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Sample records for accurate cancer diagnosis

  1. MicroRNA-200 Family Profile: A Promising Ancillary Tool for Accurate Cancer Diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiaodong; Zhang, Jianhua; Xie, Botao; Li, Hao; Shen, Jihong; Chen, Jianheng

    2016-01-01

    Cancer is one of the most threatening diseases in the world and great interests have been paid to discover accurate and noninvasive methods for cancer diagnosis. The value of microRNA-200 (miRNA-200, miR-200) family has been revealed in many studies. However, the results from various studies were inconsistent, and thus a meta-analysis was designed and performed to assess the overall value of miRNA200 in cancer diagnosis. Relevant studies were searched electronically from the following databases: PubMed, Embase, Web of Science, the Cochrane Library, and Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure. Keyword combined with "miR-200," "cancer," and "diagnosis" in any fields was used for searching relevant studies. Then, the pooled sensitivity, specificity, area under the curve (AUC), and partial AUC were calculated using the random-effects model. Heterogeneity among individual studies was also explored by subgroup analyses. A total of 28 studies from 18 articles with an overall sample size of 3676 subjects (2097 patients and 1579 controls) were included in this meta-analysis. The overall sensitivity and specificity with 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) are 0.709 (95% CI: 0.657-0.755) and 0.667 (95% CI: 0.617-0.713), respectively. Additionally, AUC and partial AUC for the pooled data is 0.735 and 0.627, respectively. Subgroup analyses revealed that using miRNA-200 family for cancer diagnosis is more effective in white than in Asian ethnic groups. In addition, cancer diagnosis by miRNA using circulating specimen is more effective than that using noncirculating specimen. Finally, miRNA is more accurate in diagnosing endometrial cancer than other types of cancer, and some miRNA family members (miR-200b and miR-429) have superior diagnostic accuracy than other miR-200 family members. In conclusion, the profiling of miRNA-200 family is likely to be a valuable tool in cancer detection and diagnosis.

  2. Algorithms Could Automate Cancer Diagnosis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baky, A. A.; Winkler, D. G.

    1982-01-01

    Five new algorithms are a complete statistical procedure for quantifying cell abnormalities from digitized images. Procedure could be basis for automated detection and diagnosis of cancer. Objective of procedure is to assign each cell an atypia status index (ASI), which quantifies level of abnormality. It is possible that ASI values will be accurate and economical enough to allow diagnoses to be made quickly and accurately by computer processing of laboratory specimens extracted from patients.

  3. Understanding a Breast Cancer Diagnosis

    MedlinePlus

    ... Category Cancer A-Z Breast Cancer Understanding a Breast Cancer Diagnosis If you’ve been diagnosed with breast ... cancer or how fast it’s growing. Types of Breast Cancer There are several types of breast cancer. The ...

  4. [Early diagnosis of skin cancer].

    PubMed

    Kolm, Isabell; Hofbauer, Günther; Braun, Ralph P

    2010-09-01

    The skin is the most affected organ by cancer. The incidence rates of skin cancer are steadily increasing, both for melanoma and non-melanoma skin cancers (squamous cell carcinoma, basal cell carcinoma). Over 90 % of the death cases from skin cancers attribute to melanoma. Survival from melanoma is strongly related to tumour thickness. Therefore early detection is the most important step to improve prognosis. In the last years a number of new non invasive techniques for the early diagnosis of melanoma have been developed which are superior to the naked eye examination. In this overview article we present some non-invasive diagnostic techniques like total body photography, digital dermoscopy and confocal microscopy which in addition to dermoscopy assist the dermatologist in differentiating nevi from early melanomas.Non-melanoma skin cancer can be prevented by accurate sun protection. Early squamous cell carcinomas and basal cell carcinomas can be treated either invasively or non-invasively with excellent prognosis.

  5. Diagnostic limitations to accurate diagnosis of cholera.

    PubMed

    Alam, Munirul; Hasan, Nur A; Sultana, Marzia; Nair, G Balakrish; Sadique, A; Faruque, A S G; Endtz, Hubert P; Sack, R B; Huq, A; Colwell, R R; Izumiya, Hidemasa; Morita, Masatomo; Watanabe, Haruo; Cravioto, Alejandro

    2010-11-01

    The treatment regimen for diarrhea depends greatly on correct diagnosis of its etiology. Recent diarrhea outbreaks in Bangladesh showed Vibrio cholerae to be the predominant cause, although more than 40% of the suspected cases failed to show cholera etiology by conventional culture methods (CMs). In the present study, suspected cholera stools collected from every 50th patient during an acute diarrheal outbreak were analyzed extensively using different microbiological and molecular tools to determine their etiology. Of 135 stools tested, 86 (64%) produced V. cholerae O1 by CMs, while 119 (88%) tested positive for V. cholerae O1 by rapid cholera dipstick (DS) assay; all but three samples positive for V. cholerae O1 by CMs were also positive for V. cholerae O1 by DS assay. Of 49 stools that lacked CM-based cholera etiology despite most being positive for V. cholerae O1 by DS assay, 25 (51%) had coccoid V. cholerae O1 cells as confirmed by direct fluorescent antibody (DFA) assay, 36 (73%) amplified primers for the genes wbe O1 and ctxA by multiplex-PCR (M-PCR), and 31 (63%) showed El Tor-specific lytic phage on plaque assay (PA). Each of these methods allowed the cholera etiology to be confirmed for 97% of the stool samples. The results suggest that suspected cholera stools that fail to show etiology by CMs during acute diarrhea outbreaks may be due to the inactivation of V. cholerae by in vivo vibriolytic action of the phage and/or nonculturability induced as a host response.

  6. A Highly Sensitive Porous Silicon (P-Si)-Based Human Kallikrein 2 (hK2) Immunoassay Platform toward Accurate Diagnosis of Prostate Cancer.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sang Wook; Hosokawa, Kazuo; Kim, Soyoun; Jeong, Ok Chan; Lilja, Hans; Laurell, Thomas; Maeda, Mizuo

    2015-05-22

    Levels of total human kallikrein 2 (hK2), a protein involved the pathology of prostate cancer (PCa), could be used as a biomarker to aid in the diagnosis of this disease. In this study, we report on a porous silicon antibody immunoassay platform for the detection of serum levels of total hK2. The surface of porous silicon has a 3-dimensional macro- and nanoporous structure, which offers a large binding capacity for capturing probe molecules. The tailored pore size of the porous silicon also allows efficient immobilization of antibodies by surface adsorption, and does not require chemical immobilization. Monoclonal hK2 capture antibody (6B7) was dispensed onto P-Si chip using a piezoelectric dispenser. In total 13 × 13 arrays (169 spots) were spotted on the chip with its single spot volume of 300 pL. For an optimization of capture antibody condition, we firstly performed an immunoassay of the P-Si microarray under a titration series of hK2 in pure buffer (PBS) at three different antibody densities (75, 100 and 145 µg/mL). The best performance of the microarray platform was seen at 100 µg/mL of the capture antibody concentration (LOD was 100 fg/mL). The platform then was subsequently evaluated for a titration series of serum-spiked hK2 samples. The developed platform utilizes only 15 µL of serum per test and the total assay time is about 3 h, including immobilization of the capture antibody. The detection limit of the hK2 assay was 100 fg/mL in PBS buffer and 1 pg/mL in serum with a dynamic range of 106 (10(-4) to 10(2) ng/mL).

  7. A Highly Sensitive Porous Silicon (P-Si)-Based Human Kallikrein 2 (hK2) Immunoassay Platform toward Accurate Diagnosis of Prostate Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Sang Wook; Hosokawa, Kazuo; Kim, Soyoun; Jeong, Ok Chan; Lilja, Hans; Laurell, Thomas; Maeda, Mizuo

    2015-01-01

    Levels of total human kallikrein 2 (hK2), a protein involved the pathology of prostate cancer (PCa), could be used as a biomarker to aid in the diagnosis of this disease. In this study, we report on a porous silicon antibody immunoassay platform for the detection of serum levels of total hK2. The surface of porous silicon has a 3-dimensional macro- and nanoporous structure, which offers a large binding capacity for capturing probe molecules. The tailored pore size of the porous silicon also allows efficient immobilization of antibodies by surface adsorption, and does not require chemical immobilization. Monoclonal hK2 capture antibody (6B7) was dispensed onto P-Si chip using a piezoelectric dispenser. In total 13 × 13 arrays (169 spots) were spotted on the chip with its single spot volume of 300 pL. For an optimization of capture antibody condition, we firstly performed an immunoassay of the P-Si microarray under a titration series of hK2 in pure buffer (PBS) at three different antibody densities (75, 100 and 145 µg/mL). The best performance of the microarray platform was seen at 100 µg/mL of the capture antibody concentration (LOD was 100 fg/mL). The platform then was subsequently evaluated for a titration series of serum-spiked hK2 samples. The developed platform utilizes only 15 µL of serum per test and the total assay time is about 3 h, including immobilization of the capture antibody. The detection limit of the hK2 assay was 100 fg/mL in PBS buffer and 1 pg/mL in serum with a dynamic range of 106 (10−4 to 102 ng/mL). PMID:26007739

  8. Colorectal Cancer: Symptoms, Diagnosis, Treatment

    MedlinePlus

    ... Past Issues Special Section: Colorectal Cancer Colorectal Cancer: Symptoms, Diagnosis and Treatment Past Issues / Spring 2009 Table of ... version of this page please turn Javascript on. Symptoms Check with your healthcare provider if you have ...

  9. How accurate are Scottish cancer registration data?

    PubMed Central

    Brewster, D.; Crichton, J.; Muir, C.

    1994-01-01

    In order to assess the accuracy of Scottish cancer registration data, a random sample of 2,200 registrations, attributed to the year 1990, was generated. Relevant medical records were available for review in 2,021 (92%) cases. Registration details were reabstracted from available records and compared with data in the registry. Discrepancies in identifying items of data (surname, forename, sex and date of birth) were found in 3.5% of cases. Most were trivial and would not disturb record linkage. Discrepancy rates of 7.1% in post code of residence at the time of diagnosis (excluding differences arising through boundary changes), 11.0% in anniversary date (excluding differences of 6 weeks or less), 7.7% in histological verification status, 5.4% in ICD-9 site codes (the first three digits) and 14.5% in ICD-O morphology codes (excluding 'inferred' morphology codes) were recorded. Overall, serious discrepancies were judged to have occurred in 2.8% of cases. In many respects, therefore, Scottish cancer registration data show a high level of accuracy that compares favourably to the reported accuracy of the few other cancer registries undertaking such analyses. PMID:7947104

  10. Breast Cancer Early Detection and Diagnosis

    MedlinePlus

    ... En Español Category Cancer A-Z Breast Cancer Breast Cancer Early Detection and Diagnosis Breast cancer is sometimes ... cancer screening is so important. Learn more. Can Breast Cancer Be Found Early? Breast cancer is sometimes found ...

  11. Imaging tests for accurate diagnosis of acute biliary pancreatitis.

    PubMed

    Şurlin, Valeriu; Săftoiu, Adrian; Dumitrescu, Daniela

    2014-11-28

    Gallstones represent the most frequent aetiology of acute pancreatitis in many statistics all over the world, estimated between 40%-60%. Accurate diagnosis of acute biliary pancreatitis (ABP) is of outmost importance because clearance of lithiasis [gallbladder and common bile duct (CBD)] rules out recurrences. Confirmation of biliary lithiasis is done by imaging. The sensitivity of the ultrasonography (US) in the detection of gallstones is over 95% in uncomplicated cases, but in ABP, sensitivity for gallstone detection is lower, being less than 80% due to the ileus and bowel distension. Sensitivity of transabdominal ultrasonography (TUS) for choledocolithiasis varies between 50%-80%, but the specificity is high, reaching 95%. Diameter of the bile duct may be orientative for diagnosis. Endoscopic ultrasonography (EUS) seems to be a more effective tool to diagnose ABP rather than endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP), which should be performed only for therapeutic purposes. As the sensitivity and specificity of computerized tomography are lower as compared to state-of-the-art magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography (MRCP) or EUS, especially for small stones and small diameter of CBD, the later techniques are nowadays preferred for the evaluation of ABP patients. ERCP has the highest accuracy for the diagnosis of choledocholithiasis and is used as a reference standard in many studies, especially after sphincterotomy and balloon extraction of CBD stones. Laparoscopic ultrasonography is a useful tool for the intraoperative diagnosis of choledocholithiasis. Routine exploration of the CBD in cases of patients scheduled for cholecystectomy after an attack of ABP was not proven useful. A significant rate of the so-called idiopathic pancreatitis is actually caused by microlithiasis and/or biliary sludge. In conclusion, the general algorithm for CBD stone detection starts with anamnesis, serum biochemistry and then TUS, followed by EUS or MRCP. In the end

  12. Biomarkers for the diagnosis of thyroid cancer.

    PubMed

    Sethi, Kruttibas; Sarkar, Siddik; Das, Subhasis; Mohanty, Biswanarayan; Mandal, Mahitosh

    2010-01-01

    Thyroid tumor contributes 1% of the total tumor but 90% of the endocrine related tumors. Majority of the thyroid cancers are being diagnosed by Fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) and histology. Although histology is considered as gold standard, it has some limitations, like variants of papillary and follicular cancer creates confusion among pathologists, where the morphological features are indistinguishable. Conventional histology and FNAC fails to provide any prognostic and therapeutic information. To address this problem, several immunohistochemical markers are proposed and their efficiency in thyroid cancer diagnosis, treatment and prognosis are being evaluated. Among the discussed immunohistochemical markers, few have potential in accurate diagnosis and prognosis of thyroid carcinoma. Hector battifora mesothelial antigen-1 (HBME-1) and Galectin-3 (GAL-3) shows highest specificity and sensitivity in the diagnosis of thyroid cancer respectively. Overexpression of EGFR in thyroid cancer is in proportionate with the severity of the advanced thyroid carcinoma, which required further evaluation and validation. Surgery and radio-iodine therapy is the main treatment modality, however; combined targeted therapeutic approach against different thyroid cancer receptor and biomarkers can reduce the side effect, and improve therapeutic efficiency. This review is oriented towards the finding of the potent thyroid cancer receptor having enhanced sensitivity and specificity, with diagnostic, prognostic and therapeutic efficiency.

  13. Dealing with Diagnosis of Cancer in Children

    MedlinePlus

    ... When Your Child Has Cancer Children Diagnosed With Cancer: Dealing With Diagnosis When a child or teen is diagnosed with ... How do parents usually react to a child’s cancer diagnosis? Ways to improve coping How can parents be ...

  14. Biosensors: the new wave in cancer diagnosis

    PubMed Central

    Bohunicky, Brian; Mousa, Shaker A

    2011-01-01

    The earlier cancer can be detected, the better the chance of a cure. Currently, many cancers are diagnosed only after they have metastasized throughout the body. Effective, accurate methods of cancer detection and clinical diagnosis are urgently needed. Biosensors are devices that are designed to detect a specific biological analyte by essentially converting a biological entity (ie, protein, DNA, RNA) into an electrical signal that can be detected and analyzed. The use of biosensors in cancer detection and monitoring holds vast potential. Biosensors can be designed to detect emerging cancer biomarkers and to determine drug effectiveness at various target sites. Biosensor technology has the potential to provide fast and accurate detection, reliable imaging of cancer cells, and monitoring of angiogenesis and cancer metastasis, and the ability to determine the effectiveness of anticancer chemotherapy agents. This review will briefly summarize the current obstacles to early detection of cancer and the expanding use of biosensors as a diagnostic tool, as well as some future applications of biosensor technology. PMID:24198482

  15. Breast cancer: Diagnosis and treatment

    SciTech Connect

    Ariel, I.M.; Clearly, J.B.

    1987-01-01

    This is a publication about the diagnosis and treatment of breast cancer with an appeal for unified reporting of end results. Nine chapters cover historical reviews, risk factors, pathology-receptors-immunology, detection and diagnosis, treatment of the potentially curable patient, and treatment of the patient with advanced disease. The three concluding chapters discuss reconstruction, special clinical situations, and support for the patient. The role of radiation therapy is presented well. The current status of chemotherapy, hormonal therapy and combined therapies is also addressed by authoritative authors.

  16. Medicine: The final frontier in cancer diagnosis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leachman, Sancy A.; Merlino, Glenn

    2017-01-01

    A computer, trained to classify skin cancers using image analysis alone, can now identify certain cancers as successfully as can skin-cancer doctors. What are the implications for the future of medical diagnosis? See Letter p.115

  17. The application of monoclonal antibodies in cancer diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xuemei; Soori, Gamini; Dobleman, Thomas J; Xiao, Gary G

    2014-01-01

    Cancer becomes the second leading cause of death in the world. An effective strategy for early diagnosis of the disease is key to reduce the mortality and morbidity. Development of effective monoclonal antibody (mAb)-based assays or diagnostic imaging techniques for detection of antigens and small molecules that are released from cancerous cells will enhance modern diagnostic medicine of cancer significantly. Although mAb technology is still under development, recent advances in preparation of recombinant antigen and antibody engineering techniques have dramatically enhanced the applications of this technology in cancer diagnosis. Compared with other methods, mAb-based assays may provide spatial, temporal, accurate and quantitative measurement for diagnosis of the disease. This review summarizes the progress of the mAb-based assays in the field of molecular diagnosis of cancer.

  18. DNA Methylation and Cancer Diagnosis

    PubMed Central

    Delpu, Yannick; Cordelier, Pierre; Cho, William C.; Torrisani, Jérôme

    2013-01-01

    DNA methylation is a major epigenetic modification that is strongly involved in the physiological control of genome expression. DNA methylation patterns are largely modified in cancer cells and can therefore be used to distinguish cancer cells from normal tissues. This review describes the main technologies available for the detection and the discovery of aberrantly methylated DNA patterns. It also presents the different sources of biological samples suitable for DNA methylation studies. We discuss the interest and perspectives on the use of DNA methylation measurements for cancer diagnosis through examples of methylated genes commonly documented in the literature. The discussion leads to our consideration for why DNA methylation is not commonly used in clinical practice through an examination of the main requirements that constitute a reliable biomarker. Finally, we describe the main DNA methylation inhibitors currently used in clinical trials and those that exhibit promising results. PMID:23873296

  19. Timely diagnosis of testicular cancer.

    PubMed

    Moul, Judd W

    2007-05-01

    Early detection of testicular tumors has been touted as beneficial for more than 100 years. In earlier eras, early detection was virtually the only way to improve outcomes. According to statistics that have been tracked in the literature, however, the delay from initial symptoms to definitive diagnosis by radical orchiectomy has averaged 4 to 5 months. In the modern era of effective chemotherapy, the effects of a delayed diagnosis on survival can be overcome but at the cost of a more morbid treatment regimen. Although screening on a population basis is not currently recommended by the National Cancer Institute, teaching testicular self examination to young men, particularly those who have risk factors, is reasonable.

  20. Accurate stone analysis: the impact on disease diagnosis and treatment.

    PubMed

    Mandel, Neil S; Mandel, Ian C; Kolbach-Mandel, Ann M

    2017-02-01

    This manuscript reviews the requirements for acceptable compositional analysis of kidney stones using various biophysical methods. High-resolution X-ray powder diffraction crystallography and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) are the only acceptable methods in our labs for kidney stone analysis. The use of well-constructed spectral reference libraries is the basis for accurate and complete stone analysis. The literature included in this manuscript identify errors in most commercial laboratories and in some academic centers. We provide personal comments on why such errors are occurring at such high rates, and although the work load is rather large, it is very worthwhile in providing accurate stone compositions. We also provide the results of our almost 90,000 stone analyses and a breakdown of the number of components we have observed in the various stones. We also offer advice on determining the method used by the various FTIR equipment manufacturers who also provide a stone analysis library so that the FTIR users can feel comfortable in the accuracy of their reported results. Such an analysis on the accuracy of the individual reference libraries could positively influence the reduction in their respective error rates.

  1. Nanoparticles for Improving Cancer Diagnosis

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Hongmin; Zhen, Zipeng; Todd, Trever; Chu, Paul K.; Xie, Jin

    2013-01-01

    Despite the progress in developing new therapeutic modalities, cancer remains one of the leading diseases causing human mortality. This is mainly attributed to the inability to diagnose tumors in their early stage. By the time the tumor is confirmed, the cancer may have already metastasized, thereby making therapies challenging or even impossible. It is therefore crucial to develop new or to improve existing diagnostic tools to enable diagnosis of cancer in its early or even pre-syndrome stage. The emergence of nanotechnology has provided such a possibility. Unique physical and physiochemical properties allow nanoparticles to be utilized as tags with excellent sensitivity. When coupled with the appropriate targeting molecules, nanoparticle-based probes can interact with a biological system and sense biological changes on the molecular level with unprecedented accuracy. In the past several years, much progress has been made in applying nanotechnology to clinical imaging and diagnostics, and interdisciplinary efforts have made an impact on clinical cancer management. This article aims to review the progress in this exciting area with emphases on the preparation and engineering techniques that have been developed to assemble “smart” nanoprobes. PMID:24068857

  2. Early Lung Cancer Diagnosis by Biosensors

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yuqian; Yang, Dongliang; Weng, Lixing; Wang, Lianhui

    2013-01-01

    Lung cancer causes an extreme threat to human health, and the mortality rate due to lung cancer has not decreased during the last decade. Prognosis or early diagnosis could help reduce the mortality rate. If microRNA and tumor-associated antigens (TAAs), as well as the corresponding autoantibodies, can be detected prior to clinical diagnosis, such high sensitivity of biosensors makes the early diagnosis and prognosis of cancer realizable. This review provides an overview of tumor-associated biomarker identifying methods and the biosensor technology available today. Laboratorial researches utilizing biosensors for early lung cancer diagnosis will be highlighted. PMID:23892596

  3. Screening for Breast Cancer: Detection and Diagnosis

    MedlinePlus

    ... page please turn JavaScript on. Feature: Screening For Breast Cancer Detection and Diagnosis Past Issues / Summer 2014 Table ... States Preventive Services Task Force updated recommendations on breast cancer screening, suggesting that women ages 50 to 74 ...

  4. Early diagnosis of lung cancer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saccomanno, Geno; Bechtel, Joel J.

    1991-06-01

    Lung cancer remains the leading cause of death in the United States. Although the incidence of cigarette smoking is decreasing in the United States it appears to be increasing worldwide. The five-year survival rate has not improved in cases with advanced disease, but several articles have indicated that survival can be improved in cases diagnosed early by sputum cytology and chest x-ray. In cases diagnosed while the lesion is in the in-situ stage or measures less than 1 cm in diameter, surgical excision and/or radiation therapy improves survival; therefore, the early diagnosis of high-risk patients should be vigorously pursued. A recent study at a community hospital in Grand Junction, Colorado, presented 45 lung cancer cases diagnosed with positive sputum cytology and negative chest x-ray, and indicates that early diagnosis does improve survival. This study has been conducted during the past six years; 16 cases have survived three years and six cases show five-year survival.

  5. Accurate telemonitoring of Parkinson's disease diagnosis using robust inference system.

    PubMed

    Mandal, Indrajit; Sairam, N

    2013-05-01

    This work presents more precise computational methods for improving the diagnosis of Parkinson's disease based on the detection of dysphonia. New methods are presented for enhanced evaluation and recognize Parkinson's disease affected patients at early stage. Analysis is performed with significant level of error tolerance rate and established our results with corrected T-test. Here new ensembles and other machine learning methods consisting of multinomial logistic regression classifier with Haar wavelets transformation as projection filter that outperform logistic regression is used. Finally a novel and reliable inference system is presented for early recognition of people affected by this disease and presents a new measure of the severity of the disease. Feature selection method is based on Support Vector Machines and ranker search method. Performance analysis of each model is compared to the existing methods and examines the main advancements and concludes with propitious results. Reliable methods are proposed for treating Parkinson's disease that includes sparse multinomial logistic regression, Bayesian network, Support Vector Machines, Artificial Neural Networks, Boosting methods and their ensembles. The study aim at improving the quality of Parkinson's disease treatment by tracking them and reinforce the viability of cost effective, regular and precise telemonitoring application.

  6. Ultrasound-guided core needle biopsy of the breast: does frozen section give an accurate diagnosis?

    PubMed

    Mueller-Holzner, Elisabeth; Frede, Thomas; Daniaux, Martin; Ban, Michael; Taucher, Susanne; Schneitter, Alois; Zeimet, Alain G; Marth, Christian

    2007-12-01

    Reducing the period of uncertainty between the discovery of a breast tumor and histological diagnosis alleviates the psychological impact of breast cancer to an important degree. We aimed to verify whether histological results obtained with frozen sections of core needle biopsies (CNBs) offer an accurate and reliable tool for minimising this period. In 2619 cases we compared histological diagnosis on frozen sections with those on paraffin sections of CNB and finally with the results of open biopsies. Of the cases 49% were proved malignant and 51% benign. In 99.3% of the malignant lesions preceding CNB was correctly classified as B5 (n = 1185, 92.9%) or at least B4 (n = 82, 6.4%) in frozen and in paraffin sections. There were seven false-negative cases in frozen (false-negative rate = 0.5%) and five false-negative cases (false-negative rate = 0.4%) in paraffin sections of CNB. On frozen sections complete sensitivity was 99.5% and the positive predictive value of B5 was 99.9%. There was one false-positive case in frozen sections and one in paraffin sections. False-positive rate = 0.08%, negative predictive value for B2 = 99.4% for frozen and 99.6% for paraffin sections; full specificity was 85.9 for frozen and 85.8 for paraffin sections of CNBs. Immediate investigation of CNB in frozen sections is an accurate diagnostic method and an important step in reducing psychological strain on patients with breast tumors and may be offered by specialised Breast Assessment Units.

  7. Potential screening and early diagnosis method for cancer: Tongue diagnosis

    PubMed Central

    HAN, SHUWEN; YANG, XI; QI, QUAN; PAN, YUEFEN; CHEN, YONGCHAO; SHEN, JUNJUN; LIAO, HAIHONG; JI, ZHAONING

    2016-01-01

    Tongue diagnosis, as a unique method of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), was used to discriminate physiological functions and pathological conditions by observing the changes of the tongue and tongue coating. The aims of the present study were to explore a potential screening and early diagnosis method of cancer through evaluating the differences of the images of tongue and tongue coating and the microbiome on the tongue coating. The DS01-B tongue diagnostic information acquisition system was used to photograph and analyze the tongue and tongue coating. The next-generation sequencing technology was used to determine the V2-V4 hypervariable regions of 16S rDNA to investigate the microbiome on the tongue coating. Bioinformatics and statistical methods were used to analyze the microbial community structure and diversity. Comparing with the healthy people, the number of mirror-like tongue, thick tongue coating and the moisture of tongue were increased in cancers. The dominant color of the tongue in the healthy people was reddish while it was purple in the cancers. The relative abundance of Neisseria, Haemophilus, Fusobacterium and Porphyromonas in the healthy people were higher than that in the cancers. We also found 6 kinds of special microorganisms at species level in cancers. The study suggested that tongue diagnosis may provide potential screening and early diagnosis method for cancer. PMID:27035407

  8. Potential screening and early diagnosis method for cancer: Tongue diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Han, Shuwen; Yang, Xi; Qi, Quan; Pan, Yuefen; Chen, Yongchao; Shen, Junjun; Liao, Haihong; Ji, Zhaoning

    2016-06-01

    Tongue diagnosis, as a unique method of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), was used to discriminate physiological functions and pathological conditions by observing the changes of the tongue and tongue coating. The aims of the present study were to explore a potential screening and early diagnosis method of cancer through evaluating the differences of the images of tongue and tongue coating and the microbiome on the tongue coating. The DS01-B tongue diagnostic information acquisition system was used to photograph and analyze the tongue and tongue coating. The next-generation sequencing technology was used to determine the V2-V4 hypervariable regions of 16S rDNA to investigate the microbiome on the tongue coating. Bioinformatics and statistical methods were used to analyze the microbial community structure and diversity. Comparing with the healthy people, the number of mirror-like tongue, thick tongue coating and the moisture of tongue were increased in cancers. The dominant color of the tongue in the healthy people was reddish while it was purple in the cancers. The relative abundance of Neisseria, Haemophilus, Fusobacterium and Porphyromonas in the healthy people were higher than that in the cancers. We also found 6 kinds of special microorganisms at species level in cancers. The study suggested that tongue diagnosis may provide potential screening and early diagnosis method for cancer.

  9. Childhood injury after a parental cancer diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Chen, Ruoqing; Regodón Wallin, Amanda; Sjölander, Arvid; Valdimarsdóttir, Unnur; Ye, Weimin; Tiemeier, Henning; Fall, Katja; Almqvist, Catarina; Czene, Kamila; Fang, Fang

    2015-10-31

    A parental cancer diagnosis is psychologically straining for the whole family. We investigated whether a parental cancer diagnosis is associated with a higher-than-expected risk of injury among children by using a Swedish nationwide register-based cohort study. Compared to children without parental cancer, children with parental cancer had a higher rate of hospital contact for injury during the first year after parental cancer diagnosis (hazard ratio [HR] = 1.27, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.22-1.33), especially when the parent had a comorbid psychiatric disorder after cancer diagnosis (HR = 1.41, 95% CI = 1.08-1.85). The rate increment declined during the second and third year after parental cancer diagnosis (HR = 1.10, 95% CI = 1.07-1.14) and became null afterwards (HR = 1.01, 95% CI = 0.99-1.03). Children with parental cancer also had a higher rate of repeated injuries than the other children (HR = 1.13, 95% CI = 1.12-1.15). Given the high rate of injury among children in the general population, our findings may have important public health implications.

  10. Silicon nanostructures for cancer diagnosis and therapy.

    PubMed

    Peng, Fei; Cao, Zhaohui; Ji, Xiaoyuan; Chu, Binbin; Su, Yuanyuan; He, Yao

    2015-01-01

    The emergence of nanotechnology suggests new and exciting opportunities for early diagnosis and therapy of cancer. During the recent years, silicon-based nanomaterials featuring unique properties have received great attention, showing high promise for myriad biological and biomedical applications. In this review, we will particularly summarize latest representative achievements on the development of silicon nanostructures as a powerful platform for cancer early diagnosis and therapy. First, we introduce the silicon nanomaterial-based biosensors for detecting cancer markers (e.g., proteins, tumor-suppressor genes and telomerase activity, among others) with high sensitivity and selectivity under molecular level. Then, we summarize in vitro and in vivo applications of silicon nanostructures as efficient nanoagents for cancer therapy. Finally, we discuss the future perspective of silicon nanostructures for cancer diagnosis and therapy.

  11. Histoplasmosis and skin lesions in HIV: a safe and accurate diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Moreno-Coutiño, Gabriela; Hernández-Castro, Rigoberto; Toussaint-Caire, Sonia; Montiel-Robles, Melisa; Sánchez-Pérez, Fiama Selene; Xicohtencatl-Cortés, Juan

    2015-07-01

    Human histoplasmosis is caused by the dimorphic fungus Histoplasma capsulatum. This infection can run asymptomatic or be life-threatening, depending fundamentally on the host's immune status. Immunocompromised patients can present disseminated disease to the skin, making the biopsy an accessible approach. The current diagnosis gold standard is fungal culture which takes several days or weeks to grow and must be handled in a biosafe laboratory which is avoided if we use the technique here described. We propose the use of molecular biology for diagnosis confirmation, considering it can shorten diagnosis lapse, has good specificity and sensitivity and reduces the risk of infection for the medical and laboratory personnel. Seven paraffin-embedded skin biopsy samples were included from patients with confirmed HIV and histoplasmosis diagnosis. Total DNA was isolated and molecular typing of H. capsulatum var. capsulatum. All samples were positive. This is a safe and accurate method for skin histoplasmosis diagnosis.

  12. Diagnosis | Cancer Trends Progress Report

    Cancer.gov

    The Cancer Trends Progress Report, first issued in 2001, summarizes our nation's advances against cancer in relation to Healthy People targets set forth by the Department of Health and Human Services.

  13. [Oral cavity cancer: epidemiology and early diagnosis].

    PubMed

    Ghantous, Y; Yaffi, V; Abu-Elnaaj, I

    2015-07-01

    Cancer of the oral cavity (Oral cancer) is the 11th most common malignancy in the world, despite the general global trend of a slight decrease in the incidence of oral cancer, tongue cancer incidence is increasing. About 90% of tumors are subtyped to oral Squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). The incidence and mortality of this tumor shows variability according to the geographic location in which it is diagnosed, however in the last decade an increase was seen in the percentage of young patients, especially patients with tongue cancer. The overall prognosis of this cancer is roughly 55-65%, this is probably due to late diagnosis. Early diagnosis of oral cancer is the most important factor affecting the overall survival and prognosis, thus several diagnosis methods have been developed in the past few years. Still, the prognosis did not improve as expected. Oral cancer biomarkers in saliva is as easy body fluid, for noninvasive detection. Several researches identified several possible biomarkers, but none was specific. In our review, the incidence and mortality of oral tumors pose a main health problem in many aspects all around the world, as well as differences in behavior of these tumors. We witnessed more cases of anterior tongue cancers affecting mainly the young age patient group, a two decades younger than the normal risk group of oral cancer. Several countries in Europe showed a significant increase of oral cancer prevalence, such as Germany, especially in men. Similar behavior was also reported in the United States, which showed a change in the risk groups. Studies have reported an alarming lack of awareness about oral cancer, its symptoms and early diagnosis. These gaps in knowledge need to be addressed by further public education, possibly targeted at high-risk groups. With the knowledge of possible, specific, early biomarkers, primary detection could improve the prognosis tremendously. Research on the salivary biomarkers of the disease would help to develop

  14. The early diagnosis of lung cancer

    PubMed Central

    Deeley, T. J.

    1972-01-01

    Earlier diagnosis of malignant disease in the lung may bring about improvements in the treatment. This article discusses the effects of early diagnosis on the prognosis. Cancer of the lung may be associated with other lung pathology, thus increasing the problems of diagnosis. Diagnosis depends on radiological examination, cytology of the sputum, radio-isotope lung scanning and mediastinoscopy: an account is given of how these may be used to diagnose the condition whilst it is still at an early stage and suitable for radical treatment. PMID:4552427

  15. Serum Protein Profile at Remission Can Accurately Assess Therapeutic Outcomes and Survival for Serous Ovarian Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Ghamande, Sharad A.; Bush, Stephen; Ferris, Daron; Zhi, Wenbo; He, Mingfang; Wang, Meiyao; Wang, Xiaoxiao; Miller, Eric; Hopkins, Diane; Macfee, Michael; Guan, Ruili; Tang, Jinhai; She, Jin-Xiong

    2013-01-01

    Background Biomarkers play critical roles in early detection, diagnosis and monitoring of therapeutic outcome and recurrence of cancer. Previous biomarker research on ovarian cancer (OC) has mostly focused on the discovery and validation of diagnostic biomarkers. The primary purpose of this study is to identify serum biomarkers for prognosis and therapeutic outcomes of ovarian cancer. Experimental Design Forty serum proteins were analyzed in 70 serum samples from healthy controls (HC) and 101 serum samples from serous OC patients at three different disease phases: post diagnosis (PD), remission (RM) and recurrence (RC). The utility of serum proteins as OC biomarkers was evaluated using a variety of statistical methods including survival analysis. Results Ten serum proteins (PDGF-AB/BB, PDGF-AA, CRP, sFas, CA125, SAA, sTNFRII, sIL-6R, IGFBP6 and MDC) have individually good area-under-the-curve (AUC) values (AUC = 0.69–0.86) and more than 10 three-marker combinations have excellent AUC values (0.91–0.93) in distinguishing active cancer samples (PD & RC) from HC. The mean serum protein levels for RM samples are usually intermediate between HC and OC patients with active cancer (PD & RC). Most importantly, five proteins (sICAM1, RANTES, sgp130, sTNFR-II and sVCAM1) measured at remission can classify, individually and in combination, serous OC patients into two subsets with significantly different overall survival (best HR = 17, p<10−3). Conclusion We identified five serum proteins which, when measured at remission, can accurately predict the overall survival of serous OC patients, suggesting that they may be useful for monitoring the therapeutic outcomes for ovarian cancer. PMID:24244307

  16. Clinical Diagnosis of Thyroid Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Staunton, M. D.; Greening, W. P.

    1973-01-01

    In a survey of 293 patients with carcinoma of the thyroid, a goitre or enlarged lymph nodes in the neck were the commonest symptoms and a mass confined to one lobe the commonest sign. Hardness of the mass was an important diagnostic feature, and at least two-thirds of the tumour could be recognized before operation. It is suggested that the preoperative evaluation of thyroid swellings should be classified as benign, cancer suspected, and cancer probable. PMID:4800743

  17. Epigenetics in diagnosis of colorectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Sameer, Aga Syed; Nissar, Saniya

    2016-03-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is a third most common epithelial carcinoma. CRC is known to develop from the early precancerous lesion to full blown malignancy via definite phases due to cumulative mutations and aberrant methylation of number of genes. The use of serum biomarkers that is non-invasive to discriminate cancer patients from healthy persons will prove to be an important tool to improve the early diagnosis of CRC. This will serve as the boon to the clinical management of the disease.

  18. Odontoma-associated tooth impaction: accurate diagnosis with simple methods? Case report and literature review.

    PubMed

    Troeltzsch, Matthias; Liedtke, Jan; Troeltzsch, Volker; Frankenberger, Roland; Steiner, Timm; Troeltzsch, Markus

    2012-10-01

    Odontomas account for the largest fraction of odontogenic tumors and are frequent causes of tooth impaction. A case of a 13-year-old female patient with an odontoma-associated impaction of a mandibular molar is presented with a review of the literature. Preoperative planning involved simple and convenient methods such as clinical examination and panoramic radiography, which led to a diagnosis of complex odontoma and warranted surgical removal. The clinical diagnosis was confirmed histologically. Multidisciplinary consultation may enable the clinician to find the accurate diagnosis and appropriate therapy based on the clinical and radiographic appearance. Modern radiologic methods such as cone-beam computed tomography or computed tomography should be applied only for special cases, to decrease radiation.

  19. Diagnosis of breast cancer biopsies using quantitative phase imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Majeed, Hassaan; Kandel, Mikhail E.; Han, Kevin; Luo, Zelun; Macias, Virgilia; Tangella, Krishnarao; Balla, Andre; Popescu, Gabriel

    2015-03-01

    The standard practice in the histopathology of breast cancers is to examine a hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) stained tissue biopsy under a microscope. The pathologist looks at certain morphological features, visible under the stain, to diagnose whether a tumor is benign or malignant. This determination is made based on qualitative inspection making it subject to investigator bias. Furthermore, since this method requires a microscopic examination by the pathologist it suffers from low throughput. A quantitative, label-free and high throughput method for detection of these morphological features from images of tissue biopsies is, hence, highly desirable as it would assist the pathologist in making a quicker and more accurate diagnosis of cancers. We present here preliminary results showing the potential of using quantitative phase imaging for breast cancer screening and help with differential diagnosis. We generated optical path length maps of unstained breast tissue biopsies using Spatial Light Interference Microscopy (SLIM). As a first step towards diagnosis based on quantitative phase imaging, we carried out a qualitative evaluation of the imaging resolution and contrast of our label-free phase images. These images were shown to two pathologists who marked the tumors present in tissue as either benign or malignant. This diagnosis was then compared against the diagnosis of the two pathologists on H&E stained tissue images and the number of agreements were counted. In our experiment, the agreement between SLIM and H&E based diagnosis was measured to be 88%. Our preliminary results demonstrate the potential and promise of SLIM for a push in the future towards quantitative, label-free and high throughput diagnosis.

  20. Photodynamic Diagnosis and Therapy of Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Subiel, Anna

    2010-01-05

    This paper gives brief information about photodynamic method used in diagnosis and therapy for cancer and other human body disorders. In particular it concentrates on detection and analysis of fluorescent dye, i.e. protoporphyrin IX (PpIX) and its two-photon excitation (TPE) process, which offers photodynamic method many fascinating possibilities.

  1. Diagnosis and Management of Gallbladder Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Andrén-Sandberg, Åke

    2012-01-01

    Gallbladder cancer (GBC) is a rather uncommon disease, but at the time when it gives symptoms it has usually reached no longer curable stage. Therefore, all attempts must be made to make the diagnosis earlier to have better opportunity for cure. The author searched PubMed, and reviewed literatures on diagnoses and treatment of GBC. PMID:22866265

  2. Nanotechnologies in cancer treatment and diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Morris, Stephanie A; Farrell, Dorothy; Grodzinski, Piotr

    2014-12-01

    Despite significant efforts toward research and treatment development, cancer continues to be a major health problem in the United States that is only further enhanced by the heterogeneous nature of the disease. Nanotechnology has evolved as a technology with applications to medicine and the potential to improve clinical outcomes, with its application to cancer garnering much attention recently. In particular, through the generation of novel nanoscale devices and therapeutic platforms, nanotechnologies have emerged as innovative approaches that enable the detection and diagnosis of cancer at its earliest stages, and the delivery of anticancer drugs directly to tumors. This article highlights recent advances in the development of nanotechnologies for cancer therapeutics and diagnostics, and focuses on the potential future of cancer nanotechnology and the challenges this young field faces as it continues to move toward clinical translation.

  3. Understanding health anxiety following breast cancer diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Jones, Shannon L; Hadjistavropoulos, Heather D; Gullickson, Kirsten

    2014-01-01

    Health anxiety is a persistent fear of illness or disease that often involves the misinterpretation of bodily symptoms as signs of serious illness. Evidence shows that health anxiety affects a proportion of women following a diagnosis of breast cancer, but there are some limitations to how health anxiety has been measured. The objectives of this study were to (1) provide an estimate of clinically elevated health anxiety in women after a diagnosis of breast cancer using a validated measure appropriate for medical populations and (2) understand patient, disease, and anxiety/vulnerability variables that predict health anxiety in this group. Canadian women (n = 137) diagnosed with breast cancer within the past five years completed an online survey measuring health anxiety, along with patient, disease, and anxiety/vulnerability variables. Clinically significant health anxiety was reported by 23.4% of the sample. The regression model revealed that younger age, more advanced stage of breast cancer, increased cognitive anxiety sensitivity, and greater body vigilance were significant unique predictors of health anxiety. These findings highlight that a proportion of women report substantial health anxiety following breast cancer diagnosis, with a combination of patient, disease, and anxiety/vulnerability variables associated with the experience. Further research is needed to better understand the impact of health anxiety in this population.

  4. Multiclass cancer diagnosis using tumor gene expression signatures

    DOE PAGES

    Ramaswamy, S.; Tamayo, P.; Rifkin, R.; ...

    2001-12-11

    The optimal treatment of patients with cancer depends on establishing accurate diagnoses by using a complex combination of clinical and histopathological data. In some instances, this task is difficult or impossible because of atypical clinical presentation or histopathology. To determine whether the diagnosis of multiple common adult malignancies could be achieved purely by molecular classification, we subjected 218 tumor samples, spanning 14 common tumor types, and 90 normal tissue samples to oligonucleotide microarray gene expression analysis. The expression levels of 16,063 genes and expressed sequence tags were used to evaluate the accuracy of a multiclass classifier based on a supportmore » vector machine algorithm. Overall classification accuracy was 78%, far exceeding the accuracy of random classification (9%). Poorly differentiated cancers resulted in low-confidence predictions and could not be accurately classified according to their tissue of origin, indicating that they are molecularly distinct entities with dramatically different gene expression patterns compared with their well differentiated counterparts. Taken together, these results demonstrate the feasibility of accurate, multiclass molecular cancer classification and suggest a strategy for future clinical implementation of molecular cancer diagnostics.« less

  5. Multiclass cancer diagnosis using tumor gene expression signatures

    SciTech Connect

    Ramaswamy, S.; Tamayo, P.; Rifkin, R.; Mukherjee, S.; Yeang, C. -H.; Angelo, M.; Ladd, C.; Reich, M.; Latulippe, E.; Mesirov, J. P.; Poggio, T.; Gerald, W.; Loda, M.; Lander, E. S.; Golub, T. R.

    2001-12-11

    The optimal treatment of patients with cancer depends on establishing accurate diagnoses by using a complex combination of clinical and histopathological data. In some instances, this task is difficult or impossible because of atypical clinical presentation or histopathology. To determine whether the diagnosis of multiple common adult malignancies could be achieved purely by molecular classification, we subjected 218 tumor samples, spanning 14 common tumor types, and 90 normal tissue samples to oligonucleotide microarray gene expression analysis. The expression levels of 16,063 genes and expressed sequence tags were used to evaluate the accuracy of a multiclass classifier based on a support vector machine algorithm. Overall classification accuracy was 78%, far exceeding the accuracy of random classification (9%). Poorly differentiated cancers resulted in low-confidence predictions and could not be accurately classified according to their tissue of origin, indicating that they are molecularly distinct entities with dramatically different gene expression patterns compared with their well differentiated counterparts. Taken together, these results demonstrate the feasibility of accurate, multiclass molecular cancer classification and suggest a strategy for future clinical implementation of molecular cancer diagnostics.

  6. Diagnostic yield of blood clot culture in the accurate diagnosis of enteric fever and human brucellosis.

    PubMed

    Mantur, Basappa G; Bidari, Laxman H; Akki, Aravind S; Mulimani, Mallanna S; Tikare, Nitin V

    2007-01-01

    Culture of blood is the most frequent, accurate means of diagnosing bacteremia in enteric fever and brucellosis. However, conventional blood culturing is slow in isolating bacteria causing these diseases. In this work, we evaluated the performance of blood clot culture and conventional whole blood cultures in the accurate diagnosis of enteric fever (253 cases) and human brucellosis (71cases). The blood clot culture was found to be much more sensitive for both Salmonella (more by 34.4%, P< 0.001) and Brucella (more by 22.6%, P<0.001) than whole blood culture. Bacterial growth was significantly faster in cultures of blood clot compared to whole blood (1.1 versus 2.6 days for Salmonella, 3.1 versus 8.2 days for Brucella melitensis, respectively). The rapid confirmation of the etiological agent would facilitate an early institution of appropriate antimicrobial therapy, thereby reducing clinical morbidity especially in an endemic population. It is worthwile practicing blood clot culture for the accurate diagnosis of enteric fever and brucellosis in developing countries where diagnostic facilities by advanced technologies like automated culture systems and PCR are not available.

  7. Open lung biopsy: a safe, reliable and accurate method for diagnosis in diffuse lung disease.

    PubMed

    Shah, S S; Tsang, V; Goldstraw, P

    1992-01-01

    The ideal method for obtaining lung tissue for diagnosis should provide high diagnostic yield with low morbidity and mortality. We reviewed all 432 patients (mean age 55 years) who underwent an open lung biopsy at this hospital over a 10-year period. Twenty-four patients (5.5%) were immunocompromised. One hundred and twenty-five patients were on steroid therapy at the time of operation. Open lung biopsy provided a firm diagnosis in 410 cases overall (94.9%) and in 20 out of 24 patients in the immunocompromised group (83.3%). The commonest diagnosis was cryptogenic fibrosing alveolitis (173 patients). Twenty-two patients (5.1%) suffered complications following the procedure: wound infection 11 patients, pneumothorax 9 patients and haemothorax 1 patient. Thirteen patients (3.0%) died following open lung biopsy, but in only 1 patient was the death attributable to the procedure itself. We conclude that open lung biopsy is an accurate and safe method for establishing a diagnosis in diffuse lung disease with a high yield and minimal risk.

  8. Breath sensors for lung cancer diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Adiguzel, Yekbun; Kulah, Haluk

    2015-03-15

    The scope of the applications of breath sensors is abundant in disease diagnosis. Lung cancer diagnosis is a well-fitting health-related application of this technology, which is of utmost importance in the health sector, because lung cancer has the highest death rate among all cancer types, and it brings a high yearly global burden. The aim of this review is first to provide a rational basis for the development of breath sensors for lung cancer diagnostics from a historical perspective, which will facilitate the transfer of the idea into the rapidly evolving sensors field. Following examples with diagnostic applications include colorimetric, composite, carbon nanotube, gold nanoparticle-based, and surface acoustic wave sensor arrays. These select sensor applications are widened by the state-of-the-art developments in the sensors field. Coping with sampling sourced artifacts and cancer staging are among the debated topics, along with the other concerns like proteomics approaches and biomimetic media utilization, feature selection for data classification, and commercialization.

  9. Biomarkers for early diagnosis of pancreatic cancer.

    PubMed

    Jenkinson, Claire; Earl, Julie; Ghaneh, Paula; Halloran, Christopher; Carrato, Alfredo; Greenhalf, William; Neoptolemos, John; Costello, Eithne

    2015-03-01

    Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma is an aggressive malignancy with a 5-year survival rate of approximately 5%. The lack of established strategies for early detection contributes to this poor prognosis. Although several novel candidate biomarkers have been proposed for earlier diagnosis, none have been adopted into routine clinical use. In this review, the authors examine the challenges associated with finding new pancreatic cancer diagnostic biomarkers and explore why translation of biomarker research for patient benefit has thus far failed. The authors also review recent progress and highlight advances in the understanding of the biology of pancreatic cancer that may lead to improvements in biomarker detection and implementation.

  10. Epigenetics in diagnosis of colorectal cancer

    PubMed Central

    Sameer, Aga Syed; Nissar, Saniya

    2016-01-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is a third most common epithelial carcinoma. CRC is known to develop from the early precancerous lesion to full blown malignancy via definite phases due to cumulative mutations and aberrant methylation of number of genes. The use of serum biomarkers that is non-invasive to discriminate cancer patients from healthy persons will prove to be an important tool to improve the early diagnosis of CRC. This will serve as the boon to the clinical management of the disease. PMID:27844020

  11. Summary Report on the Graded Prognostic Assessment: An Accurate and Facile Diagnosis-Specific Tool to Estimate Survival for Patients With Brain Metastases

    PubMed Central

    Sperduto, Paul W.; Kased, Norbert; Roberge, David; Xu, Zhiyuan; Shanley, Ryan; Luo, Xianghua; Sneed, Penny K.; Chao, Samuel T.; Weil, Robert J.; Suh, John; Bhatt, Amit; Jensen, Ashley W.; Brown, Paul D.; Shih, Helen A.; Kirkpatrick, John; Gaspar, Laurie E.; Fiveash, John B.; Chiang, Veronica; Knisely, Jonathan P.S.; Sperduto, Christina Maria; Lin, Nancy; Mehta, Minesh

    2012-01-01

    Purpose Our group has previously published the Graded Prognostic Assessment (GPA), a prognostic index for patients with brain metastases. Updates have been published with refinements to create diagnosis-specific Graded Prognostic Assessment indices. The purpose of this report is to present the updated diagnosis-specific GPA indices in a single, unified, user-friendly report to allow ease of access and use by treating physicians. Methods A multi-institutional retrospective (1985 to 2007) database of 3,940 patients with newly diagnosed brain metastases underwent univariate and multivariate analyses of prognostic factors associated with outcomes by primary site and treatment. Significant prognostic factors were used to define the diagnosis-specific GPA prognostic indices. A GPA of 4.0 correlates with the best prognosis, whereas a GPA of 0.0 corresponds with the worst prognosis. Results Significant prognostic factors varied by diagnosis. For lung cancer, prognostic factors were Karnofsky performance score, age, presence of extracranial metastases, and number of brain metastases, confirming the original Lung-GPA. For melanoma and renal cell cancer, prognostic factors were Karnofsky performance score and the number of brain metastases. For breast cancer, prognostic factors were tumor subtype, Karnofsky performance score, and age. For GI cancer, the only prognostic factor was the Karnofsky performance score. The median survival times by GPA score and diagnosis were determined. Conclusion Prognostic factors for patients with brain metastases vary by diagnosis, and for each diagnosis, a robust separation into different GPA scores was discerned, implying considerable heterogeneity in outcome, even within a single tumor type. In summary, these indices and related worksheet provide an accurate and facile diagnosis-specific tool to estimate survival, potentially select appropriate treatment, and stratify clinical trials for patients with brain metastases. PMID:22203767

  12. From Femtosecond Dynamics to Breast Cancer Diagnosis by Raman Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abramczyk, H.; Placek, I.; BroŻek-Płuska, B.; Kurczewski, K.; Morawiec, Z.; Tazbir, M.

    2007-12-01

    This paper presents new results based on Raman spectroscopy and demonstrates its utilisation as a diagnostic and development tool with the key advantage in breast cancer research. Applications of Raman spectroscopy in cancer research are in the early stages of development. However, research presented here as well as performed in a few other laboratories demonstrate the ability of Raman spectroscopy to accurately characterize cancer tissue and distinguish between normal, malignant and benign types. The main goals of bio-Raman spectroscopy at this stage are threefold. Firstly, the aim is to develop the diagnostic ability of Raman spectroscopy so it can be implemented in a clinical environment, producing accurate and rapid diagnoses. Secondly, the aim is to optimize the technique as a diagnostic tool for the non-invasive real time medical applications. Thirdly, the aim is to formulate some hypothesis based on Raman spectroscopy on the molecular mechanism which drives the transformation of normal human cells into highly malignant derivatives. To the best of our knowledge, this is the most statistically reliable report on Raman spectroscopy-based diagnosis of breast cancers among the world women population.

  13. From Femtosecond Dynamics to Breast Cancer Diagnosis by Raman Spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Abramczyk, H.; Placek, I.; Brozek-Pluska, B.; Kurczewski, K.; Morawiec, Z.; Tazbir, M.

    2007-12-26

    This paper presents new results based on Raman spectroscopy and demonstrates its utilisation as a diagnostic and development tool with the key advantage in breast cancer research. Applications of Raman spectroscopy in cancer research are in the early stages of development. However, research presented here as well as performed in a few other laboratories demonstrate the ability of Raman spectroscopy to accurately characterize cancer tissue and distinguish between normal, malignant and benign types. The main goals of bio-Raman spectroscopy at this stage are threefold. Firstly, the aim is to develop the diagnostic ability of Raman spectroscopy so it can be implemented in a clinical environment, producing accurate and rapid diagnoses. Secondly, the aim is to optimize the technique as a diagnostic tool for the non-invasive real time medical applications. Thirdly, the aim is to formulate some hypothesis based on Raman spectroscopy on the molecular mechanism which drives the transformation of normal human cells into highly malignant derivatives. To the best of our knowledge, this is the most statistically reliable report on Raman spectroscopy-based diagnosis of breast cancers among the world women population.

  14. Collagen, type XI, alpha 1: an accurate marker for differential diagnosis of breast carcinoma invasiveness in core needle biopsies.

    PubMed

    Freire, Javier; Domínguez-Hormaetxe, Saioa; Pereda, Saray; De Juan, Ana; Vega, Alfonso; Simón, Laureano; Gómez-Román, Javier

    2014-12-01

    Accurate diagnosis of invasive breast lesions, when analyzed by Core Needle Biopsy, may suppose a major challenge for the pathologist. Various markers of invasiveness such as laminin, S-100 protein, P63 or calponin have been described; however, none of them is completely reliable. The use of a specific marker of the infiltrating tumor microenvironment seems vital to support the diagnosis of invasive against in situ lesions. At this point, Collagen, type XI, alpha 1 (COL11A1), might be helpful since it has been described to be associated to cancer associated fibroblasts in other tumors such as lung, pancreas or colorectal. This paper aims to analyze the role of COL11A1 as a marker of invasiveness in breast tumor lesions. Two hundred and one breast Core Needle Biopsy samples were analyzed by immunohistochemistry against pro-COL11A1. The results show a significant difference (p < 0.0001) when comparing the expression in infiltrative tumors (93%) versus immunostaining of non-invasive lesions (4%). Forty cases of underestimated DCIS were also stained for COL11A1, presenting a sensitivity of 90% when compared with p63 and calponin which not tagged invasion. In conclusion, pro-COL11A1 expression is a promising marker of invasive breast lesions, and may be included in immunohistochemical panels aiming at identifying infiltration in problematic breast lesions.

  15. Detailed behavioral assessment promotes accurate diagnosis in patients with disorders of consciousness

    PubMed Central

    Gilutz, Yael; Lazary, Avraham; Karpin, Hana; Vatine, Jean-Jacques; Misha, Tamar; Fortinsky, Hadassah; Sharon, Haggai

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Assessing the awareness level in patients with disorders of consciousness (DOC) is made on the basis of exhibited behaviors. However, since motor signs of awareness (i.e., non-reflex motor responses) can be very subtle, differentiating the vegetative from minimally conscious states (which is in itself not clear-cut) is often challenging. Even the careful clinician relying on standardized scales may arrive at a wrong diagnosis. Aim: To report our experience in tackling this problem by using two in-house use assessment procedures developed at Reuth Rehabilitation Hospital, and demonstrate their clinical significance by reviewing two cases. Methods: (1) Reuth DOC Response Assessment (RDOC-RA) –administered in addition to the standardized tools, and emphasizes the importance of assessing a wide range of motor responses. In our experience, in some patients the only evidence for awareness may be a private specific movement that is not assessed by standard assessment tools. (2) Reuth DOC Periodic Intervention Model (RDOC-PIM) – current literature regarding assessment and diagnosis in DOC refers mostly to the acute phase of up to 1 year post injury. However, we have found major changes in responsiveness occurring 1 year or more post-injury in many patients. Therefore, we conduct periodic assessments at predetermined times points to ensure patients are not misdiagnosed or neurological changes overlooked. Results: In the first case the RDOC-RA promoted a more accurate diagnosis than that based on standardized scales alone. The second case shows how the RDOC-PIM allowed us to recognize late recovery and promoted reinstatement of treatment with good results. Conclusion: Adding a detailed periodic assessment of DOC patients to existing scales can yield critical information, promoting better diagnosis, treatment, and clinical outcomes. We discuss the implications of this observation for the future development and validation of assessment tools in DOC patients

  16. Trends in Imaging after Thyroid Cancer Diagnosis

    PubMed Central

    Banerjee, Mousumi; Muenz, Daniel G.; Worden, Francis P.; Haymart, Megan R.

    2015-01-01

    Background The largest growth in differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC) diagnosis is in low-risk cancers. Trends in imaging after DTC diagnosis are understudied. Hypothesizing a reduction in imaging utilization due to rising low-risk disease, we evaluated post-diagnosis imaging patterns over time and patient characteristics that are associated with likelihood of imaging. Methods Using the Surveillance Epidemiology and End Results-Medicare database, we identified patients diagnosed with localized, regional or distant DTC between 1991 and 2009. We reviewed Medicare claims for neck ultrasound, I-131 scan, or PET scan within 3 years post-diagnosis. Using regression analyses we evaluated trends of imaging utilization. Multivariable logistic regression was used to estimate the likelihood of imaging based on patient characteristics. Results 23,669 patients were included. Patients diagnosed during 2001-2009, compared to 1991-2000, were more likely to have localized disease (p<0.001) and tumors less than 1cm (p<0.001). Use of neck ultrasound and I-131 scan increased in patients with localized disease (p=<0.001 and p=0.003, respectively), regional disease (p<0.001 and p<0.001), and distant metastasis (p=0.001 and p=0.015). Patients diagnosed after 2000 were more likely to undergo neck ultrasound (OR 2.15, 95% CI 2.02-2.28) and I-131 scan (OR 1.44, 95% CI 1.35-1.54). PET scan use from 2005-2009, compared to 1996-2004, increased 32.4-fold (p=<0.001) in localized patients, 13.1-fold (p<0.001) in regional disease patients, and 33.4-fold (p<0.001) in patients with distant DTC. Conclusion Despite a rise in low-risk disease, the use of post-diagnosis imaging increased in all stages of disease. The largest growth was in use of PET scan after 2004. PMID:25565063

  17. Autofluorescence spectroscopy for early diagnosis of cancer eye

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Majumder, Shovan K.; Ghosh, Nirmalya; Rathod, Sopan M.; Gupta, Pradeep K.

    2007-02-01

    We report an in-vitro autofluorescence spectroscopic study of cow eye tissue to explore the applicability of the approach in discriminating early stage "cancer eye" from normal squamous eye tissues. Significant differences were observed in the autofluorescence signatures between the "cancer eye" and normal eye tissues. The spectral differences were quantified by employing a probability-based diagnostic algorithm developed based on recently formulated theory of Relevance Vector Machine (RVM), a Bayesian machine-learning framework of statistical pattern recognition. The algorithm provided sensitivity and specificity values of 97 +/- 2% towards cancer for the training set data based on leave-one-out cross validation and a sensitivity of 97 +/- 2% and a specificity of 99 +/- 1% towards cancer for the independent validation set data. These results suggest that autofluorescence spectroscopy might prove to be a quantitative in-vivo diagnostic modality for early and accurate diagnosis of "cancer eye" in veterinary clinical setting, which would help improve ranch management from both economic and animal care standpoint.

  18. Simple, rapid and accurate molecular diagnosis of acute promyelocytic leukemia by loop mediated amplification technology.

    PubMed

    Spinelli, Orietta; Rambaldi, Alessandro; Rigo, Francesca; Zanghì, Pamela; D'Agostini, Elena; Amicarelli, Giulia; Colotta, Francesco; Divona, Mariadomenica; Ciardi, Claudia; Coco, Francesco Lo; Minnucci, Giulia

    2015-01-01

    The diagnostic work-up of acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) includes the cytogenetic demonstration of the t(15;17) translocation and/or the PML-RARA chimeric transcript by RQ-PCR or RT-PCR. This latter assays provide suitable results in 3-6 hours. We describe here two new, rapid and specific assays that detect PML-RARA transcripts, based on the RT-QLAMP (Reverse Transcription-Quenching Loop-mediated Isothermal Amplification) technology in which RNA retrotranscription and cDNA amplification are carried out in a single tube with one enzyme at one temperature, in fluorescence and real time format. A single tube triplex assay detects bcr1 and bcr3 PML-RARA transcripts along with GUS housekeeping gene. A single tube duplex assay detects bcr2 and GUSB. In 73 APL cases, these assays detected in 16 minutes bcr1, bcr2 and bcr3 transcripts. All 81 non-APL samples were negative by RT-QLAMP for chimeric transcripts whereas GUSB was detectable. In 11 APL patients in which RT-PCR yielded equivocal breakpoint type results, RT-QLAMP assays unequivocally and accurately defined the breakpoint type (as confirmed by sequencing). Furthermore, RT-QLAMP could amplify two bcr2 transcripts with particularly extended PML exon 6 deletions not amplified by RQ-PCR. RT-QLAMP reproducible sensitivity is 10(-3) for bcr1 and bcr3 and 10(-)2 for bcr2 thus making this assay particularly attractive at diagnosis and leaving RQ-PCR for the molecular monitoring of minimal residual disease during the follow up. In conclusion, PML-RARA RT-QLAMP compared to RT-PCR or RQ-PCR is a valid improvement to perform rapid, simple and accurate molecular diagnosis of APL.

  19. Simple, rapid and accurate molecular diagnosis of acute promyelocytic leukemia by loop mediated amplification technology

    PubMed Central

    Spinelli, Orietta; Rambaldi, Alessandro; Rigo, Francesca; Zanghì, Pamela; D'Agostini, Elena; Amicarelli, Giulia; Colotta, Francesco; Divona, Mariadomenica; Ciardi, Claudia; Coco, Francesco Lo; Minnucci, Giulia

    2015-01-01

    The diagnostic work-up of acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) includes the cytogenetic demonstration of the t(15;17) translocation and/or the PML-RARA chimeric transcript by RQ-PCR or RT-PCR. This latter assays provide suitable results in 3-6 hours. We describe here two new, rapid and specific assays that detect PML-RARA transcripts, based on the RT-QLAMP (Reverse Transcription-Quenching Loop-mediated Isothermal Amplification) technology in which RNA retrotranscription and cDNA amplification are carried out in a single tube with one enzyme at one temperature, in fluorescence and real time format. A single tube triplex assay detects bcr1 and bcr3 PML-RARA transcripts along with GUS housekeeping gene. A single tube duplex assay detects bcr2 and GUSB. In 73 APL cases, these assays detected in 16 minutes bcr1, bcr2 and bcr3 transcripts. All 81 non-APL samples were negative by RT-QLAMP for chimeric transcripts whereas GUSB was detectable. In 11 APL patients in which RT-PCR yielded equivocal breakpoint type results, RT-QLAMP assays unequivocally and accurately defined the breakpoint type (as confirmed by sequencing). Furthermore, RT-QLAMP could amplify two bcr2 transcripts with particularly extended PML exon 6 deletions not amplified by RQ-PCR. RT-QLAMP reproducible sensitivity is 10−3 for bcr1 and bcr3 and 10−2 for bcr2 thus making this assay particularly attractive at diagnosis and leaving RQ-PCR for the molecular monitoring of minimal residual disease during the follow up. In conclusion, PML-RARA RT-QLAMP compared to RT-PCR or RQ-PCR is a valid improvement to perform rapid, simple and accurate molecular diagnosis of APL. PMID:25815362

  20. The early diagnosis of lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Petty, T L

    2001-06-01

    Lung cancer is the most common fatal malignancy in both men and women, both in the United States and elsewhere in the world. Today, lung cancer is most often diagnosed on the basis of symptoms of advanced disease or when chest x-rays are taken for a variety of purposes unrelated to lung cancer detection. Unfortunately, in the United States no society or governmental agency recommends screening, even for patients with high risks, such as smokers with airflow obstruction or people with occupational exposures, including asbestos. The origins of this negative attitude toward lung cancer screening are found in 3 studies sponsored by the National Cancer Institute in the mid-1970s and conducted at Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, the Mayo Clinic, and the Memorial Sloan-Kettering Center. These studies concluded that early identification of lung cancer through chest x-rays and cytologic diagnosis of sputum did not alter disease-specific mortality. However, patients with earlier stage disease were found through screening, which resulted in a higher resectability rate and improved survival in the screening group compared with a control group of patients receiving ordinary care. Patients in the control group often received annual chest x-rays during the course of this study, which was the standard of care at the time. Thus no true nonscreening control group resulted. The patients at highest risk were not enrolled in this study. No specific amount of pack-years of smoking intensity was required. Only men were screened. The studies were inadequately powered to show an improvement in mortality rate of less than 50%. Ninety percent of lung cancer occurs in smokers. The prevalence of lung cancer is 4 to 6 times greater when smokers have airflow obstruction than with normal airflow, when all other background factors, including smoking history, occupational risk, and family history, are the same. Screening heavy smokers (ie, > or = 30 pack-years) with airflow obstruction

  1. Rapid and Accurate Diagnosis of Human Intestinal Spirochetosis by Fluorescence In Situ Hybridization▿

    PubMed Central

    Schmiedel, Dinah; Epple, Hans-Jörg; Loddenkemper, Christoph; Ignatius, Ralf; Wagner, Jutta; Hammer, Bettina; Petrich, Annett; Stein, Harald; Göbel, Ulf B.; Schneider, Thomas; Moter, Annette

    2009-01-01

    Human intestinal spirochetosis (HIS) is associated with overgrowth of the large intestine by spirochetes of the genus Brachyspira. The microbiological diagnosis of HIS is hampered by the fastidious nature and slow growth of Brachyspira spp. In clinical practice, HIS is diagnosed histopathologically, and a significant portion of cases may be missed. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) is a molecular method that allows the visualization and identification of single bacteria within tissue sections. In this study, we analyzed intestinal biopsy samples from five patients with possible HIS. All specimens yielded positive results by histopathological techniques. PCR amplification and sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene were performed. Sequences of two isolates clustered in the group of Brachyspira aalborgi, whereas in three cases, the sequences were highly similar to that of Brachyspira pilosicoli. Three phylotypes showed mismatches at distinct nucleotide positions with Brachyspira sp. sequences published previously. In addition, culture for Brachyspira was successful in three cases. On the basis of these data, we designed and evaluated a Brachyspira genus-specific 16S rRNA-directed FISH probe that detects all of the Brachyspira spp. published to date. FISH of biopsy samples resulted in strong, unequivocal signals of brush-like formations at the crypt surfaces. This technique allowed simultaneous visualization of single spirochetes and their identification as Brachyspira spp. In conclusion, FISH provides a fast and accurate technique for the visualization and identification of intestinal spirochetes in tissue sections. It therefore represents a valuable tool for routine diagnosis of HIS. PMID:19279178

  2. Fiber diffraction of skin and nails provides an accurate diagnosis of malignancies

    SciTech Connect

    James, Veronica J.

    2009-10-21

    An early diagnosis of malignancies correlates directly with a better prognosis. Yet for many malignancies there are no readily available, noninvasive, cost-effective diagnostic tests with patients often presenting too late for effective treatment. This article describes for the first time the use of fiber diffraction patterns of skin or fingernails, using X-ray sources, as a biometric diagnostic method for detecting neoplastic disorders including but not limited to melanoma, breast, colon and prostate cancers. With suitable further development, an early low-cost, totally noninvasive yet reliable diagnostic test could be conducted on a regular basis in local radiology facilities, as a confirmatory test for other diagnostic procedures or as a mass screening test using suitable small angle X-ray beam-lines at synchrotrons.

  3. A 2015 survey of established or potential epigenetic biomarkers for the accurate detection of human cancers.

    PubMed

    Amacher, David E

    2016-07-01

    Context The silencing or activation of cancer-associated genes by epigenetic mechanisms can ultimately lead to the clonal expansion of cancer cells. Objective The aim of this review is to summarize all relevant epigenetic biomarkers that have been proposed to date for the diagnosis of some prevalent human cancers. Methods A Medline search for the terms epigenetic biomarkers, human cancers, DNA methylation, histone modifications and microRNAs was performed. Results One hundred fifty-seven relevant publications were found and reviewed. Conclusion To date, a significant number of potential epigenetic cancer biomarkers of human cancer have been investigated, and some have advanced to clinical implementation.

  4. An adaptive online learning framework for practical breast cancer diagnosis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chu, Tianshu; Wang, Jie; Chen, Jiayu

    2016-03-01

    This paper presents an adaptive online learning (OL) framework for supporting clinical breast cancer (BC) diagnosis. Unlike traditional data mining, which trains a particular model from a fixed set of medical data, our framework offers robust OL models that can be updated adaptively according to new data sequences and newly discovered features. As a result, our framework can naturally learn to perform BC diagnosis using experts' opinions on sequential patient cases with cumulative clinical measurements. The framework integrates both supervised learning (SL) models for BC risk assessment and reinforcement learning (RL) models for decision-making of clinical measurements. In other words, online SL and RL interact with one another, and under a doctor's supervision, push the patient's diagnosis further. Furthermore, our framework can quickly update relevant model parameters based on current diagnosis information during the training process. Additionally, it can build flexible fitted models by integrating different model structures and plugging in the corresponding parameters during the prediction (or decision-making) process. Even when the feature space is extended, it can initialize the corresponding parameters and extend the existing model structure without loss of the cumulative knowledge. We evaluate the OL framework on real datasets from BCSC and WBC, and demonstrate that our SL models achieve accurate BC risk assessment from sequential data and incremental features. We also verify that the well-trained RL models provide promising measurement suggestions.

  5. Use of shear waves for diagnosis and ablation monitoring of prostate cancer: a feasibility study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gomez, A.; Rus, G.; Saffari, N.

    2016-01-01

    Prostate cancer remains as a major healthcare issue. Limitations in current diagnosis and treatment monitoring techniques imply that there is still a need for improvements. The efficacy of prostate cancer diagnosis is still low, generating under and over diagnoses. High intensity focused ultrasound ablation is an emerging treatment modality, which enables the noninvasive ablation of pathogenic tissue. Clinical trials are being carried out to evaluate its longterm efficacy as a focal treatment for prostate cancer. Successful treatment of prostate cancer using non-invasive modalities is critically dependent on accurate diagnostic means and is greatly benefited by a real-time monitoring system. While magnetic resonance imaging remains the gold standard for prostate imaging, its wider implementation for prostate cancer diagnosis remains prohibitively expensive. Conventional ultrasound is currently limited to guiding biopsy. Elastography techniques are emerging as a promising real-time imaging method, as cancer nodules are usually stiffer than adjacent healthy prostatic tissue. In this paper, a new transurethral approach is proposed, using shear waves for diagnosis and ablation monitoring of prostate cancer. A finite-difference time domain model is developed for studying the feasibility of the method, and an inverse problem technique based on genetic algorithms is proposed for reconstructing the location, size and stiffness parameters of the tumour. Preliminary results indicate that the use of shear waves for diagnosis and monitoring ablation of prostate cancer is feasible.

