng, Feng; Zhao, Yansheng; Yong, Wei; Sun, Li; Jiang, Guibin; Chu, Xiaogang

    2011-06-15

    A method combining solid phase extraction with high performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry was developed for the highly sensitive and accurate screening of 40 dyes, most of which are banned in foods. Electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry was used to identify and quantify a large number of dyes for the first time, and demonstrated greater accuracy and sensitivity than the conventional liquid chromatography-ultraviolet/visible methods. The limits of detection at a signal-to-noise ratio of 3 for the dyes are 0.0001-0.01 mg/L except for Tartrazine, Amaranth, New Red and Ponceau 4R, with detection limits of 0.5, 0.25, 0.125 and 0.125 mg/L, respectively. When this method was applied to screening of dyes in soft drinks, the recoveries ranged from 91.1 to 105%. This method has been successfully applied to screening of illegal dyes in commercial soft drink samples, and it is valuable to ensure the safety of food.

  7. Fast quantitative detection of cocaine in beverages using nanoextractive electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Hu, Bin; Peng, Xuejiao; Yang, Shuiping; Gu, Haiwei; Chen, Huanwen; Huan, Yanfu; Zhang, Tingting; Qiao, Xiaolin

    2010-02-01

    Without any sample pretreatment, effervescent beverage fluids were manually sprayed into the primary ion plume created by using a nanoelectrospray ionization source for direct ionization, and the analyte ions of interest were guided into an ion trap mass spectrometer for tandem mass analysis. Functional ingredients (e.g., vitamins, taurine, and caffeine, etc.) and spiked impurity (e.g., cocaine) in various beverages, such as Red Bull energy drink, Coco-cola, and Pepsi samples were rapidly identified within 1.5 s. The limit of detection was found to be 7-15 fg (S/N = 3) for cocaine in different samples using the characteristic fragment (m/z 150) observed in the MS(3) experiments. Typical relative standard deviation and recovery of this method were 6.9%-8.6% and 104%-108% for direct analysis of three actual samples, showing that nanoextractive electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry is a useful technique for fast screening cocaine presence in beverages.

  8. Gas Chromatography/Atmospheric Pressure Chemical Ionization Tandem Mass Spectrometry for Fingerprinting the Macondo Oil Spill.

    PubMed

    Lobodin, Vladislav V; Maksimova, Ekaterina V; Rodgers, Ryan P

    2016-07-05

    We report the first application of a new mass spectrometry technique (gas chromatography combined to atmospheric pressure chemical ionization tandem mass spectrometry, GC/APCI-MS/MS) for fingerprinting a crude oil and environmental samples from the largest accidental marine oil spill in history (the Macondo oil spill, the Gulf of Mexico, 2010). The fingerprinting of the oil spill is based on a trace analysis of petroleum biomarkers (steranes, diasteranes, and pentacyclic triterpanes) naturally occurring in crude oil. GC/APCI enables soft ionization of petroleum compounds that form abundant molecular ions without (or little) fragmentation. The ability to operate the instrument simultaneously in several tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) modes (e.g., full scan, product ion scan, reaction monitoring) significantly improves structural information content and sensitivity of analysis. For fingerprinting the oil spill, we constructed diagrams and conducted correlation studies that measure the similarity between environmental samples and enable us to differentiate the Macondo oil spill from other sources.

  9. Linkage Position and Residue Identification of Disaccharides by Tandem Mass Spectrometry and Linear Discriminant Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Hui Zhang; Steve M. Brokman; Ning Fang; Nicola L. Pohl; Edward S. Yeung

    2008-03-20

    The discrimination of isomeric disaccharides with different linkage types and different monosaccharide residues--glucose (Glc), galactose (Gal), and mannose (Man) at the non-reducing end - was investigated with tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) and linear discriminant analysis (LDA). Conventional matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI)-MS has strong interference peaks from matrix ions in the low mass region (<500 Da). This greatly limits the application of MALDI-MS for the analysis of small molecules such as saccharides. We solved this problem by using LDI with acidic fullerene matrix, which gives a very clean background in the low-mass region. Disaccharides with different linkage types give different tandem mass spectral profiles from various cross-ring fragmentation pathways. Disaccharides with the same linkage type but with three different kinds of monosaccharide residues bear the same fragmentation profiles. However, the relative ratios of the fragment ion intensities were found to be distinctly different among the three disaccharide isomers. By employing statistical tools such as LDA to classify the tandem mass spectra, disaccharide isomers with either different linkages or different monosaccharide residues were successfully classified.

  10. Linkage Position and Residue Identification of Disaccharides by Tandem mass Spectrometry and linear Discriminant Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Hui Zhang; Steve M. Brokman; Ning Fang; Nicola L. Pohl; Edward S. Yeung

    2008-03-20

    The discrimination of isomeric disaccharides with different linkage types and different monosaccharide residues--glucose (Glc), galactose (Gal), and mannose (Man) at the non-reducing end--was investigated with tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) and linear discriminant analysis (LDA). Conventional matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI)-MS has strong interference peaks from matrix ions in the low mass region (<500 Da). This greatly limits the application of MALDI-MS for the analysis of small molecules such as saccharides. We solved this problem by using LDI with acidic fullerene matrix, which gives a very clean background in the low-mass region. Disaccharides with different linkage types give different tandem mass spectral profiles from various cross-ring fragmentation pathways. Disaccharides with the same linkage type but with three different kinds of monosaccharide residues bear the same fragmentation profiles. However, the relative ratios of the fragment ion intensities were found to be distinctly different among the three disaccharide isomers. By employing statistical tools such as LDA to classify the tandem mass spectra, disaccharide isomers with either different linkages or different monosaccharide residues were successfully classified.

  11. Tandem mass spectrometry of coprogen and deferoxamine hydroxamic siderophores.

    PubMed

    Simionato, Ana V C; de Souza, Gezimar D; Rodrigues-Filho, Edson; Glick, James; Vouros, Paul; Carrilho, Emanuel

    2006-01-01

    Mechanisms of fragmentation of hydroxamic siderophores are proposed comparing deuterated and nondeuterated samples. Standard siderophores (e.g. deferoxamine and coprogen) were directly injected into both ion trap and linear quadrupole mass spectrometers with electrospray ionization (ESI). Four and two fragmentation steps were carried out for deferoxamine and coprogen (analyzed by positive and negative ESI, respectively). Deferoxamine cleavages occurred in both peptide and hydroxamic bonds while the coprogen fragmentation pattern is more elaborate, since it contains Fe(III) in its structure.

  12. Determination of sodium cromoglycate in human plasma by liquid chromatography with tandem mass.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiao-yan; Qu, Ting-ting; Wang, Ben-jie; Wei, Chun-min; Yuan, Gui-yan; Zhang, Rui; Guo, Rui-chen

    2008-09-01

    A sensitive and selective liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometric (LC-MS/MS) method was developed and validated for the determination of sodium cromoglycate (SCG) in human plasma after a nasal dose of 10.4 mg sodium cromoglycate nasal spray, using pravastatin sodium as the internal standard. The method was validated over a linear range of 0.300-20.0 ng/mL. SCG and I.S. were extracted from 1.0 mL of heparinized plasma by C(18) solid-phase extraction cartridges using methanol as eluting solvent. The dried residue was reconstituted with 100 microL of mobile phase, and 10 microL was injected onto the LC-MS/MS system. Chromatographic separation was achieved on a C(18) column (250 x 4.6 mm i.d., 5 microm particle size) with a mobile phase of methanol-acetonitrile-water (containing 2 mmol/L ammonium acetate; 42.5:42.5:15, v/v/v) at a flow rate of 0.4 mL/min. The analytes were detected with a triple quad LC-MS/MS using ESI with positive ionization. Ions monitored in the multiple reaction monitoring mode were m/z 469.0 (precursor ion) to m/z 245.0 (product ion) for SCG and m/z 447.2 (precursor ion) to m/z327.1 (product ion) for pravastatin sodium (internal standard) The average recovery of SCG from human plasma was 94.88% and the lower limit of quantitation was 0.3 ng/mL. Results from a 3-day validation study demonstrated excellent precision and accuracy across the calibration range of 0.3-20 ng/mL. The method was successfully applied to the pharmacokinetic study of SCG in healthy Chinese volunteers.

  13. [Determination of aniline in water and fish by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry].

    PubMed

    He, Dechun; Zhao, Bo; Tang, Caiming; Xu, Zhencheng; Zhang, Sukun; Han, Jinglei

    2014-09-01

    A fast analytical method for the determination of aniline in water and fish meat by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) has been developed. The water sample was mixed with acetonitrile by 4:1 (v/v) and the fish sample was extracted by 2.00 mL acetonitrile for each gram of sample, and then the extracts of water and fish samples were centrifuged at 5,000 r/min for 5 min. The separation was performed on a reversed-phase C18 column using mobile phases of acetonitrile-0.5% (v/v) formic acid aqueous solution (85:15, v/v). Aniline was separated within 3 min. The calibration curve was linear in the range of 0.5-500 pg/L with R2 > 0.999. The limits of detection (LODs) were 0.50 μg/L and 1.00 μg/kg and the limits of quantification (LOQs) were 1.00 μg/L and 2.00 μg/kg for aniline in water and fish meat, respectively. The average recoveries of aniline in water were 93.7% at the spiked level of 40 ng and 86.7% at the spiked level of 400 ng (n = 5). The average recoveries of aniline in fish were 96.8%, 92.6% and 81.8% at the spiked levels of 5, 50 and 500 ng respectively (n = 5). The relative standard deviations were 1.5%-9.2%. Thirteen water samples and twelve fish samples were collected from a reservoir polluted by aniline and the maximum contents found were 1,943. 6 μg/L in water and 60.8 μg/kg in fish. The method is suitable for the determination of aniline residues in water and fish with the characteristics of easy operation, high accuracy and precision.

  14. Reliable and sensitive determination of dutasteride in human plasma by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Contractor, Pritesh; Kurani, Hemal; Guttikar, Swati; Shrivastav, Pranav S

    2013-09-01

    An accurate and precise method was developed and validated using LC-MS/MS to quantify dutasteride in human plasma. The analyte and dutasteride-13C6 as internal standard (IS) were extracted from 300 μL plasma volume using methyl tert-butyl ether-n-hexane (80:20, v/v). Chromatographic analysis was performed on a Gemini C18 (150 × 4.6 mm, 5 µm) column using acetonitrile-5 mm ammonium formate, pH adjusted to 4.0 with formic acid (85:15, v/v) as the mobile phase. Tandem mass spectrometry in positive ionization mode was used to quantify dutasteride by multiple reaction monitoring. The entire data processing was done using Watson LIMS(TM) software, which provided excellent data integrity and high throughput with improved operational efficiency. The calibration curve was linear in the range of 0.1-25 ng/mL, with intra-and inter-batch values for accuracy and precision (coefficient of variation) ranging from 95.8 to 104.0 and from 0.7 to 5.3%, respectively. The mean overall recovery across quality controls was ≥95% for the analyte and IS, while the interference of matrix expressed as IS-normalized matrix factors ranged from 1.01 to 1.02. The method was successfully applied to support a bioequivalence study of 0.5 mg dutasteride capsules in 24 healthy subjects. Assay reproducibility was demonstrated by reanalysis of 103 incurred samples.

  15. Simultaneous Quantification of Multiple Urinary Naphthalene Metabolites by Liquid Chromatography Tandem Mass Spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    Ayala, Daniel C.; Morin, Dexter; Buckpitt, Alan R.

    2015-01-01

    Naphthalene is an environmental toxicant to which humans are exposed. Naphthalene causes dose-dependent cytotoxicity to murine airway epithelial cells but a link between exposure and human pulmonary disease has not been established. Naphthalene toxicity in rodents depends on P450 metabolism. Subsequent biotransformation results in urinary elimination of several conjugated metabolites. Glucuronide and sulfate conjugates of naphthols have been used as markers of naphthalene exposure but, as the current studies demonstrate, these assays provide a limited view of the range of metabolites generated from the parent hydrocarbon. Here, we present a liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry method for measurement of the glucuronide and sulfate conjugates of 1-naphthol as well as the mercapturic acids and N-acetyl glutathione conjugates from naphthalene epoxide. Standard curves were linear over 2 log orders. On column detection limits varied from 0.91 to 3.4 ng; limits of quantitation from 1.8 to 6.4 ng. The accuracy of measurement of spiked urine standards was -13.1 to + 5.2% of target and intra-day and inter-day variability averaged 7.2 (± 4.5) and 6.8 (± 5.0) %, respectively. Application of the method to urine collected from mice exposed to naphthalene at 15 ppm (4 hrs) showed that glutathione-derived metabolites accounted for 60-70% of the total measured metabolites and sulfate and glucuronide conjugates were eliminated in equal amounts. The method is robust and directly measures several major naphthalene metabolites including those derived from glutathione conjugation of naphthalene epoxide. The assays do not require enzymatic deconjugation, extraction or derivatization thus simplifying sample work up. PMID:25853821

  16. Determination of triapine, a ribonucleotide reductase inhibitor, in human plasma by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Feng, Ye; Kunos, Charles A; Xu, Yan

    2015-09-01

    Triapine is an inhibitor of ribonucleotide reductase (RNR). Studies have shown that triapine significantly decreases the activity of RNR and enhanced the radiation-mediated cytotoxicity in cervical and colon cancer. In this work, we have developed and validated a selective and sensitive LC-MS/MS method for the determination of triapine in human plasma. In this method, 2-[(3-fluoro-2-pyridinyl)methylene] hydrazinecarbothioamide (NSC 266749) was used as the internal standard (IS); plasma samples were prepared by deproteinization with acetonitrile; tripaine and the IS were separated on a Waters Xbridge Shield RP18 column (3.5 µm; 2.1 × 50 mm) using a mobile phase containing 25.0% methanol and 75.0% ammonium bicarbonate buffer (10.0 mM, pH 8.50; v/v); column eluate was monitored by positive turbo-ionspray tandem mass spectrometry; and quantitation of triapine was carried out in multiple-reaction-monitoring mode. The method developed had a linear calibration range of 0.250-50.0 ng/mL with correlation coefficient of 0.999 for triapine in human plasma. The IS-normalized recovery and the IS-normalized matrix factor of triapine were 101-104% and 0.89-1.05, respectively. The accuracy expressed as percentage error and precision expressed as coefficient of variation were ≤±6 and ≤8%, respectively. The validated LC-MS/MS method was applied to the measurement of triapine in patient samples from a phase I clinical trial.

  17. Parallel Reaction Monitoring: A Targeted Experiment Performed Using High Resolution and High Mass Accuracy Mass Spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    Rauniyar, Navin

    2015-01-01

    The parallel reaction monitoring (PRM) assay has emerged as an alternative method of targeted quantification. The PRM assay is performed in a high resolution and high mass accuracy mode on a mass spectrometer. This review presents the features that make PRM a highly specific and selective method for targeted quantification using quadrupole-Orbitrap hybrid instruments. In addition, this review discusses the label-based and label-free methods of quantification that can be performed with the targeted approach. PMID:26633379

  18. A comparison of flavonoid glycosides by electrospray tandem mass spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    March, Raymond E.; Lewars, Errol G.; Stadey, Christopher J.; Miao, Xiu-Sheng; Zhao, Xiaoming; Metcalfe, Chris D.

    2006-01-01

    A comparison is presented of product ion mass spectra of protonated and deprotonated molecules of kaempferol-3-O-glucoside, quercitin-3-O-glucoside (isoquercitrin), quercitin-3-O-galactoside (hyperoin), apigenin-7-O-glucoside, luteolin-7-O-glucoside, genistein-7-O-glucoside, naringenin-7-O-glucoside (prunin), luteolin-4'-O-glucoside, luteolin-6-C-glucoside (homoorientin, known also as isoorientin), apigenin-8-C-glucoside (vitexin), and luteolin-8-C-glucoside (orientin) together with the product ion mass spectrum of deprotonated kaempferol-7-O-glucoside. All isomeric ions were distinguishable on the basis of their product ion mass spectra. For protonated 3-O-, 7-O-, and 4'-O-glycosides at a collision energy of 46-47 eV, homolytic cleavage of the O-glycosidic bond yielded aglycon Y+ ions, whereas in deprotonated 3-O-, 7-O-, and 4'-O-glycosides, heterolytic and homolytic cleavage of the O-glycosidic bond yielded radical aglycon (Y-H)- and aglycon (Y-) ions. In each case, fragmentation of either the glycan or the aglycon or both was observed. For 6-C- and 8-C-glycosides at a collision energy of 46-47 eV, fragmentation was restricted almost exclusively to the glycan. For luteolin-6-C-glucoside, the integrity of the aglycon structure is preserved at the expense of the glycan for which some 30 fragmentations were observed. Breakdown curves were determined as a function of collision energy for protonated and deprotonated luteolin-6-C-glucoside. An attempt has been made to rationalize the product ion mass spectra derived from C-O- and C-C-luteolin glucosides in terms of computed structures that indicate significant intramolecular hydrogen bonding and rotation of the B-ring to form a coplanar luteolin structure. It is proposed that protonated and deprotonated luteolin-6-C-glucoside may afford examples of cooperative interactive bonding that plays a major role in directing fragmentation.

  19. Tandem Mass Spectrum Sequencing: An Alternative to Database Search Engines in Shotgun Proteomics.

    PubMed

    Muth, Thilo; Rapp, Erdmann; Berven, Frode S; Barsnes, Harald; Vaudel, Marc

    2016-01-01

    Protein identification via database searches has become the gold standard in mass spectrometry based shotgun proteomics. However, as the quality of tandem mass spectra improves, direct mass spectrum sequencing gains interest as a database-independent alternative. In this chapter, the general principle of this so-called de novo sequencing is introduced along with pitfalls and challenges of the technique. The main tools available are presented with a focus on user friendly open source software which can be directly applied in everyday proteomic workflows.

  20. Simultaneous targeted analysis of trimethylamine-N-oxide, choline, betaine, and carnitine by high performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jia; Zhao, Mingming; Zhou, Juntuo; Liu, Changjie; Zheng, Lemin; Yin, Yuxin

    2016-11-01

    Trimethylamine-N-oxide (TMAO) is a metabolite generated from choline, betaine and carnitine in a gut microbiota-dependent way. This molecule is associated with development of atherosclerosis and cardiovascular events. A sensitive liquid chromatographic electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS/MS) has been developed and validated for the simultaneous determination of TMAO related molecules including TMAO, betaine, choline, and carnitine in mouse plasma. Analytes are extracted after protein precipitation by methanol and subjected to LC-ESI-MS/MS without preliminary derivatization. Separation of analytes was achieved on an amide column with acetonitrile-water as the mobile phase. This method has been fully validated in this study in terms of selectivity, linearity, sensitivity, precision, accuracy, and carryover effect, and the stability of the analyte under various conditions has been confirmed. This developed method has successfully been applied to plasma samples of our mouse model.

  1. Sensitive and rapid high-performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry method for estimation of fulvestrant in rabbit plasma.

    PubMed

    Balaram, Varanasi Murali; Parmar, Dharmesh; Teja, Bulusu B; Rathnam, Shivprakash; Rao, Jangala Venkateswara; Dasandi, Bhavesh

    2010-08-01

    A rapid and sensitive high-performance liquid chromatography and electrospray tandem mass spectrometry method was developed and validated for estimation of fulvestrant in rabbit plasma using liquid-liquid extraction. The separation and quantification of fulvestrant were achieved by reverse-phase chromatography on a Sunfire C18 column (50 x 2.1. i.d., 3.5 microm) with isocratic elution at a flow rate of 300 microL/min using norethistrone as an internal standard from 500 microL plasma sample. The method was validated over the concentration range from 0.092 to 16.937 ng/mL with a lower limit of detection of 0.023 ng/mL. The intra-day and inter-day accuracy and precision were within 10%. The recovery was 85 and 90% for fulvestrant and norethistrone respectively. The chromatographic run time was only 2.5 min.

  2. Analysis of phospholipids in bio-oils and fats by hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Viidanoja, Jyrki

    2015-09-15

    A new, sensitive and selective liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometric (LC-ESI-MS/MS) method was developed for the analysis of Phospholipids (PLs) in bio-oils and fats. This analysis employs hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography-scheduled multiple reaction monitoring (HILIC-sMRM) with a ZIC-cHILIC column. Eight PL class selective internal standards (homologs) were used for the semi-quantification of 14 PL classes for the first time. More than 400 scheduled MRMs were used for the measurement of PLs with a run time of 34min. The method's performance was evaluated for vegetable oil, animal fat and algae oil. The averaged within-run precision and between-run precision were ≤10% for all of the PL classes that had a direct homologue as an internal standard. The method accuracy was generally within 80-120% for the tested PL analytes in all three sample matrices.

  3. [Determination of homocysteine by tandem mass spectrometry with chemical ionization].

    PubMed

    Miroshnichenko, I I; Platova, A I; Safarova, T P; Iakovleva, O B

    2014-01-01

    Homocysteine (Hcy) is an intermediate of methionine metabolism. High plasma Hcy concentrations are an independent risk factor for stroke, peripheral vascular disease, deep venous thrombosis, coronary disease, and cognitive deficiency. Apparently, it is a great importance to measure Hcy levels in human blood. A new method for the quantification of Hcy by means of reversed-phase LC/atmospheric pressure chemical ionization mass spectrometry has been developed. The MRM ion transition, m/z 136.0 ® 90.0 was used for Hcy quantification. The limit of detection was 0.4 mM, quantification was performed from 1 mM to 40 mM with coefficient of determination of R2=0,997. The method was applied successfully to Hcy determination in human blood.

  4. The expanding role of tandem mass spectrometry in optimizing diagnosis and treatment of thyroid disease.

    PubMed

    van Deventer, Hendrick E; Soldin, Steven J

    2013-01-01

    This review discusses the state-of-the-art measurement of free and total thyroid hormones in clinical laboratories. We highlight some of the limitations of currently used immunoassays and critically discuss physical separation methods for the measurement of free thyroid hormone. Physical separation methods, such as equilibrium dialysis or ultrafiltration, followed by tandem mass spectrometry for the measurement of free thyroid hormones offer many advantages, which we feel, can deepen our understanding of thyroid hormone metabolism and improve patient diagnosis and care. Problems with direct analogue immunoassay methods for FT4/FT3 as well as immunoassay methods for total T3 at low T3 concentrations and during pregnancy are highlighted. Improved diagnosis and patient management can be achieved utilizing tandem mass spectrometry for these measurements.

  5. Ion Mobility Tandem Mass Spectrometry Enhances Performance of Bottom-up Proteomics

    PubMed Central

    Helm, Dominic; Vissers, Johannes P. C.; Hughes, Christopher J.; Hahne, Hannes; Ruprecht, Benjamin; Pachl, Fiona; Grzyb, Arkadiusz; Richardson, Keith; Wildgoose, Jason; Maier, Stefan K.; Marx, Harald; Wilhelm, Mathias; Becher, Isabelle; Lemeer, Simone; Bantscheff, Marcus; Langridge, James I.; Kuster, Bernhard

    2014-01-01

    One of the limiting factors in determining the sensitivity of tandem mass spectrometry using hybrid quadrupole orthogonal acceleration time-of-flight instruments is the duty cycle of the orthogonal ion injection system. As a consequence, only a fraction of the generated fragment ion beam is collected by the time-of-flight analyzer. Here we describe a method utilizing postfragmentation ion mobility spectrometry of peptide fragment ions in conjunction with mobility time synchronized orthogonal ion injection leading to a substantially improved duty cycle and a concomitant improvement in sensitivity of up to 10-fold for bottom-up proteomic experiments. This enabled the identification of 7500 human proteins within 1 day and 8600 phosphorylation sites within 5 h of LC-MS/MS time. The method also proved powerful for multiplexed quantification experiments using tandem mass tags exemplified by the chemoproteomic interaction analysis of histone deacetylases with Trichostatin A. PMID:25106551

  6. Rapid and accurate liquid chromatography and tandem mass spectrometry method for the simultaneous quantification of ten metabolic reactions catalyzed by hepatic cytochrome P450 enzymes.

    PubMed

    Shi, Rong; Ma, Bingliang; Wu, Jiasheng; Wang, Tianming; Ma, Yueming

    2015-10-01

    The hepatic cytochrome P450 enzymes play a central role in the biotransformation of endogenous and exogenous substances. A sensitive high-throughput liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry assay was developed and validated for the simultaneous quantification of the products of ten metabolic reactions catalyzed by hepatic cytochrome P450 enzymes. After the substrates were incubated separately, the samples were pooled and analyzed by liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry using an electrospray ionization source in the positive and negative ion modes. The method exhibited linearity over a broad concentration range, insensitivity to matrix effects, and high accuracy, precision, and stability. The novel method was successfully applied to study the kinetics of phenacetin-O deethylation, coumarin-7 hydroxylation, bupropion hydroxylation, taxol-6 hydroxylation, omeprazole-5 hydroxylation, dextromethorphan-O demethylation, tolbutamide-4 hydroxylation, chlorzoxazone-6 hydroxylation, testosterone-6β hydroxylation, and midazolam-1 hydroxylation in rat liver microsomes.

  7. Data supporting the rat brain sample preparation and validation assays for simultaneous determination of 8 neurotransmitters and their metabolites using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Wojnicz, Aneta; Ortiz, José Avendaño; Casas, Ana I; Freitas, Andiara E; López, Manuela G; Ruiz-Nuño, Ana

    2016-06-01

    The data presented in this article supports the rat brain sample preparation procedure previous to its injection into the liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) system to monitor levels of adrenaline, noradrenaline, glutamic acid, γ-aminobutyric acid, dopamine, 5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-hydroxyindole acetic acid, and 3-methoxy-4-hydroxyphenylglycol. In addition, we describe the method validation assays (such as calibration curve, lower limit of quantification, precision and accuracy intra- and inter-day, selectivity, extraction recovery and matrix effect, stability, and carry-over effect) according to the United States Food and Drug Administration and European Medicine Agency to measure in one step different neurotransmitters and their metabolites. The data supplied in this article is related to the research study entitled: "Simultaneous determination of 8 neurotransmitters and their metabolite levels in rat brain using liquid chromatography in tandem with mass spectrometry: application to the murine Nrf2 model of depression" (Wojnicz et al. 2016) [1].

  8. Characterization of Ni(II) complexes of Schiff bases of amino acids and (S)-N-(2-benzoylphenyl)-1-benzylpyrrolidine-2-carboxamide using ion trap and QqTOF electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Jirásko, Robert; Holcapek, Michal; Kolárová, Lenka; Nádvorník, Milan; Popkov, Alexander

    2008-09-01

    This work demonstrates the application of electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) using two different mass analyzers, ion trap and hybrid quadrupole time-of-flight (QqTOF) mass analyzer, for the structural characterization of Ni(II) complexes of Schiff bases of (S)-N-(2-benzoylphenyl)-1-benzylpyrrolidine-2-carboxamide with different amino acids. ESI enables the determination of molecular weight on the basis of rather simple positive-ion ESI mass spectra containing only protonated molecules and adducts with sodium or potassium ions. Fragmentation patterns are characterized by tandem mass spectrometric experiments, where both tandem mass analyzers provide complementary information. QqTOF data are used for the determination of elemental composition of individual ions due to mass accuracies always better than 3 ppm with the external calibration, while multistage tandem mass spectra obtained by the ion trap are suitable for studying the fragmentation paths. The novel aspect of our approach is the combination of mass accuracies and relative abundances of all isotopic peaks in isotopic clusters providing more powerful data for the structural characterization of organometallic compounds containing polyisotopic elements. The benefit of relative and absolute mean mass accuracies is demonstrated on the example of studied Ni(II) complexes.

  9. Liquid Chromatography-Tandem Mass Spectrometry to Define Sortase Cleavage Products.

    PubMed

    Duong, Andrew; Koteva, Kalinka; Sexton, Danielle L; Elliot, Marie A

    2016-01-01

    Sortase enzymes have specific endopeptidase activity, cleaving within a defined pentapeptide sequence at the C-terminal end of their protein substrates. Here, we describe how monitoring sortase cleavage activity can be achieved using peptide substrates. Peptide cleavage can be readily analyzed by liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS), which allows for the precise definition of cleavage sites. This technique could be used to analyze the peptidase activity of any enzyme, and identify sites of cleavage within any peptide.

  10. Half-life of Si-32 from tandem-accelerator mass spectrometry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elmore, D.; Anantaraman, N.; Fulbright, H. W.; Gove, H. E.; Nishiizumi, K.; Murrell, M. T.; Honda, M.; Hans, H. S.

    1980-01-01

    A newly developed mass-spectrometry technique employing a tandem Van de Graaff accelerator together with a special beam-transport system and heavy-ion detector has been used to determine the half-life of Si-32. The result obtained, 108 plus or minus 18 yr, disagrees with the accepted value of 330 plus or minus 40 yr. The implications of the new half-life of Si-32, which is used for dating studies, are discussed.

  11. LESSONS IN DE NOVO PEPTIDE SEQUENCING BY TANDEM MASS SPECTROMETRY

    PubMed Central

    Medzihradszky, Katalin F.; Chalkley, Robert J.

    2015-01-01

    Mass spectrometry has become the method of choice for the qualitative and quantitative characterization of protein mixtures isolated from all kinds of living organisms. The raw data in these studies are MS/MS spectra, usually of peptides produced by proteolytic digestion of a protein. These spectra are “translated” into peptide sequences, normally with the help of various search engines. Data acquisition and interpretation have both been automated, and most researchers look only at the summary of the identifications without ever viewing the underlying raw data used for assignments. Automated analysis of data is essential due to the volume produced. However, being familiar with the finer intricacies of peptide fragmentation processes, and experiencing the difficulties of manual data interpretation allow a researcher to be able to more critically evaluate key results, particularly because there are many known rules of peptide fragmentation that are not incorporated into search engine scoring. Since the most commonly used MS/MS activation method is collision-induced dissociation (CID), in this article we present a brief review of the history of peptide CID analysis. Next, we provide a detailed tutorial on how to determine peptide sequences from CID data. Although the focus of the tutorial is de novo sequencing, the lessons learned and resources supplied are useful for data interpretation in general. PMID:25667941

  12. Fast multi-blind modification search through tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Na, Seungjin; Bandeira, Nuno; Paek, Eunok

    2012-04-01

    With great biological interest in post-translational modifications (PTMs), various approaches have been introduced to identify PTMs using MS/MS. Recent developments for PTM identification have focused on an unrestrictive approach that searches MS/MS spectra for all known and possibly even unknown types of PTMs at once. However, the resulting expanded search space requires much longer search time and also increases the number of false positives (incorrect identifications) and false negatives (missed true identifications), thus creating a bottleneck in high throughput analysis. Here we introduce MODa, a novel "multi-blind" spectral alignment algorithm that allows for fast unrestrictive PTM searches with no limitation on the number of modifications per peptide while featuring over an order of magnitude speedup in relation to existing approaches. We demonstrate the sensitivity of MODa on human shotgun proteomics data where it reveals multiple mutations, a wide range of modifications (including glycosylation), and evidence for several putative novel modifications. Based on the reported findings, we argue that the efficiency and sensitivity of MODa make it the first unrestrictive search tool with the potential to fully replace conventional restrictive identification of proteomics mass spectrometry data.

  13. Fast Multi-blind Modification Search through Tandem Mass Spectrometry*

    PubMed Central

    Na, Seungjin; Bandeira, Nuno; Paek, Eunok

    2012-01-01

    With great biological interest in post-translational modifications (PTMs), various approaches have been introduced to identify PTMs using MS/MS. Recent developments for PTM identification have focused on an unrestrictive approach that searches MS/MS spectra for all known and possibly even unknown types of PTMs at once. However, the resulting expanded search space requires much longer search time and also increases the number of false positives (incorrect identifications) and false negatives (missed true identifications), thus creating a bottleneck in high throughput analysis. Here we introduce MODa, a novel “multi-blind” spectral alignment algorithm that allows for fast unrestrictive PTM searches with no limitation on the number of modifications per peptide while featuring over an order of magnitude speedup in relation to existing approaches. We demonstrate the sensitivity of MODa on human shotgun proteomics data where it reveals multiple mutations, a wide range of modifications (including glycosylation), and evidence for several putative novel modifications. Based on the reported findings, we argue that the efficiency and sensitivity of MODa make it the first unrestrictive search tool with the potential to fully replace conventional restrictive identification of proteomics mass spectrometry data. PMID:22186716

  14. Simultaneous determination of 25 common pharmaceuticals in whole blood using ultra-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Nielsen, Marie Katrine Klose; Johansen, Sys Stybe

    2012-09-01

    An ultra-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method was developed and validated for the quantification of 25 common pharmaceuticals in whole blood. The selected pharmaceuticals represent the most frequently detected drugs in our forensic laboratory with basic properties such as analgesics, antidepressants, antihistamines, antihypertensives, antipsychotics and β-blockers. Whole blood samples were extracted with butyl acetate after adjusting pH with 2M NaOH. The target analytes were separated on a 100 × 2.1 mm ACQUITY BEH 1.7 µm C18 column by a formic acid/acetonitrile gradient elution using a Waters ACQUITY Ultra-Performance Liquid Chromatography system. Quantification was performed on a Waters tandem quadrupole ACQUITY TQD using multiple reaction monitoring in positive mode. The analytes were eluted within 11 min. The limit of quantification (LOQ) ranged from 0.002 to 0.01 mg/kg depending on the analyte. A good linear behavior was achieved for all analytes in the range from LOQ to 1.0 or 2.0 mg/kg blood. The absolute recoveries were between 55-87% for all compounds except norfluoxetine (44%). The method showed acceptable precision and accuracy for almost all analytes. Only unstable compounds like levomepromazine, methylphenidate, mirtazapine, norfluoxetine and zuclopenthixol deviated more. The method was successfully applied to more than 200 authentic blood samples within a year from forensic investigations.

  15. Determination of elemental composition of volatile organic compounds from Chinese rose oil by spectral accuracy and mass accuracy.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Wei; Zhang, Yaheng; Xu, Hongliang; Gu, Ming

    2011-10-30

    Elemental composition determination of volatile organic compounds through high mass accuracy and isotope pattern matching could not be routinely achieved with a unit-mass resolution mass spectrometer until the recent development of the comprehensive instrument line-shape calibration technology. Through this unique technology, both m/z values and mass spectral peak shapes are calibrated simultaneously. Of fundamental importance is that calibrated mass spectra have symmetric and mathematically known peak shapes, which makes it possible to deconvolute overlapped monoisotopes and their (13)C-isotope peaks and achieve accurate mass measurements. The key experimental requirements for the measurements are to acquire true raw data in a profile or continuum mode with the acquisition threshold set to zero. A total of 13 ions from Chinese rose oil were analyzed with internal calibration. Most of the ions produced high mass accuracy of better than 5 mDa and high spectral accuracy of better than 99%. These results allow five tested ions to be identified with unique elemental compositions and the other eight ions to be determined as a top match from multiple candidates based on spectral accuracy. One of them, a coeluted component (Nerol) with m/z 154, could not be identified by conventional GC/MS (gas chromatography/mass spectrometry) and library search. Such effective determination for elemental compositions of the volatile organic compounds with a unit-mass resolution quadrupole system is obviously attributed to the significant improvement of mass accuracy. More importantly, high spectral accuracy available through the instrument line-shape calibration enables highly accurate isotope pattern recognition for unknown identification.

  16. Multicomponent high-performance liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry analysis of ten chemotherapeutic drugs in wipe samples.

    PubMed

    Maeda, Shinichiro; Miwa, Yoshihiro

    2013-03-15

    Progress in chemotherapy leads to increased numbers and variety of chemotherapeutic drugs, and multicomponent analysis of these drugs is a necessary step. We used liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry and developed a multicomponent analysis of ten drugs used in chemotherapy: vindesine, vincristine, vinblastine, doxorubicin, epirubicin, ifosfamide, cyclophosphamide, irinotecan, docetaxel, and paclitaxel. We selected five internal standards for each category of drug, because the ionization efficiencies of product ions varied widely. The total run time was 22min, applying a gradient elution of water and acetonitrile in the presence of 0.1% formic acid. The lower limit of quantification was 50ng/wipe samples for vindesine, vincristine, and vinblastine, and 5ng/wipe samples for the remaining seven drugs. Accuracy (88.6-112.9%, 85.2-111.7%) and precision (1.0-11.5%CV, 3.6-14.4%CV) in within-run and between-run assays of QC solutions were acceptable. Without outliers, in within-run and between-run assays of QC samples, accuracy was 90.6-113.9% and 91.1-130.4%, respectively, and precision was 2.2-19.0%CV and 4.8-14.9%CV, respectively. Accuracy and precision of High QC samples of irinotecan were deviated. Our analysis procedure has sufficient sensitivity and is convenient enough for regular monitoring.

  17. Simultaneous determination of cocaine and opiates in dried blood spots by electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Antelo-Domínguez, Ángel; Cocho, José Ángel; Tabernero, María Jesús; Bermejo, Ana María; Bermejo-Barrera, Pilar; Moreda-Piñeiro, Antonio

    2013-12-15

    A sample pre-treatment method based on blood spot collection filter cards was optimized as a means of using small volume samples for the screening and confirmation of cocaine and opiates abuse. Dried blood spots (DBSs) were prepared by dispersing 20 µL of whole blood specimens previously mixed with the internal standards (deuterated analogs of each target), and subjecting the whole DBS to extraction with 5 mL of methanol under orbital-horizontal shaking (180 rpm) for 10 min. Determinations were based on direct electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (ESI-MS/MS) by injecting the re-dissolved methanol extract with the delivery solution (acetonitrile-water-formic acid, 80:19.875:0.125) at a flow rate of 60 µL min(-1), and using multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) mode with the m/z (precursor ion)→m/z (product ion) transitions for acquisition. Matrix effect has been found to be statistically significant (Multiple Range Test) when assessing cocaine, BZE, codeine and morphine, and the use of the standard addition method (dispersion of whole blood previously mixed with standards onto the filter papers) was needed for accurate determinations. The developed DBS-ESI-MS/MS procedure offered good intra-day and inter-day precisions (lower than 10% and 12%, respectively), as well as good intra-day and inter-day accuracies (inter-day absolute recoveries, expressed as the mean analytical recovery over three target concentration levels, of 103%, 100%, 101%, 98% and 100% for cocaine, BZE, codeine, morphine and 6-MAM, respectively). The high sensitivity inherent to MS/MS determinations combined with the minimal dilution of sample allowed low limits of quantification for all targets, and the developed method results therefore adequate for cocaine and opiates screening and confirmation purposes. The procedure was finally applied to DBSs prepared from whole blood from polydrug abusers, and results were compared with those obtained after a conventional sample pretreatment

  18. Determination of olanzapine in whole blood using simple protein precipitation and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Nielsen, Marie Katrine Klose; Johansen, Sys Stybe

    2009-05-01

    A simple, sensitive, and reproducible liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method has been developed and validated for the quantification of the antipsychotic drug olanzapine in whole blood using dibenzepine as internal standard (IS). After acidic methanol-induced protein precipitation of the whole blood samples, olanzapine and IS were chromatographed on a reversed-phase Zorbax Extend-C(18)-column at pH 9.0. Quantification was performed on a triple-quadrupole mass spectrometer employing electrospray ionization technique operating in multiple reaction monitoring and positive ion mode. Total chromatographic run time was 15 min, and calibration curve was linear over the concentration range of 0.005 to 0.50 mg/kg olanzapine in whole blood. The method was validated for selectivity, matrix interference, recovery, linearity, limit of detection, limit of quantitation (LOQ), accuracy, precision, and stability. The absolute recovery obtained was 103% for olanzapine and 68% for IS. An LOQ of 0.005 mg/kg olanzapine in whole blood was achieved. Inter- and intraday precision were less than 11% within concentrations from 0.01 to 0.50 mg/kg, and the accuracy ranged from 85 to 115%. The method was subsequently applied to 27 authentic samples, of which 20 were postmortem blood samples, from forensic investigations.

  19. An integrated microfluidics-tandem mass spectrometry system for automated protein analysis.

    PubMed

    Figeys, D; Gygi, S P; McKinnon, G; Aebersold, R

    1998-09-15

    We describe an integrated analytical system consisting of a microfluidics device micromachined using photolithography/etching technology, a panel of computer-controlled high-voltage relays, and an electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometer. Movement of solvents and samples on the device and off the device to the mass spectrometer was achieved by directed electroosmotic pumping induced by the activation of a suitable constellation of high-voltage relays. The system was used for the sequential automated analysis of protein digests. We demonstrate low femtomole per microliter sensitivity of detection and compatibility of the system with the automated analysis of proteins separated by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis.

  20. Derivatization reagents in liquid chromatography/electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Santa, Tomofumi

    2011-01-01

    Liquid chromatography/electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (LC/ESI-MS/MS) is one of the most prominent analytical techniques owing to its inherent selectivity and sensitivity. In LC/ESI-MS/MS, chemical derivatization is often used to enhance the detection sensitivity. Derivatization improves the chromatographic separation, and enhances the mass spectrometric ionization efficiency and MS/MS detectability. In this review, an overview of the derivatization reagents which have been applied to LC/ESI-MS/MS is presented, focusing on the applications to low molecular weight compounds.

  1. Electrospray Ionization Tandem Mass Spectrometry (ESI-MS/MS)-Based Shotgun Lipidomics

    SciTech Connect

    Mezengie, Giorgis I.

    2011-01-11

    In the past decade, many new strategies for mass spectrometry (MS)-based analyses of lipids have been developed. Lipidomics is one of the most promising research fields to emerge as a result of these advances in MS. Currently, mass spectrometric analysis of lipids involves two complementary approaches: direct infusion (shotgun lipidomics) and liquid chromatography coupled to MS. In this chapter, I will demonstrate the approach of shotgun lipidomics using electrospray ionization tandem MS for the analysis of lipid molecular species directly from crude biological extracts of tissue or fluids.

  2. Classification of Tandem Mass Spectra for Identification of N- and O-linked Glycopeptides

    PubMed Central

    Toghi Eshghi, Shadi; Yang, Weiming; Hu, Yingwei; Shah, Punit; Sun, Shisheng; Li, Xingde; Zhang, Hui

    2016-01-01

    Analysis of intact glycopeptides by mass spectrometry is essential to determining the microheterogeneity of protein glycosylation. Higher-energy collisional dissociation (HCD) fragmentation of glycopeptides generates mono- or disaccharide ions called oxonium ions that carry information about the structure of the fragmented glycans. Here, we investigated the link between glycan structures and the intensity of oxonium ions in the spectra of glycopeptides and utilized this information to improve the identification of glycopeptides in biological samples. Tandem spectra of glycopeptides from fetuin, glycophorin A, ovalbumin and gp120 tryptic digests were used to build a spectral database of N- and O-linked glycopeptides. Logistic regression was applied to this database to develop model to distinguish between the spectra of N- and O-linked glycopeptides. Remarkably, the developed model was found to reliably distinguish between the N- and O-linked glycopeptides using the spectral features of the oxonium ions using verification spectral set. Finally, the performance of the developed predictive model was evaluated in HILIC enriched glycopeptides extracted from human serum. The results showed that pre-classification of tandem spectra based on their glycosylation type improved the identification of N-linked glycopeptides. The developed model facilitates interpretation of tandem mass spectrometry data for assignment of glycopeptides. PMID:27869200

  3. Classification of Tandem Mass Spectra for Identification of N- and O-linked Glycopeptides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toghi Eshghi, Shadi; Yang, Weiming; Hu, Yingwei; Shah, Punit; Sun, Shisheng; Li, Xingde; Zhang, Hui

    2016-11-01

    Analysis of intact glycopeptides by mass spectrometry is essential to determining the microheterogeneity of protein glycosylation. Higher-energy collisional dissociation (HCD) fragmentation of glycopeptides generates mono- or disaccharide ions called oxonium ions that carry information about the structure of the fragmented glycans. Here, we investigated the link between glycan structures and the intensity of oxonium ions in the spectra of glycopeptides and utilized this information to improve the identification of glycopeptides in biological samples. Tandem spectra of glycopeptides from fetuin, glycophorin A, ovalbumin and gp120 tryptic digests were used to build a spectral database of N- and O-linked glycopeptides. Logistic regression was applied to this database to develop model to distinguish between the spectra of N- and O-linked glycopeptides. Remarkably, the developed model was found to reliably distinguish between the N- and O-linked glycopeptides using the spectral features of the oxonium ions using verification spectral set. Finally, the performance of the developed predictive model was evaluated in HILIC enriched glycopeptides extracted from human serum. The results showed that pre-classification of tandem spectra based on their glycosylation type improved the identification of N-linked glycopeptides. The developed model facilitates interpretation of tandem mass spectrometry data for assignment of glycopeptides.

  4. Quantitative Caffeine Analysis Using a Surface Sampling Probe Electrospray Ionization Tandem Mass Spectrometry System

    SciTech Connect

    Ford, Michael J; Deibel, Michael A.; Tomkins, Bruce A; Van Berkel, Gary J

    2005-01-01

    Quantitative determination of caffeine on reversed-phase C8 thin-layer chromatography plates using a surface sampling electrospray ionization system with tandem mass spectrometry detection is reported. The thin-layer chromatography/electrospray tandem mass spectrometry method employed a deuterium-labeled caffeine internal standard and selected reaction monitoring detection. Up to nine parallel caffeine bands on a single plate were sampled in a single surface scanning experiment requiring 35 min at a surface scan rate of 44 {mu}m/s. A reversed-phase HPLC/UV caffeine assay was developed in parallel to assess the mass spectrometry method performance. Limits of detection for the HPLC/UV and thin-layer chromatography/electrospray tandem mass spectrometry methods determined from the calibration curve statistics were 0.20 ng injected (0.50 {mu}L) and 1.0 ng spotted on the plate, respectively. Spike recoveries with standards and real samples ranged between 97 and 106% for both methods. The caffeine content of three diet soft drinks (Diet Coke, Diet Cherry Coke, Diet Pepsi) and three diet sport drinks (Diet Turbo Tea, Speed Stack Grape, Speed Stack Fruit Punch) was measured. The HPLC/UV and mass spectrometry determinations were in general agreement, and these values were consistent with the quoted values for two of the three diet colas. In the case of Diet Cherry Coke and the diet sports drinks, the determined caffeine amounts using both methods were consistently higher (by 8% or more) than the literature values.

  5. Analysis of phytochelatin-cadmium complexes from plant tissue culture using nano-electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry and capillary liquid chromatography/electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Yen, T Y; Villa, J A; DeWitt, J G

    1999-09-01

    Phytochelatins (PCs, also known as class III metallothioneins), a family of sulfhydryl-rich peptides with the formula (gamma-GluCys)(n)Gly(Pc(n), n = 2-11), are induced in plants, yeast and fungi exposed to heavy metals, and are thought to detoxify metals by forming PC- metal complexes. Although PCs have been detected, PC- metal complexes have not been well characterized. In this work, nano-electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (nano-ESI-MS/MS) and capillary liquid chromatography/electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (capillary LC/ESI-MS/MS) methods were used to analyze PC - Cd complexes isolated from Datura innoxia, also known as Jimsonweed, cell culture exposed to Cd. With nano-ESI-MS/MS and capillary LC/ESI-MS/MS we could simultaneously detect the presence of PCs and PC - Cd complexes from plant cell extracts, unambiguously identify these species and elucidate the nature of individual PC - Cd complexes. Phytochelatins with n = 3-6 were detected, as were PC - Cd complexes with PC(3), PC(4) and PC(5). This is the first study to report the size and nature of native PC - Cd complexes from plant tissue samples. These results demonstrate that the direct analysis of plant extracts using nano-ESI-MS/MS and capillary LC/ESI-MS/MS methods is simple and sensitive to the range of PCs and PC - Cd complexes in plants. Hence these methods open up new opportunities for further quantitative analysis of PCs and PC - metal complexes in cell culture and plant systems to understand the relationship between the biosynthesis of these compounds and metal tolerance.

  6. High efficiency tandem mass spectrometry analysis using dual linear ion traps.

    PubMed

    Li, Linfan; Zhou, Xiaoyu; Hager, James W; Ouyang, Zheng

    2014-10-07

    Tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) plays an essential role in modern chemical analysis. It is used for differentiating isomers and isobars and suppressing chemical noise, which allows high precision quantitation. The MS/MS analysis has been typically applied by isolating the target precursor ions, while disregarding other ions, followed by a fragmentation process that produces the product ions. In this study, configurations of dual linear ion traps were explored to develop high efficiency MS/MS analysis. The ions trapped in the first linear ion trap were axially, mass-selectively transferred to the second linear ion trap for MS/MS analysis. Ions from multiple compounds simultaneously introduced into the mass spectrometer could be sequentially analyzed. This development enables highly efficient use of the sample. For miniature ion trap mass spectrometers with discontinuous atmospheric pressure interfaces, the analysis speed and the quantitation precision can be significantly improved.

  7. Doping control analysis of anabolic steroids in equine urine by gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Wong, April S Y; Leung, Gary N W; Leung, David K K; Wan, Terence S M

    2016-09-08

    Anabolic steroids are banned substances in equine sports. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) has been the traditional technique for doping control analysis of anabolic steroids in biological samples. Although liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC/MS) has become an important technique in doping control, the detection of saturated hydroxysteroids by LC-MS remains a problem due to their low ionization efficiency under electrospray. The recent development in fast-scanning gas-chromatography-triple-quadrupole mass spectrometry (GC-MS/MS) has provided a better alternative with a significant reduction in chemical noise by means of selective reaction monitoring. Herein, we present a sensitive and selective method for the screening of over 50 anabolic steroids in equine urine using gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (GC-MS/MS). Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  8. Simultaneous determination of phenolic compounds in Equisetum palustre L. by ultra high performance liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry combined with matrix solid-phase dispersion extraction.

    PubMed

    Wei, Zuofu; Pan, Youzhi; Li, Lu; Huang, Yuyang; Qi, Xiaolin; Luo, Meng; Zu, Yuangang; Fu, Yujie

    2014-11-01

    A method based on matrix solid-phase dispersion extraction followed by ultra high performance liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry is presented for the extraction and determination of phenolic compounds in Equisetum palustre. This method combines the high efficiency of matrix solid-phase dispersion extraction and the rapidity, sensitivity, and accuracy of ultra high performance liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry. The influential parameters of the matrix solid-phase dispersion extraction were investigated and optimized. The optimized conditions were as follows: silica gel was selected as dispersing sorbent, the ratio of silica gel to sample was selected to be 2:1 (400/200 mg), and 8 mL of 80% methanol was used as elution solvent. Furthermore, a fast and sensitive ultra high performance liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry method was developed for the determination of nine phenolic compounds in E. palustre. This method was carried out within <6 min, and exhibited satisfactory linearity, precision, and recovery. Compared with ultrasound-assisted extraction, the proposed matrix solid-phase dispersion procedure possessed higher extraction efficiency, and was more convenient and time saving with reduced requirements on sample and solvent amounts. All these results suggest that the developed method represents an excellent alternative for the extraction and determination of active components in plant matrices.

  9. Urine ethyl glucuronide and ethyl sulphate using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry in a routine clinical laboratory.

    PubMed

    Armer, Jane M; Allcock, Rebecca L

    2017-01-01

    Background Detection of alcohol consumption in clients undergoing treatment for alcohol dependence can be difficult. The ethanol metabolites ethyl glucuronide and ethyl sulphate are detectable for longer in urine than either breath ethanol or urine ethanol. Our aim was to develop a liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method for urine ethyl glucuronide and ethyl sulphate for use in a routine clinical laboratory and define clinical cut-offs in a large population who had not consumed alcohol for at least two weeks. Methods Urine samples were diluted in 0.05% formic acid in HPLC grade water and then directly injected onto a Waters Acquity ultra high performance liquid chromatography coupled to a Waters TQ Detector. Eighty participants were recruited who had not consumed alcohol for at least two weeks to define cut-offs for urine ethyl glucuronide and ethyl sulphate. Samples and alcohol diaries were also collected from 12 alcohol-dependent clients attending a treatment programme. Results The assay was validated with a lower limit of quantitation of 0.20 mg/L for ethyl glucuronide and 0.04 mg/L for ethyl sulphate. Accuracy, precision, linearity and recovery were acceptable. Cut-offs were established for ethyl glucuronide, ethyl sulphate and ethyl sulphate/creatinine ratio (≤0.26 mg/L, ≤0.22 mg/L and ≤0.033 mg/mmol, respectively) in a non-drinking population. The validated cut-offs correctly identified clients in alcohol treatment who were continuing to drink alcohol. Conclusions A simple liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method for urine ethyl glucuronide and ethyl sulphate has been validated and cut-offs defined using 80 participants who had not consumed alcohol for at least two weeks. This is the largest study to date to define cut-offs for ethyl glucuronide, ethyl sulphate and ethyl sulphate/creatinine ratio.

  10. [Rapid analysis of 28 primary aromatic amines in aqueous food simulants by high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry].

    PubMed

    Xiao, Xiaofeng; Wang, Jianling; Yang, Juanjuan; Liu, Tingfei; Chen, Tong; He, Jun; Deng, Hongyi; Gao, Qiyan

    2013-01-01

    A novel method for rapid analysis of the migration amounts of 28 primary aromatic amines (PAAs) in aqueous food simulants (10% ethanol, 30 g/L acetic acid and 20% ethanol aqueous solution) was developed using high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS). After the migration test, the soaking solution was cooled down from 100 degrees C, vortexed, filtered through a hydrophilic polytetrafluoroethylene filter with a disposable syringe, and then the filtrate was analyzed by HPLC-MS/MS. A Zorbax SB-Phenyl column (250 mm x 4.6 mm, 5 microm) was selected for chromatography. The mobile phase consisted of water and 0.1% formic acid-25% acetonitrile-methanol solution with gradient elution. The 28 PAAs in aqueous food simulants were detected by tandem mass spectrometer operated in positive electrospray ionization (ESI+) and multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) mode. The limits of quantification for the 28 PAAs were between 0.002 microg/L and 10 microg/L. The linearity of the method was good with correlation coefficients (r2) greater than 0.995 over the concentration range from 5 microg/L or 10 microg/L to 100 microg/L. The average recoveries of the 28 PAAs were between 76.6% and 114% with the relative standard deviations between 1.53% and 8.97% at the levels of 10, 20, and 40 microg/L. The method shows rapid pretreatment, the lower limits of quantification, good recoveries and accuracies, and meets the requirement of European Union (EU) No 10/2011 regulation for the specific migration of PAAs. The method has been applied to analyze the 28 PAAs in different aqueous food simulants from the migration test of 30 batches of food contact material samples exported to EU.

  11. Rapid chiral separation of racemic cetirizine in human plasma using subcritical fluid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Eom, Han Young; Kang, Myunghee; Kang, Seung Woo; Kim, Unyong; Suh, Joon Hyuk; Kim, Junghyun; Cho, Hyun-Deok; Jung, Yura; Yang, Dong-Hyug; Han, Sang Beom

    2016-01-05

    A method for fast chiral separation of cetirizine and quantitation of levocetirizine in human plasma using subcritical fluid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry was developed and validated. The chromatographic separation was performed using a Chiralpak IE column (2.1 mm×150 mm, 5 μm) with an isocratic elution of CO2/organic modifier (55/45, v/v) at a flow rate of 0.85 mL/min. The organic modifier was composed of water/methanol (5/95, v/v). The makeup flow was optimized at water/methanol (10/90, v/v) and 0.2 mL/min. The most influential parameters on the separation of cetirizine affecting resolution, retention time and sensitivity were selected by fractional factorial design. The 3 selected factors were optimized by response surface methodology. Tandem mass spectrometry was used at electrospray ionization, positive ion mode, and multiple-reaction monitoring mode. Isotope-labeled cetirizine-d4 was used as the internal standard. The sample preparation of human plasma was conducted by solid phase extraction of hydrophilic-lipophilic balance (HLB) type. The developed method was validated for selectivity, linearity, precision, accuracy, recovery, limit of quantitation (LOQ), and limit of detection (LOD). The real human plasma samples were analyzed and the pharmacokinetic results were compared with results of previous research. The developed method was found to be reliable based on the similarity between the results of the current and previous methods. The chiral separation for cetirizine and economic feasibility were compared with those of previous studies using normal phase-HPLC or reversed phase-HPLC. The established analytical method could be successfully applied to pharmacokinetic study with reduction in the analysis time and costs.

  12. Quantitative determination of the diastereoisomers of hexabromocyclododecane in human plasma using liquid chromatography coupled with electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Tang, Caiming

    2010-12-01

    A sensitive, simple and feasible method has been developed and validated for the simultaneous determination of three diastereoisomers of hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD) in human plasma using liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). The simple pretreatment generally involved protein precipitation with methanol (MeOH). The separation was performed with a C18 reverse phase column. The mobile phases were 5mM ammonium acetate (NH(4)AC) in water and acetonitrile (ACN). The mass spectrometer was operated using negative electrospray ionization (ESI) source and the data acquisition was carried out with multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) mode. The analyte quantifications were performed by external standard method with matrix-matched calibration curves. The method was partially validated with the evaluations of accuracy, precision, linearity, limit of quantification (LOQ), limit of detection (LOD), recovery, matrix effect and carryover effect. With the present method, the intra-batch accuracies were 94.7-104.3%, 91.9-109.3% and 89.8-105.0% for α-, β- and γ-HBCD, respectively. And the inter-batch accuracies were ranged from 94.2% to 109.7%. Both intra-batch and inter-batch precisions (relative standard deviation, RSD, %) of the analytes were no more than 11.2%. The recoveries were from 79.0% to 108.9% and the LOQ was 10pg/mL for each diastereoisomer. The linear range was 10-10,000pg/mL with the linear correlation coefficient R(2)>0.996. No significant matrix effect and carryover effect of the analytes were observed in this study. This method is in possession of sufficient resolution, high sensitivity as well as selectivity and convenient to be applied to the trace determination of HBCDs in human plasma.

  13. Development and validation of a liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method for the quantification of opiorphin in human saliva.

    PubMed

    Brkljačić, Lidija; Sabalić, Maja; Salarić, Ivan; Jerić, Ivanka; Alajbeg, Ivan; Nemet, Ina

    2011-12-15

    Opiorphin, QRFSR-peptide, is a mature product of the PROL1 (proline rich, lacrimal 1) protein that showed beneficial effects in pain management, antidepressant-like actions as well as involvement in colonic motility and erectile physiology. Using opiorphin as a potential biomarker of different pathological states requires the development of robust and sensitive methods. We report a highly sensitive and specific liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometric detection (LC-MS/MS) analytical method for the analysis of opiorphin in human saliva. Quantification was based on multiple reaction monitoring using characteristic transitions (m/z 347/120 - as quantifying ion; 347/175 and 347/268 as qualifying ions). The assay was linear in the range of 0-110 ng/ml and the lower limit of quantification reached was 1.0 ng/ml. The intra-day precision and accuracy were between 2.7-5.6% and -2.3 to 3.2%, respectively. The inter-day precision and accuracy were between 10.8-13.7% and -11.0 to 52%, respectively. Mean recovery was 106% and mean matrix effect was 0.97. Opiorphin in TFA treated saliva samples was stable for at least 12h at room temperature and up to 30 days at -20°C. Opiorphin levels in human saliva samples collected from young healthy individuals ranged from 2.8 to 25.9 ng/ml.

  14. Quantitative determination of folic acid in multivitamin/multielement tablets using liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Nelson, Bryant C; Sharpless, Katherine E; Sander, Lane C

    2006-12-01

    Two different isotope-dilution liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS) methods for the quantitative determination of folic acid (FA) in multivitamin/multielement tablets are reported. These methods represent distinct improvements in terms of speed and specificity over most existing microbiological and chromatographic methods for the determination of FA in dietary supplements. The first method utilizes an aqueous/organic-based extraction solvent combined with positive-ion mode LC/MS/MS detection of protonated [M + H]+ FA molecules and the second method utilizes a pure aqueous-based extraction solvent combined with negative-ion mode LC/MS/MS detection of deprotonated [M - H]- FA molecules. The LC/MS/MS methods exhibit comparable linear dynamic ranges (> or =3 orders of magnitude), limits of detection (0.02 ng on-column) and limits of quantification (0.06 ng on-column) for FA. Two methods employing different extraction and different MS detection modes were developed to allow method cross-validation. Successful validation of each measurement procedure supports the use of either method for the certification of FA levels in dietary supplements. The accuracy and precision of each measurement procedure were evaluated by applying each method to the quantitative determination of FA in a NIST standard reference material (NIST SRM 3280 multivitamin/multielement tablets). The FA measurement accuracy for both methods was > or =95% (based on the manufacturer's assessment of the FA level in SRM 3280) with corresponding measurement precision values (% RSD) of approximately 1%.

