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Sample records for accurate color reproduction

  1. Color calibration and fusion of lens-free and mobile-phone microscopy images for high-resolution and accurate color reproduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yibo; Wu, Yichen; Zhang, Yun; Ozcan, Aydogan

    2016-06-01

    Lens-free holographic microscopy can achieve wide-field imaging in a cost-effective and field-portable setup, making it a promising technique for point-of-care and telepathology applications. However, due to relatively narrow-band sources used in holographic microscopy, conventional colorization methods that use images reconstructed at discrete wavelengths, corresponding to e.g., red (R), green (G) and blue (B) channels, are subject to color artifacts. Furthermore, these existing RGB colorization methods do not match the chromatic perception of human vision. Here we present a high-color-fidelity and high-resolution imaging method, termed “digital color fusion microscopy” (DCFM), which fuses a holographic image acquired at a single wavelength with a color-calibrated image taken by a low-magnification lens-based microscope using a wavelet transform-based colorization method. We demonstrate accurate color reproduction of DCFM by imaging stained tissue sections. In particular we show that a lens-free holographic microscope in combination with a cost-effective mobile-phone-based microscope can generate color images of specimens, performing very close to a high numerical-aperture (NA) benchtop microscope that is corrected for color distortions and chromatic aberrations, also matching the chromatic response of human vision. This method can be useful for wide-field imaging needs in telepathology applications and in resource-limited settings, where whole-slide scanning microscopy systems are not available.

  2. Color calibration and fusion of lens-free and mobile-phone microscopy images for high-resolution and accurate color reproduction

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yibo; Wu, Yichen; Zhang, Yun; Ozcan, Aydogan

    2016-01-01

    Lens-free holographic microscopy can achieve wide-field imaging in a cost-effective and field-portable setup, making it a promising technique for point-of-care and telepathology applications. However, due to relatively narrow-band sources used in holographic microscopy, conventional colorization methods that use images reconstructed at discrete wavelengths, corresponding to e.g., red (R), green (G) and blue (B) channels, are subject to color artifacts. Furthermore, these existing RGB colorization methods do not match the chromatic perception of human vision. Here we present a high-color-fidelity and high-resolution imaging method, termed “digital color fusion microscopy” (DCFM), which fuses a holographic image acquired at a single wavelength with a color-calibrated image taken by a low-magnification lens-based microscope using a wavelet transform-based colorization method. We demonstrate accurate color reproduction of DCFM by imaging stained tissue sections. In particular we show that a lens-free holographic microscope in combination with a cost-effective mobile-phone-based microscope can generate color images of specimens, performing very close to a high numerical-aperture (NA) benchtop microscope that is corrected for color distortions and chromatic aberrations, also matching the chromatic response of human vision. This method can be useful for wide-field imaging needs in telepathology applications and in resource-limited settings, where whole-slide scanning microscopy systems are not available. PMID:27283459

  3. Accurate spectral color measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hiltunen, Jouni; Jaeaeskelaeinen, Timo; Parkkinen, Jussi P. S.

    1999-08-01

    Surface color measurement is of importance in a very wide range of industrial applications including paint, paper, printing, photography, textiles, plastics and so on. For a demanding color measurements spectral approach is often needed. One can measure a color spectrum with a spectrophotometer using calibrated standard samples as a reference. Because it is impossible to define absolute color values of a sample, we always work with approximations. The human eye can perceive color difference as small as 0.5 CIELAB units and thus distinguish millions of colors. This 0.5 unit difference should be a goal for the precise color measurements. This limit is not a problem if we only want to measure the color difference of two samples, but if we want to know in a same time exact color coordinate values accuracy problems arise. The values of two instruments can be astonishingly different. The accuracy of the instrument used in color measurement may depend on various errors such as photometric non-linearity, wavelength error, integrating sphere dark level error, integrating sphere error in both specular included and specular excluded modes. Thus the correction formulas should be used to get more accurate results. Another question is how many channels i.e. wavelengths we are using to measure a spectrum. It is obvious that the sampling interval should be short to get more precise results. Furthermore, the result we get is always compromise of measuring time, conditions and cost. Sometimes we have to use portable syste or the shape and the size of samples makes it impossible to use sensitive equipment. In this study a small set of calibrated color tiles measured with the Perkin Elmer Lamda 18 and the Minolta CM-2002 spectrophotometers are compared. In the paper we explain the typical error sources of spectral color measurements, and show which are the accuracy demands a good colorimeter should have.

  4. Spatial processing in color reproduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Li; Yang, Yongyi; Stark, Henry

    2005-08-01

    We consider the reproduction of color subject to material and neighborhood constraints. By 'material constraints,' we mean any constraints that are applied to the amount of ink, lights, voltages, and currents that are used in the generation of color. In the first instance we consider the problem of reproducing a target color constrained by maximum additive color signals, such as in the phosphorescence process in a cathode ray tube. In the second instance we consider the more difficult problem of reproducing color subject to constraints on the maximum primary color variations in a (spatial) neighborhood. We introduce the idea of adjacent color variance (ACV) and then attempt to reproduce colors subject to an upper bound on the ACV. An algorithm that is suitable for this task is the method of vector space projections (VSP). In order to use VSP for constrained color reproduction, we use a novel approach to linearize nonlinear CIE-Lab space constraints. Experimental results are furnished that demonstrate that using the ACV as a bound helps to reduce reproduction artifacts in a color image.

  5. Development of an XYZ Digital Camera with Embedded Color Calibration System for Accurate Color Acquisition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kretkowski, Maciej; Jablonski, Ryszard; Shimodaira, Yoshifumi

    Acquisition of accurate colors is important in the modern era of widespread exchange of electronic multimedia. The variety of device-dependent color spaces causes troubles with accurate color reproduction. In this paper we present the outlines of accomplished digital camera system with device-independent output formed from tristimulus XYZ values. The outstanding accuracy and fidelity of acquired color is achieved in our system by employing an embedded color calibration system based on emissive device generating reference calibration colors with user-defined spectral distribution and chromaticity coordinates. The system was tested by calibrating the camera using 24 reference colors spectrally reproduced from 24 color patches of the Macbeth Chart. The average color difference (CIEDE2000) has been found to be ΔE =0.83, which is an outstanding result compared to commercially available digital cameras.

  6. Color Reproduction with a Smartphone

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thoms, Lars-Jochen; Colicchia, Giuseppe; Girwidz, Raimund

    2013-01-01

    The world is full of colors. Most of the colors we see around us can be created on common digital displays simply by superposing light with three different wavelengths. However, no mixture of colors can produce a fully pure color identical to a spectral color. Using a smartphone, students can investigate the main features of primary color addition…

  7. Accurate method for computing correlated color temperature.

    PubMed

    Li, Changjun; Cui, Guihua; Melgosa, Manuel; Ruan, Xiukai; Zhang, Yaoju; Ma, Long; Xiao, Kaida; Luo, M Ronnier

    2016-06-27

    For the correlated color temperature (CCT) of a light source to be estimated, a nonlinear optimization problem must be solved. In all previous methods available to compute CCT, the objective function has only been approximated, and their predictions have achieved limited accuracy. For example, different unacceptable CCT values have been predicted for light sources located on the same isotemperature line. In this paper, we propose to compute CCT using the Newton method, which requires the first and second derivatives of the objective function. Following the current recommendation by the International Commission on Illumination (CIE) for the computation of tristimulus values (summations at 1 nm steps from 360 nm to 830 nm), the objective function and its first and second derivatives are explicitly given and used in our computations. Comprehensive tests demonstrate that the proposed method, together with an initial estimation of CCT using Robertson's method [J. Opt. Soc. Am. 58, 1528-1535 (1968)], gives highly accurate predictions below 0.0012 K for light sources with CCTs ranging from 500 K to 106 K.