  6. Colorectal cancer diagnosis: Pitfalls and opportunities

    PubMed Central

    Vega, Pablo; Valentín, Fátima; Cubiella, Joaquín

    2015-01-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is a major health problem in the Western world. The diagnostic process is a challenge in all health systems for many reasons: There are often no specific symptoms; lower abdominal symptoms are very common and mostly related to non-neoplastic diseases, not CRC; diagnosis of CRC is mainly based on colonoscopy, an invasive procedure; and the resource for diagnosis is usually scarce. Furthermore, the available predictive models for CRC are based on the evaluation of symptoms, and their diagnostic accuracy is limited. Moreover, diagnosis is a complex process involving a sequence of events related to the patient, the initial consulting physician and the health system. Understanding this process is the first step in identifying avoidable factors and reducing the effects of diagnostic delay on the prognosis of CRC. In this article, we describe the predictive value of symptoms for CRC detection. We summarize the available evidence concerning the diagnostic process, as well as the factors implicated in its delay and the methods proposed to reduce it. We describe the different prioritization criteria and predictive models for CRC detection, specifically addressing the two-week wait referral guideline from the National Institute of Clinical Excellence in terms of efficacy, efficiency and diagnostic accuracy. Finally, we collected information on the usefulness of biomarkers, specifically the faecal immunochemical test, as non-invasive diagnostic tests for CRC detection in symptomatic patients. PMID:26690833

  7. Diagnosis of Primary Cancer of the Liver

    PubMed Central

    Kew, M. C.; Dos Santos, H. A.; Sherlock, Sheila

    1971-01-01

    The diagnosis of primary cancer of the liver was reviewed in 75 patients. A definitive diagnosis was made during life in 63% and in a further 20% this condition was suspected though histological confirmation was obtained only at necropsy. The most common presenting complaints were abdominal pain and weight loss and the most frequent findings hepatomegaly and ascites. Less than one-half of the patients were jaundiced and when present it was usually mild. An arterial bruit was heard over the liver in 25% of the patients. A sudden and unexplained deterioration in a patient known to have cirrhosis or haemochromatosis should raise the possibility of a primary hepatic tumour; this occurred in 24% of our patients. Alpha-fetoprotein was found in the serum of 11 out of 18 cases. The presence of a mass in the liver was frequently confirmed by liver scan, portal venography, or hepatic arteriography, but these showed no features diagnostic of a primary tumour. Liver scan also proved useful in localizing the lesion for biopsy purposes. Definitive diagnosis is dependent on the histological demonstration of the features of the tumour. This can frequently be achieved by percutaneous needle biopsy, which was positive in 38 out of 57 patients. Wedge biopsies were positive in a further nine patients. PMID:5124443

  8. ACE-I Angioedema: Accurate Clinical Diagnosis May Prevent Epinephrine-Induced Harm

    PubMed Central

    Curtis, R. Mason; Felder, Sarah; Borici-Mazi, Rozita; Ball, Ian

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Upper airway angioedema is a life-threatening emergency department (ED) presentation with increasing incidence. Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor induced angioedema (AAE) is a non-mast cell mediated etiology of angioedema. Accurate diagnosis by clinical examination can optimize patient management and reduce morbidity from inappropriate treatment with epinephrine. The aim of this study is to describe the incidence of angioedema subtypes and the management of AAE. We evaluate the appropriateness of treatments and highlight preventable iatrogenic morbidity. Methods We conducted a retrospective chart review of consecutive angioedema patients presenting to two tertiary care EDs between July 2007 and March 2012. Results Of 1,702 medical records screened, 527 were included. The cause of angioedema was identified in 48.8% (n=257) of cases. The most common identifiable etiology was AAE (33.1%, n=85), with a 60.0% male predominance. The most common AAE management strategies included diphenhydramine (63.5%, n=54), corticosteroids (50.6%, n=43) and ranitidine (31.8%, n=27). Epinephrine was administered in 21.2% (n=18) of AAE patients, five of whom received repeated doses. Four AAE patients required admission (4.7%) and one required endotracheal intubation. Epinephrine induced morbidity in two patients, causing myocardial ischemia or dysrhythmia shortly after administration. Conclusion AAE is the most common identifiable etiology of angioedema and can be accurately diagnosed by physical examination. It is easily confused with anaphylaxis and mismanaged with antihistamines, corticosteroids and epinephrine. There is little physiologic rationale for epinephrine use in AAE and much risk. Improved clinical differentiation of mast cell and non-mast cell mediated angioedema can optimize patient management. PMID:27330660

  9. Improving fluorescence diagnosis of cancer by SLIM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rück, Angelika; Dolp, Frank; Kinzler, Ingrid; Hauser, Carmen; Scalfi-Happ, Claudia

    2006-02-01

    Although during the last years, significant progress was made in cancer diagnosis, using either intrinsic or specially designed fluorophores, still problems exist, due to difficulties in spectral separation of highly overlapping probes or in lack of specificity. Many of the problems could be circumvented by focusing on time-resolved methods. In combination with spectral resolved detection (spectral fluorescence lifetime imaging, SLIM) highly sophisticated fluorescence lifetime imaging can be performed which might improve specificity of cell diagnosis. To record lifetime images (τ-mapping) with spectral resolution a setup was realized consisting of a laser scanning microscope equipped with a 16 channel array for time-correlated single photon counting (TCSPC) and a spectrograph in front of the array. A Ti:Saphir laser can be used for excitation or alternatively ps diode lasers. With this system the time- and spectral-resolved fluorescence characteristics of different fluorophores were investigated in solution and in cell culture. As an example, not only the mitochondria staining dye rhodamine 123 could be easily distinguished from DAPI, which intercalates into nucleic acids, but also different binding sites of DAPI. This was proved by the appearance of different lifetime components within different spectral channels. Another example is Photofrin, a photosensitizer which is approved for bladder cancer and for palliative lung and esophageal cancer in 20 countries, including the United States, Canada and many European countries. Photofrin is a complex mixture of different monomeric and aggregated porphyrins. The phototoxic efficiency during photodynamic therapy (PDT) seems to be correlated with the relative amounts of monomers and aggregates. With SLIM different lifetimes could be attributed to various, spectrally highly overlapping compounds. In addition, a detailed analysis of the autofluorescence by SLIM could explain changes of mitochondrial metabolism during

  10. Human bladder cancer diagnosis using multiphoton microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mukherjee, Sushmita; Wysock, James S.; Ng, Casey K.; Akhtar, Mohammed; Perner, Sven; Lee, Ming-Ming; Rubin, Mark A.; Maxfield, Frederick R.; Webb, Watt W.; Scherr, Douglas S.

    2009-02-01

    At the time of diagnosis, approximately 75% of bladder cancers are non-muscle invasive. Appropriate diagnosis and surgical resection at this stage improves prognosis dramatically. However, these lesions, being small and/or flat, are often missed by conventional white-light cystoscopes. Furthermore, it is difficult to assess the surgical margin for negativity using conventional cystoscopes. Resultantly, the recurrence rates in patients with early bladder cancer are very high. This is currently addressed by repeat cystoscopies and biopsies, which can last throughout the life of a patient, increasing cost and patient morbidity. Multiphoton endoscopes offer a potential solution, allowing real time, noninvasive biopsies of the human bladder, as well as an up-close assessment of the resection margin. While miniaturization of the Multiphoton microscope into an endoscopic format is currently in progress, we present results here indicating that Multiphoton imaging (using a bench-top Multiphoton microscope) can indeed identify cancers in fresh, unfixed human bladder biopsies. Multiphoton images are acquired in two channels: (1) broadband autofluorescence from cells, and (2) second harmonic generation (SHG), mostly by tissue collagen. These images are then compared with gold standard hematoxylin/eosin (H&E) stained histopathology slides from the same specimen. Based on a "training set" and a very small "blinded set" of samples, we have found excellent correlation between the Multiphoton and histopathological diagnoses. A larger blinded analysis by two independent uropathologists is currently in progress. We expect that the conclusion of this phase will provide us with diagnostic accuracy estimates, as well as the degree of inter-observer heterogeneity.

  11. New use of prescription drugs prior to a cancer diagnosis

    PubMed Central

    Hallas, Jesper

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Purpose Cancers often have considerable induction periods. This confers a risk of reverse causation bias in studies of cancer risk associated with drug use, as early symptoms of a yet undiagnosed cancer might lead to drug treatment in the period leading up to the diagnosis. This bias can be alleviated by disregarding exposure for some time before the cancer diagnosis (lag time). We aimed at assessing the duration of lag time needed to avoid reverse causation bias. Methods We identified all Danish patients with incident cancer between 2000 and 2012 (n = 353 087). Incident use of prescription drugs was assessed prior to their cancer diagnosis as well as among population controls (n = 1 402 400). Analyses were conducted for all cancers and for breast, lung, colon and prostate cancer individually. Further, analyses were performed for a composite measure of all incident drug use as well as for nine pre‐specified individual drug classes, representing drug treatment likely to be prescribed for symptoms of the given cancers. Results The incidence rate for new drug treatment among cancer cases was stable around 130 per 1000 persons per month until 6 months prior to cancer diagnosis where it increased gradually and peaked at 434 in the month immediately preceding the cancer diagnosis. Considerable variation was observed among cancers, for example, breast cancer showed almost no such effect. The pre‐selected drug classes showed a stronger increase prior to cancer diagnoses than drugs overall. Conclusions Incident use of drugs increases in the months prior to a cancer diagnosis. To avoid reverse causation, 6 months' lag time would be sufficient for most drug‐cancer associations. © 2016 The Authors. Pharmacoepidemiology and Drug Safety published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. PMID:27889931

  12. Real-time in vivo cancer diagnosis using Raman spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wenbo; Zhao, Jianhua; Short, Michael; Zeng, Haishan

    2015-07-01

    Raman spectroscopy has becoming a practical tool for rapid in vivo tissue diagnosis. This paper provides an overview on the latest development of real-time in vivo Raman systems for cancer detection. Instrumentation, data handling, as well as oncology applications of Raman techniques were covered. Optic fiber probes designs for Raman spectroscopy were discussed. Spectral data pre-processing, feature extraction, and classification between normal/benign and malignant tissues were surveyed. Applications of Raman techniques for clinical diagnosis for different types of cancers, including skin cancer, lung cancer, stomach cancer, oesophageal cancer, colorectal cancer, cervical cancer, and breast cancer, were summarized. Schematic of a real-time Raman spectrometer for skin cancer detection. Without correction, the image captured on CCD camera for a straight entrance slit has a curvature. By arranging the optic fiber array in reverse orientation, the curvature could be effectively corrected.

  13. Proteomics in diagnosis of prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Davalieva, K; Polenakovic, M

    2015-01-01

    Prostate cancer (PCa) is the second most frequently diagnosed malignancy in men worldwide. The introduction of prostate specific antigen (PSA) has greatly increased the number of men diagnosed with PCa but at the same time, as a result of the low specificity, led to overdiagnosis, resulting to unnecessary biopsies and high medical cost treatments. The primary goal in PCa research today is to find a biomarker or biomarker set for clear and effecttive diagnosis of PCa as well as for distinction between aggressive and indolent cancers. Different proteomic technologies such as 2-D PAGE, 2-D DIGE, MALDI MS profiling, shotgun proteomics with label-based (ICAT, iTRAQ) and label-free (SWATH) quantification, MudPIT, CE-MS have been applied to the study of PCa in the past 15 years. Various biological samples, including tumor tissue, serum, plasma, urine, seminal plasma, prostatic secretions and prostatic-derived exosomes were analyzed with the aim of identifying diagnostic and prognostic biomarkers and developing a deeper understanding of the disease at the molecular level. This review is focused on the overall analysis of expression proteomics studies in the PCa field investigating all types of human samples in the search for diagnostics biomarkers. Emphasis is given on proteomics platforms used in biomarker discovery and characterization, explored sources for PCa biomarkers, proposed candidate biomarkers by comparative proteomics studies and the possible future clinical application of those candidate biomarkers in PCa screening and diagnosis. In addition, we review the specificity of the putative markers and existing challenges in the proteomics research of PCa.

  14. New serum biomarkers for prostate cancer diagnosis

    PubMed Central

    Chadha, Kailash C.; Miller, Austin; Nair, Bindukumar B.; Schwartz, Stanley A.; Trump, Donald L.; Underwood, Willie

    2014-01-01

    Background Prostate-specific antigen (PSA) is currently used as a biomarker for diagnosis and management of prostate cancer (CaP). However, PSA typically lacks the sensitivity and specificity desired of a diagnostic marker. Objective The goal of this study was to identify an additional biomarker or a panel of biomarkers that is more sensitive and specific than PSA in differentiating benign versus malignant prostate disease and/or localized CaP versus metastatic CaP. Methods Concurrent measurements of circulating interleukin-8 (IL-8), Tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and soluble tumor necrosis factor-α receptors 1 (sTNFR1) were obtained from four groups of men: (1) Controls (2) with elevated prostate-specific antigen with a negative prostate biopsy (elPSA_negBx) (3) with clinically localized CaP and (4) with castration resistant prostate cancer. Results TNF-α Area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC = 0.93) and sTNFR1 (AUC = 0.97) were strong predictors of elPSA_negBx (vs. CaP). The best predictor of elPSA_negBx vs CaP was sTNFR1 and IL-8 combined (AUC = 0.997). The strongest single predictors of localized versus metastatic CaP were TNF-α (AUC = 0.992) and PSA (AUC = 0.963) levels. Conclusions The specificity and sensitivity of a PSA-based CaP diagnosis can be significantly enhanced by concurrent serum measurements of IL-8, TNF-α and sTNFR1. In view of the concerns about the ability of PSA to distinguish clinically relevant CaP from indolent disease, assessment of these biomarkers in the larger cohort is warranted. PMID:25593898

  15. MicroRNAs in Testicular Cancer Diagnosis and Prognosis.

    PubMed

    Ling, Hui; Krassnig, Lisa; Bullock, Marc D; Pichler, Martin

    2016-02-01

    Testicular cancer processes a unique and clear miRNA expression signature. This differentiates testicular cancer from most other cancer types, which are usually more ambiguous when assigning miRNA patterns. As such, testicular cancer may represent a unique cancer type in which miRNAs find their use as biomarkers for cancer diagnosis and prognosis, with a potential to surpass the current available markers usually with low sensitivity. In this review, we present literature findings on miRNAs associated with testicular cancer, and discuss their potential diagnostic and prognostic values, as well as their potential as indicators of drug response in patients with testicular cancer.

  16. NEW DEVELOPMENTS IN THE DIAGNOSIS AND TREATMENT OF THYROID CANCER

    PubMed Central

    Schneider, David F.; Chen, Herbert

    2013-01-01

    Thyroid cancer exists in several forms. Differentiated thyroid cancers include papillary and follicular histologies. These tumors exist along a spectrum of differentiation, and their incidence continues to climb. A number of advances in the diagnosis and treatment of differentiated thyroid cancers now exist. These include molecular diagnostics and more advanced strategies for risk stratification. Medullary cancer arises from the parafollicular cells and not the follicular cells. Therefore, diagnosis and treatment differs from differentiated thyroid tumors. Genetic testing and newer adjuvant therapies has changed the diagnosis and treatment of medullary thyroid cancer. This review will focus on the epidemiology, diagnosis, work-up, and treatment of both differentiated and medullary thyroid cancers, focusing specifically on newer developments in the field. PMID:23797834

  17. Luminescent Silica Nanoparticles for cancer diagnosis

    PubMed Central

    Montalti, Marco; Petrizza, Luca; Rampazzo, Enrico; Zaccheroni, Nelsi; Marchiò, Serena

    2015-01-01

    Fluorescence imaging techniques are becoming essential in preclinical investigations, and the research of suitable tools for in vivo measurements is gaining more and more importance and attention. Nanotechnology entered the field to try to find solutions for many limitation at the state of the art, and luminescent nanoparticles (NPs) are one of the most promising materials proposed for future diagnostic implementation. NPs constitute also a versatile platform that can allow facile multi-functionalization to perform multimodal imaging or theranostic (simultaneous diagnosis and therapy). In this contribution we have focussed our attention only on dye doped silica or silica-based NPs conjugated with targeting moieties to enable specific cancer cells imaging and differentiation, even if also a few non targeted systems have been cited and discussed for completeness. We have summarized common synthetic approaches to these materials and then surveyed the most recent imaging applications of silica-based nanoparticles in cancer. The field of theranostic is so important and stimulating that, even if it is not the central topic of this paper, we have included some significant examples. We have then concluded with short hints on systems already in clinical trials and examples of specific applications in children tumours. This review tries to describe and discuss, through focussed examples, the great potentialities of these materials in the medical field, with the aim to encourage further research to implement applications that are still rare. PMID:23458621

  18. Diagnosis of Jejunal Metastases from Lung Cancer Using Capsule Endoscopy

    PubMed Central

    Leduc, Charlotte; Prim, Nathalie; Mennecier, Bertrand; Delvaux, Michel; Gangi, Afshin; Quoix, Elisabeth

    2016-01-01

    Gastrointestinal metastases from lung cancer are rare and usually asymptomatic. We report a case of small bowel metastases from primary lung cancer revealed by abdominal pain and severe recurrent anaemia. The diagnosis was obtained with capsule endoscopy. This non-invasive procedure thus represents a valuable method contributing to a rapid and detailed diagnosis while reducing underdiagnosis, and it should thus be considered for lung cancer patients complaining of abdominal symptoms, which may indeed be related to gastrointestinal metastases. PMID:27790115

  19. Psychosocial impact of a cancer diagnosis during pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Harrison, Paige

    2013-10-01

    Although a rare occurrence, cancer is sometimes diagnosed during or shortly after pregnancy. This article reviews two recent studies that specifically examine the psychosocial impact of a cancer diagnosis during pregnancy. Researchers have identified risk factors that may exacerbate women's anxiety, stress or distress during these co-occurring events. Nurses are in a unique position to support women dealing with a cancer diagnosis during pregnancy.

  20. Diagnosis of Jejunal Metastases from Lung Cancer Using Capsule Endoscopy.

    PubMed

    Leduc, Charlotte; Prim, Nathalie; Mennecier, Bertrand; Delvaux, Michel; Gangi, Afshin; Quoix, Elisabeth

    2016-01-01

    Gastrointestinal metastases from lung cancer are rare and usually asymptomatic. We report a case of small bowel metastases from primary lung cancer revealed by abdominal pain and severe recurrent anaemia. The diagnosis was obtained with capsule endoscopy. This non-invasive procedure thus represents a valuable method contributing to a rapid and detailed diagnosis while reducing underdiagnosis, and it should thus be considered for lung cancer patients complaining of abdominal symptoms, which may indeed be related to gastrointestinal metastases.

  1. CRAFT: Multimodality confocal skin imaging for early cancer diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Peng, Tong; Xie, Hao; Ding, Yichen; Wang, Weichao; Li, Zhiming; Jin, Dayong; Tang, Yuanhe; Ren, Qiushi; Xi, Peng

    2012-05-01

    Although histological analysis serves as a gold standard to cancer diagnosis, its application on skin cancer detection is largely prohibited due to its invasive nature. To obtain both the structural and pathological information in situ, a Confocal Reflectance/Auto-Fluorescence Tomography (CRAFT) system was established to examine the skin sites in vivo with both reflectance and autofluorescence modes simultaneously. Nude mice skin with cancerous sites and normal skin sites were imaged and compared with the system. The cellular density and reflective intensity in cancerous sites reflects the structural change of the tissue. With the decay coefficient analysis, the corresponding NAD(P)H decay index for cancerous sites is 1.65-fold that of normal sites, leading to a 97.8% of sensitivity and specificity for early cancer diagnosis. The results are verified by the followed histological analysis. Therefore, CRAFT may provide a novel method for the in vivo, non-invasive diagnosis of early cancer.

  2. Development and Validation of a Highly Accurate Quantitative Real-Time PCR Assay for Diagnosis of Bacterial Vaginosis

    PubMed Central

    Smith, William L.; Chadwick, Sean G.; Toner, Geoffrey; Mordechai, Eli; Adelson, Martin E.; Aguin, Tina J.; Sobel, Jack D.

    2016-01-01

    Bacterial vaginosis (BV) is the most common gynecological infection in the United States. Diagnosis based on Amsel's criteria can be challenging and can be aided by laboratory-based testing. A standard method for diagnosis in research studies is enumeration of bacterial morphotypes of a Gram-stained vaginal smear (i.e., Nugent scoring). However, this technique is subjective, requires specialized training, and is not widely available. Therefore, a highly accurate molecular assay for the diagnosis of BV would be of great utility. We analyzed 385 vaginal specimens collected prospectively from subjects who were evaluated for BV by clinical signs and Nugent scoring. We analyzed quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) assays on DNA extracted from these specimens to quantify nine organisms associated with vaginal health or disease: Gardnerella vaginalis, Atopobium vaginae, BV-associated bacteria 2 (BVAB2, an uncultured member of the order Clostridiales), Megasphaera phylotype 1 or 2, Lactobacillus iners, Lactobacillus crispatus, Lactobacillus gasseri, and Lactobacillus jensenii. We generated a logistic regression model that identified G. vaginalis, A. vaginae, and Megasphaera phylotypes 1 and 2 as the organisms for which quantification provided the most accurate diagnosis of symptomatic BV, as defined by Amsel's criteria and Nugent scoring, with 92% sensitivity, 95% specificity, 94% positive predictive value, and 94% negative predictive value. The inclusion of Lactobacillus spp. did not contribute sufficiently to the quantitative model for symptomatic BV detection. This molecular assay is a highly accurate laboratory tool to assist in the diagnosis of symptomatic BV. PMID:26818677

  3. Survival rate after emergency diagnosis of cancer is 'shocking'.

    PubMed

    2015-12-01

    ONE QUARTER of patients diagnosed with cancer after attending a London emergency department will die within two months, latest research suggests. Study author Kathy Pritchard-Jones, chief medical officer for London Cancer, said the 'shocking figures' confirm that early diagnosis makes a huge difference to the chances of surviving cancer.

  4. Cancer Diagnosis: 11 Tips for Coping

    MedlinePlus

    ... Ask your doctor about support groups in your area or contact your local chapter of the American Cancer Society. Online message boards also bring cancer survivors together. Start with the American Cancer Society's Cancer Survivors Network. Some old stigmas associated with cancer still exist. ...

  5. Gastric Cancer with Peritoneal Tuberculosis: Challenges in Diagnosis and Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Alshahrani, Amer Saeed

    2016-01-01

    Herein, we report a 39-year-old female patient presenting with gastric cancer and tuberculous peritonitis. The differential diagnosis between advanced gastric cancer with peritoneal carcinomatosis and early gastric cancer with peritoneal tuberculosis (TB), and the treatment of these two diseases, were challenging in this case. Physicians should have a high index of suspicion for peritoneal TB if the patient has a history of this disease, especially in areas with a high incidence of TB, such as South Korea. An early diagnosis is critical for patient management and prognosis. A surgical approach including tissue biopsy or laparoscopic exploration is recommended to confirm the diagnosis. PMID:27433397

  6. The impact of patient comorbidity on cancer stage at diagnosis

    PubMed Central

    Gurney, Jason; Sarfati, Diana; Stanley, James

    2015-01-01

    Background: It is known that cancer stage is affected by comorbidity, but the evidence regarding the magnitude and even direction of this effect is highly inconsistent and poorly understood. The aims of this study were to establish the impact of comorbidity on cancer stage at diagnosis, using both specific individual comorbid conditions and a global measure of comorbidity; and to assess whether this impact varied by cancer site, level of comorbidity burden and individual comorbidity type. Methods: We examined comorbidity among 14 096 patients with breast, colon, rectal, liver, stomach, ovarian, uterine, bladder or kidney cancer. Patients were identified from cancer registry data, and then linked to hospitalisation data to determine the presence of comorbidity in the 5 years preceding cancer diagnosis. Individual comorbid conditions were identified using ICD-10 codes, and overall burden of comorbidity attributed using a cancer-specific measure of comorbidity (C3 Index). Results: We observed that the presence of patient comorbidity (a) increases the odds of being diagnosed with distant metastases, (b) does not lead to earlier diagnosis and (c) increases the likelihood of a patient receiving no stage of disease at diagnosis. Conclusions: Patient comorbidity has a substantial impact on cancer stage at diagnosis; however, this impact varies considerably by cancer type, individual comorbid condition and overall comorbidity burden. PMID:26461060

  7. Race and Socioeconomic Status as Confounding Variables in the Accurate Diagnosis of Alcoholism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luepnitz, Roy R.; And Others

    1982-01-01

    Studied the incidence of bias related to race and socioeconomic status which could confound the diagnosis of alcoholism. Graduate psychology students made a diagnosis based on videotapes. Results indicated lower socioeconomic class individuals were more often diagnosed correctly for alcoholism, and Blacks were diagnosed alcoholic more often than…

  8. Synchronous gynecologic cancer and the use of imaging for diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Boaventura, Camila Silva; Galvão, José Lucas Scarpinetti; Soares, Giovanna Milanes Bego; Bitencourt, Almir Galvão Vieira; Chojniak, Rubens; Bringel, Shenia Lauanna Rezende; Brot, Louise De

    2016-04-01

    Endometrial and cervical cancers are the most prevalent gynecologic neoplasms. While endometrial cancer occurs in older women, cervical cancer is more prevalente in young subjects. The most common clinical manifestation in these two gynecological cancers is vaginal bleeding. In the first case, diagnosis is made based on histological and imaging evaluation of the endometrium, while cervical cancers are diagnosed clinically, according to the International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics (FIGO). The authors present a case of synchronous gynecological cancer of the endometrium and cervix diagnosed during staging on MRI and confirmed by histological analysis of the surgical specimen.

  9. Experiences of cancer patients in Poland throughout diagnosis and treatment.

    PubMed

    Godlewski, D; Adamczak, M; Wojtyś, P

    2017-03-01

    Previous studies have failed to explain why the mortality rate of cancer patients is higher in Poland than other countries in the European Union. We aimed to evaluate the health care system in Poland during the diagnosis and treatment of cancer. In this multicentre study, 125 cancer patients treated at 15 centres across Poland participated in focus group interviews in 2014. We identified and assessed crucial elements that affect a patients' experience from the early onset of symptoms, through to diagnosis and treatment. We found that the majority of patients were dissatisfied with the length of time taken to diagnose cancer. Throughout diagnosis, treatment and follow-up, patients reported a lack of communication from health care professionals. While dealings with oncologists and medical staff were viewed favourably, patients felt the cancer centres were not well organised. Patients recommended that having one doctor in charge of an individual's treatment and follow-up would improve patient care and well-being. A late cancer diagnosis may be contributing to the high mortality rate observed in Poland. In the future, new policies should be developed to reduce the time to cancer diagnosis, increase communication with health care professionals and improve the organisation of cancer care for patients.

  10. Computer modeling of lung cancer diagnosis-to-treatment process.

    PubMed

    Ju, Feng; Lee, Hyo Kyung; Osarogiagbon, Raymond U; Yu, Xinhua; Faris, Nick; Li, Jingshan

    2015-08-01

    We introduce an example of a rigorous, quantitative method for quality improvement in lung cancer care-delivery. Computer process modeling methods are introduced for lung cancer diagnosis, staging and treatment selection process. Two types of process modeling techniques, discrete event simulation (DES) and analytical models, are briefly reviewed. Recent developments in DES are outlined and the necessary data and procedures to develop a DES model for lung cancer diagnosis, leading up to surgical treatment process are summarized. The analytical models include both Markov chain model and closed formulas. The Markov chain models with its application in healthcare are introduced and the approach to derive a lung cancer diagnosis process model is presented. Similarly, the procedure to derive closed formulas evaluating the diagnosis process performance is outlined. Finally, the pros and cons of these methods are discussed.

  11. Computer modeling of lung cancer diagnosis-to-treatment process

    PubMed Central

    Ju, Feng; Lee, Hyo Kyung; Osarogiagbon, Raymond U.; Yu, Xinhua; Faris, Nick

    2015-01-01

    We introduce an example of a rigorous, quantitative method for quality improvement in lung cancer care-delivery. Computer process modeling methods are introduced for lung cancer diagnosis, staging and treatment selection process. Two types of process modeling techniques, discrete event simulation (DES) and analytical models, are briefly reviewed. Recent developments in DES are outlined and the necessary data and procedures to develop a DES model for lung cancer diagnosis, leading up to surgical treatment process are summarized. The analytical models include both Markov chain model and closed formulas. The Markov chain models with its application in healthcare are introduced and the approach to derive a lung cancer diagnosis process model is presented. Similarly, the procedure to derive closed formulas evaluating the diagnosis process performance is outlined. Finally, the pros and cons of these methods are discussed. PMID:26380181

  12. Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy via Plasmonic and Carbonaceous Nanostructures for the Detection, Diagnosis and Treatment of Cancer Part 1: Diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Darrigues, Emilie; Nima, Zeid A; Majeed, Waquar; Vang, Kieng Bao; Dantuluri, Vijayalakshmi; Biris, Alexandru R; Zharov, Vladimir; Griffin, Robert J; Biris, Alexandru S

    2017-03-07

    Spectroscopic techniques including Raman, photothermal, photoacoustic, have been intensively studied for the accurate and fast detection of diseases, such as cancer. Additionally, due to the drastic, rapid advances in computer science and the intense use of various multifunctional nanosystems in the medical field, surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) and Raman spectroscopy have developed quickly as new tools for fundamental analysis in biochemical science and as a new imaging method to aid in early, efficient cancer diagnosis. This review focuses on the major recent advances in Raman instrumentation and the improvement of Raman and SERS substrates that have moved this technology from a proof-of-concept tool to a viable technique. The translation, dissemination, and validation of future Raman and nanosubstrate developments are also discussed, with a focus on their role in cancer diagnostics improvement.

  13. Development and Validation of a Highly Accurate Quantitative Real-Time PCR Assay for Diagnosis of Bacterial Vaginosis.

    PubMed

    Hilbert, David W; Smith, William L; Chadwick, Sean G; Toner, Geoffrey; Mordechai, Eli; Adelson, Martin E; Aguin, Tina J; Sobel, Jack D; Gygax, Scott E

    2016-04-01

    Bacterial vaginosis (BV) is the most common gynecological infection in the United States. Diagnosis based on Amsel's criteria can be challenging and can be aided by laboratory-based testing. A standard method for diagnosis in research studies is enumeration of bacterial morphotypes of a Gram-stained vaginal smear (i.e., Nugent scoring). However, this technique is subjective, requires specialized training, and is not widely available. Therefore, a highly accurate molecular assay for the diagnosis of BV would be of great utility. We analyzed 385 vaginal specimens collected prospectively from subjects who were evaluated for BV by clinical signs and Nugent scoring. We analyzed quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) assays on DNA extracted from these specimens to quantify nine organisms associated with vaginal health or disease:Gardnerella vaginalis,Atopobium vaginae, BV-associated bacteria 2 (BVAB2, an uncultured member of the orderClostridiales),Megasphaeraphylotype 1 or 2,Lactobacillus iners,Lactobacillus crispatus,Lactobacillus gasseri, andLactobacillus jensenii We generated a logistic regression model that identifiedG. vaginalis,A. vaginae, andMegasphaeraphylotypes 1 and 2 as the organisms for which quantification provided the most accurate diagnosis of symptomatic BV, as defined by Amsel's criteria and Nugent scoring, with 92% sensitivity, 95% specificity, 94% positive predictive value, and 94% negative predictive value. The inclusion ofLactobacillusspp. did not contribute sufficiently to the quantitative model for symptomatic BV detection. This molecular assay is a highly accurate laboratory tool to assist in the diagnosis of symptomatic BV.

  14. Accurate Diagnosis of Severe Hypospadias Using 2D and 3D Ultrasounds

    PubMed Central

    López Ramón y Cajal, Carlos; Marín Ortiz, Elena; Sarmiento Carrera, Nerea

    2016-01-01

    The hypospadias is the most common urogenital anomaly of male neonates but the prenatal diagnosis of this is often missed before birth. We present the prenatal diagnosis of a severe penoscrotal hypospadias using 2D and 3D ultrasounds. 3D sonography allowed us the best evaluation of the genitals and their anatomical relations. This ample detailed study allowed us to show the findings to the parents and the pediatric surgeon and to configure the best information about the prognosis and surgical treatment. PMID:27774326

  15. The costs of breast cancer prior to and following diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Broekx, Steven; Den Hond, Elly; Torfs, Rudi; Remacle, Anne; Mertens, Raf; D'Hooghe, Thomas; Neven, Patrick; Christiaens, Marie-Rose; Simoens, Steven

    2011-08-01

    This retrospective incidence-based cost-of-illness analysis aims to quantify the costs associated with female breast cancer in Flanders for the year prior to diagnosis and for each of the 5 years following diagnosis. A bottom-up analysis from the societal perspective included direct health care costs and indirect costs of productivity loss due to morbidity and premature mortality. A case-control study design compared total costs of breast cancer patients with costs of an equivalent standardised population with a view to calculating the additional costs that can be attributed to breast cancer. Total average costs of breast cancer amounted to 107,456 per patient over 6 years. Total costs consisted of productivity loss costs (89% of costs) and health care costs (11% of costs). Health care costs did not vary with age at diagnosis. Health care costs of breast cancer patients converged with those of the general population at 5 years following diagnosis. Patients with advanced breast cancer stadia had higher health care costs. Cost estimates provided by this analysis can be used to determine priorities for, and inform, future research on breast cancer. In particular, attention needs to be focussed on decreasing productivity loss from breast cancer.

  16. Coping with a Breast Cancer Diagnosis

    MedlinePlus

    ... Be patient. Coping with breast cancer requires time, acceptance, a fighting spirit and support. Many people also ... is to get rid of the cancer and offer the best possible chance of survival. But even ...

  17. Stage at Diagnosis | Cancer Trends Progress Report

    Cancer.gov

    The Cancer Trends Progress Report, first issued in 2001, summarizes our nation's advances against cancer in relation to Healthy People targets set forth by the Department of Health and Human Services.

  18. The Pursuit of Noninvasive Diagnosis of Lung Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Atwater, Thomas; Cook, Christine M.; Massion, Pierre P.

    2017-01-01

    The noninvasive diagnosis of lung cancer remains a formidable challenge. Although tissue diagnosis will remain the gold standard for the foreseeable future, questions pertaining to the risks and costs associated with invasive diagnostic procedures are of prime relevance. This review addresses new modalities for improving the noninvasive evaluation of suspicious lung nodules. Ultimately, the goal is to translate early diagnosis into early treatment. We discuss how biomarkers could assist in distinguishing benign from malignant nodules and aggressive from indolent tumors. The field of biomarkers is rapidly expanding and progressing, and efforts are well underway to apply molecular diagnostics to address the shortcomings of current lung cancer diagnostic tools. PMID:27732989

  19. A subset polynomial neural networks approach for breast cancer diagnosis.

    PubMed

    O'Neill, T J; Penm, Jack; Penm, Jonathan

    2007-01-01

    Breast cancer is a very common and serious cancer for women that is diagnosed in one of every eight Australian women before the age of 85. The conventional method of breast cancer diagnosis is mammography. However, mammography has been reported to have poor diagnostic capability. In this paper we have used subset polynomial neural network techniques in conjunction with fine needle aspiration cytology to undertake this difficult task of predicting breast cancer. The successful findings indicate that adoption of NNs is likely to lead to increased survival of women with breast cancer, improved electronic healthcare, and enhanced quality of life.

  20. A Fluorescent Tile DNA Diagnocode System for In Situ Rapid and Selective Diagnosis of Cytosolic RNA Cancer Markers

    PubMed Central

    Park, Kyung Soo; Shin, Seung Won; Jang, Min Su; Shin, Woojung; Yang, Kisuk; Min, Junhong; Cho, Seung-Woo; Oh, Byung-Keun; Bae, Jong Wook; Jung, Sunghwan; Choi, Jeong-Woo; Um, Soong Ho

    2015-01-01

    Accurate cancer diagnosis often requires extraction and purification of genetic materials from cells, and sophisticated instrumentations that follow. Otherwise in order to directly treat the diagnostic materials to cells, multiple steps to optimize dose concentration and treatment time are necessary due to diversity in cellular behaviors. These processes may offer high precision but hinder fast analysis of cancer, especially in clinical situations that need rapid detection and characterization of cancer. Here we present a novel fluorescent tile DNA nanostructure delivered to cancer cytosol by employing nanoparticle technology. Its structural anisotropicity offers easy manipulation for multifunctionalities, enabling the novel DNA nanostructure to detect intracellular cancer RNA markers with high specificity within 30 minutes post treatment, while the nanoparticle property bypasses the requirement of treatment optimization, effectively reducing the complexity of applying the system for cancer diagnosis. Altogether, the system offers a precise and rapid detection of cancer, suggesting the future use in the clinical fields. PMID:26678430

  1. A Fluorescent Tile DNA Diagnocode System for In Situ Rapid and Selective Diagnosis of Cytosolic RNA Cancer Markers.

    PubMed

    Park, Kyung Soo; Shin, Seung Won; Jang, Min Su; Shin, Woojung; Yang, Kisuk; Min, Junhong; Cho, Seung-Woo; Oh, Byung-Keun; Bae, Jong Wook; Jung, Sunghwan; Choi, Jeong-Woo; Um, Soong Ho

    2015-12-18

    Accurate cancer diagnosis often requires extraction and purification of genetic materials from cells, and sophisticated instrumentations that follow. Otherwise in order to directly treat the diagnostic materials to cells, multiple steps to optimize dose concentration and treatment time are necessary due to diversity in cellular behaviors. These processes may offer high precision but hinder fast analysis of cancer, especially in clinical situations that need rapid detection and characterization of cancer. Here we present a novel fluorescent tile DNA nanostructure delivered to cancer cytosol by employing nanoparticle technology. Its structural anisotropicity offers easy manipulation for multifunctionalities, enabling the novel DNA nanostructure to detect intracellular cancer RNA markers with high specificity within 30 minutes post treatment, while the nanoparticle property bypasses the requirement of treatment optimization, effectively reducing the complexity of applying the system for cancer diagnosis. Altogether, the system offers a precise and rapid detection of cancer, suggesting the future use in the clinical fields.

  2. Microchimerism and survival after breast and colon cancer diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Kamper-Jørgensen, Mads

    2012-01-01

    Recently, we reported microchimerism to be oppositely associated with maternal breast and colon cancer. In women with a blood test positive for male microchimerism the risk of breast cancer development was reduced to one third, whereas the risk of colon cancer was elevated 4-fold. In this article addendum, I report the survival of cases in the original study after being diagnosed with cancer. Despite small numbers, the analysis suggests that microchimerism may be positively associated with survival after breast and maybe colon cancer diagnosis. Despite the findings on colon cancer in our original report, I speculate whether microchimerism could have a general beneficial role in cancer, which in some sites may not be evident because an allogeneic maternal immune reaction hastens cancer development.

  3. Tumor exosomes: cellular postmen of cancer diagnosis and personalized therapy.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Aman; Khatun, Zamila; Shiras, Anjali

    2016-02-01

    Nanosized (30-150 nm) extracellular vesicles 'exosomes' are secreted by cells for intercellular communication during normal and pathological conditions. Exosomes carry biomacromolecules from cell-of-origin and, therefore, represent molecular bioprint of the cell. Tumor-derived exosomes or TDEx modulate tumor microenvironment by transfer of macromolecules locally as well as at distant metastatic sites. Due to their biological stability, TDEx are rich source of biomarkers in cancer patients. TDEx focused cancer diagnosis allows liquid biopsy-based tumor typing and may facilitate therapy response monitoring by developing novel exosomes diagnostics. Therefore, efficient and specific capturing of exosomes for subsequent amplification of the biomessages; for example, DNA, RNA, miRNA can reinvent cancer diagnosis. Here, in this review, we discuss advancements in exosomes isolation strategies, presence of exosomes biomarkers and importance of TDEx in gauging tumor heterogeneity for their potential use in cancer diagnosis, therapy.

  4. Application of the rank-based method to DNA methylation for cancer diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Li, Hongdong; Hong, Guini; Xu, Hui; Guo, Zheng

    2015-01-25

    Detecting aberrant DNA methylation as diagnostic or prognostic biomarkers for cancer has been a topic of considerable interest recently. However, current classifiers based on absolute methylation values detected from a cohort of samples are typically difficult to be transferable to other cohorts of samples. Here, focusing on relative methylation levels, we employed a modified rank-based method to extract reversal pairs of CpG sites whose relative methylation level orderings differ between disease samples and normal controls for cancer diagnosis. The reversal pairs identified for five cancer types respectively show excellent prediction performance with the accuracy above 95%. Furthermore, when evaluating the reversal pairs identified for one cancer type in an independent cohorts of samples, we found that they could distinguish different subtypes of this cancer or different malignant stages including early stage of this cancer from normal controls. The identified reversal pairs also appear to be specific to cancer type. In conclusion, the reversal pairs detected by the rank-based method could be used for accurate cancer diagnosis, which are transferable to independent cohorts of samples.

  5. How accurate are leukocyte indices and C-reactive protein for diagnosis of neonatal sepsis?

    PubMed Central

    da Silva, Orlando; Ohlsson, Arne

    1998-01-01

    Early diagnosis of neonatal sepsis is often difficult to make. Treatment on the basis of clinical suspicion and risk factors may result in overtreatment. A previous review of the usefulness of C-reactive protein and leukocyte indices concluded that these test results should be interpreted with caution. The present paper reviews and, when appropriate, revises, in light of new information, the conclusions reached in the previous systematic review of the topic. PMID:20401235

  6. Accurate diagnosis of thyroid follicular lesions from nuclear morphology using supervised learning

    PubMed Central

    Ozolek, John A.; Tosun, Akif Burak; Wang, Wei; Chen, Cheng; Kolouri, Soheil; Basu, Saurav; Huang, Hu; Rohde, Gustavo K.

    2014-01-01

    Follicular lesions of the thyroid remain significant diagnostic challenges in surgical pathology and cytology. The diagnosis often requires considerable resources and ancillary tests including immunohistochemistry, molecular studies, and expert consultation. Visual analyses of nuclear morphological features, generally speaking, have not been helpful in distinguishing this group of lesions. Here we describe a method for distinguishing between follicular lesions of the thyroid based on nuclear morphology. The method utilizes an optimal transport-based linear embedding for segmented nuclei, together with an adaptation of existing classification methods. We show the method outputs assignments (classification results) which are near perfectly correlated with the clinical diagnosis of several lesion types' lesions utilizing a database of 94 patients in total. Experimental comparisons also show the new method can significantly outperform standard numerical feature-type methods in terms of agreement with the clinical diagnosis gold standard. In addition, the new method could potentially be used to derive insights into biologically meaningful nuclear morphology differences in these lesions. Our methods could be incorporated into a tool for pathologists to aid in distinguishing between follicular lesions of the thyroid. In addition, these results could potentially provide nuclear morphological correlates of biological behavior and reduce health care costs by decreasing histotechnician and pathologist time and obviating the need for ancillary testing. PMID:24835183

  7. Application of a cell microarray chip system for accurate, highly sensitive, and rapid diagnosis for malaria in Uganda

    PubMed Central

    Yatsushiro, Shouki; Yamamoto, Takeki; Yamamura, Shohei; Abe, Kaori; Obana, Eriko; Nogami, Takahiro; Hayashi, Takuya; Sesei, Takashi; Oka, Hiroaki; Okello-Onen, Joseph; Odongo-Aginya, Emmanuel I.; Alai, Mary Auma; Olia, Alex; Anywar, Dennis; Sakurai, Miki; Palacpac, Nirianne MQ; Mita, Toshihiro; Horii, Toshihiro; Baba, Yoshinobu; Kataoka, Masatoshi

    2016-01-01

    Accurate, sensitive, rapid, and easy operative diagnosis is necessary to prevent the spread of malaria. A cell microarray chip system including a push column for the recovery of erythrocytes and a fluorescence detector was employed for malaria diagnosis in Uganda. The chip with 20,944 microchambers (105 μm width and 50 μm depth) was made of polystyrene. For the analysis, 6 μl of whole blood was employed, and leukocytes were practically removed by filtration through SiO2-nano-fibers in a column. Regular formation of an erythrocyte monolayer in each microchamber was observed following dispersion of an erythrocyte suspension in a nuclear staining dye, SYTO 21, onto the chip surface and washing. About 500,000 erythrocytes were analyzed in a total of 4675 microchambers, and malaria parasite-infected erythrocytes could be detected in 5 min by using the fluorescence detector. The percentage of infected erythrocytes in each of 41 patients was determined. Accurate and quantitative detection of the parasites could be performed. A good correlation between examinations via optical microscopy and by our chip system was demonstrated over the parasitemia range of 0.0039–2.3438% by linear regression analysis (R2 = 0.9945). Thus, we showed the potential of this chip system for the diagnosis of malaria. PMID:27445125

  8. Diagnosis of prostate cancer via nanotechnological approach.

    PubMed

    Kang, Benedict J; Jeun, Minhong; Jang, Gun Hyuk; Song, Sang Hoon; Jeong, In Gab; Kim, Choung-Soo; Searson, Peter C; Lee, Kwan Hyi

    2015-01-01

    Prostate cancer is one of the leading causes of cancer-related deaths among the Caucasian adult males in Europe and the USA. Currently available diagnostic strategies for patients with prostate cancer are invasive and unpleasant and have poor accuracy. Many patients have been overly or underly treated resulting in a controversy regarding the reliability of current conventional diagnostic approaches. This review discusses the state-of-the-art research in the development of novel noninvasive prostate cancer diagnostics using nanotechnology coupled with suggested diagnostic strategies for their clinical implication.

  9. Cancer Mortality in People Treated with Antidepressants before Cancer Diagnosis: A Population Based Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Yuelian; Vedsted, Peter; Fenger-Grøn, Morten; Wu, Chun Sen; Bech, Bodil Hammer; Olsen, Jørn; Benros, Michael Eriksen; Vestergaard, Mogens

    2015-01-01

    Background Depression is common after a cancer diagnosis and is associated with an increased mortality, but it is unclear whether depression occurring before the cancer diagnosis affects cancer mortality. We aimed to study cancer mortality of people treated with antidepressants before cancer diagnosis. Methods and Findings We conducted a population based cohort study of all adults diagnosed with cancer between January 2003 and December 2010 in Denmark (N = 201,662). We obtained information on cancer from the Danish Cancer Registry, on the day of death from the Danish Civil Registry, and on redeemed antidepressants from the Danish National Prescription Registry. Current users of antidepressants were defined as those who redeemed the latest prescription of antidepressant 0–4 months before cancer diagnosis (irrespective of earlier prescriptions), and former users as those who redeemed the latest prescription five or more months before cancer diagnosis. We estimated an all-cause one-year mortality rate ratio (MRR) and a conditional five-year MRR for patients who survived the first year after cancer diagnosis and confidence interval (CI) using a Cox proportional hazards regression model. Overall, 33,111 (16.4%) patients redeemed at least one antidepressant prescription in the three years before cancer diagnosis of whom 21,851 (10.8%) were current users at the time of cancer diagnosis. Current antidepressant users had a 32% higher one-year mortality (MRR = 1.32, 95% CI: 1.29–1.35) and a 22% higher conditional five-year mortality (MRR = 1.22, 95% CI: 1.17–1.26) if patients survived the first year after the cancer diagnosis than patients not redeeming antidepressants. The one-year mortality was particularly high for patients who initiated antidepressant treatment within four months before cancer diagnosis (MRR = 1.54, 95% CI: 1.47–1.61). Former users had no increased cancer mortality. Conclusions Initiation of antidepressive treatment prior to cancer diagnosis is

  10. Fluorescence anisotropy characterization of urine in the diagnosis of cancer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rajasekaran, Ramu; Brindha, Elumalai; Sivabalan, Shanmugam; Aruna, Prakasa Rao; Koteeswaran, Dornadula; Ganesan, Singaravelu

    2016-03-01

    Cervical cancer is considered as the second most commonly occurring malignancy among women, next to breast cancer. It is well known that most of the cancer patients diagnosed with advanced stages and there is a pressing need for improved methods to detect cancer at its initial stages. Many techniques have been adopted for the diagnosis of cervical cancer. Among these, fluorescence polarization spectroscopy is a complementary technique of fluorescence spectroscopy which helps us to elucidate the spectral characteristics which highly depend on pH, viscosity and local environment. Since urine has many metabolites and the measurement of native fluorescence of urine, in principle, able to provide an indication of a number of health conditions, attempts were made to study fluorescence anisotropic characterization of the human urine of cervical cancer patients and normal subjects. Significant differences were observed between the anisotropic and polarization values of cancer subjects and normal subjects.

  11. Accurate Characterization of Benign and Cancerous Breast Tissues: Aspecific Patient Studies using Piezoresistive Microcantilevers

    PubMed Central

    PANDYA, HARDIK J.; ROY, RAJARSHI; CHEN, WENJIN; CHEKMAREVA, MARINA A.; FORAN, DAVID J.; DESAI, JAYDEV P.

    2014-01-01

    Breast cancer is the largest detected cancer amongst women in the US. In this work, our team reports on the development of piezoresistive microcantilevers (PMCs) to investigate their potential use in the accurate detection and characterization of benign and diseased breast tissues by performing indentations on the micro-scale tissue specimens. The PMCs used in these experiments have been fabricated using laboratory-made silicon-on-insulator (SOI) substrate, which significantly reduces the fabrication costs. The PMCs are 260 μm long, 35 μm wide and 2 μm thick with resistivity of order 1.316 X 10−3 Ω-cm obtained by using boron diffusion technique. For indenting the tissue, we utilized 8 μm thick cylindrical SU-8 tip. The PMC was calibrated against a known AFM probe. Breast tissue cores from seven different specimens were indented using PMC to identify benign and cancerous tissue cores. Furthermore, field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) of benign and cancerous specimens showed marked differences in the tissue morphology, which further validates our observed experimental data with the PMCs. While these patient aspecific feasibility studies clearly demonstrate the ability to discriminate between benign and cancerous breast tissues, further investigation is necessary to perform automated mechano-phenotyping (classification) of breast cancer: from onset to disease progression. PMID:25128621

  12. [Challenges to early diagnosis of prostate cancer in Peru].

    PubMed

    Pow-Sang, Mariela; Huamán, Marco A

    2013-03-01

    Early detection of prostate cancer in Peru is very uncommon, as patients usually arrive when the disease is locally advanced or advanced. There are no prostate cancer screening campaigns that allow us to detect this disease in early stages. The incidence rates, according to the Registry of Cancer in Metropolitan Lima, are increasing. However, there is probably an under register of cases in our country, since there are not any nation-wide records showing the real magnitude of this disease. It is imperative to develop prevention programs for the early diagnosis of prostate cancer through digital rectal exams and to perform the measurement of the prostate- specific antigen (PSA) in the blood.

  13. Ambient Ionization Mass Spectrometry for Cancer Diagnosis and Surgical Margin Evaluation

    PubMed Central

    Ifa, Demian R.; Eberlin, Livia S.

    2017-01-01

    Background There is a clinical need for new technologies that would enable rapid disease diagnosis based on diagnostic molecular signatures. Ambient ionization mass spectrometry has revolutionized the means by which molecular information can be obtained from tissue samples in real time and with minimal sample pretreatment. New developments in ambient ionization techniques applied to clinical research suggest that ambient ionization mass spectrometry will soon become a routine medical tool for tissue diagnosis. Content This review summarizes the main developments in ambient ionization techniques applied to tissue analysis, with focus on desorption electrospray ionization mass spectrometry, probe electrospray ionization, touch spray, and rapid evaporative ionization mass spectrometry. We describe their applications to human cancer research and surgical margin evaluation, highlighting integrated approaches tested for ex vivo and in vivo human cancer tissue analysis. We also discuss the challenges for clinical implementation of these tools and offer perspectives on the future of the field. Summary A variety of studies have showcased the value of ambient ionization mass spectrometry for rapid and accurate cancer diagnosis. Small molecules have been identified as potential diagnostic biomarkers, including metabolites, fatty acids, and glycerophospholipids. Statistical analysis allows tissue discrimination with high accuracy rates (>95%) being common. This young field has challenges to overcome before it is ready to be broadly accepted as a medical tool for cancer diagnosis. Growing research in new, integrated ambient ionization mass spectrometry technologies and the ongoing improvements in the existing tools make this field very promising for future translation into the clinic. PMID:26555455

  14. Lactose-Functionalized Gold Nanorods for Sensitive and Rapid Serological Diagnosis of Cancer.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yuetao; Tong, Liping; Li, Yong; Pan, Haobo; Zhang, Wei; Guan, Min; Li, Weihao; Chen, Yixin; Li, Qing; Li, Zhongjun; Wang, Huaiyu; Yu, Xue-Feng; Chu, Paul K

    2016-03-09

    Timely and accurate diagnosis of cancer is crucial to cancer treatment. However, serological diagnosis of cancer still faces great challenge because the conventional methodology based on the enzyme-linked immune sorbent assay (ELISA) is costly, time-consuming, and complicated, involving multiple steps. Herein, lactose-functionalized gold nanorods (Lac-GNRs) are fabricated as efficient biosensors to detect cancerous conditions based on the unique surface plasmon resonance properties of GNRs and high specificity of lactose to the galectin-1 cancer biomarker. A trace concentration of galectin-1 as small as 10(-13) M can be detected by Lac-GNRs. The comparative study among BSA, galectin-3, and galectin-1 demonstrates the good specificity of Lac-GNRs to galectin-1 either in aqueous solutions or in the complex and heterogeneous serum specimens. Clinical tests show that the Lac-GNRs biosensors can readily distinguish the serums of cancer patients from those of healthy persons simply by using a microplate reader or even direct visual observation. The Lac-GNRs biosensing platform is highly efficient and easy to use and have great potential in rapid screening of cancer patients.

  15. Statement on mouth cancer diagnosis and prevention.

    PubMed

    Scully, C; Kirby, J

    2014-01-01

    The number of people being diagnosed with mouth cancer (oral cancer) is increasing, with notable rises in incidence in younger people and in females. There are certain lifestyle habits that can increase the risk of mouth cancer, such as smoking or chewing tobacco, drinking alcohol above recommended levels (especially in those who also smoke), and chewing betel nut (areca nut). Infection with human papillomavirus (HPV) increases the risk of some types of mouth cancer, and too much sun exposure may also raise the risk of lip cancers. The signs and symptoms of mouth cancer can often be seen or felt, and any red or white patch, ulcer or lump can be an early sign if it lasts for three or more weeks. If people notice any of these changes, they should seek help from their dentist, doctor, or another healthcare professional without delay, because if mouth cancer is diagnosed at an early stage, when the lesions are small, treatment is generally less complicated and more effective.

  16. D-dimer testing and acute venous thromboembolism. A shortcut to accurate diagnosis?

    PubMed

    Becker, D M; Philbrick, J T; Bachhuber, T L; Humphries, J E

    1996-05-13

    D-dimer fragments can be measured easily in plasma and whole blood, and the presence or absence of D-dimer could be useful in the diagnostic evaluation of venous thromboembolism. We systematically reviewed the English literature for articles that compared D-dimer results with those of other tests for deep venous thrombosis or pulmonary embolism. Twenty-nine studies were selected for detailed review, and we noted wide variability in assay performance, heterogeneity among subjects, and failure to define absence or presence of venous thromboembolism by a comprehensive criterion standard for diagnosis. These methodologic problems limit the generalizability of the published estimates of D-dimer accuracy for deep venous thrombosis or pulmonary embolism, and the clinical utility of this potentially important test remains unproved.

  17. Accurate diagnosis of renal transplant rejection by indium-111 platelet imaging despite postoperative cyclosporin therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Collier, B.D.; Adams, M.B.; Kauffman, H.M.; Trembath, L.; Hoffmann, R.G.; Tisdale, P.L.; Rao, S.A.; Hellman, R.S.; Isitman, A.T.

    1988-08-01

    Previous reports indicate that In-111 platelet scintigraphy (IPS) is a reliable test for the early diagnosis of acute post-operative renal transplant rejection (TR). However, the recent introduction of cyclosporin for post-transplantation immunosuppression requires that the diagnostic efficacy of IPS once again be established. Therefore, a prospective IPS study of 73 post-operative renal transplant recipients was conducted. Fourty-nine patients received cyclosporin and 24 patients did not receive this drug. Between these two patient groups, there were no significant differences in the diagnostic sensitivities (0.86 vs 0.80) and specificities (0.93 vs 0.84) with which TR was identified. We conclude that during the first two weeks following renal transplantation the cyclosporin treatment regimen used at our institution does not limit the reliability of IPS as a test for TR.

  18. Breast cancer early diagnosis based on hybrid strategy.

    PubMed

    Li, Peng; Bi, Tingting; Huang, Jiuling; Li, Siben

    2014-01-01

    The frequent occurrence of breast cancer and its serious consequences have attracted worldwide attention in recent years. Problems such as low rate of accuracy and poor self-adaptability still exist in traditional diagnosis. In order to solve these problems, an AdaBoost-SVM classification algorithm, combined with the cluster boundary sampling preprocessing techniques (CBS-AdaBoost-SVM), is proposed in this paper for the early diagnosis of breast cancer. The algorithm uses machine learning method to diagnose the unknown image data. Moreover, not all of the characteristics play positive roles for classification. To address this issue the paper delete redundant features by using Rough set attribute reduction algorithm based on the genetic algorithm (GA). The effectiveness of the proposed methods are examined on DDSM by calculating its accuracy, confusion matrix, and receiver operating characteristic curves, which give important clues to the physicians for early diagnosis of breast cancer.

  19. Role of Physical Activity and Diet After Colorectal Cancer Diagnosis

    PubMed Central

    Van Blarigan, Erin L.; Meyerhardt, Jeffrey A.

    2015-01-01

    This review summarizes the evidence regarding physical activity and diet after colorectal cancer diagnosis in relation to quality of life, disease recurrence, and survival. There have been extensive reports on adiposity, inactivity, and certain diets, particularly those high in red and processed meats, and increased risk of colorectal cancer. Only in the past decade have data emerged on how such lifestyle factors are associated with outcomes in colorectal cancer survivors. Prospective observational studies have consistently reported that physical activity after colorectal cancer diagnosis reduces mortality. A meta-analysis estimated that each 15 metabolic equivalent task-hour per week increase in physical activity after colorectal cancer diagnosis was associated with a 38% lower risk of mortality. No randomized controlled trials have been completed to confirm that physical activity lowers risk of mortality among colorectal cancer survivors; however, trials have shown that physical activity, including structured exercise, is safe for colorectal cancer survivors (localized to metastatic stage, during and after treatment) and improves cardiorespiratory fitness and physical function. In addition, prospective observational studies have suggested that a Western dietary pattern, high carbohydrate intake, and consuming sugar-sweetened beverages after diagnosis may increase risk of colorectal cancer recurrence and mortality, but these data are limited to single analyses from one of two US cohorts. Additional data from prospective studies and randomized controlled trials are needed. Nonetheless, on the basis of the available evidence, it is reasonable to counsel colorectal cancer survivors to engage in regular physical activity and limit consumption of refined carbohydrates, red and processed meats, and sugar-sweetened beverages. PMID:25918293

  20. Salivary biomarkers in the diagnosis of breast cancer: A review.

    PubMed

    Porto-Mascarenhas, Elisa Cançado; Assad, Daniele Xavier; Chardin, Hélène; Gozal, David; De Luca Canto, Graziela; Acevedo, Ana Carolina; Guerra, Eliete Neves Silva

    2017-02-01

    Salivary biomarkers could be helpful to characterize breast cancer. Therefore, this review was performed to evaluate the capability of salivary biological markers in the diagnosis and monitoring of breast cancer. Studies were eligible for inclusion if they assessed the potential diagnostic value or other discriminatory properties of biological markers in saliva of patients with breast cancer. The search was performed in six electronic databases (Cochrane, LILACS, PubMed, Science Direct, Scopus, Web of Science). In addition the biomarkers were classified according to their potential clinical application. We identified 567 pertinent studies, of which 13 met the inclusion criteria. Combined biomarker approaches demonstrated better ability to predict breast cancer patients than individual biomarkers. As single biomarker, namely proline, reported great capacity in both early and late stage breast cancer diagnosis. Taurine showed interesting capability to identify early breast cancer individuals. Furthermore, valine also demonstrated excellent diagnostic test accuracy for advanced stages of breast cancer. Only seven studies reported sensitivity and specificity (Zhang et al., 2010; Streckfus et al., 2000a; Brooks et al., 2008; Cheng et al., 2015; Bigler et al., 2002; Zhong et al., 2016; Streckfus, 2009), which varied considerably from 50% to 100%, and from 51% to 97%, respectively. In general, salivary biomarkers identified advanced stages of breast cancer better than early stages. There is currently limited evidence to confirm the putative implementation of salivary biomarkers as diagnostic tools for breast cancer. However, current review provides new research directions.

  1. Aptamers: Active Targeting Ligands for Cancer Diagnosis and Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Xu; Chen, Jiao; Wu, Min; Zhao, Julia Xiaojun

    2015-01-01

    Aptamers, including DNA, RNA and peptide aptamers, are a group of promising recognition units that can specifically bind to target molecules and cells. Due to their excellent specificity and high affinity to targets, aptamers have attracted great attention in various fields in which selective recognition units are required. They have been used in biosensing, drug delivery, disease diagnosis and therapy (especially for cancer treatment). In this review, we summarized recent applications of DNA and RNA aptamers in cancer theranostics. The specific binding ability of aptamers to cancer-related markers and cancer cells ensured their high performance for early diagnosis of cancer. Meanwhile, the efficient targeting ability of aptamers to cancer cells and tissues provided a promising way to deliver imaging agents and drugs for cancer imaging and therapy. Furthermore, with the development of nanoscience and nanotechnology, the conjugation of aptamers with functional nanomaterials paved an exciting way for the fabrication of theranostic agents for different types of cancers, which might be a powerful tool for cancer treatment. PMID:25699094

  2. Aptamers: active targeting ligands for cancer diagnosis and therapy.

    PubMed

    Wu, Xu; Chen, Jiao; Wu, Min; Zhao, Julia Xiaojun

    2015-01-01

    Aptamers, including DNA, RNA and peptide aptamers, are a group of promising recognition units that can specifically bind to target molecules and cells. Due to their excellent specificity and high affinity to targets, aptamers have attracted great attention in various fields in which selective recognition units are required. They have been used in biosensing, drug delivery, disease diagnosis and therapy (especially for cancer treatment). In this review, we summarized recent applications of DNA and RNA aptamers in cancer theranostics. The specific binding ability of aptamers to cancer-related markers and cancer cells ensured their high performance for early diagnosis of cancer. Meanwhile, the efficient targeting ability of aptamers to cancer cells and tissues provided a promising way to deliver imaging agents and drugs for cancer imaging and therapy. Furthermore, with the development of nanoscience and nanotechnology, the conjugation of aptamers with functional nanomaterials paved an exciting way for the fabrication of theranostic agents for different types of cancers, which might be a powerful tool for cancer treatment.

  3. Research progress in applying proteomics technology to explore early diagnosis biomarkers of breast cancer, lung cancer and ovarian cancer.

    PubMed

    Luo, Lu; Dong, Li-You; Yan, Qi-Gui; Cao, San-Jie; Wen, Xin-Tian; Huang, Yong; Huang, Xiao-Bo; Wu, Rui; Ma, Xiao-Ping

    2014-01-01

    According to the China tumor registry 2013 annual report , breast cancer, lung cancer, and ovarian cancer are three common cancers in China nowadays, with high mortality due to the absence of early diagnosis technology. However, proteomics has been widespreadly implanted into every field of life science and medicine as an important part of post-genomics era research. The development of theory and technology in proteomics has provided new ideas and research fields for cancer research. Proteomics can be used not only for elucidating the mechanisms of carcinogenesis focussing on whole proteins of the tissue or cell, but also seeking the biomarkers for diagnosis and therapy of cancer. In this review, we introduce proteomics principles, covering current technology used in exploring early diagnosis biomarkers of breast cancer, lung cancer and ovarian cancer.

  4. Clinical significance of molecular diagnosis for gastric cancer lymph node micrometastasis

    PubMed Central

    Sonoda, Hiromichi; Tani, Tohru

    2014-01-01

    Advances in molecular diagnostic tools have allowed the identification of lymph node micrometastasis (LNM), including isolated tumor cells, in cancer patients. While immunohistochemistry and reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction have been used to identify LNM in patients with gastric cancer, the clinical significance of this finding remains unclear. Recently, minimally invasive treatments, such as endoscopic submucosal dissection and laparoscopic surgery, are widely performed to help improve postsurgical quality of life (QOL). However, it is important to maintain the balance between QOL and curability when making treatments decision for patients with gastric cancer. If minimally invasive surgery based on accurate intraoperative LNM diagnosis was established, it could be performed safely. Therefore, we reviewed the clinical significance of LNM detected by molecular techniques as an important target for treatment decision making with gastric cancer patients. PMID:25320510

  5. [Diagnosis and management of lung cancer during pregnancy].

    PubMed

    Kerjouan, M; Jouneau, S; Corre, R; Le Ho, H; Pracht, M; Léna, H; Desrues, B

    2013-02-01

    The incidence of lung cancer during pregnancy is very low, but it is becoming more frequent in industrialized countries both because of the increase in smoking in young women and because women are becoming pregnant later in life. Usually, the cancer has a poor prognosis due to the presence of metastatic disease at the time of diagnosis. Diagnosis and management are delicate, and should deal with the gestational age, the maternal prognosis, the fetal toxicity of treatments, but also with the worsening of maternal prognosis and the risk of neoplastic cells being transmitted to the fetus in case of delayed treatment. Psychological and ethical considerations complicate the decision process. We present a review of the epidemiology, clinical characteristics, management, and prognosis concerning lung cancer during pregnancy. Finally, it is important to remember that young women with lung cancer should be advised to use a reliable form of contraception.

  6. Iofetamine I 123 single photon emission computed tomography is accurate in the diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, K.A.; Holman, B.L.; Rosen, T.J.; Nagel, J.S.; English, R.J.; Growdon, J.H. )

    1990-04-01

    To determine the diagnostic accuracy of iofetamine hydrochloride I 123 (IMP) with single photon emission computed tomography in Alzheimer's disease, we studied 58 patients with AD and 15 age-matched healthy control subjects. We used a qualitative method to assess regional IMP uptake in the entire brain and to rate image data sets as normal or abnormal without knowledge of subjects'clinical classification. The sensitivity and specificity of IMP with single photon emission computed tomography in AD were 88% and 87%, respectively. In 15 patients with mild cognitive deficits (Blessed Dementia Scale score, less than or equal to 10), sensitivity was 80%. With the use of a semiquantitative measure of regional cortical IMP uptake, the parietal lobes were the most functionally impaired in AD and the most strongly associated with the patients' Blessed Dementia Scale scores. These results indicated that IMP with single photon emission computed tomography may be a useful adjunct in the clinical diagnosis of AD in early, mild disease.

  7. Recent Progress in the Diagnosis and Treatment of Ovarian Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Jelovac, Danijela; Armstrong, Deborah K.

    2013-01-01

    Epithelial ovarian cancer is the most lethal of the gynecologic malignancies, largely due to the advanced stage at diagnosis in most patients. Screening strategies using ultrasound and the cancer antigen (CA) 125 tumor marker are currently under study and may lower stage at diagnosis but have not yet been shown to improve survival. Women who have inherited a deleterious mutation in the BRCA1 or BRCA2 gene and those with the Lynch syndrome (hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer) have the highest risk of developing ovarian cancer but account for only approximately 10% of those with the disease. Other less common and less well-defined genetic syndromes may increase the risk of ovarian cancer, but their contribution to genetic risk is small. A clear etiology for sporadic ovarian cancer has not been identified, but risk is affected by reproductive and hormonal factors. Surgery has a unique role in ovarian cancer, as it is used not only for diagnosis and staging but also therapeutically, even in patients with widely disseminated, advanced disease. Ovarian cancer is highly sensitive to chemotherapy drugs, particularly the platinum agents, and most patients will attain a remission with initial treatment. Recent advances in the delivery of chemotherapy using the intraperitoneal route have further improved survival after initial therapy. Although the majority of ovarian cancer patients will respond to initial chemotherapy, most will ultimately develop disease recurrence. Chemotherapy for recurrent disease includes platinum-based, multiagent regimens for women whose disease recurs more than 6 to 12 months after the completion of initial therapy and sequential single agents for those whose disease recurs earlier. New targeted biologic agents, particularly those involved with the vascular endothelial growth factor pathway and those targeting the poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) enzyme, hold great promise for improving the outcome of ovarian cancer. PMID:21521830

  8. Advancement in treatment and diagnosis of pancreatic cancer with radiopharmaceuticals

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Yu-Ping; Yang, Min

    2016-01-01

    Pancreatic cancer (PC) is a major health problem. Conventional imaging modalities show limited accuracy for reliable assessment of the tumor. Recent researches suggest that molecular imaging techniques with tracers provide more biologically relevant information and are benefit for the diagnosis of the cancer. In addition, radiopharmaceuticals also play more important roles in treatment of the disease. This review summaries the advancement of the radiolabeled compounds in the theranostics of PC. PMID:26909131

  9. Nanotechnology and Pediatric Cancer: Prevention, Diagnosis and Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Zare-Zardini, H; Amiri, A; Shanbedi, M; Taheri-Kafrani, A; Sadri, Z; Ghanizadeh, F; Neamatzadeh, H; Sheikhpour, R; Keyvani Boroujeni, F; Masoumi Dehshiri, R; Hashemi, A; Aminorroaya, MM; Dehgahnzadeh, MR; Shahriari, Sh

    2015-01-01

    Despite development of new approaches for the treatment of cancer disease, it is the second cause of mortality in world. Annually, 30000 persons die in Iran due to cancer diseases. Eighty percent of cancer patients are children which about 50% children lead to death. Given the high rate of cancer-related death, the new approaches for prevention, control, early diagnosis, and treatment of this disease seem necessary. Investigation of new strategies is the major challenge for scientists at recent century. Nanotechnology as a new scientific field with novel and small compounds utilized different fields over the past ten years especially in medicine. This science has come to the forefront in the areas of medical diagnostics, imaging, and therapeutic scheduls. Therefore, it has the potential applications for cancer detection and therapy. This review will discuss the therapeutic applications of different nano-materials in diagnosis, imaging, and delivery of therapeutic agents for the treatment of cancer with a major focus on their applications for the treatment of cancer and cancer- related diseases in children. The advancements in established nanoparticle technologies such as liposomes, polymer micelles, and functionalization regarding tumor targeting and controlled release strategies as well as drug delivery were discussed. It will also review the blood toxicity of used nanostructures. PMID:26985357

  10. Graphene: The Missing Piece for Cancer Diagnosis?

    PubMed

    Cruz, Sandra M A; Girão, André F; Gonçalves, Gil; Marques, Paula A A P

    2016-01-21

    This paper reviews recent advances in graphene-based biosensors development in order to obtain smaller and more portable devices with better performance for earlier cancer detection. In fact, the potential of Graphene for sensitive detection and chemical/biological free-label applications results from its exceptional physicochemical properties such as high electrical and thermal conductivity, aspect-ratio, optical transparency and remarkable mechanical and chemical stability. Herein we start by providing a general overview of the types of graphene and its derivatives, briefly describing the synthesis procedure and main properties. It follows the reference to different routes to engineer the graphene surface for sensing applications with organic biomolecules and nanoparticles for the development of advanced biosensing platforms able to detect/quantify the characteristic cancer biomolecules in biological fluids or overexpressed on cancerous cells surface with elevated sensitivity, selectivity and stability. We then describe the application of graphene in optical imaging methods such as photoluminescence and Raman imaging, electrochemical sensors for enzymatic biosensing, DNA sensing, and immunosensing. The bioquantification of cancer biomarkers and cells is finally discussed, particularly electrochemical methods such as voltammetry and amperometry which are generally adopted transducing techniques for the development of graphene based sensors for biosensing due to their simplicity, high sensitivity and low-cost. To close, we discuss the major challenges that graphene based biosensors must overcome in order to reach the necessary standards for the early detection of cancer biomarkers by providing reliable information about the patient disease stage.

  11. Graphene: The Missing Piece for Cancer Diagnosis?

    PubMed Central

    Cruz, Sandra M. A.; Girão, André F.; Gonçalves, Gil; Marques, Paula A. A. P.