  15. Simultaneous determination of buprenorphine, norbuprenorphine and naloxone in human plasma by liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yongzhen; Li, Xiaohua; Xu, Allan; Nasser, Azmi F; Heidbreder, Christian

    2016-02-20

    A simple, sensitive and rapid liquid chromatography/electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS/MS) method was developed and validated for simultaneous quantification of naloxone, buprenorphine and its metabolite norbuprenorphine in human plasma. Human plasma samples were extracted using a single step liquid-liquid extraction, and then separated on an Imtakt Unison UK-C18 column (2.1×50mm, 3μm) using alkaline mobile phases with gradient elution. All of the analytes were detected in positive ion mode using multiple reaction monitoring (MRM). The method was validated and the specificity, linearity, lower limit of quantitation, precision, accuracy, recoveries and stability were determined. The linear range was 20-10000pg/mL for buprenorphine and norbuprenorphine; and 1-500pg/mL for naloxone. The correlation coefficient (R(2)) values for all three analytes were ≥0.995. The precision and accuracy for intra-day and inter-day were <11.0%. The recoveries were >63% and matrix effects were tracked by the deuterated internal standards (IS) with the IS-normalized matrix factor ranging from 0.96 to 1.33 for all three analytes. The validated method was successfully applied in a clinical pharmacokinetic study with low dose administration of sublingual buprenorphine and naloxone.

  16. The quantification of erlotinib (OSI-774) and OSI-420 in human plasma by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Masters, Andrea R; Sweeney, Christopher J; Jones, David R

    2007-04-01

    An accurate and precise method was developed using HPLC-MS/MS to quantify erlotinib (OSI-774) and its O-desmethyl metabolite, OSI-420, in plasma. The advantages of this method include the use of a small sample volume, liquid-liquid extraction with high extraction efficiency and short chromatographic run times. The analytes were extracted from 100 microL plasma volume using hexane:ethyl acetate after midazolam was added to the sample for internal standardization. The compounds were separated on a Phenomenex C-18 Luna analytical column with acetonitrile:5 mM ammonium acetate as the mobile phase. All compounds were monitored by tandem mass spectrometry with electrospray positive ionization. The intra-day accuracy and precision (% coefficient of variation, % CV) estimates for erlotinib at 10 ng/mL were 90% and 9%, respectively. The intra-day accuracy and precision estimates for OSI-420 at 5 ng/mL were 80% and 4%, respectively. This method was used to quantify erlotinib and OSI-420 in plasma of patients (n=21) administered 150 mg erlotinib per day for non-small cell lung cancer.

  17. Evaluation of laser diode thermal desorption-tandem mass spectrometry (LDTD-MS-MS) in forensic toxicology.

    PubMed

    Bynum, Nichole D; Moore, Katherine N; Grabenauer, Megan

    2014-10-01

    Many forensic laboratories experience backlogs due to increased drug-related cases. Laser diode thermal desorption (LDTD) has demonstrated its applicability in other scientific areas by providing data comparable with instrumentation, such as liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry, in less time. LDTD-MS-MS was used to validate 48 compounds in drug-free human urine and blood for screening or quantitative analysis. Carryover, interference, limit of detection, limit of quantitation, matrix effect, linearity, precision and accuracy and stability were evaluated. Quantitative analysis indicated that LDTD-MS-MS produced precise and accurate results with the average overall within-run precision in urine and blood represented by a %CV <14.0 and <7.0, respectively. The accuracy for all drugs in urine ranged from 88.9 to 104.5% and 91.9 to 107.1% in blood. Overall, LDTD has the potential for use in forensic toxicology but before it can be successfully implemented that there are some challenges that must be addressed. Although the advantages of the LDTD system include minimal maintenance and rapid analysis (∼10 s per sample) which makes it ideal for high-throughput forensic laboratories, a major disadvantage is its inability or difficulty analyzing isomers and isobars due to the lack of chromatography without the use of high-resolution MS; therefore, it would be best implemented as a screening technique.

  18. Proteomic characterization of integral membrane proteins using thermostatted liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Moore, Sarah M; Wu, Christine C

    2012-01-01

    Due to the hydrophobicity and localization of integral membrane proteins, they are difficult to study using conventional biochemical methods that are compatible with proteomic analyses. This chapter describes the coupling of multiple crucial steps that lead to the optimized shotgun proteomic analysis of integral membrane proteins while maintaining empirical topology information. Namely, a membrane shaving method is utilized to separate protease accessible peptides from membrane embedded peptides and elevated temperatures during chromatographic separation is utilized to augment the recovery of hydrophobic peptides for in-line analysis using tandem mass spectrometry. This combination of steps facilitates increased identification of membrane proteins while also maintaining information regarding protein topology.

  19. Determination of amphetamine and methamphetamine in umbilical cord using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Jones, Joseph; Rios, Rosemarie; Jones, Mary; Lewis, Douglas; Plate, Charles

    2009-11-01

    The use of meconium as a drug-screening matrix for newborns has been the gold standard of care for the past two decades. A recent study using matched pairs of meconium and umbilical cord demonstrated a high degree of agreement. The use of liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry as a means to confirm amphetamines presumptive positive umbilical cord specimens for amphetamine and methamphetamine is described here for the first time. The limit of detection for both compounds was 0.2 ng/g. The limit of quantitation for both compounds was 0.6 ng/g. The assay was linear for both compounds up to 100 ng/g.

  20. Determination of histamine in seafood by hydrophilic interaction chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Yoshida, Tatsuo; Hamada, Hirotoshi; Murakawa, Hiroshi; Yoshimoto, Hidekazu; Tobino, Toshiaki; Toda, Kei

    2012-01-01

    A simple method was developed to determine histamine, an important compound in chemical food poisoning, by extraction followed by hydrophilic interaction chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry using a hydrophilic column with sulfobetaine-type zwitterion groups. The quantitation range in seafood products was from 0.4 to 200 mg kg(-1) for 5 g food samples. Quantitative recoveries were obtained with four types of seafood product. These results agreed well with those from the more complex, conventional HPLC method, which requires sample derivatization with dansyl chloride.

  1. Tandem mass spectrometric fragmentation patterns of known and new steviol glycosides with structure proposals.

    PubMed

    Zimmermann, Benno F

    2011-06-15

    Stevia rebaudiana contains several steviol glycosides that have a sweet flavor. They are up to 450 times sweeter than sucrose, but some have an undesirable aftertaste. Up to 2010, ten different steviol glycosides have been described from the leaves or purified extracts of S. rebaudiana. In this paper, the tandem mass spectrometric fragmentation patterns of these ten compounds are compiled, along with a scheme for structural elucidation. This scheme is then applied to 12 steviol glycosides that have not yet been described. The proposed structures of five steviol glycosides have been confirmed by other authors.

  2. High-throughput multiclass method for antibiotic residue analysis by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Chico, J; Rúbies, A; Centrich, F; Companyó, R; Prat, M D; Granados, M

    2008-12-12

    A simple and rapid method has been developed for the residue analysis of 39 antibiotics (tetracyclines, quinolones, penicillins, sulfonamides and macrolides) in foodstuffs of animal origin. The method combines an effective extraction technique, which uses water-methanol as extracting solvent, with ultra-high-pressure liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry, allowing both confirmation and quantification in a single chromatographic run. The multiresidue method has been validated in chicken muscle matrix according to European Union Decision 2002/657/EC. It has been implemented as a routine method in a Public Health Laboratory, instead of the five plates test and LC methods previously used.

  3. Automated Lipid A Structure Assignment from Hierarchical Tandem Mass Spectrometry Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ting, Ying S.; Shaffer, Scott A.; Jones, Jace W.; Ng, Wailap V.; Ernst, Robert K.; Goodlett, David R.

    2011-05-01

    Infusion-based electrospray ionization (ESI) coupled to multiple-stage tandem mass spectrometry (MS n ) is a standard methodology for investigating lipid A structural diversity (Shaffer et al. J. Am. Soc. Mass. Spectrom. 18(6), 1080-1092, 2007). Annotation of these MS n spectra, however, has remained a manual, expert-driven process. In order to keep up with the data acquisition rates of modern instruments, we devised a computational method to annotate lipid A MS n spectra rapidly and automatically, which we refer to as hierarchical tandem mass spectrometry (HiTMS) algorithm. As a first-pass tool, HiTMS aids expert interpretation of lipid A MS n data by providing the analyst with a set of candidate structures that may then be confirmed or rejected. HiTMS deciphers the signature ions (e.g., A-, Y-, and Z-type ions) and neutral losses of MS n spectra using a species-specific library based on general prior structural knowledge of the given lipid A species under investigation. Candidates are selected by calculating the correlation between theoretical and acquired MS n spectra. At a false discovery rate of less than 0.01, HiTMS correctly assigned 85% of the structures in a library of 133 manually annotated Francisella tularensis subspecies novicida lipid A structures. Additionally, HiTMS correctly assigned 85% of the structures in a smaller library of lipid A species from Yersinia pestis demonstrating that it may be used across species.

  4. Quantitative analysis of phytosterols in edible oils using APCI liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Mo, Shunyan; Dong, Linlin; Hurst, W Jeffrey; van Breemen, Richard B

    2013-09-01

    Previous methods for the quantitative analysis of phytosterols have usually used GC-MS and require elaborate sample preparation including chemical derivatization. Other common methods such as HPLC with absorbance detection do not provide information regarding the identity of the analytes. To address the need for an assay that utilizes mass selectivity while avoiding derivatization, a quantitative method based on LC-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS-MS) was developed and validated for the measurement of six abundant dietary phytosterols and structurally related triterpene alcohols including brassicasterol, campesterol, cycloartenol, β-sitosterol, stigmasterol, and lupeol in edible oils. Samples were saponified, extracted with hexane and then analyzed using reversed phase HPLC with positive ion atmospheric pressure chemical ionization tandem mass spectrometry and selected reaction monitoring. The utility of the LC-MS-MS method was demonstrated by analyzing 14 edible oils. All six compounds were present in at least some of the edible oils. The most abundant phytosterol in all samples was β-sitosterol, which was highest in corn oil at 4.35 ± 0.03 mg/g, followed by campesterol in canola oil at 1.84 ± 0.01 mg/g. The new LC-MS-MS method for the quantitative analysis of phytosterols provides a combination of speed, selectivity and sensitivity that exceed those of previous assays.

  5. Determination of Imazaquin and its metabolite by liquid chromatography-quadrupole-time of flight tandem mass.

    PubMed

    Yao, H B; Han, G J; Liu, G X; Xie, Y; Wang, C H

    2010-08-01

    A method consisting of solvent extraction followed by liquid chromatography-quadrupole-time of flight- tandem mass spectrometry analysis was developed for the identification of Imazaquin and its metabolite. The relationships between detector response and sample concentrations showed a high degree of linearity (r > 0.998) over the range 0.03-10 microg/g. The recoveries obtained were in the acceptable range of 86%-104% between spiked. The relative standard deviation of this method was 6.4%-17.1%. A 35-day study of Imazaquin degradation was taken in agricultural soil from Binzhou, China. The degradation followed first order kinetics (C = 0.7672e(-0.0774t)), with half-life of less than 8.5 days. Investigation of the by-products from liquid chromatography-quadrupole-time of flight- tandem mass spectrometry has shown that there were four important metabolites 4-methylene-2-(quinolin-2-yl)-1H-imidazol-5(4H)-one, quinoline-3-carbaldehyde, 1-amino-2,3-dimethyl-1-oxobutan-2-ylium and 1H-[1,2]oxazino[4,5-b]quinolin-1-one in the degradation process. The accurate mass measurements error was 5 ppm in this study. The method was successfully applied to the analysis of imazaquin and its metabolite residues in soil.

  6. Quantitative analysis of phytosterols in edible oils using APCI liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    Mo, Shunyan; Dong, Linlin; Hurst, W. Jeffrey; van Breemen, Richard B.

    2014-01-01

    Previous methods for the quantitative analysis of phytosterols have usually used GC-MS and require elaborate sample preparation including chemical derivatization. Other common methods such as HPLC with absorbance detection do not provide information regarding the identity of the analytes. To address the need for an assay that utilizes mass selectivity while avoiding derivatization, a quantitative method based on LC-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS-MS) was developed and validated for the measurement of six abundant dietary phytosterols and structurally related triterpene alcohols including brassicasterol, campesterol, cycloartenol, β-sitosterol, stigmasterol, and lupeol in edible oils. Samples were saponified, extracted with hexane and then analyzed using reversed phase HPLC with positive ion atmospheric pressure chemical ionization tandem mass spectrometry and selected reaction monitoring. The utility of the LC-MS-MS method was demonstrated by analyzing 14 edible oils. All six compounds were present in at least some of the edible oils. The most abundant phytosterol in all samples was β-sitosterol, which was highest in corn oil at 4.35 ± 0.03 mg/g, followed by campesterol in canola oil at 1.84 ± 0.01 mg/g. The new LC-MS-MS method for the quantitative analysis of phytosterols provides a combination of speed, selectivity and sensitivity that exceed those of previous assays. PMID:23884629

  7. Differentiation of hydroxyproline isomers and isobars in peptides by tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Kassel, D B; Biemann, K

    1990-08-01

    The isomeric 3- and 4-hydroxyprolines are isobaric with the isomers leucine and isoleucine, and all four have, therefore, the same "residue mass" of 113. Secondary fragmentation processes were found that differentiate the hydroxyproline isomers from each other and from the leucines. Variants of synthetic bradykinin containing one or two hydroxyproline moieties were prepared by using manual Edman degradation and/or enzymatic methods. The tandem mass spectra of these peptides were recorded. The C-terminal wn fragment ions allow the differentiation of 4-hydroxyproline from the 3-isomer and isoleucine, while the N-terminal an ions containing 4-hydroxyproline undergo H2O elimination to differentiate this amino acid from the 3-isomer and leucine. Lys-C digestion of a mussel adhesive protein produced a set of decapeptides varying in the degree of hydroxylation of proline and tyrosine. Heterogeneity with respect to 3-hydroxyproline and 4-hydroxyproline at a certain position in these peptides was assessed by tandem mass spectrometry based on the wn ion series in the CID spectra of these Lys-C peptides. Some N-terminal ions further allow for the differentiation of these two isomeric species.

  8. Determination of Candesartan in Human Plasma with Liquid Chromatography - Tandem Mass Spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Forjan, Vanja; Cvitkovič Maričič, Lea; Prosen, Helena; Brodnjak Vončina, Darinka

    2016-01-01

    A sensitive, specific and rapid liquid chromatography - tandem mass spectrometry method was developed and validated for the determination of candesartan in human plasma. Analyte was separated from endogenous components present in plasma by solid phase extraction. Chromatographic separation was performed on Gemini C18 analytical column using mobile phase acetonitrile - 5 mM ammonium formate pH 2 (90:10, v/v) at flow rate of 0.3 mL/min. For detection, tandem mass spectrometry in SRM mode with positive electrospray ionization was used. The mass transitions m/z 441.1 > 263.1 and 445.1 > 267.1 were used to determine candesartan by using candesartan-d4 as an internal standard. After development, the method was validated according to the requirements of EMA regulatory guidelines in the concentration range 1 - 400 ng/ml in human plasma. Limit of quantification (LLOQ) was 1 ng/ml. The developed and validated method proved to be very fast and reproducible and was therefore successfully implemented in pharmacokinetic and bioequivalence studies with large number of study samples.

  9. In Silico Identification Software (ISIS): A Machine Learning Approach to Tandem Mass Spectral Identification of Lipids

    SciTech Connect

    Kangas, Lars J.; Metz, Thomas O.; Isaac, Georgis; Schrom, Brian T.; Ginovska-Pangovska, Bojana; Wang, Luning; Tan, Li; Lewis, Robert R.; Miller, John H.

    2012-05-15

    Liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry-based metabolomics has gained importance in the life sciences, yet it is not supported by software tools for high throughput identification of metabolites based on their fragmentation spectra. An algorithm (ISIS: in silico identification software) and its implementation are presented and show great promise in generating in silico spectra of lipids for the purpose of structural identification. Instead of using chemical reaction rate equations or rules-based fragmentation libraries, the algorithm uses machine learning to find accurate bond cleavage rates in a mass spectrometer employing collision-induced dissocia-tion tandem mass spectrometry. A preliminary test of the algorithm with 45 lipids from a subset of lipid classes shows both high sensitivity and specificity.

  10. In silico identification software (ISIS): a machine learning approach to tandem mass spectral identification of lipids

    PubMed Central

    Kangas, Lars J.; Metz, Thomas O.; Isaac, Giorgis; Schrom, Brian T.; Ginovska-Pangovska, Bojana; Wang, Luning; Tan, Li; Lewis, Robert R.; Miller, John H.

    2012-01-01

    Motivation: Liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry-based metabolomics has gained importance in the life sciences, yet it is not supported by software tools for high throughput identification of metabolites based on their fragmentation spectra. An algorithm (ISIS: in silico identification software) and its implementation are presented and show great promise in generating in silico spectra of lipids for the purpose of structural identification. Instead of using chemical reaction rate equations or rules-based fragmentation libraries, the algorithm uses machine learning to find accurate bond cleavage rates in a mass spectrometer employing collision-induced dissociation tandem mass spectrometry. Results: A preliminary test of the algorithm with 45 lipids from a subset of lipid classes shows both high sensitivity and specificity. Contact: lars.kangas@pnnl.gov Supplementary information: Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. PMID:22592377

  11. Identification of Glycopeptides with Multiple Hydroxylysine O-Glycosylation Sites by Tandem Mass Spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yanlin; Yu, Chuan-Yih; Song, Ehwang; Li, Shuai Cheng; Mechref, Yehia; Tang, Haixu; Liu, Xiaowen

    2015-12-04

    Glycosylation is one of the most common post-translational modifications in proteins, existing in ~50% of mammalian proteins. Several research groups have demonstrated that mass spectrometry is an efficient technique for glycopeptide identification; however, this problem is still challenging because of the enormous diversity of glycan structures and the microheterogeneity of glycans. In addition, a glycopeptide may contain multiple glycosylation sites, making the problem complex. Current software tools often fail to identify glycopeptides with multiple glycosylation sites, and hence we present GlycoMID, a graph-based spectral alignment algorithm that can identify glycopeptides with multiple hydroxylysine O-glycosylation sites by tandem mass spectra. GlycoMID was tested on mass spectrometry data sets of the bovine collagen α-(II) chain protein, and experimental results showed that it identified more glycopeptide-spectrum matches than other existing tools, including many glycopeptides with two glycosylation sites.

  12. Application of dual tree complex wavelet transform in tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Murugesan, Selvaraaju; Tay, David B H; Cooke, Ira; Faou, Pierre

    2015-08-01

    Mass Spectrometry (MS) is a widely used technique in molecular biology for high throughput identification and sequencing of peptides (and proteins). Tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) is a specialised mass spectrometry technique whereby the sequence of peptides can be determined. Preprocessing of the MS/MS data is indispensable before performing any statistical analysis on the data. In this work, preprocessing of MS/MS data is proposed based on the Dual Tree Complex Wavelet Transform (DTCWT) using almost symmetric Hilbert pair of wavelets. After the preprocessing step, the identification of peptides is done using the database search approach. The performance of the proposed preprocessing technique is evaluated by comparing its performance against Discrete Wavelet Transform (DWT) and Stationary Wavelet Transform (SWT). The preprocessing performed using DTCWT identified more peptides compared to DWT and SWT.

  13. A universal SI-traceable isotope dilution mass spectrometry method for protein quantitation in a matrix by tandem mass tag technology.

    PubMed

    Li, Jiale; Wu, Liqing; Jin, Youxun; Su, Ping; Yang, Bin; Yang, Yi

    2016-05-01

    Isotope dilution mass spectrometry (IDMS), an important metrological method, is widely used for absolute quantification of peptides and proteins. IDMS employs an isotope-labeled peptide or protein as an internal standard although the use of a protein provides improved accuracy. Generally, the isotope-labeled protein is obtained by stable isotope labeling by amino acids in cell culture (SILAC) technology. However, SILAC is expensive, laborious, and time-consuming. To overcome these drawbacks, a novel universal SI-traceable IDMS method for absolute quantification of proteins in a matrix is described with human transferrin (hTRF). The hTRF and a human serum sample were labeled with different tandem mass tags (TMTs). After mixing the TMT-labeled hTRF and serum sample together followed by digestion, the peptides were separated by nano-liquid chromatography and analyzed by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS). Using the signature peptides, we calculated the ratios of reporter ions from the TMT-labeled peptides which, in turn, allowed determination of the mass fraction of hTRF. The recovery ranged from 97% to 105% with a CV of 3.9%. The LOD and LOQ were 1.71 × 10(-5) g/g and 5.69 × 10(-5) g/g of hTRF in human serum, respectively, and the relative expanded uncertainty was 4.7% with a mass fraction of 2.08 mg/g. For comparison, an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) method for hTRF yielded a mass fraction of 2.03 mg/g. This method provides a starting point for establishing IDMS technology to accurately determine the mass fractions of protein biomarkers in a matrix with traceability to SI units. This technology should support the development of a metrological method useful for quantification of a wide variety of proteins.

  14. Atmospheric pressure ionization-tandem mass spectrometry of the phenicol drug family.

    PubMed

    Alechaga, Élida; Moyano, Encarnación; Galceran, M Teresa

    2013-11-01

    In this work, the mass spectrometry behaviour of the veterinary drug family of phenicols, including chloramphenicol (CAP) and its related compounds thiamphenicol (TAP), florfenicol (FF) and FF amine (FFA), was studied. Several atmospheric pressure ionization sources, electrospray (ESI), atmospheric pressure chemical ionization and atmospheric pressure photoionization were compared. In all atmospheric pressure ionization sources, CAP, TAP and FF were ionized in both positive and negative modes; while for the metabolite FFA, only positive ionization was possible. In general, in positive mode, [M + H](+) dominated the mass spectrum for FFA, while the other compounds, CAP, TAP and FF, with lower proton affinity showed intense adducts with species present in the mobile phase. In negative mode, ESI and atmospheric pressure photoionization showed the deprotonated molecule [M-H](-), while atmospheric pressure chemical ionization provided the radical molecular ion by electron capture. All these ions were characterized by tandem mass spectrometry using the combined information obtained by multistage mass spectrometry and high-resolution mass spectrometry in a quadrupole-Orbitrap instrument. In general, the fragmentation occurred via cyclization and losses or fragmentation of the N-(alkyl)acetamide group, and common fragmentation pathways were established for this family of compounds. A new chemical structure for the product ion at m/z 257 for CAP, on the basis of the MS(3) and MS(4) spectra is proposed. Thermally assisted ESI and selected reaction monitoring are proposed for the determination of these compounds by ultra high-performance liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry, achieving instrumental detection limits down to 0.1 pg.

  15. Simultaneous quantification of amphetamine, opiates, ketamine and relative metabolites in urine for confirmatory analysis by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Lin, Huei-Ru; Choi, Ka-Ian; Lin, Tzu-Chieh; Hu, Anren

    2013-06-15

    The rise in amphetamine, ketamine and opiates abuse in Taiwan has created a need for a reliable confirmatory assay. A method that combines superficially porous liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) with solid-phase extraction (SPE) was developed for the simultaneous quantification of amphetamine, 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA), ketamine, opiates, and their corresponding metabolites in urine. The total run time of the method was 6.7min including equilibration time. The method was validated in accordance with the European Commission (EC) Decision 2002/642/EC. The within- and between-day precision was below 13.6% and the accuracy ranged from -17.1% to +9.9% for all analytes. Ion suppression was observed but compensated by using deuterated internal standards. No carryover was detected and the analytes were stable at room temperature for 16h, and for 72h at 4°C, and three-thaw cycles. The method was further validated by comparison with a reference gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) method, using 52 authentic urine samples. The results indicated that for the target analytes studied, the LC-MS/MS analysis was as precise, accurate, and specific as the GC-MS method. In conclusion, the present LC-MS/MS method is robust and reliable, and suitable for use as a confirmation assay in the simultaneous urine drug testing and quantification of amphetamines, ketamines, and opiates.

  16. Analysis of multiple quaternary ammonium compounds in the brain using tandem capillary column separation and high resolution mass spectrometric detection.

    PubMed

    Falasca, Sara; Petruzziello, Filomena; Kretz, Robert; Rainer, Gregor; Zhang, Xiaozhe

    2012-06-08

    Endogenous quaternary ammonium compounds are involved in various physiological processes in the central nervous system. In the present study, eleven quaternary ammonium compounds, including acetylcholine, choline, carnitine, acetylcarnitine and seven other acylcarnitines of low polarity, were analyzed from brain extracts using a two dimension capillary liquid chromatography-Fourier transform mass spectrometry method. To deal with their large difference in hydrophobicities, tandem coupling between reversed phase and hydrophilic interaction chromatography columns was used to separate all the targeted quaternary ammonium compounds. Using high accuracy mass spectrometry in selected ion monitoring mode, all the compounds could be detected from each brain sample with high selectivity. The developed method was applied for the relative quantification of these quaternary ammonium compounds in three different brain regions of tree shrews: prefrontal cortex, striatum, and hippocampus. The comparative analysis showed that quaternary ammonium compounds were differentially distributed across the three brain areas. The analytical method proved to be highly sensitive and reliable for simultaneous determination of all the targeted analytes from brain samples.

  17. Pharmacokinetics of honokiol after intravenous guttae in beagle dogs assessed using ultra-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Liang, Yi; Cui, Gang; Wang, Xiaoxue; Zhang, Wei; An, Quan; Lin, Zongtao; Wang, Hong; Chen, Shizhong

    2014-10-01

    A simple, rapid and sensitive ultra-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method was developed and validated for the determination of honokiol in beagle dog plasma after intravenous guttae. With addition of the internal standard magnolol, plasma samples were precipitated with methanol and separated on a Shim-pack XR-ODS II (2.0 × 100 mm, 2.2 µm) with isocratic elution of methanol and water (80:20) solution at a flow rate of 0.2 mL/min. A good separation of honokiol was achieved within 3.5 min. Quantification was performed on a Waters Quattro Premier XE triple quadrupole mass spectrometer with electrospray ionization inlet in the negative multiple reaction monitoring mode. Good linearity was obtained over the concentration range of 5.12-15580 ng/mL (r(2) > 0.998). Intra- and inter-day precisions were <13.10%, and accuracy ranged from 89.21 to 99.92%. The lower limit of quantification for honokiol was 5.12 ng/mL, and honokiol was stable under various conditions (three freeze-thaw cycles, short-term temperature, post-preparative and long-term temperature conditions.). This validated method was successfully applied to the pharmacokinetic study of honokiol in dogs by intravenous guttae.

  18. Simultaneous quantitation of paracetamol, caffeine, pseudoephedrine, chlorpheniramine and cloperastine in human plasma by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Li, Hao; Zhang, Chao; Wang, Jiang; Jiang, Yao; Fawcett, J Paul; Gu, Jingkai

    2010-02-05

    A rapid and sensitive method based on liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) for the simultaneous quantitation of paracetamol, caffeine, pseudoephedrine, chlorpheniramine and cloperastine in human plasma has been developed and validated. After sample preparation by liquid-liquid extraction, the analytes and internal standard (diphenhydramine) were analyzed by reversed-phase HPLC on a Venusil Mp-C(18) column (50mmx4.6mm, 5microm) using formic acid:10mM ammonium acetate:methanol (1:40:60, v/v/v) as mobile phase in a run time of 2.6min. Detection was carried out by electrospray positive ionization mass spectrometry in the multiple-reaction monitoring mode. The method was linear for all analytes over the following concentration (ng/ml) ranges: paracetamol 5.0-2000; caffeine 10-4000; pseudoephedrine 0.25-100; chlorpheniramine 0.05-20; cloperastine 0.10-40. Intra- and inter-day precisions (as relative standard deviation) were all < or =11.3% with accuracy (as relative error) of +/-5.0%. The method was successfully applied to a study of the pharmacokinetics of the five analytes after administration of a combination oral dose to healthy Chinese volunteers.

  19. Optimized ultra performance liquid chromatography tandem high resolution mass spectrometry method for the quantification of paraquat in plasma and urine.

    PubMed

    Lu, Haihua; Yu, Jing; Wu, Linlin; Xing, Jingjing; Wang, Jun; Huang, Peipei; Zhang, Jinsong; Xiao, Hang; Gao, Rong

    2016-08-01

    A simple, sensitive and specific ultra performance liquid chromatography coupled to electrospray tandem high resolution mass spectrometry (UPLC-ESI-HRMS/MS) method has been developed and validated for quantification of paraquat in plasma and urine. The sample preparation was carried out by one-step protein precipitation with acetonitrile. The paraquat was separated with a HILIC column in 10min. Detection was performed using Q Exactive Orbitrap mass spectrometer by Targeted-MS/MS scan mode. Methodological parameters, such as ammonium formate concentration, formic acid concentration, spray voltage, capillary temperature, heater temperature and normalized collision energy were optimized to achieve the highest sensitivity. The calibration curve was linear over the concentration range of LOQ-1000ng/mL. LOD was 0.1 and 0.3ng/mL, LOQ was 0.3 and 0.8ng/mL for urine and plasma, respectively. The intra- and inter-day precisions were <7.97% and 4.78% for plasma and urine. The accuracies were within the range 93.51-100.90%. The plasma and urine matrices had negligible relative matrix effect in this study. This method was successfully applied to determine paraquat concentration in plasma samples with hemoperfusion from 5 suspected paraquat poisoning patients.

  20. Multi-residue analysis of eight thioamphetamine designer drugs in human urine by liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Nieddu, Maria; Boatto, Gianpiero; Pirisi, Maria Antonietta; Baralla, Elena

    2009-10-01

    An analytical procedure for the simultaneous determination in human urine of several thioamphetamine designer drugs (2C-T and ALEPH series) is reported. The quantitative analysis was performed by liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry and has been fully validated. The mass spectrometer was operated in positive-ion, selected reaction monitoring (SRM) mode. In order to minimize interferences with matrix components and to preconcentrate target analytes, solid-phase extraction was introduced in the method as a clean-up step. The entire method was validated for selectivity, linearity, precision and accuracy. The method turned out to be specific, sensitive, and reliable for the analysis of amphetamine derivatives in urine samples. The calibration curves were linear over the concentration range of 1 to 100 ng mL(-1) for all drugs with correlation coefficients that exceeded 0.996. The lower limits of detection (LODs) and quantification (LOQs) ranged from 1.2 to 4.9 ng mL(-1) and from 3.2 to 9.6 ng mL(-1), respectively.

  1. Triacylglycerol profile in cocoa liquors using MALDI-TOF and LC-ESI tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Bono, Luca; Seraglia, Roberta; Roverso, Marco; Di Carro, Marina; Magi, Emanuele

    2014-09-01

    Triacylglycerols are responsible for chocolate's peculiar melting behavior: the type and position of fatty acids on the glycerol molecule strongly affect the melting range of cocoa butter. For this reason, the characterization of triglyceride composition in cocoa products is particularly important. In this work, triacylglycerols extracted from cocoa liquor samples were analyzed by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight (TOF) and electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) coupled to liquid chromatography. Extracted samples were initially analyzed by direct injection in MS to obtain information on triglyceride molecular weights; relevant MS parameters were optimized, and the possible formation of the adducts [M + Na](+) and [M + NH(4)](+) was studied. Tandem mass experiments (both with triple quadrupole and TOF/TOF) were performed to study the fragmentation pathways (in particular, the loss of palmitic, stearic and oleic acid) and identify the triacylglycerols in cocoa liquors. Some signals of the spectra obtained with both MS techniques could indicate the presence of diacylglycerols in the cocoa extract, but different experimental evidences demonstrated that they were generated by the in-source fragmentation of triglycerides. A nonaqueous reversed-phase chromatographic separation was also developed and used to support the identification of the analytes; nine triacylglycerols were recognized in the cocoa liquor extracts. The three different batches of Ecuador cocoa liquor did not show significant differences in the triacylglycerol profile.

  2. Screening newborns for metabolic disorders based on targeted metabolomics using tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Hye-Ran

    2015-09-01

    The main purpose of newborn screening is to diagnose genetic, metabolic, and other inherited disorders, at their earliest to start treatment before the clinical manifestations become evident. Understanding and tracing the biochemical data obtained from tandem mass spectrometry is vital for early diagnosis of metabolic diseases associated with such disorders. Accordingly, it is important to focus on the entire diagnostic process, including differential and confirmatory diagnostic options, and the major factors that influence the results of biochemical analysis. Compared to regular biochemical testing, this is a complex process carried out by a medical physician specialist. It is comprised of an integrated program requiring multidisciplinary approach such as, pediatric specialist, expert scientist, clinical laboratory technician, and nutritionist. Tandem mass spectrometry is a powerful tool to improve screening of newborns for diverse metabolic diseases. It is likely to be used to analyze other treatable disorders or significantly improve existing newborn tests to allow broad scale and precise testing. This new era of various screening programs, new treatments, and the availability of detection technology will prove to be beneficial for the future generations.

  3. Detection of various freshwater cyanobacterial toxins using ultra-performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Oehrle, Stuart A; Southwell, Ben; Westrick, Judy

    2010-05-01

    Several freshwater cyanobacteria species have the capability to produce toxic compounds, frequently referred to as cyanotoxins. The most prevalent of these cyanotoxins is microcystin LR. Recognizing the potential health risk, France, Italy, Poland, Australia, Canada, and Brazil have set either standards or guidelines for the amount of microcystin LR permissible in drinking water based on the World Health Organization guideline of one microg/L of microcystin LR. Recently, the United States Environmental Protection Agency has begun to evaluate the occurrence and health effects of cyanotoxins and their susceptibility to water treatment under the Safe Drinking Water Act through the Contaminant Candidate List (CCL). A recent update of the Contaminant Candidate List focuses research and data collection on the cyanotoxins microcystin LR, anatoxin-a, and cylindrospermopsin. Liquid Chromatography/Tandem-Mass Spectrometry (LC/MS/MS) is a powerful tool for the analysis of various analytes in a wide variety of matrices because of its sensitivity and selectivity. The use of smaller column media (sub 2 microm particles) was investigated to both improve the speed, sensitivity and resolution, and to quantify the CCL cyanotoxins, in a single analysis, using Ultra-Performance Liquid Chromatography (UPLC) combined with tandem mass spectrometry. Natural waters and spiked samples were analyzed to show proof-of-performance. The presented method was able to clearly resolve each of the cyanotoxins in less than eight minutes with specificity and high spike recoveries.

  4. Quantitation of tetrahydrocannabinol in hair using immunoassay and liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometric detection.

    PubMed

    Coulter, Cynthia; Taruc, Margaux; Tuyay, James; Moore, Christine

    2009-05-01

    A quantitative analytical procedure for the determination of Delta(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) in hair has been developed and validated using liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectral detection (LC-MS/MS). Specimens that were determined as containing cannabinoids following immunoassay testing were quantified using solid-phase extraction followed by liquid chromatographic separation and tandem mass spectral detection in positive electrospray ionization mode. For confirmation, two transitions were monitored and one ratio determined. Samples being reported as positive were required to have both transitions present, the ratio of quantifying transition to qualifying transition being within 20% of that determined from known calibration standards. The limit of quantitation and the limit of detection was 10 pg/mg. The percentage recovery of the THC from hair at 20 pg/mg was 56% and a matrix effect of the hair showed an ion suppression percentage of -51%. The immunochemical screening method was performed following a rapid aqueous extraction, requiring only 10 mg of hair; the confirmatory procedure required 20 mg of hair. The methods were applied to proficiency specimens from the Society of Hair Testing, which had been received in August 2008.

  5. Determination of bromate in drinking water by ultraperformance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Alsohaimi, Ibrahim Hotan; Alothman, Zeid Abdullah; Khan, Mohammad Rizwan; Abdalla, Mohammad Abulhassan; Busquets, Rosa; Alomary, Ahmad Khodran

    2012-10-01

    Bromate is a byproduct formed as a result of disinfection of bromide-containing source water with ozone or hypochlorite. The International Agency for Research on Cancer has recognized bromate as a possible human carcinogen, thus it is essential to determine in drinking water. Present work highlights a development of sensitive and fast analytical method for bromate determination in drinking water by using ultraperformance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. The quality parameters of the developed method were established, obtaining very low limit of detection (0.01 ng/mL), repeatability and reproducibility have been found to be less than 3% in terms of relative standard deviation when analyzing a bromate standard at 0.05 μg/mL with 0.4 min analysis time. Developed method was applied for the analysis of metropolitan and bottled water from Saudi Arabia; 22 samples have been analyzed. Bromate was detected in the metropolitan water samples (from desalinization source) at concentrations ranging between 3.43 and 75.04 ng/mL and in the bottled water samples at concentrations ranging between 2.07 and 21.90 ng/mL. Moreover, in comparison to established analytical methods such as liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry, the proposed method was found to be very sensitive, selective and rapid for the routine analysis of bromate at low level in drinking water.

  6. Precursor ion scan profiles of acylcarnitines by atmospheric pressure thermal desorption chemical ionization tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Paglia, Giuseppe; D'Apolito, Oceania; Corso, Gaetano

    2008-12-01

    The fatty acyl esters of L-carnitine (acylcarnitines) are useful biomarkers for the diagnosis of some inborn errors of metabolism analyzed by liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry. In this study the acylcarnitines were analyzed by atmospheric pressure thermal desorption chemical ionization using a commercial tandem mass spectrometer (APTDCI-MS/MS). The method is based on the precursor ion scan mode determination of underivatized acylcarnitines desorbed from samples by a hot desolvation gas flow and ionized by a corona pin discharge. During desorption/ionization step the temperature induces the degradation of acylcarnitines; nevertheless, the common fragment to all acylcarnitines [MH-59](+) is useful for analyzing their profile. APTDCI parameters, including angle of collection and incidence, gas flows and temperatures, were optimized for acylcarnitines. The experiments were performed drying 2 microL of an equimolar mixture of acylcarnitine standards on a glass slide. The specificity was evaluated by comparing product ion spectra and the precursor ion spectra of 85 m/z of acylcarnitines obtained by the APTDCI method and by electrospray ionization flow injection analysis (ESI-FIA). The method was also employed to analyze acylcarnitines extracted from a pathological dried blood spot and a control. The method enables analysis of biological samples and recognition of some acylcarnitines that are diagnostic markers of inherited metabolic diseases. The intrinsic high-throughput analysis of the ambient desorption ionization methods offers a new opportunity either for its potential application in clinical chemistry and for the expanded screening of some inborn errors of metabolism.

  7. Quantitation of Free Metanephrines in Plasma by Liquid Chromatography-Tandem Mass Spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Heideloff, Courtney; Payto, Drew; Wang, Sihe

    2016-01-01

    Plasma metanephrines are measured to aid in the diagnosis of pheochromocytomas. In patients with pheochromocytomas there is excessive production of catecholamines and metanephrines. Measurement of plasma free metanephrines is one of the first-line clinical tests that are used for the diagnosis and follow-up of pheochromocytoma. We describe here a liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method to measure free metanephrines in plasma. Free metanephrine and normetanephrine are extracted via solid-phase extraction. After extraction and evaporation, the reconstituted supernatant is analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). The MS/MS is set to selective reaction monitoring mode (180.1 → 148.1 m/z for metanephrine, 183.1 → 168.1 for d3-metanephrine, 166.1 → 134.1 m/z for normetanephrine, and 169.1 → 137.2 m/z for d3-normetanephrine) with positive electrospray ionization. Quantitation is based on peak area ratio of the analyte to its respective deuterated internal standard. The assay is linear from 5.9 to 4090.0 pg/mL for metanephrine and 22.0 to 4386.7 pg/mL for normetanephrine with precision of <6 % over the ranges.

  8. Steroid hormone levels in pregnancy and 1 year postpartum using isotope dilution tandem mass spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    Soldin, Offie P.; Guo, Tiedong; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Tractenberg, Rochelle E.; Hilakivi-Clarke, Leena; Soldin, Steven J.

    2013-01-01

    Objective To establish normal, trimester-specific reference intervals for serum 17β-estradiol, progesterone (P), 17α-hydroxyprogesterone, cortisol, 11-deoxycortisol, androstenedione, DHEA, and DHEAS, measured simultaneously using isotope dilution tandem mass spectrometry. Design Sequential cohort study. Patient(s) Healthy women undergoing a normal pregnancy (age, 25–38 years; mean, 30 years) attending a prenatal well clinic at gestation weeks 12, 22, and 32 and approximately 1 year postpartum. Main Outcome Measure(s) Trimester-specific reference intervals of endogenous steroid hormones analyzed using an isotope dilution tandem mass spectrometer equipped with an atmospheric pressure photoionization source with deuterium-labeled internal standards. Result(s) Serum estradiol, P, 17α-hydroxyprogesterone, and 11-deoxycortisol increased throughout pregnancy; cortisol increased up to the second trimester and then remained steady, while androstenedione increased by 80 percent by gestation week 12, then remained constant. Serum DHEA-S decreased by 50% by the third trimester. Conclusion(s) Trimester-specific reference intervals are reported for eight serum steroids. The ratios of individual serum hormone concentrations during pregnancy relative to their 1-year postpartum concentrations illustrate the expected normal trends of changes in hormone concentrations during pregnancy. PMID:16169406

  9. Accurate and Efficient Resolution of Overlapping Isotopic Envelopes in Protein Tandem Mass Spectra

    PubMed Central

    Xiao, Kaijie; Yu, Fan; Fang, Houqin; Xue, Bingbing; Liu, Yan; Tian, Zhixin

    2015-01-01

    It has long been an analytical challenge to accurately and efficiently resolve extremely dense overlapping isotopic envelopes (OIEs) in protein tandem mass spectra to confidently identify proteins. Here, we report a computationally efficient method, called OIE_CARE, to resolve OIEs by calculating the relative deviation between the ideal and observed experimental abundance. In the OIE_CARE method, the ideal experimental abundance of a particular overlapping isotopic peak (OIP) is first calculated for all the OIEs sharing this OIP. The relative deviation (RD) of the overall observed experimental abundance of this OIP relative to the summed ideal value is then calculated. The final individual abundance of the OIP for each OIE is the individual ideal experimental abundance multiplied by 1 + RD. Initial studies were performed using higher-energy collisional dissociation tandem mass spectra on myoglobin (with direct infusion) and the intact E. coli proteome (with liquid chromatographic separation). Comprehensive data at the protein and proteome levels, high confidence and good reproducibility were achieved. The resolving method reported here can, in principle, be extended to resolve any envelope-type overlapping data for which the corresponding theoretical reference values are available. PMID:26439836

  10. Determination of biogenic amines in beer and wine by capillary electrophoresis-tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Daniel, Daniela; Dos Santos, Vagner Bezerra; Vidal, Denis Tadeu Rajh; do Lago, Claudimir Lucio

    2015-10-16

    A capillary electrophoresis-tandem mass spectrometry (CE-MS/MS) method for the simultaneous assessment of nine biogenic amines (spermine, spermidine, putrescine, cadaverine, histamine, phenylethylamine, tryptamine, tyramine, and urocanic acid) in commercial samples of beer and wine is introduced. The samples were submitted to a simple clean-up step with poly(vinylpolypyrrolidone) followed by filtration. Electrophoretic separation in a polyvinyl alcohol (PVA)-coated capillary using 0.5 mol L(-1) acetic acid (pH 2.5) as background electrolyte and detection by electrospray-tandem mass spectrometry was employed. The range of the correlation coefficients of the calibration curves of the analyzed compounds was 0.996-0.999, and the limits of detection and limits of quantification were in the range of 1-2 μg L(-1) and 3-8 μg L(-1), respectively. The recovery values for samples spiked at three concentration levels (0.2, 0.5, and 1.0 mg L(-1)) ranged from 87 to 113% with standard deviation not greater than 5.8%. The use of a PVA-coated silica capillary allows suppressing the electroosmotic flow and, consequently, increasing of the separation efficiency. The method was successfully used to determine biogenic amines in commercial samples of beer and wine.

  11. High accuracy fuel flowmeter. Phase 2C and 3: The mass flowrate calibration of high accuracy fuel flowmeters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Craft, D. William

    1992-01-01

    A facility for the precise calibration of mass fuel flowmeters and turbine flowmeters located at AMETEK Aerospace Products Inc., Wilmington, Massachusetts is described. This facility is referred to as the Test and Calibration System (TACS). It is believed to be the most accurate test facility available for the calibration of jet engine fuel density measurement. The product of the volumetric flow rate measurement and the density measurement, results in a true mass flow rate determination. A dual-turbine flowmeter was designed during this program. The dual-turbine flowmeter was calibrated on the TACS to show the characteristics of this type of flowmeter. An angular momentum flowmeter was also calibrated on the TACS to demonstrate the accuracy of a true mass flowmeter having a 'state-of-the-art' design accuracy.

  12. Reactivity and analytical performance of oxygen as cell gas in inductively coupled plasma tandem mass spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Virgilio, Alex; Amais, Renata S.; Amaral, Clarice D. B.; Fialho, Lucimar L.; Schiavo, Daniela; Nóbrega, Joaquim A.

    2016-12-01

    The reactivity and analytical performance of O2 as cell gas in inductively coupled plasma tandem mass spectrometry was investigated. Selected analytes in a wide mass range were divided in three groups according to their reactivity: G1 represents elements with high oxygen affinity (Ce, La, P, Sc, Ti, and Y), G2 contains elements that may partially react with oxygen (As, Ba, Mo, Si, Sr, and V), and G3 comprises elements expected to be less reactive towards oxygen (Al, Bi, Cu, Mg, Pb, and Pd). On-mass and mass-shift modes were evaluated by monitoring atomic and metal oxide ions, respectively. Analytical signal profiles, oxide percentages, sensitivities and limits of detection for oxygen flow rates varying from 0.1 to 1.0 mL min- 1 were also studied. Group 1 elements plus As and V presented better sensitivities and LODs when measuring oxides, which were the major species for all flow rates evaluated. Molybdenum and Si oxides presented intermediate behavior and MoO fraction was up to 47% and limit of detection was the same as that obtained in on-mass mode. For others G2 and G3 elements, on-mass mode presented higher sensitivity and better LODs, with estimated oxide contents lower than 10%. In most cases, increasing oxygen flow rates led to lower sensitivities and worse LODs.

  13. Evaluation of pulsed fast-atom bombardment ionization for increased sensitivity of tandem mass spectrometry

    SciTech Connect

    Tecklenburg, R.E. Jr.; Castro, M.E.; Russell, D.H.

    1989-01-15

    The use of pulsed valves for performing fast-atom bombardment (FAB) ionization on a sector ion-beam mass spectrometer is described. The objective of this work is to establish new methods for improving the sensitivity of tandem mass spectrometry. This paper deals with the use of pulsed FAB for improving total ion yields as well as signal-to-noise ratios for collision-induced dissociation and laser-ion beam photodissociation. Pulsing the neutral gas pressure used for FAB ionization results in neutral primary beam densities much greater (by a factor of 10) than those obtainable for continuous FAB. This approach yields enhancements for total ion yields and collision-induced dissociation signals by a factor of 15, while larger gains (> 28) are measured for the comparable photodissociation experiment.

  14. Structural characterization of poly(amino)ester dendrimers and related impurities by electrospray tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Tintaru, Aura; Monnier, Valérie; Bouillon, Camille; Giordanengo, Rémi; Quéléver, Gilles; Peng, Ling; Charles, Laurence

    2010-08-15

    An acid-terminated poly(amino)ester dendrimer was studied by electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry to establish its fragmentation pathways, with the aim of using them to investigate the structure of any defective molecules generated during the dendrimer synthesis. This poly(amino)ester dendrimer could be ionized in both polarities but the most structurally relevant dissociation pathways were found from the deprotonated molecule in negative ion mode. The dissociation pattern of this dendrimer is fully described and supported by accurate mass measurements. The main dissociation reactions of the negatively charged polyacidic dendrimer were shown to consist of (i) the release of carbon dioxide and ethene within a branch, which proceeds as many times as intact neutral branches are available; and (ii) the elimination of an entire dendrimer arm. Monitoring the occurrence of these reactions together with any deviation from these two main routes allowed six major dendritic impurities to be structurally characterized.

  15. Characterization of four Phyllanthus species using liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Sprenger, Ricardo da Fontoura; Cass, Quezia Bezerra

    2013-05-24

    This paper reports a comparison of four Phyllanthus species (P. amarus, P. stipulatus, P. niruri and P. tenellus), commonly known as stone breaker, by the characterization of the chemical profile of their aqueous extracts. Such characterization was carried out using liquid chromatography coupled to ion trap tandem mass spectrometry (LC-IT-MS(n)) under reversed-phase gradient elution mode. The results of MS/MS and MS(3) on-line experiments, using the electrospray ionization source in the positive and negative mode, are extensively discussed. Furthermore, quercetin-3-O-β-d-glucuronopyranoside was isolated in multimilligram scale from the aqueous extract of P. stipulatus and characterized by mass spectrometry and NMR. Although it is an unusual flavonol in natural products, LC-IT-MS(n) experiments showed it to be present also in P. amarus.

  16. Recent advances of liquid chromatography-(tandem) mass spectrometry in clinical and forensic toxicology - An update.

    PubMed

    Remane, Daniela; Wissenbach, Dirk K; Peters, Frank T

    2016-09-01

    Liquid chromatography (LC) coupled to mass spectrometry (MS) or tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) is a well-established and widely used technique in clinical and forensic toxicology as well as doping control especially for quantitative analysis. In recent years, many applications for so-called multi-target screening and/or quantification of drugs, poisons, and or their metabolites in biological matrices have been developed. Such methods have proven particularly useful for analysis of so-called new psychoactive substances that have appeared on recreational drug markets throughout the world. Moreover, the evolvement of high resolution MS techniques and the development of data-independent detection modes have opened new possibilities for applications of LC-(MS/MS) in systematic toxicological screening analysis in the so called general unknown setting. The present paper will provide an overview and discuss these recent developments focusing on the literature published after 2010.

  17. Identification of Asp isomerization in proteins by ¹⁸O labeling and tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jennifer; Katta, Viswanatham

    2012-01-01

    Isomerization of aspartic acid (Asp) to isoaspartic acid (isoAsp) via succinimide intermediate is a common route of degradation for proteins that can affect their structural integrity. As Asp/isoAsp is isobaric in mass, it is difficult to identify the site of modification by LC-MS/MS peptide mapping. Here, we describe an approach to label the Asp residue involved in isomerization at the protein level by hydrolyzing the succinimide intermediate in H₂¹⁸O. Tryptic digestion of this labeled protein will result in peptides containing the site of isomerization being 2 Da heavier than the ¹⁶O-containing counterparts, due to ¹⁸O incorporation during the hydrolysis process. Comparison of tandem mass spectra of isomerized peptides with and without ¹⁸O incorporation allows easy identification of the Asp residue involved. This method proved to be especially useful in identifying the sites when isomerization occurs in Asp-Asp motifs.

  18. Automated Glycan Sequencing from Tandem Mass Spectra of N-Linked Glycopeptides.

    PubMed

    Yu, Chuan-Yih; Mayampurath, Anoop; Zhu, Rui; Zacharias, Lauren; Song, Ehwang; Wang, Lei; Mechref, Yehia; Tang, Haixu

    2016-06-07

    Mass spectrometry has become a routine experimental tool for proteomic biomarker analysis of human blood samples, partly due to the large availability of informatics tools. As one of the most common protein post-translational modifications (PTMs) in mammals, protein glycosylation has been observed to alter in multiple human diseases and thus may potentially be candidate markers of disease progression. While mass spectrometry instrumentation has seen advancements in capabilities, discovering glycosylation-related markers using existing software is currently not straightforward. Complete characterization of protein glycosylation requires the identification of intact glycopeptides in samples, including identification of the modification site as well as the structure of the attached glycans. In this paper, we present GlycoSeq, an open-source software tool that implements a heuristic iterated glycan sequencing algorithm coupled with prior knowledge for automated elucidation of the glycan structure within a glycopeptide from its collision-induced dissociation tandem mass spectrum. GlycoSeq employs rules of glycosidic linkage as defined by glycan synthetic pathways to eliminate improbable glycan structures and build reasonable glycan trees. We tested the tool on two sets of tandem mass spectra of N-linked glycopeptides cell lines acquired from breast cancer patients. After employing enzymatic specificity within the N-linked glycan synthetic pathway, the sequencing results of GlycoSeq were highly consistent with the manually curated glycan structures. Hence, GlycoSeq is ready to be used for the characterization of glycan structures in glycopeptides from MS/MS analysis. GlycoSeq is released as open source software at https://github.com/chpaul/GlycoSeq/ .

  19. The analysis of diagnostic markers of genetic disorders in human blood and urine using tandem mass spectrometry with liquid secondary ion mass spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Millington, David S.; Kodo, Naoki; Terada, Naoto; Roe, Diane; Chace, Donald H.

    1991-12-01

    A method has been developed for the rapid diagnosis of metabolic diseases based on the analysis of characteristic metabolites in body fluids by fast atom bombardment or liquid secondary ion tandem mass spectrometry (FAB-MS--MS or LSIMS--MS). Acylcarnitine profiles were obtained from 100 [mu]l urine. 200 [mu]l plasma or 25 [mu]l whole blood spotted onto filter paper by simple solvent extraction, esterification and analysis using a precursor ion scan function on a triple quadrupole mass spectrometer. Specificity and sensitivity were improved by adding a small percentage of sodium octyl sulfate to the liquid matrix, which forms ion pairs with acylcarnitine esters. Acylglycines in urine were specifically detected as a group using a different precursor ion scan function. By forming methyl esters, metabolic profiles of both acylcarnitines and acylglycines were achieved in the same sample loading by application of alternating scan functions. Quantitative analysis of selected metabolites was achieved by use of stable isotope-labeled internal standards. Amino acid profiles were obtained from 100 [mu]l plasma and 25 [mu]l whole blood spots using butyl esters and a neutral loss scan function. The quantitative analysis of phenylalanine and tyrosine was achieved in these samples using stable isotope dilution. This capability will facilitate the diagnosis of phenylketonuria and other amino acidemias. These new methods have the requirements of speed, accuracy and capability for automation necessary for large-scale neonatal screening of inborn errors of matabolism.

  20. Advanced Laser Architecture for Two-Step Laser Tandem Mass Spectrometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fahey, Molly E.; Li, Steven X.; Yu, Anthony W.; Getty, Stephanie A.

    2016-01-01

    Future astrobiology missions will focus on planets with significant astrochemical or potential astrobiological features, such as small, primitive bodies and the icy moons of the outer planets that may host diverse organic compounds. These missions require advanced instrument techniques to fully and unambiguously characterize the composition of surface and dust materials. Laser desorptionionization mass spectrometry (LDMS) is an emerging instrument technology for in situ mass analysis of non-volatile sample composition. A recent Goddard LDMS advancement is the two-step laser tandem mass spectrometer (L2MS) instrument to address the need for future flight instrumentation to deconvolve complex organic signatures. The L2MS prototype uses a resonance enhanced multi-photon laser ionization mechanism to selectively detect aromatic species from a more complex sample. By neglecting the aliphatic and inorganic mineral signatures in the two-step mass spectrum, the L2MS approach can provide both mass assignments and clues to structural information for an in situ investigation of non-volatile sample composition. In this paper we will describe our development effort on a new laser architecture that is based on the previously flown Lunar Orbiter Laser Altimeter (LOLA) laser transmitter for the L2MS instrument. The laser provides two discrete midinfrared wavelengths (2.8 m and 3.4 m) using monolithic optical parametric oscillators and ultraviolet (UV) wavelength (266 nm) on a single laser bench with a straightforward development path toward flight readiness.

  1. Gas-Phase Fragmentation Behavior of Oxidized Prenyl Peptides by CID and ETD Tandem Mass Spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhawal, Ruchika P.; Shahinuzzaman, A. D. A.; Chowdhury, Saiful M.

    2016-10-01

    Farnesylation and geranylgeranylation are the two types of prenyl modification of proteins. Prenylated peptides are highly hydrophobic and their abundances in biological samples are low. In this report, we studied the oxidized prenylated peptides by electrospray ionization mass spectrometry and identified them by collision-induced dissociation (CID) and electron-transfer dissociation (ETD) tandem mass spectrometry. Modified prenyl peptides were generated utilizing strong and low strength oxidizing agents to selectively oxidize and epoxidize cysteine sulfur and prenyl side chain. We selected three peptides with prenyl motifs and synthesized their prenylated versions. The detailed characteristic fragmentations of oxidized and epoxidized farnesylated and geranylgeranylated peptides were studied side by side with two popular fragmentation techniques. CID and ETD mass spectrometry clearly distinguished the modified version of these peptides. ETD mass spectrometry provided sequence information of the highly labile modified prenyl peptides and showed different characteristic fragmentations compared with CID. A detailed fragmentation of modified geranylgeranylated peptides was compared by CID and ETD mass spectrometry for the first time.

  2. Gas-Phase Fragmentation Behavior of Oxidized Prenyl Peptides by CID and ETD Tandem Mass Spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Bhawal, Ruchika P; Shahinuzzaman, A D A; Chowdhury, Saiful M

    2017-04-01

    Farnesylation and geranylgeranylation are the two types of prenyl modification of proteins. Prenylated peptides are highly hydrophobic and their abundances in biological samples are low. In this report, we studied the oxidized prenylated peptides by electrospray ionization mass spectrometry and identified them by collision-induced dissociation (CID) and electron-transfer dissociation (ETD) tandem mass spectrometry. Modified prenyl peptides were generated utilizing strong and low strength oxidizing agents to selectively oxidize and epoxidize cysteine sulfur and prenyl side chain. We selected three peptides with prenyl motifs and synthesized their prenylated versions. The detailed characteristic fragmentations of oxidized and epoxidized farnesylated and geranylgeranylated peptides were studied side by side with two popular fragmentation techniques. CID and ETD mass spectrometry clearly distinguished the modified version of these peptides. ETD mass spectrometry provided sequence information of the highly labile modified prenyl peptides and showed different characteristic fragmentations compared with CID. A detailed fragmentation of modified geranylgeranylated peptides was compared by CID and ETD mass spectrometry for the first time. Graphical Abstract ᅟ.

  3. Molecular resolution and fragmentation of fulvic acid by electrospray ionization/multistage tandem mass spectrometry

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Leenheer, J.A.; Rostad, C.E.; Gates, Paul M.; Furlong, E.T.; Ferrer, I.

    2001-01-01

    Molecular weight distributions of fulvic acid from the Suwannee River, Georgia, were investigated by electrospray ionization/quadrupole mass spectrometry (ESI/QMS), and fragmentation pathways of specific fulvic acid masses were investigated by electrospray ionization/ion trap multistage tandem mass spectrometry (ESI/MST/MS). ESI/QMS studies of the free acid form of low molecular weight poly(carboxylic acid) standards in 75% methanol/25% water mobile phase found that negative ion detection gave the optimum generation of parent ions that can be used for molecular weight determinations. However, experiments with poly(acrylic acid) mixtures and specific high molecular weight standards found multiply charged negative ions that gave a low bias to molecular mass distributions. The number of negative charges on a molecule is dependent on the distance between charges. ESI/MST/MS of model compounds found characteristic water loss from alcohol dehydration and anhydride formation, as well as CO2 loss from decarboxylation, and CO loss from ester structures. Application of these fragmentation pathways to specific masses of fulvic acid isolated and fragmented by ESI/MST/MS is indicative of specific structures that can serve as a basis for future structural confirmation after these hypothesized structures are synthesized.

