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Sample records for accurate analytical model

  1. An analytic model for accurate spring constant calibration of rectangular atomic force microscope cantilevers.

    PubMed

    Li, Rui; Ye, Hongfei; Zhang, Weisheng; Ma, Guojun; Su, Yewang

    2015-10-29

    Spring constant calibration of the atomic force microscope (AFM) cantilever is of fundamental importance for quantifying the force between the AFM cantilever tip and the sample. The calibration within the framework of thin plate theory undoubtedly has a higher accuracy and broader scope than that within the well-established beam theory. However, thin plate theory-based accurate analytic determination of the constant has been perceived as an extremely difficult issue. In this paper, we implement the thin plate theory-based analytic modeling for the static behavior of rectangular AFM cantilevers, which reveals that the three-dimensional effect and Poisson effect play important roles in accurate determination of the spring constants. A quantitative scaling law is found that the normalized spring constant depends only on the Poisson's ratio, normalized dimension and normalized load coordinate. Both the literature and our refined finite element model validate the present results. The developed model is expected to serve as the benchmark for accurate calibration of rectangular AFM cantilevers.

  2. Development and application of accurate analytical models for single active electron potentials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, Michelle; Jaron-Becker, Agnieszka; Becker, Andreas

    2015-05-01

    The single active electron (SAE) approximation is a theoretical model frequently employed to study scenarios in which inner-shell electrons may productively be treated as frozen spectators to a physical process of interest, and accurate analytical approximations for these potentials are sought as a useful simulation tool. Density function theory is often used to construct a SAE potential, requiring that a further approximation for the exchange correlation functional be enacted. In this study, we employ the Krieger, Li, and Iafrate (KLI) modification to the optimized-effective-potential (OEP) method to reduce the complexity of the problem to the straightforward solution of a system of linear equations through simple arguments regarding the behavior of the exchange-correlation potential in regions where a single orbital dominates. We employ this method for the solution of atomic and molecular potentials, and use the resultant curve to devise a systematic construction for highly accurate and useful analytical approximations for several systems. Supported by the U.S. Department of Energy (Grant No. DE-FG02-09ER16103), and the U.S. National Science Foundation (Graduate Research Fellowship, Grants No. PHY-1125844 and No. PHY-1068706).

  3. New possibilities of accurate particle characterisation by applying direct boundary models to analytical centrifugation.

    PubMed

    Walter, Johannes; Thajudeen, Thaseem; Süss, Sebastian; Segets, Doris; Peukert, Wolfgang

    2015-04-21

    Analytical centrifugation (AC) is a powerful technique for the characterisation of nanoparticles in colloidal systems. As a direct and absolute technique it requires no calibration or measurements of standards. Moreover, it offers simple experimental design and handling, high sample throughput as well as moderate investment costs. However, the full potential of AC for nanoparticle size analysis requires the development of powerful data analysis techniques. In this study we show how the application of direct boundary models to AC data opens up new possibilities in particle characterisation. An accurate analysis method, successfully applied to sedimentation data obtained by analytical ultracentrifugation (AUC) in the past, was used for the first time in analysing AC data. Unlike traditional data evaluation routines for AC using a designated number of radial positions or scans, direct boundary models consider the complete sedimentation boundary, which results in significantly better statistics. We demonstrate that meniscus fitting, as well as the correction of radius and time invariant noise significantly improves the signal-to-noise ratio and prevents the occurrence of false positives due to optical artefacts. Moreover, hydrodynamic non-ideality can be assessed by the residuals obtained from the analysis. The sedimentation coefficient distributions obtained by AC are in excellent agreement with the results from AUC. Brownian dynamics simulations were used to generate numerical sedimentation data to study the influence of diffusion on the obtained distributions. Our approach is further validated using polystyrene and silica nanoparticles. In particular, we demonstrate the strength of AC for analysing multimodal distributions by means of gold nanoparticles.

  4. Fast and accurate analytical model to solve inverse problem in SHM using Lamb wave propagation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poddar, Banibrata; Giurgiutiu, Victor

    2016-04-01

    Lamb wave propagation is at the center of attention of researchers for structural health monitoring of thin walled structures. This is due to the fact that Lamb wave modes are natural modes of wave propagation in these structures with long travel distances and without much attenuation. This brings the prospect of monitoring large structure with few sensors/actuators. However the problem of damage detection and identification is an "inverse problem" where we do not have the luxury to know the exact mathematical model of the system. On top of that the problem is more challenging due to the confounding factors of statistical variation of the material and geometric properties. Typically this problem may also be ill posed. Due to all these complexities the direct solution of the problem of damage detection and identification in SHM is impossible. Therefore an indirect method using the solution of the "forward problem" is popular for solving the "inverse problem". This requires a fast forward problem solver. Due to the complexities involved with the forward problem of scattering of Lamb waves from damages researchers rely primarily on numerical techniques such as FEM, BEM, etc. But these methods are slow and practically impossible to be used in structural health monitoring. We have developed a fast and accurate analytical forward problem solver for this purpose. This solver, CMEP (complex modes expansion and vector projection), can simulate scattering of Lamb waves from all types of damages in thin walled structures fast and accurately to assist the inverse problem solver.

  5. Accurate Sloshing Modes Modeling: A New Analytical Solution and its Consequences on Control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gonidou, Luc-Olivier; Desmariaux, Jean

    2014-06-01

    This study addresses the issue of sloshing modes modeling for GNC analyses purposes. On European launchers, equivalent mechanical systems are commonly used for modeling sloshing effects on launcher dynamics. The representativeness of such a methodology is discussed here. First an exact analytical formulation of the launcher dynamics fitted with sloshing modes is proposed and discrepancies with equivalent mechanical system approach are emphasized. Then preliminary comparative GNC analyses are performed using the different models of dynamics in order to evaluate the impact of the aforementioned discrepancies from GNC standpoint. Special attention is paid to system stability.

  6. Robust Accurate Non-Invasive Analyte Monitor

    SciTech Connect

    Robinson, Mark R.

    1998-11-03

    An improved method and apparatus for determining noninvasively and in vivo one or more unknown values of a known characteristic, particularly the concentration of an analyte in human tissue. The method includes: (1) irradiating the tissue with infrared energy (400 nm-2400 nm) having at least several wavelengths in a given range of wavelengths so that there is differential absorption of at least some of the wavelengths by the tissue as a function of the wavelengths and the known characteristic, the differential absorption causeing intensity variations of the wavelengths incident from the tissue; (2) providing a first path through the tissue; (3) optimizing the first path for a first sub-region of the range of wavelengths to maximize the differential absorption by at least some of the wavelengths in the first sub-region; (4) providing a second path through the tissue; and (5) optimizing the second path for a second sub-region of the range, to maximize the differential absorption by at least some of the wavelengths in the second sub-region. In the preferred embodiment a third path through the tissue is provided for, which path is optimized for a third sub-region of the range. With this arrangement, spectral variations which are the result of tissue differences (e.g., melanin and temperature) can be reduced. At least one of the paths represents a partial transmission path through the tissue. This partial transmission path may pass through the nail of a finger once and, preferably, twice. Also included are apparatus for: (1) reducing the arterial pulsations within the tissue; and (2) maximizing the blood content i the tissue.

  7. Accurate analytical approximation of asteroid deflection with constant tangential thrust

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bombardelli, Claudio; Baù, Giulio

    2012-11-01

    We present analytical formulas to estimate the variation of achieved deflection for an Earth-impacting asteroid following a continuous tangential low-thrust deflection strategy. Relatively simple analytical expressions are obtained with the aid of asymptotic theory and the use of Peláez orbital elements set, an approach that is particularly suitable to the asteroid deflection problem and is not limited to small eccentricities. The accuracy of the proposed formulas is evaluated numerically showing negligible error for both early and late deflection campaigns. The results will be of aid in planning future low-thrust asteroid deflection missions.

  8. Analytic Modeling of Insurgencies

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-08-01

    influenced by interests and utilities. 4.1 Carrots and Sticks An analytic model that captures the aforementioned utilitarian aspect is presented in... carrots ” x. A dynamic utility-based model is developed in [26] in which the state variables are the fractions of contrarians (supporters of the...Unanticipated Political Revolution," Public Choice, vol. 61, pp. 41-74, 1989. [26] M. P. Atkinson, M. Kress and R. Szechtman, " Carrots , Sticks and Fog

  9. Pre-Modeling Ensures Accurate Solid Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gow, George

    2010-01-01

    Successful solid modeling requires a well-organized design tree. The design tree is a list of all the object's features and the sequential order in which they are modeled. The solid-modeling process is faster and less prone to modeling errors when the design tree is a simple and geometrically logical definition of the modeled object. Few high…

  10. New model accurately predicts reformate composition

    SciTech Connect

    Ancheyta-Juarez, J.; Aguilar-Rodriguez, E. )

    1994-01-31

    Although naphtha reforming is a well-known process, the evolution of catalyst formulation, as well as new trends in gasoline specifications, have led to rapid evolution of the process, including: reactor design, regeneration mode, and operating conditions. Mathematical modeling of the reforming process is an increasingly important tool. It is fundamental to the proper design of new reactors and revamp of existing ones. Modeling can be used to optimize operating conditions, analyze the effects of process variables, and enhance unit performance. Instituto Mexicano del Petroleo has developed a model of the catalytic reforming process that accurately predicts reformate composition at the higher-severity conditions at which new reformers are being designed. The new AA model is more accurate than previous proposals because it takes into account the effects of temperature and pressure on the rate constants of each chemical reaction.

  11. An Accurate, Simplified Model Intrabeam Scattering

    SciTech Connect

    Bane, Karl LF

    2002-05-23

    Beginning with the general Bjorken-Mtingwa solution for intrabeam scattering (IBS) we derive an accurate, greatly simplified model of IBS, valid for high energy beams in normal storage ring lattices. In addition, we show that, under the same conditions, a modified version of Piwinski's IBS formulation (where {eta}{sub x,y}{sup 2}/{beta}{sub x,y} has been replaced by {Eta}{sub x,y}) asymptotically approaches the result of Bjorken-Mtingwa.

  12. Improved analytic nutation model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yoder, C. F.; Ivins, E. R.

    1988-01-01

    Models describing the earth's nutations are discussed. It is found that the simple model of Sasao et al., (1981) differs from Wahr's (1981) theory term by term by less than 0.3 marcsec if a modern earth structure model is used to evaluate the nutation structure constants. In addition, the effect of oceans is estimated.

  13. An accurate analytic representation of the temperature dependence of nonresonant nuclear reaction rate coefficients

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shizgal, Bernie D.

    2016-12-01

    There has been intense interest for several decades by different research groups to accurately model the temperature dependence of a large number of nuclear reaction rate coefficients for both light and heavy nuclides. The rate coefficient, k(T) , is given by the Maxwellian average of the reactive cross section expressed in terms of the astrophysical factor, S(E) , which for nonresonant reactions is generally written as a power series in the relative energy E. A computationally efficient algorithm for the temperature dependence of nuclear reaction rate coefficients is required for fusion reactor research and for models of nucleosynthesis and stellar evolution. In this paper, an accurate analytical expression for the temperature dependence of nuclear reaction rate coefficients is provided in terms of τ = 3(b / 2) 2/3 or equivalently, T - 1/3 , where b = B /√{kB T }, B is the Gamow factor and kB is the Boltzmann constant. The methodology is appropriate for all nonresonant nuclear reactions for which S(E) can be represented as a power series in E. The explicit expression for the rate coefficient versus temperature is derived with the asymptotic expansions of the moments of w(E) = exp(- E /kB T - B /√{ E }) in terms of τ. The zeroth order moment is the familiar Gaussian approximation to the rate coefficient. Results are reported for the representative reactions D(d, p)T, D(d, n)3He and 7Li(p, α) α and compared with several different fitting procedures reported in the literature.

  14. Accurate modelling of unsteady flows in collapsible tubes.

    PubMed

    Marchandise, Emilie; Flaud, Patrice

    2010-01-01

    The context of this paper is the development of a general and efficient numerical haemodynamic tool to help clinicians and researchers in understanding of physiological flow phenomena. We propose an accurate one-dimensional Runge-Kutta discontinuous Galerkin (RK-DG) method coupled with lumped parameter models for the boundary conditions. The suggested model has already been successfully applied to haemodynamics in arteries and is now extended for the flow in collapsible tubes such as veins. The main difference with cardiovascular simulations is that the flow may become supercritical and elastic jumps may appear with the numerical consequence that scheme may not remain monotone if no limiting procedure is introduced. We show that our second-order RK-DG method equipped with an approximate Roe's Riemann solver and a slope-limiting procedure allows us to capture elastic jumps accurately. Moreover, this paper demonstrates that the complex physics associated with such flows is more accurately modelled than with traditional methods such as finite difference methods or finite volumes. We present various benchmark problems that show the flexibility and applicability of the numerical method. Our solutions are compared with analytical solutions when they are available and with solutions obtained using other numerical methods. Finally, to illustrate the clinical interest, we study the emptying process in a calf vein squeezed by contracting skeletal muscle in a normal and pathological subject. We compare our results with experimental simulations and discuss the sensitivity to parameters of our model.

  15. Highly accurate analytic formulae for projectile motion subjected to quadratic drag

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turkyilmazoglu, Mustafa

    2016-05-01

    The classical phenomenon of motion of a projectile fired (thrown) into the horizon through resistive air charging a quadratic drag onto the object is revisited in this paper. No exact solution is known that describes the full physical event under such an exerted resistance force. Finding elegant analytical approximations for the most interesting engineering features of dynamical behavior of the projectile is the principal target. Within this purpose, some analytical explicit expressions are derived that accurately predict the maximum height, its arrival time as well as the flight range of the projectile at the highest ascent. The most significant property of the proposed formulas is that they are not restricted to the initial speed and firing angle of the object, nor to the drag coefficient of the medium. In combination with the available approximations in the literature, it is possible to gain information about the flight and complete the picture of a trajectory with high precision, without having to numerically simulate the full governing equations of motion.

  16. Two-wavelength interferometry: extended range and accurate optical path difference analytical estimator.

    PubMed

    Houairi, Kamel; Cassaing, Frédéric

    2009-12-01

    Two-wavelength interferometry combines measurement at two wavelengths lambda(1) and lambda(2) in order to increase the unambiguous range (UR) for the measurement of an optical path difference. With the usual algorithm, the UR is equal to the synthetic wavelength Lambda=lambda(1)lambda(2)/|lambda(1)-lambda(2)|, and the accuracy is a fraction of Lambda. We propose here a new analytical algorithm based on arithmetic properties, allowing estimation of the absolute fringe order of interference in a noniterative way. This algorithm has nice properties compared with the usual algorithm: it is at least as accurate as the most accurate measurement at one wavelength, whereas the UR is extended to several times the synthetic wavelength. The analysis presented shows how the actual UR depends on the wavelengths and different sources of error. The simulations presented are confirmed by experimental results, showing that the new algorithm has enabled us to reach an UR of 17.3 microm, much larger than the synthetic wavelength, which is only Lambda=2.2 microm. Applications to metrology and fringe tracking are discussed.

  17. Acoustic-resonance spectrometry as a process analytical technology for rapid and accurate tablet identification.

    PubMed

    Medendorp, Joseph; Lodder, Robert A

    2006-03-01

    This research was performed to test the hypothesis that acoustic-resonance spectrometry (ARS) is able to rapidly and accurately differentiate tablets of similar size and shape. The US Food and Drug Administration frequently orders recalls of tablets because of labeling problems (eg, the wrong tablet appears in a bottle). A high-throughput, nondestructive method of online analysis and label comparison before shipping could obviate the need for recall or disposal of a batch of mislabeled drugs, thus saving a company considerable expense and preventing a major safety risk. ARS is accurate and precise as well as inexpensive and nondestructive, and the sensor, is constructed from readily available parts, suggesting utility as a process analytical technology (PAT). To test the classification ability of ARS, 5 common household tablets of similar size and shape were chosen for analysis (aspirin, ibuprofen, acetaminophen, vitamin C, and vitamin B12). The measures of successful tablet identification were intertablet distances in nonparametric multidimensional standard deviations (MSDs) greater than, 3 and intratablet MSDs less than 3, as calculated from an extended bootstrap erroradjusted single sample technique. The average intertablet MSD was 65.64, while the average intratablet MSD from cross-validation was 1.91. Tablet mass (r(2)=0.977), thickness (r(2)=0.977), and density (r(2)=0.900) were measured very accurately from the AR spectra, each with less than 10% error. Tablets were identified correctly with only 250 ms data collection time. These results demonstrate that ARS effectively identified and characterized the 5 types of tablets and could potentially serve as a rapid high-throughput online pharmaceutical sensor.

  18. Modeling Biodegradation and Reactive Transport: Analytical and Numerical Models

    SciTech Connect

    Sun, Y; Glascoe, L

    2005-06-09

    The computational modeling of the biodegradation of contaminated groundwater systems accounting for biochemical reactions coupled to contaminant transport is a valuable tool for both the field engineer/planner with limited computational resources and the expert computational researcher less constrained by time and computer power. There exists several analytical and numerical computer models that have been and are being developed to cover the practical needs put forth by users to fulfill this spectrum of computational demands. Generally, analytical models provide rapid and convenient screening tools running on very limited computational power, while numerical models can provide more detailed information with consequent requirements of greater computational time and effort. While these analytical and numerical computer models can provide accurate and adequate information to produce defensible remediation strategies, decisions based on inadequate modeling output or on over-analysis can have costly and risky consequences. In this chapter we consider both analytical and numerical modeling approaches to biodegradation and reactive transport. Both approaches are discussed and analyzed in terms of achieving bioremediation goals, recognizing that there is always a tradeoff between computational cost and the resolution of simulated systems.

  19. A quick accurate model of nozzle backflow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kuharski, R. A.

    1991-01-01

    Backflow from nozzles is a major source of contamination on spacecraft. If the craft contains any exposed high voltages, the neutral density produced by the nozzles in the vicinity of the craft needs to be known in order to assess the possibility of Paschen breakdown or the probability of sheath ionization around a region of the craft that collects electrons for the plasma. A model for backflow has been developed for incorporation into the Environment-Power System Analysis Tool (EPSAT) which quickly estimates both the magnitude of the backflow and the species makeup of the flow. By combining the backflow model with the Simons (1972) model for continuum flow it is possible to quickly estimate the density of each species from a nozzle at any position in space. The model requires only a few physical parameters of the nozzle and the gas as inputs and is therefore ideal for engineering applications.

  20. Accurate spectral modeling for infrared radiation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tiwari, S. N.; Gupta, S. K.

    1977-01-01

    Direct line-by-line integration and quasi-random band model techniques are employed to calculate the spectral transmittance and total band absorptance of 4.7 micron CO, 4.3 micron CO2, 15 micron CO2, and 5.35 micron NO bands. Results are obtained for different pressures, temperatures, and path lengths. These are compared with available theoretical and experimental investigations. For each gas, extensive tabulations of results are presented for comparative purposes. In almost all cases, line-by-line results are found to be in excellent agreement with the experimental values. The range of validity of other models and correlations are discussed.

  1. Predictive analytics can support the ACO model.

    PubMed

    Bradley, Paul

    2012-04-01

    Predictive analytics can be used to rapidly spot hard-to-identify opportunities to better manage care--a key tool in accountable care. When considering analytics models, healthcare providers should: Make value-based care a priority and act on information from analytics models. Create a road map that includes achievable steps, rather than major endeavors. Set long-term expectations and recognize that the effectiveness of an analytics program takes time, unlike revenue cycle initiatives that may show a quick return.

  2. Analytic Model of Reactive Flow

    SciTech Connect

    Souers, P C; Vitello, P

    2004-08-02

    A simple analytic model allows prediction of rate constants and size effect behavior before a hydrocode run if size effect data exists. At infinite radius, it defines not only detonation velocity but also average detonation rate, pressure and energy. This allows the derivation of a generalized radius, which becomes larger as the explosive becomes more non-ideal. The model is applied to near-ideal PBX 9404, in-between ANFO and most non-ideal AN. The power of the pressure declines from 2.3, 1.5 to 0.8 across this set. The power of the burn fraction, F, is 0.8, 0 and 0, so that an F-term is important only for the ideal explosives. The size effect shapes change from concave-down to nearly straight to concave-up. Failure is associated with ideal explosives when the calculated detonation velocity turns in a double-valued way. The effect of the power of the pressure may be simulated by including a pressure cutoff in the detonation rate. The models allows comparison of a wide spectrum of explosives providing that a single detonation rate is feasible.

  3. Analytic Model of Reactive Flow

    SciTech Connect

    Souers, P C; Vitello, P

    2004-11-15

    A simple analytic model allows prediction of rate constants and size effect behavior before a hydrocode run if size effect data exists. At infinite radius, it defines not only detonation velocity but also average detonation rate, pressure and energy. This allows the derivation of a generalized radius, which becomes larger as the explosive becomes more non-ideal. The model is applied to near-ideal PBX 9404, in-between ANFO and most non-ideal AN. The power of the pressure declines from 2.3, 1.5 to 0.8 across this set. The power of the burn fraction, F, is 0.8, 0 and 0, so that an F-term is important only for the ideal explosives. The size effect shapes change from concave-down to nearly straight to concave-up. Failure is associated with ideal explosives when the calculated detonation velocity turns in a double-valued way. The effect of the power of the pressure may be simulated by including a pressure cutoff in the detonation rate. The models allows comparison of a wide spectrum of explosives providing that a single detonation rate is feasible.

  4. Accurate retention time determination of co-eluting proteins in analytical chromatography by means of spectral data.

    PubMed

    Dismer, Florian; Hansen, Sigrid; Oelmeier, Stefan Alexander; Hubbuch, Jürgen

    2013-03-01

    Chromatography is the method of choice for the separation of proteins, at both analytical and preparative scale. Orthogonal purification strategies for industrial use can easily be implemented by combining different modes of adsorption. Nevertheless, with flexibility comes the freedom of choice and optimal conditions for consecutive steps need to be identified in a robust and reproducible fashion. One way to address this issue is the use of mathematical models that allow for an in silico process optimization. Although this has been shown to work, model parameter estimation for complex feedstocks becomes the bottleneck in process development. An integral part of parameter assessment is the accurate measurement of retention times in a series of isocratic or gradient elution experiments. As high-resolution analytics that can differentiate between proteins are often not readily available, pure protein is mandatory for parameter determination. In this work, we present an approach that has the potential to solve this problem. Based on the uniqueness of UV absorption spectra of proteins, we were able to accurately measure retention times in systems of up to four co-eluting compounds. The presented approach is calibration-free, meaning that prior knowledge of pure component absorption spectra is not required. Actually, pure protein spectra can be determined from co-eluting proteins as part of the methodology. The approach was tested for size-exclusion chromatograms of 38 mixtures of co-eluting proteins. Retention times were determined with an average error of 0.6 s (1.6% of average peak width), approximated and measured pure component spectra showed an average coefficient of correlation of 0.992.

  5. Analytic Modeling of Pressurization and Cryogenic Propellant

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Corpening, Jeremy H.

    2010-01-01

    An analytic model for pressurization and cryogenic propellant conditions during all mission phases of any liquid rocket based vehicle has been developed and validated. The model assumes the propellant tanks to be divided into five nodes and also implements an empirical correlation for liquid stratification if desired. The five nodes include a tank wall node exposed to ullage gas, an ullage gas node, a saturated propellant vapor node at the liquid-vapor interface, a liquid node, and a tank wall node exposed to liquid. The conservation equations of mass and energy are then applied across all the node boundaries and, with the use of perfect gas assumptions, explicit solutions for ullage and liquid conditions are derived. All fluid properties are updated real time using NIST Refprop.1 Further, mass transfer at the liquid-vapor interface is included in the form of evaporation, bulk boiling of liquid propellant, and condensation given the appropriate conditions for each. Model validation has proven highly successful against previous analytic models and various Saturn era test data and reasonably successful against more recent LH2 tank self pressurization ground test data. Finally, this model has been applied to numerous design iterations for the Altair Lunar Lander, Ares V Core Stage, and Ares V Earth Departure Stage in order to characterize Helium and autogenous pressurant requirements, propellant lost to evaporation and thermodynamic venting to maintain propellant conditions, and non-uniform tank draining in configurations utilizing multiple LH2 or LO2 propellant tanks. In conclusion, this model provides an accurate and efficient means of analyzing multiple design configurations for any cryogenic propellant tank in launch, low-acceleration coast, or in-space maneuvering and supplies the user with pressurization requirements, unusable propellants from evaporation and liquid stratification, and general ullage gas, liquid, and tank wall conditions as functions of time.

  6. Simple analytic model for astrophysical S factors

    SciTech Connect

    Yakovlev, D. G.; Beard, M.; Gasques, L. R.; Wiescher, M.

    2010-10-15

    We propose a physically transparent analytic model of astrophysical S factors as a function of a center-of-mass energy E of colliding nuclei (below and above the Coulomb barrier) for nonresonant fusion reactions. For any given reaction, the S(E) model contains four parameters [two of which approximate the barrier potential, U(r)]. They are easily interpolated along many reactions involving isotopes of the same elements; they give accurate practical expressions for S(E) with only several input parameters for many reactions. The model reproduces the suppression of S(E) at low energies (of astrophysical importance) due to the shape of the low-r wing of U(r). The model can be used to reconstruct U(r) from computed or measured S(E). For illustration, we parametrize our recent calculations of S(E) (using the Sao Paulo potential and the barrier penetration formalism) for 946 reactions involving stable and unstable isotopes of C, O, Ne, and Mg (with nine parameters for all reactions involving many isotopes of the same elements, e.g., C+O). In addition, we analyze astrophysically important {sup 12}C+{sup 12}C reaction, compare theoretical models with experimental data, and discuss the problem of interpolating reliably known S(E) values to low energies (E < or approx. 2-3 MeV).

  7. The Computer-Aided Analytic Process Model. Operations Handbook for the Analytic Process Model Demonstration Package

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-01-01

    Research Note 86-06 THE COMPUTER-AIDED ANALYTIC PROCESS MODEL : OPERATIONS HANDBOOK FOR THE ANALYTIC PROCESS MODEL DE ONSTRATION PACKAGE Ronald G...ic Process Model ; Operations Handbook; Tutorial; Apple; Systems Taxonomy Mod--l; Training System; Bradl1ey infantry Fighting * Vehicle; BIFV...8217. . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . * - ~ . - - * m- .. . . . . . . item 20. Abstract -continued companion volume-- "The Analytic Process Model for

  8. An analytic performance model of disk arrays and its application

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Edward K.; Katz, Randy H.

    1991-01-01

    As disk arrays become widely used, tools for understanding and analyzing their performance become increasingly important. In particular, performance models can be invaluable in both configuring and designing disk arrays. Accurate analytic performance models are desirable over other types of models because they can be quickly evaluated, are applicable under a wide range of system and workload parameters, and can be manipulated by a range of mathematical techniques. Unfortunately, analytical performance models of disk arrays are difficult to formulate due to the presence of queuing and fork-join synchronization; a disk array request is broken up into independent disk requests which must all complete to satisfy the original request. We develop, validate, and apply an analytic performance model for disk arrays. We derive simple equations for approximating their utilization, response time, and throughput. We then validate the analytic model via simulation and investigate the accuracy of each approximation used in deriving the analytical model. Finally, we apply the analytical model to derive an equation for the optimal unit of data striping in disk arrays.

  9. ANALYTICAL ELEMENT MODELING OF COASTAL AQUIFERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Four topics were studied concerning the modeling of groundwater flow in coastal aquifers with analytic elements: (1) practical experience was obtained by constructing a groundwater model of the shallow aquifers below the Delmarva Peninsula USA using the commercial program MVAEM; ...

  10. Toward a gradiometer analytic model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sonnabend, Dave

    1992-01-01

    A new model is developed to model the data type, formulate the filter structure, and perform covariance for an orbiting gravity gradiometer, which is much more elaborate and realistic than the earlier gravity gradient model of Sonnabend and McEneaney (1988). The main new features of the new model are a general inertia tensor for the floated instrument, air drag and radiation pressure models using cubic power spectra, and more reasonable kinematics.

  11. An Analytic Model of Dusty, Stratified, Spherical H II Regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodríguez-Ramírez, J. C.; Raga, A. C.; Lora, V.; Cantó, J.

    2016-12-01

    We study analytically the effect of radiation pressure (associated with photoionization processes and with dust absorption) on spherical, hydrostatic H ii regions. We consider two basic equations, one for the hydrostatic balance between the radiation-pressure components and the gas pressure, and another for the balance among the recombination rate, the dust absorption, and the ionizing photon rate. Based on appropriate mathematical approximations, we find a simple analytic solution for the density stratification of the nebula, which is defined by specifying the radius of the external boundary, the cross section of dust absorption, and the luminosity of the central star. We compare the analytic solution with numerical integrations of the model equations of Draine, and find a wide range of the physical parameters for which the analytic solution is accurate.

  12. A non linear analytical model of switched reluctance machines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sofiane, Y.; Tounzi, A.; Piriou, F.

    2002-06-01

    Nowadays, the switched reluctance machine are widely used. To determine their performances and to elaborate control strategy, we generally use the linear analytical model. Unhappily, this last is not very accurate. To yield accurate modelling results, we use then numerical models based on either 2D or 3D Finite Element Method. However, this approach is very expensive in terms of computation time and remains suitable to study the behaviour of eventually a whole device. However, it is not, a priori, adapted to elaborate control strategy for electrical machines. This paper deals with a non linear analytical model in terms of variable inductances. The theoretical development of the proposed model is introduced. Then, the model is applied to study the behaviour of a whole controlled switched reluctance machine. The parameters of the structure are identified from a 2D numerical model. They can also be determined from an experimental bench. Then, the results given by the proposed model are compared to those issue from the 2D-FEM approach and from the classical linear analytical model.

  13. MPD Thruster Performance Analytic Models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gilland, James; Johnston, Geoffrey

    2007-01-01

    Magnetoplasmadynamic (MPD) thrusters are capable of accelerating quasi-neutral plasmas to high exhaust velocities using Megawatts (MW) of electric power. These characteristics make such devices worthy of consideration for demanding, far-term missions such as the human exploration of Mars or beyond. Assessment of MPD thrusters at the system and mission level is often difficult due to their status as ongoing experimental research topics rather than developed thrusters. However, in order to assess MPD thrusters utility in later missions, some adequate characterization of performance, or more exactly, projected performance, and system level definition are required for use in analyses. The most recent physical models of self-field MPD thrusters have been examined, assessed, and reconfigured for use by systems and mission analysts. The physical models allow for rational projections of thruster performance based on physical parameters that can be measured in the laboratory. The models and their implications for the design of future MPD thrusters are presented.

  14. MPD Thruster Performance Analytic Models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gilland, James; Johnston, Geoffrey

    2003-01-01

    Magnetoplasmadynamic (MPD) thrusters are capable of accelerating quasi-neutral plasmas to high exhaust velocities using Megawatts (MW) of electric power. These characteristics make such devices worthy of consideration for demanding, far-term missions such as the human exploration of Mars or beyond. Assessment of MPD thrusters at the system and mission level is often difficult due to their status as ongoing experimental research topics rather than developed thrusters. However, in order to assess MPD thrusters utility in later missions, some adequate characterization of performance, or more exactly, projected performance, and system level definition are required for use in analyses. The most recent physical models of self-field MPD thrusters have been examined, assessed, and reconfigured for use by systems and mission analysts. The physical models allow for rational projections of thruster performance based on physical parameters that can be measured in the laboratory. The models and their implications for the design of future MPD thrusters are presented.

  15. Analytic modeling of aerosol size distributions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deepack, A.; Box, G. P.

    1979-01-01

    Mathematical functions commonly used for representing aerosol size distributions are studied parametrically. Methods for obtaining best fit estimates of the parameters are described. A catalog of graphical plots depicting the parametric behavior of the functions is presented along with procedures for obtaining analytical representations of size distribution data by visual matching of the data with one of the plots. Examples of fitting the same data with equal accuracy by more than one analytic model are also given.

  16. Analytical Grid Generation for accurate representation of clearances in CFD for Screw Machines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rane, S.; Kovačević, A.; Stošić, N.

    2015-08-01

    One of the major factors affecting the performance prediction of twin screw compressors by use of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) is the accuracy with which the leakage gaps are captured by the discretization methods. The accuracy of mapping leakage flows can be improved by increasing the number of grid points on the profile. However, this method faces limitations when it comes to the complex deforming domains of a twin screw compressor because the computational time increases tremendously. In order to address this problem, an analytical grid distribution procedure is formulated that can independently refine the region of high importance for leakage flows in the interlobe space. This paper describes the procedure of analytical grid generation with the refined mesh in the interlobe area and presents a test case to show the influence of the mesh refinement in that area on the performance prediction. It is shown that by using this method, the flow domains in the vicinity of the interlobe gap and the blowhole area are refined which improves accuracy of leakage flow predictions.

  17. Fast and accurate focusing analysis of large photon sieve using pinhole ring diffraction model.

    PubMed

    Liu, Tao; Zhang, Xin; Wang, Lingjie; Wu, Yanxiong; Zhang, Jizhen; Qu, Hemeng

    2015-06-10

    In this paper, we developed a pinhole ring diffraction model for the focusing analysis of a large photon sieve. Instead of analyzing individual pinholes, we discuss the focusing of all of the pinholes in a single ring. An explicit equation for the diffracted field of individual pinhole ring has been proposed. We investigated the validity range of this generalized model and analytically describe the sufficient conditions for the validity of this pinhole ring diffraction model. A practical example and investigation reveals the high accuracy of the pinhole ring diffraction model. This simulation method could be used for fast and accurate focusing analysis of a large photon sieve.

  18. An Accurate and Dynamic Computer Graphics Muscle Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Levine, David Asher

    1997-01-01

    A computer based musculo-skeletal model was developed at the University in the departments of Mechanical and Biomedical Engineering. This model accurately represents human shoulder kinematics. The result of this model is the graphical display of bones moving through an appropriate range of motion based on inputs of EMGs and external forces. The need existed to incorporate a geometric muscle model in the larger musculo-skeletal model. Previous muscle models did not accurately represent muscle geometries, nor did they account for the kinematics of tendons. This thesis covers the creation of a new muscle model for use in the above musculo-skeletal model. This muscle model was based on anatomical data from the Visible Human Project (VHP) cadaver study. Two-dimensional digital images from the VHP were analyzed and reconstructed to recreate the three-dimensional muscle geometries. The recreated geometries were smoothed, reduced, and sliced to form data files defining the surfaces of each muscle. The muscle modeling function opened these files during run-time and recreated the muscle surface. The modeling function applied constant volume limitations to the muscle and constant geometry limitations to the tendons.

  19. ESTIMATING UNCERTAINITIES IN FACTOR ANALYTIC MODELS

    EPA Science Inventory

    When interpreting results from factor analytic models as used in receptor modeling, it is important to quantify the uncertainties in those results. For example, if the presence of a species on one of the factors is necessary to interpret the factor as originating from a certain ...

  20. Palm: Easing the Burden of Analytical Performance Modeling

    SciTech Connect

    Tallent, Nathan R.; Hoisie, Adolfy

    2014-06-01

    Analytical (predictive) application performance models are critical for diagnosing performance-limiting resources, optimizing systems, and designing machines. Creating models, however, is difficult because they must be both accurate and concise. To ease the burden of performance modeling, we developed Palm, a modeling tool that combines top-down (human-provided) semantic insight with bottom-up static and dynamic analysis. To express insight, Palm defines a source code modeling annotation language. By coordinating models and source code, Palm's models are `first-class' and reproducible. Unlike prior work, Palm formally links models, functions, and measurements. As a result, Palm (a) uses functions to either abstract or express complexity (b) generates hierarchical models (representing an application's static and dynamic structure); and (c) automatically incorporates measurements to focus attention, represent constant behavior, and validate models. We discuss generating models for three different applications.

  1. Local Debonding and Fiber Breakage in Composite Materials Modeled Accurately

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bednarcyk, Brett A.; Arnold, Steven M.

    2001-01-01

    A prerequisite for full utilization of composite materials in aerospace components is accurate design and life prediction tools that enable the assessment of component performance and reliability. Such tools assist both structural analysts, who design and optimize structures composed of composite materials, and materials scientists who design and optimize the composite materials themselves. NASA Glenn Research Center's Micromechanics Analysis Code with Generalized Method of Cells (MAC/GMC) software package (http://www.grc.nasa.gov/WWW/LPB/mac) addresses this need for composite design and life prediction tools by providing a widely applicable and accurate approach to modeling composite materials. Furthermore, MAC/GMC serves as a platform for incorporating new local models and capabilities that are under development at NASA, thus enabling these new capabilities to progress rapidly to a stage in which they can be employed by the code's end users.

  2. An Analytical Model for the Influence of Contact Resistance on Thermoelectric Efficiency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bjørk, Rasmus

    2016-03-01

    An analytical model is presented that can account for both electrical and hot and cold thermal contact resistances when calculating the efficiency of a thermoelectric generator. The model is compared to a numerical model of a thermoelectric leg for 16 different thermoelectric materials, as well as to the analytical models of Ebling et al. (J Electron Mater 39:1376, 2010) and Min and Rowe (J Power Sour 38:253, 1992). The model presented here is shown to accurately calculate the efficiency for all systems and all contact resistances considered, with an average difference in efficiency between the numerical model and the analytical model of -0.07 ± 0.35pp. This makes the model more accurate than previously published models. The maximum absolute difference in efficiency between the analytical model and the numerical model is 1.14pp for all materials and all contact resistances considered.

  3. An Accurate Temperature Correction Model for Thermocouple Hygrometers 1

    PubMed Central

    Savage, Michael J.; Cass, Alfred; de Jager, James M.

    1982-01-01

    Numerous water relation studies have used thermocouple hygrometers routinely. However, the accurate temperature correction of hygrometer calibration curve slopes seems to have been largely neglected in both psychrometric and dewpoint techniques. In the case of thermocouple psychrometers, two temperature correction models are proposed, each based on measurement of the thermojunction radius and calculation of the theoretical voltage sensitivity to changes in water potential. The first model relies on calibration at a single temperature and the second at two temperatures. Both these models were more accurate than the temperature correction models currently in use for four psychrometers calibrated over a range of temperatures (15-38°C). The model based on calibration at two temperatures is superior to that based on only one calibration. The model proposed for dewpoint hygrometers is similar to that for psychrometers. It is based on the theoretical voltage sensitivity to changes in water potential. Comparison with empirical data from three dewpoint hygrometers calibrated at four different temperatures indicates that these instruments need only be calibrated at, e.g. 25°C, if the calibration slopes are corrected for temperature. PMID:16662241

  4. An accurate temperature correction model for thermocouple hygrometers.

    PubMed

    Savage, M J; Cass, A; de Jager, J M

    1982-02-01

    Numerous water relation studies have used thermocouple hygrometers routinely. However, the accurate temperature correction of hygrometer calibration curve slopes seems to have been largely neglected in both psychrometric and dewpoint techniques.In the case of thermocouple psychrometers, two temperature correction models are proposed, each based on measurement of the thermojunction radius and calculation of the theoretical voltage sensitivity to changes in water potential. The first model relies on calibration at a single temperature and the second at two temperatures. Both these models were more accurate than the temperature correction models currently in use for four psychrometers calibrated over a range of temperatures (15-38 degrees C). The model based on calibration at two temperatures is superior to that based on only one calibration.The model proposed for dewpoint hygrometers is similar to that for psychrometers. It is based on the theoretical voltage sensitivity to changes in water potential. Comparison with empirical data from three dewpoint hygrometers calibrated at four different temperatures indicates that these instruments need only be calibrated at, e.g. 25 degrees C, if the calibration slopes are corrected for temperature.

  5. More-Accurate Model of Flows in Rocket Injectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hosangadi, Ashvin; Chenoweth, James; Brinckman, Kevin; Dash, Sanford

    2011-01-01

    An improved computational model for simulating flows in liquid-propellant injectors in rocket engines has been developed. Models like this one are needed for predicting fluxes of heat in, and performances of, the engines. An important part of predicting performance is predicting fluctuations of temperature, fluctuations of concentrations of chemical species, and effects of turbulence on diffusion of heat and chemical species. Customarily, diffusion effects are represented by parameters known in the art as the Prandtl and Schmidt numbers. Prior formulations include ad hoc assumptions of constant values of these parameters, but these assumptions and, hence, the formulations, are inaccurate for complex flows. In the improved model, these parameters are neither constant nor specified in advance: instead, they are variables obtained as part of the solution. Consequently, this model represents the effects of turbulence on diffusion of heat and chemical species more accurately than prior formulations do, and may enable more-accurate prediction of mixing and flows of heat in rocket-engine combustion chambers. The model has been implemented within CRUNCH CFD, a proprietary computational fluid dynamics (CFD) computer program, and has been tested within that program. The model could also be implemented within other CFD programs.

  6. Some analytical models of radiating collapsing spheres

    SciTech Connect

    Herrera, L.; Di Prisco, A; Ospino, J.

    2006-08-15

    We present some analytical solutions to the Einstein equations, describing radiating collapsing spheres in the diffusion approximation. Solutions allow for modeling physical reasonable situations. The temperature is calculated for each solution, using a hyperbolic transport equation, which permits to exhibit the influence of relaxational effects on the dynamics of the system.

  7. Time resolved diffuse optical spectroscopy with geometrically accurate models for bulk parameter recovery

    PubMed Central

    Guggenheim, James A.; Bargigia, Ilaria; Farina, Andrea; Pifferi, Antonio; Dehghani, Hamid

    2016-01-01

    A novel straightforward, accessible and efficient approach is presented for performing hyperspectral time-domain diffuse optical spectroscopy to determine the optical properties of samples accurately using geometry specific models. To allow bulk parameter recovery from measured spectra, a set of libraries based on a numerical model of the domain being investigated is developed as opposed to the conventional approach of using an analytical semi-infinite slab approximation, which is known and shown to introduce boundary effects. Results demonstrate that the method improves the accuracy of derived spectrally varying optical properties over the use of the semi-infinite approximation. PMID:27699137

  8. Fast and Accurate Circuit Design Automation through Hierarchical Model Switching.

    PubMed

    Huynh, Linh; Tagkopoulos, Ilias

    2015-08-21

    In computer-aided biological design, the trifecta of characterized part libraries, accurate models and optimal design parameters is crucial for producing reliable designs. As the number of parts and model complexity increase, however, it becomes exponentially more difficult for any optimization method to search the solution space, hence creating a trade-off that hampers efficient design. To address this issue, we present a hierarchical computer-aided design architecture that uses a two-step approach for biological design. First, a simple model of low computational complexity is used to predict circuit behavior and assess candidate circuit branches through branch-and-bound methods. Then, a complex, nonlinear circuit model is used for a fine-grained search of the reduced solution space, thus achieving more accurate results. Evaluation with a benchmark of 11 circuits and a library of 102 experimental designs with known characterization parameters demonstrates a speed-up of 3 orders of magnitude when compared to other design methods that provide optimality guarantees.

  9. Innovations in Mass Spectrometry for Precise and Accurate Isotope Ratio Determination from Very Small Analyte Quantities (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lloyd, N. S.; Bouman, C.; Horstwood, M. S.; Parrish, R. R.; Schwieters, J. B.

    2010-12-01

    This presentation describes progress in mass spectrometry for analysing very small analyte quantities, illustrated by example applications from nuclear forensics. In this challenging application, precise and accurate (‰) uranium isotope ratios are required from 1 - 2 µm diameter uranium oxide particles, which comprise less than 40 pg of uranium. Traditionally these are analysed using thermal ionisation mass spectrometry (TIMS), and more recently using secondary ionisation mass spectrometry (SIMS). Multicollector inductively-coupled plasma mass spectrometry (MC-ICP-MS) can offer higher productivity compared to these techniques, but is traditionally limited by low efficiency of analyte utilisation (sample through to ion detection). Samples can either be introduced as a solution, or sampled directly from solid using laser ablation. Large multi-isotope ratio datasets can help identify provenance and intended use of anthropogenic uranium and other nuclear materials [1]. The Thermo Scientific NEPTUNE Plus (Bremen, Germany) with ‘Jet Interface’ option offers unparalleled MC-ICP-MS sensitivity. An analyte utilisation of c. 4% has previously been reported for uranium [2]. This high-sensitivity configuration utilises a dry high-capacity (100 m3/h) interface pump, special skimmer and sampler cones and a desolvating nebuliser system. Coupled with new acquisition methodologies, this sensitivity enhancement makes possible the analysis of micro-particles and small sample volumes at higher precision levels than previously achieved. New, high-performance, full-size and compact discrete dynode secondary electron multipliers (SEM) exhibit excellent stability and linearity over a large dynamic range and can be configured to simultaneously measure all of the uranium isotopes. Options for high abundance-sensitivity filters on two ion beams are also available, e.g. for 236U and 234U. Additionally, amplifiers with high ohm (1012 - 1013) feedback resistors have been developed to

  10. Analytical steam injection model for layered systems

    SciTech Connect

    Abdual-Razzaq; Brigham, W.E.; Castanier, L.M.

    1993-08-01

    Screening, evaluation and optimization of the steam flooding process in homogeneous reservoirs can be performed by using simple analytical predictive models. In the absence of any analytical model for layered reservoirs, at present, only numerical simulators can be used. And these are expensive. In this study, an analytical model has been developed considering two isolated layers of differing permeabilities. The principle of equal flow potential is applied across the two layers. Gajdica`s (1990) single layer linear steam drive model is extended for the layered system. The formulation accounts for variation of heat loss area in the higher permeability layer, and the development of a hot liquid zone in the lower permeability layer. These calculations also account for effects of viscosity, density, fractional flow curves and pressure drops in the hot liquid zone. Steam injection rate variations in the layers are represented by time weighted average rates. For steam zone calculations, Yortsos and Gavalas`s (1981) upper bound method is used with a correction factor. The results of the model are compared with a numerical simulator. Comparable oil and water flow rates, and breakthrough times were achieved for 100 cp oil. Results with 10 cp and 1000 cp oils indicate the need to improve the formulation to properly handle differing oil viscosities.

  11. Accurate pressure gradient calculations in hydrostatic atmospheric models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carroll, John J.; Mendez-Nunez, Luis R.; Tanrikulu, Saffet

    1987-01-01

    A method for the accurate calculation of the horizontal pressure gradient acceleration in hydrostatic atmospheric models is presented which is especially useful in situations where the isothermal surfaces are not parallel to the vertical coordinate surfaces. The present method is shown to be exact if the potential temperature lapse rate is constant between the vertical pressure integration limits. The technique is applied to both the integration of the hydrostatic equation and the computation of the slope correction term in the horizontal pressure gradient. A fixed vertical grid and a dynamic grid defined by the significant levels in the vertical temperature distribution are employed.

  12. Mouse models of human AML accurately predict chemotherapy response

    PubMed Central

    Zuber, Johannes; Radtke, Ina; Pardee, Timothy S.; Zhao, Zhen; Rappaport, Amy R.; Luo, Weijun; McCurrach, Mila E.; Yang, Miao-Miao; Dolan, M. Eileen; Kogan, Scott C.; Downing, James R.; Lowe, Scott W.

    2009-01-01

    The genetic heterogeneity of cancer influences the trajectory of tumor progression and may underlie clinical variation in therapy response. To model such heterogeneity, we produced genetically and pathologically accurate mouse models of common forms of human acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and developed methods to mimic standard induction chemotherapy and efficiently monitor therapy response. We see that murine AMLs harboring two common human AML genotypes show remarkably diverse responses to conventional therapy that mirror clinical experience. Specifically, murine leukemias expressing the AML1/ETO fusion oncoprotein, associated with a favorable prognosis in patients, show a dramatic response to induction chemotherapy owing to robust activation of the p53 tumor suppressor network. Conversely, murine leukemias expressing MLL fusion proteins, associated with a dismal prognosis in patients, are drug-resistant due to an attenuated p53 response. Our studies highlight the importance of genetic information in guiding the treatment of human AML, functionally establish the p53 network as a central determinant of chemotherapy response in AML, and demonstrate that genetically engineered mouse models of human cancer can accurately predict therapy response in patients. PMID:19339691

  13. Mouse models of human AML accurately predict chemotherapy response.

    PubMed

    Zuber, Johannes; Radtke, Ina; Pardee, Timothy S; Zhao, Zhen; Rappaport, Amy R; Luo, Weijun; McCurrach, Mila E; Yang, Miao-Miao; Dolan, M Eileen; Kogan, Scott C; Downing, James R; Lowe, Scott W

    2009-04-01

    The genetic heterogeneity of cancer influences the trajectory of tumor progression and may underlie clinical variation in therapy response. To model such heterogeneity, we produced genetically and pathologically accurate mouse models of common forms of human acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and developed methods to mimic standard induction chemotherapy and efficiently monitor therapy response. We see that murine AMLs harboring two common human AML genotypes show remarkably diverse responses to conventional therapy that mirror clinical experience. Specifically, murine leukemias expressing the AML1/ETO fusion oncoprotein, associated with a favorable prognosis in patients, show a dramatic response to induction chemotherapy owing to robust activation of the p53 tumor suppressor network. Conversely, murine leukemias expressing MLL fusion proteins, associated with a dismal prognosis in patients, are drug-resistant due to an attenuated p53 response. Our studies highlight the importance of genetic information in guiding the treatment of human AML, functionally establish the p53 network as a central determinant of chemotherapy response in AML, and demonstrate that genetically engineered mouse models of human cancer can accurately predict therapy response in patients.

  14. Simple Mathematical Models Do Not Accurately Predict Early SIV Dynamics

    PubMed Central

    Noecker, Cecilia; Schaefer, Krista; Zaccheo, Kelly; Yang, Yiding; Day, Judy; Ganusov, Vitaly V.

    2015-01-01

    Upon infection of a new host, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) replicates in the mucosal tissues and is generally undetectable in circulation for 1–2 weeks post-infection. Several interventions against HIV including vaccines and antiretroviral prophylaxis target virus replication at this earliest stage of infection. Mathematical models have been used to understand how HIV spreads from mucosal tissues systemically and what impact vaccination and/or antiretroviral prophylaxis has on viral eradication. Because predictions of such models have been rarely compared to experimental data, it remains unclear which processes included in these models are critical for predicting early HIV dynamics. Here we modified the “standard” mathematical model of HIV infection to include two populations of infected cells: cells that are actively producing the virus and cells that are transitioning into virus production mode. We evaluated the effects of several poorly known parameters on infection outcomes in this model and compared model predictions to experimental data on infection of non-human primates with variable doses of simian immunodifficiency virus (SIV). First, we found that the mode of virus production by infected cells (budding vs. bursting) has a minimal impact on the early virus dynamics for a wide range of model parameters, as long as the parameters are constrained to provide the observed rate of SIV load increase in the blood of infected animals. Interestingly and in contrast with previous results, we found that the bursting mode of virus production generally results in a higher probability of viral extinction than the budding mode of virus production. Second, this mathematical model was not able to accurately describe the change in experimentally determined probability of host infection with increasing viral doses. Third and finally, the model was also unable to accurately explain the decline in the time to virus detection with increasing viral dose. These results

  15. Turbulence Models for Accurate Aerothermal Prediction in Hypersonic Flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xiang-Hong; Wu, Yi-Zao; Wang, Jiang-Feng

    Accurate description of the aerodynamic and aerothermal environment is crucial to the integrated design and optimization for high performance hypersonic vehicles. In the simulation of aerothermal environment, the effect of viscosity is crucial. The turbulence modeling remains a major source of uncertainty in the computational prediction of aerodynamic forces and heating. In this paper, three turbulent models were studied: the one-equation eddy viscosity transport model of Spalart-Allmaras, the Wilcox k-ω model and the Menter SST model. For the k-ω model and SST model, the compressibility correction, press dilatation and low Reynolds number correction were considered. The influence of these corrections for flow properties were discussed by comparing with the results without corrections. In this paper the emphasis is on the assessment and evaluation of the turbulence models in prediction of heat transfer as applied to a range of hypersonic flows with comparison to experimental data. This will enable establishing factor of safety for the design of thermal protection systems of hypersonic vehicle.

  16. MATLAB/Simulink analytic radar modeling environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Esken, Bruce L.; Clayton, Brian L.

    2001-09-01

    Analytic radar models are simulations based on abstract representations of the radar, the RF environment that radar signals are propagated, and the reflections produced by targets, clutter and multipath. These models have traditionally been developed in FORTRAN and have evolved over the last 20 years into efficient and well-accepted codes. However, current models are limited in two primary areas. First, by the nature of algorithm based analytical models, they can be difficult to understand by non-programmers and equally difficult to modify or extend. Second, there is strong interest in re-using these models to support higher-level weapon system and mission level simulations. To address these issues, a model development approach has been demonstrated which utilizes the MATLAB/Simulink graphical development environment. Because the MATLAB/Simulink environment graphically represents model algorithms - thus providing visibility into the model - algorithms can be easily analyzed and modified by engineers and analysts with limited software skills. In addition, software tools have been created that provide for the automatic code generation of C++ objects. These objects are created with well-defined interfaces enabling them to be used by modeling architectures external to the MATLAB/Simulink environment. The approach utilized is generic and can be extended to other engineering fields.

  17. Vortex microscope: analytical model and experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masajada, Jan; Popiołek-Masajada, Agnieszka; Szatkowski, Mateusz; Plociniczak, Łukasz

    2015-11-01

    We present the analytical model describing the Gaussian beam propagation through the off axis vortex lens and the set of axially positioned ideal lenses. The model is derived on the base of Fresnel diffraction integral. The model is extended to the case of vortex lens with any topological charge m. We have shown that the Gaussian beam propagation can be represented by function G which depends on four coefficients. When propagating from one lens to another the function holds its form but the coefficient changes.

  18. An analytical model of memristors in plants

    PubMed Central

    Markin, Vladislav S; Volkov, Alexander G; Chua, Leon

    2014-01-01

    The memristor, a resistor with memory, was postulated by Chua in 1971 and the first solid-state memristor was built in 2008. Recently, we found memristors in vivo in plants. Here we propose a simple analytical model of 2 types of memristors that can be found within plants. The electrostimulation of plants by bipolar periodic waves induces electrical responses in the Aloe vera and Mimosa pudica with fingerprints of memristors. Memristive properties of the Aloe vera and Mimosa pudica are linked to the properties of voltage gated K+ ion channels. The potassium channel blocker TEACl transform plant memristors to conventional resistors. The analytical model of a memristor with a capacitor connected in parallel exhibits different characteristic behavior at low and high frequency of applied voltage, which is the same as experimental data obtained by cyclic voltammetry in vivo. PMID:25482769

  19. Physics-based analytical model for ferromagnetic single electron transistor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jamshidnezhad, K.; Sharifi, M. J.

    2017-03-01

    A physically based compact analytical model is proposed for a ferromagnetic single electron transistor (FSET). This model is based on the orthodox theory and solves the master equation, spin conservation equation, and charge neutrality equation simultaneously. The model can be applied to both symmetric and asymmetric devices and does not introduce any limitation on the applied bias voltages. This feature makes the model suitable for both analog and digital applications. To verify the accuracy of the model, its results regarding a typical FSET in both low and high voltage regimes are compared with the existing numerical results. Moreover, the model's results of a parallel configuration FSET, where no spin accumulation exists in the island, are compared with the results obtained from a Monte Carlo simulation using SIMON. These two comparisons show that our model is valid and accurate. As another comparison, the model is compared analytically with an existing model for a double barrier ferromagnetic junction (having no gate). This also verifies the accuracy of the model.

  20. Mission Stream Analysis - Delta Analytic Model. Revision

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-09-01

    demonstrating mission effectiveness. The second tool is the  ( Delta ) Analytic Model, which provides an approach for identifying disparate...requirements into a system’s technical performance and operator workload requirements; and help minimize the “ delta ” between domains across the system’s...mission and system capability requirements into a system’s technical performance and operator workload requirements; and help minimize the “ delta

  1. Analytical Modeling of High Rate Processes.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    TYPE AND DATES COVERED 1 13 Apr 98 Final (01 Sep 94 - 31 Aug 97) 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE 5 . FUNDING NUMBERS Analytical Modeling of High Rate Processes...20332- 8050 FROM: S. E. Jones, University Research Professor Department of Aerospace Engineering and Mechanics University of Alabama SUBJECT: Final...Mr. Sandor Augustus and Mr. Jeffrey A. Drinkard. There are no outstanding commitments. The balance in the account, as of July 31 , 1997, was $102,916.42

  2. Transonic Cascade Measurements to Support Analytical Modeling

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    RECEIVED JUL 0 12005 FINAL REPORT FOR: AFOSR GRANT F49260-02-1-0284 TRANSONIC CASCADE MEASUREMENTS TO SUPPORT ANALYTICAL MODELING Paul A. Durbin ...PAD); 650-723-1971 (JKE) durbin @vk.stanford.edu; eaton@vk.stanford.edu submitted to: Attn: Dr. John Schmisseur Air Force Office of Scientific Research...both spline and control points for subsequent wall shape definitions. An algebraic grid generator was used to generate the grid for the blade-wall

  3. Analytic Modeling of Severe Vortical Storms.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-07-08

    AD---AO86 919 TR DEFENSE AND SPACE SYSTEMS GROUP REDONDO BEACH CA -ETC F/6 4/2 ANALYTIC MODELING OF SEVERE VORTICAL, STDRMS.CW),7JUL G0 F FENDELL ...and Space Systems Group One Space 1ark ___Redondo Beach, California 90278 Francis E. Fendell , Principal Investigator for Artic and Earth Sciences... Fendell , principal investigator, and Phillip Feldman, numerical analyst, of TRW Defense and Space Systems Group, and George Carrier of Harvard University

  4. Combining Modeling and Gaming for Predictive Analytics

    SciTech Connect

    Riensche, Roderick M.; Whitney, Paul D.

    2012-08-22

    Many of our most significant challenges involve people. While human behavior has long been studied, there are recent advances in computational modeling of human behavior. With advances in computational capabilities come increases in the volume and complexity of data that humans must understand in order to make sense of and capitalize on these modeling advances. Ultimately, models represent an encapsulation of human knowledge. One inherent challenge in modeling is efficient and accurate transfer of knowledge from humans to models, and subsequent retrieval. The simulated real-world environment of games presents one avenue for these knowledge transfers. In this paper we describe our approach of combining modeling and gaming disciplines to develop predictive capabilities, using formal models to inform game development, and using games to provide data for modeling.

  5. An analytical fit to an accurate ab initio ( 1A 1) potential surface of H 2O

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Redmon, Michael J.; Schatz, George C.

    1981-01-01

    The accurate ab initio MBPT quartic force field of Bartlett, Shavitt and Purvis has been fit to an analytical function using a method developed by Sorbie and Murrell (SM). An analysis of this surface indicates that it describes most properties of the H 2O molecule very accurately, including an exact fit to the MBPT force field, and very close to the correct energy difference between linear and equilibrium H 2O. The surface also reproduces the correct diatomic potentials in all dissociative regions, but some aspects of it in the "near asymptotic" O( 1D) + H 2 region are not quantitatively described. For example, the potential seems to be too attractive at long range for O + H 2 encounters, although it does have the correct minimum energy path geometry and correctly exhibits no barrier to O atom insertion. Comparisons of this surface with one previously developed by SM indicates generally good agreement between the two, especially after some of the SM parameters were corrected, using a numerical differentiation algorithm to evaluate them. A surface developed by Schinke and Lester (SL) is more realistic than outs in the O( 1D) + H 2 regions, but less quantitative in its description of the H 2O molecule. Overall, the present fit appears to be both realistic and quantitative for energy displacements up to 3-4; eV from H 2O equilibrium, and should therefore be useful for spectroscopic and collision dynamics studies involving H 2O.

  6. Accurate verification of the conserved-vector-current and standard-model predictions

    SciTech Connect

    Sirlin, A.; Zucchini, R.

    1986-10-20

    An approximate analytic calculation of O(Z..cap alpha../sup 2/) corrections to Fermi decays is presented. When the analysis of Koslowsky et al. is modified to take into account the new results, it is found that each of the eight accurately studied scrFt values differs from the average by approx. <1sigma, thus significantly improving the comparison of experiments with conserved-vector-current predictions. The new scrFt values are lower than before, which also brings experiments into very good agreement with the three-generation standard model, at the level of its quantum corrections.

  7. Generating Facial Expressions Using an Anatomically Accurate Biomechanical Model.

    PubMed

    Wu, Tim; Hung, Alice; Mithraratne, Kumar

    2014-11-01

    This paper presents a computational framework for modelling the biomechanics of human facial expressions. A detailed high-order (Cubic-Hermite) finite element model of the human head was constructed using anatomical data segmented from magnetic resonance images. The model includes a superficial soft-tissue continuum consisting of skin, the subcutaneous layer and the superficial Musculo-Aponeurotic system. Embedded within this continuum mesh, are 20 pairs of facial muscles which drive facial expressions. These muscles were treated as transversely-isotropic and their anatomical geometries and fibre orientations were accurately depicted. In order to capture the relative composition of muscles and fat, material heterogeneity was also introduced into the model. Complex contact interactions between the lips, eyelids, and between superficial soft tissue continuum and deep rigid skeletal bones were also computed. In addition, this paper investigates the impact of incorporating material heterogeneity and contact interactions, which are often neglected in similar studies. Four facial expressions were simulated using the developed model and the results were compared with surface data obtained from a 3D structured-light scanner. Predicted expressions showed good agreement with the experimental data.

  8. An Analytic Function of Lunar Surface Temperature for Exospheric Modeling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hurley, Dana M.; Sarantos, Menelaos; Grava, Cesare; Williams, Jean-Pierre; Retherford, Kurt D.; Siegler, Matthew; Greenhagen, Benjamin; Paige, David

    2014-01-01

    We present an analytic expression to represent the lunar surface temperature as a function of Sun-state latitude and local time. The approximation represents neither topographical features nor compositional effects and therefore does not change as a function of selenographic latitude and longitude. The function reproduces the surface temperature measured by Diviner to within +/-10 K at 72% of grid points for dayside solar zenith angles of less than 80, and at 98% of grid points for nightside solar zenith angles greater than 100. The analytic function is least accurate at the terminator, where there is a strong gradient in the temperature, and the polar regions. Topographic features have a larger effect on the actual temperature near the terminator than at other solar zenith angles. For exospheric modeling the effects of topography on the thermal model can be approximated by using an effective longitude for determining the temperature. This effective longitude is randomly redistributed with 1 sigma of 4.5deg. The resulting ''roughened'' analytical model well represents the statistical dispersion in the Diviner data and is expected to be generally useful for future models of lunar surface temperature, especially those implemented within exospheric simulations that address questions of volatile transport.

  9. Petermann I and II spot size: Accurate semi analytical description involving Nelder-Mead method of nonlinear unconstrained optimization and three parameter fundamental modal field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roy Choudhury, Raja; Roy Choudhury, Arundhati; Kanti Ghose, Mrinal

    2013-01-01

    A semi-analytical model with three optimizing parameters and a novel non-Gaussian function as the fundamental modal field solution has been proposed to arrive at an accurate solution to predict various propagation parameters of graded-index fibers with less computational burden than numerical methods. In our semi analytical formulation the optimization of core parameter U which is usually uncertain, noisy or even discontinuous, is being calculated by Nelder-Mead method of nonlinear unconstrained minimizations as it is an efficient and compact direct search method and does not need any derivative information. Three optimizing parameters are included in the formulation of fundamental modal field of an optical fiber to make it more flexible and accurate than other available approximations. Employing variational technique, Petermann I and II spot sizes have been evaluated for triangular and trapezoidal-index fibers with the proposed fundamental modal field. It has been demonstrated that, the results of the proposed solution identically match with the numerical results over a wide range of normalized frequencies. This approximation can also be used in the study of doped and nonlinear fiber amplifier.

  10. Analytic models of relativistic accretion disks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhuravlev, V. V.

    2015-06-01

    We present not a literature review but a description, as detailed and consistent as possible, of two analytic models of disk accretion onto a rotating black hole: a standard relativistic disk and a twisted relativistic disk. Although one of these models is older than the other, both are of topical interest for black hole studies. The treatment is such that the reader with only a limited knowledge of general relativity and relativistic hydrodynamics, with little or no use of additional sources, can gain insight into many technical details lacking in the original papers.

  11. An Improved Analytic Model for Microdosimeter Response

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shinn, Judy L.; Wilson, John W.; Xapsos, Michael A.

    2001-01-01

    An analytic model used to predict energy deposition fluctuations in a microvolume by ions through direct events is improved to include indirect delta ray events. The new model can now account for the increase in flux at low lineal energy when the ions are of very high energy. Good agreement is obtained between the calculated results and available data for laboratory ion beams. Comparison of GCR (galactic cosmic ray) flux between Shuttle TEPC (tissue equivalent proportional counter) flight data and current calculations draws a different assessment of developmental work required for the GCR transport code (HZETRN) than previously concluded.