    2016-01-01

    This paper reviews recent advances in graphene-based biosensors development in order to obtain smaller and more portable devices with better performance for earlier cancer detection. In fact, the potential of Graphene for sensitive detection and chemical/biological free-label applications results from its exceptional physicochemical properties such as high electrical and thermal conductivity, aspect-ratio, optical transparency and remarkable mechanical and chemical stability. Herein we start by providing a general overview of the types of graphene and its derivatives, briefly describing the synthesis procedure and main properties. It follows the reference to different routes to engineer the graphene surface for sensing applications with organic biomolecules and nanoparticles for the development of advanced biosensing platforms able to detect/quantify the characteristic cancer biomolecules in biological fluids or overexpressed on cancerous cells surface with elevated sensitivity, selectivity and stability. We then describe the application of graphene in optical imaging methods such as photoluminescence and Raman imaging, electrochemical sensors for enzymatic biosensing, DNA sensing, and immunosensing. The bioquantification of cancer biomarkers and cells is finally discussed, particularly electrochemical methods such as voltammetry and amperometry which are generally adopted transducing techniques for the development of graphene based sensors for biosensing due to their simplicity, high sensitivity and low-cost. To close, we discuss the major challenges that graphene based biosensors must overcome in order to reach the necessary standards for the early detection of cancer biomarkers by providing reliable information about the patient disease stage. PMID:26805845

  12. Comparison of PCR, culturing and Pap smear microscopy for accurate diagnosis of genital Actinomyces.

    PubMed

    Kaya, Dilek; Demirezen, Şayeste; Hasçelik, Gülşen; Gülmez Kivanç, Dolunay; Beksaç, Mehmet Sinan

    2013-05-01

    Members of the genus Actinomyces, Gram-positive, non-spore-forming anaerobic bacteria, are normal inhabitants of the mucosal surfaces of the oral, gastrointestinal and genital tracts. Identification of these bacteria using conventional methods is generally difficult because of their complex transport and growth requirements and their fastidious and slow-growing nature. However, in recent years, the advancement of molecular techniques has provided much improved identification and differentiation of closely related Actinomyces species. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the efficacy of the PCR technique in the diagnosis of genital Actinomyces in comparison with culturing and Papanicolaou (Pap) smear microscopy. Multiple sampling was conducted from 200 women using smear microscopy, culturing and PCR. Cyto-brushes were smeared on glass slides and stained using the routine Pap technique. Culturing was performed from a sterile swab, and Actinomyces were determined using the BBL Crystal ANR ID kit. PCR was performed from a second swab, and the Actinomyces type was determined using type-specific primers designed in our laboratory. Only one vaginal fluid sample (0.5%) revealed Actinomyces-like organisms on Pap smear examination. Actinomyces were detected in nine samples (4.5%) using the BBL Crystal ANR ID kit. Using PCR, eight samples (4%) were found positive for Actinomyces. No specimens that gave positive results by Pap smear microscopy and culturing could be confirmed by PCR. Pap smear microscopy and culturing were both found to have zero sensitivity for Actinomyces. PCR appears to be a sensitive and reliable diagnostic method for the detection of Actinomyces, which are difficult to cultivate from genital samples. PCR can be used for diagnostic confirmation in cases diagnosed by conventional methods, to prevent false-positive results.

  13. The International Classification of Headache Disorders: accurate diagnosis of orofacial pain?

    PubMed

    Benoliel, R; Birman, N; Eliav, E; Sharav, Y

    2008-07-01

    The aim was to apply diagnostic criteria, as published by the International Headache Society (IHS), to the diagnosis of orofacial pain. A total of 328 consecutive patients with orofacial pain were collected over a period of 2 years. The orofacial pain clinic routinely employs criteria published by the IHS, the American Academy of Orofacial Pain (AAOP) and the Research Diagnostic Criteria for Temporomandibular Disorders (RDCTMD). Employing IHS criteria, 184 patients were successfully diagnosed (56%), including 34 with persistent idiopathic facial pain. In the remaining 144 we applied AAOP/RDCTMD criteria and diagnosed 120 as masticatory myofascial pain (MMP) resulting in a diagnostic efficiency of 92.7% (304/328) when applying the three classifications (IHS, AAOP, RDCTMD). Employing further published criteria, 23 patients were diagnosed as neurovascular orofacial pain (NVOP, facial migraine) and one as a neuropathy secondary to connective tissue disease. All the patients were therefore allocated to predefined diagnoses. MMP is clearly defined by AAOP and the RDCTMD. However, NVOP is not defined by any of the above classification systems. The features of MMP and NVOP are presented and analysed with calculations for positive (PPV) and negative predictive values (NPV). In MMP the combination of facial pain aggravated by jaw movement, and the presence of three or more tender muscles resulted in a PPV = 0.82 and a NPV = 0.86. For NVOP the combination of facial pain, throbbing quality, autonomic and/or systemic features and attack duration of > 60 min gave a PPV = 0.71 and a NPV = 0.95. Expansion of the IHS system is needed so as to integrate more orofacial pain syndromes.

  14. Breast cancer diagnosis using spatial light interference microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Majeed, Hassaan; Kandel, Mikhail E.; Han, Kevin; Luo, Zelun; Macias, Virgilia; Tangella, Krishnarao; Balla, Andre; Popescu, Gabriel

    2015-11-01

    The standard practice in histopathology of breast cancers is to examine a hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) stained tissue biopsy under a microscope to diagnose whether a lesion is benign or malignant. This determination is made based on a manual, qualitative inspection, making it subject to investigator bias and resulting in low throughput. Hence, a quantitative, label-free, and high-throughput diagnosis method is highly desirable. We present here preliminary results showing the potential of quantitative phase imaging for breast cancer screening and help with differential diagnosis. We generated phase maps of unstained breast tissue biopsies using spatial light interference microscopy (SLIM). As a first step toward quantitative diagnosis based on SLIM, we carried out a qualitative evaluation of our label-free images. These images were shown to two pathologists who classified each case as either benign or malignant. This diagnosis was then compared against the diagnosis of the two pathologists on corresponding H&E stained tissue images and the number of agreements were counted. The agreement between SLIM and H&E based diagnosis was 88% for the first pathologist and 87% for the second. Our results demonstrate the potential and promise of SLIM for quantitative, label-free, and high-throughput diagnosis.

  15. Breast cancer stage at diagnosis: is travel time important?

    PubMed

    Henry, Kevin A; Boscoe, Francis P; Johnson, Christopher J; Goldberg, Daniel W; Sherman, Recinda; Cockburn, Myles

    2011-12-01

    Recent studies have produced inconsistent results in their examination of the potential association between proximity to healthcare or mammography facilities and breast cancer stage at diagnosis. Using a multistate dataset, we re-examine this issue by investigating whether travel time to a patient's diagnosing facility or nearest mammography facility impacts breast cancer stage at diagnosis. We studied 161,619 women 40 years and older diagnosed with invasive breast cancer from ten state population based cancer registries in the United States. For each woman, we calculated travel time to their diagnosing facility and nearest mammography facility. Logistic multilevel models of late versus early stage were fitted, and odds ratios were calculated for travel times, controlling for age, race/ethnicity, census tract poverty, rural/urban residence, health insurance, and state random effects. Seventy-six percent of women in the study lived less than 20 min from their diagnosing facility, and 93 percent lived less than 20 min from the nearest mammography facility. Late stage at diagnosis was not associated with increasing travel time to diagnosing facility or nearest mammography facility. Diagnosis age under 50, Hispanic and Non-Hispanic Black race/ethnicity, high census tract poverty, and no health insurance were all significantly associated with late stage at diagnosis. Travel time to diagnosing facility or nearest mammography facility was not a determinant of late stage of breast cancer at diagnosis, and better geographic proximity did not assure more favorable stage distributions. Other factors beyond geographic proximity that can affect access should be evaluated more closely, including facility capacity, insurance acceptance, public transportation, and travel costs.

  16. Exosomes: Potential in Cancer Diagnosis and Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Munson, Phillip; Shukla, Arti

    2016-01-01

    Exosomes are membrane-bound, intercellular communication shuttles that are defined by their endocytic origin and size range of 30–140 nm. Secreted by nearly all mammalian cell types and present in myriad bodily fluids, exosomes confer messages between cells, proximal and distal, by transporting biofunctional cargo in the form of proteins, nucleic acids, and lipids. They play a vital role in cellular signaling in both normal physiology and disease states, particularly cancer. Exosomes are powerful progenitors in altering target cell phenotypes, particularly in tumorigenesis and cancer progression, with the ability to alter tumor microenvironments and to assist in establishing the pre-metastatic niche. Many aspects of exosomes present them as novel means to identify cancer biomarkers for early detection and therapeutic targets, and using intrinsic and engineered characteristics of exosomes as therapeutic devices to ameliorate the progression of the disease. This review outlines some of the recent and major findings with regard to exosomes in cancer, and their utilization as therapeutic tools. PMID:27088079

  17. Helping your child understand a cancer diagnosis

    MedlinePlus

    ... if your child seems upset after seeing other people who have lost their hair, talk about what symptoms he may have from treatment. Keep in mind that your child may have heard things about cancer from other sources, such as TV, the movies, or other kids. It is a good idea ...

  18. Medical imaging in the diagnosis and management of cancer pain.

    PubMed

    Cuevas, Carlos; Shibata, Dean

    2009-08-01

    Within the past few decades medical imaging has evolved very rapidly, now becoming an indispensable tool for the diagnosis, treatment, and follow-up of patients with cancer-related pain. Multiple imaging modalities are available for the assessment of cancer patients, each one with different advantages and limitations that are important to consider at the time we order a diagnostic study or plan an image-guided procedure. This article reviews the role that various imaging modalities play in the management of cancer pain and provides an overview of the latest technological advances.

  19. Gastric cancer: prevention, screening and early diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Pasechnikov, Victor; Chukov, Sergej; Fedorov, Evgeny; Kikuste, Ilze; Leja, Marcis

    2014-10-14

    Gastric cancer continues to be an important healthcare problem from a global perspective. Most of the cases in the Western world are diagnosed at late stages when the treatment is largely ineffective. Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection is a well-established carcinogen for gastric cancer. While lifestyle factors are important, the efficacy of interventions in their modification, as in the use of antioxidant supplements, is unconvincing. No organized screening programs can be found outside Asia (Japan and South Korea). Although several screening approaches have been proposed, including indirect atrophy detection by measuring pepsinogen in the circulation, none of them have so far been implemented, and more study data is required to justify any implementation. Mass eradication of H. pylori in high-risk areas tends to be cost-effective, but its adverse effects and resistance remain a concern. Searches for new screening biomarkers, including microRNA and cancer-autoantibody panels, as well as detection of volatile organic compounds in the breath, are in progress. Endoscopy with a proper biopsy follow-up remains the standard for early detection of cancer and related premalignant lesions. At the same time, new advanced high-resolution endoscopic technologies are showing promising results with respect to diagnosing mucosal lesions visually and targeting each biopsy. New histological risk stratifications (classifications), including OLGA and OLGIM, have recently been developed. This review addresses the current means for gastric cancer primary and secondary prevention, the available and emerging methods for screening, and new developments in endoscopic detection of early lesions of the stomach.

  20. [Definition of accurate planning target volume margins for esophageal cancer radiotherapy].

    PubMed

    Lesueur, P; Servagi-Vernat, S

    2016-10-01

    More than 4000 cases of esophagus neoplasms are diagnosed every year in France. Radiotherapy, which can be delivered in preoperative or exclusive with a concomitant chemotherapy, plays a central role in treatment of esophagus cancer. Even if efficacy of radiotherapy no longer has to be proved, the prognosis of esophagus cancer remains unfortunately poor with a high recurrence rate. Toxicity of esophageal radiotherapy is correlated with the irradiation volume, and limits dose escalation and local control. Esophagus is a deep thoracic organ, which undergoes cardiac and respiratory motion, making the radiotherapy delivery more difficult and increasing the planning target volume margins. Definition of accurate planning target volume margins, taking into account the esophagus' intrafraction motion and set up margins is very important to be sure to cover the clinical target volume and restrains acute and late radiotoxicity. In this article, based on a review of the literature, we propose planning target volume margins adapted to esophageal radiotherapy.

  1. [Diagnosis pitfalls and emergencies in children with cancer].

    PubMed

    Orbach, Daniel; Gajdos, Vincent; André, Nicolas

    2014-11-01

    Childhood cancers are rare diseases with about 1700 cases below 15 years of age diagnosed in France each year. Although more than 80% of patients are now surviving more than 5 years, cancer remains the leading cause of fatal diseases between the ages of 1 and 15 years. The difficulty of diagnosis is partly due to their rarity but also the apparent banality of initial common symptoms. In industrialized countries, it is rare that an extension of time before diagnosis is associated with decreased survival; at the opposite, this period may be associated with the need for more extensive treatments leading to a greater risk of sequelae. Such delays also have a negative impact on the trust of the child and family with the medical community that may sound on the quality of essential therapeutic alliance. Learn how to diagnose these diseases, prescribe or repeat further explorations in case of persistent symptoms and suggestive signs and possibly refer these patients to a specialized paediatric oncology team is necessary to avoid excessive delay before diagnosis. In addition, it is also important not to ignore situations where these cancers are discovered in emergency situations: vital distress may require concerted management between intensive care and specialized paediatric oncology teams. Authors propose a focus on potential diagnostic pitfalls and emergencies during the initial management of children with cancer and the consequences of any diagnosis delays.

  2. Applications of exfoliative cytology in the diagnosis of oral cancer.

    PubMed

    Diniz-Freitas, Márcio; García-García, Abel; Crespo-Abelleira, Antonio; Martins-Carneiro, José Luis; Gándara-Rey, José Manuel

    2004-01-01

    Exfoliative cytology is a simple non-aggressive technique that is well accepted by the patient, and that is therefore an attractive option for the early diagnosis of oral cancer, including epithelial atypias and especially squamous cell carcinoma. However, traditional exfoliative cytology methods show low sensitivity (i.e. a high proportion of false negatives) in the diagnosis of these pathologies. This low sensitivity is attributable to various factors, including inadequate sampling, procedural errors, and the need for subjective interpretation of the findings. More recently, the continuing development of automated cytomorphometric methods, DNA content determination, tumour marker detection, and diverse molecular-level analyses has contributed to renewed interest in exfoliative cytology procedures for the diagnosis of oral cancer. The present study briefly reviews developments in these areas.

  3. Verrucous Squamous Cell Cancer in the Esophagus: An Obscure Diagnosis

    PubMed Central

    Egeland, Charlotte; Achiam, Michael P.; Federspiel, Birgitte; Svendsen, Lars Bo

    2016-01-01

    Verrucous carcinoma is a rare, slow-growing type of squamous cell cancer. Fewer than 50 patients with verrucous carcinoma in the esophagus have been described worldwide. In 2014, two male patients were diagnosed with verrucous carcinoma in the distal part of the esophagus. The endoscopic examinations showed a similar wart-like, white, irregular mucosa in both cases. The diagnosis was difficult to make since all biopsies taken from the affected area showed no malignancy. This cancer type has a relatively good prognosis when the diagnosis is finally obtained. Both our patients presented with dysphagia, weight loss, and an endoscopically malignant tumor, but surgery was not performed until after 9 and 10 months, respectively, and then in order to get a diagnosis. At the last follow-up, both patients were without any recurrence of the disease. PMID:27721734

  4. MicroRNAs: Novel Players in Cancer Diagnosis and Therapies

    PubMed Central

    Humphries, Brock A.

    2014-01-01

    First discovered in 1993, microRNAs (miRNAs) have been one of the hottest research areas over the past two decades. Oftentimes, miRNAs levels are found to be dysregulated in cancer patients. The potential use of miRNAs in cancer therapies is an emerging and promising field, with research finding miRNAs to play a role in cancer initiation, tumor growth, and metastasis. Therefore, miRNAs could become an integral part from cancer diagnosis to treatment in future. This review aims to examine current novel research work on the potential roles of miRNAs in cancer therapies, while also discussing several current challenges and needed future research. PMID:25101302

  5. The Lived Experience of Iranian Women Confronting Breast Cancer Diagnosis

    PubMed Central

    Mehrabi, Esmat; Hajian, Sepideh; Simbar, Masoomeh; Hoshyari, Mohammad; Zayeri, Farid

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: The populations who survive from breast cancer are growing; nevertheless, they mostly encounter with many cancer related problems in their life, especially after early diagnosis and have to deal with these problems. Except for the disease entity, several socio-cultural factors may affect confronting this challenge among patients and the way they deal with. Present study was carried out to prepare clear understanding of Iranian women's lived experiences confronting breast cancer diagnosis and coping ways they applied to deal with it. Methods: This study was carried out by using qualitative phenomenological design. Data gathering was done through purposive sampling using semi-structured, in-depth interviews with 18 women who survived from breast cancer. The transcribed interviews were analyzed using Van Manen’s thematic analysis approach. Results: Two main themes were emerged from the interviews including "emotional turbulence" and "threat control". The first, comprised three sub themes including uncertainty, perceived worries, and living with fears. The second included risk control, recurrence control, immediate seeking help, seeking support and resource to spirituality. Conclusion: Emotional response was the immediate reflection to cancer diagnosis. However, during post-treatment period a variety of emotions were not uncommon findings, patients' perceptions have been changing along the time and problem-focused coping strategies have replaced. Although women may experience a degree of improvement and adjustment with illness, the emotional problems are not necessarily resolved, they may continue and gradually engender positive outcomes. PMID:26989665

  6. Sporadic colon cancer murine models demonstrate the value of autoantibody detection for preclinical cancer diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Barderas, Rodrigo; Villar-Vázquez, Roi; Fernández-Aceñero, María Jesús; Babel, Ingrid; Peláez-García, Alberto; Torres, Sofía; Casal, J Ignacio

    2013-10-15

    Although autoantibody detection has been proposed for diagnosis of colorectal cancer, little is known about their initial production and development correlation with cancer progression. Azoxymethane/dextran sodium sulfate (AOM/DSS)-treated mice developed colon adenocarcinoma in the distal colon similar to human sporadic colon cancer. We assessed this model together with AOM and DSS-only models for their applicability to early detection of cancer. All AOM/DSS-treated mice produced autoantibodies to tumor-associated antigens analogous to those observed in human colon cancer patients. Autoantibody response was related to tumor antigen overexpression. Cancer autoantibodies were detected 21 days after starting treatment, when no malignant histopathological features were detectable, and they increased according to tumor progression. When carcinogenesis was induced separately by AOM or DSS, only those mice that developed malignant lesions produced significant levels of autoantibodies. These findings demonstrate that autoantibody development is an early event in tumorigenesis and validates its use for preclinical colon cancer diagnosis.

  7. Molecular diagnostic trends in urological cancer: biomarkers for non-invasive diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Urquidi, V; Rosser, C J; Goodison, S

    2012-01-01

    The early detection of urological cancers is pivotal for successful patient treatment and management. The development of molecular assays that can diagnose disease accurately, or that can augment current methods of evaluation, would be a significant advance. Ideally, such molecular assays would be applicable to non-invasively obtained body fluids, enabling not only diagnosis of at risk patients, but also asymptomatic screening, monitoring disease recurrence and response to treatment. The advent of advanced proteomics and genomics technologies and associated bioinformatics development is bringing these goals into focus. In this article we will discuss the promise of biomarkers in urinalysis for the detection and clinical evaluation of the major urological cancers, including bladder, kidney and prostate. The development of urine-based tests to detect urological cancers would be of tremendous benefit to both patients and the healthcare system.

  8. Advances in diagnosis and treatment of metastatic cervical cancer

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Cervical cancer is one of the most common cancers in women worldwide. The outcome of patients with metastatic cervical cancer is poor. We reviewed the relevant literature concerning the treatment and diagnosis of metastatic cervical cancer. There are two types of metastasis related to different treatments and survival rates: hematogenous metastasis and lymphatic metastasis. Patients with hematogenous metastasis have a higher risk of death than those with lymphatic metastasis. In terms of diagnosis, fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) and PET-computed tomography are effective tools for the evaluation of distant metastasis. Concurrent chemoradiotherapy and subsequent chemotherapy are well-tolerated and efficient for lymphatic metastasis. As for lung metastasis, chemotherapy and/or surgery are valuable treatments for resistant, recurrent metastatic cervical cancer and chemoradiotherapy may be the optimal choice for stage IVB cervical cancer. Chemotherapy and bone irradiation are promising for bone metastasis. A better survival is achieved with multimodal therapy. Craniotomy or stereotactic radiosurgery is an optimal choice combined with radiotherapy for solitary brain metastases. Chemotherapy and palliative brain radiation may be considered for multiple brain metastases and other organ metastases. PMID:27171673

  9. Advances in diagnosis and treatment of metastatic cervical cancer.

    PubMed

    Li, Haoran; Wu, Xiaohua; Cheng, Xi

    2016-07-01

    Cervical cancer is one of the most common cancers in women worldwide. The outcome of patients with metastatic cervical cancer is poor. We reviewed the relevant literature concerning the treatment and diagnosis of metastatic cervical cancer. There are two types of metastasis related to different treatments and survival rates: hematogenous metastasis and lymphatic metastasis. Patients with hematogenous metastasis have a higher risk of death than those with lymphatic metastasis. In terms of diagnosis, fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) and PET-computed tomography are effective tools for the evaluation of distant metastasis. Concurrent chemoradiotherapy and subsequent chemotherapy are well-tolerated and efficient for lymphatic metastasis. As for lung metastasis, chemotherapy and/or surgery are valuable treatments for resistant, recurrent metastatic cervical cancer and chemoradiotherapy may be the optimal choice for stage IVB cervical cancer. Chemotherapy and bone irradiation are promising for bone metastasis. A better survival is achieved with multimodal therapy. Craniotomy or stereotactic radiosurgery is an optimal choice combined with radiotherapy for solitary brain metastases. Chemotherapy and palliative brain radiation may be considered for multiple brain metastases and other organ metastases.

  10. Diagnosis of pulmonary mucormycosis aiding the diagnosis of small cell lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Uchida, Yasuki; Tsukino, Mitsuhiro; Shigemori, Wataru; Hayashi, Eiichi; Watanabe, Isao; Nakayama, Takahisa; Yamada, Eiji; Moro, Kunihiro

    2012-11-01

    Mucormycosis is a rare complication in immunocompromised patients. Antemortem diagnosis of mucormycosis is difficult and often incorrect. We report a case of pulmonary mucormycosis caused by Cunninghamella bertholletiae in an elderly man with interstitial pneumonia. The diagnosis of mucormycosis was established by bronchoalveolar lavage. A coexisting immune deficiency condition was considered. Lung cancer was suspected because of an elevated progastrin-releasing peptide level and bilateral hilar and mediastinal lymphadenopathy; it was diagnosed after performing endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration. Treatment by intravenous liposomal amphotericin B was effective, but relapse occurred because of bone marrow suppression caused by chemotherapy for lung cancer. Treatment for mucormycosis was resumed, but the patient died of carcinomatous lymphangiosis. Autopsy confirmed the diagnosis of pulmonary mucormycosis and revealed refractory anaemia with small cell lung cancer. Mucormycosis often occurs in immunocompromised patients, but this case is rare because the mucormycosis was diagnosed before the diagnosis of malignancy. Because prognosis is often poor, the possibility of coexisting malignancies should always be investigated in patients with mucormycosis infections.

  11. Can the conventional sextant prostate biopsy accurately predict unilateral prostate cancer in low-risk, localized, prostate cancer?

    PubMed

    Mayes, Janice M; Mouraviev, Vladimir; Sun, Leon; Tsivian, Matvey; Madden, John F; Polascik, Thomas J

    2011-01-01

    We evaluate the reliability of routine sextant prostate biopsy to detect unilateral lesions. A total of 365 men with complete records including all clinical and pathologic variables who underwent a preoperative sextant biopsy and subsequent radical prostatectomy (RP) for clinically localized prostate cancer at our medical center between January 1996 and December 2006 were identified. When the sextant biopsy detects unilateral disease, according to RP results, the NPV is high (91%) with a low false negative rate (9%). However, the sextant biopsy has a PPV of 28% with a high false positive rate (72%). Therefore, a routine sextant prostate biopsy cannot provide reliable, accurate information about the unilaterality of tumor lesion(s).

  12. Linear Discriminant Functions in Connection with the micro-RNA Diagnosis of Colon Cancer.

    PubMed

    Nikas, Jason B; Low, Walter C

    2012-01-01

    Early detection (localized stage) of colon cancer is associated with a five-year survival rate of 91%. Only 39% of colon cancers, however, are diagnosed at that early stage. Early and accurate diagnosis, therefore, constitutes a critical need and a decisive factor in the clinical treatment of colon cancer and its success. In this study, using supervised linear discriminant analysis, we have developed three diagnostic biomarker models that-based on global micro-RNA expression analysis of colonic tissue collected during surgery-can discriminate with a perfect accuracy between subjects with colon cancer (stages II-IV) and normal healthy subjects. We developed our three diagnostic biomarker models with 57 subjects [40 with colon cancer (stages II-IV) and 17 normal], and we validated them with 39 unknown (new and different) subjects [28 with colon cancer (stages II-IV) and 11 normal]. For all three diagnostic models, both the overall sensitivity and specificity were 100%. The nine most significant micro-RNAs identified, which comprise the input variables to the three linear discriminant functions, are associated with genes that regulate oncogenesis, and they play a paramount role in the development of colon cancer, as evidenced in the tumor tissue itself. This could have a significant impact in the fight against this disease, in that it may lead to the development of an early serum or blood diagnostic test based on the detection of those nine key micro-RNAs.

  13. Cancer diagnosis by discrimination between normal and malignant human blood samples using attenuated total reflectance-Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Khanmohammadi, M; Ansari, M A; Garmarudi, A Bagheri; Hassanzadeh, G; Garoosi, G

    2007-09-01

    FTIR spectroscopy is a common technique for cancer diagnosis. Applied tissue samples are heterogeneous and may be damaged in preparation procedures. Easier sampling, more available samples and also easier process with assured results would be interesting. Whole blood samples include all of these qualifications and our hypothesis was the bio-molecular changes in blood which manifest themselves in different optical signatures, detectable by FTIR spectroscopy. Noncancerous blood samples were differentiated from cancerous ones using ATR-FTIR spectroscopy and LDA classification method. Procedure was 100 percent and 90 percent accurate in prediction of cancerous or noncancerous situation for 33 known and 10 unknown samples, respectively.

  14. Impact of Prostate Cancer Diagnosis on Non-Cancer Hospitalizations among Elderly Medicare Beneficiaries with Incident Prostate Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Raval, Amit D.; Madhavan, Suresh; Mattes, Malcolm D.; Salkini, Mohamad; Sambamoorthi, Usha

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVES To analyze the impact of cancer diagnosis on non-cancer hospitalizations (NCHs) by comparing these hospitalizations between the pre- and post-cancer period in a cohort of fee-for-service Medicare beneficiaries with incident prostate cancer. METHODS A population-based retrospective cohort study was conducted using the Surveillance, Epidemiology and End-Results (SEER) -Medicare linked database for the years 2000 to 2010. The study cohort consisted of 57,489 elderly men (≥ 67 years) with incident prostate cancer. NCHs were identified in six time periods (t1–t6) before and after the incidence of prostate cancer. Each time period consisted of 120 days. For each time period, NCHs were defined as inpatient admissions with primary diagnosis codes not related to prostate cancer, prostate cancer-related procedures or bowel, sexual and urinary dysfunction. Bivariate and multivariate comparisons on rates of NCHs between the pre- and post-cancer period accounted for the repeated measures design. RESULTS The rate of NCHs during the post-cancer period (5.1%) was higher as compared to the pre-cancer period (3.2%). In both unadjusted and adjusted models, elderly men were 37% (Odds Ratio, OR: 1.37, 95% Confidence Interval, CI: 1.32, 1.41) and 38% (Adjusted OR: 1.38, 95% CI: 1.33, 1.46) more likely to have any NCH during the post-cancer period as compared to the pre-cancer period. CONCLUSIONS Elderly men with prostate cancer had a significant increase in the risk of NCHs after the diagnosis of prostate cancer. The study highlights the need to design interventions for reducing the excess NCHs after diagnosis of prostate cancer among elderly men. PMID:26850489

  15. Prostate Cancer: Symptoms, Diagnosis and Treatment | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    MedlinePlus

    ... of this page please turn Javascript on. Feature: Prostate Cancer Prostate Cancer: Symptoms, Diagnosis and Treatment Past Issues / Winter 2010 Table of Contents Symptoms Prostate cancer has no symptoms in its early stages. They ...

  16. Breast Cancer Basics and You: Detection and Diagnosis | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    MedlinePlus

    ... of this page please turn Javascript on. Feature: Breast Cancer Breast Cancer Basics and You: Detection and Diagnosis Past Issues / ... regular clinical breast exams and mammograms to find breast cancer early, when treatment is more likely to work ...

  17. Spatial-temperature high resolution map for early cancer diagnosis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gavriloaia, Gheorghe V.; Hurduc, Anca; Ghimigean, Ana-Maria; Fumarel, Radu

    2009-02-01

    Heat is one of the most important parameters of living beings. Skin temperature is not the same on the entire body and so, a thermal signature can be got. Infrared map on serial imaging can constitute an early sign of an abnormality. Thermography detects changes in tissue that appear before and accompany many diseases including cancer. As this map has a better resolution an early cancer diagnosis can be done. The temperature of neoplasic tissue is different up to 1.5 °C than that of the healthy tissue as a result of the specific metabolic rate. The infrared camera images show very quickly the heat transferred by radiation. A lot of factors disturb the temperature conversion to pixel intensity. A sensitive temperature sensor with a 10 Mpixels video camera, showing its spatial position, and a computer fusion program were used for the map with high spatial-temperature resolution. A couple of minutes are necessary to get a high resolution map. The asymmetry and borders were the main parameters analyzed. The right cancer diagnosis was for about 78.4% of patients with thyroid cancer, and more than 89.6% from patients with breast cancer. In the near future, the medical prognosis will be improved by fractal analysis.

  18. Differential diagnosis of acute miliary pulmonary tuberculosis from widespread-metastatic cancer for postoperative lung cancer patients: two cases

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Wei; Tian, Yuke; Peng, Feng; Long, Jianlin; Liu, Lan; Lu, You

    2017-01-01

    Pulmonary infections and lung cancer can resemble each other on radiographic images, which makes it difficult to diagnosis accurately and apply an appropriate therapy. Here we report two cases that two postoperative patients with lung adenocarcinoma developed diffuse nodules in bilateral lungs in a month which needed to be distinguished between metastatic malignancies and infectious diseases. Although there are much similarities in disease characteristics of two cases, patient in case one was diagnosed as acute miliary pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) while patient in case two was diagnosed as metastatic disease. The symptoms and pulmonary foci on CT scan of patient in case one improved distinctly after the immediate anti-TB treatment, but the disease of patient in case two progressed after chemotherapy. These findings caution us that differential diagnosis is crucial and have significance in guiding clinical work. PMID:28275493

  19. Objective Diagnosis of Cervical Cancer by Tissue Protein Profile Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patil, Ajeetkumar; Bhat, Sujatha; Rai, Lavanya; Kartha, V. B.; Chidangil, Santhosh

    2011-07-01

    Protein profiles of homogenized normal cervical tissue samples from hysterectomy subjects and cancerous cervical tissues from biopsy samples collected from patients with different stages of cervical cancer were recorded using High Performance Liquid Chromatography coupled with Laser Induced Fluorescence (HPLC-LIF). The Protein profiles were subjected to Principle Component Analysis to derive statistically significant parameters. Diagnosis of sample types were carried out by matching three parameters—scores of factors, squared residuals, and Mahalanobis Distance. ROC and Youden's Index curves for calibration standards were used for objective estimation of the optimum threshold for decision making and performance.

  20. BCC skin cancer diagnosis based on texture analysis techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chuang, Shao-Hui; Sun, Xiaoyan; Chang, Wen-Yu; Chen, Gwo-Shing; Huang, Adam; Li, Jiang; McKenzie, Frederic D.

    2011-03-01

    In this paper, we present a texture analysis based method for diagnosing the Basal Cell Carcinoma (BCC) skin cancer using optical images taken from the suspicious skin regions. We first extracted the Run Length Matrix and Haralick texture features from the images and used a feature selection algorithm to identify the most effective feature set for the diagnosis. We then utilized a Multi-Layer Perceptron (MLP) classifier to classify the images to BCC or normal cases. Experiments showed that detecting BCC cancer based on optical images is feasible. The best sensitivity and specificity we achieved on our data set were 94% and 95%, respectively.

  1. Magnetic Nanoparticles for Cancer Diagnosis and Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Yigit, Mehmet V.; Moore, Anna

    2013-01-01

    Nanotechnology is evolving as a new field that has a potentially high research and clinical impact. Medicine, in particular, could benefit from nanotechnology, due to emerging applications for noninvasive imaging and therapy. One important nanotechnological platform that has shown promise includes the so-called iron oxide nanoparticles. With specific relevance to cancer therapy, iron oxide nanoparticle-based therapy represents an important alternative to conventional chemotherapy, radiation, or surgery. Iron oxide nanoparticles are usually composed of three main components: an iron core, a polymer coating, and functional moieties. The biodegradable iron core can be designed to be superparamagnetic. This is particularly important, if the nanoparticles are to be used as a contrast agent for noninvasive magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Surrounding the iron core is generally a polymer coating, which not only serves as a protective layer but also is a very important component for transforming nanoparticles into biomedical nanotools for in vivo applications. Finally, different moieties attached to the coating serve as targeting macromolecules, therapeutics payloads, or additional imaging tags. Despite the development of several nanoparticles for biomedical applications, we believe that iron oxide nanoparticles are still the most promising platform that can transform nanotechnology into a conventional medical discipline. PMID:22274558

  2. Diagnosis of skin cancer using image processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guerra-Rosas, Esperanza; Álvarez-Borrego, Josué; Coronel-Beltrán, Ángel

    2014-10-01

    In this papera methodology for classifying skin cancerin images of dermatologie spots based on spectral analysis using the K-law Fourier non-lineartechnique is presented. The image is segmented and binarized to build the function that contains the interest area. The image is divided into their respective RGB channels to obtain the spectral properties of each channel. The green channel contains more information and therefore this channel is always chosen. This information is point to point multiplied by a binary mask and to this result a Fourier transform is applied written in nonlinear form. If the real part of this spectrum is positive, the spectral density takeunit values, otherwise are zero. Finally the ratio of the sum of the unit values of the spectral density with the sum of values of the binary mask are calculated. This ratio is called spectral index. When the value calculated is in the spectral index range three types of cancer can be detected. Values found out of this range are benign injure.

  3. The significance of markers in the diagnosis of endometrial cancer

    PubMed Central

    Żyła, Monika M.; Wilczyński, Jacek R.; Kostrzewa, Marta; Księżakowska-Łakoma, Kinga; Nowak, Marek; Stachowiak, Grzegorz; Szyłło, Krzysztof

    2016-01-01

    Endometrial cancer is one of the most common cancers experienced by women throughout the world. It is also the most common malignancy within the female reproductive system, representing 37.7% of all disorders. The incidence increases with age, and is diagnosed most frequently in women between 45 and 65 years old. In the last few years, numerous studies have been performed to identify tumour biomarkers. Biomarkers include not only protein routinely used as tumour markers but also genes and chromosomes. The limiting factor in the use of markers in the diagnosis of endometrial cancer is their lack of specificity. However, specific markers for endometrial cancer are the subject of much research attention. Although moderately elevated levels of markers are present in a number of inflammatory or non-malignant diseases, significantly increased levels of markers indicate the development of cancer. Recently, research has been focused on the identification of molecular changes leading to different histological subtypes of endometrial cancer. In this paper the authors reviewed several currently investigated markers. Progress in these investigations is very important in the diagnostics and treatment of endometrial cancer. In particular, the identification of novel mutations and molecular profiles should enhance our ability to personalise adjuvant treatment with genome-guided targeted therapy. PMID:27980530

  4. Diagnosis of Lung Cancer by Fractal Analysis of Damaged DNA

    PubMed Central

    Namazi, Hamidreza; Kiminezhadmalaie, Mona

    2015-01-01

    Cancer starts when cells in a part of the body start to grow out of control. In fact cells become cancer cells because of DNA damage. A DNA walk of a genome represents how the frequency of each nucleotide of a pairing nucleotide couple changes locally. In this research in order to study the cancer genes, DNA walk plots of genomes of patients with lung cancer were generated using a program written in MATLAB language. The data so obtained was checked for fractal property by computing the fractal dimension using a program written in MATLAB. Also, the correlation of damaged DNA was studied using the Hurst exponent measure. We have found that the damaged DNA sequences are exhibiting higher degree of fractality and less correlation compared with normal DNA sequences. So we confirmed this method can be used for early detection of lung cancer. The method introduced in this research not only is useful for diagnosis of lung cancer but also can be applied for detection and growth analysis of different types of cancers. PMID:26539245

  5. [Early diagnosis of gastric cancer, a utopian idea? (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Seifert, E

    1981-05-01

    In order to improve the prognosis of gastric cancer it is necessary to discover the lesions at an early stage of the disease. Early gastric cancer has an excellent prognosis with a postoperative survival rate of 77 to 99%. Since 1970 we have diagnosed 76 cases of early gastric cancer and the percentage of early cancer out of all gastric cancers increased from 10 to 23%. This improvement is based on selected examinations of high-risk patients, on better diagnostic methods and on our better knowledge of macroscopic and histological appearance. In particular, the use of snare biopsy in protruding lesions and the implementation of continuous endoscopic-bioptic follow-up of all gastric ulcers until complete healing is achieved have improved the accuracy of histological verification. In 16 out of 76 cases of early gastric cancer a multicentric growth was observed. The diagnosis of gastric cancer at an early stage is not an utopian idea. It is reality when we pay attention to the aspects mentioned before.

  6. Feasibility of Prostate Cancer Diagnosis by Transrectal Photoacoustic Imaging

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-03-01

    11-1-0232 TITLE: Feasibility of Prostate Cancer Diagnosis by Transrectal Photoacoustic Imaging PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Hanli Liu... Photoacoustic Imaging Hanli Liu University of Texas at Arlington Arlington, TX 76019 There is no effective imaging tool currently available for prostate... photoacoustic (PA) imaging [4]. It has been reported that the ratio of the imaging depth to spatial resolution can reach to ~100 for PA techniques

  7. 2D nanomaterials based electrochemical biosensors for cancer diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lu; Xiong, Qirong; Xiao, Fei; Duan, Hongwei

    2017-03-15

    Cancer is a leading cause of death in the world. Increasing evidence has demonstrated that early diagnosis holds the key towards effective treatment outcome. Cancer biomarkers are extensively used in oncology for cancer diagnosis and prognosis. Electrochemical sensors play key roles in current laboratory and clinical analysis of diverse chemical and biological targets. Recent development of functional nanomaterials offers new possibilities of improving the performance of electrochemical sensors. In particular, 2D nanomaterials have stimulated intense research due to their unique array of structural and chemical properties. The 2D materials of interest cover broadly across graphene, graphene derivatives (i.e., graphene oxide and reduced graphene oxide), and graphene-like nanomaterials (i.e., 2D layered transition metal dichalcogenides, graphite carbon nitride and boron nitride nanomaterials). In this review, we summarize recent advances in the synthesis of 2D nanomaterials and their applications in electrochemical biosensing of cancer biomarkers (nucleic acids, proteins and some small molecules), and present a personal perspective on the future direction of this area.

  8. Genetics, diagnosis and management of colorectal cancer (Review)

    PubMed Central

    DE ROSA, MARINA; PACE, UGO; REGA, DANIELA; COSTABILE, VALERIA; DURATURO, FRANCESCA; IZZO, PAOLA; DELRIO, PAOLO

    2015-01-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the third most common type of cancer worldwide and a leading cause of cancer death. Surgery represents the mainstay of treatment in early cases but often patients are primarily diagnosed in an advanced stage of disease and sometimes also distant metastases are present. Neoadjuvant therapy is therefore needed but drug resistance may influence response and concur to recurrent disease. At molecular level, it is a very heterogeneous group of diseases with about 30% of hereditary or familial cases. During colorectal adenocarcinomas development, epithelial cells from gastrointestinal trait acquire sequential genetic and epigenetic mutations in specific oncogenes and/or tumour suppressor genes, causing CRC onset, progression and metastasis. Molecular characterization of cancer associated mutations gives valuable information about disease prognosis and response to the therapy. Very early diagnosis and personalized care, as well as a better knowledge of molecular basis of its onset and progression, are therefore crucial to obtain a cure of CRC. In this review, we describe updated genetics, current diagnosis and management of CRC pointing out the extreme need for a multidisciplinary approach to achieve the best results in patient outcomes. PMID:26151224

  9. Delays in Breast Cancer Presentation and Diagnosis at Two Rural Cancer Referral Centers in Rwanda

    PubMed Central

    Mpunga, Tharcisse; Hategekimana, Vedaste; Dusengimana, Jean-Marie Vianney; Habineza, Hamissy; Bigirimana, Jean Bosco; Mutumbira, Cadet; Mpanumusingo, Egide; Ngiruwera, Jean Paul; Tapela, Neo; Amoroso, Cheryl; Shulman, Lawrence N.; Keating, Nancy L.

    2015-01-01

    Background. Breast cancer incidence is increasing in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). Mortality/incidence ratios in LMICs are higher than in high-income countries, likely at least in part because of delayed diagnoses leading to advanced-stage presentations. In the present study, we investigated the magnitude, impact of, and risk factors for, patient and system delays in breast cancer diagnosis in Rwanda. Materials and Methods. We interviewed patients with breast complaints at two rural Rwandan hospitals providing cancer care and reviewed their medical records to determine the diagnosis, diagnosis date, and breast cancer stage. Results. A total of 144 patients were included in our analysis. Median total delay was 15 months, and median patient and system delays were both 5 months. In multivariate analyses, patient and system delays of ≥6 months were significantly associated with more advanced-stage disease. Adjusting for other social, demographic, and clinical characteristics, a low level of education and seeing a traditional healer first were significantly associated with a longer patient delay. Having made ≥5 health facility visits before the diagnosis was significantly associated with a longer system delay. However, being from the same district as one of the two hospitals was associated with a decreased likelihood of system delay. Conclusion. Patients with breast cancer in Rwanda experience long patient and system delays before diagnosis; these delays increase the likelihood of more advanced-stage presentations. Educating communities and healthcare providers about breast cancer and facilitating expedited referrals could potentially reduce delays and hence mortality from breast cancer in Rwanda and similar settings. Implications for Practice: Breast cancer rates are increasing in low- and middle-income countries, and case fatality rates are high, in part because of delayed diagnosis and treatment. This study examined the delays experienced by patients

  10. Microfluidic chip-based technologies: emerging platforms for cancer diagnosis

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    The development of early and personalized diagnostic protocols is considered the most promising avenue to decrease mortality from cancer and improve outcome. The emerging microfluidic-based analyzing platforms hold high promises to fulfill high-throughput and high-precision screening with reduced equipment cost and low analysis time, as compared to traditional bulky counterparts in bench-top laboratories. This article overviewed the potential applications of microfluidic technologies for detection and monitoring of cancer through nucleic acid and protein biomarker analysis. The implications of the technologies in cancer cytology that can provide functional personalized diagnosis were highlighted. Finally, the future niches for using microfluidic-based systems in tumor screening were briefly discussed. PMID:24070124

  11. Oral cancer. The importance of early diagnosis and treatment.

    PubMed

    Sciubba, J J

    2001-01-01

    Oral cancer is an important health issue. The WHO predicts a continuing worldwide increase in the number of patients with oral cancer, extending this trend well into the next several decades. In the US the projected number of new cases of oral and oropharyngeal cancer will exceed 31,000 per year. Mortality due to cancers in this region exceeds the annual death rate is the US caused by either cutaneous melanoma or cervical cancer. Significant agents involved in the etiology of oral cancer in Western countries include sunlight exposure, smoking and alcohol consumption. Use of the areca or betel nut in many cultures is a major etiological factor outside of the USA. Other etiologic factors associated with oral squamous cell carcinoma, but far less significant statistically, include syphilis and sideropenic dysphagia. Recently, strong evidence for an etiological relationship between human papilloma virus and a subset of head and neck cancers has been noted. It is generally accepted that most sporadic tumors are the result of a multi-step process of accumulated genetic alterations. These alterations affect epithelial cell behavior by way of loss of chromosomal heterozygosity which in turn leads to a series of events progressing to the ultimate stage of invasive squamous cell carcinoma. The corresponding genetic alterations are reflected in clinical and microscopic pathology from hyperplasia through invasiveness. A wide range of mucosal alternations fall within the rubric of leukoplakia. Proliferative verrucous leukoplakia represents a relatively new type of leukoplakia that is separate from the more common or less innocuous form of this condition. Erythroplakia is particularly relevant considering its almost certain relationship with dysplasia or invasive carcinoma. Squamous cell carcinoma will develop from antecedent dysplastic oral mucosal lesions if an early diagnosis has not been made and treatment given. Early diagnosis within stages I and II correspond to a vastly

  12. PSA Isoforms' Velocities for Early Diagnosis of Prostate Cancer.

    PubMed

    Heidegger, Isabel; Klocker, Helmut; Pichler, Renate; Horninger, Wolfgang; Bektic, Jasmin

    2015-06-01

    Free prostate-specific antigen (fPSA) and its molecular isoforms are suggested for enhancement of PSA testing in prostate cancer (PCa). In the present study we evaluated whether PSA isoforms' velocities might serve as a tool to improve early PCa diagnosis. Our study population included 381 men who had undergone at least one ultrasound-guided prostate biopsy whose pathologic examination yielded PCa or showed no evidence of prostatic malignancy. Serial PSA, fPSA, and proPSA measurements were performed on serum samples covering 7 years prior to biopsy using Beckmann Coulter Access immunoassays. Afterwards, velocities of PSA (PSAV), fPSA% (fPSA%V), proPSA% (proPSA%V) and the ratio proPSA/PSA/V were calculated and their ability to discriminate cancer from benign disease was evaluated. Among 381 men included in the study, 202 (53%) were diagnosed with PCa and underwent radical prostatectomy at our Department. PSAV, fPSA%V, proPSA%V as well as proPSA/PSA/V were able to differentiate significantly between PCa and non-cancerous prostate. The highest discriminatory power between cancer and benign disease has been observed two and one year prior to diagnosis with all measured parameters. Among all measured parameters, fPSA%V showed the best cancer specificity of 45.3% with 90% of sensitivity. In summary, our results highlight the value of PSA isoforms' velocity for early detection of PCa. Especially fPSA%V should be used in the clinical setting to increase cancer detection specificity.

  13. [Alternative splicing regulation: implications in cancer diagnosis and treatment].

    PubMed

    Martínez-Montiel, Nancy; Rosas-Murrieta, Nora; Martínez-Contreras, Rebeca

    2015-04-08

    The accurate expression of the genetic information is regulated by processes like mRNA splicing, proposed after the discoveries of Phil Sharp and Richard Roberts, who demonstrated the existence of intronic sequences, present in almost every structural eukaryotic gene, which should be precisely removed. This intron removal is called "splicing", which generates different proteins from a single mRNA, with different or even antagonistic functions. We currently know that alternative splicing is the most important source of protein diversity, given that 70% of the human genes undergo splicing and that mutations causing defects in this process could originate up to 50% of genetic diseases, including cancer. When these defects occur in genes involved in cell adhesion, proliferation and cell cycle regulation, there is an impact on cancer progression, rising the opportunity to diagnose and treat some types of cancer according to a particular splicing profile.

  14. Integrated proteo-genomic approach for early diagnosis and prognosis of cancer.

    PubMed

    Shukla, Hem D; Mahmood, Javed; Vujaskovic, Zeljko

    2015-12-01

    Cancer is the leading cause of mortality among men and women worldwide. Despite the availability of numerous diagnostic techniques for various cancers, the overall survival rate remains low and the majority of patients die due to late diagnosis and advanced stage of the disease. Diagnosing and treating cancer at its early stages ideally during the precancerous phase could significantly increase survival rate with the possibility of cure and prolong survival. Cancer is a genetic disease and it is illicitly activated by the acquisition of somatic DNA lesions and aberrations in genome structure and defects in maintenance and repair. These somatic DNA mutations known as driver mutations seem to be the prime cause in initiating tumorigenesis. The advances in genomic technologies have immensely facilitated the understanding of cancer progression and metastasis, and the discovery of novel biomarkers. However, changes in somatic mutational landscape of the oncogenome are translated into aberrantly regulated oncoproteome which drives the cancer initiation. Thus, combination of proteomic and genomic technologies is urgently required to discover biomarkers for early diagnosis. The recent advances in human genome based detection of cancer using advanced genomic technologies like NextGen Sequencing, digital PCR, cfDNA technology have shown promise; for example oncogenic somatic mutation variants, transcriptomic analysis, copy number variant, and methylation data from the Cancer Genome Atlas. Similarly, oncoproteomics has the potential to revolutionize clinical management of the disease, including cancer diagnosis and screening based on new proteomic database which embodies somatic variants and post translational modifications, thus devising proteomic technologies as a complement to histopathology. Further, the use of multiple proteomic and genomic biomarkers rather than a single gene or protein could greatly improve diagnostic accuracy and enhance the predictive power for

  15. A cohort study on mental disorders, stage of cancer at diagnosis and subsequent survival

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Chin-Kuo; Hayes, Richard D; Broadbent, Matthew T M; Hotopf, Matthew; Davies, Elizabeth; Møller, Henrik; Stewart, Robert

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To assess the stage at cancer diagnosis and survival after cancer diagnosis among people served by secondary mental health services, compared with other local people. Setting Using the anonymised linkage between a regional monopoly secondary mental health service provider in southeast London of four London boroughs, Croydon, Lambeth, Lewisham and Southwark, and a population-based cancer register, a historical cohort study was constructed. Participants A total of 28 477 cancer cases aged 15+ years with stage of cancer recorded at diagnosis were identified. Among these, 2206 participants had been previously assessed or treated in secondary mental healthcare before their cancer diagnosis and 125 for severe mental illness (schizophrenia, schizoaffective or bipolar disorders). Primary and secondary outcome measures Stage when cancer was diagnosed and all-cause mortality after cancer diagnosis among cancer cases registered in the geographical area of southeast London. Results Comparisons between people with and without specific psychiatric diagnosis in the same residence area for risks of advanced stage of cancer at diagnosis and general survival after cancer diagnosed were analysed using logistic and Cox models. No associations were found between specific mental disorder diagnoses and beyond local spread of cancer at presentation. However, people with severe mental disorders, depression, dementia and substance use disorders had significantly worse survival after cancer diagnosis, independent of cancer stage at diagnosis and other potential confounders. Conclusions Previous findings of associations between mental disorders and cancer mortality are more likely to be accounted for by differences in survival after cancer diagnosis rather than by delayed diagnosis. PMID:24477317

  16. TOPICAL REVIEW: Biological and chemical sensors for cancer diagnosis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simon, Elfriede

    2010-11-01

    The great challenge for sensor systems to be accepted as a relevant diagnostic and therapeutic tool for cancer detection is the ability to determine the presence of relevant biomarkers or biomarker patterns comparably to or even better than the traditional analytical systems. Biosensor and chemical sensor technologies are already used for several clinical applications such as blood glucose or blood gas measurements. However, up to now not many sensors have been developed for cancer-related tests because only a few of the biomarkers have shown clinical relevance and the performance of the sensor systems is not always satisfactory. New genomic and proteomic tools are used to detect new molecular signatures and identify which combinations of biomarkers may detect best the presence or risk of cancer or monitor cancer therapies. These molecular signatures include genetic and epigenetic signatures, changes in gene expressions, protein biomarker profiles and other metabolite profile changes. They provide new changes in using different sensor technologies for cancer detection especially when complex biomarker patterns have to be analyzed. To address requirements for this complex analysis, there have been recent efforts to develop sensor arrays and new solutions (e.g. lab on a chip) in which sampling, preparation, high-throughput analysis and reporting are integrated. The ability of parallelization, miniaturization and the degree of automation are the focus of new developments and will be supported by nanotechnology approaches. This review recaps some scientific considerations about cancer diagnosis and cancer-related biomarkers, relevant biosensor and chemical sensor technologies, their application as cancer sensors and consideration about future challenges.

  17. Identification of a biomarker panel for colorectal cancer diagnosis

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Malignancies arising in the large bowel cause the second largest number of deaths from cancer in the Western World. Despite progresses made during the last decades, colorectal cancer remains one of the most frequent and deadly neoplasias in the western countries. Methods A genomic study of human colorectal cancer has been carried out on a total of 31 tumoral samples, corresponding to different stages of the disease, and 33 non-tumoral samples. The study was carried out by hybridisation of the tumour samples against a reference pool of non-tumoral samples using Agilent Human 1A 60-mer oligo microarrays. The results obtained were validated by qRT-PCR. In the subsequent bioinformatics analysis, gene networks by means of Bayesian classifiers, variable selection and bootstrap resampling were built. The consensus among all the induced models produced a hierarchy of dependences and, thus, of variables. Results After an exhaustive process of pre-processing to ensure data quality--lost values imputation, probes quality, data smoothing and intraclass variability filtering--the final dataset comprised a total of 8, 104 probes. Next, a supervised classification approach and data analysis was carried out to obtain the most relevant genes. Two of them are directly involved in cancer progression and in particular in colorectal cancer. Finally, a supervised classifier was induced to classify new unseen samples. Conclusions We have developed a tentative model for the diagnosis of colorectal cancer based on a biomarker panel. Our results indicate that the gene profile described herein can discriminate between non-cancerous and cancerous samples with 94.45% accuracy using different supervised classifiers (AUC values in the range of 0.997 and 0.955). PMID:22280244

  18. Vitronectin: a promising breast cancer serum biomarker for early diagnosis of breast cancer in patients.

    PubMed

    Hao, Wende; Zhang, Xuhui; Xiu, Bingshui; Yang, Xiqin; Hu, Shuofeng; Liu, Zhiqiang; Duan, Cuimi; Jin, Shujuan; Ying, Xiaomin; Zhao, Yanfeng; Han, Xiaowei; Hao, Xiaopeng; Fan, Yawen; Johnson, Heather; Meng, Di; Persson, Jenny L; Zhang, Heqiu; Feng, XiaoYan; Huang, Yan

    2016-07-01

    Breast cancer is the most common cancer in women worldwide, identification of new biomarkers for early diagnosis and detection will improve the clinical outcome of breast cancer patients. In the present study, we determined serum levels of vitronectin (VN) in 93 breast cancer patients, 30 benign breast lesions, 9 precancerous lesions, and 30 healthy individuals by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. Serum VN level was significantly higher in patients with stage 0-I primary breast cancer than in healthy individuals, patients with benign breast lesion or precancerous lesions, as well as those with breast cancer of higher stages. Serum VN level was significantly and negatively correlated with tumor size, lymph node status, and clinical stage (p < 0.05 in all cases). In addition, VN displayed higher area under curve (AUC) value (0.73, 95 % confidence interval (CI) [0.62-0.84]) than carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) (0.64, 95 % CI [0.52-0.77]) and cancer antigen 15-3 (CA 15-3) (0.69, 95 % CI [0.58-0.81]) when used to distinguish stage 0-I cancer and normal control. Importantly, the combined use of three biomarkers yielded an improvement in receiver operating characteristic curve with an AUC of 0.83, 95 % CI [0.74-0.92]. Taken together, our current study showed for the first time that serum VN is a promising biomarker for early diagnosis of breast cancer when combined with CEA and CA15-3.

  19. Oxygen-enhanced MRI accurately identifies, quantifies, and maps tumor hypoxia in preclinical cancer models

    PubMed Central

    O’Connor, James PB; Boult, Jessica KR; Jamin, Yann; Babur, Muhammad; Finegan, Katherine G; Williams, Kaye J; Little, Ross A; Jackson, Alan; Parker, Geoff JM; Reynolds, Andrew R; Waterton, John C; Robinson, Simon P

    2015-01-01

    There is a clinical need for non-invasive biomarkers of tumor hypoxia for prognostic and predictive studies, radiotherapy planning and therapy monitoring. Oxygen enhanced MRI (OE-MRI) is an emerging imaging technique for quantifying the spatial distribution and extent of tumor oxygen delivery in vivo. In OE-MRI, the longitudinal relaxation rate of protons (ΔR1) changes in proportion to the concentration of molecular oxygen dissolved in plasma or interstitial tissue fluid. Therefore, well-oxygenated tissues show positive ΔR1. We hypothesized that the fraction of tumor tissue refractory to oxygen challenge (lack of positive ΔR1, termed “Oxy-R fraction”) would be a robust biomarker of hypoxia in models with varying vascular and hypoxic features. Here we demonstrate that OE-MRI signals are accurate, precise and sensitive to changes in tumor pO2 in highly vascular 786-0 renal cancer xenografts. Furthermore, we show that Oxy-R fraction can quantify the hypoxic fraction in multiple models with differing hypoxic and vascular phenotypes, when used in combination with measurements of tumor perfusion. Finally, Oxy-R fraction can detect dynamic changes in hypoxia induced by the vasomodulator agent hydralazine. In contrast, more conventional biomarkers of hypoxia (derived from blood oxygenation-level dependent MRI and dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI) did not relate to tumor hypoxia consistently. Our results show that the Oxy-R fraction accurately quantifies tumor hypoxia non-invasively and is immediately translatable to the clinic. PMID:26659574

  20. Multiplatform Biomarker Discovery for Bladder Cancer Recurrence Diagnosis

    PubMed Central

    De Paoli, Marine; Gogalic, Selma; Sauer, Ursula; Preininger, Claudia; Pandha, Hardev; Simpson, Guy; Horvath, Andras

    2016-01-01

    Purpose. Nonmuscle invasive bladder cancer (BCa) has a high recurrence rate requiring lifelong surveillance. Urinary biomarkers are promising as simple alternatives to cystoscopy for the diagnosis of recurrent bladder cancer. However, no single marker can achieve the required accuracy. The purpose of this study was to select a multiparameter panel, comprising urinary biomarkers and clinical parameters, for BCa recurrence diagnosis. Experimental Design. Candidate biomarkers were measured in urine samples of BCa patients with recurrence and BCa patients without recurrence. A multiplatform strategy was used for marker quantification comprising a multiplexed microarray and an automated platform for ELISA analysis. A multivariate statistical analysis combined the results from both platforms with the collected clinical data. Results. The best performing combination of biomarkers and clinical parameters achieved an AUC value of 0.91, showing better performance than individual parameters. This panel comprises six biomarkers (cadherin-1, IL-8, ErbB2, IL-6, EN2, and VEGF-A) and three clinical parameters (number of past recurrences, number of BCG therapies, and stage at time of diagnosis). Conclusions. The multiparameter panel could be a useful noninvasive tool for BCa surveillance and potentially impact the clinical management of this disease. Validation of results in an independent cohort is warranted. PMID:27660385

  1. Role of Galactography in the Early Diagnosis of Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Berná-Serna, Juan D.; Torres-Ales, Carolina; Berná-Mestre, Juan D.; Polo, Luis

    2013-01-01

    Summary Background The purpose of this study was to evaluate the usefulness of galactography (GL) in the early diagnosis of breast cancer in patients with pathologic nipple discharge (PND). Patients and Methods We retrospectively studied all galactograms obtained in 117 women with PND, who subsequently had a biopsy. The findings detected in the galactograms of the patients in this study were assigned to different categories of the Galactogram Image Classification System (GICS): GICS 2, benign; GICS 3, probably benign; GICS 4, suspicious for malignancy; and GICS 5, highly suspicious for malignancy. Results The galactograms were classified into GICS 2 (29 cases; 24.7%), GICS 3 (42 cases; 35.8%), GICS 4 (30 cases; 25.6%), and GICS 5 (16 cases; 13.6%). A good correlation was observed between histological diagnosis and GICS categories (p < 0.05). All cases diagnosed with carcinoma (n = 18) were classified in GICS categories 4–5: ductal carcinoma in situ in 14 cases (11.9%) and invasive carcinoma in 4 cases (3.4%). Conclusion GL is a useful procedure in the early diagnosis of breast cancer in patients with PND. PMID:24419050

  2. [Meningeal carcinomatosis in breast cancer: from diagnosis to treatment].

    PubMed

    Elm'hadi, C; Es Sbai, Z; Reda Khmamouche, M; Toreis, M; Tanz, R; Errihani, H; Ichou, M

    2017-04-01

    The appearance of meningeal carcinomatosis in breast cancer is an event that is being reported increasingly more frequently in the literature. It seems to be related with the lengthening of the patients' lives, improved sensitivity to diagnostic imaging and impermeability of the blood-brain barrier to the chemotherapeutic agents. It is an evolutionary form that affirms the metastatic invasion of the subarachnoidal space and is correlated with limited survival. Its diagnosis is difficult, due to the lack of specificity of the clinical signs dominated by headaches, cognitive disorders and possible signs and symptoms of progressive focal lesions. Magnetic resonance imaging of the brain and the spinal cord interpreted by a specialist in neuro-oncology is the preferred examination in this indication, in the search for an increase in meningeal enhancement. Biological analysis of the cerebrospinal fluid is an essential element in the diagnosis. In addition to the biochemical study, the presence of neoplastic cells is in itself enough to confirm the diagnosis. False negatives are very common and represent an important diagnostic problem that entails the need to repeat the lumbar punctures. The therapeutic methods are standard, often invasive, dominated by intrathecal chemotherapy and are based on low-level scientific evidence. This study analyses the epidemiology, the prognostic factors, the diagnostic tools, currently available treatments and the possible future therapies of meningeal carcinomatosis in breast cancer.

  3. Psychosocial Impact of Breast Cancer Diagnosis Among Omani Women

    PubMed Central

    Al-Azri, Mohammed; Al-Awisi, Huda; Al-Rasbi, Samira; El-Shafie, Kawther; Al-Hinai, Mustafa; Al-Habsi, Hamdan; Al-Moundhri, Mansour

    2014-01-01

    Objectives The aim of this study was to explore different psychosocial impacts on Omani women diagnosed with breast cancer.  Methods Semi-structured individual interviews were conducted with 19 Omani women diagnosed with breast cancer to describe the impact of the disease on their personal and social life. Women were recruited from wards and out-patient clinics at the Sultan Qaboos University Hospital, Muscat.  Results Four main themes emerged. These were: a) factors related to psychological distress of the disease and uncertainty (worry of death, interference with work and family responsibilities, searching for hope/cure, travelling overseas); b) reactions of family members (shocked, saddened, unity, pressure to seek traditional treatments); c) views of society (sympathy, isolation, reluctant to disclose information); and d) worries and threats about the future (side effects of chemotherapy, spread of the disease, effect on offspring).  Conclusion Breast cancer diagnosis has several devastating psychosocial impacts on women in Oman. Healthcare professionals working with women with breast cancer should be aware of the different psychosocial impacts of the disease on women’s lives. Appropriate measures must be taken by the decision makers whenever needed, including enforcing positive views and support of Oman’s society towards women with breast cancer. PMID:25584162

  4. Multi-test cervical cancer diagnosis with missing data estimation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Tao; Huang, Xiaolei; Kim, Edward; Long, L. Rodney; Antani, Sameer

    2015-03-01

    Cervical cancer is a leading most common type of cancer for women worldwide. Existing screening programs for cervical cancer suffer from low sensitivity. Using images of the cervix (cervigrams) as an aid in detecting pre-cancerous changes to the cervix has good potential to improve sensitivity and help reduce the number of cervical cancer cases. In this paper, we present a method that utilizes multi-modality information extracted from multiple tests of a patient's visit to classify the patient visit to be either low-risk or high-risk. Our algorithm integrates image features and text features to make a diagnosis. We also present two strategies to estimate the missing values in text features: Image Classifier Supervised Mean Imputation (ICSMI) and Image Classifier Supervised Linear Interpolation (ICSLI). We evaluate our method on a large medical dataset and compare it with several alternative approaches. The results show that the proposed method with ICSLI strategy achieves the best result of 83.03% specificity and 76.36% sensitivity. When higher specificity is desired, our method can achieve 90% specificity with 62.12% sensitivity.

  5. Skin Cancer: Epidemiology, Disease Burden, Pathophysiology, Diagnosis, and Therapeutic Approaches.

    PubMed

    Apalla, Zoe; Nashan, Dorothée; Weller, Richard B; Castellsagué, Xavier

    2017-01-01

    Skin cancer, including both melanoma and non-melanoma, is the most common type of malignancy in the Caucasian population. Firstly, we review the evidence for the observed increase in the incidence of skin cancer over recent decades, and investigate whether this is a true increase or an artefact of greater screening and over-diagnosis. Prevention strategies are also discussed. Secondly, we discuss the complexities and challenges encountered when diagnosing and developing treatment strategies for skin cancer. Key case studies are presented that highlight the practic challenges of choosing the most appropriate treatment for patients with skin cancer. Thirdly, we consider the potential risks and benefits of increased sun exposure. However, this is discussed in terms of the possibility that the avoidance of sun exposure in order to reduce the risk of skin cancer may be less important than the reduction in all-cause mortality as a result of the potential benefits of increased exposure to the sun. Finally, we consider common questions on human papillomavirus infection.

  6. Medicolegal considerations in the diagnosis of breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Strunk, Albert L; Kenyon, Sharon

    2002-03-01

    From the standpoint of the obstetrician, gynecologist, failure to diagnose breast cancer is a significant medicolegal issue in terms of the number of claims initiated and the indemnity awards paid to successful plaintiffs. The incidence of breast cancer may continue to increase. Without quality care and good risk management on the part or health care providers, claims for failure to diagnose cancer in a timely manner will also increase. The challenge for the health care provider is to formulate a plan that promotes early detection and treatment while allowing for independent clinical judgment. Ideally, the plan should be written and followed for every patient in whom complaints of a breast mass have been documented. It is incumbent upon the physician and office staff to create an atmosphere in which patient complaints are not minimized, the limitations of mammography are recognized. follow-up procedures are in place and strictly followed, and a definitive diagnosis within 4 to 6 weeks of the initial presentation is the ultimate goal. Following these suggestions will improve the quality of health care for the patient and significantly decrease the likelihood of litigation alleging a failure to diagnose breast cancer. In the event breast cancer is diagnosed and a lawsuit is brought for failure to diagnose in a timely fashion, the best defense a physician can have is to be able to demonstrate that the patient's complaints were taken seriously, a consistent treatment plan was followed and documented, and the patient received appropriate care.

  7. Role of endoscopic ultrasound in the molecular diagnosis of pancreatic cancer

    PubMed Central

    Bournet, Barbara; Gayral, Marion; Torrisani, Jérôme; Selves, Janick; Cordelier, Pierre; Buscail, Louis

    2014-01-01

    Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma remains one of the most deadly types of tumor. Endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration (EUS-FNA) is a safe, cost-effective, and accurate technique for evaluating and staging pancreatic tumors. However, EUS-FNA may be inconclusive or doubtful in up to 20% of cases. This review underlines the clinical interest of the molecular analysis of samples obtained by EUS-FNA in assessing diagnosis or prognosis of pancreatic cancer, especially in locally advanced tumors. On EUS-FNA materials DNA, mRNA and miRNA can be extracted, amplified, quantified and subjected to methylation assay. Kras mutation assay, improves diagnosis of pancreatic cancer. When facing to clinical and radiological presentations of pseudo-tumorous chronic pancreatitis, wild-type Kras is evocative of benignity. Conversely, in front of a pancreatic mass suspected of malignancy, a mutated Kras is highly evocative of pancreatic adenocarcinoma. This strategy can reduce false-negative diagnoses, avoids the delay of making decisions and reduces loss of surgical resectability. Similar approaches are conducted using analysis of miRNA expression as well as Mucin or markers of invasion (S100P, S100A6, PLAT or PLAU). Beyond the diagnosis approach, the prediction of response to treatment can be also investigated form biomarkers expression within EUS-FNA materials. PMID:25152579

  8. A mobile system for skin cancer diagnosis and monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gu, Yanliang; Tang, Jinshan

    2014-05-01

    In this paper, we propose a mobile system for aiding doctors in skin cancer diagnosis and other persons in skin cancer monitoring. The basic idea is to use image retrieval techniques to help the users to find the similar skin cancer cases stored in a database by using smart phones. The query image can be taken by a smart phone from a patient or can be uploaded from other resources. The shapes of the skin lesions are used for matching two skin lesions, which are segmented from skin images using the skin lesion extraction method developed in 1. The features used in the proposed system are obtained by Fourier descriptor. A prototype application has been developed and can be installed in an iPhone. In this application, the iPhone users can use the iPhone as a diagnosis tool to find the potential skin lesions in a persons' skin and compare the skin lesions detected by the iPhone with the skin lesions stored in a database in a remote server.

  9. A novel, integrated PET-guided MRS technique resulting in more accurate initial diagnosis of high-grade glioma.

    PubMed

    Kim, Ellen S; Satter, Martin; Reed, Marilyn; Fadell, Ronald; Kardan, Arash

    2016-06-01

    Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is the most common and lethal malignant glioma in adults. Currently, the modality of choice for diagnosing brain tumor is high-resolution magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with contrast, which provides anatomic detail and localization. Studies have demonstrated, however, that MRI may have limited utility in delineating the full tumor extent precisely. Studies suggest that MR spectroscopy (MRS) can also be used to distinguish high-grade from low-grade gliomas. However, due to operator dependent variables and the heterogeneous nature of gliomas, the potential for error in diagnostic accuracy with MRS is a concern. Positron emission tomography (PET) imaging with (11)C-methionine (MET) and (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) has been shown to add additional information with respect to tumor grade, extent, and prognosis based on the premise of biochemical changes preceding anatomic changes. Combined PET/MRS is a technique that integrates information from PET in guiding the location for the most accurate metabolic characterization of a lesion via MRS. We describe a case of glioblastoma multiforme in which MRS was initially non-diagnostic for malignancy, but when MRS was repeated with PET guidance, demonstrated elevated choline/N-acetylaspartate (Cho/NAA) ratio in the right parietal mass consistent with a high-grade malignancy. Stereotactic biopsy, followed by PET image-guided resection, confirmed the diagnosis of grade IV GBM. To our knowledge, this is the first reported case of an integrated PET/MRS technique for the voxel placement of MRS. Our findings suggest that integrated PET/MRS may potentially improve diagnostic accuracy in high-grade gliomas.

  10. Medical imaging and computers in the diagnosis of breast cancer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giger, Maryellen L.

    2014-09-01

    Computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) and quantitative image analysis (QIA) methods (i.e., computerized methods of analyzing digital breast images: mammograms, ultrasound, and magnetic resonance images) can yield novel image-based tumor and parenchyma characteristics (i.e., signatures that may ultimately contribute to the design of patient-specific breast cancer management plans). The role of QIA/CAD has been expanding beyond screening programs towards applications in risk assessment, diagnosis, prognosis, and response to therapy as well as in data mining to discover relationships of image-based lesion characteristics with genomics and other phenotypes; thus, as they apply to disease states. These various computer-based applications are demonstrated through research examples from the Giger Lab.

  11. A hyperspectral fluorescence lifetime probe for skin cancer diagnosis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Beule, P. A. A.; Dunsby, C.; Galletly, N. P.; Stamp, G. W.; Chu, A. C.; Anand, U.; Anand, P.; Benham, C. D.; Naylor, A.; French, P. M. W.

    2007-12-01

    The autofluorescence of biological tissue can be exploited for the detection and diagnosis of disease but, to date, its complex nature and relatively weak signal levels have impeded its widespread application in biology and medicine. We present here a portable instrument designed for the in situ simultaneous measurement of autofluorescence emission spectra and temporal decay profiles, permitting the analysis of complex fluorescence signals. This hyperspectral fluorescence lifetime probe utilizes two ultrafast lasers operating at 355 and 440nm that can excite autofluorescence from many different biomolecules present in skin tissue including keratin, collagen, nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (phosphate), and flavins. The instrument incorporates an optical fiber probe to provide sample illumination and fluorescence collection over a millimeter-sized area. We present a description of the system, including spectral and temporal characterizations, and report the preliminary application of this instrument to a study of recently resected (<2h) ex vivo skin lesions, illustrating its potential for skin cancer detection and diagnosis.

  12. Bladder cancer: a review of diagnosis and management.

    PubMed Central

    Metts, M. C.; Metts, J. C.; Milito, S. J.; Thomas, C. R.

    2000-01-01

    Bladder cancer is the fourth most commonly diagnosed malignancy in men and the eighth most common in women. It represents a spectrum of disease, ranging from superficial, well-differentiated disease, which does not significantly impact survival, to highly malignant tumors for which long term survival may be dismal. Transitional-cell carcinoma, which constitutes the vast majority of bladder cancers in the United States, may develop as carcinoma in situ or as invasive carcinoma. This article focuses on transitional-cell carcinoma with a review of the major aspects of the disease, including the epidemiology, diagnosis and staging, and management (including organ preservation). Therapeutic options are explored, including surgery, radiotherapy, chemotherapy, and combined modality therapy. PMID:10918764

  13. DNA methylation and cancer diagnosis: new methods and applications.

    PubMed

    Dehan, Pierre; Kustermans, Gaelle; Guenin, Samuel; Horion, Julie; Boniver, Jacques; Delvenne, Philippe

    2009-10-01

    Methylation of cytosines in cytosine-guanine (CpG) dinucleotides is one of the most important epigenetic alterations in animals. The presence of methylcytosine in the promoter of specific genes has profound consequences on local chromatin structure and on the regulation of gene expression. Changes in DNA methylation play a central role in carcinogenesis. Hypermethylation and consecutive transcriptional silencing of tumor-suppressor genes has been documented in numerous cancers. The identification of target genes silenced by this modification has a great impact on diagnosis, classification, definition of risk groups and prognosis of cancer patients. Here we outline genome-wide techniques aiming at the identification of relevant methylated promoters. Methods and applications allowing clinicians to monitor the methylation of target genes will be also reviewed.