  4. Single-step multiresidue determination of ten multiclass veterinary drugs in pork, milk, and eggs using liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Park, Jin-A; Zhang, Dan; Kim, Dong-Soon; Kim, Seong-Kwan; Cho, Kyeong-Su; Jeong, Dana; Shim, Jae-Han; Kim, Jin-Suk; Abd El-Aty, A M; Shin, Ho-Chul

    2015-08-01

    A multiclass, multiresidue determination method is reported for the detection of ten veterinary drugs, including scopolamine, metoclopramide, acriflavine, berberine, tripelennamine, diphenhydramine, acrinol, triamcinolone, loperamide, and roxithromycin in pork, milk, and eggs. The method involves a simple extraction using 0.1% formic acid in acetonitrile, followed by defatting with n-hexane, centrifugation, and filtration prior to liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometric analysis. As ion suppression and enhancement effects are reported, matrix-matched calibrations are used for quantification, with determination coefficients ≥0.9765. For the majority of the tested analytes, the intra- and interday accuracy (expressed as recovery %) range from 70.6 to 94.6% and from 70.1 to 93.3%, respectively, and the precision (expressed as relative standard deviation) ranges from 0.5 to 19.8% and from 2.8 to 18.4% in all matrices. The limits of quantification range between 0.5 and 10 ng/g. The validated tandem mass spectrometry method is successfully applied to market samples; the target analytes are not detected in any of the tested samples. In terms of accuracy, no extract cleanup is deemed necessary. The developed method is feasible for the simultaneous detection of the tested analytes in pork, milk, and eggs.

  5. Quantification of Photocyanine in Human Serum by High-Performance Liquid Chromatography-Tandem Mass Spectrometry and Its Application in a Pharmacokinetic Study

    PubMed Central

    Bi, Bing-Tian; Zou, Ben-Yan; Deng, Li-Ting; Zhan, Jing; Liao, Hai; Feng, Kun-Yao; Li, Su

    2014-01-01

    Photocyanine is a novel anticancer drug. Its pharmacokinetic study in cancer patients is therefore very important for choosing doses, and dosing intervals in clinical application. A rapid, selective and sensitive high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS) method was developed and validated for the determination of photocyanine in patient serum. Sample preparation involved one-step protein precipitation by adding methanol and N,N-dimethyl formamide to 0.1 mL serum. The detection was performed on a triple quadrupole tandem mass spectrometer operating in multiple reaction-monitoring (MRM) mode. Each sample was chromatographed within 7 min. Linear calibration curves were obtained for photocyanine at a concentration range of 20–2000 ng/mL (r > 0.995), with the lower limit of quantification (LLOQ) being 20 ng/mL. The intrabatch accuracy ranged from 101.98% to 107.54%, and the interbatch accuracy varied from 100.52% to 105.62%. Stability tests showed that photocyanine was stable throughout the analytical procedure. This study is the first to utilize the HPLC-MS/MS method for the pharmacokinetic study of photocyanine in six cancer patients who had received a single dose of photocyanine (0.1 mg/kg) administered intravenously. PMID:25050190

  6. GenoMass software: a tool based on electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry for characterization and sequencing of oligonucleotide adducts

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Vaneet K; Glick, James; Liao, Qing; Shen, Chang; Vouros, Paul

    2012-01-01

    The analysis of DNA adducts is of importance in understanding DNA damage, and in the last few years mass spectrometry (MS) has emerged as the most comprehensive and versatile tool for routine characterization of modified oligonucleotides. The structural analysis of modified oligonucleotides, although routinely analyzed using mass spectrometry, is followed by a large amount of data, and a significant challenge is to locate the exact position of the adduct by computational spectral interpretation, which still is a bottleneck. In this report, we present an additional feature of the in-house developed GenoMass software, which determines the exact location of an adduct in modified oligonucleotides by connecting tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) to a combinatorial isomer library generated in silico for nucleic acids. The performance of this MS/MS approach using GenoMass software was evaluated by MS/MS data interpretation for an unadducted and its corresponding N-acetylaminofluorene (AAF) adducted 17-mer (5′OH-CCT ACC CCT TCC TTG TA-3′OH) oligonucleotide. Further computational screening of this AAF adducted 17-mer oligonucleotide (5′OH-CCT ACC CCT TCC TTG TA-3′OH) from a complex oligonucleotide mixture was performed using GenoMass. Finally, GenoMass was also used to identify the positional isomers of the AAF adducted 15-mer oligonucleotide (5′OH-ATGAACCGGAGGCCC-3′OH). GenoMass is a simple, fast, data interpretation software that uses an in silico constructed library to relate the MS/MS sequencing approach to identify the exact location of adduct on oligonucleotides. PMID:22689626

  7. Determination of abacavir, tenofovir, darunavir, and raltegravir in human plasma and saliva using liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Yamada, Eiko; Takagi, Ritsuo; Sudo, Koji; Kato, Shingo

    2015-10-10

    A liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry assay for the determination of abacavir (ABC), tenofovir (TFV), darunavir (DRV), and raltegravir (RAL) in human plasma and saliva was developed and validated to investigate the applicability of saliva as an appropriate specimen for therapeutic drug monitoring. As internal standards, TFV was chosen for ABC, ABC was chosen for TFV, RAL for DRV, and DRV for RAL. Sample preparation involved protein precipitation with acetonitrile, evaporation of solvent using a centrifugal evaporator, and reconstitution by dissolving the residue in mobile phase. Liquid chromatography was performed on a C18 reverse phase column (1.5 × 50 mm, 5 μm) isocratically at a flow rate of 0.2 mL/min using 5mM formic acid-3% (v/v) acetonitrile as the mobile phase for ABC and TFV and 5mM formic acid-35% (v/v) acetonitrile as the mobile phase for DRV and RAL. The run time was 6 min, and the retention time was approximately 2.0 min for TFV, 2.5 min for RAL, and 4-4.5 min for ABC and DRV. Analytes were detected using tandem mass spectrometry in positive electrospray ionization mode. The precursor/product ion transitions (m/z) were 287.3/191.2 for ABC, 288.5/176.2 for TFV, 548.3/392.3 for DRV, and 445.3/109.5 for RAL, and were monitored on a triple-quadrupole mass spectrometer operated in the multiple reaction monitoring mode. The linearity of the assay was assessed in the range 1-10,000 ng/mL for all four drugs. Within-run and between-run mean accuracy, precision, and the extraction recovery for all drugs were -14.5-18.1%, 1.2-13.1%, and 86.0-111.1%, respectively. The proposed assay is sufficiently sensitive and accurate to quantify these drugs in plasma and saliva, and is suitable for investigating the relationship between drug concentrations in plasma and saliva.

  8. Mining Large Scale Tandem Mass Spectrometry Data for Protein Modifications Using Spectral Libraries.

    PubMed

    Horlacher, Oliver; Lisacek, Frederique; Müller, Markus

    2016-03-04

    Experimental improvements in post-translational modification (PTM) detection by tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) has allowed the identification of vast numbers of PTMs. Open modification searches (OMSs) of MS/MS data, which do not require prior knowledge of the modifications present in the sample, further increased the diversity of detected PTMs. Despite much effort, there is still a lack of functional annotation of PTMs. One possibility to narrow the annotation gap is to mine MS/MS data deposited in public repositories and to correlate the PTM presence with biological meta-information attached to the data. Since the data volume can be quite substantial and contain tens of millions of MS/MS spectra, the data mining tools must be able to cope with big data. Here, we present two tools, Liberator and MzMod, which are built using the MzJava class library and the Apache Spark large scale computing framework. Liberator builds large MS/MS spectrum libraries, and MzMod searches them in an OMS mode. We applied these tools to a recently published set of 25 million spectra from 30 human tissues and present tissue specific PTMs. We also compared the results to the ones obtained with the OMS tool MODa and the search engine X!Tandem.

  9. Xylose Migration During Tandem Mass Spectrometry of N-Linked Glycans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hecht, Elizabeth S.; Loziuk, Philip L.; Muddiman, David C.

    2017-01-01

    Understanding the rearrangement of gas-phase ions via tandem mass spectrometry is critical to improving manual and automated interpretation of complex datasets. N-glycan analysis may be carried out under collision induced (CID) or higher energy collision dissociation (HCD), which favors cleavage at the glycosidic bond. However, fucose migration has been observed in tandem MS, leading to the formation of new bonds over four saccharide units away. In the following work, we report the second instance of saccharide migration ever to occur for N-glycans. Using horseradish peroxidase as a standard, the beta-1,2 xylose was observed to migrate from a hexose to a glucosamine residue on the (Xyl)Man3GlcNac2 glycan. This investigation was followed up in a complex N-linked glycan mixture derived from stem differentiating xylem tissue, and the rearranged product ion was observed for 75% of the glycans. Rearrangement was not favored in isomeric glycans with a core or antennae fucose and unobserved in glycans predicted to have a permanent core-fucose modification. As the first empirical observation of this rearrangement, this work warrants dissemination so it may be searched in de novo sequencing glycan workflows.

  10. Molecular Isotopic Distribution Analysis (MIDAs) with Adjustable Mass Accuracy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alves, Gelio; Ogurtsov, Aleksey Y.; Yu, Yi-Kuo

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we present Molecular Isotopic Distribution Analysis (MIDAs), a new software tool designed to compute molecular isotopic distributions with adjustable accuracies. MIDAs offers two algorithms, one polynomial-based and one Fourier-transform-based, both of which compute molecular isotopic distributions accurately and efficiently. The polynomial-based algorithm contains few novel aspects, whereas the Fourier-transform-based algorithm consists mainly of improvements to other existing Fourier-transform-based algorithms. We have benchmarked the performance of the two algorithms implemented in MIDAs with that of eight software packages (BRAIN, Emass, Mercury, Mercury5, NeutronCluster, Qmass, JFC, IC) using a consensus set of benchmark molecules. Under the proposed evaluation criteria, MIDAs's algorithms, JFC, and Emass compute with comparable accuracy the coarse-grained (low-resolution) isotopic distributions and are more accurate than the other software packages. For fine-grained isotopic distributions, we compared IC, MIDAs's polynomial algorithm, and MIDAs's Fourier transform algorithm. Among the three, IC and MIDAs's polynomial algorithm compute isotopic distributions that better resemble their corresponding exact fine-grained (high-resolution) isotopic distributions. MIDAs can be accessed freely through a user-friendly web-interface at http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/CBBresearch/Yu/midas/index.html.

  11. [Measurement of free urinary cortisol and cortisone using liquid chromatography associated with tandem mass spectrometry method].

    PubMed

    Vieira, José Gilberto H; Nakamura, Odete H; Carvalho, Valdemir M

    2005-04-01

    Free urinary cortisol (UFF) measurement is one of the most useful screening tests for Cushing's syndrome. Immunoassays employed today by most clinical laboratories present limitations, specially concerning specificity. These limitations restrain a widespread application of the method, as well as the comparison of results obtained by the use of different methods. We present the development and characterization of a UFF and cortisone method based on liquid chromatography and tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). A 200 microL aliquot from a 24 h urine sample is mixed with a solution containing a known quantity of deuterated cortisol and on-line extracted in solid phase (C18). The eluate is transferred to a second C18 column (Phenomenex Luna, 3 micro, 50 x 2 mm) and the isocratic mode elution profile is directly applied to a tandem mass spectrometer model Quattro Micro operating in positive mode atmospheric pressure chemical ionization (APCI). All process is automated and the quantification is performed by isotopic dilution, based on the analyte and the deuterated internal standard peak area ratios. The specificity study showed that all the steroids tested presented cross reactivity of <1% for cortisol and cortisone. Functional sensitivity is <1 microg/L for both steroids, and the interassay CV <8%. Recovery and linearity studies were satisfactory and comparison of results obtained using a RIA for UFF and the present method in 98 routine samples showed a correlation of r= 0.838, with the results obtained with LC-MS/MS significantly lower (medians of 22.0 vs. 49.4 microg/24 h for RIA) (P<0.0001). Reference values for cortisol were defined as values between 11 and 43 microg/24 h, compatible to those recently described for similar methods. The concomitant measurement of UF cortisone allows the study of the activity of the enzyme 11beta-HSD2 and the diagnosis of the apparent mineralocorticoid excess syndrome. The method represents the first steroid assay of a new generation

  12. A Liquid Chromatography – Tandem Mass Spectrometry Approach for the Identification of Mebendazole Residue in Pork, Chicken, and Horse

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Ji Sun; Cho, Soo Hee; Lim, Chae Mi; Chang, Moon Ik; Joo, Hyun Jin; Park, Hyun Jin

    2017-01-01

    A confirmatory and quantitative method of liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) for the determination of mebendazole and its hydrolyzed and reduced metabolites in pork, chicken, and horse muscles was developed and validated in this study. Anthelmintic compounds were extracted with ethyl acetate after sample mixture was made alkaline followed by liquid chromatographic separation using a reversed phase C18 column. Gradient elution was performed with a mobile phase consisting of water containing 10 mM ammonium formate and methanol. This confirmatory method was validated according to EU requirements. Evaluated validation parameters included specificity, accuracy, precision (repeatability and within-laboratory reproducibility), analytical limits (decision limit and detection limit), and applicability. Most parameters were proved to be conforming to the EU requirements. The decision limit (CCα) and detection capability (CCβ) for all analytes ranged from 15.84 to 17.96 μgkg-1. The limit of detection (LOD) and the limit of quantification (LOQ) for all analytes were 0.07 μgkg-1 and 0.2 μgkg-1, respectively. The developed method was successfully applied to monitoring samples collected from the markets in major cities and proven great potential to be used as a regulatory tool to determine mebendazole residues in animal based foods. PMID:28085912

  13. Multiclass analysis of mycotoxins in biscuits by high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Comparison of different extraction procedures.

    PubMed

    Capriotti, Anna Laura; Cavaliere, Chiara; Foglia, Patrizia; Samperi, Roberto; Stampachiacchiere, Serena; Ventura, Salvatore; Laganà, Aldo

    2014-05-23

    A sensitive, simple and rapid method for the simultaneous determination of 19 mycotoxins in biscuits (a dry matrix containing cereals and egg) has been developed using high performance liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry with electrospray source working in both positive and negative mode. Due to the matrix complexity and the high amount of contaminants, a solid phase extraction method using graphitized carbon black was optimized for an effective clean-up step. Accuracy was carried out in the selected matrix using blank samples spiked at three analyte concentrations. Recoveries between 63 and 107% and relative standard deviations lower than 12% were obtained. For all considered mycotoxin classes, i.e. thricotecenes A and B, zearalenone and its metabolites, fumonisins, ochratoxin A, enniatins and their structurally related beauvericin, the method was validated in terms of linearity, recovery, matrix effect, precision, limit of detection and limit of quantification. Matrix-matched calibration was used for quantification purposes, in order to compensate for matrix effect. The coefficients of determination obtained were in the range of 0.9927-1. The limits of quantification, ranging from 0.04μgkg(-1) for enniatin B1 to 80.2μgkg(-1) for nivalenol, were always lower than maximum permitted levels for every regulated mycotoxin by the current European legislation.

  14. Simultaneous determination of fluoroquinolones in environmental water by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry with direct injection: A green approach.

    PubMed

    Denadai, Marina; Cass, Quezia Bezerra

    2015-10-30

    This work describes an on-line multi-residue method for simultaneous quantification of ciprofloxacin, enrofloxacin, gemifloxacin, moxifloxacin, norfloxacin and ofloxacin in superficial and wastewater samples. For that, an octyl restricted-access media bovine serum albumin column (RAM-BSA C8) was used for sample clean-up, enrichment and analysis with quantitation carried out by tandem mass spectrometry. For water samples volumes of only 500μL the method provided good selectivity, extraction efficiency, accuracy, and precision with quantification limits in the order of 20-150ngL(-1). Out of the six fluoroquinolones only ciprofloxacin (195ngL(-1)) and norfloxacin (270ngL(-1)) were quantified in an influent sample of the wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) of São Carlos (SP, Brazil). None were found in the superficial water samples analyzed. The capability of injecting native sample in an automated mode provides high productivity and represents a greener approach in environmental sample analysis.

  15. Development of a liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method for the determination of sulfite in food.

    PubMed

    Robbins, Katherine S; Shah, Romina; MacMahon, Shaun; de Jager, Lowri S

    2015-06-03

    Sulfites are widely used food preservatives that can cause severe reactions in sensitive individuals. As a result, the U.S. FDA requires that sulfites be listed on the label of any food product containing >10 mg/kg (ppm) sulfite (measured as sulfur dioxide). Currently, the optimized Monier-Williams (MW) method (AOAC Official Method 990.28) is the most common approach for determining sulfite concentrations in food samples. However, this method is time-consuming and lacks specificity in certain matrices. An improved rapid, sensitive, and selective method has been developed using electrospray ionization (ESI) high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) for the determination of sulfite in various food matrices. A total of 12 different types of foods were evaluated. These included dried fruits and vegetables, frozen seafood, sweeteners, and juices. The matrix is extracted with a buffered formaldehyde solution, converting free and reversibly bound sulfite to the stable formaldehyde adduct, hydroxymethylsulfonate (HMS). Extracts are prepared for injection using a C18 SPE cartridge to remove any lipophilic compounds. HMS is then separated from other matrix components using hydrophilic interaction chromatography (HILIC) and detected using multiple reaction monitoring (MRM). The method was validated at 5 concentrations in 12 food matrices. Accuracy data showed spiked recoveries ranging from 84 to 115% in representative foods. Six commercially available sulfited products were analyzed using the LC-MS/MS method, as well as the MW method, to determine if differences exist.

  16. Determination of L-ephedrine, pseudoephedrine, and caffeine in rat plasma by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Cooper, Stephen D; Fletcher, Brenda L; Silinski, Melanie A Rehder; Brown, Sherri S; Lodge, Jon W; Fernando, Reshan A; Collins, Bradley J

    2011-07-01

    A rapid and simple liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry method was developed and validated for the simultaneous determination of L-ephedrine, pseudoephedrine, and caffeine in male Fisher-344 rat plasma at nanogram-per-milliliter concentrations for use in support of toxicology studies. Only 25 μL of plasma is required, and extraction is performed using a simple, single-step protein precipitation. The method was validated over a range of 2.09 to 5460 ng/mL for L-ephedrine, 2.09 to 5050 ng/mL for pseudoephedrine and 2.03 to 5340 ng/mL for caffeine. A binary gradient elution at 0.3 mL/min was used with a Waters XBridge Phenyl (2.1 × 150 mm, 3.5 μm) column and a Waters XBridge Phenyl 2.1- × 10-mm guard column at ambient temperature. The mobile phase consisted of 10 mM ammonium acetate in water (pH 5.0) and methanol. Caffeine trimethyl-(13)C(3) was used as the internal standard. The method was evaluated for linearity, recovery, precision, accuracy, and stability, and it was successfully applied in toxicokinetic studies of ephedrine, administered alone, in combination with caffeine, and in the herbal source Ma Huang.

  17. Analysis of rocuronium in human plasma by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry with application in clinical pharmacokinetics.

    PubMed

    de Moraes, Natália Valadares; Lauretti, Gabriela Rocha; Filgueira, Gabriela Campos de Oliveira; Lopes, Bruno Carvalho Portes; Lanchote, Vera Lucia

    2014-03-01

    Rocuronium (ROC) is a neuromuscular blocking agent used in surgical procedures which is eliminated primarily by biliary excretion. A liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method was developed and validated for analysis of ROC in human plasma. Separation of ROC and IS (verapamil) was performed using an endcapped C-18 column and a mixture of water:acetonitrile:trifluoracetic acid (50:50:0.1, v/v) as mobile phase. Aliquots of 100 μL of human plasma were extracted at pH 3, using dichloromethane. The lower limit of quantification of 5 ng/mL shows the high sensitivity of this method. Intra- and inter-assay precision (as relative standard deviation) was all ≤14.2% and accuracy (as relative standard error) did not exceed 10.1%. The validated method was successfully applied to quantify ROC concentrations in patients under surgical procedures up to 6h after the administration of the 0.4-0.9 mg/kg ROC. The pharmacokinetic parameter estimations of ROC showed AUC/dose of 563 μg min/mL, total clearance of 2.5 mL/min/kg, volume of distribution at steady state of 190 mL/kg and mean residence time of 83 min.

  18. Pharmacokinetics, tissue distribution, and excretion studies of l-isocorypalmine using ultra high performance liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Wang, Weihui; Liu, Jing; Zhao, Xiaoning; Peng, Yan; Wang, Nannan; Lee, David Y W; Dai, Ronghua

    2017-03-01

    l-Isocorypalmine is a newly identified metabolite of l-tetrahydropalmatine with a unique dual pharmacological profile as a partial dopamine receptor 1 agonist and dopamine receptor 2 antagonist properties for treating cocaine use disorder. The purpose of this study was to explore the pharmacokinetic profiles, tissue distribution, and excretion of l-isocorypalmine in Sprague-Dawley rats. A sensitive and reliable ultra high performance liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry method was developed and validated for determination of l-isocorypalmine in biological samples. The biological samples were extracted by liquid-liquid extraction and separated on a Bonshell ASB C18 column (2.1 × 100 mm, 2.7 μm, Agela) with gradient mobile phase at the flow rate of 0.2 mL/min. The detection was performed by positive electrospray ionization with multiple reaction monitoring mode. Satisfactory linearity, precision, accuracy, extraction recovery, and acceptable matrix effect were achieved. The quantitative method was successfully applied to the pharmacokinetics, tissue distribution, and excretion study of l-isocorypalmine. The results showed that l-isocorypalmine was rapidly distributed, and eliminated from rat plasma and manifested linear dynamics in a dose range of 7.5-15 mg/kg. In addition, the results would be helpful for further clinical reference of l-isocorypalmine as a potential candidate drug for the treatment of cocaine addiction.

  19. Determination of salbutamol in human plasma and urine using liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry and its pharmacokinetic study.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Dujuan; Teng, Yanni; Chen, Keguang; Liu, Sha; Wei, Chunmin; Wang, Benjie; Yuan, Guiyan; Zhang, Rui; Liu, Xiaoyan; Guo, Ruichen

    2012-10-01

    A sensitive and selective liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) was developed and validated for the determination of salbutamol in human plasma and urine, and successfully applied to the pharmacokinetic study of salbutamol in Chinese healthy volunteers after inhalation of salbutamol sulfate aerosol. Salbutamol and the internal standard (IS) acetaminophen in plasma and urine were extracted with ethyl acetate, separated on a C(18) reversed-phase column, eluted with mobile phase of acetonitrile-ammonium acetate (5 m m; 30:70, v/v), ionized by positive ion pneumatically assisted electrospray and detected in the multi-reaction monitoring mode using precursor → product ions of m/z 240.2 → 148.1 for salbutamol and 152 → 110 for the IS. The lower limits of quantitation of salbutamol in human plasma and urine by this method were 0.02 and 1 ng/mL, respectively. The specificity, matrix effect, recovery, sensitivity, linearity, accuracy, precision and several stabilities were validated for salbutamol in human plasma and urine. In conclusion, the validation results showed that this method is robust, specific and sensitive, and can successfully fulfill the requirement of clinical pharmacokinetic study of salbutamol in healthy Chinese volunteers.

  20. Quantitation of five organophosphorus nerve agent metabolites in serum using hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography and tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Hamelin, Elizabeth I; Schulze, Nicholas D; Shaner, Rebecca L; Coleman, Rebecca M; Lawrence, Richard J; Crow, Brian S; Jakubowski, E M; Johnson, Rudolph C

    2014-08-01

    Although nerve agent use is prohibited, concerns remain for human exposure to nerve agents during decommissioning, research, and warfare. Exposure can be detected through the analysis of hydrolysis products in urine as well as blood. An analytical method to detect exposure to five nerve agents, including VX, VR (Russian VX), GB (sarin), GD (soman), and GF (cyclosarin), through the analysis of the hydrolysis products, which are the primary metabolites, in serum has been developed and characterized. This method uses solid-phase extraction coupled with high-performance liquid chromatography for separation and isotopic dilution tandem mass spectrometry for detection. An uncommon buffer of ammonium fluoride was used to enhance ionization and improve sensitivity when coupled with hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography resulting in detection limits from 0.3 to 0.5 ng/mL. The assessment of two quality control samples demonstrated high accuracy (101-105%) and high precision (5-8%) for the detection of these five nerve agent hydrolysis products in serum.

  1. Usage and limitations of liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) in clinical routine laboratories.

    PubMed

    Seger, Christoph

    2012-11-01

    Technical maturation of liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) brought this technology into most tertiary care clinical laboratories worldwide. It extended the technological armamentarium of clinical laboratories significantly, both in analytical and economical terms. Especially in therapeutic drug monitoring, endocrinology, and toxicology, it became an indispensable routine tool. Although well-designed LC-MS/MS assays generally outperform immunoassays because of increased accuracy, sensitivity, precision, and analytical multiplexing capability, they are not free from analytical problems. Besides limitations in selectivity due to the occurrence of "isobaric" interferences, unpredictable ion yield attenuations, known as "ion suppression effect," have to be considered. In addition, most LC-MS/MS methods used in clinical laboratories are still laboratory-developed tests ("in-house assays") operating on very heterogeneous instrument configurations. Consequently, assay heterogeneity and lack of traceability to reference procedures or materials may lead to an increased imprecision in proficiency testing as well as inaccurate result reporting if basic rules of assay validation and "post marketing" surveillance are violated.

  2. Quantification of cyclizine and norcyclizine in human plasma by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS).

    PubMed

    Jensen, Berit Packert; Vella-Brincat, Jane Winifred Ann; Begg, Evan James

    2011-03-15

    A rapid and simple liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) assay was developed and validated for quantification of cyclizine and its main metabolite norcyclizine in human plasma. Samples were prepared by protein precipitation with acetonitrile and cinnarizine was used as internal standard (recovery >87%). The analytes were eluted from a C8 50 mm×2.0 mm analytical column using a linear gradient of methanol and 0.05% formic acid with a total analysis time of 4 min. Analytes were detected by MS/MS using electrospray ionisation in the positive mode with multiple reactions monitoring (MRM) of the precursor ion/product ion transitions 267.2/167.2 for cyclizine and 253.2/167.2 for norcyclizine. Matrix effects were negligible. Standard curves for cyclizine and norcyclizine were linear (r(2)≥0.996) over the range 2-200 ng/mL, with 2 ng/mL representing the lower limit of quantification. Relative standard deviations were <14% for intra- and inter-day precision and the accuracy was within ±8%. The assay was successfully applied to a clinical study.

  3. Quantitation of five organophosphorus nerve agent metabolites in serum using hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography and tandem mass spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    Hamelin, Elizabeth I.; Schulze, Nicholas D.; Shaner, Rebecca L.; Coleman, Rebecca M.; Lawrence, Richard J.; Crow, Brian S.; Jakubowski, E. M.; Johnson, Rudolph C.

    2015-01-01

    Although nerve agent use is prohibited, concerns remain for human exposure to nerve agents during decommissioning, research, and warfare. Exposure can be detected through the analysis of the hydrolysis products in urine as well as blood. An analytical method to detect exposure to five nerve agents, including VX, VR (Russian VX), GB (sarin), GD (soman) and GF (cyclosarin), through the analysis of the hydrolysis products, which are the primary metabolites, in serum has been developed and characterized. This method uses solid phase extraction coupled with high performance liquid chromatography for separation and isotopic dilution tandem mass spectrometry for detection. An uncommon buffer of ammonium fluoride was used to enhance ionization and improve sensitivity when coupled with hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography resulting in detection limits from 0.3–0.5 ng/mL. The assessment of two quality control samples demonstrated high accuracy (101–105%) and high precision (5–8%) for the detection of these five nerve agent hydrolysis products in serum. PMID:24633507

  4. Microwave-assisted extraction and determination of dicyandiamide residue in infant formula samples by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Shen, Yan; Han, Chao; Zhou, Xiujin; Chen, Xiangzhun; Huang, Fuzhen; Zhu, Zhenou

    2013-01-01

    A simple, precise, accurate, and validated liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method was developed for the determination of dicyandiamide residue in infant formula samples. Following microwave-assisted extraction with 5% formic acid and clean-up on a Sep-Pak AC-2 SPE cartridge, samples were separated on a ZIC-HILIC HPLC column (150 × 2.1mm i.d., 5-µm film thickness; Merck KGaA, Darmstadt, Germany) with 20mM ammonium acetate solution-acetonitrile as mobile phase at a flow rate of 0.25 mL/min. A linear calibration curve was obtained in the concentration range from 1.0 to 50 ng/mL. Infant formula samples were fortified with dicyandiamide at 3 levels, producing average recovery yields of 83.6 to 95.7%. The limits of detection and quantification of dicyandiamide were 3 and 10 μg/kg, respectively. Due to its simplicity and accuracy, the straightforward method is particularly suitable for routine dicyandiamide detection.

  5. Simultaneous quantitative analysis of dextromethorphan, dextrorphan and chlorphenamine in human plasma by liquid chromatography-electrospray tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Ding, Ying; Huang, Kai; Chen, Lan; Yang, Jie; Xu, Wen-Yan; Xu, Xue-Jiao; Duan, Ru; Zhang, Jing; He, Qing

    2014-03-01

    A sensitive and accurate HPLC-MS/MS method was developed for the simultaneous determination of dextromethorphan, dextrorphan and chlorphenamine in human plasma. Three analytes were extracted from plasma by liquid-liquid extraction using ethyl acetate and separated on a Kromasil 60-5CN column (3 µm, 2.1 × 150 mm) with mobile phase of acetonitrile-water (containing 0.1% formic acid; 50:50, v/v) at a flow rate of 0.2 mL/min. Quantification was performed on a triple quadrupole tandem mass spectrometer in multiple reaction monitoring mode using positive electrospray ionization. The calibration curve was linear over the range of 0.01-5 ng/mL for dextromethorphan, 0.02-5 ng/mL for dextrorphan and 0.025-20 ng/mL for chlorphenamine. The lower limits of quantification for dextromethorphan, dextrorphan and chlorphenamine were 0.01, 0.02 and 0.025 ng/mL, respectively. The intra- and inter-day precisions were within 11% and accuracies were in the range of 92.9-102.5%. All analytes were proved to be stable during sample storage, preparation and analytic procedures. This method was first applied to the pharmacokinetic study in healthy Chinese volunteers after a single oral dose of the formulation containing dextromethorphan hydrobromide (18 mg) and chlorpheniramine malaeate (8 mg).

  6. Determination of ibuprofen, ketoprofen, diclofenac and phenylbutazone in bovine milk by gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Dowling, G; Gallo, P; Fabbrocino, S; Serpe, L; Regan, L

    2008-12-01

    A method has been developed to analyse for ibuprofen (IBP), ketoprofen (KPF), diclofenac (DCF) and phenylbutazone (PBZ) residues in bovine milk. Milk samples were extracted with acetonitrile and sample extracts were purified on Isolute C(18) solid-phase extraction cartridges. Aliquots were analysed by gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (GC-MS/MS). The method was validated in bovine milk, according to the criteria defined in Commission Decision 2002/657/EC. The decision limits (CCalpha were 0.59, 2.69, 0.90 and 0.70 ng ml(-1), respectively, for IBP, KPF, DCF and PBZ, and detection capabilities (CCbeta) of 1.01, 4.58, 1.54 and 1.19 ng ml(-1), respectively, were obtained. The measurement uncertainty of the method was 17.8%, 80.9%, 28.2% and 20.2% for IBP, KPF, DCF and PBZ, respectively. Fortifying bovine milk samples (n = 18) in three separate assays show the accuracy of the method to be between 104% and 112%. The precision of the method, expressed as relative standard deviations for the within-laboratory reproducibility at the three levels of fortification (5, 7.5 and 10 ng ml(-1)) was less than 8% for IBP, DCF and PBZ, respectively. Poor precision was obtained for KPF with a relative standard deviation of 28%.

  7. High-throughput analysis of 19 endogenous androgenic steroids by ultra-performance convergence chromatography tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Quanson, Jonathan L; Stander, Marietjie A; Pretorius, Elzette; Jenkinson, Carl; Taylor, Angela E; Storbeck, Karl-Heinz

    2016-09-15

    11-Oxygenated steroids such as 11-ketotestosterone and 11-ketodihydrotestosterone have recently been shown to play a putative role in the development and progression of castration resistant prostate cancer. In this study we report on the development of a high throughput ultra-performance convergence chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (UPC(2)-MS/MS) method for the analysis of thirteen 11-oxygenated and six canonical C19 steroids isolated from a cell culture matrix. Using an Acquity UPC(2) BEH 2-EP column we found that UPC(2) resulted in superior selectivity, increased chromatographic efficiency and a scattered elution order when compared to conventional reverse phase ultra-performance liquid chromatography (UPLC). Furthermore, there was a significant improvement in sensitivity (5-50 times). The lower limits of quantification ranged between 0.01-10ngmL(-1), while the upper limit of quantification was 100ngmL(-1) for all steroids. Accuracy, precision, intra-day variation, recovery, matrix effects and process efficiency were all evaluated and found to be within acceptable limits. Taken together we show that the increased power of UPC(2)-MS/MS allows the analyst to complete in vitro assays at biologically relevant concentrations for the first time and in so doing determine the routes of steroid metabolism which is vital for studies of androgen responsive cancers, such as prostate cancer, and could highlight new mechanisms of disease progression and new targets for cancer therapy.

  8. Analysis of thyreostatic drugs in thyroid samples by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry: comparison of two sample treatment strategies.

    PubMed

    Abuín, S; Companyó, R; Centrich, F; Rúbies, A; Prat, M D

    2008-10-17

    A method based on ultra-performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionisation-tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS) for the determination of six thyreostatic drugs in thyroid tissue has been optimised and validated in accordance with Decision 2002/657/EC. Sample extraction was evaluated in methanol and in ethyl acetate, the latter which gave better results. Two clean-up strategies were compared: one based on silica cartridges (SPE), and the other, on gel permeation chromatography (GPC). Recoveries ranged from 40% to 79% for the SPE approach and from 80% to 109% for GPC. Quantification was performed with blank tissue samples spiked with the analytes in the range 50-500microgkg(-1). 5,6-Dimethyl-2-thiouracil and 2-mercaptobenzimidazole-d(4) were used as internal standards. Decision limit (CCalpha) and detection capability (CCbeta) ranged from 1 to 15microgkg(-1) and from 6 to 25microgkg(-1), respectively. The accuracy of the method was calculated as percent error, which was less than 10%. The relative standard deviation in reproducibility conditions ranged between 2% and 14%.

  9. Ultra-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method for the analysis of amphetamines in plasma.

    PubMed

    Fernández, María del Mar Ramírez; Samyn, Nele

    2011-10-01

    A fast and selective ultra-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS-MS) method for the determination of amphetamines (amphetamine, methamphetamine, methylenedioxymethamphetamine, methylenedioxyamphetamine, methylenedioxyethylamphetamine, ephedrine, and p-methoxyamphetamine) in plasma has been developed and validated. Sample preparation was performed by liquid-liquid extraction using ethyl acetate. For optimized chromatographic performance with repeatable retention times, narrow and symmetrical peaks, and focusing all analytes at the column inlet, a gradient start, with acid mobile phase consisting of 0.1% formic acid and methanol was chosen. Positive electrospray ionization MS-MS detection was performed with two multiple reaction monitoring transitions for each analyte. Deuteriumlabeled internal standards were used for five of the analytes. The limit of detection was in the range 0.25-1.25 ng/mL, and the limit of quantification was fixed at the lowest calibrator of 2.5 ng/mL for all of the compounds. The RSD values of the intra- and interassay precision and accuracy were lower than 11% at four concentration levels, including two external quality controls. No or only minor matrix effects were observed, and the extraction method presented recoveries higher than 93% for all the compounds. Total run time, including equilibration, was 12 min. The method is routinely used at the National Institute of Criminalistics and Criminology for quantitative determination of the main amphetamines in plasma from forensic and driving under the influence cases.

  10. Quantification of intracellular and extracellular digoxin and ouabain by liquid chromatography/electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Yamaguchi, Hiroaki; Miyamori, Kazuaki; Sato, Toshihiro; Ogura, Jiro; Kobayashi, Masaki; Yamada, Takehiro; Mano, Nariyasu; Iseki, Ken

    2014-12-01

    A liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry method for the determination of intracellular accumulation in addition to transcellular transport of digoxin and ouabain in renal epithelial HK-2 cells was developed. The solid-phase extraction Bond Elut(®) C18 (100mg/1mL) cartridge was used for the extraction of digoxin and ouabain from extracellular (medium) and intracellular (cell lysate) matrices. Chromatographic separation was performed on a CAPCELL PAK C18 MGII column (2.0mm×150mm, 5μm). This method covered a linear range of 0.5-1000ng/mL of concentrations in medium and 0.5-1000ng of concentrations in cell lysate for digoxin and ouabain. The intra-day precision and inter-day precision of analysis were less than 11.9%, and the accuracy was within ±11.6%. The total run time was 16min. Our method was successfully applied to the transport experiments of digoxin and ouabain by HK-2 cell monolayers.

  11. Analysis of thyreostatic drugs in thyroid samples by ultra-performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry detection.

    PubMed

    Abuín, S; Centrich, F; Rúbies, A; Companyó, R; Prat, M D

    2008-06-09

    A method based on ultra-performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionisation-tandem mass spectrometry for the determination of six thyreostatic drugs in thyroid tissue has been optimised and validated in accordance with the Decision 2002/657/EC. Samples are extracted with methanol and the extracts cleaned-up on silica cartridges. The recoveries range from 40% for 6-phenyl-2-thiouracil to 79% for 2-thiouracil. Quantification is carried out with blank tissue samples spiked with the analytes in the range 25-500 microg kg(-1). 5,6-Dimethyl-2-thiouracil is used as internal standard. CCalpha and CCbeta are in the ranges 4.3-16.1 microg kg(-1) and 8.7-20.7 microg kg(-1), respectively. Accuracy, expressed as percentage of error, is lower than 6% and relative standard deviation in reproducibility conditions falls between 5.6 and 10.3%. Nowadays, the proposed method is routinely implemented in the laboratory of the Agència de Salut Pública de Barcelona and allows processing of up to 20 samples per day.

  12. Determining mycotoxins in baby foods and animal feeds using stable isotope dilution and liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Kai; Wong, Jon W; Krynitsky, Alexander J; Trucksess, Mary W

    2014-09-10

    We developed a stable isotope dilution assay with liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) to determine multiple mycotoxins in baby foods and animal feeds. Samples were fortified with [(13)C]-uniformly labeled mycotoxins as internal standards ([(13)C]-IS) and prepared by solvent extraction (50% acetonitrile in water) and filtration, followed by LC-MS/MS analysis. Mycotoxins in each sample were quantitated with the corresponding [(13)C]-IS. In general, recoveries of aflatoxins (2-100 ng/g), deoxynivalenol, fumonisins (50-2000 ng/g), ochratoxin A (20-1000 ng/kg), T-2 toxin, and zearalenone (40-2000 ng/g) in tested matrices (grain/rice/oatmeal-based formula, animal feed, dry cat/dog food) ranged from 70 to 120% with relative standard deviations (RSDs) <20%. The method provides sufficient selectivity, sensitivity, accuracy, and reproducibility to screen for aflatoxins at ng/g concentrations and deoxynivalenol and fumonisins at low μg/g concentrations in baby foods and animal feeds, without using conventional standard addition or matrix-matched calibration standards to correct for matrix effects.

  13. Characterization of an Ion Mobility-Multiplexed Collision Induced Dissociation- Tandem Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometry Approach

    SciTech Connect

    Ibrahim, Yehia M.; Prior, David C.; Baker, Erin Shammel; Smith, Richard D.; Belov, Mikhail E.

    2010-06-01

    The confidence in peptide (and protein) identifications with ion mobility spectrometry time-of-flight mass spectrometry (IMS-TOFMS) is expected to drastically improve with the addition of information from an efficient ion dissociation step prior to MS detection. High throughput IMS-TOFMS analysis imposes a strong need for multiplexed ion dissociation approaches where multiple precursor ions yield complex sets of fragment ions that are often intermingled with each other in both the drift time and m/z domains. We have developed and evaluated a novel approach for collision-induced dissociation (CID) with an IMS-TOFMS instrument. It has been shown that precursor ions activated inside an rf-device with an axial dc-electric field produce abundant fragment ions which are radially confined with the rf-field and collisionally cooled at an elevated pressure, resulting in high CID efficiencies comparable or higher than those measured in triple-quadrupole instruments We have also developed an algorithm for deconvoluting these complex multiplexed tandem MS spectra by clustering both the precursor and fragment ions into the matching drift time profiles and by effectively utilizing high mass measurement accuracy of the TOFMS. In a single IMS separation with a tryptic digest of bovine serum albumin (BSA), we have reliably identified 20 unique peptides using multiplexed CID approach downstream of the IMS separation. Peptides were identified based upon the correlation between the precursor and fragment drift time profiles and by matching the profile representative masses to those of in silico BSA tryptic peptides and their fragments. The false discovery rate (FDR) of peptide identifications from multiplexed MS/MS spectra was less than 1%.

  14. Characterization of crude oil biomarkers using comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Mogollón, Noroska Gabriela Salazar; Prata, Paloma Santana; Dos Reis, Jadson Zeni; Neto, Eugênio Vaz Dos Santos; Augusto, Fabio

    2016-09-01

    Oil samples from Recôncavo basin (NE Brazil), previously analyzed by traditional techniques such as gas chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry, were evaluated using comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography coupled to quadrupole mass spectrometry and comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry along with simplified methods of samples preparation to evaluate the differences and advantages of these analytical techniques to better understand the development of the organic matter in this basin without altering the normal distribution of the compounds in the samples. As a result, the geochemical parameters calculated by comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry described better the origin, maturity, and biodegradation of both samples probably by increased selectivity, resolution, and sensitivity inherent of the multidimensional technique. Additionally, the detection of the compounds such as, the C(14α-) homo-26-nor-17α-hopane series, diamoretanes, nor-spergulanes, C19 -C26 A-nor-steranes and 4α-methylsteranes resolved and detected by comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry were key to classify and differentiate these lacustrine samples according to their maturity and deposition conditions.

  15. Tandem Mass Spectrometry for Structural Identification of Sesquiterpene Alkaloids from the Stems of Dendrobium nobile Using LC-QToF.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yan-Hong; Avula, Bharathi; Abe, Naohito; Wei, Feng; Wang, Mei; Ma, Shuang-Cheng; Ali, Zulfiqar; Elsohly, Mahmoud A; Khan, Ikhlas A

    2016-05-01

    Dendrobium nobile is one of the fundamental herbs in traditional Chinese medicine. Sesquiterpene alkaloids are the main active components in this plant. Due to weak ultraviolet absorption and low content in D. nobile, these sesquiterpene alkaloids have not been extensively studied using chromatographic methods. Herein, tandem mass spectrometry combined with liquid chromatography separation provides a tool for the identification and characterization of the alkaloids from D. nobile. A total of nine sesquiterpene alkaloids were characterized by ultrahigh-performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. These alkaloids can be classified into two subgroups that are represented by dendrobine and nobilonine. Tandem mass spectrometric studies revealed the fragmentation pathways of these two subgroup alkaloids that were used for the identification and characterization of other alkaloids in D. nobile. Characterization of these alkaloids using accurate mass and diagnostic fragments provided a reliable methodology for the analysis of D. nobile by ultrahigh-performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. The limit of detection was defined as the signal-to-noise ratio equal to 3 : 1. Limits of detection of dendrobine and nobilonine were less than 30 ng/mL. The developed method was applied for the analysis of various Dendrobium species and related dietary supplements. Alkaloids were identified from D. nobile, but not detected from commercial samples including 13 other Dendrobium species and the 7 dietary supplements.

  16. Improved mass resolution and mass accuracy in TOF-SIMS spectra and images using argon gas cluster ion beams.

    PubMed

    Shon, Hyun Kyong; Yoon, Sohee; Moon, Jeong Hee; Lee, Tae Geol

    2016-06-09

    The popularity of argon gas cluster ion beams (Ar-GCIB) as primary ion beams in time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (TOF-SIMS) has increased because the molecular ions of large organic- and biomolecules can be detected with less damage to the sample surfaces. However, Ar-GCIB is limited by poor mass resolution as well as poor mass accuracy. The inferior quality of the mass resolution in a TOF-SIMS spectrum obtained by using Ar-GCIB compared to the one obtained by a bismuth liquid metal cluster ion beam and others makes it difficult to identify unknown peaks because of the mass interference from the neighboring peaks. However, in this study, the authors demonstrate improved mass resolution in TOF-SIMS using Ar-GCIB through the delayed extraction of secondary ions, a method typically used in TOF mass spectrometry to increase mass resolution. As for poor mass accuracy, although mass calibration using internal peaks with low mass such as hydrogen and carbon is a common approach in TOF-SIMS, it is unsuited to the present study because of the disappearance of the low-mass peaks in the delayed extraction mode. To resolve this issue, external mass calibration, another regularly used method in TOF-MS, was adapted to enhance mass accuracy in the spectrum and image generated by TOF-SIMS using Ar-GCIB in the delayed extraction mode. By producing spectra analyses of a peptide mixture and bovine serum albumin protein digested with trypsin, along with image analyses of rat brain samples, the authors demonstrate for the first time the enhancement of mass resolution and mass accuracy for the purpose of analyzing large biomolecules in TOF-SIMS using Ar-GCIB through the use of delayed extraction and external mass calibration.

  17. Screening of dimethoate in food by isotope dilution and electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Mazzotti, Fabio; Di Donna, Leonardo; Macchione, Barbara; Maiuolo, Loredana; Perri, Enzo; Sindona, Giovanni

    2009-05-01

    Crop control is an important issue in both developed and developing countries. An environmentally friendly approach is represented by the so-called Integrated Pest Management (IPM), whereby synthetic pesticides are only applied as a last resort, under the strict control of suitable experts. European and US regulatory authorities, such as the US EPA, are constantly assessing the risks of exposure to the organophosphate (OP) class of pesticides and, among these, specifically dimethoate. The use of dimethoate is still allowed in many crops, including olives, which once was based in the Mediterranean area but now is expanding rapidly throughout the world. An important aspect of IPM protocols is represented by the availability of reliable and sensitive methods to detect pesticides residues. This paper describes an isotope dilution dimethoate assay based on the application of electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (ESI-MS/MS) by means of a deuterium-labeled internal standard.

  18. Electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry method for differentiating chlorine substitution in disinfection byproduct formation.

    PubMed

    Deng, Zhuo; Yang, Xin; Shang, Chii; Zhang, Xiangru

    2014-05-06

    An electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry (ESI-tqMS) method was developed to identify the location of chlorine substitution during the chlorination of model organic compounds. The chlorine substitution in the aliphatic part and that in the benzene ring of an organic molecule can be differentiated by their corresponding ranges of optimum collision energies, 5-7 eV and over 15 eV, respectively, in the precursor ion scan of m/z 35. The method was applied to predict the structures of intermediates and reveal the transformation pathways during the chlorination of 4-amino-2-chlorobenzoic acid and phenylalanine as a function of reaction time and the chlorine-to-precursor ratio. In the case of phenylalanine, chlorine was found to replace one hydrogen atom attached to the aliphatic nitrogen; in the case of 4-amino-2-chlorobenzoic acid, chlorine was found to replace the hydrogen atoms attached to the aromatic rings.

  19. Characterization of protein N-glycosylation by tandem mass spectrometry using complementary fragmentation techniques

    SciTech Connect

    Ford, Kristina L.; Zeng, Wei; Heazlewood, Joshua L.; Bacic, Antony

    2015-08-28

    The analysis of post-translational modifications (PTMs) by proteomics is regarded as a technically challenging undertaking. While in recent years approaches to examine and quantify protein phosphorylation have greatly improved, the analysis of many protein modifications, such as glycosylation, are still regarded as problematic. Limitations in the standard proteomics workflow, such as use of suboptimal peptide fragmentation methods, can significantly prevent the identification of glycopeptides. The current generation of tandem mass spectrometers has made available a variety of fragmentation options, many of which are becoming standard features on these instruments. Lastly, we have used three common fragmentation techniques, namely CID, HCD, and ETD, to analyze a glycopeptide and highlight how an integrated fragmentation approach can be used to identify the modified residue and characterize the N-glycan on a peptide.

  20. Building and searching tandem mass (MS/MS) spectral libraries for peptide identification in proteomics.

    PubMed

    Lam, Henry; Aebersold, Ruedi

    2011-08-01

    Spectral library searching is an emerging approach in peptide identifications from tandem mass spectra, a critical step in proteomic data analysis. In spectral library searching, a spectral library is first meticulously compiled from a large collection of previously observed peptide MS/MS spectra that are conclusively assigned to their corresponding amino acid sequence. An unknown spectrum is then identified by comparing it to all the candidates in the spectral library for the most similar match. This review discusses the basic principles of spectral library building and searching, describes its advantages and limitations, and provides a primer for researchers interested in adopting this new approach in their data analysis. It will also discuss the future outlook on the evolution and utility of spectral libraries in the field of proteomics.

  1. Determination of Metabolic Viability and Cell Mass Using a Tandem Resazurin/Sulforhodamine B Assay.

    PubMed

    Silva, Filomena S G; Starostina, Irina G; Ivanova, Vilena V; Rizvanov, Albert A; Oliveira, Paulo J; Pereira, Susana P

    2016-05-04

    The identification of rapid, reliable, and highly reproducible biological assays that can be standardized and routinely used in preclinical tests constitutes a promising approach to reducing drug discovery costs and time. This unit details a tandem, rapid, and reliable cell viability method for preliminary screening of chemical compounds. This assay measures metabolic activity and cell mass in the same cell sample using a dual resazurin/sulforhodamine B assay, eliminating the variation associated with cell seeding and excessive manipulations in assays that test different cell samples across plates. The procedure also reduces the amount of cells, test compound, and reagents required, as well as the time expended in conventional tests, thus resulting in a more confident prediction of toxic thresholds for the tested compounds. © 2016 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

  2. Determination of dapsone in meat and milk by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Hadjigeorgiou, M; Papachrysostomou, Ch; Theodorou, Z; Kanari, P; Constantinou, S

    2009-04-01

    Within the EU the use of dapsone (4,4-diaminodiphenylsulfone) is prohibited in food-producing animals and consequently it's included in the Annex IV of the Directive 90/2377/EC. A quantitative confirmatory method has been developed and validated according to the criteria defined in the Commission Decision 2002/657/EC, for the determination of dapsone in meat and milk. Samples, after homogenization in alkaline conditions and organic solvent extraction, were purified on silica gel solid phase extraction cartridges. The eluate was evaporated and redissolved in mobile phase and was analysed by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) in positive electrospray ionisation (ESI) using deuterium labelled Sulphadimidine-d7 as internal standard. The calculated value for, decision limit, CCalpha is 0.12 microgkg(-1), and the detection capability; CCbeta value is 0.16 microgkg(-1).

  3. Determination of glufosfamide in rat plasma by liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xiaoyan; Sun, Yuming; Cao, Xueqin; Jin, Fengdan; Zhong, Dafang

    2005-01-01

    A sensitive and selective high-performance analytical method based on liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometric detection (LC/MS/MS) was developed for the quantification of glufosfamide in rat plasma. Zidovudine was employed as internal standard. Glufosfamide was determined after methanol-mediated plasma protein precipitation using LC/MS/MS with an electrospray ionization interface in negative ion mode. Two sets of standard curves were developed, from 0.005 to 1.0 microg/mL and from 1.0 to 50.0 microg/mL. The assay was accurate (% deviations from nominal concentrations < 5%), precise and reproducible (intra- and inter-day coefficients of variation < 10%). Glufosfamide in rat plasma was stable over three freeze/thaw cycles, and at ambient temperatures, for at least 2 h. The validated method was successfully applied to the determination of glufosfamide plasma concentrations in rats for 24 h following an intravenous administration of 25 mg/kg.

  4. Isothiocyanates as derivatization reagents for amines in liquid chromatography/electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Santa, Tomofumi

    2010-09-01

    The applicability of 3-pyridyl isothiocyanate, p-(dimethylamino)phenyl isothiocyanate and m-nitrophenyl isothiocyanate as the derivatization reagents for amines in high-performance liquid chromatography/electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry (LC/ESI-MS/MS) was examined. The generated derivatives of amines with these reagents were favorably separated on the reversed-phase column and detected by ESI-MS/MS. The C-N bond of the generated thiourea structure was efficiently cleaved by collision-induced dissociation and gave the single and intense product ion. Among the three reagents, 3-pyridyl isothiocyanate was the most suitable as the derivatization reagent with regard to the reactivity to amines and the detection sensitivity.

  5. Plasma lipid analysis by hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography coupled with electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Sonomura, Kazuhiro; Kudoh, Shinobu; Sato, Taka-Aki; Matsuda, Fumihiko

    2015-06-01

    A novel method for the analysis of endogenous lipids and related compounds was developed employing hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography with electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry. A hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography with carbamoyl stationary phase achieved clear separation of phosphatidylcholine, lysophosphatidylcholine, sphingomyelin, ceramide, and mono-hexsosyl ceramide groups with good peak area repeatability (RSD% < 10) and linearity (R(2) > 0.99). The established method was applied to human plasma assays and a total of 117 endogenous lipids were successfully detected and reproducibly identified. In addition, we investigated the simultaneous detection of small polar metabolites such as amino and organic acids co-existing in the same biological samples processed in a single analytical run with lipids. Our results show that hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography is a useful tool for human plasma lipidome analysis and offers more comprehensive metabolome coverage.

  6. Pressurized liquid extraction followed by liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry to determine pharmaceuticals in mussels.

    PubMed

    Núñez, Mireia; Borrull, Francesc; Pocurull, Eva; Fontanals, Núria

    2016-02-01

    An analytical method based on pressurized liquid extraction and solid-phase extraction with a mixed-mode Oasis(®) MAX sorbent as cleanup, followed by liquid chromatography with electrospray ionization and tandem mass spectrometry was developed and validated for the determination of seven widely used pharmaceuticals in mussel species. The optimization of the pressurized liquid extraction and the solid-phase extraction parameters is described. The method provided extraction recoveries ranging from 61 to 90%, and limits of detection ranging from 2 to 50 ng/g (dry weight). The repeatability and reproducibility of the method, expressed as relative standard deviation, were lower than 15 and 19%, respectively. The method was successfully applied to the analysis of mussel samples from different locations. The analyses showed that salicylic acid was present in mussels at concentrations up to 177 ng/g (dry weight).

  7. Protonation Sites, Tandem Mass Spectrometry and Computational Calculations of o-Carbonyl Carbazolequinone Derivatives

    PubMed Central

    Martínez-Cifuentes, Maximiliano; Clavijo-Allancan, Graciela; Zuñiga-Hormazabal, Pamela; Aranda, Braulio; Barriga, Andrés; Weiss-López, Boris; Araya-Maturana, Ramiro

    2016-01-01

    A series of a new type of tetracyclic carbazolequinones incorporating a carbonyl group at the ortho position relative to the quinone moiety was synthesized and analyzed by tandem electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI/MS-MS), using Collision-Induced Dissociation (CID) to dissociate the protonated species. Theoretical parameters such as molecular electrostatic potential (MEP), local Fukui functions and local Parr function for electrophilic attack as well as proton affinity (PA) and gas phase basicity (GB), were used to explain the preferred protonation sites. Transition states of some main fragmentation routes were obtained and the energies calculated at density functional theory (DFT) B3LYP level were compared with the obtained by ab initio quadratic configuration interaction with single and double excitation (QCISD). The results are in accordance with the observed distribution of ions. The nature of the substituents in the aromatic ring has a notable impact on the fragmentation routes of the molecules. PMID:27399676

  8. Determination of prostaglandin analogs in cosmetic products by high performance liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Wittenberg, James B; Zhou, Wanlong; Wang, Perry G; Krynitsky, Alexander J

    2014-09-12

    A method was developed and validated for the determination of 16 prostaglandin analogs in cosmetic products. The QuEChERS (Quick, Easy, Cheap, Efficient, Rugged, Safe) liquid-liquid extraction method, typically used for pesticide residue analysis, was utilized as the sample preparation technique. The prostaglandin analogs were chromatographically separated and quantified using high performance liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS). Thirty-one cosmetic products were surveyed, and 13 products were determined to contain a prostaglandin analog with amounts ranging from 27.4 to 297μg/g. The calculated concentrations for the cosmetic products were in a similar range when compared to the concentrations of three different prostaglandin analog-containing prescription products.

  9. Multidetection of antibiotics in liver tissue by ultra-high-pressure-liquid-chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Freitas, Andreia; Barbosa, Jorge; Ramos, Fernando

    2015-01-22

    A multiresidue quantitative screening method covering 39 antibiotics from 7 different families by ultra-high-pressure-liquid-chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS) is described. Sulfonamides, trimethoprim, tetracyclines, macrolides, quinolones, penicillins and chloramphenicol are simultaneously detected in liver tissue. A simple sample treatment method consisting of extraction with a mixture of acetonitrile and ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) followed by solid-phase extraction (SPE) with a hydrophilic-lipophilic balanced (HLB) cartridge was developed. The methodology was validated, in accordance with Decision 2002/657/EC, by evaluating the following required parameters: decision limit (CCα), detection capability (CCβ), specificity, repeatability and reproducibility. The precision, in terms of the relative standard deviation, was under 22% for all of the compounds, and the recoveries were between 80% and 110%. The CCα and CCβ were determined according to the maximum residue limit (MRL) or the minimum required performance limit (MRPL), when established.

  10. Analysis of bromate in drinking water using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry without sample pretreatment.

    PubMed

    Kosaka, Koji; Asami, Mari; Takei, Kanako; Akiba, Michihiro

    2011-01-01

    An analytical method for determining bromate in drinking water was developed using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). The (18)O-enriched bromate was used as an internal standard. The limit of quantification (LOQ) of bromate was 0.2 µg/L. The peak of bromate was separated from those of coexisting ions (i.e., chloride, nitrate and sulfate). The relative and absolute recoveries of bromate in two drinking water samples and in a synthesized ion solution (100 mg/L chloride, 10 mg N/L nitrate, and 100 mg/L sulfate) were 99-105 and 94-105%, respectively. Bromate concentrations in 11 drinking water samples determined by LC-MS/MS were <0.2-2.3 µg/L. The results of the present study indicated that the proposed method was suitable for determining bromate concentrations in drinking water without sample pretreatment.

  11. Scheme for the direct analysis of organics in the environment by tandem mass spectrometry

    SciTech Connect

    Hunt, D.F.; Shabanowitz, J.; Harvey, T.M.; Coates, M.

    1985-01-01

    Direct analysis of hazardous organic chemicals in the environment by tandem mass spectrometry is described. Liquid and solid chemical wastes and residues from lyophilized aqueous solutions are volatilized directly into the ion source of a triple quadrupole instrument. All or most wet chemical and chromatographic separation steps are eliminated. Analysis of phthalates, aromatic hydrocarbons, chlorocarbons, phenols, amines, and carboxylic acids by functional group and molecular weight is accomplished by using the technique of collision-activated dissociation and a series of 0.5-s neutral loss and parent ion scans under data system control on a triple quadrupole instrument. Both knowns and unknowns are characterized, detection limits are at the 10-100 ppb level, and the total analysis time per sample is typically only 25-30 min.

  12. Analysis of Total Human Urinary Glycosaminoglycan Disaccharides by Liquid Chromatography-Tandem Mass Spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Sun, Xiaojun; Li, Lingyun; Overdier, Katherine H; Ammons, Lee Anne; Douglas, Ivor S; Burlew, Clay Cothren; Zhang, Fuming; Schmidt, Eric P; Chi, Lianli; Linhardt, Robert J

    2015-06-16

    The determination of complex analytes, present at low concentrations, in biological fluids poses a difficult challenge. This study relies on an optimized method of recovery, enzymatic treatment, and disaccharide analysis by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry to rapidly determine low concentrations of glycosaminoglycans in human urine. The approach utilizes multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) of glycosaminoglycan disaccharides obtained from treating urine samples with recombinant heparin lyases and chondroitin lyase. This rapid and sensitive method allows the analysis of glycosaminoglycan content and disaccharide composition in urine samples having concentrations 10- to 100-fold lower than those typically analyzed from patients with metabolic diseases, such as mucopolysaccharidosis. The current method facilitates the analysis low (ng/mL) levels of urinary glycosaminoglycans present in healthy individuals and in patients with pathological conditions, such as inflammation and cancers, that can subtly alter glycosaminoglycan content and composition.