  12. Inverter Modeling For Accurate Energy Predictions Of Tracking HCPV Installations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bowman, J.; Jensen, S.; McDonald, Mark

    2010-10-01

    High efficiency high concentration photovoltaic (HCPV) solar plants of megawatt scale are now operational, and opportunities for expanded adoption are plentiful. However, effective bidding for sites requires reliable prediction of energy production. HCPV module nameplate power is rated for specific test conditions; however, instantaneous HCPV power varies due to site specific irradiance and operating temperature, and is degraded by soiling, protective stowing, shading, and electrical connectivity. These factors interact with the selection of equipment typically supplied by third parties, e.g., wire gauge and inverters. We describe a time sequence model accurately accounting for these effects that predicts annual energy production, with specific reference to the impact of the inverter on energy output and interactions between system-level design decisions and the inverter. We will also show two examples, based on an actual field design, of inverter efficiency calculations and the interaction between string arrangements and inverter selection.

  13. A non-grey analytical model for irradiated atmospheres. II. Analytical vs. numerical solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parmentier, Vivien; Guillot, Tristan; Fortney, Jonathan J.; Marley, Mark S.

    2015-02-01

    Context. The recent discovery and characterization of the diversity of the atmospheres of exoplanets and brown dwarfs calls for the development of fast and accurate analytical models. Aims: We wish to assess the goodness of the different approximations used to solve the radiative transfer problem in irradiated atmospheres analytically, and we aim to provide a useful tool for a fast computation of analytical temperature profiles that remains correct over a wide range of atmospheric characteristics. Methods: We quantify the accuracy of the analytical solution derived in paper I for an irradiated, non-grey atmosphere by comparing it to a state-of-the-art radiative transfer model. Then, using a grid of numerical models, we calibrate the different coefficients of our analytical model for irradiated solar-composition atmospheres of giant exoplanets and brown dwarfs. Results: We show that the so-called Eddington approximation used to solve the angular dependency of the radiation field leads to relative errors of up to ~5% on the temperature profile. For grey or semi-grey atmospheres (i.e., when the visible and thermal opacities, respectively, can be considered independent of wavelength), we show that the presence of a convective zone has a limited effect on the radiative atmosphere above it and leads to modifications of the radiative temperature profile of approximately ~2%. However, for realistic non-grey planetary atmospheres, the presence of a convective zone that extends to optical depths smaller than unity can lead to changes in the radiative temperature profile on the order of 20% or more. When the convective zone is located at deeper levels (such as for strongly irradiated hot Jupiters), its effect on the radiative atmosphere is again on the same order (~2%) as in the semi-grey case. We show that the temperature inversion induced by a strong absorber in the optical, such as TiO or VO is mainly due to non-grey thermal effects reducing the ability of the upper

  14. Analytic Models of Plausible Gravitational Lens Potentials

    SciTech Connect

    Baltz, Edward A.; Marshall, Phil; Oguri, Masamune

    2007-05-04

    Gravitational lenses on galaxy scales are plausibly modeled as having ellipsoidal symmetry and a universal dark matter density profile, with a Sersic profile to describe the distribution of baryonic matter. Predicting all lensing effects requires knowledge of the total lens potential: in this work we give analytic forms for that of the above hybrid model. Emphasizing that complex lens potentials can be constructed from simpler components in linear combination, we provide a recipe for attaining elliptical symmetry in either projected mass or lens potential.We also provide analytic formulae for the lens potentials of Sersic profiles for integer and half-integer index. We then present formulae describing the gravitational lensing effects due to smoothly-truncated universal density profiles in cold dark matter model. For our isolated haloes the density profile falls off as radius to the minus fifth or seventh power beyond the tidal radius, functional forms that allow all orders of lens potential derivatives to be calculated analytically, while ensuring a non-divergent total mass. We show how the observables predicted by this profile differ from that of the original infinite-mass NFW profile. Expressions for the gravitational flexion are highlighted. We show how decreasing the tidal radius allows stripped haloes to be modeled, providing a framework for a fuller investigation of dark matter substructure in galaxies and clusters. Finally we remark on the need for finite mass halo profiles when doing cosmological ray-tracing simulations, and the need for readily-calculable higher order derivatives of the lens potential when studying catastrophes in strong lenses.

  15. Accurate SHAPE-directed RNA secondary structure modeling, including pseudoknots

    PubMed Central

    Hajdin, Christine E.; Bellaousov, Stanislav; Huggins, Wayne; Leonard, Christopher W.; Mathews, David H.; Weeks, Kevin M.

    2013-01-01

    A pseudoknot forms in an RNA when nucleotides in a loop pair with a region outside the helices that close the loop. Pseudoknots occur relatively rarely in RNA but are highly overrepresented in functionally critical motifs in large catalytic RNAs, in riboswitches, and in regulatory elements of viruses. Pseudoknots are usually excluded from RNA structure prediction algorithms. When included, these pairings are difficult to model accurately, especially in large RNAs, because allowing this structure dramatically increases the number of possible incorrect folds and because it is difficult to search the fold space for an optimal structure. We have developed a concise secondary structure modeling approach that combines SHAPE (selective 2′-hydroxyl acylation analyzed by primer extension) experimental chemical probing information and a simple, but robust, energy model for the entropic cost of single pseudoknot formation. Structures are predicted with iterative refinement, using a dynamic programming algorithm. This melded experimental and thermodynamic energy function predicted the secondary structures and the pseudoknots for a set of 21 challenging RNAs of known structure ranging in size from 34 to 530 nt. On average, 93% of known base pairs were predicted, and all pseudoknots in well-folded RNAs were identified. PMID:23503844

  16. Towards Accurate Molecular Modeling of Plastic Bonded Explosives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chantawansri, T. L.; Andzelm, J.; Taylor, D.; Byrd, E.; Rice, B.

    2010-03-01

    There is substantial interest in identifying the controlling factors that influence the susceptibility of polymer bonded explosives (PBXs) to accidental initiation. Numerous Molecular Dynamics (MD) simulations of PBXs using the COMPASS force field have been reported in recent years, where the validity of the force field in modeling the solid EM fill has been judged solely on its ability to reproduce lattice parameters, which is an insufficient metric. Performance of the COMPASS force field in modeling EMs and the polymeric binder has been assessed by calculating structural, thermal, and mechanical properties, where only fair agreement with experimental data is obtained. We performed MD simulations using the COMPASS force field for the polymer binder hydroxyl-terminated polybutadiene and five EMs: cyclotrimethylenetrinitramine, 1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tetra-azacyclo-octane, 2,4,6,8,10,12-hexantirohexaazazisowurzitane, 2,4,6-trinitro-1,3,5-benzenetriamine, and pentaerythritol tetranitate. Predicted EM crystallographic and molecular structural parameters, as well as calculated properties for the binder will be compared with experimental results for different simulation conditions. We also present novel simulation protocols, which improve agreement between experimental and computation results thus leading to the accurate modeling of PBXs.

  17. Analytical modeling of materialized view maintenance algorithms

    SciTech Connect

    Srivastava, J.; Rotem, D.

    1987-10-01

    In the recent past there has been increasing interest in the idea of maintaining materialized copies of views, and use them to process view queries (ADIB 80, LIND 86, BLAK 86, ROSS 86, HANS 87). Various algorithms have been proposed, and their performance analyzed. However, there does not exist a comprehensive analytical framework under which the problem can be systematically studied. We present a queueing model which facilitates both a systematic study of the problem, and provides a means to compare various proposed algorithms. Specifically, we propose a parametrized approach in which both the user and system viewpoints are integrated, and the setting of the parameter decides the relative importance of each table.

  18. Analytical modeling of orthogonal spiral structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santos, Auteliano A.; Hobeck, Jared D.; Inman, Daniel J.

    2016-11-01

    This paper presents the analytical modeling of orthogonal spiral structures (OSS), a promising option for small-scale energy harvesting applications. This unique multi-beam structure is analyzed using a distributed parameter approach with Euler-Bernoulli assumptions. First, an aluminum substrate is evaluated to determine if the proposed design can be used to capture vibration energy in the desired frequency range using a twelve beam OSS. Finite element calculations are used to validate the analytical model. This model is then modified to include the electromechanical effects of a piezoelectric layer added to the aluminum substrate. Lastly, the effects of the beam width and the number of beams is analyzed for a particular surface area of the OSS. Results show that increasing the number of beams causes a reduction in the first natural frequency. From those results, it is possible to conclude that OSS can be used as an alternative to current energy harvesting systems for MEMS applications, allowing the capture of environmental energy in the frequency range of common mechanical systems.

  19. Personalized Orthodontic Accurate Tooth Arrangement System with Complete Teeth Model.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Cheng; Cheng, Xiaosheng; Dai, Ning; Liu, Yi; Fan, Qilei; Hou, Yulin; Jiang, Xiaotong

    2015-09-01

    The accuracy, validity and lack of relation information between dental root and jaw in tooth arrangement are key problems in tooth arrangement technology. This paper aims to describe a newly developed virtual, personalized and accurate tooth arrangement system based on complete information about dental root and skull. Firstly, a feature constraint database of a 3D teeth model is established. Secondly, for computed simulation of tooth movement, the reference planes and lines are defined by the anatomical reference points. The matching mathematical model of teeth pattern and the principle of the specific pose transformation of rigid body are fully utilized. The relation of position between dental root and alveolar bone is considered during the design process. Finally, the relative pose relationships among various teeth are optimized using the object mover, and a personalized therapeutic schedule is formulated. Experimental results show that the virtual tooth arrangement system can arrange abnormal teeth very well and is sufficiently flexible. The relation of position between root and jaw is favorable. This newly developed system is characterized by high-speed processing and quantitative evaluation of the amount of 3D movement of an individual tooth.

  20. Analytical model for a vertical buoyant jet

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, D.W.

    1980-10-01

    An analytical model for a round and two-dimensional turbulent buoyant jet which is discharged vertically into a stagnant ambient is developed. The buoyant jet is considered to have three separate zone models which are matched to form a complete solution. The velocity field is determined for the entire jet and plume regions by the use of an eddy viscosity which varies along the axis of the jet. The centerline decay of buoyancy is determined throughout and the results are compared to existing numerical codes. The model is applied to the disposal of carbon dioxide enriched seawater. The results can be used to provide design information for minimizing or maximizing the dilution of a discharge by the receiving environment.

  1. Analytical Ion Thruster Discharge Performance Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goebel, Dan M.; Wirz, Richard E.; Katz, Ira

    2006-01-01

    A particle and energy balance model of the plasma discharge in magnetic ring-cusp ion thrusters has been developed. The model follows the original work of Brophy in the development of global 0-D discharge models that utilize conservation of particles into and out of the thruster and conservation of energy into the discharge and out of the plasma in the form of charged particles to the walls and beam and plasma radiation. The present model is significantly expanded over Brophy's original work by including self-consistent calculations of the internal neutral pressure, electron temperature, primary electron density, electrostatic ion confinement (due to the ring-cusp fields), plasma potential, discharge stability, and time dependent behavior during recycling. The model only requires information on the thruster geometry, ion optics performance and electrical inputs such as discharge voltage and currents, etc. to produce accurate performance curves of discharge loss versus mass utilization efficiency. The model has been benchmarked against the NEXIS Laboratory Model (LM) and Development Model (DM) thrusters, and successfully predicts the thruster discharge loss as a function of mass utilization efficiency for a variety of thrusters. The discharge performance model will be presented and results showing ion thruster performance and stability given.

  2. Analytical model of Europa's O2 exosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milillo, Anna; Plainaki, Christina; Orsini, Stefano; Mangano, Valeria; Massetti, Stefano; Mura, Alessandro

    2014-05-01

    The origin of the exosphere of Europa is its water ice surface. The existing exosphere models, assuming either a collisionless environment (simple Monte Carlo techniques) or a kinetic approach (Direct Monte Carlo Method) both predicts that the major constituent of the exosphere is molecular oxygen. Specifically, O2 is generated at the surface through radiolysis and chemical interactions of the water dissociation products. The non-escaping O2 molecules circulate around the moon impacting the surface several times, due to their long lifetime and due to their non-sticking, suffering thermalization to the surface temperature after each impact. In fact, the HST observations of the O emission lines have manifested the presence of an asymmetric atomic Oxygen envelope, evidencing the existence of a thin asymmetric molecular Oxygen atmosphere. The existing Monte Carlo models are not easily applicable as input of simulations devoted to the study of the plasma interactions with the moon. On the contrary, it would be important to have a suitable and user-friendly model to use as a tool. This study presents an analytical 3D model that is able to describe the molecular Oxygen exosphere by reproducing the asymmetries due to different configurations among Europa, Jupiter and the Sun. This model is obtained by a non-linear fit procedure of the EGEON Monte Carlo model results to a Chamberlain density profile. Different parameters of the model are able to describe various exosphere properties thus allowing a detailed investigation of the exospheric characteristics.

  3. An analytical model of a longitudinal-torsional ultrasonic transducer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Budairi, Hassan; Lucas, Margaret

    2012-08-01

    The combination of longitudinal and torsional (LT) vibrations at high frequencies finds many applications such as ultrasonic drilling, ultrasonic welding, and ultrasonic motors. The LT mode can be obtained by modifications to the design of a standard bolted Langevin ultrasonic transducer driven by an axially poled piezoceramic stack, by a technique that degenerates the longitudinal mode to an LT motion by a geometrical alteration of the wave path. The transducer design is developed and optimised through numerical modelling which can represent the geometry and mechanical properties of the transducer and its vibration response to an electrical input applied across the piezoceramic stack. However, although these models can allow accurate descriptions of the mechanical behaviour, they do not generally provide adequate insights into the electrical characteristics of the transducer. In this work, an analytical model is developed to present the LT transducer based on the equivalent circuit method. This model can represent both the mechanical and electrical aspects and is used to extract many of the design parameters, such as resonance and anti-resonance frequencies, the impedance spectra and the coupling coefficient of the transducer. The validity of the analytical model is demonstrated by close agreement with experimental results.

  4. Coarse-grained red blood cell model with accurate mechanical properties, rheology and dynamics.

    PubMed

    Fedosov, Dmitry A; Caswell, Bruce; Karniadakis, George E

    2009-01-01

    We present a coarse-grained red blood cell (RBC) model with accurate and realistic mechanical properties, rheology and dynamics. The modeled membrane is represented by a triangular mesh which incorporates shear inplane energy, bending energy, and area and volume conservation constraints. The macroscopic membrane elastic properties are imposed through semi-analytic theory, and are matched with those obtained in optical tweezers stretching experiments. Rheological measurements characterized by time-dependent complex modulus are extracted from the membrane thermal fluctuations, and compared with those obtained from the optical magnetic twisting cytometry results. The results allow us to define a meaningful characteristic time of the membrane. The dynamics of RBCs observed in shear flow suggests that a purely elastic model for the RBC membrane is not appropriate, and therefore a viscoelastic model is required. The set of proposed analyses and numerical tests can be used as a complete model testbed in order to calibrate the modeled viscoelastic membranes to accurately represent RBCs in health and disease.

  5. Comparison between analytical and numerical solution of mathematical drying model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shahari, N.; Rasmani, K.; Jamil, N.

    2016-02-01

    Drying is often related to the food industry as a process of shifting heat and mass inside food, which helps in preserving food. Previous research using a mass transfer equation showed that the results were mostly concerned with the comparison between the simulation model and the experimental data. In this paper, the finite difference method was used to solve a mass equation during drying using different kinds of boundary condition, which are equilibrium and convective boundary conditions. The results of these two models provide a comparison between the analytical and the numerical solution. The result shows a close match between the two solution curves. It is concluded that the two proposed models produce an accurate solution to describe the moisture distribution content during the drying process. This analysis indicates that we have confidence in the behaviour of moisture in the numerical simulation. This result demonstrated that a combined analytical and numerical approach prove that the system is behaving physically. Based on this assumption, the model of mass transfer was extended to include the temperature transfer, and the result shows a similar trend to those presented in the simpler case.

  6. The Immediate Exchange model: an analytical investigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katriel, Guy

    2015-01-01

    We study the Immediate Exchange model, recently introduced by Heinsalu and Patriarca [Eur. Phys. J. B 87, 170 (2014)], who showed by simulations that the wealth distribution in this model converges to a Gamma distribution with shape parameter 2. Here we justify this conclusion analytically, in the infinite-population limit. An infinite-population version of the model is derived, describing the evolution of the wealth distribution in terms of iterations of a nonlinear operator on the space of probability densities. It is proved that the Gamma distributions with shape parameter 2 are fixed points of this operator, and that, starting with an arbitrary wealth distribution, the process converges to one of these fixed points. We also discuss the mixed model introduced in the same paper, in which exchanges are either bidirectional or unidirectional with fixed probability. We prove that, although, as found by Heinsalu and Patriarca, the equilibrium distribution can be closely fit by Gamma distributions, the equilibrium distribution for this model is not a Gamma distribution.

  7. Analytic Treatment of a Trading Market Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Das, Arnab; Yarlagadda, Sudhaker

    We mathematically analyze a simple market model where trading at each point in time involves only two agents with the sum of their money being conserved and with neither parties resulting with negative money after the interaction process. The exchange involves random re-distribution among the two players of a fixed fraction of their total money. We obtain a simple integral nonlinear equation for the money distribution. We find that the zero savings and finite savings cases belong to different universality classes. While the zero savings case can be solved analytically, the finite savings solution is obtained by numerically solving the integral equation. We find remarkable agreement with results obtained by other researchers using sophisticated numerical techniques [Chatterjee et al., these proceedings].

  8. An analytical model of flagellate hydrodynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dölger, Julia; Bohr, Tomas; Andersen, Anders

    2017-04-01

    Flagellates are unicellular microswimmers that propel themselves using one or several beating flagella. We consider a hydrodynamic model of flagellates and explore the effect of flagellar arrangement and beat pattern on swimming kinematics and near-cell flow. The model is based on the analytical solution by Oseen for the low Reynolds number flow due to a point force outside a no-slip sphere. The no-slip sphere represents the cell and the point force a single flagellum. By superposition we are able to model a freely swimming flagellate with several flagella. For biflagellates with left–right symmetric flagellar arrangements we determine the swimming velocity, and we show that transversal forces due to the periodic movements of the flagella can promote swimming. For a model flagellate with both a longitudinal and a transversal flagellum we determine radius and pitch of the helical swimming trajectory. We find that the longitudinal flagellum is responsible for the average translational motion whereas the transversal flagellum governs the rotational motion. Finally, we show that the transversal flagellum can lead to strong feeding currents to localized capture sites on the cell surface.

  9. ANALYTIC MODELING OF THE MORETON WAVE KINEMATICS

    SciTech Connect

    Temmer, M.; Veronig, A. M.

    2009-09-10

    The issue whether Moreton waves are flare-ignited or coronal mass ejection (CME)-driven, or a combination of both, is still a matter of debate. We develop an analytical model describing the evolution of a large-amplitude coronal wave emitted by the expansion of a circular source surface in order to mimic the evolution of a Moreton wave. The model results are confronted with observations of a strong Moreton wave observed in association with the X3.8/3B flare/CME event from 2005 January 17. Using different input parameters for the expansion of the source region, either derived from the real CME observations (assuming that the upward moving CME drives the wave), or synthetically generated scenarios (expanding flare region, lateral expansion of the CME flanks), we calculate the kinematics of the associated Moreton wave signature. Those model input parameters are determined which fit the observed Moreton wave kinematics best. Using the measured kinematics of the upward moving CME as the model input, we are not able to reproduce the observed Moreton wave kinematics. The observations of the Moreton wave can be reproduced only by applying a strong and impulsive acceleration for the source region expansion acting in a piston mechanism scenario. Based on these results we propose that the expansion of the flaring region or the lateral expansion of the CME flanks is more likely the driver of the Moreton wave than the upward moving CME front.

  10. WHAEM: PROGRAM DOCUMENTATION FOR THE WELLHEAD ANALYTIC ELEMENT MODEL

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Wellhead Analytic Element Model (WhAEM) demonstrates a new technique for the definition of time-of-travel capture zones in relatively simple geohydrologic settings. he WhAEM package includes an analytic element model that uses superposition of (many) analytic solutions to gen...

  11. Accurate ab initio potential energy computations for the H sub 4 system: Tests of some analytic potential energy surfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Boothroyd, A.I. ); Dove, J.E.; Keogh, W.J. ); Martin, P.G. ); Peterson, M.R. )

    1991-09-15

    The interaction potential energy surface (PES) of H{sub 4} is of great importance for quantum chemistry, as a test case for molecule--molecule interactions. It is also required for a detailed understanding of certain astrophysical processes, namely, collisional excitation and dissociation of H{sub 2} in molecular clouds, at densities too low to be accessible experimentally. Accurate {ital ab} {ital initio} energies were computed for 6046 conformations of H{sub 4}, using a multiple reference (single and) double excitation configuration interaction (MRD-CI) program. Both systematic and random'' errors were estimated to have an rms size of 0.6 mhartree, for a total rms error of about 0.9 mhartree (or 0.55 kcal/mol) in the final {ital ab} {ital initio} energy values. It proved possible to include in a self-consistent way {ital ab} {ital initio} energies calculated by Schwenke, bringing the number of H{sub 4} conformations to 6101. {ital Ab} {ital initio} energies were also computed for 404 conformations of H{sub 3}; adding {ital ab} {ital initio} energies calculated by other authors yielded a total of 772 conformations of H{sub 3}. (The H{sub 3} results, and an improved analytic PES for H{sub 3}, are reported elsewhere.) {ital Ab} {ital initio} energies are tabulated in this paper only for a sample of H{sub 4} conformations; a full list of all 6101 conformations of H{sub 4} (and 772 conformations of H{sub 3} ) is available from Physics Auxiliary Publication Service (PAPS), or from the authors.

  12. Analytical model of Europa's O2 exosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milillo, Anna; Plainaki, Christina; De Angelis, Elisabetta; Mangano, Valeria; Massetti, Stefano; Mura, Alessandro; Orsini, Stefano; Rispoli, Rosanna

    2016-10-01

    The origin of the exosphere of Europa is its water ice surface. The existing exosphere models, assuming either a collisionless environment (simple Monte Carlo techniques) or a kinetic approach (Direct Monte Carlo Method) both predict that the major constituent of the exosphere is molecular oxygen. Specifically, O2 is generated at the surface through radiolysis and chemical interactions of the water dissociation products. The non-escaping O2 molecules circulate around the moon impacting the surface several times, due to their long lifetime and due to their non- sticking, suffering thermalization to the surface temperature after each impact. In fact, the HST observations of the O emission lines proved the presence of an asymmetric atomic Oxygen distribution, related to a thin asymmetric molecular Oxygen atmosphere. The existing Monte Carlo models are not easily applicable as input of simulations devoted to the study of the plasma interactions with the moon. On the other hand, the simple exponential density profiles cannot well depict the higher temperature/higher altitudes component originating by radiolysis. It would thus be important to have a suitable and user-friendly model able to describe the major exospheric characteristics to use as a tool. This study presents an analytical 3D model that is able to describe the molecular Oxygen exosphere by reproducing the two-component profiles and the asymmetries due to diverse configurations among Europa, Jupiter and the Sun. This model is obtained by a non-linear fit procedure of the EGEON Monte Carlo model (Plainaki et al. 2013) to a Chamberlain density profile. Different parameters of the model are able to describe various exosphere properties thus allowing a detailed investigation of the exospheric characteristics. As an example a discussion on the exospheric temperatures in different configurations and space regions is given.

  13. Analytical model of Europa's O2 exosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milillo, Anna; Plainaki, Christina; Orsini, Stefano; De Angelis, Elisabetta; Mangano, Valeria; Massetti, Stefano; Mura, Alessandro; Rispoli, Rosanna; Colasanti, Luca

    2015-04-01

    The origin of the exosphere of Europa is its water ice surface. The existing exosphere models, assuming either a collisionless environment (simple Monte Carlo techniques) or a kinetic approach (Direct Monte Carlo Method) both predict that the major constituent of the exosphere is molecular oxygen. Specifically, O2 is generated at the surface through radiolysis and chemical interactions of the water dissociation products. The non-escaping O2 molecules circulate around the moon impacting the surface several times, due to their long lifetime and due to their non- sticking, suffering thermalization to the surface temperature after each impact. In fact, the HST observations of the O emission lines have manifested the presence of an asymmetric atomic Oxygen envelope, evidencing the possible existence of a thin asymmetric molecular Oxygen atmosphere. The existing Monte Carlo models are not easily applicable as input of simulations devoted to the study of the plasma interactions with the moon. On the other hand, the simple exponential density profiles cannot well depict the higher temperature/higher altitudes component originating by radiolysis. On the contrary, it would be important to have a suitable and user-friendly model to use as a tool. This study presents an analytical 3D model that is able to describe the molecular Oxygen exosphere by reproducing the asymmetries due to two configurations among Europa, Jupiter and the Sun, that is illumination at leading and at trailing side. This model is obtained by a non-linear fit procedure of the EGEON Monte Carlo model to a Chamberlain density profile. Different parameters of the model are able to describe various exosphere properties thus allowing a detailed investigation of the exospheric characteristics.

  14. A multiscale red blood cell model with accurate mechanics, rheology, and dynamics.

    PubMed

    Fedosov, Dmitry A; Caswell, Bruce; Karniadakis, George Em

    2010-05-19

    Red blood cells (RBCs) have highly deformable viscoelastic membranes exhibiting complex rheological response and rich hydrodynamic behavior governed by special elastic and bending properties and by the external/internal fluid and membrane viscosities. We present a multiscale RBC model that is able to predict RBC mechanics, rheology, and dynamics in agreement with experiments. Based on an analytic theory, the modeled membrane properties can be uniquely related to the experimentally established RBC macroscopic properties without any adjustment of parameters. The RBC linear and nonlinear elastic deformations match those obtained in optical-tweezers experiments. The rheological properties of the membrane are compared with those obtained in optical magnetic twisting cytometry, membrane thermal fluctuations, and creep followed by cell recovery. The dynamics of RBCs in shear and Poiseuille flows is tested against experiments and theoretical predictions, and the applicability of the latter is discussed. Our findings clearly indicate that a purely elastic model for the membrane cannot accurately represent the RBC's rheological properties and its dynamics, and therefore accurate modeling of a viscoelastic membrane is necessary.

  15. Incorporating photon recycling into the analytical drift-diffusion model of high efficiency solar cells

    SciTech Connect

    Lumb, Matthew P.; Steiner, Myles A.; Geisz, John F.; Walters, Robert J.

    2014-11-21

    The analytical drift-diffusion formalism is able to accurately simulate a wide range of solar cell architectures and was recently extended to include those with back surface reflectors. However, as solar cells approach the limits of material quality, photon recycling effects become increasingly important in predicting the behavior of these cells. In particular, the minority carrier diffusion length is significantly affected by the photon recycling, with consequences for the solar cell performance. In this paper, we outline an approach to account for photon recycling in the analytical Hovel model and compare analytical model predictions to GaAs-based experimental devices operating close to the fundamental efficiency limit.

  16. Fast and accurate computation of system matrix for area integral model-based algebraic reconstruction technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Shunli; Zhang, Dinghua; Gong, Hao; Ghasemalizadeh, Omid; Wang, Ge; Cao, Guohua

    2014-11-01

    Iterative algorithms, such as the algebraic reconstruction technique (ART), are popular for image reconstruction. For iterative reconstruction, the area integral model (AIM) is more accurate for better reconstruction quality than the line integral model (LIM). However, the computation of the system matrix for AIM is more complex and time-consuming than that for LIM. Here, we propose a fast and accurate method to compute the system matrix for AIM. First, we calculate the intersection of each boundary line of a narrow fan-beam with pixels in a recursive and efficient manner. Then, by grouping the beam-pixel intersection area into six types according to the slopes of the two boundary lines, we analytically compute the intersection area of the narrow fan-beam with the pixels in a simple algebraic fashion. Overall, experimental results show that our method is about three times faster than the Siddon algorithm and about two times faster than the distance-driven model (DDM) in computation of the system matrix. The reconstruction speed of our AIM-based ART is also faster than the LIM-based ART that uses the Siddon algorithm and DDM-based ART, for one iteration. The fast reconstruction speed of our method was accomplished without compromising the image quality.

  17. A semi-analytical variable property droplet combustion model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sisti, John

    A multizone droplet burn model is developed to account for changes in the thermal and transport properties as a function of droplet radius. The formulation is semi-analytical---allowing for accurate and computationally efficient estimates of flame structure and burn rates. Zonal thermal and transport properties are computed using the Cantera software and pre-tabulated for rapid evaluation during run-time. Model predictions are compared to experimental measurements of burning n-heptane, ethanol and methanol droplets. An adaptive zone refinement algorithm is developed that minimizes the number of zones required to provide accurate estimates of burn time without excess zones. A sensitivity study of burn rate and flame stand-off with far-field oxygen concentration is conducted with comparisons to experimental data. Overall agreement to data is encouraging with errors typically less than 20% for predictions of burn rates, stand-off ratio and flame temperature for the fuels considered. The quiescent quasi-steady solution is extended to a convective transient solution without the need to solve an eigenvalue solution in time. The time history of the burning droplets show good comparison with experimental data. To further decrease computational cost, the source terms for the transient solution are linearized for an explicit time marching solution. An error convergence study was performed to show a time-step independent solution exists at a reasonable Delta t.

  18. An Efficient and Accurate Quantum Lattice-Gas Model for the Many-Body Schroedinger Wave Equation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2002-01-01

    CONTRACT NUMBER AN EFFICIENT AND ACCURATE QUANTUM LATTICE-GAS MODEL FOR THE MANY-BODY SCHROEDINGER WAVE EQUATION 5b. GRANT NUMBER SC. PROGRAM ELEMENT...for simulating the time-dependent evolution of a many-body jiiantum mechanical system of particles governed by the non-relativistic Schroedinger " wave...the numerical dispersion of the simulated wave packets is compared with the analytical solutions. 15. SUBJECT TERM: Schroedinger wave equation

  19. An analytical model of joint contact.

    PubMed

    Eberhardt, A W; Keer, L M; Lewis, J L; Vithoontien, V

    1990-11-01

    The stress distribution in the region of contact between a layered elastic sphere and a layered elastic cavity is determined using an analytical model to stimulate contact of articulating joints. The purpose is to use the solution to analyze the effects of cartilage thickness and stiffness, bone stiffness and joint curvature on the resulting stress field, and investigate the possibility of cracking of the material due to tensile and shear stresses. Vertical cracking of cartilage as well as horizontal splitting at the cartilage-calcified cartilage interface has been observed in osteoarthritic joints. The current results indicate that for a given system (material properties mu and nu constant), the stress distribution is a function of the ratio of contact radius to layer thickness (a/h), and while tensile stresses are seen to occur only when a/h is small, tensile strain is observed for all a/h values. Significant shear stresses are observed at the cartilage-bone interface. Softening of cartilage results in an increase in a/h, and a decrease in maximum normal stress. Cartilage thinning increases a/h and the maximum contact stress, while thickening has the opposite effect. A reduction in the indenting radius reduces a/h and increases the maximum normal stress. Bone softening is seen to have negligible effect on the resulting contact parameters and stress distribution.

  20. Analytic wave model of Stark deceleration dynamics

    SciTech Connect

    Gubbels, Koos; Meijer, Gerard; Friedrich, Bretislav

    2006-06-15

    Stark deceleration relies on time-dependent inhomogeneous electric fields which repetitively exert a decelerating force on polar molecules. Fourier analysis reveals that such fields, generated by an array of field stages, consist of a superposition of partial waves with well-defined phase velocities. Molecules whose velocities come close to the phase velocity of a given wave get a ride from that wave. For a square-wave temporal dependence of the Stark field, the phase velocities of the waves are found to be odd-fraction multiples of a fundamental phase velocity {lambda}/{tau}, with {lambda} and {tau} the spatial and temporal periods of the field. Here we study explicitly the dynamics due to any of the waves as well as due to their mutual perturbations. We first solve the equations of motion for the case of single-wave interactions and exploit their isomorphism with those for the biased pendulum. Next we analyze the perturbations of the single-wave dynamics by other waves and find that these have no net effect on the phase stability of the acceleration or deceleration process. Finally, we find that a packet of molecules can also ride a wave which results from an interference of adjacent waves. In this case, small phase stability areas form around phase velocities that are even-fraction multiples of the fundamental velocity. A detailed comparison with classical trajectory simulations and with experiment demonstrates that the analytic 'wave model' encompasses all the longitudinal physics encountered in a Stark decelerator.

  1. Analytic Ballistic Performance Model of Whipple Shields

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, J. E.; Bjorkman, M. D.; Christiansen, E. L.; Ryan, S. J.

    2015-01-01

    The dual-wall, Whipple shield is the shield of choice for lightweight, long-duration flight. The shield uses an initial sacrificial wall to initiate fragmentation and melt an impacting threat that expands over a void before hitting a subsequent shield wall of a critical component. The key parameters to this type of shield are the rear wall and its mass which stops the debris, as well as the minimum shock wave strength generated by the threat particle impact of the sacrificial wall and the amount of room that is available for expansion. Ensuring the shock wave strength is sufficiently high to achieve large scale fragmentation/melt of the threat particle enables the expansion of the threat and reduces the momentum flux of the debris on the rear wall. Three key factors in the shock wave strength achieved are the thickness of the sacrificial wall relative to the characteristic dimension of the impacting particle, the density and material cohesion contrast of the sacrificial wall relative to the threat particle and the impact speed. The mass of the rear wall and the sacrificial wall are desirable to minimize for launch costs making it important to have an understanding of the effects of density contrast and impact speed. An analytic model is developed here, to describe the influence of these three key factors. In addition this paper develops a description of a fourth key parameter related to fragmentation and its role in establishing the onset of projectile expansion.

  2. Accurate analytical measurements in the atomic force microscope: a microfabricated spring constant standard potentially traceable to the SI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cumpson, Peter J.; Hedley, John

    2003-12-01

    Calibration of atomic force microscope (AFM) cantilevers is necessary for the measurement of nanonewton and piconewton forces, which are critical to analytical applications of AFM in the analysis of polymer surfaces, biological structures and organic molecules at nanoscale lateral resolution. We have developed a compact and easy-to-use reference artefact for this calibration, using a method that allows traceability to the SI (Système International). Traceability is crucial to ensure that force measurements by AFM are comparable to those made by optical tweezers and other methods. The new non-contact calibration method measures the spring constant of these artefacts, by a combination of electrical measurements and Doppler velocimetry. The device was fabricated by silicon surface micromachining. The device allows AFM cantilevers to be calibrated quite easily by the 'cantilever-on-reference' method, with our reference device having a spring constant uncertainty of around ± 5% at one standard deviation. A simple substitution of the analogue velocimeter used in this work with a digital model should reduce this uncertainty to around ± 2%. Both are significant improvements on current practice, and allow traceability to the SI for the first time at these nanonewton levels.

  3. Digitalized accurate modeling of SPCB with multi-spiral surface based on CPC algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Yanhua; Gu, Lizhi

    2015-09-01

    The main methods of the existing multi-spiral surface geometry modeling include spatial analytic geometry algorithms, graphical method, interpolation and approximation algorithms. However, there are some shortcomings in these modeling methods, such as large amount of calculation, complex process, visible errors, and so on. The above methods have, to some extent, restricted the design and manufacture of the premium and high-precision products with spiral surface considerably. This paper introduces the concepts of the spatially parallel coupling with multi-spiral surface and spatially parallel coupling body. The typical geometry and topological features of each spiral surface forming the multi-spiral surface body are determined, by using the extraction principle of datum point cluster, the algorithm of coupling point cluster by removing singular point, and the "spatially parallel coupling" principle based on the non-uniform B-spline for each spiral surface. The orientation and quantitative relationships of datum point cluster and coupling point cluster in Euclidean space are determined accurately and in digital description and expression, coupling coalescence of the surfaces with multi-coupling point clusters under the Pro/E environment. The digitally accurate modeling of spatially parallel coupling body with multi-spiral surface is realized. The smooth and fairing processing is done to the three-blade end-milling cutter's end section area by applying the principle of spatially parallel coupling with multi-spiral surface, and the alternative entity model is processed in the four axis machining center after the end mill is disposed. And the algorithm is verified and then applied effectively to the transition area among the multi-spiral surface. The proposed model and algorithms may be used in design and manufacture of the multi-spiral surface body products, as well as in solving essentially the problems of considerable modeling errors in computer graphics and

  4. Analytical model of diffuse reflectance spectrum of skin tissue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lisenko, S. A.; Kugeiko, M. M.; Firago, V. A.; Sobchuk, A. N.

    2014-01-01

    We have derived simple analytical expressions that enable highly accurate calculation of diffusely reflected light signals of skin in the spectral range from 450 to 800 nm at a distance from the region of delivery of exciting radiation. The expressions, taking into account the dependence of the detected signals on the refractive index, transport scattering coefficient, absorption coefficient and anisotropy factor of the medium, have been obtained in the approximation of a two-layer medium model (epidermis and dermis) for the same parameters of light scattering but different absorption coefficients of layers. Numerical experiments on the retrieval of the skin biophysical parameters from the diffuse reflectance spectra simulated by the Monte Carlo method show that commercially available fibre-optic spectrophotometers with a fixed distance between the radiation source and detector can reliably determine the concentration of bilirubin, oxy- and deoxyhaemoglobin in the dermis tissues and the tissue structure parameter characterising the size of its effective scatterers. We present the examples of quantitative analysis of the experimental data, confirming the correctness of estimates of biophysical parameters of skin using the obtained analytical expressions.

  5. Analytical model of diffuse reflectance spectrum of skin tissue

    SciTech Connect

    Lisenko, S A; Kugeiko, M M; Firago, V A; Sobchuk, A N

    2014-01-31

    We have derived simple analytical expressions that enable highly accurate calculation of diffusely reflected light signals of skin in the spectral range from 450 to 800 nm at a distance from the region of delivery of exciting radiation. The expressions, taking into account the dependence of the detected signals on the refractive index, transport scattering coefficient, absorption coefficient and anisotropy factor of the medium, have been obtained in the approximation of a two-layer medium model (epidermis and dermis) for the same parameters of light scattering but different absorption coefficients of layers. Numerical experiments on the retrieval of the skin biophysical parameters from the diffuse reflectance spectra simulated by the Monte Carlo method show that commercially available fibre-optic spectrophotometers with a fixed distance between the radiation source and detector can reliably determine the concentration of bilirubin, oxy- and deoxyhaemoglobin in the dermis tissues and the tissue structure parameter characterising the size of its effective scatterers. We present the examples of quantitative analysis of the experimental data, confirming the correctness of estimates of biophysical parameters of skin using the obtained analytical expressions. (biophotonics)

  6. CO2-Leaking Well - Analytical Modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wertz, F.; Audigane, P.; Bouc, O.

    2009-04-01

    The long-term integrity of CO2 storage in geological system relies highly on local trapping mechanisms but also on the absence/control of any kind of outlets. Indeed numerous pathways (faults, wells, rock heterogeneities…) exist that can lead stored gas back to the surface. Thus, such leakage risks must be assessed and quantified if possible. In France, BRGM is inquired for evaluating safety criteria and developing a methodology for qualifying potential geological storage sites. This implies in particular to study the leakage scenario, here through a water-filled well as a worth scenario case. In order to determine the kinds of impacts leaking CO2 can have; knowing the velocity and flow rate of uprising CO2 is a necessity. That is why a better knowledge of CO2 in storage conditions and its behaviour with the environment is required. The following study aims at characterising the CO2 flowing into the well and then rising up in a water column over the vertical dimension. An analytical model was built that describes: - In a first step, the CO2 flow between the reservoir and the inside of the well, depending on quality and thickness of different seals, which determines the flow rate through the well. - In a second step, the CO2 uprising through an open and water filled well, however in steady state, which excludes a priori the characterisation of periodic or chaotic behaviours such as geyser formation. The objective is to give numerous orders of magnitude concerning CO2 thermodynamic properties while rising up: specific enthalpy, density, viscosity, velocity, flow, gas volume fraction and expansion, pressure and temperature gradient. Dissolution is partially taken into account, however without kinetic. The strength of this model is to compute analytically - easily and instantaneously - the 1-dimensional rising velocity of CO2 in a water column as a function of the CO2 density, interfacial tension and initial volume fraction. Characteristic speeds - the ones given by

  7. Analytical modeling of Cosmic Winds and Jets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vlahakis, Nektarios

    1998-11-01

    stellar wind and the Blandford and Payne (1982) model of a disk-wind; it also contains nonpolytropic models, such as those of winds/jets in Sauty and Tsinganos (1994), Lima et al (1996) and Trussoni et al (1997). Besides the unification of all known cases under a common scheme, several new classes emerge and some are briefly analyzed; they could be explored for a further understanding of the physical properties of MHD outflows from various magnetized astrophysical rotators. We also propose a new class of exact and self-consistent MHD solutions which describe steady and axisymmetric hydromagnetic outflows from the magnetized atmosphere of a rotating gravitating central object with possibly an orbiting accretion disk. The plasma is driven by a thermal pressure gradient, as well as by magnetic rotator and radiative forces. At the Alfvenic and fast critical points the appropriate criticality conditions are applied. The outflows start almost radially but after the Alfven transition and before the fast critical surface is encountered the magnetic pinching force bends the poloidal streamlines into a cylindrical jet-type shape. The terminal speed, Alfven number, cross-sectional area of the jet, as well as its final pressure and density obtain uniform values at large distances from the source. The goal of the study is to give an analytical discussion of the two-dimensional interplay of the thermal pressure gradient, gravitational, Lorentz and inertial forces in accelerating and collimating an MHD flow. A parametric study of the model is given, as well as a brief sketch of its applicability to a self-consistent modeling of collimated outflows from various astrophysical objects. For example, the obtained characteristics of the collimated outflow in agreement with those in jets associated with YSO's. General theoretical arguments and various analytic self-similar solutions have recently shown that magnetized and rotating astrophysical outflows may become asymptotically cylindrical

  8. Clarifying types of uncertainty: when are models accurate, and uncertainties small?

    PubMed

    Cox, Louis Anthony Tony

    2011-10-01

    Professor Aven has recently noted the importance of clarifying the meaning of terms such as "scientific uncertainty" for use in risk management and policy decisions, such as when to trigger application of the precautionary principle. This comment examines some fundamental conceptual challenges for efforts to define "accurate" models and "small" input uncertainties by showing that increasing uncertainty in model inputs may reduce uncertainty in model outputs; that even correct models with "small" input uncertainties need not yield accurate or useful predictions for quantities of interest in risk management (such as the duration of an epidemic); and that accurate predictive models need not be accurate causal models.

  9. Accurate Modeling of Scaffold Hopping Transformations in Drug Discovery.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lingle; Deng, Yuqing; Wu, Yujie; Kim, Byungchan; LeBard, David N; Wandschneider, Dan; Beachy, Mike; Friesner, Richard A; Abel, Robert

    2017-01-10

    The accurate prediction of protein-ligand binding free energies remains a significant challenge of central importance in computational biophysics and structure-based drug design. Multiple recent advances including the development of greatly improved protein and ligand molecular mechanics force fields, more efficient enhanced sampling methods, and low-cost powerful GPU computing clusters have enabled accurate and reliable predictions of relative protein-ligand binding free energies through the free energy perturbation (FEP) methods. However, the existing FEP methods can only be used to calculate the relative binding free energies for R-group modifications or single-atom modifications and cannot be used to efficiently evaluate scaffold hopping modifications to a lead molecule. Scaffold hopping or core hopping, a very common design strategy in drug discovery projects, is critical not only in the early stages of a discovery campaign where novel active matter must be identified but also in lead optimization where the resolution of a variety of ADME/Tox problems may require identification of a novel core structure. In this paper, we introduce a method that enables theoretically rigorous, yet computationally tractable, relative protein-ligand binding free energy calculations to be pursued for scaffold hopping modifications. We apply the method to six pharmaceutically interesting cases where diverse types of scaffold hopping modifications were required to identify the drug molecules ultimately sent into the clinic. For these six diverse cases, the predicted binding affinities were in close agreement with experiment, demonstrating the wide applicability and the significant impact Core Hopping FEP may provide in drug discovery projects.

  10. New process model proves accurate in tests on catalytic reformer

    SciTech Connect

    Aguilar-Rodriguez, E.; Ancheyta-Juarez, J. )

    1994-07-25

    A mathematical model has been devised to represent the process that takes place in a fixed-bed, tubular, adiabatic catalytic reforming reactor. Since its development, the model has been applied to the simulation of a commercial semiregenerative reformer. The development of mass and energy balances for this reformer led to a model that predicts both concentration and temperature profiles along the reactor. A comparison of the model's results with experimental data illustrates its accuracy at predicting product profiles. Simple steps show how the model can be applied to simulate any fixed-bed catalytic reformer.

  11. Etch modeling for accurate full-chip process proximity correction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beale, Daniel F.; Shiely, James P.

    2005-05-01

    The challenges of the 65 nm node and beyond require new formulations of the compact convolution models used in OPC. In addition to simulating more optical and resist effects, these models must accommodate pattern distortions due to etch which can no longer be treated as small perturbations on photo-lithographic effects. (Methods for combining optical and process modules while optimizing the speed/accuracy tradeoff were described in "Advanced Model Formulations for Optical and Process Proximity Correction", D. Beale et al, SPIE 2004.) In this paper, we evaluate new physics-based etch model formulations that differ from the convolution-based process models used previously. The new models are expressed within the compact modeling framework described by J. Stirniman et al. in SPIE, vol. 3051, p469, 1997, and thus can be used for high-speed process simulation during full-chip OPC.

  12. Accurate modelling of anisotropic effects in austenitic stainless steel welds

    SciTech Connect

    Nowers, O. D.; Duxbury, D. J.; Drinkwater, B. W.

    2014-02-18

    The ultrasonic inspection of austenitic steel welds is challenging due to the formation of highly anisotropic and heterogeneous structures post-welding. This is due to the intrinsic crystallographic structure of austenitic steel, driving the formation of dendritic grain structures on cooling. The anisotropy is manifested as both a ‘steering’ of the ultrasonic beam and the back-scatter of energy due to the macroscopic granular structure of the weld. However, the quantitative effects and relative impacts of these phenomena are not well-understood. A semi-analytical simulation framework has been developed to allow the study of anisotropic effects in austenitic stainless steel welds. Frequency-dependent scatterers are allocated to a weld-region to approximate the coarse grain-structures observed within austenitic welds and imaged using a simulated array. The simulated A-scans are compared against an equivalent experimental setup demonstrating excellent agreement of the Signal to Noise (S/N) ratio. Comparison of images of the simulated and experimental data generated using the Total Focusing Method (TFM) indicate a prominent layered effect in the simulated data. A superior grain allocation routine is required to improve upon this.

  13. Accurate Estimate of Some Propagation Characteristics for the First Higher Order Mode in Graded Index Fiber with Simple Analytic Chebyshev Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dutta, Ivy; Chowdhury, Anirban Roy; Kumbhakar, Dharmadas

    2013-03-01

    Using Chebyshev power series approach, accurate description for the first higher order (LP11) mode of graded index fibers having three different profile shape functions are presented in this paper and applied to predict their propagation characteristics. These characteristics include fractional power guided through the core, excitation efficiency and Petermann I and II spot sizes with their approximate analytic formulations. We have shown that where two and three Chebyshev points in LP11 mode approximation present fairly accurate results, the values based on our calculations involving four Chebyshev points match excellently with available exact numerical results.

  14. Accurate and fast simulation of channel noise in conductance-based model neurons by diffusion approximation.

    PubMed

    Linaro, Daniele; Storace, Marco; Giugliano, Michele

    2011-03-01

    Stochastic channel gating is the major source of intrinsic neuronal noise whose functional consequences at the microcircuit- and network-levels have been only partly explored. A systematic study of this channel noise in large ensembles of biophysically detailed model neurons calls for the availability of fast numerical methods. In fact, exact techniques employ the microscopic simulation of the random opening and closing of individual ion channels, usually based on Markov models, whose computational loads are prohibitive for next generation massive computer models of the brain. In this work, we operatively define a procedure for translating any Markov model describing voltage- or ligand-gated membrane ion-conductances into an effective stochastic version, whose computer simulation is efficient, without compromising accuracy. Our approximation is based on an improved Langevin-like approach, which employs stochastic differential equations and no Montecarlo methods. As opposed to an earlier proposal recently debated in the literature, our approximation reproduces accurately the statistical properties of the exact microscopic simulations, under a variety of conditions, from spontaneous to evoked response features. In addition, our method is not restricted to the Hodgkin-Huxley sodium and potassium currents and is general for a variety of voltage- and ligand-gated ion currents. As a by-product, the analysis of the properties emerging in exact Markov schemes by standard probability calculus enables us for the first time to analytically identify the sources of inaccuracy of the previous proposal, while providing solid ground for its modification and improvement we present here.

  15. Accurate Modeling of Stability and Control Properties for Fighter Aircraft from CFD

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-03-01

    accurately placed and calibrated , etc. The results of the wind tunnel test must then be properly filtered and scaled to the proper size while taking...1 1.2 Background . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 1.2.1 Wind Tunnel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2...analysis, wind tunnel testing, flight testing, and Com- putational Fluid Dynamics (CFD). Analytical analysis includes linear aerodynamic techniques

  16. Towards an Accurate Performance Modeling of Parallel SparseFactorization

    SciTech Connect

    Grigori, Laura; Li, Xiaoye S.

    2006-05-26

    We present a performance model to analyze a parallel sparseLU factorization algorithm on modern cached-based, high-end parallelarchitectures. Our model characterizes the algorithmic behavior bytakingaccount the underlying processor speed, memory system performance, aswell as the interconnect speed. The model is validated using theSuperLU_DIST linear system solver, the sparse matrices from realapplications, and an IBM POWER3 parallel machine. Our modelingmethodology can be easily adapted to study performance of other types ofsparse factorizations, such as Cholesky or QR.

  17. How Accurate Is A Hydraulic Model? | Science Inventory | US ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Symposium paper Network hydraulic models are widely used, but their overall accuracy is often unknown. Models are developed to give utilities better insight into system hydraulic behavior, and increasingly the ability to predict the fate and transport of chemicals. Without an accessible and consistent means of validating a given model against the system it is meant to represent, the value of those supposed benefits should be questioned. Supervisory Control And Data Acquisition (SCADA) databases, though ubiquitous, are underused data sources for this type of task. Integrating a network model with a measurement database would offer professionals the ability to assess the model’s assumptions in an automated fashion by leveraging enormous amounts of data.

  18. Modeling for accurate dimensional scanning electron microscope metrology: then and now.

    PubMed

    Postek, Michael T; Vladár, András E

    2011-01-01

    A review of the evolution of modeling for accurate dimensional scanning electron microscopy is presented with an emphasis on developments in the Monte Carlo technique for modeling the generation of the electrons used for imaging and measurement. The progress of modeling for accurate metrology is discussed through a schematic technology timeline. In addition, a discussion of a future vision for accurate SEM dimensional metrology and the requirements to achieve it are presented.

  19. ACCURATE LOW-MASS STELLAR MODELS OF KOI-126

    SciTech Connect

    Feiden, Gregory A.; Chaboyer, Brian; Dotter, Aaron

    2011-10-10

    The recent discovery of an eclipsing hierarchical triple system with two low-mass stars in a close orbit (KOI-126) by Carter et al. appeared to reinforce the evidence that theoretical stellar evolution models are not able to reproduce the observational mass-radius relation for low-mass stars. We present a set of stellar models for the three stars in the KOI-126 system that show excellent agreement with the observed radii. This agreement appears to be due to the equation of state implemented by our code. A significant dispersion in the observed mass-radius relation for fully convective stars is demonstrated; indicative of the influence of physics currently not incorporated in standard stellar evolution models. We also predict apsidal motion constants for the two M dwarf companions. These values should be observationally determined to within 1% by the end of the Kepler mission.

  20. Accurate two-equation modelling of falling film flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruyer-Quil, Christian

    2015-11-01

    The low-dimensional modeling of the wave dynamics of a falling liquid film on an inclined plane is revisited. The advantages and shortcomings of existing modelling approaches: weighted residual method, center-manifold analysis, consistent Saint-Venant approach are discussed and contrasted. A novel formulation of a two-equation consistent model is proposed. The proposed formulation cures the principal limitations of previous approaches: (i) apart from surface tension terms, it admits a conservative form which enables to make use of efficient numerical schemes, (ii) it recovers with less than 1 percent of error the asymptotic speed of solitary waves in the inertial regime found by DNS, (iii) it adequately captures the velocity field under the waves and in particular the wall drag. Research supported by Insitut Universitaire de France.

  1. Building accurate geometric models from abundant range imaging information

    SciTech Connect

    Diegert, C.; Sackos, J.; Nellums, R.

    1997-05-01

    The authors define two simple metrics for accuracy of models built from range imaging information. They apply the metric to a model built from a recent range image taken at the Laser Radar Development and Evaluation Facility (LDERF), Eglin AFB, using a Scannerless Range Imager (SRI) from Sandia National Laboratories. They also present graphical displays of the residual information produced as a byproduct of this measurement, and discuss mechanisms that these data suggest for further improvement in the performance of this already impressive SRI.

  2. Project Summary. ANALYTICAL ELEMENT MODELING OF COASTAL AQUIFERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Four topics were studied concerning the modeling of groundwater flow in coastal aquifers with analytic elements: (1) practical experience was obtained by constructing a groundwater model of the shallow aquifers below the Delmarva Peninsula USA using the commercial program MVAEM; ...

  3. Magnetic field models of nine CP stars from "accurate" measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glagolevskij, Yu. V.

    2013-01-01

    The dipole models of magnetic fields in nine CP stars are constructed based on the measurements of metal lines taken from the literature, and performed by the LSD method with an accuracy of 10-80 G. The model parameters are compared with the parameters obtained for the same stars from the hydrogen line measurements. For six out of nine stars the same type of structure was obtained. Some parameters, such as the field strength at the poles B p and the average surface magnetic field B s differ considerably in some stars due to differences in the amplitudes of phase dependences B e (Φ) and B s (Φ), obtained by different authors. It is noted that a significant increase in the measurement accuracy has little effect on the modelling of the large-scale structures of the field. By contrast, it is more important to construct the shape of the phase dependence based on a fairly large number of field measurements, evenly distributed by the rotation period phases. It is concluded that the Zeeman component measurement methods have a strong effect on the shape of the phase dependence, and that the measurements of the magnetic field based on the lines of hydrogen are more preferable for modelling the large-scale structures of the field.

  4. Automated dynamic analytical model improvement for damped structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fuh, J. S.; Berman, A.

    1985-01-01

    A method is described to improve a linear nonproportionally damped analytical model of a structure. The procedure finds the smallest changes in the analytical model such that the improved model matches the measured modal parameters. Features of the method are: (1) ability to properly treat complex valued modal parameters of a damped system; (2) applicability to realistically large structural models; and (3) computationally efficiency without involving eigensolutions and inversion of a large matrix.

  5. The Computer-Aided Analytic Process Model. Operations Handbook for the APM (Analytic Process Model) Demonstration Package. Appendix

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-01-01

    The Analytic Process Model for System Design and Measurement: A Computer-Aided Tool for Analyzing Training Systems and Other Human-Machine Systems. A...separate companion volume--The Computer-Aided Analytic Process Model : Operations Handbook for the APM Demonstration Package is also available under

  6. Accurate first principles model potentials for intermolecular interactions.

    PubMed

    Gordon, Mark S; Smith, Quentin A; Xu, Peng; Slipchenko, Lyudmila V

    2013-01-01

    The general effective fragment potential (EFP) method provides model potentials for any molecule that is derived from first principles, with no empirically fitted parameters. The EFP method has been interfaced with most currently used ab initio single-reference and multireference quantum mechanics (QM) methods, ranging from Hartree-Fock and coupled cluster theory to multireference perturbation theory. The most recent innovations in the EFP model have been to make the computationally expensive charge transfer term much more efficient and to interface the general EFP dispersion and exchange repulsion interactions with QM methods. Following a summary of the method and its implementation in generally available computer programs, these most recent new developments are discussed.

  7. Analytic model for the bispectrum of galaxies in redshift space

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, Robert E.; Sheth, Ravi K.; Scoccimarro, Roman

    2008-07-15

    We develop an analytic theory for the redshift space bispectrum of dark matter, haloes, and galaxies. This is done within the context of the halo model of structure formation, as this allows for the self-consistent inclusion of linear and nonlinear redshift-space distortions and also for the nonlinearity of the halo bias. The model is applicable over a wide range of scales: on the largest scales the predictions reduce to those of the standard perturbation theory (PT); on smaller scales they are determined primarily by the nonlinear virial velocities of galaxies within haloes, and this gives rise to the U-shaped anisotropy in the reduced bispectrum--a finger print of the Finger-Of-God distortions. We then confront the predictions with measurements of the redshift-space bispectrum of dark matter from an ensemble of numerical simulations. On very large scales, k=0.05h Mpc{sup -1}, we find reasonably good agreement between our halo model, PT and the data, to within the errors. On smaller scales, k=0.1h Mpc{sup -1}, the measured bispectra differ from the PT at the level of {approx}10%-20%, especially for colinear triangle configurations. The halo model predictions improve over PT, but are accurate to no better than 10%. On smaller scales k=0.5-1.0h Mpc{sup -1}, our model provides a significant improvement over PT, which breaks down. This implies that studies which use the lowest order PT to extract galaxy bias information are not robust on scales k > or approx. 0.1h Mpc{sup -1}. The analytic and simulation results also indicate that there is no observable scale for which the configuration dependence of the reduced bispectrum is constant--hierarchical models for the higher-order correlation functions in redshift space are unlikely to be useful. It is hoped that our model will facilitate extraction of information from large-scale structure surveys of the Universe, because different galaxy populations are naturally included into our description.

  8. Accurate numerical solutions for elastic-plastic models. [LMFBR

    SciTech Connect

    Schreyer, H. L.; Kulak, R. F.; Kramer, J. M.

    1980-03-01

    The accuracy of two integration algorithms is studied for the common engineering condition of a von Mises, isotropic hardening model under plane stress. Errors in stress predictions for given total strain increments are expressed with contour plots of two parameters: an angle in the pi plane and the difference between the exact and computed yield-surface radii. The two methods are the tangent-predictor/radial-return approach and the elastic-predictor/radial-corrector algorithm originally developed by Mendelson. The accuracy of a combined tangent-predictor/radial-corrector algorithm is also investigated.

  9. Accurate Force Field Development for Modeling Conjugated Polymers.

    PubMed

    DuBay, Kateri H; Hall, Michelle Lynn; Hughes, Thomas F; Wu, Chuanjie; Reichman, David R; Friesner, Richard A

    2012-11-13

    The modeling of the conformational properties of conjugated polymers entails a unique challenge for classical force fields. Conjugation imposes strong constraints upon bond rotation. Planar configurations are favored, but the concomitantly shortened bond lengths result in moieties being brought into closer proximity than usual. The ensuing steric repulsions are particularly severe in the presence of side chains, straining angles, and stretching bonds to a degree infrequently found in nonconjugated systems. We herein demonstrate the resulting inaccuracies by comparing the LMP2-calculated inter-ring torsion potentials for a series of substituted stilbenes and bithiophenes to those calculated using standard classical force fields. We then implement adjustments to the OPLS-2005 force field in order to improve its ability to model such systems. Finally, we show the impact of these changes on the dihedral angle distributions, persistence lengths, and conjugation length distributions observed during molecular dynamics simulations of poly[2-methoxy-5-(2'-ethylhexyloxy)-p-phenylene vinylene] (MEH-PPV) and poly 3-hexylthiophene (P3HT), two of the most widely used conjugated polymers.

  10. An analytically linearized helicopter model with improved modeling accuracy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jensen, Patrick T.; Curtiss, H. C., Jr.; Mckillip, Robert M., Jr.

    1991-01-01

    An analytically linearized model for helicopter flight response including rotor blade dynamics and dynamic inflow, that was recently developed, was studied with the objective of increasing the understanding, the ease of use, and the accuracy of the model. The mathematical model is described along with a description of the UH-60A Black Hawk helicopter and flight test used to validate the model. To aid in utilization of the model for sensitivity analysis, a new, faster, and more efficient implementation of the model was developed. It is shown that several errors in the mathematical modeling of the system caused a reduction in accuracy. These errors in rotor force resolution, trim force and moment calculation, and rotor inertia terms were corrected along with improvements to the programming style and documentation. Use of a trim input file to drive the model is examined. Trim file errors in blade twist, control input phase angle, coning and lag angles, main and tail rotor pitch, and uniform induced velocity, were corrected. Finally, through direct comparison of the original and corrected model responses to flight test data, the effect of the corrections on overall model output is shown.

  11. Accurate numerical forward model for optimal retracking of SIRAL2 SAR echoes over open ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Phalippou, L.; Demeestere, F.

    2011-12-01

    The SAR mode of SIRAL-2 on board Cryosat-2 has been designed to measure primarily sea-ice and continental ice (Wingham et al. 2005). In 2005, K. Raney (KR, 2005) pointed out the improvements brought by SAR altimeter for open ocean. KR results were mostly based on 'rule of thumb' considerations on speckle noise reduction due to the higher PRF and to speckle decorrelation after SAR processing. In 2007, Phalippou and Enjolras (PE,2007) provided the theoretical background for optimal retracking of SAR echoes over ocean with a focus on the forward modelling of the power-waveforms. The accuracies of geophysical parameters (range, significant wave heights, and backscattering coefficient) retrieved from SAR altimeter data were derived accounting for SAR echo shape and speckle noise accurate modelling. The step forward to optimal retracking using numerical forward model (NFM) was also pointed out. NFM of the power waveform avoids analytical approximation, a warranty to minimise the geophysical dependent biases in the retrieval. NFM have been used for many years, in operational meteorology in particular, for retrieving temperature and humidity profiles from IR and microwave radiometers as the radiative transfer function is complex (Eyre, 1989). So far this technique was not used in the field of ocean conventional altimetry as analytical models (e.g. Brown's model for instance) were found to give sufficient accuracy. However, although NFM seems desirable even for conventional nadir altimetry, it becomes inevitable if one wish to process SAR altimeter data as the transfer function is too complex to be approximated by a simple analytical function. This was clearly demonstrated in PE 2007. The paper describes the background to SAR data retracking over open ocean. Since PE 2007 improvements have been brought to the forward model and it is shown that the altimeter on-ground and in flight characterisation (e.g antenna pattern range impulse response, azimuth impulse response

  12. An accurate halo model for fitting non-linear cosmological power spectra and baryonic feedback models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mead, A. J.; Peacock, J. A.; Heymans, C.; Joudaki, S.; Heavens, A. F.

    2015-12-01

    We present an optimized variant of the halo model, designed to produce accurate matter power spectra well into the non-linear regime for a wide range of cosmological models. To do this, we introduce physically motivated free parameters into the halo-model formalism and fit these to data from high-resolution N-body simulations. For a variety of Λ cold dark matter (ΛCDM) and wCDM models, the halo-model power is accurate to ≃ 5 per cent for k ≤ 10h Mpc-1 and z ≤ 2. An advantage of our new halo model is that it can be adapted to account for the effects of baryonic feedback on the power spectrum. We demonstrate this by fitting the halo model to power spectra from the OWLS (OverWhelmingly Large Simulations) hydrodynamical simulation suite via parameters that govern halo internal structure. We are able to fit all feedback models investigated at the 5 per cent level using only two free parameters, and we place limits on the range of these halo parameters for feedback models investigated by the OWLS simulations. Accurate predictions to high k are vital for weak-lensing surveys, and these halo parameters could be considered nuisance parameters to marginalize over in future analyses to mitigate uncertainty regarding the details of feedback. Finally, we investigate how lensing observables predicted by our model compare to those from simulations and from HALOFIT for a range of k-cuts and feedback models and quantify the angular scales at which these effects become important. Code to calculate power spectra from the model presented in this paper can be found at https://github.com/alexander-mead/hmcode.