  8. Environmental color affects Nile tilapia reproduction.

    PubMed

    Volpato, G L; Duarte, C R A; Luchiari, A C

    2004-04-01

    We investigated the effects of environmental color on the reproductive behavior of Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus. Two environmental colors were tested by covering the aquarium (60 x 60 x 40 cm) with white (12 groups) or blue (13 groups) cellophane and observing reproductive behavior in groups of 2 males (10.27 +/- 0.45 cm) and 3 females (10.78 +/- 0.45 cm) each. After assignment to the respective environmental color (similar luminosity = 100 to 120 Lux), the animals were observed until reproduction (identified by eggs in the female's mouth) or up to 10 days after the first nest building. Photoperiod was from 6:00 h to 18:00 h every day. Food was offered in excess once a day and water quality was similar among aquaria. Daily observations were made at 8:00, 11:00, 14:00 and 17:00 h regarding: a) latency to the first nest, b) number of nests, c) gravel weight removed (the male excavates the nest in the bottom of the aquarium), d) nest area, and e) mouthbrooding incubation (indication of reproduction). The proportion of reproducing fish was significantly higher (6 of 13) in the group exposed to the blue color compared the group exposed to the white color (1 of 12; Goodman's test of proportions). Moreover, males under blue light removed significantly larger masses of gravel (blue = 310.70 +/- 343.50 g > white = 130.38 +/- 102.70 g; P = 0.01) and constructed wider nests (blue = 207.93 +/- 207.80 cm(2) > white = 97.68 +/- 70.64 cm(2); P = 0.03) than the control (white). The other parameters did not differ significantly between light conditions. We concluded that reproduction in the presence of blue light was more frequent and intense than in the presence of white light.

  9. Assessing color reproduction tolerances in commercial print workflow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beretta, Giordano B.; Hoarau, Eric; Kothari, Sunil; Lin, I.-Jong; Zeng, Jun

    2012-01-01

    Except for linear devices like CRTs, color transformations from colorimetric specifications to device coordinates are mostly obtained by measuring a set of samples, inverting the table, and looking up values in the table (including interpolation), and mapping the gamut from input to output device. The accuracy of a transformation is determined by reproducing a second set of samples and measuring the reproduction errors. Accuracy as the average predicted perceptual error is then used as a metric for quality. Accuracy and precision are important metrics in commercial print because a print service provider can charge a higher price for more accurate color, or can widen his tolerances when customers prefer cheap prints. The disadvantage of determining tolerances through averaging perceptual errors is that the colors in the sample sets are independent and this is not necessarily a good correlate of print quality as determined through psychophysics studies. Indeed, images consist of color palettes and the main quality factor is not color fidelity but color integrity. For example, if the divergence of the field of error vectors is zero, color constancy is likely to take over and humans will perceive the color reproduction as being of good quality, even if the average error is relatively large. However, if the errors are small but in random directions, the perceived image quality is poor because the relation among colors is altered. We propose a standard practice to determine tolerance based on the Farnsworth-Munsell 100-hue test (FM-100) for the second set and to evaluate the color transpositions-a metric for color integrity-instead of the color differences. The quality metric is then the FM-100 score. There are industry standards for the tolerances of color judges, and the same tolerances and classification can be use for print workflows or its components (e.g., presses, proofers, displays). We generalize this practice to arbitrary perceptually uniform scales tailored to

  10. PROCEDURES FOR ACCURATE PRODUCTION OF COLOR IMAGES FROM SATELLITE OR AIRCRAFT MULTISPECTRAL DIGITAL DATA.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Duval, Joseph S.

    1985-01-01

    Because the display and interpretation of satellite and aircraft remote-sensing data make extensive use of color film products, accurate reproduction of the color images is important. To achieve accurate color reproduction, the exposure and chemical processing of the film must be monitored and controlled. By using a combination of sensitometry, densitometry, and transfer functions that control film response curves, all of the different steps in the making of film images can be monitored and controlled. Because a sensitometer produces a calibrated exposure, the resulting step wedge can be used to monitor the chemical processing of the film. Step wedges put on film by image recording machines provide a means of monitoring the film exposure and color balance of the machines.

  11. Color image reproduction based on multispectral and multiprimary imaging: experimental evaluation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamaguchi, Masahiro; Teraji, Taishi; Ohsawa, Kenro; Uchiyama, Toshio; Motomura, Hideto; Murakami, Yuri; Ohyama, Nagaaki

    2001-12-01

    Multispectral imaging is significant technology for the acquisition and display of accurate color information. Natural color reproduction under arbitrary illumination becomes possible using spectral information of both image and illumination light. In addition, multiprimary color display, i.e., using more than three primary colors, has been also developed for the reproduction of expanded color gamut, and for discounting observer metamerism. In this paper, we present the concept for the multispectral data interchange for natural color reproduction, and the experimental results using 16-band multispectral camera and 6-primary color display. In the experiment, the accuracy of color reproduction is evaluated in CIE (Delta) Ea*b* for both image capture and display systems. The average and maximum (Delta) Ea*b* = 1.0 and 2.1 in 16-band mutispectral camera system, using Macbeth 24 color patches. In the six-primary color projection display, average and maximum (Delta) Ea*b* = 1.3 and 2.7 with 30 test colors inside the display gamut. Moreover, the color reproduction results with different spectral distributions but same CIE tristimulus value are visually compared, and it is confirmed that the 6-primary display gives improved agreement between the original and reproduced colors.

  12. Effects Of Unsharp Masking On Color Reproduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Molla, R. K.

    1990-06-01

    Unsharp Masking, abbreviated as USM, is one of the few terms that is transferred from photographic color separation technique to modern electronic separation in a scanner. In photographic separation, the color correction mask is made unsharp to enhance details in the reproduction. In a color separation scanner, the principles remained the same, however, a different technique is used to create an optical illusion to enhance sharpness or details in the reproduction. During scanning, when there is a change of density in the copy, two fine lines are generated at the borders of the transition, a lighter line and a darker line at the borders of light and dark edges respectively of the density change. This is possible by scanning the copy with the main aperture as well as a separate larger aperture called unsharp masking aperture. When the separation is in progress, the signal from the unsharp masking aperture is compared with the signal from the main scanning aperture at a differential stage in the computer. If there is a density change in the copy, the larger unsharp masking aperture senses the change sooner than the smaller main aperture, and at this point, an additional signal is generated and added to the main signal. This makes it possible to create the black and white lines at the borders of a density change. In addition to this function, the same black and white lines can also be produced at the borders of transition of a color by transmitting the unsharp masking beam through any one of red, green, or blue filters. A combination of these apertures and filters can be selected by adjusting a pair of wheels located on the scanning head as in Hell scanners, or by changing specific inserts as in Dainippon Screen scanners. When used moderately, the black and white lines at the borders of a density or color change will create the effects of sharper details in the reproduction. In addition to the above mechanical controls, electronic controls are also provided in most

  13. Problems in publishing accurate color in IEEE journals.

    PubMed

    Vrhel, Michael J; Trussell, H J

    2002-01-01

    To demonstrate the performance of color image processing algorithms, it is desirable to be able to accurately display color images in archival publications. In poster presentations, the authors have substantial control of the printing process, although little control of the illumination. For journal publication, the authors must rely on professional intermediaries (printers) to accurately reproduce their results. Our previous work describes requirements for accurately rendering images using your own equipment. This paper discusses the problems of dealing with intermediaries and offers suggestions for improved communication and rendering.

  14. [Reproduction features of reflectance spectrum of natural plant flower color].

    PubMed

    Li, Sui-Xian; Sun, Yi; Liao, Ning-Fang

    2009-10-01

    Based on the sRGB color space as an important color space of computer display, the authors explored color reproduction features in sRGB. In the terms of "color clipping" of color space transformation from CIE1931XYZ to sRGB, the color reproduction errors in sRGB of 218 reflectance spectra of natural plant flower color were examined. Considering the importance of D65 illumination, the reproduction features of natural color under D65 were emphasized. It was concluded as follows. Firstly, "color clipping" is the key cause of color transformation error of the natural plant color when it is transformed from CIE1931XYZ to sRGB color space. Secondly, under D65 eight orange and yellow reflectance spectra in 218 natural color show clipping in sRGB color space, accounting for 3.7% of all samples. Finally, the color reproduction of natural plant flower color in sRGB under D65 is the best, while the A illumination is the worst.

  15. Reproduction of various colors on Jacquard textiles by only eight kinds of color wefts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Osaki, Keiji

    2002-06-01

    By making use of the information of the textile color blocks, reproduction of high-precision colors on fabrics that we call 'Color Image Fabrics' could be woven by Jacquard loom. Color components for each pixel on digitized original image are transformed into weaving data on textile by minimizing the color difference in CIEL*a*b* representation between the original image color and the simulated textile color.