  13. Uncommonly thorough hydrolysis of peptides during ripening of Ragusano cheese revealed by tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Gagnaire, Valérie; Carpino, Stefania; Pediliggieri, Concetta; Jardin, Julien; Lortal, Sylvie; Licitra, Giuseppe

    2011-12-14

    Ragusano is a pasta filata cheese produced from raw milk in Sicily. The proteolysis was extensively analyzed after stretching (day 0), at 4 and 7 months of ripening through soluble nitrogen, urea-PAGE, and peptide identification by tandem mass spectrometry. After stretching, 123 peptides were identified: 72 arising from β-casein, 34 from α(s1)-casein, and 17 from α(s2)-casein. The main protein splitting corresponded to the action of plasmin, chymosin, cathepsin D, cell envelope proteinase, and peptidase activities of lactic acid bacteria. Unlike other types of cheeses, <10% residual β- and α(s)-caseins remained intact at 7 months, indicating original network organization based on large casein fragments. The number of identified soluble peptides also dramatically decreased after 4 and 7 months of ripening, to 47 and 25, respectively. Among them, bioactive peptides were found, that is, mineral carrier, antihypertensive, and immunomodulating peptides and phosphopeptides.

  14. Characterization of protein N-glycosylation by tandem mass spectrometry using complementary fragmentation techniques

    DOE PAGES

    Ford, Kristina L.; Zeng, Wei; Heazlewood, Joshua L.; ...

    2015-08-28

    The analysis of post-translational modifications (PTMs) by proteomics is regarded as a technically challenging undertaking. While in recent years approaches to examine and quantify protein phosphorylation have greatly improved, the analysis of many protein modifications, such as glycosylation, are still regarded as problematic. Limitations in the standard proteomics workflow, such as use of suboptimal peptide fragmentation methods, can significantly prevent the identification of glycopeptides. The current generation of tandem mass spectrometers has made available a variety of fragmentation options, many of which are becoming standard features on these instruments. Lastly, we have used three common fragmentation techniques, namely CID, HCD,more » and ETD, to analyze a glycopeptide and highlight how an integrated fragmentation approach can be used to identify the modified residue and characterize the N-glycan on a peptide.« less

  15. Accuracy of radionuclide imaging in distinguishing renal masses from normal variants

    SciTech Connect

    Older, R.A.; Korobkin, M.; Workman, J.; Cleeve, D.M.; Cleeve, L.K.; Sullivan, D.; Webster, G.D.

    1980-08-01

    To determine the accuracy of scintigraphy in distinguishing true renal masses from normal variants, 40 patients with excretory urographic findings indicating a possible, but not definite, mass lesion were studied. Scintigraphy correctly identified 17 true masses and 17 normal variants. Four false positive and two false negative results were obtained.

  16. Determination of 23 phthalic acid esters in food by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Xu, Dunming; Deng, Xiaojun; Fang, Enhua; Zheng, Xianghua; Zhou, Yu; Lin, Liyi; Chen, Luping; Wu, Ming; Huang, Zhiqiang

    2014-01-10

    A rapid and sensitive method was developed for the determination of 23 phthalates in food samples including milk-based products, distilled liquor, wine, beverage, grain, meat, oil, biscuit (cookie), and canned food by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). Liquid samples were exacted by acetonitrile, while solid samples were prepared by QuEChERS or glass-based SPE methods. The 23 phthalates were separated on Poroshell 120 EC-C18 column and followed by positive electrospray ionization as well as multi-reaction monitoring provided by a triple-quadrupole tandem mass spectrometer. To reduce contamination, the plastic materials were avoided in sample handling and preparation . The LODs were between 0.8 and 15 μg kg(-1) and LOQs were between 10 and 100 μg kg(-1). By using different concentrations: 100, 500, and 1000 μg kg(-1)) for DINP and DIDP; 50, 100, and 1000 μg kg(-1) for other 21 phthalate compounds, the spiked recoveries were within 75.5-115.2% and the relative standard deviations (RSDs) were in the range of 3.2-18.9%. The proposed protocol was then applied to the analysis of 623 real samples collected from the two sides of the Taiwan Straits, and the DEHP was found in almost all samples tested in this study, with levels ranging from 0.02 to 2685 mg kg(-1). The present study demonstrated a rapid, sensitive, and accurate method for determining 23 phthalates in foodstuffs.

  17. Determination of eptifibatide concentration in human plasma utilizing the liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jia; Duan, Xiaotao; Chen, Xiaoyan; Zhong, Dafang

    2009-02-15

    A sensitive and selective liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method was developed to determine the concentration of eptifibatide in human plasma. Following protein precipitation, the analyte was separated on a reversed-phase C(18) column. Acetonitrile:5mM ammonium acetate:acetic acid (30:70:0.1, v/v/v) was used at a flow-rate of 0.5mL/min with the isocratic mobile phase. An API 4000 tandem mass spectrometer equipped with a Turbo IonSpray ionization source was used as the detector and was operated in the positive ion mode. "Truncated" multiple reaction monitoring using the transition of m/z 832.6-->m/z 832.6 and m/z 931.3-->m/z 931.3 was performed to quantify eptifibatide and the internal standard (EPM-05), respectively. The method had a lower limit of quantification of 4.61ng/mL for eptifibatide. The calibration curve was demonstrated to be linear over the concentration range of 4.61-2770ng/mL. The intra- and inter-day precisions were less than 10.5% for each QC level, and the inter-day relative errors were 2.0%, 5.6%, and 2.8% for 9.22, 184, and 2490ng/mL, respectively. The validated method was successfully applied to the quantification of eptifibatide concentration in human plasma after intravenous (i.v.) administration of a 270-microg/kg bolus of eptifibatide and i.v. administration of eptifibatide at a constant rate of infusion of 2microg/(kgmin) for 18h in order to evaluate the pharmacokinetics.

  18. Plasma free and total carnitine measured in children by tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Osorio, J H; Pourfarzam, M

    2002-11-01

    Free and total carnitine quantification is important as a complementary test for the diagnosis of unusual metabolic diseases, including fatty acid degradation disorders. The present study reports a new method for the quantification of free and total carnitine in dried plasma specimens by isotope dilution electrospray tandem mass spectrometry with sample derivatization. Carnitine is determined by looking for the precursor of ions of m/z = 103 of N-butylester derivative, and the method is validated by comparison with radioenzymatic assay. We obtained an inter- and intra-day assay coefficient of variation of 4.3 and 2.3, respectively. Free and total carnitine was analyzed in 309 dried plasma spot samples from children ranging in age from newborn to 14 years using the new method, which was found to be suitable for calculating reference age-related values for free and total carnitine (less than one month: 19.3 +/- 2.4 and 23.5 +/- 2.9; one to twelve months: 28.8 +/- 10.2 and 35.9 +/- 11.4; one to seven years: 30.7 +/- 10.3 and 38.1 +/- 11.9; seven to 14 years: 33.7 +/- 11.6, and 43.1 +/- 13.8 micro M, respectively). No difference was found between males and females. A significant difference was observed between neonates and the other age groups. We compare our data with reference values in the literature, most of them obtained by radioenzymatic assay. However, this method is laborious and time consuming. The electrospray tandem mass spectrometry method presented here is a reliable, rapid and automated procedure for carnitine quantitation.

  19. Determination of propofol glucuronide from hair sample by using mixed mode anion exchange cartridge and liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Kwak, Jae-Hwan; Kim, Hye Kyung; Choe, Sanggil; In, Sangwhan; Pyo, Jae Sung

    2016-03-15

    The main objective of this study was to develop and validate a simpler and less time consuming analytical method for determination of propofol glucuronide from hair sample, by using mixed mode anion exchange cartridge and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). The study uses propofol glucuronide, a major metabolite of propofol, as a marker for propofol abuse. The hair sample was digested in sodium hydroxide solution and loaded in mixed-mode anion cartridge for solid phase extraction. Water and ethyl acetate were used as washing solvents to remove interfering substances from the hair sample. Consequently, 2% formic acid in ethyl acetate was employed to elute propofol glucuronide from the sorbent of mixed-mode anion cartridge, and analyzed by LC-MS/MS. The method validation parameters such as selectivity, specificity, LOD, LLOQ, accuracy, precision, recovery, and matrix effect were also tested. The linearity of calibration curves showed good correlation, with correlation coefficient 0.998. The LOD and LLOQ of the propofol glucuronide were 0.2 pg/mg and 0.5 pg/mg, respectively. The intra and inter-day precision and accuracy were acceptable within 15%. The mean values of recovery and matrix effect were in the range of 91.7-98.7% and 87.5-90.3%, respectively, signifying that the sample preparation, washing and extraction procedure were efficient, and there was low significant hair matrix effect for the extraction of propofol glucuronide from hair sample on the mixed mode anion cartridge. To evaluate the suitability of method, the hair of propofol administered rat was successfully analyzed with this method.

  20. Development and validation of a liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometric assay for quantitative analyses of triptans in hair.

    PubMed

    Vandelli, Daniele; Palazzoli, Federica; Verri, Patrizia; Rustichelli, Cecilia; Marchesi, Filippo; Ferrari, Anna; Baraldi, Carlo; Giuliani, Enrico; Licata, Manuela; Silingardi, Enrico

    2016-04-01

    Triptans are specific drugs widely used for acute treatment of migraine, being selective 5HT1B/1D receptor agonists. A proper assumption of triptans is very important for an effective treatment; nevertheless patients often underuse, misuse, overuse or use triptans inconsistently, i.e., not following the prescribed therapy. Drug analysis in hair can represent a powerful tool for monitoring the compliance of the patient to the therapy, since it can greatly increase the time-window of detection compared to analyses in biological fluids, such as plasma or urine. In the present study, a liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometric (LC-MS/MS) method has been developed and validated for the quantitative analysis in human hair of five triptans commonly prescribed in Italy: almotriptan (AL), eletriptan (EP), rizatriptan (RIZ), sumatriptan (SUM) and zolmitriptan (ZP). Hair samples were decontaminated and incubated overnight in diluted hydrochloric acid; the extracts were purified by mixed-mode SPE cartridges and analyzed by LC-MS/MS under gradient elution in positive multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) mode. The procedure was fully validated in terms of selectivity, linearity, limit of detection (LOD) and lower limit of quantitation (LLOQ), accuracy, precision, carry-over, recovery, matrix effect and dilution integrity. The method was linear in the range 10-1000pg/mg hair, with R(2) values of at least 0.990; the validated LLOQ values were in the range 5-7pg/mg hair. The method offered satisfactory precision (RSD <10%), accuracy (90-110%) and recovery (>85%) values. The validated procedure was applied on 147 authentic hair samples from subjects being treated in the Headache Centre of Modena University Hospital in order to verify the possibility of monitoring the corresponding hair levels for the taken triptans.

  1. Determination of the lipophilic antipsychotic drug ziprasidone in rat plasma and brain tissue using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Guodong; Terry, Alvin V; Bartlett, Michael G

    2008-07-01

    A simple, sensitive and robust liquid chromatography/electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (LCESI-MS/MS) method with low matrix effects was developed and validated for the quantification of the lipophilic antipsychotic ziprasidone from rat plasma and brain tissue. Ziprasidone was extracted from rat plasma and brain homogenate using a single-step liquid-liquid extraction. Ziprasidone was separated on an Agilent Eclipse XDB C8 column (150 x 2.1 mm i.d., 5 microm) column using a mobile phase of acetonitrile-0.02% ammonia in water (pH 7.20 adjusted with formic acid) using gradient elution. Ziprasidone was detected in the positive ion mode using multiple reaction monitoring. The method was validated and the specificity, linearity, lower limit of quantitation (LLOQ), precision, accuracy, recovery, matrix effects and stability were determined. The LLOQ was 0.2 ng/mL for plasma and 0.833 ng/g for brain tissue. The method was linear over the concentration range from 0.2 to 200.0 ng/mL for plasma and 0.833-833.3 ng/g for brain tissue. The correlation coefficient (R2) values were more than 0.996 for both plasma and brain homogenate. The precision and accuracy intra-day and inter-day were better than 8.13%. The relative and absolute recovery was above 81.0% and matrix effects were lower than 5.2%. This validated method has been successfully used to quantify the rat plasma and brain tissue concentration of ziprasidone after chronic treatment.

  2. Determination of levetiracetam in human plasma by liquid chromatography/electrospray tandem mass spectrometry and its application to bioequivalence studies.

    PubMed

    Jain, Deepak S; Subbaiah, Gunta; Sanyal, Mallika; Pal, Usha; Shrivastav, Pranav S

    2006-01-01

    The first liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS) method for the determination of levetiracetam, an antiepileptic drug, in human plasma is described. The plasma filtrate obtained after solid-phase extraction (SPE), using a polymer-based, hydrophilic-lipophilic balanced (HLB) cartridge, was submitted directly to a short column LC/MS/MS assay. There was no significant matrix effect on the analysis. For validation of the method, the recovery of the free analytes was compared to that from an optimized extraction method, and the analyte stability was examined under conditions mimicking sample storage, handling, and analytical procedures. The extraction procedure yielded extremely clean extracts with a recovery of 79.95% and 89.02% for levetiracetam and the internal standard (IS), respectively. The intra-assay and inter-assay precision for the samples at the lower limit of quantitation (LLOQ) were 6.33 and 6.82%, respectively. The calibration curves were linear for the dynamic range of 0.5 to 50 microg/mL with a correlation coefficient r >/= 0.9971. The intra-assay accuracy at LLOQ, LQC, MQC, and HQC levels ranged from 81.60 to 95.40, 93.00 to 103.47, 95.97 to 104.09, and 91.15 to 95.18%, respectively, while the inter-assay accuracy at LLOQ, LQC, MQC and HQC levels varied from 80.20 to 95.40, 88.53 to 107.53, 95.97 to 108.45, and 91.15 to 112.70%, respectively. The method is rugged and fast with a total instrumental run time of 2 min. The method was successfully applied for bioequivalence studies in human subject samples after oral administration of 1000 mg immediate release (IR) formulations.

  3. Determination of paroxetine in plasma by liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry for pharmacokinetic and bioequivalence studies.

    PubMed

    Jhee, Ok Hwa; Seo, Hee Kyoung; Lee, Min Ho; Jeon, Yong Cheol; Shaw, Leslie M; Lee, Seung Hoon; Hur, Yeon; Kim, Kwang-Hyun; Lee, Heon-Soo; Lee, Seo Eun; Kang, Ju Seop

    2007-01-01

    A rapid and validated liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometric method (LC-MS-MS) has been developed and applied to pharmacokinetic and bioequivalence studies in 24 healthy male Korean volunteers. The procedure involves a liquid-liquid extraction of paroxetine (CAS 61869-08-7) and fluoxetine (internal standard, CAS 54910-89-3) with ether/methyl chloride (7:3, v/v) and separated by LC equipped with C18 column using acetonitrile: 5 mmol/L ammonium formate (4:3, v/v) as mobile phase. Detection is carried out on an API 2000 MS system by multiple reactions monitoring mode. The ionization was optimized using ESI(+) and selectivity was achieved by MS-MS analysis, mlz 330.0-->192.0 and m/ z 310-->148 for paroxetine and fluoxetine, respectively. The method has a total run time of 1.5 min and was linear over a working range of 0.05-20 ng/mL and the lower limit of quantification was 0.05 ng/ mL. No endogenous compounds were found to interfere with the analysis. The inter-day and intra-day accuracy was in the ranges of 102.69-107.79% and 102.07-109.57%, respectively and precision of inter-day and intra-day expressed as relative standard deviation were 1.86-9.99% and 1.52-6.28%, respectively. The validation of this method on linearity, specificity, accuracy, precision as well as applicability to pharmacokinetic and bioequivalence studies by analysis of blood samples taken up to 72 h after oral administration of 20 mg of paroxetine in 24 healthy volunteers were found to be good performance.

  4. Development and validation of a liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method to determine intact glucosinolates in bee pollen.

    PubMed

    Ares, Ana M; Nozal, María J; Bernal, José

    2015-09-01

    A new method was developed to determine twelve intact-glucosinolates (GLSs) (glucoiberin, GIB; glucoraphanin, GRA; glucoerucin GER; gluconapin, GNA; glucotropaeolin, GTL; glucobrassicin, GBC; gluconasturtiin, NAS; glucoalyssin, ALY; 4-hydroxyglucobrassicin, 4OH; 4-methoxyglucobrassicin, 4ME; neoglucobrassicin, NEO; sinigrin, SIN) in bee pollen, by means of liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) with electrospray ionization (ESI). An efficient extraction procedure was proposed (average analyte recoveries were between 85% and 96%); this involved a solid-liquid extraction (SLE) with heated water, followed by a solid phase extraction (SPE) with a weak anion exchange (NH2) sorbent. Chromatography was performed on a Gemini(®) C18 analytical column with a mobile phase of formic acid in water (0.5%,v/v) and formic acid in acetonitrile (0.5%,v/v), in gradient elution mode at 1mL/min, resulted in baseline-separated peaks and a run time of 30min. The method was fully validated in terms of selectivity, limits of detection (LOD) and quantification (LOQ), linearity, carry-over effect, reinjection reproducibility, precision and accuracy. A good selectivity, low LODs and LOQs, ranging from 1 to 16μg/kg, wide linear ranges from LOQ to 1000μg/kg, and satisfactory reinjection reproducibility, precision and accuracy with relative standard deviation and relative error values lower than or equal to 9%; meanwhile, results indicates a negligible carry-over effect. The proposed method was applied to analyze intact-GLSs in bee pollen. Nine of the GLSs studied were identified in certain samples analyzed over a wide concentration range (LOQ-2226μg/kg), and significant differences in GLS content were observed among the samples.

  5. Distribution study of cisplatin in rat kidney and liver cancer tissues by using liquid chromatography electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Bandu, Raju; Ahn, Hyun Soo; Lee, Joon Won; Kim, Yong Woo; Choi, Seon Hee; Kim, Hak Jin; Kim, Kwang Pyo

    2015-06-01

    A sensitive and rapid liquid chromatography positive ion electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometric (LC/ESI-MS/MS) method has been developed and validated for the quantitative determination and distribution of cisplatin (CP) in kidney and liver tissues after intravenous administration of drug to adult male Sprague Dawley rats. Oxaliplatin (OXP) was used as an internal standard. The tissue samples were homogenized and extracted using conventional liquid-liquid extraction method with phosphate buffer containing ethyl acetate and then subjected to LC-MS analysis. The chromatographic separation was achieved on an Agilent ZORBAX SB C-18 column (50 × 2.1 mm, 1.8 µm) using the mobile phase consisting of 0.1% formic acid in water (Solvent A) : methanol (Solvent B) (40 : 60; v/v) in an isocratic elution followed by detection with positive ion electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry using the transitions of m/z 301 > 265 for CP and m/z 398 > 310 for OXP in multiple reaction monitoring mode. The calibration curve was linear in the range of 5.0-7000 and 10.0-6000 ng/ml for kidney and liver tissue homogenates, respectively. The method revealed good performances in terms of within-batch, between-batch precision (1.31-5.70%) and accuracy (97.0-102.24%) for CP in both kidney and liver tissue homogenates including lower and upper limits of quantification. The recoveries from spiked control samples were >81.0% and >87.0 % for CP and OXP, respectively. Matrix effect was found to be negligible, and the stability data were within the acceptable limits. Further, the validated LC/ES-MS/MS method was successfully applied to investigate the distribution of CP in kidney and liver tissues after intravenous administration of CP to male Sprague Dawley rats. The results showed that the higher amount of CP was distributed in kidney followed by liver, which indicated that CP mainly accumulated in kidney tissues and renal excretion might be a primary and

  6. Liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry quantification of urinary proanthocyanin A2 dimer and its potential use as a biomarker of cranberry intake.

    PubMed

    Walsh, Jason M; Ren, Xiaobai; Zampariello, Carly; Polasky, Daniel A; McKay, Diane L; Blumberg, Jeffrey B; Chen, C-Y Oliver

    2016-01-01

    The lack of a biomarker for the consumption of cranberries has confounded the interpretation of several studies investigating the effect of cranberry products, especially juices, on health outcomes. The objectives of this pilot study were to develop a liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometric method for the quantification of the proanthocyanin dimer A-2 in human urine and validate urinary proanthocyanin dimer A-2 as a biomarker of cranberry intake. Five healthy, nonsmoking, premenopausal women (20-30 years of age, body mass index: 18.5-25 kg/m(2) ) were assigned to consume a cranberry beverage containing 140 mg proanthocyanin and 35 kilocalories at 237 mL/day, according to a weekly dosing schedule for 7 weeks. Eleven 24 h and morning spot urine samples each were collected from each subject. A reliable, sensitive method for the detection of proanthocyanin dimer A-2 in urine using liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry was developed with a limit of quantitation of 0.25 ng/mL and a relative standard deviation of 7.26%, precision of 5.7%, and accuracy of 91.7%. While proanthocyanin dimer A-2 was quantifiable in urine, it did not appear to be excreted in a concentration that corresponded to the dosing schedule and intake of cranberry juice.

  7. Determination of nitrofuran and chloramphenicol residues by high resolution mass spectrometry versus tandem quadrupole mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Kaufmann, A; Butcher, P; Maden, K; Walker, S; Widmer, M

    2015-03-03

    An ultra-high performance liquid chromatography based method, coupled to high resolution mass spectrometry (UHPLC-HRMS), was developed to permit the detection and quantification of various nitrofuran and chloramphenicol residues in a number of animal based food products. This method is based on the hydrolysis of covalently bound metabolites and derivatization with 2-nitrobenzaldehyde. Clean-up is achieved by a liquid/liquid and a reversed phase/solid phase extraction. Not only are the four conventional nitrofurans (nitrofurantoin, furazolidone, nitrofurazone and furaltadone) detected, but also nifursol, nitrovin and nifuroxazide. Furthermore, an underivatizable nitrofuran (nifurpirinol) and another banned drug (chloramphenicol) can be quantified as well. The compounds are detected in the form of their precursor ions, [M+H](+) and [M-H](-), respectively. The mass resolving power of 70,000 FWHM, and the applied mass window ensure sufficient selectivity and sensitivity. Confirmation is obtained by monitoring the HRMS resolved product ions which were derived from the unit-mass resolved precursor ions. The multiplexing capability of the utilized Orbitrap instrument provides not only highly selective, but also sensitive confirmatory signals. This method has been validated according to the CD 2002/657/EC for the following matrices: muscle, liver, kidney, fish, honey, eggs and milk.

  8. Development and validation of high-throughput liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometric method for simultaneous quantification of loratadine and desloratadine in human plasma.

    PubMed

    Srinubabu, G; Patel, Rajaram S; Shedbalkar, Vinay P; Rao, Allam Appa; Rao, M Narasimha; Bandaru, Veera Venkata Ratnam

    2007-12-15

    As a continuation of effort to improve our high flow on-line bioanalytical approach for high-throughput quantification of drugs and metabolites in plasma by high-throughput liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (HTLC-MS/MS), we have developed a simple, sensitive and reliable method for simultaneous quantification of loratadine and desloratadine in human plasma. We have performed on-line coupling of extraction with Cyclone P 50 mm x 0.5 mm 50 microm HTLC column and chromatographic separation is performed with Zorbax XDB C18 50 mm x 2.1 mm 5 microm, followed by quantification with mass detector. The method is validated and showed good performances in terms of linearity, sensitivity, precision, accuracy and stability. A marked improvement in sample throughput efficiency is realized with this method and the proposed method will be useful for pharmacokinetic and/or bioequivalence studies.

  9. Development and validation of sensitive method for determination of serum cotinine in smokers and nonsmokers by liquid chromatography/atmospheric pressure ionization tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Bernert, J T; Turner, W E; Pirkle, J L; Sosnoff, C S; Akins, J R; Waldrep, M K; Ann, Q; Covey, T R; Whitfield, W E; Gunter, E W; Miller, B B; Patterson, D G; Needham, L L; Hannon, W H; Sampson, E J

    1997-12-01

    We describe a sensitive and specific method for measuring cotinine in serum by HPLC coupled to an atmospheric pressure chemical ionization tandem mass spectrometer. This method can analyze 100 samples/day on a routine basis, and its limit of detection of 50 ng/L makes it applicable to the analysis of samples from nonsmokers potentially exposed to environmental tobacco smoke. Analytical accuracy has been demonstrated from the analysis of NIST cotinine standards and from comparative analyses by both the current method and gas chromatography/high-resolution mass spectrometry. Precision has been examined through the repetitive analysis of a series of bench and blind QC materials. This method has been applied to the analysis of cotinine in serum samples collected as part of the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III).

  10. Liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry for the analysis of acrylamide in typical Spanish products.

    PubMed

    Bermudo, E; Moyano, E; Puignou, L; Galceran, M T

    2008-07-15

    This paper describes the use of liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry for the determination of acrylamide in several typical foods produced and consumed in Spain. Christmas sweets, olives, traditionally made potato crisps, pastry products, sweet fritters ("churros") and one of Spain's most famous dishes, Spanish omelette, were selected. Using the mass spectra information provided by an ion trap analyzer in combination with the accurate mass measurements from time-of-flight (TOF) spectrometry a co-extractive interference present in some potato products was identified as valine. A porous graphitic carbon column, which enabled the co-extractive and acrylamide to be separated, and ion trap or triple quadrupole analyzers, depending on the acrylamide concentration, were used to determine this genotoxic compound in foodstuffs. The highest values were found in potato products, sweet fritters, Christmas sweets and pastry products, with values ranging between 70 and 2000 microg/g. Spanish omelette presented relatively low levels, similar to those obtained for dried fruits.

  11. Ultra-high performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry for comprehensive analysis of urinary acylcarnitines.

    PubMed

    Zuniga, Azeret; Li, Liang

    2011-03-09

    We report an enabling mass spectrometric method for the analysis of lipid metabolites in order to define better the lipid metabolome in terms of chemical diversity and generate fragment ion spectra of these metabolites as a potential resource for unknown metabolite identification. This work focuses on the analysis of one important class of lipid metabolites, the acylcarnitines. Current analytical methods have only detected and identified a limited number of these metabolites. The method described herein provides the most comprehensive acylcarnitine profile in urine of healthy individuals up to date. It involves an optimized solid phase extraction technique for selective analyte extraction using cartridges containing both lipophilic and cation-exchange properties. The captured analytes are then subjected to ultra-high performance liquid chromatography (UPLC) separation, followed by tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) analysis using information-dependent acquisitions and selected reaction monitoring (SRM). The urine of six healthy individuals was analyzed using this method. A total of 355 acylcarnitines were detected; only 43 of them have been previously reported in the urine of healthy individuals. Detection of this large number of acylcarnitines illustrates the great diversity of the lipid metabolome as well as the usefulness of the method for profiling acylcarnitines. Furthermore, the MS/MS spectra of the 355 acylcarnitines will be uploaded to a public human metabolome database as a mass spectrometric resource for unknown metabolite identification.

  12. Characterization of N,N-dimethyl amino acids by electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Naresh Chary, V; Sudarshana Reddy, B; Kumar, Ch Dinesh; Srinivas, R; Prabhakar, S

    2015-05-01

    Methylation is an essential metabolic process for a number of critical reactions in the body. Methyl groups are involved in the healthy function of the body life processes, by conducting methylation process involving specific enzymes. In these processes, various amino acids are methylated, and the occurrence of methylated amino acids in nature is diverse. Nowadays, mass-spectrometric-based identification of small molecules as biomarkers for diseases is a growing research. Although all dimethyl amino acids are metabolically important molecules, mass spectral data are available only for a few of them in the literature. In this study, we report synthesis and characterization of all dimethyl amino acids, by electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) experiments on protonated molecules. The MS/MS spectra of all the studied dimethyl amino acids showed preliminary loss of H2O + CO to form corresponding immonium ions. The other product ions in the spectra are highly characteristic of the methyl groups on the nitrogen and side chain of the amino acids. The amino acids, which are isomeric and isobaric with the studied dimethyl amino acids, gave distinctive MS/MS spectra. The study also included MS/MS analysis of immonium ions of dimethyl amino acids that provide information on side chain structure, and it is further tested to determine the N-terminal amino acid of the peptides.

  13. Decoding Split and Pool Combinatorial Libraries with Electron Transfer Dissociation Tandem Mass Spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    Sarkar, Mohosin; Pascal, Bruce D.; Steckler, Caitlin; Aquino, Claudio; Micalizio, Glenn C.; Kodadek, Thomas; Chalmers, Michael J.

    2015-01-01

    Screening of bead-based split and pool combinatorial chemistry libraries is a powerful approach to aid the discovery of new chemical compounds able to interact with, and modulate the activities of, protein targets of interest. Split and pool synthesis provides for large and well diversified chemical libraries, in this case comprised of oligomers generated from a well-defined starting set. At the end of the synthesis, each bead in the library displays many copies of a unique oligomer sequence. Because the sequence of the oligomer is not known at the time of screening, methods for decoding of the sequence of each screening “hit” are essential. Here we describe an electron transfer dissociation (ETD) based tandem mass spectrometry approach for the decoding of mass-encoded split and pool libraries. We demonstrate that the newly described “chiral oligomers of pentenoic amides (COPAs)” yield non-sequence-specific product ions upon collisional activated dissociation; however, complete sequence information can be obtained with ETD. To aid in the decoding of libraries from MS and MS/MS data, we have incorporated 79Br/81Br isotope “tags” to differentiate N- and C-terminal product ions. In addition, we have created “Hit-Find,” a software program that allows users to generate libraries in silico. The user can then search all possible members of the chemical library for those that fall within a user-defined mass error. PMID:23636859

  14. A study of resonance electron capture ionization on a quadrupole tandem mass spectrometer.

    PubMed

    Wei, J; Liu, S; Fedoreyev, S A; Voinov, V G

    2000-01-01

    Procedures that allow the realization of resonance electron capture (REC) mode on a commercial triple-quadrupole mass spectrometer, after some simple modifications, are described. REC mass spectrometry (MS) and tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) experiments were performed and spectra for some compounds were recorded. In particular, the charge-remote fragmentation (CRF) spectra of [M - H](-) ions of docosanoic and docosenoic acids under low-energy collisionally activated dissociation (CAD) conditions were obtained, and showed that there were no significant differences for [M - H](-) ions produced at different resonances (i.e. for [M - H](-) ions with different structures). This observation was explained on the basis of results obtained from deuterium-labeled fatty acids, which showed that different CRF ions (but with the same m/z value in the absence of labels) could be produced by different mechanisms, and all of them were obviously realized under CAD conditions that made spectra practically indistinguishable. The other example, which compared the REC-MS/MS spectrum of [M - H](-) ions and EI-MS/MS spectrum of M(+.) ions of daidzein, demonstrated the potential of the REC-MS/MS technique for more complex structure elucidation.

  15. Analyzing Protease Specificity and Detecting in Vivo Proteolytic Events Using Tandem Mass Spectrometry

    SciTech Connect

    Gupta, Nitin; Hixson, Kim K.; Culley, David E.; Smith, Richard D.; Pevzner, Pavel A.

    2010-07-01

    While trypsin remains the most commonly used protease in mass spectrometry, other proteases may be employed for increasing peptide-coverage or generating overlapping peptides. Knowledge of the accurate specifcity rules of these proteases is helpful for database search tools to detect peptides, and becomes crucial when mass spectrometry is used to discover in vivo proteolytic cleavages. In this study, we use tandem mass spectrometry to analyze the specifcity rules of selected proteases and describe MS- Proteolysis, a software tool for identifying putative sites of in vivo proteolytic cleavage. Our analysis suggests that the specifcity rules for some commonly used proteases can be improved, e.g., we find that V8 protease cuts not only after Asp and Glu, as currently expected, but also shows a smaller propensity to cleave after Gly for the conditions tested in this study. Finally, we show that comparative analysis of multiple proteases can be used to detect putative in vivo proteolytic sites on a proteome-wide scale.

  16. Simultaneous determination of estrogens and progestogens in honey using high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This work describes the development and validation of a method for the simultaneous determination of 13 estrogens and progestogens in honey by high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. The target compounds were preconcentrated by solid phase extraction. Pretreatment variables ...

  17. Simplified analysis of glyphosate and aminomethylphosphonic acid in water, vegetation, and soil by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A simple, fast, efficient, and sensitive method was developed for analysis of glyphosate and its degradate, aminomethylphosphonic acid (AMPA), in water, vegetation, and soil. Aqueous extracts were passed through reverse phase and cation exchange columns and directly injected into a tandem mass spect...

  18. An Undergraduate Experiment for the Measurement of Perfluorinated Surfactants in Fish Liver by Liquid Chromatography-Tandem Mass Spectrometry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stock, Naomi L.; Martin, Jonathan W.; Ye, Yun; Mabury, Scott A.

    2007-01-01

    A laboratory experiment that provides students a hands-on introduction to the specific techniques of liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) and electrospray ionization is presented. The students can thus practice the analytical principles of sample extraction, detection, quantification, and quality control using a fresh fish…

  19. Changes in Kicking Pattern: Effect of Experience, Speed, Accuracy, and Effective Striking Mass

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Southard, Dan L.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: The purposes of this study were to: (a) examine the effect of experience and goal constraints (speed, accuracy) on kicking patterns; (b) determine if effective striking mass was independent of ankle velocity at impact; and (c) determine the accuracy of kicks relative to independent factors. Method: Twenty participants were recruited to…

  20. Determination of phosphodiesterase type V inhibitors in wastewater by direct injection followed by liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Causanilles, Ana; Emke, Erik; de Voogt, Pim

    2016-09-15

    A simple, fast and reliable analytical method for the determination of phosphodiesterase type V inhibitors in wastewater was developed and validated. The method was based on direct injection followed by liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry with triple quadrupole as mass analyzer. Transformation products and analogues were included in the target list besides the three active pharmaceutical ingredients (sildenafil, vardenafil and tadalafil). The method performance was thoroughly investigated, including the analyte stability in wastewater and matrix effect. All target compounds presented linear fits between their LOD and 500ng/L. The quantification limits ranged from 1.6 to 30ng/L for all compounds except for n-octylnortadalafil (LOQ: 100ng/L); precision calculated as intraday repeatability was lower than 30%; accuracy calculated as procedural recovery ranged successfully between 85 and 105% in all cases. The method was applied to samples collected during three week-long monitoring campaigns performed in 2013, 2014 and 2015 in three Dutch cities. Only sildenafil and its two metabolites, desmethyl- and desethylsildenafil, were present with normalized loads ranging from LOQ to 8.3, 11.8 and 21.6mg/day/1000 inh, respectively. Two additional week-long sets of samples were collected in Amsterdam at the time that a festival event took place, bringing around 350,000 visitors to the city. The difference in drug usage patterns was statistically studied: "weekday" versus "weekend", "normal" versus "atypical" week; and results discussed. The metabolite to parent drug concentration ratio evolution during consecutive years was discussed, leading to several possible explanations that should be further investigated. Finally, wastewater-based epidemiology approach was applied to back-calculate sildenafil consumption.

  1. Biomonitoring method for bisphenol A in human urine by ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Anderson, David J; Brozek, Eric M; Cox, Kyley J; Porucznik, Christina A; Wilkins, Diana G

    2014-03-15

    An ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method for the measurement of total bisphenol A in human urine was developed and validated. The method utilized liquid/liquid extraction with 1-chlorobutane and a human urine aliquot size of 800μL. Chromatography was performed on an Acquity UPLC(®) system with a Kinetex(®) Phenyl-Hexyl column. Mass spectrometric analysis was with negative electrospray ionization on a Quattro Premier XE™. The surrogate matrix method was used for the preparation of calibration standards in synthetic urine due to the presence of BPA in control human urine. The validated calibration range was 0.75-20ng/mL with a limit of detection of 0.1ng/mL. The internal standard was d16-bisphenol A. Method validation utilized quality control samples at three concentrations in both synthetic urine and human urine. Bisphenol A mono-glucuronide was fortified in synthetic urine in each analytical run to monitor the enzymatic conversion of the glucuronide conjugate to BPA by β-glucuronidase. Validated method parameters included linearity, accuracy, precision, integrity of dilution, selectivity, re-injection reproducibility, recovery/matrix effect, solution stability, and matrix stability in human urine. Acceptance criteria for analytical standards and QCs were ±20% of nominal concentration. Matrix stability in human urine was validated after 24h at ambient temperature, after three freeze/thaw cycles, and after frozen storage at -20°C and -80°C for up to 218 days. The method has been applied to the analysis of over 1750 human urine samples from a biomonitoring study. The median and mean urine BPA concentrations were 2.71ng/mL and 4.75ng/mL, respectively.

  2. A Novel Approach for Untargeted Post-translational Modification Identification Using Integer Linear Optimization and Tandem Mass Spectrometry*

    PubMed Central

    Baliban, Richard C.; DiMaggio, Peter A.; Plazas-Mayorca, Mariana D.; Young, Nicolas L.; Garcia, Benjamin A.; Floudas, Christodoulos A.

    2010-01-01

    A novel algorithm, PILOT_PTM, has been developed for the untargeted identification of post-translational modifications (PTMs) on a template sequence. The algorithm consists of an analysis of an MS/MS spectrum via an integer linear optimization model to output a rank-ordered list of PTMs that best match the experimental data. Each MS/MS spectrum is analyzed by a preprocessing algorithm to reduce spectral noise and label potential complimentary, offset, isotope, and multiply charged peaks. Postprocessing of the rank-ordered list from the integer linear optimization model will resolve fragment mass errors and will reorder the list of PTMs based on the cross-correlation between the experimental and theoretical MS/MS spectrum. PILOT_PTM is instrument-independent, capable of handling multiple fragmentation technologies, and can address the universe of PTMs for every amino acid on the template sequence. The various features of PILOT_PTM are presented, and it is tested on several modified and unmodified data sets including chemically synthesized phosphopeptides, histone H3-(1–50) polypeptides, histone H3-(1–50) tryptic fragments, and peptides generated from proteins extracted from chromatin-enriched fractions. The data sets consist of spectra derived from fragmentation via collision-induced dissociation, electron transfer dissociation, and electron capture dissociation. The capability of PILOT_PTM is then benchmarked using five state-of-the-art methods, InsPecT, Virtual Expert Mass Spectrometrist (VEMS), Modi, Mascot, and X!Tandem. PILOT_PTM demonstrates superior accuracy on both the small and large scale proteome experiments. A protocol is finally developed for the analysis of a complete LC-MS/MS scan using template sequences generated from SEQUEST and is demonstrated on over 270,000 MS/MS spectra collected from a total chromatin digest. PMID:20103568

  3. Method development and validation for rapid quantification of hydroxychloroquine in human blood using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ling-Zhi; Ong, Rina Yue-Ling; Chin, Tan-Min; Thuya, Win-Lwin; Wan, Seow-Ching; Wong, Andrea Li-Ann; Chan, Sui-Yung; Ho, Paul C; Goh, Boon-Cher

    2012-03-05

    A novel and specific liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometric method (LC-MS/MS) was developed and validated for the quantification of hydroxychloroquine in human blood using its stable labeled isotope, hydroxychloroquine-d4 as the internal standard. Chromatographic separation of analytes was achieved using an Agilent ZORBAX Eclipse XDB - C8 analytical HPLC column (50 mm × 2.1 mm, 5 μm). The mobile phase comprising water containing 0.1% formic acid-acetonitrile (94:6, v/v) was delivered isocratically at a flow rate of 0.5 mL/min. The column effluent was detected by API 4000 triple quadrupole mass spectrometer using electrospray ionization (ESI) and monitored by multiple reaction monitoring with positive mode. The precursor to product ion transitions of m/z 336 → 247 and m/z 340 → 251 were used to measure the analyte and IS, respectively. The assay demonstrated a good linear dynamic range of 5-2000 ng/mL for hydroxychloroquine in human blood, with coefficient of determination (r(2)) of =0.9999. The values for intra-day and inter-day precisions of hydroxychloroquine were ≤ 7.86% with the accuracies ranged from 93.8% to 107.6%. The chromatographic run time was 3 min, making it possible to achieve a high throughput analysis. This method was used as a bio-analytical tool in a phase I clinical trial to quantify blood hydroxychloroquine concentrations in patients with non-small cell lung cancer receiving both hydroxychloroquine and gefitinib in their treatment.

  4. Determination of Dicyandiamide in Powdered Milk Using Direct Analysis in Real Time Quadrupole Time-of-Flight Tandem Mass Spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Liya; Yong, Wei; Liu, Jiahui; Wang, Sai; Chen, Qilong; Guo, Tianyang; Zhang, Jichuan; Tan, Tianwei; Su, Haijia; Dong, Yiyang

    2015-08-01

    The direct analysis in real time (DART) ionization source coupled with quadrupole time-of-flight tandem mass spectrometry (Q-TOF MS/MS) system has the capability to desorb analytes directly from samples without sample cleanup or chromatographic separation. In this work, a method based on DART/Q-TOF MS/MS has been developed for rapid identification of dicyandiamide (DCD) present in powdered milk. Simple sample extraction procedure employing acetonitrile-water (80:20, v/v) mixture was followed by direct, high-throughput determination of sample extracts spread on a steel mesh of the transmission module by mass spectrometry under ambient conditions. The method has been evaluated for both qualitative and quantitative analysis of DCD in powdered milk. Variables including experimental apparatus, DART gas heater temperature, sample presentation speed, and vacuum pressure were investigated. The quantitative method was validated with respect to linearity, sensitivity, repeatability, precision, and accuracy by using external standards. After optimization of these parameters, a limit of detection (LOD) of 100 μg kg-1 was obtained for DCD with a linear working range from 100 to 10000 μg kg-1 and a satisfactory correlation coefficient (R2) of 0.9997. Good recovery (80.08%-106.47%) and repeatability (RSD = 3.0%-5.4%) were achieved for DCD. The DART/Q-TOF MS/MS-based method provides a rapid, efficient, and powerful scheme to analyze DCD in powdered milk with limited sample preparation, thus reducing time and complexity of quality control.

  5. Determination of Dicyandiamide in Powdered Milk Using Direct Analysis in Real Time Quadrupole Time-of-Flight Tandem Mass Spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Liya; Yong, Wei; Liu, Jiahui; Wang, Sai; Chen, Qilong; Guo, Tianyang; Zhang, Jichuan; Tan, Tianwei; Su, Haijia; Dong, Yiyang

    2015-08-01

    The direct analysis in real time (DART) ionization source coupled with quadrupole time-of-flight tandem mass spectrometry (Q-TOF MS/MS) system has the capability to desorb analytes directly from samples without sample cleanup or chromatographic separation. In this work, a method based on DART/Q-TOF MS/MS has been developed for rapid identification of dicyandiamide (DCD) present in powdered milk. Simple sample extraction procedure employing acetonitrile-water (80:20, v/v) mixture was followed by direct, high-throughput determination of sample extracts spread on a steel mesh of the transmission module by mass spectrometry under ambient conditions. The method has been evaluated for both qualitative and quantitative analysis of DCD in powdered milk. Variables including experimental apparatus, DART gas heater temperature, sample presentation speed, and vacuum pressure were investigated. The quantitative method was validated with respect to linearity, sensitivity, repeatability, precision, and accuracy by using external standards. After optimization of these parameters, a limit of detection (LOD) of 100 μg kg(-1) was obtained for DCD with a linear working range from 100 to 10000 μg kg(-1) and a satisfactory correlation coefficient (R(2)) of 0.9997. Good recovery (80.08%-106.47%) and repeatability (RSD = 3.0%-5.4%) were achieved for DCD. The DART/Q-TOF MS/MS-based method provides a rapid, efficient, and powerful scheme to analyze DCD in powdered milk with limited sample preparation, thus reducing time and complexity of quality control.

  6. Determination of ginsenoside compound K in human plasma by liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry of lithium adducts

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yunhui; Lu, Youming; Yang, Yong; Chen, Xiaoyan; Zhu, Liang; Zhong, Dafang

    2015-01-01

    Ginsenoside compound K (GCK), the main metabolite of protopanaxadiol constituents of Panax ginseng, easily produces alkali metal adduct ions during mass spectrometry particularly with lithium. Accordingly, we have developed a rapid and sensitive liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometric method for analysis of GCK in human plasma based on formation of a lithium adduct. The analyte and paclitaxel (internal standard) were extracted from 50 µL human plasma using methyl tert-butyl ether. Chromatographic separation was performed on a Phenomenex Gemini C18 column (50 mm×2.0 mm; 5 μm) using stepwise gradient elution with acetonitrile–water and 0.2 mmol/L lithium carbonate at a flow rate of 0.5 mL/min. Detection was performed in the positive ion mode using multiple reaction monitoring of the transitions at m/z 629→449 for the GCK-lithium adduct and m/z 860→292 for the adduct of paclitaxel. The assay was linear in the concentration range 1.00–1000 ng/mL (r2>0.9988) with intra- and inter-day precision of ±8.4% and accuracy in the range of −4.8% to 6.5%. Recovery, stability and matrix effects were all satisfactory. The method was successfully applied to a pharmacokinetic study involving administration of a single GCK 50 mg tablet to healthy Chinese volunteers. PMID:26579476

  7. Identification of two meridianins from the crude extract of the tunicate Aplidium meridianum by tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Seldes, A M; Brasco, M F Rodriguez; Franco, L Hernandez; Palermo, J A

    2007-05-20

    As part of the development of an analytical technique for the detection of meridianins and related compounds in biological fluids, a crude extract of the tunicate Aplidium meridianum was analysed using neutral loss tandem mass spectrometry. The 41 u neutral loss-EI(+) mass spectrum showed molecular ions corresponding to two previously undetected alkaloids. We report herein the isolation and structure elucidation of these alkaloids, meridianins F and G.

  8. Mass disasters: rapid molecular screening of human remains by means of short tandem repeats typing.

    PubMed

    Corach, D; Sala, A; Penacino, G; Sotelo, A

    1995-09-01

    Human remains identification represents a challenging situation and constitutes a difficult task associated with mass disasters. The only highly efficient means for individual and family group reconstruction is that based on DNA typing. On July 18, 1994 an explosion destroyed the A.M.I.A. (Argentine Israeli Association). Over 100 people died; however, the exact number of victims is still being investigated. Our Service received over 70 remains to be characterized by DNA typing in order to determine the number of victims and to try to reconstruct the family groups to which they belonged. DNA was extracted by a cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) based protocol, a rapid molecular screening of all samples was carried out by multiplex STR amplifications including HUMTH01, HUMFABP, HUMHPRTB, HUMRENA4, HUMVWA, HUMFES/FPS and Y27H39LR. Samples with identical genotypes were HaeIII-digested. Southern blotted and probed with YNH-24 (D2S44). PH-30 (D4S139). LH-1 (D5S110) and MS-1 (D1S7) for variable number of tandem repeats (VNTR) evaluation. The minisatellite variant repeat (MVR) approach was used in those cases in which band or profile shift were detected in Southern blot assays. Kinship between victims and putative relatives was initially evaluated by comparison of short tandem repeat (STR) profiles and then confirmed by VNTR with the above probes. The high identification efficiency attained in this case is, in part, supported by a previous experience, the DNA-based molecular characterization of human remains caused by the explosion of the Israeli Embassy in Buenos Aires, March 1992.

  9. Planetary In Situ Sample Analysis with Tandem Two-Step Laser Mass Spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brinckerhoff, W. B.; Getty, S. A.; Cornish, T. J.; Ecelberger, S. A.; Li, X.; Merrill Floyd, M. A.; Arevalo, R.; Elsila, J.; Callahan, M. P.

    2012-12-01

    -) and organic moieties. Second, by focusing a separate "post-ionization" laser pulse just above the sample surface, we can achieve two-step laser mass spectrometry, or L2MS, in the same highly-miniaturized TOF-MS. L2MS enables selective analysis of aromatic organics even in the presence of a complex mineral matrix. Finally, by introducing an ion optical gate in the flight path, we are able to take advantage of the broad focusing capabilities of the "curved field" reflectron at the core of the TOF-MS to achieve pseudo-tandem structural analysis of selected organics. The high-speed gate is used to admit only the molecular ion/s of interest into the reflectron. Diagnostic fragments of the ion/s obtained through metastable decay or active collision-induced dissociation (CID) remain in focus despite having widely variable velocities and masses. As such even molecular isomers with differing fragmentation pathways may be distinguished through a series of pseudo-tandem mass spectra that could be obtained in an automatic process during a mission. The "real-world" benefits of these enhancements are being fully characterized using a set of synthetic and natural standard samples as well as several planetary analogs and meteorites.

  10. Simultaneous determination of eight illegal dyes in chili products by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Li, Juan; Ding, Xiao-Ming; Liu, Dan-Dan; Guo, Fei; Chen, Yu; Zhang, Yan-Bing; Liu, Hong-Min

    2013-12-30

    A sensitive and accurate method based on the use of liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) was developed for the simultaneous determination of eight illegal synthetic dyes (Sudan (I-IV), Para Red, Rhodamine B, Chrysoidin and Auramine O) in chili products. A simple sample treatment procedure entailing the use of an extraction step with acetonitrile/H2O (9/1) without further cleanup was developed. HPLC was performed on a C18 column using a multistep gradient elution with 5mM ammonium acetate (pH 3.0 with formic acid) and methanol as the mobile phase. Mass spectral acquisition was done in multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) mode using positive electrospray ionization (ESI). Linear calibrations were obtained with correlation coefficients R(2)>0.99. Limit of detection (LOD) and limit of quantification (LOQ) for the studied dyes were in the ranges of 0.05-0.6μgkg(-1) and 0.3-3.0μgkg(-1) depending on matrices, respectively. The recoveries of the eight synthetic dyes in five matrices ranged from 70.5% to 119.2%. The intra- and inter-day precisions (RSDs) were between 2.3-15.8% and 5.7-15.6%, respectively. The applicability of the method to the determination of eight banned dyes in chili products was demonstrated.

  11. Isomerization of 4-vinylcyclohexene radical cation. A tandem mass spectrometry study

    SciTech Connect

    Vollmer, D.; Rempel, D.L.; Gross, M. L. ); Williams, F. )

    1995-02-08

    Investigation by matrix-isolation ESR has shown that 4-vinylcyclohexene, 1, surprisingly undergoes isomerization to the bicyclo[3.2.1]oct-2-ene ion, 3. Here we demonstrate the occurrence of this isomerization in the gas phase by use of tandem (MS/MS) sector and Fourier transform (FT) mass spectrometries. The radical cations of 4-vinylcyclohexene (IE = 8.93 eV) or bicyclo[3.2.1]oct-2-ene (approximately 14 kcal/mol more stable than that of 4-vinylcyclohexene) were formed, in separate trials, in a chemical ionization (CI) source by electron ionization (EI). The radical cations were then studied by obtaining their collisionally activated decomposition (CAD) spectra. The CAD spectra are similar, indicating that the isomerization has occurred. Both the sector and the FT mass spectrometer results reflect those obtained in the matrix-isolation ESR investigation. That is isomerizes to 3 at high internal energy, but is stable at low internal energy. Two mechanisms explain this rearrangement. The second mechanism is questionable because the most stable olefin radical cation formed from 5 is that of bicyclo[2.2.2]-2-octene, which gives different ESR and CAD spectra than those of 1 or 3. The CAD spectrum of bicyclo[2.2.2]-2-octene radical cation indicates that the retro-Diels-Alder loss of ethylene is more facile than that from 1 or 3. 18 refs., 3 figs.

  12. Redefining the Breast Cancer Exosome Proteome by Tandem Mass Tag Quantitative Proteomics and Multivariate Cluster Analysis.

    PubMed

    Clark, David J; Fondrie, William E; Liao, Zhongping; Hanson, Phyllis I; Fulton, Amy; Mao, Li; Yang, Austin J

    2015-10-20

    Exosomes are microvesicles of endocytic origin constitutively released by multiple cell types into the extracellular environment. With evidence that exosomes can be detected in the blood of patients with various malignancies, the development of a platform that uses exosomes as a diagnostic tool has been proposed. However, it has been difficult to truly define the exosome proteome due to the challenge of discerning contaminant proteins that may be identified via mass spectrometry using various exosome enrichment strategies. To better define the exosome proteome in breast cancer, we incorporated a combination of Tandem-Mass-Tag (TMT) quantitative proteomics approach and Support Vector Machine (SVM) cluster analysis of three conditioned media derived fractions corresponding to a 10 000g cellular debris pellet, a 100 000g crude exosome pellet, and an Optiprep enriched exosome pellet. The quantitative analysis identified 2 179 proteins in all three fractions, with known exosomal cargo proteins displaying at least a 2-fold enrichment in the exosome fraction based on the TMT protein ratios. Employing SVM cluster analysis allowed for the classification 251 proteins as "true" exosomal cargo proteins. This study provides a robust and vigorous framework for the future development of using exosomes as a potential multiprotein marker phenotyping tool that could be useful in breast cancer diagnosis and monitoring disease progression.

  13. Support Vector Machines for Improved Peptide Identification from Tandem Mass Spectrometry Database Search

    SciTech Connect

    Webb-Robertson, Bobbie-Jo M.

    2009-05-06

    Accurate identification of peptides is a current challenge in mass spectrometry (MS) based proteomics. The standard approach uses a search routine to compare tandem mass spectra to a database of peptides associated with the target organism. These database search routines yield multiple metrics associated with the quality of the mapping of the experimental spectrum to the theoretical spectrum of a peptide. The structure of these results make separating correct from false identifications difficult and has created a false identification problem. Statistical confidence scores are an approach to battle this false positive problem that has led to significant improvements in peptide identification. We have shown that machine learning, specifically support vector machine (SVM), is an effective approach to separating true peptide identifications from false ones. The SVM-based peptide statistical scoring method transforms a peptide into a vector representation based on database search metrics to train and validate the SVM. In practice, following the database search routine, a peptides is denoted in its vector representation and the SVM generates a single statistical score that is then used to classify presence or absence in the sample

  14. De Novo Sequencing of Peptides from Top-Down Tandem Mass Spectra

    SciTech Connect

    Vyatkina, Kira; Wu, Si; Dekker, Lennard J. M.; VanDuijn, Martijn M.; Liu, Xiaowen; Tolić, Nikola; Dvorkin, Mikhail; Alexandrova, Sonya; Luider, Theo M.; Paša-Tolić, Ljiljana; Pevzner, Pavel A.

    2015-11-06

    De novo sequencing of proteins and peptides is one of the most important problems in mass spectrometry-driven proteomics. A variety of methods have been developed to accomplish this task from a set of bottom-up tandem (MS/MS) mass spectra. However, a more recently emerged top-down technology, now gaining more and more popularity, opens new perspectives for protein analysis and characterization, implying a need in efficient algorithms for processing this kind of MS/MS data. Here we describe a method that allows to retrieve from a set of top-down MS/MS spectra long and accurate sequence fragments of the proteins contained in a sample. To this end, we outline a strategy for generating high-quality sequence tags from top-down spectra, and introduce the concept of a T-Bruijn graph by adapting to the case of tags the notion of an A-Bruijn graph widely used in genomics. The output of the proposed approach represents the set of amino acid strings spelled out by optimal paths in the connected components of a T-Bruijn graph. We illustrate its performance on top-down datasets acquired from carbonic anhydrase 2 (CAH2) and the Fab region of alemtuzumab.

  15. Tandem mass spectrometry of peptides using hybrid and four-sector instruments: a comparative study.

    PubMed

    Bean, M F; Carr, S A; Thorne, G C; Reilly, M H; Gaskell, S J

    1991-07-15

    Product-ion spectra produced by high- and low-energy collisionally activated dissociation (CAD) of [M + H]+ ions of a series of peptides (Mr 550-2500) have been compared on four-sector and hybrid tandem mass spectrometers, respectively. The fast atom bombardment product-ion spectra obtained for the smallest peptide analyzed (methionine-enkephalin) were remarkably similar, but substantial differences in fragmentation were observed for the heavier analytes. For peptides with Mr greater than 1000, more complete sequence information was obtained from high-energy CAD on the four-sector instrument. Nevertheless, low-energy CAD on the hybrid mass spectrometer was able to produce partial sequence information even for the largest of the peptides compared. Limits of analysis, defined as the least quantities of analyte for which product-ion spectra of essentially uncompromised quality could be obtained, were similar (ca. 15 pmol) for small peptides, but lower limits were achieved for larger peptides (Mr greater than 1000) with the four-sector instrument. High-energy CAD spectra were found to be highly reproducible, with qualitatively similar spectra obtained over a wide range of operating conditions. In contrast, it was necessary to carefully control collision gas pressures and collision energies in order to obtain good reproducible data for low-energy CAD. Experimental procedures for obtaining reproducible spectra with good sensitivity for peptides on the hybrid instrument are presented.

  16. Tandem mass spectrometry of poly(methacrylic Acid) oligomers produced by negative mode electrospray ionization.

    PubMed

    Giordanengo, Rémi; Viel, Stéphane; Allard-Breton, Béatrice; Thévand, André; Charles, Laurence

    2009-01-01

    Dissociation of small poly(methyl acrylic acid) (PMAA) anions produced by electrospray was characterized by tandem mass spectrometry. Upon collisional activation, singly, and doubly deprotonated PMAA oligomers were shown to fragment via two major reactions, dehydration and decarboxylation. The elimination of a water molecule would occur between two consecutive acid groups in a charged-remote mechanism, giving rise to cyclic anhydrides, and was shown to proceed as many times as pairs of neutral pendant groups were available. As a result, the number of dehydration steps, together with the abundance of the fragment ions produced after the release of all water molecules, revealed the polymerization degree of the molecule in the particular case of doubly charged oligomers. For singly deprotonated molecules, the exact number of MAA units could be reached from the number of carbon dioxide molecules successively eliminated from the fully dehydrated precursor ions. In contrast to dehydration, decarboxylation reactions would proceed via a charge-induced mechanism. The proposed dissociation mechanisms are consistent with results commonly reported in thermal degradation studies of poly(acrylic acid) resins and were supported by accurate mass measurements. These fragmentation rules were successfully applied to characterize a polymeric impurity detected in the tested PMAA sample.

  17. Identification of metabolites of lobeline in the rat urine by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Wei; Peng, Zhihong; Ge, Baoying; Han, Fengmei; Chen, Yong

    2008-01-01

    This is a report about the analysis of lobeline and its metabolites in rat urine by using high-performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization ion trap tandem mass spectrometric method (LC/MSn). The urine of healthy rat were sampled from 0 to 24 h after administered a single dose of lobeline (3 mg/kg) by oral gavage, then centrifuged at 10,000 rpm for 10 min to get the supernatants. The supernatants were purified by solid-phase extraction (SPE) with a C18 cartridge. After the above purified process, the purified urine were injected into a reversed-phase C18 column with mobile phase of methanol/water (70:30, v/v, adjusted to pH 3.5 with formic acid) and detected by an on-line MSn system. The identification and structural elucidation of the metabolites were performed by comparing their changes in molecular mass ([Delta]M), full-scan MSn spectra with those of the parent drug. Ten metabolites of lobeline were found in rat urine. All the metabolites were reported for the first time.

  18. Predicting molecular formulas of fragment ions with isotope patterns in tandem mass spectra.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jingfen; Gao, Wen; Cai, Jinjin; He, Simin; Zeng, Rong; Chen, Runsheng

    2005-01-01

    A number of different approaches have been proposed to predict elemental component formulas (or molecular formulas) of molecular ions in low and medium resolution mass spectra. Most of them rely on isotope patterns, enumerate all possible formulas for an ion, and exclude certain formulas violating chemical constraints. However, these methods cannot be well generalized to the component prediction of fragment ions in tandem mass spectra. In this paper, a new method, FFP (Fragment ion Formula Prediction), is presented to predict elemental component formulas of fragment ions. In the FFP method, the prediction of the best formulas is converted into the minimization of the distance between theoretical and observed isotope patterns. And, then, a novel local search model is proposed to generate a set of candidate formulas efficiently. After the search, FFP applies a new multiconstraint filtering to exclude as many invalid and improbable formulas as possible. FFP is experimentally compared with the previous enumeration methods, and shown to outperform them significantly. The results of this paper can help to improve the reliability of de novo in the identification of peptide sequences.