  13. Hybrid Analytical and Data-Driven Modeling for Feed-Forward Robot Control †.

    PubMed

    Reinhart, René Felix; Shareef, Zeeshan; Steil, Jochen Jakob

    2017-02-08

    Feed-forward model-based control relies on models of the controlled plant, e.g., in robotics on accurate knowledge of manipulator kinematics or dynamics. However, mechanical and analytical models do not capture all aspects of a plant's intrinsic properties and there remain unmodeled dynamics due to varying parameters, unmodeled friction or soft materials. In this context, machine learning is an alternative suitable technique to extract non-linear plant models from data. However, fully data-based models suffer from inaccuracies as well and are inefficient if they include learning of well known analytical models. This paper thus argues that feed-forward control based on hybrid models comprising an analytical model and a learned error model can significantly improve modeling accuracy. Hybrid modeling here serves the purpose to combine the best of the two modeling worlds. The hybrid modeling methodology is described and the approach is demonstrated for two typical problems in robotics, i.e., inverse kinematics control and computed torque control. The former is performed for a redundant soft robot and the latter for a rigid industrial robot with redundant degrees of freedom, where a complete analytical model is not available for any of the platforms.

  14. Hybrid Analytical and Data-Driven Modeling for Feed-Forward Robot Control †

    PubMed Central

    Reinhart, René Felix; Shareef, Zeeshan; Steil, Jochen Jakob

    2017-01-01

    Feed-forward model-based control relies on models of the controlled plant, e.g., in robotics on accurate knowledge of manipulator kinematics or dynamics. However, mechanical and analytical models do not capture all aspects of a plant’s intrinsic properties and there remain unmodeled dynamics due to varying parameters, unmodeled friction or soft materials. In this context, machine learning is an alternative suitable technique to extract non-linear plant models from data. However, fully data-based models suffer from inaccuracies as well and are inefficient if they include learning of well known analytical models. This paper thus argues that feed-forward control based on hybrid models comprising an analytical model and a learned error model can significantly improve modeling accuracy. Hybrid modeling here serves the purpose to combine the best of the two modeling worlds. The hybrid modeling methodology is described and the approach is demonstrated for two typical problems in robotics, i.e., inverse kinematics control and computed torque control. The former is performed for a redundant soft robot and the latter for a rigid industrial robot with redundant degrees of freedom, where a complete analytical model is not available for any of the platforms. PMID:28208697

  15. Optimal Cluster Mill Pass Scheduling With an Accurate and Rapid New Strip Crown Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malik, Arif S.; Grandhi, Ramana V.; Zipf, Mark E.

    2007-05-01

    Besides the requirement to roll coiled sheet at high levels of productivity, the optimal pass scheduling of cluster-type reversing cold mills presents the added challenge of assigning mill parameters that facilitate the best possible strip flatness. The pressures of intense global competition, and the requirements for increasingly thinner, higher quality specialty sheet products that are more difficult to roll, continue to force metal producers to commission innovative flatness-control technologies. This means that during the on-line computerized set-up of rolling mills, the mathematical model should not only determine the minimum total number of passes and maximum rolling speed, it should simultaneously optimize the pass-schedule so that desired flatness is assured, either by manual or automated means. In many cases today, however, on-line prediction of strip crown and corresponding flatness for the complex cluster-type rolling mills is typically addressed either by trial and error, by approximate deflection models for equivalent vertical roll-stacks, or by non-physical pattern recognition style models. The abundance of the aforementioned methods is largely due to the complexity of cluster-type mill configurations and the lack of deflection models with sufficient accuracy and speed for on-line use. Without adequate assignment of the pass-schedule set-up parameters, it may be difficult or impossible to achieve the required strip flatness. In this paper, we demonstrate optimization of cluster mill pass-schedules using a new accurate and rapid strip crown model. This pass-schedule optimization includes computations of the predicted strip thickness profile to validate mathematical constraints. In contrast to many of the existing methods for on-line prediction of strip crown and flatness on cluster mills, the demonstrated method requires minimal prior tuning and no extensive training with collected mill data. To rapidly and accurately solve the multi-contact problem

  16. A parallel high-order accurate finite element nonlinear Stokes ice sheet model and benchmark experiments: A PARALLEL FEM STOKES ICE SHEET MODEL

    SciTech Connect

    Leng, Wei; Ju, Lili; Gunzburger, Max; Price, Stephen; Ringler, Todd

    2012-01-04

    The numerical modeling of glacier and ice sheet evolution is a subject of growing interest, in part because of the potential for models to inform estimates of global sea level change. This paper focuses on the development of a numerical model that determines the velocity and pressure fields within an ice sheet. Our numerical model features a high-fidelity mathematical model involving the nonlinear Stokes system and combinations of no-sliding and sliding basal boundary conditions, high-order accurate finite element discretizations based on variable resolution grids, and highly scalable parallel solution strategies, all of which contribute to a numerical model that can achieve accurate velocity and pressure approximations in a highly efficient manner. We demonstrate the accuracy and efficiency of our model by analytical solution tests, established ice sheet benchmark experiments, and comparisons with other well-established ice sheet models.

  17. Analytic model of electromagnetic fields around a plasma bubble in the blow-out regime

    SciTech Connect

    Yi, S. A.; Khudik, V.; Siemon, C.; Shvets, G.

    2013-01-15

    An analytic model of the electric and magnetic fields surrounding the nonlinear plasma 'bubble' formed around the high-current electron bunch in a plasma wakefield accelerator is developed. The model, justified by the results of particle-in-cell simulations, accurately captures the thin high-density plasma sheath and extended return current layer surrounding the bubble. The resulting global fields inside and outside the bubble are used to investigate electron self-injection in a plasma with a smooth density gradient. It is shown that accurate description of the current/density sheaths is crucial for quantitative description of self-injection.

  18. A simple, analytical, axisymmetric microburst model for downdraft estimation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vicroy, Dan D.

    1991-01-01

    A simple analytical microburst model was developed for use in estimating vertical winds from horizontal wind measurements. It is an axisymmetric, steady state model that uses shaping functions to satisfy the mass continuity equation and simulate boundary layer effects. The model is defined through four model variables: the radius and altitude of the maximum horizontal wind, a shaping function variable, and a scale factor. The model closely agrees with a high fidelity analytical model and measured data, particularily in the radial direction and at lower altitudes. At higher altitudes, the model tends to overestimate the wind magnitude relative to the measured data.

  19. Analytic Model For Estimation Of Cold Bulk Metal Forming Simulations

    SciTech Connect

    Skunca, Marko; Keran, Zdenka; Math, Miljenko

    2007-05-17

    Numerical simulation of bulk metal forming plays an important role in predicting a key parameters in cold forging. Comparison of numerical and experimental data is of great importance, but there is always a need of more universal analytical tools. Therefore, many papers besides experiment and simulation of a particular bulk metal forming technology, include an analytic model. In this paper an analytical model for evaluation of commercially available simulation program packages is proposed. Based on elementary theory of plasticity, being only geometry dependent, model represents a good analytical reference to estimate given modeling preferences like; element types, solver, remeshing influence and many others. Obtained, geometry dependent, stress fields compared with numerical data give a clear picture of numerical possibilities and limitations of particular modeling program package.

  20. Feedbacks Between Numerical and Analytical Models in Hydrogeology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zlotnik, V. A.; Cardenas, M. B.; Toundykov, D.; Cohn, S.

    2012-12-01

    Hydrogeology is a relatively young discipline which combines elements of Earth science and engineering. Mature fundamental disciplines (e.g., physics, chemistry, fluid mechanics) have centuries-long history of mathematical modeling even prior to discovery of Darcy's law. Thus, in hydrogeology, relatively few classic analytical models (such those by Theis, Polubarinova-Kochina, Philip, Toth, Henry, Dagan, Neuman) were developed by the early 1970's. The advent of computers and practical demands refocused mathematical models towards numerical techniques. With more diverse but less mathematically-oriented training, most hydrogeologists shifted from analytical methods to use of standardized computational software. Spatial variability in internal properties and external boundary conditions and geometry, and the added complexity of chemical and biological processes will remain major challenges for analytical modeling. Possibly, analytical techniques will play a subordinate role to numerical approaches in many applications. On the other hand, the rise of analytical element modeling of groundwater flow is a strong alternative to numerical models when data demand and computational efficiency is considered. The hallmark of analytical models - transparency and accuracy - will remain indispensable for scientific exploration of complex phenomena and for benchmarking numerical models. Therefore, there will always be feedbacks and complementarities between numerical and analytical techniques, as well as a certain ideological schism among various views to modeling. We illustrate the idea of feedbacks by reviewing evolution of Joszef Toth's analytical model of gravity driven flow systems. Toth's (1963) approach was to reduce the flow domain to a rectangle which allowed for closed-form solution of the governing equations. Succeeding numerical finite-element models by Freeze and Witherspoon (1966-1968) explored the effects of geometry and heterogeneity on regional groundwater flow

  1. Computational and analytical modeling of eye refractive surgery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cabrera, Delia

    As the number of corneal refractive procedures increases annually, concerns about their long-term stability and predictability have become the center of attention in the ophthalmic community. This thesis focuses on developing quantitative biomechanical models of the cornea that will overcome shortcomings of previous models and incorporate new observations of corneal elastic properties. Our intent is to provide a more accurate model of the corneal structure to guide current and future developments. The second chapter shows that neural networks could rapidly prototype practical solutions to obtain a better estimate of the average corneal power using the contrast and image size parameters provided by the topographic systems. After establishing improved measurements of the corneal shape the thesis focuses on the development of various corneal models. The analytical model proposed shows that geometric optics, corneal structural properties and surgical nomograms could be used to gain a better understanding of corneal response to surgical interventions. The predictions of this model are closer to the values provided by the published nomograms and clinical data than that obtained by the traditional geometric model. Three surgical procedures (Ultrafast Laser-Automated Lamellar Keratomileusis, Corneal Transplant and Intrastromal Refractive Keratectomy) were simulated using the finite element method. A new formulation was developed that simulates the changes on corneal curvature after refractive surgery when the stiffness inhomogeneities across the corneal thickness are considered. It has been shown that the predictability of the surgical outcome is improved when the stiffness inhomogeneities and nonlinearities of the deformations are included in the finite element simulations. Moreover, a finite element formulation has been developed first time to characterize the intrastromal refractive keratectomy procedure. An inhomogeneous (small displacements) model was identified as an

  2. Evaluation of higher order PMD effects using Jones matrix analytical models: a comparative study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferreira, M. F.

    2006-04-01

    A comparative study among the Jones matrix analytical models with high-order PMD is presented. The models that make use of an exponential expansion arrested up to second order or consider the dispersion vector as a Taylor series expansion do not give good results in the approximation of high-order PMD effects, because of the nonlimited behavior with respect to frequency of the modulus of their dispersion vectors. On the other hand, the analytical model which describes the dispersion vector as rotating on a circumference in the Stokes space is found to be the most accurate. Moreover, it can be used to obtain an analytical expression of the pulse broadening, which is often chosen as a quality-system parameter.

  3. Analytical and numerical modeling of non-collinear shear wave mixing at an imperfect interface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Ziyin; Nagy, Peter B.; Hassan, Waled

    2016-02-01

    Non-collinear shear wave mixing at an imperfect interface between two solids can be exploited for nonlinear ultrasonic assessment of bond quality. In this study we developed two analytical models for nonlinear imperfect interfaces. The first model uses a finite nonlinear interfacial stiffness representation of an imperfect interface of vanishing thickness, while the second model relies on a thin nonlinear interphase layer to represent an imperfect interface region. The second model is actually a derivative of the first model obtained by calculating the equivalent interfacial stiffness of a thin isotropic nonlinear interphase layer in the quasi-static approximation. The predictions of both analytical models were numerically verified by comparison to COMSOL finite element simulations. These models can accurately predict the excess nonlinearity caused by interface imperfections based on the strength of the reflected and transmitted mixed longitudinal waves produced by them under non-collinear shear wave interrogation.

  4. Analytical model for orbital debris environmental management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Talent, David L.

    1990-01-01

    A differential equation, also referred to as the PIB (particle-in-a-box) model, expressing the time rate of change of the number of objects in orbit, is developed, and its applicability is illustrated. The model can be used as a tool for the assessment of LEO environment stability, and as a starting point for the development of numerical evolutionary models. Within the context of the model, evolutionary scenarios are examined, and found to be sensitive to the growth rate. It is determined that the present environment is slightly unstable to catastrophic growth, and that the number of particles on orbit will continue to increase until approximately 2250-2350 AD, with a maximum of 2,000,000. The model is expandable to the more realistic (complex) case of multiple species in a multiple-tier system.

  5. Analytical model for thin-film SOI PIN-diode leakage current

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmidt, Andrei; Dreiner, Stefan; Vogt, Holger; Goehlich, Andreas; Paschen, Uwe

    2017-04-01

    An analytical model for the thin-film silicon-on-insulator pin-diode leakage current is presented. Particularly the back-gate potential influence on the leakage current is addressed. The two-dimensional Poisson equation is simplified and then solved including the influence of the back-gate potential. Subsequently the analytical model is verified by comparison with numerical simulation and measurements. For the verification of the model the dependence on the back-gate potential, reverse voltage, device geometry, doping concentration and -polarity is considered. In this procedure the interface recombination velocity is used as fitting parameter. The model verification shows an accurate modeling of the leakage current at full depletion in combination with a back-gate potential dependence. The usage of the model is limited to back-gate and reverse potentials close to full depletion state of the pin-diode.

  6. Retardation analytical model to extend service life

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Matejczyk, D.

    1984-01-01

    A fatigue crack growth model that incorporates crack growth retardation effects and is applicable to the materials characteristics and service environments of high performance LH2/LO2 engine systems was developed and tested.

  7. Improved Analytical Model for Infiltration Towards the Water Table

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Avina, J. L.; Mishra, P. K.

    2015-12-01

    We present mathematical model which describes one dimensional flow of water from the land surface to the water table. Following Mishra and Neuman (2010), we consider four-parameter exponential model to describe soil-water characteristics curves. A system with initial flux into soil from above and boundary conditions at the water table and soil surface is considered. Analytical solutions to two cases (homogeneous and layered soils) of water infiltration towards the water table and the prescribed initial and boundary conditions are presented. We conclude by comparing the developed model with existing analytical and numerical models.

  8. Evaluating Child Welfare policies with decision-analytic simulation models

    PubMed Central

    Goldhaber-Fiebert, Jeremy D.; Bailey, Stephanie L.; Hurlburt, Michael S.; Zhang, Jinjin; Snowden, Lonnie R.; Wulczyn, Fred; Landsverk, John; Horwitz, Sarah M.

    2013-01-01

    The objective was to demonstrate decision-analytic modeling in support of Child Welfare policymakers considering implementing evidence-based interventions. Outcomes included permanency (e.g., adoptions) and stability (e.g., foster placement changes). Analyses of a randomized trial of KEEP -- a foster parenting intervention -- and NSCAW-1 estimated placement change rates and KEEP's effects. A microsimulation model generalized these findings to other Child Welfare systems. The model projected that KEEP could increase permanency and stability, identifying strategies targeting higher-risk children and geographical regions that achieve benefits efficiently. Decision-analytic models enable planners to gauge the value of potential implementations. PMID:21861204

  9. Accurate Analytic Potential Functions for the a ^3Π_1 and X ^1Σ^+ States of {IBr}

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yukiya, Tokio; Nishimiya, Nobuo; Suzuki, Masao; Le Roy, Robert

    2014-06-01

    Spectra of IBr in various wavelength regions have been measured by a number of researchers using traditional diffraction grating and microwave methods, as well as using high-resolution laser techniques combined with a Fourier transform spectrometer. In a previous paper at this meeting, we reported a preliminary determination of analytic potential energy functions for the A ^3Π_1 and X ^1Σ^+ states of IBr from a direct-potential-fit (DPF) analysis of all of the data available at that time. That study also confirmed the presence of anomalous fluctuations in the v--dependence of the first differences of the inertial rotational constant, Δ Bv=Bv+1-Bv in the A ^3Π_1 state for vibrational levels with v'(A) in the mid 20's. However, our previous experience in a recent study of the analogous A ^3Π_1-X ^1Σ_g^+ system of Br_2 suggested that the effect of such fluctuations may be overcome if sufficient data are available. The present work therefore reports new measurements of transitions to levels in the v'(A)=23-26 region, together with a new global DPF analysis that uses ``robust" least-squares fits to average properly over the effect of such fluctuations in order to provide an optimum delineation of the underlying potential energy curve(s). L.E.Selin,Ark. Fys. 21,479(1962) E. Tiemann and Th. Moeller, Z. Naturforsch. A 30,986 (1975) E.M. Weinstock and A. Preston, J. Mol. Spectrosc. 70, 188 (1978) D.R.T. Appadoo, P.F. Bernath, and R.J. Le Roy, Can. J. Phys. 72, 1265 (1994) N. Nishimiya, T. Yukiya and M. Suzuki, J. Mol. Spectrosc. 173, 8 (1995). T. Yukiya, N. Nishimiya, and R.J. Le Roy, Paper MF12 at the 65th Ohio State University International Symposium on Molecular Spectroscopy, Columbus, Ohio, June 20-24, 2011. T. Yukiya, N. Nishimiya, Y. Samajima, K. Yamaguchi, M. Suzuki, C.D. Boone, I. Ozier and R.J. Le Roy, J. Mol. Spectrosc. 283, 32 (2013) J.K.G. Watson, J. Mol. Spectrosc. 219, 326 (2003).

  10. Analytic modeling of the subthreshold behavior in MOSFET

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, C. W.; Hsieh, T. X.

    2000-09-01

    An analytic model is derived to describe the bias-dependent behavior of the subthreshold swing in MOSFETs for the uniform channel and the ion-implanted channel, and is compared to two-dimensional simulation, Tsividis' model and Brews' model. This simple analytical model confirms that the subthreshold swing is a function of the gate-source bias and exhibits a global minimum in the weak inversion region. This model is based on Tsividis' current equations and assumes that the surface potential difference between the drain and the source is small for the gate-source voltage below the threshold voltage. This yields a conventional exponential form of the subthreshold current, and the subthreshold swing can be obtained analytically from this current equation.

  11. Hybrid experimental/analytical models of structural dynamics - Creation and use for predictions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Balmes, Etienne

    1993-01-01

    An original complete methodology for the construction of predictive models of damped structural vibrations is introduced. A consistent definition of normal and complex modes is given which leads to an original method to accurately identify non-proportionally damped normal mode models. A new method to create predictive hybrid experimental/analytical models of damped structures is introduced, and the ability of hybrid models to predict the response to system configuration changes is discussed. Finally a critical review of the overall methodology is made by application to the case of the MIT/SERC interferometer testbed.

  12. Analytical modelling of soil effects on electromagnetic induction sensor for humanitarian demining

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vasić, D.; Ambruš, D.; Bilas, V.

    2013-06-01

    Accurate compensation of the soil effect is essential for a new generation of sensitive classification-based electromagnetic induction landmine detectors. We present an analytical model for evaluation of the soil effect suitable for straightforward numerical implementation. The modelled soil consists of arbitrary number of conductive and magnetic layers. The solution region is truncated leading to the solution in form of a series rather than infinite integrals. Frequency-dependent permeability is inherent to the model, and time domain analysis can be made using DFT. In order to illustrate the model usage, we evaluate performances of three metal detector designs.

  13. An Analytical Model of Tribocharging in Regolith

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carter, D. P.; Hartzell, C. M.

    2015-12-01

    Nongravitational forces, including electrostatic forces and cohesion, can drive the behavior of regolith in low gravity environments such as the Moon and asteroids. Regolith is the 'skin' of solid planetary bodies: it is the outer coating that is observed by orbiters and the first material contacted by landers. Triboelectric charging, the phenomenon by which electrical charge accumulates during the collision or rubbing of two surfaces, has been found to occur in initially electrically neutral granular mixtures. Although charge transfer is often attributed to chemical differences between the different materials, charge separation has also been found to occur in mixtures containing grains of a single material, but with a variety of grain sizes. In such cases, the charge always separates according to grain size; typically the smaller grains acquire a more negative charge than the larger grains. Triboelectric charging may occur in a variety of planetary phenomena (including mass wasting and dust storms) as well as during spacecraft-surface interactions (including sample collection and wheel motion). Interactions between charged grains or with the solar wind plasma could produce regolith motion. However, a validated, predictive model of triboelectric charging between dielectric grains has not yet been developed. A model for such size-dependent charge separation will be presented, demonstrating how random collisions between initially electrically neutral grains lead to net migration of electrons toward the smaller grains. The model is applicable to a wide range of single-material granular mixtures, including those with unusual or wildly varying size distributions, and suggests a possible mechanism for the reversal of the usual size-dependent charge polarity described above. This is a significant improvement over existing charge exchange models, which are restricted to two discrete grains sizes and provide severely limited estimates for charge magnitude. We will also

  14. Analytical results for a three-phase traffic model.

    PubMed

    Huang, Ding-wei

    2003-10-01

    We study analytically a cellular automaton model, which is able to present three different traffic phases on a homogeneous highway. The characteristics displayed in the fundamental diagram can be well discerned by analyzing the evolution of density configurations. Analytical expressions for the traffic flow and shock speed are obtained. The synchronized flow in the intermediate-density region is the result of aggressive driving scheme and determined mainly by the stochastic noise.

  15. Analytical model for screening potential CO2 repositories

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Okwen, R.T.; Stewart, M.T.; Cunningham, J.A.

    2011-01-01

    Assessing potential repositories for geologic sequestration of carbon dioxide using numerical models can be complicated, costly, and time-consuming, especially when faced with the challenge of selecting a repository from a multitude of potential repositories. This paper presents a set of simple analytical equations (model), based on the work of previous researchers, that could be used to evaluate the suitability of candidate repositories for subsurface sequestration of carbon dioxide. We considered the injection of carbon dioxide at a constant rate into a confined saline aquifer via a fully perforated vertical injection well. The validity of the analytical model was assessed via comparison with the TOUGH2 numerical model. The metrics used in comparing the two models include (1) spatial variations in formation pressure and (2) vertically integrated brine saturation profile. The analytical model and TOUGH2 show excellent agreement in their results when similar input conditions and assumptions are applied in both. The analytical model neglects capillary pressure and the pressure dependence of fluid properties. However, simulations in TOUGH2 indicate that little error is introduced by these simplifications. Sensitivity studies indicate that the agreement between the analytical model and TOUGH2 depends strongly on (1) the residual brine saturation, (2) the difference in density between carbon dioxide and resident brine (buoyancy), and (3) the relationship between relative permeability and brine saturation. The results achieved suggest that the analytical model is valid when the relationship between relative permeability and brine saturation is linear or quasi-linear and when the irreducible saturation of brine is zero or very small. ?? 2011 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.

  16. Analytical Models for Parallel Processing Systems

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-05-01

    v12 s 12, and A u2 2 z r2 v1 2 s22 Then using the MVA algorithm for mixed QNs [REI 801, we have, - Qi(N) - sil[l+ L11 (N-1l)/(l-ul2 ) .. 021IN) 0 s2111...Sasolution [CHA77]. The QN can then be analyzed by the fast and simple Mean Value Analysis ( MVA ) algorithm of Reiser and Lavenberg [REI8]. However, an...extended MVA algorithm developed by Bard [BAR791. At the higher level of the hierarchy, the behaviour or structure of jobs is modeled by means of a

  17. Analytical model for fast-shock ignition

    SciTech Connect

    Ghasemi, S. A. Farahbod, A. H.; Sobhanian, S.

    2014-07-15

    A model and its improvements are introduced for a recently proposed approach to inertial confinement fusion, called fast-shock ignition (FSI). The analysis is based upon the gain models of fast ignition, shock ignition and considerations for the fast electrons penetration into the pre-compressed fuel to examine the formation of an effective central hot spot. Calculations of fast electrons penetration into the dense fuel show that if the initial electron kinetic energy is of the order ∼4.5 MeV, the electrons effectively reach the central part of the fuel. To evaluate more realistically the performance of FSI approach, we have used a quasi-two temperature electron energy distribution function of Strozzi (2012) and fast ignitor energy formula of Bellei (2013) that are consistent with 3D PIC simulations for different values of fast ignitor laser wavelength and coupling efficiency. The general advantages of fast-shock ignition in comparison with the shock ignition can be estimated to be better than 1.3 and it is seen that the best results can be obtained for the fuel mass around 1.5 mg, fast ignitor laser wavelength ∼0.3  micron and the shock ignitor energy weight factor about 0.25.

  18. Analytical Modeling of Reinforced Concrete in Tension

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-04-01

    0,26,6*0/, TODMFE93 COMMON /SOFT/ ISCODE,WWCC,ELWW,GGFF, DDAA TDFE 42 IF (MODEL.EQ.5) READ(IIN,1005) ISCODE,WWCC,ELWW,GGFF, DDAA TDFE 101 1005 FORMAT...15,4F10.0) TDFE1219 COMMON /SOFT/ ISCODE,WWCC,ELWW,GGFF, DDAA MATRT214 WRITE (6,2239) ISCODE,WWCC,ELWW,GGFF, DDAA MATRT244 2239 FORMAT(/38H (8) CODE FOR...ELEMENT WIDTH (ELWW) IF10.5, 5 /38H FRACTURE ENERGY (GGFF) IF10.8, 6 /38H MAXIMUM AGGREGATE SIZE ( DDAA ) ,F10.5) CHANGES IN ELT2D4.F77 IDW=18*ITWO ELT2D438

  19. Maximum Likelihood Estimation in Meta-Analytic Structural Equation Modeling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oort, Frans J.; Jak, Suzanne

    2016-01-01

    Meta-analytic structural equation modeling (MASEM) involves fitting models to a common population correlation matrix that is estimated on the basis of correlation coefficients that are reported by a number of independent studies. MASEM typically consist of two stages. The method that has been found to perform best in terms of statistical…

  20. Tests characterizing bioprocessor hardware for analytical modeling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gustavino, S.; Mccormack, A.

    1992-01-01

    The tests outlined in this paper were used to characterize the hardware components of the Salad Machine, a small NASA-developed bioprocessor. The data from these tests are presented, and the methods by which this data can be integrated into system mathematical models are briefly discussed. The subsystems and physical processes discussed include the lighting system, the air loop (condensing heat exchanger and the blower), heat transfer to the surroundings, and leakage. Through this effort it was learned that in the development of a test protocol, care should be taken to order the tests such that environmental parameters, particularly humidity, require as few large adjustments as possible. Sensor calibration and installation take a substantial amount of time, which should be built into the test schedule. Two properties were particularly hard to quantify: the air flow rate and the energy from the lighting system entering into the growth volume. Flow rate can be measured using the appropriate device for the system configuration and airflow. Lighting system radiation level was measured using three methods. The results of these methods varied substantially, putting off conclusive quantification of this value.

  1. Combined experimental/analytical modeling of shell/payload structures

    SciTech Connect

    Martinez, D.R.; Miller, A.K.; Carne, T.G.

    1985-12-01

    This study evaluates the accuracy of computed modal frequencies obtained from a combined experimental/analytical model of a shell/payload structure. A component mode synthesis technique was used which incorporated free modes and residual effects. The total structure is physically divided into the two subsystems which are connected through stiff joints. The payload was tested to obtain its free-free modes, while a finite element model of the shell was analyzed to obtain its modal description. Both the translational and rotational components of the experimental mode shapes at the payload interface were used in the coupling. Sensitivity studies were also performed to determine the effect of neglecting the residual terms of the payload. Results from a previous study of a combined experimental/analytical model for a beam structure are also given. The beam structure was used to examine the basic procedures and difficulties in experimentally measuring, and analytically accounting for the rotational and residual quantities.

  2. Analytical models of optical refraction in the troposphere.

    PubMed

    Nener, Brett D; Fowkes, Neville; Borredon, Laurent

    2003-05-01

    An extremely accurate but simple asymptotic description (with known error) is obtained for the path of a ray propagating over a curved Earth with radial variations in refractive index. The result is sufficiently simple that analytic solutions for the path can be obtained for linear and quadratic index profiles. As well as rendering the inverse problem trivial for these profiles, this formulation shows that images are uniformly magnified in the vertical direction when viewed through a quadratic refractive-index profile. Nonuniform vertical distortions occur for higher-order refractive-index profiles.

  3. Creation of Anatomically Accurate Computer-Aided Design (CAD) Solid Models from Medical Images

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stewart, John E.; Graham, R. Scott; Samareh, Jamshid A.; Oberlander, Eric J.; Broaddus, William C.

    1999-01-01

    Most surgical instrumentation and implants used in the world today are designed with sophisticated Computer-Aided Design (CAD)/Computer-Aided Manufacturing (CAM) software. This software automates the mechanical development of a product from its conceptual design through manufacturing. CAD software also provides a means of manipulating solid models prior to Finite Element Modeling (FEM). Few surgical products are designed in conjunction with accurate CAD models of human anatomy because of the difficulty with which these models are created. We have developed a novel technique that creates anatomically accurate, patient specific CAD solids from medical images in a matter of minutes.

  4. An analytical model of the HINT performance metric

    SciTech Connect

    Snell, Q.O.; Gustafson, J.L.

    1996-10-01

    The HINT benchmark was developed to provide a broad-spectrum metric for computers and to measure performance over the full range of memory sizes and time scales. We have extended our understanding of why HINT performance curves look the way they do and can now predict the curves using an analytical model based on simple hardware specifications as input parameters. Conversely, by fitting the experimental curves with the analytical model, hardware specifications such as memory performance can be inferred to provide insight into the nature of a given computer system.

  5. Analytic model to predict the strength of tendon repairs.

    PubMed

    Lotz, J C; Hariharan, J S; Diao, E

    1998-07-01

    We developed an analytic model to predict suture load-sharing immediately after flexor tendon repair in the hand. Tendon repair was mathematically modeled as two nonlinear springs in parallel, representing separate core and peripheral sutures that were in series with a third nonlinear spring representing the tendon. To serve as a basis for, and validation of, our analytic model, fresh human flexor digitorum profundus tendons were harvested and mechanically tested either intact or after surgical repair in a variety of ways: core suture alone, superficial peripheral suture alone, deep peripheral suture alone, core suture plus superficial peripheral suture, and core suture plus deep peripheral suture. The stiffness and strength of the composite repairs predicted with use of the analytic model were comparable with those determined experimentally. Furthermore, the model predicted inequities in suture load-sharing, with 64% of the applied load carried by the peripheral suture when it was placed superficially, as compared with 77% when the peripheral suture was placed deep. Our results demonstrate a disparity in load-sharing within composite suture systems, the rectification of which may lead to significant improvement in the repair strength. To this end, we expect that our analytic model will serve as a basis for the design of more efficient, and consequently stronger, suture techniques.

  6. A DPF Analysis Yields Quantum Mechanically Accurate Analytic Potential Energy Functions for the a ^1Σ^+ and X ^1Σ^+ States of NaH

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le Roy, Robert J.; Walji, Sadru; Sentjens, Katherine

    2013-06-01

    Alkali hydride diatomic molecules have long been the object of spectroscopic studies. However, their small reduced mass makes them species for which the conventional semiclassical-based methods of analysis tend to have the largest errors. To date, the only quantum-mechanically accurate direct-potential-fit (DPF) analysis for one of these molecules was the one for LiH reported by Coxon and Dickinson. The present paper extends this level of analysis to NaH, and reports a DPF analysis of all available spectroscopic data for the A ^1Σ^+-X ^1Σ^+ system of NaH which yields analytic potential energy functions for these two states that account for those data (on average) to within the experimental uncertainties. W.C. Stwalley, W.T. Zemke and S.C. Yang, J. Phys. Chem. Ref. Data {20}, 153-187 (1991). J.A. Coxon and C.S. Dickinson, J. Chem. Phys. {121}, 8378 (2004).

  7. 4-Component correlated all-electron study on Eka-actinium Fluoride (E121F) including Gaunt interaction: Accurate analytical form, bonding and influence on rovibrational spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amador, Davi H. T.; de Oliveira, Heibbe C. B.; Sambrano, Julio R.; Gargano, Ricardo; de Macedo, Luiz Guilherme M.

    2016-10-01

    A prolapse-free basis set for Eka-Actinium (E121, Z = 121), numerical atomic calculations on E121, spectroscopic constants and accurate analytical form for the potential energy curve of diatomic E121F obtained at 4-component all-electron CCSD(T) level including Gaunt interaction are presented. The results show a strong and polarized bond (≈181 kcal/mol in strength) between E121 and F, the outermost frontier molecular orbitals from E121F should be fairly similar to the ones from AcF and there is no evidence of break of periodic trends. Moreover, the Gaunt interaction, although small, is expected to influence considerably the overall rovibrational spectra.

  8. Analytic models of the chemical evolution of galaxies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clayton, Donald D.

    1986-01-01

    Techniques are described for constructing analytic models of the chemical evolution of galaxies subject to infall of metal-poor material onto a maturing disk. A class of linear models is discussed which takes the star-formation rate within a defined region to be proportional to the mass of interstellar gas within that region, and the instantaneous recycling approximation is adopted. The solutions are obtained by approximately matching the infall rate to parametrized familiies of functions for which the equations are exactly soluble. The masses, the primary and secondary metallicities, and the gas concentrations of radioactive chronometers can all then be analytically expressed. Surveys of galactic abundances in location and in time can be compared to the parameter spaces of the analytic representations.

  9. Comparison of distance measures in spatial analytical modeling for health service planning

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background Several methodological approaches have been used to estimate distance in health service research. In this study, focusing on cardiac catheterization services, Euclidean, Manhattan, and the less widely known Minkowski distance metrics are used to estimate distances from patient residence to hospital. Distance metrics typically produce less accurate estimates than actual measurements, but each metric provides a single model of travel over a given network. Therefore, distance metrics, unlike actual measurements, can be directly used in spatial analytical modeling. Euclidean distance is most often used, but unlikely the most appropriate metric. Minkowski distance is a more promising method. Distances estimated with each metric are contrasted with road distance and travel time measurements, and an optimized Minkowski distance is implemented in spatial analytical modeling. Methods Road distance and travel time are calculated from the postal code of residence of each patient undergoing cardiac catheterization to the pertinent hospital. The Minkowski metric is optimized, to approximate travel time and road distance, respectively. Distance estimates and distance measurements are then compared using descriptive statistics and visual mapping methods. The optimized Minkowski metric is implemented, via the spatial weight matrix, in a spatial regression model identifying socio-economic factors significantly associated with cardiac catheterization. Results The Minkowski coefficient that best approximates road distance is 1.54; 1.31 best approximates travel time. The latter is also a good predictor of road distance, thus providing the best single model of travel from patient's residence to hospital. The Euclidean metric and the optimal Minkowski metric are alternatively implemented in the regression model, and the results compared. The Minkowski method produces more reliable results than the traditional Euclidean metric. Conclusion Road distance and travel time

  10. Fast and accurate calculation of dilute quantum gas using Uehling-Uhlenbeck model equation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yano, Ryosuke

    2017-02-01

    The Uehling-Uhlenbeck (U-U) model equation is studied for the fast and accurate calculation of a dilute quantum gas. In particular, the direct simulation Monte Carlo (DSMC) method is used to solve the U-U model equation. DSMC analysis based on the U-U model equation is expected to enable the thermalization to be accurately obtained using a small number of sample particles and the dilute quantum gas dynamics to be calculated in a practical time. Finally, the applicability of DSMC analysis based on the U-U model equation to the fast and accurate calculation of a dilute quantum gas is confirmed by calculating the viscosity coefficient of a Bose gas on the basis of the Green-Kubo expression and the shock layer of a dilute Bose gas around a cylinder.

  11. An efficient and accurate model of the coax cable feeding structure for FEM simulations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gong, Jian; Volakis, John L.

    1995-01-01

    An efficient and accurate coax cable feed model is proposed for microstrip or cavity-backed patch antennas in the context of a hybrid finite element method (FEM). A TEM mode at the cavity-cable junction is assumed for the FEM truncation and system excitation. Of importance in this implementation is that the cavity unknowns are related to the model fields by enforcing an equipotential condition rather than field continuity. This scheme proved quite accurate and may be applied to other decomposed systems as a connectivity constraint. Comparisons of our predictions with input impedance measurements are presented and demonstrate the substantially improved accuracy of the proposed model.

  12. A Three-Dimensional Analytic Model for the Scattering of a Spherical Bush

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dickinson, Robert E.; Zhou, Liming; Tian, Yuhong; Liu, Qing; Lavergne, Thomas; Pinty, Bernard; Schaaf, Crystal B.; Knyazikhin, Yuri

    2008-01-01

    Advanced climate models require a more realistic description of canopy radiation with reasonable computational efficiency. This paper develops the mathematics of scattering from a spherical object conceptualized to be a spherical bush to provide a building block that helps to address this need of climate models. It is composed of a homogeneous distribution of individual smaller objects that scatter isotropically. In the limit of small optical depth, incident radiation will scatter isotropically as the sum of that scattered by all the individual scatterers, but at large optical depth the radiation leaving the spherical bush in a given direction is reduced by mutual shadowing of the smaller objects. In the single scattering limit, the scattering phase function and so the albedo are obtained by simple but accurate analytic expressions derived from analytic integration and numerical evaluation. Except in the limit of thin canopies, the scattering and hence albedos are qualitatively and quantitatively different than those derived from 1-D modeling.

  13. Bayesian parameter estimation of a k-ε model for accurate jet-in-crossflow simulations

    SciTech Connect

    Ray, Jaideep; Lefantzi, Sophia; Arunajatesan, Srinivasan; Dechant, Lawrence

    2016-05-31

    Reynolds-averaged Navier–Stokes models are not very accurate for high-Reynolds-number compressible jet-in-crossflow interactions. The inaccuracy arises from the use of inappropriate model parameters and model-form errors in the Reynolds-averaged Navier–Stokes model. In this study, the hypothesis is pursued that Reynolds-averaged Navier–Stokes predictions can be significantly improved by using parameters inferred from experimental measurements of a supersonic jet interacting with a transonic crossflow.

  14. Modeling Analyte Transport and Capture in Porous Bead Sensors

    PubMed Central

    Chou, Jie; Lennart, Alexis; Wong, Jorge; Ali, Mehnaaz F.; Floriano, Pierre N.; Christodoulides, Nicolaos; Camp, James; McDevitt, John T.

    2013-01-01

    Porous agarose microbeads, with high surface to volume ratios and high binding densities, are attracting attention as highly sensitive, affordable sensor elements for a variety of high performance bioassays. While such polymer microspheres have been extensively studied and reported on previously and are now moving into real-world clinical practice, very little work has been completed to date to model the convection, diffusion, and binding kinetics of soluble reagents captured within such fibrous networks. Here, we report the development of a three-dimensional computational model and provide the initial evidence for its agreement with experimental outcomes derived from the capture and detection of representative protein and genetic biomolecules in 290μm porous beads. We compare this model to antibody-mediated capture of C-reactive protein and bovine serum albumin, along with hybridization of oligonucleotide sequences to DNA probes. These results suggest that due to the porous interior of the agarose bead, internal analyte transport is both diffusion- and convection-based, and regardless of the nature of analyte, the bead interiors reveal an interesting trickle of convection-driven internal flow. Based on this model, the internal to external flow rate ratio is found to be in the range of 1:3100 to 1:170 for beads with agarose concentration ranging from 0.5% to 8% for the sensor ensembles here studied. Further, both model and experimental evidence suggest that binding kinetics strongly affect analyte distribution of captured reagents within the beads. These findings reveal that high association constants create a steep moving boundary in which unbound analytes are held back at the periphery of the bead sensor. Low association constants create a more shallow moving boundary in which unbound analytes diffuse further into the bead before binding. These models agree with experimental evidence and thus serve as a new tool set for the study of bio-agent transport processes

  15. An Analytical Model for Learning: An Applied Approach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kassebaum, Peter Arthur

    A mediated-learning package, geared toward non-traditional students, was developed for use in the College of Marin's cultural anthropology courses. An analytical model for learning was used in the development of the package, utilizing concepts related to learning objectives, programmed instruction, Gestalt psychology, cognitive psychology, and…

  16. Fitting Meta-Analytic Structural Equation Models with Complex Datasets

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Sandra Jo; Polanin, Joshua R.; Lipsey, Mark W.

    2016-01-01

    A modification of the first stage of the standard procedure for two-stage meta-analytic structural equation modeling for use with large complex datasets is presented. This modification addresses two common problems that arise in such meta-analyses: (a) primary studies that provide multiple measures of the same construct and (b) the correlation…

  17. FACTOR ANALYTIC MODELS OF CLUSTERED MULTIVARIATE DATA WITH INFORMATIVE CENSORING

    EPA Science Inventory

    This paper describes a general class of factor analytic models for the analysis of clustered multivariate data in the presence of informative missingness. We assume that there are distinct sets of cluster-level latent variables related to the primary outcomes and to the censorin...

  18. An Evaluation of Cluster Analytic Approaches to Initial Model Specification.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bacon, Donald R.

    2001-01-01

    Evaluated the performance of several alternative cluster analytic approaches to initial model specification using population parameter analyses and a Monte Carlo simulation. Of the six cluster approaches evaluated, the one using the correlations of item correlations as a proximity metric and average linking as a clustering algorithm performed the…

  19. Analytical modeling of printed metasurface cavities for computational imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    F. Imani, Mohammadreza; Sleasman, Timothy; Gollub, Jonah N.; Smith, David R.

    2016-10-01

    We derive simple analytical expressions to model the electromagnetic response of an electrically large printed cavity. The analytical model is then used to develop printed cavities for microwave imaging purposes. The proposed cavity is excited by a cylindrical source and has boundaries formed by subwavelength metallic cylinders (vias) placed at subwavelength distances apart. Given their small size, the electric currents induced on the vias are assumed to have no angular dependence. Applying this approximation simplifies the electromagnetic problem to a matrix equation which can be solved to directly compute the electric current induced on each via. Once the induced currents are known, the electromagnetic field inside the cavity can be computed for every location. We verify the analytical model by comparing its prediction to full-wave simulations. To utilize this cavity in imaging settings, we perforate one side of the printed cavity with radiative slots such that they act as the physical layer of a computational imaging system. An analytical approximation for the slots is also developed, enabling us to obtain estimates of the cavity performance in imaging scenarios. This ability allows us to make informed decisions on the design of the printed metasurface cavity. The utility of the proposed model is further highlighted by demonstrating high-quality experimental imaging; performance metrics, which are consistent between theory and experiment, are also estimated.

  20. Analytical modeling of organic solar cells and photodiodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Altazin, S.; Clerc, R.; Gwoziecki, R.; Pananakakis, G.; Ghibaudo, G.; Serbutoviez, C.

    2011-10-01

    An analytical and physically based expression of organic solar cell I-V characteristic under dark and illuminated conditions has been derived. This model has been found in very good agreement with both experimental data and drift-diffusion numerical simulations accounting for the coupling with Poisson equation and optical propagation.

  1. Analytical Models of Legislative Texts for Muslim Scholars

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alwan, Ammar Abdullah Naseh; Yusoff, Mohd Yakubzulkifli Bin Mohd; Al-Hami, Mohammad Said M.

    2011-01-01

    The significance of the analytical models in traditional Islamic studies is that they contribute in sharpening the intellectual capacity of the students of Islamic studies. Research literature in Islamic studies has descriptive side predominantly; the information is gathered and compiled and rarely analyzed properly. This weakness is because of…

  2. Analytic model of electron self-injection in a plasma wakefield accelerator in the strongly nonlinear bubble regime

    SciTech Connect

    Yi, S. A.; Khudik, V.; Siemon, C.; Shvets, G.

    2012-12-21

    Self-injection of background electrons in plasma wakefield accelerators in the highly nonlinear bubble regime is analyzed using particle-in-cell and semi-analytic modeling. It is shown that the return current in the bubble sheath layer is crucial for accurate determination of the trapped particle trajectories.

  3. Analytic Sensitivities for Shape Optimization in Equivalent Plate Structural Wing Models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Livne, Eli

    1994-01-01

    Equivalent plate modeling techniques based on Ritz analysis with simple polynomials prove to be efficient tools for structural modeling of wings in the preliminary design stage. Accuracy problems are encountered, however, when these models are used to obtain finite difference behavior sensitivities with respect to planform shape. The accuracy problems are associated with the poor numerical conditioning of static and eigenvalue equations. As higher-order polynomials are being used to Improve the analysis itself, the more sensitive is the finite difference derivative to the step size used. This article describes a formulation of wing equivalent plate modeling in which it is simple to obtain analytic, explicit expressions for stiffness and mass matrix elements without the need to perform numerical integration. This formulation leads naturally to analytic expressions for the derivatives of displacements, stresses, and natural frequencies with respect to shape design variables. This article examines the accuracy of finite difference derivatives compared with the analytic derivatives, and shows that In some cases it is impossible to obtain any information of value by finite differences. Analytic sensitivities, in this case, are still sufficiently accurate for design optimization.

  4. An analytic model of toroidal half-wave oscillations: Implication on plasma density estimates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bulusu, Jayashree; Sinha, A. K.; Vichare, Geeta

    2015-06-01

    The developed analytic model for toroidal oscillations under infinitely conducting ionosphere ("Rigid-end") has been extended to "Free-end" case when the conjugate ionospheres are infinitely resistive. The present direct analytic model (DAM) is the only analytic model that provides the field line structures of electric and magnetic field oscillations associated with the "Free-end" toroidal wave for generalized plasma distribution characterized by the power law ρ = ρo(ro/r)m, where m is the density index and r is the geocentric distance to the position of interest on the field line. This is important because different regions in the magnetosphere are characterized by different m. Significant improvement over standard WKB solution and an excellent agreement with the numerical exact solution (NES) affirms validity and advancement of DAM. In addition, we estimate the equatorial ion number density (assuming H+ atom as the only species) using DAM, NES, and standard WKB for Rigid-end as well as Free-end case and illustrate their respective implications in computing ion number density. It is seen that WKB method overestimates the equatorial ion density under Rigid-end condition and underestimates the same under Free-end condition. The density estimates through DAM are far more accurate than those computed through WKB. The earlier analytic estimates of ion number density were restricted to m = 6, whereas DAM can account for generalized m while reproducing the density for m = 6 as envisaged by earlier models.

  5. Improving light propagation Monte Carlo simulations with accurate 3D modeling of skin tissue

    SciTech Connect

    Paquit, Vincent C; Price, Jeffery R; Meriaudeau, Fabrice; Tobin Jr, Kenneth William

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, we present a 3D light propagation model to simulate multispectral reflectance images of large skin surface areas. In particular, we aim to simulate more accurately the effects of various physiological properties of the skin in the case of subcutaneous vein imaging compared to existing models. Our method combines a Monte Carlo light propagation model, a realistic three-dimensional model of the skin using parametric surfaces and a vision system for data acquisition. We describe our model in detail, present results from the Monte Carlo modeling and compare our results with those obtained with a well established Monte Carlo model and with real skin reflectance images.

  6. Analytical approach to quasiperiodic beam Coulomb field modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rubtsova, I. D.

    2016-09-01

    The paper is devoted to modeling of space charge field of quasiperiodic axial- symmetric beam. Particle beam is simulated by charged disks. Two analytical Coulomb field expressions are presented, namely, Fourier-Bessel series and trigonometric polynomial. Both expressions permit the integral representation. It provides the possibility of integro-differential beam dynamics description. Consequently, when beam dynamics optimization problem is considered, it is possible to derive the analytical formula for quality functional gradient and to apply directed optimization methods. In addition, the paper presents the method of testing of space charge simulation code.

  7. A first order analytical TOD sensor performance model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bijl, Piet; Hogervorst, Maarten A.

    2016-10-01

    In this paper we present a new, analytical TOD model. The model provides an estimate of the TOD curve for an Optical, Electro-Optical or Thermal Infrared imaging system based on a limited number of essential system parameters. This is useful to get a quick Target Acquisition range prediction but also serves as a first order input to an image-based TOD simulation model. The model is based on a human observer performance dataset on TOD test patterns, systematically degraded by simulated sensor effects. The model is validated against a number of historical TOD tests on visual and thermal camera systems and provides excellent performance predictions.

  8. Analytical model for a polymer optical fiber under dynamic bending

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leal Junior, Arnaldo G.; Frizera, Anselmo; Pontes, Maria José

    2017-08-01

    Advantages such as sensibility in bending, high fracture toughness, and high sensibility in strain enable the application of polymer optical fibers as sensors for strain, temperature, level, and for angle measurements. In order to enhance the sensor design, this paper presents an analytical model for a side polished polymer optical fiber under dynamic bending. Differently from analytical models that use only the geometrical optics approach with no correction for the stress-optical effects, here the refractive index is corrected at every bending angle to consider the stress-optical effects observed polymer optical fibers. Furthermore, the viscoelastic response of the polymer is also considered. The model is validated in quasi-static and dynamic tests for a polymer optical fiber curvature sensor. Results show good agreement between the model and the experiments.

  9. Ground water modeling applications using the analytic element method.

    PubMed

    Hunt, Randall J

    2006-01-01

    Though powerful and easy to use, applications of the analytic element method are not as widespread as finite-difference or finite-element models due in part to their relative youth. Although reviews that focus primarily on the mathematical development of the method have appeared in the literature, a systematic review of applications of the method is not available. An overview of the general types of applications of analytic elements in ground water modeling is provided in this paper. While not fully encompassing, the applications described here cover areas where the method has been historically applied (regional, two-dimensional steady-state models, analyses of ground water-surface water interaction, quick analyses and screening models, wellhead protection studies) as well as more recent applications (grid sensitivity analyses, estimating effective conductivity and dispersion in highly heterogeneous systems). The review of applications also illustrates areas where more method development is needed (three-dimensional and transient simulations).

  10. An analytic model for MODFET capacitance-voltage characteristics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    George, G.; Hauser, John R.

    1990-05-01

    An analytic model for the capacitance-voltage (C-V) characteristics of n-channel modulation doped FETs (MODFETs) is derived. Gauss law is used to relate the net areal gate charge density in an AlGaAs/GaAs MODFET to the electric field intensity at the metal-AlGaAs interface. An analytic expression for the electric field intensity which accounts for the neutralization of donors and the generation of free electrons is derived. The gate capacitance is derived as a closed-form analytic function of the gate voltage. The expression derived is easily computable and affords physical insight. The results, when compared with numerical calculations and experimental data, yield good agreement over a wide range of gate voltages.

  11. Analytical model for nonlinear piezoelectric energy harvesting devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neiss, S.; Goldschmidtboeing, F.; Kroener, M.; Woias, P.

    2014-10-01

    In this work we propose analytical expressions for the jump-up and jump-down point of a nonlinear piezoelectric energy harvester. In addition, analytical expressions for the maximum power output at optimal resistive load and the 3 dB-bandwidth are derived. So far, only numerical models have been used to describe the physics of a piezoelectric energy harvester. However, this approach is not suitable to quickly evaluate different geometrical designs or piezoelectric materials in the harvester design process. In addition, the analytical expressions could be used to predict the jump-frequencies of a harvester during operation. In combination with a tuning mechanism, this would allow the design of an efficient control algorithm to ensure that the harvester is always working on the oscillator's high energy attractor.

  12. Analytic model of an IR radiation heat pipe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoffman, Pamela J.

    1990-01-01

    An IR radiation heat pipe made from multilayer insulation blankets and proposed to be used aboard spacecraft to transfer waste heat was modeled analytically. A circular cross section pipe 9-in. in diameter, 10-ft long, with a specular reflectivity of 0.94 was found to have an efficiency of 58.6 percent. Several key parameters were varied for the circular model to understand their significance. In addition, square and triangular cross section pipes were investigated.

  13. On the Development of Parameterized Linear Analytical Longitudinal Airship Models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kulczycki, Eric A.; Johnson, Joseph R.; Bayard, David S.; Elfes, Alberto; Quadrelli, Marco B.

    2008-01-01

    In order to explore Titan, a moon of Saturn, airships must be able to traverse the atmosphere autonomously. To achieve this, an accurate model and accurate control of the vehicle must be developed so that it is understood how the airship will react to specific sets of control inputs. This paper explains how longitudinal aircraft stability derivatives can be used with airship parameters to create a linear model of the airship solely by combining geometric and aerodynamic airship data. This method does not require system identification of the vehicle. All of the required data can be derived from computational fluid dynamics and wind tunnel testing. This alternate method of developing dynamic airship models will reduce time and cost. Results are compared to other stable airship dynamic models to validate the methods. Future work will address a lateral airship model using the same methods.

  14. Accurate modeling of high-repetition rate ultrashort pulse amplification in optical fibers

    PubMed Central

    Lindberg, Robert; Zeil, Peter; Malmström, Mikael; Laurell, Fredrik; Pasiskevicius, Valdas

    2016-01-01

    A numerical model for amplification of ultrashort pulses with high repetition rates in fiber amplifiers is presented. The pulse propagation is modeled by jointly solving the steady-state rate equations and the generalized nonlinear Schrödinger equation, which allows accurate treatment of nonlinear and dispersive effects whilst considering arbitrary spatial and spectral gain dependencies. Comparison of data acquired by using the developed model and experimental results prove to be in good agreement. PMID:27713496

  15. Analytic model for assessing thermal performance of SCUBA divers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Montgomery, L. D.

    1975-01-01

    To assist design of adequate protective clothing, mathematical model of man's thermoregulatory system has been developed so that body thermal responses under immersed conditions can be predicted accurately. Experimental data encompassed wide range of water temperatures, protective clothing, breathing-gas mixtures, and durations of immersion.

  16. Health Informatics for Neonatal Intensive Care Units: An Analytical Modeling Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Mench-Bressan, Nadja; McGregor, Carolyn; Pugh, James Edward

    2015-01-01

    The effective use of data within intensive care units (ICUs) has great potential to create new cloud-based health analytics solutions for disease prevention or earlier condition onset detection. The Artemis project aims to achieve the above goals in the area of neonatal ICUs (NICU). In this paper, we proposed an analytical model for the Artemis cloud project which will be deployed at McMaster Children’s Hospital in Hamilton. We collect not only physiological data but also the infusion pumps data that are attached to NICU beds. Using the proposed analytical model, we predict the amount of storage, memory, and computation power required for the system. Capacity planning and tradeoff analysis would be more accurate and systematic by applying the proposed analytical model in this paper. Numerical results are obtained using real inputs acquired from McMaster Children’s Hospital and a pilot deployment of the system at The Hospital for Sick Children (SickKids) in Toronto. PMID:27170907

  17. Comparison of Cluster, Slab, and Analytic Potential Models for the Dimethyl Methylphosphonate (DMMP)/TiO2 (110) Intermolecular Interaction

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Li; Tunega, Daniel; Xu, Lai; Govind, Niranjan; Sun, Rui; Taylor, Ramona; Lischka, Hans; De Jong, Wibe A.; Hase, William L.

    2013-08-29

    In a previous study (J. Phys. Chem. C 2011, 115, 12403) cluster models for the TiO2 rutile (110) surface and MP2 calculations were used to develop an analytic potential energy function for dimethyl methylphosphonate (DMMP) interacting with this surface. In the work presented here, this analytic potential and MP2 cluster models are compared with DFT "slab" calculations for DMMP interacting with the TiO2 (110) surface and with DFT cluster models for the TiO2 (110) surface. The DFT slab calculations were performed with the PW91 and PBE functionals. The analytic potential gives DMMP/ TiO2 (110) potential energy curves in excellent agreement with those obtained from the slab calculations. The cluster models for the TiO2 (110) surface, used for the MP2 calculations, were extended to DFT calculations with the B3LYP, PW91, and PBE functional. These DFT calculations do not give DMMP/TiO2 (110) interaction energies which agree with those from the DFT slab calculations. Analyses of the wave functions for these cluster models show that they do not accurately represent the HOMO and LUMO for the surface, which should be 2p and 3d orbitals, respectively, and the models also do not give an accurate band gap. The MP2 cluster models do not accurately represent the LUMO and that they give accurate DMMP/TiO2 (110) interaction energies is apparently fortuitous, arising from their highly inaccurate band gaps. Accurate cluster models, consisting of 7, 10, and 15 Ti-atoms and which have the correct HOMO and LUMO properties, are proposed. The work presented here illustrates the care that must be taken in "constructing" cluster models which accurately model surfaces.

  18. Roll levelling semi-analytical model for process optimization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silvestre, E.; Garcia, D.; Galdos, L.; Saenz de Argandoña, E.; Mendiguren, J.

    2016-08-01

    Roll levelling is a primary manufacturing process used to remove residual stresses and imperfections of metal strips in order to make them suitable for subsequent forming operations. In the last years the importance of this process has been evidenced with the apparition of Ultra High Strength Steels with strength > 900 MPa. The optimal setting of the machine as well as a robust machine design has become critical for the correct processing of these materials. Finite Element Method (FEM) analysis is the widely used technique for both aspects. However, in this case, the FEM simulation times are above the admissible ones in both machine development and process optimization. In the present work, a semi-analytical model based on a discrete bending theory is presented. This model is able to calculate the critical levelling parameters i.e. force, plastification rate, residual stresses in a few seconds. First the semi-analytical model is presented. Next, some experimental industrial cases are analyzed by both the semi-analytical model and the conventional FEM model. Finally, results and computation times of both methods are compared.

  19. A semi-analytical, multizone model of droplet combustion with varying properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sisti, John; DesJardin, Paul E.

    2013-08-01

    A multizone droplet burn model is developed to account for changes in the thermal and transport properties as a function of droplet radius. The formulation is semi-analytical - allowing for accurate and computationally efficient estimates of flame structure and burn rates. Zonal thermal and transport properties are computed using the Cantera software, pre-tabulated for rapid evaluation during run-time. Model predictions are compared to experimental measurements of burning n-heptane, ethanol and methanol droplets. An adaptive zone refinement algorithm is developed that minimizes the number of zones required to provide accurate estimates of burn time without excess zones. A sensitivity study of burn rate and flame stand-off with far-field oxygen concentration is conducted with comparisons to experimental data. Overall agreement to data is encouraging with errors typically less than 20% for predictions of burn rates, stand-off ratio and flame temperature for the fuels considered.

  20. Detection efficiency calculation for photons, electrons and positrons in a well detector. Part I: Analytical model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pommé, S.

    2009-06-01

    An analytical model is presented to calculate the total detection efficiency of a well-type radiation detector for photons, electrons and positrons emitted from a radioactive source at an arbitrary position inside the well. The model is well suited to treat a typical set-up with a point source or cylindrical source and vial inside a NaI well detector, with or without lead shield surrounding it. It allows for fast absolute or relative total efficiency calibrations for a wide variety of geometrical configurations and also provides accurate input for the calculation of coincidence summing effects. Depending on its accuracy, it may even be applied in 4π-γ counting, a primary standardisation method for activity. Besides an accurate account of photon interactions, precautions are taken to simulate the special case of 511 keV annihilation quanta and to include realistic approximations for the range of (conversion) electrons and β -- and β +-particles.

  1. Whole muscle length-tension relationships are accurately modeled as scaled sarcomeres in rabbit hindlimb muscles.

    PubMed

    Winters, Taylor M; Takahashi, Mitsuhiko; Lieber, Richard L; Ward, Samuel R

    2011-01-04

    An a priori model of the whole active muscle length-tension relationship was constructed utilizing only myofilament length and serial sarcomere number for rabbit tibialis anterior (TA), extensor digitorum longus (EDL), and extensor digitorum II (EDII) muscles. Passive tension was modeled with a two-element Hill-type model. Experimental length-tension relations were then measured for each of these muscles and compared to predictions. The model was able to accurately capture the active-tension characteristics of experimentally-measured data for all muscles (ICC=0.88 ± 0.03). Despite their varied architecture, no differences in predicted versus experimental correlations were observed among muscles. In addition, the model demonstrated that excursion, quantified by full-width-at-half-maximum (FWHM) of the active length-tension relationship, scaled linearly (slope=0.68) with normalized muscle fiber length. Experimental and theoretical FWHM values agreed well with an intraclass correlation coefficient of 0.99 (p<0.001). In contrast to active tension, the passive tension model deviated from experimentally-measured values and thus, was not an accurate predictor of passive tension (ICC=0.70 ± 0.07). These data demonstrate that modeling muscle as a scaled sarcomere provides accurate active functional but not passive functional predictions for rabbit TA, EDL, and EDII muscles and call into question the need for more complex modeling assumptions often proposed.

  2. An accurate, analytical, and technology-mapped definition of the surface potential at threshold and a new postulate for the threshold voltage of MOSFETs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarkar, Vaskar; Dutta, Aloke K.

    2006-11-01

    A novel approach of defining the threshold voltage for long channel MOSFETs has been presented in this paper, where it has been proposed that it corresponds to the gate-to-source voltage for which the drift and diffusion components of the total drain current become equal to each other. In order to avoid the greater computation time associated with the numerical solution of these two components, an analytical expression of the surface potential, corresponding to the threshold condition, is given here, which has the same functional form as the one proposed by Tsividis. The fuzzy parameter n, appearing in this expression of the surface potential, is expressed as a function of the substrate doping density ( NA) and the oxide thickness ( tox). The threshold voltage values, obtained analytically from the relation between the surface potential at the threshold condition and the closed-form technology-mapped expression of the fuzzy parameter n, show an excellent match with those obtained from SILVACO simulations for a wide range of NA and tox, with the maximum error being only about 4%. The comparison of the percent error values of the threshold voltage obtained from this proposed model with those obtained from the other two recently proposed methods, all with respect to SILVACO simulation results, further verifies the validity of our completely analytical, mathematically simple, and straight-forward approach, proposed in this work here.

  3. Accurate protein structure modeling using sparse NMR data and homologous structure information.

    PubMed

    Thompson, James M; Sgourakis, Nikolaos G; Liu, Gaohua; Rossi, Paolo; Tang, Yuefeng; Mills, Jeffrey L; Szyperski, Thomas; Montelione, Gaetano T; Baker, David

    2012-06-19

    While information from homologous structures plays a central role in X-ray structure determination by molecular replacement, such information is rarely used in NMR structure determination because it can be incorrect, both locally and globally, when evolutionary relationships are inferred incorrectly or there has been considerable evolutionary structural divergence. Here we describe a method that allows robust modeling of protein structures of up to 225 residues by combining (1)H(N), (13)C, and (15)N backbone and (13)Cβ chemical shift data, distance restraints derived from homologous structures, and a physically realistic all-atom energy function. Accurate models are distinguished from inaccurate models generated using incorrect sequence alignments by requiring that (i) the all-atom energies of models generated using the restraints are lower than models generated in unrestrained calculations and (ii) the low-energy structures converge to within 2.0 Å backbone rmsd over 75% of the protein. Benchmark calculations on known structures and blind targets show that the method can accurately model protein structures, even with very remote homology information, to a backbone rmsd of 1.2-1.9 Å relative to the conventional determined NMR ensembles and of 0.9-1.6 Å relative to X-ray structures for well-defined regions of the protein structures. This approach facilitates the accurate modeling of protein structures using backbone chemical shift data without need for side-chain resonance assignments and extensive analysis of NOESY cross-peak assignments.

  4. Modeling of drug release from matrix systems involving moving boundaries: approximate analytical solutions.

    PubMed

    Lee, Ping I

    2011-10-10

    The purpose of this review is to provide an overview of approximate analytical solutions to the general moving boundary diffusion problems encountered during the release of a dispersed drug from matrix systems. Starting from the theoretical basis of the Higuchi equation and its subsequent improvement and refinement, available approximate analytical solutions for the more complicated cases involving heterogeneous matrix, boundary layer effect, finite release medium, surface erosion, and finite dissolution rate are also discussed. Among various modeling approaches, the pseudo-steady state assumption employed in deriving the Higuchi equation and related approximate analytical solutions appears to yield reasonably accurate results in describing the early stage release of a dispersed drug from matrices of different geometries whenever the initial drug loading (A) is much larger than the drug solubility (C(s)) in the matrix (or A≫C(s)). However, when the drug loading is not in great excess of the drug solubility (i.e. low A/C(s) values) or when the drug loading approaches the drug solubility (A→C(s)) which occurs often with drugs of high aqueous solubility, approximate analytical solutions based on the pseudo-steady state assumption tend to fail, with the Higuchi equation for planar geometry exhibiting a 11.38% error as compared with the exact solution. In contrast, approximate analytical solutions to this problem without making the pseudo-steady state assumption, based on either the double-integration refinement of the heat balance integral method or the direct simplification of available exact analytical solutions, show close agreement with the exact solutions in different geometries, particularly in the case of low A/C(s) values or drug loading approaching the drug solubility (A→C(s)). However, the double-integration heat balance integral approach is generally more useful in obtaining approximate analytical solutions especially when exact solutions are not

  5. Pitfalls in TDM of antibiotic drugs: analytical and modelling issues.

    PubMed

    Neef, C; Touw, D J; Harteveld, A R; Eerland, J J; Uges, D R A

    2006-10-01

    The quality assurance program of the Dutch KKGT [Association for Quality Assessment in therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) and Clinical Toxicology] has been running for more than 25 years. One of these programs concerns TDM of the antibiotic drugs gentamicin, tobramycin, amikacin, and vancomycin. We present two issues encountered in a recent survey. In a case of gentamicin monitoring and dose-adjustment, a systematic analytical error in some centers led to a dosing recommendation that differed from that of the organizers. Correction of the analytical results on the basis of a standard control sample resulted in concentration differences of more than 20% and different dosing recommendations in these centers. In a case of vancomycin TDM, the choice of the population model proved to be critical for dose adjustment. We illustrate this example by presenting the plasma profiles derived from the different population models used by the participants.