  14. Stimuli-Responsive Gold Nanoparticles for Cancer Diagnosis and Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Tian, Li; Lu, Linfeng; Qiao, Yang; Ravi, Saisree; Salatan, Ferandre; Melancon, Marites P.

    2016-01-01

    An emerging concept is that cancers strongly depend on both internal and external signals for growth and invasion. In this review, we will discuss pathological and physical changes in the tumor microenvironment and how these changes can be exploited to design gold nanoparticles for cancer diagnosis and therapy. These intrinsic changes include extracellular and intracellular pH, extracellular matrix enzymes, and glutathione concentration. External stimuli include the application of laser, ultrasound and X-ray. The biology behind these changes and the chemistry behind the responding mechanisms to these changes are reviewed. Examples of recent in vitro and in vivo studies are also presented, and the clinical implications of these findings are discussed.

  15. Liver cancer diagnosis by fluorescence spectra of blood and urine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    AlSalhi, Mohamad Saleh; Al Mehmadi, Abdulaziz Mayuof; Abdoo, Aiman; Masilamani, Vadivel

    2012-03-01

    Liver cancer or hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a serious malady with only 10% survival rate. HCC incidence and mortality both are highest in China. This disease is detected and diagnosed by ultra sound, CT or MRI scans which are quite expensive. Also the discrimination between cirrhosis and HCC are poor by this imaging technique. The conventional tissue biopsy is quite invasive and painful. In this context, in the new diagnostic procedure presented in this paper, all the three liver malfunctions, particularly liver cancer, could be detected and discriminated by the spectral feature of blood and urine with accuracy about 80%. All that we need are 5 ml of blood and 5 ml of urine. Hence this inexpensive non invasive, optical technique will have significant impact in screening, diagnosis and also prognosis of HCC in large segment of people in the populous Asian countries.

  16. Liver cancer diagnosis by fluorescence spectra of blood and urine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    AlSalhi, Mohamad Saleh; Al Mehmadi, Abdulaziz Mayuof; Abdoo, Aiman; Masilamani, Vadivel

    2011-11-01

    Liver cancer or hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a serious malady with only 10% survival rate. HCC incidence and mortality both are highest in China. This disease is detected and diagnosed by ultra sound, CT or MRI scans which are quite expensive. Also the discrimination between cirrhosis and HCC are poor by this imaging technique. The conventional tissue biopsy is quite invasive and painful. In this context, in the new diagnostic procedure presented in this paper, all the three liver malfunctions, particularly liver cancer, could be detected and discriminated by the spectral feature of blood and urine with accuracy about 80%. All that we need are 5 ml of blood and 5 ml of urine. Hence this inexpensive non invasive, optical technique will have significant impact in screening, diagnosis and also prognosis of HCC in large segment of people in the populous Asian countries.

  17. [Tumor markers in the diagnosis of pancreatic cancer].

    PubMed

    Cappelli, G; Paladini, S; D'Agata, A

    1999-01-01

    The difficulty in an early diagnosis of pancreatic cancer is in the absence of early symptoms due to lower limit of detection of the actual imaging techniques. Clinical symptoms like weight loss, abdominal pain and jaundice indicate an advanced cancer stage. Today 50% of pancreatic tumors are diagnosed in advanced metastatic stage and only 20-30% show resectable cancer. Ultrasound and determination of a mucine like antigen as CA 19-9, CA 50 and CA 195 seem to allow an earlier diagnosis with a higher rate of resective surgery and a prolonged survival for these patients. The mucines are high molecular weight glycoproteins consistent of a backbone protein to which oligosaccarides are attached. The linkage of carbohydrate to the peptide is termed O-glycosidic and involves the hydroxylic groups of serine or threonine with N-acetylglucosamine. Only the backbone proteins are genetically determined (genes MUC). The gangliosides are the same or derivative of Lewis antigen. CA 19-9, CA 50 and CA 195 are assays directed to different epitopes probably present on the same mucinous antigen. These epitopes are not present in different mucines as CA 15-3, CA 125 and TAG 72. Recently other two mucines are emploied CA 242 and CAM 17.1 but they are not better than CA 19-9. The use of a "triplet" of tumor markers as CA 19-9, CA 125 and CEA is the best diagnostic tool for cancer of pancreas in an "integrated" use with ultrasonographic evaluation of the lesion. CA 19-9 permits differential diagnosis from neuroendocrine tumor or pancreatitis, the values of CA 125 and CEA are useful in the evaluation of the stage, resectability and prognosis of pancreatic cancer. The recent use of CA19-9 for the evaluation of radiochemotherapy in preoperative management of the patient is a mode of a well known application of tumor markers in a kinetic evaluation of the tumor for the radicality of therapy, follow-up, recurrence and the effectiveness of the palliative therapy.

  18. Are diet quality scores after breast cancer diagnosis associated with improved breast cancer survival?

    PubMed Central

    Izano, Monika A.; Fung, Teresa T.; Chiuve, Stephanie S; Hu, Frank B.; Holmes, Michelle D.

    2013-01-01

    Background Previous studies have found that diets rich in fruits and vegetables are associated with reduced breast cancer mortality. However, these eating patterns do not necessarily reflect overall diet quality. The association of breast cancer mortality with a priori defined dietary scores, which are based on recommended dietary guidelines and reflect diet quality, has not been evaluated. We hypothesized that diet quality indices based on recommended guidelines are associated with decreased risk of breast cancer and non-breast cancer mortality in breast cancer survivors. Methods We examined the association between the Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) score, and the Alternative Healthy Eating Index (AHEI)-2010, and the risk of breast cancer mortality and total mortality among women from the Nurses’ Health Study diagnosed with breast cancer. Results Adherence to DASH-style and AHEI-2010 diets were associated with reduced risk of non-breast cancer mortality (comparing the fifth quintile with the first quintile RR = 0.72, 95% CI: 0.53–0.99, p-trend = 0.03 for DASH, and RR = 0.57, 95% CI: 0.42–0.77, p-trend <0.0001 for AHEI-2010). Diet scores were not significantly associated with breast cancer mortality. Conclusions Our findings suggest that adherence to a higher quality diet after breast cancer diagnosis does not considerably change the risk of breast cancer death and recurrence. However, healthy dietary choices after breast cancer were associated with reduced risk of non-breast cancer mortality in women with breast cancer. PMID:23909725

  19. In vivo Raman spectroscopy for oral cancers diagnosis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, S. P.; Deshmukh, Atul; Chaturvedi, Pankaj; Krishna, C. Murali

    2012-01-01

    Oral squamous cell carcinoma is sixth among the major malignancies worldwide. Tobacco habits are known as major causative factor in tumor carcinogenesis in oral cancer. Optical spectroscopy methods, including Raman, are being actively pursued as alternative/adjunct for cancer diagnosis. Earlier studies have demonstrated the feasibility of classifying normal, premalignant and malignant oral ex-vivo tissues. In the present study we have recorded in vivo spectra from contralateral normal and diseased sites of 50 subjects with pathologically confirmed lesions of buccal mucosa using fiber-optic-probe-coupled HE-785 Raman spectrometer. Spectra were recorded on similar points as per teeth positions with an average acquisition time of 8 seconds. A total of 215 and 225 spectra from normal and tumor sites, respectively, were recorded. Finger print region (1200-1800 cm-1) was utilized for classification using LDA. Standard-model was developed using 125 normal and 139 tumor spectra from 27 subjects. Two separate clusters with an efficiency of ~95% were obtained. Cross-validation with leave-one-out yielded ~90% efficiency. Remaining 90 normal and 86 tumor spectra were used as test data and predication efficiency of model was evaluated. Findings of the study indicate that Raman spectroscopic methods in combination with appropriate multivariate tool can be used for objective, noninvasive and rapid diagnosis.

  20. Laser-induced differential fluorescence for cancer diagnosis without biopsy

    SciTech Connect

    Vo-Dinh, T.; Panjehpour, M.; Overholt, B.F.; Buckley III, P.

    1997-01-01

    An optical diagnostic procedure based on laser-induced fluorescence was developed for direct {ital in vivo} cancer diagnosis without requiring biopsy. The methodology was applied in a clinical study involving over 100 patients in order to differentiate normal tissue from malignant tumors of the esophagus. Endogenous fluorescence of normal and malignant tissues was measured directly with the use of a fiber-optic probe inserted through an endoscope. The measurements were performed {ital in vivo} during routine endoscopy. Detection of the fluorescence signal from the tissue was performed with the use of laser excitation. This report describes the differential normalized fluorescence (DNF) procedure using the amplified spectral differences between the normalized fluorescence of malignant tissue and normal mucosa. The results of this DNF approach were compared with histopathology results of the biopsy samples and indicated excellent agreement in the classification of normal tissue and malignant tumors for the samples investigated. Data related to various grades of Barrett{close_quote}s esophagus are discussed. The DNF procedure could lead to the development of a rapid and cost-effective technique for cancer diagnosis. {copyright} {ital 1997} {ital Society for Applied Spectroscopy}

  1. Breast cancer diagnosis from screening in trinidad and tobago: opportunities for cancer prevention.

    PubMed

    D Joseph, Marlon; Thorpe, Lorna; Annandsingh, Carey; Laquis, George; Lee Young, Joycelyn; Kwasniewski, Jamie; Lee, Roy; Taioli, Emanuela

    2014-06-01

    Trinidad and Tobago (TT) experiences the highest breast cancer mortality in the Caribbean; the distribution of traditional breast cancer risk factors in this population has not been analyzed. Data on women who underwent breast cancer screening at the TT Cancer Society between January 2009-December 2011(N = 2,689) were retrospectively collected. The screening detected 131 incident breast cancers; variables significantly associated with breast cancer diagnosis were, a positive family history of breast cancer (adjusted odds ratio [ORadj]: 1.55; 95% CI 1.00-2.41), presence of symptoms (ORadj: 1.91; 95% CI 1.25-2.92), and previous breast surgery (ORadj: 1.67; 95% CI 0.97-2.88). Breast cancer was significantly associated with increased breast density. Among healthy women, breast density was positively associated with nulliparity (ORadj: 1.46, 1.37, 2.52 respectively for density level 2, 3 and 4 vs. 1) and previous breast surgeries (ORadj: 2.27, 3.09 and 4.13 respectively for density level 2, 3 and 4 vs. 1). This analysis confirms that breast density is an important predictor of newly diagnosed breast cancer in this Caribbean population. Screening is still a diagnostic tool rather than a preventive measure in TT.

  2. Advances in diagnosis and treatment of nonmelanoma skin cancer.

    PubMed

    Ibrahim, Omer; Gastman, Brian; Zhang, Alexandra

    2014-11-01

    The incidence of nonmelanoma skin cancer (NMSC) is rising. Research in the field of these tumors is aimed toward developing earlier and less invasive diagnostic methods and more effective, more accessible therapeutic options. Although there is much advancement in the diagnosis and treatment of NMSC, there are few literatures cataloging these developments. The aim of this review was to present the sensitivity and specificity of new imaging modalities, the dosing regimen and clearance rates of topical treatments, newer systemic treatment modalities, and discuss developments in the use of radiation as a mode of therapy. Recent developments in the diagnosis of NMSC include imaging modalities such as reflectance confocal microscopy, elastic scattering spectroscopy, and spectrophotometric intracutaneous analysis. Recent advances in the treatment of these tumors include systemic therapies such as epidermal growth factor receptor inhibitors, and topical immunomodulating drugs such as imiquimod. The progress in the diagnosis and treatment of these tumors is a gradual but fruitful growth. Scientists and clinicians alike must continue their exploration and study to address these tumors and, hopefully in the future, prevent their occurrence.

  3. Computer aided lung cancer diagnosis with deep learning algorithms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Wenqing; Zheng, Bin; Qian, Wei

    2016-03-01

    Deep learning is considered as a popular and powerful method in pattern recognition and classification. However, there are not many deep structured applications used in medical imaging diagnosis area, because large dataset is not always available for medical images. In this study we tested the feasibility of using deep learning algorithms for lung cancer diagnosis with the cases from Lung Image Database Consortium (LIDC) database. The nodules on each computed tomography (CT) slice were segmented according to marks provided by the radiologists. After down sampling and rotating we acquired 174412 samples with 52 by 52 pixel each and the corresponding truth files. Three deep learning algorithms were designed and implemented, including Convolutional Neural Network (CNN), Deep Belief Networks (DBNs), Stacked Denoising Autoencoder (SDAE). To compare the performance of deep learning algorithms with traditional computer aided diagnosis (CADx) system, we designed a scheme with 28 image features and support vector machine. The accuracies of CNN, DBNs, and SDAE are 0.7976, 0.8119, and 0.7929, respectively; the accuracy of our designed traditional CADx is 0.7940, which is slightly lower than CNN and DBNs. We also noticed that the mislabeled nodules using DBNs are 4% larger than using traditional CADx, this might be resulting from down sampling process lost some size information of the nodules.

  4. Nanoplasmonic biosensor for cancer diagnosis: design and fabrication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shin, Yong-Beom; Cho, Na-rae; Lee, Ki Joong

    2014-05-01

    In this study, gold nanoplasmonic biosensors using localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) were fabricated for the diagnosis of cancer. We optimized the structures of the gold nanodot array (GNA) via the experiments for the optical characteristics. In addition, the nanoimprint lithography was employed for realizing nanoplasmonic structures, which is a more efficient technique for mass production than nanolithography such as electron beam lithography (EBL) or focused ion beam (FIB) lithography that is a quite intricate, time-consuming and expensive process. After the UV nanoimprinting process using a film stamp and metal films were deposited using an electron-beam evaporator, followed by the lift-off step. Consequently, the nanoplasmonic MNA was realized on 5-inch glass wafer and the pitch, diameter and height of MNA were 300nm, 150 nm and 20 nm, respectively. The wavelength of nanoplasmonic resonance peak represented from the MNA sensors was about 740nm under aqueous ambient. The capture antibodies of the lung and the pancreas cancer marker, respectively, were immobilized on the surfaces of MNA sensor. Using a compact fiber-optic spectrometer and a reflection optical probe, we were able to confirm the binding of cancer markers with their antibodies due to the immunoreactions between each cancer marker and its corresponding antibody on the sensor surfaces. The amount of the cancer markers in serum were analyzed through the observation of nanoplasmonic resonance wavelength-shift on the reflection spectra. To amplify a sensitivity of detection demonstrated by the nanoplasmonic resonance peak shift, we applied enzyme-precipitation reaction on the surface of MNA biosensor. The enzyme-catalyzed precipitation method in the GNA biosensor could be extended to detect other clinical biomarkers at extremely low concentrations in actual clinical samples.

  5. Genetic diagnosis of patients with esophageal cancer using FISH.

    PubMed

    Awut, Idiris; Niyaz, Madiniyet; Huizhong, Xie; Biekemitoufu, Hadeti; Yan, Zhang Hong; Zhu, Zhang; Sheyhedin, Ilyar; Changmin, Zhang; Wei, Zhangli; Hao, Wen

    2010-09-01

    This study aimed to the clarify the diagnostic efficacy of fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) in Kazakh patients with esophageal cancer (EC). FISH was compared with the pathological examination of biopsy specimens with DNA probes. We enrolled 20 patients, of which 15 were males and 5 females, with an average age of 58.3 years, who had abnormal esophaguses on barium radiological digital imaging. Touch preparations were performed on biopsy specimens from all of the patients and were examined using FISH for chromosomal abnormalities. We compared the FISH results with the pathology slides stained with hematoxylin and eosin. Classification, according to pathology, identified 2 cases of class II, 3 cases of IIIa, 1 case of IIIb, 2 cases of IV, 12 cases of class V and no cases of class I. The cases classified as class IIIb or higher were considered to be positive for cancer. Using histopathology, 10 cases were diagnosed with squamous cell carcinoma and 5 were diagnosed as adenocarcinoma, with one case being false-negative. Thus, the sensitivity of the pathological examination was 93% and the specificity was 100%. Using FISH, 16 cases showed aberrant copy numbers in either chromosome 3 or 17. By comparison, pathology did not reveal any false-positive or false-negative cases with a sensitivity and specificity of 100%. The centromeres of chromosome 3 copy numbers was significantly higher (p=0.035) than the centromeres of chromosome 17. Our study compared FISH to diagnose aneusomic esophageal cancer cells with the pathology of biopsied tissue. Our findings suggest that FISH is a useful and objective assay for the detection of malignant cells of esophageal cancer. In our study, the centromeres of chromosome 3 was the more sensitive probe for the diagnosis of esophageal cancer in Kazakh patients.

  6. A novel 33-Gene targeted resequencing panel provides accurate, clinical-grade diagnosis and improves patient management for rare inherited anaemias.

    PubMed

    Roy, Noémi B A; Wilson, Edward A; Henderson, Shirley; Wray, Katherine; Babbs, Christian; Okoli, Steven; Atoyebi, Wale; Mixon, Avery; Cahill, Mary R; Carey, Peter; Cullis, Jonathan; Curtin, Julie; Dreau, Helene; Ferguson, David J P; Gibson, Brenda; Hall, Georgina; Mason, Joanne; Morgan, Mary; Proven, Melanie; Qureshi, Amrana; Sanchez Garcia, Joaquin; Sirachainan, Nongnuch; Teo, Juliana; Tedgård, Ulf; Higgs, Doug; Roberts, David; Roberts, Irene; Schuh, Anna

    2016-10-01

    Accurate diagnosis of rare inherited anaemias is challenging, requiring a series of complex and expensive laboratory tests. Targeted next-generation-sequencing (NGS) has been used to investigate these disorders, but the selection of genes on individual panels has been narrow and the validation strategies used have fallen short of the standards required for clinical use. Clinical-grade validation of negative results requires the test to distinguish between lack of adequate sequencing reads at the locations of known mutations and a real absence of mutations. To achieve a clinically-reliable diagnostic test and minimize false-negative results we developed an open-source tool (CoverMi) to accurately determine base-coverage and the 'discoverability' of known mutations for every sample. We validated our 33-gene panel using Sanger sequencing and microarray. Our panel demonstrated 100% specificity and 99·7% sensitivity. We then analysed 57 clinical samples: molecular diagnoses were made in 22/57 (38·6%), corresponding to 32 mutations of which 16 were new. In all cases, accurate molecular diagnosis had a positive impact on clinical management. Using a validated NGS-based platform for routine molecular diagnosis of previously undiagnosed congenital anaemias is feasible in a clinical diagnostic setting, improves precise diagnosis and enhances management and counselling of the patient and their family.

  7. Surveillance, Diagnosis, Treatment, and Outcome of Liver Cancer in Japan

    PubMed Central

    Kudo, Masatoshi

    2015-01-01

    Background Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the fifth most common type of cancer and the third leading cause of cancer-related death worldwide. HCC is most common in Asia, but its prevalence is rapidly increasing in Western countries; consequently, HCC is a global medical issue that urgently needs to be addressed. Japan is the only developed country that has experienced both hepatitis B-related and hepatitis C-related HCC and has a long history of innovation when it comes to new diagnostic and therapeutic modalities, such as computed tomography angiography, anatomical resection, ablation, and transarterial chemoembolization. Among these innovations, a nationwide surveillance program was well established by the 1980s, and such a long-term national program does not exist anywhere else in the world. Summary More than 60% of the initially detected HCCs in Japan are Barcelona Clinic Liver Cancer stage 0 or A, which can undergo curative therapies such as resection, ablation, or transplantation. The recent 5-year survival rate of HCC patients in Japan was 43% and the median survival time was 50 months. In addition, both incidence and mortality rates are drastically declining as a result of the successful surveillance program, careful diagnostic flow, and extensive repeated treatments. Key Message Japan's successful model in the surveillance, diagnosis, and treatment of HCC should be adopted as widely as possible to improve the survival of HCC patients worldwide. PMID:26020028

  8. Photoacoustic-based nanomedicine for cancer diagnosis and therapy.

    PubMed

    Sim, Changbeom; Kim, Haemin; Moon, Hyungwon; Lee, Hohyeon; Chang, Jin Ho; Kim, Hyuncheol

    2015-04-10

    Photoacoustic imaging is the latest promising diagnostic modality that has various advantages such as high spatial resolution, deep penetration depth, and use of non-ionizing radiation. It also employs a non-invasive imaging technique and optically functionalized imaging. The goal of this study was to develop a nanomedicine for simultaneous cancer therapy and diagnosis based on photoacoustic imaging. Human serum albumin nanoparticles loaded with melanin and paclitaxel (HMP-NPs) were developed using the desolvation technique. The photoacoustic-based diagnostic and chemotherapeutic properties of HMP-NPs were evaluated through in vitro and in vivo experiments. The size and zeta potential of the HMP-NPs were found to be 192.8±21.11nm and -22.2±4.39mV, respectively. In in vitro experiments, HMP-NPs produced increased photoacoustic signal intensity because of the loaded melanin and decreased cellular viability because of the encapsulated paclitaxel, compared to the free human serum albumin nanoparticles (the control). In vivo experiments showed that the HMP-NPs efficiently accumulated inside the tumor, resulting in the enhanced photoacoustic signal intensity in the tumor site, compared to the normal tissues. The in vivo chemotherapy study demonstrated that HMP-NPs had the capability to treat cancer for an extended period. In conclusion, HMP-NPs were simultaneously capable of photoacoustic diagnostic and chemotherapy against cancer.

  9. Layer-by-Layer Assemblies for Cancer Treatment and Diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xi Qiu; Picart, Catherine

    2016-02-10

    The layer-by-layer (LbL) technique was introduced in the early 1990s. Since then, it has undergone a series of technological developments, making it possible to engineer various theranostic platforms, such as films and capsules, with precise control at the nanometer and micrometer scales. Recent progress in the applications of LbL assemblies in the field of cancer therapy, diagnosis, and fundamental biological study are highlighted here. The potential of LbL-based systems as drug carriers is discussed, especially with regard to the engineering of innovative stimuli-responsive systems, and their advantageous multifunctionality in the development of new therapeutic tools. Then, the diagnostic functions of LbL assemblies are illustrated for detection and capture of rare cancer cells. Finally, LbL-mimicking extracellular environments demonstrate the emerging potential for the study of cancer cell behavior in vitro. The advantages of LbL systems, important challenges that need to be overcome, and future perspectives in clinical practice are then highlighted.

  10. Layer-by-layer assemblies for cancer treatment and diagnosis

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Xi Qiu; Picart, Catherine

    2016-01-01

    The layer-by-layer (LbL) technique was introduced in the early 90s by Profs Moehwald, Lvov and Decher. Since then, it has undergone a series of technological developments, making it possible to engineer various theranostic platforms such as films and capsules, with precise control at the nanometer and micrometer scales. This Research News article highlights recent progress in the applications of LbL assemblies in the field of cancer therapy, diagnosis and fundamental biology study. The potentials of LbL-based systems as drug carriers are discussed, especially with regard to the engineering of innovative stimuli-responsive systems, and their advantageous multifunctionality in the development of new therapeutic tools. Then, the diagnostic functions of LbL assemblies are illustrated for detection and capture of rare cancer cells. Finally, LbL mimicking extracellular environments demonstrate the emerging potential for the study of cancer cell behaviors in vitro. We conclude by highlighting the advantages of LbL systems, important challenges that need to be overcome, and future perspectives in clinical practice. PMID:26390356

  11. Cancer Research Repository for Individuals With Cancer Diagnosis, High Risk Individuals, and Individuals With No History of Cancer (Control)

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-11-14

    Pancreatic Cancer; Thyroid Cancer; Lung Cancer; Esophageal Cancer; Thymus Cancer; Colon Cancer; Rectal Cancer; GIST; Anal Cancer; Bile Duct Cancer; Duodenal Cancer; Gallbladder Cancer; Gastric Cancer; Liver Cancer; Small Intestine Cancer; Peritoneal Surface Malignancies; Familial Adenomatous Polyposis; Lynch Syndrome; Bladder Cancer; Kidney Cancer; Penile Cancer; Prostate Cancer; Testicular Cancer; Ureter Cancer; Urethral Cancer; Hypopharyngeal Cancer; Laryngeal Cancer; Lip Cancer; Oral Cavity Cancer; Nasopharyngeal Cancer; Oropharyngeal Cancer; Paranasal Sinus Cancer; Nasal Cavity Cancer; Salivary Gland Cancer; Skin Cancer; CNS Tumor; CNS Cancer; Mesothelioma; Breastcancer; Leukemia; Melanoma; Sarcoma; Unknown Primary Tumor; Multiple Myeloma; Ovarian Cancer; Endometrial Cancer; Vaginal Cancer

  12. Assessment of diagnosis of inflammatory breast cancer cases at two cancer centers in Egypt and Tunisia

    PubMed Central

    Schairer, Catherine; Soliman, Amr S; Omar, Sherif; Khaled, Hussein; Eissa, Saad; Ayed, Farhat Ben; Khalafallah, Samir; Ayoub, Wided Ben; Kantor, Elizabeth D; Merajver, Sofia; Swain, Sandra M; Gail, Mitchell; Brown, Linda Morris

    2013-01-01

    The diagnosis of inflammatory breast cancer (IBC) is largely clinical and therefore inherently somewhat subjective. The objective of this study was to evaluate the diagnosis of IBC at two centers in North Africa where a higher proportion of breast cancer is diagnosed as IBC than in the United States (U.S.). Physicians prospectively enrolled suspected IBC cases at the National Cancer Institute (NCI) – Cairo, Egypt, and the Institut Salah Azaiz (ISA), Tunisia, recorded extent and duration of signs/symptoms of IBC on standardized forms, and took digital photographs of the breast. After second-level review at study hospitals, photographs and clinical information for confirmed IBC cases were reviewed by two U.S. oncologists. We calculated percent agreement between study hospital and U.S. oncologist diagnoses. Among cases confirmed by at least one U.S. oncologist, we calculated median extent and duration of signs and Spearman correlations. At least one U.S. oncologist confirmed the IBC diagnosis for 69% (39/50) of cases with photographs at the NCI-Cairo and 88% (21/24) of cases at the ISA. All confirmed cases had at least one sign of IBC (erythema, edema, peau d'orange) that covered at least one-third of the breast. The median duration of signs ranged from 1 to 3 months; extent and duration of signs were not statistically significantly correlated. From the above-mentioned outcomes, it can be concluded that the diagnosis of a substantial proportion of IBC cases is unambiguous, but a subset is difficult to distinguish from other types of locally advanced breast cancer. Among confirmed cases, the extent of signs was not related to delay in diagnosis. PMID:23634285

  13. Assessment of diagnosis of inflammatory breast cancer cases at two cancer centers in Egypt and Tunisia.

    PubMed

    Schairer, Catherine; Soliman, Amr S; Omar, Sherif; Khaled, Hussein; Eissa, Saad; Ayed, Farhat Ben; Khalafallah, Samir; Ayoub, Wided Ben; Kantor, Elizabeth D; Merajver, Sofia; Swain, Sandra M; Gail, Mitchell; Brown, Linda Morris

    2013-04-01

    The diagnosis of inflammatory breast cancer (IBC) is largely clinical and therefore inherently somewhat subjective. The objective of this study was to evaluate the diagnosis of IBC at two centers in North Africa where a higher proportion of breast cancer is diagnosed as IBC than in the United States (U.S.). Physicians prospectively enrolled suspected IBC cases at the National Cancer Institute (NCI) - Cairo, Egypt, and the Institut Salah Azaiz (ISA), Tunisia, recorded extent and duration of signs/symptoms of IBC on standardized forms, and took digital photographs of the breast. After second-level review at study hospitals, photographs and clinical information for confirmed IBC cases were reviewed by two U.S. oncologists. We calculated percent agreement between study hospital and U.S. oncologist diagnoses. Among cases confirmed by at least one U.S. oncologist, we calculated median extent and duration of signs and Spearman correlations. At least one U.S. oncologist confirmed the IBC diagnosis for 69% (39/50) of cases with photographs at the NCI-Cairo and 88% (21/24) of cases at the ISA. All confirmed cases had at least one sign of IBC (erythema, edema, peau d'orange) that covered at least one-third of the breast. The median duration of signs ranged from 1 to 3 months; extent and duration of signs were not statistically significantly correlated. From the above-mentioned outcomes, it can be concluded that the diagnosis of a substantial proportion of IBC cases is unambiguous, but a subset is difficult to distinguish from other types of locally advanced breast cancer. Among confirmed cases, the extent of signs was not related to delay in diagnosis.

  14. Extracting Knowledge from Chemical Imaging Data Using Computational Algorithms for Digital Cancer Diagnosis

    PubMed Central

    Tiwari, Saumya; Bhargava, Rohit

    2015-01-01

    Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopic imaging is an emerging microscopy modality for clinical histopathologic diagnoses as well as for biomedical research. Spectral data recorded in this modality are indicative of the underlying, spatially resolved biochemical composition but need computerized algorithms to digitally recognize and transform this information to a diagnostic tool to identify cancer or other physiologic conditions. Statistical pattern recognition forms the backbone of these recognition protocols and can be used for highly accurate results. Aided by biochemical correlations with normal and diseased states and the power of modern computer-aided pattern recognition, this approach is capable of combating many standing questions of traditional histology-based diagnosis models. For example, a simple diagnostic test can be developed to determine cell types in tissue. As a more advanced application, IR spectral data can be integrated with patient information to predict risk of cancer, providing a potential road to precision medicine and personalized care in cancer treatment. The IR imaging approach can be implemented to complement conventional diagnoses, as the samples remain unperturbed and are not destroyed. Despite high potential and utility of this approach, clinical implementation has not yet been achieved due to practical hurdles like speed of data acquisition and lack of optimized computational procedures for extracting clinically actionable information rapidly. The latter problem has been addressed by developing highly efficient ways to process IR imaging data but remains one that has considerable scope for progress. Here, we summarize the major issues and provide practical considerations in implementing a modified Bayesian classification protocol for digital molecular pathology. We hope to familiarize readers with analysis methods in IR imaging data and enable researchers to develop methods that can lead to the use of this promising

  15. Cardiac troponins I and T: molecular markers for early diagnosis, prognosis, and accurate triaging of patients with acute myocardial infarction.

    PubMed

    Tiwari, Ram P; Jain, Anubhav; Khan, Zakir; Kohli, Veena; Bharmal, R N; Kartikeyan, S; Bisen, Prakash S

    2012-12-01

    Acute myocardial infarction (AMI) is the leading cause of death worldwide, with early diagnosis still being difficult. Promising new cardiac biomarkers such as troponins and creatine kinase (CK) isoforms are being studied and integrated into clinical practice for early diagnosis of AMI. The cardiac-specific troponins I and T (cTnI and cTnT) have good sensitivity and specificity as indicators of myocardial necrosis and are superior to CK and its MB isoenzyme (CK-MB) in this regard. Besides being potential biologic markers, cardiac troponins also provide significant prognostic information. The introduction of novel high-sensitivity troponin assays has enabled more sensitive and timely diagnosis or exclusion of acute coronary syndromes. This review summarizes the available information on the potential of troponins and other cardiac markers in early diagnosis and prognosis of AMI, and provides perspectives on future diagnostic approaches to AMI.

  16. The role of transperineal template biopsies of the prostate in the diagnosis of prostate cancer: a review.

    PubMed

    Abdulmajed, Mohamed Ismat; Hughes, Daniel; Shergill, Iqbal Singh

    2015-03-01

    The incidence of prostate cancer has shown a significant increase, highlighting the importance of early diagnosis. Current practice considers histological diagnosis a necessity in the majority of the cases. The limitations of transrectal biopsies led to the development of the promising transperineal prostatic biopsies. The latter offers a safer approach by avoiding the rectum, utilizing brachytherapy template grid to detect anterior zone disease and provides accurate prostatic mapping by systematically sampling the whole gland. It also helps to direct biopsies based on images obtained from previous prostate scanning and identify those eligible for focal therapy to direct focal treatment accurately. The current literature provides enough reassurance that transperineal template biopsies are effective, efficient and superior to the traditional and inaccurate transrectal biopsies. The absence of consensus on the technical aspect of template biopsies is a drawback, yet it highlights the need to develop robust guidelines to standardize the procedure.

  17. Noninvasive skin cancer diagnosis using multimodal optical spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moy, Austin J.; Feng, Xu; Markey, Mia K.; Reichenberg, Jason S.; Tunnell, James W.

    2016-02-01

    Skin cancer is the most common form of cancer in the United States and is a recognized public health issue. Diagnosis of skin cancer involves biopsy of the suspicious lesion followed by histopathology. Biopsies, which involve excision of the lesion, are invasive, at times unnecessary, and are costly procedures ( $2.8B/year in the US). An unmet critical need exists to develop a non-invasive and inexpensive screening method that can eliminate the need for unnecessary biopsies. To address this need, our group has reported on the continued development of a multimodal spectroscopy (MMS) system towards the goal of a spectral biopsy of skin. Our approach combines Raman spectroscopy, fluorescence spectroscopy, and diffuse reflectance spectroscopy to collect comprehensive optical property information from suspicious skin lesions. We describe our present efforts to develop an updated MMS system composed of OEM components that will be smaller, less expensive, and more clinic-friendly than the previous system. Key system design choices include the selection of miniature spectrometers, a fiber-coupled broadband light source, a fiber coupled diode laser, and a revised optical probe. Selection of these components results in a 50% reduction in system footprint, resulting in a more clinic-friendly system. We also present preliminary characterization data from the updated MMS system, showing similar performance with our revised optical probe design. Finally, we present in vivo skin measurements taken with the updated MMS system. Future work includes the initiation of a clinical study (n = 250) of the MMS system to characterize its performance in identifying skin cancers.

  18. Peptides for diagnosis and treatment of colorectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Shapira, S; Fokra, A; Arber, N; Kraus, S

    2014-01-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is a major health concern worldwide, as it is the third most frequently diagnosed cancer and the second leading cause of cancer-related death. There are a number of treatment options for CRC, however many of them are disappointing. Therefore, significant efforts are directed towards the development of new biological therapies with improved efficacy. The use of peptides in CRC treatment holds promise as emerging novel anti-cancer agents. Targeted therapy based on the use of peptides that can directly target tumor cells without affecting normal cells is evolving as an alternative strategy to conventional therapies and particularly, chemotherapy. The main advantages of peptides are their relatively easy and rapid synthesis process, and the vast possibilities for chemical modifications that can be exploited for novel peptide design and improved delivery. Peptides can be utilized directly as cytotoxic agents or indirectly as they can act as carriers of cytotoxic agents, drugs, or radioisotopes by specifically targeting tumor cells. They can also be used for diagnostic purposes. Current research focuses on developing peptides that can serve as tumor targeting moieties, permeabilize membranes to induce cytotoxicy, radiolabeled peptides, and peptide vaccines. In addition, improving targeting to tumors, reducing side effects, due to non-specific toxicity, and unraveling the pharmacokinetic characteristics of potential peptides, for either therapeutic or diagnostic use, are also subjects of intensive investigation. This review provides a brief overview on the role of peptides in CRC diagnosis and therapy that are currently being investigated, and their potential applications in the clinical setting.

  19. Semi-invasive and invasive procedures for the diagnosis and staging of lung cancer. I. Percutaneous transthoracic needle biopsy.

    PubMed

    Shaham, D

    2000-05-01

    PTNB is a well-established technique for the diagnosis of lung cancer. In recent years, CT guidance has become the primary imaging modality, replacing fluoroscopy guided biopsies in many institutions. CT fluoroscopy, which is currently not universally available, offers promising advantages and may permit accurate and rapid procedures. A recent innovation in biopsy needles has been the introduction of automatic core biopsy needle devices that yield large specimens and improve the diagnostic accuracy of needle biopsy, particularly in benign lesions. PTNB is one of several methods available for tissue diagnosis of suspected lung cancer. The decision as to which method to use should be tailored to each patient, and is preferably reached by a team consisting of pulmonary physicians, chest surgeons, oncologists, cytologists, and radiologists.

  20. Modulated Raman Spectroscopy for Enhanced Cancer Diagnosis at the Cellular Level.

    PubMed

    De Luca, Anna Chiara; Dholakia, Kishan; Mazilu, Michael

    2015-06-11

    Raman spectroscopy is emerging as a promising and novel biophotonics tool for non-invasive, real-time diagnosis of tissue and cell abnormalities. However, the presence of a strong fluorescence background is a key issue that can detract from the use of Raman spectroscopy in routine clinical care. The review summarizes the state-of-the-art methods to remove the fluorescence background and explores recent achievements to address this issue obtained with modulated Raman spectroscopy. This innovative approach can be used to extract the Raman spectral component from the fluorescence background and improve the quality of the Raman signal. We describe the potential of modulated Raman spectroscopy as a rapid, inexpensive and accurate clinical tool to detect the presence of bladder cancer cells. Finally, in a broader context, we show how this approach can greatly enhance the sensitivity of integrated Raman spectroscopy and microfluidic systems, opening new prospects for portable higher throughput Raman cell sorting.

  1. Modulated Raman Spectroscopy for Enhanced Cancer Diagnosis at the Cellular Level

    PubMed Central

    De Luca, Anna Chiara; Dholakia, Kishan; Mazilu, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Raman spectroscopy is emerging as a promising and novel biophotonics tool for non-invasive, real-time diagnosis of tissue and cell abnormalities. However, the presence of a strong fluorescence background is a key issue that can detract from the use of Raman spectroscopy in routine clinical care. The review summarizes the state-of-the-art methods to remove the fluorescence background and explores recent achievements to address this issue obtained with modulated Raman spectroscopy. This innovative approach can be used to extract the Raman spectral component from the fluorescence background and improve the quality of the Raman signal. We describe the potential of modulated Raman spectroscopy as a rapid, inexpensive and accurate clinical tool to detect the presence of bladder cancer cells. Finally, in a broader context, we show how this approach can greatly enhance the sensitivity of integrated Raman spectroscopy and microfluidic systems, opening new prospects for portable higher throughput Raman cell sorting. PMID:26110401

  2. Laser-induced differential normalized fluorescence method for cancer diagnosis

    DOEpatents

    Vo-Dinh, T.; Panjehpour, M.; Overholt, B.F.

    1996-12-03

    An apparatus and method for cancer diagnosis are disclosed. The diagnostic method includes the steps of irradiating a tissue sample with monochromatic excitation light, producing a laser-induced fluorescence spectrum from emission radiation generated by interaction of the excitation light with the tissue sample, and dividing the intensity at each wavelength of the laser-induced fluorescence spectrum by the integrated area under the laser-induced fluorescence spectrum to produce a normalized spectrum. A mathematical difference between the normalized spectrum and an average value of a reference set of normalized spectra which correspond to normal tissues is calculated, which provides for amplifying small changes in weak signals from malignant tissues for improved analysis. The calculated differential normalized spectrum is correlated to a specific condition of a tissue sample. 5 figs.

  3. Laser-induced differential normalized fluorescence method for cancer diagnosis

    DOEpatents

    Vo-Dinh, Tuan; Panjehpour, Masoud; Overholt, Bergein F.

    1996-01-01

    An apparatus and method for cancer diagnosis are disclosed. The diagnostic method includes the steps of irradiating a tissue sample with monochromatic excitation light, producing a laser-induced fluorescence spectrum from emission radiation generated by interaction of the excitation light with the tissue sample, and dividing the intensity at each wavelength of the laser-induced fluorescence spectrum by the integrated area under the laser-induced fluorescence spectrum to produce a normalized spectrum. A mathematical difference between the normalized spectrum and an average value of a reference set of normalized spectra which correspond to normal tissues is calculated, which provides for amplifying small changes in weak signals from malignant tissues for improved analysis. The calculated differential normalized spectrum is correlated to a specific condition of a tissue sample.

  4. Cancer cachexia syndrome: pathogenesis, diagnosis, and new therapeutic options.

    PubMed

    Mondello, Patrizia; Mian, Michael; Aloisi, Carmela; Famà, Fausto; Mondello, Stefania; Pitini, Vincenzo

    2015-01-01

    Cancer anorexia-cachexia syndrome (CACS) is the most frequent paraneoplastic syndrome occurring in half of all oncologic patients and is considered as a poor prognosticator. Patients usually present with weight loss, lipolysis, muscle wasting, anorexia, chronic nausea, inflammation, and asthenia. The etiopathogenesis of CACS is still poorly understood, although several factors and biological pathways are known to be involved. Because of the complexity of this multifactorial condition, a single agent therapy may not be sufficient. Indeed, there is a tendency toward an integrated multiple approach including nonpharmacological and pharmacological treatments. However, despite encouraging preliminary results, currently there is not enough evidence to support a change in clinical practice. This review provides a brief and practical summary of the diagnosis, pathogenesis, and treatment of CACS. Future perspectives will also be discussed.

  5. NCI's Dr. Barry Kramer on C-SPAN Over-Diagnosis and Treatment of Cancer | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    Dr. Barnett Kramer on Over-Diagnosis and Treatment of Cancer. Dr. Barnett Kramer talked about a study published in the Journal of American Medical Association on the changing the definition of cancer that could reduce unnecessary treatments for benign cancers. He also responded to telephone calls and electronic communications. |

  6. Sociocultural factors and breast cancer in sub-Saharan Africa: implications for diagnosis and management.

    PubMed

    Tetteh, Dinah A; Faulkner, Sandra L

    2016-01-01

    The incidence of breast cancer is on the rise in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) and efforts at early diagnosis have not been very successful because the public has scant knowledge about the disease, a large percentage of breast cancer cases are diagnosed late and mainly rural SSA women's practice of breast self-examination is poor. In this paper, we argue that an examination of the social and cultural contexts of SSA that influence breast cancer diagnosis and management in the region is needed. We discuss the implications of sociocultural factors, such as gender roles and spirituality, on breast cancer diagnosis and management in SSA.

  7. Integrated Development of Serum Molecular Markers for Early Diagnosis of Breast Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-09-01

    Molecular Makers for Early Diagnosis of Breast Cancer PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Anna Lokshin, Ph.D. CONTRACTING ORGANIZATION: University of...NUMBER Integrated Development of Serum Molecular Makers for Early Diagnosis of Breast Cancer 5b. GRANT NUMBER DAMD17-03-1-0696 5c. PROGRAM...Therefore, studies at this stage involve screening people and lead to diagnosis and treatment. The aims of this phase include assessment of (i) the

  8. Sentinel node in cancer diagnosis with surgical probes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kazandjian, Anne; Prat, Vincent; Simon, Herve; Ricard, Marcel; Bede, Jessica

    1999-10-01

    A probe system has been designed for the accurate location of areas of increased radionuclide uptake. Different type of applications are possible i.e. when precise position or even identification of the radionuclide is needed, like in wound investigation. In this paper, we restrict ourself to a system incorporating two probes, for the identification of `hot' lymph nodes, close to the surface of the body. Axillary lymph node involvement is a major prognostic indicator and treatment planning factor in both melanoma and breast cancer. However, sentinel node localization is relatively difficult often due to close proximity of the primary tumor. The developed instrument has a very sensitive detector, with good spatial resolution, able to discriminate between primary and scattered radiations.

  9. MALDI-ToF mass spectrometry for the rapid diagnosis of cancerous lung nodules.

    PubMed

    Brégeon, Fabienne; Brioude, Geoffrey; De Dominicis, Florence; Atieh, Thérèse; D'Journo, Xavier Benoit; Flaudrops, Christophe; Rolain, Jean-Marc; Raoult, Didier; Thomas, Pascal Alexandre

    2014-01-01

    Recently, tissue-based methods for proteomic analysis have been used in clinical research and appear reliable for digestive, brain, lymphomatous, and lung cancers classification. However simple, tissue-based methods that couple signal analysis to tissue imaging are time consuming. To assess the reliability of a method involving rapid tissue preparation and analysis to discriminate cancerous from non-cancerous tissues, we tested 141 lung cancer/non-tumor pairs and 8 unique lung cancer samples among the stored frozen samples of 138 patients operated on during 2012. Samples were crushed in water, and 1.5 µl was spotted onto a steel target for analysis with the Microflex LT analyzer (Bruker Daltonics). Spectra were analyzed using ClinProTools software. A set of samples was used to generate a random classification model on the basis of a list of discriminant peaks sorted with the k-nearest neighbor genetic algorithm. The rest of the samples (n = 43 cancerous and n = 41 non-tumoral) was used to verify the classification capability and calculate the diagnostic performance indices relative to the histological diagnosis. The analysis found 53 m/z valid peaks, 40 of which were significantly different between cancerous and non-tumoral samples. The selected genetic algorithm model identified 20 potential peaks from the training set and had 98.81% recognition capability and 89.17% positive predictive value. In the blinded set, this method accurately discriminated the two classes with a sensitivity of 86.7% and a specificity of 95.1% for the cancer tissues and a sensitivity of 87.8% and a specificity of 95.3% for the non-tumor tissues. The second model generated to discriminate primary lung cancer from metastases was of lower quality. The reliability of MALDI-ToF analysis coupled with a very simple lung preparation procedure appears promising and should be tested in the operating room on fresh samples coupled with the pathological examination.

  10. Biomimetic nanocrystalline apatites: Emerging perspectives in cancer diagnosis and treatment.

    PubMed

    Al-Kattan, Ahmed; Girod-Fullana, Sophie; Charvillat, Cédric; Ternet-Fontebasso, Hélène; Dufour, Pascal; Dexpert-Ghys, Jeannette; Santran, Véronique; Bordère, Julie; Pipy, Bernard; Bernad, José; Drouet, Christophe

    2012-02-14

    Nanocrystalline calcium phosphate apatites constitute the mineral part of hard tissues, and the synthesis of biomimetic analogs is now well-mastered at the lab-scale. Recent advances in the fine physico-chemical characterization of these phases enable one to envision original applications in the medical field along with a better understanding of the underlying chemistry and related pharmacological features. In this contribution, we specifically focused on applications of biomimetic apatites in the field of cancer diagnosis or treatment. We first report on the production and first biological evaluations (cytotoxicity, pro-inflammatory potential, internalization by ZR-75-1 breast cancer cells) of individualized luminescent nanoparticles based on Eu-doped apatites, eventually associated with folic acid, for medical imaging purposes. We then detail, in a first approach, the preparation of tridimensional constructs associating nanocrystalline apatite aqueous gels and drug-loaded pectin microspheres. Sustained releases of a fluorescein analog (erythrosin) used as model molecule were obtained over 7 days, in comparison with the ceramic or microsphere reference compounds. Such systems could constitute original bone-filling materials for in situ delivery of anticancer drugs.

  11. Colon cancer: diagnosis and prognosis in the elderly.

    PubMed

    Block, G E

    1989-05-01

    Cancer of the colon and rectum appear to be epidemic in the US, with 150,000 cases expected during 1988. Two thirds of these patients are over age 60, and two thirds also have either full penetration of the bowel wall or metastases to regional lymph nodes. Mass screening via tests for occult blood in the stool is invaluable for detecting early carcinomas of the colon and rectum. Digital examination, endoscopy, and barium contrast radiographs help to confirm the diagnosis. Tumors of the colon and rectum are best treated operatively with appropriate lymphadenectomy and adequate margins, both proximally and distally, to guard against local recurrence. Certain factors, such as mucinous tumors, microinvasion, and non-exophytic tumors of the rectum have been shown to have a propensity for local recurrence. Local treatment by fulguration or electrocoagulation is advocated only for tiny tumors confined to a polyp, or for the extremely elderly or poor-risk patient. Radiation therapy appears to be an appropriate adjuvant to the treatment of rectal cancer either preoperatively or postoperatively.

  12. Breast self examination and breast cancer stage at diagnosis.

    PubMed Central

    Mant, D.; Vessey, M. P.; Neil, A.; McPherson, K.; Jones, L.

    1987-01-01

    The relationship between breast self examination (BSE) and breast cancer stage at diagnosis was examined in 616 women aged 15-59 years. Differences in tumour characteristics between those not practising BSE and those practising but not taught were small and inconstant. However, women who had both practised and had been taught BSE had more favourable tumours than the non-practising group. The difference was most marked in terms of tumour size and the involvement of axillary nodes. The proportions of women in the non-BSE and taught-BSE groups with each characteristic were respectively: size less than or equal to 2 cm 33% and 45%, T1 clinical stage 27% and 42%, and N0 pathological stage 37% and 50%. This advantage to taught-BSE women persisted after adjustment for the identified confounding factors of age, social class and oral contraceptive use. The likely impact on breast cancer mortality is difficult to assess, although the potential benefit of the lead time gained must not be ignored when assessing the costs and benefits of BSE. PMID:3814490

  13. Ultrasonography alone for diagnosis of breast cancer in women under 40

    PubMed Central

    Appleton, DC; Hackney, L

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Recent guidelines suggest that ultrasonography should be used as the primary imaging modality in women under 40 years of age with mammography being offered if further imaging is required. The aim of this study was to assess the adequacy of ultrasonography and the utility of mammography in this patient group by reviewing the role these imaging techniques had in the diagnosis of breast cancer in our unit. Methods All breast cancers diagnosed in patients 39 years or younger from June 2009 to June 2011 were reviewed. This was a retrospective review of presentation, clinical findings, imaging modality (ultrasonography, mammography, magnetic resonance imaging [MRI]) and histology. Mammography was the primary imaging modality until May 2011 in women between 35 and 39 years of age. Both invasive and intraductal carcinoma were included in the study but lobular carcinoma in situ was excluded. Results A total of 2,495 patients were referred to the symptomatic breast clinic in this age group during the study period. Thirty women were identified with either invasive cancer (n=27) or ductal carcinoma in situ (n=3). Twenty-eight patients underwent mammography, graded as uncertain, suspicious or malignant in the majority. Malignancy was missed in one patient. All 30 patients underwent ultrasonography, reported as uncertain, suspicious or malignant, an indication for diagnostic core biopsy. Ultrasonography alone did not miss any cancers but did fail to detect multifocal disease in one patient. Conclusions In this study group, ultrasonography was reliable as the primary imaging modality for women under 40, identifying all cancers in this cohort. Mammography and/or MRI remain essential adjuncts to accurately determine multifocality and/or the extent of disease. PMID:24780784

  14. Prognostic breast cancer signature identified from 3D culture model accurately predicts clinical outcome across independent datasets

    SciTech Connect

    Martin, Katherine J.; Patrick, Denis R.; Bissell, Mina J.; Fournier, Marcia V.

    2008-10-20

    One of the major tenets in breast cancer research is that early detection is vital for patient survival by increasing treatment options. To that end, we have previously used a novel unsupervised approach to identify a set of genes whose expression predicts prognosis of breast cancer patients. The predictive genes were selected in a well-defined three dimensional (3D) cell culture model of non-malignant human mammary epithelial cell morphogenesis as down-regulated during breast epithelial cell acinar formation and cell cycle arrest. Here we examine the ability of this gene signature (3D-signature) to predict prognosis in three independent breast cancer microarray datasets having 295, 286, and 118 samples, respectively. Our results show that the 3D-signature accurately predicts prognosis in three unrelated patient datasets. At 10 years, the probability of positive outcome was 52, 51, and 47 percent in the group with a poor-prognosis signature and 91, 75, and 71 percent in the group with a good-prognosis signature for the three datasets, respectively (Kaplan-Meier survival analysis, p<0.05). Hazard ratios for poor outcome were 5.5 (95% CI 3.0 to 12.2, p<0.0001), 2.4 (95% CI 1.6 to 3.6, p<0.0001) and 1.9 (95% CI 1.1 to 3.2, p = 0.016) and remained significant for the two larger datasets when corrected for estrogen receptor (ER) status. Hence the 3D-signature accurately predicts breast cancer outcome in both ER-positive and ER-negative tumors, though individual genes differed in their prognostic ability in the two subtypes. Genes that were prognostic in ER+ patients are AURKA, CEP55, RRM2, EPHA2, FGFBP1, and VRK1, while genes prognostic in ER patients include ACTB, FOXM1 and SERPINE2 (Kaplan-Meier p<0.05). Multivariable Cox regression analysis in the largest dataset showed that the 3D-signature was a strong independent factor in predicting breast cancer outcome. The 3D-signature accurately predicts breast cancer outcome across multiple datasets and holds prognostic

  15. Novel round-robin tabu search algorithm for prostate cancer classification and diagnosis using multispectral imagery.

    PubMed

    Tahir, Muhammad Atif; Bouridane, Ahmed

    2006-10-01

    Quantitative cell imagery in cancer pathology has progressed greatly in the last 25 years. The application areas are mainly those in which the diagnosis is still critically reliant upon the analysis of biopsy samples, which remains the only conclusive method for making an accurate diagnosis of the disease. Biopsies are usually analyzed by a trained pathologist who, by analyzing the biopsies under a microscope, assesses the normality or malignancy of the samples submitted. Different grades of malignancy correspond to different structural patterns as well as to apparent textures. In the case of prostate cancer, four major groups have to be recognized: stroma, benign prostatic hyperplasia, prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia, and prostatic carcinoma. Recently, multispectral imagery has been used to solve this multiclass problem. Unlike conventional RGB color space, multispectral images allow the acquisition of a large number of spectral bands within the visible spectrum, resulting in a large feature vector size. For such a high dimensionality, pattern recognition techniques suffer from the well-known "curse-of-dimensionality" problem. This paper proposes a novel round-robin tabu search (RR-TS) algorithm to address the curse-of-dimensionality for this multiclass problem. The experiments have been carried out on a number of prostate cancer textured multispectral images, and the results obtained have been assessed and compared with previously reported works. The system achieved 98%-100% classification accuracy when testing on two datasets. It outperformed principal component/linear discriminant classifier (PCA-LDA), tabu search/nearest neighbor classifier (TS-1NN), and bagging/boosting with decision tree (C4.5) classifier.

  16. Routes to diagnosis for cancer – determining the patient journey using multiple routine data sets

    PubMed Central

    Elliss-Brookes, L; McPhail, S; Ives, A; Greenslade, M; Shelton, J; Hiom, S; Richards, M

    2012-01-01

    Background: Cancer survival in England is lower than the European average, which has been at least partly attributed to later stage at diagnosis in English patients. There are substantial regional and demographic variations in cancer survival across England. The majority of patients are diagnosed following symptomatic or incidental presentation. This study defines a methodology by which the route the patient follows to the point of diagnosis can be categorised to examine demographic, organisational, service and personal reasons for delayed diagnosis. Methods: Administrative Hospital Episode Statistics data are linked with Cancer Waiting Times data, data from the cancer screening programmes and cancer registration data. Using these data sets, every case of cancer registered in England, which was diagnosed in 2006–2008, is categorised into one of eight ‘Routes to Diagnosis'. Results: Different cancer types show substantial differences between the proportion of cases that present by each route, in reasonable agreement with previous clinical studies. Patients presenting via Emergency routes have substantially lower 1-year relative survival. Conclusion: Linked cancer registration and administrative data can be used to robustly categorise the route to a cancer diagnosis for all patients. These categories can be used to enhance understanding of and explore possible reasons for delayed diagnosis. PMID:22996611

  17. Chinese consensus on early diagnosis of primary lung cancer (2014 version).

    PubMed

    Hu, Jie; Qian, Gui-Sheng; Bai, Chun-Xue

    2015-09-01

    The incidence and mortality of lung cancer in China have rapidly increased. Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer death in China, possibly because of the inadequate early diagnosis of lung cancer. Reaching a consensus on early diagnostic strategies for lung cancer in China is an unmet needed. Recently, much progress has been made in lung cancer diagnosis, such as screening in high-risk populations, the application of novel imaging technologies, and the use of minimally invasive techniques for diagnosis. However, systemic reviews of disease history, risk assessment, and patients' willingness to undergo invasive diagnostic procedures also need to be considered. A diagnostic strategy for lung cancer should be proposed and developed by a multidisciplinary group. A comprehensive evaluation of patient factors and clinical findings should be completed before treatment.

  18. Breast cancer diagnosis: biographical disruption, emotional experiences and strategic management in Thai women with breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Liamputtong, Pranee; Suwankhong, Dusanee

    2015-09-01

    In this article we draw on Bury's theory of biographical disruption to discuss the meanings of, and emotional experiences related to, being diagnosed with breast cancer among southern Thai women. Qualitative methods, including in-depth interviewing and drawing methods, were used to collect data from 20 women with breast cancer. The women perceived breast cancer to be a rhok raai; an evil or dread disease. They believed that breast cancer would lead to death. The disruption in their biography occurred when they detected abnormalities indicating breast cancer. The women's narratives revealed their chaotic lives upon this diagnosis and the news precipitated in them shock, fear, anxiety and loss of hope. Although they experienced chaos and disruption, the women cultivated strategies that helped them cope with their experiences by accepting their fate and adhering to Buddhist beliefs and practices. Through their narratives of biographical disruption, the women in our study offer healthcare providers knowledge that could lead to an appreciation of their needs and concerns. This knowledge is crucial for health professionals who wish to provide emotional support to women who have been diagnosed with breast cancer in Thailand and elsewhere.

  19. Delay in Presentation, Diagnosis, and Treatment for Breast Cancer Patients in Jordan.

    PubMed

    Abu-Helalah, Ahmad Munir; Alshraideh, Ahmad Hussam; Al-Hanaqtah, Mo'tasem; Da'na, Moh'd; Al-Omari, Asim; Mubaidin, Rasmi

    2016-01-01

    Breast cancer is the most common cancer, and one of the leading causes of death for females in Jordan and many countries in the world. Studies have shown that delay in symptoms presentation, diagnosis or treatment would result in poor prognosis. There has been no published study from Jordan on delays in patient presentation, delays in diagnosis, or delays in treatment. Therefore, we conducted this study to assess these important quality indicators aiming to improve prognosis for breast cancer patients in Jordan. This project was a cross-sectional study on female breast cancer patients in Jordan. The total number of participants was 327. The proportion of patients with presentation delay, diagnosis delay, and treatment delay was 32.2%, 49.1%, or 32.4%, respectively. The main reported reasons for delay in presentation were ignorance of the nature of the problem (65.6%), limited/lack of knowledge that symptoms were suggestive of cancer diagnosis (16.7%), and misdiagnosis (16.7%). Predictors of delay and mean time for presentation, diagnosis, and treatment were identified. Our results reveal that breast cancer patients in Jordan are experiencing delays in presentation, diagnosis, and treatment. This could justify the advanced stages at diagnosis and poor outcomes for breast cancer patients in Jordan. We recommend revising the current early detection and down-staging programs in Jordan.

  20. The nature and correlates of change in depressive symptoms with cancer diagnosis: reaction and adaptation.

    PubMed

    Infurna, Frank J; Gerstorf, Denis; Ram, Nilam

    2013-06-01

    Major life events trigger change processes in mental health. We examined how depressive symptoms change in conjunction with cancer diagnosis during adulthood and old age, and whether sociodemographic variables, cognitive and health resources, and cancer-specific mortality risks moderate event-related reaction and adaptation. Specifically, we applied multiphase growth models to prospective longitudinal data from 2,848 participants (age at diagnosis: M = 69, SD = 9.91; 46% women) in the Health and Retirement Study (HRS) who reported receiving a cancer diagnosis while enrolled in the study. On average, individuals experienced a significant increase in depressive symptoms within 2 years of cancer diagnosis, still-elevated levels 2 years postdiagnosis, and smaller increases in depressive symptoms postdiagnosis relative to the increases observed prediagnosis. Better memory and lower cancer-specific mortality risks were protective against increases in depressive symptoms within 2 years of diagnosis and were associated with reporting fewer depressive symptoms 2 years postdiagnosis. Findings suggest that diagnosis-related changes in depressive symptoms are typically characterized by a multiphase pattern, but tremendous between-person differences also emerged within each phase. Follow-up analyses comparing a matched group (N = 2,272) who did not experience cancer provided an additional layer of evidence supporting our inferences. Results indicate that, on average, people adapt and adjust to the challenges accompanying a cancer diagnosis, and illustrate the utility of using natural experiments such as major life events as a paradigm for studying developmental change processes.

  1. Polyallelic structural variants can provide accurate, highly informative genetic markers focused on diagnosis and therapeutic targets: Accuracy vs. Precision.

    PubMed

    Roses, A D

    2016-02-01

    Structural variants (SVs) include all insertions, deletions, and rearrangements in the genome, with several common types of nucleotide repeats including single sequence repeats, short tandem repeats, and insertion-deletion length variants. Polyallelic SVs provide highly informative markers for association studies with well-phenotyped cohorts. SVs can influence gene regulation by affecting epigenetics, transcription, splicing, and/or translation. Accurate assays of polyallelic SV loci are required to define the range and allele frequency of variable length alleles.

  2. Preventing delayed diagnosis of cancer: clinicians’ views on main problems and solutions

    PubMed Central

    Car, Lorainne Tudor; Papachristou, Nikolaos; Urch, Catherine; Majeed, Azeem; El–Khatib, Mona; Aylin, Paul; Atun, Rifat; Car, Josip; Vincent, Charles

    2016-01-01

    Background Delayed diagnosis is a major contributing factor to the UK’s lower cancer survival compared to many European countries. In the UK, there is a significant national variation in early cancer diagnosis. Healthcare providers can offer an insight into local priorities for timely cancer diagnosis. In this study, we aimed to identify the main problems and solutions relating to delay cancer diagnosis according to cancer care clinicians. Methods We developed and implemented a new priority–setting approach called PRIORITIZE and invited North West London cancer care clinicians to identify and prioritize main causes for and solutions to delayed diagnosis of cancer care. Results Clinicians identified a number of concrete problems and solutions relating to delayed diagnosis of cancer. Raising public awareness, patient education as well as better access to specialist care and diagnostic testing were seen as the highest priorities. The identified suggestions focused mostly on the delays during referrals from primary to secondary care. Conclusions Many identified priorities were feasible, affordable and converged around common themes such as public awareness, care continuity and length of consultation. As a timely, proactive and scalable priority–setting approach, PRIORITZE could be implemented as a routine preventative system for determining patient safety issues by frontline staff. PMID:28028437

  3. Reductions in immunosuppression after haematological or solid organ cancer diagnosis in kidney transplant recipients.

    PubMed

    Hope, Christopher M; Krige, Alice J; Barratt, Alex; Carroll, Robert P

    2015-11-01

    Few data exist on how immunosuppression is altered in kidney transplant recipients (KTR) following a diagnosis of cancer. This study investigated how immunosuppression was altered in KTR after cancer diagnosis and its effect on patient and graft survival. All KTR diagnosed with cancer at our centre from 1990 to 2012 were assessed. Drug regime and serum creatinine levels were recorded 1 year before, at time of, and 1 year after cancer diagnosis. Of 87 KTR who developed cancer (7.3% of transplanted population, n = 1189), 30 developed haematological malignancies and 57 developed solid organ cancers (SOC). In total, 38% of KTR presented with nodal or metastatic disease and 23 of 87 (26%) KTR died within 6 months of cancer diagnosis. Fifty-five KTR had records of pre- and postcancer diagnosis drug regimes. Thirty-six KTR had a (>50%) dose reduction or cessation of 1 or more immunosuppressive agents, and 19 no reduction in immunosuppression. In total, 2 of 36 (6%) of KTR who underwent a dose reduction suffered acute rejection that was reversed with methylprednisolone. Dose reduction/cessation of immunosuppression did not impair graft function, but also did not affect cancer free survival. Further larger prospective studies are needed to determine whether dose reduction alters relapse free cancer survival in KTR.

  4. Automated analysis of image mammogram for breast cancer diagnosis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nurhasanah, Sampurno, Joko; Faryuni, Irfana Diah; Ivansyah, Okto

    2016-03-01

    Medical imaging help doctors in diagnosing and detecting diseases that attack the inside of the body without surgery. Mammogram image is a medical image of the inner breast imaging. Diagnosis of breast cancer needs to be done in detail and as soon as possible for determination of next medical treatment. The aim of this work is to increase the objectivity of clinical diagnostic by using fractal analysis. This study applies fractal method based on 2D Fourier analysis to determine the density of normal and abnormal and applying the segmentation technique based on K-Means clustering algorithm to image abnormal for determine the boundary of the organ and calculate the area of organ segmentation results. The results show fractal method based on 2D Fourier analysis can be used to distinguish between the normal and abnormal breast and segmentation techniques with K-Means Clustering algorithm is able to generate the boundaries of normal and abnormal tissue organs, so area of the abnormal tissue can be determined.

  5. Infrared Spectroscopy in Cancer Diagnosis and Chemotherapy Monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tolstorozhev, G. B.; Bel'kov, M. V.; Skornyakov, I. V.; Butra, V. A.; Pekhnyo, V. I.; Kozachkova, A. N.; Tsarik, N. I.; Kutsenko, I. P.; Sharykina, N. I.

    2014-07-01

    We demonstrate that IR spectroscopic analysis can be used in diagnosis and chemotherapy monitoring for cancers of various organs at the molecular level. We used Fourier transform IR spectroscopy to study human breast and thyroid tumor tissues which were removed during surgery. The characteristic frequencies of C = O stretching vibrations in the IR spectra of tissues of pathological foci were compared with data from histological examination. In the IR spectra of healthy tissues or for benign tumors, the most intense absorption bands ν(C = O) are located in the interval 1675-1650 cm-1. When malignant neoplasms are present in the organs, the intensity of the bands in this range of the spectrum is reduced, while the intensities of the absorption bands in the 1710-1680 cm-1 interval increase. We also studied lung tissue for mice of the C57B1/6 line for healthy tissue and after implantation of B-16 melanoma tumor. The IR spectra of healthy mouse lung tissue and mouse lung tissue with B-16 melanoma metastases in the region of the C = O stretching vibrations display the same differences. We found that when lung malignancy was treated with the optimal dose of a synthesized drug based on palladium complexes of methylenediphosphonic acid, the spectroscopic signs of the presence of metastases in the lungs disappear, and the IR spectrum of the lung tissue after treatment practically coincides with the spectrum of healthy lung tissue.

  6. A Study on Electronic Nose for Clinical Breath Diagnosis of Lung Cancer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Di; Wang, Le; Yu, Jin; Wang, Ping; Hu, Yanjie; Ying, Kejing

    2009-05-01

    Lung cancer is one of the most deadly diseases and the leading cause of cancer death in both men and women. The high mortality in patients with lung cancer results, in part, from the lack of effective tools to diagnose the disease at an early stage before it has spread to regional nodes or has metastasized beyond the lung. The electronic nose combined with a diagnosis model which based on the biomarkers can provide a non-invasive and more convenient method. The article presented an improved e-Nose based on surface acoustic wave (SAW) gas sensors and an a diagnosis model to diagnose lung cancer.

  7. Cigarette Smoking Before and After Breast Cancer Diagnosis: Mortality From Breast Cancer and Smoking-Related Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Newcomb, Polly A.; Hampton, John M.; Trentham-Dietz, Amy; Titus, Linda J.; Egan, Kathleen M.; Baron, John A.; Willett, Walter C.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Cigarette smoking increases overall mortality, but it is not established whether smoking is associated with breast cancer prognosis. Methods We evaluated the association between smoking status before and after breast cancer diagnosis and mortality in the Collaborative Breast Cancer and Women’s Longevity Study, a population-based prospective observational study conducted in Wisconsin, New Hampshire, and Massachusetts. Participants included 20,691 women, ages 20 to 79 years, diagnosed with incident localized or regional invasive breast cancer between 1988 and 2008; a subset of 4,562 of these women were recontacted a median of 6 years after diagnosis. Hazard ratios (HRs) with 95% CIs were calculated according to smoking status for death as a result of breast cancer; cancers of the lung, pharynx, or intrathoracic organs; other cancer; respiratory disease; and cardiovascular disease. Results During a median of 12 years, 6,778 women died, including 2,894 who died as a result of breast cancer. Active smokers 1 year before breast cancer diagnosis were more likely than never smokers to die of breast cancer (HR, 1.25; 95% CI, 1.13 to 1.37), respiratory cancer (HR, 14.48; 95% CI, 9.89 to 21.21), other respiratory disease (HR, 6.02; 95% CI, 4.55 to 7.97), and cardiovascular disease (HR, 2.08; 95% CI, 1.80 to 2.41). The 10% of women who continued to smoke after diagnosis were more likely than never smokers to die of breast cancer (HR, 1.72; 95% CI, 1.13 to 2.60). When compared with women who continued to smoke after diagnosis, those who quit smoking after diagnosis had lower mortality from breast cancer (HR, 0.67; 95% CI, 0.38 to 1.19) and respiratory cancer (HR, 0.39; 95% CI, 0.16 to 0.95). Conclusion Smoking before or after diagnosis was associated with a higher mortality from breast cancer and several other causes. PMID:26811527

  8. Sentinel node in cancer diagnosis with surgical probes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fougères, Paul; Kazandjian, Anne; Prat, Vincent; Simon, Hervé; Ricard, Marcel; Bede, Jessica

    2001-02-01

    A probe system has been designed for the accurate location of areas of increased radionuclide uptake. Different types of applications are possible, i.e. when the precise position or even identification of the radionuclide is needed, like in wound investigation. In this paper, we restrict ourselves to a system incorporating two probes, for the identification of "hot" lymph nodes, close to the surface of the body. Axillary lymph node involvement is a major prognostic indicator and treatment planning factor in both melanoma and breast cancer. However, sentinel node localisation is relatively difficult often due to close proximity of the primary tumour. The developed instrument has a very sensitive detector, with good spatial resolution, able to discriminate between primary and scattered radiation. In the first part of the paper the instrument arrangement will be presented, including the two probes, CdTe /CZT and CsI(Tl) coupled to a photodiode. In the second part results will be given, demonstrating the performance of the system.

  9. Rurality and Other Determinants of Early Colorectal Cancer Diagnosis in Nebraska: A 6-Year Cancer Registry Study, 1998-2003

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sankaranarayanan, Jayashri; Watanabe-Galloway, Shinobu; Sun, Junfeng; Qiu, Fang; Boilesen, Eugene; Thorson, Alan G.

    2009-01-01

    Background: There are no studies of rurality, and other determinants of colorectal cancer (CRC) stage at diagnosis with population-based data from the Midwest. Methods: This retrospective study identified, incident CRC patients, aged 19 years and older, from 1998-2003 Nebraska Cancer Registry (NCR) data. Using federal Office of Management and…

  10. Circulating extracellular vesicles in cancer diagnosis and monitoring: an appraisal of clinical potential.

    PubMed

    Choi, Dong-Sic; Lee, Jaewook; Go, Gyeongyun; Kim, Yoon-Keun; Gho, Yong Song

    2013-10-01

    Mammalian cells, including cancer cells, secrete extracellular vesicles. These vesicles are nanosized, bilayered proteolipids with diameters of 50-1,000 nm. It has been suggested that cancer cell-derived extracellular vesicles play diverse roles in cancer progression, which involve invasion, immune modulation, neovascularization, and metastasis. Moreover, their serum levels are significantly elevated in cancer patients compared with normal controls. Recent high-throughput proteomic and transcriptomic studies of these complex extracellular organelles have accelerated the discovery of cancer-specific biomarkers and the development of novel diagnostic tools based on extracellular vesicles. Although many vesicle-associated biomarker candidates have been reported for various types of cancer, few have been validated for clinical use due to preanalytical, technical, temporal, and financial problems. Here, we discuss the potential of extracellular vesicles as sources of biomarkers for cancer diagnosis and monitoring, as well as the limitations and obstacles to adoption of extracellular vesicle-based diagnosis.

  11. Quality of life in Chinese home-based advanced cancer patients: does awareness of cancer diagnosis matter?

    PubMed

    Fan, Xiaoping; Huang, Hua; Luo, Qiong; Zhou, Jiying; Tan, Ge; Yong, Na

    2011-10-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the quality of life (QOL) of Chinese home-based advanced-stage cancer patients and to evaluate the association between the disclosure of cancer diagnosis and QOL. An interview-based survey was conducted from December 2009 to June 2010 in the home-based hospice of the First Affiliated Hospital of Chongqing Medical University, China. The principal finding of this study demonstrated that patients who did not have knowledge of their diagnosis exhibited better physical and emotional QOL compared with those who had knowledge of their diagnosis.