  19. Liquid Chromatography-Tandem Mass Spectrometry for Analysis of Intestinal Permeability of Loperamide in Physiological Buffer

    PubMed Central

    Rubelt, Miriam S.; Amasheh, Salah; Grobosch, Thomas; Stein, Christoph

    2012-01-01

    Analysis of in vitro samples with high salt concentrations represents a major challenge for fast and specific quantification with liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). To investigate the intestinal permeability of opioids in vitro employing the Ussing chamber technique, we developed and validated a fast, sensitive and selective method based on LC–MS/MS for the determination of loperamide in HEPES-buffered Ringer's solution. Chromatographic separation was achieved with an Atlantis dC18 column, 2.1 mm×20 mm, 3 µm particle size and a gradient consisting of methanol/0.1% formic acid and ammonium acetate. The flow rate was 0.7 ml/min, and the total run time was 3 min. For quantification, two mass transitions for loperamide and a deuterated internal standard (methadone-d3) were used. The lower limit of loperamide quantification was 0.2 ng/ml. This new LC-MS/MS method can be used for the detection of loperamide in any experimental setup using HEPES-buffered Ringer's solution as a matrix compound. PMID:23144895

  20. Characterization of the limonene oxidation products with liquid chromatography coupled to the tandem mass spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Witkowski, Bartłomiej; Gierczak, Tomasz

    2017-04-01

    Composition of the secondary organic aerosol (SOA) generated during ozonolysis of limonene was investigated with liquid chromatography coupled to the negative electrospray ionization (ESI), quadrupole tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) as well as high resolution Time-of-Flight mass spectrometry. Aerosol was generated in the flow-tube reactor. HR-MS/MS analysis allowed for proposing structures for the several up-to-date unknown limonene oxidation products. In addition to the low MW limonene oxidation products, significant quantities of oligomers characterized by elemental compositions: C19H30O5, C18H28O6, C19H28O7, C19H30O7 and C20H34O9 were detected in the SOA samples. It was concluded that these compounds are most likely esters, aldol reaction products and/or hemiacetals. In addition to detailed study of the limonene oxidation products, the reaction time as well as initial ozone concentration impact on the limonene SOA composition was investigated. The relative intensities of the two esters of the limonic acid and 7-hydroxy limononic acid increased as a result of lowering the initial ozone concentration and shortening the reaction time, indicating that esterification may be an important oligomerization pathway during limonene SOA formation.

  1. [Determination of glyphosate and aminomethylphosphonic acid in rice using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry].

    PubMed

    Cao, Zhaoyun; Mou, Renxiang; Chen, Mingxue

    2010-08-01

    A method was developed for the determination of glyphosate (GLY) and aminomethylphosphonic acid (AMPA) in rice using liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). The sample was extracted with water followed by a simple cleanup with a C18 solid phase extraction (SPE) cartridge, and then GLY and AMPA were derivatized using 9-fluorenylmethoxycarbonyl (FMOC-Cl) in borate buffer. The derivatives of GLY and AMPA were separated on a C18 column with gradient elution with the mobile phase of acetonitrile and 5 mmol/L ammonium acetate (pH 9), and finally detected with negative ion electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) in multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) mode. The results showed that the linearities of GLY and AMPA were in the concentration range of 0.000 50 to 1.0 mg/L with the correlation coefficients of 0.999 7 and 0.999 9, respectively. The mean spiked recoveries of GLY and AMPA at 3 spiked levels ranged from 72.5% to 113.6% with the relative standard deviations (RSD, n = 5) of 3.8% - 16.2%. The limits of detection were 2.0 and 3.0 microg/kg for GLY and AMPA, respectively. This method is rapid, sensitive, and suitable for simultaneous determination of GLY and AMPA in rice.

  2. Simultaneous quantitative analysis of isobars by tandem mass spectrometry from unresolved chromatographic peaks.

    PubMed

    Kushnir, Mark M; Rockwood, Alan L; Nelson, Gordon J

    2004-05-01

    A method was developed for the simultaneous quantitation of isobars from unresolved chromatographic peaks. The method is based on differences in branching ratios of ion abundances in their tandem mass spectra and an assumption that the product ion mass spectra of a mixture can be considered as a linear combination of the spectra of individual constituents. We present analytical equations and a matrix-based approach for deconvoluting the concentration of individual components from the total peak intensity for two and three isobars and also a matrix-based generalization to any number of compounds. The feasibility of the simultaneous analysis of mixtures containing two compounds was assessed. The approach was evaluated for the analysis of structural isomers of methylmalonic and succinic acids in human plasma and urine samples for a group of 270 samples. The linear regression equation, standard error and correlation coefficient for the agreement with a traditional method utilizing chromatographic separation of the isomers were y = 0.999x - 0.005, 0.024 micro mol l(-1), and 0.985, respectively. The utility of a spectral contrast angle as a predictor of analysis feasibility was evaluated.

  3. Multidimensional Liquid Chromatography Coupled with Tandem Mass Spectrometry for Identification of Bioactive Fatty Acyl Derivatives

    PubMed Central

    Divito, Erin B.; Kroniser, Kristin M.; Cascio, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Recognition of the contributions of lipids to cellular physiology, both as structural components of the membrane and as modulatory ligands for membrane proteins, has increased in recent years with the development of the biophysical and biochemical tools to examine these effects. Their modulatory roles in ion channels and transporters function have been extensively characterized, with the molecular mechanisms of these activities being the subject of intense scrutiny. The physiological significance of lipids in biochemistry is expanding as numerous fatty acyls are discovered to possess signaling properties. These bioactive lipids are often found in quantities of pmol/g of tissue and are co-extracted with numerous lipophilic molecules, making their detection and identification challenging. Common analytical methodologies involve chromatographic separation and mass spectrometric techniques; however, a single chromatographic step is typically ineffective due to the complexity of the biological samples. It is, therefore, essential to develop approaches that incorporate multiple dimensions of separation. Described in this manuscript are normal phase and reversed phase separation strategies for lipids that include detection of the bioactive primary fatty acid amides and N-acyl glycines via tandem mass spectrometry. Concerted utilization of these approaches are then used to separate and sensitively identify primary fatty acid amides extracted from homogenized tissue, using mouse brains as a test case. PMID:28018237

  4. Identification of palmatine and its metabolites in rat urine by liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Mingming; Han, Fengmei; Chen, Huaixia; Peng, Zhihong; Chen, Yong

    2007-01-01

    Palmatine is an isoquinoline alkaloid that has been widely used in China for the treatment of various inflammatory diseases such as gynecological inflammation, bacillary dysentery, enteritis, respiratory tract infection, urinary infection, etc. In the study reported in this paper, a simple and rapid high-performance liquid chromatography/electrospray ionization (ESI) tandem mass spectrometric method (MS/MS) was developed for elucidation of the structures of metabolites of palmatine in rat urine after administration of a single dose (20 mg/kg). The rat urine samples were collected and purified through C18 solid-phase extraction cartridges, and then injected onto a reversed-phase C18 column with 60:40 (v/v) methanol/0.01% triethylamine solution (2 mM, adjusted to pH 3.5 with formic acid) as mobile phase and detected by on-line MS/MS. Identification of the metabolites and elucidation of their structures were performed by comparing changes in molecular masses (DeltaM), retention times and spectral patterns of product ions with those of the parent drug. As a result, six phase I metabolites, the parent drug palmatine and two phase II metabolites were identified in rat urine for the first time.

  5. The inclusion of ADA-SCID in expanded newborn screening by tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    la Marca, Giancarlo; Giocaliere, Elisa; Malvagia, Sabrina; Funghini, Silvia; Ombrone, Daniela; Della Bona, Maria Luisa; Canessa, Clementina; Lippi, Francesca; Romano, Francesca; Guerrini, Renzo; Resti, Massimo; Azzari, Chiara

    2014-01-01

    Severe combined immunodeficiency due to adenosine-deaminase defect (ADA-SCID) is usually deadly in childhood because of severe recurrent infections. When clinical diagnosis is done, permanent damages due to infections or metabolite accumulation are often present. Gene therapy, bone marrow transplantation or enzyme replacement therapy may be effective if started early. The aim of this study was to set-up a robust method suitable for screening with a minimized preparation process and with inexpensive running costs, for diagnosing ADA-SCID by tandem mass spectrometry. ADA-SCID satisfies all the criteria for inclusion in a newborn screening program. We describe a protocol revised to incorporate adenosine and 2-deoxyadenosine testing into an expanded newborn screening program. We assessed the effectiveness of this approach testing dried blood spots from 4 genetically confirmed early-onset and 5 delayed-onset ADA-SCID patients. Reference values were established on 50,000 healthy newborns (deoxyadenosine <0.09μmol/L, adenosine <1.61μmol/L). We also developed a second tier test to distinguish true positives from false positives and improve the positive predictive value of an initial abnormal result. In the first 18 months, the pilot project has identified a newborn with a genetically confirmed defect in adenosine deaminase (ADA) gene. The results show that the method having great simplicity, low cost and low process preparations can be fully applicable to a mass screening program.

  6. Does deamidation cause protein unfolding? A top-down tandem mass spectrometry study

    PubMed Central

    Soulby, Andrew J; Heal, Jack W; Barrow, Mark P; Roemer, Rudolf A; O'Connor, Peter B

    2015-01-01

    Deamidation is a nonenzymatic post-translational modification of asparagine to aspartic acid or glutamine to glutamic acid, converting an uncharged amino acid to a negatively charged residue. It is plausible that deamidation of asparagine and glutamine residues would result in disruption of a proteins' hydrogen bonding network and thus lead to protein unfolding. To test this hypothesis Calmodulin and B2M were deamidated and analyzed using tandem mass spectrometry on a Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometer (FTICR-MS). The gas phase hydrogen bonding networks of deamidated and nondeamidated protein isoforms were probed by varying the infra-red multi-photon dissociation laser power in a linear fashion and plotting the resulting electron capture dissociation fragment intensities as a melting curve at each amino acid residue. Analysis of the unfolding maps highlighted increased fragmentation at lower laser powers localized around heavily deamidated regions of the proteins. In addition fragment intensities were decreased across the rest of the proteins which we propose is because of the formation of salt-bridges strengthening the intramolecular interactions of the central regions. These results were supported by a computational flexibility analysis of the mutant and unmodified proteins, which would suggest that deamidation can affect the global structure of a protein via modification of the hydrogen bonding network near the deamidation site and that top down FTICR-MS is an appropriate technique for studying protein folding. PMID:25653127

  7. Poiseuille flow-induced vibrations of two tandem circular cylinders with different mass ratios

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Ren-Jie; Lin, Jian-Zhong

    2016-06-01

    Flow-induced vibrations of two tandem circular cylinders with different mass ratios confined between two parallel walls are numerically studied via a lattice Boltzmann method. With fixed Reynolds number Re = 100 and blockage ratio β = 1/4, the effects of mass ratio m* = [0.0625, 16] and streamwise separation between two cylinders S/D = [1.125, 10] on the cylinder motions and vortex wake modes are investigated. A variety of distinct cylinder motion regimes involving the symmetric periodic vibration, biased quasi-periodic vibration, beating vibration, and steady regimes, with the corresponding wake structures, e.g., two rows of alternately rotating vortices, a single row of same-sign vortices, and steady wake, are observed. For each current case, the cylinder motion type is exclusive and in the binary oscillation regime, both cylinders always vibrate at a common primary frequency. The lighter cylinder usually oscillates at a larger amplitude than the heavier one, while the heavier cylinder undergoes larger lift force than the lighter one. The lift force and cylinder displacement always behave as an out-of-phase state. In the gap-interference region, large-amplitude oscillations could be produced extensively and in the wake-interference region, the cylinder motions and fluid flows are mainly dependent on the upstream cylinder. When the separation is large enough, both cylinders behave as two isolated ones. The mechanisms for the excitations of cylinder vibrations have also been analysed.

  8. Detection and characterization of N-alpha-chloramines by electrospray tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Raftery, Mark J

    2007-07-15

    Hypochlorous acid (HOCl) is a major product of activated neutrophils and may be important in antimicrobial activities of cells by oxidation or chlorination of susceptible amino acids. Three major peaks separated using C18 reverse phase-high-performance liquid chromatography RP-HPLC after incubation of leucine enkephalin (LeuEnk) with HOCl. Electrospray mass spectrometry showed masses of m/z 556.2, 590.2, and 624.4 corresponding to unmodified LeuEnk and peptides altered by addition of one or two chlorines (Cl). Formation of stable N-alpha-chloramines was indicated because the chlorinated peptides were readily reduced with the physiological reductants glutathione and ascorbic acid to LeuEnk (m/z 556.2) within 10 min. Sequence-specific ions observed in product ion spectra of single-charged monochlorinated and dichlorinated peptides were consistent with modification of the N-terminal amine. There was no evidence for chlorination of the Tyr aromatic ring in any spectra. Similar RP-HPLC profiles were obtained after oxidation of des-Tyr1-LeuEnk (GGFL) with the masses of the major products being m/z 393.3, 427.2, and 461.1. These were identified as unmodified GGFL, N-alpha-Cl-GGFL, and N-alpha-Cl2-GGFL based on comparison of tandem mass spectra. Oxidation of Met and formation of disulfide dimers was observed after incubation of either N-alpha-Cl-LeuEnk or N-alpha-Cl2-LeuEnk with a protein, indicating that both peptide N-alpha-chloramines were able to readily modify sulfur-containing amino acids within proteins. These data indicate initial formation of stable N-alpha-chorinated peptides after incubation with HOCl and suggest that N-alpha-chlorinated peptides may exist for some hours in the absence of physiological reducing agents or sulfur-containing amino acids.

  9. Development and validation of a sensitive liquid chromatographic-tandem mass spectrometric method for the determination of cromolyn sodium in human plasma.

    PubMed

    Lin, Zhongping John; Abbas, Richat; Rusch, Lorraine M; Shum, Linyee

    2003-05-05

    Cromolyn sodium is a safe compound with potent anti-allergic properties when used locally or topically. Clinical data from systemic exposure is not available because of the poor GI absorption when given orally. In order to evaluate a new approach to enhance the absorption and bioavailability of cromolyn sodium, a sensitive assay was needed to support an oral-dose study in humans. This paper describes a liquid chromatographic-tandem mass spectrometric (LC-MS-MS) method for the analysis of cromolyn sodium in human plasma. The method consists of a two-step extraction with subsequent analysis using a high-performance liquid chromatography electrospray tandem mass spectrometer system. The compounds were eluted isocratically on a C(18) column followed by a backflush. The total run time is 6 min. The standard curve of cromolyn sodium was over the range of 0.313 to 750 ng/mL with a lower limit of quantitation (LLOQ) of 0.313 ng/mL when 0.5 mL of plasma was used for analysis. The percent coefficient of variation (C.V.) for accuracy and precision (inter-assay and intra-assay) was less than 15% over the validated concentration range and the coefficients of determination, r(2), were >0.991577. The method is simple, sensitive, and selective, and has been successfully utilized for oral cromolyn sodium clinical studies.

  10. Classification of the medicinal plants of the genus Atractylodes using high-performance liquid chromatography with diode array and tandem mass spectrometry detection combined with multivariate statistical analysis.

    PubMed

    Cho, Hyun-Deok; Kim, Unyong; Suh, Joon Hyuk; Eom, Han Young; Kim, Junghyun; Lee, Seul Gi; Choi, Yong Seok; Han, Sang Beom

    2016-04-01

    Analytical methods using high-performance liquid chromatography with diode array and tandem mass spectrometry detection were developed for the discrimination of the rhizomes of four Atractylodes medicinal plants: A. japonica, A. macrocephala, A. chinensis, and A. lancea. A quantitative study was performed, selecting five bioactive components, including atractylenolide I, II, III, eudesma-4(14),7(11)-dien-8-one and atractylodin, on twenty-six Atractylodes samples of various origins. Sample extraction was optimized to sonication with 80% methanol for 40 min at room temperature. High-performance liquid chromatography with diode array detection was established using a C18 column with a water/acetonitrile gradient system at a flow rate of 1.0 mL/min, and the detection wavelength was set at 236 nm. Liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry was applied to certify the reliability of the quantitative results. The developed methods were validated by ensuring specificity, linearity, limit of quantification, accuracy, precision, recovery, robustness, and stability. Results showed that cangzhu contained higher amounts of atractylenolide I and atractylodin than baizhu, and especially atractylodin contents showed the greatest variation between baizhu and cangzhu. Multivariate statistical analysis, such as principal component analysis and hierarchical cluster analysis, were also employed for further classification of the Atractylodes plants. The established method was suitable for quality control of the Atractylodes plants.

  11. Determination of Drugs in Plasma Samples by High-Performance Liquid Chromatography-Tandem Mass Spectrometry for Therapeutic Drug Monitoring of Schizophrenic Patients.

    PubMed

    Domingues, Diego Soares; Pinto, Mônia Aparecida Lemos; de Souza, Israel Donizeti; Hallak, Jaime Eduardo Cecilio; Crippa, José Alexandre de Souza; Queiroz, Maria Eugênia Costa

    2016-01-01

    This work describes the development of a simple, sensitive and selective method based on high-performance liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS-MS) to determine antipsychotics (olanzapine, quetiapine, clozapine, haloperidol and chlorpromazine) along with antidepressants (mirtazapine, paroxetine, citalopram, sertraline, imipramine, clomipramine and fluoxetine), anticonvulsants (carbamazepine and lamotrigine) and anxiolytics (diazepam and clonazepam) in plasma samples obtained from schizophrenic patients. The samples were prepared by protein precipitation. The target drugs were separated on an XSelect SCH C18 column (100 mm × 2.1 mm × 2.5 µm) within 8.0 min by means of gradient elution. The drugs were then detected on a quadrupole tandem mass spectrometer equipped with an electrospray ionization source, operating in the multiple reactions monitoring mode and in the positive ionization mode. The LC-MS-MS method was linear range from subtherapeutic to toxic concentrations with lower limit of quantification values ranged from 0.2 to 5.0 ng mL(-1), precision with coefficient of variation values lower than 12%, and accuracy ranged from 90 to 108%. The developed method enabled successful analysis of the target drugs in plasma samples obtained from 51 schizophrenic patients. Therapeutic drug monitoring revealed that many of the evaluated schizophrenic patients presented altered plasma concentrations of the analyzed drugs. These altered concentrations resulted from pharmacokinetic interactions among the medications prescribed to treat schizophrenia.

  12. Ultrapressure liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry assay using atmospheric pressure photoionization (UPLC-APPI-MS/MS) for quantification of 4-methoxydiphenylmethane in pharmacokinetic evaluation.

    PubMed

    Farhan, Nashid; Fitzpatrick, Sean; Shim, Yun M; Paige, Mikell; Chow, Diana Shu-Lian

    2016-09-05

    4-Methoxydiphenylmethane (4-MDM), a selective augmenter of Leukotriene A4 Hydrolase (LTA4H), is a new anti-inflammatory compound for potential treatment of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Currently, there is no liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometric (LC-MS/MS) method for the quantification of 4-MDM. A major barrier for developing the LC-MS/MS method is the inability of electrospray ionization (ESI) and atmospheric pressure chemical ionization (APCI) to ionize 4-MDM due to its hydrophobicity and lack of any functional group for ionization. With the advent of atmospheric pressure photoionization (APPI) technique, many hydrophobic compounds have been demonstrated to ionize by charge transfer reactions. In this study, a highly sensitive ultrapressure liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry assay using atmospheric pressure photoionization (UPLC-APPI-MS/MS) for the quantifications of 4-MDM in rat plasma has been developed and validated. 4-MDM was extracted from the plasma by solid phase extraction (SPE) and separated chromatographically using a reverse phase C8 column. The photoionization (PI) was achieved by introducing anisole as a dopant to promote the reaction of charge transfer. The assay with a linear range of 5 (LLOQ)-400ngmL(-1) met the regulatory requirements for accuracy, precision and stability. The validated assay was employed to quantify the plasma concentrations of 4-MDM after an oral dosing in Sprague Dawley (SD) rats.

  13. Liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method for determination of panel of neurotransmitters in cerebrospinal fluid from the rat model for tauopathy.

    PubMed

    Kovac, Andrej; Somikova, Zuzana; Zilka, Norbert; Novak, Michal

    2014-02-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is still being recognized today as an unmet medical need. Currently, there is no cure and early preclinical diagnostic assay available for AD. Therefore much attention is now being directed at the development of novel methods for quantitative determination of AD biomarkers in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). Here, we describe the liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method for determination of 5-hydroxytryptamine (SER), 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA), homovanilic acid (HVA), noradrenaline (NADR), adrenaline (ADR), dopamine (DA), glutamic acid (Glu), γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA), 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid (DOPAC) and histamine (HIS) in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) from the rat model for human tauopathy. The benzoyl chloride was used as pre-column derivatization reagents. Neurotransmitters and metabolites were analysed on ultra performance liquid chromatography (UPLC) on C18 column in combination with tandem mass spectrometry. The method is simple, highly sensitive and showed excellent linearity with regression coefficients higher than 0.99. The accuracy was in a range of 93-113% for all analytes. The inter-day precision (n=5 days), expressed as %RSD, was in a range 2-10% for all analytes. Using this method we detected significant changes of CSF levels of two important neurotransmitters/metabolites, ADR and 5-HIAA, which correlates with progression of neurodegeneration in our animal model.

  14. Rapid simultaneous analysis of 17 haloacetic acids and related halogenated water contaminants by high-performance ion chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Xue, Runmiao; Donovan, Ariel; Shi, Honglan; Yang, John; Hua, Bin; Inniss, Enos; Eichholz, Todd

    2016-09-01

    Haloacetic acids (HAAs), which include chloroacetic acids, bromoacetic acids, and emerging iodoacetic acids, are toxic water disinfection byproducts. General screening methodology is lacking for simultaneously monitoring chloro-, bromo-, and iodoacetic acids. In this study, a rapid and sensitive high-performance ion chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method for simultaneous determination of chloro-, bromo-, and iodo- acetic acids and related halogenated contaminants including bromate, bromide, iodate, and iodide was developed to directly analyze water samples after filtration, eliminating the need for preconcentration, and chemical derivatization. The resulting method was validated in both untreated and treated water matrices including tap water, bottled water, swimming pool water, and both source water and drinking water from a drinking water treatment facility to demonstrate application potential. Satisfactory accuracies and precisions were obtained for all types of tested samples. The detection limits of this newly developed method were lower or comparable with similar techniques without the need for extensive sample treatment requirement and it includes all HAAs and other halogenated compounds. This provides a powerful methodology to water facilities for routine water quality monitoring and related water research, especially for the emerging iodoacetic acids. Graphical abstract High performance ion chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method for detection of haloacetic acids in water.

  15. Determination of alprostadil in rat plasma by ultra performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry after intravenous administration.

    PubMed

    Lin, Xia; Zhang, Yu; Cui, Yue; Wang, Lin; Wang, Jing; Tang, Xing

    2009-05-01

    A rapid, highly selective ultra performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionisation-tandem mass spectrometry method (UPLC-ESI-MS/MS) was developed and validated for the determination and pharmacokinetic investigation of alprostadil in rat plasma. After a simple sample preparation procedure involving a one-step liquid-liquid extraction, alprostadil and the internal standard, diphenhydramine, were chromatographed on an ACQUITY UPLC BEH C(18) column with gradient elution using a mobile phase consisting of acetonitrile and water (containing 0.1% formic acid) at a flow rate of 0.25 mL min(-1). The detection was performed on a triple quadrupole tandem mass spectrometer in multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) mode via an electrospray ionization (ESI) source. The calibration curve was linear (r(2)=0.99) over the concentration range 0.4-250.0 ng mL(-1), with a lower limit of quantification of 0.4 ng mL(-1) for alprostadil. The inter- and intra-day precision (%R.S.D.) was less than 8.5% and 2.4%, respectively, and the accuracy (RE%) was between 9.3% and 1.0% (n=6). Alprostadil in rat plasma was stable when stored at room temperature for 0.5h and at -20 degrees C for two weeks. The method was very rapid, simple and reliable, and was employed for the first time for the pharmacokinetic studies of alprostadil in rats after a single intravenous administration of 50 microg kg(-1).

  16. Determination of parabens in urine samples by microextraction using packed sorbent and ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Cristina Jardim, Valeria; de Paula Melo, Lidervan; Soares Domingues, Diego; Costa Queiroz, Maria Eugênia

    2015-01-01

    A simple, sensitive, and selective method using ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS) was developed and validated for simultaneous determination of parabens [methyl paraben (MeP), ethyl paraben (EtP), propyl paraben (PrP), butyl paraben (BuP), and benzyl paraben (BzP)] in human urine samples. After microextraction by packed sorbent (MEPS) using a C18 phase, the parabens were separated on a Kinetex C18 column (100 mm × 2.1 mm × 1.7 μm) within 4.6 min using isocratic elution. These compounds were detected on a triple quadrupole tandem mass spectrometer using the multiple reactions monitoring (MRM) mode via an electrospray ionization source operating in the negative ionization mode. Important factors that influence MEPS performance were evaluated, such as the sample pH, draw-eject sample volume, clean-up step, and desorption conditions. The proposed MEPS/UPLC-MS/MS method presented a linear range from 0.5 ng mL(-1) (limit of quantification - LOQ) to 50 ng mL(-1), and interassay precision with coefficients of variation lower than 15%, and relative standard error values of the accuracy ranged from -8.8% to 15%. The MEPS/UPLC-MS/MS method was applied successfully to determine parabens in urine samples from 30 postpartum volunteers, enabling assessment of human exposure to these compounds.

  17. Simultaneous quantification of two canthinone alkaloids of Picrasma quassioides in rat plasma by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry and its application to a rat pharmacokinetic study.

    PubMed

    Shi, Yuanyuan; Hong, Chunyan; Xu, Jian; Yang, Xiaoling; Xie, Ning; Feng, Feng; Liu, Wenyuan

    2015-04-01

    Picrasma quassioides (D. Don) Benn. is used in traditional Chinese medicine for the treatment of inflammation. Characteristic components of the medicinal extract are canthinone alkaloids. In this study, a sensitive and rapid liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry method has been developed for simultaneous quantification of two major canthinone alkaloids, 5-hydroxy-4-methoxycanthin-6-one and 4,5-dimethoxycanthin-6-one, in rat plasma after oral administration of P. quassioides extract (200 mg/kg). The chromatographic separation was performed on a C18 column using acetonitrile-aqueous 0.1% formic acid (90:10, v/v) as the mobile phase. Plasma samples were prepared for analysis using a simple liquid-liquid extraction with ethyl acetate. Analytes were detected using tandem mass spectrometry in positive multiple reaction monitoring mode. Method validation revealed excellent linearity over the range 1.25-900 ng/mL for 5-hydroxy-4-methoxycanthin-6-one and 0.5-800 ng/mL for 4,5-dimethoxycanthin-6-one with satisfactory intra- and inter-day precision, accuracy and recovery. Samples were stable under the conditions tested. The pharmacokinetic profiles of the analytes in rats showed that both canthinones were rapidly absorbed and that 4,5-dimethoxycanthin-6-one was eliminated faster than 5-hydroxy-4-methoxycanthin-6-one.

  18. Analysis of drugs in plasma samples from schizophrenic patients by column-switching liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry with organic-inorganic hybrid cyanopropyl monolithic column.

    PubMed

    Domingues, Diego Soares; Souza, Israel Donizeti de; Queiroz, Maria Eugênia Costa

    2015-07-01

    This study reports on the development of a rapid, selective, and sensitive column-switching liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method to analyze sixteen drugs (antidepressants, anticonvulsants, anxiolytics, and antipsychotics) in plasma samples from schizophrenic patients. The developed organic-inorganic hybrid monolithic column with cyanopropyl groups was used for the first dimension of the column-switching arrangement. This arrangement enabled online pre-concentration of the drugs (monolithic column) and their subsequent analytical separation on an XSelect SCH C18 column. The drugs were detected on a triple quadrupole tandem mass spectrometer (multiple reactions monitoring mode) with an electrospray ionization source in the positive ion mode. The developed method afforded adequate linearity for the sixteen target drugs; the coefficients of determination (R(2)) lay above 0.9932, the interassay precision had coefficients of variation lower than 6.5%, and the relative standard error values of the accuracy ranged from -14.0 to 11.8%. The lower limits of quantification in plasma samples ranged from 63 to 1250pgmL(-1). The developed method successfully analyzed the target drugs in plasma samples from schizophrenic patients for therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM).

  19. Identification and quantification of 34 drugs and toxic compounds in blood, urine, and gastric content using liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Liang, Chen; Ye, Haiying; Wang, Rong; Ni, Chunfang; Rao, Yulan; Zhang, Yurong

    2015-05-01

    A liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry method was developed for the simultaneous screening of 34 drugs and poisons in forensic cases. Blood (0.5 mL, diluted 1:1 with water) or 1.0 mL of urine was purified by solid-phase extraction. Gastric contents (diluted 1:1 with water) were treated with acetonitrile, centrifuged, and supernatant injected. Detection was achieved using a Waters Alliance 2695/Quattro Premier XE liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry system equipped with electrospray ionization, operated in the multiple reaction monitoring modes. The method was validated for accuracy, precision, linearity, and recovery. The absolute recovery of drugs and toxic compounds in blood was greater than 51% with the limit of detection in the range of 0.02-20 ng/mL. The absolute recovery of drugs and toxic compounds in urine was greater than 61% with limit of detection in the range of 0.01-10 ng/mL. The matrix effect of drugs and toxic compounds in urine was 65-117% and 67-121% in blood. The limit of detection of drugs and toxic compounds in gastric content samples were in the range of 0.05-20 ng/mL. This method was applied to the routine analysis of drugs and toxic compounds in postmortem blood, urine, and gastric content samples. The method was applied to actual forensic cases with examples given.

  20. Data supporting the rat brain sample preparation and validation assays for simultaneous determination of 8 neurotransmitters and their metabolites using liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    Wojnicz, Aneta; Ortiz, José Avendaño; Casas, Ana I.; Freitas, Andiara E.; López, Manuela G.; Ruiz-Nuño, Ana

    2016-01-01

    The data presented in this article supports the rat brain sample preparation procedure previous to its injection into the liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry (LC–MS/MS) system to monitor levels of adrenaline, noradrenaline, glutamic acid, γ-aminobutyric acid, dopamine, 5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-hydroxyindole acetic acid, and 3-methoxy-4-hydroxyphenylglycol. In addition, we describe the method validation assays (such as calibration curve, lower limit of quantification, precision and accuracy intra- and inter-day, selectivity, extraction recovery and matrix effect, stability, and carry-over effect) according to the United States Food and Drug Administration and European Medicine Agency to measure in one step different neurotransmitters and their metabolites. The data supplied in this article is related to the research study entitled: “Simultaneous determination of 8 neurotransmitters and their metabolite levels in rat brain using liquid chromatography in tandem with mass spectrometry: application to the murine Nrf2 model of depression” (Wojnicz et al. 2016) [1]. PMID:27054183

  1. Simplified method for determination of clarithromycin in human plasma using protein precipitation in a 96-well format and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Shin, Jaekyu; Pauly, Daniel F; Johnson, Julie A; Frye, Reginald F

    2008-08-01

    A simplified method to determine clarithromycin concentrations in human plasma using protein precipitation in a 96-well plate and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry was developed and validated. Plasma proteins were precipitated with acetonitrile and roxithromycin was used as the internal standard. After vortex mixing and centrifugation, the supernatants were directly injected onto a Phenomenex Luna Phenyl-Hexyl column (50 mm x 2.0 mm ID, 3 microm). The mobile phase consisted of water and methanol (30:70, v/v) containing 0.1% formic acid and 5mM ammonium acetate. The flow rate was 0.22 mL/min and the total run time (injection to injection) was less than 3 min. Detection of the analytes was achieved using positive ion electrospray tandem mass spectrometry in selected reaction monitoring (SRM) mode. The linear standard curve ranged from 100 to 5000 ng/mL and the precision and accuracy (inter- and intra-run) were within 7.9% and 4.9%, respectively. The method was successfully used to determine clarithromycin concentrations in human plasma samples obtained from healthy subjects who were given clarithromycin 500 mg for 3 days. The method is rapid, simple, precise and directly applicable to clarithromycin pharmacokinetic studies.

  2. Simultaneous determination of Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol, cannabidiol, cannabinol and 11-nor-Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol-9-carboxylic acid in hair using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Dulaurent, S; Gaulier, J M; Imbert, L; Morla, A; Lachâtre, G

    2014-03-01

    For several years, hair analyses have become a powerful tool to investigate past exposure towards xenobiotics. In the case of illicit drugs and more precisely of cannabis exposure, four compounds are usually investigated: Δ(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), the main active compound of cannabis, one of its metabolites [11-nor-Δ(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol-9-carboxylic acid (THC-COOH)] and two cannabinoids (cannabinol and cannabidiol). Up until now, the hair determination of the carboxylic metabolite of THC, which has been described as the only marker allowing distinguishing consumption and passive exposure, has been performed using a gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method. The aim of this study was to develop a liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method for the simultaneous quantitative determination of the four markers. The sample preparation was based on an alkaline hydrolysis of hair samples followed by a liquid-liquid extraction of compounds in acidic conditions using a hexane/ethyl acetate mixture. The method was validated and the results were satisfactory: intra- and inter-assay accuracies below 9% and relative standard deviation below 15% for the four compounds. Moreover, the limit of quantification for THC-COOH, the most challenging compound, was validated at 0.2 pg/mg. This concentration is in accordance with the recommendations made by a scientific society which specializes in hair testing. It makes it possible to distinguish the kind of exposure to cannabis.

  3. Sensitive analysis of anti-HIV drugs, efavirenz, lopinavir and ritonavir, in human hair by liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yong; Gandhi, Monica; Greenblatt, Ruth M; Gee, Winnie; Lin, Emil T; Messenkoff, Nicholas

    2008-11-01

    A highly sensitive and selective method using liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS) was developed and validated for the measurement of three antiretroviral agents, efavirenz, lopinavir and ritonavir, in human hair. Hair samples from adherent HIV-infected patients on antiretroviral therapies were cut into about 1 mm length segments and drugs were extracted by first shaking the samples with methanol in a 37 degrees C water bath overnight (>14 h), followed by methyl tert-butyl ether/ethyl acetate (1:1) extraction under weak alkaline conditions. The extracted lopinavir and ritonavir were separated by reversed-phase chromatography and detected by tandem mass spectrometry in electrospray positive ionization mode with multiple reaction monitoring (MRM), while efavirenz was monitored in negative ionization MRM mode. This method was validated from 0.01 to 4.0 ng/mg hair for ritonavir and 0.05-20 ng/mg hair for lopinavir and efavirenz by using 2 mg of a human hair sample. The interday and intraday assay precision (coefficients of variation, CV) for spiked quality control (QC) samples at low, medium and high concentrations were within 15% and accuracy ranged from 89% to 110%. Assay reproducibility was also demonstrated by analysis of incurred hair QC samples (CV <14%). No significant matrix ionization suppression was observed. This developed method allowed for the monitoring of these target medications in the hair samples of HIV-infected women on antiretroviral therapy in an observational study using small amounts of hair.

  4. Matrix effect on the determination of synthetic corticosteroids and diuretics by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dikunets, M. A.; Appolonova, S. A.; Rodchenkov, G. M.

    2009-04-01

    This work presents a high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS) procedure for selective and reliable screening of corticosteroids and diuretics in human urine. Sample preparation included the extraction, evaporation of the organic extract under nitrogen, and solution of the dry residue. The extract was analyzed by HPLC combined with tandem mass spectrometry using electro-spraying ionization at atmospheric pressure with negative ion recording. The mass spectra of all compounds were recorded, and the characteristic ions, retention times, and detection limits were determined. The procedure was validated by evaluating the degree of the matrix suppression of ionization, extraction of analytes from human biological liquid, and the selectivity and specificity of determination.

  5. Chemical constituents of Meconopsis horridula and their simultaneous quantification by high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jiajia; Wu, Haimei; Zheng, Feng; Liu, Wenyuan; Feng, Feng; Xie, Ning

    2014-09-01

    Meconopsis horridula Hook.f. Thoms has been used as a traditional Tibetan medicine to clear away heat, relieve pain, and mobilize static blood. In this study, a reliable method based on high-performance liquid chromatography with diode array detection and electrospray ionization quadrupole time-of-flight tandem mass spectrometry was established for the identification of components in this herb. A total of 40 compounds (including 17 flavonoids, 15 alkaloids, and eight phenylpropanoids) were identified or tentatively identified. Among them, 17 components were identified in the herb for the first time. Compound 39 appears to be a novel compound, which is confirmed as 3-(kaempferol-8-yl)-2,3-epoxyflavanone by NMR spectroscopy and mass spectrometry. Moreover, seven major constituents were simultaneously quantified by the developed high-performance liquid chromatography with tandem triple-quadrupole mass spectrometry method. The quantitative method was validated and quality parameters were established. The study provides a comprehensive approach for understanding this herbal medicine.

  6. Determination of cyclophosphamide and ifosfamide in sewage effluent by stable isotope-dilution liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Llewellyn, N; Lloyd, P; Jürgens, M D; Johnson, A C

    2011-11-25

    A reliable and specific method was developed for the determination of the cytotoxic drugs cyclophosphamide and ifosfamide in sewage effluent. The most successful combination was found to be Strata-X solid-phase extraction followed by Florisil® clean-up with analysis by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Quantification by internal standardisation was achieved using custom synthesised d4-cyclophophosphamide. The mass spectrometer was operated in highly selective reaction monitoring (HSRM) mode, which significantly reduced matrix noise and improved sensitivity. Although it suffered from some ionisation suppression, electrospray ionisation (ESI) was found to give an order of magnitude better sensitivity in terms of limit of detection than atmospheric pressure chemical ionisation (APCI). Using final effluent from two different sewage treatment plants, the method was validated following official European guidelines and shown to be a high performance tool for routine analysis at the sub-nanogram per litre level. Depending on the matrix, the limit of detection for cyclophosphamide was between 0.03 ng/L and 0.12 ng/L and for ifosfamide between 0.05 ng/L and 0.09 ng/L. For cyclophosphamide the accuracy and precision, tested at 1.7 ng/L, were 98-109% and ≤ 13%, CV respectively. For ifosfamide the accuracy and precision, tested at 1.1 ng/L, were 98-113% and ≤ 15% CV, respectively. Depending on the sample matrix the absolute recovery of the internal standard was between 57% and 70%. The method was tested by analysis of spot samples taken from the final effluent discharges of two sewage treatment plants; the first using a conventional trickling filter treatment process and second employing activated sludge followed by ultra violet treatment. Cyclophosphamide was detected at 0.19 ng/L at the first plant and at the second detected at 3.7 ng/L and 3.5 ng/L, before and after the UV treatment process; ifosfamide was not detectable at either plant.

  7. Characterization of N-Succinylation of L-Lysylphosphatidylglycerol in Bacillus subtilis Using Tandem Mass Spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Atila, Metin; Katselis, George; Chumala, Paulos; Luo, Yu

    2016-10-01

    Phospholipids generally dominate in bacterial lipids. The negatively charged nature of phospholipids renders bacteria susceptible to cationic antibiotic peptides. In comparison with Gram-negative bacteria, Gram-positive bacteria in general have much less zwitterionic phosphatidylethanolamine. However, they are known for producing aminoacylated phosphatidylglycerol (PG), especially positively charged l-lysyl-PG, which is catalyzed by lysyl-PG synthase MprF, which appears to have a broad range of specificity for l-aminoacyl transfer RNAs. In addition, many Gram-positive bacteria also have a dlt-gene-coded d-alanylation pathway for lipoteichoic acids and wall teichoic acids covalently attached to a glycolipid or peptidoglycan. d-Alanylation also masks the dominant negative charge of the phosphate-rich polymers of teichoic acids. Using mass spectrometry, we have recently observed that precursor scans in negative mode for deprotonated amino acid fragments were most sensitive for ester-linked amino acids. Such a scan for precursors generating an m/ z 145 lysyl anion revealed lysyl-PG as well as an additional species 100 m/ z units greater than lysyl-PG. This unexpected species corresponded precisely to the expected mass of N-succinylated lysyl-PG. Tandem mass spectrometry revealed a precise match to the fragmentation pattern of this putative new species. PG, lysyl-PG, and N-succinyl-lysyl-PG may form a complete loop of charge reversal from -1 to +1 and then back to -1. Analogous charge reversal by N-succinylation of lysine residues in the bacterial as well as eukaryotic proteomes has been recently discovered as a major posttranslational modification. Such modification in bacterial lipids is possibly catalyzed by an enzyme homologous to the enzymes that modify lysine residues in proteins.

  8. Characterization of thin film tandem solar cells by radiofrequency pulsed glow discharge - Time of flight mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Fernandez, Beatriz; Lobo, Lara; Reininghaus, Nies; Pereiro, Rosario; Sanz-Medel, Alfredo

    2017-04-01

    Beside low production costs and the use of nontoxic and abundant raw materials, silicon based thin-film solar cells have the advantage to be built up as multi junction devices like tandem or triple junction solar cells. Silicon thin film modules made of tandem cells with hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) top cell and microcrystalline (μc) Si:H bottom cell are available on the market. In this work, the analytical potential of state-of-the art radiofrequency (rf) pulsed glow discharge (PGD) time of flight mass spectrometry (TOFMS) commercial instrumentation is investigated for depth profiling analysis of tandem-junctions solar cells on 2mm thick glass substrate with 1µm thick ZnO:Al. Depth profile characterization of two thin film tandem photovoltaic devices was compared using millisecond and sub-millisecond rf-PGD regimes, as well as the so-called "low mass mode" available in the commercial instrument used. Two procedures for sample preparation, namely using flat or rough cell substrates, were compared and the distribution of dopant elements (phosphorous, boron and germanium) was investigated in both cases. Experimental results obtained by rf-PGD-TOFMS as well as electrical measurements of the samples showed that a worse depth resolution of dopant elements in the silicon layers (e.g. distribution of boron in a thicker region that suggests a diffusion of this dopant in the coating of the sample) found using a rough sample substrate was related to a higher power conversion efficiency.

  9. Accelerator mass spectrometry best practices for accuracy and precision in bioanalytical (14)C measurements.

    PubMed

    Vogel, John S; Giacomo, Jason A; Schulze-König, Tim; Keck, Bradly D; Lohstroh, Peter; Dueker, Stephen

    2010-03-01

    Accelerator mass spectrometers have an energy acceleration and charge exchange between mass definition stages to destroy molecular isobars and allow single ion counting of long-lived isotopes such as (14)C (t½=5370 years.). 'Low' voltage accelerations to 200 kV allow laboratory-sized accelerator mass spectrometers instruments for bioanalytical quantitation of (14)C to 2-3% precision and accuracy in isolated biochemical fractions. After demonstrating this accuracy and precision for our new accelerator mass spectrometer, we discuss the critical aspects of maintaining quantitative accuracy from the defined biological fraction to the accelerator mass spectrometry quantitation. These aspects include sufficient sample mass for routine rapid sample preparation, isotope dilution to assure this mass, isolation of the carbon from other sample combustion gasses and use of high-efficiency biochemical separations. This review seeks to address a bioanalytical audience, who should know that high accuracy data of physiochemical processes within living human subjects are available, as long as a (14)C quantitation can be made indicative of the physiochemistry of interest.

  10. Ethyl-glucuronide and ethyl-sulfate in placental and fetal tissues by liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Morini, Luca; Falcón, Maria; Pichini, Simona; Garcia-Algar, Oscar; Danesino, Paolo; Groppi, Angelo; Luna, Aurelio

    2011-11-01

    The aim of this study was to develop a method for the determination of ethyl-glucuronide (EtG) and ethyl-sulfate (EtS), two direct ethanol metabolites, in early placental and fetal human tissues, as potential biomarkers of transplacental ethanol transfer from the mother to the fetus. Placental and fetal tissue samples were obtained from women undergoing voluntary termination of pregnancy at 12 weeks of gestation. Samples were deproteinized and directly injected into a liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) system. Limits of detection of 13.0 and 23.0 pmol/g and lower limits of quantification of 22.0 and 40.0 pmol/g were reached for EtG and EtS, respectively. Inter- and intraday imprecision and accuracy were always lower than 15%. The method was applied to 70 samples (35 placentas and 35 fetal tissues). Of 35 samples, 4 samples collected from 4 women tested positive for EtG and EtS, always showing higher concentrations for EtG. The placenta/fetal tissue ratio for EtG was 2.9 ± 0.9, whereas EtS showed a ratio of 1.7 ± 0.7. Preliminary results suggest that these metabolites are present in both tissues. Further studies should now corroborate the hypothesis, not yet confirmed, that transplacental transfer of ethanol takes place not only for the parent compound but also for EtG and EtS.

  11. Determination of mesoridazine by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry and its application to pharmacokinetic study in rats.

    PubMed

    Im, So Hee; Park, Myoung Joo; Seo, Hyewon; Choi, Sung Heum; Kim, Sang Kyum; Ahn, Sung-Hoon

    2014-05-01

    The object of the present study was to develop and validate an assay method of mesoridazine in rat plasma using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). Plasma samples from rats were prepared by simple protein precipitation and injected onto the LC-MS/MS system for quantification. Mesoridazine and chlorpromazine as an internal standard (IS) were separated by a reversed phase C18 column. A mobile phase was composed of 10mM ammonium formate in water and acetonitrile (ACN) (v/v) by a linear gradient system, increasing the percentage of ACN from 2% at 0.4min to 98% at 2.5min with 4min total run time. The ion transitions monitored in positive-ion mode [M+H](+) of multiple-reaction monitoring (MRM) were m/z 387>126 for mesoridazine and m/z 319>86 for IS. The detector response was specific and linear for mesoridazine at concentrations within the range 0.001-4μg/ml and the correlation coefficient (R(2)) was greater than 0.999 and the signal-to-noise ratios for the samples were ≥10. The intra- and inter-day precision and accuracy of the method were determined to be within the acceptance criteria for assay validation guidelines. The matrix effects were approximately 101 and 99.5% from rat plasma for mesoridazine and chlorpromazine, respectively. Mesoridazine was stable under various processing and/or handling conditions. Mesoridazine concentrations were readily measured in rat plasma samples after intravenous and oral administration. This assay method can be practically useful to the pharmacokinetic and/or toxicokinetic studies of mesoridazine.

  12. Simultaneous determination of opiates, methadone, buprenorphine and metabolites in human urine by superficially porous liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Lin, Huei-Ru; Chen, Chin-Lun; Huang, Chieh-Liang; Chen, Shao-Tsu; Lua, Ahai-Chuang

    2013-04-15

    For monitoring compliance of methadone or buprenorphine maintenance patient, a method for the simultaneous determination of methadone, 2-ethylidene-1,5-dimethyl-3,3-diphenylpyrrolidine (EDDP), buprenorphine, norbuprenorphine, opiates (morphine, codeine, 6-monoacetylmorphine) in urine by superficially porous liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry was developed and validated. After enzyme digestion and liquid-liquid extraction, reverse-phase separation was achieved in 5.2 min and quantification was performed by multiple reaction monitoring. Chromatographic separation was performed at 40 °C on a reversed phase Poroshell column with gradient elution. The mobile phase consisted of water and methanol, each containing 0.1% formic acid, at a flow rate of 0.32 mL/min. Intra-day and inter-day precision were less than 12.1% and accuracy was between -9.8% and 13.7%. Extraction efficiencies were more than 68%. Although ion suppression was detected, deuterated internal standards compensated for these effects. Carryover was minimal, less than 0.20%. All analytes were stable at room temperature for 16 h, 4 °C for 72 h, and after three freeze-thaw cycles. The assay also fulfilled compound identification criteria in accordance with the European Commission Decision 2002/657/EC. We analyzed 62 urine samples from patients received maintenance therapy and found that 54.8% of the patient samples tested were detected for morphine, codeine, or 6-monoacetylmorphine. This method provides a reliable and simultaneous quantification of opiates, maintenance drugs, and their metabolites in urine samples. It facilitates the routine monitoring in individuals prescribed the drug to ensure compliance and help therapeutic process.

  13. Simultaneous quantitative analysis of eight vitamin D analogues in milk using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Gomes, Fabio P; Shaw, P Nicholas; Whitfield, Karen; Hewavitharana, Amitha K

    2015-09-03

    Milk is an important source of nutrients for various risk populations, including infants. The accurate measurement of vitamin D in milk is necessary to provide adequate supplementation advice for risk groups and to monitor regulatory compliance. Currently used liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) methods are capable of measuring only four analogues of vitamin D in unfortified milk. We report here an accurate quantitative analytical method for eight analogues of vitamin D: Vitamin D2 and D3 (D2 and D3), 25-hydroxy D2 and D3, 24,25-dihydroxy D2 and D3, and 1,25-dihydroxyD2 and D3. In this study, we compared saponification and protein precipitation for the extraction of vitamin D from milk and found the latter to be more effective. We also optimised the pre-column derivatisation using 4-phenyl-l,2,4-triazoline-3,5-dione (PTAD), to achieve the highest sensitivity and accuracy for all major vitamin D forms in milk. Chromatography was optimised to reduce matrix effects such as ion-suppression, and the matrix effects were eliminated using co-eluting stable isotope labelled internal standards for the calibration of each analogue. The analogues, 25-hydroxyD3 (25(OH)D3) and its epimer (3-epi-25(OH)D3) were chromatographically resolved, to prevent over-estimation of 25(OH)D3. The method was validated and subsequently applied for the measurement of total vitamin D levels in human, cow, mare, goat and sheep milk samples. The detection limits, repeatability standard deviations, and recovery ranges were from 0.2 to 0.4 femtomols, 6.30-13.5%, and 88.2-105%, respectively.

  14. Determination of phentermine, N-hydroxyphentermine and mephentermine in urine using dilute and shoot liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Choi, Yun Jeong; Sim, Arum; Kim, Min Kyung; Suh, Sunglll; In, Moon Kyo; Kim, Jin Young

    2016-09-01

    Nonmedical use of prescription stimulants such as phentermine (PT) has been regulated by law enforcement authorities due to its euphorigenic and relaxing effects. Due to high potential for its abuse, reliable analytical methods were required to detect and identify PT and its metabolite in biological samples. Thus a dilute and shoot liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometric (LC-MS/MS) method was developed and validated for simultaneous determination of PT, N-hydroxyphentermine (NHOPT) and mephentermine (MPT) in urine. A 5μL aliquot of diluted urine was injected into the LC-MS/MS system. Chromatographic separation was performed by reversed-phase C18 column with gradient elution for all analytes within 5min. Identification and quantification were based on multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) detection. Linear least-squares regression with a 1/x(2) weighting factor was used to generate a calibration curve and the assay was linear from 50 to 15000ng/mL (PT and MPT) and 5 to 750ng/mL (NHOPT). The intra- and inter-day precisions were within 8.9% while the intra- and inter-day accuracies ranged from -6.2% to 11.2%. The limits of quantification were 3.5ng/mL (PT), 1.5ng/mL (NHOPT) and 1.0ng/mL (MPT). Method validation requirements for selectivity, dilution integrity, matrix effect and stability were satisfied. The applicability of the developed method was examined by analyzing urine samples from drug abusers.

  15. On-line derivatization gas chromatography with furan chemical ionization tandem mass spectrometry for screening of amphetamines in urine.

    PubMed

    Tzing, Shin-Hwa; Ghule, Anil; Liu, Jen-Yu; Ling, Yong-Chien

    2006-12-22

    A simple alternative method with minimal sample pretreatment is investigated for screening of amphetamines in small volume (using only 20 microL) of urine sample. The method is sensitive and selective. The method uses gas chromatography (GC) direct sample introduction (DSI) for on-line derivatization (acylation) of amphetamines to improve sensitivity. Furan as chemical ionization (CI) reagent in conjunction with tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) is used to improve selectivity. Low background with sharp protonated molecular ion peaks of analytes is the evidence of improvement in sensitivity and selectivity. Blank urine samples spiked with known amounts of amphetamine, methamphetamine, 3,4-methylenedioxyamphetamine, 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine and 3,4-methylenedioxyethylamphetamine is analyzed. Selected ion monitoring of the characteristic product ions (m/z 119+136+150+163) using furan CI-MS/MS in positive ion mode is used for quantification. Limits of detection (LOD) between 0.4 and 1.0 ng mL(-1) and limits of quantitation (LOQ) between 1.0 and 2.0 ng mL(-1) are established. Linear response over the range of 1-1000 ng mL(-1) (r(2)>0.997) is observed for all analytes, except for methamphetamine (2.0-1000 ng mL(-1)). Good accuracy between 86 and 113% and precision ranging from 4 to 18% is obtained. The method is also tested on real samples of urine from suspected drug abusers. This method could be used for screening and determination of amphetamines in urine samples, however needs additional work for full validation.

  16. Identification and quantitation of amphetamines, cocaine, opiates, and phencyclidine in oral fluid by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Fritch, Dean; Blum, Kristen; Nonnemacher, Sheena; Haggerty, Brenda J; Sullivan, Matthew P; Cone, Edward J

    2009-01-01

    Analytical methods for measuring multiple licit and illicit drugs and metabolites in oral fluid require high sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy. With the limited volume available for testing, comprehensive methodology is needed for simultaneous measurement of multiple analytes in a single aliquot. This report describes the validation of a semi-automated method for the simultaneous extraction, identification, and quantitation of 21 analytes in a single oral fluid aliquot. The target compounds included are amphetamine, methamphetamine, 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine, 3,4-methylenedioxy-amphetamine, 3,4-methylenedioxyethylamphetamine, pseudoephedrine, cocaine, benzoylecgonine, codeine, norcodeine, 6-acetylcodeine, morphine, 6-acetylmorphine, hydrocodone, norhydrocodone, dihydrocodeine, hydromorphone, oxycodone, noroxycodone, oxymorphone, and phencyclidine. Oral fluid specimens were collected with the Intercept device and extracted by solid-phase extraction (SPE). Drug recovery from the Intercept device averaged 84.3%, and SPE extraction efficiency averaged 91.2% for the 21 analytes. Drug analysis was performed by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry in the positive electrospray mode using ratios of qualifying product ions within +/-25% of calibration standards. Matrix ion suppression ranged from -57 to 8%. The limit of quantitation ranged from 0.4 to 5 ng/mL using 0.2 mL of diluted oral fluid sample. Application of the method was demonstrated by testing oral fluid specimens from drug abuse treatment patients. Thirty-nine patients tested positive for various combinations of licit and illicit drugs and metabolites. In conclusion, this validated method is suitable for simultaneous measurement of 21 licit and illicit drugs and metabolites in oral fluid.

  17. Determination of total and unbound concentrations of lopinavir in plasma using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry and ultrafiltration methods.

    PubMed

    Illamola, S M; Labat, L; Benaboud, S; Tubiana, R; Warszawski, J; Tréluyer, J M; Hirt, D

    2014-08-15

    Lopinavir is an HIV protease inhibitor with high protein binding (98-99%) in human plasma. This study was designed to develop an ultrafiltration method to measure the unbound concentrations of lopinavir overcoming the non-specific binding issue. A liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method for the determination of total concentrations of lopinavir in plasma was developed and validated, and an adaptation was also optimized and validated for the determination of unbound concentrations. The chromatographic separation was performed with a C18 column (100 mm × 2.1mm i.d., 5 μm particle size) using a mobile phase containing deionized water with formic acid, and acetonitrile, with gradient elution at a flow-rate of 350 μL min(-1). Identification of the compounds was performed by multiple reaction monitoring, using electrospray ionization in positive ion mode. The method was validated over a clinical range of 0.01-1 μg/mL for human plasma ultrafiltrate and 0.1-15 μg/mL in human plasma. The inter and intra-assay accuracies and precisions were between 0.23% and 11.37% for total lopinavir concentrations, and between 3.50% and 13.30% for plasma ultrafiltrate (unbound concentration). The ultrafiltration method described allows an accurate separation of the unbound fraction of lopinavir, circumscribing the loss of drug by nonspecific binding (NSB), and the validated LC-MS/MS methodology proposed is suitable for the determination of total and unbound concentrations of lopinavir in clinical practice.

  18. Quantification of Warfarin in Dried Rat Plasma Spots by High-Performance Liquid Chromatography with Tandem Mass Spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents the development and validation of a novel method for quantification of the oral anticoagulant drug warfarin in dried plasma spots (DPS) by high-performance liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS). Blood plasma was chosen as a biological fluid to preclude the influence of the hematocrit on the results of the analysis. A 30 μL sample of rat plasma was placed onto Whatman 903 Protein Saver Card and was allowed to dry. A single DPS is sufficient for preparing eight 3.2 mm discs, each containing approximately 1.5–1.6 μL of plasma. Warfarin extraction from one 3.2 mm disc was carried out by adding 200 μL of the acetonitrile : water mixture (1 : 1, v/v) containing 10 mM NH4COOH (pH 4.0), with incubation on a shaker at 1000 rpm for 1 h at 25°C. After chromatographic separation, warfarin and coumachlor (an internal standard) were measured using negative-ion multiple-reaction monitoring with ion transitions m/z 307 → 161 for warfarin and m/z 341 → 161 for the internal standard. The working range of this method is 10–10,000 ng/mL. Within this range, intra- and interday variability of precision and accuracy was <13% and recovery was 82–99%. The results indicate that the new method requires only small plasma samples and may be useful for pharmacokinetic research on warfarin. PMID:28058133

  19. Pharmacokinetic study of ACT-132577 in rat plasma by ultra performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Jin; Geng, Peiwu; Luo, Xinhua; Zhou, Genzhi; Lin, Yingying; Zhang, Lijing; Wang, Shuanghu; Wen, Congcong; Ma, Jianshe; Ding, Ting

    2015-01-01

    It was reported that macitentan was metabolized predominantly by cytochrome P450 3A4, and ACT-132577, its pharmacologically active metabolite, is fivefold less potent at blocking ET receptors than macitentan. In this work, a sensitive and selective ultra performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS) method for determination of ACT-132577 in rat plasma was developed and validated. After addition of diazepam as an internal standard (IS), protein precipitation by acetonitrile was used to prepare samples. Chromatographic separation was achieved on a UPLC BEH C18 column (2.1 mm × 100 mm, 1.7 μm) with 0.2% formic acid and methanol as the mobile phase with gradient elution. An electrospray ionization source was applied and operated in positive ion mode; multiple reactions monitoring (MRM) mode was used for quantification using target fragment ions m/z 546.9→200.6 for ACT-132577, and m/z 285.1→193.1 for IS. Calibration plots were linear throughout the range 10-4000 ng/mL for ACT-132577 in rat plasma. Mean recovery of ACT-132577 in rat plasma ranged from 82.6% to 90.6%, matrix effect of ACT-132577 in rat plasma ranged from 101.4% to 115.2%. RSD of intra-day and inter-day precision were both less than 11%. The accuracy of the method ranged from 96.1% to 103.5%. The method was successfully applied to pharmacokinetic study of ACT-132577 after oral and intravenous administration of macitentan. PMID:26770447

  20. Multiclass determination of sunscreen chemicals in water samples by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Rodil, Rosario; Quintana, José Benito; López-Mahía, Purificación; Muniategui-Lorenzo, Soledad; Prada-Rodríguez, Darío

    2008-02-15

    A novel analytical method based on solid-phase extraction (SPE) and liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS/MS) for the determination of UV sunscreen agents in the water environment is presented. After a thorough investigation of SPE and LC-MS/MS conditions, it permits the enrichment and determination of nine of these compounds in a single methodology, including three very polar sulfonates (e.g., 2-phenylbenzimidazole-5-sulfonic acid, PBSA) and six other less polar compounds (e.g., benzophenone-3, BP-3; octocrylene, OC,...). Other important matters of concern in the determination of UV filters at trace levels in water, i.e., adsorption on glassware and blank contamination problems, have also been discussed and minimized. This methodology affords detection limits between 7 and 46 ng L-1 and SPE recoveries in the range 63-102% from different real water matrixes, except for butylmethoxydibenzoylmethane (BM-DBM), which was not determinable in wastewater samples due to adsorption problems. The application of the method allowed reporting the levels of benzophenone-4 (BP-4) in environmental water samples for the first time, where it was identified as one of the most important in concentration among the UV filters studied, particularly in wastewater (237-1481 ng L-1).