  6. Wake redirection: comparison of analytical, numerical and experimental models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jiangang; Bottasso, Carlo L.; Campagnolo, Filippo

    2016-09-01

    This paper focuses on wake redirection techniques for wind farm control. Two control strategies are investigated: yaw misalignment and cyclic pitch control. First, analytical formulas are derived for both techniques, with the goal of providing a simple physical interpretation of the behavior of the two methods. Next, more realistic results are obtained by numerical simulations performed with CFD and by experiments conducted with scaled wind turbine models operating in a boundary layer wind tunnel. Comparing the analytical, numerical and experimental models allows for a cross-validation of the results and a better understanding of the two wake redirection techniques. Results indicate that yaw misalignment is more effective than cyclic pitch control in displacing the wake laterally, although the latter may have positive effects on wake recovery.

  7. Applying generalized Padé approximants in analytic QCD models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cvetič, Gorazd; Kögerler, Reinhart

    2011-09-01

    A method of resummation of truncated perturbation series, related to diagonal Padé approximants but giving results independent of the renormalization scale, was developed more than ten years ago by us with a view of applying it in perturbative QCD. We now apply this method in analytic QCD models, i.e., models where the running coupling has no unphysical singularities, and we show that the method has attractive features, such as a rapid convergence. The method can be regarded as a generalization of the scale-setting methods of Stevenson, Grunberg, and Brodsky-Lepage-Mackenzie. The method involves the fixing of various scales and weight coefficients via an auxiliary construction of diagonal Padé approximant. In low-energy QCD observables, some of these scales become sometimes low at high order, which prevents the method from being effective in perturbative QCD, where the coupling has unphysical singularities at low spacelike momenta. There are no such problems in analytic QCD.

  8. Analytical positron range modelling in heterogeneous media for PET Monte Carlo simulation.

    PubMed

    Lehnert, Wencke; Gregoire, Marie-Claude; Reilhac, Anthonin; Meikle, Steven R

    2011-06-07

    Monte Carlo simulation codes that model positron interactions along their tortuous path are expected to be accurate but are usually slow. A simpler and potentially faster approach is to model positron range from analytical annihilation density distributions. The aims of this paper were to efficiently implement and validate such a method, with the addition of medium heterogeneity representing a further challenge. The analytical positron range model was evaluated by comparing annihilation density distributions with those produced by the Monte Carlo simulator GATE and by quantitatively analysing the final reconstructed images of Monte Carlo simulated data. In addition, the influence of positronium formation on positron range and hence on the performance of Monte Carlo simulation was investigated. The results demonstrate that 1D annihilation density distributions for different isotope-media combinations can be fitted with Gaussian functions and hence be described by simple look-up-tables of fitting coefficients. Together with the method developed for simulating positron range in heterogeneous media, this allows for efficient modelling of positron range in Monte Carlo simulation. The level of agreement of the analytical model with GATE depends somewhat on the simulated scanner and the particular research task, but appears to be suitable for lower energy positron emitters, such as (18)F or (11)C. No reliable conclusion about the influence of positronium formation on positron range and simulation accuracy could be drawn.

  9. An analytical model for microsegregation in open and expanding domains

    SciTech Connect

    Nastac, L.; Stefanescu, D.M.; Chuzhoy, L.

    1995-12-31

    A review of existing models for microsegregation shows that there are no analytical models that consider limited diffusion in both liquid and solid phases for an expanding domain (system). Earlier, an analytical mathematical model for microsegregation was introduced for the closed system case. Mass transport by diffusion only was considered, but diffusion in both liquid and solid was assumed. The model proposed in this paper relaxes the assumptions of a closed system. Thus, the contribution of mass transport by fluid flow, and the effects of coarsening and coalescence can be included in microsegregation calculations. The model does not require a prescribed movement of the interface, and therefore, it can be used in microscopic modeling of solidification. The derivation assumed spherical geometry of the domain. Thus, it is possible to calculate microsegregation at the level of equiaxed dendrites. The importance of an open and expanding domain assumptions was studied by comparing results obtained with the present model with calculation based on the closed system assumptions. The microsegregation model was coupled with a macro transport-transformation kinetics code to compare the calculated results with experimental results for spheroidal graphite iron castings.

  10. Human performance modeling for system of systems analytics.

    SciTech Connect

    Dixon, Kevin R.; Lawton, Craig R.; Basilico, Justin Derrick; Longsine, Dennis E.; Forsythe, James Chris; Gauthier, John Henry; Le, Hai D.

    2008-10-01

    A Laboratory-Directed Research and Development project was initiated in 2005 to investigate Human Performance Modeling in a System of Systems analytic environment. SAND2006-6569 and SAND2006-7911 document interim results from this effort; this report documents the final results. The problem is difficult because of the number of humans involved in a System of Systems environment and the generally poorly defined nature of the tasks that each human must perform. A two-pronged strategy was followed: one prong was to develop human models using a probability-based method similar to that first developed for relatively well-understood probability based performance modeling; another prong was to investigate more state-of-art human cognition models. The probability-based modeling resulted in a comprehensive addition of human-modeling capability to the existing SoSAT computer program. The cognitive modeling resulted in an increased understanding of what is necessary to incorporate cognition-based models to a System of Systems analytic environment.

  11. Empirical evaluation of analytical models for parallel relational data-base queries. Master's thesis

    SciTech Connect

    Denham, M.C.

    1990-12-01

    This thesis documents the design and implementation of three parallel join algorithms to be used in the verification of analytical models developed by Kearns. Kearns developed a set of analytical models for a variety of relational database queries. These models serve as tools for the design of parallel relational database system. Each of Kearns' models is classified as either single step or multiple step. The single step models reflect queries that require only one operation while the multiple step models reflect queries that require multiple operations. Three parallel join algorithms were implemented based upon Kearns' models. Two are based upon single step join models and one is based upon a multiple step join model. They are implemented on an Intel iPSC/1 parallel computer. The single step join algorithms include the parallel nested-loop join and the bucket (or hash) join. The multiple step algorithm that was implemented is a pipelined version of the bucket join. The results show that within the constraints of the test cases run, the three models are all at least accurate to within about 8.5% and they should prove useful in the design of parallel relational database systems.

  12. Residential Saudi load forecasting using analytical model and Artificial Neural Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Harbi, Ahmad Abdulaziz

    In recent years, load forecasting has become one of the main fields of study and research. Short Term Load Forecasting (STLF) is an important part of electrical power system operation and planning. This work investigates the applicability of different approaches; Artificial Neural Networks (ANNs) and hybrid analytical models to forecast residential load in Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA). These two techniques are based on model human modes behavior formulation. These human modes represent social, religious, official occasions and environmental parameters impact. The analysis is carried out on residential areas for three regions in two countries exposed to distinct people activities and weather conditions. The collected data are for Al-Khubar and Yanbu industrial city in KSA, in addition to Seattle, USA to show the validity of the proposed models applied on residential load. For each region, two models are proposed. First model is next hour load forecasting while second model is next day load forecasting. Both models are analyzed using the two techniques. The obtained results for ANN next hour models yield very accurate results for all areas while relatively reasonable results are achieved when using hybrid analytical model. For next day load forecasting, the two approaches yield satisfactory results. Comparative studies were conducted to prove the effectiveness of the models proposed.

  13. Analytic Approximations to Nonlinear Boundary Value Problems Modeling Beam-Type Nano-Electromechanical Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zou, Li; Liang, Songxin; Li, Yawei; Jeffrey, David J.

    2017-03-01

    Nonlinear boundary value problems arise frequently in physical and mechanical sciences. An effective analytic approach with two parameters is first proposed for solving nonlinear boundary value problems. It is demonstrated that solutions given by the two-parameter method are more accurate than solutions given by the Adomian decomposition method (ADM). It is further demonstrated that solutions given by the ADM can also be recovered from the solutions given by the two-parameter method. The effectiveness of this method is demonstrated by solving some nonlinear boundary value problems modeling beam-type nano-electromechanical systems.

  14. An analytical thermohydraulic model for discretely fractured geothermal reservoirs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fox, Don B.; Koch, Donald L.; Tester, Jefferson W.

    2016-09-01

    In discretely fractured reservoirs such as those found in Enhanced/Engineered Geothermal Systems (EGS), knowledge of the fracture network is important in understanding the thermal hydraulics, i.e., how the fluid flows and the resulting temporal evolution of the subsurface temperature. The purpose of this study was to develop an analytical model of the fluid flow and heat transport in a discretely fractured network that can be used for a wide range of modeling applications and serve as an alternative analysis tool to more computationally intensive numerical codes. Given the connectivity and structure of a fracture network, the flow in the system was solved using a linear system of algebraic equations for the pressure at the nodes of the network. With the flow determined, the temperature in the fracture was solved by coupling convective heat transport in the fracture with one-dimensional heat conduction perpendicular to the fracture, employing the Green's function derived solution for a single discrete fracture. The predicted temperatures along the fracture surfaces from the analytical solution were compared to numerical simulations using the TOUGH2 reservoir code. Through two case studies, we showed the capabilities of the analytical model and explored the effect of uncertainty in the fracture apertures and network structure on thermal performance. While both sources of uncertainty independently produce large variations in production temperature, uncertainty in the network structure, whenever present, had a predominant influence on thermal performance.

  15. Accuracy of analytic model planning in bimaxillary surgery.

    PubMed

    Park, N; Posnick, J C

    2013-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess our method of analytic model planning in achieving a planned maxillary advancement for the correction of a dentofacial deformity. A consecutive series of 20 patients who underwent bimaxillary orthognathic surgery, at a minimum, were included in the study group. For each study subject, consistent analytic model planning with splint fabrication was used to establish the desired horizontal repositioning of the maxilla. Using preoperative and 5-week postoperative lateral cephalometric radiographs, an analysis was designed to assess the difference between the planned and actual advancement of the maxilla. The average difference between the planned and actual 5-week postsurgical advancement of the maxilla was 0.6 mm (range 0.2-1.0, P>0.05). There was a strong correlation between the two data sets (R=0.96). The results of the study indicate that the described method of analytic model planning is reliable (within 1mm) in achieving the planned level of maxillary advancement in bimaxillary orthognathic procedures.

  16. Bridging the gap between global models and full fluid models: a fast 1D semi-analytical fluid model for electronegative plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hurlbatt, A.; O'Connell, D.; Gans, T.

    2016-08-01

    Analytical and numerical models allow investigation of complicated discharge phenomena and the interplay that makes plasmas such a complex environment. Global models are quick to implement and can have almost negligible computation cost, but provide only bulk or spatially averaged values. Full fluid models take longer to develop, and can take days to solve, but provide accurate spatio-temporal profiles of the whole plasma. The work presented here details a different type of model, analytically similar to fluid models, but computationally closer to a global model, and able to give spatially resolved solutions for the challenging environment of electronegative plasmas. Included are non-isothermal electrons, gas heating, and coupled neutral dynamics. Solutions are reached in seconds to minutes, and spatial profiles are given for densities, fluxes, and temperatures. This allows the semi-analytical model to fill the gap that exists between global and full fluid models, extending the tools available to researchers. The semi-analytical model can perform broad parameter sweeps that are not practical with more computationally expensive models, as well as exposing non-trivial trends that global models cannot capture. Examples are given for a low pressure oxygen CCP. Excellent agreement is shown with a full fluid model, and comparisons are drawn with the corresponding global model.

  17. AN ANALYTIC RADIATIVE-CONVECTIVE MODEL FOR PLANETARY ATMOSPHERES

    SciTech Connect

    Robinson, Tyler D.; Catling, David C.

    2012-09-20

    We present an analytic one-dimensional radiative-convective model of the thermal structure of planetary atmospheres. Our model assumes that thermal radiative transfer is gray and can be represented by the two-stream approximation. Model atmospheres are assumed to be in hydrostatic equilibrium, with a power-law scaling between the atmospheric pressure and the gray thermal optical depth. The convective portions of our models are taken to follow adiabats that account for condensation of volatiles through a scaling parameter to the dry adiabat. By combining these assumptions, we produce simple, analytic expressions that allow calculations of the atmospheric-pressure-temperature profile, as well as expressions for the profiles of thermal radiative flux and convective flux. We explore the general behaviors of our model. These investigations encompass (1) worlds where atmospheric attenuation of sunlight is weak, which we show tend to have relatively high radiative-convective boundaries; (2) worlds with some attenuation of sunlight throughout the atmosphere, which we show can produce either shallow or deep radiative-convective boundaries, depending on the strength of sunlight attenuation; and (3) strongly irradiated giant planets (including hot Jupiters), where we explore the conditions under which these worlds acquire detached convective regions in their mid-tropospheres. Finally, we validate our model and demonstrate its utility through comparisons to the average observed thermal structure of Venus, Jupiter, and Titan, and by comparing computed flux profiles to more complex models.

  18. Comparison of analytical eddy current models using principal components analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Contant, S.; Luloff, M.; Morelli, J.; Krause, T. W.

    2017-02-01

    Monitoring the gap between the pressure tube (PT) and the calandria tube (CT) in CANDU® fuel channels is essential, as contact between the two tubes can lead to delayed hydride cracking of the pressure tube. Multifrequency transmit-receive eddy current non-destructive evaluation is used to determine this gap, as this method has different depths of penetration and variable sensitivity to noise, unlike single frequency eddy current non-destructive evaluation. An Analytical model based on the Dodd and Deeds solutions, and a second model that accounts for normal and lossy self-inductances, and a non-coaxial pickup coil, are examined for representing the response of an eddy current transmit-receive probe when considering factors that affect the gap response, such as pressure tube wall thickness and pressure tube resistivity. The multifrequency model data was analyzed using principal components analysis (PCA), a statistical method used to reduce the data set into a data set of fewer variables. The results of the PCA of the analytical models were then compared to PCA performed on a previously obtained experimental data set. The models gave similar results under variable PT wall thickness conditions, but the non-coaxial coil model, which accounts for self-inductive losses, performed significantly better than the Dodd and Deeds model under variable resistivity conditions.

  19. Generalized Stoner-Wohlfarth model accurately describing the switching processes in pseudo-single ferromagnetic particles

    SciTech Connect

    Cimpoesu, Dorin Stoleriu, Laurentiu; Stancu, Alexandru

    2013-12-14

    We propose a generalized Stoner-Wohlfarth (SW) type model to describe various experimentally observed angular dependencies of the switching field in non-single-domain magnetic particles. Because the nonuniform magnetic states are generally characterized by complicated spin configurations with no simple analytical description, we maintain the macrospin hypothesis and we phenomenologically include the effects of nonuniformities only in the anisotropy energy, preserving as much as possible the elegance of SW model, the concept of critical curve and its geometric interpretation. We compare the results obtained with our model with full micromagnetic simulations in order to evaluate the performance and limits of our approach.

  20. Development of modified cable models to simulate accurate neuronal active behaviors

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    In large network and single three-dimensional (3-D) neuron simulations, high computing speed dictates using reduced cable models to simulate neuronal firing behaviors. However, these models are unwarranted under active conditions and lack accurate representation of dendritic active conductances that greatly shape neuronal firing. Here, realistic 3-D (R3D) models (which contain full anatomical details of dendrites) of spinal motoneurons were systematically compared with their reduced single unbranched cable (SUC, which reduces the dendrites to a single electrically equivalent cable) counterpart under passive and active conditions. The SUC models matched the R3D model's passive properties but failed to match key active properties, especially active behaviors originating from dendrites. For instance, persistent inward currents (PIC) hysteresis, frequency-current (FI) relationship secondary range slope, firing hysteresis, plateau potential partial deactivation, staircase currents, synaptic current transfer ratio, and regional FI relationships were not accurately reproduced by the SUC models. The dendritic morphology oversimplification and lack of dendritic active conductances spatial segregation in the SUC models caused significant underestimation of those behaviors. Next, SUC models were modified by adding key branching features in an attempt to restore their active behaviors. The addition of primary dendritic branching only partially restored some active behaviors, whereas the addition of secondary dendritic branching restored most behaviors. Importantly, the proposed modified models successfully replicated the active properties without sacrificing model simplicity, making them attractive candidates for running R3D single neuron and network simulations with accurate firing behaviors. The present results indicate that using reduced models to examine PIC behaviors in spinal motoneurons is unwarranted. PMID:25277743

  1. Rolling mill optimization using an accurate and rapid new model for mill deflection and strip thickness profile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malik, Arif Sultan

    This work presents improved technology for attaining high-quality rolled metal strip. The new technology is based on an innovative method to model both the static and dynamic characteristics of rolling mill deflection, and it applies equally to both cluster-type and non cluster-type rolling mill configurations. By effectively combining numerical Finite Element Analysis (FEA) with analytical solid mechanics, the devised approach delivers a rapid, accurate, flexible, high-fidelity model useful for optimizing many important rolling parameters. The associated static deflection model enables computation of the thickness profile and corresponding flatness of the rolled strip. Accurate methods of predicting the strip thickness profile and strip flatness are important in rolling mill design, rolling schedule set-up, control of mill flatness actuators, and optimization of ground roll profiles. The corresponding dynamic deflection model enables solution of the standard eigenvalue problem to determine natural frequencies and modes of vibration. The presented method for solving the roll-stack deflection problem offers several important advantages over traditional methods. In particular, it includes continuity of elastic foundations, non-iterative solution when using pre-determined elastic foundation moduli, continuous third-order displacement fields, simple stress-field determination, the ability to calculate dynamic characteristics, and a comparatively faster solution time. Consistent with the most advanced existing methods, the presented method accommodates loading conditions that represent roll crowning, roll bending, roll shifting, and roll crossing mechanisms. Validation of the static model is provided by comparing results and solution time with large-scale, commercial finite element simulations. In addition to examples with the common 4-high vertical stand rolling mill, application of the presented method to the most complex of rolling mill configurations is demonstrated

  2. Peat pyrolysis and the analytical semi-empirical model

    SciTech Connect

    Feng, J.; Green, A.E.S.

    2007-07-01

    Pyrolysis of peat could convert this material into useful fuels and valuable hydrocarbons. A study of peat pyrolysis can also serve as a useful bridge between studies of coal pyrolysis and biomass pyrolysis. Using an analytical model of pyrolysis that has previously been applied to biomass and to coal, we present here the results of applications of this model to a representative peat. The analysis suggests means of organizing and processing rate and yield data that should be useful in applications of pyrolysis for the production of fuels and chemicals.

  3. Analytical properties of a three-compartmental dynamical demographic model.

    PubMed

    Postnikov, E B

    2015-07-01

    The three-compartmental demographic model by Korotaeyv-Malkov-Khaltourina, connecting population size, economic surplus, and education level, is considered from the point of view of dynamical systems theory. It is shown that there exist two integrals of motion, which enables the system to be reduced to one nonlinear ordinary differential equation. The study of its structure provides analytical criteria for the dominance ranges of the dynamics of Malthus and Kremer. Additionally, the particular ranges of parameters enable the derived general ordinary differential equations to be reduced to the models of Gompertz and Thoularis-Wallace.

  4. Model and Analytic Processes for Export License Assessments

    SciTech Connect

    Thompson, Sandra E.; Whitney, Paul D.; Weimar, Mark R.; Wood, Thomas W.; Daly, Don S.; Brothers, Alan J.; Sanfilippo, Antonio P.; Cook, Diane; Holder, Larry

    2011-09-29

    This paper represents the Department of Energy Office of Nonproliferation Research and Development (NA-22) Simulations, Algorithms and Modeling (SAM) Program's first effort to identify and frame analytical methods and tools to aid export control professionals in effectively predicting proliferation intent; a complex, multi-step and multi-agency process. The report focuses on analytical modeling methodologies that alone, or combined, may improve the proliferation export control license approval process. It is a follow-up to an earlier paper describing information sources and environments related to international nuclear technology transfer. This report describes the decision criteria used to evaluate modeling techniques and tools to determine which approaches will be investigated during the final 2 years of the project. The report also details the motivation for why new modeling techniques and tools are needed. The analytical modeling methodologies will enable analysts to evaluate the information environment for relevance to detecting proliferation intent, with specific focus on assessing risks associated with transferring dual-use technologies. Dual-use technologies can be used in both weapons and commercial enterprises. A decision-framework was developed to evaluate which of the different analytical modeling methodologies would be most appropriate conditional on the uniqueness of the approach, data availability, laboratory capabilities, relevance to NA-22 and Office of Arms Control and Nonproliferation (NA-24) research needs and the impact if successful. Modeling methodologies were divided into whether they could help micro-level assessments (e.g., help improve individual license assessments) or macro-level assessment. Macro-level assessment focuses on suppliers, technology, consumers, economies, and proliferation context. Macro-level assessment technologies scored higher in the area of uniqueness because less work has been done at the macro level. An approach to

  5. Analytical properties of a three-compartmental dynamical demographic model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Postnikov, E. B.

    2015-07-01

    The three-compartmental demographic model by Korotaeyv-Malkov-Khaltourina, connecting population size, economic surplus, and education level, is considered from the point of view of dynamical systems theory. It is shown that there exist two integrals of motion, which enables the system to be reduced to one nonlinear ordinary differential equation. The study of its structure provides analytical criteria for the dominance ranges of the dynamics of Malthus and Kremer. Additionally, the particular ranges of parameters enable the derived general ordinary differential equations to be reduced to the models of Gompertz and Thoularis-Wallace.

  6. Analytical threshold voltage model for strained silicon GAA-TFET

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, Hai-Yan; Hu, Hui-Yong; Wang, Bin

    2016-11-01

    Tunnel field effect transistors (TFETs) are promising devices for low power applications. An analytical threshold voltage model, based on the channel surface potential and electric field obtained by solving the 2D Poisson’s equation, for strained silicon gate all around TFETs is proposed. The variation of the threshold voltage with device parameters, such as the strain (Ge mole fraction x), gate oxide thickness, gate oxide permittivity, and channel length has also been investigated. The threshold voltage model is extracted using the peak transconductance method and is verified by good agreement with the results obtained from the TCAD simulation. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 61474085).

  7. An analytic model for buoyancy resonances in protoplanetary disks

    SciTech Connect

    Lubow, Stephen H.; Zhu, Zhaohuan E-mail: zhzhu@astro.princeton.edu

    2014-04-10

    Zhu et al. found in three-dimensional shearing box simulations a new form of planet-disk interaction that they attributed to a vertical buoyancy resonance in the disk. We describe an analytic linear model for this interaction. We adopt a simplified model involving azimuthal forcing that produces the resonance and permits an analytic description of its structure. We derive an analytic expression for the buoyancy torque and show that the vertical torque distribution agrees well with the results of the Athena simulations and a Fourier method for linear numerical calculations carried out with the same forcing. The buoyancy resonance differs from the classic Lindblad and corotation resonances in that the resonance lies along tilted planes. Its width depends on damping effects and is independent of the gas sound speed. The resonance does not excite propagating waves. At a given large azimuthal wavenumber k{sub y} > h {sup –1} (for disk thickness h), the buoyancy resonance exerts a torque over a region that lies radially closer to the corotation radius than the Lindblad resonance. Because the torque is localized to the region of excitation, it is potentially subject to the effects of nonlinear saturation. In addition, the torque can be reduced by the effects of radiative heat transfer between the resonant region and its surroundings. For each azimuthal wavenumber, the resonance establishes a large scale density wave pattern in a plane within the disk.

  8. Analytical modeling for transient probe response in eddy current testing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Desjardins, Daniel

    Analytical models that describe the electromagnetic field interactions arising between field generating and sensing coils in close proximity to conducting structures can be used to enhance analysis and information extracted from signals obtained using electromagnetic non-destructive evaluation technologies. A novel strategy, which enables the derivation of exact solutions describing all electromagnetic interactions arising in inductively coupled circuits due to a voltage excitation, is developed in this work. Differential circuit equations are formulated in terms of an arbitrary voltage excitation and of the magnetic fields arising in inductive systems, using Faraday's law and convolution, and solved using the Fourier transform. The approach is valid for systems containing any number of driving and receiving coils, and include nearby conducting and ferromagnetic structures. In particular, the solutions account for feedback between a ferromagnetic conducting test piece and the driving and sensing coils, providing correct voltage response of the coils. Also arising from the theory are analytical expressions for complex inductances in a circuit, which account for real (inductive) and imaginary (loss) elements associated with conducting and ferromagnetic structures. A novel model-based method for simultaneous characterization of material parameters, which includes magnetic permeability, electrical conductivity, wall thickness and liftoff, is subsequently developed from the forward solutions. Furthermore, arbitrary excitation waveforms, such as a sinusoid or a square wave, for applications in conventional and transient eddy current, respectively, may be considered. Experimental results, obtained for a square wave excitation, are found to be in excellent agreement with the analytical predictions.

  9. Analytical dynamics models for space missions around minor bodies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cardoso dos Santos, Josué; dos Santos Carvalho, Jean Paulo; Vilhena de Moraes, Rodolpho; Bertachini de Almeida Prado, Antônio Fernando

    2015-08-01

    In recent years, the dynamics of orbits around minor bodies and icy moons in our solar system has become important in planning future missions that intend to visit dwarf planets, planetary moons, asteroids and comets. Due to their special characteristics, Europa, Ganymede, Callisto, Enceladus, Titan and Triton are among the group of objects with greater potential to receive missions in a near future. In order to provide a semi-analytical theory for tuture space exploration of these celestial bodies, this work aims to present two analytical models to describe and evaluate gravitational disturbances over a spacecrat's orbit around a minor body. A search for these less perturbed orbits is performed. An analytical model for the third-body perturbation is presented and consideres it in an eccentric-inclined orbit. Some harmonic terms due to the non-uniform distribuition of mass are considered according they are available in the literature. The dynamic of these orbits is explored by numerical simulations. The results are in accordance with the requirements for missions present in the literature.

  10. Accurate path integration in continuous attractor network models of grid cells.

    PubMed

    Burak, Yoram; Fiete, Ila R

    2009-02-01

    Grid cells in the rat entorhinal cortex display strikingly regular firing responses to the animal's position in 2-D space and have been hypothesized to form the neural substrate for dead-reckoning. However, errors accumulate rapidly when velocity inputs are integrated in existing models of grid cell activity. To produce grid-cell-like responses, these models would require frequent resets triggered by external sensory cues. Such inadequacies, shared by various models, cast doubt on the dead-reckoning potential of the grid cell system. Here we focus on the question of accurate path integration, specifically in continuous attractor models of grid cell activity. We show, in contrast to previous models, that continuous attractor models can generate regular triangular grid responses, based on inputs that encode only the rat's velocity and heading direction. We consider the role of the network boundary in the integration performance of the network and show that both periodic and aperiodic networks are capable of accurate path integration, despite important differences in their attractor manifolds. We quantify the rate at which errors in the velocity integration accumulate as a function of network size and intrinsic noise within the network. With a plausible range of parameters and the inclusion of spike variability, our model networks can accurately integrate velocity inputs over a maximum of approximately 10-100 meters and approximately 1-10 minutes. These findings form a proof-of-concept that continuous attractor dynamics may underlie velocity integration in the dorsolateral medial entorhinal cortex. The simulations also generate pertinent upper bounds on the accuracy of integration that may be achieved by continuous attractor dynamics in the grid cell network. We suggest experiments to test the continuous attractor model and differentiate it from models in which single cells establish their responses independently of each other.

  11. An investigation of helicopter dynamic coupling using an analytical model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keller, Jeffrey D.

    1995-01-01

    Many attempts have been made in recent years to predict the off-axis response of a helicopter to control inputs, and most have had little success. Since physical insight is limited by the complexity of numerical simulation models, this paper examines the off-axis response problem using an analytical model, with the goal of understanding the mechanics of the coupling. A new induced velocity model is extended to include the effects of wake distortion from pitch rate. It is shown that the inclusion of these results in a significant change in the lateral flap response to a steady pitch rate. The proposed inflow model is coupled with the full rotor/body dynamics, and comparisons are made between the model and flight test data for a UH-60 in hover. Results show that inclusion of induced velocity variations due to shaft rate improves correlation in the pitch response to lateral cycle inputs.

  12. Analytical expressions for transition edge sensor excess noise models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brandt, Daniel; Fraser, George W.

    2010-08-01

    Transition edge sensors (TESs) are high-sensitivity thermometers used in cryogenic microcalorimeters which exploit the steep gradient in resistivity with temperature during the superconducting phase transition. Practical TES devices tend to exhibit a white noise of uncertain origin, arising inside the device. We discuss two candidate models for this excess noise, phase slip shot noise (PSSN) and percolation noise. We extend the existing PSSN model to include a magnetic field dependence and derive a basic analytical model for percolation noise. We compare the predicted functional forms of the noise current vs. resistivity curves of both models with experimental data and provide a set of equations for both models to facilitate future experimental efforts to clearly identify the source of excess noise.

  13. Can phenological models predict tree phenology accurately under climate change conditions?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chuine, Isabelle; Bonhomme, Marc; Legave, Jean Michel; García de Cortázar-Atauri, Inaki; Charrier, Guillaume; Lacointe, André; Améglio, Thierry

    2014-05-01

    The onset of the growing season of trees has been globally earlier by 2.3 days/decade during the last 50 years because of global warming and this trend is predicted to continue according to climate forecast. The effect of temperature on plant phenology is however not linear because temperature has a dual effect on bud development. On one hand, low temperatures are necessary to break bud dormancy, and on the other hand higher temperatures are necessary to promote bud cells growth afterwards. Increasing phenological changes in temperate woody species have strong impacts on forest trees distribution and productivity, as well as crops cultivation areas. Accurate predictions of trees phenology are therefore a prerequisite to understand and foresee the impacts of climate change on forests and agrosystems. Different process-based models have been developed in the last two decades to predict the date of budburst or flowering of woody species. They are two main families: (1) one-phase models which consider only the ecodormancy phase and make the assumption that endodormancy is always broken before adequate climatic conditions for cell growth occur; and (2) two-phase models which consider both the endodormancy and ecodormancy phases and predict a date of dormancy break which varies from year to year. So far, one-phase models have been able to predict accurately tree bud break and flowering under historical climate. However, because they do not consider what happens prior to ecodormancy, and especially the possible negative effect of winter temperature warming on dormancy break, it seems unlikely that they can provide accurate predictions in future climate conditions. It is indeed well known that a lack of low temperature results in abnormal pattern of bud break and development in temperate fruit trees. An accurate modelling of the dormancy break date has thus become a major issue in phenology modelling. Two-phases phenological models predict that global warming should delay

  14. Analytical Model of Shear of 4-harness Satin Weave Fabrics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Lu; Chen, Julie; Sherwood, James

    2004-06-01

    Trellis shear is the main deformation mode in the thermo-stamping process of woven fabric composites. To model the shear properties of woven fabrics analytically, the equilibrium equation of the unit cell of a 4-harness satin weave glass/polypropylene woven fabric is studied. Frictional resistance moment and lateral compaction resistance moment are then predicted by studying the geometry of the unit cell. Then the model is used to predict the load versus shear angle curves in the picture frame test to reduce or eliminate the test itself. A parametric study is carried out to determine the sensitivity of the friction coefficient. To validate the model, picture-frame experimental results are presented. A very close correlation is observed between the model predictions and the experimental results. Results of plain weave fabrics are included to show the analytical model's ability to predict the effect of weave pattern. Results from an international benchmark testing are also presented to help establish the test standards for experimental characterization of the shear properties of woven fabrics in the thermo-stamping process.

  15. Analytical modeling of glucose biosensors based on carbon nanotubes

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, carbon nanotubes have received widespread attention as promising carbon-based nanoelectronic devices. Due to their exceptional physical, chemical, and electrical properties, namely a high surface-to-volume ratio, their enhanced electron transfer properties, and their high thermal conductivity, carbon nanotubes can be used effectively as electrochemical sensors. The integration of carbon nanotubes with a functional group provides a good and solid support for the immobilization of enzymes. The determination of glucose levels using biosensors, particularly in the medical diagnostics and food industries, is gaining mass appeal. Glucose biosensors detect the glucose molecule by catalyzing glucose to gluconic acid and hydrogen peroxide in the presence of oxygen. This action provides high accuracy and a quick detection rate. In this paper, a single-wall carbon nanotube field-effect transistor biosensor for glucose detection is analytically modeled. In the proposed model, the glucose concentration is presented as a function of gate voltage. Subsequently, the proposed model is compared with existing experimental data. A good consensus between the model and the experimental data is reported. The simulated data demonstrate that the analytical model can be employed with an electrochemical glucose sensor to predict the behavior of the sensing mechanism in biosensors. PMID:24428818

  16. Analytical model of reactive transport processes with spatially variable coefficients.

    PubMed

    Simpson, Matthew J; Morrow, Liam C

    2015-05-01

    Analytical solutions of partial differential equation (PDE) models describing reactive transport phenomena in saturated porous media are often used as screening tools to provide insight into contaminant fate and transport processes. While many practical modelling scenarios involve spatially variable coefficients, such as spatially variable flow velocity, v(x), or spatially variable decay rate, k(x), most analytical models deal with constant coefficients. Here we present a framework for constructing exact solutions of PDE models of reactive transport. Our approach is relevant for advection-dominant problems, and is based on a regular perturbation technique. We present a description of the solution technique for a range of one-dimensional scenarios involving constant and variable coefficients, and we show that the solutions compare well with numerical approximations. Our general approach applies to a range of initial conditions and various forms of v(x) and k(x). Instead of simply documenting specific solutions for particular cases, we present a symbolic worksheet, as supplementary material, which enables the solution to be evaluated for different choices of the initial condition, v(x) and k(x). We also discuss how the technique generalizes to apply to models of coupled multispecies reactive transport as well as higher dimensional problems.

  17. Final Report for "Accurate Numerical Models of the Secondary Electron Yield from Grazing-incidence Collisions".

    SciTech Connect

    Seth A Veitzer

    2008-10-21

    Effects of stray electrons are a main factor limiting performance of many accelerators. Because heavy-ion fusion (HIF) accelerators will operate in regimes of higher current and with walls much closer to the beam than accelerators operating today, stray electrons might have a large, detrimental effect on the performance of an HIF accelerator. A primary source of stray electrons is electrons generated when halo ions strike the beam pipe walls. There is some research on these types of secondary electrons for the HIF community to draw upon, but this work is missing one crucial ingredient: the effect of grazing incidence. The overall goal of this project was to develop the numerical tools necessary to accurately model the effect of grazing incidence on the behavior of halo ions in a HIF accelerator, and further, to provide accurate models of heavy ion stopping powers with applications to ICF, WDM, and HEDP experiments.

  18. Constraining the last 7 billion years of galaxy evolution in semi-analytic models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mutch, Simon J.; Poole, Gregory B.; Croton, Darren J.

    2013-01-01

    We investigate the ability of the Croton et al. semi-analytic model to reproduce the evolution of observed galaxies across the final 7 billion years of cosmic history. Using Monte Carlo Markov Chain techniques we explore the available parameter space to produce a model which attempts to achieve a statistically accurate fit to the observed stellar mass function at z = 0 and z ≈ 0.8, as well as the local black hole-bulge relation. We find that in order to be successful we are required to push supernova feedback efficiencies to extreme limits which are, in some cases, unjustified by current observations. This leads us to the conclusion that the current model may be incomplete. Using the posterior probability distributions provided by our fitting, as well as the qualitative details of our produced stellar mass functions, we suggest that any future model improvements must act to preferentially bolster star formation efficiency in the most massive haloes at high redshift.

  19. Secular Orbit Evolution in Systems with a Strong External Perturber - A Simple and Accurate Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andrade-Ines, Eduardo; Eggl, Siegfried

    2017-04-01

    We present a semi-analytical correction to the seminal solution for the secular motion of a planet’s orbit under gravitational influence of an external perturber derived by Heppenheimer. A comparison between analytical predictions and numerical simulations allows us to determine corrective factors for the secular frequency and forced eccentricity in the coplanar restricted three-body problem. The correction is given in the form of a polynomial function of the system’s parameters that can be applied to first-order forced eccentricity and secular frequency estimates. The resulting secular equations are simple, straight forward to use, and improve the fidelity of Heppenheimers solution well beyond higher-order models. The quality and convergence of the corrected secular equations are tested for a wide range of parameters and limits of its applicability are given.

  20. Analytical characterization of a Bruderhedral calibration target model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cremona-Simmons, Peter M.

    1996-06-01

    The Army Research Laboratory (ARL) has constructed a variation of the bruderhedral calibration and radar cross section (RCS) target model and measured its radar characteristics in the field. A computer version of the same model was generated, and later characterized in both elevation and azimuth for validation. Our goal is to develop a millimeter-wave (MMW) signature generation tool for guidance integrated fuzing (GIF) systems and applications. Before realizing this goal, one must develop a test-bed of tools and approaches upon which to build. ARL has identified approaches to developing generic analytical target-signature models based on some existing electromagnetic scattering codes. A high-frequency RCS and signature prediction software model was selected to perform the radar analysis and provide a mechanism, a synthetic aperture radar (SAR) model, for recognizing prominent scatterers off high-fidelity target models. This method will assist us in creating suitable far- to near-field 3-D transitional models at MMW frequencies. Two target model descriptions were used in the signature prediction model: a flat facet format and a curved surface format. This paper introduces these software models, and some optics and SAR considerations relating to the test wavelength and the size of the target. Also, the simulated azimuthal and elevation response patterns, along with some results from the SAR model, are presented.

  1. Accurate and efficient halo-based galaxy clustering modelling with simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Zheng; Guo, Hong

    2016-06-01

    Small- and intermediate-scale galaxy clustering can be used to establish the galaxy-halo connection to study galaxy formation and evolution and to tighten constraints on cosmological parameters. With the increasing precision of galaxy clustering measurements from ongoing and forthcoming large galaxy surveys, accurate models are required to interpret the data and extract relevant information. We introduce a method based on high-resolution N-body simulations to accurately and efficiently model the galaxy two-point correlation functions (2PCFs) in projected and redshift spaces. The basic idea is to tabulate all information of haloes in the simulations necessary for computing the galaxy 2PCFs within the framework of halo occupation distribution or conditional luminosity function. It is equivalent to populating galaxies to dark matter haloes and using the mock 2PCF measurements as the model predictions. Besides the accurate 2PCF calculations, the method is also fast and therefore enables an efficient exploration of the parameter space. As an example of the method, we decompose the redshift-space galaxy 2PCF into different components based on the type of galaxy pairs and show the redshift-space distortion effect in each component. The generalizations and limitations of the method are discussed.

  2. 5D model for accurate representation and visualization of dynamic cardiac structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Wei-te; Robb, Richard A.

    2000-05-01

    Accurate cardiac modeling is challenging due to the intricate structure and complex contraction patterns of myocardial tissues. Fast imaging techniques can provide 4D structural information acquired as a sequence of 3D images throughout the cardiac cycle. To mode. The beating heart, we created a physics-based surface model that deforms between successive time point in the cardiac cycle. 3D images of canine hearts were acquired during one complete cardiac cycle using the DSR and the EBCT. The left ventricle of the first time point is reconstructed as a triangular mesh. A mass-spring physics-based deformable mode,, which can expand and shrink with local contraction and stretching forces distributed in an anatomically accurate simulation of cardiac motion, is applied to the initial mesh and allows the initial mesh to deform to fit the left ventricle in successive time increments of the sequence. The resulting 4D model can be interactively transformed and displayed with associated regional electrical activity mapped onto anatomic surfaces, producing a 5D model, which faithfully exhibits regional cardiac contraction and relaxation patterns over the entire heart. The model faithfully represents structural changes throughout the cardiac cycle. Such models provide the framework for minimizing the number of time points required to usefully depict regional motion of myocardium and allow quantitative assessment of regional myocardial motion. The electrical activation mapping provides spatial and temporal correlation within the cardiac cycle. In procedures which as intra-cardiac catheter ablation, visualization of the dynamic model can be used to accurately localize the foci of myocardial arrhythmias and guide positioning of catheters for optimal ablation.

  3. Monte Carlo modeling provides accurate calibration factors for radionuclide activity meters.

    PubMed

    Zagni, F; Cicoria, G; Lucconi, G; Infantino, A; Lodi, F; Marengo, M

    2014-12-01

    Accurate determination of calibration factors for radionuclide activity meters is crucial for quantitative studies and in the optimization step of radiation protection, as these detectors are widespread in radiopharmacy and nuclear medicine facilities. In this work we developed the Monte Carlo model of a widely used activity meter, using the Geant4 simulation toolkit. More precisely the "PENELOPE" EM physics models were employed. The model was validated by means of several certified sources, traceable to primary activity standards, and other sources locally standardized with spectrometry measurements, plus other experimental tests. Great care was taken in order to accurately reproduce the geometrical details of the gas chamber and the activity sources, each of which is different in shape and enclosed in a unique container. Both relative calibration factors and ionization current obtained with simulations were compared against experimental measurements; further tests were carried out, such as the comparison of the relative response of the chamber for a source placed at different positions. The results showed a satisfactory level of accuracy in the energy range of interest, with the discrepancies lower than 4% for all the tested parameters. This shows that an accurate Monte Carlo modeling of this type of detector is feasible using the low-energy physics models embedded in Geant4. The obtained Monte Carlo model establishes a powerful tool for first instance determination of new calibration factors for non-standard radionuclides, for custom containers, when a reference source is not available. Moreover, the model provides an experimental setup for further research and optimization with regards to materials and geometrical details of the measuring setup, such as the ionization chamber itself or the containers configuration.

  4. Use of groundwater levels with the PULSE analytical model.

    PubMed

    Rutledge, Albert T

    2014-01-01

    The PULSE analytical model, which calculates daily groundwater discharge on the basis of user-specified recharge, was originally developed for calibration using streamflow data. This article describes a model application in which groundwater level data constitute the primary control on model input. As a test case, data were analyzed from a small basin in central Pennsylvania in which extensive groundwater level data are available. The timing and intensity of daily water-level rises are used to ascertain temporal distribution of recharge, and the simulated groundwater discharge hydrograph has shape features that are similar to the streamflow hydrograph. This article does not include details about calibration, but some steps are illustrated and general procedures are described for calibration in specific hydrologic studies. The PULSE model can be used to assess results of fully automated base flow methods and can be used to define groundwater recharge and discharge at a relatively small time scale.

  5. A semi-analytical Lagrangian dispersion model in inhomogeneous turbulence

    SciTech Connect

    Zhuang, Y.

    1996-12-31

    Probably the most natural method to describe turbulent dispersion in the atmosphere is the Lagrangian trajectory model. In this approach, one builds the joint probability density function (PDF) of particle velocity and position by following a large number of particle trajectories in a turbulent flow given the Eulerian flow statistics. The statistics of the concentration can then be found from the joint PDF. However, the usefulness of the Lagrangian trajectory model in practice has been hindered by the necessary lengthy and stochastic numerical calculations. As a result, few operational models based on the Lagrangian trajectory approach have been proposed. This paper reports the first attempt to solve the Fokker-Planck equation using the function expansion method. The semi-analytical solution retains the characteristics of the Lagrangian trajectory model, but takes little computation effort. The solutions for Gaussian inhomogeneous turbulence and skewed homogeneous turbulence are discussed by comparing them with those calculated using the trajectory simulation method.

  6. Analytical results on the Beauchemin model of lymphocyte migration

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    The Beauchemin model is a simple particle-based description of stochastic lymphocyte migration in tissue, which has been successfully applied to studying immunological questions. In addition to being easy to implement, the model is also to a large extent mathematically tractable. This article provides a comprehensive overview of both existing and new analytical results on the Beauchemin model within a common mathematical framework. Specifically, we derive the motility coefficient, the mean square displacement, and the confinement ratio, and discuss four different methods for simulating biased migration of pre-defined speed. The results provide new insight into published studies and a reference point for future research based on this simple and popular lymphocyte migration model. PMID:23734948

  7. Laser satellite constellations for strategic defense - an analytic model

    SciTech Connect

    Parmentola, J.A.; Milton, A.F.

    1987-10-01

    Using mainly geometric reasoning, an analytic model is constructed that predicts the required characteristics of an orbiting constellation of laser battle stations, each of which is designed to destroy ballistic missiles during their boost phase. The geometry of the constellation configuration and some general aspects of the coverage problem are discussed. The determination of the absentee ratio falls into two main categories that depend upon whether the Soviet ICBM threat is concentrated at a single location or whether it is distributed as it is now. A point-threat model and a distributive threat model are considered, the determination of the respective kill rates for these models is discussed, and the scaling properties of the laser constellation with respect to a change in the quantitative nature of the two types of ICBM threats are considered.

  8. Analytical model of an isolated single-atom electron source.

    PubMed

    Engelen, W J; Vredenbregt, E J D; Luiten, O J

    2014-12-01

    An analytical model of a single-atom electron source is presented, where electrons are created by near-threshold photoionization of an isolated atom. The model considers the classical dynamics of the electron just after the photon absorption, i.e. its motion in the potential of a singly charged ion and a uniform electric field used for acceleration. From closed expressions for the asymptotic transverse electron velocities and trajectories, the effective source temperature and the virtual source size can be calculated. The influence of the acceleration field strength and the ionization laser energy on these properties has been studied. With this model, a single-atom electron source with the optimum electron beam properties can be designed. Furthermore, we show that the model is also applicable to ionization of rubidium atoms, and thus also describes the ultracold electron source, which is based on photoionization of laser-cooled alkali atoms.

  9. A two-dimensional analytical model of petroleum vapor intrusion

    PubMed Central

    Yao, Yijun; Verginelli, Iason; Suuberg, Eric M.

    2017-01-01

    In this study we present an analytical solution of a two-dimensional petroleum vapor intrusion model, which incorporates a steady-state diffusion-dominated vapor transport in a homogeneous soil and piecewise first-order aerobic biodegradation limited by oxygen availability. This new model can help practitioners to easily generate two-dimensional soil gas concentration profiles for both hydrocarbons and oxygen and estimate hydrocarbon indoor air concentrations as a function of site-specific conditions such as source strength and depth, reaction rate constant, soil characteristics and building features. The soil gas concentration profiles generated by this new model are shown in good agreement with three-dimensional numerical simulations and two-dimensional measured soil gas data from a field study. This implies that for cases involving diffusion dominated soil gas transport, steady state conditions and homogenous source and soil, this analytical model can be used as a fast and easy-to-use risk screening tool by replicating the results of 3-D numerical simulations but with much less computational effort. PMID:28255184

  10. A semi-analytic model of magnetized liner inertial fusion

    SciTech Connect

    McBride, Ryan D.; Slutz, Stephen A.

    2015-05-15

    Presented is a semi-analytic model of magnetized liner inertial fusion (MagLIF). This model accounts for several key aspects of MagLIF, including: (1) preheat of the fuel (optionally via laser absorption); (2) pulsed-power-driven liner implosion; (3) liner compressibility with an analytic equation of state, artificial viscosity, internal magnetic pressure, and ohmic heating; (4) adiabatic compression and heating of the fuel; (5) radiative losses and fuel opacity; (6) magnetic flux compression with Nernst thermoelectric losses; (7) magnetized electron and ion thermal conduction losses; (8) end losses; (9) enhanced losses due to prescribed dopant concentrations and contaminant mix; (10) deuterium-deuterium and deuterium-tritium primary fusion reactions for arbitrary deuterium to tritium fuel ratios; and (11) magnetized α-particle fuel heating. We show that this simplified model, with its transparent and accessible physics, can be used to reproduce the general 1D behavior presented throughout the original MagLIF paper [S. A. Slutz et al., Phys. Plasmas 17, 056303 (2010)]. We also discuss some important physics insights gained as a result of developing this model, such as the dependence of radiative loss rates on the radial fraction of the fuel that is preheated.

  11. A two-dimensional analytical model of petroleum vapor intrusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yao, Yijun; Verginelli, Iason; Suuberg, Eric M.

    2016-02-01

    In this study we present an analytical solution of a two-dimensional petroleum vapor intrusion model, which incorporates a steady-state diffusion-dominated vapor transport in a homogeneous soil and piecewise first-order aerobic biodegradation limited by oxygen availability. This new model can help practitioners to easily generate two-dimensional soil gas concentration profiles for both hydrocarbons and oxygen and estimate hydrocarbon indoor air concentrations as a function of site-specific conditions such as source strength and depth, reaction rate constant, soil characteristics and building features. The soil gas concentration profiles generated by this new model are shown in good agreement with three-dimensional numerical simulations and two-dimensional measured soil gas data from a field study. This implies that for cases involving diffusion dominated soil gas transport, steady state conditions and homogenous source and soil, this analytical model can be used as a fast and easy-to-use risk screening tool by replicating the results of 3-D numerical simulations but with much less computational effort.

  12. A workflow learning model to improve geovisual analytics utility

    PubMed Central

    Roth, Robert E; MacEachren, Alan M; McCabe, Craig A

    2011-01-01

    Introduction This paper describes the design and implementation of the G-EX Portal Learn Module, a web-based, geocollaborative application for organizing and distributing digital learning artifacts. G-EX falls into the broader context of geovisual analytics, a new research area with the goal of supporting visually-mediated reasoning about large, multivariate, spatiotemporal information. Because this information is unprecedented in amount and complexity, GIScientists are tasked with the development of new tools and techniques to make sense of it. Our research addresses the challenge of implementing these geovisual analytics tools and techniques in a useful manner. Objectives The objective of this paper is to develop and implement a method for improving the utility of geovisual analytics software. The success of software is measured by its usability (i.e., how easy the software is to use?) and utility (i.e., how useful the software is). The usability and utility of software can be improved by refining the software, increasing user knowledge about the software, or both. It is difficult to achieve transparent usability (i.e., software that is immediately usable without training) of geovisual analytics software because of the inherent complexity of the included tools and techniques. In these situations, improving user knowledge about the software through the provision of learning artifacts is as important, if not more so, than iterative refinement of the software itself. Therefore, our approach to improving utility is focused on educating the user. Methodology The research reported here was completed in two steps. First, we developed a model for learning about geovisual analytics software. Many existing digital learning models assist only with use of the software to complete a specific task and provide limited assistance with its actual application. To move beyond task-oriented learning about software use, we propose a process-oriented approach to learning based on the

  13. Using a highly accurate self-stop Cu-CMP model in the design flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Izuha, Kyoko; Sakairi, Takashi; Shibuki, Shunichi; Bora, Monalisa; Hatem, Osama; Ghulghazaryan, Ruben; Strecker, Norbert; Wilson, Jeff; Takeshita, Noritsugu

    2010-03-01

    An accurate model for the self-stop copper chemical mechanical polishing (Cu-CMP) process has been developed using CMP modeling technology from Mentor Graphics. This technology was applied on data from Sony to create and optimize copper electroplating (ECD), Cu-CMP, and barrier metal polishing (BM-CMP) process models. These models take into account layout pattern dependency, long range diffusion and planarization effects, as well as microloading from local pattern density. The developed ECD model accurately predicted erosion and dishing over the entire range of width and space combinations present on the test chip. Then, the results of the ECD model were used as an initial structure to model the Cu-CMP step. Subsequently, the result of Cu-CMP was used for the BM-CMP model creation. The created model was successful in reproducing the measured data, including trends for a broad range of metal width and densities. Its robustness is demonstrated by the fact that it gives acceptable prediction of final copper thickness data although the calibration data included noise from line scan measurements. Accuracy of the Cu-CMP model has a great impact on the prediction results for BM-CMP. This is a critical feature for the modeling of high precision CMP such as self-stop Cu-CMP. Finally, the developed model could successfully extract planarity hotspots that helped identify potential problems in production chips before they were manufactured. The output thickness values of metal and dielectric can be used to drive layout enhancement tools and improve the accuracy of timing analysis.

  14. Analytic Thermoelectric Couple Modeling: Variable Material Properties and Transient Operation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mackey, Jonathan A.; Sehirlioglu, Alp; Dynys, Fred

    2015-01-01

    To gain a deeper understanding of the operation of a thermoelectric couple a set of analytic solutions have been derived for a variable material property couple and a transient couple. Using an analytic approach, as opposed to commonly used numerical techniques, results in a set of useful design guidelines. These guidelines can serve as useful starting conditions for further numerical studies, or can serve as design rules for lab built couples. The analytic modeling considers two cases and accounts for 1) material properties which vary with temperature and 2) transient operation of a couple. The variable material property case was handled by means of an asymptotic expansion, which allows for insight into the influence of temperature dependence on different material properties. The variable property work demonstrated the important fact that materials with identical average Figure of Merits can lead to different conversion efficiencies due to temperature dependence of the properties. The transient couple was investigated through a Greens function approach; several transient boundary conditions were investigated. The transient work introduces several new design considerations which are not captured by the classic steady state analysis. The work helps to assist in designing couples for optimal performance, and also helps assist in material selection.

  15. Thermal analytic model of 30 cm engineering model mercury ion thruster

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oglebay, J. C.

    1975-01-01

    A lumped parameter thermal nodal network was developed for a 30 cm Engineering Model Mercury Ion Thruster. The network consists of approximately 100 nodes coded in SINDA format for use on the Univac 1106/1108 computer. This model takes into account internal dissipation, radiation, and conduction as well as environmental heating. A series of tests were performed to simulate a wide range of thermal environments on an operating 30 cm thruster, instrumented to measure the temperature distribution within the thruster. The results of these tests were used to calibrate the analytical model. The analytical model along with comparisons between analytical and experimental results for the various operating conditions are presented.

  16. Analytical model for flow duration curves in seasonally dry climates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Müller, Marc F.; Dralle, David N.; Thompson, Sally E.

    2014-07-01

    Flow duration curves (FDC) display streamflow values against their relative exceedance time. They provide critical information for watershed management by representing the variation in the availability and reliability of surface water to supply ecosystem services and satisfy anthropogenic needs. FDCs are particularly revealing in seasonally dry climates, where surface water supplies are highly variable. While useful, the empirical computation of FDCs is data intensive and challenging in sparsely gauged regions, meaning that there is a need for robust, predictive models to evaluate FDCs with simple parameterization. Here, we derive a process-based analytical expression for FDCs in seasonally dry climates. During the wet season, streamflow is modeled as a stochastic variable driven by rainfall, following the stochastic analytical model of Botter et al. (2007a). During the dry season, streamflow is modeled as a deterministic recession with a stochastic initial condition that accounts for the carryover of catchment storage across seasons. The resulting FDC model is applied to 38 catchments in Nepal, coastal California, and Western Australia, where FDCs are successfully modeled using five physically meaningful parameters with minimal calibration. A Monte Carlo analysis revealed that the model is robust to deviations from its assumptions of Poissonian rainfall, exponentially distributed response times and constant seasonal timing. The approach successfully models period-of-record FDCs and allows interannual and intra-annual sources of variations in dry season streamflow to be separated. The resulting median annual FDCs and confidence intervals allow the simulation of the consequences of interannual flow variations for infrastructure projects. We present an example using run-of-river hydropower in Nepal as a case study.

  17. Simulations and analytic models of relativistic magnetized jets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tchekhovskoi, Alexandre Dmitrievich

    Astrophysical jets are tightly collimated streams that are often observed to move at velocities close to the speed of light. While many such systems are known, understanding and explaining how jets collimate and accelerate has been a long-standing challenge and is currently an area of active research. Finding analytic solutions for jets is extremely hard because the equations that describe the jets are highly nonlinear and difficult to solve analytically. Only in the last few years has it become possible to simulate ultrarelativistic jets computationally, which has led to unprecedented insights into their structure. We now think that many relativistic jets are produced by magnetic fields twisted by the rotation of a central compact object, which can be a black hole or a neutron star. In this thesis I present numerical and analytical studies of relativistic jets. In Chapter 2, I start with a discussion of a simple, idealized model that has the bare minimum of ingredients needed for the production of jets: regular magnetic field, spinning central compact object, and externally imposed collimation. The model assumes that magnetic field in the jet is so strong that plasma inertia is negligible and can be ignored. The simplicity of this model allows for a fully analytic description and an intuitive understanding of the results. Despite being simple, this model possesses non-trivial properties and has important applications to various astrophysical systems --- compact object binaries, gamma-ray bursts, and active galactic nuclei. Chapters 3 -- 7 add an extra level of realism (and sophistication) into jet models: they account for mass inertia of the jet fluid and study its effects on the jet structure. Chapter 4 discusses the effect of jet confinement on the acceleration of the jet. Chapter 5 shows that deconfinement can also have a dramatic effect on the jet. Chapter 6 studies how the structure of the jet changes if the central object driving the jet is a black hole

  18. A hybrid finite-difference and analytic element groundwater model.

    PubMed

    Haitjema, H M; Feinstein, D T; Hunt, R J; Gusyev, M A

    2010-01-01

    Regional finite-difference models tend to have large cell sizes, often on the order of 1-2 km on a side. Although the regional flow patterns in deeper formations may be adequately represented by such a model, the intricate surface water and groundwater interactions in the shallower layers are not. Several stream reaches and nearby wells may occur in a single cell, precluding any meaningful modeling of the surface water and groundwater interactions between the individual features. We propose to replace the upper MODFLOW layer or layers, in which the surface water and groundwater interactions occur, by an analytic element model (GFLOW) that does not employ a model grid; instead, it represents wells and surface waters directly by the use of point-sinks and line-sinks. For many practical cases it suffices to provide GFLOW with the vertical leakage rates calculated in the original coarse MODFLOW model in order to obtain a good representation of surface water and groundwater interactions. However, when the combined transmissivities in the deeper (MODFLOW) layers dominate, the accuracy of the GFLOW solution diminishes. For those cases, an iterative coupling procedure, whereby the leakages between the GFLOW and MODFLOW model are updated, appreciably improves the overall solution, albeit at considerable computational cost. The coupled GFLOW-MODFLOW model is applicable to relatively large areas, in many cases to the entire model domain, thus forming an attractive alternative to local grid refinement or inset models.

  19. Digital forensics: an analytical crime scene procedure model (ACSPM).

    PubMed

    Bulbul, Halil Ibrahim; Yavuzcan, H Guclu; Ozel, Mesut

    2013-12-10

    In order to ensure that digital evidence is collected, preserved, examined, or transferred in a manner safeguarding the accuracy and reliability of the evidence, law enforcement and digital forensic units must establish and maintain an effective quality assurance system. The very first part of this system is standard operating procedures (SOP's) and/or models, conforming chain of custody requirements, those rely on digital forensics "process-phase-procedure-task-subtask" sequence. An acceptable and thorough Digital Forensics (DF) process depends on the sequential DF phases, and each phase depends on sequential DF procedures, respectively each procedure depends on tasks and subtasks. There are numerous amounts of DF Process Models that define DF phases in the literature, but no DF model that defines the phase-based sequential procedures for crime scene identified. An analytical crime scene procedure model (ACSPM) that we suggest in this paper is supposed to fill in this gap. The proposed analytical procedure model for digital investigations at a crime scene is developed and defined for crime scene practitioners; with main focus on crime scene digital forensic procedures, other than that of whole digital investigation process and phases that ends up in a court. When reviewing the relevant literature and interrogating with the law enforcement agencies, only device based charts specific to a particular device and/or more general perspective approaches to digital evidence management models from crime scene to courts are found. After analyzing the needs of law enforcement organizations and realizing the absence of crime scene digital investigation procedure model for crime scene activities we decided to inspect the relevant literature in an analytical way. The outcome of this inspection is our suggested model explained here, which is supposed to provide guidance for thorough and secure implementation of digital forensic procedures at a crime scene. In digital forensic

  20. Improved analytic extreme-mass-ratio inspiral model for scoping out eLISA data analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chua, Alvin J. K.; Gair, Jonathan R.

    2015-12-01

    The space-based gravitational-wave detector eLISA has been selected as the ESA L3 mission, and the mission design will be finalized by the end of this decade. To prepare for mission formulation over the next few years, several outstanding and urgent questions in data analysis will be addressed using mock data challenges, informed by instrument measurements from the LISA Pathfinder satellite launching at the end of 2015. These data challenges will require accurate and computationally affordable waveform models for anticipated sources such as the extreme-mass-ratio inspirals (EMRIs) of stellar-mass compact objects into massive black holes. Previous data challenges have made use of the well-known analytic EMRI waveforms of Barack and Cutler, which are extremely quick to generate but dephase relative to more accurate waveforms within hours, due to their mismatched radial, polar and azimuthal frequencies. In this paper, we describe an augmented Barack-Cutler model that uses a frequency map to the correct Kerr frequencies, along with updated evolution equations and a simple fit to a more accurate model. The augmented waveforms stay in phase for months and may be generated with virtually no additional computational cost.

  1. Yield-Ensuring DAC-Embedded Opamp Design Based on Accurate Behavioral Model Development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jang, Yeong-Shin; Nguyen, Hoai-Nam; Ryu, Seung-Tak; Lee, Sang-Gug

    An accurate behavioral model of a DAC-embedded opamp (DAC-opamp) is developed for a yield-ensuring LCD column driver design. A lookup table for the V-I curve of the unit differential pair in the DAC-opamp is extracted from a circuit simulation and is later manipulated through a random error insertion. Virtual ground assumption simplifies the output voltage estimation algorithm. The developed behavioral model of a 5-bit DAC-opamp shows good agreement with the circuit level simulation with less than 5% INL difference.

  2. Body charge modelling for accurate simulation of small-signal behaviour in floating body SOI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benson, James; Redman-White, William; D'Halleweyn, Nele V.; Easson, Craig A.; Uren, Michael J.

    2002-04-01

    We show that careful modelling of body node elements in floating body PD-SOI MOSFET compact models is required in order to obtain accurate small-signal simulation results in the saturation region. The body network modifies the saturation output conductance of the device via the body-source transconductance, resulting in a pole/zero pair being introduced in the conductance-frequency response. We show that neglecting the presence of body charge in the saturation region can often yield inaccurate values for the body capacitances, which in turn can adversely affect the modelling of the output conductance above the pole/zero frequency. We conclude that the underlying cause of this problem is the use of separate models for the intrinsic and extrinsic capacitances. Finally, we present a simple saturation body charge model which can greatly improve small-signal simulation accuracy for floating body devices.

  3. Analytical and numerical modeling of surface morphologies in thin films

    SciTech Connect

    Genin, F.Y.

    1995-05-01

    Experimental studies have show that strains due to thermal expansion mismatch between a film and its substrate can produce very large stresses in the film that can lead to the formation of holes and hillocks. Based on a phenomenological description of the evolution of a solid surface under both capillary and stress driving forces and for surface and grain boundary self-diffusion, this article provides analytical and numerical solutions for surface profiles of model geometries in polycrystalline thin films. Results can explain a variety of surface morphologies commonly observed experimentally and are discussed to give some practical insights on how to control the growth of holes and hillocks in thin films.

  4. Analytical model for the radio-frequency sheath.

    PubMed

    Czarnetzki, Uwe

    2013-12-01

    A simple analytical model for the planar radio-frequency (rf) sheath in capacitive discharges is developed that is based on the assumptions of a step profile for the electron front, charge exchange collisions with constant cross sections, negligible ionization within the sheath, and negligible ion dynamics. The continuity, momentum conservation, and Poisson equations are combined in a single integro-differential equation for the square of the ion drift velocity, the so called sheath equation. Starting from the kinetic Boltzmann equation, special attention is paid to the derivation and the validity of the approximate fluid equation for momentum balance. The integrals in the sheath equation appear in the screening function which considers the relative contribution of the temporal mean of the electron density to the space charge in the sheath. It is shown that the screening function is quite insensitive to variations of the effective sheath parameters. The two parameters defining the solution are the ratios of the maximum sheath extension to the ion mean free path and the Debye length, respectively. A simple general analytic expression for the screening function is introduced. By means of this expression approximate analytical solutions are obtained for the collisionless as well as the highly collisional case that compare well with the exact numerical solution. A simple transition formula allows application to all degrees of collisionality. In addition, the solutions are used to calculate all static and dynamic quantities of the sheath, e.g., the ion density, fields, and currents. Further, the rf Child-Langmuir laws for the collisionless as well as the collisional case are derived. An essential part of the model is the a priori knowledge of the wave form of the sheath voltage. This wave form is derived on the basis of a cubic charge-voltage relation for individual sheaths, considering both sheaths and the self-consistent self-bias in a discharge with arbitrary

  5. Analytical model of spin-polarized semiconductor lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gøthgen, Christian; Oszwałdowski, Rafał; Petrou, Athos; Žutić, Igor

    2008-07-01

    We formulate an analytical model for semiconductor lasers with injection (pump) of spin-polarized electrons, allowing us to systematically investigate different operating regimes. We demonstrate that the maximum threshold reduction by electrically pumped spin-polarized carriers is larger than previously thought possible and, surprisingly, can be enhanced by ultrafast spin relaxation of holes. We reveal how different modes of carrier recombination directly affect the threshold reduction. Neither spin-up nor spin-down electron populations are separately clamped (pinned) near the threshold, where such lasers can act as effective nonlinear filters of circularly polarized light, owing to their spin-dependent gain.