  16. Color reproductivity improvement with additional virtual color filters for WRGB image sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawada, Shun; Kuroda, Rihito; Sugawa, Shigetoshi

    2013-02-01

    We have developed a high accuracy color reproduction method based on an estimated spectral reflectance of objects using additional virtual color filters for a wide dynamic range WRGB color filter CMOS image sensor. The four virtual color filters are created by multiplying the spectral sensitivity of White pixel by gauss functions which have different central wave length and standard deviation, and the virtual sensor outputs of those virtual filters are estimated from the four real output signals of the WRGB image sensor. The accuracy of color reproduction was evaluated with a Macbeth Color Checker (MCC), and the averaged value of the color difference ΔEab of 24 colors was 1.88 with our approach.

  17. Accurate color images: from expensive luxury to essential resource

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saunders, David R.; Cupitt, John

    2002-06-01

    Over ten years ago the National Gallery in London began a program to make digital images of paintings in the collection using a colorimetric imaging system. This was to provide a permanent record of the state of paintings against which future images could be compared to determine if any changes had occurred. It quickly became apparent that such images could be used not only for scientific purposes, but also in applications where transparencies were then being used, for example as source materials for printed books and catalogues or for computer-based information systems. During the 1990s we were involved in the development of a series of digital cameras that have combined the high color accuracy of the original 'scientific' imaging system with the familiarity and portability of a medium format camera. This has culminated in the program of digitization now in progress at the National Gallery. By the middle of 2001 we will have digitized all the major paintings in the collection at a resolution of 10,000 pixels along their longest dimension and with calibrated color; we are on target to digitize the whole collection by the end of 2002. The images are available on-line within the museum for consultation and so that Gallery departments can use the images in printed publications and on the Gallery's web- site. We describe the development of the imaging systems used at National Gallery and how the research we have conducted into high-resolution accurate color imaging has developed from being a peripheral, if harmless, research activity to becoming a central part of the Gallery's information and publication strategy. Finally, we discuss some outstanding issues, such as interfacing our color management procedures with the systems used by external organizations.

  18. Color reproduction on inkjet printers and paper colorimetric properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernandez-Reche, Jesus; Uroz, Joan; Diaz, Jose A.; Garcia-Beltran, Antonio

    2003-12-01

    The goal of this work is to study the relationship between the colorimetric characteristics that identify a kind of paper and those that allow us to evaluate its color reproduction capabilities on inkjet printers. A set of 29 different commercial papers from several companies has been tested. The category of those papers ranged from photo quality to prepress proof and ordinary office papers, being their finishing matte, semi-matte or glossy. For each sample, we have measured their reflectance, intrinsic reflectance, opacity, CIE whiteness index and tint. All these measurements followed the procedures established in the international standards about paper and board. Then, we have printed on three different sheet of each paper the color chart proposed in the international standard for color printer characterization ANSI IT8/7.3. When calculated the CIELAB coordinates using the D50 standard illuminant, we studied the dynamic range, color gamut and the rendering linearity. The results show that the colorimetric properties and reproduction capabilities of the 29 commercial papers let us cluster them in accordance with their behavior. However, we found no systematic correlation between color reproduction and specific colorimetric properties of the types of paper: we should search for other physical (not just colorimetric) properties (for instance, gloss or ink absorption capacity).

  19. Color Reproduction System Based on Color Appearance Model and Gamut Mapping

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2000-07-01

    and Gamut Mapping DISTRIBUTION: Approved for public release, distribution unlimited This paper is part of the following report: TITLE: Input/Output...report: ADP011333 thru ADP011362 UNCLASSIFIED Color reproduction system based on color appearance model and gamut mapping Fang-Hsuan Cheng, Chih-Yuan...perception is usually different. Basically, the influence factors are device calibration and characterization, viewing condition, device gamut and human

  20. Paper whiteness and its effect on the reproduction of colors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Norberg, Ole

    2007-02-01

    The whiteness level of a printing paper is considered as an important quality measure. High paper whiteness improves the contrast to printed areas providing a more distinct appearance of printed text and colors and increases the number of reproducible colors. Its influence on perceived color rendering quality is however not completely explained. The intuitive interpretation of paper whiteness is a material with high light reflection for all wavelengths in the visual part of the color spectrum. However, a slightly bluish shade is perceived as being whiter than a neutral white. Accordingly, papers with high whiteness values incline toward bluish-white. In paper production, a high whiteness level is achieved by the use of highly bleached pulp together with high light scattering filler pigment. To further increase whiteness levels expensive additives such as Fluorescent Whitening Agents (FWA) and shading dyes are needed. During the last years, the CIE whiteness level of some commercial available office paper has exceeded 170 CIE units, a level that can only be reached by the addition of significant amounts of FWA. Although paper whiteness is considered as an important paper quality criterion, its influence on printed color images is complicated. The dynamic mechanisms of the human visual system strive to optimize the visual response to each particular viewing condition. One of these mechanisms is chromatic adaptation, where colored objects get the same appearance under different light sources, i.e. a white paper appears white under tungsten, fluorescent and day light. In the process of judging printed color images, paper whiteness will be part of the chromatic adaptation. This implies that variations in paper whiteness would be discounted by the human visual system. On the other hand, high paper whiteness improves the contrast as well as the color gamut, both important parameters for the perceived color reproduction quality. In order to quantify the influence of paper

  1. The transmission of light affect the color reproduction of plastic print

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Jie; Zhang, Yi-xin; Shi, Gongcheng

    2011-01-01

    By analyzing the different paths that the incident light traverses in the printing, the paper aims to study the effect the transmission of light produces on the color reproduction of the plastic printing. The article also analyzes object characteristics about the three color properties and the color density, so as to make an accurate prediction on the color reproduction of the printing where ink is printed on the end of the plastic base directly. In the research, the incident light on the plastic print are divided into two parts: the reflection of diffuse light in the ink and the optical multi-layer internal reflection of the light through ink layer onto the plastic substrate. In this paper, we use kubelka-munk theory to analyze the transmission of the incident light on the surface of the printing product and Clapper-Yule theory to analyze the incident light which through the ink to the plastic film surface. When the incident light through the ink to the film surface, we have a series of mutually parallel reflected beam and refracted beam, and then obtain the synthesis of the reflected light complex amplitude, using the similar methods to obtain the total reflected and refraction light intensity. Combining the total reflection light intensity through the plastic substrate and the overall reflectivity through a plastic print surface by the kubelka-munk theory, color density and light transmission factor of the plastic substrate can be drawn in the formula: D ∞ f (δ,d,i1 ). From the above equation, we can find that optical phase retardation δ, the thickness of plastic d and the angle of incidence on the plastic surface i1 affect the color reproduction of plastic print.

  2. Preservation of Mexican ancient Codices: color reproduction from spectral attributes estimation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Conde, Jorge; Uchiyama, Toshio; Yamaguchi, Masahiro; Haneishi, Hideaki; Ohyama, Nagaaki

    2003-11-01

    Mexican Codices are an ancient reading and writing system, part of this cultural legacy date from the 16th and 17th century. For preservation reasons, the collection known as "Collection of Original Mexican Codices" under the custody of the National Library of Anthropology and History in Mexico City is kept under limited access and controlled illumination conditions. It is presented an accurate color reproduction of Codices under simulated average daylight based on spectral reflectance estimation from statistical spectral data using the Wiener estimator, removing the original capture environment illumination. We compare the achieved results between both, a 16 bands multispectral camera and a RGB Nikon D1 camera.

  3. Observer performance using virtual pathology slides: impact of LCD color reproduction accuracy.

    PubMed

    Krupinski, Elizabeth A; Silverstein, Louis D; Hashmi, Syed F; Graham, Anna R; Weinstein, Ronald S; Roehrig, Hans

    2012-12-01

    The use of color LCDs in medical imaging is growing as more clinical specialties use digital images as a resource in diagnosis and treatment decisions. Telemedicine applications such as telepathology, teledermatology, and teleophthalmology rely heavily on color images. However, standard methods for calibrating, characterizing, and profiling color displays do not exist, resulting in inconsistent presentation. To address this, we developed a calibration, characterization, and profiling protocol for color-critical medical imaging applications. Physical characterization of displays calibrated with and without the protocol revealed high color reproduction accuracy with the protocol. The present study assessed the impact of this protocol on observer performance. A set of 250 breast biopsy virtual slide regions of interest (half malignant, half benign) were shown to six pathologists, once using the calibration protocol and once using the same display in its "native" off-the-shelf uncalibrated state. Diagnostic accuracy and time to render a decision were measured. In terms of ROC performance, Az (area under the curve) calibrated = 0.8570 and Az uncalibrated = 0.8488. No statistically significant difference (p = 0.4112) was observed. In terms of interpretation speed, mean calibrated = 4.895 s; mean uncalibrated = 6.304 s which is statistically significant (p = 0.0460). Early results suggest a slight advantage diagnostically for a properly calibrated and color-managed display and a significant potential advantage in terms of improved workflow. Future work should be conducted using different types of color images that may be more dependent on accurate color rendering and a wider range of LCDs with varying characteristics.