  1. Differentiating Isobaric Steroid Hormone Metabolites Using Multi-Stage Tandem Mass Spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tedmon, Lauren; Barnes, Jeremy S.; Nguyen, Hien P.; Schug, Kevin A.

    2013-03-01

    Steroid hormones and their metabolites are currently undergoing clinical trials as potential therapeutics for traumatic brain injury (TBI). To support this work, it is necessary to develop improved procedures for differentiating isobaric species in this compound class. Equilin sulfate (E-S), estrone sulfate (E1-S), 17α-dihydroequilin sulfate (ADHE-S), and 17β-dihydroequilin sulfate (BDHE-S) are primary constituents in hormone replacement therapies, such as Premarin, which are among pharmaceuticals being investigated for TBI treatment. The latter three compounds are isomers and can be difficult to differentiate in trace analytical determinations. In this work, a systematic study of the fragmentation of ADHE-S, BDHE-S, E1-S, and E-S under different stages of higher order tandem mass spectrometry (MSn) and variation of collision energy, allowed optimization of conditions for distinguishing the isomeric structures. For epimeric variants (e.g., ADHE-S versus BDHE-S; α- versus β-stereoisomerization in the C-17 position), differentiation was achieved at MS4 and fragmentation was demonstrated through MS5. Computational analysis was performed to further explore differences in the fragmentation pathways due to changes in stereochemistry.

  2. [Determination of seven toxaphene congeners in ginseng and milkvetch root by gas chromatography tandem mass spectrometry].

    PubMed

    Tian, Shaoqiong; Mao, Xiuhong; Miao, Shui; Jia, Zhengwei; Wang, Ke; Ji, Shen

    2012-01-01

    A novel method for the determination of representative toxaphene congeners in traditional Chinese herbal medicines was developed. Ginseng and Milkvetch Root were selected as the samples and seven toxaphene congeners were selected as the monitoring objects. The samples were extracted by accelerated solvent extraction with cyclohexane-acetone (9:1, v/v), then cleaned-up by Florisil solid phase extraction with hexane as the eluent and the residues were detected by gas chromatography-electron ionization tandem mass spectrometry (GC-EI-MS/MS) in multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) mode. The performance was demonstrated by the analysis of Ginseng and Milkvetch Root samples spiked with toxaphene congeners at three concentration levels of 0.005, 0.01 and 0.1 mg/kg. The recoveries ranged from 72.4% to 105% with the relative standard deviations (RSDs) of 0.96%-10.4%. The limits of detection (LODs) were 0.2-1.7 microg/kg. This method is sensitive and efficient in the aspect of extraction, and can be applied to monitor the residue of toxaphene congeners in Ginseng and Milkvetch Root.

  3. Evaluation of 3-methylcrotonyl-CoA carboxylase deficiency detected by tandem mass spectrometry newborn screening.

    PubMed

    Koeberl, D D; Millington, D S; Smith, W E; Weavil, S D; Muenzer, J; McCandless, S E; Kishnani, P S; McDonald, M T; Chaing, S; Boney, A; Moore, E; Frazier, D M

    2003-01-01

    Since the addition of tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) to the North Carolina Newborn Screening Program, 20 infants with two consecutive elevated 3-hydroxyisovalerylcarnitine (C5OH) levels have been evaluated for evidence of inborn errors of metabolism associated with this metabolite. Ten of these 20 infants had significant concentrations of both 3-hydroxyisovaleric acid and 3-methylcrotonylglycine in their urine, suggestive of 3-methylcrotonyl-CoA carboxylase (3-MCC) deficiency. Four of these 10 were infants whose abnormal metabolites were found to be of maternal origin. Of 8 patients with probable 3-MCC deficiency, 7 have been tested and found to have the enzyme deficiency confirmed in lymphoblasts or cultured fibroblasts; one of these 7 infants had only marginally decreased 3-MCC activity in lymphocytes but deficient 3-MCC in fibroblasts. We estimate the incidence of 3-MCC deficiency at 1:64000 live births in North Carolina. We conclude that MS/MS newborn screening will detect additional inborn errors of metabolism, such as 3-MCC deficiency, not traditionally associated with newborn screening. The evaluation of newborns with two abnormally elevated C5OH levels on MS/MS newborn screening should include, at least, urine organic acid analysis by capillary GC-MS and a plasma acylcarnitine profile by MS/MS. Long-term follow-up is needed to determine the outcome of presymptomatically diagnosed patients with 3-MCC deficiency by MS/MS newborn screening.

  4. Glycerophospholipid analysis of Eastern red bat (Lasiurus borealis) hair by electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Pannkuk, Evan L; McGuire, Liam P; Gilmore, David F; Savary, Brett J; Risch, Thomas S

    2014-03-01

    Pilosebaceous units found in the mammalian integument are composed of a hair follicle, the proximal portion of the hair shaft, a sebaceous gland, and the erector pili muscle. Pilosebaceous units release protective oils, or sebum, by holocrine secretion onto skin and hair through rupturing of sebocytes. Sebum is composed largely of polar and neutral lipids including glycerolipids, free fatty acids, sterols, wax esters, sterol esters, and squalene. In addition to these lipid classes, there is a small proportion of ionic/anionic glycerophospholipids (GPs). Composition of GPs on hair is rarely addressed despite their broad biological activities as signaling molecules and membrane stability. Furthermore, knowledge on GP composition in bats is lacking. Bat GP composition is important to document due to GP roles ranging from decreasing drag during migration to interaction with the integumentary microbiome. In this study, we analyzed GP molecular composition with liquid chromatography electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry and compared GP content to previous literature. A total of 152 GPs were detected. Broad GP classes identified include lysophosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylcholine (PC), lysophosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylinositol, phosphatidylserine, phosphatidic acid, and phosphatidylglycerol, with PC being the most abundant class. The acyl components were consistent with fatty acid methyl esters and triacylglyceride moieties found in Eastern red bat sebum. Glycerophospholipid proportions of the hair surface were different from a previous study on bat lung surfactants. This study determined the broad class and molecular species of bat sebum GPs that may be used in future ecological studies in vespertilionid bats.

  5. Determination of homocitrulline in urine of patients with HHH syndrome by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Al-Dirbashi, Osama Y; Al-Hassnan, Zuhair N; Rashed, Mohamed S

    2006-12-01

    A liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometric method is described for the analysis of homocitrulline in human urine, a key metabolite in the differential diagnosis of hyperammonemia, hyperornithinemia, homocitrullinuria (HHH) syndrome. Urine samples were prepared by mere five-fold dilution with a mixture of internal standards (2H2-citrulline and 2H3-creatinine) used for the simultaneous quantification of creatinine. Analytes were separated on a cyano column and eluted isocratically within seven min. Detection was achieved by monitoring transitions of 190 > 84 and 190 > 127 for homocitrulline, 178 > 115 for 2H2-citrulline, 114 > 44 for creatinine and 117 > 47 for 2H3-creatinine. Calibration curves were linear up to 100 micromol/L. Intraday (n = 7) and interday (n = 6) variations were less than 10%. In urine samples from three siblings confirmed to have HHH syndrome, homocitrulline levels were at 13.3 (74), 21.1 (50) and 108.2 (103) mmol/mol creatinine (micromol/L). Control values were 0-9 mmol/mol creatinine (n = 120). The current method solves specificity issues in homocitrulline determination often encountered with some ninhydrin-based systems (coelution with methionine) and some o-phthalaldehyde-based ones (coelution with taurine), and presents an attractive alternative with a relatively high throughput.

  6. Structural elucidation of isocyanate-peptide adducts using tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Hettick, Justin M; Ruwona, Tinashe B; Siegel, Paul D

    2009-08-01

    Diisocyanates are highly reactive chemical compounds widely used in the manufacture of polyurethanes. Although diisocyanates have been identified as causative agents of allergic respiratory diseases, the specific mechanism by which these diseases occur is largely unknown. To better understand the chemical species produced when isocyanates are reacted with model peptides, tandem mass spectrometry was employed to unambiguously identify the binding site of four commercially-relevant isocyanates on model peptides. In each case, the isocyanates react preferentially with the N-terminus of the peptide. No evidence of side-chain/isocyanate adduct formation exclusive of the N-terminus was observed. However, significant intra-molecular diisocyanate crosslinking was observed between the N-terminal amine and a side-chain amine of arginine, when Arg was located within two residues of the N-terminus. Addition of multiple isocyanates to the peptide occurs via polymerization of the isocyanate at the N-terminus, rather than via addition of multiple isocyanate molecules to varied residues within the peptide. The direct observation of isocyanate binding to the N-terminus of peptides under these experimental conditions is in good agreement with previous studies on the relative reaction rate of isocyanate with amino acid functional groups.

  7. Fully automated screening of veterinary drugs in milk by turbulent flow chromatography and tandem mass spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    Stolker, Alida A. M.; Peters, Ruud J. B.; Zuiderent, Richard; DiBussolo, Joseph M.

    2010-01-01

    There is an increasing interest in screening methods for quick and sensitive analysis of various classes of veterinary drugs with limited sample pre-treatment. Turbulent flow chromatography in combination with tandem mass spectrometry has been applied for the first time as an efficient screening method in routine analysis of milk samples. Eight veterinary drugs, belonging to seven different classes were selected for this study. After developing and optimising the method, parameters such as linearity, repeatability, matrix effects and carry-over were studied. The screening method was then tested in the routine analysis of 12 raw milk samples. Even without internal standards, the linearity of the method was found to be good in the concentration range of 50 to 500 µg/L. Regarding repeatability, RSDs below 12% were obtained for all analytes, with only a few exceptions. The limits of detection were between 0.1 and 5.2 µg/L, far below the maximum residue levels for milk set by the EU regulations. While matrix effects—ion suppression or enhancement—are obtained for all the analytes the method has proved to be useful for screening purposes because of its sensitivity, linearity and repeatability. Furthermore, when performing the routine analysis of the raw milk samples, no false positive or negative results were obtained. PMID:20379812

  8. [Analysis of mouse liver membrane proteins using multidimensional ion exchange chromatography and tandem mass spectrometry].

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhuowei; Peng, Fuli; Wang, Yuan; Tong, Wei; Ren, Yan; Xu, Ningzhi; Liu, Siqi

    2010-02-01

    The analysis of membrane proteins is still a technical obstacle in proteomic investigation. A fundamental question is how to allow the hydrophobic proteins fully solubilizing in a proper solvent environment. We propose that the denatured membrane proteins in high denaturant solution are fully ionized and separated through ion exchange chromatography. The membrane proteins prepared from a mouse liver were dissolved in 4 mol/L urea, 20 mmol/L Tris-HCl buffer (pH 9.0), and loaded onto a tandem chromatography coupled with Q-Sepharose FF and Sephacryl S-200HR. With a linear NaCl gradient elution, the bound proteins were eluted and collected followed by sodium-dodecyl sulphate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) to further separate the eluted proteins. The protein bound on SDS-PAGE were excised and in-gel digested by trypsin, while the digested peptides were delivered to reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and ion-trap mass spectrometry for the peptide identifications. Of a total of 392 proteins identified, 306 were membrane proteins or membrane associated proteins reported by literature. Based on the calculation of hydrophobicity, the GRAVY (grand average of hydropathicity) scores of 83 proteins are over or equal to 0.00. Taking all the evidence, we have established an effective approach which is feasible in the investigation towards mouse liver membrane proteomics.

  9. [Determination of ribavirin and amantadine in chicken by ultra performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry].

    PubMed

    Yun, Huan; Cui, Fengyun; Yan, Hua; Liu, Xin; He, Yue; Zhang, Zhaohui

    2013-08-01

    A method for the determination of ribavirin and amantadine in chicken has been developed by ultra performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/ MS). After extracted by 1% (volume percentage) trichloroacetic acid solution-acetonitrile (1:1, v/v) and purified by a Supelco LC-SCX cartridge, the samples were loaded onto an Acquity UPLC BEH Hillic column (150 mm x 2.1 mm, 1.7 microm) and separated with gradient elution. The electrospray was operated in the positive mode and the samples were monitored by the multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) mode. The limits of quantification (LOQs, S/N = 10) of ribavirin and amantadine were 4.0 microg/kg. The calibration curves showed good linearity in the range of 10.0 - 100.0 microg/L, and the correlation coefficients (r(2)) were not lower than 0.99. When the spiked levels were 4.0, 8.0 and 20.0 microg/kg, the recoveries of ribavirin and amantadine in chicken ranged from 78% to 102.5%, with the relative standard deviations (RSDs) of 2.2% - 7.6%. The results indicate that the method is simple, rapid, sensitive and suitable for the qualitative and quantitative analyses of ribavirin and amantadine in chicken samples.

  10. MS2Grouper: group assessment and synthetic replacement of duplicate proteomic tandem mass spectra.

    PubMed

    Tabb, David L; Thompson, Melissa R; Khalsa-Moyers, Gurusahai; VerBerkmoes, Nathan C; McDonald, W Hayes

    2005-08-01

    Shotgun proteomics experiments require the collection of thousands of tandem mass spectra; these sets of data will continue to grow as new instruments become available that can scan at even higher rates. Such data contain substantial amounts of redundancy with spectra from a particular peptide being acquired many times during a single LC-MS/MS experiment. In this article, we present MS2Grouper, an algorithm that detects spectral duplication, assesses groups of related spectra, and replaces these groups with synthetic representative spectra. Errors in detecting spectral similarity are corrected using a paraclique criterion-spectra are only assessed as groups if they are part of a clique of at least three completely interrelated spectra or are subsequently added to such cliques by being similar to all but one of the clique members. A greedy algorithm constructs a representative spectrum for each group by iteratively removing the tallest peaks from the spectral collection and matching to peaks in the other spectra. This strategy is shown to be effective in reducing spectral counts by up to 20% in LC-MS/MS datasets from protein standard mixtures and proteomes, reducing database search times without a concomitant reduction in identified peptides.

  11. Pharmacokinetic studies of novel berberine derivatives with ultra-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wenchao; Shen, Qin; Liang, Hui; Hua, Changlong; Liu, Yuhui; Li, Fengzhi; Li, Qingyong

    2016-09-15

    An ultra-performance liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometric detection method was developed for the detection of berberine and its derivatives (A4, B4) in rat plasma and other organs. This validated method was successfully applied to our pharmacokinetic study of BBR derivatives in rats. At the same dose of administration, the Cmax of B4 was about eight times higher than BBR, and its half-life was approximately two times longer than BBR, according to the bigger areas under plasma concentration curves. Inversely, the pharmacokinetic parameter levels of A4 were all inferior to BBR, suggesting a tight structure-activity relationship of these compounds. Small dose of parenteral administration was used for the study of absolute oral bioavailability of A4, B4, and BBR, and the results calculated were 0.12%, 3.4% and 0.7%, respectively. The accumulations of B4 among all organs were intestine>liver>heart>kidney>lung>spleen>plasma, proving a deeply targeting property of B4, which met our experimental assumption. Together, the experimental results proved that compared with BBR and A4, the derivative B4 had higher absolute oral bioavailability and the ability of deeply targeting so that can be likely used in some organ-targeted diseases.

  12. Analysis of testosterone and dihydrotestosterone in mouse tissues by liquid chromatography-electrospray tandem mass spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    Weng, Yan; Xie, Fang; Xu, Li; Zagorevski, Dmitri; Spink, David C.; Ding, Xinxin

    2010-01-01

    A novel method was established for simultaneous quantitation of testosterone (T) and dihydrotestosterone (DHT) in murine tissue and serum samples. Endogenous T and DHT, together with the internal standards, 17α-methyl-T and 17α-methyl-DHT, were extracted from tissues, and then derivatized by reaction with 2-hydrazino-4-(trifluoromethyl)-pyrimidine (HTP). Analysis by liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS/MS) resulted in production spectra of HTP derivatives of both T and DHT that showed analyte-specific fragmentations; the latter fragmentations were characterized by use of high-resolution Orbitrap MS/MS. These specific fragmentations enabled quantitation of T and DHT in the multiple-reaction monitoring (MRM) mode. The method was validated with charcoal-stripped serum as the matrix; the LLOQ was 0.10 ng/ml for T and 0.50 ng/ml for DHT. The method was then used for determination of serum and tissue levels of T and DHT in transgenic mice carrying a hypomorphic NADPH-cytochrome P450 reductase gene (Cpr-low mice). Remarkably, ovarian T levels in Cpr-low mice were found to be 25-fold higher than those in wild-type mice, a finding that at least partly explains the female infertility seen in the Cpr-low mice. In conclusion, our method provides excellent sensitivity and selectivity for determination of endogenous levels of T and DHT in mouse tissues. PMID:20361922

  13. Quantitative analysis of chemical warfare agent degradation products in beverages by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Owens, Janel; Koester, Carolyn

    2009-09-23

    Though chemical warfare agents (CWAs) have been banned by the Chemical Weapons Convention, the threat that such chemicals may be used, including their deliberate addition to food, remains. In such matrixes, CWAs may hydrolyze to phosphonic acids, which are good surrogate markers of CWA contamination. The method described here details the extraction of five CWA degradation products, including methylphosphonic acid (MPA), ethyl-MPA, isopropyl-MPA, cyclohexyl-MPA, and pinacolyl-MPA, from five different beverages by strata-X solid phase extraction cartridges. Samples were analyzed by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS) with multiple reaction monitoring. The limit of quantitation ranged from 0.05 to 0.5 ng on-column, and the limit of detection was >0.02 ng on-column. Beverages were fortified with the five phosphonic acids at 1 microg/mL and 0.25 microg/mL and quantitated using both an internally standardized method and matrix-matched standards. Reasonable recoveries (>50%) were achieved for ethyl, isopropyl, cyclohexyl, and pinacolyl-MPA for most matrixes.

  14. Determination of the active metabolite of sibutramine by liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jun; Lu, Wei; Zhang, Qizhi; Jiang, Xinguo

    2003-03-05

    A sensitive and specific method for the determination of the active primary amine metabolite of sibutramine, N-di-desmethylsibutramine (BTS 54,505), in human plasma was developed, based on high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC)-electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (MS-MS). The samples were extracted from plasma with methyl tert.-butyl ether, followed by separation and evaporation after addition of the internal standard, propranolol, and basification with sodium hydroxide. The residue was reconstituted in mobile phase and injected into the HPLC-MS-MS system. Chromatography was performed on an ODS MS column with a mobile phase consisting of acetonitrile (containing 0.1% trifluoroacetic acid, v/v)-0.1% trifluoroacetic acid (55:45, v/v) at a flow-rate of 0.3 ml/min. Multiple reaction monitoring using precursor-->product ion combinations at m/z 252.00-->125.00 and 260.00-->115.70 was applied to determine BTS 54,505 and propranolol, respectively. Linearity was confirmed in the concentration range 0.328-32.8 ng/ml in human plasma and the imprecision of this assay was less than 19.90% over the entire concentration range. The method is sufficiently sensitive and repeatable to be used in pharmacokinetic studies.

  15. Partial enzymatic elimination and quantification of sarcosine from alanine using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Burton, Casey; Gamagedara, Sanjeewa; Ma, Yinfa

    2013-04-01

    Since sarcosine and D,L-alanine co-elute on reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) columns and the tandem mass spectrometer cannot differentiate them due to equivalent parent and fragment ions, derivatization is often required for analysis of sarcosine in LC/MS systems. This study offers an alternative to derivatization by employing partial elimination of sarcosine by enzymatic oxidation. The decrease in apparent concentration from the traditionally merged sarcosine-alanine peak associated with the enzymatic elimination has been shown to be proportional to the total sarcosine present (R(2) = 0.9999), allowing for determinations of urinary sarcosine. Sarcosine oxidase was shown to eliminate only sarcosine in the presence of D,L-alanine, and was consequently used as the selective enzyme. This newly developed technique has a method detection limit of 1 μg/L (parts per billion) with a linear range of 3 ppb-1 mg/L (parts per million) in urine matrices. The method was further validated through spiked recoveries of real urine samples, as well as the analysis of 35 real urine samples. The average recoveries for low, middle, and high sarcosine concentration spikes were 111.7, 90.8, and 90.1 %, respectively. In conclusion, this simple enzymatic approach coupled with HPLC/MS/MS is able to resolve sarcosine from D,L-alanine leading to underivatized quantification of sarcosine.

  16. Positive mode electrospray tandem mass spectrometry of poly(methacrylic acid) oligomers.

    PubMed

    Giordanengo, Rémi; Viel, Stéphane; Allard-Breton, Béatrice; Thévand, André; Charles, Laurence

    2009-06-01

    The dissociation of small poly(methacrylic acid) (PMAA) cations produced by electrospray was characterized by tandem mass spectrometry. Similarly to PMAA ions produced in the negative ion mode, the two electrosprayed cationic forms, namely [PMAA+Na](+) and [PMAA-H+2Na](+), were shown to fragment via a major pathway consisting of successive dehydration steps. Elimination of a water molecule would occur between two consecutive acid groups in a charged-remote mechanism and was shown to proceed as many times as pairs of acidic pendant groups were available. As a result, comparing the number of dehydration steps observed in the MS/MS spectrum of two consecutive oligomers from the polymeric distribution reveals the degree of polymerization of the molecule. Secondary less informative reactions were shown to consist of losses of CO and/or CO(2), depending on the nature of the precursor ion. These fragmentation rules could be used to characterize PMAA-based copolymers, as successfully demonstrated for a polymeric impurity in the tested PMAA sample.

  17. Liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry method for quantitation of cremophor el and its applications.

    PubMed

    Vijaya Bhaskar, V; Middha, Anil

    2013-01-01

    A rapid sensitive and selective MRM based method for the determination of Cremophor EL (CrEL) in rat plasma was developed using liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). CrEL and polypropylene glycol (internal standard) were extracted from rat plasma with acetonitrile and analysed on C18 column (XBridge, 50 × 4.6 mm, 3.5  μ m). The most abundant molecular ions corresponding to PEG oligomers at m/z 828, 872, 916 and 960 with daughter ion at m/z 89 were selected for multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) in electrospray mode of ionisation. Plasma concentrations of CrEL were quantified after administration through oral and intravenous routes in male sprague dawley rats at a dose of 0.26 g/kg. The standard curve was linear (0.9972) over the concentration range of 1.00 to 200  μ g/mL. The lower limit of quantitation for CrEL was 1.00  μ g/mL using 50  μ L plasma. The coefficient of variation and relative error for inter and intra assay at three QC levels were 0.69 to 9.21 and -7.60 to 4.74 respectively. A novel proposal was conveyed to the scientific community, where formulation excipient can be analysed as qualifier in the analysis of NCEs to address the spiky plasma concentration profiles.

  18. Sodium Cation Affinities of Commonly Used MALDI Matrices Determined by Guided Ion Beam Tandem Mass Spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chinthaka, S. D. M.; Rodgers, M. T.

    2012-04-01

    The sodium cation affinities of six commonly used MALDI matrices are determined here using guided ion beam tandem mass spectrometry techniques. The collision-induced dissociation behavior of six sodium cationized MALDI matrices, Na+(MALDI), with Xe is studied as a function of kinetic energy. The MALDI matrices examined here include: nicotinic acid, quinoline, 3-aminoquinoline, 4-nitroaniline, picolinic acid, and 3-hydroxypicolinic acid. In all cases, the primary dissociation pathway corresponds to endothermic loss of the intact MALDI matrix. The cross section thresholds are interpreted to yield zero and 298 K Na+-MALDI bond dissociation energies (BDEs), or sodium cation affinities, after accounting for the effects of multiple ion-neutral collisions, the kinetic and internal energy distributions of the reactants, and dissociation lifetimes. Density functional theory calculations at the B3LYP/6-311+G(2d,2p)//B3LYP/6-31G* and MP2(full)/6-311+G(2d,2p)//B3LYP/6-31G* levels of theory are used to characterized the structures and energetics for these systems. The calculated BDEs exhibit very good agreement with the measured values for most systems. The experimental and theoretical Na+-MALDI BDEs determined here are compared with those previously measured by cation transfer equilibrium methods.

  19. Determination of ethyl glucuronide in human hair by hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Yaldiz, Fadile; Daglioglu, Nebile; Hilal, Ahmet; Keten, Alper; Gülmen, Mete Korkut

    2013-10-01

    Ethyl glucuronide (EtG) is a direct metabolite of ethanol and has been utilized as a marker for alcohol intake. This study presents development, validation and application of a new hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (HILIC-MS/MS) method for the analysis of EtG in human hair samples. The linearity was assessed in the range of 5-2000 pg/mg hair, with a correlation coefficient of >0.99. The method was selective and sensitive, with a limit of detection (LOD) and limit of quantitation (LOQ) of 0.05 pg/mg and 0.18 pg/mg in hair, respectively. Differently from the extraction procedures in the literature, a fast and simple liquid-liquid method was used and highest recoveries and cleanest extracts were obtained. The method was successfully applied to 30 human hair samples which were taken from those who state they consume alcohol. EtG concentrations in the hair samples of alcohol users participated in this study, ranged between 1.34 and 82.73 pg/mg. From the concentration of EtG in hair strands 20 of the 30 subjects can be considered regular moderate drinkers.

  20. Determination of melatonin in Acyrthosiphon pisum aphids by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Escrivá, Laura; Manyes, Lara; Barberà, Miquel; Martínez-Torres, David; Meca, Guiseppe

    2016-03-01

    Melatonin is a hormone mainly involved in the regulation of circadian and seasonal rhythms in both invertebrates and vertebrates. Despite the identification of melatonin in many insects, its involvement in the insect seasonal response remains unclear. A liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method has been developed for melatonin analysis in aphids (Acyrthosiphon pisum) for the first time. After comparing two different procedures and five extraction solvents, a sample preparation procedure with a mixture of methanol/water (50:50) was selected for melatonin extraction. The method was validated by analyzing melatonin recovery at three spiked concentrations (5, 50 and 100 pg/mg) and showed satisfactory recoveries (75-110%), and good repeatability, expressed as relative standard deviation (<10%). Limits of detection (LOD) and quantitation (LOQ) were 1 pg/mg and 5 pg/mg, respectively. Eight concentration levels were used for constructing the calibration curves which showed good linearity between LOQ and 200 times LOQ. The validated method was successfully applied to 26 aphid samples demonstrating its usefulness for melatonin determination in insects. This is -to our knowledge- the first identification of melatonin in aphids by LC-MS/MS.

  1. Proteomic profiling of sea bass muscle by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Terova, Genciana; Pisanu, Salvatore; Roggio, Tonina; Preziosa, Elena; Saroglia, Marco; Addis, Maria Filippa

    2014-02-01

    In this study, the proteome profile of European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) muscle was analyzed using two-dimensional electrophoresis (2-DE) and tandem mass spectrometry with the aim of providing a more detailed characterization of its specific protein expression profile. A highly populated and well-resolved 2-DE map of the sea bass muscle tissue was generated, and the corresponding protein identity was provided for a total of 49 abundant protein spots. Upon Ingenuity Pathway Analysis, the proteins mapped in the sea bass muscle profile were mostly related to glycolysis and to the muscle myofibril structure, together with other biological activities crucial to fish muscle metabolism and contraction, and therefore to fish locomotor performance. The data presented in this work provide important and novel information on the sea bass muscle tissue-specific protein expression, which can be useful for future studies aimed to improve seafood traceability, food safety/risk management and authentication analysis. This work is also important for understanding the proteome map of the sea bass toward establishing the animal as a potential model for muscular studies.

  2. Global Analysis of the Membrane Subproteome of Pseudomonas aeruginosa using Liquid Chromatography-Tandem Mass Spectrometry

    SciTech Connect

    Blonder, Josip; Goshe, Michael B.; Xiao, Wenzhong; Camp, David G.; Wingerd, Mark A.; Davis, Ronald W.; Smith, Richard D.

    2004-05-30

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa is one of the most significant opportunistic bacterial pathogens in humans causing infections and premature death in patients with cystic fibrosis, AIDS, severe burns, organ transplants or cancer. Liquid chromatography coupled online with tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) was used for the large-scale proteomic analysis of the P. aeruginosa membrane subproteome. Concomitantly, an affinity labeling technique, using iodoacetyl-PEO biotin to tag cysteinyl-containing proteins, permitted the enrichment and detection of lower abundance membrane proteins. The application of these approaches resulted in the identification of 786 proteins. A total of 333 proteins (42%) had a minimum of one transmembrane domain (TMD; ranging from 1 to 14) and 195 proteins were classified as hydrophobic based on their positive GRAVY values (ranging from 0.01 to 1.32). Key integral inner and outer membrane proteins involved in adaptation and antibiotic resistance were conclusively identified, including the detection of 53% of all predicted opr-type porins (outer integral membrane proteins) and all the components of the mexA-mexB-oprM transmembrane protein complex. This work represents the most comprehensive qualitative proteomic analysis of the membrane subproteome of P. aeruginosa and for prokaryotes in general to date.

  3. Proteomic analysis of Taenia ovis metacestodes by high performance liquid chromatography-coupled tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Yadong

    2017-03-15

    Taenia ovis metacestodes reside in the muscle of sheep and goats, and may cause great economic loss due to condemnation of carcasses if not effectively controlled. Although advances have been made in the control of T. ovis infection, our knowledge of T. ovis biology is limited. Herein the protein profiling of T. ovis metacestodes was determined by liquid chromatography-linked tandem mass spectrometry. A total of 966 proteins were identified and 25.1% (188/748) were annotated to be associated with metabolic pathways. Consistently, GO analysis returned a metabolic process (16.27%) as one of two main biological process terms. Moreover, it was found that 24 proteins, including very low-density lipoprotein receptor, enolase, paramyosin and endophilin B1, were abundant in T. ovis metacestodes. These proteins may be associated with motility, metabolism, signaling, stress, drug resistance and immune responses. Furthermore, comparative analysis of 5 cestodes revealed the presence of Taenia-specific enolases. These data provide clues for better understanding of T. ovis biology, which is informative for effective control of infection.

  4. Accelerator mass spectrometry and radioisotope detection at the Argonne FN tandem facility

    SciTech Connect

    Henning, W.; Kutschera, W.; Paul, M.; Smither, R.K.; Stephenson, E.J.; Yntema, J.L.

    1980-01-01

    The Argonne FN tandem accelerator and standard components of its experimental heavy-ion research facility, have been used as a highly-sensitive mass spectrometer to detect several long-lived radioisotopes and measure their concentration by counting of accelerated ions. Background beams from isobaric nuclei have been eliminated by combining the dispersion from the energy loss in a uniform Al foil stack with the momentum resolution of an Enge split-pole magnetic spectrograph. Radioisotope concentrations in the following ranges have been measured: /sup 14/C//sup 12/C = 10/sup -12/ to 10/sup -13/, /sup 26/Al//sup 27/Al = 10/sup -10/ to 10/sup -12/, /sup 32/Si/Si = 10/sup -8/ to 10/sup -14/, /sup 36/Cl/Cl = 10/sup -10/ to 10/sup -11/. Particular emphasis was put on exploring to what extent the technique of identifying and counting individual ions in an accelerator beam can be conveniently used to determine nuclear quantities of interest when their measurement involves very low radioisotope concentrations. The usefulness of this method can be demonstrated by measuring the /sup 26/Mg(p,n)/sup 26/Al(7.2 x 10/sup 5/ yr) cross section at proton energies in the astrophysically interesting range just above threshold, and by determining the previously poorly known half life of /sup 32/Si.

  5. Quantification of folate metabolites in serum using ultraperformance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiuwei; Zhang, Ting; Zhao, Xin; Guan, Zhen; Wang, Zhen; Zhu, Zhiqiang; Xie, Qiu; Wang, Jianhua; Niu, Bo

    2014-07-01

    Folate deficiency is considered a risk factor for many diseases such as cancer, congenital heart disease and neural tube defects (NTDs). There is a pressing need for more methods of detecting folate and its main metabolites in the human body. Here, we developed a simple, fast and sensitive ultraperformance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC/MS/MS) method for the simultaneous quantifications of folate metabolites including folic acid, 5-methyltetrahydrofolate (5-MeTHF), 5-formyltetrahydrofolate (5-FoTHF), homocysteine (Hcy), S-adenosylmethionine (SAM) and S-adenosylhomocysteine (SAH). The method was validated by determining the linearity (r(2)>0.998), sensitivity (limit of detection ranged from 0.05 to 0.200ng/mL), intra- and inter-day precision (both CV<6%) and recovery (each analyte was >90%). The total analysis time was 7min. Serum samples of NTD-affected pregnancies and controls from a NTD high-risk area in China were analyzed by this method, the NTD serum samples showed lower concentrations of 5-MeTHF (P<0.05) and 5-FoTHF (P<0.05), and higher concentrations of Hcy (P<0.05) and SAH (P<0.05) compared with serum samples from controls, consistent with a previous study. These results showed that the method is sensitive and reliable for simultaneous determination of six metabolites, which might indicate potential risk factors for NTDs, aid early diagnosis and provide more insights into the pathogenesis of NTDs.

  6. Comprehensive characterization of anticoagulant rodenticides in sludge by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Gómez-Canela, Cristian; Lacorte, Silvia

    2016-08-01

    The occurrence of 10 commonly used anticoagulant rodenticides in centrifuged sludge of 27 wastewater treatment plants was evaluated using solid-liquid extraction (SLE) and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). Activated carbon, alumina, and Florisil cartridges with methanol/dichloromethane as eluting solvents were tested in combination with primary-secondary amine (PSA) to optimize an efficient sample cleanup. PSA in combination with Florisil was the best methodology to extract anticoagulant rodenticides in sludge providing recoveries between 42 ± 0.5 and 100 ± 2 %. Warfarin, bromadiolone, ferulenol, and coumachlor were the most ubiquitous compounds in sludge at concentrations up to 84.2 ng g(-1) for the latter. Coumatetralyl, dicoumarol, and brodifacoum were detected sporadically at levels between 6.1 and 17.4 ng g(-1). On the contrary, acenocoumarol, difenacoum, and flocoumafen were not detected in any sample. Finally, we estimated the amount of anticoagulant rodenticides discharged via sludge in order to determine the potential impact to agricultural soil according to different sludge usage practices in the region investigated. This study demonstrates that anticoagulant rodenticides are accumulated in sludge during activated sludge treatment and that the application of sludge as fertilizers may pose a future environmental risk, if not controlled.

  7. Comprehensive characterization of rodenticides in wastewater by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Gómez-Canela, Cristian; Vázquez-Chica, Alberto; Lacorte, Silvia

    2014-01-01

    Rodenticides are used as pest control to eradicate rodents and have emerged as new environmental contaminants due to their widespread use in domestic and urban infrastructures. In this study, we have developed and validated an analytical methodology based on liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) for the determination of 13 anticoagulant rodenticides in wastewater. In a first step, ionization conditions were tested in electrospray mode, and positive ionization gave the highest sensitivity. Fragmentation patterns were determined and two selected reaction monitoring (SRM) transitions were selected for each compound. Using a Zorbax Eclipse XDB-C18 column and specific SRM transitions, 13 compounds were resolved. The LC-MS/MS method provided good linearity, sensitivity, intra- and inter-day precision, and good identification capabilities for these compounds in wastewaters. Thereafter miniaturized liquid-liquid extraction (LLE) and solid-phase extraction (SPE) were optimized. Oasis HLB and Strata WA SPE cartridges with methanol/dichloromethane as eluting solvents provided good recoveries and limits of detection ranged between 0.34 and 20 ng L(-1), whereas LLE failed to recover some compounds. Finally, the performance of both LLE and SPE methods was evaluated by analyzing rodenticides in a set of wastewaters. Warfarin was the only detected compound at nanogram per liter level, and good agreement was observed between LLE and SPE.

  8. Simultaneous determination of chlorpheniramine and pseudoephedrine in human plasma by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xiaoyan; Zhang, Yong; Zhong, Dafang

    2004-05-01

    A sensitive and specific procedure for simultaneous quantitation of chlorpheniramine and pseudoephedrine in human plasma has been developed and validated. Analytes were extracted from plasma samples by liquid-liquid extraction, separated on a Diamonsil C18 column (250 x 4.6 mm i.d.) and detected by tandem mass spectrometry with an atmospheric pressure chemical ionization interface. Diphenhydramine was used as the internal standard. The method has a lower limit of quantitation of 0.2 and 2.0 ng/mL for chlorpheniramine and pseudoephedrine, respectively. The intra- and inter-day relative standard deviation, calculated from quality control (QC) samples were below 4.3% for chlorpheniramine and below 9.5% for pseudoephedrine. The inter-day relative error as determined from QC samples was within 4.7% for each analyte. The overall extraction recoveries of chlorpheniramine and pseudoephedrine were 77 and 61% on average, respectively. The method was successfully applied to pharmaockinetic study of chlorpheniramine and pseudoephedrine in volunteers receiving formulations containing 4 mg of chlorpheniramine maleate and 60 mg of pseudoephedrine hydrochloride.

  9. Determination of cotinine in pericardial fluid and whole blood by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Hegstad, S; Stray-Pedersen, A; Olsen, L; Vege, A; Rognum, T O; Mørland, J; Christophersen, A S

    2009-05-01

    Cotinine is the main metabolite of nicotine and is used as an indicator of exposure to tobacco smoke. A method has been developed for quantification of cotinine in pericardial fluid and whole blood collected from autopsy casework involving cases of infant death. Sample clean-up was achieved by solid-phase extraction with a mixed-mode column. Cotinine was quantified by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Positive ionization was performed in the multiple reaction monitoring mode. Two transitions were monitored for the analyte and one for the internal standard, cotinine-d(3). The calibration range was 0.9-176 ng/mL for cotinine in both matrixes. The recovery of the analyte ranged from 86 to 92%, and the between-assay precisions ranged from 4 to 6% relative standard deviation. Whole blood and pericardial fluid samples from 95 infant deaths obtained during autopsy were analyzed. A strong correlation (R(2) = 0.97) was found between the cotinine concentrations in pericardial fluid and blood. The correlation was not affected by the postmortem time interval. This study demonstrates that pericardial fluid may be an alternative specimen to blood for quantification of cotinine in forensic autopsies.

  10. Development of a dedicated peptide tandem mass spectral library for conservation science.

    PubMed

    Fremout, Wim; Dhaenens, Maarten; Saverwyns, Steven; Sanyova, Jana; Vandenabeele, Peter; Deforce, Dieter; Moens, Luc

    2012-05-30

    In recent years, the use of liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) on tryptic digests of cultural heritage objects has attracted much attention. It allows for unambiguous identification of peptides and proteins, and even in complex mixtures species-specific identification becomes feasible with minimal sample consumption. Determination of the peptides is commonly based on theoretical cleavage of known protein sequences and on comparison of the expected peptide fragments with those found in the MS/MS spectra. In this approach, complex computer programs, such as Mascot, perform well identifying known proteins, but fail when protein sequences are unknown or incomplete. Often, when trying to distinguish evolutionarily well preserved collagens of different species, Mascot lacks the required specificity. Complementary and often more accurate information on the proteins can be obtained using a reference library of MS/MS spectra of species-specific peptides. Therefore, a library dedicated to various sources of proteins in works of art was set up, with an initial focus on collagen rich materials. This paper discusses the construction and the advantages of this spectral library for conservation science, and its application on a number of samples from historical works of art.

  11. Multiclass analysis of antibiotic residues in honey by ultraperformance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Vidal, Jose Luis Martínez; Aguilera-Luiz, María Del Mar; Romero-González, Roberto; Frenich, Antonia Garrido

    2009-03-11

    A method has been developed and validated for the simultaneous analysis of different veterinary drug residues (macrolides, tetracyclines, quinolones, and sulfonamides) in honey. Honey samples were dissolved with Na(2)EDTA, and veterinary residues were extracted from the supernatant by solid-phase extraction (SPE), using OASIS HLB cartridges. The separation and determination was carried out by ultraperformance liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS), using an electrospay ionization source (ESI) in positive mode. Data acquisition under MS/MS was achieved by applying multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) of two ion transitions per compound to provide a high degree of sensitivity and specificity. The method was validated, and mean recoveries were evaluated at three concentration levels (10, 50, and 100 microg/kg), ranging from 70 to 120% except for doxycycline, erythromycin, and tylmicosin with recovery higher than 50% at the three levels assayed. Relative standard deviations (RSDs) of the recoveries were less than 20% within the intraday precision and less than 25% within the interday precision. The limits of quantification (LOQs) were always lower than 4 microg/kg. The developed procedure was applied to 16 honey samples, and erythromycin, sarafloxacin, and tylosin were found in a few samples.

  12. Assay reproducibility of serum androgen measurements using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    Trabert, Britton; Xu, Xia; Falk, Roni T.; Guillemette, Chantal; Stanczyk, Frank Z.; McGlynn, Katherine A.

    2015-01-01

    Background Valid and precise measures of androgen concentrations are needed for etiologic studies of hormonally-related cancers. We developed a high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method with two sample preparations to measure 11 androgens, including adrenal and gonadal androgenic precursors and their 5α-reduced metabolites. Methods Androgen levels were measured in serum from 20 healthy volunteers (5 men, 10 premenopausal women, 5 postmenopausal women). Two blinded, randomized aliquots per individual were assayed in each of three batches. A fourth batch of samples was measured at an external laboratory using comparable methodology to measure 9 of the 11 androgens. Coefficients of variation (CV) and intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC) were calculated from the individual components of variance. Comparability of 9 androgens across laboratories was assessed using Spearman ranked correlations, Deming regression and bias plots. Results The laboratory CVs were <5% and ICCs were uniformly high (>95%) for all androgens measured across sex/menopausal status groups. Spearman ranked correlations for 9 hormones measured in the comparison laboratory were high (>0.85), suggesting good agreement. Conclusion Our high-performance LC-MS/MS assays of 11 androgens, including adrenal and gonadal androgenic precursors and their 5α-reduced metabolites demonstrated excellent laboratory reproducibility, and good comparability with an established method that measured 9 of the 11 hormones tested. The serum androgen metabolite assays are suitable for use in epidemiologic research. PMID:26416142

  13. Multiresidue analysis of environmental pollutants in edible vegetable oils by gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Rui-Ze; Jiang, Jie; Mao, Ting; Zhao, Ya-Song; Lu, Yong

    2016-09-15

    A novel multiresidue determination of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), phthalate esters (PAEs) and alkylphenols (APs) in edible vegetable oils was developed. The samples were extracted with hexane-saturated acetonitrile, and after concentration, the extract was directly qualitatively and quantitatively analyzed by gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (GC-MS/MS) with multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) in positive ion mode. The calibration curve displayed good linearity in the range of 2-100 μg/L, with correlation coefficients greater than 0.99. The mean recoveries were 70.0-110.8% by analysis of spiked oil, and the relative standard deviations (RSDs) were 2.1-10.2% (n=6), respectively. The limits of detection (LODs) for the 23 PAHs, 17 PAEs and 3 APs were 0.1-1.0 μg/kg, 0.1-4.0 μg/kg and 1.2-3.0 μg/kg, respectively. The established method effectively avoided interference from large amounts of lipids and pigments. It was applied to real sample and shown to be a rapid and reliable alternative for determination and confirmation in routine analysis.

  14. Determination of steryl sulphates in invertebrate tissue by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Neto, Renato R; Thompson, Anu; Wolff, George A

    2005-11-01

    A method for the identification and quantification of underivatised steryl sulphates in invertebrates by liquid chromatography (LC) coupled with tandem mass spectrometry (MS) involving a single cleanup step has been developed. Negative electrospray ionisation and positive and negative atmospheric-pressure chemical ionisation (APCI) spectra of steryl sulphate showed pseudomolecular ions ([M+H-H2SO4]+ or [M-H]-). Collision-induced dissociation (CID) was efficient only in positive APCI. LC-MS in negative APCI was least susceptible to interference and possible differences in response factors. The detection limits (signal-to-noise ratio of 3) based on cholest-5-enyl-3-sulphate in positive and negative APCI modes are 3.66 and 0.73 pmol microL(-1), respectively. Calibration plots and response factors for cholest-5-enyl-3-sulphate relative to the internal standard, cholecalciferyl-3-sulphate, in both positive and negative polarities, were linear in the concentration range from 1.22 to 16.4 pmol microL(-1) with good coefficients of determination (R2 > 0.98). It is suggested that the structure elucidation of steryl sulphates is best achieved in CID positive APCI mode, whereas their quantification should be carried out using negative APCI.

  15. Identification of Microorganisms by High Resolution Tandem Mass Spectrometry with Accurate Statistical Significance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alves, Gelio; Wang, Guanghui; Ogurtsov, Aleksey Y.; Drake, Steven K.; Gucek, Marjan; Suffredini, Anthony F.; Sacks, David B.; Yu, Yi-Kuo

    2016-02-01

    Correct and rapid identification of microorganisms is the key to the success of many important applications in health and safety, including, but not limited to, infection treatment, food safety, and biodefense. With the advance of mass spectrometry (MS) technology, the speed of identification can be greatly improved. However, the increasing number of microbes sequenced is challenging correct microbial identification because of the large number of choices present. To properly disentangle candidate microbes, one needs to go beyond apparent morphology or simple `fingerprinting'; to correctly prioritize the candidate microbes, one needs to have accurate statistical significance in microbial identification. We meet these challenges by using peptidome profiles of microbes to better separate them and by designing an analysis method that yields accurate statistical significance. Here, we present an analysis pipeline that uses tandem MS (MS/MS) spectra for microbial identification or classification. We have demonstrated, using MS/MS data of 81 samples, each composed of a single known microorganism, that the proposed pipeline can correctly identify microorganisms at least at the genus and species levels. We have also shown that the proposed pipeline computes accurate statistical significances, i.e., E-values for identified peptides and unified E-values for identified microorganisms. The proposed analysis pipeline has been implemented in MiCId, a freely available software for Microorganism Classification and Identification. MiCId is available for download at http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/CBBresearch/Yu/downloads.html.

  16. Tandem mass spectrometric analysis of a mixture of isobars using the survival yield technique.

    PubMed

    Memboeuf, Antony; Jullien, Laure; Lartia, Rémy; Brasme, Bernard; Gimbert, Yves

    2011-10-01

    Collision induced dissociation tandem mass spectrometry experiments were performed to unequivocally separate compounds from an isobaric mixture of two products. The Survival Yield curve was obtained and is shown to consist in a linear combination of the curves corresponding to the two components separately. For such a mixture, a plateau appears on the diagram in lieu of the continuous decrease expected allowing for the structural study of the two components separately. The width of the plateau critically relates to the fragmentation parameters of the two molecular ions, which need to be sufficiently different structurally for the plateau to be observed. However, at constant fragmentation parameters, we have observed the width significantly increases at large m/z. This makes the separation more and more efficient as isobars have larger m/z and the technique complementary to those applicable at low m/z only. We have observed that the vertical position of the plateau relates linearly to the relative concentration of the two compounds that may be useful for quantification. Repeatability was estimated at 2% on a quadrupole ion trap. An advantage of using survival yield curves only, is that a priori knowledge of the respective fragmentation patterns of the two isobars becomes unnecessary. Consequently, similar performances are obtained if fragments are isobaric, which is also demonstrated in our study. The critical case of reverse peptides, at low m/z and similar fragmentation parameters, is also presented as a limitation of the method.

  17. Analysis of amphetamines and metabolites in urine with ultra performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Ramírez Fernández, María del Mar; Wille, Sarah M R; di Fazio, Vincent; Gosselin, Matthias; Samyn, Nele

    2010-06-01

    A simple, rapid and sensitive ultra performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry method was developed and fully validated for the quantitative determination of seven amphetamines and metabolites in urine. The method was validated for selectivity, linearity, LOQ, LOD, imprecision, bias, analyte and processed sample stability, matrix effect, recovery, carryover and dilution integrity. A classic liquid-liquid extraction with ethyl acetate was used as sample preparation procedure. The compounds were separated on an Acquity UPLC HSS C18 column in 6.8 min. The linear dynamic range was established from 25 to 500 ng/mL. The limit of quantification was fixed to the lowest calibrator level and the limit of detection ranged from 0.125 to 2.5 ng/mL. The method presented an excellent intra- and inter-assay imprecision and bias (<10.7%) at each measured concentration of two external quality controls (QC) and three "in house" QC. No matrix effects were observed and good recoveries (>70%) were obtained for all the compounds. No carryover was observed after the analysis of high concentrated samples (8000 ng/mL). The method was subsequently applied to authentic samples.

  18. Determination of Cranberry Phenolic Metabolites in Rats by Liquid Chromatography–Tandem Mass Spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    Rajbhandari, Rajani; Peng, Ning; Moore, Ray; Arabshahi, Alireza; Wyss, J. Michael; Barnes, Stephen; Prasain, Jeevan K

    2011-01-01

    The glycosides of flavonoid, anthocyanins and A type proanthocyanidins in cranberry concentrate were characterized and quantified using liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry (LC–MS/MS). Cranberry concentrate (1 g/body weight) was orally gavaged to Fischer-344 rats (n = 6), and blood and urine samples were collected over 24 h periods. Quercetin, 3′-O-methylquercetin (isorhamnetin), myricetin, kaempferol, and proanthocyanidin dimer A2, together with thirteen conjugated metabolites of quercetin and methylquercetin and intact peonidin 3-O-galactoside and cyanidin 3-O-galactoside were identified in the rat urine after cranberry treatment. Very low levels of isorhamnetin (0.48 ± 0.09 ng/mL) and proanthocyanidin dimer A2 (0.541 ± 0.10 ng/mL) were found in plasma samples after 1 h of cranberry administration. Although no quercetin was detected in plasma, MRM analysis of the methanolic extract of urinary bladder showed that chronic administration of cranberry concentrate to rats resulted in accumulation of quercetin and isorhamnetin in the bladder. These results demonstrate that cranberry components undergo rapid metabolism and elimination into the urine of rats and are present in the urinary bladder tissue potentially allowing them to inhibit urinary bladder carcinogenesis. PMID:21634376

  19. Determination of cosmogenic Ca-41 in a meteorite with tandem accelerator mass spectrometry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kubik, P. W.; Elmore, D.; Conard, N. J.; Nishiizumi, K.; Arnold, J. R.

    1986-01-01

    The first use of tandem accelerator mass spectrometry (TAMS) to measure the content of Ca-41 in a natural sample, the iron Bogou meteorite, is reported. Ca in the samples was extracted by hydroxide precipitation and purified by means of a caution exchange resin (AG 50W-X8). After adding 4 percent ammonium oxide, the precipitate was ignited to CaO in a quartz vial at about 1100 C. The Ca-41/Ca ratios were determined following acceleration by alternate measurements of the Ca-40 beam current in an image Faraday cup. Ca-41 particles were also measured using a gas counter. The measured Ca-41/Ca ratio was 3.8 + or -0.6 x 10 to the 12th, which corresponds to a Ca-41 activity of 6.9 + or -1.1 d.p.m. per kg. Calculation of the half-life of Ca-41 in the Bogou meteorite yielded an age of 103,000 years.

  20. [Determination of pesticides in Chinese dumplings using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry].

    PubMed

    Okamoto, You; Takatori, Satoshi; Kitagawa, Yoko; Okihashi, Masahiro; Fukui, Naoki; Murata, Hiroshi; Sumimoto, Tatsuo; Tanaka, Yukio; Obana, Hirotaka

    2009-02-01

    A rapid and easy multiresidue method for determination of pesticide residues in Chinese dumplings using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) has been developed. Pesticide residues were extracted with ethyl acetate in the presence of anhydrous magnesium sulfate in a disposable tube using a homogenizer. The extract was concentrated and reconstituted in hexane, followed by acetonitrile-hexane partition to remove lipids. The acetonitrile layer was purified with a double-layered cartridge column (graphite carbon black/primary secondary amine silica gel). After removal of the solvent, the extract was resolved in methanol/water and analyzed with LC-MS/MS. Recovery tests of 99 pesticide residues from Chinese dumpling were performed at 20 and 100 ng/g, and 72 pesticides exhibited acceptable recoveries (70-120%) with low relative standard deviations (<20%) at both concentrations. The time for sample preparation with 12 samples to test solutions was approximately 6 hr. This method could be useful for determination of pesticide residues in the Chinese dumplings.

  1. [Determination of 25 quinolones in cosmetics by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry].

    PubMed

    Lin, Li; Zhang, Yi; Tu, Xiaoke; Xie, Liqi; Yue, Zhenfeng; Kang, Haining; Wu, Weidong; Luo, Yao

    2015-03-01

    An analytical method was developed for the simultaneous determination of 25 quinolones, including danofloxacin mesylate, enrofloxacin, flumequine, oxloinic acid, ciprofloxacin, sarafloxacin, nalidixic acid, norfloxacin, and ofloxacin etc in cosmetics using direct extraction and liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS/MS). Cosmetic sample was extracted by acidified acetonitrile, defatted by n-hexane and separated on Poroshell EC-C18 column with gradient elution program using acetonitrile and water (both containing 0. 1% formic acid) as the mobile phases and analyzed by LC-ESI-MS/MS under the positive mode using multiple reaction monitoring (MRM). The interference of matrix was reduced by the matrix-matched calibration standard curve. The method showed good linearities over the range of 1-200 mg/kg for the 25 quinolones with good linear correlation coefficients (r ≥ 0.999). The method detection limit of the 25 quinolones was 1.0 mg/kg, and the recoveries of all analytes in lotion, milky and cream cosmetics matrices ranged from 87.4% to 105% at the spiked levels of 1, 5 and 10 mg/kg with the relative standard deviations (RSD) of 4.54%-19.7% (n = 6). The results indicated that this method is simple, fast and credible, and suitable for the simultaneous determination of the quinolones in the above three types of cosmetics.

  2. Simultaneous determination of beta-blockers in human plasma using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Umezawa, Hironobu; Lee, Xiao-Pen; Arima, Yoshiko; Hasegawa, Chika; Izawa, Hikaru; Kumazawa, Takeshi; Sato, Keizo

    2008-07-01

    A detailed procedure for the analysis of four beta-blockers, acebutolol, labetalol, metoprolol and propranolol, in human plasma by high-performance liquid chromatography (LC)-tandem mass spectrometry (MS-MS) using an MSpak GF column, which enables direct injection of crude plasma samples, is presented. Protein and/or macromolecule matrix compounds were eluted first from the column, while the drugs were retained on the polymer stationary phase of the MSpak GF column. The analytes retained on the column were then eluted into an acetonitrile-rich mobile phase using a gradient separation technique. All drugs showed base peak ions due to [M + H]+ ions by LC-MS with positive ion electrospray ionization, and the product ions were produced from each [M + H]+ ion by LC-MS-MS. Quantification was performed by selected reaction monitoring. The recoveries of the four beta-blockers spiked into plasma were 73.5-89.9%. The regression equations for all compounds showed excellent linearity in the range 10-1000 ng/mL of plasma, with the exception of propranolol (10-800 ng/mL). The limits of detection and quantification for each drug were 1-3 and 10 ng/mL, respectively, of plasma. The intra- and inter-day coefficients of variation for all drugs in plasma were not greater than 10.9%.

  3. Tandem Mass Spectrometry for Characterization of Covalent Adducts of DNA with Anti-cancer Therapeutics

    PubMed Central

    Silvestri, Catherine; Brodbelt, Jennifer S.

    2012-01-01

    The chemotherapeutic activities of many anticancer and antibacterial drugs arise from their interactions with nucleic acid substrates. Some of these ligands interact with DNA in a way that causes conformational changes or damage to the nucleic acid targets, ultimately altering recognition by key DNA-specific enzymes, interfering with DNA transcription or prohibiting replication, and terminating cell growth and proliferation. The design and synthesis of ligands that bind to nucleic acids remains a dynamic field in medicinal chemistry and pharmaceutical research. The quest for more selective and efficacious DNA-interactive anti-cancer chemotherapeutics has likewise catalyzed the need for sensitive analytical methods that can provide structural information about the nature of the resulting DNA adducts and provide insight into the mechanistic pathways of the DNA/drug interactions and the impact on the cellular processes in biological systems. This review focuses on the array of tandem mass spectrometric strategies developed and applied for characterization of covalent adducts formed between DNA and anti-cancer ligands. PMID:23150278

  4. Determination of ractopamine in pig hair using liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometric detection.

    PubMed

    Wu, Junlin; Liu, Xiaoyun; Peng, Yunping

    2014-01-01

    A quantitative analytical procedure for the determination of ractopamine in pig hair has been developed and validated. The hair samples were washed and incubated at 75°C with isoxuprine and hair extraction buffer. The drug present was quantified using mixed solid-phase extraction and liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometric detection. The limit of quantization (LOQ) was 10pg/mg and the intra-day precision at 25pg/mg and 750pg/mg was 0.49% and 2.8% respectively. Inter-day precision was 0.88% and 3.52% at the same concentrations. The hair extraction percentage recovery at 25pg/mg and 50ng/mL was 99.47% and 103.83% respectively. The extraction percentage recovery at 25pg/mg and 50ng/mg was 93.52% and 100.26% respectively. Our results showed that ractopamine residues persist in hair in 24days of withdrawal and also showed the possibility to test ractopamine from pig hair samples.

  5. Determination of pyrolysis products of smoked methamphetamine mixed with tobacco by tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Lee, M R; Jeng, J; Hsiang, W S; Hwang, B H

    1999-01-01

    This study examines the pyrolysis products of smoked methamphetamine mixed with tobacco that was trapped with a C8 adsorbent cartridge and then detected by gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. According to the results, the mainstream smoke contains 2-methylpropyl-benzene, 2-chloropropyl-benzene, 2,3-dihydro-3,5-dihydroxy-6-methyl-4H-pyran-4-one, 3-ethyl-phenol, methamphetamine, dimethylamphetamine, hydroquinone, 3-methyl-5-(1-methylethyl)-methylcarbamate phenol, N-methyl-N-(2-phenylethyl)-acetamide, 4-(3-hydroxy-1-butenyl)-3,5,5-trimethyl-2-cyclohexene-1-one, propanoic acid, N-acetylmethamphetamine, phenyl ester, and furfurylmethylamphetamine. In addition, the compounds in sidestream smoke are 2-propenyl benzene, phenylacetone, methamphetamine, dimethylamphetamine, benzyl methyl ketoxime, 3,4-dihydro-2-naphthalenone, N-folmyamphetamine, N-acetylamphetamine, bibenzyl, N-folmylmethamphetamine, N-acetylmethamphetamine, N-propionymethamphetamine, and furfurylmethylamphetamine. Moreover, the presence of methamphetamine promotes the oxidation of the tobacco components.

  6. Quantification of plasma homocitrulline using hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography (HILIC) coupled to tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Jaisson, Stéphane; Gorisse, Laëtitia; Pietrement, Christine; Gillery, Philippe

    2012-02-01

    Homocitrulline (HCit), an amino acid formed by the carbamylation of ε-amino groups of lysine residues, is considered a promising biomarker for monitoring diseases such as chronic renal failure and atherosclerosis. This paper describes a tandem mass spectrometric method for total, protein-bound and free HCit measurement in plasma samples. HCit was separated from other plasma components by hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography. Detection was achieved by monitoring transitions of 190.1 > 127.1 and 190.1 > 173.1 for HCit, and 183.1 > 120.2 for d(7)-citrulline used as internal standard. This method allowed HCit quantification within 5.2 min and was precise (inter-assay CV < 5.85%), accurate (mean recoveries ranging from 97% to 106%), and exhibited a good linearity from 10 nmol/L to 1.6 μmol/L. Plasma samples from control and uremic mice (n = 10) were analyzed. In control mice, mean total plasma HCit concentration was 0.78 ± 0.12 μmol/mol amino acids, whereas it was increased 2.7-fold in uremic mice plasma, reaching 2.10 ± 0.50 μmol/mol amino acids (p < 0.001). In conclusion, this method exhibits good analytical performances and meets the criteria of sensitivity suitable for HCit concentration assessment in plasma samples.