  6. Analytical performance models for geologic repositories. Volume 2

    SciTech Connect

    Chambre, P.L.; Pigford, T.H.; Fujita, A.; Kanki, T.; Kobayashi, A.; Lung, H.; Ting, D.; Sato, Y.; Zavoshy, S.J.

    1982-10-01

    This report presents analytical solutions of the dissolution and hydrogeologic transport of radionuclides in geologic repositories. Numerical examples are presented to demonstrate the equations resulting from these analyses. The subjects treated in this report are: solubility-limited transport with transverse dispersion (chapter 2); transport of a radionuclide chain with nonequilibrium chemical reactions (chapter 3); advective transport in a two-dimensional flow field (chapter 4); radionuclide transport in fractured media (chapter 5); a mathematical model for EPA's analysis of generic repositories (chapter 6); and dissolution of radionuclides from solid waste (chapter 7). Volume 2 contains chapters 5, 6, and 7.

  7. Analytical model for the radio-frequency sheath

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Czarnetzki, Uwe

    2013-12-01

    A simple analytical model for the planar radio-frequency (rf) sheath in capacitive discharges is developed that is based on the assumptions of a step profile for the electron front, charge exchange collisions with constant cross sections, negligible ionization within the sheath, and negligible ion dynamics. The continuity, momentum conservation, and Poisson equations are combined in a single integro-differential equation for the square of the ion drift velocity, the so called sheath equation. Starting from the kinetic Boltzmann equation, special attention is paid to the derivation and the validity of the approximate fluid equation for momentum balance. The integrals in the sheath equation appear in the screening function which considers the relative contribution of the temporal mean of the electron density to the space charge in the sheath. It is shown that the screening function is quite insensitive to variations of the effective sheath parameters. The two parameters defining the solution are the ratios of the maximum sheath extension to the ion mean free path and the Debye length, respectively. A simple general analytic expression for the screening function is introduced. By means of this expression approximate analytical solutions are obtained for the collisionless as well as the highly collisional case that compare well with the exact numerical solution. A simple transition formula allows application to all degrees of collisionality. In addition, the solutions are used to calculate all static and dynamic quantities of the sheath, e.g., the ion density, fields, and currents. Further, the rf Child-Langmuir laws for the collisionless as well as the collisional case are derived. An essential part of the model is the a priori knowledge of the wave form of the sheath voltage. This wave form is derived on the basis of a cubic charge-voltage relation for individual sheaths, considering both sheaths and the self-consistent self-bias in a discharge with arbitrary

  8. Multidisciplinary optimization in aircraft design using analytic technology models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Malone, Brett; Mason, W. H.

    1991-01-01

    An approach to multidisciplinary optimization is presented which combines the Global Sensitivity Equation method, parametric optimization, and analytic technology models. The result is a powerful yet simple procedure for identifying key design issues. It can be used both to investigate technology integration issues very early in the design cycle, and to establish the information flow framework between disciplines for use in multidisciplinary optimization projects using much more computational intense representations of each technology. To illustrate the approach, an examination of the optimization of a short takeoff heavy transport aircraft is presented for numerous combinations of performance and technology constraints.

  9. "Violent Intent Modeling: Incorporating Cultural Knowledge into the Analytical Process

    SciTech Connect

    Sanfilippo, Antonio P.; Nibbs, Faith G.

    2007-08-24

    While culture has a significant effect on the appropriate interpretation of textual data, the incorporation of cultural considerations into data transformations has not been systematic. Recognizing that the successful prevention of terrorist activities could hinge on the knowledge of the subcultures, Anthropologist and DHS intern Faith Nibbs has been addressing the need to incorporate cultural knowledge into the analytical process. In this Brown Bag she will present how cultural ideology is being used to understand how the rhetoric of group leaders influences the likelihood of their constituents to engage in violent or radicalized behavior, and how violent intent modeling can benefit from understanding that process.

  10. X: A Comprehensive Analytic Model for Parallel Machines

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Ang; Song, Shuaiwen; Brugel, Eric; Kumar, Akash; Chavarría-Miranda, Daniel; Corporaal, Henk

    2016-05-23

    To continuously comply with Moore’s Law, modern parallel machines become increasingly complex. Effectively tuning application performance for these machines therefore becomes a daunting task. Moreover, identifying performance bottlenecks at application and architecture level, as well as evaluating various optimization strategies, are becoming extremely difficult when the entanglement of numerous correlated factors is being presented. To tackle these challenges, we present a visual analytical model named “X”. It is intuitive and sufficiently flexible to track all the typical features of a parallel machine.

  11. Analytic model for the long-term evolution of circular Earth satellite orbits including lunar node regression

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Ting-Lei; Zhao, Chang-Yin; Zhang, Ming-Jiang

    2017-04-01

    This paper aims to obtain an analytic approximation to the evolution of circular orbits governed by the Earth's J2 and the luni-solar gravitational perturbations. Assuming that the lunar orbital plane coincides with the ecliptic plane, Allan and Cook (Proc. R. Soc. A, Math. Phys. Eng. Sci. 280(1380):97, 1964) derived an analytic solution to the orbital plane evolution of circular orbits. Using their result as an intermediate solution, we establish an approximate analytic model with lunar orbital inclination and its node regression be taken into account. Finally, an approximate analytic expression is derived, which is accurate compared to the numerical results except for the resonant cases when the period of the reference orbit approximately equals the integer multiples (especially 1 or 2 times) of lunar node regression period.

  12. A temporal model for Clinical Data Analytics language.

    PubMed

    Safari, Leila; Patrick, Jon D

    2013-01-01

    The proposal of a special purpose language for Clinical Data Analytics (CliniDAL) is presented along with a general model for expressing temporal events in the language. The temporal dimension of clinical data needs to be addressed from at least five different points of view. Firstly, how to attach the knowledge of time based constraints to queries; secondly, how to mine temporal data in different CISs with various data models; thirdly, how to deal with both relative time and absolute time in the query language; fourthly, how to tackle internal time-event dependencies in queries, and finally, how to manage historical time events preserved in the patient's narrative. The temporal elements of the language are defined in Bachus Naur Form (BNF) along with a UML schema. Its use in a designed taxonomy of a five class hierarchy of data analytics tasks shows the solution to problems of time event dependencies in a highly complex cascade of queries needed to evaluate scientific experiments. The issues in using the model in a practical way are discussed as well.

  13. Optimizing multi-pinhole SPECT geometries using an analytical model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rentmeester, M. C. M.; van der Have, F.; Beekman, F. J.

    2007-05-01

    State-of-the-art multi-pinhole SPECT devices allow for sub-mm resolution imaging of radio-molecule distributions in small laboratory animals. The optimization of multi-pinhole and detector geometries using simulations based on ray-tracing or Monte Carlo algorithms is time-consuming, particularly because many system parameters need to be varied. As an efficient alternative we develop a continuous analytical model of a pinhole SPECT system with a stationary detector set-up, which we apply to focused imaging of a mouse. The model assumes that the multi-pinhole collimator and the detector both have the shape of a spherical layer, and uses analytical expressions for effective pinhole diameters, sensitivity and spatial resolution. For fixed fields-of-view, a pinhole-diameter adapting feedback loop allows for the comparison of the system resolution of different systems at equal system sensitivity, and vice versa. The model predicts that (i) for optimal resolution or sensitivity the collimator layer with pinholes should be placed as closely as possible around the animal given a fixed detector layer, (ii) with high-resolution detectors a resolution improvement up to 31% can be achieved compared to optimized systems, (iii) high-resolution detectors can be placed close to the collimator without significant resolution losses, (iv) interestingly, systems with a physical pinhole diameter of 0 mm can have an excellent resolution when high-resolution detectors are used.

  14. Analytical modeling of turbine wakes in yawed conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bastankhah, Majid; Porté-Agel, Fernando

    2016-04-01

    Increasing wind energy production has become a unanimous plan for virtually all the developed countries. In addition to constructing new wind farms, this goal can be achieved by making wind farms more efficient. Control strategies in wind farms, such as manipulating the yaw angle of the turbines, have the potential to make wind farms more efficient. Costly numerical simulations or measurements cannot be, however, employed to assess the viability of this strategy in the numerous different scenarios happening in real wind farms. In this study, we aim to develop an inexpensive and simple analytical model that is able for the first time to predict the whole wake of a yawed turbine with an acceptable accuracy. The proposed analytical model is built upon the simplified version of the Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes equations. Apart from the ability of the model to predict wake flows in yawed conditions, it can provide a better understanding of turbine wakes in this complex situation. For example, it can give valuable insights on how the wake deflection varies by changing turbine and incoming flow characteristics, such as the thrust coefficient of the turbine or the ambient turbulence.

  15. Analytical model for ion stopping power and range in the therapeutic energy interval for beams of hydrogen and heavier ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Donahue, William; Newhauser, Wayne D.; Ziegler, James F.

    2016-09-01

    Many different approaches exist to calculate stopping power and range of protons and heavy charged particles. These methods may be broadly categorized as physically complete theories (widely applicable and complex) or semi-empirical approaches (narrowly applicable and simple). However, little attention has been paid in the literature to approaches that are both widely applicable and simple. We developed simple analytical models of stopping power and range for ions of hydrogen, carbon, iron, and uranium that spanned intervals of ion energy from 351 keV u-1 to 450 MeV u-1 or wider. The analytical models typically reproduced the best-available evaluated stopping powers within 1% and ranges within 0.1 mm. The computational speed of the analytical stopping power model was 28% faster than a full-theoretical approach. The calculation of range using the analytic range model was 945 times faster than a widely-used numerical integration technique. The results of this study revealed that the new, simple analytical models are accurate, fast, and broadly applicable. The new models require just 6 parameters to calculate stopping power and range for a given ion and absorber. The proposed model may be useful as an alternative to traditional approaches, especially in applications that demand fast computation speed, small memory footprint, and simplicity.

  16. Accurate prediction of wall shear stress in a stented artery: newtonian versus non-newtonian models.

    PubMed

    Mejia, Juan; Mongrain, Rosaire; Bertrand, Olivier F

    2011-07-01

    A significant amount of evidence linking wall shear stress to neointimal hyperplasia has been reported in the literature. As a result, numerical and experimental models have been created to study the influence of stent design on wall shear stress. Traditionally, blood has been assumed to behave as a Newtonian fluid, but recently that assumption has been challenged. The use of a linear model; however, can reduce computational cost, and allow the use of Newtonian fluids (e.g., glycerine and water) instead of a blood analog fluid in an experimental setup. Therefore, it is of interest whether a linear model can be used to accurately predict the wall shear stress caused by a non-Newtonian fluid such as blood within a stented arterial segment. The present work compares the resulting wall shear stress obtained using two linear and one nonlinear model under the same flow waveform. All numerical models are fully three-dimensional, transient, and incorporate a realistic stent geometry. It is shown that traditional linear models (based on blood's lowest viscosity limit, 3.5 Pa s) underestimate the wall shear stress within a stented arterial segment, which can lead to an overestimation of the risk of restenosis. The second linear model, which uses a characteristic viscosity (based on an average strain rate, 4.7 Pa s), results in higher wall shear stress levels, but which are still substantially below those of the nonlinear model. It is therefore shown that nonlinear models result in more accurate predictions of wall shear stress within a stented arterial segment.

  17. Accurate halo-model matter power spectra with dark energy, massive neutrinos and modified gravitational forces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mead, A. J.; Heymans, C.; Lombriser, L.; Peacock, J. A.; Steele, O. I.; Winther, H. A.

    2016-06-01

    We present an accurate non-linear matter power spectrum prediction scheme for a variety of extensions to the standard cosmological paradigm, which uses the tuned halo model previously developed in Mead et al. We consider dark energy models that are both minimally and non-minimally coupled, massive neutrinos and modified gravitational forces with chameleon and Vainshtein screening mechanisms. In all cases, we compare halo-model power spectra to measurements from high-resolution simulations. We show that the tuned halo-model method can predict the non-linear matter power spectrum measured from simulations of parametrized w(a) dark energy models at the few per cent level for k < 10 h Mpc-1, and we present theoretically motivated extensions to cover non-minimally coupled scalar fields, massive neutrinos and Vainshtein screened modified gravity models that result in few per cent accurate power spectra for k < 10 h Mpc-1. For chameleon screened models, we achieve only 10 per cent accuracy for the same range of scales. Finally, we use our halo model to investigate degeneracies between different extensions to the standard cosmological model, finding that the impact of baryonic feedback on the non-linear matter power spectrum can be considered independently of modified gravity or massive neutrino extensions. In contrast, considering the impact of modified gravity and massive neutrinos independently results in biased estimates of power at the level of 5 per cent at scales k > 0.5 h Mpc-1. An updated version of our publicly available HMCODE can be found at https://github.com/alexander-mead/hmcode.

  18. Embedded Analytical Solutions Improve Accuracy in Convolution-Based Particle Tracking Models using Python

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Starn, J. J.

    2013-12-01

    Particle tracking often is used to generate particle-age distributions that are used as impulse-response functions in convolution. A typical application is to produce groundwater solute breakthrough curves (BTC) at endpoint receptors such as pumping wells or streams. The commonly used semi-analytical particle-tracking algorithm based on the assumption of linear velocity gradients between opposing cell faces is computationally very fast when used in combination with finite-difference models. However, large gradients near pumping wells in regional-scale groundwater-flow models often are not well represented because of cell-size limitations. This leads to inaccurate velocity fields, especially at weak sinks. Accurate analytical solutions for velocity near a pumping well are available, and various boundary conditions can be imposed using image-well theory. Python can be used to embed these solutions into existing semi-analytical particle-tracking codes, thereby maintaining the integrity and quality-assurance of the existing code. Python (and associated scientific computational packages NumPy, SciPy, and Matplotlib) is an effective tool because of its wide ranging capability. Python text processing allows complex and database-like manipulation of model input and output files, including binary and HDF5 files. High-level functions in the language include ODE solvers to solve first-order particle-location ODEs, Gaussian kernel density estimation to compute smooth particle-age distributions, and convolution. The highly vectorized nature of NumPy arrays and functions minimizes the need for computationally expensive loops. A modular Python code base has been developed to compute BTCs using embedded analytical solutions at pumping wells based on an existing well-documented finite-difference groundwater-flow simulation code (MODFLOW) and a semi-analytical particle-tracking code (MODPATH). The Python code base is tested by comparing BTCs with highly discretized synthetic steady

  19. Analytical solutions for extended surface electrochemical fin models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cassenti, Brice N.; Nelson, George J.; DeGostin, Matthew B.; Peracchio, Aldo A.; Chiu, Wilson K. S.

    2014-11-01

    Exact solutions were obtained for variations in the potential and the current for three axisymmetric geometries, with positive, negative and zero curvatures, which simulate current transport in fuel cell electrodes. These solutions can be used to assess the influence of geometry on performance for three dimensional electrode microstructures. A solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) electrode was selected as a test case for these studies. From the exact solutions, simulations of current flow and potential drop for one dimensional networks in SOFC electrodes were performed. Numerical tests demonstrated that surfaces with positive curvature have greater current flow for the same potential drop due to higher current losses through the lateral surface area. The study also showed that zero curvature solutions will be sufficiently accurate for positive or negative curvature geometries for moderate radius changes, but differ significantly from positive or negative curvature solutions for more extreme radius changes. Analytical solutions indicate fundamental differences in geometry and its influence on current flow. Based on the results of the simulations, an approximate solution, based on one non-dimensional parameter, was developed for estimating the effects of extreme changes in cross-section area.

  20. Analytical aerodynamic model of a high alpha research vehicle wind-tunnel model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cao, Jichang; Garrett, Frederick, Jr.; Hoffman, Eric; Stalford, Harold

    1990-01-01

    A 6 DOF analytical aerodynamic model of a high alpha research vehicle is derived. The derivation is based on wind-tunnel model data valid in the altitude-Mach flight envelope centered at 15,000 ft altitude and 0.6 Mach number with Mach range between 0.3 and 0.9. The analytical models of the aerodynamics coefficients are nonlinear functions of alpha with all control variable and other states fixed. Interpolation is required between the parameterized nonlinear functions. The lift and pitching moment coefficients have unsteady flow parts due to the time range of change of angle-of-attack (alpha dot). The analytical models are plotted and compared with their corresponding wind-tunnel data. Piloted simulated maneuvers of the wind-tunnel model are used to evaluate the analytical model. The maneuvers considered are pitch-ups, 360 degree loaded and unloaded rolls, turn reversals, split S's, and level turns. The evaluation finds that (1) the analytical model is a good representation at Mach 0.6, (2) the longitudinal part is good for the Mach range 0.3 to 0.9, and (3) the lateral part is good for Mach numbers between 0.6 and 0.9. The computer simulations show that the storage requirement of the analytical model is about one tenth that of the wind-tunnel model and it runs twice as fast.

  1. Accurate modeling of switched reluctance machine based on hybrid trained WNN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Shoujun; Ge, Lefei; Ma, Shaojie; Zhang, Man

    2014-04-01

    According to the strong nonlinear electromagnetic characteristics of switched reluctance machine (SRM), a novel accurate modeling method is proposed based on hybrid trained wavelet neural network (WNN) which combines improved genetic algorithm (GA) with gradient descent (GD) method to train the network. In the novel method, WNN is trained by GD method based on the initial weights obtained per improved GA optimization, and the global parallel searching capability of stochastic algorithm and local convergence speed of deterministic algorithm are combined to enhance the training accuracy, stability and speed. Based on the measured electromagnetic characteristics of a 3-phase 12/8-pole SRM, the nonlinear simulation model is built by hybrid trained WNN in Matlab. The phase current and mechanical characteristics from simulation under different working conditions meet well with those from experiments, which indicates the accuracy of the model for dynamic and static performance evaluation of SRM and verifies the effectiveness of the proposed modeling method.

  2. A hamster model for Marburg virus infection accurately recapitulates Marburg hemorrhagic fever

    PubMed Central

    Marzi, Andrea; Banadyga, Logan; Haddock, Elaine; Thomas, Tina; Shen, Kui; Horne, Eva J.; Scott, Dana P.; Feldmann, Heinz; Ebihara, Hideki

    2016-01-01

    Marburg virus (MARV), a close relative of Ebola virus, is the causative agent of a severe human disease known as Marburg hemorrhagic fever (MHF). No licensed vaccine or therapeutic exists to treat MHF, and MARV is therefore classified as a Tier 1 select agent and a category A bioterrorism agent. In order to develop countermeasures against this severe disease, animal models that accurately recapitulate human disease are required. Here we describe the development of a novel, uniformly lethal Syrian golden hamster model of MHF using a hamster-adapted MARV variant Angola. Remarkably, this model displayed almost all of the clinical features of MHF seen in humans and non-human primates, including coagulation abnormalities, hemorrhagic manifestations, petechial rash, and a severely dysregulated immune response. This MHF hamster model represents a powerful tool for further dissecting MARV pathogenesis and accelerating the development of effective medical countermeasures against human MHF. PMID:27976688

  3. A hamster model for Marburg virus infection accurately recapitulates Marburg hemorrhagic fever.

    PubMed

    Marzi, Andrea; Banadyga, Logan; Haddock, Elaine; Thomas, Tina; Shen, Kui; Horne, Eva J; Scott, Dana P; Feldmann, Heinz; Ebihara, Hideki

    2016-12-15

    Marburg virus (MARV), a close relative of Ebola virus, is the causative agent of a severe human disease known as Marburg hemorrhagic fever (MHF). No licensed vaccine or therapeutic exists to treat MHF, and MARV is therefore classified as a Tier 1 select agent and a category A bioterrorism agent. In order to develop countermeasures against this severe disease, animal models that accurately recapitulate human disease are required. Here we describe the development of a novel, uniformly lethal Syrian golden hamster model of MHF using a hamster-adapted MARV variant Angola. Remarkably, this model displayed almost all of the clinical features of MHF seen in humans and non-human primates, including coagulation abnormalities, hemorrhagic manifestations, petechial rash, and a severely dysregulated immune response. This MHF hamster model represents a powerful tool for further dissecting MARV pathogenesis and accelerating the development of effective medical countermeasures against human MHF.

  4. Accurate modeling of switched reluctance machine based on hybrid trained WNN

    SciTech Connect

    Song, Shoujun Ge, Lefei; Ma, Shaojie; Zhang, Man

    2014-04-15

    According to the strong nonlinear electromagnetic characteristics of switched reluctance machine (SRM), a novel accurate modeling method is proposed based on hybrid trained wavelet neural network (WNN) which combines improved genetic algorithm (GA) with gradient descent (GD) method to train the network. In the novel method, WNN is trained by GD method based on the initial weights obtained per improved GA optimization, and the global parallel searching capability of stochastic algorithm and local convergence speed of deterministic algorithm are combined to enhance the training accuracy, stability and speed. Based on the measured electromagnetic characteristics of a 3-phase 12/8-pole SRM, the nonlinear simulation model is built by hybrid trained WNN in Matlab. The phase current and mechanical characteristics from simulation under different working conditions meet well with those from experiments, which indicates the accuracy of the model for dynamic and static performance evaluation of SRM and verifies the effectiveness of the proposed modeling method.

  5. Beyond Ellipse(s): Accurately Modelling the Isophotal Structure of Galaxies with ISOFIT and CMODEL

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ciambur, B. C.

    2015-09-01

    This work introduces a new fitting formalism for isophotes that enables more accurate modeling of galaxies with non-elliptical shapes, such as disk galaxies viewed edge-on or galaxies with X-shaped/peanut bulges. Within this scheme, the angular parameter that defines quasi-elliptical isophotes is transformed from the commonly used, but inappropriate, polar coordinate to the “eccentric anomaly.” This provides a superior description of deviations from ellipticity, better capturing the true isophotal shape. Furthermore, this makes it possible to accurately recover both the surface brightness profile, using the correct azimuthally averaged isophote, and the two-dimensional model of any galaxy: the hitherto ubiquitous, but artificial, cross-like features in residual images are completely removed. The formalism has been implemented into the Image Reduction and Analysis Facility tasks Ellipse and Bmodel to create the new tasks “Isofit,” and “Cmodel.” The new tools are demonstrated here with application to five galaxies, chosen to be representative case-studies for several areas where this technique makes it possible to gain new scientific insight. Specifically: properly quantifying boxy/disky isophotes via the fourth harmonic order in edge-on galaxies, quantifying X-shaped/peanut bulges, higher-order Fourier moments for modeling bars in disks, and complex isophote shapes. Higher order (n > 4) harmonics now become meaningful and may correlate with structural properties, as boxyness/diskyness is known to do. This work also illustrates how the accurate construction, and subtraction, of a model from a galaxy image facilitates the identification and recovery of over-lapping sources such as globular clusters and the optical counterparts of X-ray sources.

  6. BEYOND ELLIPSE(S): ACCURATELY MODELING THE ISOPHOTAL STRUCTURE OF GALAXIES WITH ISOFIT AND CMODEL

    SciTech Connect

    Ciambur, B. C.

    2015-09-10

    This work introduces a new fitting formalism for isophotes that enables more accurate modeling of galaxies with non-elliptical shapes, such as disk galaxies viewed edge-on or galaxies with X-shaped/peanut bulges. Within this scheme, the angular parameter that defines quasi-elliptical isophotes is transformed from the commonly used, but inappropriate, polar coordinate to the “eccentric anomaly.” This provides a superior description of deviations from ellipticity, better capturing the true isophotal shape. Furthermore, this makes it possible to accurately recover both the surface brightness profile, using the correct azimuthally averaged isophote, and the two-dimensional model of any galaxy: the hitherto ubiquitous, but artificial, cross-like features in residual images are completely removed. The formalism has been implemented into the Image Reduction and Analysis Facility tasks Ellipse and Bmodel to create the new tasks “Isofit,” and “Cmodel.” The new tools are demonstrated here with application to five galaxies, chosen to be representative case-studies for several areas where this technique makes it possible to gain new scientific insight. Specifically: properly quantifying boxy/disky isophotes via the fourth harmonic order in edge-on galaxies, quantifying X-shaped/peanut bulges, higher-order Fourier moments for modeling bars in disks, and complex isophote shapes. Higher order (n > 4) harmonics now become meaningful and may correlate with structural properties, as boxyness/diskyness is known to do. This work also illustrates how the accurate construction, and subtraction, of a model from a galaxy image facilitates the identification and recovery of over-lapping sources such as globular clusters and the optical counterparts of X-ray sources.

  7. Fitting meta-analytic structural equation models with complex datasets.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Sandra Jo; Polanin, Joshua R; Lipsey, Mark W

    2016-06-01

    A modification of the first stage of the standard procedure for two-stage meta-analytic structural equation modeling for use with large complex datasets is presented. This modification addresses two common problems that arise in such meta-analyses: (a) primary studies that provide multiple measures of the same construct and (b) the correlation coefficients that exhibit substantial heterogeneity, some of which obscures the relationships between the constructs of interest or undermines the comparability of the correlations across the cells. One component of this approach is a three-level random effects model capable of synthesizing a pooled correlation matrix with dependent correlation coefficients. Another component is a meta-regression that can be used to generate covariate-adjusted correlation coefficients that reduce the influence of selected unevenly distributed moderator variables. A non-technical presentation of these techniques is given, along with an illustration of the procedures with a meta-analytic dataset. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  8. Validated Analytical Model of a Pressure Compensation Drip Irrigation Emitter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shamshery, Pulkit; Wang, Ruo-Qian; Taylor, Katherine; Tran, Davis; Winter, Amos

    2015-11-01

    This work is focused on analytically characterizing the behavior of pressure-compensating drip emitters in order to design low-cost, low-power irrigation solutions appropriate for off-grid communities in developing countries. There are 2.5 billion small acreage farmers worldwide who rely solely on their land for sustenance. Drip, compared to flood, irrigation leads to up to 70% reduction in water consumption while increasing yields by 90% - important in countries like India which are quickly running out of water. To design a low-power drip system, there is a need to decrease the pumping pressure requirement at the emitters, as pumping power is the product of pressure and flow rate. To efficiently design such an emitter, the relationship between the fluid-structure interactions that occur in an emitter need to be understood. In this study, a 2D analytical model that captures the behavior of a common drip emitter was developed and validated through experiments. The effects of independently changing the channel depth, channel width, channel length and land height on the performance were studied. The model and the key parametric insights presented have the potential to be optimized in order to guide the design of low-pressure, clog-resistant, pressure-compensating emitters.

  9. An analytically tractable model for community ecology with many species

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dickens, Benjamin; Fisher, Charles; Mehta, Pankaj; Pankaj Mehta Biophysics Theory Group Team

    A fundamental problem in community ecology is to understand how ecological processes such as selection, drift, and immigration yield observed patterns in species composition and diversity. Here, we present an analytically tractable, presence-absence (PA) model for community assembly and use it to ask how ecological traits such as the strength of competition, diversity in competition, and stochasticity affect species composition in a community. In our PA model, we treat species as stochastic binary variables that can either be present or absent in a community: species can immigrate into the community from a regional species pool and can go extinct due to competition and stochasticity. Despite its simplicity, the PA model reproduces the qualitative features of more complicated models of community assembly. In agreement with recent work on large, competitive Lotka-Volterra systems, the PA model exhibits distinct ecological behaviors organized around a special (``critical'') point corresponding to Hubbell's neutral theory of biodiversity. Our results suggest that the concepts of ``phases'' and phase diagrams can provide a powerful framework for thinking about community ecology and that the PA model captures the essential ecological dynamics of community assembly. Pm was supported by a Simons Investigator in the Mathematical Modeling of Living Systems and a Sloan Research Fellowship.

  10. 33 CFR 385.33 - Revisions to models and analytical tools.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... system-wide simulation models and analytical tools used in the evaluation and assessment of projects, and shall propose improvements in system-wide models and analytical tools required for the evaluation and... Incorporating New Information Into the Plan § 385.33 Revisions to models and analytical tools. (a) In...

  11. 33 CFR 385.33 - Revisions to models and analytical tools.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... system-wide simulation models and analytical tools used in the evaluation and assessment of projects, and shall propose improvements in system-wide models and analytical tools required for the evaluation and... Incorporating New Information Into the Plan § 385.33 Revisions to models and analytical tools. (a) In...

  12. 33 CFR 385.33 - Revisions to models and analytical tools.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... system-wide simulation models and analytical tools used in the evaluation and assessment of projects, and shall propose improvements in system-wide models and analytical tools required for the evaluation and... Incorporating New Information Into the Plan § 385.33 Revisions to models and analytical tools. (a) In...

  13. Characterization of uniform scanning proton beams with analytical models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demez, Nebi

    Tissue equivalent phantoms have an important place in radiation therapy planning and delivery. They have been manufactured for use in conventional radiotherapy. Their tissue equivalency for proton beams is currently in active investigation. The Bragg-Kleeman rule was used to calculate water equivalent thickness (WET) for available tissue equivalent phantoms from CIRS (Norfolk, VA, USA). WET's of those phantoms were also measured using proton beams at Hampton University Proton Therapy Institute (HUPTI). WET measurements and calculations are in good agreement within ˜1% accuracy except for high Z phantoms. Proton beams were also characterized with an analytical proton dose calculation model, Proton Loss Model (PLM) [26], to investigate protons interactions in water and those phantoms. Depth-dose and lateral dose profiles of protons in water and in those phantoms were calculated, measured, and compared. Water Equivalent Spreadness (WES) was also investigated for those phantoms using the formula for scattering power ratio. Because WES is independent of incident energy of protons, it is possible to estimate spreadness of protons in different media by just knowing WES. Measurements are usually taken for configuration of the treatment planning system (TPS). This study attempted to achieve commissioning data for uniform scanning proton planning with analytical methods, PLM, which have been verified with published measurements and Monte Carlo calculations. Depth doses and lateral profiles calculated by PLM were compared with measurements via the gamma analysis method. While gamma analysis shows that depth doses are in >90% agreement with measured depth doses, the agreement falls to <80% for some lateral profiles. PLM data were imported into the TPS (PLM-TPS). PLM-TPS was tested with different patient cases. The PLM-TPS treatment plans for 5 prostate cases show acceptable agreement. The Planning Treatment Volume (PTV) coverage was 100 % with PLM-TPS except for one case in

  14. What input data are needed to accurately model electromagnetic fields from mobile phone base stations?

    PubMed

    Beekhuizen, Johan; Kromhout, Hans; Bürgi, Alfred; Huss, Anke; Vermeulen, Roel

    2015-01-01

    The increase in mobile communication technology has led to concern about potential health effects of radio frequency electromagnetic fields (RF-EMFs) from mobile phone base stations. Different RF-EMF prediction models have been applied to assess population exposure to RF-EMF. Our study examines what input data are needed to accurately model RF-EMF, as detailed data are not always available for epidemiological studies. We used NISMap, a 3D radio wave propagation model, to test models with various levels of detail in building and antenna input data. The model outcomes were compared with outdoor measurements taken in Amsterdam, the Netherlands. Results showed good agreement between modelled and measured RF-EMF when 3D building data and basic antenna information (location, height, frequency and direction) were used: Spearman correlations were >0.6. Model performance was not sensitive to changes in building damping parameters. Antenna-specific information about down-tilt, type and output power did not significantly improve model performance compared with using average down-tilt and power values, or assuming one standard antenna type. We conclude that 3D radio wave propagation modelling is a feasible approach to predict outdoor RF-EMF levels for ranking exposure levels in epidemiological studies, when 3D building data and information on the antenna height, frequency, location and direction are available.

  15. Galacticus: A Semi-Analytic Model of Galaxy Formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benson, Andrew

    2011-08-01

    Galacticus is designed to solve the physics involved in the formation of galaxies within the current standard cosmological framework. It is of a type of model known as “semi-analytic” in which the numerous complex non-linear physics involved are solved using a combination of analytic approximations and empirical calibrations from more detailed, numerical solutions. Models of this type aim to begin with the initial state of the Universe (specified shortly after the Big Bang) and apply physical principles to determine the properties of galaxies in the Universe at later times, including the present day. Typical properties computed include the mass of stars and gas in each galaxy, broad structural properties (e.g. radii, rotation speeds, geometrical shape etc.), dark matter and black hole contents, and observable quantities such as luminosities, chemical composition etc.

  16. An analytical model of dynamic sliding friction during impact

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arakawa, Kazuo

    2017-01-01

    Dynamic sliding friction was studied based on the angular velocity of a golf ball during an oblique impact. This study used the analytical model proposed for the dynamic sliding friction on lubricated and non-lubricated inclines. The contact area A and sliding velocity u of the ball during impact were used to describe the dynamic friction force Fd = λAu, where λ is a parameter related to the wear of the contact area. A comparison with experimental results revealed that the model agreed well with the observed changes in the angular velocity during impact, and λAu is qualitatively equivalent to the empirical relationship, μN + μη‧dA/dt, given by the product between the frictional coefficient μ and the contact force N, and the additional term related to factor η‧ for the surface condition and the time derivative of A.

  17. A Double Scattering Analytical Model For Elastic Recoil Detection Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Barradas, N. P.; Lorenz, K.; Alves, E.; Darakchieva, V.

    2011-06-01

    We present an analytical model for calculation of double scattering in elastic recoil detection measurements. Only events involving the beam particle and the recoil are considered, i.e. 1) an ion scatters off a target element and then produces a recoil, and 2) an ion produces a recoil which then scatters off a target element. Events involving intermediate recoils are not considered, i.e. when the primary ion produces a recoil which then produces a second recoil. If the recoil element is also present in the stopping foil, recoil events in the stopping foil are also calculated. We included the model in the standard code for IBA data analysis NDF, and applied it to the measurement of hydrogen in Si.

  18. Quantum quench dynamics in analytically solvable one-dimensional models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iucci, Anibal; Cazalilla, Miguel A.; Giamarchi, Thierry

    2008-03-01

    In connection with experiments in cold atomic systems, we consider the non-equilibrium dynamics of some analytically solvable one-dimensional systems which undergo a quantum quench. In this quench one or several of the parameters of the Hamiltonian of an interacting quantum system are changed over a very short time scale. In particular, we concentrate on the Luttinger model and the sine-Gordon model in the Luther-Emery point. For the latter, we show that the order parameter and the two-point correlation function relax in the long time limit to the values determined by a generalized Gibbs ensemble first discussed by J. T. Jaynes [Phys. Rev. 106, 620 (1957); 108, 171 (1957)], and recently conjectured by M. Rigol et.al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 050405 (2007)] to apply to the non-equilibrium dynamics of integrable systems.

  19. An analytical model of dynamic sliding friction during impact

    PubMed Central

    Arakawa, Kazuo

    2017-01-01

    Dynamic sliding friction was studied based on the angular velocity of a golf ball during an oblique impact. This study used the analytical model proposed for the dynamic sliding friction on lubricated and non-lubricated inclines. The contact area A and sliding velocity u of the ball during impact were used to describe the dynamic friction force Fd = λAu, where λ is a parameter related to the wear of the contact area. A comparison with experimental results revealed that the model agreed well with the observed changes in the angular velocity during impact, and λAu is qualitatively equivalent to the empirical relationship, μN + μη′dA/dt, given by the product between the frictional coefficient μ and the contact force N, and the additional term related to factor η′ for the surface condition and the time derivative of A. PMID:28054668

  20. Analytical modelling of regional radiotherapy dose response of lung

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Sangkyu; Stroian, Gabriela; Kopek, Neil; AlBahhar, Mahmood; Seuntjens, Jan; El Naqa, Issam

    2012-06-01

    Knowledge of the dose-response of radiation-induced lung disease (RILD) is necessary for optimization of radiotherapy (RT) treatment plans involving thoracic cavity irradiation. This study models the time-dependent relationship between local radiation dose and post-treatment lung tissue damage measured by computed tomography (CT) imaging. Fifty-eight follow-up diagnostic CT scans from 21 non-small-cell lung cancer patients were examined. The extent of RILD was segmented on the follow-up CT images based on the increase of physical density relative to the pre-treatment CT image. The segmented RILD was locally correlated with dose distribution calculated by analytical anisotropic algorithm and the Monte Carlo method to generate the corresponding dose-response curves. The Lyman-Kutcher-Burman (LKB) model was fit to the dose-response curves at six post-RT time periods, and temporal change in the LKB parameters was recorded. In this study, we observed significant correlation between the probability of lung tissue damage and the local dose for 96% of the follow-up studies. Dose-injury correlation at the first three months after RT was significantly different from later follow-up periods in terms of steepness and threshold dose as estimated from the LKB model. Dependence of dose response on superior-inferior tumour position was also observed. The time-dependent analytical modelling of RILD might provide better understanding of the long-term behaviour of the disease and could potentially be applied to improve inverse treatment planning optimization.

  1. Analytically tractable model for community ecology with many species

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dickens, Benjamin; Fisher, Charles K.; Mehta, Pankaj

    2016-08-01

    A fundamental problem in community ecology is understanding how ecological processes such as selection, drift, and immigration give rise to observed patterns in species composition and diversity. Here, we analyze a recently introduced, analytically tractable, presence-absence (PA) model for community assembly, and we use it to ask how ecological traits such as the strength of competition, the amount of diversity, and demographic and environmental stochasticity affect species composition in a community. In the PA model, species are treated as stochastic binary variables that can either be present or absent in a community: species can immigrate into the community from a regional species pool and can go extinct due to competition and stochasticity. Building upon previous work, we show that, despite its simplicity, the PA model reproduces the qualitative features of more complicated models of community assembly. In agreement with recent studies of large, competitive Lotka-Volterra systems, the PA model exhibits distinct ecological behaviors organized around a special ("critical") point corresponding to Hubbell's neutral theory of biodiversity. These results suggest that the concepts of ecological "phases" and phase diagrams can provide a powerful framework for thinking about community ecology, and that the PA model captures the essential ecological dynamics of community assembly.

  2. An accurate numerical solution to the Saint-Venant-Hirano model for mixed-sediment morphodynamics in rivers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stecca, Guglielmo; Siviglia, Annunziato; Blom, Astrid

    2016-07-01

    We present an accurate numerical approximation to the Saint-Venant-Hirano model for mixed-sediment morphodynamics in one space dimension. Our solution procedure originates from the fully-unsteady matrix-vector formulation developed in [54]. The principal part of the problem is solved by an explicit Finite Volume upwind method of the path-conservative type, by which all the variables are updated simultaneously in a coupled fashion. The solution to the principal part is embedded into a splitting procedure for the treatment of frictional source terms. The numerical scheme is extended to second-order accuracy and includes a bookkeeping procedure for handling the evolution of size stratification in the substrate. We develop a concept of balancedness for the vertical mass flux between the substrate and active layer under bed degradation, which prevents the occurrence of non-physical oscillations in the grainsize distribution of the substrate. We suitably modify the numerical scheme to respect this principle. We finally verify the accuracy in our solution to the equations, and its ability to reproduce one-dimensional morphodynamics due to streamwise and vertical sorting, using three test cases. In detail, (i) we empirically assess the balancedness of vertical mass fluxes under degradation; (ii) we study the convergence to the analytical linearised solution for the propagation of infinitesimal-amplitude waves [54], which is here employed for the first time to assess a mixed-sediment model; (iii) we reproduce Ribberink's E8-E9 flume experiment [46].

  3. The effects of video modeling with voiceover instruction on accurate implementation of discrete-trial instruction.

    PubMed

    Vladescu, Jason C; Carroll, Regina; Paden, Amber; Kodak, Tiffany M

    2012-01-01

    The present study replicates and extends previous research on the use of video modeling (VM) with voiceover instruction to train staff to implement discrete-trial instruction (DTI). After staff trainees reached the mastery criterion when teaching an adult confederate with VM, they taught a child with a developmental disability using DTI. The results showed that the staff trainees' accurate implementation of DTI remained high, and both child participants acquired new skills. These findings provide additional support that VM may be an effective method to train staff members to conduct DTI.

  4. Double Cluster Heads Model for Secure and Accurate Data Fusion in Wireless Sensor Networks

    PubMed Central

    Fu, Jun-Song; Liu, Yun

    2015-01-01

    Secure and accurate data fusion is an important issue in wireless sensor networks (WSNs) and has been extensively researched in the literature. In this paper, by combining clustering techniques, reputation and trust systems, and data fusion algorithms, we propose a novel cluster-based data fusion model called Double Cluster Heads Model (DCHM) for secure and accurate data fusion in WSNs. Different from traditional clustering models in WSNs, two cluster heads are selected after clustering for each cluster based on the reputation and trust system and they perform data fusion independently of each other. Then, the results are sent to the base station where the dissimilarity coefficient is computed. If the dissimilarity coefficient of the two data fusion results exceeds the threshold preset by the users, the cluster heads will be added to blacklist, and the cluster heads must be reelected by the sensor nodes in a cluster. Meanwhile, feedback is sent from the base station to the reputation and trust system, which can help us to identify and delete the compromised sensor nodes in time. Through a series of extensive simulations, we found that the DCHM performed very well in data fusion security and accuracy. PMID:25608211

  5. Particle Image Velocimetry Measurements in Anatomically-Accurate Models of the Mammalian Nasal Cavity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rumple, C.; Richter, J.; Craven, B. A.; Krane, M.

    2012-11-01

    A summary of the research being carried out by our multidisciplinary team to better understand the form and function of the nose in different mammalian species that include humans, carnivores, ungulates, rodents, and marine animals will be presented. The mammalian nose houses a convoluted airway labyrinth, where two hallmark features of mammals occur, endothermy and olfaction. Because of the complexity of the nasal cavity, the anatomy and function of these upper airways remain poorly understood in most mammals. However, recent advances in high-resolution medical imaging, computational modeling, and experimental flow measurement techniques are now permitting the study of airflow and respiratory and olfactory transport phenomena in anatomically-accurate reconstructions of the nasal cavity. Here, we focus on efforts to manufacture transparent, anatomically-accurate models for stereo particle image velocimetry (SPIV) measurements of nasal airflow. Challenges in the design and manufacture of index-matched anatomical models are addressed and preliminary SPIV measurements are presented. Such measurements will constitute a validation database for concurrent computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations of mammalian respiration and olfaction. Supported by the National Science Foundation.

  6. Accurate simulation of transient landscape evolution by eliminating numerical diffusion: the TTLEM 1.0 model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campforts, Benjamin; Schwanghart, Wolfgang; Govers, Gerard

    2017-01-01

    Landscape evolution models (LEMs) allow the study of earth surface responses to changing climatic and tectonic forcings. While much effort has been devoted to the development of LEMs that simulate a wide range of processes, the numerical accuracy of these models has received less attention. Most LEMs use first-order accurate numerical methods that suffer from substantial numerical diffusion. Numerical diffusion particularly affects the solution of the advection equation and thus the simulation of retreating landforms such as cliffs and river knickpoints. This has potential consequences for the integrated response of the simulated landscape. Here we test a higher-order flux-limiting finite volume method that is total variation diminishing (TVD-FVM) to solve the partial differential equations of river incision and tectonic displacement. We show that using the TVD-FVM to simulate river incision significantly influences the evolution of simulated landscapes and the spatial and temporal variability of catchment-wide erosion rates. Furthermore, a two-dimensional TVD-FVM accurately simulates the evolution of landscapes affected by lateral tectonic displacement, a process whose simulation was hitherto largely limited to LEMs with flexible spatial discretization. We implement the scheme in TTLEM (TopoToolbox Landscape Evolution Model), a spatially explicit, raster-based LEM for the study of fluvially eroding landscapes in TopoToolbox 2.

  7. Random-Effects Models for Meta-Analytic Structural Equation Modeling: Review, Issues, and Illustrations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheung, Mike W.-L.; Cheung, Shu Fai

    2016-01-01

    Meta-analytic structural equation modeling (MASEM) combines the techniques of meta-analysis and structural equation modeling for the purpose of synthesizing correlation or covariance matrices and fitting structural equation models on the pooled correlation or covariance matrix. Both fixed-effects and random-effects models can be defined in MASEM.…

  8. Accurate method for including solid-fluid boundary interactions in mesoscopic model fluids

    SciTech Connect

    Berkenbos, A. Lowe, C.P.

    2008-04-20

    Particle models are attractive methods for simulating the dynamics of complex mesoscopic fluids. Many practical applications of this methodology involve flow through a solid geometry. As the system is modeled using particles whose positions move continuously in space, one might expect that implementing the correct stick boundary condition exactly at the solid-fluid interface is straightforward. After all, unlike discrete methods there is no mapping onto a grid to contend with. In this article we describe a method that, for axisymmetric flows, imposes both the no-slip condition and continuity of stress at the interface. We show that the new method then accurately reproduces correct hydrodynamic behavior right up to the location of the interface. As such, computed flow profiles are correct even using a relatively small number of particles to model the fluid.

  9. A stochastic model of kinetochore-microtubule attachment accurately describes fission yeast chromosome segregation.

    PubMed

    Gay, Guillaume; Courtheoux, Thibault; Reyes, Céline; Tournier, Sylvie; Gachet, Yannick

    2012-03-19

    In fission yeast, erroneous attachments of spindle microtubules to kinetochores are frequent in early mitosis. Most are corrected before anaphase onset by a mechanism involving the protein kinase Aurora B, which destabilizes kinetochore microtubules (ktMTs) in the absence of tension between sister chromatids. In this paper, we describe a minimal mathematical model of fission yeast chromosome segregation based on the stochastic attachment and detachment of ktMTs. The model accurately reproduces the timing of correct chromosome biorientation and segregation seen in fission yeast. Prevention of attachment defects requires both appropriate kinetochore orientation and an Aurora B-like activity. The model also reproduces abnormal chromosome segregation behavior (caused by, for example, inhibition of Aurora B). It predicts that, in metaphase, merotelic attachment is prevented by a kinetochore orientation effect and corrected by an Aurora B-like activity, whereas in anaphase, it is corrected through unbalanced forces applied to the kinetochore. These unbalanced forces are sufficient to prevent aneuploidy.

  10. Cumulative atomic multipole moments complement any atomic charge model to obtain more accurate electrostatic properties

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sokalski, W. A.; Shibata, M.; Ornstein, R. L.; Rein, R.

    1992-01-01

    The quality of several atomic charge models based on different definitions has been analyzed using cumulative atomic multipole moments (CAMM). This formalism can generate higher atomic moments starting from any atomic charges, while preserving the corresponding molecular moments. The atomic charge contribution to the higher molecular moments, as well as to the electrostatic potentials, has been examined for CO and HCN molecules at several different levels of theory. The results clearly show that the electrostatic potential obtained from CAMM expansion is convergent up to R-5 term for all atomic charge models used. This illustrates that higher atomic moments can be used to supplement any atomic charge model to obtain more accurate description of electrostatic properties.

  11. The importance of accurate muscle modelling for biomechanical analyses: a case study with a lizard skull

    PubMed Central

    Gröning, Flora; Jones, Marc E. H.; Curtis, Neil; Herrel, Anthony; O'Higgins, Paul; Evans, Susan E.; Fagan, Michael J.

    2013-01-01

    Computer-based simulation techniques such as multi-body dynamics analysis are becoming increasingly popular in the field of skull mechanics. Multi-body models can be used for studying the relationships between skull architecture, muscle morphology and feeding performance. However, to be confident in the modelling results, models need to be validated against experimental data, and the effects of uncertainties or inaccuracies in the chosen model attributes need to be assessed with sensitivity analyses. Here, we compare the bite forces predicted by a multi-body model of a lizard (Tupinambis merianae) with in vivo measurements, using anatomical data collected from the same specimen. This subject-specific model predicts bite forces that are very close to the in vivo measurements and also shows a consistent increase in bite force as the bite position is moved posteriorly on the jaw. However, the model is very sensitive to changes in muscle attributes such as fibre length, intrinsic muscle strength and force orientation, with bite force predictions varying considerably when these three variables are altered. We conclude that accurate muscle measurements are crucial to building realistic multi-body models and that subject-specific data should be used whenever possible. PMID:23614944

  12. Can a Global Model Accurately Simulate Land-Atmosphere Interactions under Climate Change Conditions?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, C., VI; Wang, K.

    2015-12-01

    Surface air temperature (Ta) is largely determined by surface net radiation (Rn) and its partitioning into latent (LE) and sensible heat fluxes (H). Existing model evaluations of the absolute values of these fluxes are less helpful because the evaluation results are a blending of inconsistent spatial scales, inaccurate model forcing data and inaccurate parameterizations. This study further evaluates the relationship of LE and H with Rn and environmental parameters, including Ta, relative humidity (RH) and wind speed (WS), using ERA-interim reanalysis data at a grid of 0.125°×0.125° with measurements at AmeriFlux sites from 1998 to 2012. The results demonstrate that ERA-Interim can reproduce the absolute values of environmental parameters, radiation and turbulent fluxes rather accurately. The model performs well in simulating the correlation of LE and H to Rn, except for the notable correlation overestimation of H against Rn over high-density vegetation (e.g., deciduous broadleaf forest (DBF), grassland (GRA) and cropland (CRO)). The sensitivity of LE to Rn in the model is similar to the observations, but that of H to Rn is overestimated by 24.2%. In regions with high-density vegetation, the correlation coefficient between H and Ta is overestimated by more than 0.2, whereas that between H and WS is underestimated by more than 0.43. The sensitivity of H to Ta is overestimated by 0.72 Wm-2 °C-1, whereas that of H to WS in the model is underestimated by 16.15 Wm-2/(ms-1) over all of the sites. Considering both LE and H, the model cannot accurately capture the response of the evaporative fraction (EF=LE/(LE+H)) to Rn and the environmental parameters.

  13. Towards an accurate understanding of UHMWPE visco-dynamic behaviour for numerical modelling of implants.

    PubMed

    Quinci, Federico; Dressler, Matthew; Strickland, Anthony M; Limbert, Georges

    2014-04-01

    Considerable progress has been made in understanding implant wear and developing numerical models to predict wear for new orthopaedic devices. However any model of wear could be improved through a more accurate representation of the biomaterial mechanics, including time-varying dynamic and inelastic behaviour such as viscosity and plastic deformation. In particular, most computational models of wear of UHMWPE implement a time-invariant version of Archard's law that links the volume of worn material to the contact pressure between the metal implant and the polymeric tibial insert. During in-vivo conditions, however, the contact area is a time-varying quantity and is therefore dependent upon the dynamic deformation response of the material. From this observation one can conclude that creep deformations of UHMWPE may be very important to consider when conducting computational wear analyses, in stark contrast to what can be found in the literature. In this study, different numerical modelling techniques are compared with experimental creep testing on a unicondylar knee replacement system in a physiologically representative context. Linear elastic, plastic and time-varying visco-dynamic models are benchmarked using literature data to predict contact deformations, pressures and areas. The aim of this study is to elucidate the contributions of viscoelastic and plastic effects on these surface quantities. It is concluded that creep deformations have a significant effect on the contact pressure measured (experiment) and calculated (computational models) at the surface of the UHMWPE unicondylar insert. The use of a purely elastoplastic constitutive model for UHMWPE lead to compressive deformations of the insert which are much smaller than those predicted by a creep-capturing viscoelastic model (and those measured experimentally). This shows again the importance of including creep behaviour into a constitutive model in order to predict the right level of surface deformation

  14. An accurate two-phase approximate solution to the acute viral infection model

    SciTech Connect

    Perelson, Alan S

    2009-01-01

    During an acute viral infection, virus levels rise, reach a peak and then decline. Data and numerical solutions suggest the growth and decay phases are linear on a log scale. While viral dynamic models are typically nonlinear with analytical solutions difficult to obtain, the exponential nature of the solutions suggests approximations can be found. We derive a two-phase approximate solution to the target cell limited influenza model and illustrate the accuracy using data and previously established parameter values of six patients infected with influenza A. For one patient, the subsequent fall in virus concentration was not consistent with our predictions during the decay phase and an alternate approximation is derived. We find expressions for the rate and length of initial viral growth in terms of the parameters, the extent each parameter is involved in viral peaks, and the single parameter responsible for virus decay. We discuss applications of this analysis in antiviral treatments and investigating host and virus heterogeneities.

  15. CALIBRATION OF SEMI-ANALYTIC MODELS OF GALAXY FORMATION USING PARTICLE SWARM OPTIMIZATION

    SciTech Connect

    Ruiz, Andrés N.; Domínguez, Mariano J.; Yaryura, Yamila; Lambas, Diego García; Cora, Sofía A.; Martínez, Cristian A. Vega-; Gargiulo, Ignacio D.; Padilla, Nelson D.; Tecce, Tomás E.; Orsi, Álvaro; Arancibia, Alejandra M. Muñoz

    2015-03-10

    We present a fast and accurate method to select an optimal set of parameters in semi-analytic models of galaxy formation and evolution (SAMs). Our approach compares the results of a model against a set of observables applying a stochastic technique called Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO), a self-learning algorithm for localizing regions of maximum likelihood in multidimensional spaces that outperforms traditional sampling methods in terms of computational cost. We apply the PSO technique to the SAG semi-analytic model combined with merger trees extracted from a standard Lambda Cold Dark Matter N-body simulation. The calibration is performed using a combination of observed galaxy properties as constraints, including the local stellar mass function and the black hole to bulge mass relation. We test the ability of the PSO algorithm to find the best set of free parameters of the model by comparing the results with those obtained using a MCMC exploration. Both methods find the same maximum likelihood region, however, the PSO method requires one order of magnitude fewer evaluations. This new approach allows a fast estimation of the best-fitting parameter set in multidimensional spaces, providing a practical tool to test the consequences of including other astrophysical processes in SAMs.

  16. Maximum likelihood estimation in meta-analytic structural equation modeling.

    PubMed

    Oort, Frans J; Jak, Suzanne

    2016-06-01

    Meta-analytic structural equation modeling (MASEM) involves fitting models to a common population correlation matrix that is estimated on the basis of correlation coefficients that are reported by a number of independent studies. MASEM typically consist of two stages. The method that has been found to perform best in terms of statistical properties is the two-stage structural equation modeling, in which maximum likelihood analysis is used to estimate the common correlation matrix in the first stage, and weighted least squares analysis is used to fit structural equation models to the common correlation matrix in the second stage. In the present paper, we propose an alternative method, ML MASEM, that uses ML estimation throughout. In a simulation study, we use both methods and compare chi-square distributions, bias in parameter estimates, false positive rates, and true positive rates. Both methods appear to yield unbiased parameter estimates and false and true positive rates that are close to the expected values. ML MASEM parameter estimates are found to be significantly less bias than two-stage structural equation modeling estimates, but the differences are very small. The choice between the two methods may therefore be based on other fundamental or practical arguments. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  17. Analytical model of peptide mass cluster centres with applications

    PubMed Central

    Wolski, Witold E; Farrow, Malcolm; Emde, Anne-Katrin; Lehrach, Hans; Lalowski, Maciej; Reinert, Knut

    2006-01-01

    Background The elemental composition of peptides results in formation of distinct, equidistantly spaced clusters across the mass range. The property of peptide mass clustering is used to calibrate peptide mass lists, to identify and remove non-peptide peaks and for data reduction. Results We developed an analytical model of the peptide mass cluster centres. Inputs to the model included, the amino acid frequencies in the sequence database, the average length of the proteins in the database, the cleavage specificity of the proteolytic enzyme used and the cleavage probability. We examined the accuracy of our model by comparing it with the model based on an in silico sequence database digest. To identify the crucial parameters we analysed how the cluster centre location depends on the inputs. The distance to the nearest cluster was used to calibrate mass spectrometric peptide peak-lists and to identify non-peptide peaks. Conclusion The model introduced here enables us to predict the location of the peptide mass cluster centres. It explains how the location of the cluster centres depends on the input parameters. Fast and efficient calibration and filtering of non-peptide peaks is achieved by a distance measure suggested by Wool and Smilansky. PMID:16995952

  18. A macroscopic analytical model of collaboration in distributed robotic systems.

    PubMed

    Lerman, K; Galstyan, A; Martinoli, A; Ijspeert, A

    2001-01-01

    In this article, we present a macroscopic analytical model of collaboration in a group of reactive robots. The model consists of a series of coupled differential equations that describe the dynamics of group behavior. After presenting the general model, we analyze in detail a case study of collaboration, the stick-pulling experiment, studied experimentally and in simulation by Ijspeert et al. [Autonomous Robots, 11, 149-171]. The robots' task is to pull sticks out of their holes, and it can be successfully achieved only through the collaboration of two robots. There is no explicit communication or coordination between the robots. Unlike microscopic simulations (sensor-based or using a probabilistic numerical model), in which computational time scales with the robot group size, the macroscopic model is computationally efficient, because its solutions are independent of robot group size. Analysis reproduces several qualitative conclusions of Ijspeert et al.: namely, the different dynamical regimes for different values of the ratio of robots to sticks, the existence of optimal control parameters that maximize system performance as a function of group size, and the transition from superlinear to sublinear performance as the number of robots is increased.

  19. Fuzzy modeling of analytical redundancy for sensor failure detection

    SciTech Connect

    Tsai, T.M.; Chou, H.P. )

    1991-01-01

    Failure detection and isolation (FDI) in dynamic systems may be accomplished by testing the consistency of the system via analytically redundant relations. The redundant relation is basically a mathematical model relating system inputs and dissimilar sensor outputs from which information is extracted and subsequently examined for the presence of failure signatures. Performance of the approach is often jeopardized by inherent modeling error and noise interference. To mitigate such effects, techniques such as Kalman filtering, auto-regression-moving-average (ARMA) modeling in conjunction with probability tests are often employed. These conventional techniques treat the stochastic nature of uncertainties in a deterministic manner to generate best-estimated model and sensor outputs by minimizing uncertainties. In this paper, the authors present a different approach by treating the effect of uncertainties with fuzzy numbers. Coefficients in redundant relations derived from first-principle physical models are considered as fuzzy parameters and on-line updated according to system behaviors. Failure detection is accomplished by examining the possibility that a sensor signal occurred in an estimated fuzzy domain. To facilitate failure isolation, individual FDI monitors are designed for each interested sensor.

  20. Star formation in Herschel's Monsters versus semi-analytic models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gruppioni, C.; Calura, F.; Pozzi, F.; Delvecchio, I.; Berta, S.; De Lucia, G.; Fontanot, F.; Franceschini, A.; Marchetti, L.; Menci, N.; Monaco, P.; Vaccari, M.

    2015-08-01

    We present a direct comparison between the observed star formation rate functions (SFRFs) and the state-of-the-art predictions of semi-analytic models (SAMs) of galaxy formation and evolution. We use the PACS Evolutionary Probe Survey and Herschel Multi-tiered Extragalactic Survey data sets in the COSMOS and GOODS-South fields, combined with broad-band photometry from UV to sub-mm, to obtain total (IR+UV) instantaneous star formation rates (SFRs) for individual Herschel galaxies up to z ˜ 4, subtracted of possible active galactic nucleus (AGN) contamination. The comparison with model predictions shows that SAMs broadly reproduce the observed SFRFs up to z ˜ 2, when the observational errors on the SFR are taken into account. However, all the models seem to underpredict the bright end of the SFRF at z ≳ 2. The cause of this underprediction could lie in an improper modelling of several model ingredients, like too strong (AGN or stellar) feedback in the brighter objects or too low fallback of gas, caused by weak feedback and outflows at earlier epochs.

  1. Analytical Modeling of Variable Density Multilayer Insulation for Cryogenic Storage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hedayat, A.; Hastings, L. J.; Brown, T.; Cruit, Wendy (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    A unique foam/Multilayer Insulation (MLI) combination concept for orbital cryogenic storage was experimentally evaluated at NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) using the Multipurpose Hydrogen Test Bed (MHTB). The MLI was designed for an on-orbit storage period of 45 days and included several unique features such as: a variable layer density and larger but fewer perforations for venting during ascent to orbit. Test results with liquid hydrogen indicated that the MLI weight or heat leak is reduced by about half in comparison with standard MLI. The focus of this paper is on analytical modeling of the Variable Density MLI (VD-MLI) on-orbit performance (i.e. vacuum/low pressure environment). The foam/VD-MLI combination model is considered to have five segments. The first segment represents the optional foam layer. The second, third, and fourth segments represent three MLI segments with different layer densities. The last segment is considered to be a shroud that surrounds the last MLI layer. Two approaches are considered. In the first approach, the variable density MLI is modeled layer by layer while in the second approach, a semi-empirical model is applied. Both models account for thermal radiation between shields, gas conduction, and solid conduction through the layer separator materials.

  2. Model choice considerations and information integration using analytical hierarchy process

    SciTech Connect

    Langenbrunner, James R; Hemez, Francois M; Booker, Jane M; Ross, Timothy J.

    2010-10-15

    Using the theory of information-gap for decision-making under severe uncertainty, it has been shown that model output compared to experimental data contains irrevocable trade-offs between fidelity-to-data, robustness-to-uncertainty and confidence-in-prediction. We illustrate a strategy for information integration by gathering and aggregating all available data, knowledge, theory, experience, similar applications. Such integration of information becomes important when the physics is difficult to model, when observational data are sparse or difficult to measure, or both. To aggregate the available information, we take an inference perspective. Models are not rejected, nor wasted, but can be integrated into a final result. We show an example of information integration using Saaty's Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP), integrating theory, simulation output and experimental data. We used expert elicitation to determine weights for two models and two experimental data sets, by forming pair-wise comparisons between model output and experimental data. In this way we transform epistemic and/or statistical strength from one field of study into another branch of physical application. The price to pay for utilizing all available knowledge is that inferences drawn for the integrated information must be accounted for and the costs can be considerable. Focusing on inferences and inference uncertainty (IU) is one way to understand complex information.

  3. Analytic model and frequency characteristics of plasma synthetic jet actuator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zong, Hao-hua; Wu, Yun; Li, Ying-hong; Song, Hui-min; Zhang, Zhi-bo; Jia, Min

    2015-02-01

    This paper reports a novel analytic model of a plasma synthetic jet actuator (PSJA), considering both the heat transfer effect and the inertia of the throat gas. Both the whole cycle characteristics and the repetitive working process of PSJA can be predicted with this model. The frequency characteristics of a PSJA with 87 mm3 volume and different orifice diameters are investigated based on the analytic model combined with experiments. In the repetitive working mode, the actuator works initially in the transitional stage with 20 cycles and then in the dynamic balanced stage. During the transitional stage, major performance parameters of PSJA experience stepped growth, while during the dynamic balanced stage, these parameters are characterized by periodic variation. With a constant discharge energy of 6.9 mJ, there exists a saturated frequency of 4 kHz/6 kHz for an orifice diameter of 1 mm/1.5 mm, at which the time-averaged total pressure of the pulsed jet reaches a maximum. Between 0.5 mm and 1.5 mm, a larger orifice diameter leads to a higher saturated frequency due to the reduced jet duration time. As the actuation frequency increases, both the time-averaged cavity temperature and the peak jet velocity initially increase and then remain almost unchanged at 1600 K and 280 m/s, respectively. Besides, with increasing frequency, the mechanical energy incorporated in single pulsed jet, the expelled mass per pulse, and the time-averaged density in the cavity, decline in a stair stepping way, which is caused by the intermittent decrease of refresh stage duration in one period.

  4. Analytic model for coaxial helicity injection in tokamak plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Weening, R. H.

    2011-12-15

    Using a partial differential equation for the time evolution of the mean-field poloidal magnetic flux that incorporates resistivity {eta} and hyper-resistivity {Lambda} terms, an exact analytic solution is obtained for steady-state coaxial helicity injection (CHI) in force-free large aspect ratio tokamaks. The analytic mean-field Ohm's law model allows for calculation of the tokamak CHI current drive efficiency and the plasma inductances at arbitrary levels of magnetic fluctuations, or dynamo activity. The results of the mean-field model suggest that CHI approaching Ohmic efficiency is only possible in tokamaks when the size of the effective current drive boundary layer, {delta}{identical_to}({Lambda}/{eta}){sup 1/2}, becomes greater than half the size of the plasma, {delta}>a/2, with a the plasma minor radius. The electron thermal diffusivity due to magnetic fluctuation induced transport is obtained from the expression {chi}{sub e}={Lambda}/{mu}{sub 0}d{sub e}{sup 2}, with {mu}{sub 0} the permeability of free space and d{sub e} the electron skin depth, which for typical tokamak fusion plasma parameters is on the order of a millimeter. Thus, the ratio of the energy confinement time to the resistive diffusion time in a tokamak plasma driven by steady-state CHI approaching Ohmic efficiency is shown to be constrained by the relation {tau}{sub E}/{tau}{sub {eta}}<(d{sub e}/a){sup 2}{approx_equal}10{sup -6}. The mean-field model suggests that steady-state CHI can be viewed most simply as a boundary layer of stochastically wandering magnetic field lines.