  4. Influence of LCD color reproduction accuracy on observer performance using virtual pathology slides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krupinski, Elizabeth A.; Silverstein, Louis D.; Hashmi, Syed F.; Graham, Anna R.; Weinstein, Ronald S.; Roehrig, Hans

    2012-02-01

    The use of color LCDs in medical imaging is growing as more clinical specialties use digital images as a resource in diagnosis and treatment decisions. Telemedicine applications such as telepathology, teledermatology and teleophthalmology rely heavily on color images. However, standard methods for calibrating, characterizing and profiling color displays do not exist, resulting in inconsistent presentation. To address this, we developed a calibration, characterization and profiling protocol for color-critical medical imaging applications. Physical characterization of displays calibrated with and without the protocol revealed high color reproduction accuracy with the protocol. The present study assessed the impact of this protocol on observer performance. A set of 250 breast biopsy virtual slide regions of interest (half malignant, half benign) were shown to 6 pathologists, once using the calibration protocol and once using the same display in its "native" off-the-shelf uncalibrated state. Diagnostic accuracy and time to render a decision were measured. In terms of ROC performance, Az (area under the curve) calibrated = 0.8640; uncalibrated = 0.8558. No statistically significant difference (p = 0.2719) was observed. In terms of interpretation speed, mean calibrated = 4.895 sec, mean uncalibrated = 6.304 sec which is statistically significant (p = 0.0460). Early results suggest a slight advantage diagnostically for a properly calibrated and color-managed display and a significant potential advantage in terms of improved workflow. Future work should be conducted using different types of color images that may be more dependent on accurate color rendering and a wider range of LCDs with varying characteristics.

  5. Accurate Alternative Measurements for Female Lifetime Reproductive Success in Drosophila melanogaster

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, Trinh T. X.; Moehring, Amanda J.

    2015-01-01

    Fitness is an individual’s ability to survive and reproduce, and is an important concept in evolutionary biology. However, accurately measuring fitness is often difficult, and appropriate fitness surrogates need to be identified. Lifetime reproductive success, the total progeny an organism can produce in their lifetime, is thought to be a suitable proxy for fitness, but the measure of an organism’s reproductive output across a lifetime can be difficult or impossible to obtain. Here we demonstrate that the short-term measure of reproductive success across five days provides a reasonable prediction of an individual's total lifetime reproductive success in Drosophila melanogaster. However, the lifetime reproductive success of a female that has only mated once is not correlated to the lifetime reproductive success of a female that is allowed to mate multiple times, demonstrating that these measures should not serve as surrogates nor be used to make inferences about one another. PMID:26125633

  6. Accurate identification of periodic oscillations buried in white or colored noise using fast orthogonal search.

    PubMed

    Chon, K H

    2001-06-01

    We use a previously introduced fast orthogonal search algorithm to detect sinusoidal frequency components buried in either white or colored noise. We show that the method outperforms the correlogram, modified covariance autoregressive (MODCOVAR) and multiple-signal classification (MUSIC) methods. Fast orthogonal search method achieves accurate detection of sinusoids even with signal-to-noise ratios as low as -10 dB, and is superior at detecting sinusoids buried in 1/f noise. Since the utilized method accurately detects sinusoids even under colored noise, it can be used to extract a 1/f noise process observed in physiological signals such as heart rate and renal blood pressure and flow data.

  7. Ability of bottle cap color to facilitate accurate glaucoma patient-physician communication regarding medication identity

    PubMed Central

    Dave, Pujan; Villarreal, Guadalupe; Friedman, David S.; Kahook, Malik Y.; Ramulu, Pradeep Y.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To determine the accuracy of patient-physician communication regarding topical ophthalmic medication use based on bottle cap color, particularly amongst individuals who may have acquired color vision deficiency from glaucoma. Design Cross-sectional, clinical study. Participants Patients ≥ 18 years old with primary open-angle, primary angle-closure, pseudoexfoliation, or pigment dispersion glaucoma, bilateral visual acuity of 20/400 or better, and no concurrent conditions that may affect color vision. Methods One hundred patients provided color descriptions of 11 distinct medication bottle caps. Patient-produced color descriptors were then presented to three physicians. Each physician matched each color descriptor to the medication they thought the descriptor was describing. Main Outcome Measures Frequency of patient-physician agreement, occurring when all three physicians accurately matched the patient-produced color descriptor to the correct medication. Multivariate regression models evaluated whether patient-physician agreement decreased with degree of better-eye visual field (VF) damage, color descriptor heterogeneity, and/or color vision deficiency, as determined by Hardy-Rand-Rittler (HRR) score and the Lanthony D15 testing index (D15 CCI). Results Subjects had a mean age of 69 (±11) years, with mean VF mean deviation of −4.7 (±6.0) and −10.9 (±8.4) dB in the better- and worse-seeing eyes, respectively. Patients produced 102 unique color descriptors to describe the colors of the 11 tested bottle caps. Among individual patients, the mean number of medications demonstrating patient-physician agreement was 6.1/11 (55.5%). Agreement was less than 15% for 4 medications (prednisolone acetate [generic], betaxolol HCl [Betoptic], brinzolamide/brimonidine [Simbrinza], and latanoprost [Xalatan]). Lower HRR scores and higher D15 CCI (both indicating worse color vision) were associated with greater VF damage (p<0.001). Extent of color vision deficiency

  8. Adaptive and accurate color edge extraction method for one-shot shape acquisition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yin, Wei; Cheng, Xiaosheng; Cui, Haihua; Li, Dawei; Zhou, Lei

    2016-09-01

    This paper presents an approach to extract accurate color edge information using encoded patterns in hue, saturation, and intensity (HSI) color space. This method is applied to one-shot shape acquisition. Theoretical analysis shows that the hue transition between primary and secondary colors in a color edge is based on light interference and diffraction. We set up a color transition model to illustrate the hue transition on an edge and then define the segmenting position of two stripes. By setting up an adaptive HSI color space, the colors of the stripes and subpixel edges are obtained precisely without a dark laboratory environment, in a low-cost processing algorithm. Since this method does not have any constraints for colors of neighboring stripes, the encoding is an easy procedure. The experimental results show that the edges of dense modulation patterns can be obtained under a complicated environment illumination, and the precision can ensure that the three-dimensional shape of the object is obtained reliably with only one image.

  9. Accurate color tuning of firefly chromophore by modulation of local polarization electrostatic fields.

    PubMed

    Cai, Duanjun; Marques, Miguel A L; Nogueira, Fernando

    2011-01-20

    Although many microenvironmental factors contribute to the color shift of light emission from the firefly chromophore, the dominant one is the local electrostatic field. This opens up the possibility of accurate color tuning the bioluminescent absorption and emission by adjusting the local charged residues. With this aim, the optical response of oxyluciferin for different electrostatic fields is computed by using time-dependent density-functional theory. We find that the wavelength shift is correlated to the projection of the electrostatic field on the molecular plane, and that the fluorescent intensity of the second excitation peak can be effectively enhanced or suppressed (±30%) by field modulation. A model is formulated by correlating the shift in the spectral maxima with the projection of the local electrostatic field on the molecular plane. This method provides a predictable determination of the structural modifications leading to a particular color shift and/or fluorescent efficiency enhancement.

  10. Semi-parametric color reproduction method for optical see-through head-mounted displays.

    PubMed

    Itoh, Yuta; Dzitsiuk, Maksym; Amano, Toshiyuki; Klinker, Gudrun

    2015-11-01

    The fundamental issues in Augmented Reality (AR) are on how to naturally mediate the reality with virtual content as seen by users. In AR applications with Optical See-Through Head-Mounted Displays (OST-HMD), the issues often raise the problem of rendering color on the OST-HMD consistently to input colors. However, due to various display constraints and eye properties, it is still a challenging task to indistinguishably reproduce the colors on OST-HMDs. An approach to solve this problem is to pre-process the input color so that a user perceives the output color on the display to be the same as the input. We propose a color calibration method for OST-HMDs. We start from modeling the physical optics in the rendering and perception process between the HMD and the eye. We treat the color distortion as a semi-parametric model which separates the non-linear color distortion and the linear color shift. We demonstrate that calibrated images regain their original appearance on two OST-HMD setups with both synthetic and real datasets. Furthermore, we analyze the limitations of the proposed method and remaining problems of the color reproduction in OST-HMDs. We then discuss how to realize more practical color reproduction methods for future HMD-eye system.