  7. Determination of sulfonamides in beeswax by liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Mitrowska, Kamila; Antczak, Maja

    2015-12-01

    The manuscript presents the development of a new method for the quantification of 16 sulfonamides in beeswax. Different sample preparation techniques were tested and modified to maximise the recovery of the target analytes and minimise the amount of coeluted impurities under conditions that provide reproducible results. The proposed method consisted of melting and dilution of beeswax in a mixture of n-hexane and isopropanol followed by extraction with 2% acetic acid. The extract was cleaned up by solid-phase extraction using strong cation exchange phase. Determination of the sulfonamides was achieved by liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry with the use of a pentafluorophenyl analytical column and applying a gradient elution with acetonitrile and 0.01% acetic acid as mobile phases. The limits of detection and limits of quantification ranged from 1 to 2μg/kg and from 2 to 5μg/kg, respectively. The recoveries varied between 65.2% and 117.8% while coefficient of variation of the method was less than 24.2% under intermediate precision conditions. Finally, the method was applied to the analysis of real samples of beeswax from beekeepers and commercial foundations manufacturers.

  8. Determination of domoic acid in seawater and phytoplankton by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhihong; King, Kristen L; Ramsdell, John S; Doucette, Gregory J

    2007-09-07

    Domoic acid (DA) is an algal neurotoxin produced by diatoms primarily of the genus Pseudo-nitzschia and is responsible for the human intoxication syndrome known as amnesic shellfish poisoning. A method has been developed to determine DA in seawater and phytoplankton matrices by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry for both quantitation and confirmation purposes. Sample extraction and clean-up was achieved on a C18 solid-phase extraction (SPE) cartridge. An acidic condition is critical for retaining hydrophilic DA on the cartridge. Direct injection of SPE eluate for analysis is recommended in order to avoid loss of DA by drying with heat prior to resuspension and injection. DA was quantified using the fragments produced from the protonated DA ion through multiple reaction monitoring (MRM). Recoveries exceeded 90% for all seawater samples spiked with DA and approximated 98% of toxin standard added to cultured phytoplankton material. Acceptable reproducibility (ca. 5% or less) was obtained for all intra-day and inter-day samples. The detection limit was 30 pg/ml level with a 20 microl injection volume, which demonstrated the value of this method for not only confirming DA production by minimally toxic phytoplankton species, but also for investigating the potentially important role of dissolved DA in marine food webs.

  9. Metabolism profiles of nuciferine in rats using ultrafast liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Ye, Lin-Hu; Xiao, Bing-Xin; Liao, Yong-Hong; Liu, Xin-Min; Pan, Rui-Le; Chang, Qi

    2016-08-01

    Nuciferine (NF) is one of the main aporphine alkaloids existing in the traditional Chinese medicine Folium Nelumbinis (lotus leaves). Modern pharmacological studies have demonstrated that NF has a broad spectrum of bioactivities, such as anti-HIV and anti-hyperlipidemic effects, and has been recommended as a leading compound for new drug development. However, the metabolites and biotransformation pathway of NF in vivo have not yet been comprehensively investigated. The present study was performed to identify the metabolites of NF for exploring in vivo fates. Rat plasma and urine samples were collected after oral administration and prepared by liquid-liquid extraction with ethyl acetate. A method based on ultrafast liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry was applied to identify the metabolites. Q1 (first quadrupole) full scan combined with a multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) survey scan were used for the detection of metabolites. MRM-information-dependent acquisition of enhanced product ions was used for the structural identification of detected metabolites. A total of 10 metabolites were identified, including phase I (demethylation, oxidation and dehydrogenation) and phase II (glucuronidation, sulfation and glutathione) biotransformation products. Demethylation is the main metabolic pathway of NF in the body. These results can help in improving understanding of the disposition and pharmacological mechanism of NF in the body. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  10. Determination of metformin in mouse, rat, dog and human plasma samples by laser diode thermal desorption/atmospheric pressure chemical ionization tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Swales, John G; Gallagher, Richard; Peter, Raimund M

    2010-11-02

    A simple, rapid and robust high-throughput assay for the quantitative analysis of metformin in plasma from different species using laser diode thermal desorption interfaced with atmospheric chemical pressure ionization tandem mass spectrometry (LDTD-APCI-MSMS) was developed for use in a pharmaceutical discovery environment. In order to minimize sample preparation a generic protein precipitation method was used to extract metformin from the plasma. Laser diode thermal desorption is a relatively new sample introduction method, the optimization of the instrumental parameters are presented. The method was successfully applied to spiked mouse, rat, dog and human plasma samples and was subsequently used to determine the oral pharmacokinetics of metformin after dosing to male rats in order to support drug discovery projects. The deviations for intra-assay accuracy and precision across the four species were less than 30% at all calibration and quality control levels.

  11. Silymarin in liposomes and ethosomes: pharmacokinetics and tissue distribution in free-moving rats by high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Chang, Li-Wen; Hou, Mei-Ling; Tsai, Tung-Hu

    2014-12-03

    The aim of this study was to prepare silymarin formulations (silymarin entrapped in liposomes and ethosomes, formulations referred to as LSM and ESM, respectively) to improve oral bioavailability of silymarin and evaluate its tissue distribution by liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) in free-moving rats. Silibinin is the major active constituent of silymarin, which is the main component to be analyzed. A rapid, sensitive, and repeatable LC-MS/MS method was developed and validated in terms of precision, accuracy, and extraction recovery. Furthermore, the established method was applied to study the pharmacokinetics and tissue distribution of silymarin in rats. The size, ζ potential, and drug release of the formulations were characterized. These results showed that the LSM and ESM encapsulated formulations of silymarin may provide more efficient tissue distribution and increased oral bioavailability, thus improving its therapeutic bioactive properties in the body.

  12. Performance characterization of a quantitative liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometric method for 12 macrolide and lincosamide antibiotics in salmon, shrimp and tilapia.

    PubMed

    Dickson, Leslie C

    2014-09-15

    This paper describes an extension and performance characterization of a quantitative confirmatory multi-residue liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometric method for residues of macrolide and lincosamide antibiotics, originally validated for application to bovine kidney tissues, to tissues of salmon, shrimp and tilapia. The 12 analytes include clindamycin, erythromycin A, gamithromycin, josamycin, lincomycin, neospiramycin 1, oleandomycin, pirlimycin, spiramycin 1, tildipirosin, tilmicosin and tylosin A. The limit of detection was 0.5 μg/kg. Within-laboratory precision evaluated over the analytical range of 5.0-50.0 μg/kg ranged from 4 to 17%. The accuracy of the method ranged from 80 to 112%. Recoveries ranged from 47 to 99% with all but one recovery above 60%. This is the first report of a quantitative confirmatory method for gamithromycin, pirlimycin and tildipirosin in fish and shrimp.

  13. Determination of 3-hydroxyisovalerylcarnitine and other acylcarnitine levels using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry in serum and urine of a patient with multiple carboxylase deficiency.

    PubMed

    Maeda, Yasuhiro; Ito, Tetsuya; Ohmi, Hironori; Yokoi, Kyoko; Nakajima, Yoko; Ueta, Akihito; Kurono, Yukihisa; Togari, Hajime; Sugiyama, Naruji

    2008-07-15

    Due to its increased concentration in blood, 3-hydroxyisovalerylcarnitine (C5OH-I) is an important indicator for the diagnosis of organic acidemias in newborns. However, C5OH-I has not been used as a standard in tandem mass spectrometric (MS/MS) assays because its isolation is difficult. We developed a new synthesis of C5OH-I and investigated its behavior by MS/MS. A method using the multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) mode of MS/MS with HPLC was developed which provides high accuracy, precision and reproducibility. Acylcarnitine profiles in the serum and urine of a patient with multiple carboxylase deficiency (MCD) showed increased levels compared to a healthy patient.

  14. Specific method for determination of OSI-774 and its metabolite OSI-420 in human plasma by using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Ming; He, Ping; Rudek, Michelle A; Hidalgo, Manuel; Baker, Sharyn D

    2003-08-15

    A new simple and specific method was developed and validated for the quantitative determination of OSI-774 (Tarceva, Erlotinib) and its metabolite, OSI-420, in human plasma. Sample pretreatment involved a single protein precipitation step with acetonitrile. The analytes were separated on Waters X-Terra C(18) (50 x 2.1 mm I.D., 3.5 microm) analytical column and eluted with acetonitrile-water mobile (70:30, v/v) containing 0.1% formic acid. The analytes of interest were monitored by tandem mass spectrometry with electrospray positive ionization. The overall extraction efficiency was greater than 88% for OSI-774 and 62% for OSI-420, with values for within-day and between-day precision and accuracy of <15%. Compared to previous assays, this method is simple, specific, and reproducible and will be used to characterize the plasma pharmacokinetics of OSI-774 at doses of 50 to 150 mg to optimize treatment with this agent.

  15. Validation and uncertainty analysis of a multi-residue method for pesticides in grapes using ethyl acetate extraction and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Banerjee, Kaushik; Oulkar, Dasharath P; Dasgupta, Soma; Patil, Shubhangi B; Patil, Sangram H; Savant, Rahul; Adsule, Pandurang G

    2007-11-30

    A method was validated for the multi-residue analysis of 82 pesticides in grapes at tandem mass spectrometry. Reduction in sample size and proportion of ethyl acetate for extraction did not affect accuracy or precision of analysis when compared to the reported methods and was also statistically similar to the QuEChERS technique. The method was rugged (HorRat < 0.5) with <20% measurement uncertainties. Limit of quantification was <10 ng/g with recoveries 70-120% for most pesticides. The method offers cheaper and safer alternative to typical multi-residue analysis methods for grape.

  16. Quantitation of Cotinine and its Metabolites in Rat Plasma and Brain Tissue by Hydrophilic Interaction Chromatography Tandem Mass Spectrometry (HILIC-MS/MS)

    PubMed Central

    Li, Pei; Beck, Wayne D.; Callahan, Patrick M.; Terry, Alvin V.; Bartlett, Michael G.

    2014-01-01

    In this work, we developed a sensitive method to quantify cotinine (COT), norcotinine (NCOT), trans-3′-hydroxycotinine (OHCOT) and cotinine-N-oxide (COTNO) in rat plasma and brain tissue, using solid phase extraction (SPE), hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography (HILIC) and tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS). The linear range was 1–100 ng/ml for each analyte in rat plasma and brain homogenate (3–300 ng/g brain tissue). The method was validated with precision within 15% relative standard deviation (RSD) and accuracy within 15% relative error (RE). Stable isotope-labeled internal standards (IS) were used for all the analytes to achieve good reproducibility, minimizing the influence of recovery and matrix effects. This method can be used in future studies to simultaneously determine the concentrations of COT and three major metabolites in rat plasma and brain tissue. PMID:23022114

  17. Assessment of potential (inhalation and dermal) and actual exposure to acetamiprid by greenhouse applicators using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Marín, A; Martínez Vidal, J L; Egea Gonzalez, F J; Garrido Frenich, A; Glass, C R; Sykes, M

    2004-05-25

    New analytical methods based on liquid chromatography with electrospray tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) have been developed and validated for assessing the exposure of greenhouse workers to acetamiprid. Both ambient (potential inhalation and dermal exposure) and internal dose (biological monitoring of urine samples) measurements were carried out. Potential inhalation exposure was assessed using Chromosorb 102 cartridges connected to air personal samplers. Potential dermal exposure was estimated by using whole body dosimetry. The measurement of actual exposure was done by analyzing the parent compound in urine samples of the applicators, after a solid-phase extraction (SPE) step. The methods showed a good accuracy (72-92%), precision (2-13%) and lower limits (few microg l(-1)). The validated approaches have been applied to assess potential and actual exposure of agricultural workers spraying acetamiprid in greenhouses. The results shown the need to wear personal protective equipment (suits) in order to reduce the absorbed dose of acetamiprid.

  18. Determination of 17alpha-methyltestosterone in muscle tissues of tilapia, rainbow trout, and salmon using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Chu, Pak-Sin; Lopez, Mayda; Serfling, Stan; Gieseker, Charlie; Reimschuessel, Renate

    2006-05-03

    An analytical method was developed to quantitate and confirm the presence of 17alpha-methyltestosterone in the muscles of tilapia, rainbow trout, and salmon. The method employed two liquid-liquid partitioning steps and two solid-phase extraction columns for sample cleanup. The final extracts were analyzed on an isocratic reverse-phase liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry system with atmospheric-pressure chemical ionization in the positive ion mode. The method was validated at levels from 0.40 to 1.6 ng/g, with MT-d3 used as an internal standard. The accuracy was between 100% and 110%, and coefficients of variation of <10% were obtained for all three fish species. Muscle tissues from dosed fish were also assayed to demonstrate the effectiveness of the method for recovering the parent drug.

  19. Simultaneous enantioselective quantification of fluoxetine and norfluoxetine in human milk by direct sample injection using 2-dimensional liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Alvim-Jr, Joel; Lopes, Bianca Rebelo; Cass, Quezia Bezerra

    2016-06-17

    A two-dimensional liquid chromatography system coupled to triple quadrupole tandem mass spectrometer (2D LC-MS/MS) was employed for the simultaneously quantification of fluoxetine (FLX) and norfluoxetine (NFLX) enantiomers in human milk by direct injection of samples. A restricted access media of bovine serum albumin octadecyl column (RAM-BSAC18) was used in the first dimension for the milk proteins depletion, while an antibiotic-based chiral column was used in the second dimension. The results herein described show good selectivity, extraction efficiency, accuracy, and precision with limits of quantification in the order of 7.5ngmL(-1)for the FLX enantiomers and 10.0ngmL(-1) for NFLX enantiomers. Furthermore, it represents a practical tool in terms of sustainability for the sample preparation of such a difficult matrix.

  20. Determination of (fluoro)quinolone antibiotic residues in pig kidney using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Part II: intercomparison exercise.

    PubMed

    Toussaint, B; Chedin, M; Vincent, U; Bordin, G; Rodriguez, A R

    2005-09-23

    A recently in-house validated method for the liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) determination of eleven (fluoro)quinolone antibiotics (FQs) in pig kidney has been fully validated through an intercomparison exercise. This ring trial involved eight European laboratories and was based on the Commission Decision 2002/657/CE for validation of method and on the IUPAC protocol for method-performances studies. The laboratories data were submitted to a one-way analysis of variance. Satisfactory results were obtained for each FQ with regards to within- and between-laboratory reproducibility and accuracy. The method was validated for the simultaneous qualitative and quantitative determination of the eleven FQs in pig kidney around their maximum residue limit (MRL) as defined in the European Council Regulation 2377/90/EEC.

  1. Analysis of Mammalian Sphingolipids by Liquid Chromatography Tandem Mass Spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) and Tissue Imaging Mass Spectrometry (TIMS)

    PubMed Central

    Sullards, M. Cameron; Liu, Ying; Chen, Yanfeng; Merrill, Alfred H.

    2011-01-01

    Sphingolipids are a highly diverse category of molecules that serve not only as components of biological structures but also as regulators of numerous cell functions. Because so many of the structural features of sphingolipids give rise to their biological activity, there is a need for comprehensive or “sphingolipidomic” methods for identification and quantitation of as many individual subspecies as possible. This review defines sphingolipids as a class, briefly discusses classical methods for their analysis, and focuses primarily on liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) and tissue imaging mass spectrometry (TIMS). Recently, a set of evolving and expanding methods have been developed and rigorously validated for the extraction, identification, separation, and quantitation of sphingolipids by LC-MS/MS. Quantitation of these biomolecules is made possible via the use of an internal standard cocktail. The compounds that can be readily analyzed are free long-chain (sphingoid) bases, sphingoid base 1-phosphates, and more complex species such as ceramides, ceramide 1-phosphates, sphingomyelins, mono- and di-hexosylceramides sulfatides, and novel compounds such as the 1-deoxy- and 1-(deoxymethyl)-sphingoid bases and their N-acyl-derivatives. These methods can be altered slightly to separate and quantitate isomeric species such as glucosyl/galactosylceramide. Because these techniques require the extraction of sphingolipids from their native environment, any information regarding their localization in histological slices is lost. Therefore, this review also describes methods for TIMS. This technique has been shown to be a powerful tool to determine the localization of individual molecular species of sphingolipids directly from tissue slices. PMID:21749933

  2. A hydrophilic interaction chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method for amino acid profiling in mussels.

    PubMed

    Tsochatzis, Emmanouil D; Begou, Olga; Gika, Helen G; Karayannakidis, Panayotis D; Kalogiannis, Stavros

    2017-03-15

    A UHPLC-HILIC-tandem MS method has been developed and validated for the quantification of 21 amino acids (20 protein amino acids and cystine) in their free form (FAA) and as protein constituents (total amino acids, TAA) in a rich protein food matrix such as lyophilized mussels (Mytilus galloprovincialis) samples. FAA were analyzed after suspending the samples in the presence of trichloroacetic acid in order to prevent dissolving the proteins, while TAA were determined after acid hydrolysis with 6M HCl in the presence of 4% v/v thioglycolic acid as a reducing agent. In hydrolysed samples 17 amino acids could be determined since tryptophan, cysteine, cystine and asparagine were degraded during acid hydrolysis. Linear regression coefficients (R(2)) were above 0.99 for all amino acids. Accuracy and precision, expressed as recovery (%) and relative standard deviation (RSD, %) were in acceptable levels, ranging from 78.2 to 123.3% and below 15%, respectively for both FAA and TAA. Uncertainty was also below 12% for FAA and below 22% for TAA. Sensitivity of the method was high with LOD values ranging from 0.003 to 0.034g/100g for FAA and 0.001 to 0.004g/100g for TAA, while LOQ ranged from 0.009 to 0.104g/100g for FAA and 0.002 to 0.011g/100g for TAA. The method proved to be a fast and reliable tool for acquiring information on free and total amino acids profile in high protein content foodstuffs such as mussels.

  3. Evaluation of microdosing to assess pharmacokinetic linearity in rats using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Balani, Suresh K; Nagaraja, Nelamangala V; Qian, Mark G; Costa, Arnaldo O; Daniels, J Scott; Yang, Hua; Shimoga, Prakash R; Wu, Jing-Tao; Gan, Liang-Shang; Lee, Frank W; Miwa, Gerald T

    2006-03-01

    The microdosing strategy allows for early assessment of human pharmacokinetics of new chemical entities using more limited safety assessment requirements than those requisite for a conventional phase I program. The current choice for evaluating microdosing is accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) due to its ultrasensitivity for detecting radiotracers. However, the AMS technique is still expensive to be used routinely and requires the preparation of radiolabeled compounds. This report describes a feasibility study with conventional liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) technology for oral microdosing assessment in rats, a commonly used preclinical species. The nonlabeled drugs fluconazole and tolbutamide were studied because of their similar pharmacokinetics characteristics in rats and humans. We demonstrate that pharmacokinetics can be readily characterized by LC-MS/MS at a microdose of 1 microg/kg for these molecules in rats, and, hence, LC-MS/MS should be adequate in human microdosing studies. The studies also exhibit linearity in exposure between the microdose and >or=1000-fold higher doses in rats for these drugs, which are known to show a linear dose-exposure relationship in the clinic, further substantiating the potential utility of LC-MS/MS in defining pharmacokinetics from the microdose of drugs. These data should increase confidence in the use of LC-MS/MS in microdose pharmacokinetics studies of new chemical entities in humans. Application of this approach is also described for an investigational compound, MLNX, in which the pharmacokinetics in rats were determined to be nonlinear, suggesting that MLNX pharmacokinetics at microdoses in humans also might not reflect those at the therapeutic doses. These preclinical studies demonstrate the potential applicability of using traditional LC-MS/MS for microdose pharmacokinetic assessment in humans.

  4. Characterisation of polyacetylenes isolated from carrot (Daucus carota) extracts by negative ion tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Rai, Dilip K; Brunton, Nigel P; Koidis, Anastasios; Rawson, Ashish; McLoughlin, Padraig; Griffiths, William J

    2011-08-15

    The potential use of negative electrospray ionisation mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) in the characterisation of the three polyacetylenes common in carrots (Daucus carota) has been assessed. The MS scans have demonstrated that the polyacetylenes undergo a modest degree of in-source decomposition in the negative ionisation mode while the positive ionisation mode has shown predominantly sodiated ions and no [M+H](+) ions. Tandem mass spectrometric (MS/MS) studies have shown that the polyacetylenes follow two distinct fragmentation pathways: one that involves cleavage of the C3-C4 bond and the other with cleavage of the C7-C8 bond. The cleavage of the C7-C8 bond generated product ions m/z 105.0 for falcarinol, m/z 105/107.0 for falcarindiol, m/z 147.0/149.1 for falcarindiol-3-acetate. In addition to these product ions, the transitions m/z 243.2 → 187.1 (falcarinol), m/z 259.2 → 203.1 (falcarindiol), m/z 301.2 → 255.2/203.1 (falcarindiol-3-acetate), mostly from the C3-C4 bond cleavage, can form the basis of multiple reaction monitoring (MRM)-quantitative methods which are poorly represented in the literature. The 'MS(3) ' experimental data confirmed a less pronounced homolytic cleavage site between the C11-C12 bond in the falcarinol-type polacetylenes. The optimised liquid chromatography (LC)/MS conditions have achieved a baseline chromatographic separation of the three polyacetylenes investigated within 40 min total run-time.

  5. A Machine Learning Based Approach to de novo Sequencing of Glycans from Tandem Mass Spectrometry Spectrum.

    PubMed

    Kumozaki, Shotaro; Sato, Kengo; Sakakibara, Yasubumi

    2015-01-01

    Recently, glycomics has been actively studied and various technologies for glycomics have been rapidly developed. Currently, tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) is one of the key experimental tools for identification of structures of oligosaccharides. MS/MS can observe MS/MS peaks of fragmented glycan ions including cross-ring ions resulting from internal cleavages, which provide valuable information to infer glycan structures. Thus, the aim of de novo sequencing of glycans is to find the most probable assignments of observed MS/MS peaks to glycan substructures without databases. However, there are few satisfiable algorithms for glycan de novo sequencing from MS/MS spectra. We present a machine learning based approach to de novo sequencing of glycans from MS/MS spectrum. First, we build a suitable model for the fragmentation of glycans including cross-ring ions, and implement a solver that employs Lagrangian relaxation with a dynamic programming technique. Then, to optimize scores for the algorithm, we introduce a machine learning technique called structured support vector machines that enable us to learn parameters including scores for cross-ring ions from training data, i.e., known glycan mass spectra. Furthermore, we implement additional constraints for core structures of well-known glycan types including N-linked glycans and O-linked glycans. This enables us to predict more accurate glycan structures if the glycan type of given spectra is known. Computational experiments show that our algorithm performs accurate de novo sequencing of glycans. The implementation of our algorithm and the datasets are available at http://glyfon.dna.bio.keio.ac.jp/.

  6. Identification and Quantification of Glucosinolates in Kimchi by Liquid Chromatography-Electrospray Tandem Mass Spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Mi Jin; Jeong, Min Hee

    2017-01-01

    A novel and simple method for detecting five glucosinolates (glucoalyssin, gluconapin, glucobrassicanapin, glucobrassicin, and 4-methoxyglucobrassicin) in kimchi was developed using liquid chromatography-electrospray tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). The chromatographic peaks of the five glucosinolates were successfully identified by comparing their retention times, mass spectra. The mobile phase was composed of A (acetonitrile) and B (water). As for glucosinolate, the relative quantities were found through sinigrin, and five different compounds that have not been previously discovered in kimchi were observed. Monitoring was carried out on the glucosinolate in 20 kimchis distributed in markets, and this study examined the various quality and quantity compositions of the five components. The glucoalyssin content ranged from 0.00 to 7.07 μmol/g of day weight (DW), with an average content of 0.86 μmol/g of DW, whereas the gluconapin content ranged from 0.00 to 5.85 μmol/g of DW, with an average of 1.17 μmol/g of DW. The content of glucobrassicanapin varied between 0.00 and 11.87 μmol/g of DW (average = 3.03 μmol/g of DW), whereas that of glucobrassicin varied between 0.00 and 0.42 μmol/g of DW (average = 0.06 μmol/g of DW). The 4-methoxyglucobrassicin content ranged from 0.12 to 9.36 μmol/g of DW (average = 3.52 μmol/g of DW). A comparison of the contents revealed that, in most cases, the content of 4-methoxyglucobrassicin was the highest. PMID:28298926

  7. Relationship between Leg Mass, Leg Composition and Foot Velocity on Kicking Accuracy in Australian Football

    PubMed Central

    Hart, Nicolas H.; Nimphius, Sophia; Spiteri, Tania; Cochrane, Jodie L.; Newton, Robert U.

    2016-01-01

    Kicking a ball accurately over a desired distance to an intended target is arguably the most important skill to acquire in Australian Football. Therefore, understanding the potential mechanisms which underpin kicking accuracy is warranted. The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between leg mass, leg composition and foot velocity on kicking accuracy in Australian Football. Thirty-one Australian Footballers (n = 31; age: 22.1 ± 2.8 years; height: 1.81 ± 0.07 m; weight: 85.1 ± 13.0 kg; BMI: 25.9 ± 3.2) each performed ten drop punt kicks over twenty metres to a player target. Athletes were separated into accurate (n = 15) and inaccurate (n = 16) kicking groups. Leg mass characteristics were assessed using whole body DXA scans. Foot velocity was determined using a ten-camera optoelectronic, three-dimensional motion capture system. Interactions between leg mass and foot velocity evident within accurate kickers only (r = -0.670 to -0.701). Relative lean mass was positively correlated with kicking accuracy (r = 0.631), while no relationship between foot velocity and kicking accuracy was evident in isolation (r = -0.047 to -0.083). Given the evident importance of lean mass, and its interaction with foot velocity for accurate kickers; future research should explore speed-accuracy, impulse-variability, limb co-ordination and foot-ball interaction constructs in kicking using controlled with-in subject studies to examine the effects of resistance training and skill acquisition programs on the development of kicking accuracy. Key points Accurate kickers expressed a very strong inverse relationship between leg mass and foot velocity. Inaccurate kickers were unable to replicate this, with greater volatility in their performance, indicating an ability of accurate kickers to mediate foot velocity to compensate for leg mass in order to deliver the ball over the required distance. Accurate kickers exhibited larger quantities of relative lean mass and lower

  8. Relationship between Leg Mass, Leg Composition and Foot Velocity on Kicking Accuracy in Australian Football.

    PubMed

    Hart, Nicolas H; Nimphius, Sophia; Spiteri, Tania; Cochrane, Jodie L; Newton, Robert U

    2016-06-01

    Kicking a ball accurately over a desired distance to an intended target is arguably the most important skill to acquire in Australian Football. Therefore, understanding the potential mechanisms which underpin kicking accuracy is warranted. The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between leg mass, leg composition and foot velocity on kicking accuracy in Australian Football. Thirty-one Australian Footballers (n = 31; age: 22.1 ± 2.8 years; height: 1.81 ± 0.07 m; weight: 85.1 ± 13.0 kg; BMI: 25.9 ± 3.2) each performed ten drop punt kicks over twenty metres to a player target. Athletes were separated into accurate (n = 15) and inaccurate (n = 16) kicking groups. Leg mass characteristics were assessed using whole body DXA scans. Foot velocity was determined using a ten-camera optoelectronic, three-dimensional motion capture system. Interactions between leg mass and foot velocity evident within accurate kickers only (r = -0.670 to -0.701). Relative lean mass was positively correlated with kicking accuracy (r = 0.631), while no relationship between foot velocity and kicking accuracy was evident in isolation (r = -0.047 to -0.083). Given the evident importance of lean mass, and its interaction with foot velocity for accurate kickers; future research should explore speed-accuracy, impulse-variability, limb co-ordination and foot-ball interaction constructs in kicking using controlled with-in subject studies to examine the effects of resistance training and skill acquisition programs on the development of kicking accuracy. Key pointsAccurate kickers expressed a very strong inverse relationship between leg mass and foot velocity. Inaccurate kickers were unable to replicate this, with greater volatility in their performance, indicating an ability of accurate kickers to mediate foot velocity to compensate for leg mass in order to deliver the ball over the required distance.Accurate kickers exhibited larger quantities of relative lean mass and lower quantities

  9. Liquid-liquid extraction of strongly protein bound BMS-299897 from human plasma and cerebrospinal fluid, followed by high-performance liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Xue, Y J; Pursley, Janice; Arnold, Mark

    2007-04-11

    BMS-299897 is a gamma-secretase inhibitor that is being developed for the treatment of Alzheimer's disease. Liquid-liquid extraction (LLE), chromatographic/tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS) methods have been developed and validated for the quantitation of BMS-299897 in human plasma and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). Both methods utilized (13)C6-BMS-299897, the stable label isotope analog, as the internal standard. For the human plasma extraction method, two incubation steps were required after the addition of 5 mM ammonium acetate and the internal standard in acetonitrile to release the analyte bound to proteins prior to LLE with toluene. For the human CSF extraction method, after the addition of 0.5 N HCl and the internal standard, CSF samples were extracted with toluene and no incubation was required. The organic layers obtained from both extraction methods were removed and evaporated to dryness. The residues were reconstituted and injected into the LC/MS/MS system. Chromatographic separation was achieved isocratically on a MetaChem C18 Hypersil BDS column (2.0 mm x 50 mm, 3 microm). The mobile phase contained 10 mM ammonium acetate pH 5 and acetonitrile. Detection was by negative ion electrospray tandem mass spectrometry. The standard curves ranged from 1 to 1000 ng/ml for human plasma and 0.25-100 ng/ml for human CSF. Both standard curves were fitted to a 1/x weighted quadratic regression model. For both methods, the intra-assay precision was within 8.2% CV, the inter-assay precision was within 5.4% CV, and assay accuracy was within +/-7.4% of the nominal values. The validation and sample analysis results demonstrated that both methods had acceptable precision and accuracy across the calibration ranges.

  10. Direct tandem mass spectrometric analysis of amino acids in plasma using fluorous derivatization and monolithic solid-phase purification.

    PubMed

    Tamashima, Erina; Hayama, Tadashi; Yoshida, Hideyuki; Imakyure, Osamu; Yamaguchi, Masatoshi; Nohta, Hitoshi

    2015-11-10

    In this study, we developed a novel direct tandem mass spectrometric method for rapid and accurate analysis of amino acids utilizing a fluorous derivatization and purification technique. Amino acids were perfluoroalkylated with 2H,2H,3H,3H-perfluoroundecan-1-al in the presence of 2-picoline borane via reductive amination. The derivatives were purified by perfluoroalkyl-modified silica-based monolithic solid-phase extraction (monolithic F-SPE), and directly analyzed by tandem mass spectrometry using electrospray ionization without liquid chromatographic separation. The perfluoroalkyl derivatives could be sufficiently distinguished from non-fluorous compounds, i.e. the biological matrix, due to their fluorous interaction. Thus, rapid and accurate determination of amino acids was accomplished. The method was validated with human plasma samples and applied to the analysis of amino acids in the plasma of mice with maple syrup urine disease or phenylketonuria.

  11. Development of a high sensitivity bioanalytical method for alprazolam using ultra-performance liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Mather, Joanne; Rainville, Paul D; Potts, Warren B; Smith, Norman W; Plumb, Robert S

    2010-01-01

    A rapid, specific, assay was developed for the benzodiapine alprazolam in rat plasma using sub-2 µm particle liquid chromatography (LC) and tandem quadrupole mass spectrometry (MS/MS). The limit of quantification using protein precipitation was determined to 10 pg/mL, whereas the limit of quantification using solid-phase extraction (SPE) was determined to be 1.0 pg/mL. The assay was optimized for throughput and resolution of the analyte of interest from the hydroxy metabolite. During the method development process the plasma matrix signal was monitored, for lipids and other endogenous metabolites, to maximize signal response and minimize ion suppression. This was achieved by using a tandem quadrupole mass spectrometer equipped with a novel collision cell design which allowed for the simultaneous collection of full scan MS and multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) data. The lipid profile from the SPE process was significantly less than obtained with the protein precipitation approach.

  12. Structure of Lipid A from Pseudomonas corrugata by electrospray ionization quadrupole time-of-flight tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Corsaro, M M; Piaz, F Dal; Lanzetta, R; Naldi, T; Parrilli, M

    2004-01-01

    The use of the electrospray ionization quadrupole time-of-flight tandem mass spectrometry (ESI-QTOFMS) technique for the structural determination of Lipid A from Pseudomonas corrugata is described. This technique appears to be more sensitive with respect to other commonly used tandem mass spectrometric approaches, and was very valuable in the structural determination of the highly heterogeneous Lipid A fractions. The Lipid A fraction consists mainly of a pentaacyl component in which 3-hydroxydecanoyl [10:0(3-OH)] and 3-hydroxydodecanoyl [12:0(3-OH)] are linked as primary acyl substituents to the classical bisphosphorylated beta-(1' --> 6)-linked D-glucosamine disaccharide. Secondary substitution of N-acyl fatty acids with dodecanoyl residues [12:0] and/or its 2-OH derivatives was also observed.

  13. A simple algorithm improves mass accuracy to 50-100 ppm for delayed extraction linear MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry

    SciTech Connect

    Hack, Christopher A.; Benner, W. Henry

    2001-10-31

    A simple mathematical technique for improving mass calibration accuracy of linear delayed extraction matrix assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (DE MALDI-TOF MS) spectra is presented. The method involves fitting a parabola to a plot of Dm vs. mass data where Dm is the difference between the theoretical mass of calibrants and the mass obtained from a linear relationship between the square root of m/z and ion time of flight. The quadratic equation that describes the parabola is then used to correct the mass of unknowns by subtracting the deviation predicted by the quadratic equation from measured data. By subtracting the value of the parabola at each mass from the calibrated data, the accuracy of mass data points can be improved by factors of 10 or more. This method produces highly similar results whether or not initial ion velocity is accounted for in the calibration equation; consequently, there is no need to depend on that uncertain parameter when using the quadratic correction. This method can be used to correct the internally calibrated masses of protein digest peaks. The effect of nitrocellulose as a matrix additive is also briefly discussed, and it is shown that using nitrocellulose as an additive to a CHCA matrix does not significantly change initial ion velocity but does change the average position of ions relative to the sample electrode at the instant the extraction voltage is applied.

  14. Chlorpromazine quantification in human plasma by UPLC-electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry. Application to a comparative pharmacokinetic study.

    PubMed

    Borges, Ney Carter; Rezende, Vinicius Marcondes; Santana, Jose Marcos; Moreira, Ricardo Pereira; Moreira, Roberto Fernandes; Moreno, Patrícia; Borges, Diego Carter; Donato, José Luiz; Moreno, Ronilson Agnaldo

    2011-12-01

    In the present study a method to quantify chlorpromazine in human plasma using cyclobenzaprine as the internal standard (IS) is described. The analyte and the IS were extracted from human plasma by a liquid-liquid extraction with diethyl ether/dichloromethane (70/30, v/v) and analyzed by an ultra performance liquid chromatography (UPLC) coupled to an electrospray tandem triple quadrupole mass spectrometer in positive mode (UPLC-ES(+)-MS/MS). Chromatography was performed isocratically on an Aquity UPLC BEH C18 1.7 μm (50 mm × 2.1 mm i.d.) operating at 40°C. The mobile phase was a mixture of 65% water+1% formic acid and 35% of acetonitrile at a flow-rate of 0.5 mL/min. The lowest concentration quantified was 0.5 ng/mL and a linear calibration curve over the range 0.5-200 ng/mL was obtained, showing intra-assay precisions from 2.4 to 5.8%, and inter-assay precisions from 3.6 to 9.9%. The intra-assay accuracies ranged from 96.9 to 102.5%, while the inter-assay accuracies ranged from 94.1 to 100.3%. This analytical method was applied in a relative bioavailability study in order to compare a test chlorpromazine 100 mg simple dose formulation versus a reference in 57 volunteers of both sexes. The study was conducted in an open randomized two-period crossover design and with a fourteen days washout period. Plasma samples were obtained over a 144-h interval. Since the 90% CI for both C(max), AUC(last) and AUC(0-inf) were within the 80-125% interval proposed by the Food and Drug Administration and ANVISA, it was concluded that chlorpromazine 100 mg/dose was bioequivalent to the reference formulation, according to both the rate and extent of absorption.

  15. Simultaneous analysis of mono-, di-, and tri-ethanolamine in cosmetic products using liquid chromatography coupled tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Shin, Kyong-Oh; Lee, Yong-Moon

    2016-01-01

    Alkanolamines such as monoethanolamine (MEA), diethanolamine (DEA), and triethanolamine (TEA) are used as wetting agents in shampoos, lotions, creams, and other cosmetics. DEA is widely used to provide lather in shampoos and maintain a favorable consistency in lotions and creams. Although DEA is not harmful, it may react with other ingredients in the cosmetic formula after extended storage periods to form an extremely potent carcinogen called nitrosodiethanolamine (NDEA), which is readily absorbed through the skin and has been linked to the development of stomach, esophagus, liver, and bladder cancers. The purpose of this study was to develop a simultaneous quantification method for measurement of MEA, DEA, and TEA in cosmetic products. Liquid chromatography coupled tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) was performed using a hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography (HILIC) column with isocratic elution containing acetonitrile and 5 mM ammonium formate in water (88:12, v/v). Identification and quantification of alkanolamines were performed using MS/MS monitoring to assess the transition from precursor to product ion of MEA (m/z, 61.1 → 44.0), DEA (m/z, 106.1 → 88.0), TEA (m/z, 150.1 → 130.0), and the internal standard triethylamine (m/z, 102.2 → 58.0). Alkanolamines extractions were simplified using a single extraction with acetonitrile in the cosmetic matrix. Performance of the method was evaluated with quality parameters such as specificity, carry-over, linearity and calibration, correlation of determination (R(2)), detection limit, precision, accuracy, and recovery. Calibration curves of MEA (2.9-1000 ppb), DEA (1-1000 ppb), and TEA (1-1000 ppb) were constructed by plotting concentration versus peak-area ratio (analyte/internal standard with a correlation coefficient greater than 0.99). The intra- and inter-assay accuracy ranged from 92.92 to 101.15 % for all analytes. The intra- and inter-assay precision for MEA, DEA, and TEA showed all

  16. Rapid determination of benzodiazepines, zolpidem and their metabolites in urine using direct injection liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Yu-Dong; Kim, Min Kyung; Suh, Sung Ill; In, Moon Kyo; Kim, Jin Young; Paeng, Ki-Jung

    2015-12-01

    Benzodiazepines and zolpidem are generally prescribed as sedative, hypnotics, anxiolytics or anticonvulsants. These drugs, however, are frequently misused in drug-facilitated crime. Therefore, a rapid and simple liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometric (LC-MS/MS) method was developed for identification and quantification of benzodiazepines, zolpidem and their metabolites in urine using deuterium labeled internal standards (IS). Urine samples (120 μL) mixed with 80 μL of the IS solution were centrifuged. An aliquot (5 μL) of the sample solution was directly injected into the LC-MS/MS system for analysis. The mobile phases consisted of water and acetonitrile containing 2mM ammonium trifluoroacetate and 0.2% acetic acid. The analytical column was a Zorbax SB-C18 (100 mm × 2.1 mm i.d., 3.5 μm, Agilent). The separation and detection of 18 analytes were achieved within 10 min. Calibration curves were linear over the concentration ranges of 0.5-20 ng/mL (zolpidem), 1.0-40 ng/mL (flurazepam and temazepam), 2.5-100 ng/mL (7-aminoclonazepam, 1-hydroxymidazolam, midazolam, flunitrazepam and alprazolam), 5.0-200 ng/mL (zolpidem phenyl-4-carboxylic acid, α-hydroxyalprazolam, oxazepam, nordiazepam, triazolam, diazepam and α-hydroxytriazolam), 10-400 ng/mL (lorazepam and desalkylflurazepam) and 10-100 ng/mL (N-desmethylflunitrazepam) with the coefficients of determination (r(2)) above 0.9971. The dilution integrity of the analytes was examined for supplementation of short linear range. Dilution precision and accuracy were tested using two, four and ten-folds dilutions and they ranged from 3.7 to 14.4% and -12.8 to 12.5%, respectively. The process efficiency for this method was 63.0-104.6%. Intra- and inter-day precisions were less than 11.8% and 9.1%, while intra- and inter-day accuracies were less than -10.0 to 8.2%, respectively. The lower limits of quantification were lower than 10 ng/mL for each analyte. The applicability of the developed method was successfully

  17. Rare disorders of metabolism with elevated butyryl- and isobutyryl-carnitine detected by tandem mass spectrometry newborn screening.

    PubMed

    Koeberl, Dwight D; Young, Sarah P; Gregersen, Niels S; Vockley, Jerry; Smith, Wendy E; Benjamin, Daniel Kelly; An, Yan; Weavil, Susan D; Chaing, Shu H; Bali, Deeksha; McDonald, Marie T; Kishnani, Priya S; Chen, Y-T; Millington, David S

    2003-08-01

    Tandem mass spectrometry was adopted for newborn screening by North Carolina in April 1999. Since then, three infants with short-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (SCAD) and one with isobutyryl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency were detected on the basis of elevated butyrylcarnitine/isobutyrylcarnitine (C4-carnitine) concentrations in newborn blood spots analyzed by tandem mass spectrometry. For three SCAD-deficient infants, biochemical evaluation included a plasma acylcarnitine profile with markedly elevated C4-carnitine, urine organic acid analysis with markedly elevated ethylmalonic and 2-methylsuccinic acids, and markedly elevated [U-13C]butyrylcarnitine concentrations in medium from fibroblasts incubated with [U-13C]palmitic acid and excess l-carnitine, consistent with classic SCAD deficiency. Two of three infants diagnosed with classic SCAD deficiency remained asymptomatic; however, the third infant presented with seizures and a cerebral infarct at 10 wk of age. All three infants had putatively inactivating mutations in both alleles of the SCAD gene. The highly elevated plasma C4-carnitine levels in the three infants detected by newborn screening tandem mass spectrometry differentiated them from infants and children who were homozygous or compound heterozygous for one of two SCAD gene susceptibility variations; for the latter group the C4-carnitine levels were normal. Isobutyryl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency in a fourth infant was confirmed after isolated elevation of C4-carnitine in the acylcarnitine profile.

  18. Binomial probability distribution model-based protein identification algorithm for tandem mass spectrometry utilizing peak intensity information.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Chuan-Le; Chen, Xiao-Zhou; Du, Yang-Li; Sun, Xuesong; Zhang, Gong; He, Qing-Yu

    2013-01-04

    Mass spectrometry has become one of the most important technologies in proteomic analysis. Tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) is a major tool for the analysis of peptide mixtures from protein samples. The key step of MS data processing is the identification of peptides from experimental spectra by searching public sequence databases. Although a number of algorithms to identify peptides from MS/MS data have been already proposed, e.g. Sequest, OMSSA, X!Tandem, Mascot, etc., they are mainly based on statistical models considering only peak-matches between experimental and theoretical spectra, but not peak intensity information. Moreover, different algorithms gave different results from the same MS data, implying their probable incompleteness and questionable reproducibility. We developed a novel peptide identification algorithm, ProVerB, based on a binomial probability distribution model of protein tandem mass spectrometry combined with a new scoring function, making full use of peak intensity information and, thus, enhancing the ability of identification. Compared with Mascot, Sequest, and SQID, ProVerB identified significantly more peptides from LC-MS/MS data sets than the current algorithms at 1% False Discovery Rate (FDR) and provided more confident peptide identifications. ProVerB is also compatible with various platforms and experimental data sets, showing its robustness and versatility. The open-source program ProVerB is available at http://bioinformatics.jnu.edu.cn/software/proverb/ .

  19. A Supercritical Fluid Chromatography/Tandem Mass Spectrometry Method for the Simultaneous Quantification of Metformin and Gliclazide in Human Plasma

    PubMed Central

    Agrawal, Y. K.; Gogoi, P. J.; Manna, K.; Bhatt, H. G.; Jain, V. K.

    2010-01-01

    Present study reports the development and validation of a simultaneous estimation of metformin and gliclazide in human plasma using supercritical fluid chromatography followed by tandem mass spectrometry. Acetonitrile:water (80:20) mixture was used as a mobile phase along with liquid CO2 in supercritical fluid chromatography and phenformin as an internal standard. The modified plasma samples were analyzed by electro-spray ionization method in selective reaction monitoring mode in tandem mass spectrometry. Supercritical fluid chromatographic separation was performed using nucleosil C18 containing column as a stationary phase. The separated products were identified by characteristic peaks and specific fragments peaks in tandem mass spectrometry as m/z 130 to 86 for metformin, m/z 324 to 110 for gliclazide and m/z 206 to 105 for phenformin. The present method was found linear in the concentration ranges of 6.0-3550 ng/ml and 7.5-7500 ng/ml for metformin and gliclazide, respectively. Pharmacokinetic study was performed after an oral administration of dispersible tablets containing 500 mg of metformin and 80 mg of gliclazide using same techniques. PMID:20582190

  20. Simultaneous determination of four alkaloids in Lindera aggregata by ultra-high-pressure liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Han, Zheng; Zheng, Yunliang; Chen, Na; Luan, Lianjun; Zhou, Changxin; Gan, Lishe; Wu, Yongjiang

    2008-11-28

    A new separation and quantification method using liquid chromatography under ultra-high-pressure in combination with tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) was developed for simultaneous determination of four alkaloids in Lindera aggregata. The analysis was performed on an Acquity UPLC BEH C(18) column (50mmx2.1mm, 1.7microm particle size; Waters, Milford, MA, USA) utilizing a gradient elution profile and a mobile phase consisting of (A) water containing 10mM ammonium acetate adjusted to pH 3 with acetic acid and (B) acetonitrile. An electrospray ionization (ESI)-tandem interface in the positive mode was employed prior to mass spectrometric detection. The calibration curve was linear over the range of 17.1-856ng for boldine, 42.4-2652ng for norboldine, 6.1-304ng for reticuline and 0.5-50ng for linderegatine, respectively. The average recoveries ranged from 99.2 to 101.4% with RSDs< or =2.7%. Then, four L. aggregata samples from different batches were analyzed using the established method. The results indicated that ultra-high-pressure liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry provided improved chromatographic parameters resulting in significantly increased sample throughput including lower solvent consumption and lower limits of quantitation (LOQs) for most of target analytes compared to previous method employing conventional high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) separation. So, the established method was validated, sensitive and reliable for the determination of four alkaloids in L. aggregata.

  1. Dynamic Modeling Accuracy Dependence on Errors in Sensor Measurements, Mass Properties, and Aircraft Geometry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grauer, Jared A.; Morelli, Eugene A.

    2013-01-01

    A nonlinear simulation of the NASA Generic Transport Model was used to investigate the effects of errors in sensor measurements, mass properties, and aircraft geometry on the accuracy of dynamic models identified from flight data. Measurements from a typical system identification maneuver were systematically and progressively deteriorated and then used to estimate stability and control derivatives within a Monte Carlo analysis. Based on the results, recommendations were provided for maximum allowable errors in sensor measurements, mass properties, and aircraft geometry to achieve desired levels of dynamic modeling accuracy. Results using other flight conditions, parameter estimation methods, and a full-scale F-16 nonlinear aircraft simulation were compared with these recommendations.

  2. Comparison of tandem-in-space and tandem-in-time mass spectrometry in gas chromatography determination of pesticides: application to simple and complex food samples.

    PubMed

    Garrido Frenich, A; Plaza-Bolaños, P; Martínez Vidal, J L

    2008-09-05

    Gas chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry (GC-MS/MS) is one of the most powerful techniques in pesticide residue analysis. MS/MS can be conceived in two ways: tandem in space (e.g. triple quadrupole, QqQ) or in time (e.g. ion trap, IT). QqQ and IT are commonly interfaced to GC; however, there has not been any direct comparison between them in pesticide residue analysis so far. In the present work, the performance of GC coupled to these two analyzers (GC-QqQ-MS/MS and GC-IT-MS/MS) was studied and compared for pesticide residue analysis as well as its application in food analysis. The large volume injection (LVI) technique together with programmed-temperature vaporization (PTV) was applied. For this purpose, 19 pesticides, including organochlorine and organophophorus pesticides and pyrethroids, were analyzed in both systems. Mass spectrometric data, performance characteristics (linearity, intra-day and inter-day precision) and the influence of the matrix nature on the analysis of low concentrations were compared. The target compounds were analyzed in solvent and in two representative food matrices such as cucumber (high water content) and egg (high fat content). MS data and intra-day precision were similar in QqQ and IT, whereas inter-day precision was significantly worse in QqQ. Linearity (expressed as determination coefficient, R(2)) in the range 10-150 microg L(-1) was adequate in both systems; however, better R(2) values were obtained with the QqQ analyzer in high and low concentration ranges (1-50 and 1-750 microg L(-1), respectively). The influence of the matrix nature on the analysis of low concentrations of each analyzer was also evaluated. The QqQ and IT performance was similar in cucumber and solvent. However, QqQ provided better sensitivity in egg working in selected reaction monitoring (SRM).

  3. Comparative Proteomics of Tandem Mass Spectrometry Analyses for Bacterial Strains Identification and Differentiation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-02-01

    induced dissociation (CID), Electron transfer dissociation , or post-source decay (PSD) of ionized tryptic peptides derived from bacterial proteins , i.e...fingerprints of the bacterial proteins , i.e. MALDI-TOF-MS technique, or amino acid sequences, from tandem MS/MS analysis, of proteins from collision ...William 2002), present in biological threat microorganisms. The vast amount of protein and peptide data generated from a typical LC- tandem MS

  4. MEASUREMENT OF PYRETHROID RESIDUES IN ENVIRONMENTAL AND FOOD SAMPLES BY ENHANCED SOLVENT EXTRACTION/SUPERCRITICAL FLUID EXTRACTION COUPLED WITH GAS CHROMATOGRAPHY-TANDEM MASS SPECTROMETRY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The abstract summarizes pyrethorid methods development research. It provides a summary of sample preparation and analytical techniques such as supercritical fluid extraction, enhance solvent extraction, gas chromatography and tandem mass spectrometry.

  5. EPA CRL MS014: Analysis of Aldicarb, Bromadiolone, Carbofuran, Oxamyl and Methomyl in Water by Multiple Reaction Monitoring Liquid Chromatography / Tandem Mass Spectrometry (LC/MS/MS)

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Method MS014 describes procedures for solvent extraction of aldicarb, bromadiolone, carbofuran, oxamyl and methomyl from water samples, followed by analysis using liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS-MS).

  6. A liquid chromatography and tandem mass spectrometry method for the determination of potential biomarkers of cardiovascular disease.

    PubMed

    Magiera, Sylwia; Baranowska, Irena; Kusa, Jacek; Baranowski, Jacek

    2013-03-01

    A simple, accurate and sensitive liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method was developed and validated for the quantitation of α-ketoglutaric acid (α-KG), L-carnitine (L-CAR) and acetyl-L-carnitine (acetyl-L-CAR) in human urine as potential biomarkers of cardiovascular disease. The separation was performed using an isocratic elution of 0.1% formic acid in water and acetonitrile (97:3, v/v) on an Acclaim 120 C8 column (150 mm × 4.6 mm, 3.0 μm). The flow rate of the mobile phase was 1.2 mL/min and the total assay run time was 3 min. Detection was performed on a triple-quadrupole mass spectrometer in selected reaction monitoring (SRM) mode via an electrospray ionization (ESI) source in positive and negative ion modes. This method covered a linearity range of 0.1-500 ng/mL for L-CAR and acetyl-L-CAR and 1-1000 ng/mL for α-KG with lower limits of quantification (LLOQ) of 0.08 ng/mL for L-CAR, 0.04 ng/mL for acetyl-L-CAR and 0.8 ng/mL for α-KG. The intra-day and inter-day precision and accuracy of the quality control samples exhibited relative standard deviations of less than 5.54% and relative error values from -5.95% to 3.11%. Analyte stability was evaluated under various sample preparation, analysis and storage conditions and varied from -9.89% to -0.47%. A two-step solid-phase extraction (SPE) procedure using silica gel and quaternary amine cartridges was used for urine sample cleanup. The average recoveries for all analyzed compounds were better than 86.64% at three concentrations. The method was successfully applied for the quantitation of α-KG, L-CAR and acetyl-L-CAR in human urine samples.

  7. A device for automated direct sampling and quantitation from solid-phase sorbent extraction cards by electrospray tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Wachs, Timothy; Henion, Jack

    2003-04-01

    A new solid-phase extraction (SPE) device in the 96-well format (SPE Card) has been employed for automated off-line sample preparation of low-volume urine samples. On-line automated analyte elution via SPE and direct quantitation by micro ion spray mass spectrometry is reported. This sample preparation device has the format of a microtiter plate and is molded in a plastic frame which houses 96 separate sandwiched 3M Empore sorbents (0.5-mm-thickness, 8-microm particles) covered on both sides by a microfiber support material. Ninety-six discrete SPE zones, each 7 mm in diameter, are imbedded into the sheet in the conventional 9-mm pitch (spacing) of a 96-well microtiter plate. In this study one-quarter of an SPE Card (24 individual zones) was used merely as a convenience. After automated off-line interference elution of applied human urine from 24 samples, a section of SPE Card is mounted vertically on a computer-controlled X, Y, Z positioner in front of a micro ion spray direct sampling tube equipped with a beveled tip. The beveled tip of this needle robotically penetrates each SPE elution zone (sorbent disk) or stationary phase in a serial fashion. The eluted analytes are sequentially transferred directly to a microelectrosprayer to obtain tandem mass spectrometric (MS/MS) analysis. This strategy precludes any HPLC separation and the associated method development. The quantitative determination of Ritalin (methylphenidate) from fortified human urine samples is demonstrated. A trideuterated internal standard of methylphenidate was used to obtain ion current response ratios between the parent drug and the internal standard. Human control urine samples fortified from 6.6 to 3300 ng/mL (normal therapeutic levels have been determined in other studies to be between 50 and 100 ng/mL urine) were analyzed and a linear calibration curve was obtained with a correlation coefficient of 0.9999, where the precision of the quality control (QC) samples ranged from 9.6% at the 24

  8. Identification and quantification of ricin in biomedical samples by magnetic immunocapture enrichment and liquid chromatography electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Ma, Xiaoxi; Tang, Jijun; Li, Chunzheng; Liu, Qin; Chen, Jia; Li, Hua; Guo, Lei; Xie, Jianwei

    2014-08-01

    Ricin is a toxic protein derived from castor beans and composed of a cytotoxic A chain and a galactose-binding B chain linked by a disulfide bond, which can inhibit protein synthesis and cause cell death. Owing to its high toxicity, ease of preparation, and lack of medical countermeasures, ricin has been listed as both chemical and biological warfare agents. For homeland security or public safety, the unambiguous, sensitive, and rapid methods for identification and quantification of ricin in complicated matrices are of urgent need. Mass spectrometric analysis, which provides specific and sensitive characterization of protein, can be applied to confirm and quantify ricin. Here, we report a liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS/MS) method in which ricin was extracted and enriched from serum by immunocapture using anti-ricin monoclonal antibody 3D74 linked to magnetic beads, then digested by trypsin, and analyzed by LC-ESI-MS/MS. Among 19 distinct peptides observed in LC-quadrupole/time of flight-MS (LC-QTOF-MS), two specific and sensitive peptides, T7A ((49)VGLPINQR(56)) and T14B ((188)DNCLTSDSNIR(198)), were chosen, and a highly sensitive determination of ricin was established in LC-triple quadrupole-MS (LC-QqQ-MS) operating in multiple reaction monitoring mode. These specific peptides can definitely distinguish ricin from the homologous protein Ricinus communis agglutinin (RCA120), even though the amino acid sequence homology of the A-chain of ricin and RCA120 is up to ca. 93% and that of B-chain is ca. 85%. Furthermore, peptide T7A was preferred in the quantification of ricin because its sensitivity was at least one order of magnitude higher than that of the peptide T14B. Combined with immunocapture enrichment, this method provided a limit of detection of ca. 2.5 ng/mL and the limit of quantification was ca. 5 ng/mL of ricin in serum, respectively. Both precision and accuracy of this method were determined and the RSD

  9. Quantitative analysis of a novel HIV fusion inhibitor (sifuvirtide) in HIV infected human plasma using high-performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Che, Jinjing; Meng, Qingfang; Chen, Zhihang; Hou, Yunan; Shan, Chengqi; Cheng, Yuanguo

    2010-03-11

    A sensitive method for measuring sifuvirtide, a novel HIV fusion inhibitor peptide drug in HIV-1(+) human plasma by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) was developed. The plasma samples were treated by solvent/detergent (S/D) method to inactivate viral activity before analysis. After protein precipitation sifuvirtide was determined by LC-MS/MS. A structure analog was used as internal standard (IS). The mass spectrometer was operated in positive ion and multiple reaction monitoring mode with transitions m/z 946.3-->159.0 for sifuvirtide and 951.7-->159.2 for IS. The intra-day precision ranged from 2.74% to 7.57% with accuracy from 91.63% to 102.53%. The inter-day precision ranged from 2.65% to 3.58% and the accuracy from 95.53% to 105.28%. Stability studies showed that sifuvirtide was stable both during the assay procedure and long-term storage. The lower limit of quantitation (LLOQ) was 9.75ngml(-1). The method was used for analyzing samples from phase IIa clinical study of sifuvirtide in China.

  10. Pilot study of newborn screening for six lysosomal storage diseases using Tandem Mass Spectrometry☆

    PubMed Central

    Elliott, Susan; Buroker, Norman; Cournoyer, Jason J.; Potier, Anna M.; Trometer, Joseph D.; Elbin, Carole; Schermer, Mack J.; Kantola, Jaana; Boyce, Aaron; Turecek, Frantisek; Gelb, Michael H.; Scott, C. Ronald

    2017-01-01

    Background There is current expansion of newborn screening (NBS) programs to include lysosomal storage disorders because of the availability of treatments that produce an optimal clinical outcome when started early in life. Objective To evaluate the performance of a multiplex-tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) enzymatic activity assay of 6 lysosomal enzymes in a NBS laboratory for the identification of newborns at risk for developing Pompe, Mucopolysaccharidosis-I (MPS-I), Fabry, Gaucher, Niemann Pick-A/B, and Krabbe diseases. Methods and Results Enzyme activities (acid α-glucosidase (GAA), galactocerebrosidase (GALC), glucocerebrosidase (GBA), α-galactosidase A (GLA), α-iduronidase (IDUA) and sphingomyeline phosphodiesterase-1 (SMPD-1)) were measured on ~43,000 de-identified dried blood spot (DBS) punches, and screen positive samples were submitted for DNA sequencing to obtain genotype confirmation of disease risk. The 6-plex assay was efficiently performed in the Washington state NBS laboratory by a single laboratory technician at the bench using a single MS/MS instrument. The number of screen positive samples per 100,000 newborns were as follows: GAA (4.5), IDUA (13.6), GLA (18.2), SMPD1 (11.4), GBA (6.8), and GALC (25.0). Discussion A 6-plex MS/MS assay for 6 lysosomal enzymes can be successfully performed in a NBS laboratory. The analytical ranges (enzyme-dependent assay response for the quality control HIGH sample divided by that for all enzyme-independent processes) for the 6-enzymes with the MS/MS is 5- to 15-fold higher than comparable fluorimetric assays using 4-methylumbelliferyl substrates. The rate of screen positive detection is consistently lower for the MS/MS assay compared to the fluorimetric assay using a digital microfluidics platform. PMID:27238910

  11. Quantification of six cannabinoids and metabolites in oral fluid by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Desrosiers, Nathalie A; Scheidweiler, Karl B; Huestis, Marilyn A

    2015-08-01

    Δ(9) -Tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) is the most commonly analyzed cannabinoid in oral fluid (OF); however, its metabolite 11-nor-9-carboxy-THC (THCCOOH) offers the advantage of documenting active consumption, as it is not detected in cannabis smoke. Analytical challenges such as low (ng/L) THCCOOH OF concentrations hampered routine OF THCCOOH monitoring. Presence of minor cannabinoids like cannabidiol and cannabinol offer the advantage of identifying recent cannabis intake. Published OF cannabinoids methods have limitations, including few analytes and lengthy derivatization. We developed and validated a sensitive and specific liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method for THC, its metabolites, 11-hydroxy-THC and THCCOOH quantification, and other natural cannabinoids including tetrahydrocannabivarin (THCV), cannabidiol (CBD), and cannabigerol (CBG) in 1 mL OF collected with the Quantisal device. After solid-phase extraction, chromatography was performed on a Selectra PFPP column with a 0.15% formic acid in water and acetonitrile gradient with a 0.5 mL/min flow rate. All analytes were monitored in positive mode atmospheric pressure chemical ionization (APCI) with multiple reaction monitoring. Limits of quantification were 15 ng/L THCCOOH and 0.2 µg/L for all other analytes. Linear ranges extended to 3750 ng/L THCCOOH, 100 µg/L THC, and 50 µg/L for all other analytes. Inter-day analytical recoveries (bias) and imprecision at low, mid, and high quality control (QC) concentrations were 88.7-107.3% and 2.3-6.7%, respectively (n = 20). Mean extraction efficiencies and matrix effects evaluated at low and high QC were 75.9-86.1% and 8.4-99.4%, respectively. This method will be highly useful for workplace, criminal justice, drug treatment and driving under the influence of cannabis OF testing.