  5. Validation of an Accurate Three-Dimensional Helical Slow-Wave Circuit Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kory, Carol L.

    1997-01-01

    The helical slow-wave circuit embodies a helical coil of rectangular tape supported in a metal barrel by dielectric support rods. Although the helix slow-wave circuit remains the mainstay of the traveling-wave tube (TWT) industry because of its exceptionally wide bandwidth, a full helical circuit, without significant dimensional approximations, has not been successfully modeled until now. Numerous attempts have been made to analyze the helical slow-wave circuit so that the performance could be accurately predicted without actually building it, but because of its complex geometry, many geometrical approximations became necessary rendering the previous models inaccurate. In the course of this research it has been demonstrated that using the simulation code, MAFIA, the helical structure can be modeled with actual tape width and thickness, dielectric support rod geometry and materials. To demonstrate the accuracy of the MAFIA model, the cold-test parameters including dispersion, on-axis interaction impedance and attenuation have been calculated for several helical TWT slow-wave circuits with a variety of support rod geometries including rectangular and T-shaped rods, as well as various support rod materials including isotropic, anisotropic and partially metal coated dielectrics. Compared with experimentally measured results, the agreement is excellent. With the accuracy of the MAFIA helical model validated, the code was used to investigate several conventional geometric approximations in an attempt to obtain the most computationally efficient model. Several simplifications were made to a standard model including replacing the helical tape with filaments, and replacing rectangular support rods with shapes conforming to the cylindrical coordinate system with effective permittivity. The approximate models are compared with the standard model in terms of cold-test characteristics and computational time. The model was also used to determine the sensitivity of various

  6. Algal productivity modeling: a step toward accurate assessments of full-scale algal cultivation.

    PubMed

    Béchet, Quentin; Chambonnière, Paul; Shilton, Andy; Guizard, Guillaume; Guieysse, Benoit

    2015-05-01

    A new biomass productivity model was parameterized for Chlorella vulgaris using short-term (<30 min) oxygen productivities from algal microcosms exposed to 6 light intensities (20-420 W/m(2)) and 6 temperatures (5-42 °C). The model was then validated against experimental biomass productivities recorded in bench-scale photobioreactors operated under 4 light intensities (30.6-74.3 W/m(2)) and 4 temperatures (10-30 °C), yielding an accuracy of ± 15% over 163 days of cultivation. This modeling approach addresses major challenges associated with the accurate prediction of algal productivity at full-scale. Firstly, while most prior modeling approaches have only considered the impact of light intensity on algal productivity, the model herein validated also accounts for the critical impact of temperature. Secondly, this study validates a theoretical approach to convert short-term oxygen productivities into long-term biomass productivities. Thirdly, the experimental methodology used has the practical advantage of only requiring one day of experimental work for complete model parameterization. The validation of this new modeling approach is therefore an important step for refining feasibility assessments of algae biotechnologies.

  7. Analytical Model and Optimized Design of Power Transmitting Coil for Inductively Coupled Endoscope Robot.

    PubMed

    Ke, Quan; Luo, Weijie; Yan, Guozheng; Yang, Kai

    2016-04-01

    A wireless power transfer system based on the weakly inductive coupling makes it possible to provide the endoscope microrobot (EMR) with infinite power. To facilitate the patients' inspection with the EMR system, the diameter of the transmitting coil is enlarged to 69 cm. Due to the large transmitting range, a high quality factor of the Litz-wire transmitting coil is a necessity to ensure the intensity of magnetic field generated efficiently. Thus, this paper builds an analytical model of the transmitting coil, and then, optimizes the parameters of the coil by enlarging the quality factor. The lumped model of the transmitting coil includes three parameters: ac resistance, self-inductance, and stray capacitance. Based on the exact two-dimension solution, the accurate analytical expression of ac resistance is derived. Several transmitting coils of different specifications are utilized to verify this analytical expression, being in good agreements with the measured results except the coils with a large number of strands. Then, the quality factor of transmitting coils can be well predicted with the available analytical expressions of self- inductance and stray capacitance. Owing to the exact estimation of quality factor, the appropriate coil turns of the transmitting coil is set to 18-40 within the restrictions of transmitting circuit and human tissue issues. To supply enough energy for the next generation of the EMR equipped with a Ø9.5×10.1 mm receiving coil, the coil turns of the transmitting coil is optimally set to 28, which can transfer a maximum power of 750 mW with the remarkable delivering efficiency of 3.55%.

  8. Accurately modeling Gaussian beam propagation in the context of Monte Carlo techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hokr, Brett H.; Winblad, Aidan; Bixler, Joel N.; Elpers, Gabriel; Zollars, Byron; Scully, Marlan O.; Yakovlev, Vladislav V.; Thomas, Robert J.

    2016-03-01

    Monte Carlo simulations are widely considered to be the gold standard for studying the propagation of light in turbid media. However, traditional Monte Carlo methods fail to account for diffraction because they treat light as a particle. This results in converging beams focusing to a point instead of a diffraction limited spot, greatly effecting the accuracy of Monte Carlo simulations near the focal plane. Here, we present a technique capable of simulating a focusing beam in accordance to the rules of Gaussian optics, resulting in a diffraction limited focal spot. This technique can be easily implemented into any traditional Monte Carlo simulation allowing existing models to be converted to include accurate focusing geometries with minimal effort. We will present results for a focusing beam in a layered tissue model, demonstrating that for different scenarios the region of highest intensity, thus the greatest heating, can change from the surface to the focus. The ability to simulate accurate focusing geometries will greatly enhance the usefulness of Monte Carlo for countless applications, including studying laser tissue interactions in medical applications and light propagation through turbid media.

  9. Accurate model of electron beam profiles with emittance effects for pierce guns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeng, Peng; Wang, Guangqiang; Wang, Jianguo; Wang, Dongyang; Li, Shuang

    2016-09-01

    Accurate prediction of electron beam profile is one of the key objectives of electron optics, and the basis for design of the practical electron gun. In this paper, an improved model describing electron beam in Pierce gun with both space charge effects and emittance effects is proposed. The theory developed by Cutler and Hines is still applied for the accelerating region of the Pierce gun, while the motion equations of the electron beams in the anode aperture and drift tunnel are improved by modifying electron optics theory with emittance. As a result, a more universal and accurate formula of the focal length of the lens for the electron beam with both effects is derived for the anode aperture with finite dimension, and a modified universal spread curve considering beam emittance is introduced in drift tunnel region. Based on these improved motion equations of the electron beam, beam profiles with space charge effects and emittance effects can be theoretically predicted, which are subsequently approved to agree well with the experimentally measured ones. The developed model here is helpful to design more applicable Pierce guns at high frequencies.

  10. Accurate and scalable social recommendation using mixed-membership stochastic block models

    PubMed Central

    Godoy-Lorite, Antonia; Moore, Cristopher

    2016-01-01

    With increasing amounts of information available, modeling and predicting user preferences—for books or articles, for example—are becoming more important. We present a collaborative filtering model, with an associated scalable algorithm, that makes accurate predictions of users’ ratings. Like previous approaches, we assume that there are groups of users and of items and that the rating a user gives an item is determined by their respective group memberships. However, we allow each user and each item to belong simultaneously to mixtures of different groups and, unlike many popular approaches such as matrix factorization, we do not assume that users in each group prefer a single group of items. In particular, we do not assume that ratings depend linearly on a measure of similarity, but allow probability distributions of ratings to depend freely on the user’s and item’s groups. The resulting overlapping groups and predicted ratings can be inferred with an expectation-maximization algorithm whose running time scales linearly with the number of observed ratings. Our approach enables us to predict user preferences in large datasets and is considerably more accurate than the current algorithms for such large datasets. PMID:27911773

  11. A Biomechanical Model of the Scapulothoracic Joint to Accurately Capture Scapular Kinematics during Shoulder Movements

    PubMed Central

    Seth, Ajay; Matias, Ricardo; Veloso, António P.; Delp, Scott L.

    2016-01-01

    The complexity of shoulder mechanics combined with the movement of skin relative to the scapula makes it difficult to measure shoulder kinematics with sufficient accuracy to distinguish between symptomatic and asymptomatic individuals. Multibody skeletal models can improve motion capture accuracy by reducing the space of possible joint movements, and models are used widely to improve measurement of lower limb kinematics. In this study, we developed a rigid-body model of a scapulothoracic joint to describe the kinematics of the scapula relative to the thorax. This model describes scapular kinematics with four degrees of freedom: 1) elevation and 2) abduction of the scapula on an ellipsoidal thoracic surface, 3) upward rotation of the scapula normal to the thoracic surface, and 4) internal rotation of the scapula to lift the medial border of the scapula off the surface of the thorax. The surface dimensions and joint axes can be customized to match an individual’s anthropometry. We compared the model to “gold standard” bone-pin kinematics collected during three shoulder tasks and found modeled scapular kinematics to be accurate to within 2mm root-mean-squared error for individual bone-pin markers across all markers and movement tasks. As an additional test, we added random and systematic noise to the bone-pin marker data and found that the model reduced kinematic variability due to noise by 65% compared to Euler angles computed without the model. Our scapulothoracic joint model can be used for inverse and forward dynamics analyses and to compute joint reaction loads. The computational performance of the scapulothoracic joint model is well suited for real-time applications; it is freely available for use with OpenSim 3.2, and is customizable and usable with other OpenSim models. PMID:26734761

  12. Fractional Order Modeling of Atmospheric Turbulence - A More Accurate Modeling Methodology for Aero Vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kopasakis, George

    2014-01-01

    The presentation covers a recently developed methodology to model atmospheric turbulence as disturbances for aero vehicle gust loads and for controls development like flutter and inlet shock position. The approach models atmospheric turbulence in their natural fractional order form, which provides for more accuracy compared to traditional methods like the Dryden model, especially for high speed vehicle. The presentation provides a historical background on atmospheric turbulence modeling and the approaches utilized for air vehicles. This is followed by the motivation and the methodology utilized to develop the atmospheric turbulence fractional order modeling approach. Some examples covering the application of this method are also provided, followed by concluding remarks.

  13. The linear Ising model and its analytic continuation, random walk

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lavenda, B. H.

    2004-02-01

    A generalization of Gauss's principle is used to derive the error laws corresponding to Types II and VII distributions in Pearson's classification scheme. Student's r-p.d.f. (Type II) governs the distribution of the internal energy of a uniform, linear chain, Ising model, while the analytic continuation of the uniform exchange energy converts it into a Student t-density (Type VII) for the position of a random walk in a single spatial dimension. Higher-dimensional spaces, corresponding to larger degrees of freedom and generalizations to multidimensional Student r- and t-densities, are obtained by considering independent and identically random variables, having rotationally invariant densities, whose entropies are additive and generating functions are multiplicative.

  14. High-Performance data flows using analytical models and measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Rao, Nageswara S; Towlsey, D.; Vardoyan, G.; Kettimuthu, R.; Foster, I.; Settlemyer, Bradley

    2016-01-01

    The combination of analytical models and measurements provide practical configurations and parameters to achieve high data transport rates: (a) buffer sizes and number of parallel streams for improved memory and file transfer rates, (b) Hamilton and Scalable TCP congestion control modules for memory transfers in place of default CUBIC, and (c) direct IO mode for Lustre file systems for wide-area transfers. Conventional parameter selection using full sweeps is impractical in many cases since it takes months. By exploiting the unimodality of throughput profiles, we developed the d-w method that significantly reduces the number of measurements needed for parameter identification. This heuristic method was effective in practice in reducing the measurements by about 90% for Lustre and XFS file transfers.

  15. Analytical model of a giant magnetostrictive resonance transducer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheykholeslami, M.; Hojjat, Y.; Ansari, S.; Cinquemani, S.; Ghodsi, M.

    2016-04-01

    Resonance transducers have been widely developed and studied, as they can be profitably used in many application such as liquid atomizing and sonar technology. The active element of these devices can be a giant magnetostrictive material (GMM) that is known to have significant energy density and good performance at high frequencies. The paper introduces an analytical model of GMM transducers to describe their dynamics in different working conditions and to predict any change in their performance. The knowledge of the transducer behavior, especially in operating conditions different from the ideal ones, is helpful in the design and fabrication of highly efficient devices. This transducer is design to properly work in its second mode of vibration and its working frequency is around 8000 Hz. Most interesting parameters of the device, such as quality factor, bandwidth and output strain are obtained from theoretical analysis.

  16. Magnetic field barriers in graphene: an analytically solvable model.

    PubMed

    Milpas, Enrique; Torres, Manuel; Murguía, Gabriela

    2011-06-22

    We study the dynamics of carriers in graphene subjected to an inhomogeneous magnetic field. For a magnetic field with a hyperbolic profile the corresponding Dirac equation can be analyzed within the formalism of supersymmetric quantum mechanics, and leads to an exactly solvable model. We study in detail the bound-state spectrum. For a narrow barrier the spectrum is characterized by a few bands, except for the zero energy level that remains degenerated. As the width of the barrier increases we can track the band's evolution into the degenerated Landau levels. In the scattering regime a simple analytical formula is obtained for the transmission coefficient, this result allows us to identify the resonant conditions at which the barrier becomes transparent.

  17. An analytical model of joule heating in piezoresistive microcantilevers.

    PubMed

    Ansari, Mohd Zahid; Cho, Chongdu

    2010-01-01

    The present study investigates Joule heating in piezoresistive microcantilever sensors. Joule heating and thermal deflections are a major source of noise in such sensors. This work uses analytical and numerical techniques to characterise the Joule heating in 4-layer piezoresistive microcantilevers made of silicon and silicon dioxide substrates but with the same U-shaped silicon piezoresistor. A theoretical model for predicting the temperature generated due to Joule heating is developed. The commercial finite element software ANSYS Multiphysics was used to study the effect of electrical potential on temperature and deflection produced in the cantilevers. The effect of piezoresistor width on Joule heating is also studied. Results show that Joule heating strongly depends on the applied potential and width of piezoresistor and that a silicon substrate cantilever has better thermal characteristics than a silicon dioxide cantilever.

  18. Estimating recharge rates with analytic element models and parameter estimation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dripps, W.R.; Hunt, R.J.; Anderson, M.P.

    2006-01-01

    Quantifying the spatial and temporal distribution of recharge is usually a prerequisite for effective ground water flow modeling. In this study, an analytic element (AE) code (GFLOW) was used with a nonlinear parameter estimation code (UCODE) to quantify the spatial and temporal distribution of recharge using measured base flows as calibration targets. The ease and flexibility of AE model construction and evaluation make this approach well suited for recharge estimation. An AE flow model of an undeveloped watershed in northern Wisconsin was optimized to match median annual base flows at four stream gages for 1996 to 2000 to demonstrate the approach. Initial optimizations that assumed a constant distributed recharge rate provided good matches (within 5%) to most of the annual base flow estimates, but discrepancies of >12% at certain gages suggested that a single value of recharge for the entire watershed is inappropriate. Subsequent optimizations that allowed for spatially distributed recharge zones based on the distribution of vegetation types improved the fit and confirmed that vegetation can influence spatial recharge variability in this watershed. Temporally, the annual recharge values varied >2.5-fold between 1996 and 2000 during which there was an observed 1.7-fold difference in annual precipitation, underscoring the influence of nonclimatic factors on interannual recharge variability for regional flow modeling. The final recharge values compared favorably with more labor-intensive field measurements of recharge and results from studies, supporting the utility of using linked AE-parameter estimation codes for recharge estimation. Copyright ?? 2005 The Author(s).

  19. An analytical model of capped turbulent oscillatory bottom boundary layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shimizu, Kenji

    2010-03-01

    An analytical model of capped turbulent oscillatory bottom boundary layers (BBLs) is proposed using eddy viscosity of a quadratic form. The common definition of friction velocity based on maximum bottom shear stress is found unsatisfactory for BBLs under rotating flows, and a possible extension based on turbulent kinetic energy balance is proposed. The model solutions show that the flow may slip at the top of the boundary layer due to capping by the water surface or stratification, reducing the bottom shear stress, and that the Earth's rotation induces current and bottom shear stress components perpendicular to the interior flow with a phase lag (or lead). Comparisons with field and numerical experiments indicate that the model predicts the essential characteristics of the velocity profiles, although the agreement is rather qualitative due to assumptions of quadratic eddy viscosity with time-independent friction velocity and a well-mixed boundary layer. On the other hand, the predicted linear friction coefficients, phase lead, and veering angle at the bottom agreed with available data with an error of 3%-10%, 5°-10°, and 5°-10°, respectively. As an application of the model, the friction coefficients are used to calculate e-folding decay distances of progressive internal waves with a semidiurnal frequency.

  20. Analytical model for non-thermal pressure in galaxy clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Xun; Komatsu, Eiichiro

    2014-07-01

    Non-thermal pressure in the intracluster gas has been found ubiquitously in numerical simulations, and observed indirectly. In this paper we develop an analytical model for intracluster non-thermal pressure in the virial region of relaxed clusters. We write down and solve a first-order differential equation describing the evolution of non-thermal velocity dispersion. This equation is based on insights gained from observations, numerical simulations, and theory of turbulence. The non-thermal energy is sourced, in a self-similar fashion, by the mass growth of clusters via mergers and accretion, and dissipates with a time-scale determined by the turnover time of the largest turbulence eddies. Our model predicts a radial profile of non-thermal pressure for relaxed clusters. The non-thermal fraction increases with radius, redshift, and cluster mass, in agreement with numerical simulations. The radial dependence is due to a rapid increase of the dissipation time-scale with radii, and the mass and redshift dependence comes from the mass growth history. Combing our model for the non-thermal fraction with the Komatsu-Seljak model for the total pressure, we obtain thermal pressure profiles, and compute the hydrostatic mass bias. We find typically 10 per cent bias for the hydrostatic mass enclosed within r500.

  1. Accurate Cold-Test Model of Helical TWT Slow-Wave Circuits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kory, Carol L.; Dayton, James A., Jr.

    1997-01-01

    Recently, a method has been established to accurately calculate cold-test data for helical slow-wave structures using the three-dimensional electromagnetic computer code, MAFIA. Cold-test parameters have been calculated for several helical traveling-wave tube (TWT) slow-wave circuits possessing various support rod configurations, and results are presented here showing excellent agreement with experiment. The helical models include tape thickness, dielectric support shapes and material properties consistent with the actual circuits. The cold-test data from this helical model can be used as input into large-signal helical TWT interaction codes making it possible, for the first time, to design a complete TWT via computer simulation.

  2. Fast and Accurate Prediction of Numerical Relativity Waveforms from Binary Black Hole Coalescences Using Surrogate Models.

    PubMed

    Blackman, Jonathan; Field, Scott E; Galley, Chad R; Szilágyi, Béla; Scheel, Mark A; Tiglio, Manuel; Hemberger, Daniel A

    2015-09-18

    Simulating a binary black hole coalescence by solving Einstein's equations is computationally expensive, requiring days to months of supercomputing time. Using reduced order modeling techniques, we construct an accurate surrogate model, which is evaluated in a millisecond to a second, for numerical relativity (NR) waveforms from nonspinning binary black hole coalescences with mass ratios in [1, 10] and durations corresponding to about 15 orbits before merger. We assess the model's uncertainty and show that our modeling strategy predicts NR waveforms not used for the surrogate's training with errors nearly as small as the numerical error of the NR code. Our model includes all spherical-harmonic _{-2}Y_{ℓm} waveform modes resolved by the NR code up to ℓ=8. We compare our surrogate model to effective one body waveforms from 50M_{⊙} to 300M_{⊙} for advanced LIGO detectors and find that the surrogate is always more faithful (by at least an order of magnitude in most cases).

  3. Construction of feasible and accurate kinetic models of metabolism: A Bayesian approach

    PubMed Central

    Saa, Pedro A.; Nielsen, Lars K.

    2016-01-01

    Kinetic models are essential to quantitatively understand and predict the behaviour of metabolic networks. Detailed and thermodynamically feasible kinetic models of metabolism are inherently difficult to formulate and fit. They have a large number of heterogeneous parameters, are non-linear and have complex interactions. Many powerful fitting strategies are ruled out by the intractability of the likelihood function. Here, we have developed a computational framework capable of fitting feasible and accurate kinetic models using Approximate Bayesian Computation. This framework readily supports advanced modelling features such as model selection and model-based experimental design. We illustrate this approach on the tightly-regulated mammalian methionine cycle. Sampling from the posterior distribution, the proposed framework generated thermodynamically feasible parameter samples that converged on the true values, and displayed remarkable prediction accuracy in several validation tests. Furthermore, a posteriori analysis of the parameter distributions enabled appraisal of the systems properties of the network (e.g., control structure) and key metabolic regulations. Finally, the framework was used to predict missing allosteric interactions. PMID:27417285

  4. Analytical Deriving of the Field Capacity through Soil Bundle Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arnone, E.; Viola, F.; Antinoro, C.; Noto, L. V.

    2015-12-01

    The concept of field capacity as soil hydraulic parameter is widely used in many hydrological applications. Althought its recurring usage, its definition is not univocal. Traditionally, field capacity has been related to the amount of water that remains in the soil after the excess water has drained away and the water downward movement experiences a significant decresase. Quantifying the drainage of excess of water may be vague and several definitions, often subjective, have been proposed. These definitions are based on fixed thresholds either of time, pressure, or flux to which the field capacity condition is associated. The flux-based definition identifies the field capacity as the soil moisture value corresponding to an arbitrary fixed threshold of free drainage flux. Recently, many works have investigated the flux-based definition by varying either the drainage threshold, the geometry setting and mainly the description of the drainage flux. Most of these methods are based on the simulation of the flux through a porous medium by using the Darcy's law or Richard's equation. Using the above-mentioned flux-based definition, in this work we propose an alternative analytical approach for deriving the field capacity based on a bundle-of-tubes model. The pore space of a porous medium is conceptualized as a bundle of capillary tubes of given length of different radii, derived from a known distribution. The drainage from a single capillary tube is given by the analytical solution of the differential equation describing the water height evolution within the capillary tube. This equation is based on the Poiseuille's law and describes the drainage flux with time as a function of tube radius. The drainage process is then integrated for any portion of soil taking into account the tube radius distribution which in turns depends on the soil type. This methodology allows to analytically derive the dynamics of drainage water flux for any soil type and consequently to define the

  5. An analytic model for redshift-space distortions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Lile; Reid, Beth; White, Martin

    2014-01-01

    Understanding the formation and evolution of large-scale structure is a central problem in cosmology and enables precise tests of General Relativity on cosmological scales and constraints on dark energy. An essential ingredient is an accurate description of the pairwise velocities of biased tracers of the matter field. In this paper, we compute the first and second moments of the pairwise velocity distribution by extending the convolution Lagrangian perturbation theory (CLPT) formalism of Carlson et al. Our predictions outperform standard perturbation theory calculations in many cases when compared to statistics measured in N-body simulations. We combine the CLPT predictions of real-space clustering and velocity statistics in the Gaussian streaming model of Reid & White to obtain predictions for the monopole and quadrupole correlation functions accurate to 2 and 4 per cent, respectively, down to <25 h-1 Mpc for haloes hosting the massive galaxies observed by SDSS-III BOSS. We also discuss contours of the 2D correlation function and clustering `wedges'. We generalize the scheme to cross-correlation functions.

  6. Analytical modeling of localized surface plasmon resonance in heterostructure copper sulfide nanocrystals

    SciTech Connect

    Caldwell, Andrew H.; Ha, Don-Hyung; Robinson, Richard D.; Ding, Xiaoyue

    2014-10-28

    Localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) in semiconductor nanocrystals is a relatively new field of investigation that promises greater tunability of plasmonic properties compared to metal nanoparticles. A novel process by which the LSPR in semiconductor nanocrystals can be altered is through heterostructure formation arising from solution-based cation exchange. Herein, we describe the development of an analytical model of LSPR in heterostructure copper sulfide-zinc sulfide nanocrystals synthesized via a cation exchange reaction between copper sulfide (Cu{sub 1.81}S) nanocrystals and Zn ions. The cation exchange reaction produces dual-interface, heterostructure nanocrystals in which the geometry of the copper sulfide phase can be tuned from a sphere to a thin disk separating symmetrically-grown sulfide (ZnS) grains. Drude model electronic conduction and Mie-Gans theory are applied to describe how the LSPR wavelength changes during cation exchange, taking into account the morphology evolution and changes to the local permittivity. The results of the modeling indicate that the presence of the ZnS grains has a significant effect on the out-of-plane LSPR mode. By comparing the results of the model to previous studies on solid-solid phase transformations of copper sulfide in these nanocrystals during cation exchange, we show that the carrier concentration is independent of the copper vacancy concentration dictated by its atomic phase. The evolution of the effective carrier concentration calculated from the model suggests that the out-of-plane resonance mode is dominant. The classical model was compared to a simplified quantum mechanical model which suggested that quantum mechanical effects become significant when the characteristic size is less than ∼8 nm. Overall, we find that the analytical models are not accurate for these heterostructured semiconductor nanocrystals, indicating the need for new model development for this emerging field.

  7. Analytical model of an Annular Momentum Control Device (AMCD) laboratory test model magnetic bearing actuator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Groom, N. J.

    1979-01-01

    An analytical model of an Annular Momentum Control Device (AMCD) laboratory test model magnetic bearing actuator with permanent magnet fluxbiasing is presented. An AMCD consists of a spinning annular rim which is suspended by a noncontacting linear electromagnetic spin motor. The actuator is treated as a lumped-parameter electromechanical system in the development of the model.

  8. X-ray and microwave emissions from the July 19, 2012 solar flare: Highly accurate observations and kinetic models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gritsyk, P. A.; Somov, B. V.

    2016-08-01

    The M7.7 solar flare of July 19, 2012, at 05:58 UT was observed with high spatial, temporal, and spectral resolutions in the hard X-ray and optical ranges. The flare occurred at the solar limb, which allowed us to see the relative positions of the coronal and chromospheric X-ray sources and to determine their spectra. To explain the observations of the coronal source and the chromospheric one unocculted by the solar limb, we apply an accurate analytical model for the kinetic behavior of accelerated electrons in a flare. We interpret the chromospheric hard X-ray source in the thick-target approximation with a reverse current and the coronal one in the thin-target approximation. Our estimates of the slopes of the hard X-ray spectra for both sources are consistent with the observations. However, the calculated intensity of the coronal source is lower than the observed one by several times. Allowance for the acceleration of fast electrons in a collapsing magnetic trap has enabled us to remove this contradiction. As a result of our modeling, we have estimated the flux density of the energy transferred by electrons with energies above 15 keV to be ˜5 × 1010 erg cm-2 s-1, which exceeds the values typical of the thick-target model without a reverse current by a factor of ˜5. To independently test the model, we have calculated the microwave spectrum in the range 1-50 GHz that corresponds to the available radio observations.

  9. Fitmunk: improving protein structures by accurate, automatic modeling of side-chain conformations.

    PubMed

    Porebski, Przemyslaw Jerzy; Cymborowski, Marcin; Pasenkiewicz-Gierula, Marta; Minor, Wladek

    2016-02-01

    Improvements in crystallographic hardware and software have allowed automated structure-solution pipelines to approach a near-`one-click' experience for the initial determination of macromolecular structures. However, in many cases the resulting initial model requires a laborious, iterative process of refinement and validation. A new method has been developed for the automatic modeling of side-chain conformations that takes advantage of rotamer-prediction methods in a crystallographic context. The algorithm, which is based on deterministic dead-end elimination (DEE) theory, uses new dense conformer libraries and a hybrid energy function derived from experimental data and prior information about rotamer frequencies to find the optimal conformation of each side chain. In contrast to existing methods, which incorporate the electron-density term into protein-modeling frameworks, the proposed algorithm is designed to take advantage of the highly discriminatory nature of electron-density maps. This method has been implemented in the program Fitmunk, which uses extensive conformational sampling. This improves the accuracy of the modeling and makes it a versatile tool for crystallographic model building, refinement and validation. Fitmunk was extensively tested on over 115 new structures, as well as a subset of 1100 structures from the PDB. It is demonstrated that the ability of Fitmunk to model more than 95% of side chains accurately is beneficial for improving the quality of crystallographic protein models, especially at medium and low resolutions. Fitmunk can be used for model validation of existing structures and as a tool to assess whether side chains are modeled optimally or could be better fitted into electron density. Fitmunk is available as a web service at http://kniahini.med.virginia.edu/fitmunk/server/ or at http://fitmunk.bitbucket.org/.

  10. Fitmunk: improving protein structures by accurate, automatic modeling of side-chain conformations

    PubMed Central

    Porebski, Przemyslaw Jerzy; Cymborowski, Marcin; Pasenkiewicz-Gierula, Marta; Minor, Wladek

    2016-01-01

    Improvements in crystallographic hardware and software have allowed automated structure-solution pipelines to approach a near-‘one-click’ experience for the initial determination of macromolecular structures. However, in many cases the resulting initial model requires a laborious, iterative process of refinement and validation. A new method has been developed for the automatic modeling of side-chain conformations that takes advantage of rotamer-prediction methods in a crystallographic context. The algorithm, which is based on deterministic dead-end elimination (DEE) theory, uses new dense conformer libraries and a hybrid energy function derived from experimental data and prior information about rotamer frequencies to find the optimal conformation of each side chain. In contrast to existing methods, which incorporate the electron-density term into protein-modeling frameworks, the proposed algorithm is designed to take advantage of the highly discriminatory nature of electron-density maps. This method has been implemented in the program Fitmunk, which uses extensive conformational sampling. This improves the accuracy of the modeling and makes it a versatile tool for crystallographic model building, refinement and validation. Fitmunk was extensively tested on over 115 new structures, as well as a subset of 1100 structures from the PDB. It is demonstrated that the ability of Fitmunk to model more than 95% of side chains accurately is beneficial for improving the quality of crystallographic protein models, especially at medium and low resolutions. Fitmunk can be used for model validation of existing structures and as a tool to assess whether side chains are modeled optimally or could be better fitted into electron density. Fitmunk is available as a web service at http://kniahini.med.virginia.edu/fitmunk/server/ or at http://fitmunk.bitbucket.org/. PMID:26894674

  11. An analytical light distribution model in the optical system of a scintillation detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuznetsov, Sergey; Skachkov, E. V.; Belyaev, V. N.

    2017-01-01

    The article describes an analytical light distribution model in the optical system of a scintillation detector. The model can be useful for scintillation detector development since it allows to make quick calculations with different parameters. Comparison of the analytical model and Geant4 calculation results has been done. The comparison of the analytical model calculation results and experimental measurements have been done. Both comparisons show model validity and a capability to be used in the research.

  12. A Simple and Accurate Model to Predict Responses to Multi-electrode Stimulation in the Retina.

    PubMed

    Maturana, Matias I; Apollo, Nicholas V; Hadjinicolaou, Alex E; Garrett, David J; Cloherty, Shaun L; Kameneva, Tatiana; Grayden, David B; Ibbotson, Michael R; Meffin, Hamish

    2016-04-01

    Implantable electrode arrays are widely used in therapeutic stimulation of the nervous system (e.g. cochlear, retinal, and cortical implants). Currently, most neural prostheses use serial stimulation (i.e. one electrode at a time) despite this severely limiting the repertoire of stimuli that can be applied. Methods to reliably predict the outcome of multi-electrode stimulation have not been available. Here, we demonstrate that a linear-nonlinear model accurately predicts neural responses to arbitrary patterns of stimulation using in vitro recordings from single retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) stimulated with a subretinal multi-electrode array. In the model, the stimulus is projected onto a low-dimensional subspace and then undergoes a nonlinear transformation to produce an estimate of spiking probability. The low-dimensional subspace is estimated using principal components analysis, which gives the neuron's electrical receptive field (ERF), i.e. the electrodes to which the neuron is most sensitive. Our model suggests that stimulation proportional to the ERF yields a higher efficacy given a fixed amount of power when compared to equal amplitude stimulation on up to three electrodes. We find that the model captures the responses of all the cells recorded in the study, suggesting that it will generalize to most cell types in the retina. The model is computationally efficient to evaluate and, therefore, appropriate for future real-time applications including stimulation strategies that make use of recorded neural activity to improve the stimulation strategy.

  13. A Simple and Accurate Model to Predict Responses to Multi-electrode Stimulation in the Retina

    PubMed Central

    Maturana, Matias I.; Apollo, Nicholas V.; Hadjinicolaou, Alex E.; Garrett, David J.; Cloherty, Shaun L.; Kameneva, Tatiana; Grayden, David B.; Ibbotson, Michael R.; Meffin, Hamish

    2016-01-01

    Implantable electrode arrays are widely used in therapeutic stimulation of the nervous system (e.g. cochlear, retinal, and cortical implants). Currently, most neural prostheses use serial stimulation (i.e. one electrode at a time) despite this severely limiting the repertoire of stimuli that can be applied. Methods to reliably predict the outcome of multi-electrode stimulation have not been available. Here, we demonstrate that a linear-nonlinear model accurately predicts neural responses to arbitrary patterns of stimulation using in vitro recordings from single retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) stimulated with a subretinal multi-electrode array. In the model, the stimulus is projected onto a low-dimensional subspace and then undergoes a nonlinear transformation to produce an estimate of spiking probability. The low-dimensional subspace is estimated using principal components analysis, which gives the neuron’s electrical receptive field (ERF), i.e. the electrodes to which the neuron is most sensitive. Our model suggests that stimulation proportional to the ERF yields a higher efficacy given a fixed amount of power when compared to equal amplitude stimulation on up to three electrodes. We find that the model captures the responses of all the cells recorded in the study, suggesting that it will generalize to most cell types in the retina. The model is computationally efficient to evaluate and, therefore, appropriate for future real-time applications including stimulation strategies that make use of recorded neural activity to improve the stimulation strategy. PMID:27035143

  14. Machine learning and cosmological simulations - I. Semi-analytical models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamdar, Harshil M.; Turk, Matthew J.; Brunner, Robert J.

    2016-01-01

    We present a new exploratory framework to model galaxy formation and evolution in a hierarchical Universe by using machine learning (ML). Our motivations are two-fold: (1) presenting a new, promising technique to study galaxy formation, and (2) quantitatively analysing the extent of the influence of dark matter halo properties on galaxies in the backdrop of semi-analytical models (SAMs). We use the influential Millennium Simulation and the corresponding Munich SAM to train and test various sophisticated ML algorithms (k-Nearest Neighbors, decision trees, random forests, and extremely randomized trees). By using only essential dark matter halo physical properties for haloes of M > 1012 M⊙ and a partial merger tree, our model predicts the hot gas mass, cold gas mass, bulge mass, total stellar mass, black hole mass and cooling radius at z = 0 for each central galaxy in a dark matter halo for the Millennium run. Our results provide a unique and powerful phenomenological framework to explore the galaxy-halo connection that is built upon SAMs and demonstrably place ML as a promising and a computationally efficient tool to study small-scale structure formation.

  15. Analytical modelling for ultrasonic surface mechanical attrition treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Guan-Rong; Tsai, W. Y.; Huang, J. C.; Hu, Chin-Kun

    2015-07-01

    The grain refinement, gradient structure, fatigue limit, hardness, and tensile strength of metallic materials can be effectively enhanced by ultrasonic surface mechanical attrition treatment (SMAT), however, never before has SMAT been treated with rigorous analytical modelling such as the connection among the input energy and power and resultant temperature of metallic materials subjected to SMAT. Therefore, a systematic SMAT model is actually needed. In this article, we have calculated the averaged speed, duration time of a cycle, kinetic energy and kinetic energy loss of flying balls in SMAT for structural metallic materials. The connection among the quantities such as the frequency and amplitude of attrition ultrasonic vibration motor, the diameter, mass and density of balls, the sample mass, and the height of chamber have been considered and modelled in details. And we have introduced the one-dimensional heat equation with heat source within uniform-distributed depth in estimating the temperature distribution and heat energy of sample. In this approach, there exists a condition for the frequency of flying balls reaching a steady speed. With these known quantities, we can estimate the strain rate, hardness, and grain size of sample.

  16. Exchange-Hole Dipole Dispersion Model for Accurate Energy Ranking in Molecular Crystal Structure Prediction.

    PubMed

    Whittleton, Sarah R; Otero-de-la-Roza, A; Johnson, Erin R

    2017-02-14

    Accurate energy ranking is a key facet to the problem of first-principles crystal-structure prediction (CSP) of molecular crystals. This work presents a systematic assessment of B86bPBE-XDM, a semilocal density functional combined with the exchange-hole dipole moment (XDM) dispersion model, for energy ranking using 14 compounds from the first five CSP blind tests. Specifically, the set of crystals studied comprises 11 rigid, planar compounds and 3 co-crystals. The experimental structure was correctly identified as the lowest in lattice energy for 12 of the 14 total crystals. One of the exceptions is 4-hydroxythiophene-2-carbonitrile, for which the experimental structure was correctly identified once a quasi-harmonic estimate of the vibrational free-energy contribution was included, evidencing the occasional importance of thermal corrections for accurate energy ranking. The other exception is an organic salt, where charge-transfer error (also called delocalization error) is expected to cause the base density functional to be unreliable. Provided the choice of base density functional is appropriate and an estimate of temperature effects is used, XDM-corrected density-functional theory is highly reliable for the energetic ranking of competing crystal structures.

  17. Ab initio calculations to support accurate modelling of the rovibronic spectroscopy calculations of vanadium monoxide (VO)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McKemmish, Laura K.; Yurchenko, Sergei N.; Tennyson, Jonathan

    2016-11-01

    Accurate knowledge of the rovibronic near-infrared and visible spectra of vanadium monoxide (VO) is very important for studies of cool stellar and hot planetary atmospheres. Here, the required ab initio dipole moment and spin-orbit coupling curves for VO are produced. This data forms the basis of a new VO line list considering 13 different electronic states and containing over 277 million transitions. Open shell transition, metal diatomics are challenging species to model through ab initio quantum mechanics due to the large number of low-lying electronic states, significant spin-orbit coupling and strong static and dynamic electron correlation. Multi-reference configuration interaction methodologies using orbitals from a complete active space self-consistent-field (CASSCF) calculation are the standard technique for these systems. We use different state-specific or minimal-state CASSCF orbitals for each electronic state to maximise the calculation accuracy. The off-diagonal dipole moment controls the intensity of electronic transitions. We test finite-field off-diagonal dipole moments, but found that (1) the accuracy of the excitation energies were not sufficient to allow accurate dipole moments to be evaluated and (2) computer time requirements for perpendicular transitions were prohibitive. The best off-diagonal dipole moments are calculated using wavefunctions with different CASSCF orbitals.

  18. Magnetic gaps in organic tri-radicals: From a simple model to accurate estimates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barone, Vincenzo; Cacelli, Ivo; Ferretti, Alessandro; Prampolini, Giacomo

    2017-03-01

    The calculation of the energy gap between the magnetic states of organic poly-radicals still represents a challenging playground for quantum chemistry, and high-level techniques are required to obtain accurate estimates. On these grounds, the aim of the present study is twofold. From the one side, it shows that, thanks to recent algorithmic and technical improvements, we are able to compute reliable quantum mechanical results for the systems of current fundamental and technological interest. From the other side, proper parameterization of a simple Hubbard Hamiltonian allows for a sound rationalization of magnetic gaps in terms of basic physical effects, unraveling the role played by electron delocalization, Coulomb repulsion, and effective exchange in tuning the magnetic character of the ground state. As case studies, we have chosen three prototypical organic tri-radicals, namely, 1,3,5-trimethylenebenzene, 1,3,5-tridehydrobenzene, and 1,2,3-tridehydrobenzene, which differ either for geometric or electronic structure. After discussing the differences among the three species and their consequences on the magnetic properties in terms of the simple model mentioned above, accurate and reliable values for the energy gap between the lowest quartet and doublet states are computed by means of the so-called difference dedicated configuration interaction (DDCI) technique, and the final results are discussed and compared to both available experimental and computational estimates.

  19. Enabling analytical and Modeling Tools for Enhanced Disease Surveillance

    SciTech Connect

    Dawn K. Manley

    2003-04-01

    Early detection, identification, and warning are essential to minimize casualties from a biological attack. For covert attacks, sick people are likely to provide the first indication of an attack. An enhanced medical surveillance system that synthesizes distributed health indicator information and rapidly analyzes the information can dramatically increase the number of lives saved. Current surveillance methods to detect both biological attacks and natural outbreaks are hindered by factors such as distributed ownership of information, incompatible data storage and analysis programs, and patient privacy concerns. Moreover, because data are not widely shared, few data mining algorithms have been tested on and applied to diverse health indicator data. This project addressed both integration of multiple data sources and development and integration of analytical tools for rapid detection of disease outbreaks. As a first prototype, we developed an application to query and display distributed patient records. This application incorporated need-to-know access control and incorporated data from standard commercial databases. We developed and tested two different algorithms for outbreak recognition. The first is a pattern recognition technique that searches for space-time data clusters that may signal a disease outbreak. The second is a genetic algorithm to design and train neural networks (GANN) that we applied toward disease forecasting. We tested these algorithms against influenza, respiratory illness, and Dengue Fever data. Through this LDRD in combination with other internal funding, we delivered a distributed simulation capability to synthesize disparate information and models for earlier recognition and improved decision-making in the event of a biological attack. The architecture incorporates user feedback and control so that a user's decision inputs can impact the scenario outcome as well as integrated security and role-based access-control for communicating between

  20. Simple analytical model of evapotranspiration in the presence of roots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cejas, Cesare M.; Hough, L. A.; Castaing, Jean-Christophe; Frétigny, Christian; Dreyfus, Rémi

    2014-10-01

    Evaporation of water out of a soil involves complicated and well-debated mechanisms. When plant roots are added into the soil, water transfer between the soil and the outside environment is even more complicated. Indeed, plants provide an additional process of water transfer. Water is pumped by the roots, channeled to the leaf surface, and released into the surrounding air by a process called transpiration. Prediction of the evapotranspiration of water over time in the presence of roots helps keep track of the amount of water that remains in the soil. Using a controlled visual setup of a two-dimensional model soil consisting of monodisperse glass beads, we perform experiments on actual roots grown under different relative humidity conditions. We record the total water mass loss in the medium and the position of the evaporating front that forms within the medium. We then develop a simple analytical model that predicts the position of the evaporating front as a function of time as well as the total amount of water that is lost from the medium due to the combined effects of evaporation and transpiration. The model is based on fundamental principles of evaporation fluxes and includes empirical assumptions on the quantity of open stomata in the leaves, where water transpiration occurs. Comparison between the model and experimental results shows excellent prediction of the position of the evaporating front as well as the total mass loss from evapotranspiration in the presence of roots. The model also provides a way to predict the lifetime of a plant.

  1. Modeling methodology for the accurate and prompt prediction of symptomatic events in chronic diseases.

    PubMed

    Pagán, Josué; Risco-Martín, José L; Moya, José M; Ayala, José L

    2016-08-01

    Prediction of symptomatic crises in chronic diseases allows to take decisions before the symptoms occur, such as the intake of drugs to avoid the symptoms or the activation of medical alarms. The prediction horizon is in this case an important parameter in order to fulfill the pharmacokinetics of medications, or the time response of medical services. This paper presents a study about the prediction limits of a chronic disease with symptomatic crises: the migraine. For that purpose, this work develops a methodology to build predictive migraine models and to improve these predictions beyond the limits of the initial models. The maximum prediction horizon is analyzed, and its dependency on the selected features is studied. A strategy for model selection is proposed to tackle the trade off between conservative but robust predictive models, with respect to less accurate predictions with higher horizons. The obtained results show a prediction horizon close to 40min, which is in the time range of the drug pharmacokinetics. Experiments have been performed in a realistic scenario where input data have been acquired in an ambulatory clinical study by the deployment of a non-intrusive Wireless Body Sensor Network. Our results provide an effective methodology for the selection of the future horizon in the development of prediction algorithms for diseases experiencing symptomatic crises.

  2. Efficient and Accurate Explicit Integration Algorithms with Application to Viscoplastic Models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arya, Vinod K.

    1994-01-01

    Several explicit integration algorithms with self-adative time integration strategies are developed and investigated for efficiency and accuracy. These algorithms involve the Runge-Kutta second order, the lower Runge-Kutta method of orders one and two, and the exponential integration method. The algorithms are applied to viscoplastic models put forth by Freed and Verrilli and Bodner and Partom for thermal/mechanical loadings (including tensile, relaxation, and cyclic loadings). The large amount of computations performed showed that, for comparable accuracy, the efficiency of an integration algorithm depends significantly on the type of application (loading). However, in general, for the aforementioned loadings and viscoplastic models, the exponential integration algorithm with the proposed self-adaptive time integration strategy worked more (or comparably) efficiently and accurately than the other integration algorithms. Using this strategy for integrating viscoplastic models may lead to considerable savings in computer time (better efficiency) without adversely affecting the accuracy of the results. This conclusion should encourage the utilization of viscoplastic models in the stress analysis and design of structural components.

  3. Accurate integral equation theory for the central force model of liquid water and ionic solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ichiye, Toshiko; Haymet, A. D. J.

    1988-10-01

    The atom-atom pair correlation functions and thermodynamics of the central force model of water, introduced by Lemberg, Stillinger, and Rahman, have been calculated accurately by an integral equation method which incorporates two new developments. First, a rapid new scheme has been used to solve the Ornstein-Zernike equation. This scheme combines the renormalization methods of Allnatt, and Rossky and Friedman with an extension of the trigonometric basis-set solution of Labik and co-workers. Second, by adding approximate ``bridge'' functions to the hypernetted-chain (HNC) integral equation, we have obtained predictions for liquid water in which the hydrogen bond length and number are in good agreement with ``exact'' computer simulations of the same model force laws. In addition, for dilute ionic solutions, the ion-oxygen and ion-hydrogen coordination numbers display both the physically correct stoichiometry and good agreement with earlier simulations. These results represent a measurable improvement over both a previous HNC solution of the central force model and the ex-RISM integral equation solutions for the TIPS and other rigid molecule models of water.

  4. A General Pairwise Interaction Model Provides an Accurate Description of In Vivo Transcription Factor Binding Sites

    PubMed Central

    Santolini, Marc; Mora, Thierry; Hakim, Vincent

    2014-01-01

    The identification of transcription factor binding sites (TFBSs) on genomic DNA is of crucial importance for understanding and predicting regulatory elements in gene networks. TFBS motifs are commonly described by Position Weight Matrices (PWMs), in which each DNA base pair contributes independently to the transcription factor (TF) binding. However, this description ignores correlations between nucleotides at different positions, and is generally inaccurate: analysing fly and mouse in vivo ChIPseq data, we show that in most cases the PWM model fails to reproduce the observed statistics of TFBSs. To overcome this issue, we introduce the pairwise interaction model (PIM), a generalization of the PWM model. The model is based on the principle of maximum entropy and explicitly describes pairwise correlations between nucleotides at different positions, while being otherwise as unconstrained as possible. It is mathematically equivalent to considering a TF-DNA binding energy that depends additively on each nucleotide identity at all positions in the TFBS, like the PWM model, but also additively on pairs of nucleotides. We find that the PIM significantly improves over the PWM model, and even provides an optimal description of TFBS statistics within statistical noise. The PIM generalizes previous approaches to interdependent positions: it accounts for co-variation of two or more base pairs, and predicts secondary motifs, while outperforming multiple-motif models consisting of mixtures of PWMs. We analyse the structure of pairwise interactions between nucleotides, and find that they are sparse and dominantly located between consecutive base pairs in the flanking region of TFBS. Nonetheless, interactions between pairs of non-consecutive nucleotides are found to play a significant role in the obtained accurate description of TFBS statistics. The PIM is computationally tractable, and provides a general framework that should be useful for describing and predicting TFBSs beyond

  5. Application of thin plate splines for accurate regional ionosphere modeling with multi-GNSS data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krypiak-Gregorczyk, Anna; Wielgosz, Pawel; Borkowski, Andrzej

    2016-04-01

    GNSS-derived regional ionosphere models are widely used in both precise positioning, ionosphere and space weather studies. However, their accuracy is often not sufficient to support precise positioning, RTK in particular. In this paper, we presented new approach that uses solely carrier phase multi-GNSS observables and thin plate splines (TPS) for accurate ionospheric TEC modeling. TPS is a closed solution of a variational problem minimizing both the sum of squared second derivatives of a smoothing function and the deviation between data points and this function. This approach is used in UWM-rt1 regional ionosphere model developed at UWM in Olsztyn. The model allows for providing ionospheric TEC maps with high spatial and temporal resolutions - 0.2x0.2 degrees and 2.5 minutes, respectively. For TEC estimation, EPN and EUPOS reference station data is used. The maps are available with delay of 15-60 minutes. In this paper we compare the performance of UWM-rt1 model with IGS global and CODE regional ionosphere maps during ionospheric storm that took place on March 17th, 2015. During this storm, the TEC level over Europe doubled comparing to earlier quiet days. The performance of the UWM-rt1 model was validated by (a) comparison to reference double-differenced ionospheric corrections over selected baselines, and (b) analysis of post-fit residuals to calibrated carrier phase geometry-free observational arcs at selected test stations. The results show a very good performance of UWM-rt1 model. The obtained post-fit residuals in case of UWM maps are lower by one order of magnitude comparing to IGS maps. The accuracy of UWM-rt1 -derived TEC maps is estimated at 0.5 TECU. This may be directly translated to the user positioning domain.

  6. Accurate force fields and methods for modelling organic molecular crystals at finite temperatures.

    PubMed

    Nyman, Jonas; Pundyke, Orla Sheehan; Day, Graeme M

    2016-06-21

    We present an assessment of the performance of several force fields for modelling intermolecular interactions in organic molecular crystals using the X23 benchmark set. The performance of the force fields is compared to several popular dispersion corrected density functional methods. In addition, we present our implementation of lattice vibrational free energy calculations in the quasi-harmonic approximation, using several methods to account for phonon dispersion. This allows us to also benchmark the force fields' reproduction of finite temperature crystal structures. The results demonstrate that anisotropic atom-atom multipole-based force fields can be as accurate as several popular DFT-D methods, but have errors 2-3 times larger than the current best DFT-D methods. The largest error in the examined force fields is a systematic underestimation of the (absolute) lattice energy.

  7. Accurate Modeling of Organic Molecular Crystals by Dispersion-Corrected Density Functional Tight Binding (DFTB).

    PubMed

    Brandenburg, Jan Gerit; Grimme, Stefan

    2014-06-05

    The ambitious goal of organic crystal structure prediction challenges theoretical methods regarding their accuracy and efficiency. Dispersion-corrected density functional theory (DFT-D) in principle is applicable, but the computational demands, for example, to compute a huge number of polymorphs, are too high. Here, we demonstrate that this task can be carried out by a dispersion-corrected density functional tight binding (DFTB) method. The semiempirical Hamiltonian with the D3 correction can accurately and efficiently model both solid- and gas-phase inter- and intramolecular interactions at a speed up of 2 orders of magnitude compared to DFT-D. The mean absolute deviations for interaction (lattice) energies for various databases are typically 2-3 kcal/mol (10-20%), that is, only about two times larger than those for DFT-D. For zero-point phonon energies, small deviations of <0.5 kcal/mol compared to DFT-D are obtained.

  8. SMARTIES: Spheroids Modelled Accurately with a Robust T-matrix Implementation for Electromagnetic Scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Somerville, W. R. C.; Auguié, B.; Le Ru, E. C.

    2016-03-01

    SMARTIES calculates the optical properties of oblate and prolate spheroidal particles, with comparable capabilities and ease-of-use as Mie theory for spheres. This suite of MATLAB codes provides a fully documented implementation of an improved T-matrix algorithm for the theoretical modelling of electromagnetic scattering by particles of spheroidal shape. Included are scripts that cover a range of scattering problems relevant to nanophotonics and plasmonics, including calculation of far-field scattering and absorption cross-sections for fixed incidence orientation, orientation-averaged cross-sections and scattering matrix, surface-field calculations as well as near-fields, wavelength-dependent near-field and far-field properties, and access to lower-level functions implementing the T-matrix calculations, including the T-matrix elements which may be calculated more accurately than with competing codes.

  9. Development of Accurate Chemical Equilibrium Models for the Hanford Waste Tanks: New Thermodynamic Measurements and Model Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Felmy, Andrew R.; Mason, Marvin; Qafoku, Odeta; Xia, Yuanxian; Wang, Zheming; MacLean, Graham

    2003-03-27

    Developing accurate thermodynamic models for predicting the chemistry of the high-level waste tanks at Hanford is an extremely daunting challenge in electrolyte and radionuclide chemistry. These challenges stem from the extremely high ionic strength of the tank waste supernatants, presence of chelating agents in selected tanks, wide temperature range in processing conditions and the presence of important actinide species in multiple oxidation states. This presentation summarizes progress made to date in developing accurate models for these tank waste solutions, how these data are being used at Hanford and the important challenges that remain. New thermodynamic measurements on Sr and actinide complexation with specific chelating agents (EDTA, HEDTA and gluconate) will also be presented.

  10. Modelling neutron transport in planetary media via analytical multigroup diffusion theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panfili, P.; Luciani, A.; Furfaro, R.; Ganapol, B. D.; Mostacci, D.

    A novel analytical solution to the 1D, steady-state, multi-slab, multi-group diffusion equation is proposed as a mean to compute the energy-dependent galactic cosmic ray-induced neutron fluxes established in planetary media. More specifically, the proposed algorithm is implemented to allow fast and highly accurate determination of low-energy cosmic ray neutrons inside the Earth's surface and atmosphere. Two sets of experimental measurements have been considered to validate our model. In both cases, a good agreement between the calculated and observed neutron fluxes is achieved. Subsequently, neutron diffusion calculations have been performed for various Earth-based scenarios comprising (a) two-slab (air-soil) configuration and (b) three-slab (air-soil-ice) configuration to investigate the functional relationship between soil composition and neutron spatial distribution.

  11. Oxygen-enhanced MRI accurately identifies, quantifies, and maps tumor hypoxia in preclinical cancer models

    PubMed Central

    O’Connor, James PB; Boult, Jessica KR; Jamin, Yann; Babur, Muhammad; Finegan, Katherine G; Williams, Kaye J; Little, Ross A; Jackson, Alan; Parker, Geoff JM; Reynolds, Andrew R; Waterton, John C; Robinson, Simon P

    2015-01-01

    There is a clinical need for non-invasive biomarkers of tumor hypoxia for prognostic and predictive studies, radiotherapy planning and therapy monitoring. Oxygen enhanced MRI (OE-MRI) is an emerging imaging technique for quantifying the spatial distribution and extent of tumor oxygen delivery in vivo. In OE-MRI, the longitudinal relaxation rate of protons (ΔR1) changes in proportion to the concentration of molecular oxygen dissolved in plasma or interstitial tissue fluid. Therefore, well-oxygenated tissues show positive ΔR1. We hypothesized that the fraction of tumor tissue refractory to oxygen challenge (lack of positive ΔR1, termed “Oxy-R fraction”) would be a robust biomarker of hypoxia in models with varying vascular and hypoxic features. Here we demonstrate that OE-MRI signals are accurate, precise and sensitive to changes in tumor pO2 in highly vascular 786-0 renal cancer xenografts. Furthermore, we show that Oxy-R fraction can quantify the hypoxic fraction in multiple models with differing hypoxic and vascular phenotypes, when used in combination with measurements of tumor perfusion. Finally, Oxy-R fraction can detect dynamic changes in hypoxia induced by the vasomodulator agent hydralazine. In contrast, more conventional biomarkers of hypoxia (derived from blood oxygenation-level dependent MRI and dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI) did not relate to tumor hypoxia consistently. Our results show that the Oxy-R fraction accurately quantifies tumor hypoxia non-invasively and is immediately translatable to the clinic. PMID:26659574

  12. A physically based analytical model of flood frequency curves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Basso, S.; Schirmer, M.; Botter, G.

    2016-09-01

    Predicting magnitude and frequency of floods is a key issue in hydrology, with implications in many fields ranging from river science and geomorphology to the insurance industry. In this paper, a novel physically based approach is proposed to estimate the recurrence intervals of seasonal flow maxima. The method links the extremal distribution of streamflows to the stochastic dynamics of daily discharge, providing an analytical expression of the seasonal flood frequency curve. The parameters involved in the formulation embody climate and landscape attributes of the contributing catchment and can be estimated from daily rainfall and streamflow data. Only one parameter, which is linked to the antecedent wetness condition in the watershed, needs to be calibrated on the observed maxima. The performance of the method is discussed through a set of applications in four rivers featuring heterogeneous daily flow regimes. The model provides reliable estimates of seasonal maximum flows in different climatic settings and is able to capture diverse shapes of flood frequency curves emerging in erratic and persistent flow regimes. The proposed method exploits experimental information on the full range of discharges experienced by rivers. As a consequence, model performances do not deteriorate when the magnitude of events with return times longer than the available sample size is estimated. The approach provides a framework for the prediction of floods based on short data series of rainfall and daily streamflows that may be especially valuable in data scarce regions of the world.

  13. Analytical model for heterogeneous reactions in mixed porous media

    SciTech Connect

    Hatfield, K.; Burris, D.R.; Wolfe, N.L.

    1996-08-01

    The funnel/gate system is a developing technology for passive ground-water plume management and treatment. This technology uses sheet pilings as a funnel to force polluted ground water through a highly permeable zone of reactive porous media (the gate) where contaminants are degraded by biotic or abiotic heterogeneous reactions. This paper presents a new analytical nonequilibrium model for solute transport in saturated, nonhomogeneous or mixed porous media that could assist efforts to design funnel/gate systems and predict their performance. The model incorporates convective/dispersion transport, dissolved constituent decay, surface-mediated degradation, and time-dependent mass transfer between phases. Simulation studies of equilibrium and nonequilibrium transport conditions reveal manifestations of rate-limited degradation when mass-transfer times are longer than system hydraulic residence times, or when surface-mediated reaction rates are faster than solute mass-transfer processes (i.e., sorption, film diffusion, or intraparticle diffusion). For example, steady-state contaminant concentrations will be higher under a nonequilibrium transport scenario than would otherwise be expected when assuming equilibrium conditions. Thus, a funnel/gate system may fail to achieve desired ground-water treatment if the possibility of mass-transfer-limited degradation is not considered.

  14. New analytic solutions for modeling vertical gravity gradient anomalies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Seung-Sep; Wessel, Paul

    2016-05-01

    Modern processing of satellite altimetry for use in marine gravimetry involves computing the along-track slopes of observed sea-surface heights, projecting them into east-west and north-south deflection of the vertical grids, and using Laplace's equation to algebraically obtain a grid of the vertical gravity gradient (VGG). The VGG grid is then integrated via overlapping, flat Earth Fourier transforms to yield a free-air anomaly grid. Because of this integration and associated edge effects, the VGG grid retains more short-wavelength information (e.g., fracture zone and seamount signatures) that is of particular importance for plate tectonic investigations. While modeling of gravity anomalies over arbitrary bodies has long been a standard undertaking, similar modeling of VGG anomalies over oceanic features is not commonplace yet. Here we derive analytic solutions for VGG anomalies over simple bodies and arbitrary 2-D and 3-D sources. We demonstrate their usability in determining mass excess and deficiency across the Mendocino fracture zone (a 2-D feature) and find the best bulk density estimate for Jasper seamount (a 3-D feature). The methodologies used herein are implemented in the Generic Mapping Tools, available from gmt.soest.hawaii.edu.

  15. Analytic model of aurorally coupled magnetospheric and ionospheric electrostatic potentials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cornwall, J. M.

    1994-01-01

    This paper describes modest but significant improvements on earlier studies of electrostatic potential structure in the auroral region using the adiabatic auroral arc model. This model has crucial nonlinearities (connected, for example. with aurorally produced ionization) which have hampered analysis; earlier work has either been linear, which I will show is a poor approximation or, if nonlinear, either numerical or too specialized to study parametric dependencies. With certain simplifying assumptions I find new analytic nonlinear solutions fully exhibiting the parametric dependence of potentials on magnetospheric (e.g.. cross-tail potential) and ionospheric (e.g., recombination rate) parameters. No purely phenomenological parameters are introduced. The results are in reasonable agreement with observed average auroral potential drops, inverted-V scale sizes, and dissipation rates. The dissipation rate is quite comparable to tail energization and transport rates and should have a major effect on tail and magnetospheric dynamics. This paper gives various relations between the cross-tail potential and auroral parameters (e.g., total parallel currents and potential drops) which can be studied with existing data sets.

  16. Analytical examples, measurement models, and classical limit of quantum backflow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yearsley, J. M.; Halliwell, J. J.; Hartshorn, R.; Whitby, A.

    2012-10-01

    We investigate the backflow effect in elementary quantum mechanics—the phenomenon in which a state consisting entirely of positive momenta may have negative current and the probability flows in the opposite direction to the momentum. We compute the current and flux for states consisting of superpositions of Gaussian wave packets. These are experimentally realizable but the amount of backflow is small. Inspired by the numerical results of Penz [Penz, Grübl, Kreidl, and Wagner, J. Phys. AJPHAC50305-447010.1088/0305-4470/39/2/012 39, 423 (2006)], we find two nontrivial wave functions whose current at any time may be computed analytically and which have periods of significant backflow, in one case with a backward flux equal to about 70% of the maximum possible backflow, a dimensionless number cbm≈0.04, discovered by Bracken and Melloy [Bracken and Melloy, J. Phys. AJPHAC50305-447010.1088/0305-4470/27/6/040 27, 2197 (1994)]. This number has the unusual property of being independent of ℏ (and also of all other parameters of the model), despite corresponding to an obviously quantum-mechanical effect, and we shed some light on this surprising property by considering the classical limit of backflow. We discuss some specific measurement models in which backflow may be identified in certain measurable probabilities.

  17. Derivation and evaluation of analytical airborne pollutant dispersion-deposition models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Jin-Sheng

    Three-dimensional analytical solutions of the atmospheric diffusion equation with multiple sources and height- dependent wind speed and eddy diffusivities are derived and analyzed in a systematic fashion. When the general point source Green's functions are derived for a bounded domain (inversion effect) with various homogeneous boundary conditions-Neumann (total reflection), Dirichlet (total adsorption), or mixed-and with arbitrary power law profiles for wind speed and eddy diffusivities, previously-published equations are found to be simplified versions of this more general set of solutions. A methodology based on the superposition of Green's functions is proposed which enables the estimation of ambient concentrations not only from a single source, but also from multiple point, line, or area releases. To simulate the turbulent dispersion of pollutants which are adsorbed or deposit to the ground, a generalized mathematical scheme is developed for the case of a Robin- type boundary condition. Unlike published solutions of similar problems where complex or difficult-to-program (e.g., hypergeometric or Kummer) functions have been obtained, the analytical solution proposed herein consists of two previously-derived Green's functions (modified Bessel functions) expressed in an integral form that is amenable to numerical integration. An extensive set of field data from Project Prairie Grass is used to evaluate (i) various methods of estimating the model input parameters; (ii) four commonly-used analytical plume dispersion models; and (iii) various empirical and theoretical horizontal dispersion schemes. Using similarity theory to parameterize and optimize the input parameters, the downwind and vertical concentration profiles predicted by four analytical models are quantitatively compared with the field data. Near groundlevel in the downwind direction, under stable and neutral atmospheric conditions all four models generate similar predictions that agree fairly well with

  18. A Bayesian approach to the semi-analytic model of galaxy formation: methodology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Yu; Mo, H. J.; Weinberg, Martin D.; Katz, Neal

    2011-09-01

    We believe that a wide range of physical processes conspire to shape the observed galaxy population, but we remain unsure of their detailed interactions. The semi-analytic model (SAM) of galaxy formation uses multidimensional parametrizations of the physical processes of galaxy formation and provides a tool to constrain these underlying physical interactions. Because of the high dimensionality, the parametric problem of galaxy formation may be profitably tackled with a Bayesian-inference-based approach, which allows one to constrain theory with data in a statistically rigorous way. In this paper, we develop a SAM in the framework of Bayesian inference. We show that, with a parallel implementation of an advanced Markov chain Monte Carlo algorithm, it is now possible to rigorously sample the posterior distribution of the high-dimensional parameter space of typical SAMs. As an example, we characterize galaxy formation in the current Λ cold dark matter cosmology using the stellar mass function of galaxies as an observational constraint. We find that the posterior probability distribution is both topologically complex and degenerate in some important model parameters, suggesting that thorough explorations of the parameter space are needed to understand the models. We also demonstrate that because of the model degeneracy, adopting a narrow prior strongly restricts the model. Therefore, the inferences based on SAMs are conditional to the model adopted. Using synthetic data to mimic systematic errors in the stellar mass function, we demonstrate that an accurate observational error model is essential to meaningful inference.