  11. Development of a fast and accurate color-encoded digital fringe projection profilometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Z.; Quan, C.; Tay, C. J.

    2013-06-01

    In the past two decades, fringe projection profilometry (FPP) has been widely used in three-dimensional (3D) profile measurement for its fast speed and high accuracy. As a branch of FPP, color-encoded digital fringe projection profilometry (CDFPP) has been applied to surface profile measurement. CDFPP has the advantage of being fast speed, non-contact and full-field. It is one of the most important dynamic 3D profile measurement techniques. However, due to color cross-talk and gamma distortions of electro-optical devices, phase errors arise in using conventional phase-shifting algorithms to retrieve the phase in CDFPP. Therefore, it is important to develop methods for phase error suppression in CDFPP and thus realizing fast and accurate profile measurement. In this paper, a phase error suppression technique is proposed to overcome color cross-talk and gamma distortions. The proposed method is able to carry out fast and accurate surface profile measurement. The real data experimental results show that the proposed method can effectively suppress phase errors and achieve accurate measurements in CDFPP.

  12. Leap of Faith: Does serum luteinizing hormone always accurately reflect central reproductive neuroendocrine activity?

    PubMed Central

    Moenter, Suzanne M.

    2015-01-01

    Function of the central aspects of the hypothalamo-pituitary-gonadal axis has been assessed in a number of ways including direct measurements of hypothalamic output and indirect measures using gonadotropin release from the pituitary as a bioassay for reproductive neuroendocrine activity. Here, methods for monitoring these various parameters are briefly reviewed and then examples presented of both concordance and discrepancy between central and peripheral measurements, with a focus on situations in which elevated GnRH neurosecretion is not reflected accurately by pituitary luteinizing hormone release. Implications for interpretation of gonadotropin data are discussed. PMID:26278916

  13. Development of an image capturing system for the reproduction of high-fidelity color

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ejaz, Tahseen; Shoichi, Yokoi; Horiuchi, Tomohiro; Yokota, Tetsuya; Takaya, Masanori; Ohashi, Gosuke; Shimodaira, Yoshifumi

    2005-01-01

    An image capturing system for the reproduction of high-fidelity color color was developed and a set of three optical filters were designed for this purpose. Simulation was performed on the SOCS database containing the spectral reflectance data of various objects in the range of wavelength of 400nm ~ 700nm in order to calculate the CIELAB color difference ΔEab. The average color difference was found to be 1.049. The camera was mounted with the filters and color photographs of all the 24 color patches of the Macbeth chart were taken. The measured tristimulus values of the patches were compared with those of the digital images captured by the camera. The average ΔEab was found to be 5.916.

  14. Development of an image capturing system for the reproduction of high-fidelity color

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ejaz, Tahseen; Shoichi, Yokoi; Horiuchi, Tomohiro; Yokota, Tetsuya; Takaya, Masanori; Ohashi, Gosuke; Shimodaira, Yoshifumi

    2004-12-01

    An image capturing system for the reproduction of high-fidelity color color was developed and a set of three optical filters were designed for this purpose. Simulation was performed on the SOCS database containing the spectral reflectance data of various objects in the range of wavelength of 400nm ~ 700nm in order to calculate the CIELAB color difference ΔEab. The average color difference was found to be 1.049. The camera was mounted with the filters and color photographs of all the 24 color patches of the Macbeth chart were taken. The measured tristimulus values of the patches were compared with those of the digital images captured by the camera. The average ΔEab was found to be 5.916.

  15. Flower color preferences of insects and livestock: effects on Gentiana lutea reproductive success

    PubMed Central

    Losada, María; Veiga, Tania; Guitián, Javier; Guitián, José; Guitián, Pablo

    2016-01-01

    Angiosperms diversification was primarily driven by pollinator agents, but non-pollinator agents also promoted floral evolution. Gentiana lutea shows pollinator driven flower color variation in NW Spain. We test whether insect herbivores and livestock, which frequently feed in G.lutea, play a role in G. lutea flower color variation, by answering the following questions: (i) Do insect herbivores and grazing livestock show flower color preferences when feeding on G. lutea? (ii) Do mutualists (pollinators) and antagonists (seed predators, insect herbivores and livestock) jointly affect G. lutea reproductive success? Insect herbivores fed more often on yellow flowering individuals but they did not affect seed production, whereas livestock affected seed production but did not show clear color preferences. Our data indicate that flower color variation of G. lutea is not affected by insect herbivores or grazing livestock. PMID:27014509

  16. The Plasmonic Pixel: Large Area, Wide Gamut Color Reproduction Using Aluminum Nanostructures.

    PubMed

    James, Timothy D; Mulvaney, Paul; Roberts, Ann

    2016-06-08

    We demonstrate a new plasmonic pixel (PP) design that produces a full-color optical response over macroscopic dimensions. The pixel design employs arrays of aluminum nanorods "floating" above their Babinet complementary screen, Concepts from conventional cyan magenta yellow key (CMYK) printing techniques and red green blue (RGB) digital displays are integrated with nanophotonic design principles and adapted to the production of PP elements. The fundamental PP color blocks of CMYK are implemented via a composite plasmonic nanoantenna/slot design and then mixed in a digital display analog 3 × 3 array to produce a broad-gamut PP. The PP goes beyond current investigations into plasmonic color production by enabling a broad color gamut and physically large plasmonic color features/devices/images. The use of nanorods also leads to a color response that is polarization tunable. Furthermore, devices are fabricated using aluminum and the fabrication strategy is compatible with inexpensive, rapid-throughput, nanoimprint approaches. Here we quantify, both computationally and experimentally, the performance of the PP. Spectral data from a test palette is obtained and a large area (>1.5 cm lateral dimensions) reproduction of a photograph is generated exemplifying the technqiue.

  17. A comparative study of psychophysical judgment of color reproductions on mobile displays between Europeans and Asians

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Kyungah; Suk, Hyeon-Jeong

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the differences in the psychophysical judgment of mobile display color appearances between Europeans and Asians. A total of 50 participants, comprising 20 Europeans (9 French, 6 Swedish, 3 Norwegians, and 2 Germans) and 30 Asians (30 Koreans) participated in this experiment. A total of 18 display stimuli with different correlated color temperatures were presented, varying from 2,470 to 18,330 K. Each stimulus was viewed under 11 illuminants ranging from 2,530 to 19,760 K, while their illuminance was consistent around 500 lux. The subjects were asked to assess the optimal level of the display stimuli under different illuminants. In general, confirming the previous studies on color reproduction, we found a positive correlation in the correlated color temperatures between the illuminants and optimal displays. However, Europeans preferred a lower color temperature compared to Asians along the entire range of the illuminants. Two regression equations were derived to predict the optimal display color temperature (y) under varying illuminants (x) as follows: y = α + β*log(x), where α = -8770.37 and β = 4279.29 for European (R2 = 0.95, p < .05), and α = -16076.35 and β = 6388.41 for Asian (R2 = 0.85, p < .05). The findings provide the theoretical basis from which manufacturers can take a cultural-sensitive approach to enhancing their products' appeal in the global markets.

  18. Accurate detection of blood vessels improves the detection of exudates in color fundus images.

    PubMed

    Youssef, Doaa; Solouma, Nahed H

    2012-12-01

    Exudates are one of the earliest and most prevalent symptoms of diseases leading to blindness such as diabetic retinopathy and macular degeneration. Certain areas of the retina with such conditions are to be photocoagulated by laser to stop the disease progress and prevent blindness. Outlining these areas is dependent on outlining the lesions and the anatomic structures of the retina. In this paper, we provide a new method for the detection of blood vessels that improves the detection of exudates in fundus photographs. The method starts with an edge detection algorithm which results in a over segmented image. Then the new feature-based algorithm can be used to accurately detect the blood vessels. This algorithm considers the characteristics of a retinal blood vessel such as its width range, intensities and orientations for the purpose of selective segmentation. Because of its bulb shape and its color similarity with exudates, the optic disc can be detected using the common Hough transform technique. The extracted blood vessel tree and optic disc could be subtracted from the over segmented image to get an initial estimate of exudates. The final estimation of exudates can then be obtained by morphological reconstruction based on the appearance of exudates. This method is shown to be promising since it increases the sensitivity and specificity of exudates detection to 80% and 100% respectively.