  12. Prostate Cancer Detection and Diagnosis: The Role of MR and its Comparison to other Diagnostic Modalities – A Radiologist's Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Penzkofer, Tobias; Tempany-Afdhal, Clare M.

    2013-01-01

    It is now universally recognized that many prostate cancers are over-diagnosed and over-treated. The European Randomized Study of Screening for Prostate Cancer (ERSPC) from 2009 evidenced that, to save one man from death of prostate cancer, over 1,400 men had to be screened, and 48 had to undergo treatment. Detection of prostate cancer is traditionally based upon digital rectal examination (DRE) and measuring serum prostate specific antigen (PSA), followed by ultrasound guided biopsy. The primary role of imaging for the detection and diagnosis of prostate cancer has been transrectal ultrasound (TRUS) guidance during biopsy. MRI has traditionally been used primarily for staging disease in men with biopsy proven cancer. It is has a well-established role in detecting T3 disease, planning radiation therapy, especially 3D conformal or intensity modulated external beam radiation therapy (IMRT), and planning and guiding interstitial seed implant or brachytherapy. New advances have now established prostate MRI can accurately characterize focal lesions within the gland, an ability that has led to new opportunities for improved cancer detection and guidance for biopsy. There are two new approaches to prostate biopsy are under investigation both use pre-biopsy MRI to define potential targets for sampling and then the biopsy is performed either with direct real-time MR guidance (in-bore) or MR fusion/registration with TRUS images (out-of-bore). In-bore or out-of-bore MRI-guided prostate biopsies have the advantage of using the MR target definition for accurate localization and sampling of targets or suspicious lesions. The out-of-bore method uses combined MRI/TRUS with fusion software that provided target localization and increases the sampling accuracy for TRUS-guided biopsies by integrating prostate MRI information with TRUS. Newer parameters for each imaging modality such as sonoelastography or shear wave elastography (SWE), contrast enhanced US (CEUS) and MRI

  13. Multiparametric and Multimodality Functional Radiological Imaging for Breast Cancer Diagnosis and Early Treatment Response Assessment

    PubMed Central

    Wolff, Antonio C.; Macura, Katarzyna J.; Stearns, Vered; Ouwerkerk, Ronald; El Khouli, Riham; Bluemke, David A.; Wahl, Richard

    2015-01-01

    Breast cancer is the second leading cause of cancer death among US women, and the chance of a woman developing breast cancer sometime during her lifetime is one in eight. Early detection and diagnosis to allow appropriate locoregional and systemic treatment are key to improve the odds of surviving its diagnosis. Emerging data also suggest that different breast cancer subtypes (phenotypes) may respond differently to available adjuvant therapies. There is a growing understanding that not all patients benefit equally from systemic therapies, and therapeutic approaches are being increasingly personalized based on predictive biomarkers of clinical benefit. Optimal use of established and novel radiological imaging methods, such as magnetic resonance imaging and positron emission tomography, which have different biophysical mechanisms can simultaneously identify key functional parameters. These methods provide unique multiparametric radiological signatures of breast cancer, that will improve the accuracy of early diagnosis, help select appropriate therapies for early stage disease, and allow early assessment of therapeutic benefit. PMID:26063885

  14. Multiparametric and Multimodality Functional Radiological Imaging for Breast Cancer Diagnosis and Early Treatment Response Assessment.

    PubMed

    Jacobs, Michael A; Wolff, Antonio C; Macura, Katarzyna J; Stearns, Vered; Ouwerkerk, Ronald; El Khouli, Riham; Bluemke, David A; Wahl, Richard

    2015-05-01

    Breast cancer is the second leading cause of cancer death among US women, and the chance of a woman developing breast cancer sometime during her lifetime is one in eight. Early detection and diagnosis to allow appropriate locoregional and systemic treatment are key to improve the odds of surviving its diagnosis. Emerging data also suggest that different breast cancer subtypes (phenotypes) may respond differently to available adjuvant therapies. There is a growing understanding that not all patients benefit equally from systemic therapies, and therapeutic approaches are being increasingly personalized based on predictive biomarkers of clinical benefit. Optimal use of established and novel radiological imaging methods, such as magnetic resonance imaging and positron emission tomography, which have different biophysical mechanisms can simultaneously identify key functional parameters. These methods provide unique multiparametric radiological signatures of breast cancer, that will improve the accuracy of early diagnosis, help select appropriate therapies for early stage disease, and allow early assessment of therapeutic benefit.

  15. Quantifying Cancer Absolute Risk and Cancer Mortality in the Presence of Competing Events after a Myotonic Dystrophy Diagnosis

    PubMed Central

    Gadalla, Shahinaz M.; Pfeiffer, Ruth M.; Kristinsson, Sigurdur Y.; Björkholm, Magnus; Hilbert, James E.; Moxley, Richard T.; Landgren, Ola; Greene, Mark H.

    2013-01-01

    Recent studies show that patients with myotonic dystrophy (DM) have an increased risk of specific malignancies, but estimates of absolute cancer risk accounting for competing events are lacking. Using the Swedish Patient Registry, we identified 1,081 patients with an inpatient and/or outpatient diagnosis of DM between 1987 and 2007. Date and cause of death and date of cancer diagnosis were extracted from the Swedish Cause of Death and Cancer Registries. We calculated non-parametric estimates of absolute cancer risk and cancer mortality accounting for the high non-cancer competing mortality associated with DM. Absolute cancer risk after DM diagnosis was 1.6% (95% CI=0.4-4%), 5% (95% CI=3-9%) and 9% (95% CI=6-13%) at ages 40, 50 and 60 years, respectively. Females had a higher absolute risk of all cancers combined than males: 9% (95% CI=4-14), and 13% (95% CI=9-20) vs. 2% (95%CI= 0.7-6) and 4% (95%CI=2-8) by ages 50 and 60 years, respectively) and developed cancer at younger ages (median age =51 years, range=22-74 vs. 57, range=43-84, respectively, p=0.02). Cancer deaths accounted for 10% of all deaths, with an absolute cancer mortality risk of 2% (95%CI=1-4.5%), 4% (95%CI=2-6%), and 6% (95%CI=4-9%) by ages 50, 60, and 70 years, respectively. No gender difference in cancer-specific mortality was observed (p=0.6). In conclusion, cancer significantly contributes to morbidity and mortality in DM patients, even after accounting for high competing DM mortality from non-neoplastic causes. It is important to apply population-appropriate, validated cancer screening strategies in DM patients. PMID:24236163

  16. Highly-accurate metabolomic detection of early-stage ovarian cancer

    PubMed Central

    Gaul, David A.; Mezencev, Roman; Long, Tran Q.; Jones, Christina M.; Benigno, Benedict B.; Gray, Alexander; Fernández, Facundo M.; McDonald, John F.

    2015-01-01

    High performance mass spectrometry was employed to interrogate the serum metabolome of early-stage ovarian cancer (OC) patients and age-matched control women. The resulting spectral features were used to establish a linear support vector machine (SVM) model of sixteen diagnostic metabolites that are able to identify early-stage OC with 100% accuracy in our patient cohort. The results provide evidence for the importance of lipid and fatty acid metabolism in OC and serve as the foundation of a clinically significant diagnostic test. PMID:26573008

  17. Lateral Flow Rapid Test for Accurate and Early Diagnosis of Scrub Typhus: A Febrile Illness of Historically Military Importance in the Pacific Rim.

    PubMed

    Chao, Chien-Chung; Zhangm, Zhiwen; Weissenberger, Giulia; Chen, Hua-Wei; Ching, Wei-Mei

    2017-03-01

    Scrub typhus (ST) is an infection caused by Orientia tsutsugamushi. Historically, ST was ranked as the second most important arthropod-borne medical problem only behind malaria during World War II and the Vietnam War. The disease occurs mainly in Southeast Asia and has been shown to emerge and reemerge in new areas, implying the increased risk for U.S. military and civilian personnel deployed to these regions. ST can effectively be treated by doxycycline provided the diagnosis is made early, before the development of severe complications. Scrub Typhus Detect is a lateral flow rapid test based on a mixture of recombinant 56-kDa antigens with broad reactivity. The performance of this prototype product was evaluated against indirect immunofluorescence assay, the serological gold standard. Using 249 prospectively collected samples from Thailand, the sensitivity and specificity for IgM was found to be 100% and 92%, respectively, suggesting a high potential of this product for clinical use. This product will provide a user friendly, rapid, and accurate diagnosis of ST for clinicians to provide timely and accurate treatments of deployed personnel.

  18. Post Diagnosis Diet Quality and Colorectal Cancer Survival in Women

    PubMed Central

    Fung, Teresa T.; Kashambwa, Rutendo; Sato, Kaori; Chiuve, Stephanie E.; Fuchs, Charles S.; Wu, Kana; Giovannucci, Edward; Ogino, Shuji; Hu, Frank B.; Meyerhardt, Jeffrey A.

    2014-01-01

    Background Dietary factors are known to influence colorectal cancer (CRC) risk, however, their association with CRC survival is unclear. Therefore, we prospectively examined the association between diet quality scores, dietary patterns and colorectal cancer (CRC) survival. Methods 1201 women diagnosed with stage I–III CRC between 1986 and 2008, were followed through 2010. Diet was assessed via a food frequency questionnaire administered at least 6 months after diagnosis. We computed the Alternate Healthy Eating Index-2010 (AHEI-2010), alternate Mediterranean Diet score (aMED) and Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension score (DASH) and derived two dietary patterns, Western (unhealthy) and prudent (healthy), by principal component analysis for each woman. Results During follow-up, we documented 435 deaths, including 162 from CRC. After adjusting for potential confounders, only a higher AHEI-2010 score was significantly associated with lower overall mortality (HR comparing extreme quintiles = 0.71, 95% CI 0.52–0.98, p trend = 0.01) as well as borderline significantly with lower risk of CRC mortality by the trend test (HR Q5 vs Q1 = 0.72, 95% CI = 0.43–1.21, p trend = 0.07). When AHEI-2010 components were examined separately, inverse associations for overall mortality were primarily accounted for by moderate alcohol intake (HR comparing abstainers vs 5–15 g/d = 1.30, 95%CI = 1.05–1.61) and lower intake of sugar sweetened beverages and fruit juices combined (HR for each additional serving = 1.11, 95% CI = 1.01–1.23). No other diet quality score or dietary pattern was associated with overall or CRC-specific mortality. Conclusion Higher AHEI-2010 score may be associated with lower overall mortality, moderate alcohol consumption and lower consumption of sugar sweetened beverages and juices combined appeared to account for most of the observed associations. PMID:25506700

  19. Accurate diagnosis of myalgic encephalomyelitis and chronic fatigue syndrome based upon objective test methods for characteristic symptoms

    PubMed Central

    Twisk, Frank NM

    2015-01-01

    Although myalgic encephalomyelitis (ME) and chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) are considered to be synonymous, the definitional criteria for ME and CFS define two distinct, partially overlapping, clinical entities. ME, whether defined by the original criteria or by the recently proposed criteria, is not equivalent to CFS, let alone a severe variant of incapacitating chronic fatigue. Distinctive features of ME are: muscle weakness and easy muscle fatigability, cognitive impairment, circulatory deficits, a marked variability of the symptoms in presence and severity, but above all, post-exertional “malaise”: a (delayed) prolonged aggravation of symptoms after a minor exertion. In contrast, CFS is primarily defined by (unexplained) chronic fatigue, which should be accompanied by four out of a list of 8 symptoms, e.g., headaches. Due to the subjective nature of several symptoms of ME and CFS, researchers and clinicians have questioned the physiological origin of these symptoms and qualified ME and CFS as functional somatic syndromes. However, various characteristic symptoms, e.g., post-exertional “malaise” and muscle weakness, can be assessed objectively using well-accepted methods, e.g., cardiopulmonary exercise tests and cognitive tests. The objective measures acquired by these methods should be used to accurately diagnose patients, to evaluate the severity and impact of the illness objectively and to assess the positive and negative effects of proposed therapies impartially. PMID:26140274

  20. A new method of accurate broken rotor bar diagnosis based on modulation signal bispectrum analysis of motor current signals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gu, F.; Wang, T.; Alwodai, A.; Tian, X.; Shao, Y.; Ball, A. D.

    2015-01-01

    Motor current signature analysis (MCSA) has been an effective way of monitoring electrical machines for many years. However, inadequate accuracy in diagnosing incipient broken rotor bars (BRB) has motivated many studies into improving this method. In this paper a modulation signal bispectrum (MSB) analysis is applied to motor currents from different broken bar cases and a new MSB based sideband estimator (MSB-SE) and sideband amplitude estimator are introduced for obtaining the amplitude at (1 ± 2 s)fs (s is the rotor slip and fs is the fundamental supply frequency) with high accuracy. As the MSB-SE has a good performance of noise suppression, the new estimator produces more accurate results in predicting the number of BRB, compared with conventional power spectrum analysis. Moreover, the paper has also developed an improved model for motor current signals under rotor fault conditions and an effective method to decouple the BRB current which interferes with that of speed oscillations associated with BRB. These provide theoretical supports for the new estimators and clarify the issues in using conventional bispectrum analysis.

  1. Accurate diagnosis of myalgic encephalomyelitis and chronic fatigue syndrome based upon objective test methods for characteristic symptoms.

    PubMed

    Twisk, Frank Nm

    2015-06-26

    Although myalgic encephalomyelitis (ME) and chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) are considered to be synonymous, the definitional criteria for ME and CFS define two distinct, partially overlapping, clinical entities. ME, whether defined by the original criteria or by the recently proposed criteria, is not equivalent to CFS, let alone a severe variant of incapacitating chronic fatigue. Distinctive features of ME are: muscle weakness and easy muscle fatigability, cognitive impairment, circulatory deficits, a marked variability of the symptoms in presence and severity, but above all, post-exertional "malaise": a (delayed) prolonged aggravation of symptoms after a minor exertion. In contrast, CFS is primarily defined by (unexplained) chronic fatigue, which should be accompanied by four out of a list of 8 symptoms, e.g., headaches. Due to the subjective nature of several symptoms of ME and CFS, researchers and clinicians have questioned the physiological origin of these symptoms and qualified ME and CFS as functional somatic syndromes. However, various characteristic symptoms, e.g., post-exertional "malaise" and muscle weakness, can be assessed objectively using well-accepted methods, e.g., cardiopulmonary exercise tests and cognitive tests. The objective measures acquired by these methods should be used to accurately diagnose patients, to evaluate the severity and impact of the illness objectively and to assess the positive and negative effects of proposed therapies impartially.

  2. Transrectal high-intensity focused ultrasound ablation of prostate cancer: effective treatment requiring accurate imaging.

    PubMed

    Rouvière, Olivier; Souchon, Rémi; Salomir, Rarès; Gelet, Albert; Chapelon, Jean-Yves; Lyonnet, Denis

    2007-09-01

    Transrectal HIFU ablation has become a reasonable option for the treatment of localized prostate cancer in non-surgical patients, with 5-year disease-free survival similar to that of radiation therapy. It is also a promising salvage therapy of local recurrence after radiation therapy. These favourable results are partly due to recent improvements in prostate cancer imaging. However, further improvements are needed in patient selection, pre-operative localization of the tumor foci, assessment of the volume treated and early detection of recurrence. A better knowledge of the factors influencing the HIFU-induced tissue destruction and a better pre-operative assessment of them by imaging techniques should improve treatment outcome. Whereas prostate HIFU ablation is currently performed under transrectal ultrasound guidance, MR guidance with real-time operative monitoring of temperature will be available in the near future. If this technique will give better targeting and more uniform tissue destruction, its cost-effectiveness will have to be carefully evaluated. Finally, a recently reported synergistic effect between HIFU ablation and chemotherapy opens possibilities for treatment in high-risk or clinically advanced tumors.

  3. Infrared spectroscopy and microscopy in cancer research and diagnosis

    PubMed Central

    Bellisola, Giuseppe; Sorio, Claudio

    2012-01-01

    Since the middle of 20th century infrared (IR) spectroscopy coupled to microscopy (IR microspectroscopy) has been recognized as a non destructive, label free, highly sensitive and specific analytical method with many potential useful applications in different fields of biomedical research and in particular cancer research and diagnosis. Although many technological improvements have been made to facilitate biomedical applications of this powerful analytical technique, it has not yet properly come into the scientific background of many potential end users. Therefore, to achieve those fundamental objectives an interdisciplinary approach is needed with basic scientists, spectroscopists, biologists and clinicians who must effectively communicate and understand each other's requirements and challenges. In this review we aim at illustrating some principles of Fourier transform (FT) Infrared (IR) vibrational spectroscopy and microscopy (microFT-IR) as a useful method to interrogate molecules in specimen by mid-IR radiation. Penetrating into basics of molecular vibrations might help us to understand whether, when and how complementary information obtained by microFT-IR could become useful in our research and/or diagnostic activities. MicroFT-IR techniques allowing to acquire information about the molecular composition and structure of a sample within a micrometric scale in a matter of seconds will be illustrated as well as some limitations will be discussed. How biochemical, structural, and dynamical information about the systems can be obtained by bench top microFT-IR instrumentation will be also presented together with some methods to treat and interpret IR spectral data and applicative examples. The mid-IR absorbance spectrum is one of the most information-rich and concise way to represent the whole “… omics” of a cell and, as such, fits all the characteristics for the development of a clinically useful biomarker. PMID:22206042

  4. Hyperspectral-stimulated Raman scattering imaging of cholesteryl ester accumulation: new avenue to diagnosis of human prostate cancer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Du, Jun; Wang, Ping; Yue, Shuhua

    2016-10-01

    Most prostate cancers (PCa) are slowly growing, and only the aggressive ones require early diagnosis and effective treatment. The current standard for PCa diagnosis remains histopathology. Nonetheless, for the differentiation between Gleason score 6 (low-risk PCa), which can be left without treatment, and Gleason score 7 (high-risk PCa), which requires active treatment, the inter-observer discordance can be up to 40%. Our previous study reveals that cholesteryl ester (CE) accumulation induced by PI3K/AKT activation underlies human PCa aggressiveness. However, Raman spectromicroscopy used in this study could only provide compositional information of certain lipid droplets (LDs) selected by the observer, which overlooked cell-to-cell variation and hindered translation to accurate automated diagnosis. Here, we demonstrated quantitative mapping of CE level in human prostate tissues using hyperspectral stimulated Raman scattering (SRS) microscopy that renders compositional information for every pixel in the image. Specifically, hundreds of SRS images at Raman shift between 1620-1800 cm-1 were taken, and multivariate curve resolution algorism was used to retrieve concentration images of acyl C=C bond, sterol C=C bond, and ester C=O bond. Given that the ratio between images of sterol C=C and ester C=O (sterol C=C/C=O) is nonlinearly proportional to CE percentage out of total lipid, we were able to quantitatively map CE level. Our data showed that CE level was significantly greater in high Gleason grade compared to low Gleason grade, and could be a factor that significantly contributed to cancer recurrence. Our study provides an opportunity towards more accurate PCa diagnosis and prediction of aggressiveness.

  5. Digoxin use after diagnosis of breast cancer and survival: a population-based cohort study.

    PubMed

    Karasneh, Reema A; Murray, Liam J; Mc Menamin, Úna C; Hughes, Carmel M; Cardwell, Chris R

    2015-06-01

    Digoxin has been shown to have an estrogenic effect and is associated with increased risk of gynecomastia and estrogen-sensitive cancers such as breast and uterus cancer. These findings, particularly recent observations of increased breast cancer risk, raise questions about the safety of digoxin use in breast cancer patients. Therefore, we investigated whether digoxin use after breast cancer diagnosis increased the risk of breast cancer-specific mortality in breast cancer patients. A cohort of 17,842 breast cancer patients newly diagnosed from 1998 to 2009 was identified from English cancer registries (from the National Cancer Data Repository). This cohort was linked to the UK Clinical Practice Research Datalink (to provide digoxin and other prescription records) and to the Office of National Statistics mortality data (to identify breast cancer-specific deaths). Using time-dependent Cox regression models, unadjusted and adjusted hazard ratios (HR) and 95 % confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated for the association between post-diagnostic exposure to digoxin and breast cancer-specific and all-cause mortality. In 17,842 breast cancer patients, there were 2219 breast cancer-specific deaths. Digoxin users appeared to have increased breast cancer-specific mortality compared with non-users (HR 1.73; 95 % CI 1.39-2.15) but this association was entirely attenuated after adjustment for potential confounders (adjusted HR 0.91; 95 % CI 0.72-1.14). In this large population-based breast cancer cohort study, there was little evidence of an increase in breast cancer-specific mortality with digoxin use after diagnosis. These results provide some reassurance that digoxin use is safe in breast cancer patients.

  6. Fast and accurate detection of cancer cell using a versatile three-channel plasmonic sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoseinian, M.; Ahmadi, A. R.; Bolorizadeh, M. A.

    2016-09-01

    Surface Plasmon Resonance (SPR) optical fiber sensors can be used as cost-effective small sized biosensors that are relatively simple to operate. Additionally, these instruments are label-free, hence rendering them highly sensitive to biological measurements. In this study, a three-channel microstructure optical fiber plasmonic-based portable biosensor is designed and analyzed using Finite Element Method. The proposed system is capable of determining changes in sample's refractive index with precision of order one thousandth. The biosensor measures three absorption resonance wavelengths of the analytes simultaneously. This property is one of the main advantages of the proposed biosensor since it reduces the error in the measured wavelength and enhances the accuracy of the results up to 10-5 m/RIU by reducing noise. In this paper, Jurkat cell, an indicator cell for leukemia cancer, is considered as the analyte; and its absorption resonance wavelengths as well as sensitivity in each channel are determined.

  7. Hepatitis B virus infection is associated with younger median age at diagnosis and death in cancers.

    PubMed

    Wei, Xiao-Li; Luo, Hui-Yan; Li, Chao-Feng; Jin, Ying; Zeng, Zhao-Lei; Ju, Huai-Qiang; Wu, Qi-Nian; Wang, Yun; Mao, Min-Jie; Liu, Wan-Li; Jia, Wei-Hua; Zhang, Hui-Zhong; Li, Yu-Hong; Wang, Feng; Xu, Rui-Hua

    2017-04-01

    Several non-hepatocellular cancers were linked with hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection. This study was aimed to quantify the potential associations between HBV infection and multiple non-hepatocellular cancers. Continuous cases, including 5,715 non-cancer and 40,963 cancer cases diagnosed from 2008 to 2014 in Sun Yat-sen University Cancer Center were analyzed. HBV DNA and hepatitis B core antigen (HBcAg) were examed in gastric cancer tissues by polymerase chain reaction and immunohistochemical staining. After adjusting for age, sex, year of diagnosis, smoking, drinking and family history of cancer, significant associations were found between serum HBsAg and frequently reported HBV-related non-hepatocellular cancers, including non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, cholangiocarcinoma and pancreatic cancer (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] and 95% confidence ratio [CI]: 1.89 [1.65 - 2.16]), as well as total other non-hepatocellular cancers (AOR and 95% CI: 1.12 [1.03 - 1.22]). The median ages at diagnosis, all-cause death and cancer-specific death of serum HBsAg positive cancer patients were all significantly younger than those with serum HBsAg negative. HBV DNA was detected in 12.4% (34/275) gastric cancer tissues and HBcAg was most commonly detected in lymphocytes. This was the first report that HBV infection had a modest but significant nonspecific association with total non-hepatocellular cancers. Median age at diagnosis and death was significantly younger in serum HBsAg positive cancer patients. The underlying mechanism need further investigation. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  8. [Conformity of cancerous diagnosis of serum-fluorimetry under the influence of carotenoid fluorescence].

    PubMed

    Meng, J; Zhang, Y; Ren, X; Ma, H; Ren, W; Xu, X; Cao, B; Li, W

    2000-08-01

    We observed that carotenoid had sensitization for fluorescence of porphyrin as cancerous diagnostic technology was applied in clinic by serum-fluorimetry. The Forster theory was used in order to analyse sensitized fluorescence between carotenoid and porphyrin in this paper. Transfer characteristic between energy donor and energy acceptor was calculated and discussed its influence on cancerous diagnosis.

  9. Role of multiparametric MRI in the diagnosis of prostate cancer: update.

    PubMed

    Rosi, Giovanni; Indino, Elena Lucia; Salvo, Vincenzo; Colarieti, Anna; Fierro, Davide; Scialpi, Michele; Panebianco, Valeria

    2016-05-24

    Prostate cancer is the most common malignancy of the male gender. The role of magnetic resonance imaging has evolved very rapidly over the years to be currently recognized as a fundamental tool in the diagnosis, treatment and follow-up of prostate cancer.

  10. [A new immuno-PCR format for serological diagnosis of colon cancer].

    PubMed

    Nikitina, I G; Sabirova, E Iu; Solopova, O N; Surzhikov, S A; Grineva, E N; Karpov, V L; Lisitsyn, N A; Beresten', S F

    2014-01-01

    Anew immuno-PCR format is described that is based on detection of membrane protein CDH17 in serum exosomes. Format application allows distinction between sera samples of healthy donors and colon cancer patients. Obtained results open a possibility of serological colon cancer diagnosis in high risk groups.

  11. Incidence and Stage at Diagnosis - Diagnosis Summary Table | Cancer Trends Progress Report

    Cancer.gov

    The Cancer Trends Progress Report, first issued in 2001, summarizes our nation's advances against cancer in relation to Healthy People targets set forth by the Department of Health and Human Services.

  12. Cancer Diagnosis? Advice for Dealing with What Comes Next

    MedlinePlus

    ... viewed as a slow-growing cancer or an aggressive one. Ask about the available treatment options, the ... enhance your quality of life. Other cancers are aggressive and will likely cause major problems. Treatment in ...

  13. Nanoscale nuclear architecture for cancer diagnosis by spatial-domain low-coherence quantitative phase microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Pin; Bista, Rajan K.; Khalbuss, Walid E.; Qiu, Wei; Staton, Kevin D.; Zhang, Lin; Brentnall, Teresa A.; Brand, Randall E.; Liu, Yang

    2011-03-01

    Alterations in nuclear architecture are the hallmark diagnostic characteristic of cancer cells. In this work, we show that the nuclear architectural characteristics quantified by spatial-domain low-coherence quantitative phase microscopy (SL-QPM), is more sensitive for the identification of cancer cells than conventional cytopathology. We demonstrated the importance of nuclear architectural characteristics in both an animal model of intestinal carcinogenesis - APC/Min mouse model and human cytology specimens with colorectal cancer by identifying cancer from cytologically noncancerous appearing cells. The determination of nanoscale nuclear architecture using this simple and practical optical instrument is a significant advance towards cancer diagnosis.

  14. Immunological parameters as a new lead in the diagnosis of ovarian cancer.

    PubMed

    Baert, T; Timmerman, D; Vergote, I; Coosemans, A

    2015-01-01

    Ovarian cancer is the leading cause of pelvic gynecological cancer death in Europe. Prognosis is poor in women diagnosed at stage III to IV or in case disease recurs. Platin-based chemotherapy and radical surgery have already improved prognosis significantly. Novel strategies in the treatment of ovarian cancer are being searched for. The study of the immune system as a valuable parameter in the development of ovarian cancer has been neglected for a long time. Nevertheless, this is a field in full progression and might open new perspectives in the diagnosis and prognosis of ovarian cancer patients and could lead to a more motivated choice of targeted therapies.

  15. Role of Dental Profession in Oral Cancer Prevention and Diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Hussain, Q A; Awan, K H

    2016-12-01

    The incidence of oral cancer is increasing worldwide. Malignant neoplasms of the mouth and pharynx have been rated as the 10th most common cancer in men and 7th in women, though geographical variations exist.(1)Generally, in a society, oral cancer is not properly understood. The sign and symptoms are frequently overlooked in the initial stages when it is responsive to treat.

  16. Optical diagnosis of colon and cervical cancer by support vector machine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mukhopadhyay, Sabyasachi; Kurmi, Indrajit; Dey, Rajib; Das, Nandan K.; Pradhan, Sanjay; Pradhan, Asima; Ghosh, Nirmalya; Panigrahi, Prasanta K.; Mohanty, Samarendra

    2016-05-01

    A probabilistic robust diagnostic algorithm is very much essential for successful cancer diagnosis by optical spectroscopy. We report here support vector machine (SVM) classification to better discriminate the colon and cervical cancer tissues from normal tissues based on elastic scattering spectroscopy. The efficacy of SVM based classification with different kernel has been tested on multifractal parameters like Hurst exponent, singularity spectrum width in order to classify the cancer tissues.

  17. Modular Machine Learning Methods for Computer-Aided Diagnosis of Breast Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-05-01

    Cancer Combining Mammography and Genomics. 7 REPORTABLE OUTCOMES 1. Markey MK, Lo JY, Vargas-Voracek R, Tourassi GD, and Floyd CE, Jr, "Perceptron...error surface analysis: A case study in breast cancer diagnosis," Computers in Biology & Medicine 32, 99-109 (2002). 2. Markey MK, Lo JY, and Floyd CE...Tourassi GD, and Floyd CE, Jr, "Self-organizing map for cluster analysis of a breast cancer database," Artificial Intelligence in Medicine 27, 113-127

  18. Color model comparative analysis for breast cancer diagnosis using H and E stained images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xingyu; Plataniotis, Konstantinos N.

    2015-03-01

    Digital cancer diagnosis is a research realm where signal processing techniques are used to analyze and to classify color histopathology images. Different from grayscale image analysis of magnetic resonance imaging or X-ray, colors in histopathology images convey large amount of histological information and thus play significant role in cancer diagnosis. Though color information is widely used in histopathology works, as today, there is few study on color model selections for feature extraction in cancer diagnosis schemes. This paper addresses the problem of color space selection for digital cancer classification using H and E stained images, and investigates the effectiveness of various color models (RGB, HSV, CIE L*a*b*, and stain-dependent H and E decomposition model) in breast cancer diagnosis. Particularly, we build a diagnosis framework as a comparison benchmark and take specific concerns of medical decision systems into account in evaluation. The evaluation methodologies include feature discriminate power evaluation and final diagnosis performance comparison. Experimentation on a publicly accessible histopathology image set suggests that the H and E decomposition model outperforms other assessed color spaces. For reasons behind various performance of color spaces, our analysis via mutual information estimation demonstrates that color components in the H and E model are less dependent, and thus most feature discriminate power is collected in one channel instead of spreading out among channels in other color spaces.

  19. Risk, diagnosis and treatment to postoperative delirium in elderly patients with gastrointestinal cancers.

    PubMed

    Ma, Li-Na; Zhang, Rui-Li

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, more elderly patients with gastrointestinal cancers have been undergoing surgery. As one of main postoperative complications, postoperative delirium (POD) is harmful and difficult to prevent and treat. Prevention, diagnosis and treatment to POD properly and ptomptly can promote the patient's overall recovery. However, health care providers still have many problems for POD to face in elderly,with gastrointestinal cancers during the clinical care. In this paper, Etiology, damages, prevention, diagnosis and treatment of POD in elderly with gastrointestinal cancer were reviewed, and the prospect of POD was also discussed.

  20. Lung cancer diagnosis with quantitative DIC microscopy and support vector machine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Longfei; Cai, Shuangshuang; Zeng, Bixin; Xu, Min

    2017-01-01

    We report the study of lung squamous cell carcinoma diagnosis using the TI-DIC microscopy and the scattering-phase theorem. The spatially resolved optical properties of tissue are computed from the 2D phase map via the scattering-phase theorem. The scattering coefficient, the reduced scattering coefficient, and the anisotropy factor are all found to increase with the grade of lung cancer. The retrieved optical parameters are shown to distinguish cancer cases from the normal cases with high accuracy. This label-free microscopic approach applicable to fresh tissues may be promising for in situ rapid cancer diagnosis.

  1. Advances in the use of nanocarriers for cancer diagnosis and treatment

    PubMed Central

    Vieira, Débora Braga; Gamarra, Lionel Fernel

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT The use of nanocarriers as drug delivery systems for therapeutic or imaging agents can improve the pharmacological properties of commonly used compounds in cancer diagnosis and treatment. Advances in the surface engineering of nanoparticles to accommodate targeting ligands turned nanocarriers attractive candidates for future work involving targeted drug delivery. Although not targeted, several nanocarriers have been approved for clinical use and they are currently used to treat and/or diagnosis various types of cancers. Furthermore, there are several formulations, which are now in various stages of clinical trials. This review examined some approved formulations and discussed the advantages of using nanocarriers in cancer therapy. PMID:27074238

  2. Distance as a Barrier to Cancer Diagnosis and Treatment: Review of the Literature.

    PubMed

    Ambroggi, Massimo; Biasini, Claudia; Del Giovane, Cinzia; Fornari, Fabio; Cavanna, Luigi

    2015-12-01

    The burden of travel from a patient's residence to health care providers is an important issue that can influence access to diagnosis and treatment of cancer. Although several studies have shown that the travel burden can result in delays in diagnosis and treatment of many common cancers, its role appears underestimated in the treatment of patients in clinical practice. Therefore, we performed a review of the published data on the role of travel burden influencing four items: delay of diagnosis, adequate treatment of cancer, outcome, and quality of life of cancer patients. Forty-seven studies published up to December 2014 were initially identified. Twenty studies were excluded because they did not regard specifically the four items of our review. Twenty-seven studies formed the basis of our study and involved 716,153 patients. The associations between travel burden and (a) cancer stage at diagnosis (12 studies), (b) appropriate treatment (8 studies), (c) outcome (4 studies), and (d) quality of life (1 study) are reported. In addition, in two studies, the relation between travel burden and compliance with treatment was examined. The results of our review show that increasing travel requirements are associated with more advanced disease at diagnosis, inappropriate treatment, a worse prognosis, and a worse quality of life. These results suggest that clinical oncologists should remember the specific travel burden problem for cancer patients, who often need health care services every week or every month for many years.

  3. European guidelines for quality assurance in colorectal cancer screening and diagnosis. First Edition--Quality assurance in endoscopy in colorectal cancer screening and diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Valori, R; Rey, J-F; Atkin, W S; Bretthauer, M; Senore, C; Hoff, G; Kuipers, E J; Altenhofen, L; Lambert, R; Minoli, G

    2012-09-01

    Multidisciplinary, evidence-based guidelines for quality assurance in colorectal cancer screening and diagnosis have been developed by experts in a project coordinated by the International Agency for Research on Cancer. The full guideline document covers the entire process of population-based screening. It consists of 10 chapters and over 250 recommendations, graded according to the strength of the recommendation and the supporting evidence. The 450-page guidelines and the extensive evidence base have been published by the European Commission. The chapter on quality assurance in endoscopy includes 50 graded recommendations. The content of the chapter is presented here to promote international discussion and collaboration by making the principles and standards recommended in the new EU Guidelines known to a wider professional and scientific community. Following these recommendations has the potential to enhance the control of colorectal cancer through improvement in the quality and effectiveness of endoscopy and other elements in the screening process, including multidisciplinary diagnosis and management of the disease.

  4. Nutritional status at diagnosis in children with cancer. 2. An assessment by arm anthropometry.

    PubMed

    Barr, Ronald; Collins, Laura; Nayiager, Trishana; Doring, Nancy; Kennedy, Charlene; Halton, Jacqueline; Walker, Scott; Sala, Alessandra; Webber, Colin

    2011-04-01

    Assessment of nutritional status in children with cancer is important but measures based on weight can be problematic at diagnosis, especially in those with advanced disease. Likewise, dual energy x-ray absorptiometry may be confounded by other radiological procedures and is not commonly available in low-income countries where most children with cancer live. Arm anthropometry is not subject to these constraints. In a study sample of 99 Canadian patients with cancer at diagnosis, mid-upper arm circumference correlated well with lean body mass as measured by dual energy x-ray absorptiometry but triceps skin fold thickness was a poor predictor of fat mass. Arm anthropometry can be a useful tool for the measurement of nutritional status in children with cancer. However, further studies, particularly in low-income countries and in children with solid tumors at diagnosis, are required to determine the full extent of its utility.

  5. "Shifting family boundaries" after the diagnosis of childhood cancer in stepfamilies.

    PubMed

    Patterson Kelly, Katherine; Ganong, Lawrence H

    2011-02-01

    The childhood cancer experiences of stepfamilies have not been described despite the fact that nearly one third of U.S. children will live in a stepfamily household. To describe the impact of diagnosis on parental relationships in stepfamilies, we undertook a secondary analysis of data from a study of parental decision making in structurally diverse families. As described by 13 parents of six stepfamilies, the crisis of a childhood cancer diagnosis immediately changed family dynamics. Parental relationships changed, which shifted family boundaries, creating instability in families who were trying to cope with a very stressful life experience. Through increased understanding of parental relationship changes that occur after the diagnosis of childhood cancer in stepfamilies, clinicians can anticipate these changes and provide supportive interventions to reduce overall family conflict and distress. These distinctive stepfamily responses underscore the need to include structurally diverse families in future trials targeting parental coping in childhood cancer.

  6. Accurate positioning for head and neck cancer patients using 2D and 3D image guidance

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Hyejoo; Lovelock, Dale M.; Yorke, Ellen D.; Kriminiski, Sergey; Lee, Nancy; Amols, Howard I.

    2011-01-01

    Our goal is to determine an optimized image-guided setup by comparing setup errors determined by two-dimensional (2D) and three-dimensional (3D) image guidance for head and neck cancer (HNC) patients immobilized by customized thermoplastic masks. Nine patients received weekly imaging sessions, for a total of 54, throughout treatment. Patients were first set up by matching lasers to surface marks (initial) and then translationally corrected using manual registration of orthogonal kilovoltage (kV) radiographs with DRRs (2D-2D) on bony anatomy. A kV cone beam CT (kVCBCT) was acquired and manually registered to the simulation CT using only translations (3D-3D) on the same bony anatomy to determine further translational corrections. After treatment, a second set of kVCBCT was acquired to assess intrafractional motion. Averaged over all sessions, 2D-2D registration led to translational corrections from initial setup of 3.5 ± 2.2 (range 0–8) mm. The addition of 3D-3D registration resulted in only small incremental adjustment (0.8 ± 1.5 mm). We retrospectively calculated patient setup rotation errors using an automatic rigid-body algorithm with 6 degrees of freedom (DoF) on regions of interest (ROI) of in-field bony anatomy (mainly the C2 vertebral body). Small rotations were determined for most of the imaging sessions; however, occasionally rotations > 3° were observed. The calculated intrafractional motion with automatic registration was < 3.5 mm for eight patients, and < 2° for all patients. We conclude that daily manual 2D-2D registration on radiographs reduces positioning errors for mask-immobilized HNC patients in most cases, and is easily implemented. 3D-3D registration adds little improvement over 2D-2D registration without correcting rotational errors. We also conclude that thermoplastic masks are effective for patient immobilization. PMID:21330971

  7. Detection of Methylated Circulating DNA as Noninvasive Biomarkers for Breast Cancer Diagnosis

    PubMed Central

    Cheuk, Isabella Wai Yin; Shin, Vivian Yvonne

    2017-01-01

    Internationally, breast cancer is the most common female cancer, and is induced by a combination of environmental, genetic, and epigenetic risk factors. Despite the advancement of imaging techniques, invasive sampling of breast epithelial cells is the only definitive diagnostic procedure for patients with breast cancer. To date, molecular biomarkers with high sensitivity and specificity for the screening and early detection of breast cancer are lacking. Recent evidence suggests that the detection of methylated circulating cell-free DNA in the peripheral blood of patients with cancer may be a promising quantitative and noninvasive method for cancer diagnosis. Methylation detection based on a multi-gene panel, rather than on the methylation status of a single gene, may be used to increase the sensitivity and specificity of breast cancer screening. In this review, the results of 14 relevant studies, investigating the efficacy of cell-free DNA methylation screening for breast cancer diagnosis, have been summarized. The genetic risk factors for breast cancer, the methods used for breast cancer detection, and the techniques and limitations related to the detection of cell-free DNA methylation status, have also been reviewed and discussed. From this review, we conclude that the analysis of peripheral blood or other samples to detect differentially methylated cell-free DNA is a promising technique for use in clinical settings, and may improve the sensitivity of screening for both, early detection and disease relapse, and thus improve the future prognosis of patients with breast cancer. PMID:28382090

  8. A peptide array-based serological protein kinase A activity assay and its application in cancer diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Kong, Deok-Hoon; Jung, Se-Hui; Jeon, Hye-Yoon; Kim, Woo-Jin; Kim, Young-Myeong; Ha, Kwon-Soo

    2015-10-07

    Protein kinase A (PKA) plays a crucial role in several biological processes; however, there is no assay with sufficient sensitivity and specificity to determine serological PKA (sPKA) activity. Here we present an on-chip activity assay that employs cysteine-modified kemptide arrays to determine specific sPKA activity in human sera that eliminates the potential contributions of other kinases with a protein kinase peptide inhibitor. The sensitivity of the on-chip sPKA activity assay was greatly enhanced by Triton X-100, with a 0.01 U mL(-1) detection limit. sPKA activity was determined by subtracting nonspecific sPK activity from total sPK activity. Our assay provided greater sensitivity and specificity and more accurate area under the curve values for gastric cancer compared to the total sPK activity assay. sPKA activities in human sera from patients with hepatic (n = 30), gastric (n = 30), lung (n = 30), and colorectal (n = 30) cancers were significantly higher than those in controls (n = 30, p < 10(-4)), but no significant difference in sPKA activities between normal and inflammation groups was observed. These results demonstrate that the on-chip assay accurately measures sPKA activity in human sera and that the sPKA activity may be a potential biomarker for cancer diagnosis.

  9. Biparametric versus multiparametric MRI in the diagnosis of prostate cancer

    PubMed Central

    Logager, Vibeke; Baslev, Ingerd; Møller, Jakob M; Hansen, Rasmus Hvass; Thomsen, Henrik S

    2016-01-01

    Background Since multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging (mp-MRI) of the prostate exceeds 30 min, minimizing the evaluation time of significant (Gleason scores > 6) prostate cancer (PCa) would be beneficial. A reduced protocol might be sufficient for the diagnosis. Purpose To study whether a short unenhanced biparametric MRI (bp-MRI) matches mp-MRI in detecting significant PCa. Material and Methods A total of 204 men (median age, 65 years; mean ± SD, 64.1; range 45–75 years; median serum PSA level, 14 ng/mL; range, 2.2–120 ng/mL; median prostate volume, 60 mL; range, 23–263 mL) fulfilled the criteria for being enrolled. They underwent mp-MRI and prostate biopsy from January through June 2014. Of the included patients, 9.3% underwent prostatectomy, 90.7% had TRUS-bx, and 10.8 had MRI-targeted TRUS-bx. Two radiologists separately assessed the mp-MRI examination (T2-weighted [T2W] imaging, diffusion-weighted imaging [DWI], apparent diffusion coefficient map [ADC-map] and dynamic contrast-enhanced imaging [DCE]). Two months later, the bp-MRI version (T2W imaging, DWI, and ADC-map) was evaluated. Results Reader 1: Assessing mp-MRI: 0 false negatives, sensitivity of 1, and specificity 0.04. Assessing bp-MRI: four false negatives, sensitivity of 0.94, and specificity 0.15. Reader 2: Assessing mp-MRI: five false negatives, sensitivity of 0.93, and specificity 0.16. Assessing bp-MRI: three false negatives, sensitivity of 0.96, and specificity 0.15. Intra-reader agreement Cohen’s Kappa (κ) was 0.87 for reader 1 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.83–0.92) and 0.84 for reader 2 (95% CI 0.78–0.89). Conclusion Bp-MRI is as good as mp-MRI at detecting PCa. A large prospective study seems to be strongly warranted. PMID:27583170

  10. Non-invasive lung cancer diagnosis by detection of GATA6 and NKX2-1 isoforms in exhaled breath condensate.

    PubMed

    Mehta, Aditi; Cordero, Julio; Dobersch, Stephanie; Romero-Olmedo, Addi J; Savai, Rajkumar; Bodner, Johannes; Chao, Cho-Ming; Fink, Ludger; Guzmán-Díaz, Ernesto; Singh, Indrabahadur; Dobreva, Gergana; Rapp, Ulf R; Günther, Stefan; Ilinskaya, Olga N; Bellusci, Saverio; Dammann, Reinhard H; Braun, Thomas; Seeger, Werner; Gattenlöhner, Stefan; Tresch, Achim; Günther, Andreas; Barreto, Guillermo

    2016-12-01

    Lung cancer (LC) is the leading cause of cancer-related deaths worldwide. Early LC diagnosis is crucial to reduce the high case fatality rate of this disease. In this case-control study, we developed an accurate LC diagnosis test using retrospectively collected formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) human lung tissues and prospectively collected exhaled breath condensates (EBCs). Following international guidelines for diagnostic methods with clinical application, reproducible standard operating procedures (SOP) were established for every step comprising our LC diagnosis method. We analyzed the expression of distinct mRNAs expressed from GATA6 and NKX2-1, key regulators of lung development. The Em/Ad expression ratios of GATA6 and NKX2-1 detected in EBCs were combined using linear kernel support vector machines (SVM) into the LC score, which can be used for LC detection. LC score-based diagnosis achieved a high performance in an independent validation cohort. We propose our method as a non-invasive, accurate, and low-price option to complement the success of computed tomography imaging (CT) and chest X-ray (CXR) for LC diagnosis.

  11. [RDBH-method and big DyeTM terminator technology in accurate diagnosis of β-thalassemia and the allelic polymorphism of β-globin cluster].

    PubMed

    Akperova, G A

    2014-11-01

    IThe purpose of this study was to evaluate of the efficiency of RDBH-method and Big DyeTM Terminator technology in an accurate diagnosis of β-thalassemia and the allelic polymorphism of β-globin cluster. It was done a complete hematology analysis (HB, MCH, MCV, MCHC, RBC, Hct, HbA2, HbF, Serum iron, Serum ferritin at four children (males, 6-10 years old) and their parents. Molecular analysis included Reverse Dot-Blot Hybridization StripAssay (RDBH) and DNA sequencing on ABI PRISM Big DyeTM Terminator. Hematologic and molecular parameters were contradictory. The homozygosity for β0-thalassemia (β0IVS2.1[G>A] and β0codon 8[-AA]) at three boys with the mild clinical manifestation and heterozygosity of their parents for mutations, and the absence of β-globin mutations at parents and a boy who holds monthly transfusion was established by RDBH-analysis. DNA sequencing by technology Big DyeTM Terminator showed polymorphism at positions -551 and -521 of Cap5'-region (-650-250) - (AT)7(T)7 and (AT)8(T)5. Application of the integrated clinical-molecular approach is an ideal method for an accurate diagnosis, identification of asymptomatic carriers and a reduce of the risk of complications from β-thalassemia, moreover screening of γG-gene and the level of fetal hemoglobin in early childhood will help manage of β-thalassemia clinic and prevent heavy consequences of the disease.

  12. Factors contributing to delayed diagnosis of cancer among Aboriginal people in Australia: a qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    Shahid, Shaouli; Teng, Tiew-Hwa Katherine; Bessarab, Dawn; Aoun, Samar; Baxi, Siddhartha; Thompson, Sandra C

    2016-01-01

    Background/objectives Delayed presentation of symptomatic cancer is associated with poorer survival. Aboriginal patients with cancer have higher rates of distant metastases at diagnosis compared with non-Aboriginal Australians. This paper examined factors contributing to delayed diagnosis of cancer among Aboriginal Australians from patient and service providers' perspectives. Methods In-depth, open-ended interviews were conducted in two stages (2006–2007 and 2011). Inductive thematic analysis was assisted by use of NVivo looking around delays in presentation, diagnosis and referral for cancer. Participants Aboriginal patients with cancer/family members (n=30) and health service providers (n=62) were recruited from metropolitan Perth and six rural/remote regions of Western Australia. Results Three broad themes of factors were identified: (1) Contextual factors such as intergenerational impact of colonisation and racism and socioeconomic deprivation have negatively impacted on Aboriginal Australians' trust of the healthcare professionals; (2) health service-related factors included low accessibility to health services, long waiting periods, inadequate numbers of Aboriginal professionals and high staff turnover; (3) patient appraisal of symptoms and decision-making, fear of cancer and denial of symptoms were key reasons patients procrastinated in seeking help. Elements of shame, embarrassment, shyness of seeing the doctor, psychological ‘fear of the whole health system’, attachment to the land and ‘fear of leaving home’ for cancer treatment in metropolitan cities were other deterrents for Aboriginal people. Manifestation of masculinity and the belief that ‘health is women's domain’ emerged as a reason why Aboriginal men were reluctant to receive health checks. Conclusions Solutions to improved Aboriginal cancer outcomes include focusing on the primary care sector encouraging general practitioners to be proactive to suspicion of symptoms with appropriate

  13. Label-free nanoplasmonic sensing of tumor-associate autoantibodies for early diagnosis of colorectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Soler, Maria; Estevez, M-Carmen; Villar-Vazquez, Roi; Casal, J Ignacio; Lechuga, Laura M

    2016-08-03

    Colorectal cancer is treatable and curable when detected at early stages. However there is a lack of less invasive and more specific screening and diagnosis methods which would facilitate its prompt identification. Blood circulating autoantibodies which are immediately produced by the immune system at tumor appearance have become valuable biomarkers for preclinical diagnosis of cancer. In this work, we present the rapid and label-free detection of colorectal cancer autoantibodies directly in blood serum or plasma using a recently developed nanoplasmonic biosensor. Our nanoplasmonic device offers sensitive and real-time quantification of autoantibodies with excellent selectivity and reproducibility, achieving limits of detection around 1 nM (150-160 ng mL(-1)). A preliminary evaluation of clinical samples of colorectal cancer patients has shown good correlation with ELISA. These results demonstrate the reliability of the nanobiosensor strategy and pave the way towards the achievement of a sensitive diagnostic tool for early detection of colorectal cancer.

  14. Diagnosis of skin cancer by correlation and complexity analyses of damaged DNA

    PubMed Central

    Namazi, Hamidreza; Kulish, Vladimir V.; Delaviz, Fatemeh; Delaviz, Ali

    2015-01-01

    Skin cancer is a common, low-grade cancerous (malignant) growth of the skin. It starts from cells that begin as normal skin cells and transform into those with the potential to reproduce in an out-of-control manner. Cancer develops when DNA, the molecule found in cells that encodes genetic information, becomes damaged and the body cannot repair the damage. A DNA walk of a genome represents how the frequency of each nucleotide of a pairing nucleotide couple changes locally. In this research in order to diagnose the skin cancer, first DNA walk plots of genomes of patients with skin cancer were generated. Then, the data so obtained was checked for complexity by computing the fractal dimension. Furthermore, the Hurst exponent has been employed in order to study the correlation of damaged DNA. By analysing different samples it has been found that the damaged DNA sequences are exhibiting higher degree of complexity and less correlation compared to normal DNA sequences. This investigation confirms that this method can be used for diagnosis of skin cancer. The method discussed in this research is useful not only for diagnosis of skin cancer but can be applied for diagnosis and growth analysis of different types of cancers. PMID:26497203

  15. Accurate respiration measurement using DC-coupled continuous-wave radar sensor for motion-adaptive cancer radiotherapy.

    PubMed

    Gu, Changzhan; Li, Ruijiang; Zhang, Hualiang; Fung, Albert Y C; Torres, Carlos; Jiang, Steve B; Li, Changzhi

    2012-11-01

    Accurate respiration measurement is crucial in motion-adaptive cancer radiotherapy. Conventional methods for respiration measurement are undesirable because they are either invasive to the patient or do not have sufficient accuracy. In addition, measurement of external respiration signal based on conventional approaches requires close patient contact to the physical device which often causes patient discomfort and undesirable motion during radiation dose delivery. In this paper, a dc-coupled continuous-wave radar sensor was presented to provide a noncontact and noninvasive approach for respiration measurement. The radar sensor was designed with dc-coupled adaptive tuning architectures that include RF coarse-tuning and baseband fine-tuning, which allows the radar sensor to precisely measure movement with stationary moment and always work with the maximum dynamic range. The accuracy of respiration measurement with the proposed radar sensor was experimentally evaluated using a physical phantom, human subject, and moving plate in a radiotherapy environment. It was shown that respiration measurement with radar sensor while the radiation beam is on is feasible and the measurement has a submillimeter accuracy when compared with a commercial respiration monitoring system which requires patient contact. The proposed radar sensor provides accurate, noninvasive, and noncontact respiration measurement and therefore has a great potential in motion-adaptive radiotherapy.

  16. Identification of Bile Duct Paucity in Alagille Syndrome: Using CK7 and EMA Immunohistochemistry as a Reliable Panel for Accurate Diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Herman, Haley K; Abramowsky, Carlos R; Caltharp, Shelley; Metry, Diana; Cundiff, Caitlin A; Romero, Rene; Gillespie, Scott E; Shehata, Bahig M

    2016-01-01

    Bile duct paucity is the absence or marked reduction in the number of interlobular bile ducts (ILBD) within portal tracts. Its syndromic variant, Alagille syndrome (ALGS), is a multisystem disorder with effects on the liver, cardiovascular system, skeleton, face, and eyes. It is inherited as an autosomal dominant trait due to defects in NOTCH signaling pathway. ALGS is characterized by vanishing ILBD with subsequent chronic obstructive cholestasis in approximately 89% of cases. Cholestasis stimulates formation of new bile ductules through a process of neoductular reaction, making it difficult to evaluate the presence or absence of ILBD. Therefore, finding a method to differentiate clearly between ILBD and the ductular proliferation is essential for accurate diagnosis. A database search identified 28 patients with confirmed diagnosis of ALGS between 1992 and 2014. Additionally, 7 controls were used. A panel of two immunostains, cytokeratin 7 (CK7) and epithelial membrane antigen (EMA), was performed. CK7 highlighted the bile duct epithelium of ILBD and ductular proliferation, while EMA stained only the brush border of ILBD. In our ALGS group, the ratio of EMA-positive ILBD to identified portal tracts was 12.6% (range, 0%-41%). However, this same ratio was 95.0% (range, 90%-100%) among control cases (P < 0.001). We propose a panel of two immunostains, CK7 and EMA, to differentiate ILBD from ductular proliferation in patients with cholestasis. With this panel, identification of bile duct paucity can be achieved. Additional studies, including molecular confirmation and clinical correlation, would provide a definitive diagnosis of ALGS.

  17. Intestinal Intraepithelial Lymphocyte Cytometric Pattern Is More Accurate than Subepithelial Deposits of Anti-Tissue Transglutaminase IgA for the Diagnosis of Celiac Disease in Lymphocytic Enteritis

    PubMed Central

    García-Puig, Roger; Rosinach, Mercè; González, Clarisa; Alsina, Montserrat; Loras, Carme; Salas, Antonio; Viver, Josep M.; Esteve, Maria

    2014-01-01

    Background & Aims An increase in CD3+TCRγδ+ and a decrease in CD3− intraepithelial lymphocytes (IEL) is a characteristic flow cytometric pattern of celiac disease (CD) with atrophy. The aim was to evaluate the usefulness of both CD IEL cytometric pattern and anti-TG2 IgA subepithelial deposit analysis (CD IF pattern) for diagnosing lymphocytic enteritis due to CD. Methods Two-hundred and five patients (144 females) who underwent duodenal biopsy for clinical suspicion of CD and positive celiac genetics were prospectively included. Fifty had villous atrophy, 70 lymphocytic enteritis, and 85 normal histology. Eight patients with non-celiac atrophy and 15 with lymphocytic enteritis secondary to Helicobacter pylori acted as control group. Duodenal biopsies were obtained to assess both CD IEL flow cytometric (complete or incomplete) and IF patterns. Results Sensitivity of IF, and complete and incomplete cytometric patterns for CD diagnosis in patients with positive serology (Marsh 1+3) was 92%, 85 and 97% respectively, but only the complete cytometric pattern had 100% specificity. Twelve seropositive and 8 seronegative Marsh 1 patients had a CD diagnosis at inclusion or after gluten free-diet, respectively. CD cytometric pattern showed a better diagnostic performance than both IF pattern and serology for CD diagnosis in lymphocytic enteritis at baseline (95% vs 60% vs 60%, p = 0.039). Conclusions Analysis of the IEL flow cytometric pattern is a fast, accurate method for identifying CD in the initial diagnostic biopsy of patients presenting with lymphocytic enteritis, even in seronegative patients, and seems to be better than anti-TG2 intestinal deposits. PMID:25010214

  18. Emerging applications of nanoparticles for lung cancer diagnosis and therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sukumar, Uday Kumar; Bhushan, Bharat; Dubey, Poornima; Matai, Ishita; Sachdev, Abhay; Packirisamy, Gopinath

    2013-07-01

    Lung cancer is by far the leading cause of cancer-related mortality worldwide, most of them being active tobacco smokers. Non small cell lung cancer accounts for around 85% to 90% of deaths, whereas the rest is contributed by small cell lung cancer. The extreme lethality of lung cancer arises due to lack of suitable diagnostic procedures for early detection of lung cancer and ineffective conventional therapeutic strategies. In course with desperate attempts to address these issues independently, a multifunctional nanotherapeutic or diagnostic system is being sought as a favorable solution. The manifestation of physiochemical properties of such nanoscale systems is tuned favorably to come up with a versatile cancer cell targeted diagnostic and therapeutic system. Apart from this, the aspect of being at nanoscale by itself confers the system with an advantage of passive accumulation at the site of tumor. This review provides a broad perspective of three major subclasses of such nanoscale therapeutic and diagnostic systems which include polymeric nanoparticles-based approaches, metal nanoparticles-based approaches, and bio-nanoparticles-based approaches. This review work also serves the purpose of gaining an insight into the pros and cons of each of these approaches with a prospective improvement in lung cancer therapeutics and diagnostics.

  19. Delay in Breast Cancer: Implications for Stage at Diagnosis and Survival

    PubMed Central

    Caplan, Lee

    2014-01-01

    Breast cancer continues to be a disease with tremendous public health significance. Primary prevention of breast cancer is still not available, so efforts to promote early detection continue to be the major focus in fighting breast cancer. Since early detection is associated with decreased mortality, one would think that it is important to minimize delays in detection and diagnosis. There are two major types of delay. Patient delay is delay in seeking medical attention after self-discovering a potential breast cancer symptom. System delay is delay within the health care system in getting appointments, scheduling diagnostic tests, receiving a definitive diagnosis, and initiating therapy. Earlier studies of the consequences of delay on prognosis tended to show that increased delay is associated with more advanced stage cancers at diagnosis, thus resulting in poorer chances for survival. More recent studies have had mixed results, with some studies showing increased survival with longer delays. One hypothesis is that diagnostic difficulties could perhaps account for this survival paradox. A rapidly growing lump may suggest cancer to both doctors and patients, while a slow growing lump or other symptoms could be less obvious to them. If this is the case, then the shorter delays would be seen with the more aggressive tumors for which the prognosis is worse leading to reduced survival. It seems logical that a tumor that is more advanced at diagnosis would lead to shorter survival but the several counter-intuitive studies in this review show that it is dangerous to make assumptions. PMID:25121080

  20. Pathogenesis, prevention, diagnosis and treatment of breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Shah, Rupen; Rosso, Kelly; Nathanson, S David

    2014-01-01

    Breast cancer is the most common cancer affecting women worldwide. Prediction models stratify a woman’s risk for developing cancer and can guide screening recommendations based on the presence of known and quantifiable hormonal, environmental, personal, or genetic risk factors. Mammography remains the mainstay breast cancer screening and detection but magnetic resonance imaging and ultrasound have become useful diagnostic adjuncts in select patient populations. The management of breast cancer has seen much refinement with increased specialization and collaboration with multidisciplinary teams that include surgeons, oncologists, radiation oncologists, nurses, geneticist, reconstructive surgeons and patients. Evidence supports a less invasive surgical approach to the staging and management of the axilla in select patients. In the era of patient/tumor specific management, the advent of molecular and genomic profiling is a paradigm shift in the treatment of a biologically heterogenous disease. PMID:25114845

  1. X-ray System for Early Diagnosis of Breast Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Ando, M.; Maksimenko, A.; Sugiyama, H.; Hyodo, K.; Ichihara, S.; Endo, T.; Moriyama, N.; Yuasa, T.; Hashimoto, E.; Li, G.

    2007-03-30

    Increasing rate of breast cancer in Japan is enormous in these years. Nevertheless only 2-3 % of female may receive mammography. In order to improve this number for early detection of breast cancer we have started development of a refraction-based visualization of breast cancer. This system comprises two types of imaging: one is for a regular annual or biyearly check of the breast cancer. This is a 2-D mode x-ray dark-field imaging where a Laue transmission type of angle analyzer with thickness of 2.124 mm is used for the FOV of 90 mm x 90 mm that can provide the spatial resolution better than 50 microns; the other a 3-D reconstruction for further detailed check to specify type and location of breast cancer.

  2. Post-diagnosis Cruciferous Vegetable Consumption and Breast Cancer Outcomes: a Report from the After Breast Cancer Pooling Project

    PubMed Central

    Nechuta, Sarah; Caan, Bette J.; Chen, Wendy Y.; Kwan, Marilyn L.; Lu, Wei; Cai, Hui; Poole, Elizabeth M.; Flatt, Shirley W.; Zheng, Wei; Pierce, John P.; Shu, Xiao Ou

    2013-01-01

    Cruciferous vegetables are a major source of glucosinolate-derived bioactive compounds such as isothiocyanates, which have been shown in animal and in vitro studies to inhibit cancer growth and progression. Few studies have investigated cruciferous vegetable intake after diagnosis and breast cancer outcomes. Using data from the After Breast Cancer Pooling Project, which includes prospective data from US and Chinese breast cancer survivors, we evaluated the association of cruciferous vegetables with breast cancer outcomes. Analyses included 11,390 women diagnosed with stage I–III invasive breast cancer (1990–2006) from four cohorts. Cruciferous vegetable intake (g/day) was assessed using food frequency questionnaires (mean of 22 months post-diagnosis). Study heterogeneity was evaluated by the Q statistic; hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated using delayed-entry Cox regression models stratified by study. After a median follow-up of 9.0 years, 1,725 deaths and 1,421 recurrences were documented. In pooled analyses using study-specific quartiles, cruciferous vegetable intake was not associated with breast cancer outcomes, adjusting for known clinical prognostic factors and selected lifestyle factors. HRs (95%CIs) by increasing quartiles (reference=lowest quartile) were 1.08 (0.93–1.25), 1.01 (0.87–1.18), and 1.10 (0.95–1.28) for recurrence (Ptrend=0.34) and 1.01 (0.88–1.15), 0.97 (0.84–1.11), and 0.99 (0.86–1.13) for total mortality (Ptrend=0.84). No associations were observed for subgroups defined by ER status, stage, or tamoxifen therapy. Cruciferous vegetable intake at approximately two years after diagnosis was not associated with recurrence or mortality. Our results do not support an association between post-diagnosis cruciferous vegetable intake and breast cancer outcomes. PMID:23765086

  3. Global histone post-translational modifications and cancer: Biomarkers for diagnosis, prognosis and treatment?

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Shafqat Ali; Reddy, Divya; Gupta, Sanjay

    2015-01-01

    Global alterations in epigenetic landscape are now recognized as a hallmark of cancer. Epigenetic mechanisms such as DNA methylation, histone modifications, nucleosome positioning and non-coding RNAs are proven to have strong association with cancer. In particular, covalent post-translational modifications of histone proteins are known to play an important role in chromatin remodeling and thereby in regulation of gene expression. Further, histone modifications have also been associated with different aspects of carcinogenesis and have been studied for their role in the better management of cancer patients. In this review, we will explore and discuss how histone modifications are involved in cancer diagnosis, prognosis and treatment. PMID:26629316

  4. Prediagnostic serum inflammatory markers in relation to breast cancer risk, severity at diagnosis and survival in breast cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Wulaningsih, Wahyu; Holmberg, Lars; Garmo, Hans; Malmstrom, Håkan; Lambe, Mats; Hammar, Niklas; Walldius, Göran; Jungner, Ingmar; Van Hemelrijck, Mieke

    2015-10-01

    Inflammation has been linked to cancer but its role in breast cancer is unclear. We investigated common serum markers of inflammation: C-reactive protein (CRP), albumin, haptoglobin and white blood cells (WBC) in relation to breast cancer incidence, severity and survival. A total of 155179 women aged 20 and older without any history of cancer were selected from a large Swedish cohort. Hazard ratios (HRs) for breast cancer were estimated with Cox regression, adjusting for potential confounders. Ordered and binomial logistic regression models were used to assess the associations of serum inflammatory markers with breast cancer severity and oestrogen receptor (ER) positivity at diagnosis, on the other. Cumulative incidence functions by levels of inflammatory markers were assessed for early death from breast cancer and all causes. During a mean follow-up of 18.3 years, 6606 women were diagnosed with breast cancer, of whom 1474 died. A positive association with incident breast cancer was seen for haptoglobin ≥ 1.4g/l [HR 1.09; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.00-1.18] compared to lower levels. No association was observed between inflammatory markers and breast cancer severity or ER positivity. Higher haptoglobin was linked to risk of early death from breast cancer (HR: 1.27, 95% CI: 1.02-1.59), whereas higher risk of early death from all causes was additionally found with CRP ≥ 10mg/l (HR: 1.19, 95% CI: 1.04-1.36) and WBC ≥ 10×10(9)/l (HR: 1.57, 1.14-2.16). Our findings indicate that prediagnostic serum inflammatory markers were weakly linked to incident breast cancer but corresponded to worse survival after diagnosis.

  5. The risk of colorectal cancer is not increased after a diagnosis of urothelial cancer: a population-based study

    PubMed Central

    Harlos, C.H.; Singh, H.; Nugent, Z.; Demers, A.; Mahmud, S.M.; Czaykowski, P.M.

    2016-01-01

    Background The data about whether patients with a prior urothelial cancer (uca) are at increased risk of colorectal cancer (crc) are conflicting. We used a competing risks analysis to determine the risk of crc after uca. Methods Historical cohorts were assembled by record linkage of Manitoba Cancer Registry and Manitoba Health databases. The incidence of crc for individuals with uca as their first cancer between 1987 and 2009 was compared with the incidence for randomly selected age-and sex-matched individuals without a cancer diagnosis at the index date (uca diagnosis date). Three competing outcomes (crc, another primary cancer, and death) were evaluated by competing risks proportional hazards models with adjustment for relevant confounders. Results The cohorts of 4591 patients with uca and 22,312 without uca were followed for a total of 179,287 person–years (py). After uca, the rate of subsequent colon cancer in uca patients was 4.5 per 1000 py compared with 3.6 per 1000 py in the non-cancer cohort. In the multivariable analysis, no overall increase in crc risk was observed for patients first diagnosed with uca (hazard ratio: 0.88; 95% confidence interval: 0.70 to 1.1; p = 0.26). Conclusions Because of similar crc risk, a similar crc screening strategy should be applied for individuals with and without uca. PMID:28050135

  6. Washington Cancer Patients Found To Be At Greater Risk For Bankruptcy Than People Without A Cancer Diagnosis

    PubMed Central

    Ramsey, Scott D.; Blough, David K.; Kirchhoff, Anne C.; Fedorenko, Catherine R.; Snell, Kyle S.; Kreizenbeck, Karma L.; Newcomb, Polly; Hollingworth, William; Overstreet, Karen A.

    2014-01-01

    Much has been written about the relationship between a person’s high medical expenses and his or her likelihood of filing for bankruptcy, but the relationship between receiving a cancer diagnosis and filing for bankruptcy is less well understood. We estimated the incidence and relative risk of bankruptcy for people age twenty-one or older diagnosed with cancer compared to people the same age without cancer by conducting a retrospective cohort analysis that used a variety of medical, personal, legal, and bankruptcy sources covering the Western District of Washington State in US Bankruptcy Court for the period 1995–2009. We found that cancer patients were 2.65 times more likely to go bankrupt than people without cancer. Younger cancer patients had 2–5 times higher rates of bankruptcy compared to cancer patients age sixty-five or older, indicating that Medicare insurance and Social Security may mitigate bankruptcy risk for the older group. The findings suggest that employers and governments may have a policy role to play in creating programs and incentives that could help people cover expenses in the first year following a cancer diagnosis. PMID:23676531

  7. Fuzzy method for pre-diagnosis of breast cancer from the Fine Needle Aspirate analysis

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Across the globe, breast cancer is one of the leading causes of death among women and, currently, Fine Needle Aspirate (FNA) with visual interpretation is the easiest and fastest biopsy technique for the diagnosis of this deadly disease. Unfortunately, the ability of this method to diagnose cancer correctly when the disease is present varies greatly, from 65% to 98%. This article introduces a method to assist in the diagnosis and second opinion of breast cancer from the analysis of descriptors extracted from smears of breast mass obtained by FNA, with the use of computational intelligence resources - in this case, fuzzy logic. Methods For data acquisition of FNA, the Wisconsin Diagnostic Breast Cancer Data (WDBC), from the University of California at Irvine (UCI) Machine Learning Repository, available on the internet through the UCI domain was used. The knowledge acquisition process was carried out by the extraction and analysis of numerical data of the WDBC and by interviews and discussions with medical experts. The PDM-FNA-Fuzzy was developed in four steps: 1) Fuzzification Stage; 2) Rules Base; 3) Inference Stage; and 4) Defuzzification Stage. Performance cross-validation was used in the tests, with three databases with gold pattern clinical cases randomly extracted from the WDBC. The final validation was held by medical specialists in pathology, mastology and general practice, and with gold pattern clinical cases, i.e. with known and clinically confirmed diagnosis. Results The Fuzzy Method developed provides breast cancer pre-diagnosis with 98.59% sensitivity (correct pre-diagnosis of malignancies); and 85.43% specificity (correct pre-diagnosis of benign cases). Due to the high sensitivity presented, these results are considered satisfactory, both by the opinion of medical specialists in the aforementioned areas and by comparison with other studies involving breast cancer diagnosis using FNA. Conclusions This paper presents an intelligent method to

  8. Next-generation sequencing: advances and applications in cancer diagnosis

    PubMed Central

    Serratì, Simona; De Summa, Simona; Pilato, Brunella; Petriella, Daniela; Lacalamita, Rosanna; Tommasi, Stefania; Pinto, Rosamaria

    2016-01-01

    Technological advances have led to the introduction of next-generation sequencing (NGS) platforms in cancer investigation. NGS allows massive parallel sequencing that affords maximal tumor genomic assessment. NGS approaches are different, and concern DNA and RNA analysis. DNA sequencing includes whole-genome, whole-exome, and targeted sequencing, which focuses on a selection of genes of interest for a specific disease. RNA sequencing facilitates the detection of alternative gene-spliced transcripts, posttranscriptional modifications, gene fusion, mutations/single-nucleotide polymorphisms, small and long noncoding RNAs, and changes in gene expression. Most applications are in the cancer research field, but lately NGS technology has been revolutionizing cancer molecular diagnostics, due to the many advantages it offers compared to traditional methods. There is greater knowledge on solid cancer diagnostics, and recent interest has been shown also in the field of hematologic cancer. In this review, we report the latest data on NGS diagnostic/predictive clinical applications in solid and hematologic cancers. Moreover, since the amount of NGS data produced is very large and their interpretation is very complex, we briefly discuss two bioinformatic aspects, variant-calling accuracy and copy-number variation detection, which are gaining a lot of importance in cancer-diagnostic assessment. PMID:27980425

  9. Endoscopic diagnosis of minute, small, and flat early gastric cancers.

    PubMed

    Misumi, A; Misumi, K; Murakami, A; Harada, K; Honmyo, U; Akagi, M

    1989-07-01

    We reviewed the diagnostic process in 6 minute, 6 small and 9 flat early cancers detected preoperatively, and in additional 12 flat cancers that were found in resected stomachs only at histology between 1976 and 1986. The limit of the size of cancer detectable preoperatively was 4 mm. Endoscopically, 7 out of 12 minute and small cancers detected preoperatively showed obvious morphological changes, while the others showed only color changes with or without erosion. Lesions with morphological changes significantly invaded the mucosa more often than those with no such changes (p = 0.010). Among flat cancers, color change was significantly more frequently observed in cancers involving the whole mucosa than in those confined to the superficial part of the mucosa (p = 0.015). Redness and discoloration were significantly more frequent in the differentiated and undifferentiated groups, respectively (p = 0.005). This study suggests that morphological and color changes are important indicators of minute or small cancers, especially those involving the whole mucosa.

  10. Application of inherent fluorescence in the diagnosis of early cancer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Zhen-Fen

    1998-11-01

    There are differences in molecular structure between cancer, ulcer and normal tissue. They have their own specific absorb structures, which result in the highly specificity in the absorption of radiation. When laser light with specific wavelength irradiates on cancer or normal tissue, the inherent fluorescence of them can be stimulated. With the help of specific instrument, the curve of spectrum can be drawn. The various fluorescence peak value of cancerous and normal tissue can be used to differentiate between the two. The instruments used include some kinds of the most advanced technologies in nowadays, such as current laser, photoelectron, computer, microptic rapid spectrum analysis.