  19. Analytical Solutions for Rumor Spreading Dynamical Model in a Social Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fallahpour, R.; Chakouvari, S.; Askari, H.

    2015-03-01

    In this paper, Laplace Adomian decomposition method is utilized for evaluating of spreading model of rumor. Firstly, a succinct review is constructed on the subject of using analytical methods such as Adomian decomposion method, Variational iteration method and Homotopy Analysis method for epidemic models and biomathematics. In continue a spreading model of rumor with consideration of forgetting mechanism is assumed and subsequently LADM is exerted for solving of it. By means of the aforementioned method, a general solution is achieved for this problem which can be readily employed for assessing of rumor model without exerting any computer program. In addition, obtained consequences for this problem are discussed for different cases and parameters. Furthermore, it is shown the method is so straightforward and fruitful for analyzing equations which have complicated terms same as rumor model. By employing numerical methods, it is revealed LADM is so powerful and accurate for eliciting solutions of this model. Eventually, it is concluded that this method is so appropriate for this problem and it can provide researchers a very powerful vehicle for scrutinizing rumor models in diverse kinds of social networks such as Facebook, YouTube, Flickr, LinkedIn and Tuitor.

  20. The use of analytical models in human-computer interface design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gugerty, Leo

    1991-01-01

    Some of the many analytical models in human-computer interface design that are currently being developed are described. The usefulness of analytical models for human-computer interface design is evaluated. Can the use of analytical models be recommended to interface designers? The answer, based on the empirical research summarized here, is: not at this time. There are too many unanswered questions concerning the validity of models and their ability to meet the practical needs of design organizations.

  1. Discrete state model and accurate estimation of loop entropy of RNA secondary structures.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jian; Lin, Ming; Chen, Rong; Wang, Wei; Liang, Jie

    2008-03-28

    Conformational entropy makes important contribution to the stability and folding of RNA molecule, but it is challenging to either measure or compute conformational entropy associated with long loops. We develop optimized discrete k-state models of RNA backbone based on known RNA structures for computing entropy of loops, which are modeled as self-avoiding walks. To estimate entropy of hairpin, bulge, internal loop, and multibranch loop of long length (up to 50), we develop an efficient sampling method based on the sequential Monte Carlo principle. Our method considers excluded volume effect. It is general and can be applied to calculating entropy of loops with longer length and arbitrary complexity. For loops of short length, our results are in good agreement with a recent theoretical model and experimental measurement. For long loops, our estimated entropy of hairpin loops is in excellent agreement with the Jacobson-Stockmayer extrapolation model. However, for bulge loops and more complex secondary structures such as internal and multibranch loops, we find that the Jacobson-Stockmayer extrapolation model has large errors. Based on estimated entropy, we have developed empirical formulae for accurate calculation of entropy of long loops in different secondary structures. Our study on the effect of asymmetric size of loops suggest that loop entropy of internal loops is largely determined by the total loop length, and is only marginally affected by the asymmetric size of the two loops. Our finding suggests that the significant asymmetric effects of loop length in internal loops measured by experiments are likely to be partially enthalpic. Our method can be applied to develop improved energy parameters important for studying RNA stability and folding, and for predicting RNA secondary and tertiary structures. The discrete model and the program used to calculate loop entropy can be downloaded at http://gila.bioengr.uic.edu/resources/RNA.html.

  2. Random generalized linear model: a highly accurate and interpretable ensemble predictor

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Ensemble predictors such as the random forest are known to have superior accuracy but their black-box predictions are difficult to interpret. In contrast, a generalized linear model (GLM) is very interpretable especially when forward feature selection is used to construct the model. However, forward feature selection tends to overfit the data and leads to low predictive accuracy. Therefore, it remains an important research goal to combine the advantages of ensemble predictors (high accuracy) with the advantages of forward regression modeling (interpretability). To address this goal several articles have explored GLM based ensemble predictors. Since limited evaluations suggested that these ensemble predictors were less accurate than alternative predictors, they have found little attention in the literature. Results Comprehensive evaluations involving hundreds of genomic data sets, the UCI machine learning benchmark data, and simulations are used to give GLM based ensemble predictors a new and careful look. A novel bootstrap aggregated (bagged) GLM predictor that incorporates several elements of randomness and instability (random subspace method, optional interaction terms, forward variable selection) often outperforms a host of alternative prediction methods including random forests and penalized regression models (ridge regression, elastic net, lasso). This random generalized linear model (RGLM) predictor provides variable importance measures that can be used to define a “thinned” ensemble predictor (involving few features) that retains excellent predictive accuracy. Conclusion RGLM is a state of the art predictor that shares the advantages of a random forest (excellent predictive accuracy, feature importance measures, out-of-bag estimates of accuracy) with those of a forward selected generalized linear model (interpretability). These methods are implemented in the freely available R software package randomGLM. PMID:23323760

  3. Development of a Fast and Accurate PCRTM Radiative Transfer Model in the Solar Spectral Region

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liu, Xu; Yang, Qiguang; Li, Hui; Jin, Zhonghai; Wu, Wan; Kizer, Susan; Zhou, Daniel K.; Yang, Ping

    2016-01-01

    A fast and accurate principal component-based radiative transfer model in the solar spectral region (PCRTMSOLAR) has been developed. The algorithm is capable of simulating reflected solar spectra in both clear sky and cloudy atmospheric conditions. Multiple scattering of the solar beam by the multilayer clouds and aerosols are calculated using a discrete ordinate radiative transfer scheme. The PCRTM-SOLAR model can be trained to simulate top-of-atmosphere radiance or reflectance spectra with spectral resolution ranging from 1 cm(exp -1) resolution to a few nanometers. Broadband radiances or reflectance can also be calculated if desired. The current version of the PCRTM-SOLAR covers a spectral range from 300 to 2500 nm. The model is valid for solar zenith angles ranging from 0 to 80 deg, the instrument view zenith angles ranging from 0 to 70 deg, and the relative azimuthal angles ranging from 0 to 360 deg. Depending on the number of spectral channels, the speed of the current version of PCRTM-SOLAR is a few hundred to over one thousand times faster than the medium speed correlated-k option MODTRAN5. The absolute RMS error in channel radiance is smaller than 10(exp -3) mW/cm)exp 2)/sr/cm(exp -1) and the relative error is typically less than 0.2%.

  4. Development of a fast and accurate PCRTM radiative transfer model in the solar spectral region.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xu; Yang, Qiguang; Li, Hui; Jin, Zhonghai; Wu, Wan; Kizer, Susan; Zhou, Daniel K; Yang, Ping

    2016-10-10

    A fast and accurate principal component-based radiative transfer model in the solar spectral region (PCRTM-SOLAR) has been developed. The algorithm is capable of simulating reflected solar spectra in both clear sky and cloudy atmospheric conditions. Multiple scattering of the solar beam by the multilayer clouds and aerosols are calculated using a discrete ordinate radiative transfer scheme. The PCRTM-SOLAR model can be trained to simulate top-of-atmosphere radiance or reflectance spectra with spectral resolution ranging from 1  cm-1 resolution to a few nanometers. Broadband radiances or reflectance can also be calculated if desired. The current version of the PCRTM-SOLAR covers a spectral range from 300 to 2500 nm. The model is valid for solar zenith angles ranging from 0 to 80 deg, the instrument view zenith angles ranging from 0 to 70 deg, and the relative azimuthal angles ranging from 0 to 360 deg. Depending on the number of spectral channels, the speed of the current version of PCRTM-SOLAR is a few hundred to over one thousand times faster than the medium speed correlated-k option MODTRAN5. The absolute RMS error in channel radiance is smaller than 10-3  mW/cm2/sr/cm-1 and the relative error is typically less than 0.2%.

  5. Accurate Models of Formation Enthalpy Created using Machine Learning and Voronoi Tessellations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ward, Logan; Liu, Rosanne; Krishna, Amar; Hegde, Vinay; Agrawal, Ankit; Choudhary, Alok; Wolverton, Chris

    Several groups in the past decade have used high-throughput Density Functional Theory to predict the properties of hundreds of thousands of compounds. These databases provide the unique capability of being able to quickly query the properties of many compounds. Here, we explore how these datasets can also be used to create models that can predict the properties of compounds at rates several orders of magnitude faster than DFT. Our method relies on using Voronoi tessellations to derive attributes that quantitatively characterize the local environment around each atom, which then are used as input to a machine learning model. In this presentation, we will discuss the application of this technique to predicting the formation enthalpy of compounds using data from the Open Quantum Materials Database (OQMD). To date, we have found that this technique can be used to create models that are about twice as accurate as those created using the Coulomb Matrix and Partial Radial Distribution approaches and are equally as fast to evaluate.

  6. A murine model of neurofibromatosis type 2 that accurately phenocopies human schwannoma formation

    PubMed Central

    Gehlhausen, Jeffrey R.; Park, Su-Jung; Hickox, Ann E.; Shew, Matthew; Staser, Karl; Rhodes, Steven D.; Menon, Keshav; Lajiness, Jacquelyn D.; Mwanthi, Muithi; Yang, Xianlin; Yuan, Jin; Territo, Paul; Hutchins, Gary; Nalepa, Grzegorz; Yang, Feng-Chun; Conway, Simon J.; Heinz, Michael G.; Stemmer-Rachamimov, Anat; Yates, Charles W.; Wade Clapp, D.

    2015-01-01

    Neurofibromatosis type 2 (NF2) is an autosomal dominant genetic disorder resulting from germline mutations in the NF2 gene. Bilateral vestibular schwannomas, tumors on cranial nerve VIII, are pathognomonic for NF2 disease. Furthermore, schwannomas also commonly develop in other cranial nerves, dorsal root ganglia and peripheral nerves. These tumors are a major cause of morbidity and mortality, and medical therapies to treat them are limited. Animal models that accurately recapitulate the full anatomical spectrum of human NF2-related schwannomas, including the characteristic functional deficits in hearing and balance associated with cranial nerve VIII tumors, would allow systematic evaluation of experimental therapeutics prior to clinical use. Here, we present a genetically engineered NF2 mouse model generated through excision of the Nf2 gene driven by Cre expression under control of a tissue-restricted 3.9kbPeriostin promoter element. By 10 months of age, 100% of Postn-Cre; Nf2flox/flox mice develop spinal, peripheral and cranial nerve tumors histologically identical to human schwannomas. In addition, the development of cranial nerve VIII tumors correlates with functional impairments in hearing and balance, as measured by auditory brainstem response and vestibular testing. Overall, the Postn-Cre; Nf2flox/flox tumor model provides a novel tool for future mechanistic and therapeutic studies of NF2-associated schwannomas. PMID:25113746

  7. Model Misspecification and Invariance Testing Using Confirmatory Factor Analytic Procedures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    French, Brian F.; Finch, W. Holmes

    2011-01-01

    Confirmatory factor analytic procedures are routinely implemented to provide evidence of measurement invariance. Current lines of research focus on the accuracy of common analytic steps used in confirmatory factor analysis for invariance testing. However, the few studies that have examined this procedure have done so with perfectly or near…

  8. Accurate state estimation from uncertain data and models: an application of data assimilation to mathematical models of human brain tumors

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Data assimilation refers to methods for updating the state vector (initial condition) of a complex spatiotemporal model (such as a numerical weather model) by combining new observations with one or more prior forecasts. We consider the potential feasibility of this approach for making short-term (60-day) forecasts of the growth and spread of a malignant brain cancer (glioblastoma multiforme) in individual patient cases, where the observations are synthetic magnetic resonance images of a hypothetical tumor. Results We apply a modern state estimation algorithm (the Local Ensemble Transform Kalman Filter), previously developed for numerical weather prediction, to two different mathematical models of glioblastoma, taking into account likely errors in model parameters and measurement uncertainties in magnetic resonance imaging. The filter can accurately shadow the growth of a representative synthetic tumor for 360 days (six 60-day forecast/update cycles) in the presence of a moderate degree of systematic model error and measurement noise. Conclusions The mathematical methodology described here may prove useful for other modeling efforts in biology and oncology. An accurate forecast system for glioblastoma may prove useful in clinical settings for treatment planning and patient counseling. Reviewers This article was reviewed by Anthony Almudevar, Tomas Radivoyevitch, and Kristin Swanson (nominated by Georg Luebeck). PMID:22185645

  9. Toward making the mean spherical approximation of primitive model electrolytes analytic: An analytic approximation of the MSA screening parameter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gillespie, Dirk

    2011-01-01

    The mean spherical approximation (MSA) for the primitive model of electrolytes provides reasonable estimates of thermodynamic quantities such as the excess chemical potential and screening length. It is especially widely used because of its explicit formulas so that numerically solving equations is minimized. As originally formulated, the MSA screening parameter Γ (akin to the reciprocal of the Debye screening length) does not have an explicit analytic formula; an equation for Γ must be solved numerically. Here, an analytic approximation for Γ is presented whose relative error is generally ≲ 10^{-5}. If more accuracy is desired, one step of an iterative procedure (which also produces an explicit formula for Γ) is shown to give relative errors within machine precision in many cases. Even when ion diameter ratios are ˜10 and ion valences are ˜10, the relative error for the analytic approximation is still ≲ 10^{-3} and for the single iterative substitution it is ≲ 10^{-9}.

  10. An analytical model of rumpling in thermal barrier coatings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balint, D. S.; Hutchinson, J. W.

    2005-04-01

    Multilayer thermal barrier coatings (TBCs) deposited on superalloy turbine blades provide protection from combustion temperatures in excess of 1500 °C. One of the dominant failure modes comprises cracking from undulation growth, or rumpling, of the highly compressed oxide layer that grows between the ceramic top coat and the intermetallic bond coat. In this paper, a mechanistic model providing an analytical approximation of undulation growth is presented for realistic cyclic thermal histories. Thickening, lateral growth straining and high temperature yielding of the oxide layer are taken into account. Undulation growth in TBC systems is highly nonlinear and characterized by more than 20 material and geometric parameters, highlighting the importance of a robust yet computationally efficient model. At temperatures above 600 °C, the bond coat creeps. Thermal expansion mismatch occurs between the superalloy substrate and the oxide layer and, in some systems, the bond coat. In addition, some bond coats, such as PtNiAl, exhibit a martensitic phase transformation accompanied by nearly a 1% linear expansion, giving rise to a large effective mismatch. These two mismatches promote undulation growth. Nonlinear interaction between the stress in the bond coat induced by the constraining effect of the thick substrate and normal tractions applied at the surface of the bond coat by the compressed, undulating oxide layer produces an increment of undulation growth during each thermal cycle, before the stress decays by creep. A series of problems for systems without the ceramic top coat are used to elucidate the mechanics of undulation growth and to replicate trends observed in a series of experiments and in prior finite-element simulations. The model is employed to study for the first time the effect on undulation growth of a shift in the temperature range over which the transformation occurs, as well as the relative importance of the transformation compared to thermal expansion

  11. Fast and Accurate Radiative Transfer Calculations Using Principal Component Analysis for (Exo-)Planetary Retrieval Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kopparla, P.; Natraj, V.; Shia, R. L.; Spurr, R. J. D.; Crisp, D.; Yung, Y. L.

    2015-12-01

    Radiative transfer (RT) computations form the engine of atmospheric retrieval codes. However, full treatment of RT processes is computationally expensive, prompting usage of two-stream approximations in current exoplanetary atmospheric retrieval codes [Line et al., 2013]. Natraj et al. [2005, 2010] and Spurr and Natraj [2013] demonstrated the ability of a technique using principal component analysis (PCA) to speed up RT computations. In the PCA method for RT performance enhancement, empirical orthogonal functions are developed for binned sets of inherent optical properties that possess some redundancy; costly multiple-scattering RT calculations are only done for those few optical states corresponding to the most important principal components, and correction factors are applied to approximate radiation fields. Kopparla et al. [2015, in preparation] extended the PCA method to a broadband spectral region from the ultraviolet to the shortwave infrared (0.3-3 micron), accounting for major gas absorptions in this region. Here, we apply the PCA method to a some typical (exo-)planetary retrieval problems. Comparisons between the new model, called Universal Principal Component Analysis Radiative Transfer (UPCART) model, two-stream models and line-by-line RT models are performed, for spectral radiances, spectral fluxes and broadband fluxes. Each of these are calculated at the top of the atmosphere for several scenarios with varying aerosol types, extinction and scattering optical depth profiles, and stellar and viewing geometries. We demonstrate that very accurate radiance and flux estimates can be obtained, with better than 1% accuracy in all spectral regions and better than 0.1% in most cases, as compared to a numerically exact line-by-line RT model. The accuracy is enhanced when the results are convolved to typical instrument resolutions. The operational speed and accuracy of UPCART can be further improved by optimizing binning schemes and parallelizing the codes, work

  12. Accurate Monte Carlo modeling of cyclotrons for optimization of shielding and activation calculations in the biomedical field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Infantino, Angelo; Marengo, Mario; Baschetti, Serafina; Cicoria, Gianfranco; Longo Vaschetto, Vittorio; Lucconi, Giulia; Massucci, Piera; Vichi, Sara; Zagni, Federico; Mostacci, Domiziano

    2015-11-01

    Biomedical cyclotrons for production of Positron Emission Tomography (PET) radionuclides and radiotherapy with hadrons or ions are widely diffused and established in hospitals as well as in industrial facilities and research sites. Guidelines for site planning and installation, as well as for radiation protection assessment, are given in a number of international documents; however, these well-established guides typically offer analytic methods of calculation of both shielding and materials activation, in approximate or idealized geometry set up. The availability of Monte Carlo codes with accurate and up-to-date libraries for transport and interactions of neutrons and charged particles at energies below 250 MeV, together with the continuously increasing power of nowadays computers, makes systematic use of simulations with realistic geometries possible, yielding equipment and site specific evaluation of the source terms, shielding requirements and all quantities relevant to radiation protection. In this work, the well-known Monte Carlo code FLUKA was used to simulate two representative models of cyclotron for PET radionuclides production, including their targetry; and one type of proton therapy cyclotron including the energy selection system. Simulations yield estimates of various quantities of radiological interest, including the effective dose distribution around the equipment, the effective number of neutron produced per incident proton and the activation of target materials, the structure of the cyclotron, the energy degrader, the vault walls and the soil. The model was validated against experimental measurements and comparison with well-established reference data. Neutron ambient dose equivalent H*(10) was measured around a GE PETtrace cyclotron: an average ratio between experimental measurement and simulations of 0.99±0.07 was found. Saturation yield of 18F, produced by the well-known 18O(p,n)18F reaction, was calculated and compared with the IAEA recommended

  13. Using visual analytics model for pattern matching in surveillance data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Habibi, Mohammad S.

    2013-03-01

    In a persistent surveillance system huge amount of data is collected continuously and significant details are labeled for future references. In this paper a method to summarize video data as a result of identifying events based on these tagged information is explained, leading to concise description of behavior within a section of extended recordings. An efficient retrieval of various events thus becomes the foundation for determining a pattern in surveillance system observations, both in its extended and fragmented versions. The patterns consisting of spatiotemporal semantic contents are extracted and classified by application of video data mining on generated ontology, and can be matched based on analysts interest and rules set forth for decision making. The proposed extraction and classification method used in this paper uses query by example for retrieving similar events containing relevant features, and is carried out by data aggregation. Since structured data forms majority of surveillance information this Visual Analytics model employs KD-Tree approach to group patterns in variant space and time, thus making it convenient to identify and match any abnormal burst of pattern detected in a surveillance video. Several experimental video were presented to viewers to analyze independently and were compared with the results obtained in this paper to demonstrate the efficiency and effectiveness of the proposed technique.

  14. An analytical study of various telecomminication networks using markov models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramakrishnan, M.; Jayamani, E.; Ezhumalai, P.

    2015-04-01

    The main aim of this paper is to examine issues relating to the performance of various Telecommunication networks, and applied queuing theory for better design and improved efficiency. Firstly, giving an analytical study of queues deals with quantifying the phenomenon of waiting lines using representative measures of performances, such as average queue length (on average number of customers in the queue), average waiting time in queue (on average time to wait) and average facility utilization (proportion of time the service facility is in use). In the second, using Matlab simulator, summarizes the finding of the investigations, from which and where we obtain results and describing methodology for a) compare the waiting time and average number of messages in the queue in M/M/1 and M/M/2 queues b) Compare the performance of M/M/1 and M/D/1 queues and study the effect of increasing the number of servers on the blocking probability M/M/k/k queue model.

  15. Physical and Numerical Model Studies of Cross-flow Turbines Towards Accurate Parameterization in Array Simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wosnik, M.; Bachant, P.

    2014-12-01

    Cross-flow turbines, often referred to as vertical-axis turbines, show potential for success in marine hydrokinetic (MHK) and wind energy applications, ranging from small- to utility-scale installations in tidal/ocean currents and offshore wind. As turbine designs mature, the research focus is shifting from individual devices to the optimization of turbine arrays. It would be expensive and time-consuming to conduct physical model studies of large arrays at large model scales (to achieve sufficiently high Reynolds numbers), and hence numerical techniques are generally better suited to explore the array design parameter space. However, since the computing power available today is not sufficient to conduct simulations of the flow in and around large arrays of turbines with fully resolved turbine geometries (e.g., grid resolution into the viscous sublayer on turbine blades), the turbines' interaction with the energy resource (water current or wind) needs to be parameterized, or modeled. Models used today--a common model is the actuator disk concept--are not able to predict the unique wake structure generated by cross-flow turbines. This wake structure has been shown to create "constructive" interference in some cases, improving turbine performance in array configurations, in contrast with axial-flow, or horizontal axis devices. Towards a more accurate parameterization of cross-flow turbines, an extensive experimental study was carried out using a high-resolution turbine test bed with wake measurement capability in a large cross-section tow tank. The experimental results were then "interpolated" using high-fidelity Navier--Stokes simulations, to gain insight into the turbine's near-wake. The study was designed to achieve sufficiently high Reynolds numbers for the results to be Reynolds number independent with respect to turbine performance and wake statistics, such that they can be reliably extrapolated to full scale and used for model validation. The end product of

  16. Structure-based constitutive model can accurately predict planar biaxial properties of aortic wall tissue.

    PubMed

    Polzer, S; Gasser, T C; Novak, K; Man, V; Tichy, M; Skacel, P; Bursa, J

    2015-03-01

    Structure-based constitutive models might help in exploring mechanisms by which arterial wall histology is linked to wall mechanics. This study aims to validate a recently proposed structure-based constitutive model. Specifically, the model's ability to predict mechanical biaxial response of porcine aortic tissue with predefined collagen structure was tested. Histological slices from porcine thoracic aorta wall (n=9) were automatically processed to quantify the collagen fiber organization, and mechanical testing identified the non-linear properties of the wall samples (n=18) over a wide range of biaxial stretches. Histological and mechanical experimental data were used to identify the model parameters of a recently proposed multi-scale constitutive description for arterial layers. The model predictive capability was tested with respect to interpolation and extrapolation. Collagen in the media was predominantly aligned in circumferential direction (planar von Mises distribution with concentration parameter bM=1.03 ± 0.23), and its coherence decreased gradually from the luminal to the abluminal tissue layers (inner media, b=1.54 ± 0.40; outer media, b=0.72 ± 0.20). In contrast, the collagen in the adventitia was aligned almost isotropically (bA=0.27 ± 0.11), and no features, such as families of coherent fibers, were identified. The applied constitutive model captured the aorta biaxial properties accurately (coefficient of determination R(2)=0.95 ± 0.03) over the entire range of biaxial deformations and with physically meaningful model parameters. Good predictive properties, well outside the parameter identification space, were observed (R(2)=0.92 ± 0.04). Multi-scale constitutive models equipped with realistic micro-histological data can predict macroscopic non-linear aorta wall properties. Collagen largely defines already low strain properties of media, which explains the origin of wall anisotropy seen at this strain level. The structure and mechanical

  17. Accurate modeling of cache replacement policies in a Data-Grid.

    SciTech Connect

    Otoo, Ekow J.; Shoshani, Arie

    2003-01-23

    Caching techniques have been used to improve the performance gap of storage hierarchies in computing systems. In data intensive applications that access large data files over wide area network environment, such as a data grid,caching mechanism can significantly improve the data access performance under appropriate workloads. In a data grid, it is envisioned that local disk storage resources retain or cache the data files being used by local application. Under a workload of shared access and high locality of reference, the performance of the caching techniques depends heavily on the replacement policies being used. A replacement policy effectively determines which set of objects must be evicted when space is needed. Unlike cache replacement policies in virtual memory paging or database buffering, developing an optimal replacement policy for data grids is complicated by the fact that the file objects being cached have varying sizes and varying transfer and processing costs that vary with time. We present an accurate model for evaluating various replacement policies and propose a new replacement algorithm referred to as ''Least Cost Beneficial based on K backward references (LCB-K).'' Using this modeling technique, we compare LCB-K with various replacement policies such as Least Frequently Used (LFU), Least Recently Used (LRU), Greedy DualSize (GDS), etc., using synthetic and actual workload of accesses to and from tertiary storage systems. The results obtained show that (LCB-K) and (GDS) are the most cost effective cache replacement policies for storage resource management in data grids.

  18. Numerical and Analytic Studies of Random-Walk Models.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Bin

    We begin by recapitulating the universality approach to problems associated with critical systems, and discussing the role that random-walk models play in the study of phase transitions and critical phenomena. As our first numerical simulation project, we perform high-precision Monte Carlo calculations for the exponents of the intersection probability of pairs and triplets of ordinary random walks in 2 dimensions, in order to test the conformal-invariance theory predictions. Our numerical results strongly support the theory. Our second numerical project aims to test the hyperscaling relation dnu = 2 Delta_4-gamma for self-avoiding walks in 2 and 3 dimensions. We apply the pivot method to generate pairs of self-avoiding walks, and then for each pair, using the Karp-Luby algorithm, perform an inner -loop Monte Carlo calculation of the number of different translates of one walk that makes at least one intersection with the other. Applying a least-squares fit to estimate the exponents, we have obtained strong numerical evidence that the hyperscaling relation is true in 3 dimensions. Our great amount of data for walks of unprecedented length(up to 80000 steps), yield a updated value for the end-to-end distance and radius of gyration exponent nu = 0.588 +/- 0.001 (95% confidence limit), which comes out in good agreement with the renormalization -group prediction. In an analytic study of random-walk models, we introduce multi-colored random-walk models and generalize the Symanzik and B.F.S. random-walk representations to the multi-colored case. We prove that the zero-component lambdavarphi^2psi^2 theory can be represented by a two-color mutually -repelling random-walk model, and it becomes the mutually -avoiding walk model in the limit lambda to infty. However, our main concern and major break-through lies in the study of the two-point correlation function for the lambda varphi^2psi^2 theory with N > 0 components. By representing it as a two-color random-walk expansion

  19. Numerical and Analytical Modeling of Transit Timing Variations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hadden, Sam; Lithwick, Yoram

    2016-09-01

    We develop and apply methods to extract planet masses and eccentricities from observed transit timing variations (TTVs). First, we derive simple analytic expressions for the TTV that include the effects of both first- and second-order resonances. Second, we use N-body Markov chain Monte Carlo simulations, as well as the analytic formulae, to measure the masses and eccentricities of 10 planets discovered by Kepler that have not previously been analyzed. Most of the 10 planets have low densities. Using the analytic expressions to partially circumvent degeneracies, we measure small eccentricities of a few percent or less.

  20. TH-C-BRD-02: Analytical Modeling and Dose Calculation Method for Asymmetric Proton Pencil Beams

    SciTech Connect

    Gelover, E; Wang, D; Hill, P; Flynn, R; Hyer, D

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: A dynamic collimation system (DCS), which consists of two pairs of orthogonal trimmer blades driven by linear motors has been proposed to decrease the lateral penumbra in pencil beam scanning proton therapy. The DCS reduces lateral penumbra by intercepting the proton pencil beam near the lateral boundary of the target in the beam's eye view. The resultant trimmed pencil beams are asymmetric and laterally shifted, and therefore existing pencil beam dose calculation algorithms are not capable of trimmed beam dose calculations. This work develops a method to model and compute dose from trimmed pencil beams when using the DCS. Methods: MCNPX simulations were used to determine the dose distributions expected from various trimmer configurations using the DCS. Using these data, the lateral distribution for individual beamlets was modeled with a 2D asymmetric Gaussian function. The integral depth dose (IDD) of each configuration was also modeled by combining the IDD of an untrimmed pencil beam with a linear correction factor. The convolution of these two terms, along with the Highland approximation to account for lateral growth of the beam along the depth direction, allows a trimmed pencil beam dose distribution to be analytically generated. The algorithm was validated by computing dose for a single energy layer 5×5 cm{sup 2} treatment field, defined by the trimmers, using both the proposed method and MCNPX beamlets. Results: The Gaussian modeled asymmetric lateral profiles along the principal axes match the MCNPX data very well (R{sup 2}≥0.95 at the depth of the Bragg peak). For the 5×5 cm{sup 2} treatment plan created with both the modeled and MCNPX pencil beams, the passing rate of the 3D gamma test was 98% using a standard threshold of 3%/3 mm. Conclusion: An analytical method capable of accurately computing asymmetric pencil beam dose when using the DCS has been developed.

  1. An Analytical Model of Wave-Induced Longshore Current Based on Power Law Wave Height Decay.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-01-01

    34I ANALYtTICAL MODEL OF NAVE-INDUCED LON6SHORE CURRENT BASED ON PONE* LAW.. (U) COASTAL ENG INEERING RESEAKNH CENTER VICKSBURG NS J N SMITH ET AL...j . - .L .V . : ; * AN ANALYTICAL MODEL OF WAVE-INDUCED ~ z * LONGSHORE CURRENT BASED ON POWER LAW * - WAVE HEIGHT DECAY by Jane McKee...I_ I IF 31592 11. TITLE (Include Security Classfication) • An Analytical Model of Wave-Induced Longshore Current Based on Power Law . Wave

  2. CD-HPF: New habitability score via data analytic modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bora, K.; Saha, S.; Agrawal, S.; Safonova, M.; Routh, S.; Narasimhamurthy, A.

    2016-10-01

    The search for life on the planets outside the Solar System can be broadly classified into the following: looking for Earth-like conditions or the planets similar to the Earth (Earth similarity), and looking for the possibility of life in a form known or unknown to us (habitability). The two frequently used indices, Earth Similarity Index (ESI) and Planetary Habitability Index (PHI), describe heuristic methods to score habitability in the efforts to categorize different exoplanets (or exomoons). ESI, in particular, considers Earth as the reference frame for habitability, and is a quick screening tool to categorize and measure physical similarity of any planetary body with the Earth. The PHI assesses the potential habitability of any given planet, and is based on the essential requirements of known life: presence of a stable and protected substrate, energy, appropriate chemistry and a liquid medium. We propose here a different metric, a Cobb-Douglas Habitability Score (CDHS), based on Cobb-Douglas habitability production function (CD-HPF), which computes the habitability score by using measured and estimated planetary input parameters. As an initial set, we used radius, density, escape velocity and surface temperature of a planet. The values of the input parameters are normalized to the Earth Units (EU). The proposed metric, with exponents accounting for metric elasticity, is endowed with analytical properties that ensure global optima, and scales up to accommodate finitely many input parameters. The model is elastic, and, as we discovered, the standard PHI turns out to be a special case of the CDHS. Computed CDHS scores are fed to K-NN (K-Nearest Neighbor) classification algorithm with probabilistic herding that facilitates the assignment of exoplanets to appropriate classes via supervised feature learning methods, producing granular clusters of habitability. The proposed work describes a decision-theoretical model using the power of convex optimization and

  3. Analytical model of rotor wake aerodynamics in ground effect

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Saberi, H. A.

    1983-01-01

    The model and the computer program developed provides the velocity, location, and circulation of the tip vortices of a two-blade helicopter in and out of the ground effect. Comparison of the theoretical results with some experimental measurements for the location of the wake indicate that there is excellent accuracy in the vicinity of the rotor and fair amount of accuracy far from it. Having the location of the wake at all times enables us to compute the history of the velocity and the location of any point in the flow. The main goal of out study, induced velocity at the rotor, can also be calculated in addition to stream lines and streak lines. Since the wake location close to the rotor is known more accurately than at other places, the calculated induced velocity over the disc should be a good estimate of the real induced velocity, with the exception of the blade location, because each blade was replaced only by a vortex line. Because no experimental measurements of the wake close to the ground were available to us, quantitative evaluation of the theoretical wake was not possible. But qualitatively we have been able to show excellent agreement. Comparison of flow visualization with out results has indicated the location of the ground vortex is estimated excellently. Also the flow field in hover is well represented.

  4. Analytical model of impact disruption of satellites and asteroids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leliwa-Kopystyński, J.; Włodarczyk, I.; Burchell, M. J.

    2016-04-01

    A model of impact disruption of the bodies with sizes from the laboratory scale to that of an order of 100 km is developed. On the lowermost end of the target size the model is based on the numerous laboratory data related to the mass-velocity distribution of the impact produced fragments. On the minor-planets scale the model is supported by the data related to the largest observed craters on small icy satellites and on some asteroids (Leliwa-Kopystynski, J., Burchell, M.J., Lowen, D. [2008]. Icarus 195, 817-826). The model takes into account the target disruption and the dispersion of the impact produced fragments against the intermolecular forces acting on the surfaces of the contacts of the fragments and against self-gravitation of the target. The head-on collisions of non-rotating and non-porous targets and impactors are considered. The impactor delivers kinetic energy but its mass is neglected in comparison to mass of the target. For this simple case the analytical formulae for specific disruption energy as well as for specific energy of formation of the largest craters are found. They depend on a set of parameters. Of these the most important (i.e. with the greatest influence on the final result) are three rather weakly known parameters. They are: (i) The exponent γ in the distribution function of the fragments. (ii) The characteristic velocity v0 that appears in the velocity distribution of the ejected fragments. (iii) The exponent β in the mass-velocity distribution. The influence of the choice of the numerical values of these parameters on the final results has been studied. Another group of parameters contains the relevant material data. They are: (a) The energy σ of breaking of the intermolecular bonds of the target material per unit of the fragment surface and (b) the density ρ of the target. According to our calculations the transition between the strength regime and the gravitational regime is in the range of the target radius from ∼0.4 km to

  5. Accurate De Novo Prediction of Protein Contact Map by Ultra-Deep Learning Model

    PubMed Central

    Li, Zhen; Zhang, Renyu

    2017-01-01

    Motivation Protein contacts contain key information for the understanding of protein structure and function and thus, contact prediction from sequence is an important problem. Recently exciting progress has been made on this problem, but the predicted contacts for proteins without many sequence homologs is still of low quality and not very useful for de novo structure prediction. Method This paper presents a new deep learning method that predicts contacts by integrating both evolutionary coupling (EC) and sequence conservation information through an ultra-deep neural network formed by two deep residual neural networks. The first residual network conducts a series of 1-dimensional convolutional transformation of sequential features; the second residual network conducts a series of 2-dimensional convolutional transformation of pairwise information including output of the first residual network, EC information and pairwise potential. By using very deep residual networks, we can accurately model contact occurrence patterns and complex sequence-structure relationship and thus, obtain higher-quality contact prediction regardless of how many sequence homologs are available for proteins in question. Results Our method greatly outperforms existing methods and leads to much more accurate contact-assisted folding. Tested on 105 CASP11 targets, 76 past CAMEO hard targets, and 398 membrane proteins, the average top L long-range prediction accuracy obtained by our method, one representative EC method CCMpred and the CASP11 winner MetaPSICOV is 0.47, 0.21 and 0.30, respectively; the average top L/10 long-range accuracy of our method, CCMpred and MetaPSICOV is 0.77, 0.47 and 0.59, respectively. Ab initio folding using our predicted contacts as restraints but without any force fields can yield correct folds (i.e., TMscore>0.6) for 203 of the 579 test proteins, while that using MetaPSICOV- and CCMpred-predicted contacts can do so for only 79 and 62 of them, respectively. Our contact

  6. SPARC: Mass Models for 175 Disk Galaxies with Spitzer Photometry and Accurate Rotation Curves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lelli, Federico; McGaugh, Stacy S.; Schombert, James M.

    2016-12-01

    We introduce SPARC (Spitzer Photometry and Accurate Rotation Curves): a sample of 175 nearby galaxies with new surface photometry at 3.6 μm and high-quality rotation curves from previous H i/Hα studies. SPARC spans a broad range of morphologies (S0 to Irr), luminosities (∼5 dex), and surface brightnesses (∼4 dex). We derive [3.6] surface photometry and study structural relations of stellar and gas disks. We find that both the stellar mass–H i mass relation and the stellar radius–H i radius relation have significant intrinsic scatter, while the H i mass–radius relation is extremely tight. We build detailed mass models and quantify the ratio of baryonic to observed velocity (V bar/V obs) for different characteristic radii and values of the stellar mass-to-light ratio (ϒ⋆) at [3.6]. Assuming ϒ⋆ ≃ 0.5 M ⊙/L ⊙ (as suggested by stellar population models), we find that (i) the gas fraction linearly correlates with total luminosity (ii) the transition from star-dominated to gas-dominated galaxies roughly corresponds to the transition from spiral galaxies to dwarf irregulars, in line with density wave theory; and (iii) V bar/V obs varies with luminosity and surface brightness: high-mass, high-surface-brightness galaxies are nearly maximal, while low-mass, low-surface-brightness galaxies are submaximal. These basic properties are lost for low values of ϒ⋆ ≃ 0.2 M ⊙/L ⊙ as suggested by the DiskMass survey. The mean maximum-disk limit in bright galaxies is ϒ⋆ ≃ 0.7 M ⊙/L ⊙ at [3.6]. The SPARC data are publicly available and represent an ideal test bed for models of galaxy formation.

  7. Modeling of Non-Gravitational Forces for Precise and Accurate Orbit Determination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hackel, Stefan; Gisinger, Christoph; Steigenberger, Peter; Balss, Ulrich; Montenbruck, Oliver; Eineder, Michael

    2014-05-01

    Remote sensing satellites support a broad range of scientific and commercial applications. The two radar imaging satellites TerraSAR-X and TanDEM-X provide spaceborne Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) and interferometric SAR data with a very high accuracy. The precise reconstruction of the satellite's trajectory is based on the Global Positioning System (GPS) measurements from a geodetic-grade dual-frequency Integrated Geodetic and Occultation Receiver (IGOR) onboard the spacecraft. The increasing demand for precise radar products relies on validation methods, which require precise and accurate orbit products. An analysis of the orbit quality by means of internal and external validation methods on long and short timescales shows systematics, which reflect deficits in the employed force models. Following the proper analysis of this deficits, possible solution strategies are highlighted in the presentation. The employed Reduced Dynamic Orbit Determination (RDOD) approach utilizes models for gravitational and non-gravitational forces. A detailed satellite macro model is introduced to describe the geometry and the optical surface properties of the satellite. Two major non-gravitational forces are the direct and the indirect Solar Radiation Pressure (SRP). The satellite TerraSAR-X flies on a dusk-dawn orbit with an altitude of approximately 510 km above ground. Due to this constellation, the Sun almost constantly illuminates the satellite, which causes strong across-track accelerations on the plane rectangular to the solar rays. The indirect effect of the solar radiation is called Earth Radiation Pressure (ERP). This force depends on the sunlight, which is reflected by the illuminated Earth surface (visible spectra) and the emission of the Earth body in the infrared spectra. Both components of ERP require Earth models to describe the optical properties of the Earth surface. Therefore, the influence of different Earth models on the orbit quality is assessed. The scope of

  8. Design Protocols and Analytical Strategies that Incorporate Structural Reliability Models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Duffy, Stephen F.

    1997-01-01

    Ceramic matrix composites (CMC) and intermetallic materials (e.g., single crystal nickel aluminide) are high performance materials that exhibit attractive mechanical, thermal and chemical properties. These materials are critically important in advancing certain performance aspects of gas turbine engines. From an aerospace engineer's perspective the new generation of ceramic composites and intermetallics offers a significant potential for raising the thrust/weight ratio and reducing NO(x) emissions of gas turbine engines. These aspects have increased interest in utilizing these materials in the hot sections of turbine engines. However, as these materials evolve and their performance characteristics improve a persistent need exists for state-of-the-art analytical methods that predict the response of components fabricated from CMC and intermetallic material systems. This need provided the motivation for the technology developed under this research effort. Continuous ceramic fiber composites exhibit an increase in work of fracture, which allows for "graceful" rather than catastrophic failure. When loaded in the fiber direction, these composites retain substantial strength capacity beyond the initiation of transverse matrix cracking despite the fact that neither of its constituents would exhibit such behavior if tested alone. As additional load is applied beyond first matrix cracking, the matrix tends to break in a series of cracks bridged by the ceramic fibers. Any additional load is born increasingly by the fibers until the ultimate strength of the composite is reached. Thus modeling efforts supported under this research effort have focused on predicting this sort of behavior. For single crystal intermetallics the issues that motivated the technology development involved questions relating to material behavior and component design. Thus the research effort supported by this grant had to determine the statistical nature and source of fracture in a high strength, Ni

  9. Design Protocols and Analytical Strategies that Incorporate Structural Reliability Models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Duffy, Stephen F.

    1997-01-01

    Ceramic matrix composites (CMC) and intermetallic materials (e.g., single crystal nickel aluminide) are high performance materials that exhibit attractive mechanical, thermal, and chemical properties. These materials are critically important in advancing certain performance aspects of gas turbine engines. From an aerospace engineers perspective the new generation of ceramic composites and intermetallics offers a significant potential for raising the thrust/weight ratio and reducing NO(sub x) emissions of gas turbine engines. These aspects have increased interest in utilizing these materials in the hot sections of turbine engines. However, as these materials evolve and their performance characteristics improve a persistent need exists for state-of-the-art analytical methods that predict the response of components fabricated from CMC and intermetallic material systems. This need provided the motivation for the technology developed under this research effort. Continuous ceramic fiber composites exhibit an increase in work of fracture, which allows for 'graceful' rather than catastrophic failure. When loaded in the fiber direction these composites retain substantial strength capacity beyond the initiation of transverse matrix cracking despite the fact that neither of its constituents would exhibit such behavior if tested alone. As additional load is applied beyond first matrix cracking, the matrix tends to break in a series of cracks bridged by the ceramic fibers. Any additional load is born increasingly by the fibers until the ultimate strength of the composite is reached. Thus modeling efforts supported under this research effort have focused on predicting this sort of behavior. For single crystal intermetallics the issues that motivated the technology development involved questions relating to material behavior and component design. Thus the research effort supported by this grant had to determine the statistical nature and source of fracture in a high strength, Ni

  10. Do modelled or satellite-based estimates of surface solar irradiance accurately describe its temporal variability?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bengulescu, Marc; Blanc, Philippe; Boilley, Alexandre; Wald, Lucien

    2017-02-01

    This study investigates the characteristic time-scales of variability found in long-term time-series of daily means of estimates of surface solar irradiance (SSI). The study is performed at various levels to better understand the causes of variability in the SSI. First, the variability of the solar irradiance at the top of the atmosphere is scrutinized. Then, estimates of the SSI in cloud-free conditions as provided by the McClear model are dealt with, in order to reveal the influence of the clear atmosphere (aerosols, water vapour, etc.). Lastly, the role of clouds on variability is inferred by the analysis of in-situ measurements. A description of how the atmosphere affects SSI variability is thus obtained on a time-scale basis. The analysis is also performed with estimates of the SSI provided by the satellite-derived HelioClim-3 database and by two numerical weather re-analyses: ERA-Interim and MERRA2. It is found that HelioClim-3 estimates render an accurate picture of the variability found in ground measurements, not only globally, but also with respect to individual characteristic time-scales. On the contrary, the variability found in re-analyses correlates poorly with all scales of ground measurements variability.

  11. Accurate two-dimensional model of an arrayed-waveguide grating demultiplexer and optimal design based on the reciprocity theory.

    PubMed

    Dai, Daoxin; He, Sailing

    2004-12-01

    An accurate two-dimensional (2D) model is introduced for the simulation of an arrayed-waveguide grating (AWG) demultiplexer by integrating the field distribution along the vertical direction. The equivalent 2D model has almost the same accuracy as the original three-dimensional model and is more accurate for the AWG considered here than the conventional 2D model based on the effective-index method. To further improve the computational efficiency, the reciprocity theory is applied to the optimal design of a flat-top AWG demultiplexer with a special input structure.

  12. A genetic algorithm-based job scheduling model for big data analytics.

    PubMed

    Lu, Qinghua; Li, Shanshan; Zhang, Weishan; Zhang, Lei

    Big data analytics (BDA) applications are a new category of software applications that process large amounts of data using scalable parallel processing infrastructure to obtain hidden value. Hadoop is the most mature open-source big data analytics framework, which implements the MapReduce programming model to process big data with MapReduce jobs. Big data analytics jobs are often continuous and not mutually separated. The existing work mainly focuses on executing jobs in sequence, which are often inefficient and consume high energy. In this paper, we propose a genetic algorithm-based job scheduling model for big data analytics applications to improve the efficiency of big data analytics. To implement the job scheduling model, we leverage an estimation module to predict the performance of clusters when executing analytics jobs. We have evaluated the proposed job scheduling model in terms of feasibility and accuracy.

  13. A hybrid analytical model for the transverse vibration response of a micro-end mill

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mustapha, K. B.; Zhong, Z. W.

    2013-01-01

    As a result of its detrimental effect on tool life and product quality, vibration analyses are crucial if the full potential of micro-milling operation is to be attained. In this paper, a hybrid analytical model (HAM) developed for estimating the transverse response of a micro-end mill is presented. The HAM is a combination of discrete and distributed structural elements. The discrete elements account for the stiffness and damping coefficients of the machining system, while the distributed elements idealize the geometrical representation of the micro-end mill with a novel model of the micro-flute. A number of slot micro-end milling operations, carefully designed with the Taguchi method of design of experiments, are carried out to examine the accuracy of the HAM. The comparison of the response profile from the experiment and the developed model shows reasonably close similarity. The influence of the helix angle is found to be far greater on the response of the micro-end mill than the other geometric variables. By making use of the root mean square of the response, it is further observed that the representation of the micro-flute of the micro-end mill with a less accurate model deteriorates the prediction of the HAM.

  14. Analytical algorithm for modeling polarized solar radiation transfer through the atmosphere for application in processing complex lidar and radiometer measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chaikovskaya, L.; Dubovik, O.; Litvinov, P.; Grudo, J.; Lopatsin, A.; Chaikovsky, A.; Denisov, S.

    2015-01-01

    Inversion algorithms and program packages recently created for processing data of the ground-based radiometer spectral measurements along with lidar multi-wavelength measurements are extremely multiparametric. Therefore, it is very important to develop an efficient program module for computations of functions modeling measurements by a sun-radiometer in the inversion procedure. In this paper, we present the analytical version of such efficient algorithm and analytical code on C++ designed for performance of algorithm testing. The code computes multiple scattering of the Sun light in the atmosphere. Data output are the radiance and linear polarization parameters angular patterns at a preselected altitude. The atmosphere model with mixed aerosol and molecular scattering is given approximately as the homogeneous atmosphere model. The algorithm testing has been carried out by comparison of computed data with accurate data obtained on the base of the discrete-ordinate code. Errors of estimates of downward radiance above the Earth surface turned out to be within 10%-15%.. The analytical solution construction concept has taken from the scalar task of solar radiation transfer in the atmosphere where an approximate analytical solution was developed. Taking into account the fact that aerosol phase functions are highly forward elongated, the multi-component method of solving vector transfer equations and small-angle approximation have been used. Generalization of the scalar approach to the polarization parameters is described.

  15. Towards more accurate wind and solar power prediction by improving NWP model physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steiner, Andrea; Köhler, Carmen; von Schumann, Jonas; Ritter, Bodo

    2014-05-01

    nighttime to well mixed conditions during the day presents a big challenge to NWP models. Fast decrease and successive increase in hub-height wind speed after sunrise, and the formation of nocturnal low level jets will be discussed. For PV, the life cycle of low stratus clouds and fog is crucial. Capturing these processes correctly depends on the accurate simulation of diffusion or vertical momentum transport and the interaction with other atmospheric and soil processes within the numerical weather model. Results from Single Column Model simulations and 3d case studies will be presented. Emphasis is placed on wind forecasts; however, some references to highlights concerning the PV-developments will also be given. *) ORKA: Optimierung von Ensembleprognosen regenerativer Einspeisung für den Kürzestfristbereich am Anwendungsbeispiel der Netzsicherheitsrechnungen **) EWeLiNE: Erstellung innovativer Wetter- und Leistungsprognosemodelle für die Netzintegration wetterabhängiger Energieträger, www.projekt-eweline.de

  16. Toward accurate tooth segmentation from computed tomography images using a hybrid level set model

    SciTech Connect

    Gan, Yangzhou; Zhao, Qunfei; Xia, Zeyang E-mail: jing.xiong@siat.ac.cn; Hu, Ying; Xiong, Jing E-mail: jing.xiong@siat.ac.cn; Zhang, Jianwei

    2015-01-15

    Purpose: A three-dimensional (3D) model of the teeth provides important information for orthodontic diagnosis and treatment planning. Tooth segmentation is an essential step in generating the 3D digital model from computed tomography (CT) images. The aim of this study is to develop an accurate and efficient tooth segmentation method from CT images. Methods: The 3D dental CT volumetric images are segmented slice by slice in a two-dimensional (2D) transverse plane. The 2D segmentation is composed of a manual initialization step and an automatic slice by slice segmentation step. In the manual initialization step, the user manually picks a starting slice and selects a seed point for each tooth in this slice. In the automatic slice segmentation step, a developed hybrid level set model is applied to segment tooth contours from each slice. Tooth contour propagation strategy is employed to initialize the level set function automatically. Cone beam CT (CBCT) images of two subjects were used to tune the parameters. Images of 16 additional subjects were used to validate the performance of the method. Volume overlap metrics and surface distance metrics were adopted to assess the segmentation accuracy quantitatively. The volume overlap metrics were volume difference (VD, mm{sup 3}) and Dice similarity coefficient (DSC, %). The surface distance metrics were average symmetric surface distance (ASSD, mm), RMS (root mean square) symmetric surface distance (RMSSSD, mm), and maximum symmetric surface distance (MSSD, mm). Computation time was recorded to assess the efficiency. The performance of the proposed method has been compared with two state-of-the-art methods. Results: For the tested CBCT images, the VD, DSC, ASSD, RMSSSD, and MSSD for the incisor were 38.16 ± 12.94 mm{sup 3}, 88.82 ± 2.14%, 0.29 ± 0.03 mm, 0.32 ± 0.08 mm, and 1.25 ± 0.58 mm, respectively; the VD, DSC, ASSD, RMSSSD, and MSSD for the canine were 49.12 ± 9.33 mm{sup 3}, 91.57 ± 0.82%, 0.27 ± 0.02 mm, 0

  17. Three dimensional printing as an effective method of producing anatomically accurate models for studies in thermal ecology.

    PubMed

    Watson, Charles M; Francis, Gamal R

    2015-07-01

    Hollow copper models painted to match the reflectance of the animal subject are standard in thermal ecology research. While the copper electroplating process results in accurate models, it is relatively time consuming, uses caustic chemicals, and the models are often anatomically imprecise. Although the decreasing cost of 3D printing can potentially allow the reproduction of highly accurate models, the thermal performance of 3D printed models has not been evaluated. We compared the cost, accuracy, and performance of both copper and 3D printed lizard models and found that the performance of the models were statistically identical in both open and closed habitats. We also find that 3D models are more standard, lighter, durable, and inexpensive, than the copper electroformed models.

  18. A semi-analytical model for the acoustic impedance of finite length circular holes with mean flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Dong; Morgans, Aimee S.

    2016-12-01

    The acoustic response of a circular hole with mean flow passing through it is highly relevant to Helmholtz resonators, fuel injectors, perforated plates, screens, liners and many other engineering applications. A widely used analytical model [M.S. Howe. "Onthe theory of unsteady high Reynolds number flow through a circular aperture", Proc. of the Royal Soc. A. 366, 1725 (1979), 205-223] which assumes an infinitesimally short hole was recently shown to be insufficient for predicting the impedance of holes with a finite length. In the present work, an analytical model based on Green's function method is developed to take the hole length into consideration for "short" holes. The importance of capturing the modified vortex noise accurately is shown. The vortices shed at the hole inlet edge are convected to the hole outlet and further downstream to form a vortex sheet. This couples with the acoustic waves and this coupling has the potential to generate as well as absorb acoustic energy in the low frequency region. The impedance predicted by this model shows the importance of capturing the path of the shed vortex. When the vortex path is captured accurately, the impedance predictions agree well with previous experimental and CFD results, for example predicting the potential for generation of acoustic energy at higher frequencies. For "long" holes, a simplified model which combines Howe's model with plane acoustic waves within the hole is developed. It is shown that the most important effect in this case is the acoustic non-compactness of the hole.

  19. Quantitative, comprehensive, analytical model for magnetic reconnection in Hall magnetohydrodynamics.

    PubMed

    Simakov, Andrei N; Chacón, L

    2008-09-05

    Dissipation-independent, or "fast", magnetic reconnection has been observed computationally in Hall magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) and predicted analytically in electron MHD. However, a quantitative analytical theory of reconnection valid for arbitrary ion inertial lengths, d{i}, has been lacking and is proposed here for the first time. The theory describes a two-dimensional reconnection diffusion region, provides expressions for reconnection rates, and derives a formal criterion for fast reconnection in terms of dissipation parameters and d{i}. It also confirms the electron MHD prediction that both open and elongated diffusion regions allow fast reconnection, and reveals strong dependence of the reconnection rates on d{i}.

  20. Analytical model for electromagnetic cascades in rotating electric field

    SciTech Connect

    Nerush, E. N.; Bashmakov, V. F.; Kostyukov, I. Yu.

    2011-08-15

    Electromagnetic cascades attract a lot of attention as an important quantum electrodynamics effect that will reveal itself in various electromagnetic field configurations at ultrahigh intensities. We study cascade dynamics in rotating electric field analytically and numerically. The kinetic equations for the electron-positron plasma and gamma-quanta are formulated. The scaling laws are derived and analyzed. For the cascades arising far above the threshold the dependence of the cascade parameters on the field frequency is derived. The spectra of high-energy cascade particles are calculated. The analytical results are verified by numerical simulations.

  1. Random-effects models for meta-analytic structural equation modeling: review, issues, and illustrations.

    PubMed

    Cheung, Mike W-L; Cheung, Shu Fai

    2016-06-01

    Meta-analytic structural equation modeling (MASEM) combines the techniques of meta-analysis and structural equation modeling for the purpose of synthesizing correlation or covariance matrices and fitting structural equation models on the pooled correlation or covariance matrix. Both fixed-effects and random-effects models can be defined in MASEM. Random-effects models are well known in conventional meta-analysis but are less studied in MASEM. The primary objective of this paper was to address issues related to random-effects models in MASEM. Specifically, we compared two different random-effects models in MASEM-correlation-based MASEM and parameter-based MASEM-and explored their strengths and limitations. Two examples were used to illustrate the similarities and differences between these models. We offered some practical guidelines for choosing between these two models. Future directions for research on random-effects models in MASEM were also discussed. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  2. Direct quantification of lycopene in products derived from thermally processed tomatoes: optothermal window as a selective, sensitive, and accurate analytical method without the need for preparatory steps.

    PubMed

    Bicanic, Dane; Swarts, Jan; Luterotti, Svjetlana; Pietraperzia, Giangaetano; Dóka, Otto; de Rooij, Hans

    2004-09-01

    The concept of the optothermal window (OW) is proposed as a reliable analytical tool to rapidly determine the concentration of lycopene in a large variety of commercial tomato products in an extremely simple way (the determination is achieved without the need for pretreatment of the sample). The OW is a relative technique as the information is deduced from the calibration curve that relates the OW data (i.e., the product of the absorption coefficient beta and the thermal diffusion length micro) with the lycopene concentration obtained from spectrophotometric measurements. The accuracy of the method has been ascertained with a high correlation coefficient (R = 0.98) between the OW data and results acquired from the same samples by means of the conventional extraction spectrophotometric method. The intrinsic precision of the OW method is quite high (better than 1%), whereas the repeatability of the determination (RSD = 0.4-9.5%, n= 3-10) is comparable to that of spectrophotometry.

  3. A Hydro-mechanical Model and Analytical Solutions for Geomechanical Modeling of Carbon Dioxide Geological Sequestration

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, Zhijie; Fang, Yilin; Scheibe, Timothy D.; Bonneville, Alain

    2012-05-15

    We present a hydro-mechanical model for geological sequestration of carbon dioxide. The model considers the poroelastic effects by taking into account the coupling between the geomechanical response and the fluid flow in greater detail. The simplified hydro-mechanical model includes the geomechanical part that relies on the linear elasticity, while the fluid flow is based on the Darcy’s law. Two parts were coupled using the standard linear poroelasticity. Analytical solutions for pressure field were obtained for a typical geological sequestration scenario. The model predicts the temporal and spatial variation of pressure field and effects of permeability and elastic modulus of formation on the fluid pressure distribution.

  4. Modelling a flows in supply chain with analytical models: Case of a chemical industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benhida, Khalid; Azougagh, Yassine; Elfezazi, Said

    2016-02-01

    This study is interested on the modelling of the logistics flows in a supply chain composed on a production sites and a logistics platform. The contribution of this research is to develop an analytical model (integrated linear programming model), based on a case study of a real company operating in the phosphate field, considering a various constraints in this supply chain to resolve the planning problems for a better decision-making. The objectives of this model is to determine and define the optimal quantities of different products to route, to and from the various entities in the supply chain studied.

  5. Analytical Model of Water Flow in Coal with Active Matrix

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siemek, Jakub; Stopa, Jerzy

    2014-12-01

    This paper presents new analytical model of gas-water flow in coal seams in one dimension with emphasis on interactions between water flowing in cleats and coal matrix. Coal as a flowing system, can be viewed as a solid organic material consisting of two flow subsystems: a microporous matrix and a system of interconnected macropores and fractures. Most of gas is accumulated in the microporous matrix, where the primary flow mechanism is diffusion. Fractures and cleats existing in coal play an important role as a transportation system for macro scale flow of water and gas governed by Darcy's law. The coal matrix can imbibe water under capillary forces leading to exchange of mass between fractures and coal matrix. In this paper new partial differential equation for water saturation in fractures has been formulated, respecting mass exchange between coal matrix and fractures. Exact analytical solution has been obtained using the method of characteristics. The final solution has very simple form that may be useful for practical engineering calculations. It was observed that the rate of exchange of mass between the fractures and the coal matrix is governed by an expression which is analogous to the Newton cooling law known from theory of heat exchange, but in present case the mass transfer coefficient depends not only on coal and fluid properties but also on time and position. The constant term of mass transfer coefficient depends on relation between micro porosity and macro porosity of coal, capillary forces, and microporous structure of coal matrix. This term can be expressed theoretically or obtained experimentally. W artykule zaprezentowano nowy model matematyczny przepływu wody i gazu w jednowymiarowej warstwie węglowej z uwzględnieniem wymiany masy między systemem szczelin i matrycą węglową. Węgiel jako system przepływowy traktowany jest jako układ o podwójnej porowatości i przepuszczalności, składający się z mikroporowatej matrycy węglowej oraz z

  6. An analytic linear accelerator source model for GPU-based Monte Carlo dose calculations.

    PubMed

    Tian, Zhen; Li, Yongbao; Folkerts, Michael; Shi, Feng; Jiang, Steve B; Jia, Xun

    2015-10-21

    dose difference within 1.7%. The maximum relative difference of output factors was within 0.5%. Over 98.5% passing rate was achieved in 3D gamma-index tests with 2%/2 mm criteria in both an IMRT prostate patient case and a head-and-neck case. These results demonstrated the efficacy of our model in terms of accurately representing a reference phase-space file. We have also tested the efficiency gain of our source model over our previously developed phase-space-let file source model. The overall efficiency of dose calculation was found to be improved by ~1.3-2.2 times in water and patient cases using our analytical model.

  7. A simple analytical aerodynamic model of Langley Winged-Cone Aerospace Plane concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pamadi, Bandu N.

    1994-01-01

    A simple three DOF analytical aerodynamic model of the Langley Winged-Coned Aerospace Plane concept is presented in a form suitable for simulation, trajectory optimization, and guidance and control studies. The analytical model is especially suitable for methods based on variational calculus. Analytical expressions are presented for lift, drag, and pitching moment coefficients from subsonic to hypersonic Mach numbers and angles of attack up to +/- 20 deg. This analytical model has break points at Mach numbers of 1.0, 1.4, 4.0, and 6.0. Across these Mach number break points, the lift, drag, and pitching moment coefficients are made continuous but their derivatives are not. There are no break points in angle of attack. The effect of control surface deflection is not considered. The present analytical model compares well with the APAS calculations and wind tunnel test data for most angles of attack and Mach numbers.

  8. Quantitative analytical model for magnetic reconnection in hall magnetohydrodynamics

    SciTech Connect

    Simakov, Andrei N

    2008-01-01

    Magnetic reconnection is of fundamental importance for laboratory and naturally occurring plasmas. Reconnection usually develops on time scales which are much shorter than those associated with classical collisional dissipation processes, and which are not fully understood. While such dissipation-independent (or 'fast') reconnection rates have been observed in particle and Hall magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) simulations and predicted analytically in electron MHD, a quantitative analytical theory of fast reconnection valid for arbitrary ion inertial lengths d{sub i} has been lacking. Here we propose such a theory without a guide field. The theory describes two-dimensional magnetic field diffusion regions, provides expressions for the reconnection rates, and derives a formal criterion for fast reconnection in terms of dissipation parameters and di. It also demonstrates that both open X-point and elongated diffusion regions allow dissipation-independent reconnection and reveals a possibility of strong dependence of the reconnection rates on d{sub i}.

  9. Analytical models of steady-state plumes undergoing sequential first-order degradation.

    PubMed

    Burnell, Daniel K; Mercer, James W; Sims, Lawrence S

    2012-01-01

    An exact, closed-form analytical solution is derived for one-dimensional (1D), coupled, steady-state advection-dispersion equations with sequential first-order degradation of three dissolved species in groundwater. Dimensionless and mathematical analyses are used to examine the sensitivity of longitudinal dispersivity in the parent and daughter analytical solutions. The results indicate that the relative error decreases to less than 15% for the 1D advection-dominated and advection-dispersion analytical solutions of the parent and daughter when the Damköhler number of the parent decreases to less than 1 (slow degradation rate) and the Peclet number increases to greater than 6 (advection-dominated). To estimate first-order daughter product rate constants in advection-dominated zones, 1D, two-dimensional (2D), and three-dimensional (3D) steady-state analytical solutions with zero longitudinal dispersivity are also derived for three first-order sequentially degrading compounds. The closed form of these exact analytical solutions has the advantage of having (1) no numerical integration or evaluation of complex-valued error function arguments, (2) computational efficiency compared to problems with long times to reach steady state, and (3) minimal effort for incorporation into spreadsheets. These multispecies analytical solutions indicate that BIOCHLOR produces accurate results for 1D steady-state, applications with longitudinal dispersion. Although BIOCHLOR is inaccurate in multidimensional applications with longitudinal dispersion, these multidimensional multispecies analytical solutions indicate that BIOCHLOR produces accurate steady-state results when the longitudinal dispersion is zero. As an application, the 1D advection-dominated analytical solution is applied to estimate field-scale rate constants of 0.81, 0.74, and 0.69/year for trichloroethene, cis-1,2-dichloroethene, and vinyl chloride, respectively, at the Harris Palm Bay, FL, CERCLA site.

  10. The use of analytical models in human-computer interface design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gugerty, Leo

    1993-01-01

    Recently, a large number of human-computer interface (HCI) researchers have investigated building analytical models of the user, which are often implemented as computer models. These models simulate the cognitive processes and task knowledge of the user in ways that allow a researcher or designer to estimate various aspects of an interface's usability, such as when user errors are likely to occur. This information can lead to design improvements. Analytical models can supplement design guidelines by providing designers rigorous ways of analyzing the information-processing requirements of specific tasks (i.e., task analysis). These models offer the potential of improving early designs and replacing some of the early phases of usability testing, thus reducing the cost of interface design. This paper describes some of the many analytical models that are currently being developed and evaluates the usefulness of analytical models for human-computer interface design. This paper will focus on computational, analytical models, such as the GOMS model, rather than less formal, verbal models, because the more exact predictions and task descriptions of computational models may be useful to designers. The paper also discusses some of the practical requirements for using analytical models in complex design organizations such as NASA.