  19. Spectral estimation from laser scanner data for accurate color rendering of objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baribeau, Rejean

    2002-06-01

    Estimation methods are studied for the recovery of the spectral reflectance across the visible range from the sensing at just three discrete laser wavelengths. Methods based on principal component analysis and on spline interpolation are judged based on the CIE94 color differences for some reference data sets. These include the Macbeth color checker, the OSA-UCS color charts, some artist pigments, and a collection of miscellaneous surface colors. The optimal three sampling wavelengths are also investigated. It is found that color can be estimated with average accuracy ΔE94 = 2.3 when optimal wavelengths 455 nm, 540 n, and 610 nm are used.

  20. Accurate Enumeration of Aspergillus brasiliensis in Hair Color and Mascara by Time-Lapse Shadow Image Analysis.

    PubMed

    Ogawa, Hiroyuki; Matsuoka, Hideaki; Saito, Mikako

    2015-01-01

    The growth of black mold (Aspergillus brasiliensis) in black-colored samples such as hair color and mascara was measured with an automatic count system based on time-lapse shadow image analysis (TSIA). A. brasiliensis suspended in a lecithin and polysorbate (LP) solution of each sample (hair color or mascara) was spread on a potato dextrose agar medium plate containing LP. The background image darkness of the agar plate could be adjusted to attain accurate colony counts. 95 colonies in hair color and 22 colonies in mascara could be automatically determined at 48 h. The accuracy of the colony counts could be confirmed from the timelapse image data. In contrast, conventional visual counting at a specified time could not determine the number of colonies or led to false colony counts.

  1. Plumage color and reproductive output of eastern bluebirds (Sialia sialis) nesting near a mercury-contaminated river.

    PubMed

    McCullagh, Elizabeth A; Cristol, Daniel A; Phillips, John B

    2015-01-01

    Despite the growing evidence of mercury's impact on ecosystems, few studies have looked at the environmental impact of mercury pollution on terrestrial songbirds and the complex ways through which mercury might influence their fitness. In 2007-2008 eastern bluebirds (Sialia sialis) were monitored on mercury contaminated and reference sites for blood and feather mercury, reproductive success and plumage coloration. Higher tissue mercury accumulation was associated with plumage that was overall brighter and shifted towards the UV portion of the spectrum. In females, long-term mercury exposure, as indicated by feather mercury, was associated with smaller clutches of eggs. In males, recent mercury exposure, as indicated by blood mercury, was associated with a reduction in the proportion of hatchlings that fledged, potentially through reduced male provisioning of offspring. Reproductive success and plumage color are closely linked in bluebirds through mate choice, and our findings indicate that mercury contamination is associated with reproductive success directly and possibly indirectly, through coloration of bluebirds.

  2. Influence of Nest Box Color and Release Sites on Osmia lignaria (Hymenoptera: Megachilidae) Reproductive Success in a Commercial Almond Orchard.

    PubMed

    Artz, Derek R; Allan, Matthew J; Wardell, Gordon I; Pitts-Singer, Theresa L

    2014-12-01

    Intensively managed, commercial orchards offer resources for managed solitary bees within agricultural landscapes and provide a means to study bee dispersal patterns, spatial movement, nest establishment, and reproduction. In 2012, we studied the impact of 1) the color of nest boxes covaried with four nest box density treatments and 2) the number of bee release sites covaried with two nest box density treatments on the reproductive success of Osmia lignaria Say in a California almond orchard pollinated by a mixture of O. lignaria and Apis mellifera L. Nest box color influenced the number of nests, total cells, and cells with male and female brood. More nests and cells were produced in light blue nest boxes than in orange or yellow nest boxes. The covariate nest box density also had a significant effect on brood production. The number of release sites did not affect O. lignaria nesting and reproduction, but the number of cavities in nest boxes influenced reproduction. Overall, the color of nest boxes and their distribution, but not the number of release sites, can greatly affect O. lignaria nest establishment and reproductive success in a commercial almond orchard. The ability to locate nesting sites in a homogenous, large orchard landscape may also be facilitated by the higher frequency of nest boxes with low numbers of cavities, and by the ability to detect certain nest box colors that best contrast with the blooming trees.

  3. A colorimetric method for highly sensitive and accurate detection of iodide by finding the critical color in a color change process using silver triangular nanoplates.

    PubMed

    Yang, Xiu-Hua; Ling, Jian; Peng, Jun; Cao, Qiu-E; Ding, Zhong-Tao; Bian, Long-Chun

    2013-10-10

    In this contribution, we demonstrated a novel colorimetric method for highly sensitive and accurate detection of iodide using citrate-stabilized silver triangular nanoplates (silver TNPs). Very lower concentration of iodide can induce an appreciable color change of silver TNPs solution from blue to yellow by fusing of silver TNPs to nanoparticles, as confirmed by UV-vis absorption spectroscopy and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The principle of this colorimetric assay is not an ordinary colorimetry, but a new colorimetric strategy by finding the critical color in a color change process. With this strategy, 0.1 μM of iodide can be recognized within 30 min by naked-eyes observation, and lower concentration of iodide down to 8.8 nM can be detected using a spectrophotometer. Furthermore, this high sensitive colorimetric assay has good accuracy, stability and reproducibility comparing with other ordinary colorimetry. We believe this new colorimetric method will open up a fresh insight of simple, rapid and reliable detection of iodide and can find its future application in the biochemical analysis or clinical diagnosis.

  4. Reproduction of Hip Offset and Leg Length in Navigated Total Hip Arthroplasty: How Accurate Are We?

    PubMed

    Ellapparadja, Pregash; Mahajan, Vivek; Deakin, Angela H; Deep, Kamal

    2015-06-01

    This study assesses how accurately we can restore hip offset and leg length in navigated total hip arthroplasty (THA). 152 consecutive patients with navigated THA formed the study group. The contra-lateral hip formed control for measuring hip offset and leg length. All radiological measurements were made using Orthoview digital software. In the normal hip offset group, the mean is 75.73 (SD- 8.61). In the reconstructed hip offset group, the mean is 75.35 (SD - 7.48). 95.39% had hip offset within 6 mm of opposite side while 96.04% had leg length restored within 6 mm of contra-lateral side. Equivalence test revealed that the two groups of hip offsets were essentially the same. We conclude that computer navigation can successfully reproduce hip offset and leg length accurately.

  5. Trade-offs between reproductive coloration and innate immunity in a natural population of female sagebrush lizards, Sceloporus graciosus

    PubMed Central

    Ruiz, Mayté; Wang, Danfeng; Reinke, Beth A.; Demas, Gregory E.; Martins, Emília P.

    2014-01-01

    Trade-offs between immune function and reproduction are common to many organisms. Nevertheless, high energetic resources may eliminate the need for these trade-offs. In this study, we consider the effects of food availability on these trade-offs in a wild population of female sagebrush lizards (Sceloporus graciosus) during the breeding season. We manipulated food availability by supplementing some lizards but not others. We measured female orange side coloration as an indicator of reproductive state and calculated the bacterial killing capability of collected plasma exposed to Escherichia coli ex vivo as a measure of innate immunity. We found that female lizards show a natural trade-off between reproductive effort and immune function; females under high reproductive investment had lower innate immunity than those at a later reproductive state. We did not detect this trade-off with food supplementation. We show that trade-offs depend on the energetic state of the animal, illustrating that trade-offs between immune function and reproduction can be context-dependent. PMID:25400312

  6. "All this that has happened to me shouldn't happen to nobody else": Loretta Ross and the Women of Color Reproductive Freedom Movement of the 1980s.

    PubMed

    Nelson, Jennifer

    2010-01-01

    Loretta Ross exemplifies women of color feminist participation in and transformation of the women's health movement of the 1970s and 1980s. Ross helped build a women's health movement that by the late 1980s made the demands of women of color central. This movement was attractive to many women of color who had rejected the collapse of a broader women's health movement into the abortion rights movement as too narrowly focused. Many women of color activists, including Ross, argued that the emphasis on abortion rights and choice failed to address the linked socioeconomic and community health issues confronted by many women of color and poor women. Ross's work spurred coalition building among white women and women of color that focused on expanding reproductive justice and women's health beyond legal abortion. By the 1990s these efforts had produced a vibrant and engaged feminist reproductive justice movement that promoted the socioeconomics of good health for all women.