  12. Anion exchange SPE and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry in GHB analysis.

    PubMed

    Elian, Albert A; Hackett, Jeffery

    2011-12-01

    In this study, the extraction of γ-hydroxybutyrate (GHB) from urine using solid-phase extraction (SPE) is described. SPE was performed on anion exchange columns after samples of urine had been diluted with de-ionized water. After application of the diluted samples containing GHB-d(6) as an internal standard, the sorbent was washed with deionized water and methanol and dried. The GHB was eluted from the SPE column with a solvent consisting of methanol containing 6% glacial acetic acid. The eluent was collected, evaporated to dryness, and dissolved in mobile phase (100 μL) for analysis by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) in negative multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) mode. Liquid chromatography was performed in gradient mode employing a biphenyl column and a mobile phase consisting of acetontitrile (containing 0.1% formic acid) and 0.1% aqueous formic acid. The total run time for each analysis was less than 5 min. The limits of detection/quantification for this method were determined to be 50 and 100 ng/mL, respectively. The method was found to be linear from 500 ng/mL to 10,000 ng/mL (r(2)>0.995). The recovery of GHB was found to be greater than 75%. In this report, results of authentic urine samples analyzed for GHB by this method are presented. GHB concentrations in these samples were found to be range from less than 500 ng/mL to 5110 ng/mL.

  13. Screening for medium chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency using electrospray ionisation tandem mass spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    Clayton, P.; Doig, M.; Ghafari, S.; Meaney, C.; Taylor, C.; Leonard, J.; Morris, M.; Johnson, A.

    1998-01-01

    OBJECTIVE—To establish criteria for the diagnosis of medium chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (MCAD) deficiency in the UK population using a method in which carnitine species eluted from blood spots are butylated and analysed by electrospray ionisation tandem mass spectrometry (ESI-MS/MS).
DESIGN—Four groups were studied: (1) 35 children, aged 4 days to 16.2 years, with proven MCAD deficiency (mostly homozygous for the A985G mutation, none receiving carnitine supplements); (2) 2168control children; (3) 482 neonates; and (4) 15 MCAD heterozygotes.
RESULTS—All patients with MCAD deficiency had an octanoylcarnitine concentration ([C8-Cn]) > 0.38 µM and no accumulation of carnitine species > C10 or < C6. Among the patients with MCAD deficiency, the [C8-Cn] was significantly lower in children > 10 weeks old and in children with carnitine depletion (free carnitine < 20 µM). Neonatal blood spots from patients with MCAD deficiency had a [C8-Cn] > 1.5 µM, whereas in heterozygotes and other normal neonates the [C8-Cn] was < 1.0 µM. In contrast, the blood spot [C8-Cn] in eight of 27 patients with MCAD deficiency > 10 weeks old fell within the same range as five of 15 MCAD heterozygotes (0.38-1.0 µM). However, the free carnitine concentrations were reduced (< 20 µM) in the patients with MCAD deficiency but normal in the heterozygotes.
CONCLUSIONS—Criteria for the diagnosis of MCAD deficiency using ESI-MS/MS must take account of age and carnitine depletion. If screening is undertaken at 7-10 days, the number of false positive and negative results should be negligible. Because there have been no instances of death or neurological damage following diagnosis of MCAD deficiency in our patient group, a strong case can be made for neonatal screening for MCAD deficiency in the UK.

 PMID:9797589

  14. Applicability of ultra-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry for heroin profiling.

    PubMed

    Lurie, Ira S; Toske, Steven G

    2008-04-25

    The applicability of ultra- performance liquid chromatography tandem-mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS) for heroin profiling is described. The coupling of the high separation power of UPLC with the highly selective and sensitive detection of MS/MS is well suited for heroin profiling. An Acquity UPLC BEH C18 1.7 microm particle column (100 mm x 2.1mm) with binary gradients containing 1% formic acid (pH 2.0) or 10 mM ammonium bicarbonate (pH 10.0)/acetonitrile mixtures was investigated for the profiling. For MS/MS detection, an atmospheric pressure positive electrospray source was employed with multiple reaction monitoring (MRM). MRMs for individual basic impurities were generated for heroin profiling using low and high pH mobile phases, while MRMs for neutral impurities were generated using a high pH mobile phase. Compared to a pH 2.2 mobile phase, the use of a pH 10 mobile phase allowed for significantly greater sample loading, major selectivity differences, and lower MRM sensitivity. UPLC-MS/MS allowed for the highly selective and sensitive detection of many of the targeted solutes in seized heroin exhibits. Basic impurities detected included morphine, codeine, noscapine, papaverine and the previously unreported solutes reticuline, reticuline monoacetate (2 products), reticuline diacetate, narceine, codamine, laudanidine, cryptopine, laudanosine, and norlaudanosine. Neutral impurities found included N,3,6-triacetylnormorphine, N-acetylnorcodeine, N-acetylnornarcotine, 3,6-dimethoxy-4-acetyloxy-5-[2-(N-methylacetamido)]-ethylphenanthrene, and cis-n-acetylanhydronornarceine. The detection of these impurities, at levels as low as 10(-6)% w/w should allow for greatly enhanced heroin profiles.

  15. Analysis of Alkaloids in Areca Nut-Containing Products by Liquid Chromatography-Tandem Mass Spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Jain, Vipin; Garg, Apurva; Parascandola, Mark; Chaturvedi, Pankaj; Khariwala, Samir S; Stepanov, Irina

    2017-03-08

    Chewing of areca nut in different forms such as betel quid or commercially produced pan masala and gutkha is common practice in the Indian subcontinent and many parts of Asia and is associated with a variety of negative health outcomes, particularly oral and esophageal cancers. Areca nut-specific alkaloids arecoline, arecaidine, guvacoline, and guvacine have been implicated in both the abuse liability and the carcinogenicity of the areca nut. Therefore, variations in the levels of areca alkaloids could potentially contribute to variations in addictive and carcinogenic potential across areca nut-containing products. Here, we developed an accurate and robust liquid chromatography-tandem mass-spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method for simultaneous quantitation of all four areca alkaloids and applied this method to the analysis of a range of products obtained from India, China, and the United States. The results of the analyses revealed substantial variations in the levels of alkaloids across the tested products, with guvacine being the most abundant (1.39-8.16 mg/g), followed by arecoline (0.64-2.22 mg/g), arecaidine (0.14-1.70 mg/g), and guvacoline (0.17-0.99 mg/g). Substantial differences in the relative contribution of individual alkaloids to the total alkaloid content were also observed among the different products. Our results highlight the need for systematic surveillance of constituent levels in areca nut-containing products and a better understanding of the relationship between the chemical profile and the harmful potential of these products.

  16. Validation of keratan sulfate level in mucopolysaccharidosis type IVA by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Tomatsu, Shunji; Montaño, Adriana M; Oguma, Toshihiro; Dung, Vu Chi; Oikawa, Hirotaka; de Carvalho, Talita Giacomet; Gutiérrez, María L; Yamaguchi, Seiji; Suzuki, Yasuyuki; Fukushi, Masaru; Kida, Kazuhiro; Kubota, Mitsuru; Barrera, Luis; Orii, Tadao

    2010-12-01

    Mucopolysaccharidosis type IVA (MPS IVA, Morquio A disease), a progressive lysosomal storage disease, causes skeletal chondrodysplasia through excessive storage of keratan sulfate (KS). KS is synthesized mainly in cartilage and released to the circulation. The excess storage of KS disrupts cartilage, consequently releasing more KS into circulation, which is a critical biomarker for MPS IVA. Thus, assessment of KS level provides a potential screening strategy and determines clinical course and efficacy of therapies. We have recently developed a tandem mass spectrometry liquid chromatography [LC/MS/MS] method to assay KS levels in blood. Forty-nine blood specimens from patients with MPS IVA [severe (n = 33), attenuated (n = 11) and undefined (n = 5)] were analyzed for comparison of blood KS concentration with that of healthy subjects and for correlation with clinical severity. Plasma samples were digested by keratanase II to obtain disaccharides of KS. Digested samples were assayed by LC/MS/MS. We found that blood KS levels (0.4-26 µg/ml) in MPS IVA patients were significantly higher than those in age-matched controls (0.67-4.6 µg/ml; P < 0.0001). It was found that blood KS level varied with age and clinical severity in the patients. Blood KS levels in MPS IVA peaked between 2 years and 5 years of age (mean 11.4 µg/ml). Blood KS levels in severe MPS IVA (mean 7.3 µg/ml) were higher than in the attenuated form (mean 2.1 µg/ml) (P = 0.012). We also found elevated blood KS levels in other types of MPS. These findings indicate that the new KS assay for blood is suitable for early diagnosis and longitudinal assessment of disease severity in MPS IVA.

  17. Enantiomeric fraction evaluation of pharmaceuticals in environmental matrices by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Ribeiro, Ana Rita; Santos, Lúcia H M L M; Maia, Alexandra S; Delerue-Matos, Cristina; Castro, Paula M L; Tiritan, Maria Elizabeth

    2014-10-10

    The interest for environmental fate assessment of chiral pharmaceuticals is increasing and enantioselective analytical methods are mandatory. This study presents an enantioselective analytical method for the quantification of seven pairs of enantiomers of pharmaceuticals and a pair of a metabolite. The selected chiral pharmaceuticals belong to three different therapeutic classes, namely selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (venlafaxine, fluoxetine and its metabolite norfluoxetine), beta-blockers (alprenolol, bisoprolol, metoprolol, propranolol) and a beta2-adrenergic agonist (salbutamol). The analytical method was based on solid phase extraction followed by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry with a triple quadrupole analyser. Briefly, Oasis MCX cartridges were used to preconcentrate 250 mL of water samples and the reconstituted extracts were analysed with a Chirobiotic V under reversed mode. The effluent of a laboratory-scale aerobic granular sludge sequencing batch reactor (AGS-SBR) was used to validate the method. Linearity (r(2)>0.99), selectivity and sensitivity were achieved in the range of 20-400 ngL(-1) for all enantiomers, except for norfluoxetine enantiomers which range covered 30-400 ngL(-1). The method detection limits were between 0.65 and 11.5 ngL(-1) and the method quantification limits were between 1.98 and 19.7 ngL(-1). The identity of all enantiomers was confirmed using two MS/MS transitions and its ion ratios, according to European Commission Decision 2002/657/EC. This method was successfully applied to evaluate effluents of wastewater treatment plants (WWTP) in Portugal. Venlafaxine and fluoxetine were quantified as non-racemic mixtures (enantiomeric fraction ≠ 0.5). The enantioselective validated method was able to monitor chiral pharmaceuticals in WWTP effluents and has potential to assess the enantioselective biodegradation in bioreactors. Further application in environmental matrices as surface and estuarine waters can be

  18. Alkali metal-cationized serine clusters studied by sonic spray ionization tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Nanita, Sergio C; Sokol, Ewa; Cooks, R Graham

    2007-05-01

    Serine solutions containing salts of alkali metals yield magic number clusters of the type (Ser(4)+C)(+), (Ser(8)+C)(+), (Ser(12)+C)(+), and (Ser(17)+2C)(+2) (where C = Li(+), Na(+), K(+), Rb(+), or Cs(+)), in relative abundances which are strongly dependent on the cation size. Strong selectivity for homochirality is involved in the formation of serine tetramers cationized by K(+), Rb(+), and Cs(+). This is also the case for the octamers cationized by the smaller alkalis but there is a strong preference for heterochirality in the octamers cationized by the larger alkali cations. Tandem mass spectrometry shows that the octamers and dodecamers cationized by K(+), Rb(+), and Cs(+) dissociate mainly by the loss of Ser(4) units, suggesting that the neutral tetramers are the stable building blocks of the observed larger aggregates, (Ser(8)+C)(+) and (Ser(12)+C)(+). Remarkably, although the Ser(4) units are formed with a strong preference for homochirality, they aggregate further regardless of their handedness and, therefore, with a preference for the nominally racemic 4D:4L structure and an overall strong heterochiral preference. The octamers cationized by K(+), Rb(+), or Cs(+) therefore represent a new type of cluster ion that is homochiral in its internal subunits, which then assemble in a random fashion to form octamers. We tentatively interpret the homochirality of these tetramers as a consequence of assembly of the serine molecules around a central metal ion. The data provide additional evidence that the neutral serine octamer is homochiral and is readily cationized by smaller ions.

  19. Analysis of acylcarnitine levels by tandem mass spectrometry in epileptic children receiving valproate and oxcarbazepine.

    PubMed

    Cansu, Ali; Serdaroglu, Ayse; Biberoglu, Gursel; Tumer, Leyla; Hirfanoglu, Tugba Luleci; Ezgu, Fatih Suheyl; Hasanoglu, Alev

    2011-12-01

    This prospective study was designed to investigate whether or not monotherapy with sodium valproate (VPA) or oxcarbazepine (OXC) affects plasma levels of fatty acylcarnitine esters in children with epilepsy. A total of 56 children with idiopathic partial or generalised epilepsy were included in the study. Patients were assigned to receive either VPA or OXC monotherapy. Free carnitine (C0) and acylcarnitine profiles of the patients were investigated using tandem mass spectrometry at baseline and at six and 18 months after commencement of therapy. For patients receiving VPA or OXC monotherapy, there were no significant differences in plasma levels of C0, compared with baseline, at six and 18 months (p>0.05). Treatment with VPA for six and 18 months correlated with a significant increase in 3-hydroxy-isovalerylcarnitine (C5-OH) (six months: +23%; 18 months: +73%), and significant decreases in the following acylcarnitines: C6-acylcarnitine (six months: -60%; 18 months: -66%), C14-acylcarnitine (six months: -25%; 18 months: -38%), C16-acylcarnitine (six months: -73%; 18 months: -73%), and C18:1-OH-acylcarnitine (six months: -60%; 18 months: -70%), compared with baseline (p<0.05). In patients receiving OXC monotherapy, on the other hand, plasma concentrations (μmol/L) of acylcarnitines (from C2 to C18:1-OH) fell within the normal reference range. The results of this study indicate that there are significant biochemical changes in acylcarnitines in ambulatory children on VPA monotherapy but these are not clinically significant. OXC monotherapy had no effect on acylcarnitine metabolism in ambulatory children.

  20. Simultaneous quantification of Pacific ciguatoxins in fish blood using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Mak, Yim Ling; Wu, Jia Jun; Chan, Wing Hei; Murphy, Margaret B; Lam, James C W; Chan, Leo L; Lam, Paul K S

    2013-04-01

    Ciguatera fish poisoning (CFP) is a food intoxication caused by exposure to ciguatoxins (CTXs) in coral reef fish. Rapid analytical methods have been developed recently to quantify Pacific-CTX-1 (P-CTX-1) in fish muscle, but it is destructive and can cause harm to valuable live coral reef fish. Also fish muscle extract was complex making CTX quantification challenging. Not only P-CTX-1, but also P-CTX-2 and P-CTX-3 could be present in fish, contributing to ciguatoxicity. Therefore, an analytical method for simultaneous quantification of P-CTX-1, P-CTX-2, and P-CTX-3 in whole blood of marketed coral reef fish using sonication, solid-phase extraction (SPE), and liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) was developed. The optimized method gave acceptable recoveries of P-CTXs (74-103 %) in fish blood. Matrix effects (6-26 %) in blood extracts were found to be significantly reduced compared with those in muscle extracts (suppressed by 34-75 % as reported in other studies), thereby minimizing potential for false negative results. The target P-CTXs were detectable in whole blood from four coral reef fish species collected in a CFP-endemic region. Similar trends in total P-CTX levels and patterns of P-CTX composition profiles in blood and muscle of these fish were observed, suggesting a relationship between blood and muscle levels of P-CTXs. This optimized method provides an essential tool for studies of P-CTX pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics in fish, which are needed for establishing the use of fish blood as a reliable sample for the assessment and control of CFP.

  1. Rapid determination of polyether marine toxins using liquid chromatography-multiple tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Fernández Puente, Patricia; Fidalgo Sáez, María José; Hamilton, Brett; Lehane, Mary; Ramstad, Hanne; Furey, Ambrose; James, Kevin J

    2004-11-12

    The diarrhetic shellfish poisoning (DSP) toxins, okadaic acid (OA), dinophysistoxins (DTX); pectenotoxin-2 (PTX2) and pectenotoxin-2 seco acids, were determined in marine phytoplankton, Dinophysis acuta, and mussels (Mytilus edulis) collected along the southwest coast of Ireland. Liquid chromatography-multiple tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) was employed for the simultaneous determination of a series of marine toxins with large polarity differences. Separation of five DSP toxins was achieved on a C18 column (Luna-2, 150 mm x 2.1 mm, 5 microm) using an acetonitrile-water gradient with ammonium acetate as an eluent modifier. Electrospray ionisation (ESI) in negative mode, was used to generate the molecule related ion, [M-H]-, for each toxin. To develop a multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) method, fragmentation studies were performed to determine the optimum precursor-product ion combinations: OA (803/255), DTX2 (803/255), DTX1 (817/255), PTX2SAs (875/137) and PTX2 (857/137). This highly sensitive method had detection limits better than 1 pg (on-column). Linear calibrations were obtained for shellfish extracts that were spiked with toxins, OA, 0.007-1.00 microg/ml (r2 = 0.9993, N = 3) and DTX2, 0.054-8.5 microg/ml (r2 = 0.9992, N = 3). Good reproducibility data were also achieved with %RSD values (N = 3) ranging from 3.15% (0.56 microg DTX2/ml) to 5.71% (0.14 microg DTX2/ml), for shellfish extracts. The method was sufficiently sensitive to permit the determination of DSP toxins in small numbers of picked phytoplankton cells (N = 12-40). In one sample of D. acuta the average toxin composition per cell was: OA (7.0 pg), DTX2 (11 pg) and PTX2 (7.2 pg).

  2. Quantitation of Cotinine in Nonsmoker Saliva Using Chip Based Nanoelectrospray Tandem Mass Spectrometry

    SciTech Connect

    Tomkins, Bruce A; Van Berkel, Gary J; Jenkins, Roger A; Counts, Richard Wayne

    2006-01-01

    A new analytical procedure was developed for the quantitation of nonsmoker salivary cotinine. Small volumes of saliva were diluted with water, fortified with cotinine-d{sub 3} (internal standard), then passed through small extraction columns. The analyte and internal standard were eluted with 0.1% (v/v) acetic acid/acetonitrile. Aliquots of each extract were analyzed directly, without chromatographic separation, using chip-based (NanoMate{sup TM}) nanospray tandem mass spectrometry. The calculated detection limit was 0.49 ng cotinine/mL saliva. This method was used to quantify salivary cotinine collected from nonsmoking human subjects living in one of three environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) exposure categories or 'cells': 1. smoking home/smoking workplace; 2. smoking home/nonsmoking workplace; and 3. nonsmoking home/smoking workplace. Samples were collected during five sequential days, including Saturday, as part of a larger study to evaluate potential variability in exposure to ETS. Salivary cotinine measurements were made for the purpose of excluding misclassified smokers and for comparison with known levels of exposure to airborne nicotine in each exposure category. The concentrations observed were consistent with those reported from other large studies reported elsewhere. A non-parametric statistical test was applied to the data within each cell. No statistically significant differences were found between the mean cotinine concentrations collected on a weekday as compared to those collected on a weekend day. When the non-parametric test was applied to the three cells, a statistically significant difference was observed between cell 1 compared to cells 2 and 3. The salivary cotinine concentrations were thus statistically invariant over a five-day exposure period, and they were greatest under the conditions of smoking home and smoking workplace.

  3. Analysis of mouse liver membrane proteins using multidimensional separations and tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhuowei; Wang, Min; Tong, Wei

    2010-12-01

    In the field of proteomic investigation, the analysis of membrane proteins still faces many technical challenges. A fundamental question in this puzzle is how to maintain a proper solvent environment to allow the hydrophobic proteins to remain solubilized. We propose that the denaturation of membrane proteins in a highly concentrated urea solution enables them to be ionized such that ionic exchange chromatography can be employed to separate them. The membrane proteins prepared from the mouse liver were dissolved in 6M guanidine hydrochloride, 20mM Tris-HCl, pH 9.0, and loaded onto a tandem chromatography apparatus coupled with Q-Sepharose FF and Sephacryl S-200HR. These columns were able to adsorb 97.87% of the membrane protein preparations. Using a linear NaCl (0-1.0M) gradient, the bound proteins were eluted out at 0.1-1.0M NaCl, and examined by SDS-PAGE. Furthermore the protein bands underwent excision and digestion with trypsin, followed by reverse-phase chromatography for the separation of the digested peptides and ionic-trap mass spectrometry for the identification of the proteins. From the SDS-PAGE gels, the overlap between proteins from neighboring bands was only 21.34%, indicating that the anionic-size exclusion coupling chromatography efficiently separated these membrane proteins. Of a total of 392 proteins identified, 306 were membrane proteins or membrane-associated proteins. Based on the calculation of hydrophobicity, the GRAVY scores of 83 proteins are greater than, or equal to, 0.00. Taking all of this evidence together, our results revealed that this approach is satisfactory for studies on the membrane proteome from the mouse liver.

  4. Tetrahydrocannabinol and two of its metabolites in whole blood using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Coulter, Cynthia; Miller, Elizabeth; Crompton, Katherine; Moore, Christine

    2008-10-01

    An analytical procedure for the determination of Delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), 11-nor-9-carboxy-Delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THCA), and 11-hydroxy-Delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol (11-OH-THC) in whole blood has been developed and validated using liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectral detection (MS). Cannabinoids present in the blood samples were quantified using solid-phase extraction followed by MS detection in positive electrospray ionization mode. For confirmation, two transitions were monitored and one ratio determined. Samples being reported as positive were required to have both transitions present, the ratio of quantifying transition to qualifying transition being within 20% of that determined from known calibration standards. The monitoring of the qualifying transition and requirement for its presence within a specific ratio to the primary ion has the potential of limiting the sensitivity of the assay, however, the additional confidence in the final result as well as forensic defensibility were considered to be of greater importance. The limit of quantitation was 0.5 ng/mL for THC, 5 ng/mL for THCA, and 2 ng/mL for 11-OH-THC. The limit of detection was 0.5 ng/mL for THC, 4 ng/mL for THCA, and 1 ng/mL for 11-OH-THC. The percentage recovery of the cannabinoids from whole blood at a concentration of 5 ng/mL was 71.5% for THC, 64.5% for 11-OH-THC, and 61.2% for THCA (n = 3).

  5. Polyatomic ion/surface collisions: new methodology in tandem mass spectrometry

    SciTech Connect

    Mabud, M.A.

    1987-01-01

    The excitation of a gas phase ion to induce fragmentation is an important aspect of tandem mass spectrometry. Investigations have been made by using metal surfaces as collision partners to activate polyatomic ions by using ions of 20-150 eV kinetic energy. Among the phenomena investigated are dissociation of the polyatomic ions upon collision with metal surfaces. The extent of dissociation can be controlled by selection of the impact energy. Collision with a surface gives rise to a narrower range of internal energies than do the corresponding ion/gaseous target collisions. Very large amounts of energy can be deposited in polyatomic ions upon collision with a metal target. Even at modest laboratory kinetic energies, the average internal energy deposited in ion/surface collisions exceeds that in gaseous collisions. Charge-exchange of multiply-charged species at the surface also occurs. Although simple charge exchange is observed, dissociative charge exchange is dominant in the cases studied. Dissociation and charge exchange of polyatomic ions in ion/surface collision are also accompanied by reactive collisions between organic ions and gas-covered metal surfaces. Utility of polyatomic ion/surface interaction technique for isomeric ion characterization has also been investigated. The ion/surface interaction technique appears to have excellent ability to distinguish isomeric ions. One advantage of SID is isomeric ion characterization lies in the fact that reactive collisions occur simultaneously and add a new dimension of information to the daughter spectra recorded. The hydrogen and methyl radical abstraction reactions assist in distinguishing closely related isomeric ions.

  6. Differentiation of ring-substituted bromoamphetamine analogs by gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Inoue, Hiroyuki; Negishi, Shoko; Nakazono, Yukiko; Iwata, Yuko T; Tsujikawa, Kenji; Ohtsuru, Osamu; Miyamoto, Kazuna; Yamashita, Takuya; Kasuya, Fumiyo

    There has been a rapid increase over the last decade in the appearance of new non-controlled psychoactive substances. Minor changes in the chemical structures of these compounds, such as the extension of an alkyl residue or replacement of a single substituent, are regularly made to avoid regulatory control, leading to the manufacture of many new potentially dangerous drugs. Bromoamphetamine analogs (bromoamphetamine [Br-AP] and bromomethamphetamine (Br-MA]) are ring-substituted amphetamines that can behave as stimulants, as well as exhibiting inhibitory activity towards monoamine oxidases in the same way as amphetamines. Gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (GC-MS-MS) was used in this study to differentiate ring-substituted bromoamphetamine analogs. Free bases, trifluoroacetyl derivatives, and trimethylsilyl (TMS) derivatives of six analytes were successfully separated using DB-1ms and DB-5ms columns. Electron ionization MS-MS analysis of the TMS derivatives allowed for the differentiation of three regioisomers. TMS derivatives of 2-positional isomers provided significant product ions. The spectral patterns of 3- and 4-positional isomers were different. Chemical ionization MS-MS analysis of free bases for [M+H-HBr](+) ions at m/z 134 and 148 allowed for differentiation of the regioisomers. The spectra of 2-positional isomers contained characteristic product ions formed by dehydrogenation at m/z 132 and m/z 146 for 2Br-AP and 2Br-MA, respectively. The spectra of 3-positional isomers contained α-cleaved iminium cations as the base peaks. The spectra of 4-positional isomers showed a tropylium cation at m/z 91 as the base peak. These results demonstrate that GC-MS-MS can be used for the differentiation of regioisomeric Br-AP analogs in forensic practice.

  7. Nitroproteins in Human Astrocytomas Discovered by Gel Electrophoresis and Tandem Mass Spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Peng, Fang; Li, Jianglin; Guo, Tianyao; Yang, Haiyan; Li, Maoyu; Sang, Shushan; Li, Xuejun; Desiderio, Dominic M; Zhan, Xianquan

    2015-12-01

    Protein tyrosine nitration is involved in the pathogenesis of highly fatal astrocytomas, a type of brain cancer. To understand the molecular mechanisms of astrocytomas and to discover new biomarkers/therapeutic targets, we sought to identify nitroproteins in human astrocytoma tissue. Anti-nitrotyrosine immunoreaction-positive proteins from a high-grade astrocytoma tissue were detected with two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2DGE)-based nitrotyrosine immunoblots, and identified with liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). Fifty-seven nitrotyrosine immunopositive protein spots were detected. A total of 870 proteins (nitrated and non-nitrated) in nitrotyrosine-immunopositive 2D gel spots were identified, and 18 nitroproteins and their 20 nitrotyrosine sites were identified with MS/MS analysis. These nitroproteins participate in multiple processes, including drug-resistance, signal transduction, cytoskeleton, transcription and translation, cell proliferation and apoptosis, immune response, phenotypic dedifferentiation, cell migration, and metastasis. Among those nitroproteins that might play a role in astrocytomas was nitro-sorcin, which is involved in drug resistance and metastasis and might play a role in the spread and treatment of an astrocytoma. Semiquantitative immune-based measurements of different sorcin expressions were found among different grades of astrocytomas relative to controls, and a semiquantitative increased nitration level in high-grade astrocytoma relative to control. Nitro-β-tubulin functions in cytoskeleton and cell migration. Semiquantitative immunoreactivity of β-tubulin showed increased expression among different grades of astrocytomas relative to controls and semiquantitatively increased nitration level in high-grade astrocytoma relative to control. Each nitroprotein was rationalized and related to the corresponding functional system to provide new insights into tyrosine nitration and its potential role in the

  8. Nitroproteins in Human Astrocytomas Discovered by Gel Electrophoresis and Tandem Mass Spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, Fang; Li, Jianglin; Guo, Tianyao; Yang, Haiyan; Li, Maoyu; Sang, Shushan; Li, Xuejun; Desiderio, Dominic M.; Zhan, Xianquan

    2015-12-01

    Protein tyrosine nitration is involved in the pathogenesis of highly fatal astrocytomas, a type of brain cancer. To understand the molecular mechanisms of astrocytomas and to discover new biomarkers/therapeutic targets, we sought to identify nitroproteins in human astrocytoma tissue. Anti-nitrotyrosine immunoreaction-positive proteins from a high-grade astrocytoma tissue were detected with two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2DGE)-based nitrotyrosine immunoblots, and identified with liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). Fifty-seven nitrotyrosine immunopositive protein spots were detected. A total of 870 proteins (nitrated and non-nitrated) in nitrotyrosine-immunopositive 2D gel spots were identified, and 18 nitroproteins and their 20 nitrotyrosine sites were identified with MS/MS analysis. These nitroproteins participate in multiple processes, including drug-resistance, signal transduction, cytoskeleton, transcription and translation, cell proliferation and apoptosis, immune response, phenotypic dedifferentiation, cell migration, and metastasis. Among those nitroproteins that might play a role in astrocytomas was nitro-sorcin, which is involved in drug resistance and metastasis and might play a role in the spread and treatment of an astrocytoma. Semiquantitative immune-based measurements of different sorcin expressions were found among different grades of astrocytomas relative to controls, and a semiquantitative increased nitration level in high-grade astrocytoma relative to control. Nitro-β-tubulin functions in cytoskeleton and cell migration. Semiquantitative immunoreactivity of β-tubulin showed increased expression among different grades of astrocytomas relative to controls and semiquantitatively increased nitration level in high-grade astrocytoma relative to control. Each nitroprotein was rationalized and related to the corresponding functional system to provide new insights into tyrosine nitration and its potential role in the

  9. Analysis of free amino acids in natural waters by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    How, Zuo Tong; Busetti, Francesco; Linge, Kathryn L; Kristiana, Ina; Joll, Cynthia A; Charrois, Jeffrey W A

    2014-11-28

    This paper reports a new analytical method for the analysis of 18 amino acids in natural waters using solid-phase extraction (SPE) followed by liquid chromatography-electrospray tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) operated in multiple reaction monitoring mode. Two different preconcentration methods, solid-phase extraction and concentration under reduced pressure, were tested in development of this method. Although concentration under reduced pressure provided better recoveries and method limits of detection for amino acids in ultrapure water, SPE was a more suitable extraction method for real samples due to the lower matrix effects for this method. Even though the strong cation exchange resin used in SPE method introduced exogenous matrix interferences into the sample extracts (inorganic salt originating from the acid-base reaction during the elution step), the SPE method still incorporates a broad sample clean-up and minimised endogenous matrix effects by reducing interferences originating from real water samples. The method limits of quantification (MLQ) for the SPE LC-MS/MS method in ultrapure water ranged from 0.1 to 100 μg L(-1) as N for the different amino acids. The MLQs of the early eluting amino acids were limited by the presence of matrix interfering species, such as inorganic salts in natural water samples. The SPE LC-MS/MS method was successfully applied to the analysis of amino acids in 3 different drinking water source waters: the average total free amino acid content in these waters was found to be 19 μg L(-1) as N, while among the 18 amino acids analysed, the most abundant amino acids were found to be tyrosine, leucine and isoleucine.

  10. Use of an intravenous microdose of 14C-labeled drug and accelerator mass spectrometry to measure absolute oral bioavailability in dogs; cross-comparison of assay methods by accelerator mass spectrometry and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Miyaji, Yoshihiro; Ishizuka, Tomoko; Kawai, Kenji; Hamabe, Yoshimi; Miyaoka, Teiji; Oh-hara, Toshinari; Ikeda, Toshihiko; Kurihara, Atsushi

    2009-01-01

    A technique utilizing simultaneous intravenous microdosing of (14)C-labeled drug with oral dosing of non-labeled drug for measurement of absolute bioavailability was evaluated using R-142086 in male dogs. Plasma concentrations of R-142086 were measured by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) and those of (14)C-R-142086 were measured by accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS). The absence of metabolites in the plasma and urine was confirmed by a single radioactive peak of the parent compound in the chromatogram after intravenous microdosing of (14)C-R-142086 (1.5 microg/kg). Although plasma concentrations of R-142086 determined by LC-MS/MS were approximately 20% higher than those of (14)C-R-142086 as determined by AMS, there was excellent correlation (r=0.994) between both concentrations after intravenous dosing of (14)C-R-142086 (0.3 mg/kg). The oral bioavailability of R-142086 at 1 mg/kg obtained by simultaneous intravenous microdosing of (14)C-R-142086 was 16.1%, this being slightly higher than the value (12.5%) obtained by separate intravenous dosing of R-142086 (0.3 mg/kg). In conclusion, on utilizing simultaneous intravenous microdosing of (14)C-labeled drug in conjunction with AMS analysis, absolute bioavailability could be approximately measured in dogs, but without total accuracy. Bioavailability in humans may possibly be approximately measured at an earlier stage and at a lower cost.

  11. Accelerated quantification of amphetamine enantiomers in human urine using chiral liquid chromatography and on-line column-switching coupled with tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Hädener, Marianne; Bruni, Pia S; Weinmann, Wolfgang; Frübis, Matthias; König, Stefan

    2017-02-01

    Amphetamine (AM) is a powerful psychostimulant existing in two enantiomeric forms. Stereoselective analysis of AM in biosamples can assist clinicians and forensic experts in differentiating between abuse of illicitly synthesized racemic AM and ingestion of pharmaceutical AM formulations containing either S-AM or different proportions of the S- and R-enantiomers. Therefore, a liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method for quantifying AM enantiomers in urine was newly developed. The method comprised dilution with water, followed by injection of the diluted sample onto an achiral C18 trapping column for purification and subsequent backflush elution to a chiral Lux 3 μm AMP LC column by means of a switching valve. An isocratic mobile phase of 25 % acetonitrile in 0.1 M aqueous ammonia was used for enantiomeric separation. Injection, cleanup, and backflush of the next sample were performed before the previous sample had eluted from the analytical column, thus enabling simultaneous enantioseparation of up to three samples within the analytical column. This novel chromatographic concept allowed for increased sample throughput by accelerating both the sample preparation and the LC analysis. Analyte detection was accomplished by electrospray ionization in positive ion mode and selected reaction monitoring using a triple-stage quadrupole mass spectrometer. The method was successfully validated through assessment of its linearity, lower limit of quantification, accuracy and precision, selectivity, matrix effect, carry-over, dilution integrity, and re-injection reproducibility. Linearity ranged from 0.05 to 25 mg/L for both enantiomers. Proof of the method included analysis of urine samples obtained from drug abusers and patients receiving an S-AM prodrug. Graphical Abstract Enantioselective determination of amphetamine in human urine using liquid chromatography with achiral-chiral column-switching and tandem mass spectrometry.

  12. A column switching ultrahigh-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method to determine anandamide and 2-arachidonoylglycerol in plasma samples.

    PubMed

    Marchioni, Camila; de Souza, Israel Donizeti; Grecco, Caroline Fernandes; Crippa, José Alexandre; Tumas, Vitor; Queiroz, Maria Eugênia Costa

    2017-03-23

    This study reports a fast, sensitive, and selective column switching ultrahigh-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS) method to determine the endocannabinoids (eCBs), anandamide (AEA), and 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG) in plasma samples. This bidimensional system used a restricted access media column (RP-8 ADS, 25 mm × 4 mm × 25 μM) in the first dimension and a core-shell Kinetex C18 (100 mm × 2, 1.7 mm × 1 μM) column in the second dimension, followed by detection in a mass spectrometer triple quadrupole (multiple reactions monitoring mode) operating in the positive mode. RP-8 ADS was used for trace enrichment of eCBs (reverse phase partitioning) and macromolecular matrix size exclusion; the core-shell column was used for the chromatographic separation. The column switching UHPLC-MS/MS method presented a linear range spanning from 0.1 ng mL(-1) (LOQ) to 6 ng mL(-1) for AEA and from 0.04 ng mL(-1) (LOQ) to 10 ng mL(-1) for 2-AG. Excluding the LLOQ values, the precision assays provided coefficients of variation lower than 8% and accuracy with relative standard error values lower than 14%. Neither carryover nor matrix effects were detected. This high-throughput column switching method compared to conventional methods is time saving as it involves fewer steps, consumes less solvent, and presents lower LLOQ. The column switching UHPLC-MS/MS method was successfully applied to determine AEA and 2-AG in plasma samples obtained from Alzheimer's disease patients. Graphical abstract A column switching ultra high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method using RP-8 ADS column and core shell column to determine endocannabinoids in plasma samples.

  13. Screening for multiple phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitor drugs in dietary supplement materials by flow injection mass spectrometry and their quantification by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Song, Fenhong; El-Demerdash, Aref; Lee, Shwn-Ji Susie H

    2012-11-01

    A flow injection tandem mass spectrometry method (FI-MS/MS) has been developed to detect enzyme phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitors, including tadalafil, sildenafil, and vardenafil. Multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) was used to detect the drugs and product ion ratios were used for identification. FI-MS/MS was used for semi-quantification and liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) was used for further confirmation and quantification. One of 13 samples has been found to be adulterated with prescription levels of tadalafil and also low level of sildenafil. The method can be used for screening large numbers of herbal products for adulteration since it takes less than 1 min without chromatographic separation on a column.

  14. Morphine brain pharmacokinetics at very low concentrations studied with accelerator mass spectrometry and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Sadiq, Muhammad Waqas; Salehpour, Mehran; Forsgard, Niklas; Possnert, Göran; Hammarlund-Udenaes, Margareta

    2011-02-01

    Morphine has been predicted to show nonlinear blood-brain barrier transport at lower concentrations. In this study, we investigated the possibility of separating active influx of morphine from its efflux by using very low morphine concentrations and compared accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) with liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) as a method for analyzing microdialysis samples. A 10-min bolus infusion of morphine, followed by a constant-rate infusion, was given to male rats (n = 6) to achieve high (250 ng/ml), medium (50 ng/ml), and low (10 ng/ml) steady-state plasma concentrations. An additional rat received infusions to achieve low (10 ng/ml), very low (2 ng/ml), and ultralow (0.4 ng/ml) concentrations. Unbound morphine concentrations from brain extracellular fluid and blood were sampled by microdialysis and analyzed by LC-MS/MS and AMS. The average partition coefficient for unbound drug (K(p,uu)) values for the low and medium steady-state levels were 0.22 ± 0.08 and 0.21 ± 0.05, respectively, when measured by AMS [not significant (NS); p = 0.5]. For the medium and high steady-state levels, K(p,uu) values were 0.24 ± 0.05 and 0.26 ± 0.05, respectively, when measured by LC-MS/MS (NS; p = 0.2). For the low, very low, and ultralow steady-state levels, K(p,uu) values were 0.16 ± 0.01, 0.16 ± 0.02, and 0.18 ± 0.03, respectively, when measured by AMS. The medium-concentration K(p,uu) values were, on average, 16% lower when measured by AMS than by LC-MS/MS. There were no significant changes in K(p,uu) over a 625-fold concentration range (0.4-250 ng/ml). It was not possible to separate active uptake transport from active efflux using these low concentrations. The two analytical methods provided indistinguishable results for plasma concentrations but differed by up to 38% for microdialysis samples; however, this difference did not affect our conclusions.

  15. Mass Communication and Political Accuracy: A Comparison of First-Time and Older Voters.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quarles, Rebecca Colwell

    For this study of the relationships between accuracy of political information and attention to various mass-media sources of public-affairs information, personal interviews were conducted with 388 eligible voters in Madison, Wisconsin, and 129 eligible voters in Lexington, Kentucky, during October 1972. Variables measured included education,…

  16. Liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method for the determination of anthelmintics in alfalfa plants.

    PubMed

    Islam, M Dabalus; Haberhauer, G; Gerzabek, M; Cannavan, A

    2012-01-01

    A simple and inexpensive liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometric method for the determination of anthelmintics in alfalfa plants (Medicago sativa L.) was developed and validated. Anthelmintics in plant leaves and stems (green chops) were extracted with methanol/acetonitrile (7:3, v/v) followed by a concentration and clean-up step using solid-phase extraction (Strata-X, 500 mg, 6 ml cartridge). After drying with nitrogen gas, the adsorbed analytes were eluted with methanol/acetonitrile (50:50, v/v) mixture followed by 100% acetonitrile. Chromatographic separation was achieved on an Atlantis T-3 (2.1 × 100 mm × 3 µm) analytical column with a Phenomenex guard cartridge (C8, 4 × 3 mm) attached to a Waters triple quadrupole mass spectrometer operated in positive electrospray ionisation mode with selected reaction monitoring. Samples were analysed using gradient elution at a flow rate of 0.35 ml min⁻¹. The mobile phase consisted of a 10 mM ammonium formate solution in (A) water/acetonitrile (90:10, v/v) and (B) methanol/acetonitrile (50:50, v/v). The method was validated for levamisole, fenbendazole, fenbendazole sulphoxide and fenbendazole sulphone at 10, 20 and 40 µg kg⁻¹ and for eprinomectin at 20, 40 and 80 µg kg⁻¹. Limits of quantification (LOQ) were 10 µg kg⁻¹ for all analytes except eprinomectin, which had an LOQ of 20 µg kg⁻¹. The overall mean recovery in green plants was between 74.2% and 81.4% with repeatabilities ranging from 2.2% to 19.1% and reproducibilities in the range 3.8-8.7%. The validated method was applied to plant samples in a study on the behaviour of anthelmintic drugs in a soil, plant and water system.

  17. Quantitation of sirolimus using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS-MS).

    PubMed

    Korecka, Magdalena; Shaw, Leslie M

    2010-01-01

    A multiple reaction monitoring positive ion HPLC method with tandem mass spectrometric detection (MS-MS) for determination of sirolimus in human blood samples is described. This method utilizes an online cleanup step that provides simple and rapid sample preparation with a switching valve technique. This procedure includes: instrumentation, API 3000 triple quadrupole with turbo-ion spray (Applied Biosystems, Foster City, CA); HPLC system (Agilent Technologies series 1100, Wilmington, DE); two position switching valve (Valco, Houston, TX); 10 mm guard cartridge (C(18)) used as an extraction column (Perkin Elmer, Norwalk, CT); analytical column (Nova-Pak C(18) column, 2.1 x 150 mm I.D., 4 microm, Waters Corp, Milford, MA) maintained at 65 degrees C; extraction solution, ammonium acetate (30 mM, pH 5.2), flow rate 1.0 mL/min; eluting solution, methanol:30 mM ammonium acetate buffer (pH 5.2, 97:3 v/v), flow rate 0.8 mL/min with 1/3 of the flow split post-column into the MS-MS; total run-time 3.5 min. Sample preparation is based on simple protein precipitation with a mixture of methanol and zinc sulfate (7:3, v/v) followed by online sample cleanup. This procedure provides a decreased sample preparation time by a factor of four compared to a method that uses an SPE column. The first and third quadrupoles were set to detect the ammonium adduct ion and a high mass fragment of sirolimus (m/z 931.8-->864.6), and of an internal standard (ascomycin) (m/z 809.5-->756.5). The lower limit of quantification of this method is 2.5 microg/L. The quantification of drug is made from standard curve using peak-area ratio of analyte vs. internal standard. Calibration curve is constructed using non-weighted linear through zero regression.

  18. Quantification of Galactose-1-Phosphate Uridyltransferase Enzyme Activity by Liquid Chromatography–Tandem Mass Spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yijun; Ptolemy, Adam S.; Harmonay, Lauren; Kellogg, Mark; Berry, Gerard T.

    2013-01-01

    Background The diagnosis of galactosemia usually involves the measurement of galactose-1-phosphate uridyltransferase (GALT) activity. Traditional radioactive and fluorescent GALT assays are nonspecific, laborious, and/or lack sufficient analytical sensitivity. We developed a liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS)–based assay for GALT enzyme activity measurement. Method Our assay used stable isotope-labeled α-galactose-1-phosphate ([13C6]-Gal-1-P) as an enzyme substrate. Sample cleanup and separation were achieved by reversed-phase ion-pair chromatography, and the enzymatic product, isotope-labeled uridine diphosphate galactose ([13C6]-UDPGal), was detected by MS/MS at mass transition (571 > 323) and quantified by use of [13C6]-Glu-1-P (265 > 79) as an internal standard. Results The method yielded a mean (SD) GALT enzyme activity of 23.8 (3.8) µmol · (gHgb)−1 · h−1 in erythrocyte extracts from 71 controls. The limit of quantification was 0.04 µmol · (g Hgb)−1 · h−1 (0.2% of normal control value). Intraassay imprecision was determined at 4 different levels (100%, 25%, 5%, and 0.2% of the normal control values), and the CVs were calculated to be 2.1%, 2.5%, 4.6%, and 9.7%, respectively (n = 3). Interassay imprecision CVs were 4.5%, 6.7%, 8.2%, and 13.2% (n = 5), respectively. The assay recoveries at the 4 levels were higher than 90%. The apparent Km of the 2 substrates, Gal-1-P and UDPGlc, were determined to be 0.38 mmol/L and 0.071 mmol/L, respectively. The assay in erythrocytes of 33 patients with classical galactosemia revealed no detectable activity. Conclusions This LC-MS/MS–based assay for GALT enzyme activity will be useful for the diagnosis and study of biochemically heterogeneous patients with galactosemia, especially those with uncommon genotypes and detectable but low residual activities. PMID:20348403

  19. [Determination of congo red in beef by high performance liquid chromatography-tandem quadrupole time of flight mass spectrometry and ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-tandem triple quadrupole mass spectrometry].

    PubMed

    Lin, Hui; Xu, Chunxiang; Yan, Chunrong; Zhang, Zheng; Wang, Suilou

    2013-09-01

    A method was developed for the determination of congo red in beef. The analyte was identified by high performance liquid chromatography-tandem quadrupole time of flight mass spectrometry (LC-QTOF MS) and quantitatively determined by ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-tandem triple quadrupole mass spectrometry. After purified by liquid-liquid extraction, the congo red in the beef sample was separated on an Agilent ZORBAX Eclipse Plus C18 Rapid Resolution HD UPLC column (50 mm x 2.1 mm, 1.8 microm) HPLC , using 95% (volume percentage) methanol as the mobile phase at 0.2 mL/min. The detection was performed on an AB 4000 + triple quadrupole mass spectrometer utilizing electrospray ionization (ESI) interface operated in negative ion mode and multiple-reaction monitoring (MRM) mode. The results showed that the linear range of congo red mass concentration was 0.03 - 1 mg/L with the correlation coefficient of 0.999 8. The method had a good precision with the RSDs lower than 5% and the recoveries ranging from 88% to 91%. The limit of detection (LOD) of congo red was 0.01 mg/L. With good reproducibility, the method is simple, fast and effective for the determination of the illegally added congo red in beef and other meat products.

  20. [Determination of sulfonamides in livestock products and seafoods by liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry using glass bead homogenization].

    PubMed

    Fujita, Mizuka; Taguchi, Shuzo; Obana, Hirotaka

    2008-01-01

    A simple and rapid method using liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS) was developed for the determination of 25 kinds of sulfonamides in livestock products and seafoods. The sulfonamides were extracted with acetonitrile by glass bead homogenization and cleaned up with a tandem-connected ODS and basic alumina column. The quantification limits of 25 kinds of sulfonamides were 0.0025-0.005 microg/g. When two sulfonamides of specific samples were excluded, the recoveries and relative standard deviations were 70 to 120% and less than 15%. These results show that the developed method, which minimizes the matrix effect, offers high precision and should be useful for the determination of sulfonamides in livestock products and seafoods.

  1. Simultaneous determination of plasma total homocysteine and methionine by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Yi; Mistretta, Brandon; Elsea, Sarah; Sun, Qin

    2017-01-01

    The sulfur-containing amino acid homocysteine is a cardiac risk factor and a biomarker for several inborn errors of metabolism in methionine synthesis. A simple LC-MS/MS method was developed and validated for determination of homocysteine and methionine in human plasma. Rapid separation was achieved using a reverse phase liquid chromatography. Mass spectrometry identification was performed in positive electrospray ionization mode for homocysteine and methionine. Accuracy, precision, linearity, recovery and sample stability were evaluated in the method validation. The test is applied in diagnosis of homocystinuria and monitoring total homocysteine levels. Moreover, simultaneous measurement of methionine helps in the differentiation of homocystinuria and some cobalamin disorders (such as cblC and cblD defects) without additional amino acid testing. Lastly, this assay is sensitive to detect reduced total homocysteine levels that are possibly seen in sulfocysteinuria and molybdenum cofactor deficiencies.

  2. Sensitive and specific liquid chromatographic-tandem mass spectrometric assay for barnidipine in human plasma.

    PubMed

    Pawula, M; Watson, D; Teramura, T; Watanabe, T; Higuchi, S; Cheng, K N

    1998-11-20

    A sensitive and specific LC-MS-MS assay has been developed and validated for barnidipine (1-benzyl-3-pyrrolidinyl)methyl-2,6-dimethyl-4(m-nitrophenyl)-1,4-dihydr opyridine-3,5-dicarboxylate). The assay involves a simple and rapid solid-phase extraction procedure. Sample analysis was on a Spherisorb S3ODS2 100 mmX2 mm I.D. column, with a Finnigan TSQ 7000 mass spectrometer, using an electrospray interface and selective reaction monitoring (SRM). The intra- and inter-day precision and accuracy, determined as the coefficient of variation and relative error, respectively, were 11.8% or less. The limit of quantitation was 0.03 ng/ml, and the calibration was linear between 0.03 and 3.0 ng/ml. The method has been used successfully for the measurement of over two thousand human plasma samples from pharmacokinetic clinical trials.

  3. De novo analysis of peptide tandem mass spectra by spectral graph partitioning.

    PubMed

    Bern, Marshall; Goldberg, David

    2006-03-01

    We report on a new de novo peptide sequencing algorithm that uses spectral graph partitioning. In this approach, relationships between m/z peaks are represented by attractive and repulsive springs, and the vibrational modes of the spring system are used to infer information about the peaks (such as "likely b-ion" or "likely y-ion"). We demonstrate the effectiveness of this approach by comparison with other de novo sequencers on test sets of ion-trap and QTOF spectra, including spectra of mixtures of peptides. On all datasets, we outperform the other sequencers. Along with spectral graph theory techniques, the new de novo sequencer EigenMS incorporates another improvement of independent interest: robust statistical methods for recalibration of time-of-flight mass measurements. Robust recalibration greatly outperforms simple least-squares recalibration, achieving about three times the accuracy for one QTOF dataset.

  4. Accuracy in measuring the neutron star mass in gravitational wave parameter estimates for nonspinning compact binaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cho, Hee-Suk

    2015-09-01

    In gravitational wave (GW) data analysis, the parameter estimate is performed to find the physical parameters of GW sources. The result of the parameter estimate is given by a posterior probability density function, and the measurement errors can be computed by using the Fisher matrix method. Using this method, we investigate the accuracy in estimates of neutron star (NS) masses ( M NS) for GWs emitted from merging compact binaries. As GW sources, we consider nonspinning binaries in which the primary component is assumed to be a NS and the companion is assumed to be a NS or a stellar-mass black hole (BH). Adopting GW signals with a signal-to-noise ratio of 10 for Advanced LIGO (Laser Interferometer Gravitational wave Observatory) sensitivity, we calculate measurement errors (σ) of M NS. We find that the errors strongly depend on the mass ratio of the companion mass ( M com) to the NS mass ( M NS). For NS-NS binaries, the fractional errors (σ/ M NS) are larger than 10% only in the symmetric mass region. For BH-NS binaries, the fractional errors tend to decrease with increasing mass ratio ( M com/ M NS), and the measurement accuracies are better than those for NS-NS binaries. In this case, the errors are always smaller than ~ 3%.

  5. Accuracy of Pelvic Mass Score in Pre-operative Determination of Malignancy in Adnexal Masses

    PubMed Central

    Rao, Arun; Ullal, Sonali; Krishna, Gowtham

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Suspicious adnexal masses are common clinical problems in gynaecological practice. A reliable diagnostic tool for the early detection of the ovarian malignancy is essential. Aim To validate a new scoring system –Pelvic Mass Score (PMS) in predicting the nature of the adnexal mass pre-operatively. Materials and Methods A prospective observational study was carried out in 100 consenting women with an undiagnosed adnexal mass requiring operative intervention. Among them 62 patients had mass with a feeding vessel in which the Doppler velocimetry study values were available. The PMS was determined in these 62 patients. A score of 29 or more was taken as suggestive of malignancy. The results were compared with the histopathological diagnosis to confirm malignancy. The chi-square test was applied to test the significance. Results Among the 62 patients with vascular mass, 31 had histopathological diagnosis of malignancy. The statistical analysis of the data with PMS with 29 as cut-off revealed 100% sensitivity and 100% Negative Predictive Value (NPV) as there was no false negative case detected. But the specificity and Positive Predictive Value (PPV) was poor; 45.2% and 64.6% respectively. Based on the Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) curve, if we redefine cut-off as 69, specificity increases to 80.6% with a sensitivity of 90.3%, the PPV and NPV being 82.35 and 89.29 respectively. Conclusion The present study concludes that, in suspicious vascular adnexal masses PMS can be used as a reliable diagnostic score to predict malignancy if we redefine the existing cut-off of 29 to 69. PMID:28050448

  6. Characterization of Wax Esters by Electrospray Ionization Tandem Mass Spectrometry: Double Bond Effect and Unusual Product Ions.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jianzhong; Green, Kari B; Nichols, Kelly K

    2015-08-01

    A series of different types of wax esters (represented by RCOOR') were systematically studied by using electrospray ionization (ESI) collision-induced dissociation tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) along with pseudo MS(3) (in-source dissociation combined with MS/MS) on a quadrupole time-of-flight (Q-TOF) mass spectrometer. The tandem mass spectra patterns resulting from dissociation of ammonium/proton adducts of these wax esters were influenced by the wax ester type and the collision energy applied. The product ions [RCOOH2](+), [RCO](+) and [RCO-H2O](+) that have been reported previously were detected; however, different primary product ions were demonstrated for the three wax ester types including: (1) [RCOOH2](+) for saturated wax esters, (2) [RCOOH2](+), [RCO](+) and [RCO-H2O](+) for unsaturated wax esters containing only one double bond in the fatty acid moiety or with one additional double bond in the fatty alcohol moiety, and (3) [RCOOH2](+) and [RCO](+) for unsaturated wax esters containing a double bond in the fatty alcohol moiety alone. Other fragments included [R'](+) and several series of product ions for all types of wax esters. Interestingly, unusual product ions were detected, such as neutral molecule (including water, methanol and ammonia) adducts of [RCOOH2](+) ions for all types of wax esters and [R'-2H](+) ions for unsaturated fatty acyl-containing wax esters. The patterns of tandem mass spectra for different types of wax esters will inform future identification and quantification approaches of wax esters in biological samples as supported by a preliminary study of quantification of isomeric wax esters in human meibomian gland secretions.

  7. Characterization of Wax Esters by Electrospray Ionization Tandem Mass Spectrometry: Double Bond Effect and Unusual Product Ions

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Jianzhong; Green, Kari B; Nichols, Kelly K

    2015-01-01

    A series of different types of wax esters (represented by RCOOR′) were systematically studied by using electrospray ionization (ESI) collision-induced dissociation tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) along with pseudo MS3 (in-source dissociation combined with MS/MS) on a quadrupole time-of-flight (Q-TOF) mass spectrometer. The tandem mass spectra patterns resulting from dissociation of ammonium/proton adducts of these wax esters were influenced by the wax ester type and the collision energy applied. The product ions [RCOOH2]+, [RCO]+ and [RCO – H2O]+ that have been reported previously were detected; however, different primary product ions were demonstrated for the three wax ester types including: 1) [RCOOH2]+ for saturated wax esters, 2) [RCOOH2]+, [RCO]+ and [RCO – H2O]+ for unsaturated wax esters containing only one double bond in the fatty acid moiety or with one additional double bond in the fatty alcohol moiety, and 3) [RCOOH2]+ and [RCO]+ for unsaturated wax esters containing a double bond in the fatty alcohol moiety alone. Other fragments included [R′]+ and several series of product ions for all types of wax esters. Interestingly, unusual product ions were detected, such as neutral molecule (including water, methanol and ammonia) adducts of [RCOOH2]+ ions for all types of wax esters and [R′ – 2H]+ ions for unsaturated fatty acyl-containing wax esters. The patterns of tandem mass spectra for different types of wax esters will inform future identification and quantification approaches of wax esters in biological samples as supported by a preliminary study of quantification of isomeric wax esters in human meibomian gland secretions. PMID:26178197

  8. Fragmentation of mycosporine-like amino acids by hydrogen/deuterium exchange and electrospray ionisation tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Cardozo, Karina H M; Carvalho, Valdemir M; Pinto, Ernani; Colepicolo, Pio

    2006-01-01

    The determination and identification of mycosporine-like amino acids (MAAs) from algae remain a major challenge due to the low concentration. Mass spectrometry (MS) can make an invaluable contribution in the search and identification of MAAs because of its high sensitivity, possibility of coupling with liquid chromatography, and the availability of powerful tandem mass spectrometric techniques. However, the unequivocal determination of the presence and location of important functional groups present on the basic skeleton of the MAAs is often elusive due to their inherent instability under MS conditions. In this study, the use of hydrogen/deuterium (H/D) exchange and electrospray ionisation tandem mass spectrometry (ESI-MS/MS) for characterisation of four MAAs (palythine, asterina, palythinol and shinorine) isolated from the macroalgae Gracilaria tenuistipitata Chang et Xia was investigated. The accurate-mass confirmation of the protonated molecules was performed on a Q-TOF instrument. We demonstrate that employing deuterium labelling in ESI-MS/MS analysis provides a convenient tool for the determination of new MAAs. Although the fragmentation patterns of MAAs were discussed earlier, to our knowledge, this is the first time that mechanisms are proposed.

  9. MODi: a powerful and convenient web server for identifying multiple post-translational peptide modifications from tandem mass spectra.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sangtae; Na, Seungjin; Sim, Ji Woong; Park, Heejin; Jeong, Jaeho; Kim, Hokeun; Seo, Younghwan; Seo, Jawon; Lee, Kong-Joo; Paek, Eunok

    2006-07-01

    MOD(i) (http://modi.uos.ac.kr/modi/) is a powerful and convenient web service that facilitates the interpretation of tandem mass spectra for identifying post-translational modifications (PTMs) in a peptide. It is powerful in that it can interpret a tandem mass spectrum even when hundreds of modification types are considered and the number of potential PTMs in a peptide is large, in contrast to most of the methods currently available for spectra interpretation that limit the number of PTM sites and types being used for PTM analysis. For example, using MOD(i), one can consider for analysis both the entire PTM list published on th