  11. Neighborhood Composition and Cancer among Hispanics: Tumor Stage and Size at Time of Diagnosis

    PubMed Central

    Reyes-Ortiz, Carlos A.; Eschbach, Karl; Zhang, Dong D.; Goodwin, James S.

    2013-01-01

    Background We have previously reported that cancer incidence for lung, female breast, and colon and rectum for Hispanics decreases with increasing percentage of Hispanics at the census tract. In contrast, cervical cancer incidence increases with increasing percentage of Hispanics at the census tract. Methods In this study, we investigate the hypothesis that Hispanics living in census tracts with high percentages of Hispanics are diagnosed with more advanced cancer, with respect to tumor size and stage of diagnosis. Data from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results registry and the U.S. Census Bureau were used to estimate the odds of diagnosis at a “late” stage (II, III, IV) versus “early” stage (I) and breast cancer tumor size among Hispanics as a function of census tract percent Hispanic. Hispanic ethnicity in the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results registry was identified by medical record review and Hispanic surname lists. The study also used income of Hispanics living in the census tract and controlled for age at diagnosis and gender. Results We found that Hispanics living in neighborhoods with higher density of Hispanic populations were more likely to be diagnosed with late-stage breast, cervical, or colorectal cancer, and to have a larger tumor size of breast cancer. Conclusions Our findings suggest that the benefits of lower cancer incidence in high tract percent Hispanics are partially offset by poorer access and reduced use of screening in conjunction with lower income, poorer health insurance coverage, and language barriers typical of these communities. PMID:18990733

  12. Computer-aided diagnosis of prostate cancer with emphasis on ultrasound-based approaches: a review.

    PubMed

    Moradi, Mehdi; Mousavi, Parvin; Abolmaesumi, Purang

    2007-07-01

    This paper reviews the state of the art in computer-aided diagnosis of prostate cancer and focuses, in particular, on ultrasound-based techniques for detection of cancer in prostate tissue. The current standard procedure for diagnosis of prostate cancer, i.e., ultrasound-guided biopsy followed by histopathological analysis of tissue samples, is invasive and produces a high rate of false negatives resulting in the need for repeated trials. It is against these backdrops that the search for new methods to diagnose prostate cancer continues. Image-based approaches (such as MRI, ultrasound and elastography) represent a major research trend for diagnosis of prostate cancer. Due to the integration of ultrasound imaging in the current clinical procedure for detection of prostate cancer, we specifically provide a more detailed review of methodologies that use ultrasound RF-spectrum parameters, B-scan texture features and Doppler measures for prostate tissue characterization. We present current and future directions of research aimed at computer-aided detection of prostate cancer and conclude that ultrasound is likely to play an important role in the field.

  13. Parasitological and immunological diagnosis of Strongyloides stercoralis in patients with gastrointestinal cancer.

    PubMed

    Machado, Eleuza R; Teixeira, Eliane M; Gonçalves-Pires, Maria Do Rosario F; Loureiro, Zaira M; Araújo, Rogério A; Costa-Cruz, Julia M

    2008-01-01

    This study examined the frequency of Strongyloides stercoralis infection in patients with gastrointestinal cancer through parasitological and immunological tests. A total of 77 patients were evaluated, 33 with gastrointestinal cancer and 44 controls with other types of cancers. All the patients were undergoing chemotherapy and 14 (18.2%) were receiving concomitant radiotherapy. For a parasitological diagnosis, we applied the Baermann and Lutz methods. The immunological diagnosis involved the indirect fluorescence antibody test (IFAT) and enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) to detect IgG antibodies using Strongyloides ratti antigens. The frequency of positive S. stercoralis in gastrointestinal cancer diagnosed by parasitological methods was 3 cases (9.1%), by serology it was 8 cases (24.2%). In the control group 1 case (2.3%) of S. stercoralis was diagnosed by parasitological methods and 2 cases (4.5%) by immunological tests (p<0.05). Patients with gastrointestinal cancer had a 6.7-fold greater chance of testing positive for S. stercoralis infection. Our data highlight the importance of parasitological and immunological diagnosis for S. stercoralis in patients with gastrointestinal cancer living in endemic areas of strongyloidiasis, since they have a higher risk of becoming infected with S. stercoralis than patients with other types of cancer.

  14. Associations between DSM-IV mental disorders and subsequent self-reported diagnosis of cancer

    PubMed Central

    O'Neill, Siobhan; Posada-Villa, Jose; Medina-Mora, Maria Elena; Al-Hamzawi, Ali Obaid; Piazza, Marina; Tachimori, Hisateru; Hu, Chiyi; Lim, Carmen; Bruffaerts, Ronny; Lépine, Jean-Pierre; Matschinger, Herbert; de Girolamo, Giovanni; de Jonge, Peter; Alonso, Jordi; Caldas-de-Almeida, Jose Miguel; Florescu, Silvia; Kiejna, Andrzej; Levinson, Daphna; Kessler, Ronald C.; Scott, Kate M.

    2016-01-01

    Objective The associations between mental disorders and cancer remain unclear. It is also unknown whether any associations vary according to life stage or gender. This paper examines these research questions using data from the World Mental Health Survey Initiative. Methods The World Health Organization Composite International Diagnostic Interview retrospectively assessed the lifetime prevalence of 16 DSM-IV mental disorders in face-to-face household population surveys in nineteen countries (n = 52,095). Cancer was indicated by self-report of diagnosis. Smoking was assessed in questions about current and past tobacco use. Survival analyses estimated associations between first onset of mental disorders and subsequently reported cancer. Results After adjustment for comorbidity, panic disorder, specific phobia and alcohol abuse were associated with a subsequently self-reported diagnosis of cancer. There was an association between number of mental disorders and the likelihood of reporting a cancer diagnosis following the onset of the mental disorder. This suggests that the associations between mental disorders and cancer risk may be generalised, rather than specific to a particular disorder. Depression is more strongly associated with self-reported cancers diagnosed early in life and in women. PTSD is also associated with cancers diagnosed early in life. Conclusion This study reports the magnitude of the associations between mental disorders and a self-reported diagnosis of cancer and provides information about the relevance of comorbidity, gender and the impact at different stages of life. The findings point to a link between the two conditions and lend support to arguments for early identification and treatment of mental disorders. PMID:24529039

  15. A new marker for breast cancer diagnosis, human epididymis protein 4: A preliminary study

    PubMed Central

    Gündüz, Umut Riza; Gunaldi, Meral; Isiksacan, Nilgun; Gündüz, Seyda; Okuturlar, Yildiz; Kocoglu, Hakan

    2016-01-01

    Breast cancer is the most frequently diagnosed cancer type in women. Tumor markers have been widely used for assessing the treatment response and early diagnosis of recurrence. Human epididymis protein 4 (HE4) is expressed in ductal carcinoma of the breast tissue; however, its serum levels and their diagnostic and prognostic potential in breast cancer have not been investigated, which was therefore the aim of the present study. The serum levels of HE4 were determined in 36 breast cancer patients, 11 ovarian cancer patients and 16 healthy volunteers. The association between clinicopathological characteristics of breast cancer and serum HE4 levels was investigated. A significant difference in the median serum levels of HE4 was identified between breast cancer patients, ovarian cancer patients and healthy volunteers (P=0.013). The cutoff value for the prediction of breast cancer was determined at >13.24 pmol/l for HE4, with a sensitivity of 61.11%, specificity of 68.75%, positive predictive value of 81.48%, negative predictive value of 44.0% and accuracy of 63.46%. Furthermore, a positive correlation between the serum levels of HE4 and cancer antigen 15–3 was determined (r=0.399, P=0.026). To the best of our knowledge, the present study was the first to determine the diagnostic value of serum HE4 for breast cancer. A significant elevation of serum HE4 levels in patients with breast cancer compared with that in healthy controls was identified. HE4 may serve as a novel biomarker for the diagnosis of breast cancer. PMID:27446579

  16. Cancer testis antigen SPAG9 is a promising marker for the diagnosis and treatment of lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Ren, Biqiong; Wei, Xiaobin; Zou, Guoying; He, Junyu; Xu, Guofeng; Xu, Fei; Huang, Yiran; Zhu, Haowen; Li, Yong; Ma, Guoan; Yu, Ping

    2016-05-01

    Cancer testis antigen sperm-associated antigen 9 (SPAG9) is highly expressed in many types of cancers. In the present study, to obtain a better understanding of the relevance of SPAG9 in cancer diagnosis and treatment, the expression of SPAG9 mRNA and protein in lung cancer specimens was evaluated by RT-PCR, western blotting and immunohistochemistry. ELISA was used to quantify the SPAG9 autoantibody in the peripheral blood of lung cancer patients. The results showed that the expression of SPAG9 mRNA and protein in the lung cancer tissues was significantly higher than that in the adjacent non-cancerous tissues (P<0.01). The level of the SPAG9 autoantibody in the serum of lung cancer patients was significantly higher than the level in the healthy controls (P<0.001), and the level of the SPAG9 autoantibody in the serum of untreated patients was significantly higher than that in treated patients (P=0.002). SPAG9 IgG antibody levels were significantly lower in treated adenocarcinoma and small cell lung cancer patients than these levels in the untreated patients (P=0.006, P=0.026, respectively), while no statistical difference was found between treated and untreated squamous cell carcinoma patients. Our results suggest that the SPAG9 antibody in serum is a promising marker for the diagnosis of lung cancer, and the level of the humoral immune response to this antigen appears to be related to the type of lung cancer.

  17. Cancer testis antigen SPAG9 is a promising marker for the diagnosis and treatment of lung cancer

    PubMed Central

    REN, BIQIONG; WEI, XIAOBIN; ZOU, GUOYING; HE, JUNYU; XU, GUOFENG; XU, FEI; HUANG, YIRAN; ZHU, HAOWEN; LI, YONG; MA, GUOAN; YU, PING

    2016-01-01

    Cancer testis antigen sperm-associated antigen 9 (SPAG9) is highly expressed in many types of cancers. In the present study, to obtain a better understanding of the relevance of SPAG9 in cancer diagnosis and treatment, the expression of SPAG9 mRNA and protein in lung cancer specimens was evaluated by RT-PCR, western blotting and immunohistochemistry. ELISA was used to quantify the SPAG9 autoantibody in the peripheral blood of lung cancer patients. The results showed that the expression of SPAG9 mRNA and protein in the lung cancer tissues was significantly higher than that in the adjacent non-cancerous tissues (P<0.01). The level of the SPAG9 autoantibody in the serum of lung cancer patients was significantly higher than the level in the healthy controls (P<0.001), and the level of the SPAG9 autoantibody in the serum of untreated patients was significantly higher than that in treated patients (P=0.002). SPAG9 IgG antibody levels were significantly lower in treated adenocarcinoma and small cell lung cancer patients than these levels in the untreated patients (P=0.006, P=0.026, respectively), while no statistical difference was found between treated and untreated squamous cell carcinoma patients. Our results suggest that the SPAG9 antibody in serum is a promising marker for the diagnosis of lung cancer, and the level of the humoral immune response to this antigen appears to be related to the type of lung cancer. PMID:26934841

  18. Predicting Prostate Cancer Progression at Time of Diagnosis

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-07-01

    Active surveillance incorporates serial PSA measurements , physical examinations, and repeat prostate biopsies to monitor for either the presence of occult...reflecting events throughout the prostate gland and suitable for repeat measurements over time. PCA3 and the TMPRSS2:ERG fusion are 2 prostate cancer... measurements of TMPRSS2:ERG transcript levels associate with cancer volume and grade at prosta- tectomy, and upgrading from biopsy histologic assess- ments (31

  19. Digital Mammography: Development of an Advanced Computer-Aided Diagnosis System for Breast Cancer Detection

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-05-01

    aided diagnosis of masses with full-field digital mammography,” Acad. Radiol. 9, 4–12 2002. 34D. Gur, J. S. Stalder, L. A. Hardesty , B. Zheng, J. H...Pickett RM , D’Orsi CJ. Stereo- scopic digital mammography: improving detection and diagnosis of breast cancer. Berlin, Germany: International Congress...other is the root-mean-square ( RMS ) distance between the computer and manually identified pectoral boundary. For 118 MLO view mammograms, 99.2% (117

  20. Testing breast cancer serum biomarkers for early detection and prognosis in pre-diagnosis samples

    PubMed Central

    Kazarian, Anna; Blyuss, Oleg; Metodieva, Gergana; Gentry-Maharaj, Aleksandra; Ryan, Andy; Kiseleva, Elena M; Prytomanova, Olga M; Jacobs, Ian J; Widschwendter, Martin; Menon, Usha; Timms, John F

    2017-01-01

    Background: Breast cancer is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Although mammography screening is available, there is an ongoing interest in improved early detection and prognosis. Herein, we have analysed a combination of serological biomarkers in a case–control cohort of sera taken before diagnosis. Methods: This nested case–control study within the UK Collaborative Trial of Ovarian Cancer Screening (UKCTOCS) used serum samples from 239 women who subsequently developed breast cancer and 239 matched cancer-free controls. Sera were screened by ELISA for 9 candidate markers. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed to examine associations with clinico-pathological features and between case controls in different time groups before diagnosis. Results: Significant associations with clinico-pathological features related to prognosis were found for several candidates (CA15-3, HSP90A and PAI-1). However, there were no consistent differences between cases and controls for any candidate in the lead up to diagnosis. Whilst combination models outperformed single markers, there was no increase in performance towards diagnosis. Conclusions: This study using unique pre-diagnosis samples shows that CA15-3, HSP90A and PAI-1 have potential as early prognostic markers and warrant further investigation. However, none of the candidates or combinations would be useful for screening. PMID:28081538

  1. An international survey of physician attitudes and practice in regard to revealing the diagnosis of cancer.

    PubMed

    Holland, J C; Geary, N; Marchini, A; Tross, S

    1987-01-01

    In 1984, questionnaires were sent to members of the International Psycho-Oncology Society concerning the practice in their country with regard to revealing the diagnosis of cancer to patients, their opinion about the effect of their policy, and their impression of local trends and attitudes toward cancer. Data from 90 respondents from 20 countries revealed that use of the word "cancer" was often avoided in discussions with the patient. Words commonly substituted for cancer were those that implied a "swelling" (e.g., tumor, growth, lump), and "inflammation," or a pathophysiologic change (blood disease, precancerous, unclean tissue). Oncologists estimated that a low percentage (less than 40%) of their colleagues revealed the word cancer in Africa, France, Hungary, Italy, Japan, Panama, Portugal, and Spain. Oncologists from Austria, Denmark Finland, The Netherlands, New Zealand, Norway, Sweden, and Switzerland, estimated the percentage to be high (greater than 80%). However, in all countries, the majority of physicians tell the family the diagnosis. The majority (90%) reported a trend toward increased telling of the diagnosis, due to greater patient information and expectations, and increased physician openess in using the word cancer. Most (68%) felt that the overall effect of revealing the diagnosis was positive. While emotional distress was transiently greater when patients were told, there were positive effects concerning coping, compliance, tolerance of treatment, planning for future, communication with physicians and others, and improved prognosis. The transient negative effects were depression, anxiety, and anger. It is important to recognize that efforts to find the "correct" position about revealing or concealing cancer diagnosis must recognize that the language between doctor and patient is constrained by cultural norms. Communication is likely to be far less dependent upon the specific words used then upon the meaning that is conveyed by the doctor.

  2. Fat intake after prostate cancer diagnosis and mortality in the Physicians’ Health Study

    PubMed Central

    Van Blarigan, Erin L.; Kenfield, Stacey A.; Yang, Meng; Sesso, Howard D.; Ma, Jing; Stampfer, Meir J.; Chan, June M.; Chavarro, Jorge E.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Diet after prostate cancer diagnosis may impact disease progression. We hypothesized that consuming saturated fat after prostate cancer diagnosis would increase risk of mortality, and consuming vegetable fat after diagnosis would be lower risk of mortality. Methods This was a prospective study among 926 men with non-metastatic prostate cancer in the Physicians’ Health Study who completed a food frequency questionnaire a median of five years after diagnosis and were followed a median of 10 years after the questionnaire. We examined post-diagnostic saturated, monounsaturated, polyunsaturated, and trans fat, as well as animal and vegetable fat, intake in relation to all-cause and prostate cancer-specific mortality. Hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were estimated using multivariate Cox Proportional Hazards regression. Results We observed 333 deaths (56 prostate cancer deaths) during follow-up. Men who obtained 5% more of their daily calories from saturated fat and 5% less of their daily calories from carbohydrate after diagnosis had a 1.8-fold increased risk of all cause mortality (HR: 1.81; 95% CI: 1.20, 2.74; p-value: 0.005) and a 2.8-fold increase risk of prostate cancer-specific mortality (HR: 2.78; 95% CI: 1.01, 7.64; p-value: 0.05). Men who obtained 10% more of their daily calories from vegetable fats and 10% less of their daily calories from carbohydrates had a 33% lower risk of all-cause mortality (HR: 0.67; 95% CI: 0.47, 0.96; p-value: 0.03). Conclusions Among men with non-metastatic prostate cancer, saturated fat intake may increase risk of death and vegetable fat intake may lower risk of death. PMID:26047644

  3. Computer-assisted education and interdisciplinary breast cancer diagnosis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whatmough, Pamela; Gale, Alastair G.; Wilson, A. R. M.

    1996-04-01

    The diagnosis of breast disease for screening or symptomatic women is largely arrived at by a multi-disciplinary team. We report work on the development and assessment of an inter- disciplinary computer based learning system to support the diagnosis of this disease. The diagnostic process is first modelled from different viewpoints and then appropriate knowledge structures pertinent to the domains of radiologist, pathologist and surgeon are depicted. Initially the underlying inter-relationships of the mammographic diagnostic approach were detailed which is largely considered here. Ultimately a system is envisaged which will link these specialties and act as a diagnostic aid as well as a multi-media educational system.

  4. Update on the diagnosis of cancer of unknown primary (CUP) origin.

    PubMed

    Ariza, Aurelio; Balañá, Carmen; Concha, Ángel; Hitt, Ricardo; Homet, Blanca; Matilla, Alfredo; Alba, Emilio

    2011-07-01

    The cancer of unknown primary (CUP) concept encompasses a heterogeneous group of cancers that are difficult to diagnose and that show diverse clinical and histopathological features. Currently, CUP is the fifth most frequent cancer diagnosis in women and the eighth in men. The ongoing development of new therapies specific to the various cancer types makes mandatory the identification of the primary tumour in CUP patients, so that they may benefit from advances in therapy and improvements in prognosis. Molecular detection techniques provide very useful tools in the prediction of primary tumour types and must be used together with clinical, histopathological and IHC diagnostic techniques. Steady collaboration and fluid communication between oncologists and pathologists is of the utmost importance for the correct interpretation of tests and the personalised approach required by each individual case. Work in multidisciplinary teams will result in significant changes in the diagnosis and treatment of these patients.

  5. Computer-Aided Diagnosis Systems for Lung Cancer: Challenges and Methodologies

    PubMed Central

    El-Baz, Ayman; Beache, Garth M.; Gimel'farb, Georgy; Suzuki, Kenji; Okada, Kazunori; Elnakib, Ahmed; Soliman, Ahmed; Abdollahi, Behnoush

    2013-01-01

    This paper overviews one of the most important, interesting, and challenging problems in oncology, the problem of lung cancer diagnosis. Developing an effective computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) system for lung cancer is of great clinical importance and can increase the patient's chance of survival. For this reason, CAD systems for lung cancer have been investigated in a huge number of research studies. A typical CAD system for lung cancer diagnosis is composed of four main processing steps: segmentation of the lung fields, detection of nodules inside the lung fields, segmentation of the detected nodules, and diagnosis of the nodules as benign or malignant. This paper overviews the current state-of-the-art techniques that have been developed to implement each of these CAD processing steps. For each technique, various aspects of technical issues, implemented methodologies, training and testing databases, and validation methods, as well as achieved performances, are described. In addition, the paper addresses several challenges that researchers face in each implementation step and outlines the strengths and drawbacks of the existing approaches for lung cancer CAD systems. PMID:23431282

  6. Psychological impact of revealing a diagnosis of lung cancer to patients in China

    PubMed Central

    Qian, Huimin

    2016-01-01

    Background In conventional Chinese culture, awareness of a malignant disease is believed to increase a patient’s psychological pressure, leading to anxiety or depression. But this notion is in conflict with the patient’s right to receive information about their own disease. Methods This study is to investigate whether disclosure of diagnosis increases the level of anxiety or depression in patients diagnosed with lung cancer. Seventy patients who underwent lung resection and diagnosed with lung cancer postoperatively were divided into two groups—the disclosed group (n=35) and the undisclosed group (n=35), depending on the awareness of their diagnosis, as decided by their consigned family members. All patients were asked to fill in a form to evaluate their level of anxiety and depression before discharge. Results Disclosure of diagnosis did not affect the degree of anxiety or depression in patients with lung cancer (P>0.05). Age ≤50, relatively more advanced stage (stage II as compared with stage I) of disease, extensive surgery and major postoperative complication were risk factors of anxiety (P<0.05). Major postoperative complication was the only risk factor of depression (P<0.05). Conclusions Disclosure of diagnosis to patients with lung cancer does not induce or aggravate anxiety or depression in modern Chinese population. Factors such as complications, age, stage of disease and extent of surgery do have psychological impacts on patient with lung cancer. PMID:27867564

  7. Diverticular Disease and Colorectal Cancer: Incidental Diagnosis or Real Association? Final Answer.

    PubMed

    Regula, Jaroslaw

    2016-10-01

    Associations between diverticular disease of the colon and the colorectal cancer has been studied for >60 years. Observational, cross-sectional, and case-control studies as well as large population-based studies gave conflicting results and association was not fully proven. Obtaining the proof was difficult because both diseases share similar clinical characteristics, both increase with age, and both involve similar dietary factors. Long-term observations are difficult as diagnostic methods changed over time from barium enema 50 to 60 years ago, through endoscopy, up to CT and MR in recent years. Cancer or adenomas may be missed within diverticular segment; diverticula may be underreported in patients with colon cancer diagnosis. Most recent 2 large cohort studies have solved the dilemma. These studies have clearly shown that diverticular disease does not increase the risk of colon cancer after the first year of diagnosis. Within the first year of diagnosis the association is strong, most probably due to difficulties with differential diagnosis and misclassifications and shared symptoms. Findings of these studies have led to the conclusion that colon cancer has to be excluded using modern techniques after the first episode of suspected diverticulitis.

  8. Sexuality after a cancer diagnosis: A population‐based study

    PubMed Central

    Wardle, Jane; Steptoe, Andrew; Fisher, Abigail

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND This study explored differences in sexual activity, function, and concerns between cancer survivors and cancer‐free controls in a population‐based study. METHODS The data were from 2982 men and 3708 women who were 50 years old or older and were participating in the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing. Sexual well‐being was assessed with the Sexual Relationships and Activities Questionnaire, and cancer diagnoses were self‐reported. RESULTS There were no differences between cancer survivors and controls in levels of sexual activity (76.0% vs 78.5% for men and 58.2% vs 55.5% for women) or sexual function. Men and women with cancer diagnoses were more dissatisfied with their sex lives than controls (age‐adjusted percentages: 30.9% vs 19.8% for men [P = .023] and 18.2% vs 11.8% for women [P = .034]), and women with cancer were more concerned about levels of sexual desire (10.2% vs 7.1%; P = .006). Women diagnosed < 5 years ago were more likely to report difficulty with becoming aroused (55.4% vs 31.8%; P = .016) and achieving orgasm (60.6% vs 28.3%; P < .001) and were more concerned about sexual desire (14.8% vs 7.1%; P = .007) and orgasmic experience (17.6% vs 7.1%; P = .042) than controls, but there were no differences in men. CONCLUSIONS Self‐reports of sexual activity and functioning in older people with cancer are broadly comparable to age‐matched, cancer‐free controls. There is a need to identify the causes of sexual dissatisfaction among long‐term cancer survivors despite apparently normal levels of sexual activity and function for their age. The development of interventions addressing low sexual desire and problems with sexual functioning in women is also important and may be particularly relevant for cancer survivors after treatment. Cancer 2016;122:3883–3891. © 2016 American Cancer Society. PMID:27531631

  9. A Partnership Training Program: Studying Targeted Drug Delivery Using Nanoparticles in Breast Cancer Diagnosis and Therapy

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-10-01

    TITLE: A Partnership Training Program: Studying Targeted Drug Delivery Using Nanoparticles in Breast Cancer Diagnosis and Therapy PRINCIPAL...Drug Delivery Using Nanoparticles in Breast Cancer Diagnostics and Therapy 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER W81XWH-10-1-0767 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM...graduate and 3 undergraduate students from 7 departments at the Howard University have been trained in the use of nanoparticles as targeted drug

  10. Multifunctional Nanoparticles as Biocompatible Targeted Probes for Human Cancer Diagnosis and Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Yong, Ken-Tye; Roy, Indrajit; Swihart, Mark T.; Prasad, Paras N.

    2009-01-01

    The use of nanoparticles in biological application has been rapidly advancing toward practical applications in human cancer diagnosis and therapy. Upon linking the nanoparticles with biomolecules, they can be used to locate cancerous area as well as for traceable drug delivery with high affinity and specificity. In this review, we discuss the engineering of multifunctional nanoparticle probes and their use in bioimaging and nanomedicine. PMID:20305738

  11. Factors influencing the attitudes of Chinese cancer patients and their families toward the disclosure of a cancer diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Sun, Wenwen; Wang, Zhehai; Fang, Shu; Li, Minmin

    2015-03-01

    The disclosure of a cancer diagnosis to patients has been a core topic in oncology departments. Previous studies have demonstrated that Chinese cancer patients and their families differ in their attitudes toward cancer diagnosis disclosure. However, the influencing factors regarding their different attitudes remain unknown. In the present study, a questionnaire was delivered to 266 cancer patients and 266 matched family members. The results showed that cancer patients were more likely to desire to be informed of their condition than family members (85 vs. 18%, P < 0.01). The patients' age had a significant influence on their attitudes (P < 0.01), while the family members' gender, profession, educational level, and their relationship with the patients could significantly affect their attitudes (all P < 0.05). Further multivariate analyses indicated that a family member's gender (odds ratio (OR) = 2.928, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.379-6.213, P = 0.005), profession (OR = 2.814, 95% CI 1.548-5.119, P = 0.001), and educational level (OR = 0.105, 95% CI 0.053-0.211, P < 0.001) remained significant variables. Due to a lower educational level, only 74% of families knew about chemotherapy, and 90% of families were not familiar with molecular targeted therapy. However, 78% of patients expected to be cured of their cancer, 16.5% expected to reduce the severity of their condition, and 4.9% expected to lengthen their lives. Therefore, physicians have a responsibility to appropriately provide knowledge regarding cancer to the patients' families if their educational level is lower and if they have no knowledge of recent treatments, which may improve their acceptability of a cancer diagnosis for patients.

  12. Perspectives of the Breast Cancer Survivorship Continuum: Diagnosis through 30 Months Post-Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Hulett, Jennifer M.; Armer, Jane M.; Stewart, Bob R.; Wanchai, Ausanee

    2015-01-01

    This study explored breast cancer survivors’ perspectives regarding their experiences of the survivorship continuum from diagnosis through 30 months post-treatment. The sample included women (N = 379) with newly-diagnosed breast cancer undergoing treatment at a Midwestern university-affiliated cancer center. Semi-structured interviews were conducted using the Lymphedema and Breast Cancer Questionnaire at time of diagnosis, post-operatively, quarterly during the first year, and then semi-annually thereafter through 30 months post-treatment. A mixed-methodology was used to analyze participants’ comments. Themes central to long-term survivorship experiences included social support, positive worldviews, breast cancer and lymphedema health literacy, religious/spiritual beliefs, self-empowerment, and recovery expectations. These themes were consistent with a psychoneuroimmunological model of health in which psychosocial variables mediate stress and influence health outcomes. Qualitative data showed that social support and positive worldviews were the two themes with the most significant impact on long-term breast cancer survivorship experiences. Survivors expressed a need to advance their health care literacy in order to share ownership of breast cancer and lymphedema treatment decisions. Since breast cancer is an immune-mediated disease, long-term survivorship planning should address psychosocial factors that influence the long-term psychological distress associated with immune dysfunction. PMID:26030800

  13. The new hyperspectral microscopic system for cancer diagnosis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsieh, Yao-Fang; Mang, Ou-Yang; Chiou, Jin-Chern; Lin, Yung-Jiun; Tsai, Ming-Hsui; Bau, Da-Tian; Chiu, Chang-Fang; Teseng, Guan-Chin; Chang, Nai-Wen; Kao, Wen-Chung; Wu, Shun-De

    2011-02-01

    Until now, the cancer was examined by diagnosing the pathological changes of tumor. If the examination of cancer can diagnose the tumor before the cell occur the pathological changes, the cure rate of cancer will increase. This research develops a human-machine interface for hyper-spectral microscope. The hyper-spectral microscope can scan the specific area of cell and records the data of spectrum and intensity. These data is helpful to diagnose tumor. This research aims to develop a new system and a human-machine interface to control the hyper-spectral microscope. The interface can control the moving speed of motor, the exposure-time of hyper-spectrum, real-time focus, image of fluorescence, and record the data of spectral intensity and position.

  14. [Lugol's solution in endoscopic diagnosis of early esophageal cancer].

    PubMed

    Wang, G; Zhou, M; Cong, Q

    1995-07-01

    About 1500 high-risk subjects of esophageal cancer were found during screening by balloon cytology and all of them were examined endoscopically. Among them, 120 were considered as having early esophageal cancer and precancerous lesions. During the examination, Lugol's solution staining was used and guiding biopsy was taken. 98 subjects with unstained lesions were found, and biopsy showed early esophageal cancer in 60 (61.2%) and moderate and severe dysplasia in 38 (38.8%). It is usually extremely difficult to detect and localize the very early esophageal mucosal and submucosal carcinoma. But endoscopic examination and using Lugol's solution staining with multiple spots biopsy from unstained area are of great assistance. Minute malignant lesions may not be overlooked.

  15. MMP13 is potentially a new tumor marker for breast cancer diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Chang, Hui-Jen; Yang, Ming-Je; Yang, Yu-Hsiang; Hou, Ming-Feng; Hsueh, Er-Jung; Lin, Shiu-Ru

    2009-11-01

    Within the past decade, the incidence of breast cancer in Taiwan has been rising year after year. Breast cancer is the first most prevalent cancer and the fourth leading cause of cancer-related deaths among women in Taiwan. The early stage of breast cancer not only have a wider range of therapeutic options, but also obtain a higher success rate of therapy than those with advanced breast cancer. A test for tumor markers is the most convenient method to screen for breast cancer. However, the tumor markers currently available for breast cancer detection include carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA), carbohydrate antigen 15.3 (CA15.3), and carbohydrate antigen 27.29 (CA27.29) exhibited certain limitations. Poor sensitivity and specificity greatly limits the diagnostic accuracy of these markers. This study aims to identify potential tumor markers for breast cancer. At first, we analyzed genes expression in infiltrating lobular carcinoma, metaplastic carcinoma, and infiltrating ductal carcinoma of paired specimens (tumor and normal tissue) from breast cancer patients using microarray technology. We selected 371 overexpressed genes in all of the three cell type. In advanced breast cancer tissue, we detected four genes MMP13, CAMP, COL10A1 and FLJ25416 from 25 overexpressed genes which encoded secretion protein more specifically for breast cancer than other genes. After validation with 15 pairs of breast cancer tissue and paired to normal adjacent tissues by membrane array and quantitative RT-PCR, we found MMP13 was 100% overexpressed and confirmed to be a secreted protein by Western blot analysis of the cell culture medium. The expression level of MMP13 was also measured by immunohistochemical staining. We suggest that MMP13 is a highly overexpressed secretion protein in breast cancer tissue. It has potential to be a new tumor marker for breast cancer diagnosis.

  16. Ductal lavage, nipple aspiration, and ductoscopy for breast cancer diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Dooley, William C

    2003-01-01

    The intraductal approach to breast cancer has been invigorated this year by a series of papers exploring ductal-based screening through nipple aspiration and lavage and ductal exploration through endoscopy. The merging of these efforts to define the earliest biologic changes in the progression toward breast cancer is opening new fields for both bench-translational and clinical research. These techniques have already begun to show value in defining the presence and extent of proliferative disease in high-risk patients, allowing for more informed therapeutic decision making.

  17. Sequelae of Breast Cancer and the Influence of Menopausal Status at Diagnosis Among Rural Breast Cancer Survivors

    PubMed Central

    Klemp, Jennifer

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Rural women are among the largest medically underserved groups in the nation, yet few studies have evaluated the sequelae of breast cancer in this population. The purpose of this study was to examine the physical and psychosocial effects of breast cancer experienced by rural survivors at the time of treatment and currently and to examine differences in these effects between younger and older rural survivors based on menopausal status at diagnosis. Methods Women treated for breast cancer within the past 6 years at one of three rural cancer centers were mailed a survey with a cover letter from their oncology provider. Results Survey respondents (n=918, 83% response rate) were 67±13 years old, on average 3.2 years from treatment, 22% were premenopausal at the time of breast cancer diagnosis, and 95% were postmenopausal at the time of the survey. Women who were premenopausal at diagnosis were significantly more likely to experience numerous symptoms at the time of treatment and currently, including higher rates of hot flashes, vaginal dryness, loss of sexual desire, and weight gain (p≤0.001). The most common psychosocial concerns were fear of recurrence and change in body image, and women premenopausal at diagnosis were significantly more likely than postmenopausal women to report experiencing these concerns (68% vs. 47%, and 43% vs. 27%, respectively, p≤0.001). Conclusions Negative physical and psychosocial sequelae of breast cancer were common in this rural sample and were significantly worse for premenopausal women. Research and resources are needed for delivering targeted survivorship care to rural women, particularly younger rural women. PMID:21711155

  18. Do Cancer Patients Prefer to Know the Diagnosis? A Descriptive Study Among Iranian Patients

    PubMed Central

    Samimi Ardestani, Seyed Mehdi; Faridhosseini, Farhad; Shirkhani, Fatemeh; Karamad, Ardeshir; Farid, Layla; Fayyazi Bordbar, Mohammad Reza; Motlagh, Ali

    2015-01-01

    Background: There are important differences regarding cancer disclosure in various geographical populations (Europeans, Western Asia, Eastern Asia), depending on multiple sociocultural factors, and therefore, there is no standard protocol on this issue, especially in Iran. Objectives: To evaluate the amount of information that Iranian patients have and their preference for the disclosure of the cancer diagnosis. Patients and Methods: In this cross sectional descriptive research, patients admitted in the oncology departments of 3 referral medical centers, Imam Hussein, Shohada-e-Tajrish and Modarres, in Tehran, from March 2007 to April 2008, were questioned about their awareness and knowledge regarding their diagnosis. Two different structured questionnaires were designed for the people who know and who didn't know their diagnosis. For the former, the survey concerned their psychological reactions to their situations, whether they would prefer to know about their diagnosis and by whom they are preferred to be informed .For the latter, the questionnaire included their preference whether to know the diagnosis and their current emotional state. Descriptive statistics and chi square test was applied to analyze gathering Data, using SPSS version 14. Results: 60.3% of the patients knew their diagnosis. Among the subjects who did not know their diagnosis, 88% preferred to be more informed about their diagnosis and 68% had some psychological reaction to their situations. Among the subjects who knew their diagnosis, 92.1 % preferred to know their diagnosis, 73.6% preferred to be informed directly by their physicians. Following the diagnostic disclosure, 81.5% reported that they had felt nervous, anxious and worried. Conclusions: The majority of Iranian patients with malignancy want to know the truth and they prefer to be informed directly by their doctors. PMID:26834800

  19. Role of antibodies in diagnosis and treatment of ovarian cancer: Basic approach and clinical status.

    PubMed

    Bhatt, Priyanka; Vhora, Imran; Patil, Sushilkumar; Amrutiya, Jitendra; Bhattacharya, Chandrali; Misra, Ambikanandan; Mashru, Rajashree

    2016-03-28

    Ovarian cancer is the second most leading gynecological cancer after endometrial cancer in women. Chemotherapy and cyto-reductive surgery are currently the mainstays for treatment of ovarian cancer in early stages. However, the overall 5years of survival rate in advanced stage is just 20-30%. The main reasons behind therapeutic failures and a low survival rate are challenges in early diagnosis, frequent recurrence, chemo-resistance development and lack of targeting. Antibodies have evolved as a rationale therapeutic approach to overcome these hurdles and to engender significant clinical applications. Detection of cancer associated antibodies and radiolabeled antibody conjugates are forming the basis for early diagnosis of ovarian cancer. Besides this, antibodies when given alone act as an anti-angiogenic agent or utilize the protective role of immune system against ovarian cancer. This high specificity and selectivity of action is also accompanied by development of tumor antigen-specific memory T cells, which can prevent cancer recurrence. In addition, when given in combination with chemotherapy, antibodies have turned out to sensitize chemo-resistant tumors. Antibodies are also playing cardinal role in design of highly potent class of targeted therapies, such as antibody-drug conjugates and clinically viable tumor targeted drug nanocarriers. This article aims to explore the fundamentals in development of antibody based therapeutics and multitude ways of clinical applications in diagnosis and treatment of ovarian cancer. Focus is given on the recent advances made in preclinical and clinical settings with an overview to unmet challenges so as to develop better immunotherapeutics in future.

  20. Diagnosis delay and follow-up strategies in colorectal cancer. Prognosis implications: a study protocol

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Controversy exists with regard to the impact that the different components of diagnosis delay may have on the degree of invasion and prognosis in patients with colorectal cancer. The follow-up strategies after treatment also vary considerably. The aims of this study are: a) to determine if the symptoms-to-diagnosis interval and the treatment delay modify the survival of patients with colorectal cancer, and b) to determine if different follow-up strategies are associated with a higher survival rate. Methods/Design Multi-centre study with prospective follow-up in five regions in Spain (Galicia, Balearic Islands, Catalonia, Aragón and Valencia) during the period 2010-2012. Incident cases are included with anatomopathological confirmation of colorectal cancer (International Classification of Diseases 9th revision codes 153-154) that formed a part of a previous study (n = 953). At the time of diagnosis, each patient was given a structured interview. Their clinical records will be reviewed during the follow-up period in order to obtain information on the explorations and tests carried out after treatment, and the progress of these patients. Symptoms-to-diagnosis interval is defined as the time calculated from the diagnosis of cancer and the first symptoms attributed to cancer. Treatment delay is defined as the time elapsed between diagnosis and treatment. In non-metastatic patients treated with curative intention, information will be obtained during the follow-up period on consultations performed in the digestive, surgery and oncology departments, as well as the endoscopies, tumour markers and imaging procedures carried out. Local recurrence, development of metastases in the follow-up, appearance of a new tumour and mortality will be included as outcome variables. Actuarial survival analysis with Kaplan-Meier curves, Cox regression and competitive risk survival analysis will be performed. Discussion This study will make it possible to verify if the different

  1. Computer decision support system for the stomach cancer diagnosis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Polyakov, E. V.; Sukhova, O. G.; Korenevskaya, P. Y.; Ovcharova, V. S.; Kudryavtseva, I. O.; Vlasova, S. V.; Grebennikova, O. P.; Burov, D. A.; Yemelyanova, G. S.; Selchuk, V. Y.

    2017-01-01

    The paper considers the creation of the computer knowledge base containing the data of histological, cytologic, and clinical researches. The system is focused on improvement of diagnostics quality of stomach cancer - one of the most frequent death causes among oncologic patients.

  2. Altered Glycosylation in Tumours Focused to Cancer Diagnosis

    PubMed Central

    Peracaula, Rosa; Barrabés, Sílvia; Sarrats, Ariadna; Rudd, Pauline M.; de Llorens, Rafael

    2008-01-01

    The lack of specific and sensitive tumour markers for early detection of cancer is driving a search for new approaches that could identify biomarkers. Markers are needed to alert clinicians at the early stages of tumourogenesis, before the cancer has metastasized, when the therapeutic drugs are more effective. Most tumour markers currently used in clinics are serum glycoproteins, frequently highly glycosylated mucins. Typically, the disease marker is the protein and not the glycan moiety of the corresponding glycoprotein or mucin. The increasing knowledge of the role of glycans in cancer suggests that further studies may assist both in determining their role in every step of tumour progression, and in the design of new therapeutic and diagnosic approaches. Detection of the altered glycans in serum tumour glycoproteins could be a way to achieve specificity in tumour detection. In this review, we focus on the glycan changes of two serum glycoproteins, prostate specific antigen - currently used as a tumour marker of prostate cancer - and human pancreatic ribonuclease in pancreatic adenocarcinoma. The detection of glycan changes, associated with subsets of glycoforms in serum glycoproteins that are specific to the tumour situation, could be the basis for developing more specific biomarkers. PMID:19126965

  3. [Guidelines for the early diagnosis of lung cancer for primary care physicians].

    PubMed

    2016-01-01

    Lung cancer is a serious/medical and social problem. It belongs to the most common cancers. In the past decades, lung cancer has steadily held a leading place in the structure of cancer morbidity and mortality in our country and in the majority of European countries. Cigarette smoking remains to be the major if not only risk factor for lung cancer. Many attempts were previously made to set up systems for the early (timely) lung cancerdetection in risk groups through cytological and radiological examinations. Prophylactic fluorography and X-ray study have long been an important screening procedure in Russia and foreign countries. Recently this procedure has transformed into digital lung radiography. However, there have been no conclusive proofs for its efficiency in the early detection of lung cancer for a few decades. In the past decade, large-scale prospective randomized trials of low-dose computed tomography (CT) have been performed to screen lung cancer. These have shown that this technology can potentially reduce mortality from this disease. This encouraging result has caused a substantial change in the tactics of examining people at high risk for lung cancer. CT has fully replaced linear tomography and all others special X-ray procedures in the verified diagnosis of lung cancer. The indications for pre-examination CT have been considerably expanded in patients with X-ray detected pathology. The tactics for estimating the small lung tissue foci found at CT has been changed. Availability of CT, clear clinical indications for the study, and observance of the standard procedure have become important elements of the entire system for the early identification of lung cancer. These clinical recommendations largely deal just with organizational and methodological issues. The authors hope that the recommendations will serve as a guide for primary care physicians (therapists, pulmonologists,and radiologists) in the early diagnosis of lung cancer and in the optimization

  4. [Gastroenterological Cancer Diagnosis by Metabolomics-Discovery of Pancreatic Cancer Biomarker].

    PubMed

    Yoshida, Masaru; Nishiumi, Shin; Azuma, Takeshi

    2015-04-01

    The field of omics involves comprehensive investigations based on genomics, transcriptomics, proteomics, and metabolomics, and omics studies have developed rapidly. Metabolomics, metabolome analysis, involves technology to analyze the concentrations of low-molecular-weight metabolites comprehensively, and has recently rapidly developed along with improvements in analytical technology. Therefore, metabolome analysis is just beginning to be applied to not only food science and environmental research fields but also medical research. In the medical research field, especially, metabolome analysis plays an important role in novel disease biomarker discovery. The metabolome represents the endpoint of the omics cascade and, therefore, is considered to be closer to the phenotype. In addition, there is also a possibility that the metabolome is affected by exogenous factors such as environmental and food factors, as well as endogenous factors such as DNA/mRNA/protein. Therefore, metabolome analysis can be a useful approach for discovering effective biomarkers. Here, we explain the characteristics of metabolome analysis, and also outline metabolome analysis using a liquid chromatograph mass spectrometer (LC-MS), gas chromatograph mass spectrometer (GC-MS), capillary electrophoresis mass spectrometer (CE-MS), and matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization mass spectrometer (MALDI-MS). Then, we describe the findings of studies that used metabolome analysis in an attempt to discover biomarker candidates for pancreatic cancer, and discuss metabolome analysis-based disease diagnosis.

  5. Prostate cancer detection and diagnosis: the role of MR and its comparison with other diagnostic modalities--a radiologist's perspective.

    PubMed

    Penzkofer, Tobias; Tempany-Afdhal, Clare M

    2014-01-01

    It is now universally recognized that many prostate cancers are over-diagnosed and over-treated. The European Randomized Study of Screening for Prostate Cancer from 2009 evidenced that, to save one man from death from prostate cancer, over 1400 men need to be screened, and 48 need to undergo treatment. The detection of prostate cancer is traditionally based on digital rectal examination (DRE) and the measurement of serum prostate-specific antigen (PSA), followed by ultrasound-guided biopsy. The primary role of imaging for the detection and diagnosis of prostate cancer has been transrectal ultrasound (TRUS) guidance during biopsy. Traditionally, MRI has been used primarily for the staging of disease in men with biopsy-proven cancer. It has a well-established role in the detection of T3 disease, planning of radiation therapy, especially three-dimensional conformal or intensity-modulated external beam radiation therapy, and planning and guiding of interstitial seed implant or brachytherapy. New advances have now established that prostate MRI can accurately characterize focal lesions within the gland, an ability that has led to new opportunities for improved cancer detection and guidance for biopsy. Two new approaches to prostate biopsy are under investigation. Both use pre-biopsy MRI to define potential targets for sampling, and the biopsy is performed either with direct real-time MR guidance (in-bore) or MR fusion/registration with TRUS images (out-of-bore). In-bore and out-of-bore MRI-guided prostate biopsies have the advantage of using the MR target definition for the accurate localization and sampling of targets or suspicious lesions. The out-of-bore method uses combined MRI/TRUS with fusion software that provides target localization and increases the sampling accuracy of TRUS-guided biopsies by integrating prostate MRI information with TRUS. Newer parameters for each imaging modality, such as sonoelastography or shear wave elastography, contrast

  6. [Radiology and endoscopy in the diagnosis of colorectal cancer].

    PubMed

    Scerpella, E; Penny, E

    1990-01-01

    Over a 5-year period, 64 patients with a primary colorectal carcinoma were studied by means of radiographic or endoscopic diagnostic techniques. The overall accuracy rates of the barium contrast enema and endoscopy were 86% and 93%, respectively. A comparison of diagnostic accuracy between radiology and endoscopy yield a 75% correlation rate. Whenever possible, both radiology and digestive endoscopy should be carried out to assess the diagnosis of colorectal carcinoma.

  7. Serum biomarker screening for the diagnosis of early gastric cancer using SELDI-TOF-MS.

    PubMed

    Li, Ping; Zhang, Dianliang; Guo, Chunbao

    2012-06-01

    In this study, we performed a proteomic analysis of sera from stage I gastric cancer patients using surface-enhanced laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (SELDI-TOF-MS) and established a diagnostic model for the early diagnosis of stage I gastric cancer. Serum samples from 169 gastric cancer patients and 83 age- and gender-matched healthy individuals were analyzed by SELDI-TOF-MS ProteinChip array technology. The SELDI-TOF-MS spectral data were analyzed using the Biomarker Wizard™ and Biomarker Patterns™ software to find differential proteins and develop a classification tree for gastric cancer. A total of 34 mass peaks were identified. Six peaks at a mass-to-charge ratio (m/z) of 2873, 3163, 4526, 5762, 6121 and 7778 were used to construct the diagnostic model. The model effectively distinguished gastric cancer samples from control samples, achieving a sensitivity and specificity of 93.49 and 91.57%, respectively. In addition, we identified 3 of the 6 protein peaks at 2873, 6121 and 7778 m/z, which distinguished between stage I and stage II/III/IV gastric cancer. The model had an accuracy of 88.89% for the identification of stage I gastric cancer. In conclusion, the diagnostic model for the detection of serum proteins by SELDI-TOF-MS ProteinChip array technology correctly distinguishes gastric cancer from healthy samples, and has the ability to screen and distinguish between early gastric cancer from advanced gastric cancer.

  8. [Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in the diagnosis of recurrences of ovarian cancer in the small pelvis].

    PubMed

    Bulanova, I M; Bulanova, T V; Burenchev, D V

    2005-01-01

    The paper provides the results of small pelvic magnetic resonance tomography (MRI) in 62 patients with ovarian cancer after primary special treatment. Out of them 50 patients were found to have recurrences and metastases of the underlying disease, 12 patients had clinical remission. The study yielded MR signs and MR semiotics of recurrences of ovarian cancer in the small pelvis. The capacities of MRI with low and high intensities of a magnetic field were comparatively studied in the diagnosis of recurrences and metastases of ovarian cancer.

  9. DIAGNOSIS OF ENDOCRINE DISEASE: Endocrine late-effects of childhood cancer and its treatments.

    PubMed

    Chemaitilly, Wassim; Cohen, Laurie E

    2017-04-01

    Endocrine complications are frequently observed in childhood cancer survivors (CCS). One of two CCS will experience at least one endocrine complication during the course of his/her lifespan, most commonly as a late-effect of cancer treatments, especially radiotherapy and alkylating agent chemotherapy. Endocrine late-effects include impairments of the hypothalamus/pituitary, thyroid and gonads, as well as decreased bone mineral density and metabolic derangements leading to obesity and/or diabetes mellitus. A systematic approach where CCS are screened for endocrine late-effects based on their cancer history and treatment exposures may improve health outcomes by allowing the early diagnosis and treatment of these complications.

  10. A systematic review of barriers to early presentation and diagnosis with breast cancer among black women

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Claire EL; Maben, Jill; Jack, Ruth H; Davies, Elizabeth A; Forbes, Lindsay JL; Lucas, Grace; Ream, Emma

    2014-01-01

    Objective To explore barriers to early presentation and diagnosis with breast cancer among black women. Design Systematic review. Methods We searched multiple bibliographic databases (January 1991–February 2013) for primary research, published in English, conducted in developed countries and investigating barriers to early presentation and diagnosis with symptomatic breast cancer among black women (≥18 years). Studies were excluded if they did not report separate findings by ethnic group or gender, only reported differences in time to presentation/diagnosis, or reported on interventions and barriers to cancer screening. We followed Cochrane and PRISMA guidance to identify relevant research. Findings were integrated through thematic synthesis. Designs of quantitative studies made meta-analysis impossible. Results We identified 18 studies (6183 participants). Delay was multifactorial, individual and complex. Factors contributing to delay included: poor symptom and risk factor knowledge; fear of detecting breast abnormality; fear of cancer treatments; fear of partner abandonment; embarrassment disclosing symptoms to healthcare professionals; taboo and stigmatism. Presentation appears quicker following disclosure. Influence of fatalism and religiosity on delay is unclear from evidence in these studies. We compared older studies (≥10 years) with newer ones (<10 years) to determine changes over time. In older studies, delaying factors included: inaccessibility of healthcare services; competing priorities and concerns about partner abandonment. Partner abandonment was studied in older studies but not in newer ones. Comparisons of healthy women and cancer populations revealed differences between how people perceive they would behave, and actually behave, on finding breast abnormality. Conclusions Strategies to improve early presentation and diagnosis with breast cancer among black women need to address symptom recognition and interpretation of risk, as well as

  11. Photodynamic diagnosis of ovarian cancer using hexaminolaevulinate: a preclinical study.

    PubMed

    Lüdicke, F; Gabrecht, T; Lange, N; Wagnières, G; Van Den Bergh, H; Berclaz, L; Major, A L

    2003-06-02

    The unfailing detection of micrometastases during surgery of patients suffering from ovarian cancer is mandatory for the optimal management of this disease. Thus, the present study aimed at determining the feasibility of detecting micrometastases in an ovarian cancer model using the intraperitoneal administration of the photosensitiser precursor hexaminolaevulinate (HAL). For this purpose, HAL was applied intraperitoneally at different concentrations (4-12 mM) to immunocompetent Fischer 344 rats bearing a syngeneic epithelial ovarian carcinoma. The tumours were visualised laparoscopically using both white and blue light (D-light, Karl Storz, Tuttlingen, Germany), and the number of peritoneal micrometastases detected through HAL-induced photodiagnosis (PD) was compared to standard white light visualisation. Fluorescence spectra were recorded with an optical fibre-based spectrofluorometer and the fluorescence intensities were compared to the protoporphyrin IX (PpIX) fluorescence induced by 5-aminolevulinic acid under similar conditions. The number of metastases detected by the PD blue light mode was higher than when using standard white light abdominal inspection for all applied concentrations. Twice as many cancer lesions were detected by fluorescence than by white light inspection. The hexyl-ester derivative produced higher PpIX fluorescence than its parent substance aminolevulinic acid at the same concentration and application time. Fluorescence contrast between healthy and cancerous tissue was excellent for both compounds. To overcome poor diagnostic efficiency and to detect peritoneal ovarian carcinoma foci in the large surface area of the human peritoneal cavity, HAL fluorescence-based visualisation techniques may acquire importance in future and lead to a more correct staging of early ovarian cancer.

  12. A Partnership Training Program: Studying Targeted Drug Delivery Using Nanoparticles In Breast Cancer Diagnosis and Therapy

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-10-01

    paramagnetic gadolinium chelates, organic dyes, metallic gold nanoparticles , semiconducting quantum dots and magnetic nanoparticles into single probes 14...particles [11, 16, 21, 31–36]. The magnetization directions of small super paramagnetic crystals were constrained by mag- netic interactions with...Delivery Nanoparticles in Breast Cancer Diagnosis and Therapy I. INTRODUCTION In this proposed training program a partnership between Howard

  13. Primary vaginal cancer: role of MRI in diagnosis, staging and treatment

    PubMed Central

    Sunil, J; Klopp, A H; Devine, C E; Sagebiel, T; Viswanathan, C; Bhosale, P R

    2015-01-01

    Primary carcinoma of the vagina is rare, accounting for 1–3% of all gynaecological malignancies. MRI has an increasing role in diagnosis, staging, treatment and assessment of complications in gynaecologic malignancy. In this review, we illustrate the utility of MRI in patients with primary vaginal cancer and highlight key aspects of staging, treatment, recurrence and complications. PMID:25966291

  14. Understanding missed opportunities for more timely diagnosis of cancer in symptomatic patients after presentation.

    PubMed

    Lyratzopoulos, G; Vedsted, P; Singh, H

    2015-03-31

    The diagnosis of cancer is a complex, multi-step process. In this paper, we highlight factors involved in missed opportunities to diagnose cancer more promptly in symptomatic patients and discuss responsible mechanisms and potential strategies to shorten intervals from presentation to diagnosis. Missed opportunities are instances in which post-hoc judgement indicates that alternative decisions or actions could have led to more timely diagnosis. They can occur in any of the three phases of the diagnostic process (initial diagnostic assessment; diagnostic test performance and interpretation; and diagnostic follow-up and coordination) and can involve patient, doctor/care team, and health-care system factors, often in combination. In this perspective article, we consider epidemiological 'signals' suggestive of missed opportunities and draw on evidence from retrospective case reviews of cancer patient cohorts to summarise factors that contribute to missed opportunities. Multi-disciplinary research targeting such factors is important to shorten diagnostic intervals post presentation. Insights from the fields of organisational and cognitive psychology, human factors science and informatics can be extremely valuable in this emerging research agenda. We provide a conceptual foundation for the development of future interventions to minimise the occurrence of missed opportunities in cancer diagnosis, enriching current approaches that chiefly focus on clinical decision support or on widening access to investigations.

  15. Understanding missed opportunities for more timely diagnosis of cancer in symptomatic patients after presentation

    PubMed Central

    Lyratzopoulos, G; Vedsted, P; Singh, H

    2015-01-01

    The diagnosis of cancer is a complex, multi-step process. In this paper, we highlight factors involved in missed opportunities to diagnose cancer more promptly in symptomatic patients and discuss responsible mechanisms and potential strategies to shorten intervals from presentation to diagnosis. Missed opportunities are instances in which post-hoc judgement indicates that alternative decisions or actions could have led to more timely diagnosis. They can occur in any of the three phases of the diagnostic process (initial diagnostic assessment; diagnostic test performance and interpretation; and diagnostic follow-up and coordination) and can involve patient, doctor/care team, and health-care system factors, often in combination. In this perspective article, we consider epidemiological ‘signals' suggestive of missed opportunities and draw on evidence from retrospective case reviews of cancer patient cohorts to summarise factors that contribute to missed opportunities. Multi-disciplinary research targeting such factors is important to shorten diagnostic intervals post presentation. Insights from the fields of organisational and cognitive psychology, human factors science and informatics can be extremely valuable in this emerging research agenda. We provide a conceptual foundation for the development of future interventions to minimise the occurrence of missed opportunities in cancer diagnosis, enriching current approaches that chiefly focus on clinical decision support or on widening access to investigations. PMID:25734393

  16. Perceived Partner Reactions to Diagnosis and Treatment of Breast Cancer: Impact on Psychosocial and Psychosexual Adjustment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wimberly, Sarah R.; Carver, Charles S.; Laurenceau, Jean-Philippe; Harris, Suzanne D.; Antoni, Michael H.

    2005-01-01

    Two studies examined breast cancer patients' perceptions of their partners' reactions to their diagnosis and treatment as influences on 3 aspects of patients' well-being: psychosexual adjustment, emotional distress, and marital satisfaction. Study 1, cross-sectional, indicated that partner initiation of sex, frequency of sex, a positive 1st sexual…

  17. The Course of Psychological Disorders in the 1st Year After Cancer Diagnosis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kangas, Maria; Henry, Jane L.; Bryant, Richard A.

    2005-01-01

    This study investigated the relationship between acute stress disorder (ASD) and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and comorbid anxiety, depressive, and substance use disorders over the first 12-month period following a cancer diagnosis. Individuals recently diagnosed with 1st onset head and neck or lung malignancy were assessed for ASD within…

  18. Experiences of women with a diagnosis of breast cancer: a clinical pathway approach.

    PubMed

    Lindop, E; Cannon, S

    2001-06-01

    The study presented in this paper formed the first part of a large survey of breast cancer patients in one health authority in England, UK looking at individual needs expressed by women with a diagnosis of breast cancer. The paper provides an account of the experiences of 12 women with a diagnosis of breast cancer. The women represent a wide age range and different stages of illness. The transcribed accounts of the women were analysed by means of Qualitative Solutions and Research, Non-Numerical Unstructured Data Indexing Searching and Theorising (QSR*NUDIST). The study examined the individual experiences of women with a diagnosis of breast cancer and its aftermath as they passed through different stages related to it. The women's experiences are presented within the conceptual framework of the clinical pathway and their accounts represent their journey along the pathway. Various significant points in this journey are portrayed representing the women's reactions to diagnosis, treatment, femininity and body image, support, family and friends, information and after care.

  19. Rise and fall of subclones from diagnosis to relapse in pediatric B-acute lymphoblastic leukaemia | Office of Cancer Genomics

    Cancer.gov

    There is incomplete understanding of genetic heterogeneity and clonal evolution during cancer progression. Here we use deep whole-exome sequencing to describe the clonal architecture and evolution of 20 pediatric B-acute lymphoblastic leukaemias from diagnosis to relapse. We show that clonal diversity is comparable at diagnosis and relapse and clonal survival from diagnosis to relapse is not associated with mutation burden.

  20. Targeted Proteomics Enables Simultaneous Quantification of Folate Receptor Isoforms and Potential Isoform-based Diagnosis in Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Ting; Xu, Feifei; Fang, Danjun; Chen, Yun

    2015-01-01

    The distinct roles of protein isoforms in cancer are becoming increasingly evident. FRα and FRβ, two major isoforms of the folate receptor family, generally have different cellular distribution and tissue specificity. However, the presence of FRβ in breast tumors, where FRα is normally expressed, complicates this situation. Prior to applying any FR isoform-based diagnosis and therapeutics, it is essential to monitor the expression profile of FR isoforms in a more accurate manner. An LC-MS/MS-based targeted proteomics assay was developed and validated in this study because of the lack of suitable methodology for the simultaneous and specific measurement of highly homologous isoforms occurring at low concentrations. FRα and FRβ monitoring was achieved by measuring their surrogate isoform-specific peptides. Five human breast cell lines, isolated macrophages and 60 matched pairs of breast tissue samples were subjected to the analysis. The results indicated that FRβ was overexpressed in tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) but not epithelial cells, in addition to an enhanced level of FRα in breast cancer cells and tissue samples. Moreover, the levels of the FR isoforms were evaluated according to the histology, histopathological features and molecular subtypes of breast cancer. Several positive associations with PR/ER and HER2 status and metastasis were revealed. PMID:26573433

  1. Acute hospital admission for nursing home residents without cognitive impairment with a diagnosis of cancer.

    PubMed

    Drageset, J; Eide, G E; Harrington, C; Ranhoff, A H

    2015-03-01

    Studies of hospitalisation of cognitively intact nursing home (NH) residents with cancer are scarce. Knowledge about associations between socio-demographic, medical and social support variables and hospital admissions aids in preventing unnecessary admissions. This is part of a prospective study from 2004 to 2005 with follow-up to 2010 for admission rates. We studied whether residents with cancer have more admissions and whether socio-demographic and medical variables and social support subdimensions are associated with admission among cognitively intact NH residents with (n = 60) and without (n = 167) cancer aged ≥65 years scoring ≤0.5 on the Clinical Dementia Rating Scale and residing ≥6 months. We measured social support by face-to-face interview. We identified all respondents through NH medical records for hospital admission, linking their identification numbers to the hospital record system to register all admissions. We examined whether socio-demographic and medical variables (medical records) and social support subscales were associated with the time between inclusion and first admission. Residents with cancer had more admissions (25/60) than those without (53/167) (odds ratio 1.7). Social integration was correlated with admission (P = 0.04) regardless of cancer diagnosis. Residents with cancer had more hospital admissions than those without. Higher social integration gave more admissions independent of cancer diagnosis.

  2. Next-Generation Sequencing and Applications to the Diagnosis and Treatment of Lung Cancer.

    PubMed

    Kruglyak, Kristina M; Lin, Erick; Ong, Frank S

    2016-01-01

    Cancer is a genetic disease characterized by uncontrolled growth of abnormal cells. Over time, somatic mutations accumulate in the cells of an individual due to replication errors, chromosome segregation errors, or DNA damage. When not caught by traditional mechanisms, these somatic mutations can lead to cellular proliferation, the hallmark of cancer. Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer-related mortality in the United States, accounting for approximately 160,000 deaths annually. Five year survival rates for lung cancer remain low (<50 %) for all stages, with even worse prognosis (<15 %) in late stage cases. Technological advances, including advances in next-generation sequencing (NGS), offer the vision of personalized medicine or precision oncology, wherein an individual's treatment can be based on his or her individual molecular profile, rather than on historical population-based medicine. Towards this end, NGS has already been used to identify new biomarker candidates for the early diagnosis of lung cancer and is increasingly used to guide personalized treatment decisions. In this review we will provide a high-level overview of NGS technology and summarize its application to the diagnosis and treatment of lung cancer. We will also describe how NGS can drive advances that bring us closer to precision oncology and discuss some of the technical challenges that will need to be overcome in order to realize this ultimate goal.

  3. [Body weight, nutritional factors and physical activity--their influence on prognosis after breast cancer diagnosis].

    PubMed

    Weitzen, Rony; Tichler, Thomas; Kaufman, Bella; Catane, Raphael; Shpatz, Yael

    2006-11-01

    Numerous studies have examined the association between body weight, nutritional factors, physical activity and the risk for primary breast cancer. Relatively few studies, however, have examined the associations between these issues and the recurrence of the disease and cure of the primary tumor. Today, three areas of focus are actively being researched for breast cancer survivors: body weight, diet composition and physical activity with specific emphasis on the risk for recurrence, survival and quality of life. Increased body weight or BMI (Body Mass Index) at diagnosis was found to be a significant risk factor for recurrent disease, decreased survival, or both. Overall obesity has been shown to adversely affect prognosis. Appropriate weight control may be particularly beneficial for breast cancer survivors. Breast cancer survivors should be encouraged to achieve and maintain a healthy weight. Limiting fat intake can reduce the risk of breast cancer recurrence. Increasing consumption of vegetables and fruits seems to have possible beneficial effects during and after treatments. To date physical activity after breast cancer diagnosis has been found to reduce the risk of death. The greatest benefit occurred in women who performed the equivalent of walking 3-5 hours per week at an average pace. Safe weight loss via increased physical activity and healthful food choices should be encouraged for normal, overweight or obese breast cancer survivors in order to improve survival and life quality.

  4. Extracellular MicroRNA in liquid biopsy: applicability in cancer diagnosis and prevention

    PubMed Central

    Izzotti, Alberto; Carozzo, Stefano; Pulliero, Alessandra; Zhabayeva, Dinara; Ravetti, Jean Louis; Bersimbaev, Rakhmet

    2016-01-01

    One of the goals of contemporary cancer research is the development of new markers that facilitate earlier and non-invasive diagnosis. MicroRNAs are non-coding RNA molecules that regulate gene expression; studies have shown that their expression levels are altered in cancer. Recently, extra-cellular microRNAs have been detected in biological fluids and studied as possible cancer markers that can be detected by noninvasive procedures. In this review, we analyze the current understanding of extracellular miRNAs based on clinical studies to establish their possible use for the prevention of the most common tumors. Despite discrepancies among different studies of the same cancers, panels of specific extracellular microRNAs are emerging as a new tool for the secondary (selection of high-risk individuals to undergo screening) and tertiary (relapse) prevention of cancer. PMID:27508091

  5. Potential applications of nanotechnology for the diagnosis and treatment of pancreatic cancer

    PubMed Central

    McCarroll, Joshua; Teo, Joann; Boyer, Cyrille; Goldstein, David; Kavallaris, Maria; Phillips, Phoebe A.

    2013-01-01

    Despite improvements in our understanding of pancreatic cancer and the emerging concept of personalized medicine for the treatment of this disease, it is still the fourth most common cause of cancer death in the western world. It is established that pancreatic cancer is a highly heterogeneous disease with a complex tumor microenvironment. Indeed the extensive stroma surrounding the cancer cells has been shown to be important in promoting tumor growth and metastases, as well as sequestering chemotherapeutic agents consequently decreasing delivery to the tumor cells. Nanotechnology has come to the forefront in the areas of medical diagnostics, imaging, and therapeutic drug delivery. This review will focus on the potential applications of nanotechnology for diagnosis, imaging, and delivery of therapeutic agents for the treatment of pancreatic cancer. PMID:24478715

  6. Imaging diagnosis of pancreatic cancer: A state-of-the-art review

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Eun Sun; Lee, Jeong Min

    2014-01-01

    Pancreatic cancer (PC) remains one of the deadliest cancers worldwide, and has a poor, five-year survival rate of 5%. Although complete surgical resection is the only curative therapy for pancreatic cancer, less than 20% of newly-diagnosed patients undergo surgical resection with a curative intent. Due to the lack of early symptoms and the tendency of pancreatic adenocarcinoma to invade adjacent structures or to metastasize at an early stage, many patients with pancreatic cancer already have advanced disease at the time of their diagnosis and, therefore, there is a high mortality rate. To improve the patient survival rate, early detection of PC is critical. The diagnosis of PC relies on computed tomography (CT) and/or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography (MRCP), or biopsy or fine-needle aspiration using endoscopic ultrasound (EUS). Although multi-detector row computed tomography currently has a major role in the evaluation of PC, MRI with MRCP facilitates better detection of tumors at an early stage by allowing a comprehensive analysis of the morphological changes of the pancreas parenchyma and pancreatic duct. The diagnosis could be improved using positron emission tomography techniques in special conditions in which CT and EUS are not completely diagnostic. It is essential for clinicians to understand the advantages and disadvantages of the various pancreatic imaging modalities in order to be able to make optimal treatment and management decisions. Our study investigates the current role and innovative techniques of pancreatic imaging focused on the detection of pancreatic cancer. PMID:24976723

  7. Simultaneous cancer control and diagnosis with magnetic nanohybrid materials.

    PubMed

    Saadat, Reza; Renz, Franz

    2016-01-01

    Coated magnetite nanoparticles were linked to (68)Ga complexes used in the positron emission tomography (PET) for a new technical approach to detect cancer tissue with radiopharmaceuticals. By substitution of the Ga isotope with an alpha emitter the same compound could be used for cancer treatment. Furthermore the nanoparticles were connected to pH-sensitive complexes, enabling a pH-controlled assembly/disassembly and therefore the spreading of the particles in the tissue. With this novel method of combining detection and treatment simultaneously, the amount of medical exposure could be minimized for the patient. The results demonstrate that magnetite nanoparticles can effectively be functionalized with PET isotopes and pH sensitive complexes in order to use them as a new type of radiopharmaceuticals.

  8. Simultaneous cancer control and diagnosis with magnetic nanohybrid materials

    PubMed Central

    Renz, Franz

    2016-01-01

    Summary Coated magnetite nanoparticles were linked to 68Ga complexes used in the positron emission tomography (PET) for a new technical approach to detect cancer tissue with radiopharmaceuticals. By substitution of the Ga isotope with an alpha emitter the same compound could be used for cancer treatment. Furthermore the nanoparticles were connected to pH-sensitive complexes, enabling a pH-controlled assembly/disassembly and therefore the spreading of the particles in the tissue. With this novel method of combining detection and treatment simultaneously, the amount of medical exposure could be minimized for the patient. The results demonstrate that magnetite nanoparticles can effectively be functionalized with PET isotopes and pH sensitive complexes in order to use them as a new type of radiopharmaceuticals. PMID:26925360

  9. Affinity-Based Serum Proteomics for Ovarian Cancer Early Diagnosis

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-12-01

    Unlimited 13. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 14. ABSTRACT Our research project is intended to exploit unique characteristics of phage and yeast recombinant...INTRODUCTION: Our research project is intended to exploit unique characteristics of phage and yeast recombinant antibodies as the basis for a serum...thousands of candidate ovarian cancer biomarkers from phage and yeast recombinant libraries by selecting sub-libraries against reactivity to common

  10. Diagnosis of Breast Cancer Using Fluorescence and Reflectance Spectroscopy

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-09-01

    breast cancer based on fluorescence and diffuse reflectance spectroscopy . Our first objective include was to characterize the fluorescence properties of...device based on fluorescence and diffuse reflectance spectroscopy has the advantage of being fast, quantitative, and minimally invasive, and has the...Fluorescence and diffuse reflectance spectroscopy in the ultraviolet-visible wavelength range were made with a multi-separation probe at three illumination

  11. Cellular autofluorescence imaging for early diagnosis of cancers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steenkeste, Karine; Deniset, Ariane; Lecart, Sandrine; Leveque-Fort, Sandrine; Fontaine-Aupart, Marie-Pierre; Ferlicot, Sophie; Eschwege, Pascal

    2005-08-01

    Urinary cytology is employed in diagnostic guidelines of bladder cancer in anatomo-pathological laboratories mostly for its ability to diagnose non detectable cancers using cystoscopy, but also because it is a non-invasive and non-constraining technique for a regular follow-up of the more exposed populations. The impossibility to detect such cancers is mainly due to their localization either in the bladder or in the upper urinary tract and the prostate. However, urinary cytology lacks sensitivity, especially for the detection of low grade low stage tumors due to inherent limitation of morphological criteria to distinguish low grade tumor cells from normal urothelial cells. For this purpose, we developed, in addition to urinary cytology, an original screening of these cytological slides by using spectrally-resolved and time-resolved fluorescence as a contrast factor, without changing any parameters in the cytological slide preparation. This method takes advantage of a femtosecond Ti:sapphire laser, continuously tunable in the spectral range 700-950 nm allowing the observation of most endogenous cellular chromophores by biphotonic excitation. A commercial confocal microscope was also used in the measurements allowing an excitation of the samples between 458 nm and 633 nm. We observed that the fluorescence emission is differentially distributed in normal and pathological urothelial cells. Spectral- and time-resolved measurements attested this difference over about one hundred cases which have been tested to confirm the high accuracy of this non-invasive technique.