  7. Adaptive Local Linear Regression with Application to Printer Color Management

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-01-01

    values formed the test samples. This process guaranteed that the CIELAB test samples were in the gamut for each printer, but each printer had a...digital images has recently led to increased consumer demand for accurate color reproduction. Given a CIELAB color one would like to reproduce, the color...management problem is to determine what RGB color one must send the printer to minimize the error between the desired CIELAB color and the CIELAB

  8. Relationships between adult abdominal color and reproductive potential in Diaphorina citri (Hemiptera: Psyllidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Diaphorina citri Kuwayama (Hemiptera: Psyllidae), a vector of huanglongbing (citrus greening disease), exhibits three more or less distinct abdominal colors in the adult stage: gray/brown, blue/green, and orange/yellow. A previous report showed that—relative to blue/green individuals—gray/brown indi...

  9. Population Synthesis in the Blue. IV. Accurate Model Predictions for Lick Indices and UBV Colors in Single Stellar Populations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schiavon, Ricardo P.

    2007-07-01

    We present a new set of model predictions for 16 Lick absorption line indices from Hδ through Fe5335 and UBV colors for single stellar populations with ages ranging between 1 and 15 Gyr, [Fe/H] ranging from -1.3 to +0.3, and variable abundance ratios. The models are based on accurate stellar parameters for the Jones library stars and a new set of fitting functions describing the behavior of line indices as a function of effective temperature, surface gravity, and iron abundance. The abundances of several key elements in the library stars have been obtained from the literature in order to characterize the abundance pattern of the stellar library, thus allowing us to produce model predictions for any set of abundance ratios desired. We develop a method to estimate mean ages and abundances of iron, carbon, nitrogen, magnesium, and calcium that explores the sensitivity of the various indices modeled to those parameters. The models are compared to high-S/N data for Galactic clusters spanning the range of ages, metallicities, and abundance patterns of interest. Essentially all line indices are matched when the known cluster parameters are adopted as input. Comparing the models to high-quality data for galaxies in the nearby universe, we reproduce previous results regarding the enhancement of light elements and the spread in the mean luminosity-weighted ages of early-type galaxies. When the results from the analysis of blue and red indices are contrasted, we find good consistency in the [Fe/H] that is inferred from different Fe indices. Applying our method to estimate mean ages and abundances from stacked SDSS spectra of early-type galaxies brighter than L*, we find mean luminosity-weighed ages of the order of ~8 Gyr and iron abundances slightly below solar. Abundance ratios, [X/Fe], tend to be higher than solar and are positively correlated with galaxy luminosity. Of all elements, nitrogen is the more strongly correlated with galaxy luminosity, which seems to indicate

  10. Effect of Monochromic Light-emitting Diode Light with Different Color on the Growth and Reproductive Performances of Breeder Geese

    PubMed Central

    Chang, S. C.; Lin, M. J.; Zhuang, Z. X.; Huang, S. Y.; Lin, T. Y.; Jea, Y. S.; Fan, Y. K.; Lee, T. T.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of monochromic light-emitting diode (LED) light with different color on the growth and reproductive performances of white Roman breeder geese. A randomized complete batch design was utilized for the trial, and the replicate was regarded as one batch. Twenty ganders and fifty-five dames were used in batch 1 (started on 2011/6/17 and ended on 2012/1/31), thirty ganders and eighty-four dames were used in batch 2 (started on 2012/3/23 and ended on 2012/10/26), and thirty ganders and seventy-two dames were used in batch 3 (started on 2013/3/12 and ended on 2013/12/20). Two hundred and ninety-one geese were randomly assigned to 6 rooms in an environmentally controlled house. They were randomly allotted into one of three monochromatic light treatments: Blue, red, or white. The results showed that there was no significant difference in body weight among the three lighting groups at any point throughout the experimental period. However, compared to the blue light group, significantly more eggs were produced by the red and white light groups (p<0.05). Furthermore, the laying period of the red light group was significantly longer than that of other two groups (p<0.05). In conclusion, our results suggested that red LED-light has the best effect on reproductive performance (i.e. longer laying period and higher total eggs number) at 30 lux light intensity, and is therefore a better choice for the management of breeding geese than blue or white LED-light. PMID:26954165

  11. Dose Addition Models Based on Biologically Relevant Reductions in Fetal Testosterone Accurately Predict Postnatal Reproductive Tract Alterations by a Phthalate Mixture in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Howdeshell, Kembra L.; Rider, Cynthia V.; Wilson, Vickie S.; Furr, Johnathan R.; Lambright, Christy R.; Gray, L. Earl

    2015-01-01

    Challenges in cumulative risk assessment of anti-androgenic phthalate mixtures include a lack of data on all the individual phthalates and difficulty determining the biological relevance of reduction in fetal testosterone (T) on postnatal development. The objectives of the current study were 2-fold: (1) to test whether a mixture model of dose addition based on the fetal T production data of individual phthalates would predict the effects of a 5 phthalate mixture on androgen-sensitive postnatal male reproductive tract development, and (2) to determine the biological relevance of the reductions in fetal T to induce abnormal postnatal reproductive tract development using data from the mixture study. We administered a dose range of the mixture (60, 40, 20, 10, and 5% of the top dose used in the previous fetal T production study consisting of 300 mg/kg per chemical of benzyl butyl (BBP), di(n)butyl (DBP), diethyl hexyl phthalate (DEHP), di-isobutyl phthalate (DiBP), and 100 mg dipentyl (DPP) phthalate/kg; the individual phthalates were present in equipotent doses based on their ability to reduce fetal T production) via gavage to Sprague Dawley rat dams on GD8-postnatal day 3. We compared observed mixture responses to predictions of dose addition based on the previously published potencies of the individual phthalates to reduce fetal T production relative to a reference chemical and published postnatal data for the reference chemical (called DAref). In addition, we predicted DA (called DAall) and response addition (RA) based on logistic regression analysis of all 5 individual phthalates when complete data were available. DA ref and DA all accurately predicted the observed mixture effect for 11 of 14 endpoints. Furthermore, reproductive tract malformations were seen in 17–100% of F1 males when fetal T production was reduced by about 25–72%, respectively. PMID:26350170

  12. Integument coloration signals reproductive success, heterozygosity, and antioxidant levels in chick-rearing black-legged kittiwakes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Leclaire, S.; White, J.; Arnoux, E.; Faivre, B.; Vetter, N.; Hatch, Shyla A.; Danchin, E.

    2011-01-01

    Carotenoid pigments are important for immunity and as antioxidants, and carotenoid-based colors are believed to provide honest signals of individual quality. Other colorless but more efficient antioxidants such as vitamins A and E may protect carotenoids from bleaching. Carotenoid-based colors have thus recently been suggested to reflect the concentration of such colorless antioxidants, but this has rarely been tested. Furthermore, although evidence is accruing for multiple genetic criteria for mate choice, carotenoid-based colors have rarely been shown to reflect both phenotypic and genetic quality. In this study, we investigated whether gape, tongue, eye-ring, and bill coloration of chick-rearing black-legged kittiwakes Rissa tridactyla reflected circulating levels of carotenoids and vitamins A and E. We further investigated whether integument coloration reflected phenotypic (body condition and fledging success) and genetic quality (heterozygosity). We found that the coloration of fleshy integuments was correlated with carotenoid and vitamin A levels and fledging success but only in males. Furthermore, the coloration of tongue and eye-ring was correlated with heterozygosity in both males and females. Integument colors might therefore be reliable signals of individual quality used by birds to adjust their parental care during the chick-rearing period. ?? Springer-Verlag 2011.

  13. Integument coloration signals reproductive success, heterozygosity, and antioxidant levels in chick-rearing black-legged kittiwakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leclaire, Sarah; White, Joël; Arnoux, Emilie; Faivre, Bruno; Vetter, Nathanaël; Hatch, Scott A.; Danchin, Étienne

    2011-09-01

    Carotenoid pigments are important for immunity and as antioxidants, and carotenoid-based colors are believed to provide honest signals of individual quality. Other colorless but more efficient antioxidants such as vitamins A and E may protect carotenoids from bleaching. Carotenoid-based colors have thus recently been suggested to reflect the concentration of such colorless antioxidants, but this has rarely been tested. Furthermore, although evidence is accruing for multiple genetic criteria for mate choice, carotenoid-based colors have rarely been shown to reflect both phenotypic and genetic quality. In this study, we investigated whether gape, tongue, eye-ring, and bill coloration of chick-rearing black-legged kittiwakes Rissa tridactyla reflected circulating levels of carotenoids and vitamins A and E. We further investigated whether integument coloration reflected phenotypic (body condition and fledging success) and genetic quality (heterozygosity). We found that the coloration of fleshy integuments was correlated with carotenoid and vitamin A levels and fledging success but only in males. Furthermore, the coloration of tongue and eye-ring was correlated with heterozygosity in both males and females. Integument colors might therefore be reliable signals of individual quality used by birds to adjust their parental care during the chick-rearing period.