  11. Analytical Model for Chip Formation in Case of Orthogonal Machining Process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salvatore, Ferdinando; Mabrouki, Tarek; Hamdi, Hédi

    2011-01-01

    The present work deals with the presentation of analytical methodology allowing the modelling of chip formation. For that a "decomposition approach", based on assuming that the material removal is the summation of two contributions: ploughing and pure cut was adopted. Moreover, this analytical model was calibrated by a finite element model and experimental data in terms of temperature and forces evolutions. The global aim is to propose to the industrial community, an efficient rapid-execution analytical model concerning the material removal in the case of an orthogonal cutting process.

  12. An analytical model for studying the structural effects and optimization of a capacitive tactile sensor array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, Guanhao; Wang, Yancheng; Mei, Deqing; Xi, Kailun; Chen, Zichen

    2016-04-01

    This paper presents an analytical model to study the structural effects of a capacitive tactile sensor array on its capacitance changes and sensitivities. The tactile sensor array has 8  ×  8 sensor units, and each unit utilizes the truncated polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) pyramid array structure as the dielectric layer to enhance the sensing performance. To predict the capacitance changes of the sensor unit, it is simplified into a two-layered structure: upper polyethylene terephthalate (PET) film and bottom truncated PDMS pyramid array. The upper PET is modeled by a displacement field function, while each of the truncated pyramids is analyzed to obtain its stress-strain relation. Using the Ritz method, the displacement field functions are solved. The deformation of the upper electrodes and the capacitance changes of the sensor unit can then be calculated. Using the developed model, the structural effects of the truncated PDMS pyramid array and the PDMS bump on the capacitance changes and sensitivities are studied. To achieve the largest capacitance changes, the dimensions have been optimized for the sensor unit. To verify the developed model, we have fabricated the sensor array, and the average sensitivities of the sensor unit to the x-, y-, and z-axes force are 0.49, 0.50, and 0.32% mN-1, respectively, while the model predicted values are 0.54, 0.54, and 0.35% mN-1. Results demonstrate that the developed model can accurately predict the sensing performance of the sensor array and could be utilized for structural optimization.

  13. Transcriptional Bursting in Gene Expression: Analytical Results for General Stochastic Models

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Niraj; Singh, Abhyudai; Kulkarni, Rahul V.

    2015-01-01

    Gene expression in individual cells is highly variable and sporadic, often resulting in the synthesis of mRNAs and proteins in bursts. Such bursting has important consequences for cell-fate decisions in diverse processes ranging from HIV-1 viral infections to stem-cell differentiation. It is generally assumed that bursts are geometrically distributed and that they arrive according to a Poisson process. On the other hand, recent single-cell experiments provide evidence for complex burst arrival processes, highlighting the need for analysis of more general stochastic models. To address this issue, we invoke a mapping between general stochastic models of gene expression and systems studied in queueing theory to derive exact analytical expressions for the moments associated with mRNA/protein steady-state distributions. These results are then used to derive noise signatures, i.e. explicit conditions based entirely on experimentally measurable quantities, that determine if the burst distributions deviate from the geometric distribution or if burst arrival deviates from a Poisson process. For non-Poisson arrivals, we develop approaches for accurate estimation of burst parameters. The proposed approaches can lead to new insights into transcriptional bursting based on measurements of steady-state mRNA/protein distributions. PMID:26474290

  14. Is scintillometer measurement accurate enough for evaluating remote sensing based energy balance ET models?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The three evapotranspiration (ET) measurement/retrieval techniques used in this study, lysimeter, scintillometer and remote sensing vary in their level of complexity, accuracy, resolution and applicability. The lysimeter with its point measurement is the most accurate and direct method to measure ET...

  15. Unique signature of bivalent analyte surface plasmon resonance model: A model governed by non-linear differential equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tiwari, Purushottam; Wang, Xuewen; Darici, Yesim; He, Jin; Uren, Aykut

    Surface plasmon resonance (SPR) is a biophysical technique for the quantitative analysis of bimolecular interactions. Correct identification of the binding model is crucial for the interpretation of SPR data. Bivalent SPR model is governed by non-linear differential equations, which, in general, have no analytical solutions. Therefore, an analytical based approach cannot be employed in order to identify this particular model. There exists a unique signature in the bivalent analyte model, existence of an `optimal analyte concentration', which can distinguish this model from other biphasic models. The unambiguous identification and related analysis of the bivalent analyte model is demonstrated by using theoretical simulations and experimentally measured SPR sensorgrams. Experimental SPR sensorgrams were measured by using Biacore T200 instrument available in Biacore Molecular Interaction Shared Resource facility, supported by NIH Grant P30CA51008, at Georgetown University.

  16. IT vendor selection model by using structural equation model & analytical hierarchy process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maitra, Sarit; Dominic, P. D. D.

    2012-11-01

    Selecting and evaluating the right vendors is imperative for an organization's global marketplace competitiveness. Improper selection and evaluation of potential vendors can dwarf an organization's supply chain performance. Numerous studies have demonstrated that firms consider multiple criteria when selecting key vendors. This research intends to develop a new hybrid model for vendor selection process with better decision making. The new proposed model provides a suitable tool for assisting decision makers and managers to make the right decisions and select the most suitable vendor. This paper proposes a Hybrid model based on Structural Equation Model (SEM) and Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP) for long-term strategic vendor selection problems. The five steps framework of the model has been designed after the thorough literature study. The proposed hybrid model will be applied using a real life case study to assess its effectiveness. In addition, What-if analysis technique will be used for model validation purpose.

  17. Analytic Models for Radiation Induced Loss in Optical Fibers II. A Physical Model,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-06-01

    and identify by Mock number) PIEL GRUP UB.GR. Optical fibers Analytical models Radiation effects 19. ABSTRACT (ConinueII. anl mwr,f fneciua,, and...conditions specified in the derivation of the equations existed during the irradiations. This is because the functional form of the equations is not...tion is not necessarily incorrect. If one assumes a relatively simple form of re- covery as a function of time, such as an exponential recovery, it can

  18. Promoting Active Learning by Practicing the "Self-Assembly" of Model Analytical Instruments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Algar, W. Russ; Krull, Ulrich J.

    2010-01-01

    In our upper-year instrumental analytical chemistry course, we have developed "cut-and-paste" exercises where students "build" models of analytical instruments from individual schematic images of components. These exercises encourage active learning by students. Instead of trying to memorize diagrams, students are required to think deeply about…

  19. An Analytic Hierarchy Process for School Quality and Inspection: Model Development and Application

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al Qubaisi, Amal; Badri, Masood; Mohaidat, Jihad; Al Dhaheri, Hamad; Yang, Guang; Al Rashedi, Asma; Greer, Kenneth

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to develop an analytic hierarchy planning-based framework to establish criteria weights and to develop a school performance system commonly called school inspections. Design/methodology/approach: The analytic hierarchy process (AHP) model uses pairwise comparisons and a measurement scale to generate the…

  20. Factors Affecting Higher Order Thinking Skills of Students: A Meta-Analytic Structural Equation Modeling Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Budsankom, Prayoonsri; Sawangboon, Tatsirin; Damrongpanit, Suntorapot; Chuensirimongkol, Jariya

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the research is to develop and identify the validity of factors affecting higher order thinking skills (HOTS) of students. The thinking skills can be divided into three types: analytical, critical, and creative thinking. This analysis is done by applying the meta-analytic structural equation modeling (MASEM) based on a database of…

  1. Accurate ampacity determination: Temperature-Sag Model for operational real time ratings

    SciTech Connect

    Seppa, T.O.

    1995-07-01

    This report presents a method for determining transmission line ratings based on the relationship between the conductor`s temperature and its sag. The method is based on the Ruling Span principle and the use of transmission line tension monitoring systems. The report also presents a method of accurately calibrating the final sag of the conductor and determining the actual Ruling Span length of the line sections between deadend structures. Main error sources for two other real time methods are also examined.

  2. Design Evaluation of Wind Turbine Spline Couplings Using an Analytical Model: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Guo, Y.; Keller, J.; Wallen, R.; Errichello, R.; Halse, C.; Lambert, S.

    2015-02-01

    Articulated splines are commonly used in the planetary stage of wind turbine gearboxes for transmitting the driving torque and improving load sharing. Direct measurement of spline loads and performance is extremely challenging because of limited accessibility. This paper presents an analytical model for the analysis of articulated spline coupling designs. For a given torque and shaft misalignment, this analytical model quickly yields insights into relationships between the spline design parameters and resulting loads; bending, contact, and shear stresses; and safety factors considering various heat treatment methods. Comparisons of this analytical model against previously published computational approaches are also presented.

  3. Improvement of the Analytical Model of a Laminated Core Parametric Motor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tajima, Katsubumi; Sato, Tadashi; Sakamoto, Yoshinori

    A laminated core parametric induction motor has desirable features and the planer structure to make it possible to reduce the production cost of the motor by mass production. In the past work, we showed the validity to apply the two-dimensional reluctance network analytical model to the dynamic analysis of the motor while the rotor is driving. In this paper, we investigate the improvement the accuracy of the analytical method of the motor by using new reluctance network analytical model of the motor. In this model, the magnetic circuits of the stator and the rotor are connected by the variable reluctances that are expressed as the function of the rotating angle.

  4. Evaluation of Analytical Modeling Functions for the Phonation Onset Process.

    PubMed

    Petermann, Simon; Kniesburges, Stefan; Ziethe, Anke; Schützenberger, Anne; Döllinger, Michael

    2016-01-01

    The human voice originates from oscillations of the vocal folds in the larynx. The duration of the voice onset (VO), called the voice onset time (VOT), is currently under investigation as a clinical indicator for correct laryngeal functionality. Different analytical approaches for computing the VOT based on endoscopic imaging were compared to determine the most reliable method to quantify automatically the transient vocal fold oscillations during VO. Transnasal endoscopic imaging in combination with a high-speed camera (8000 fps) was applied to visualize the phonation onset process. Two different definitions of VO interval were investigated. Six analytical functions were tested that approximate the envelope of the filtered or unfiltered glottal area waveform (GAW) during phonation onset. A total of 126 recordings from nine healthy males and 210 recordings from 15 healthy females were evaluated. Three criteria were analyzed to determine the most appropriate computation approach: (1) reliability of the fit function for a correct approximation of VO; (2) consistency represented by the standard deviation of VOT; and (3) accuracy of the approximation of VO. The results suggest the computation of VOT by a fourth-order polynomial approximation in the interval between 32.2 and 67.8% of the saturation amplitude of the filtered GAW.

  5. Evaluation of Analytical Modeling Functions for the Phonation Onset Process

    PubMed Central

    Petermann, Simon; Kniesburges, Stefan; Ziethe, Anke; Schützenberger, Anne; Döllinger, Michael

    2016-01-01

    The human voice originates from oscillations of the vocal folds in the larynx. The duration of the voice onset (VO), called the voice onset time (VOT), is currently under investigation as a clinical indicator for correct laryngeal functionality. Different analytical approaches for computing the VOT based on endoscopic imaging were compared to determine the most reliable method to quantify automatically the transient vocal fold oscillations during VO. Transnasal endoscopic imaging in combination with a high-speed camera (8000 fps) was applied to visualize the phonation onset process. Two different definitions of VO interval were investigated. Six analytical functions were tested that approximate the envelope of the filtered or unfiltered glottal area waveform (GAW) during phonation onset. A total of 126 recordings from nine healthy males and 210 recordings from 15 healthy females were evaluated. Three criteria were analyzed to determine the most appropriate computation approach: (1) reliability of the fit function for a correct approximation of VO; (2) consistency represented by the standard deviation of VOT; and (3) accuracy of the approximation of VO. The results suggest the computation of VOT by a fourth-order polynomial approximation in the interval between 32.2 and 67.8% of the saturation amplitude of the filtered GAW. PMID:27066108

  6. Predictive Analytical Model for Isolator Shock-Train Location in a Mach 2.2 Direct-Connect Supersonic Combustion Tunnel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lingren, Joe; Vanstone, Leon; Hashemi, Kelley; Gogineni, Sivaram; Donbar, Jeffrey; Akella, Maruthi; Clemens, Noel

    2016-11-01

    This study develops an analytical model for predicting the leading shock of a shock-train in the constant area isolator section in a Mach 2.2 direct-connect scramjet simulation tunnel. The effective geometry of the isolator is assumed to be a weakly converging duct owing to boundary-layer growth. For some given pressure rise across the isolator, quasi-1D equations relating to isentropic or normal shock flows can be used to predict the normal shock location in the isolator. The surface pressure distribution through the isolator was measured during experiments and both the actual and predicted locations can be calculated. Three methods of finding the shock-train location are examined, one based on the measured pressure rise, one using a non-physics-based control model, and one using the physics-based analytical model. It is shown that the analytical model performs better than the non-physics-based model in all cases. The analytic model is less accurate than the pressure threshold method but requires significantly less information to compute. In contrast to other methods for predicting shock-train location, this method is relatively accurate and requires as little as a single pressure measurement. This makes this method potentially useful for unstart control applications.

  7. A Critical Review for Developing Accurate and Dynamic Predictive Models Using Machine Learning Methods in Medicine and Health Care.

    PubMed

    Alanazi, Hamdan O; Abdullah, Abdul Hanan; Qureshi, Kashif Naseer

    2017-04-01

    Recently, Artificial Intelligence (AI) has been used widely in medicine and health care sector. In machine learning, the classification or prediction is a major field of AI. Today, the study of existing predictive models based on machine learning methods is extremely active. Doctors need accurate predictions for the outcomes of their patients' diseases. In addition, for accurate predictions, timing is another significant factor that influences treatment decisions. In this paper, existing predictive models in medicine and health care have critically reviewed. Furthermore, the most famous machine learning methods have explained, and the confusion between a statistical approach and machine learning has clarified. A review of related literature reveals that the predictions of existing predictive models differ even when the same dataset is used. Therefore, existing predictive models are essential, and current methods must be improved.

  8. Simplified risk score models accurately predict the risk of major in-hospital complications following percutaneous coronary intervention.

    PubMed

    Resnic, F S; Ohno-Machado, L; Selwyn, A; Simon, D I; Popma, J J

    2001-07-01

    The objectives of this analysis were to develop and validate simplified risk score models for predicting the risk of major in-hospital complications after percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) in the era of widespread stenting and use of glycoprotein IIb/IIIa antagonists. We then sought to compare the performance of these simplified models with those of full logistic regression and neural network models. From January 1, 1997 to December 31, 1999, data were collected on 4,264 consecutive interventional procedures at a single center. Risk score models were derived from multiple logistic regression models using the first 2,804 cases and then validated on the final 1,460 cases. The area under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve for the risk score model that predicted death was 0.86 compared with 0.85 for the multiple logistic model and 0.83 for the neural network model (validation set). For the combined end points of death, myocardial infarction, or bypass surgery, the corresponding areas under the ROC curves were 0.74, 0.78, and 0.81, respectively. Previously identified risk factors were confirmed in this analysis. The use of stents was associated with a decreased risk of in-hospital complications. Thus, risk score models can accurately predict the risk of major in-hospital complications after PCI. Their discriminatory power is comparable to those of logistic models and neural network models. Accurate bedside risk stratification may be achieved with these simple models.

  9. Analytical Model for the Thermonuclear Instability in IGNITOR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cardinali, A.; Sonnino, G.; Coppi, B.

    2013-10-01

    The non-linear energy balance equation for thermal equilibrium and stability, is analytically and numerically investigated in order to study the thermonuclear instability in the IGNITOR experiment facility. The expressions for the ion and the electron thermal coefficients, introduced in the thermal energy balance equation, are obtained by solving the nonlinear transport equations relevant to several collisional transport regimes (in particular the banana regime). The differential equation for the temperature profile at equilibrium is solved and the resulting profile is compared with the results obtained by a full transport code. The growth of the perturbation in the temperature is analyzed by integrating the equation in time. A scenario is considered where IGNITOR is led to operate in a slightly sub-critical regime by adding a small fraction of 3He to the nominal 50-50 Deuterium-Tritium mixture and heating the plasma by ICRH power. Sponsored in part by the US DOE.

  10. Bottom-up coarse-grained models that accurately describe the structure, pressure, and compressibility of molecular liquids

    SciTech Connect

    Dunn, Nicholas J. H.; Noid, W. G.

    2015-12-28

    The present work investigates the capability of bottom-up coarse-graining (CG) methods for accurately modeling both structural and thermodynamic properties of all-atom (AA) models for molecular liquids. In particular, we consider 1, 2, and 3-site CG models for heptane, as well as 1 and 3-site CG models for toluene. For each model, we employ the multiscale coarse-graining method to determine interaction potentials that optimally approximate the configuration dependence of the many-body potential of mean force (PMF). We employ a previously developed “pressure-matching” variational principle to determine a volume-dependent contribution to the potential, U{sub V}(V), that approximates the volume-dependence of the PMF. We demonstrate that the resulting CG models describe AA density fluctuations with qualitative, but not quantitative, accuracy. Accordingly, we develop a self-consistent approach for further optimizing U{sub V}, such that the CG models accurately reproduce the equilibrium density, compressibility, and average pressure of the AA models, although the CG models still significantly underestimate the atomic pressure fluctuations. Additionally, by comparing this array of models that accurately describe the structure and thermodynamic pressure of heptane and toluene at a range of different resolutions, we investigate the impact of bottom-up coarse-graining upon thermodynamic properties. In particular, we demonstrate that U{sub V} accounts for the reduced cohesion in the CG models. Finally, we observe that bottom-up coarse-graining introduces subtle correlations between the resolution, the cohesive energy density, and the “simplicity” of the model.

  11. An analytical model for the celestial distribution of polarized light, accounting for polarization singularities, wavelength and atmospheric turbidity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xin; Gao, Jun; Fan, Zhiguo; Roberts, Nicholas W.

    2016-06-01

    We present a computationally inexpensive analytical model for simulating celestial polarization patterns in variable conditions. We combine both the singularity theory of Berry et al (2004 New J. Phys. 6 162) and the intensity model of Perez et al (1993 Sol. Energy 50 235-245) such that our single model describes three key sets of data: (1) the overhead distribution of the degree of polarization as well as the existence of neutral points in the sky; (2) the change in sky polarization as a function of the turbidity of the atmosphere; and (3) sky polarization patterns as a function of wavelength, calculated in this work from the ultra-violet to the near infra-red. To verify the performance of our model we generate accurate reference data using a numerical radiative transfer model and statistical comparisons between these two methods demonstrate no significant difference in almost all situations. The development of our analytical model provides a novel method for efficiently calculating the overhead skylight polarization pattern. This provides a new tool of particular relevance for our understanding of animals that use the celestial polarization pattern as a source of visual information.

  12. A complex of analytical models for predicting noise in an aircraft cabin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Efimtsov, B. M.; Lazarev, L. A.

    2012-07-01

    A series of analytical calculated models for predicting the noise in an aircraft cabin is developed: an orthotropic model, a model with discrete frames, a model with discrete stringers, a model with isolated cells, and a model with a cross system of discrete ribs. The analytical solution is constructed on the basis of the method of space harmonic expansion. Vibrations are represented in the form of double trigonometric series. Strict periodicity allows dividing the series into a large number of independent groups, which makes it possible to effectively perform calculations for large fragments of the fuselage in the entire frequency region both for deterministic and random external force fields.

  13. Analytical model and finite element computation of braking torque in electromagnetic retarder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ye, Lezhi; Yang, Guangzhao; Li, Desheng

    2014-12-01

    An analytical model has been developed for analyzing the braking torque in electromagnetic retarder by flux tube and armature reaction method. The magnetic field distribution in air gap, the eddy current induced in the rotor and the braking torque are calculated by the developed model. Two-dimensional and three-dimensional finite element models for retarder have also been developed. Results from the analytical model are compared with those from finite element models. The validity of these three models is checked by the comparison of the theoretical predictions and the measurements from an experimental prototype. The influencing factors of braking torque have been studied.

  14. Analytic optical-constant model derived from Tauc-Lorentz and Urbach tail.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-de Marcos, Luis V; Larruquert, Juan I

    2016-12-12

    Tauc-Lorentz model is commonly used to describe the dielectric constant of amorphous semiconductors as a function of few parameters. However, this model is not fully analytic and presents other mathematical shortcomings. A modified self-consistent model based on the integration of [E'-(E + ia)]-1 functions using Tauc-Lorentz`s ε2 expression as a weight function is presented. This new model is analytic and meets all other mathematical requirements of optical constants. The main difference with TL model stands at photon energies close to or smaller than the bandgap energy. The new model has been satisfactorily tested on SiC optical constants. Additionally, an analytic extension of the new model has been also developed to include the Urbach tail. The complete model has been tested with Si3N4 optical constants, and it enables to extend the optical-constant characterization of materials down to zero energy.

  15. Simple analytic QCD model with perturbative QCD behavior at high momenta

    SciTech Connect

    Contreras, Carlos; Espinosa, Olivier; Cvetic, Gorazd; Martinez, Hector E.

    2010-10-01

    Analytic QCD models are those where the QCD running coupling has the physically correct analytic behavior, i.e., no Landau singularities in the Euclidean regime. We present a simple analytic QCD model in which the discontinuity function of the running coupling at high momentum scales is the same as in perturbative QCD (just like in the analytic QCD model of Shirkov and Solovtsov), but at low scales it is replaced by a delta function which parametrizes the unknown behavior there. We require that the running coupling agree to a high degree with the perturbative coupling at high energies, which reduces the number of free parameters of the model from four to one. The remaining parameter is fixed by requiring the reproduction of the correct value of the semihadronic tau decay ratio.

  16. A Path-Analytic Model of Career Indecision.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hartman, Bruce W.; And Others

    1985-01-01

    Tested a path model reflecting developmental and chronic types of career indecision on counseling students (N=164) and high school students (N=155). Data from both samples supported the model, confirming the role of trait anxiety in career indecision. (JAC)

  17. PESTAN: Pesticide Analytical Model Version 4.0 User's Guide

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The principal objective of this User's Guide to provide essential information on the aspects such as model conceptualization, model theory, assumptions and limitations, determination of input parameters, analysis of results and sensitivity analysis.

  18. Effective and accurate approach for modeling of commensurate–incommensurate transition in krypton monolayer on graphite

    SciTech Connect

    Ustinov, E. A.

    2014-10-07

    Commensurate–incommensurate (C-IC) transition of krypton molecular layer on graphite received much attention in recent decades in theoretical and experimental researches. However, there still exists a possibility of generalization of the phenomenon from thermodynamic viewpoint on the basis of accurate molecular simulation. Recently, a new technique was developed for analysis of two-dimensional (2D) phase transitions in systems involving a crystalline phase, which is based on accounting for the effect of temperature and the chemical potential on the lattice constant of the 2D layer using the Gibbs–Duhem equation [E. A. Ustinov, J. Chem. Phys. 140, 074706 (2014)]. The technique has allowed for determination of phase diagrams of 2D argon layers on the uniform surface and in slit pores. This paper extends the developed methodology on systems accounting for the periodic modulation of the substrate potential. The main advantage of the developed approach is that it provides highly accurate evaluation of the chemical potential of crystalline layers, which allows reliable determination of temperature and other parameters of various 2D phase transitions. Applicability of the methodology is demonstrated on the krypton–graphite system. Analysis of phase diagram of the krypton molecular layer, thermodynamic functions of coexisting phases, and a method of prediction of adsorption isotherms is considered accounting for a compression of the graphite due to the krypton–carbon interaction. The temperature and heat of C-IC transition has been reliably determined for the gas–solid and solid–solid system.

  19. Effective and accurate approach for modeling of commensurate-incommensurate transition in krypton monolayer on graphite.

    PubMed

    Ustinov, E A

    2014-10-07

    Commensurate-incommensurate (C-IC) transition of krypton molecular layer on graphite received much attention in recent decades in theoretical and experimental researches. However, there still exists a possibility of generalization of the phenomenon from thermodynamic viewpoint on the basis of accurate molecular simulation. Recently, a new technique was developed for analysis of two-dimensional (2D) phase transitions in systems involving a crystalline phase, which is based on accounting for the effect of temperature and the chemical potential on the lattice constant of the 2D layer using the Gibbs-Duhem equation [E. A. Ustinov, J. Chem. Phys. 140, 074706 (2014)]. The technique has allowed for determination of phase diagrams of 2D argon layers on the uniform surface and in slit pores. This paper extends the developed methodology on systems accounting for the periodic modulation of the substrate potential. The main advantage of the developed approach is that it provides highly accurate evaluation of the chemical potential of crystalline layers, which allows reliable determination of temperature and other parameters of various 2D phase transitions. Applicability of the methodology is demonstrated on the krypton-graphite system. Analysis of phase diagram of the krypton molecular layer, thermodynamic functions of coexisting phases, and a method of prediction of adsorption isotherms is considered accounting for a compression of the graphite due to the krypton-carbon interaction. The temperature and heat of C-IC transition has been reliably determined for the gas-solid and solid-solid system.

  20. Two-Phase Fluid Leakage through Faults Using a Multi-Scale Analytical-Numerical Modeling Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, M.; Nordbotten, J. M.; Doster, F.; Celia, M. A.

    2014-12-01

    Fluid flow through faults must be considered in many applications including geologic storage of carbon dioxide (CO2), deep storage of hazardous waste, groundwater contamination, and petroleum engineering. In the case of CO2 storage, the presence of faults is of concern, because they can act as leakage pathways. Therefore, modeling tools that can accurately and efficiently quantify fluid leakage through faults in basin-scale models are necessary. In basin-scale models, the flow around and through faults is a local-scale process and this local-scale variation is important when determining leakage rates. We present a multi-scale modeling approach based on embedding local-scale analytical solutions within basin-scale numerical models. At the local scale, steady-state analytical solutions that represent fluid flow in the vicinity of leaky faults, including any vertical flow effects, are derived. Using both numerical simulations and analytical solutions, an empirical model representing fault properties, permeabilities and widths, is also developed. The combination of this empirical fault model and the analytical solutions captures the local-scale effects of leakage through faults. The local-scale model is used within a multi-scale modeling framework to determine the flow in and around faults and the associated local-scale pressure and saturation corrections that are applied to the coarse model. Here, a fault is viewed as a 2-D surface on one side of a coarse-scale grid block. The corrections relate local-scale pressure and saturation at the fault to coarse-scale pressures and saturations in numerical grid blocks. The corrections are used to determine the vertical and lateral flow in the fault and horizontal flows perpendicular and parallel to the fault in the grid block. At every coarse-scale time step, the local-scale fault model is implemented using the coarse-scale information from the previous time step. The resulting leakage rates and pressure and saturation

  1. Simplified Analytical Model of a Six-Degree-of-Freedom Large-Gap Magnetic Suspension System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Groom, Nelson J.

    1997-01-01

    A simplified analytical model of a six-degree-of-freedom large-gap magnetic suspension system is presented. The suspended element is a cylindrical permanent magnet that is magnetized in a direction which is perpendicular to its axis of symmetry. The actuators are air core electromagnets mounted in a planar array. The analytical model consists of an open-loop representation of the magnetic suspension system with electromagnet currents as inputs.

  2. Process models: analytical tools for managing industrial energy systems

    SciTech Connect

    Howe, S O; Pilati, D A; Balzer, C; Sparrow, F T

    1980-01-01

    How the process models developed at BNL are used to analyze industrial energy systems is described and illustrated. Following a brief overview of the industry modeling program, the general methodology of process modeling is discussed. The discussion highlights the important concepts, contents, inputs, and outputs of a typical process model. A model of the US pulp and paper industry is then discussed as a specific application of process modeling methodology. Applications addressed with the case study results include projections of energy demand, conservation technology assessment, energy-related tax policies, and sensitivity analysis. A subsequent discussion of these results supports the conclusion that industry process models are versatile and powerful tools for managing industrial energy systems.

  3. Semi-analytic models for the CANDELS survey: comparison of predictions for intrinsic galaxy properties

    SciTech Connect

    Lu, Yu; Wechsler, Risa H.; Somerville, Rachel S.; Croton, Darren; Porter, Lauren; Primack, Joel; Moody, Chris; Behroozi, Peter S.; Ferguson, Henry C.; Koo, David C.; Guo, Yicheng; Finlator, Kristian; Castellano, Marco; Sommariva, Veronica E-mail: rwechsler@stanford.edu

    2014-11-10

    We compare the predictions of three independently developed semi-analytic galaxy formation models (SAMs) that are being used to aid in the interpretation of results from the CANDELS survey. These models are each applied to the same set of halo merger trees extracted from the 'Bolshoi' high-resolution cosmological N-body simulation and are carefully tuned to match the local galaxy stellar mass function using the powerful method of Bayesian Inference coupled with Markov Chain Monte Carlo or by hand. The comparisons reveal that in spite of the significantly different parameterizations for star formation and feedback processes, the three models yield qualitatively similar predictions for the assembly histories of galaxy stellar mass and star formation over cosmic time. Comparing SAM predictions with existing estimates of the stellar mass function from z = 0-8, we show that the SAMs generally require strong outflows to suppress star formation in low-mass halos to match the present-day stellar mass function, as is the present common wisdom. However, all of the models considered produce predictions for the star formation rates (SFRs) and metallicities of low-mass galaxies that are inconsistent with existing data. The predictions for metallicity-stellar mass relations and their evolution clearly diverge between the models. We suggest that large differences in the metallicity relations and small differences in the stellar mass assembly histories of model galaxies stem from different assumptions for the outflow mass-loading factor produced by feedback. Importantly, while more accurate observational measurements for stellar mass, SFR and metallicity of galaxies at 1 < z < 5 will discriminate between models, the discrepancies between the constrained models and existing data of these observables have already revealed challenging problems in understanding star formation and its feedback in galaxy formation. The three sets of models are being used to construct catalogs of mock

  4. Investigating the Andromeda stream - I. Simple analytic bulge-disc-halo model for M31

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geehan, J. J.; Fardal, M. A.; Babul, A.; Guhathakurta, P.

    2006-03-01

    This paper is the first in a series which studies interactions between M31 and its satellites, including the origin of the giant southern stream. We construct accurate yet simple analytic models for the potential of the M31 galaxy to provide an easy basis for the calculation of orbits in M31's halo. We use a Navarro, Frenk and White (NFW) dark halo, an exponential disc, a Hernquist bulge, and a central black hole point mass to describe the galaxy potential. We constrain the parameters of these functions by comparing to existing surface-brightness, velocity-dispersion, and rotation-curve measurements of M31. Our description provides a good fit to the observations, and agrees well with more sophisticated modelling of M31. While in many respects the parameter set is well constrained, there is substantial uncertainty in the outer halo potential and a near-degeneracy between the disc and halo components, producing a large, nearly two-dimensional allowed region in parameter space. We limit the allowed region using theoretical expectations for the halo concentration, baryonic content, and stellar mass-to-light ratio (M/LR), finding a smaller region where the parameters are physically plausible. Our proposed mass model for M31 has Mbulge= 3.2 × 1010Msolar, Mdisc= 7.2 × 1010Msolar, and M200= 7.1 × 1011Msolar, with uncorrected (for internal and foreground extinction) mass-to-light ratios of M/LR= 3.9 and 3.3 for the bulge and disc, respectively. We present some illustrative test-particle orbits for the progenitor of the stellar stream in our galaxy potential, highlighting the effects of the remaining uncertainty in the disc and halo masses.

  5. An accurate elasto-plastic frictional tangential force displacement model for granular-flow simulations: Displacement-driven formulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xiang; Vu-Quoc, Loc

    2007-07-01

    We present in this paper the displacement-driven version of a tangential force-displacement (TFD) model that accounts for both elastic and plastic deformations together with interfacial friction occurring in collisions of spherical particles. This elasto-plastic frictional TFD model, with its force-driven version presented in [L. Vu-Quoc, L. Lesburg, X. Zhang. An accurate tangential force-displacement model for granular-flow simulations: contacting spheres with plastic deformation, force-driven formulation, Journal of Computational Physics 196(1) (2004) 298-326], is consistent with the elasto-plastic frictional normal force-displacement (NFD) model presented in [L. Vu-Quoc, X. Zhang. An elasto-plastic contact force-displacement model in the normal direction: displacement-driven version, Proceedings of the Royal Society of London, Series A 455 (1991) 4013-4044]. Both the NFD model and the present TFD model are based on the concept of additive decomposition of the radius of contact area into an elastic part and a plastic part. The effect of permanent indentation after impact is represented by a correction to the radius of curvature. The effect of material softening due to plastic flow is represented by a correction to the elastic moduli. The proposed TFD model is accurate, and is validated against nonlinear finite element analyses involving plastic flows in both the loading and unloading conditions. The proposed consistent displacement-driven, elasto-plastic NFD and TFD models are designed for implementation in computer codes using the discrete-element method (DEM) for granular-flow simulations. The model is shown to be accurate and is validated against nonlinear elasto-plastic finite-element analysis.

  6. Accurate, precise, and efficient theoretical methods to calculate anion-π interaction energies in model structures.

    PubMed

    Mezei, Pál D; Csonka, Gábor I; Ruzsinszky, Adrienn; Sun, Jianwei

    2015-01-13

    A correct description of the anion-π interaction is essential for the design of selective anion receptors and channels and important for advances in the field of supramolecular chemistry. However, it is challenging to do accurate, precise, and efficient calculations of this interaction, which are lacking in the literature. In this article, by testing sets of 20 binary anion-π complexes of fluoride, chloride, bromide, nitrate, or carbonate ions with hexafluorobenzene, 1,3,5-trifluorobenzene, 2,4,6-trifluoro-1,3,5-triazine, or 1,3,5-triazine and 30 ternary π-anion-π' sandwich complexes composed from the same monomers, we suggest domain-based local-pair natural orbital coupled cluster energies extrapolated to the complete basis-set limit as reference values. We give a detailed explanation of the origin of anion-π interactions, using the permanent quadrupole moments, static dipole polarizabilities, and electrostatic potential maps. We use symmetry-adapted perturbation theory (SAPT) to calculate the components of the anion-π interaction energies. We examine the performance of the direct random phase approximation (dRPA), the second-order screened exchange (SOSEX), local-pair natural-orbital (LPNO) coupled electron pair approximation (CEPA), and several dispersion-corrected density functionals (including generalized gradient approximation (GGA), meta-GGA, and double hybrid density functional). The LPNO-CEPA/1 results show the best agreement with the reference results. The dRPA method is only slightly less accurate and precise than the LPNO-CEPA/1, but it is considerably more efficient (6-17 times faster) for the binary complexes studied in this paper. For 30 ternary π-anion-π' sandwich complexes, we give dRPA interaction energies as reference values. The double hybrid functionals are much more efficient but less accurate and precise than dRPA. The dispersion-corrected double hybrid PWPB95-D3(BJ) and B2PLYP-D3(BJ) functionals perform better than the GGA and meta

  7. 2016 KIVA-hpFE Development: A Robust and Accurate Engine Modeling Software

    SciTech Connect

    Carrington, David Bradley; Waters, Jiajia

    2016-10-25

    Los Alamos National Laboratory and its collaborators are facilitating engine modeling by improving accuracy and robustness of the modeling, and improving the robustness of software. We also continue to improve the physical modeling methods. We are developing and implementing new mathematical algorithms, those that represent the physics within an engine. We provide software that others may use directly or that they may alter with various models e.g., sophisticated chemical kinetics, different turbulent closure methods or other fuel injection and spray systems.

  8. Semi-analytical model for slug test in unconfined aquifers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mishra, P. K.; Alves Silva, L. P.; Malama, B.

    2015-12-01

    We present mathematical model which describes three dimensional flow of water during slug test in saturated and unsaturated zone. Following Mishra and Neuman (2010), we consider four-parameter exponential model to describe soil-water characteristics curves. Furthermore, we represent the effect of oscillatory response in highly conductive aquifers as did Malama et al. (2011), correlating the oscillatory change in head inside of the well with the drawdown in the aquifer. We conclude by comparing developed model with existing models for analyzing slug tests.

  9. Improvement of receptor model use in analytical aspect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Chu-Fang; Chiang, Pen-Chi; Cheng, Man-Ting; Chiang, Hung-Lung

    In this study, four certified particle standards including NIST SRM 1648 urban particulate matter, BCR Reference Material No. 176 city waste incineration ash, NIST SRM 2709 San Joaquin soil, and NIST SRM 1633b coal fly ash were used to simulate ambient particulate matter. Twenty-five samples were prepared with the four certified particulate standards. A total of 23 elements were analyzed per sample, 19 by ICP-AES and ICP-MS, three by IC, and one element, Si, by spectrophotometer. Results showed that combining the three IC-analyzed ionic species with the 19 ICP-AES/MS analyzed elements into the CMB model did not improve the source identification significantly. In addition, when all 23 analyzed chemical species per sample were used in the CMB model, they were still not good enough to effectively make the parameters of the CMB model fit the statistical criteria. Some of high variation and low recovery chemical species, i.e. Cd, V, Sb, etc., may have caused poor CMB model simulation. Omitting some poor quality analyzed species (such as relative analysis error >20%) could improve the CMB model simulation. Therefore, high quality chemical species data are important for the CMB model. In addition, co-linearity of source profiles also affects the CMB model; combining the co-linear sources could enhance the solubility of the CMB model. In this study, a two-step procedure was developed for CMB model simulation to improve source identification.

  10. How to Construct More Accurate Student Models: Comparing and Optimizing Knowledge Tracing and Performance Factor Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gong, Yue; Beck, Joseph E.; Heffernan, Neil T.

    2011-01-01

    Student modeling is a fundamental concept applicable to a variety of intelligent tutoring systems (ITS). However, there is not a lot of practical guidance on how to construct and train such models. This paper compares two approaches for student modeling, Knowledge Tracing (KT) and Performance Factors Analysis (PFA), by evaluating their predictive…

  11. Models in biology: ‘accurate descriptions of our pathetic thinking’

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    In this essay I will sketch some ideas for how to think about models in biology. I will begin by trying to dispel the myth that quantitative modeling is somehow foreign to biology. I will then point out the distinction between forward and reverse modeling and focus thereafter on the former. Instead of going into mathematical technicalities about different varieties of models, I will focus on their logical structure, in terms of assumptions and conclusions. A model is a logical machine for deducing the latter from the former. If the model is correct, then, if you believe its assumptions, you must, as a matter of logic, also believe its conclusions. This leads to consideration of the assumptions underlying models. If these are based on fundamental physical laws, then it may be reasonable to treat the model as ‘predictive’, in the sense that it is not subject to falsification and we can rely on its conclusions. However, at the molecular level, models are more often derived from phenomenology and guesswork. In this case, the model is a test of its assumptions and must be falsifiable. I will discuss three models from this perspective, each of which yields biological insights, and this will lead to some guidelines for prospective model builders. PMID:24886484

  12. Analytical modeling of irrigation and land use effects on streamflow in semi-arid conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Traylor, Jonathan P.; Zlotnik, Vitaly A.

    2016-02-01

    Availability and uncertainty in input data are the primary constraints of groundwater modeling. Analytical models assimilate the key and important data, but capture the major traits of the watershed. We study a baseflow-dominated stream, Frenchman Creek in southwestern Nebraska, USA, which has experienced large streamflow reductions since the 1960s and is a subject of various actions on water rights appropriation. The new element of the model is simultaneous analytical consideration of groundwater pumping and land use change effects. Analytical stream depletion rate calculations by various methods show that pumping from the 462 irrigation wells in the basin consumed a large amount of baseflow. The simulated streamflow at the outlet of Frenchman Creek with minimal calibration compares favorably with observed streamflow and indicates the viability of an analytical approach to watersheds with limited hydrogeologic data.

  13. Laser backscattering analytical model of Doppler power spectra about rotating convex quadric bodies of revolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gong, YanJun; Wu, ZhenSen; Wang, MingJun; Cao, YunHua

    2010-01-01

    We propose an analytical model of Doppler power spectra in backscatter from arbitrary rough convex quadric bodies of revolution (whose lateral surface is a quadric) rotating around axes. In the global Cartesian coordinate system, the analytical model deduced is suitable for general convex quadric body of revolution. Based on this analytical model, the Doppler power spectra of cones, cylinders, paraboloids of revolution, and sphere-cones combination are proposed. We analyze numerically the influence of geometric parameters, aspect angle, wavelength and reflectance of rough surface of the objects on the broadened spectra because of the Doppler effect. This analytical solution may contribute to laser Doppler velocimetry, and remote sensing of ballistic missile that spin.

  14. Multiple piezo-patch energy harvesters integrated to a thin plate with AC-DC conversion: analytical modeling and numerical validation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aghakhani, Amirreza; Basdogan, Ipek; Erturk, Alper

    2016-04-01

    Plate-like components are widely used in numerous automotive, marine, and aerospace applications where they can be employed as host structures for vibration based energy harvesting. Piezoelectric patch harvesters can be easily attached to these structures to convert the vibrational energy to the electrical energy. Power output investigations of these harvesters require accurate models for energy harvesting performance evaluation and optimization. Equivalent circuit modeling of the cantilever-based vibration energy harvesters for estimation of electrical response has been proposed in recent years. However, equivalent circuit formulation and analytical modeling of multiple piezo-patch energy harvesters integrated to thin plates including nonlinear circuits has not been studied. In this study, equivalent circuit model of multiple parallel piezoelectric patch harvesters together with a resistive load is built in electronic circuit simulation software SPICE and voltage frequency response functions (FRFs) are validated using the analytical distributedparameter model. Analytical formulation of the piezoelectric patches in parallel configuration for the DC voltage output is derived while the patches are connected to a standard AC-DC circuit. The analytic model is based on the equivalent load impedance approach for piezoelectric capacitance and AC-DC circuit elements. The analytic results are validated numerically via SPICE simulations. Finally, DC power outputs of the harvesters are computed and compared with the peak power amplitudes in the AC output case.

  15. Modeling the effects of type and concentration of organic modifiers, column type and chemical structure of analytes on the retention in reversed phase liquid chromatography using a single model.

    PubMed

    Jouyban, Abolghasem; Soltani, Somaieh; Shayanfar, Ali; Pappa-Louisi, Adriani

    2011-09-16

    A previously proposed model for representing the retention factor (k) of an analyte in mixed solvent mobile phases was extended to calculate the k of different analytes with respect to the nature of analyte, organic modifier, its concentration and type of the stationary phase. The accuracy of the proposed method was evaluated by calculating mean percentage deviation (MPD) as accuracy criterion. The predicted vs. observed plots were also provided as goodness of fit criteria. The developed model prediction capability compared with a number of previous models (i.e. LSER, general LSER and Oscik equation) through MPD and fitting plots. The proposed method provided acceptable predictions with the advantage of modeling the effects of organic modifiers, mobile phase compositions, columns and analytes using a single equation. The accuracy of developed model was checked using the one column and one analyte out cross validation analyses and the results showed that the developed model was able to predict the unknown analyte retention and the analytes retentions on unknown column accurately.

  16. An Analytical Model for University Identity and Reputation Strategy Work

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steiner, Lars; Sundstrom, Agneta C.; Sammalisto, Kaisu

    2013-01-01

    Universities face increasing global competition, pressuring them to restructure and find new identities. A multidimensional model: identity, image and reputation of strategic university identity and reputation work is developed. The model includes: organizational identity; employee and student attitudes; symbolic identity; influence from…

  17. Energy demand analytics using coupled technological and economic models

    EPA Science Inventory

    Impacts of a range of policy scenarios on end-use energy demand are examined using a coupling of MARKAL, an energy system model with extensive supply and end-use technological detail, with Inforum LIFT, a large-scale model of the us. economy with inter-industry, government, and c...

  18. Towards more accurate isoscapes encouraging results from wine, water and marijuana data/model and model/model comparisons.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    West, J. B.; Ehleringer, J. R.; Cerling, T.

    2006-12-01

    Understanding how the biosphere responds to change it at the heart of biogeochemistry, ecology, and other Earth sciences. The dramatic increase in human population and technological capacity over the past 200 years or so has resulted in numerous, simultaneous changes to biosphere structure and function. This, then, has lead to increased urgency in the scientific community to try to understand how systems have already responded to these changes, and how they might do so in the future. Since all biospheric processes exhibit some patchiness or patterns over space, as well as time, we believe that understanding the dynamic interactions between natural systems and human technological manipulations can be improved if these systems are studied in an explicitly spatial context. We present here results of some of our efforts to model the spatial variation in the stable isotope ratios (δ2H and δ18O) of plants over large spatial extents, and how these spatial model predictions compare to spatially explicit data. Stable isotopes trace and record ecological processes and as such, if modeled correctly over Earth's surface allow us insights into changes in biosphere states and processes across spatial scales. The data-model comparisons show good agreement, in spite of the remaining uncertainties (e.g., plant source water isotopic composition). For example, inter-annual changes in climate are recorded in wine stable isotope ratios. Also, a much simpler model of leaf water enrichment driven with spatially continuous global rasters of precipitation and climate normals largely agrees with complex GCM modeling that includes leaf water δ18O. Our results suggest that modeling plant stable isotope ratios across large spatial extents may be done with reasonable accuracy, including over time. These spatial maps, or isoscapes, can now be utilized to help understand spatially distributed data, as well as to help guide future studies designed to understand ecological change across

  19. Accurate and efficient modeling of global seismic wave propagation for an attenuative Earth model including the center

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toyokuni, Genti; Takenaka, Hiroshi

    2012-06-01

    We propose a method for modeling global seismic wave propagation through an attenuative Earth model including the center. This method enables accurate and efficient computations since it is based on the 2.5-D approach, which solves wave equations only on a 2-D cross section of the whole Earth and can correctly model 3-D geometrical spreading. We extend a numerical scheme for the elastic waves in spherical coordinates using the finite-difference method (FDM), to solve the viscoelastodynamic equation. For computation of realistic seismic wave propagation, incorporation of anelastic attenuation is crucial. Since the nature of Earth material is both elastic solid and viscous fluid, we should solve stress-strain relations of viscoelastic material, including attenuative structures. These relations represent the stress as a convolution integral in time, which has had difficulty treating viscoelasticity in time-domain computation such as the FDM. However, we now have a method using so-called memory variables, invented in the 1980s, followed by improvements in Cartesian coordinates. Arbitrary values of the quality factor (Q) can be incorporated into the wave equation via an array of Zener bodies. We also introduce the multi-domain, an FD grid of several layers with different grid spacings, into our FDM scheme. This allows wider lateral grid spacings with depth, so as not to perturb the FD stability criterion around the Earth center. In addition, we propose a technique to avoid the singularity problem of the wave equation in spherical coordinates at the Earth center. We develop a scheme to calculate wavefield variables on this point, based on linear interpolation for the velocity-stress, staggered-grid FDM. This scheme is validated through a comparison of synthetic seismograms with those obtained by the Direct Solution Method for a spherically symmetric Earth model, showing excellent accuracy for our FDM scheme. As a numerical example, we apply the method to simulate seismic

  20. Comparison of thermal analytic model with experimental test results for 30-sentimeter-diameter engineering model mercury ion thruster

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oglebay, J. C.

    1977-01-01

    A thermal analytic model for a 30-cm engineering model mercury-ion thruster was developed and calibrated using the experimental test results of tests of a pre-engineering model 30-cm thruster. A series of tests, performed later, simulated a wide range of thermal environments on an operating 30-cm engineering model thruster, which was instrumented to measure the temperature distribution within it. The modified analytic model is described and analytic and experimental results compared for various operating conditions. Based on the comparisons, it is concluded that the analytic model can be used as a preliminary design tool to predict thruster steady-state temperature distributions for stage and mission studies and to define the thermal interface bewteen the thruster and other elements of a spacecraft.

  1. Analytical solutions and moment analysis of chromatographic models for rectangular pulse injections.

    PubMed

    Qamar, Shamsul; Abbasi, Javeria N; Javeed, Shumaila; Shah, Munawar; Khan, Farman U; Seidel-Morgenstern, Andreas

    2013-11-08

    This work focuses on the analysis of two standard liquid chromatographic models, namely the lumped kinetic model and the equilibrium dispersive model. Analytical solutions, obtained by means of Laplace transformation, are derived for rectangular single solute concentration pulses of finite length and breakthrough curves injected under linear conditions. In order to analyze the solute transport behavior by means of the two models, the temporal moments up to fourth order are calculated from the Laplace-transformed solutions. The limiting cases of continuous injection and negligible mass transfer limitations are evaluated. For validation, the analytical solutions are compared with the numerical solutions of models using the discontinuous Galerkin finite element method. Results of different case studies are discussed for linear and nonlinear adsorption isotherms. The discontinuous Galerkin method is employed to obtain moments for both linear and nonlinear models numerically. Analytically and numerically determined concentration profiles and moments were found to be in good agreement.

  2. An analytical model for porous single crystals with ellipsoidal voids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mbiakop, A.; Constantinescu, A.; Danas, K.

    2015-11-01

    A rate-(in)dependent constitutive model for porous single crystals with arbitrary crystal anisotropy (e.g., FCC, BCC, HCP, etc.) containing general ellipsoidal voids is developed. The proposed model, denoted as modified variational model (MVAR), is based on the nonlinear variational homogenization method, which makes use of a linear comparison porous material to estimate the response of the nonlinear porous single crystal. Periodic multi-void finite element simulations are used in order to validate the MVAR for a large number of parameters including cubic (FCC, BCC) and hexagonal (HCP) crystal anisotropy, various creep exponents (i.e., nonlinearity), several stress triaxiality ratios, general void shapes and orientations and various porosity levels. The MVAR model, which involves a priori no calibration parameters, is found to be in good agreement with the finite element results for all cases considered in the rate-dependent context. The model is then used in a predictive manner to investigate the complex response of porous single crystals in several cases with strong coupling between the anisotropy of the crystal and the (morphological) anisotropy induced by the shape and orientation of the voids. Finally, a simple way of calibrating the MVAR with just two adjustable parameters is depicted in the rate-independent context so that an excellent agreement with the FE simulation results is obtained. In this last case, this proposed model can be thought as a generalization of the Gurson model in the context of porous single crystals and general ellipsoidal void shapes and orientations.

  3. An analytical model for hydraulic fracturing in shallow bedrock formations.

    PubMed

    dos Santos, José Sérgio; Ballestero, Thomas Paul; Pitombeira, Ernesto da Silva

    2011-01-01

    A theoretical method is proposed to estimate post-fracturing fracture size and transmissivity, and as a test of the methodology, data collected from two wells were used for verification. This method can be employed before hydrofracturing in order to obtain estimates of the potential hydraulic benefits of hydraulic fracturing. Five different pumping test analysis methods were used to evaluate the well hydraulic data. The most effective methods were the Papadopulos-Cooper model (1967), which includes wellbore storage effects, and the Gringarten-Ramey model (1974), known as the single horizontal fracture model. The hydraulic parameters resulting from fitting these models to the field data revealed that as a result of hydraulic fracturing, the transmissivity increased more than 46 times in one well and increased 285 times in the other well. The model developed by dos Santos (2008), which considers horizontal radial fracture propagation from the hydraulically fractured well, was used to estimate potential fracture geometry after hydrofracturing. For the two studied wells, their fractures could have propagated to distances of almost 175 m or more and developed maximum apertures of about 2.20 mm and hydraulic apertures close to 0.30 mm. Fracturing at this site appears to have expanded and propagated existing fractures and not created new fractures. Hydraulic apertures calculated from pumping test analyses closely matched the results obtained from the hydraulic fracturing model. As a result of this model, post-fracturing geometry and resulting post-fracturing well yield can be estimated before the actual hydrofracturing.

  4. Formal analytical modeling of blog content as personal narrative

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coombs, Michael J.; Jaenisch, Holger M.; Handley, James W.

    2008-04-01

    This paper contrasts two techniques for analyzing blog content and making use of this information to model blog content. One method uses classical text content and analysis presented for human interpretation. The second method relies on a data mined list of descriptive words characterizing the blogs. We examine the use of different data mining tools, Kryltech's "Subject Search Summarizer", Leximancer, and QUEST, to provide orthogonal and independently generated key word lists. These lists are then converted into Data Models, enabling mathematical modeling of blog content.

  5. THE IMPACT OF ACCURATE EXTINCTION MEASUREMENTS FOR X-RAY SPECTRAL MODELS

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, Randall K.; Valencic, Lynne A.; Corrales, Lia

    2016-02-20

    Interstellar extinction includes both absorption and scattering of photons from interstellar gas and dust grains, and it has the effect of altering a source's spectrum and its total observed intensity. However, while multiple absorption models exist, there are no useful scattering models in standard X-ray spectrum fitting tools, such as XSPEC. Nonetheless, X-ray halos, created by scattering from dust grains, are detected around even moderately absorbed sources, and the impact on an observed source spectrum can be significant, if modest, compared to direct absorption. By convolving the scattering cross section with dust models, we have created a spectral model as a function of energy, type of dust, and extraction region that can be used with models of direct absorption. This will ensure that the extinction model is consistent and enable direct connections to be made between a source's X-ray spectral fits and its UV/optical extinction.

  6. Analytical recovery of protozoan enumeration methods: have drinking water QMRA models corrected or created bias?

    PubMed

    Schmidt, P J; Emelko, M B; Thompson, M E

    2013-05-01

    Quantitative microbial risk assessment (QMRA) is a tool to evaluate the potential implications of pathogens in a water supply or other media and is of increasing interest to regulators. In the case of potentially pathogenic protozoa (e.g. Cryptosporidium oocysts and Giardia cysts), it is well known that the methods used to enumerate (oo)cysts in samples of water and other media can have low and highly variable analytical recovery. In these applications, QMRA has evolved from ignoring analytical recovery to addressing it in point-estimates of risk, and then to addressing variation of analytical recovery in Monte Carlo risk assessments. Often, variation of analytical recovery is addressed in exposure assessment by dividing concentration values that were obtained without consideration of analytical recovery by random beta-distributed recovery values. A simple mathematical proof is provided to demonstrate that this conventional approach to address non-constant analytical recovery in drinking water QMRA will lead to overestimation of mean pathogen concentrations. The bias, which can exceed an order of magnitude, is greatest when low analytical recovery values are common. A simulated dataset is analyzed using a diverse set of approaches to obtain distributions representing temporal variation in the oocyst concentration, and mean annual risk is then computed from each concentration distribution using a simple risk model. This illustrative example demonstrates that the bias associated with mishandling non-constant analytical recovery and non-detect samples can cause drinking water systems to be erroneously classified as surpassing risk thresholds.

  7. Development of accurate waveform models for eccentric compact binaries with numerical relativity simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huerta, Eliu; Agarwal, Bhanu; Chua, Alvin; George, Daniel; Haas, Roland; Hinder, Ian; Kumar, Prayush; Moore, Christopher; Pfeiffer, Harald

    2017-01-01

    We recently constructed an inspiral-merger-ringdown (IMR) waveform model to describe the dynamical evolution of compact binaries on eccentric orbits, and used this model to constrain the eccentricity with which the gravitational wave transients currently detected by LIGO could be effectively recovered with banks of quasi-circular templates. We now present the second generation of this model, which is calibrated using a large catalog of eccentric numerical relativity simulations. We discuss the new features of this model, and show that its enhance accuracy makes it a powerful tool to detect eccentric signals with LIGO.

  8. Analytic model for assessing the thermal performance of scuba divers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Montgomery, L. D.

    1974-01-01

    A biothermal model with a physically-controlled subsystem and a dynamically-controlled subsystem is developed to simulate the thermoregulatory system of man under immersed conditions. The model is consistent with experimental data for seminude subjects immersed to neck in cool to temperate water and for 'wet-suited' subjects immersed to neck in cold water. Equations are derived for predicting body temperatures under various dive conditions.

  9. Integration of Analytic and Synthetic Biosystem Models and Data

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-06-01

    environment akin to the Electrical Engineering SPICE modeling and simulation package, in which an open environment and standards-based modularity enable an...the Electrical Engineering SPICE modeling and simulation package, in which an open environment and standards-based modularity enable an enormous...was based on the following perceived requirements (excerpted from the white paper): • Heterogeneous Data Access. The Bio- SPICE DMI must support

  10. FIST and the Analytical Hierarchy Process: Comparative Modeling

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-03-01

    counter the insurgency threat (Ferran et al., 2012). Although this article was written 10 years before the FIST model first appeared, it serves as...engagements. The article states that often innovation stems from small budgets. Small budgets force project managers to be more resourceful and exercise...model is not directly mentioned in this article , but the concept is clearly being formed (Ward, 2004). This article is the first installment of a five

  11. Reliability and structural integrity. [analytical model for calculating crack detection probability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davidson, J. R.

    1973-01-01

    An analytic model is developed to calculate the reliability of a structure after it is inspected for cracks. The model accounts for the growth of undiscovered cracks between inspections and their effect upon the reliability after subsequent inspections. The model is based upon a differential form of Bayes' Theorem for reliability, and upon fracture mechanics for crack growth.

  12. Analytical model of the statistical properties of contrast of large-scale ionospheric inhomogeneities.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vsekhsvyatskaya, I. S.; Evstratova, E. A.; Kalinin, Yu. K.; Romanchuk, A. A.

    1989-08-01

    A new analytical model is proposed for the distribution of variations of the relative electron-density contrast of large-scale ionospheric inhomogeneities. The model is characterized by other-than-zero skewness and kurtosis. It is shown that the model is applicable in the interval of horizontal dimensions of inhomogeneities from hundreds to thousands of kilometers.

  13. Fitting the Normal-Ogive Factor Analytic Model to Scores on Tests.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferrando, Pere J.; Lorenzo-Seva, Urbano

    2001-01-01

    Describes how the nonlinear factor analytic approach of R. McDonald to the normal ogive curve can be used to factor analyze test scores. Discusses the conditions in which this model is more appropriate than the linear model and illustrates the applicability of both models using an empirical example based on data from 1,769 adolescents who took the…

  14. An analytical channel thermal noise model for deep-submicron MOSFETs with short channel effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeon, Jongwook; Lee, Jong Duk; Park, Byung-Gook; Shin, Hyungcheol

    2007-07-01

    In this work, an analytical channel thermal noise model for short channel MOSFETs is derived. The transfer function of the noise was derived by following the Tsividis' method. The proposed model takes into account the channel length modulation, velocity saturation, and carrier heating effects in the gradual channel region. Modeling results show good agreements with the measured noise data.

  15. Analytic model for the dynamic Z-pinch

    SciTech Connect

    Piriz, A. R. Sun, Y. B.; Tahir, N. A.

    2015-06-15

    A model is presented for describing the cylindrical implosion of a shock wave driven by an accelerated piston. It is based in the identification of the acceleration of the shocked mass with the acceleration of the piston. The model yields the separate paths of the piston and the shock. In addition, by considering that the shocked region evolves isentropically, the approximate profiles of all the magnitudes in the shocked region are obtained. The application to the dynamic Z-pinch is presented and the results are compared with the well known snowplow and slug models which are also derived as limiting cases of the present model. The snowplow model is seen to yield a trajectory in between those of the shock and the piston. Instead, the neglect of the inertial effects in the slug model is seen to produce a too fast implosion, and the pressure uniformity is shown to lead to an unphysical instantaneous piston stopping when the shock arrives to the axis.

  16. Human performance modeling for system of systems analytics :soldier fatigue.

    SciTech Connect

    Lawton, Craig R.; Campbell, James E.; Miller, Dwight Peter

    2005-10-01

    The military has identified Human Performance Modeling (HPM) as a significant requirement and challenge of future systems modeling and analysis initiatives as can be seen in the Department of Defense's (DoD) Defense Modeling and Simulation Office's (DMSO) Master Plan (DoD 5000.59-P 1995). To this goal, the military is currently spending millions of dollars on programs devoted to HPM in various military contexts. Examples include the Human Performance Modeling Integration (HPMI) program within the Air Force Research Laboratory, which focuses on integrating HPMs with constructive models of systems (e.g. cockpit simulations) and the Navy's Human Performance Center (HPC) established in September 2003. Nearly all of these initiatives focus on the interface between humans and a single system. This is insufficient in the era of highly complex network centric SoS. This report presents research and development in the area of HPM in a system-of-systems (SoS). Specifically, this report addresses modeling soldier fatigue and the potential impacts soldier fatigue can have on SoS performance.

  17. Efficient and accurate local model for colorimetric characterization of liquid-crystal displays.

    PubMed

    Zou, Wenhai; Xu, Haisong; Gong, Rui

    2012-01-01

    Taking the chromaticity inconstancy of LCDs and the inverse efficiency into account, a novel local colorimetric characterization model was developed in this Letter. Rather than dividing the device color space into many subspaces to refine the chromaticity description as existent local models, the proposed model tailored the transformation relationship uniquely for each characterized color with look-up tables and a local chromaticity matrix. Based on this model, the characterization task could be efficiently accomplished within a few steps for either the forward or the inverse transformation. Test experiments on several commercial LCDs indicated that the average color difference between the estimated and measured tristimulus values could be achieved in a low level of about 0.4 CIEDE2000 units, effectively demonstrating the proposed model.

  18. Active appearance model and deep learning for more accurate prostate segmentation on MRI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Ruida; Roth, Holger R.; Lu, Le; Wang, Shijun; Turkbey, Baris; Gandler, William; McCreedy, Evan S.; Agarwal, Harsh K.; Choyke, Peter; Summers, Ronald M.; McAuliffe, Matthew J.

    2016-03-01

    Prostate segmentation on 3D MR images is a challenging task due to image artifacts, large inter-patient prostate shape and texture variability, and lack of a clear prostate boundary specifically at apex and base levels. We propose a supervised machine learning model that combines atlas based Active Appearance Model (AAM) with a Deep Learning model to segment the prostate on MR images. The performance of the segmentation method is evaluated on 20 unseen MR image datasets. The proposed method combining AAM and Deep Learning achieves a mean Dice Similarity Coefficient (DSC) of 0.925 for whole 3D MR images of the prostate using axial cross-sections. The proposed model utilizes the adaptive atlas-based AAM model and Deep Learning to achieve significant segmentation accuracy.

  19. Accurate coarse-grained models for mixtures of colloids and linear polymers under good-solvent conditions

    SciTech Connect

    D’Adamo, Giuseppe; Pelissetto, Andrea; Pierleoni, Carlo

    2014-12-28

    A coarse-graining strategy, previously developed for polymer solutions, is extended here to mixtures of linear polymers and hard-sphere colloids. In this approach, groups of monomers are mapped onto a single pseudoatom (a blob) and the effective blob-blob interactions are obtained by requiring the model to reproduce some large-scale structural properties in the zero-density limit. We show that an accurate parametrization of the polymer-colloid interactions is obtained by simply introducing pair potentials between blobs and colloids. For the coarse-grained (CG) model in which polymers are modelled as four-blob chains (tetramers), the pair potentials are determined by means of the iterative Boltzmann inversion scheme, taking full-monomer (FM) pair correlation functions at zero-density as targets. For a larger number n of blobs, pair potentials are determined by using a simple transferability assumption based on the polymer self-similarity. We validate the model by comparing its predictions with full-monomer results for the interfacial properties of polymer solutions in the presence of a single colloid and for thermodynamic and structural properties in the homogeneous phase at finite polymer and colloid density. The tetramer model is quite accurate for q ≲ 1 (q=R{sup ^}{sub g}/R{sub c}, where R{sup ^}{sub g} is the zero-density polymer radius of gyration and R{sub c} is the colloid radius) and reasonably good also for q = 2. For q = 2, an accurate coarse-grained description is obtained by using the n = 10 blob model. We also compare our results with those obtained by using single-blob models with state-dependent potentials.

  20. Analytical Modeling for the Bending Resonant Frequency of Multilayered Microresonators with Variable Cross-Section

    PubMed Central

    Herrera-May, Agustín L.; Aguilera-Cortés, Luz A.; Plascencia-Mora, Hector; Rodríguez-Morales, Ángel L.; Lu, Jian

    2011-01-01

    Multilayered microresonators commonly use sensitive coating or piezoelectric layers for detection of mass and gas. Most of these microresonators have a variable cross-section that complicates the prediction of their fundamental resonant frequency (generally of the bending mode) through conventional analytical models. In this paper, we present an analytical model to estimate the first resonant frequency and deflection curve of single-clamped multilayered microresonators with variable cross-section. The analytical model is obtained using the Rayleigh and Macaulay methods, as well as the Euler-Bernoulli beam theory. Our model is applied to two multilayered microresonators with piezoelectric excitation reported in the literature. Both microresonators are composed by layers of seven different materials. The results of our analytical model agree very well with those obtained from finite element models (FEMs) and experimental data. Our analytical model can be used to determine the suitable dimensions of the microresonator’s layers in order to obtain a microresonator that operates at a resonant frequency necessary for a particular application. PMID:22164071