  12. Breast Cancer: Conventional Diagnosis and Treatment Modalities and Recent Patents and Technologies

    PubMed Central

    Nounou, Mohamed I.; ElAmrawy, Fatema; Ahmed, Nada; Abdelraouf, Kamilia; Goda, Satyanarayana; Syed-Sha-Qhattal, Hussaini

    2015-01-01

    Breast cancer is the most prevalent cancer among women worldwide. However, increased survival is due to the dramatic advances in the screening methods, early diagnosis, and breakthroughs in treatments. Over the course of the last decade, many acquisitions have taken place in this critical field of research in the pharmaceutical industry. Advances in molecular biology and pharmacology aided in better understanding of breast cancer, enabling the design of smarter therapeutics able to target cancer and respond to its microenvironment efficiently. Patents and research papers investigating diagnosis and treatment strategies for breast cancer using novel technologies have been surveyed for the past 15 years. Various nanocarriers have been introduced to improve the therapeutic efficacy of anticancer drugs, including liposomes, polymeric micelles, quantum dots, nanoparticles, and dendrimers. This review provides an overview of breast cancer, conventional therapy, novel technologies in the management of breast cancer, and rational approaches for targeting breast cancer. HIGHLIGHTS Breast cancer is the most common cancer in women worldwide. However, survival rates vary widely, optimistically heading toward a positive trend. Increased survival is due to the drastic shift in the screening methods, early diagnosis, and breakthroughs in treatments. Different strategies of breast cancer classification and staging have evolved over the years. Intrinsic (molecular) subtyping is essential in clinical trials and well understanding of the disease. Many novel technologies are being developed to detect distant metastases and recurrent disease as well as to assess response to breast cancer management. Intensive research efforts are actively ongoing to take novel breast cancer therapeutics to potential clinical application. Most of the recent research papers and patents discuss one of the following strategies: the development of new drug entities that specifically target the breast tumor

  13. Clinically Significant Endometrial Cancer Risk Following a Diagnosis of Complex Atypical Hyperplasia

    PubMed Central

    COSTALES, Anthony B.; SCHMELER, Kathleen M.; BROADDUS, Russell; SOLIMAN, Pamela T.; WESTIN, Shannon N.; RAMIREZ, Pedro T.; FRUMOVITZ, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Because of the frequent detection of carcinoma in surgical specimens after hysterectomy for endometrial complex atypical hyperplasia (CAH), it has been suggested that patients with a preoperative diagnosis of CAH be referred to gynecologic oncology for potential lymphadenectomy. However, the risk of lymph node metastasis in such patients is unknown. We sought to determine the risk of endometrial cancer and to estimate the risk of lymphatic spread in women with a preoperative diagnosis of CAH. Study Design We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of 150 consecutive patients with a preoperative diagnosis of CAH who subsequently underwent hysterectomy. Clinical characteristics and pathologic information were abstracted. Risk of lymphatic spread was modeled using previously published criteria and nomograms. Results Fifty-five of the 150 patients (36.7%) had an incidental endometrial carcinoma at the time of hysterectomy. Among patients with a preoperative office biopsy compared to dilation and curettage, the rate of an incidental finding of cancer was 43.5% and 28.1%, respectively (p=0.054). Of patients with cancer, 1 (1.8%) had a grade 3 endometrial carcinoma, 4 (7.3%) had lymphovascular space involvement, and 6 (10.9%) had deep (>50%) myometrial invasion. For the 10 patients who underwent lymphadenectomy, one (10%) had lymph node metastases. Based on multiple models, the estimated risk of lymph node spread was 1.6-2.1% for all women with a preoperative diagnosis of CAH and 4.4-6.8% for the 55 women with endometrial cancer. Conclusions Given the high rates of underlying endometrial cancer and the potential need for lymphadenectomy, care for patients with a preoperative diagnosis of CAH desiring definitive management with hysterectomy should be referred to a gynecologic oncologist. PMID:25316176

  14. Single-cell resolution diagnosis of cancer cells by carbon nanotube electrical spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdolahad, M.; Janmaleki, M.; Taghinejad, M.; Taghnejad, H.; Salehi, F.; Mohajerzadeh, S.

    2013-03-01

    We report the use of vertically aligned carbon nanotubes (VACNTs) as electrical endoscopes (biosensors) for cancer metastatic diagnosis at single-cell resolution. The device is based on direct signal extraction by means of vertically aligned conductive carbon nanotubes from a live cell membrane, which has been disrupted during carcinogenesis at its primary and progressive stages. The value of this electrical disruption depends on the cancer metastatic grade. In addition, the electrical resonance behavior of the cell, halted during cancer progression, could be monitored as a new cancer diagnostic profile. By taking a second derivative of the cell impedance with respect to applied frequency, we have arrived at a new spectroscopy tool for distinguishing cancerous stages of colon and breast carcinoma cells.We report the use of vertically aligned carbon nanotubes (VACNTs) as electrical endoscopes (biosensors) for cancer metastatic diagnosis at single-cell resolution. The device is based on direct signal extraction by means of vertically aligned conductive carbon nanotubes from a live cell membrane, which has been disrupted during carcinogenesis at its primary and progressive stages. The value of this electrical disruption depends on the cancer metastatic grade. In addition, the electrical resonance behavior of the cell, halted during cancer progression, could be monitored as a new cancer diagnostic profile. By taking a second derivative of the cell impedance with respect to applied frequency, we have arrived at a new spectroscopy tool for distinguishing cancerous stages of colon and breast carcinoma cells. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c3nr33430a

  15. Computer aided-diagnosis of prostate cancer on multiparametric MRI: a technical review of current research.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shijun; Burtt, Karen; Turkbey, Baris; Choyke, Peter; Summers, Ronald M

    2014-01-01

    Prostate cancer (PCa) is the most commonly diagnosed cancer among men in the United States. In this paper, we survey computer aided-diagnosis (CADx) systems that use multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging (MP-MRI) for detection and diagnosis of prostate cancer. We review and list mainstream techniques that are commonly utilized in image segmentation, registration, feature extraction, and classification. The performances of 15 state-of-the-art prostate CADx systems are compared through the area under their receiver operating characteristic curves (AUC). Challenges and potential directions to further the research of prostate CADx are discussed in this paper. Further improvements should be investigated to make prostate CADx systems useful in clinical practice.

  16. National consensus in China on diagnosis and treatment of patients with advanced breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Xichun; Jiang, Zefei; Li, Huiping; Chen, Jiayi; Cui, Shude; Li, Qing; Liao, Ning; Liu, Donggeng; Liu, Jian; Lu, Jinsong; Shen, Kunwei; Sun, Tao; Teng, Yuee; Tong, Zhongsheng; Wang, Shulian; Wang, Xiang; Wang, Xiaojia; Wang, Yongsheng; Wu, Jiong; Yuan, Peng; Zhang, Pin; Zhang, Qingyuan; Zheng, Hong; Pang, Da; Ren, Guosheng; Shao, Zhimin; Shen, Zhenzhou; Song, Erwei; Song, Santai

    2015-01-01

    The recently available guidelines on the management of advanced breast cancer (ABC) organized by Chinese Anti-Cancer Association, Committee of Breast Cancer Society (CACA-CBCS) do not elucidate ABC in details. To instruct clinicians in treatment of ABC, a Chinese expert consensus meeting on diagnosis and treatment of ABC was held in June 2014 and a consensus is developed. The following consensus provides the level of evidence and supporting documents for each recommendation, and introduces research topics to be urgently addressed. Notably, the consensus on diagnosis and treatment of ABC in China is developed to be applied nationwide. In different areas, multidisciplinary treatment (MDT) tailored to the each patient and the disease itself should be applied based on the basic principles of modern oncology. PMID:26605288

  17. Situation analysis for cervical cancer diagnosis and treatment in east, central and southern African countries.

    PubMed Central

    Chirenje, Z. M.; Rusakaniko, S.; Kirumbi, L.; Ngwalle, E. W.; Makuta-Tlebere, P.; Kaggwa, S.; Mpanju-Shumbusho, W.; Makoae, L.

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine the factors influencing cervical cancer diagnosis and treatment in countries of East, Central and Southern Africa (ECSA). METHODS: Data were collected from randomly selected primary health care centres, district and provincial hospitals, and tertiary hospitals in each participating country. Health care workers were interviewed, using a questionnaire; the facilities for screening, diagnosing, and treating cervical cancer in each institution were recorded, using a previously designed checklist. FINDINGS: Although 95% of institutions at all health care levels in ECSA countries had the basic infrastructure to carry out cervical cytology screening, only a small percentage of women were actually screened. Lack of policy guidelines, infrequent supply of basic materials, and a lack of suitable qualified staff were the most common reasons reported. CONCLUSIONS: This study demonstrates that there is an urgent need for more investment in the diagnosis and treatment of cervical cancer in ECSA countries. In these, and other countries with low resources, suitable screening programmes should be established. PMID:11242819

  18. Medical Diagnosis System of Breast Cancer Using FCM Based Parallel Neural Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hwang, Sang-Hyun; Kim, Dongwon; Kang, Tae-Koo; Park, Gwi-Tae

    In this paper, a new methodology for medical diagnosis based on fuzzy clustering and parallel neural networks is proposed. Intelligent systems have various fields. Breast cancer is one of field to be targeted, which is the most common tumor-related disease among women. Diagnosis of breast cancer is not task for medical expert owing to many attributes of the disease. So we proposed a new method, FCM based parallel neural networks to handle difficult. FCM based parallel neural networks composed of two parts. One is classifying breast cancer data using Fuzzy c-means clustering method (FCM). The other is designing the multiple neural networks using classified data by FCM. The proposed methodology is experimented, evaluated, and compared the performance with other existed models. As a result we can show the effectiveness and precision of the proposed method are better than other previous models.

  19. The role of imaging in the diagnosis of primary prostate cancer

    PubMed Central

    Harvey, Hugh; deSouza, Nandita M

    2016-01-01

    Ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) are key imaging modalities in prostate cancer diagnosis. MRI offers a range of intrinsic contrast mechanisms (T2, diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI), MR spectroscopy (MRS)) and extrinsic contrast-generating options based on tumour vascular state following injection of weakly paramagnetic agents such as gadolinium. Together these parameters are referred to as multiparametric (mp)MRI and are used for detecting and guiding biopsy and staging prostate cancer. Although sensitivity of mpMRI is <75% for disease detection, specificity is >90% and a standardised reporting system together with MR-guided targeted biopsy is the optimal diagnostic pathway. Shear wave ultrasound elastography is a new technique which also holds promise for future studies. This article describes the developments in imaging the primary site of prostate cancer and reviews their current and future utility for screening, diagnosis and T-staging the disease. PMID:28344811

  20. Role of abnormal lipid metabolism in development, progression, diagnosis and therapy of pancreatic cancer

    PubMed Central

    Swierczynski, Julian; Hebanowska, Areta; Sledzinski, Tomasz

    2014-01-01

    There is growing evidence that metabolic alterations play an important role in cancer development and progression. The metabolism of cancer cells is reprogrammed in order to support their rapid proliferation. Elevated fatty acid synthesis is one of the most important aberrations of cancer cell metabolism. An enhancement of fatty acids synthesis is required both for carcinogenesis and cancer cell survival, as inhibition of key lipogenic enzymes slows down the growth of tumor cells and impairs their survival. Based on the data that serum fatty acid synthase (FASN), also known as oncoantigen 519, is elevated in patients with certain types of cancer, its serum level was proposed as a marker of neoplasia. This review aims to demonstrate the changes in lipid metabolism and other metabolic processes associated with lipid metabolism in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC), the most common pancreatic neoplasm, characterized by high mortality. We also addressed the influence of some oncogenic factors and tumor suppressors on pancreatic cancer cell metabolism. Additionally the review discusses the potential role of elevated lipid synthesis in diagnosis and treatment of pancreatic cancer. In particular, FASN is a viable candidate for indicator of pathologic state, marker of neoplasia, as well as, pharmacological treatment target in pancreatic cancer. Recent research showed that, in addition to lipogenesis, certain cancer cells can use fatty acids from circulation, derived from diet (chylomicrons), synthesized in liver, or released from adipose tissue for their growth. Thus, the interactions between de novo lipogenesis and uptake of fatty acids from circulation by PDAC cells require further investigation. PMID:24605027

  1. Timeliness of Diagnosing Lung Cancer: Number of Procedures and Time Needed to Establish Diagnosis

    PubMed Central

    Verma, Akash; Lim, Albert Y.H.; Tai, Dessmon Y.H.; Goh, Soon Keng; Kor, Ai Ching; A., Dokeu Basheer A.; Chopra, Akhil; Abisheganaden, John

    2015-01-01

    Abstract To study number of procedures and time to diagnose lung cancer and factors affecting the timeliness of clinching this diagnosis. Retrospective cohort study of lung cancer patients who consecutively underwent diagnostic bronchoscopy in 1 year (October 2013 to September 2014). Out of 101 patients diagnosed with lung cancer from bronchoscopy, average time interval between first abnormal computed tomogram (CT) scan-to-1st procedure, 1st procedure-to-diagnosis, and 1st abnormal CT scan-to-diagnosis was 16 ± 26, 11 ± 19, and 27 ± 33 days, respectively. These intervals were significantly longer in those requiring repeat procedures. Multivariate analysis revealed inconclusive 1st procedure to be the predictor of prolonged (>30 days) CT scan to diagnosis time (P = 0.04). Twenty-nine patients (28.7%) required repeat procedures (n = 63). Reasons behind repeating the procedures were inadequate procedure (n = 14), inaccessibility of lesion (n = 9), inappropriate procedure (n = 5), mutation analysis (n = 2), and others (n = 2). Fifty had visible endo-bronchial lesion, 20 had positive bronchus sign, and 83 had enlarged mediastinal/hilar lymph-nodes or central masses adjacent to the airways. Fewer procedures, and shorter procedure to diagnosis time, were observed in those undergoing convex probe endobronchial ultrasound-transbronchial needle aspiration (EBUS-TBNA) (P = 0.04). Most patients exhibit enlarged mediastinal lymph node or mass adjacent to the central airway accessible by convex probe EBUS-TBNA. Hence, combining it with conventional bronchoscopic techniques such as bronchoalveolar lavage, brush, and forceps biopsy increases detection rate, and reduces number of procedures and time to establish diagnosis. This may translate into cost and resource savings, timeliness of diagnosis, greater patient satisfaction, and conceivably better outcomes. PMID:26200646

  2. Use of two gene panels for prostate cancer diagnosis and patient risk stratification.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Kefeng; Guo, Jinan; Zhang, Xuhui; Feng, Xiaoyan; Zhang, Heqiu; Cheng, Zhiqiang; Johnson, Heather; Persson, Jenny L; Chen, Lingwu

    2016-08-01

    Currently, no ideal prostate cancer (PCa) diagnostic or prognostic test is available due to the lack of biomarkers with high sensitivity and specificity. There is an unmet medical need to develop combinations of multiple biomarkers which may have higher accuracy in detection of PCa and stratification of aggressive and indolent cancer patients. The aim of this study was to test two biomarker gene panels in distinguishing PCa from benign prostate and high-risk, aggressive PCa from low-risk, indolent PCa, respectively. We identified a five-gene panel that can be used to distinguish PCa from benign prostate. The messenger RNA (mRNA) expression signature of the five genes was determined in 144 PCa and benign prostate specimens from prostatectomy. We showed that the five-gene panel distinguished PCa from benign prostate with sensitivity of 96.59 %, specificity of 92.86 %, and area under the curve (AUC) of 0.992 (p < 0.0001). The five-gene panel was further validated in a 137 specimen cohort and showed sensitivity of 84.62 %, specificity of 91.84 %, and AUC of 0.942 (p < 0.0001). To define subtypes of PCa for treatment guidance, we examined mRNA expression signature of an eight-gene panel in 87 PCa specimens from prostatectomy. The signature of the eight-gene panel was able to distinguish aggressive PCa (Gleason score >6) from indolent PCa (Gleason score ≤6) with sensitivity of 90.28 %, specificity of 80.00 %, and AUC of 0.967 (p < 0.0001). This panel was further validated in a 158 specimen cohort and showed significant difference between aggressive PCa and indolent PCa with sensitivity of 92.57 %, specificity of 70.00 %, and AUC of 0.962 (p < 0.0001). Our findings in assessing multiple biomarkers in combination may provide new tools to detect PCa and distinguish aggressive and indolent PCa for precision and personalized treatment. The two biomarker panels may be used in clinical settings for accurate PCa diagnosis and patient risk stratification

  3. Diagnosis and Management of Hereditary Renal Cell Cancer.

    PubMed

    Menko, Fred H; Maher, Eamonn R

    2016-01-01

    Renal cell cancer (RCC) is the common denominator for a heterogeneous group of diseases. The subclassification of these tumours is based on histological type and molecular pathogenesis. Insight into molecular pathogenesis has led to the development of targeted systemic therapies. Genetic susceptibility is the principal cause of RCC in about 2-4% of cases. Hereditary RCC is the umbrella term for about a dozen different conditions, the most frequent of which is von Hippel-Lindau disease . Here, we describe the main hereditary RCC syndromes, consider criteria for referral of RCC patients for clinical genetic assessment and discuss management options for patients with hereditary RCC and their at-risk relatives.

  4. Cooperative nanomaterials systems for cancer diagnosis and therapeutics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Ji Ho

    The unique electromagnetic and biologic properties of nanomaterials are being harnessed to build powerful new medical technologies. Particularly, there have been recently increasing interests in cancer nanotechnology, wherein nanomaterials play an important role in ultrasensitive imaging, targeting, and therapy of cancer. However, these nanomaterials typically function as individual units and are designed to independently perform their tasks. In this dissertation, new cooperative nanosystems consisting of two distinct nanomaterials that work together to target, identify, or treat tumors in vivo were studied. In the first two chapters, the synthesis of worm-shaped dextran-coated iron oxide nanoparticles (nanoworms, NW) exhibiting substantial in vivo circulation times and significant tumor targeting when coated with tumor-homing peptides were studied. NWs are also found to display a greater magnetic resonance (MR) response than the spherical nanoparticles. Next, two types of multifunctional nanoparticles were fabricated for simultaneous detection and treatment of cancer. Micellar hybrid nanoparticles (MHN) that contain magnetic nanoparticles, quantum dots, and an anti-cancer drug doxorubicin (DOX) within a single PEG-modified phospholipid micelle were first prepared. Simultaneous multimodal imaging (MR and fluorescence) and targeted drug delivery in vitro and in vivo was performed using DOX-incorporated targeted MHN. Secondly, luminescent porous silicon nanoparticles (LPSINP) that were drug-loadable, biodegradable and relatively non-toxic were prepared. In contrast to most inorganic nanomaterials, LPSINP were degraded in vivo in a relatively short time with no noticeable toxicity. The clearance and degradation of intravenously injected LPSINP in the bladder, liver, and spleen were established by whole-body fluorescence imaging. Finally, two types of cooperative nanomaterials systems to amplify targeting and deliver drugs efficiently to regions of tumor invasion were

  5. Diagnosis and Treatment of Testicular Cancer: A Clinician's Perspective.

    PubMed

    Bernard, Brandon; Sweeney, Christopher J

    2015-12-01

    Testicular germ cell tumors (GCTs) include seminoma and nonseminoma. Chance of cure is excellent for clinical stage I disease regardless of whether adjuvant treatment or a surveillance strategy with treatment only for those who relapse is used. Risk of recurrence is greater in nonseminoma with evidence of lymphovascular invasion, but most can be salvaged with chemotherapy and survival rates remain high. This article outlines key pathologic and clinical considerations in clinical stage I seminoma, nonseminoma, advanced disease, and assessment of cancer of unknown primary as a potential GCT.

  6. Application of MicroRNA in Diagnosis and Treatment of Ovarian Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Banno, Kouji; Yanokura, Megumi; Nakamura, Kanako; Nogami, Yuya; Umene, Kiyoko; Masuda, Kenta; Kisu, Iori; Nomura, Hiroyuki; Kataoka, Fumio; Tominaga, Eiichiro; Aoki, Daisuke

    2014-01-01

    Ovarian cancer has a poor prognosis because early detection is difficult and recurrent ovarian cancer is usually drug-resistant. The morbidity and mortality of ovarian cancer are high worldwide and new methods of diagnosis and therapy are needed. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are posttranscriptional regulators of gene expression that are involved in carcinogenesis, metastasis, and invasion. Thus, miRNAs are likely to be useful as diagnostic and prognostic biomarkers and for cancer therapy. Many miRNAs have altered expression in ovarian cancer compared to normal ovarian tissues and these changes may be useful for diagnosis and treatment. For example, deficiencies of enzymes including Dicer and Drosha that are required for miRNA biogenesis may be adverse prognostic factors; miRNAs such as miR-214 and miR-31, which are involved in drug resistance, and the miR-200 family, which is implicated in metastasis, may serve as biomarkers; and transfection of downregulated miRNAs and inhibition of upregulated miRNAs may be effective for treatment of ovarian cancer. Chemotherapy targeting epigenetic mechanisms associated with miRNAs may also be effective to reverse gene silencing. PMID:24822185

  7. Age at breast cancer diagnosis in populations of african and European ancestry.

    PubMed

    Kadhel, Philippe; Multigner, Luc

    2014-01-01

    Based on US national cancer registry data, age differences at breast cancer diagnosis have been reported between African-American women and European-American women. Such differences between populations of African and European ancestry have not been studied in other countries at a nationwide level. Here, we report and compare descriptive nationwide epidemiological indicators of invasive breast cancer for the populations of European ancestry living in the US and in mainland France and for women of African ancestry living in the US and in the French West Indies (Martinique and Guadeloupe). Based on the available data, we determined age frequency distributions, world age-standardized incidence, and the distribution of expected cases of breast cancer in a standard population of women by age. The age frequency distributions revealed that women of African ancestry were younger at diagnosis than women of European ancestry. By contrast, compared with the US regardless of ancestry and mainland France, the standardized incidences appeared lower, and the largest numbers of expected cases younger, in the French West Indies. The populations with African ancestry were not homogeneous in terms of epidemiologic indicators of age-related breast cancer. These descriptive findings suggest that populations of African ancestry cannot be considered uniform when determining whether it would be appropriate to decrease the age of entry into screening programs for breast cancer.

  8. The status of and future research into Myalgic Encephalomyelitis and Chronic Fatigue Syndrome: the need of accurate diagnosis, objective assessment, and acknowledging biological and clinical subgroups

    PubMed Central

    Twisk, Frank N. M.

    2014-01-01

    Although Myalgic Encephalomyelitis (ME) and Chronic Fatigue Syndrome (CFS) are used interchangeably, the diagnostic criteria define two distinct clinical entities. Cognitive impairment, (muscle) weakness, circulatory disturbances, marked variability of symptoms, and, above all, post-exertional malaise: a long-lasting increase of symptoms after a minor exertion, are distinctive symptoms of ME. This latter phenomenon separates ME, a neuro-immune illness, from chronic fatigue (syndrome), other disorders and deconditioning. The introduction of the label, but more importantly the diagnostic criteria for CFS have generated much confusion, mostly because chronic fatigue is a subjective and ambiguous notion. CFS was redefined in 1994 into unexplained (persistent or relapsing) chronic fatigue, accompanied by at least four out of eight symptoms, e.g., headaches and unrefreshing sleep. Most of the research into ME and/or CFS in the last decades was based upon the multivalent CFS criteria, which define a heterogeneous patient group. Due to the fact that fatigue and other symptoms are non-discriminative, subjective experiences, research has been hampered. Various authors have questioned the physiological nature of the symptoms and qualified ME/CFS as somatization. However, various typical symptoms can be assessed objectively using standardized methods. Despite subjective and unclear criteria and measures, research has observed specific abnormalities in ME/CFS repetitively, e.g., immunological abnormalities, oxidative and nitrosative stress, neurological anomalies, circulatory deficits and mitochondrial dysfunction. However, to improve future research standards and patient care, it is crucial that patients with post-exertional malaise (ME) and patients without this odd phenomenon are acknowledged as separate clinical entities that the diagnosis of ME and CFS in research and clinical practice is based upon accurate criteria and an objective assessment of characteristic symptoms

  9. The effect of artificial neural network model combined with six tumor markers in auxiliary diagnosis of lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Feng, Feifei; Wu, Yiming; Wu, Yongjun; Nie, Guangjin; Ni, Ran

    2012-10-01

    To evaluate the diagnosis potential of artificial neural network (ANN) model combined with six tumor markers in auxiliary diagnosis of lung cancer, to differentiate lung cancer from lung benign disease, normal control, and gastrointestinal cancers. Serum carcino-embryonic antigen (CEA), gastrin, neurone specific enolase (NSE), sialic acid (SA), Cu/Zn, Ca were measured through different experimental procedures in 117 lung cancer patients, 93 lung benign disease patients, 111 normal control, 47 gastric cancer patients, 50 patients with colon cancer and 50 esophagus cancer patients, 19 parameters of basic information were surveyed among lung cancer, lung benign disease and normal control, then developed and evaluated ANN models to distinguish lung cancer. Using the ANN model with the six serum tumor markers and 19 parameters to distinguish lung cancer from benign lung disease and healthy people, the sensitivity was 98.3%, the specificity was 99.5% and the accuracy was 96.9%. Another three ANN models with the six serum tumor markers were employed to differentiate lung cancer from three gastrointestinal cancers, the sensitivity, specificity and accuracy of distinguishing lung cancer from gastric cancer by the ANN model of lung cancer-gastric cancer were 100%, 83.3% and 93.5%, respectively; The sensitivity, specificity and accuracy of discriminating lung cancer by lung cancer-colon cancer ANN model were 90.0%, 90.0%, and 90.0%; And which were 86.7%, 84.6%, and 86.0%, respectively, by lung cancer-esophagus cancer ANN model. ANN model built with the six serum tumor markers could distinguish lung cancer, not only from lung benign disease and normal people, but also from three common gastrointestinal cancers. And our evidence indicates the ANN model maybe is an excellent and intelligent system to discriminate lung cancer.

  10. Detection of multiple mutations in urinary exfoliated cells from male bladder cancer patients at diagnosis and during follow-up

    PubMed Central

    Critelli, Rossana; Fasanelli, Francesca; Oderda, Marco; Polidoro, Silvia; Assumma, Manuela Bianca; Viberti, Clara; Preto, Mirko; Gontero, Paolo; Cucchiarale, Giuseppina; Lurkin, Irene; Zwarthoff, Ellen C.; Vineis, Paolo; Sacerdote, Carlotta; Matullo, Giuseppe; Naccarati, Alessio

    2016-01-01

    Most bladder cancer (BC) patients need life-long, invasive and expensive monitoring and treatment, making it a serious burden on the health system. Thus, there is a pressing need for an accurate test to assist diagnosis and surveillance of BC as an alternative to cystoscopy. Mutations in human TERT, FGFR3, PIK3CA, and RAS genes have been proposed as potential molecular markers in bladder tumor. Their concomitant presence in urine samples has not been fully explored. We investigated a panel of mutations in DNA from exfoliated urinary cells of 255 BC patients at diagnosis. Forty-one mutations in TERT, FGFR3, PIK3CA, and RAS were analyzed by SNaPshot assay in relation to clinical outcome. In 81 of these patients under surveillance, the same set of mutations was screened in additional 324 samples prospectively collected. The most common mutations detected in urine at diagnosis were in the TERT promoter. In non-invasive BC, these mutations were related to high risk and grade (p<0.0001) as well as progression to muscle-invasive disease (p=0.01), whereas FGFR3 mutations were observed in low-grade BC (p=0.02) and patients with recurrences (p=0.05). Stronger associations were observed for combined TERT and FGFR3 mutations and number of recurrences (OR: 4.54 95% CI: 1.23-16.79, p=0.02). Analyses of the area under the curve for combinations of mutations detected at diagnosis and follow-up showed an accuracy of prediction of recurrence of 0.80 (95% CI: 0.71-0.89). Mutations in urine of BC patients may represent reliable biomarkers. In particular, TERT and FGFR3 mutations have a good accuracy of recurrence prediction. PMID:27611947

  11. Indirect fluorescence laryngoscopy in the diagnosis of precancerous and cancerous laryngeal lesions.

    PubMed

    Arens, C; Reussner, D; Woenkhaus, J; Leunig, A; Betz, C S; Glanz, H

    2007-06-01

    Indirect fluorescence endoscopy of the larynx has proven to facilitate the detection and delineation of precancerous and cancerous lesion. The different methods are easy to handle and can be performed on an outpatient basis. Early diagnosis of laryngeal cancer and its precursor lesions is simplified. The aim of the present study is to compare indirect autofluorescence laryngoscopy to 5-ALA-induced PPIX fluorescence laryngoscopy. In a prospective study, 56 patients with suspected precancerous or cancerous lesions were primarily investigated by indirect autofluorescence laryngoscopy. In a second step 5-ALA-NaCl (0.6%) was topically applied to the larynx by inhalation, and indirect fluorescence laryngoscopy repeated 2 h after application. Autofluorescence as well as 5-ALA-induced fluorescence was induced by filtered light (375-440 nm) of a xenon short arc lamp and processed by a CCD camera system (D-light-AF System, Storz, Tuttlingen, Germany). White-light and fluorescence images were digitally recorded, immediately assessed for diagnosis and finally compared to pathohistological findings. Inconspicuous laryngeal mucosa presented a typical green fluorescence signal in autofluorescence endoscopy, which turned blue during 5-ALA-laryngoscopy. Precancerous and cancerous lesions displayed a loss of autofluorescence in autofluorescence endoscopy whereas increased protoporphyrin IX fluorescence could be observed in 5-ALA laryngoscopy. Both imaging techniques were suitable to distinguish benign from precancerous or cancerous lesions. In contrast PPIX fluorescence was easily recognized in scarred vocal folds. According to our results, both non-invasive fluorescence imaging techniques are useful in the early diagnosis of laryngeal cancer. Moreover autofluorescence can be used immediately without drug application and possible side effects. 5-ALA-induced fluorescence seems to be more suited for diagnostic examination of mucosal lesions in recurrent precancerous and cancerous

  12. LED induced autofluorescence (LIAF) imager with eight multi-filters for oral cancer diagnosis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Ting-Wei; Cheng, Nai-Lun; Tsai, Ming-Hsui; Chiou, Jin-Chern; Mang, Ou-Yang

    2016-03-01

    Oral cancer is one of the serious and growing problem in many developing and developed countries. The simple oral visual screening by clinician can reduce 37,000 oral cancer deaths annually worldwide. However, the conventional oral examination with the visual inspection and the palpation of oral lesions is not an objective and reliable approach for oral cancer diagnosis, and it may cause the delayed hospital treatment for the patients of oral cancer or leads to the oral cancer out of control in the late stage. Therefore, a device for oral cancer detection are developed for early diagnosis and treatment. A portable LED Induced autofluorescence (LIAF) imager is developed by our group. It contained the multiple wavelength of LED excitation light and the rotary filter ring of eight channels to capture ex-vivo oral tissue autofluorescence images. The advantages of LIAF imager compared to other devices for oral cancer diagnosis are that LIAF imager has a probe of L shape for fixing the object distance, protecting the effect of ambient light, and observing the blind spot in the deep port between the gumsgingiva and the lining of the mouth. Besides, the multiple excitation of LED light source can induce multiple autofluorescence, and LIAF imager with the rotary filter ring of eight channels can detect the spectral images of multiple narrow bands. The prototype of a portable LIAF imager is applied in the clinical trials for some cases in Taiwan, and the images of the clinical trial with the specific excitation show the significant differences between normal tissue and oral tissue under these cases.

  13. Application of artificial neural network model combined with four biomarkers in auxiliary diagnosis of lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Duan, Xiaoran; Yang, Yongli; Tan, Shanjuan; Wang, Sihua; Feng, Xiaolei; Cui, Liuxin; Feng, Feifei; Yu, Songcheng; Wang, Wei; Wu, Yongjun

    2016-10-20

    The purpose of the study was to explore the application of artificial neural network model in the auxiliary diagnosis of lung cancer and compare the effects of back-propagation (BP) neural network with Fisher discrimination model for lung cancer screening by the combined detections of four biomarkers of p16, RASSF1A and FHIT gene promoter methylation levels and the relative telomere length. Real-time quantitative methylation-specific PCR was used to detect the levels of three-gene promoter methylation, and real-time PCR method was applied to determine the relative telomere length. BP neural network and Fisher discrimination analysis were used to establish the discrimination diagnosis model. The levels of three-gene promoter methylation in patients with lung cancer were significantly higher than those of the normal controls. The values of Z(P) in two groups were 2.641 (0.008), 2.075 (0.038) and 3.044 (0.002), respectively. The relative telomere lengths of patients with lung cancer (0.93 ± 0.32) were significantly lower than those of the normal controls (1.16 ± 0.57), t = 4.072, P < 0.001. The areas under the ROC curve (AUC) and 95 % CI of prediction set from Fisher discrimination analysis and BP neural network were 0.670 (0.569-0.761) and 0.760 (0.664-0.840). The AUC of BP neural network was higher than that of Fisher discrimination analysis, and Z(P) was 0.76. Four biomarkers are associated with lung cancer. BP neural network model for the prediction of lung cancer is better than Fisher discrimination analysis, and it can provide an excellent and intelligent diagnosis tool for lung cancer.

  14. [Development of micro/nano devices for cancer diagnosis].

    PubMed

    Yoon, Dae Sung; Kang, Ji Yoon; Kim, Tae Song

    2007-05-01

    In order to rapidly detect and analyze the presence of a target ligand of interests in environmental or industrial fluids as well as biological samples, numerous test systems have been designed and developed, which have been based on the combination of a test reagent and absorbing paper or membrane. The main limitations of these conventional devices are the difficulty of quantitative or semi-quantitative detection and poor detection limit (around nanogram/ml range detection capability). In this paper, new approaches and research trends which use nano/MEMS (micro electro mechanical systems) technology is introduced, which has a concept of fast, precise, and massive diagnosis and analysis of target molecules using very small amount of samples.

  15. Use of Lugol's iodine in oral cancer diagnosis: an overview.

    PubMed

    Petruzzi, Massimo; Lucchese, Alberta; Baldoni, Edoardo; Grassi, Felice Roberto; Serpico, Rosario

    2010-11-01

    Early diagnosis of oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) still represents an important challenge for clinicians and patients. Vital staining such as toluidine blue and Lugol's iodine solution, are routinely used in the OSCC detection but few data exist about the last one. A literature review is made to evaluate the effectiveness and safety of Lugol's iodine solution in OSCC detection and in its margins demarcation. A review was made of the studies published between 1990 and 2010 in relation to the application of Lugol's iodine for OSCC detection and a better definition of its margins. Data obtained point to the utility and the safety of Lugol's iodine when employed for detection and margins delineation of OSCC and dysplasia. All the studies consulted found the Lugol's iodine to be effective, cheap and easy to use and they emphasized its importance in clinical practice. There is need for larger controlled, randomized studies with carefully selected and standardized outcome measures and patients.

  16. Does the age of breast cancer diagnosis in first-degree relatives impact on the risk of breast cancer in BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers?

    PubMed

    Semple, John; Metcalfe, Kelly A; Lubinski, Jan; Huzarski, Tomasz; Gronwald, Jacek; Armel, Susan; Lynch, Henry T; Karlan, Beth; Foulkes, William; Singer, Christian F; Neuhausen, Susan L; Eng, Charis; Iqbal, Javaid; Narod, Steven A

    2015-11-01

    The purpose of this study is to estimate the age-specific annual risks of breast cancer in a woman with a germline BRCA mutation and an affected first-degree relative according to the age of breast cancer diagnosis in the relative. Women with BRCA mutations with no previous diagnosis of breast cancer and with one first-degree relative with breast cancer were followed for breast cancers for a mean of 5.9 years (minimum 2 years). Age-specific annual breast cancer risks were calculated, according to the age of breast cancer diagnosis in the proband and the first-degree relative. 1114 cancer-free women with a BRCA mutation with a single first-degree relative with breast cancer were eligible for the study. 122 women (11.0 %) were diagnosed with incident breast cancer. The annual risk of breast cancer was 2.0 % for women with BRCA1 mutations and was 1.6 % for women with BRCA2 mutations. The age of breast cancer diagnosis in the first-degree relative did not affect the annual breast cancer risks for BRCA1 mutation carriers. For BRCA2 mutation carriers, the annual breast cancer risk was 4.5 % for women with a first-degree relative diagnosed with breast cancer under the age of 30 years and was 0.7 % for women with a relative diagnosed over the age of 60. Among women with BRCA2 mutations, a family history of early-onset breast cancer is a risk factor for developing breast cancer. Risk assessment for healthy BRCA2 mutation carriers should consider the ages of breast cancers diagnosed in first-degree relatives.

  17. Age-related longitudinal changes in depressive symptoms following breast cancer diagnosis and treatment.

    PubMed

    Avis, Nancy E; Levine, Beverly; Naughton, Michelle J; Case, L Douglas; Naftalis, Elizabeth; Van Zee, Kimberly J

    2013-05-01

    Younger women being treated for breast cancer consistently show greater depression shortly after diagnosis than older women. In this longitudinal study, we examine whether these age differences persist over the first 26 months following diagnosis and identify factors related to change in depressive symptoms. A total of 653 women within 8 months of a first time breast cancer diagnosis completed questionnaires at baseline and three additional timepoints (6, 12, and 18 months after baseline) on contextual/patient characteristics, symptoms, and psychosocial variables. Chart reviews provided cancer and treatment-related data. The primary outcome was depressive symptomatology assessed by the Beck Depression Inventory. Among women younger than age 65, depressive symptoms were highest soon after diagnosis and significantly decreased over time. Depressive symptoms remained stable and low for women aged 65 and older. Age was no longer significantly related to depressive symptoms in multivariable analyses controlling for a wide range of covariates. The primary factors related to levels of and declines in depressive symptomatology were the ability to pay for basics; completing chemotherapy with doxorubicin; and decreases in pain, vasomotor symptoms, illness intrusiveness, and passive coping. Increased sense of meaning/peace and social support were related to decreased depression. Interventions to reduce symptoms and illness intrusiveness, improve a sense of meaning and peace, and increase social support, may help reduce depression and such interventions may be especially relevant for younger women.

  18. Optical spectroscopy diagnosis for serum of normal and digestive canal cancer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xiaozhou; Jin, Huiqiang; Wang, Yuepeng

    2003-07-01

    To investigate the spectral specialities of digestive cancer serum for diagnosis, fluorescence and Raman spectra of normal, digestive cancer (both before and after operation), such as stomach cancer, esophagus cancer and atrophic gastritis sera were measured in the visible region in this study. Results demonstrate several points. First, all spectra except esophagus cancer were characterized by three sharp peaks (A, B and C), but we cannot differentiate them from each other at once. The intensity of each peak was different in different spectrum. Second, after samples were radiated by laser, fluorescence weakend along with red shift of its band center, and spectral changes of normal and stomach cancer (after operation) cases were different from other samples. It was also observed that spectral changes of atrophic gastritis were very similar with stomach cancer (such as the red shift of fluorescence peak is more than 12 nm) after radiated by laser, however, there are still some distinctions that can be used to differentiate them from each other. At last, a notable difference is that the relative intensity of peak C excited by 488.0 nm is higher than excited by 514.5 nm in spectrum of stomach cancer, whereas lower in other cases.

  19. Tumour biology of obesity-related cancers: understanding the molecular concept for better diagnosis and treatment.

    PubMed

    Teoh, Seong Lin; Das, Srijit

    2016-11-01

    Obesity continues to be a major global problem. Various cancers are related to obesity and proper understanding of their aetiology, especially their molecular tumour biology is important for early diagnosis and better treatment. Genes play an important role in the development of obesity. Few genes such as leptin, leptin receptor encoded by the db (diabetes), pro-opiomelanocortin, AgRP and NPY and melanocortin-4 receptors and insulin-induced gene 2 were linked to obesity. MicroRNAs control gene expression via mRNA degradation and protein translation inhibition and influence cell differentiation, cell growth and cell death. Overexpression of miR-143 inhibits tumour growth by suppressing B cell lymphoma 2, extracellular signal-regulated kinase-5 activities and KRAS oncogene. Cancers of the breast, uterus, renal, thyroid and liver are also related to obesity. Any disturbance in the production of sex hormones and insulin, leads to distortion in the balance between cell proliferation, differentiation and apoptosis. The possible mechanism linking obesity to cancer involves alteration in the level of adipokines and sex hormones. These mediators act as biomarkers for cancer progression and act as targets for cancer therapy and prevention. Interestingly, many anti-cancerous drugs are also beneficial in treating obesity and vice versa. We also reviewed the possible link in the mechanism of few drugs which act both on cancer and obesity. The present review may be important for molecular biologists, oncologists and clinicians treating cancers and also pave the way for better therapeutic options.

  20. Precision medicine and molecular imaging: new targeted approaches toward cancer therapeutic and diagnosis

    PubMed Central

    Ghasemi, Mojtaba; Nabipour, Iraj; Omrani, Abdolmajid; Alipour, Zeinab; Assadi, Majid

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a review of the importance and role of precision medicine and molecular imaging technologies in cancer diagnosis with therapeutics and diagnostics purposes. Precision medicine is progressively becoming a hot topic in all disciplines related to biomedical investigation and has the capacity to become the paradigm for clinical practice. The future of medicine lies in early diagnosis and individually appropriate treatments, a concept that has been named precision medicine, i.e. delivering the right treatment to the right patient at the right time. Molecular imaging is quickly being recognized as a tool with the potential to ameliorate every aspect of cancer treatment. On the other hand, emerging high-throughput technologies such as omics techniques and systems approaches have generated a paradigm shift for biological systems in advanced life science research. In this review, we describe the precision medicine, difference between precision medicine and personalized medicine, precision medicine initiative, systems biology/medicine approaches (such as genomics, radiogenomics, transcriptomics, proteomics, and metabolomics), P4 medicine, relationship between systems biology/medicine approaches and precision medicine, and molecular imaging modalities and their utility in cancer treatment and diagnosis. Accordingly, the precision medicine and molecular imaging will enable us to accelerate and improve cancer management in future medicine. PMID:28078184

  1. Precision medicine and molecular imaging: new targeted approaches toward cancer therapeutic and diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Ghasemi, Mojtaba; Nabipour, Iraj; Omrani, Abdolmajid; Alipour, Zeinab; Assadi, Majid

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a review of the importance and role of precision medicine and molecular imaging technologies in cancer diagnosis with therapeutics and diagnostics purposes. Precision medicine is progressively becoming a hot topic in all disciplines related to biomedical investigation and has the capacity to become the paradigm for clinical practice. The future of medicine lies in early diagnosis and individually appropriate treatments, a concept that has been named precision medicine, i.e. delivering the right treatment to the right patient at the right time. Molecular imaging is quickly being recognized as a tool with the potential to ameliorate every aspect of cancer treatment. On the other hand, emerging high-throughput technologies such as omics techniques and systems approaches have generated a paradigm shift for biological systems in advanced life science research. In this review, we describe the precision medicine, difference between precision medicine and personalized medicine, precision medicine initiative, systems biology/medicine approaches (such as genomics, radiogenomics, transcriptomics, proteomics, and metabolomics), P4 medicine, relationship between systems biology/medicine approaches and precision medicine, and molecular imaging modalities and their utility in cancer treatment and diagnosis. Accordingly, the precision medicine and molecular imaging will enable us to accelerate and improve cancer management in future medicine.

  2. Significantly greater reduction in breast cancer mortality from post-diagnosis running than walking.

    PubMed

    Williams, Paul T

    2014-09-01

    The purpose of these analyses is to test prospectively whether post-diagnosis running and walking differ significantly in their association with breast cancer mortality. Cox proportional hazard analyses were used to compare breast cancer mortality to baseline exercise energy expenditure (METs, 1 MET-hour ≅1 km run) in 272 runners and 714 walkers previously diagnosed with breast cancer from the National Runners' and Walkers' Health Studies when adjusted for age, race, menopause, family history, breastfeeding and oral contraceptive use. Diagnosis occurred (mean ± SD) 7.9 ± 7.3 years before baseline. Forty-six women (13 runners and 33 walkers) died from breast cancer during 9.1-year mortality surveillance. For the 986 runners and walkers combined, breast cancer mortality decreased an average of 23.9% MET-hours/day [95% confidence interval (CI): 7.9-38.3%; p = 0.004]. There was a significantly greater decrease in risk for running than walking (risk per MET-hours/day run vs. walked: p = 0.03). For the 272 runners analyzed separately, breast cancer mortality decreased an average of 40.9% per MET-hours/day run (95% CI: 19.3-60.0%, p = 0.0004). When analyzed by categories of running energy expenditure, breast cancer mortality was 87.4% lower for the 1.8-3.6 MET-hours/day category (95% CI: 41.3-98.2% lower, p = 0.008) and 95.4% lower for the ≥3.6 MET-hours/day category (95% CI: 71.9-100% lower, p = 0.0004) compared to the <1.07 MET-hours/day category. In contrast, the 714 walkers showed a nonsignificant 4.6% decrease in breast cancer mortality per MET-hours/day walked (95% CI: 27.3% decreased risk to 21.3% increased risk, p = 0.71). These results suggest that post-diagnosis running is associated with significantly lower breast cancer mortality than post-diagnosis walking.

  3. Noninvasive diagnosis of oral cancer by Stokes shift spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ebenezar, Jeyasingh; Ganesan, Singaravelu; Aruna, Prakasrao; Muralinaidu, Radhakrishnan

    2014-03-01

    The objective of this study is to evaluate the diagnostic potential of stokes shift (SS) spectroscopy (S3) for normal, precancer and cancerous oral lesions in vivo. The SS spectra were recorded in the 250 - 650 nm spectral range by simultaneously scanning both the excitation and emission wavelengths while keeping a fixed wavelength interval Δλ=20 nm between them. Characteristic, highly resolved peaks and significant spectral differences between normal and different pathological oral lesions observed around 300, 355, 395, and 420 nm which are attributed to tryptophan, collagen, and NADH respectively. Using S3 technique one can obtain the key fluorophores in a single scan and hence they can be targeted as a tumor markers in this study. In order to quantify the altered spectral differences between normal and different pathological oral lesions are verified by different ratio parameters.

  4. [Alternative tests to PSA for prostate cancer diagnosis].

    PubMed

    Defilippi, Elio; Zitella, Andrea; Tizzani, Alessandro

    2011-01-01

    Prostate specific antigen (PSA) is still the most useful tool to select the population requiring prostatebiopsy. The main downsides of PSA are an inadequate sensitivity to be used in screening and a low specificity for cancer detection. So far, a limited value for PSA derivates (velocity, density, free, proisoforms and doubling time) has been recognised. We present a short review of the literature describing a selection of the most promising alternatives to PSA being studied currently: PCA3, serum kallikreins, serum detectable prostate specific membrane antigen, the nuclear matrix protein EPCA, EPCA-2, prostatic acid phosphatase, urine detectable GSTP1, anti-AMACR antibodies, sarcosine, plasminogen activating urokinase, IGFBP, TGF beta 1,PSP94, IL6, plasmatic DNA, serum autoantibodies, neuroendocrine markers, proteomic analysis.

  5. Efficacy of digital breast tomosynthesis for breast cancer diagnosis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alakhras, M.; Mello-Thoms, C.; Rickard, M.; Bourne, R.; Brennan, P. C.

    2014-03-01

    Purpose: To compare the diagnostic performance of digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT) in combination with digital mammography (DM) with that of digital mammography alone. Materials and Methods: Twenty six experienced radiologists who specialized in breast imaging read 50 cases (27 cancers and 23 non-cancer cases) of patients who underwent DM and DBT. Both exams included the craniocaudal (CC) and mediolateral oblique (MLO) views. Histopathologic examination established truth in all lesions. Each case was interpreted in two modes, once with DM alone followed by DM+DBT, and the observers were asked to mark the location of any lesions, if present, and give it a score based on a five-category assessment by the Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Radiologists (RANZCR). The diagnostic performance of DM compared with that of DM+DBT was evaluated in terms of the difference between areas under receiver-operating characteristic curves (AUCs), Jackknife free-response receiver operator characteristics (JAFROC) figure-of-merit, sensitivity, location sensitivity and specificity. Results: Average AUC and JAFROC for DM versus DM+DBT was significantly different (AUCs 0.690 vs 0.781, p=< 0.0001), (JAFROC 0.618 vs. 0.732, p=< 0.0001) respectively. In addition, the use of DM+DBT resulted in an improvement in sensitivity (0.629 vs. 0.701, p=0.0011), location sensitivity (0.548 vs. 0.690, p=< 0.0001) and specificity (0.656 vs. 0.758, p=0.0015) when compared to DM alone. Conclusion: Adding DBT to the standard DM significantly improved radiologists' performance in terms of AUCs, JAFROC figure of merit, sensitivity, location sensitivity and specificity values.

  6. [Parameters of PSA fractions in early diagnosis of prostatic cancer in healthy males over 50].

    PubMed

    Loran, O B; Krokhotina, L V; Pushkar', D Iu; Valiev, A Z; Rasner, P I

    1999-01-01

    292 symptomless males aged 50-85 years were examined for blood prostate-specific antigen (PSA) for early diagnosis of prostatic cancer. Males with total PSA (TPSA) higher than age-specific standard underwent free PSA (FPSA) assay to estimate FPSA/TPSA and transperineal biopsy of the prostate. TPSA ranged from 0.3 to 112.0 ng/ml and exceeded the age standard in 102 examinees (35%). Prognostically unfavorable FPSA/TPSA (under 15%) was registered in 17(5.8%) examinees. Biopsy of the prostate has revealed cancer in 7 of them. Among those whose TPSA was above the standard, but FPSA/TPSA > 15%, morphologically verified prostatic cancer was detected in 5 males. It is thought valid to include the method of PSA fractions estimation in the program of screening for males at risk to develop prostatic cancer as it is simple, cost effective and highly informative.

  7. Assessment of Aurora a Kinase Expression in Breast Cancer: A Tool for Early Diagnosis?

    PubMed Central

    Ferchichi, Imen; Sassi Hannachi, Samia; Baccar, Amal; Marrakchi Triki, Raja; Cremet, Jean Yves; Ben Romdhane, Khaled; Prigent, Claude; Ben Ammar El Gaaied, Amel

    2013-01-01

    Aurora A kinase is overexpressed in many cancers but the status of this protein in the breast cancer often varies. We investigate the expression and localization of Aurora A protein in relation with tumor emergence and progression in breast cancer. Aurora A kinase status was evaluated in 107 patients using immunohistochemistry. The experimental findings showed that high expression of the Aurora A protein was correlated with elevated nuclear grade, low expression of progesterone receptor and positive nodal status. The experimental results showed also that the localization of this kinase shifts from cytoplasm in non malignant adjacent tissue to both cytoplasmic and nuclear compartments in tumoral tissue, suggesting an oncogenic role of the nuclear accumulation. We have, furthermore, detected the overexpression of this protein in non malignant adjacent tissue. The expression of the Aurora A kinase in non malignant tissue may represent an earlier diagnosis tool for breast cancer. PMID:23324574

  8. Real-time optical diagnosis of gastric cancer with serosal invasion using multiphoton imaging

    PubMed Central

    Yan, Jun; Zheng, Yu; Zheng, Xiaoling; Liu, Zhangyuanzhu; Liu, Wenju; Chen, Dexin; Dong, Xiaoyu; Li, Kai; Liu, Xiumin; Chen, Gang; Lu, Jianping; Chen, Jianxin; Zhuo, Shuangmu; Li, Guoxin

    2016-01-01

    A real-time optical biopsy, which could determine tissue histopathology, would be of extraordinary benefit to staging laparoscopy for gastric cancer with serosal invasion (T4) that requires downstage treatment. We investigated the feasibility of using multiphoton imaging to perform a real-time optical diagnosis of gastric cancer with or without serosal invasion. First, a pilot study was performed to establish the optical diagnostic features of gastric cancer with or without serosal invasion using multiphoton imaging compared with hematoxylin-eosin staining and Masson’s trichrome staining. Second, a blinded study was performed to compare the diagnostic sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy of multiphoton imaging and endoscopic ultrasonography (EUS) for T4 gastric cancer. In the pilot study, multiphoton imaging revealed collagen loss and degradation and cellular and nuclear pleomorphism in gastric cancer with serosal invasion. The collagen content in gastric cancer with or without serosal invasion was 0.36 ± 0.18 and 0.79 ± 0.16 (p < 0.001), respectively. In the blinded study, the sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy of EUS and multiphoton imaging for T4 gastric cancer were 70% and 90% (p = 0.029), 66.67% and 96.67% (p = 0.003), and 68.33% and 93.33% (p = 0.001), respectively. It is feasible to use multiphoton imaging to make a real-time optical diagnosis of gastric cancer with or without serosal invasion. PMID:27499365

  9. A Novel Electrochemical Microfluidic Chip Combined with Multiple Biomarkers for Early Diagnosis of Gastric Cancer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, Yao; Zhi, Xiao; Su, Haichuan; Wang, Kan; Yan, Zhen; He, Nongyue; Zhang, Jingpu; Chen, Di; Cui, Daxiang

    2015-12-01

    Early diagnosis is very important to improve the survival rate of patients with gastric cancer and to understand the biology of cancer. In order to meet the clinical demands for early diagnosis of gastric cancer, we developed a disposable easy-to-use electrochemical microfluidic chip combined with multiple antibodies against six kinds of biomarkers (carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA), carbohydrate antigen 19-9 (CA19-9), Helicobacter pylori CagA protein (H.P.), P53oncoprotein (P53), pepsinogen I (PG I), and PG-II). The six kinds of biomarkers related to gastric cancer can be detected sensitively and synchronously in a short time. The specially designed three electrodes system enables cross-contamination to be avoided effectively. The linear ranges of detection of the electrochemical microfluidic chip were as follows: 0.37-90 ng mL-1 for CEA, 10.75-172 U mL-1 for CA19-9, 10-160 U L-1 for H.P., 35-560 ng mL-1 for P53, 37.5-600 ng mL-1 for PG I, and 2.5-80 ng mL-1for PG II. This method owns better sensitivity compared with enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) results of 394 specimens of gastric cancer sera. Furthermore, we established a multi-index prediction model based on the six kinds of biomarkers for predicting risk of gastric cancer. In conclusion, the electrochemical microfluidic chip for detecting multiple biomarkers has great potential in applications such as early screening of gastric cancer patients, and therapeutic evaluation, and real-time dynamic monitoring the progress of gastric cancer in near future.

  10. Project for the National Program of Early Diagnosis of Endometrial Cancer Part II

    PubMed Central

    Bohîlțea, RE; Ancăr, V; Rădoi, V; Furtunescu, F; Bohîlțea, LC

    2015-01-01

    Rationale: Endometrial cancer recorded a peak incidence in ages 60-64 years in Romania. Since 2013, an increased trend of endometrial cancer occurrence has been registered in urban areas as compared with rural ones. Unfortunately, most of the cancer cases are diagnosed too late, in an advanced stage of the disease, resulting into diminished lifetime expectancy. The first part of the article concentrated on issues such as: the description of the study, results, and discussions regarding the study, definitions and terms, risk factors specific for endometrial carcinomas, presentation of the activities of the Program, etc. Objective: Drafting a national program that will serve as an early diagnosis method of endometrial cancer. This second part of the study continues with the presentation of the activities of the Program, analyzes the human resources and materials needed to implement the Program, presents the strategies and the indicators specific for the implementation of the project. Methods and Results: A standardization of the diagnostic steps was proposed and the focus was on 4 key elements for the early diagnosis of endometrial cancer: The first steps were approached in the first part of the study and the second part of the study investigated the proper monitoring of precursor endometrial lesions or cancer associated endometrial lesions and screening high risk populations (Lynch syndrome, Cowden syndrome). Discussion: Improving medical practice based on diagnostic algorithms and programs improves and increases the lifetime expectancy, due to the fact that endometrial cancer is early diagnosed and treated before it causes serious health problems or even death. Abbreviations: ASCCP = American Society for Colposcopy and Cervical Pathology, CT = Computerized Tomography, HNPCC = Hereditary Nonpolyposis Colorectal Cancer (Lynch syndrome), IHC = Immunohistochemistry, MSI = Microsatellites instability, MSI-H/ MSI-L = high (positive test)/ low (negative test

  11. An integrated approach to blood-based cancer diagnosis and biomarker discovery.

    PubMed

    Min, Martin Renqiang; Chowdhury, Salim; Qi, Yanjun; Stewart, Alex; Ostroff, Rachel

    2014-01-01

    Disrupted or abnormal biological processes responsible for cancers often quantitatively manifest as disrupted additive and multiplicative interactions of gene/protein expressions correlating with cancer progression. However, the examination of all possible combinatorial interactions between gene features in most case-control studies with limited training data is computationally infeasible. In this paper, we propose a practically feasible data integration approach, QUIRE (QUadratic Interactions among infoRmative fEatures), to identify discriminative complex interactions among informative gene features for cancer diagnosis and biomarker discovery directly based on patient blood samples. QUIRE works in two stages, where it first identifies functionally relevant gene groups for the disease with the help of gene functional annotations and available physical protein interactions, then it explores the combinatorial relationships among the genes from the selected informative groups. Based on our private experimentally generated data from patient blood samples using a novel SOMAmer (Slow Off-rate Modified Aptamer) technology, we apply QUIRE to cancer diagnosis and biomarker discovery for Renal Cell Carcinoma (RCC) and Ovarian Cancer (OVC). To further demonstrate the general applicability of our approach, we also apply QUIRE to a publicly available Colorectal Cancer (CRC) dataset that can be used to prioritize our SOMAmer design. Our experimental results show that QUIRE identifies gene-gene interactions that can better identify the different cancer stages of samples, as compared to other state-of-the-art feature selection methods. A literature survey shows that many of the interactions identified by QUIRE play important roles in the development of cancer.

  12. A Novel Electrochemical Microfluidic Chip Combined with Multiple Biomarkers for Early Diagnosis of Gastric Cancer.

    PubMed

    Xie, Yao; Zhi, Xiao; Su, Haichuan; Wang, Kan; Yan, Zhen; He, Nongyue; Zhang, Jingpu; Chen, Di; Cui, Daxiang

    2015-12-01

    Early diagnosis is very important to improve the survival rate of patients with gastric cancer and to understand the biology of cancer. In order to meet the clinical demands for early diagnosis of gastric cancer, we developed a disposable easy-to-use electrochemical microfluidic chip combined with multiple antibodies against six kinds of biomarkers (carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA), carbohydrate antigen 19-9 (CA19-9), Helicobacter pylori CagA protein (H.P.), P53oncoprotein (P53), pepsinogen I (PG I), and PG-II). The six kinds of biomarkers related to gastric cancer can be detected sensitively and synchronously in a short time. The specially designed three electrodes system enables cross-contamination to be avoided effectively. The linear ranges of detection of the electrochemical microfluidic chip were as follows: 0.37-90 ng mL(-1) for CEA, 10.75-172 U mL(-1) for CA19-9, 10-160 U L(-1) for H.P., 35-560 ng mL(-1) for P53, 37.5-600 ng mL(-1) for PG I, and 2.5-80 ng mL(-1)for PG II. This method owns better sensitivity compared with enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) results of 394 specimens of gastric cancer sera. Furthermore, we established a multi-index prediction model based on the six kinds of biomarkers for predicting risk of gastric cancer. In conclusion, the electrochemical microfluidic chip for detecting multiple biomarkers has great potential in applications such as early screening of gastric cancer patients, and therapeutic evaluation, and real-time dynamic monitoring the progress of gastric cancer in near future.

  13. [Pathologic diagnosis of pancreatic cancer--facts, pitfalls, challenges].

    PubMed

    Zalatnai, A

    2001-09-02

    Discrimination between the well differentiated pancreatic carcinoma and the chronic fibrotizing pancreatitis is one of the most difficult diagnostic problems in the field of pancreatology, and it is also a challenge for the pathologist. The author outlines those objective facts that might lead to diagnostic errors. The two diseases may coexist; on the one hand, malignant tumor can be developed as a complication of a long-standing chronic pancreatitis, while on the other hand, pancreatic carcinoma is frequently accompanied by chronic inflammation. The majority of adenocarcinomas induce a striking desmoplastic stromal reaction, but the chronic pancreatitis is also characterized by a vigorous fibroblast proliferation leading to the possibility of macroscopical misdiagnosis. Microscopically, the pancreatitis can be mistaken for carcinoma, because the actively growing connective tissue irregularly separates the ducts and in addition, the continuous regenerative activity may lead to regressive atypia. For that reason, cytopathologist must evaluate several criteria together, because the nuclear alterations by themselves can be misleading. Although there are some promising new differential diagnostic techniques (apomucins, CAM 17.1, telomerase activity, loss of chromosome Y), so far the most reliable method has been the meticulous evaluation of the cellular and histological findings by the well trained pathologist. To date, molecular pathological methods have shown no advantage in the differential diagnosis.

  14. [Influence of body weight on the prognosis of breast cancer survivors; nutritional approach after diagnosis].

    PubMed

    Rodríguez San Felipe, María Jesús; Aguilar Martínez, Alicia; Manuel-y-Keenoy, Begoña

    2013-11-01

    Obesity combined with breast cancer is a public health problem, given the high incidence and prevalence of both diseases. The aim of this review is to determine the current status of research on the relationship between the body weight of breast cancer patients and their prognosis. Overweight and obesity at the time of diagnosis are associated with a worse prognosis in breast cancer survivors. Observational studies show that breast cancer mortality is 33% higher in obese than in non-obese survivors. Furthermore, weight gain after diagnosis is common in these patients and is even greater in those receiving chemotherapy. Weight gains of 2-8 kg are observed in 68% of patients 3 years after diagnosis. Each 5 kg increase in body weight is associated with a 13% increase in breast cancer specific mortality. The mechanisms that cause this weight gain are not totally known. A higher weight gain is also associated with higher the risk of co-morbid cardiometabolic diseases, which worsen the quality of life and shorten overall survival. On the other hand, excess adipose tissue is an indirect promoter of tumor cell proliferation and releases circulating estrogens. Hence, preventing excess weight is important in these patients. An important limitation is the small number of randomised controlled trials investigating the type of diet that could be recommended specifically to breast cancer survivors. The evidence from current studies suggests that a healthy diet, low in fat and simple sugars and with a high proportion of fruit, vegetables and wholegrain products, has the potential to reduce morbidity and the risk of recurrence significantly, thus improving prognosis and quality of life in the long term.

  15. Inertia based microfluidic capture and characterisation of circulating tumour cells for the diagnosis of lung cancer

    PubMed Central

    Chudasama, Dimple Y.; Freydina, Daria V.; Freidin, Maxim B.; Leung, Maria; Montero Fernandez, Angeles; Rice, Alexandra; Nicholson, Andrew G.; Karteris, Emmanouil; Anikin, Vladimir

    2016-01-01

    Background Routine clinical application of circulating tumour cells (CTCs) for blood based diagnostics is yet to be established. Despite growing evidence of their clinical utility for diagnosis, prognosis and treatment monitoring, the efficacy of a robust platform and universally accepted diagnostic criteria remain uncertain. We evaluate the diagnostic performance of a microfluidic CTC isolation platform using cytomorphologic criteria in patients undergoing lung cancer surgery. Methods Blood was processed from 51 patients undergoing surgery for known or suspected lung cancer using the ClearBridge ClearCell FX systemTM (ClearBridge Biomedics, Singapore). Captured cells were stained on slides with haematoxylin and eosin (H&E) and independently assessed by two pathologist teams. Diagnostic performance was evaluated against the pathologists reported diagnosis of cancer from surgically obtained specimens. Results Cancer was diagnosed in 43.1% and 54.9% of all cases. In early stage primary lung cancer, between the two reporting teams, a positive diagnosis of CTCs was made for 50% and 66.7% of patients. The agreement between the reporting teams was 80.4%, corresponding to a kappa-statistic of 0.61±0.11 (P<0.001), indicating substantial agreement. Sensitivity levels for the two teams were calculated as 59% (95% CI, 41–76%) and 41% (95% CI, 24–59%), with a specificity of 53% for both. Conclusions The performance of the tested microfluidic antibody independent device to capture CTCs using standard cytomorphological criteria provides the potential of a diagnostic blood test for lung cancer. PMID:28149842

  16. Supportive Noninvasive Tool for the Diagnosis of Breast Cancer Using a Thermographic Camera as Sensor

    PubMed Central

    Garduño-Ramón, Marco Antonio; Vega-Mancilla, Sofia Giovanna; Morales-Henández, Luis Alberto; Osornio-Rios, Roque Alfredo

    2017-01-01

    Breast cancer is the leading disease in incidence and mortality among women in developing countries. The opportune diagnosis of this disease strengthens the survival index. Mammography application is limited by age and periodicity. Temperature is a physical magnitude that can be measured by using multiple sensing techniques. IR (infrared) thermography using commercial cameras is gaining relevance in industrial and medical applications because it is a non-invasive and non-intrusive technology. Asymmetrical temperature in certain human body zones is associated with cancer. In this paper, an IR thermographic sensor is applied for breast cancer detection. This work includes an automatic breast segmentation methodology, to spot the hottest regions in thermograms using the morphological watershed operator to help the experts locate the tumor. A protocol for thermogram acquisition considering the required time to achieve a thermal stabilization is also proposed. Breast thermograms are evaluated as thermal matrices, instead of gray scale or false color images, increasing the certainty of the provided diagnosis. The proposed tool was validated using the Database for Mastology Research and tested in a voluntary group of 454 women of different ages and cancer stages with good results, leading to the possibility of being used as a supportive tool to detect breast cancer and angiogenesis cases. PMID:28273793

  17. Behavior of College Students in Health Related Departments Towards Early Diagnosis of Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    İlhan, Nesrin; Çöl, Ayşe Gülnur; Tanboğa, Emine; Şengül, Alaattin; Batmaz, Makbule

    2014-01-01

    Objective The study was performed in order to determine the behavior of college students studying in health related departments for the early diagnosis of breast cancer. Materials and Methods This study is a cross sectional study. 336 female students studying in School of Nursing and School of Health Sciences at a foundation university in Istanbul were included. A questionnaire directed to collect data regarding the participants’ socio-demographic characteristics and their behavior on the early diagnosis of breast cancer was used. Data were evaluated by descriptive statistics and chi-square test. Results The mean age of students was 21.26±1.94, and 30.7% of the participants majored in nutrition, 29.2% in nursing, 22.9% in midwifery, 17.3% in physical therapy and rehabilitation departments. It was determined that 53.3% of the students made regular breast self-examination (BSE), and 88.1% did not get a clinical breast examination (CBE) within the last year. It was noticed that students who had BSE training, made more BSE and CBE as compared to those who did not get any education. Students with family history of breast cancer was performing more BSE that those without a family history. It was identified that students with BSE training and family history of breast cancer used BSE at a higher rate. Conclusion It was identified that students with BSE training and family history of breast cancer usage of techniques to perform a BSE at a higher rate.

  18. Breast Cancer, BRCA Mutations, and Attitudes Regarding Pregnancy and Preimplantation Genetic Diagnosis

    PubMed Central

    Woodson, Ashley H.; Muse, Kimberly I.; Lin, Heather; Jackson, Michelle; Mattair, Danielle N.; Schover, Leslie; Woodard, Terri; McKenzie, Laurie; Theriault, Richard L.; Hortobágyi, Gabriel N.; Arun, Banu; Peterson, Susan K.; Profato, Jessica

    2014-01-01

    Background. Women with premenopausal breast cancer may face treatment-related infertility and have a higher likelihood of a BRCA mutation, which may affect their attitudes toward future childbearing. Methods. Premenopausal women were invited to participate in a questionnaire study administered before and after BRCA genetic testing. We used the Impact of Event Scale (IES) to evaluate the pre- and post-testing impact of cancer or carrying a BRCA mutation on attitudes toward future childbearing. The likelihood of pursuing prenatal diagnosis (PND) or preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD) was also assessed in this setting. Univariate analyses determined factors contributing to attitudes toward future childbearing and likelihood of PND or PGD. Results. One hundred forty-eight pretesting and 114 post-testing questionnaires were completed. Women with a personal history of breast cancer had less change in IES than those with no history of breast cancer (p = .003). The 18 BRCA-positive women had a greater change in IES than the BRCA-negative women (p = .005). After testing, 31% and 24% of women would use PND and PGD, respectively. BRCA results did not significantly affect attitudes toward PND/PGD. Conclusion. BRCA results and history of breast cancer affect the psychological impact on future childbearing. Intentions to undergo PND or PGD do not appear to change after disclosure of BRCA results. Additional counseling for patients who have undergone BRCA testing may be warranted to educate patients about available fertility preservation options. PMID:24951607

  19. pH-Responsive fluorescent graphene quantum dots for fluorescence-guided cancer surgery and diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Fan, Zetan; Zhou, Shixin; Garcia, Cesar; Fan, Louzhen; Zhou, Jiangbing

    2017-04-03

    Cancer remains a major cause of morbidity and mortality around the world. Improved cancer treatment requires enhancement of cancer diagnosis and detection. To achieve this goal, here we report a novel imaging probe, pH-responsive fluorescent graphene quantum dots (pRF-GQDs). pRF-GQDs were prepared by electrolysis of graphite rods in sodium p-toluenesulfonate acetonitrile solution. The resulting pRF-GQDs, which have minimal toxicity, display a sharp fluorescence transition between green and blue at pH 6.8, a pH matching the acidic extracellular microenvironment in solid tumors. We found that this unique fluorescence switch property allows tumors to be distinguished from normal tissues. In addition to fluorescence, pRF-GQDs also exhibit upconversion photoluminescence (UCPL). We demonstrate that the combination of UCPL and fluorescence switch enables detection of solid tumors of different origin at an early developmental stage. Therefore, pRF-GQDs have great potential to be used as a universal probe for fluorescence-guided cancer surgery and cancer diagnosis.

  20. The Association of Metacognitive Beliefs With Emotional Distress After Diagnosis of Cancer

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Emotional distress after a diagnosis of cancer is normal and, for most people, will diminish over time. However, a significant minority of patients with cancer experience persistent or recurrent symptoms of emotional distress for which they need help. A model developed in mental health, the self-regulatory executive function model (S-REF), specifies that maladaptive metacognitive beliefs and processes, including persistent worry, are key to understanding why such emotional problems persist. This cross-sectional study explored, for the first, time whether metacognitive beliefs were associated with emotional distress in a cancer population, and whether this relationship was mediated by worry, as predicted by the S-REF model. Method: Two hundred twenty-nine participants within 3 months of diagnosis of, and before treatment for, primary breast or prostate cancer completed self-report questionnaires measuring anxiety, depression, posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms, metacognitive beliefs, worry, and illness perceptions. Results: Regression analysis showed that metacognitive beliefs were associated with symptoms of anxiety, depression, and PTSD, and explained additional variance in these outcomes after controlling for age, gender, and illness perceptions. Structural equation modeling was consistent with cross-sectional hypotheses derived from the theory that metacognitive beliefs cause and maintain distress both directly and indirectly by driving worry. Conclusions: The findings provide promising first evidence that the S-REF model may be usefully applied in cancer. Further study is required to establish the predictive and clinical utility of these findings. PMID:25133826

  1. Supportive Noninvasive Tool for the Diagnosis of Breast Cancer Using a Thermographic Camera as Sensor.

    PubMed

    Garduño-Ramón, Marco Antonio; Vega-Mancilla, Sofia Giovanna; Morales-Henández, Luis Alberto; Osornio-Rios, Roque Alfredo

    2017-03-03

    Breast cancer is the leading disease in incidence and mortality among women in developing countries. The opportune diagnosis of this disease strengthens the survival index. Mammography application is limited by age and periodicity. Temperature is a physical magnitude that can be measured by using multiple sensing techniques. IR (infrared) thermography using commercial cameras is gaining relevance in industrial and medical applications because it is a non-invasive and non-intrusive technology. Asymmetrical temperature in certain human body zones is associated with cancer. In this paper, an IR thermographic sensor is applied for breast cancer detection. This work includes an automatic breast segmentation methodology, to spot the hottest regions in thermograms using the morphological watershed operator to help the experts locate the tumor. A protocol for thermogram acquisition considering the required time to achieve a thermal stabilization is also proposed. Breast thermograms are evaluated as thermal matrices, instead of gray scale or false color images, increasing the certainty of the provided diagnosis. The proposed tool was validated using the Database for Mastology Research and tested in a voluntary group of 454 women of different ages and cancer stages with good results, leading to the possibility of being used as a supportive tool to detect breast cancer and angiogenesis cases.

  2. Engineering of gadofluoroprobes: Broad-spectrum applications from cancer diagnosis to therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Dutta, Ranu A.; Sharma, Prashant K.; Tiwari, Vandana; Tiwari, Vivek; Patel, Anant B.; Pandey, Ravindra; Pandey, Avinash C.

    2014-01-13

    The engineering of the Gadolinium based nanostructures have been demonstrated in this paper. Nanostructures of α-Gd{sub 2}S{sub 3} exhibit a unique transition between ferromagnetic state and paramagnetic state of the system. It was demonstrated that their properties could be tuned for a wide range of applications ranging from hyperthermia to Magnetic Resonance Imaging, owing to their magnetic moments and large relaxivities. Metallic Gd nanoparticles obtained by reduction method were employed for cancer imaging in mice. The Gd nanoparticles were coated with Curcumin and their biomedical implications in the field of simultaneous diagnosis and therapy of cancer and related diseases has been discussed.

  3. Breast cancer diagnosis using FT-RAMAN spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bitar, Renata A.; Martin, Airton A.; Criollo, Carlos J. T.; Ramalho, Leandra N. Z.

    2005-04-01

    In this study FT-RAMAN spectra of breast tissue from 35 patients were obtained and separated into nine groups for histopathologic analysis, which are as follows: normal breast tissue, fibrocystic condition, in situ ductal carcinoma, in situ ductal carcinoma with necrosis, infiltrate ductal carcinoma, infiltrate inflammatory ductal carcinoma, infiltrate medullar ductal carcinoma, infiltrate colloid ductal carcinoma, and infiltrate lobular carcinoma. Using spectrum averages taken from each group a qualitative analysis was performed to compare these molecular compositions to those known to be present in abnormal concentrations in pathological situations, e.g. the development of desmoplastic lesions with a stroma of dense collagen in tumoral breast tissues which substitute adipose stroma of non-diseased breast tissue. The band identified as amino acids, offered basis for observation in the existence of alterations in the proteins, thus proving Raman Spectroscopic capacity in identification of primary structures of proteins; secondary protein structure was also identified through the peptic links, Amide I and Amide III, which have also been identified by various authors. Alterations were also identified in the peaks and bandwidths of nucleic acids demonstrating the utilization of Raman Spectroscopy in the analysis of the cells nucleus manifestations. All studies involving Raman Spectroscopy and breast cancer have shown excellent result reliability and therefore a basis for the technical theory.

  4. Remote sensing as a method of cervical cancer diagnosis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zelenchuk, Alex R.; Modell, Mark D.; Burke, Louis; Niloff, J.; Karlinskiy, Roman; Resnichenko, Y.; Shestopal, Nataliya A.

    1998-06-01

    Laser induced fluorescence is widely being developed as a new method for early detection of pre-cancerous tissue. Typically an optical fiber probe directly contacting tissue is used for detection and localization of abnormal tissue. This method of tissue interrogation has certain clinical and diagnostic restrictions due to physical contact with the tissue. This method of tissue interrogation has certain clinical and diagnostic restrictions due to physical contact with the tissue. The objective of our study was to investigate the method of remote sensing in colposcopy. The device was designed using an optical multichannel analyzer with UV excitation. The excitation light is delivered through the fiber bundle to the optical head that is attached to the colposcope. This arrangement allows one to conveniently collect fluorescence spectra from the cervix during regular colposcopy examination. To understand the practical restrictions of the remote sensing the influence of various factors are studied. A few modifications of the device were tested. Phantoms were created and used to test the device. Data form more than 200 patients shows substantial improvement in sensitivity and specificity compared with the doctor's impressions. The result of the experimental measurements of tissue-like phantoms and in- vivo measurements are provided. The modification increased the average signal/noise ration more than 4 times.

  5. Epidemiology and early diagnosis of primary liver cancer in China.

    PubMed

    Yen, F S; Shen, K N

    1986-01-01

    Epidemiological studies in different areas in China have revealed several outstanding risk factors of PLC, i.e., HBV infection, pollution of drinking water, contamination of food by AFB1 and/or nitrosamines, and family predisposition. Accordingly, a program of HBV vaccination, improved supply of drinking water, better preservation and storage of food, and possibly chemoprevention for high-risk populations should be effective preventive measures. Studies have shown that frequent AFP screening in high-risk populations is highly recommended to detect early cases of PLC. According to research in Qidong, careful follow-up of the dynamic changes of AFP in individuals with persistent low levels of positive AFP is important for distinguishing other conditions from true PLC. Newer means for the localization of small-size PLC (under 5 cm), such as type B ultrasonography, nuclide scanning, computerized tomography, and hepatoangiography, represent remarkable progress in improving markedly the success of surgery and hence the survival rate of PLC patients. The advances in knowledge of PLC have been encouraging. Although much work remains to be done on the etiological agents and the mechanism of oncogenesis, it is time that larger scale control measures be put into effect in high-incidence areas to discover if one of the most common cancers in the world can be controlled.

  6. Epidemiology and early diagnosis of primary liver cancer in China

    SciTech Connect

    Yen, F.S.; Shen, K.N.

    1986-01-01

    Epidemiological studies in different areas in China have revealed several outstanding risk factors of PLC, i.e., HBV infection, pollution of drinking water, contamination of food by AFB1 and/or nitrosamines, and family predisposition. Accordingly, a program of HBV vaccination, improved supply of drinking water, better preservation and storage of food, and possibly chemoprevention for high-risk populations should be effective preventive measures. Studies have shown that frequent AFP screening in high-risk populations is highly recommended to detect early cases of PLC. According to research in Qidong, careful follow-up of the dynamic changes of AFP in individuals with persistent low levels of positive AFP is important for distinguishing other conditions from true PLC. Newer means for the localization of small-size PLC (under 5 cm), such as type B ultrasonography, nuclide scanning, computerized tomography, and hepatoangiography, represent remarkable progress in improving markedly the success of surgery and hence the survival rate of PLC patients. The advances in knowledge of PLC have been encouraging. Although much work remains to be done on the etiological agents and the mechanism of oncogenesis, it is time that larger scale control measures be put into effect in high-incidence areas to discover if one of the most common cancers in the world can be controlled. 62 references.

  7. Galectin 3 for the diagnosis of bladder cancer

    PubMed Central

    El Gendy, Hoda; Madkour, Bothina; Abdelaty, Sara; Essawy, Fayza; Khattab, Dina; Hammam, Olfat; El Kholy, Amr; Nour, Hani H.

    2013-01-01

    Objective To evaluate serum levels of galectin-3 (G-3) in patients with bladder cancer and a control group, as a potential diagnostic and prognostic serum tumour marker. Patients and methods Between November 2012 and January 2013, 55 patients (median age 58 years) were enrolled into three groups, i.e., a control, those with transitional cell carcinoma (TCC) or those with squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). The serum G-3 level was measured the night before cystoscopy. The levels of G-3 levels were correlated with tumour type, stage and grade, and in relation to levels in normal urothelium. The results were analysed statistically using the Mann–Whitney U-test, the Kruskal–Wallis test and the receiver operating characteristic curve, as appropriate. Results The median serum G-3 level was 100, 720 and 920 pg/mL in the control, TCC and SCC groups, respectively, with very significantly greater G-3 levels in both the TCC and SCC groups than in the control group. Patients with high-grade TCC had a statistically significantly greater serum G-3 level than those with low-grade tumours, as did those with muscle-invasive TCC than those with Ta tumours. Conclusions The level of G-3 can aid as a diagnostic marker in patients with either TCC or SCC of the bladder, but the prognostic significance of G-3 remains to be confirmed. PMID:26019945

  8. Breast cancer and leptomeningeal disease (LMD): hormone receptor status influences time to development of LMD and survival from LMD diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Yust-Katz, S; Garciarena, P; Liu, D; Yuan, Y; Ibrahim, N; Yerushalmi, R; Penas-Prado, M; Groves, M D

    2013-09-01

    Leptomeningeal disease (LMD) occurs in 5 % of breast cancer patients. The aim of this study was to identify risk factors related to survival and time to development of LMD in breast cancer patients. A retrospective analysis of breast cancer patients with LMD, evaluated in MDACC between 1995 and 2011. 103 patients with diagnosis of breast cancer and LMD were identified (one male). The median age at LMD diagnosis was 49.2 years. 78.2 % had invasive ductal carcinoma. Hormone receptors (HRs) were positive in 55.3 % of patients, 47.4 % were human epidermal growth factor receptor 2-positive and 22.8 % were triple negative. 52 % of the patients were treated with WBRT, 19 % with spinal radiation, 36 % with systemic chemotherapy and 55 % with intrathecal chemotherapy. Estimated median overall survival from time of breast cancer diagnosis was 3.66 years. Median survival from time of LMD diagnosis was 4.2 months. Time from breast cancer diagnosis to LMD was 2.48 years. In multivariate analysis, HR status and stage at diagnosis were significantly associated with time to LMD diagnosis (p < 0.05). In triple negative patients, time to LMD was shorter. In patients who were HR positive, time to LMD was longer. Survival from LMD diagnosis was significantly associated with both treatment, as well as positive HR status (multivariate analysis p < 0.05). In conclusion LMD has dismal prognosis in breast cancer patients. HR status contributes to time to LMD diagnosis and survival from LMD diagnosis. The impact of treatment aimed at LMD cannot be ascertained in our retrospective study due to the inherent bias associated with the decision to treat.

  9. Circulating miRNAs: roles in cancer diagnosis, prognosis and therapy.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Guofeng

    2015-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) belong to a class of small non-coding RNAs that regulate numerous biological processes by targeting a broad set of messenger RNAs. Recently, miRNAs have been detected in remarkably stable forms in many types of body fluids. A comparison between cancer patients and healthy individuals has clearly shown that certain types of circulating miRNAs are associated with cancer initiation and progression. Research on miRNA-based biomarkers has witnessed phenomenal growth, owing to the non-invasive nature of miRNA-based screening assays and their sensitivity and specificity in detecting cancers. Consequently, a considerable effort has been devoted to identify suitable miRNAs for cancer diagnosis and also decode the information carried by circulating miRNAs. This review highlights the current studies that focus on the identification of circulating miRNA-based diagnostic and prognostic markers, for the most prevalent types of cancer. Additionally, the review also provides an insight into the putative functions of miRNAs, and attempts to delineate the mechanisms through which they are released into the bloodstream. Moreover, methodologies and strategies for identification of circulating miRNAs in cancers are summarized. Finally, potential strategies for circulating miRNA-based cancer therapies are proposed.

  10. Serum Calprotectin, CD26 and EGF to Establish a Panel for the Diagnosis of Lung Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Blanco-Prieto, Sonia; Vázquez-Iglesias, Lorena; Rodríguez-Girondo, Mar; Barcia-Castro, Leticia; Fernández-Villar, Alberto; Botana-Rial, María Isabel

    2015-01-01

    Lung cancer is the most lethal neoplasia, and an early diagnosis is the best way for improving survival. Symptomatic patients attending Pulmonary Services could be diagnosed with lung cancer earlier if high-risk individuals are promptly separated from healthy individuals and patients with benign respiratory pathologies. We searched for a convenient non-invasive serum test to define which patients should have more immediate clinical tests. Six cancer-associated molecules (HB-EGF, EGF, EGFR, sCD26, VEGF, and Calprotectin) were investigated in this study. Markers were measured in serum by specific ELISAs, in an unselected population that included 72 lung cancer patients of different histological types and 56 control subjects (healthy individuals and patients with benign pulmonary pathologies). Boosted regression and random forests analysis were conducted for the selection of the best candidate biomarkers. A remarkable discriminatory capacity was observed for EGF, sCD26, and especially for Calprotectin, these three molecules constituting a marker panel boasting a sensitivity of 83% and specificity of 87%, resulting in an associated misclassification rate of 15%. Finally, an algorithm derived by logistic regression and a nomogram allowed generating classification scores in terms of the risk of a patient of suffering lung cancer. In conclusion, we propose a non-invasive test to identify patients at high-risk for lung cancer from a non-selected population attending a Pulmonary Service. The efficacy of this three-marker panel must be tested in a larger population for lung cancer. PMID:25992884

  11. An intelligent system for lung cancer diagnosis using a new genetic algorithm based feature selection method.

    PubMed

    Lu, Chunhong; Zhu, Zhaomin; Gu, Xiaofeng

    2014-09-01

    In this paper, we develop a novel feature selection algorithm based on the genetic algorithm (GA) using a specifically devised trace-based separability criterion. According to the scores of class separability and variable separability, this criterion measures the significance of feature subset, independent of any specific classification. In addition, a mutual information matrix between variables is used as features for classification, and no prior knowledge about the cardinality of feature subset is required. Experiments are performed by using a standard lung cancer dataset. The obtained solutions are verified with three different classifiers, including the support vector machine (SVM), the back-propagation neural network (BPNN), and the K-nearest neighbor (KNN), and compared with those obtained by the whole feature set, the F-score and the correlation-based feature selection methods. The comparison results show that the proposed intelligent system has a good diagnosis performance and can be used as a promising tool for lung cancer diagnosis.

  12. Fluorescence diagnosis of colon cancer using two novel Rhodamine B derivatives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Atlamazoglou, Vassilis; Yova, Dido M.; Kavantzas, Nikolaos; Loukas, Spyros

    1999-01-01

    Fluorescence imaging is a promising technique for the early detection of neoplastic changes in the human body. Investigation of the microscopic origin of tissue fluorescence can provide important information about the histology of tissue. In this study we report the synthesis and use of two novel Rhodamine B derivatives in an efficient microscopic technique for colon cancer diagnosis. Another important objective is the examination of the morphological structures on which the fluorescence analogs bind and the correlation of the fluorescence images with their underlying microstructural origin. Rh B-Leucine amide and Rh B-phenyl boronic acid distinguish clearly healthy from neoplastic colon tissue sections. Both derivatives accumulate mainly in the of neoplastic crypts. This finding can be exploited for colon cancer diagnosis using fluorescence microscopy as well as for a fluorescence-based optical biopsy method.

  13. The potential of miRNAs for diagnosis, treatment and monitoring of breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Bertoli, Gloria; Cava, Claudia; Castiglioni, Isabella

    2016-01-01

    Dysregulation of microRNAs (miRNAs) has a fundamental role in the initiation, development and progression of several human cancers, including breast cancer (BC), since strong evidence has shown that miRNAs can regulate the expression of oncogenes or tumor suppressor genes. A possible role of miRNAs in the diagnosis in BC has been demonstrated. As miRNAs has been found stable in biofluids, extracellular multiple miRNA profiles have been proposed as diagnostic tools, showing better diagnostic performance than individual miRNAs in BC. In this paper, based on the current literature, we present the role of microRNAs in the diagnosis and therapy monitoring of BC. Furthermore, we report new miRNA-based drugs that could be turned into promising therapy for BC, alone or in combination with conventional therapy. We also discuss how extracellular miRNAs could become new, easily accessible, affordable, non-invasive tools for BC patients.

  14. Implications of microRNAs in colorectal cancer development, diagnosis, prognosis, and therapeutics.

    PubMed

    Zhai, Haiyan; Ju, Jingfang

    2011-11-03

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a class of non-coding small RNAs with critical regulatory functions as post-transcriptional regulators. Due to the fundamental importance and broad impact of miRNAs on multiple genes and pathways, dysregulated miRNAs have been associated with human diseases, including cancer. Colorectal cancer (CRC) is among the most deadly diseases, and miRNAs offer a new frontier for target discovery and novel biomarkers for both diagnosis and prognosis. In this review, we summarize the recent advancement of miRNA research in CRC, in particular, the roles of miRNAs in CRC stem cells, epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition, chemoresistance, therapeutics, diagnosis, and prognosis.

  15. [The nanotechnology as a support for diagnosis and prognosis in cancer research].

    PubMed

    Romero-Morelos, Pablo; Peralta-Rodríguez, Raúl; Mendoza-Rodríguez, Mónica; Valdivia-Flores, Alejandra; Marrero-Rodríguez, Daniel; Paniagua-García, Lucero; Rodríguez-Cabrales, Jade; Parra-Melquiádez, Miriam; Salcedo-Vargas, Mauricio

    2011-01-01

    Recently, technological advances have greatly increased, generating the development of nanotechnology, which is responsible for the design of structures and materials in the nanometer scale. This creates one of the most important cutting-edge sciences, integrating physics, chemistry, engineering and biology sciences. Specifically the integration with biology results in a new science called nanobiotechnology, specifically nanomedicine, which has the goal of mainly looking for more precise molecular diagnostic and prognostic processes, as well as the new design of drugs in the personalized medicine field. On the other hand, at molecular level in medical research, the nanoparticles are most commonly used as tools. Molecular diagnostics uses gold nanoparticles, paramagnetic nanoparticles and quantum dots, which can be used for the diagnosis and treatment of several diseases, including cancer. Quantum dots are the most promising tools for diagnosis and therapy in cancer research.

  16. Evaluation of x-ray diffraction enhanced imaging in the diagnosis of breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Liu, Chenglin; Yan, Xiaohui; Zhang, Xinyi; Yang, Wentao; Peng, Weijun; Shi, Daren; Zhu, Peiping; Huang, Wanxia; Yuan, Qingxi

    2007-01-21

    The significance of the x-ray diffraction enhanced imaging (DEI) technique in the diagnosis of breast cancer and its feasibility in clinical medical imaging are evaluated. Different massive specimens including normal breast tissues, benign breast tumour tissues and malignant breast tumour tissues are imaged with the DEI method. The images are recorded respectively by CCD or x-ray film at different positions of the rocking curve and processed with a pixel-by-pixel algorithm. The characteristics of the DEI images about the normal and diseased tissues are compared. The rocking curves of a double-crystal diffractometer with various tissues are also studied. The differences in DEI images and their rocking curves are evaluated for early diagnosis of breast cancers.

  17. Diagnosis of prostate cancer. State of the art.

    PubMed

    Roscigno, M; Scattoni, V; Bertini, R; Pasta, A; Montorsi, F; Rigatti, P

    2004-06-01

    The widespread acceptance of prostate-specific antigen (PSA) measurement as an early detection method for prostate cancer (Pca), coupled with the recent heightened public awareness of Pca as a common disease, has led to an increase in the detection of Pca. It has been established that digital rectal examination (DRE) and PSA are the most useful front-line methods for assessing an individual's risk of Pca. In addition to an elevated PSA above 4 ng/mL and an abnormal DRE, the decision to proceed with TRUS-guided biopsy may also be supported by other factors. Determining the presence of a significant rise in PSA between tests, whether the degree of PSA is concordant with the size of the prostate, and age appropriate PSA may aid in the interpretation of this risk. Grayscale transrectal ultrasound (TRUS) has been established as the first choice imaging technique making it possible to take biopsies, measure the volume and obtain a general overview of the prostate. To improve, however, the TRUS detection rate of Pca, many ultrasonographic technique improvements have been introduced and continuously evaluated. As for prostate biopsy, in the prostate with visible lesions, lesion-guided biopsies only play a role in combination with systematic biopsies, while the systematic prostate biopsy scheme should at the present time include 10 or 12 cores according to prostatic weight. The other imaging techniques actually play a marginal role in Pca detection, but may be useful for staging newly diagnosed Pca or in patient re-staging in case of biochemical failure after radical treatment.

  18. Association between Metformin Use and Cancer Stage at Diagnosis among Elderly Medicare Beneficiaries with Preexisting Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus and Incident Prostate Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Mattes, Malcolm D.; Madhavan, Suresh; Sambamoorthi, Usha

    2016-01-01

    Objective. To examine the association between metformin use and cancer stage at diagnosis among elderly men with preexisting diabetes mellitus and incident prostate cancer. Methods. This study used a population-based observational cohort of elderly men (≥66 years) with preexisting diabetes and incident prostate cancer between 2008 and 2009 (N = 2,652). Cancer stage at diagnosis (localized versus advanced) was based on the American Joint Cancer Committee classification. Metformin use and other independent variables were measured during the one year before cancer diagnosis. Logistic regressions with inverse probability treatment weights were used to control for the observed selection bias. Results. A significantly lower percentage of metformin users were diagnosed with advanced prostate cancer as compared to nonusers (4.7% versus 6.7%, p < 0.03). After adjusting for the observed selection bias and other independent variables, metformin use was associated with a 32% reduction in the risk of advanced prostate cancer (adjusted odds ratio, AOR: 0.68, 95% confidence interval, CI: 0.48, 0.97). Conclusions. This is the first epidemiological study to support the role of metformin in reducing the risk of advanced prostate cancer. Randomized clinical trials are needed to confirm the causal link between metformin use and prostate cancer diagnosis stage. PMID:27547763

  19. A Partnership Training Program: Studying Targeted Drug Delivery Using Nanoparticles in Breast Cancer Diagnosis and Therapy

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-10-01

    Yuan H, He R, Gao X, Jing L, Zhao F, et al. The strong MRI relaxivity of paramagnetic nanoparticles . J Phys Chem B 2008;112: 6288-91. 10. Shu CY...Delivery Using Nanoparticles In Breast Cancer Diagnosis and Therapy Paul C. Wang, Ph.D. Howard University Washington, DC 20059 15 September...undergraduate students from 6 departments at the Howard University have been trained in the use of nanoparticles as targeted drug delivery vehicles for

  20. Delays in diagnosis of childhood cancer in southeastern Turkey and the associated factors.

    PubMed

    Araz, Nilgun Col; Guler, Elif

    2015-03-01

    In childhood cancer patients, early diagnosis may have an impact on survival that reduces the potential morbidity. This study aimed to identify the factors associated with delay in diagnosis in children with cancer in southeastern Turkey. The clinical records of 682 patients with childhood cancer were evaluated. Study variables were classified as factors related to the patient, their disease, and the health care system. The median parental delay, physician delay, and total delay were determined as 20, 23, and 60 days, respectively. There was a significant relationship between parental delay, physician delay, and total delay and age at diagnosis (P = .005, P = .008, and P = .004, respectively). Long parental delay was least frequent in children younger than 1 year (P = .001). Parental, physician, and total delay were longer in patients with solid tumors than in patients with leukemias (P = .007, P = .000, and P = .000, respectively). Patients with tumors of the genitalia had longer physician delay and total delay than patients with other solid tumors (P = .001 and P = .000, respectively). Patients with solid tumor and early-stage disease had longer physician delay and total delay (P = .016 and P = .013, respectively). According to the first physician contacted, long physician delay was less frequent among pediatricians (P = .003). Delayed diagnosis was associated with age, type/localization and stage of tumor, the first physician consulted, and area of residence. A sustained effort should be made to raise the level of awareness of childhood cancer among parents and to sensitize all physicians, especially those who treat pediatric patients infrequently, with regard to the warning signs of the disease.

  1. Do Active Duty Cancer Survivors with a Concurrent Behavioral Health Diagnosis Have Distinct Survivorship Care Needs

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-09-23

    procedure are presented below. 24 Chi square Power and effect size calculations were performed to estimate needed sample size and predicted...military health care system and may be attenuated by early detection of and effective treatment for common behavioral health diagnoses such as anxiety... effects of this diagnosis (115; 118). Prostate cancer is classified according to tumor stage and grade as well as risk category. Risk categories are

  2. Methods for Detecting Circulating Cancer Stem Cells (CCSCs) as a Novel Approach for Diagnosis of Colon Cancer Relapse/Metastasis

    PubMed Central

    Kantara, Carla; O’Connell, Malaney; Luthra, Gurinder; Gajjar, Aakash; Sarkar, Shubhashish; Ullrich, Robert; Singh, Pomila

    2014-01-01

    Cancer stem cells (CSCs) are believed to be resistant to currently available therapies and maybe responsible for relapse of cancer in patients. Measuring circulating tumor cells (CTCs) in blood of patients has emerged as a non-invasive diagnostic procedure for screening patients who may be at high risk for developing metastatic cancers or relapse of the cancer disease. However, accurate detection of CTCs has remained a problem, since epithelial-cell-markers used to-date, are not always reliable for detecting CTCs, especially during epithelial-mesenchymal-transition. Since CSCs are required to initiate metastatic tumors, our goal was to optimize and standardize a method for identifying circulating CSCs (CCSCs) in patients, using established CSC markers. Here, we report for the first time the detection of CCSCs in blood of athymic nude mice, bearing metastatic tumors, and in the blood of patients positive for colonic adenocarcinomas. Using a simple and non-expensive method, we isolated a relatively pure population of CSCs (CD45−/CK19+), free of red blood cells and largely free of contaminating CD45+ white blood cells. Enriched CCSCs from patients with colon adenocarcinomas had a malignant phenotype and co-expressed CSC markers (DCLK1/LGR5) with CD44/Annexin A2. CSCs were not found in the blood of non-cancer patients, free of colonic growths. Enriched CCSCs from colon cancer patients grew primary spheroids, suggesting presence of tumor-initiating cells in the blood of these patients. In conclusion, we have developed a novel diagnostic assay for detecting CSCs in circulation, which may more accurately predict the risk of relapse or metastatic disease in patients. Since CSCs can potentially initiate metastatic growths, patients positive for CCSCs can be treated with inhibitory agents that selectively target CSCs, besides conventional treatments, to reduce the risk of relapse/metastatic disease for improving clinical outcomes. PMID:25347154

  3. Homing peptide guiding optical molecular imaging for the diagnosis of bladder cancer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Xiao-feng; Pang, Jian-zhi; Liu, Jie-hao; Zhao, Yang; Jia, Xing-you; Li, Jun; Liu, Reng-xin; Wang, Wei; Fan, Zhen-wei; Zhang, Zi-qiang; Yan, San-hua; Luo, Jun-qian; Zhang, Xiao-lei

    2014-11-01

    Background: The limitations of primary transurethral resection of bladder tumor (TURBt) have led the residual tumors rates as high as 75%. The intraoperative fluorescence imaging offers a great potential for improving TURBt have been confirmed. So we aim to distinguish the residual tumors and normal mucosa using fluorescence molecular imaging formed by conjugated molecule of the CSNRDARRC bladder cancer homing peptide with fluorescent dye. The conjugated molecule was abbreviated FIuo-ACP. In our study, we will research the image features of FIuo-ACP probe targeted bladder cancer for fluorescence molecular imaging diagnosis for bladder cancer in vivo and ex vivo. Methods: After the FIuo-ACP probe was synthetized, the binding sites, factors affecting binding rates, the specificity and the targeting of Fluo-ACP labeled with bladder cancer cells were studied respectively by laser scanning confocal microscope (LSCM), immunofluorescence and multispectral fluorescence ex vivo optical molecular imaging system. Results: The binding sites were located in nucleus and the binding rates were correlated linearly with the dose of probe and the grade of pathology. Moreover, the probe has a binding specificity with bladder cancer in vivo and ex vivo. Tumor cells being labeled by the Fluo-ACP, bright green spots were observed under LSCM. The tissue samples and tumor cells can be labeled and identified by fluorescence microscope. Optical molecular imaging of xenograft tumor tissues was exhibited as fluorescent spots under EMCCD. Conclusion: The CSNRDARRC peptides might be a useful bladder cancer targeting vector. The FIuo-ACP molecular probe was suitable for fluorescence molecular imaging diagnosis for bladder cancer in vivo and ex vivo.

  4. The Role of Physicians’ First Impressions in the Diagnosis of Possible Cancers without Alarm Symptoms

    PubMed Central

    Kostopoulou, Olga; Sirota, Miroslav; Round, Thomas; Samaranayaka, Shyamalee; Delaney, Brendan C.

    2016-01-01

    Background. First impressions are thought to exert a disproportionate influence on subsequent judgments; however, their role in medical diagnosis has not been systematically studied. We aimed to elicit and measure the association between first impressions and subsequent diagnoses in common presentations with subtle indications of cancer. Methods. Ninety UK family physicians conducted interactive simulated consultations online, while on the phone with a researcher. They saw 6 patient cases, 3 of which could be cancers. Each cancer case included 2 consultations, whereby each patient consulted again with nonimproving and some new symptoms. After reading an introduction (patient description and presenting problem), physicians could request more information, which the researcher displayed online. In 2 of the possible cancers, physicians thought aloud. Two raters coded independently the physicians’ first utterances (after reading the introduction but before requesting more information) as either acknowledging the possibility of cancer or not. We measured the association of these first impressions with the final diagnoses and management decisions. Results. The raters coded 297 verbalizations with high interrater agreement (Kappa = 0.89). When the possibility of cancer was initially verbalized, the odds of subsequently diagnosing it were on average 5 times higher (odds ratio 4.90 [95% CI 2.72 to 8.84], P < 0.001), while the odds of appropriate referral doubled (OR 1.98 [1.10 to 3.57], P = 0.002). The number of cancer-related questions physicians asked mediated the relationship between first impressions and subsequent diagnosis, explaining 29% of the total effect. Conclusion. We measured a strong association between family physicians’ first diagnostic impressions and subsequent diagnoses and decisions. We suggest that interventions to influence and support the diagnostic process should target its early stage of hypothesis generation. PMID:27112933

  5. Validity of the semi-infinite tumor model in diffuse reflectance spectroscopy for epithelial cancer diagnosis: a Monte Carlo study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Caigang; Liu, Quan

    2011-08-01

    The accurate understanding of optical properties of human tissues plays an important role in the optical diagnosis of early epithelial cancer. Many inverse models used to determine the optical properties of a tumor have assumed that the tumor was semi-infinite, which infers infinite width and length but finite thickness. However, this simplified assumption could lead to large errors for small tumor, especially at the early stages. We used a modified Monte Carlo code, which is able to simulate light transport in a layered tissue model with buried tumor-like targets, to investigate the validity of the semi-infinite tumor assumption in two common epithelial tissue models: a squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) tissue model and a basal cell carcinoma (BCC) tissue model. The SCC tissue model consisted of three layers, i.e. the top epithelium, the middle tumor and the bottom stroma. The BCC tissue model also consisted of three layers, i.e. the top epidermis, the middle tumor and the bottom dermis. Diffuse reflectance was simulated for two common fiber-optic probes. In one probe, both source and detector fibers were perpendicular to the tissue surface; while in the other, both fibers were tilted at 45 degrees relative to the normal axis of the tissue surface. It was demonstrated that the validity of the semi-infinite tumor model depends on both the fiber-optic probe configuration and the tumor dimensions. Two look-up tables, which relate the validity of the semi-infinite tumor model to the tumor width in terms of the source-detector separation, were derived to guide the selection of appropriate tumor models and fiber optic probe configuration for the optical diagnosis of early epithelial cancers.

  6. Endoluminal Diagnosis of Early Gastric Cancer and Its Precursors: Bridging the Gap Between Endoscopy and Pathology.

    PubMed

    Uedo, Noriya; Yao, Kenshi

    Although dye-based and image-enhanced endoscopic techniques have revolutionized endoscopic diagnosis, conventional white light endoscopy still plays an important role in the diagnosis of early gastric cancer (EGC) during routine endoscopy. Chromoendoscopy reveals morphological characteristics of the mucosal lesions by enhancing mucosal contrast, while narrow-band imaging (NBI) facilitates detailed evaluation of the vascular architecture and surface features. Positive diagnostic findings of EGC on white light imaging and indigo carmine chromoendoscopy are a sharply demarcated lesion and irregularity in surface morphology or color. Magnifying NBI further improves diagnostic accuracy of white light imaging and chromoendoscopy. We review our approach to the endoscopic diagnosis of (pre-)malignant lesions in the stomach and discuss in detail novel endoscopic microvascular architectural patterns which further leverage diagnostic biopsy yield. We expect that further improvement of endoscopic techniques and correlative studies will close the gap between endoscopy and pathology.

  7. Prior-Cancer Diagnosis in Men with Nonmetastatic Prostate Cancer and the Risk of Prostate-Cancer-Specific and All-Cause Mortality

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Ming-Hui; D'Amico, Anthony V.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose. We evaluated the impact a prior cancer diagnosis had on the risk of prostate-cancer-specific mortality (PCSM) and all-cause mortality (ACM) in men with PC. Methods. Using the SEER data registry, 166,104 men (median age: 66) diagnosed with PC between 2004 and 2007 comprised the study cohort. Competing risks and Cox regression were used to evaluate whether a prior cancer diagnosis impacted the risk of PCSM and ACM adjusting for known prognostic factors PSA level, age at and year of diagnosis, race, and whether PC treatment was curative, noncurative, or active surveillance (AS)/watchful waiting (WW). Results. At a median followup of 2.75 years, 12,453 men died: 3,809 (30.6%) from PC. Men with a prior cancer were followed longer, had GS 8 to 10 PC more often, and underwent WW/AS more frequently (P < 0.001). Despite these differences that should increase the risk of PCSM, the adjusted risk of PCSM was significantly decreased (AHR: 0.66 (95% CI: (0.45, 0.97); P = 0.033), while the risk of ACM was increased (AHR: 2.92 (95% CI: 2.64, 3.23); P < 0.001) in men with a prior cancer suggesting that competing risks accounted for the reduction in the risk of PCSM. Conclusion. An assessment of the impact that a prior cancer has on life expectancy is needed at the time of PC diagnosis to determine whether curative treatment for unfavorable-risk PC versus AS is appropriate. PMID:24634786

  8. Quantitative diagnosis of bladder cancer by morphometric analysis of HE images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Binlin; Nebylitsa, Samantha V.; Mukherjee, Sushmita; Jain, Manu

    2015-02-01

    In clinical practice, histopathological analysis of biopsied tissue is the main method for bladder cancer diagnosis and prognosis. The diagnosis is performed by a pathologist based on the morphological features in the image of a hematoxylin and eosin (HE) stained tissue sample. This manuscript proposes algorithms to perform morphometric analysis on the HE images, quantify the features in the images, and discriminate bladder cancers with different grades, i.e. high grade and low grade. The nuclei are separated from the background and other types of cells such as red blood cells (RBCs) and immune cells using manual outlining, color deconvolution and image segmentation. A mask of nuclei is generated for each image for quantitative morphometric analysis. The features of the nuclei in the mask image including size, shape, orientation, and their spatial distributions are measured. To quantify local clustering and alignment of nuclei, we propose a 1-nearest-neighbor (1-NN) algorithm which measures nearest neighbor distance and nearest neighbor parallelism. The global distributions of the features are measured using statistics of the proposed parameters. A linear support vector machine (SVM) algorithm is used to classify the high grade and low grade bladder cancers. The results show using a particular group of nuclei such as large ones, and combining multiple parameters can achieve better discrimination. This study shows the proposed approach can potentially help expedite pathological diagnosis by triaging potentially suspicious biopsies.

  9. Real-time Raman spectroscopy for in vivo, online gastric cancer diagnosis during clinical endoscopic examination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duraipandian, Shiyamala; Sylvest Bergholt, Mads; Zheng, Wei; Yu Ho, Khek; Teh, Ming; Guan Yeoh, Khay; Bok Yan So, Jimmy; Shabbir, Asim; Huang, Zhiwei

    2012-08-01

    Optical spectroscopic techniques including reflectance, fluorescence and Raman spectroscopy have shown promising potential for in vivo precancer and cancer diagnostics in a variety of organs. However, data-analysis has mostly been limited to post-processing and off-line algorithm development. In this work, we develop a fully automated on-line Raman spectral diagnostics framework integrated with a multimodal image-guided Raman technique for real-time in vivo cancer detection at endoscopy. A total of 2748 in vivo gastric tissue spectra (2465 normal and 283 cancer) were acquired from 305 patients recruited to construct a spectral database for diagnostic algorithms development. The novel diagnostic scheme developed implements on-line preprocessing, outlier detection based on principal component analysis statistics (i.e., Hotelling's T2 and Q-residuals) for tissue Raman spectra verification as well as for organ specific probabilistic diagnostics using different diagnostic algorithms. Free-running optical diagnosis and processing time of < 0.5 s can be achieved, which is critical to realizing real-time in vivo tissue diagnostics during clinical endoscopic examination. The optimized partial least squares-discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) models based on the randomly resampled training database (80% for learning and 20% for testing) provide the diagnostic accuracy of 85.6% [95% confidence interval (CI): 82.9% to 88.2%] [sensitivity of 80.5% (95% CI: 71.4% to 89.6%) and specificity of 86.2% (95% CI: 83.6% to 88.7%)] for the detection of gastric cancer. The PLS-DA algorithms are further applied prospectively on 10 gastric patients at gastroscopy, achieving the predictive accuracy of 80.0% (60/75) [sensitivity of 90.0% (27/30) and specificity of 73.3% (33/45)] for in vivo diagnosis of gastric cancer. The receiver operating characteristics curves further confirmed the efficacy of Raman endoscopy together with PLS-DA algorithms for in vivo prospective diagnosis of gastric cancer

  10. Tumor markers for diagnosis, monitoring of recurrence and prognosis in patients with upper gastrointestinal tract cancer.

    PubMed

    Jing, Jie-Xian; Wang, Yan; Xu, Xiao-Qin; Sun, Ting; Tian, Bao-Guo; Du, Li-Li; Zhao, Xian-Wen; Han, Cun-Zhi

    2014-01-01

    To evaluate the value of combined detection of serum CEA, CA19-9, CA24-2, AFP, CA72-4, SCC, TPA and TPS for the clinical diagnosis of upper gastrointestinal tract (GIT) cancer and to analyze the efficacy of these tumor markers (TMs) in evaluating curative effects and prognosis. A total of 573 patients with upper GIT cancer between January 2004 and December 2007 were enrolled in this study. Serum levels of CEA, CA19-9, CA24-2, AFP, CA72-4, SCC, TPA and TPS were examined preoperatively and every 3 months postoperatively by ELISA. The sensitivity of CEA, CA19-9, CA24-2, AFP, CA72-4, SCC, TPA and TPS were 26.8%, 36.2%, 42.9%, 2.84%, 25.4%, 34.6%, 34.2% and 30.9%, respectively. The combined detection of CEA+CA199+CA242+CA724 had higher sensitivity and specificity in gastric cancer (GC) and cardiac cancer, while CEA+CA199+CA242+SCC was the best combination of diagnosis for esophageal cancer (EC). Elevation of preoperative CEA, CA19-9 and CA24-2, SCC and CA72-4 was significantly associated with pathological types (p<0.05) and TNM staging (p<0.05). Correlation analysis showed that CA24-2 was significantly correlated with CA19-9 (r=0.810, p<0.001). The levels of CEA, CA19-9, CA24-2, CA72-4 and SCC decreased obviously 3 months after operations. When metastasis and recurrence occurred, the levels of TMs significantly increased. On multivariate analysis, high preoperative CA72-4, CA24-2 and SCC served as prognostic factors for cardiac carcinoma, GC and EC, respectively. combined detection of CEA+CA199+CA242+SCC proved to be the most economic and practical strategy in diagnosis of EC; CEA+CA199+CA242+CA724 proved to be a better evaluation indicator for cardiac cancer and GC. CEA and CA19-9, CA24-2, CA72-4 and SCC, examined postoperatively during follow-up, were useful to find early tumor recurrence and metastasis, and evaluate prognosis. AFP, TPA and TPS have no significant value in diagnosis of patients with upper GIT cancer.

  11. Non-invasive visual tools for diagnosis of oral cancer and dysplasia: A systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Giovannacci, Ilaria; Vescovi, Paolo; Manfredi, Maddalena

    2016-01-01

    Background Gold standard for the diagnosis of oral dysplasia (OD) oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) and malignant lesions is the histological examination. Several adjunctive diagnostic techniques have been proposed in order to increase the sensitivity (SE) and specificity (SP) of conventional oral examination and to improve the diagnostic first level accuracy. The aim of this study is to perform a systematic review on non-invasive tools for diagnosis of OD and early OSCC. Material and Methods Medline, Scopus, Web of Knowledge databases were searched, using as entry terms “oral dysplasia AND diagnosis” / ”oral cancer AND diagnosis”. Data extracted from each study included number of lesions evaluated, histopathological diagnosis, SE, SP, positive and negative predictive values (PPV and NPV), diagnostic accuracy (DA) and the main conclusions. Results After title and abstract scanning of 11.080 records, we selected 35 articles for full text evaluation. Most evaluated tools were autofluorescence (AF), chemiluminescence (CL), toluidine blu (TL) and chemiluminescence associated with toluidine blue (CLTB). Conclusions There is a great inhomogeneity of the reported values and there is no significant evidence of superiority of one tool over the other. Further clinical trials with a higher level of evidence are necessary in order to assess the real usefulness visual diagnostic tools. Key words:Oral dysplasia, oral cancer, diagnosis, visual diagnostic tool, systematic review. PMID:26946204

  12. [Research on Early Diagnosis of Gastric Cancer by the Surface Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy of Human Hemoglobin].

    PubMed

    Wang, Wei; Pan, Zhi-feng; Tang, Wei-yue; Li, Yun-tao; Fan, Chun-zhen

    2015-12-01

    Early diagnosis have great positive effect on the treatment of gastric cancer patients. Raman spectroscopy can provide a useful monitor for hemoglobin dynamics. Besides, Raman spectroscopy has notable advantages in the fields of abnormal hemoglobin diagnosis, hemoglobin oxygen saturation deter mination and blood methemoglobin analysis. In this paper, novel silver colloid was synthesized by microwave heated method. The surface enhanced Raman spectrums of hemoglobin from 11 normal persons and 20 gastric cancer patients are measured and analyzed in order to obtain spectrums which are high repeatability and characteristic peaks protruding. By analyzing the assignations of the SERS bands, it found that the content of asparagine, tyrosine and phenylalanine in the hemoglobin are significantly lower than healthy people. Discussing the structure of hemoglobin, when hemoglobin combines with oxygen, Fe²⁺ is in a low spin state, ionic radius shrinks and moves 0. 075 nm and fall into the pore in the middle of the heme porphyrin ring plane. This spatial variation affects F8His connected with the iron, will narrow the gap between the globin in the two strands of the helix, as a result, HC2 tyrosine pushed out of the void. Using this mechanism, the absorption peak of 1 560 cm⁻¹ confirmed that the tyrosine content in patients with gastric cancer was lower than that of normal people. Principal component analysis(PCA) is employed to get a three-dimensional scatter plot of PC scores for the health and cancer groups, and it can be learned that they are distributed in separate areas. By using the method of discriminate analysis, it is found that the diagnostic algorithm separates the two groups with sensitivity of 90.0% and diagnostic specificity of 90.9%, the overall diagnostic accuracy was 90.3%. The results from this exploratory study demonstrate that, SERS detection of oxyhemoglobin combined with multivariate analysis would be an effective method for early diagnosis of gastric

  13. Clinical cancer diagnosis using optical fiber-delivered coherent anti-stokes ramon scattering microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Liang

    This thesis describes the development of a combined label-free imaging and analytical strategy for intraoperative characterization of cancer lesions using the coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering imaging (CARS) technique. A cell morphology-based analytical platform is developed to characterize CARS images and, hence, provide diagnostic information using disease-related pathology features. This strategy is validated for three different applications, including margin detection for radical prostatectomy, differential diagnosis of lung cancer, as well as detection and differentiation of breast cancer subtypes for in situ analysis of margin status during lumpectomy. As the major contribution of this thesis, the developed analytical strategy shows high accuracy and specificity for all three diseases and thus has introduced the CARS imaging technique into the field of human cancer diagnosis, which holds substantial potential for clinical translations. In addition, I have contributed a project aimed at miniaturizing the CARS imaging device into a microendoscope setup through a fiber-delivery strategy. A four-wave-mixing (FWM) background signal, which is caused by simultaneous delivery of the two CARS-generating excitation laser beams, is initially identified. A polarization-based strategy is then introduced and tested for suppression of this FWM noise. The approach shows effective suppression of the FWM signal, both on microscopic and prototype endoscopic setups, indicating the potential of developing a novel microendoscope with a compatible size for clinical use. These positive results show promise for the development of an all-fiber-based, label-free imaging and analytical platform for minimally invasive detection and diagnosis of cancers during surgery or surgical-biopsy, thus improving surgical outcomes and reducing patients' suffering.

  14. Deriving stage at diagnosis from multiple population-based sources: colorectal and lung cancer in England

    PubMed Central

    Benitez-Majano, S; Fowler, H; Maringe, C; Di Girolamo, C; Rachet, B

    2016-01-01

    Background: Stage at diagnosis is a strong predictor of cancer survival. Differences in stage distributions and stage-specific management help explain geographic differences in cancer outcomes. Stage information is thus essential to improve policies for cancer control. Despite recent progress, stage information is often incomplete. Data collection methods and definition of stage categories are rarely reported. These inconsistencies may result in assigning conflicting stage for single tumours and confound the interpretation of international comparisons and temporal trends of stage-specific cancer outcomes. We propose an algorithm that uses multiple routine, population-based data sources to obtain the most complete and reliable stage information possible. Methods: Our hierarchical approach derives a single stage category per tumour prioritising information deemed of best quality from multiple data sets and various individual components of tumour stage. It incorporates rules from the Union for International Cancer Control TNM classification of malignant tumours. The algorithm is illustrated for colorectal and lung cancer in England. We linked the cancer-specific Clinical Audit data (collected from clinical multi-disciplinary teams) to national cancer registry data. We prioritise stage variables from the Clinical Audit and added information from the registry when needed. We compared stage distribution and stage-specific net survival using two sets of definitions of summary stage with contrasting levels of assumptions for dealing with missing individual TNM components. This exercise extends a previous algorithm we developed for international comparisons of stage-specific survival. Results: Between 2008 and 2012, 163 915 primary colorectal cancer cases and 168 158 primary lung cancer cases were diagnosed in adults in England. Using the most restrictive definition of summary stage (valid information on all individual TNM components), colorectal cancer stage

  15. Optical imaging modalities: From design to diagnosis of skin cancer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korde, Vrushali Raj

    This study investigates three high resolution optical imaging modalities to better detect and diagnose skin cancer. The ideal high resolution optical imaging system can visualize pre-malignant tissue growth non-invasively with resolution comparable to histology. I examined 3 modalities which approached this goal. The first method examined was high magnification microscopy of thin stained tissue sections, together with a statistical analysis of nuclear chromatin patterns termed Karyometry. This method has subcellular resolution, but it necessitates taking a biopsy at the desired tissue site and imaging the tissue ex-vivo. My part of this study was to develop an automated nuclear segmentation algorithm to segment cell nuclei in skin histology images for karyometric analysis. The results of this algorithm were compared to hand segmented cell nuclei in the same images, and it was concluded that the automated segmentations can be used for karyometric analysis. The second optical imaging modality I investigated was Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT). OCT is analogous to ultrasound, in which sound waves are delivered into the body and the echo time and reflected signal magnitude are measured. Due to the fast speed of light and detector temporal integration times, low coherence interferometry is needed to gate the backscattered light. OCT acquires cross sectional images, and has an axial resolution of 1-15 mum (depending on the source bandwidth) and a lateral resolution of 10-20 mum (depending on the sample arm optics). While it is not capable of achieving subcellular resolution, it is a non-invasive imaging modality. OCT was used in this study to evaluate skin along a continuum from normal to sun damaged to precancer. I developed algorithms to detect statistically significant differences between images of sun protected and sun damaged skin, as well as between undiseased and precancerous skin. An Optical Coherence Microscopy (OCM) endoscope was developed in the third

  16. Increased incidence of another cancer in myeloproliferative neoplasms patients at the time of diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Pettersson, Helna; Knutsen, Håvar; Holmberg, Erik; Andréasson, Björn

    2015-02-01

    Several studies have reported an increased incidence of coexistent cancer in patients with myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPN), and myelosuppressive treatment has been speculated to be one of the causes. In this study, we have concentrated on malignancies diagnosed before the MPN diagnosis to eliminate the possible influence of MPN treatment. The patients were recruited from the Swedish and Norwegian cancer registries. One thousand seven hundred and 45 patients from the Swedish MPN Quality Registry and 468 patients from the Norwegian National Cancer Registry were included in this study covering a 3-yr period. The results show that primary concurrent cancer is higher among patients with MPN compared to the general population. When pooled together, the Swedish and the Norwegian cohort showed increased prevalence of all types of cancer in general compared with the general population, standard prevalence ratio (SPR) of 1.20 (95% CI 1.07-1.34). Significantly high SPRs were reached for skin malignant melanoma [1.89 (95% CI 1.33-2.62)], prostate cancer [1.39 (95% CI 1.11-1.71)], and hematologic cancer [1.49 (95% CI 1.00-2.12)]. In the polycythemia vera group, the risk of having prior malignant melanoma of the skin was significant, with an SPR of 2.20 (95% CI 1.17-3.77). For patients with essential thrombocythemia and primary myelofibrosis, no significant risks were found. Coexisting cancers have a high impact on the treatment strategies of MPN, as it narrows down the treatment options. Chronic inflammation, as a common denominator of MPN with other cancers, can catalyze each other's existence and progression.

  17. Recent advances in photodynamic diagnosis of gastric cancer using 5-aminolevulinic acid

    PubMed Central

    Koizumi, Noriaki; Harada, Yoshinori; Minamikawa, Takeo; Tanaka, Hideo; Otsuji, Eigo; Takamatsu, Tetsuro

    2016-01-01

    Photodynamic diagnosis based on 5-aminolevulinic acid-induced protoporphyrin IX has been clinically applied in many fields based upon its evidenced efficacy and adequate safety. In order to establish a personalized medicine approach for treating gastric cancer patients, rapid intraoperative detection of malignant lesions has become important. Feasibility of photodynamic diagnosis using 5-aminolevulinic acid for gastric cancer patients has been investigated, especially for the detection of peritoneal dissemination and lymph node metastasis. This method enables intraoperative real-time fluorescence detection of peritoneal dissemination, exhibiting higher sensitivity than white light observation without histopathological examination. The method also enables detection of metastatic foci within excised lymph nodes, exhibiting a diagnostic accuracy comparable to that of a current molecular diagnostics technique. Although several complicating issues still need to be resolved, such as the effect of tissue autofluorescence and the insufficient depth penetration of excitation light, this simple and rapid method has the potential to become a useful diagnostic tool for gastric cancer, as well as urinary bladder cancer and glioma. PMID:26811665

  18. Computer-aided diagnosis and lipidomics analysis to detect and treat breast cancer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meyer-Bäse, Anke; Retter, Felix; Steinbrücker, Frank; Görke, Robert; Burgeth, Bernhard; Schlossbauer, Thomas

    2010-04-01

    Multi-modality diagnosis techniques are more and more replacing traditional medical imaging for breast cancer detection. Newly emerging advances in both intelligent cancer detection systems and lipidomics technologies offer an excellent opportunity to detect tumors and to understand regulation at the molecular level in many diseases such as cancer. In this paper, we present a detailed computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) systems combining motion artefact reduction and automated feature extraction and classification, and a novel data mining approach for visualization of gene therapy leading to apoptosis in U87 MG glioblastoma cells, a secondary tumor of breast cancer. The achieved results show that the CAD system represents a robust and integrative tool for reliable small contrast enhancing lesions. Graph-clustering methods are introduced as powerful correlation networks which enable a simultaneous exploration and visualization of co-regulation in glioblastoma data. These new paradigms are providing unique "fingerprints" by revealing how the intricate interactions at the lipidome level can be employed to induce apoptosis (cell death) and are thus opening a new window to biomedical frontiers.

  19. Stress and self-efficacy predict psychological adjustment at diagnosis of prostate cancer

    PubMed Central

    Curtis, Ruth; Groarke, AnnMarie; Sullivan, Frank

    2014-01-01

    Prostate cancer is the most frequently non-skin cancer diagnosed among men. Diagnosis, a significant burden, generates many challenges which impact on emotional adjustment and so warrants further investigation. Most studies to date however, have been carried out at or post treatment with an emphasis on functional quality of life outcomes. Men recently diagnosed with localised prostate cancer (N = 89) attending a Rapid Access Prostate Clinic to discuss treatment options completed self report questionnaires on stress, self-efficacy, and mood. Information on age and disease status was gathered from hospital records. Self-efficacy and stress together explained more than half of the variance on anxiety and depression. Self-efficacy explained variance on all 6 emotional domains of the POMS (ranging from 5–25%) with high scores linked to good emotional adjustment. Perceived global and cancer specific stress also explained variance on the 6 emotional domains of the POMS (8–31%) with high stress linked to poor mood. These findings extend understanding of the role of efficacy beliefs and stress appraisal in predicting emotional adjustment in men at diagnosis and identify those at risk for poor adaptation at this time. Such identification may lead to more effective patient management. PMID:24993798

  20. Raman spectroscopy, a potential tool in diagnosis and prognosis of castration-resistant prostate cancer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Lei; He, Dalin; Zeng, Jin; Guan, Zhenfeng; Dang, Qiang; Wang, Xinyang; Wang, Jun; Huang, Liqing; Cao, Peilong; Zhang, Guanjun; Hsieh, JerTong; Fan, Jinhai

    2013-08-01

    Purpose: We evaluated the feasibility of Raman spectroscopy (RS) in diagnosis and prognosis of castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) in patients with prostate cancer (PC). Materials and methods: Raman spectra are detected from PC cell lines (LNCaP and C4-2) and tissues using a Labram HR 800 RS. Then, principal component analysis (PCA) and support vector machine (SVM) are applied for prediction. A leave-one-out cross-validation is used to train and test the SVM. Results: There are 50 qualified patients, including 33 with androgen-dependent prostate cancer (ADPC) and 17 with CRPC. The spectral changes at 1126, 1170, 1315 to 1338, and 1447 cm-1 between CRPC and ADPC are detected in both cells and tissues models, which are assigned to specific amino acids and DNA. PCA/SVM algorithm provided a sensitivity of 88.2% and a specificity of 87.9% for diagnosing CRPC tissues. Furthermore, 14 patients with ADPC progressed to CRPC within 12 months. These patients are separated into two groups depending on whether their cancers progressed to CRPC within 12 months. PCA/SVM could differentiate these two groups with a sensitivity of 85.7% and a specificity of 88.9%. Conclusions: RS has the potential in diagnosis and prognosis of CRPC in clinical practice.

  1. Recent advances in photodynamic diagnosis of gastric cancer using 5-aminolevulinic acid.

    PubMed

    Koizumi, Noriaki; Harada, Yoshinori; Minamikawa, Takeo; Tanaka, Hideo; Otsuji, Eigo; Takamatsu, Tetsuro

    2016-01-21

    Photodynamic diagnosis based on 5-aminolevulinic acid-induced protoporphyrin IX has been clinically applied in many fields based upon its evidenced efficacy and adequate safety. In order to establish a personalized medicine approach for treating gastric cancer patients, rapid intraoperative detection of malignant lesions has become important. Feasibility of photodynamic diagnosis using 5-aminolevulinic acid for gastric cancer patients has been investigated, especially for the detection of peritoneal dissemination and lymph node metastasis. This method enables intraoperative real-time fluorescence detection of peritoneal dissemination, exhibiting higher sensitivity than white light observation without histopathological examination. The method also enables detection of metastatic foci within excised lymph nodes, exhibiting a diagnostic accuracy comparable to that of a current molecular diagnostics technique. Although several complicating issues still need to be resolved, such as the effect of tissue autofluorescence and the insufficient depth penetration of excitation light, this simple and rapid method has the potential to become a useful diagnostic tool for gastric cancer, as well as urinary bladder cancer and glioma.

  2. Quantitative Diagnosis of Tongue Cancer from Histological Images in an Animal Model

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Guolan; Qin, Xulei; Wang, Dongsheng; Muller, Susan; Zhang, Hongzheng; Chen, Amy; Chen, Zhuo Georgia; Fei, Baowei

    2016-01-01

    We developed a chemically-induced oral cancer animal model and a computer aided method for tongue cancer diagnosis. The animal model allows us to monitor the progress of the lesions over time. Tongue tissue dissected from mice was sent for histological processing. Representative areas of hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) stained tissue from tongue sections were captured for classifying tumor and non-tumor tissue. The image set used in this paper consisted of 214 color images (114 tumor and 100 normal tissue samples). A total of 738 color, texture, morphometry and topology features were extracted from the histological images. The combination of image features from epithelium tissue and its constituent nuclei and cytoplasm has been demonstrated to improve the classification results. With ten iteration nested cross validation, the method achieved an average sensitivity of 96.5% and a specificity of 99% for tongue cancer detection. The next step of this research is to apply this approach to human tissue for computer aided diagnosis of tongue cancer. PMID:27656036

  3. Quantitative diagnosis of tongue cancer from histological images in an animal model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Guolan; Qin, Xulei; Wang, Dongsheng; Muller, Susan; Zhang, Hongzheng; Chen, Amy; Chen, Zhuo G.; Fei, Baowei

    2016-03-01

    We developed a chemically-induced oral cancer animal model and a computer aided method for tongue cancer diagnosis. The animal model allows us to monitor the progress of the lesions over time. Tongue tissue dissected from mice was sent for histological processing. Representative areas of hematoxylin and eosin stained tissue from tongue sections were captured for classifying tumor and non-tumor tissue. The image set used in this paper consisted of 214 color images (114 tumor and 100 normal tissue samples). A total of 738 color, texture, morphometry and topology features were extracted from the histological images. The combination of image features from epithelium tissue and its constituent nuclei and cytoplasm has been demonstrated to improve the classification results. With ten iteration nested cross validation, the method achieved an average sensitivity of 96.5% and a specificity of 99% for tongue cancer detection. The next step of this research is to apply this approach to human tissue for computer aided diagnosis of tongue cancer.

  4. Diagnosis and surgical management of breast cancer metastatic to the spine

    PubMed Central

    Ju, Derek G; Yurter, Alp; Gokaslan, Ziya L; Sciubba, Daniel M

    2014-01-01

    Breast cancer is the most common malignancy and the second leading cause of death in Western women. Breast cancer most commonly metastasizes to the bone and has a particular affinity with the spine, accounting for 2/3 of osseous metastases discovered. With significant improvements in cancer therapies, the number of patients at risk for symptomatic spinal metastases is likely to increase. Patients may suffer from intractable pain and neurological dysfunction, negatively influencing their quality of life. Timely diagnosis of patients is crucial and has been aided by several breakthrough advances in imaging techniques which aid in detection, staging, and follow-up of bone metastases. Breast metastases are usually responsive to hormonal therapy and pharmacologic interventions, but skeletal metastases often require surgical intervention. The treatments are palliative but goals include the preserving or restoring neurologic function, ensuring spinal stability, and relieving pain. Advances in surgical techniques and instrumentation have allowed more effective decompression and stabilization of the spine, and with the support of recent evidence the trend has shifted towards using more advanced surgical options in appropriately selected patients. In this review, the clinical presentation, diagnosis, patient selection, and surgical management of breast cancer metastatic to the spine are discussed. PMID:25114843

  5. Progress in the development of early diagnosis and a drug with unique pharmacology to improve cancer therapy

    PubMed Central

    Lehotzky, A.; Tőkési, N.; Gonzalez-Alvarez, I.; Merino, V.; Bermejo, M.; Orosz, F.; Lau, P.; Kovacs, G.G.; Ovádi, J.

    2008-01-01

    Cancer continues to be one of the major health and socio-economic problems worldwide, despite considerable efforts to improve its early diagnosis and treatment. The identification of new constituents as biomarkers for early diagnosis of neoplastic cells and the discovery of new type of drugs with their mechanistic actions are crucial to improve cancer therapy. New drugs have entered the market, thanks to industrial and legislative efforts ensuring continuity of pharmaceutical development. New targets have been identified, but cancer therapy and the anti-cancer drug market still partly depend on anti-mitotic agents. The objective of this paper is to show the effects of KAR-2, a potent anti-mitotic compound, and TPPP/p25, a new unstructured protein, on the structural and functional characteristics of the microtubule system. Understanding the actions of these two potential effectors on the microtubule system could be the clue for early diagnosis and improvement of cancer therapy. PMID:18644768

  6. [Effects of physical activity on cancer risk and disease progression after cancer diagnosis].

    PubMed

    Steindorf, K; Schmidt, M; Ulrich, C

    2012-01-01

    Numerous epidemiologic studies have demonstrated that regular physical activity convincingly reduces risk for colon cancer, probably for endometrium and postmenopausal breast cancer, and possibly for premenopausal breast, prostate, lung, and pancreas cancer. Relative risk reductions range from 10-30%. On the absolute scale about 9-19% of the most frequent cancers can be attributed to a lack of sufficient physical activity. Thus, exercise, as a modifiable health behavior, has a strong potential for primary cancer prevention. Current recommendations call for at least 30-60 min of moderate to vigorous activity daily. Physical activity is also increasingly gaining importance in cancer treatment and is now considered to be feasible, safe, and even recommended in almost all stages of disease. Randomized-controlled trials show that disease- and treatment-related symptoms, such as fatigue, sleep disorders, and depression which sometimes limit quality of life in cancer patients over years, can be reduced by physical activity. For disease-specific and total mortality, clinical studies are not yet available. However, preliminary observational studies with breast, colon, and prostate cancer patients show risk reductions.

  7. Improved Aptamers for the Diagnosis and Potential Treatment of HER2-Positive Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Gijs, Marlies; Penner, Gregory; Blackler, Garth B.; Impens, Nathalie R.E.N.; Baatout, Sarah; Luxen, André; Aerts, An M.

    2016-01-01

    Aptamers provide a potential source of alternative targeting molecules for existing antibody diagnostics and therapeutics. In this work, we selected novel DNA aptamers targeting the HER2 receptor by an adherent whole-cell SELEX approach. Individual aptamers were identified by next generation sequencing and bioinformatics analysis. Two aptamers, HeA2_1 and HeA2_3, were shown to bind the HER2 protein with affinities in the nanomolar range. In addition, both aptamers were able to bind with high specificity to HER2-overexpressing cells and HER2-positive tumor tissue samples. Furthermore, we demonstrated that aptamer HeA2_3 is being internalized into cancer cells and has an inhibitory effect on cancer cell growth and viability. In the end, we selected novel DNA aptamers with great potential for the diagnosis and possible treatment of HER2-positive cancer. PMID:27213406

  8. Combining multifractal analyses of digital mammograms and infrared thermograms to assist in early breast cancer diagnosis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gerasimova-Chechkina, E.; Toner, B.; Marin, Z.; Audit, B.; Roux, S. G.; Argoul, F.; Khalil, A.; Gileva, O.; Naimark, O.; Arneodo, A.

    2016-08-01

    We used a 1D wavelet transform modulus maxima (WTMM) method to analyze the temporal fluctuations of breast skin temperature recorded with an infrared (IR) camera from a panel of patients with breast cancer. This study shows that the multifractal complexity of temperature fluctuations observed in healthy breasts, is lost in the region of the malignant tumor in cancerous breasts. Then, we applied the 2D WTMM method to analyze the spatial fluctuations of breast density in the X-ray mammograms of the same patients. Compared to the correlated roughness fluctuations observed in the healthy areas, some clear loss of correlations is detected in malignant tumor foci. These physiological and architectural changes in the environment of malignant tumors detected in both thermograms and mammograms open new perspectives in computer-aided multifractal methods to assist in early breast cancer diagnosis.

  9. Improving pancreatic cancer diagnosis using circulating tumor cells: prospects for staging and single-cell analysis

    PubMed Central

    Court, Colin M; Ankeny, Jacob S; Hou, Shuang; Tseng, Hsian-Rong; Tomlinson, James S

    2016-01-01

    Pancreatic cancer (PC) is the fourth most common cause of cancer-related death in the USA, primarily due to late presentation coupled with an aggressive biology. The lack of adequate biomarkers for diagnosis and staging confound clinical decision-making and delay potentially effective therapies. Circulating tumor cells (CTCs) are a promising new biomarker in PC. Preliminary studies have demonstrated their potential clinical utility, and newer CTC isolation platforms have the potential to provide clinicians access to tumor tissue in a reliable, real-time manner. Such a ‘liquid biopsy’ has been demonstrated in several cancers, and small studies have demonstrated its potential applications in PC. This article reviews the available literature on CTCs as a biomarker in PC and presents the latest innovations in CTC research as well as their potential applications in PC. PMID:26390158

  10. [National consensus of diagnosis and treatment of non-small cell lung cancer].

    PubMed

    Arrieta, Oscar; Guzmán-de Alba, Enrique; Alba-López, Luis Felipe; Acosta-Espinoza, Alicia; Alatorre-Alexander, Jorge; Alexander-Meza, José Francisco; Allende-Pérez, Silvia Rosa; Alvarado-Aguilar, Salvador; Araujo-Navarrete, Margarita E; Argote-Greene, Luis Marcelo; Aquino-Mendoza, Cinthia Alejandra; Astorga-Ramos, Alma Magdalena; Austudillo-de la Vega, Horacio; Avilés-Salas, Alejandro; Barajas-Figueroa, Luis Javier; Barroso-Quiroga, Nimbe; Blake-Cerda, Mónica; Cabrera-Galeana, Paula Anel; Calderillo-Ruíz, Germán; Campos-Parra, Alma Delia; Cano-Valdez, Ana María; Capdeville-García, Daniel; Castillo-Ortega, Graciano; Casillas-Suárez, Catalina; Castillo-González, Patricia; Corona-Cruz, José Francisco; Correa-Acevedo, María Elma; Cortez-Ramírez, Séfora Sonciry; de la Cruz-Vargas, Jhony Alberto; de la Garza-Salazar, Jaime G; de la Mata-Moya, María Dolores; Domínguez-Flores, María Eugenia; Domínguez-Malagón, Hugo Ricardo; Domínguez-Parra, Luis Manuel; Domínguez-Peregrina, Alfredo; Durán-Alcocer, Jaime; Enríquez-Aceves, María Isabel; Elizondo-Ríos, Abelardo; Escobedo-Sánchez, Moisés Dante; de Villafranca, Pablo Espinosa-Mireles; Flores-Cantisani, Alberto; Flores-Gutiérrez, Juan Pablo; Franco-Marina, Francisco; Franco-González, Edwin Efraín; Franco-Topete, Ramón Antonio; Fuentes-de la Peña, Homero; Galicia-Amor, Susana; Gallardo-Rincón, Dolores; Gamboa-Domínguez, Armando; García-Andreu, Jorge; García-Cuéllar, Claudia María; García-Sancho-Figueroa, María Cecilia; García-Torrentera, Rogelio; Gerson-Cwilich, Raquel; Gómez-González, Arturo; Green-Schneeweiss, León; Guillén-Núñez, María del Rocío; Gutiérrez-Velázquez, Hilda; Ibarra-Pérez, Carlos; Jiménez-Fuentes, Edgardo; Juárez-Sánchez, Paula; Juárez-Ramiro, Alejandro; Kelly-García, Javier; Kuri-Exsome, Roberto; Lázaro-León, Jesús Miguel; León-Rodríguez, Eucario; Llanos-Osuna, Sara; Llanos-Osuna, Sara; Loyola-García, Ulises; López-González, José Sullivan; López y de Antuñano, Francisco Javier; Loustaunau-Andrade, Marco Antonio; Macedo-Pérez, Eleazar Omar; Machado-Villarroel, Limberth; Magallanes-Maciel, Manuel; Martínez-Barrera, Luis; Martínez-Cedillo, Jorge; Martínez-Martínez, Gloria; Medina-Esparza, Alfredo; Meneses-García, Abelardo; Mohar-Betancourt, Alejandro; Morales Blanhir, Jaime; Morales-Gómez, José; Motola-Kuba, Daniel; Nájera-Cruz, Marcela Patricia; Núñez-Valencia, Carolina del Carmen; Ocampo-Ocampo, María Angélica; Ochoa-Vázquez, María Dolores; Olivares-Torres, Carlos A; Palomar-Lever, Andrés; Patiño-Zarco, Mario; Pérez-Padilla, Rogelio; Peña-Alonso, Yolanda Rocío; Pérez-Romo, Alfredo Rafael; Aquilino Pérez, Mario; Pinaya-Ruíz, Paulo Martín; Pointevin-Chacón, María Adela; Poot-Braga, Juan José; Posadas-Valay, Rodolfo; Ramirez-Márquez, Marcelino; Reyes-Martínez, Ivonne; Robledo-Pascual, Julio; Rodríguez-Cid, Jerónimo; Rojas-Marín, Carlos Enrique; Romero-Bielma, Elizabeth; Rubio-Gutiérrez, Jaime Ernesto; Sáenz-Frías, Julia Angelina; Salazar-Lezama, Miguel Angel; Sánchez-Lara, Karla; Sansores Martínez, Raúl; Santillán-Doherty, Patricio; Alejandro-Silva, Juan; Téllez-Becerra, José Luis; Toledo-Buenrostro, Vinicio; Torre-Bouscoulet, Luis; Torecillas-Torres, Laura; Torres, Marineé; Tovar-Guzmán, Víctor; Turcott-Chaparro, Jenny Georgina; Vázquez-Cortés, Jesús Javier; Vázquez-Manríquez, María Eugenia; Vilches-Cisneros, Natalia; Villegas-Elizondo, José Felipe; Zamboni, Mauro M; Zamora-Moreno, Jesús; Zinser-Sierra, Juan W

    2013-03-01

    Mexican specialists in oncology, oncologic surgery, thoracic surgery, pneumology, pathology, molecular biology, anesthesiology, algology, psychology, nutrition, and rehabilitation (all of them experts in lung cancer treatment) in order to develop the National Consensus on Lung Cancer. The consensus has been developed as an answer to the need of updated Mexican guidelines for the optimal treatment of the disease, as well as to the requirements that such guidelines be established by multidisciplinary panel, depicting the current attention given to cancer lung cases in Mexico. Thus, this paper analyses the epidemiological review, screening, diagnosis, staging, pathology, translational medicine, and the suitable therapies for early, locally advanced, and metastatic disease in the first, second, and third lines of management, as well as rehabilitation and palliative measures.

  11. Real time diagnosis of bladder cancer with probe-based confocal laser endomicroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Jen-Jane; Wu, Katherine; Adams, Winifred; Hsiao, Shelly T.; Mach, Kathleen E.; Beck, Andrew H.; Jensen, Kristin C.; Liao, Joseph C.

    2011-02-01

    Probe-based confocal laser endomicroscopy (pCLE) is an emerging technology for in vivo optical imaging of the urinary tract. Particularly for bladder cancer, real time optical biopsy of suspected lesions will likely lead to improved management of bladder cancer. With pCLE, micron scale resolution is achieved with sterilizable imaging probes (1.4 or 2.6 mm diameter), which are compatible with standard cystoscopes and resectoscopes. Based on our initial experience to date (n = 66 patients), we have demonstrated the safety profile of intravesical fluorescein administration and established objective diagnostic criteria to differentiate between normal, benign, and neoplastic urothelium. Confocal images of normal bladder showed organized layers of umbrella cells, intermediate cells, and lamina propria. Low grade bladder cancer is characterized by densely packed monomorphic cells with central fibrovascular cores, whereas high grade cancer consists of highly disorganized microarchitecture and pleomorphic cells with indistinct cell borders. Currently, we are conducting a diagnostic accuracy study of pCLE for bladder cancer diagnosis. Patients scheduled to undergo transurethral resection of bladder tumor are recruited. Patients undergo first white light cystocopy (WLC), followed by pCLE, and finally histologic confirmation of the resected tissues. The diagnostic accuracy is determined both in real time by the operative surgeon and offline after additional image processing. Using histology as the standard, the sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive value of WLC and WLC + pCLE are calculated. With additional validation, pCLE may prove to be a valuable adjunct to WLC for real time diagnosis of bladder cancer.

  12. Advances in Bio-Optical Imaging for the Diagnosis of Early Oral Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Olivo, Malini; Bhuvaneswari, Ramaswamy; Keogh, Ivan

    2011-01-01

    Oral cancer is among the most common malignancies worldwide, therefore early detection and treatment is imperative. The 5-year survival rate has remained at a dismal 50% for the past several decades. The main reason for the poor survival rate is the fact that most of the oral cancers, despite the general accessibility of the oral cavity, are not diagnosed until the advanced stage. Early detection of the oral tumors and its precursor lesions may be the most effective means to improve clinical outcome and cure most patients. One of the emerging technologies is the use of non-invasive in vivo tissue imaging to capture the molecular changes at high-resolution to improve the detection capability of early stage disease. This review will discuss the use of optical probes and highlight the role of optical imaging such as autofluorescence, fluorescence diagnosis (FD), laser confocal endomicroscopy (LCE), surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS), optical coherence tomography (OCT) and confocal reflectance microscopy (CRM) in early oral cancer detection. FD is a promising method to differentiate cancerous lesions from benign, thus helping in the determination of adequate resolution of surgical resection margin. LCE offers in vivo cellular imaging of tissue structures from surface to subsurface layers and has demonstrated the potential to be used as a minimally invasive optical biopsy technique for early diagnosis of oral cancer lesions. SERS was able to differentiate between normal and oral cancer patients based on the spectra acquired from saliva of patients. OCT has been used to visualize the detailed histological features of the oral lesions with an imaging depth down to 2–3 mm. CRM is an optical tool to noninvasively image tissue with near histological resolution. These comprehensive diagnostic modalities can also be used to define surgical margin and to provide a direct assessment of the therapeutic effectiveness. PMID:24310585

  13. Analysis of Lung Flute-collected Sputum for Lung Cancer Diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Su, Jian; Anjuman, Nigar; Guarnera, Maria A; Zhang, Howard; Stass, Sanford A; Jiang, Feng

    2015-01-01

    Molecular analysis of sputum can help diagnose lung cancer. We have demonstrated that Lung Flute can be used to collect sputum from individuals who cannot spontaneously expectorate sputum. The objective of this study is to further evaluate the performance of the Lung Flute by comparing the characteristics of parallel samples collected with and without the Lung Flute and the usefulness for diagnosis of lung