  14. Rethinking reproductive "tourism" as reproductive "exile".

    PubMed

    Inhorn, Marcia C; Patrizio, Pasquale

    2009-09-01

    Whereas reproductive "tourism" implies leisure travel, reproductive "exile" bespeaks the numerous difficulties and constraints faced by infertile patients who are "forced" to travel globally for assisted reproduction. Given this reality, it is time to rethink the language of "reproductive tourism," replacing it with more accurate and patient-centered terms.

  15. Updated version of an interim connection space LabPQR for spectral color reproduction: LabLab.

    PubMed

    Cao, Qian; Wan, Xiaoxia; Li, Junfeng; Liang, Jingxing

    2016-09-01

    In this paper, we propose a new interim connection space (ICS) called LabLab, which is an updated version of LabPQR, to overcome the drawback that the last three dimensions of LabPQR have no definite colorimetric meanings. We extended and improved the method by which the first three dimensions of LabPQR are deduced to obtain an ICS consisting of two sets of CIELAB values under different illuminants, and the reconstructed spectra from LabLab were obtained by minimizing colorimetric errors by means of the computational formula of the CIE-XYZ tristimulus values combined with least-squares best fit. The improvement obtained from the proposed method was tested to compress and reconstruct the reflectance spectra of the 1950 Natural Color System color chips and more than 50,000 ISO SOCS color patches as well as six multispectral images acquired by multispectral image acquisition systems using 1600 glossy Munsell color chips as training samples. The performance was evaluated by the mean values of color differences between the original and reconstructed spectra under the CIE 1931 standard colorimetric observer and the CIE standard illuminants D50, D55, D65, D75, F2, F7, F11, and A as well as five multichip white LED light sources. The mean and maximum values of the root mean square errors between the original and reconstructed spectra were also calculated. The experimental results show that the proposed three LabLab interim connection spaces significantly outperform principal component analysis, LabPQR, XYZLMS, Fairman-Brill, and LabRGB in colorimetric reconstruction accuracy at the cost of slight reduction of spectral reconstruction accuracy and illuminant independence of color differences of the suggested LabLab interim connection spaces outperform other interim connection spaces. In addition, the presented LabLab interim connection spaces could be quite compatible with the extensively used colorimetric management system since each dimension has definite colorimetric

  16. Color Algebras

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mulligan, Jeffrey B.

    2017-01-01

    A color algebra refers to a system for computing sums and products of colors, analogous to additive and subtractive color mixtures. We would like it to match the well-defined algebra of spectral functions describing lights and surface reflectances, but an exact correspondence is impossible after the spectra have been projected to a three-dimensional color space, because of metamerism physically different spectra can produce the same color sensation. Metameric spectra are interchangeable for the purposes of addition, but not multiplication, so any color algebra is necessarily an approximation to physical reality. Nevertheless, because the majority of naturally-occurring spectra are well-behaved (e.g., continuous and slowly-varying), color algebras can be formulated that are largely accurate and agree well with human intuition. Here we explore the family of algebras that result from associating each color with a member of a three-dimensional manifold of spectra. This association can be used to construct a color product, defined as the color of the spectrum of the wavelength-wise product of the spectra associated with the two input colors. The choice of the spectral manifold determines the behavior of the resulting system, and certain special subspaces allow computational efficiencies. The resulting systems can be used to improve computer graphic rendering techniques, and to model various perceptual phenomena such as color constancy.

  17. Color Reproduction Based on Red, Green, and Blue Primaries for a Cyan-, Magenta-, and Yellow-Based Hardcopy Device

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-08-03

    found = I ’ pa-filename = ’ context = 0 wild card = ’* * NOMOREFILES = .false. C**** search for palette directories **** do while ((pachar .ne. pafound(4...CalComp plot file name character*80 filename Compressed segment file name character*132 palname Full color palette file name character*132 wildcard Wild ... card file specification character*132 pa-filename PA directory as a file name character*80 padir ! Palette directory path character*80 pafound Palette

  18. The Role of Color Cues in Facilitating Accurate and Rapid Location of Aided Symbols by Children with and without Down Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilkinson, Krista; Carlin, Michael; Thistle, Jennifer

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: This research examined how the color distribution of symbols within a visual aided augmentative and alternative communication array influenced the speed and accuracy with which participants with and without Down syndrome located a target picture symbol. Method: Eight typically developing children below the age of 4 years, 8 typically…

  19. New computer-controlled color vision test

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ladunga, Karoly; Wenzel, Klara; Abraham, Gyorgy

    1999-12-01

    A computer controlled color discrimination test is described which enables rapid testing using selected colors from the color space of normal CRT monitors. We have investigated whether difference sin color discrimination between groups of normal and color deficient observers could be detected using a computer-controlled test of color vision. The test accurately identified the differences between the normal and color deficient groups. New color discrimination test have been developed to more efficiently evaluate color vision.

  20. Resolution for color photography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hubel, Paul M.; Bautsch, Markus

    2006-02-01

    Although it is well known that luminance resolution is most important, the ability to accurately render colored details, color textures, and colored fabrics cannot be overlooked. This includes the ability to accurately render single-pixel color details as well as avoiding color aliasing. All consumer digital cameras on the market today record in color and the scenes people are photographing are usually color. Yet almost all resolution measurements made on color cameras are done using a black and white target. In this paper we present several methods for measuring and quantifying color resolution. The first method, detailed in a previous publication, uses a slanted-edge target of two colored surfaces in place of the standard black and white edge pattern. The second method employs the standard black and white targets recommended in the ISO standard, but records these onto the camera through colored filters thus giving modulation between black and one particular color component; red, green, and blue color separation filters are used in this study. The third method, conducted at Stiftung Warentest, an independent consumer organization of Germany, uses a whitelight interferometer to generate fringe pattern targets of varying color and spatial frequency.

  1. A new method for colors characterization of colored stainless steel using CIE and Munsell color systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ji, Keming; Xue, Yongqiang; Cui, Zixiang

    2015-09-01

    It is important to establish an accurate and comprehensive method of characterizing colors of colored stainless steel and understand the changing mechanism and the regularity of colors for the research, production and application of colored stainless steel. In this work, the method which combines reflectance-wavelength with both CIE and Munsell color systems is studied, the changing regularity of hue, brightness and saturation with increasing coloring potential differences is investigated, and the mechanism of color changing is discussed. The results show that by using this method the colors of colored stainless steel can be accurately and comprehensively characterized; with coloring potential differences and colored film thickness increasing, the peaks and troughs of the reflectance curves in visible region move toward long wave, causing the cyclically changing of hue and brightness; the amplitude of reflectance curves increases, resulting in growing of the saturation; the CIE 1931 coordinate curve of colors counterclockwise and cyclically changes around the equal energy light spot.

  2. [Colorimetric study of color reproduction in porcelain-fused-to-metal restoration. The application of Kubelka-Munk theory in porcelain mixtures].

    PubMed

    Ishikawa, S; Miyoshi, F; Ishibashi, K

    1990-06-01

    To get a more natural and harmonious color of porcelain-fused-to-metal restorations, an objective and precise systematic method from shade selection to color evaluation is needed. Thus, the absorption and scattering coefficients were determined to develop a CCM system for porcelain-fused-to-metal restorations. The Kubelka-Munk Theory was applied on the dental porcelain, opaque, dentin, and enamel. From these data, we predicted the color of the porcelain mixtures from the both coefficients. From the results of comparing the spectral curves and analyzing the color differences between measured values and predicted values of porcelain mixtures, the following was analysed; 1. In opaque, spectral curves of the predicted and measured values were exactly alike and the mean dE between two values was 0.39. 2. In dentin, the spectral curved of the predicted and measured values were exactly alike, and the mean dE was 1.13. The measured values indicated a slight increase in the level of chroma and lightness. 3. In enamel, the spectral curves were exactly alike and the mean dE was 1.16. The measured values indicated a slight decrease in the level of lightness. Therefore, it was possible to predict the color of opaque, dentin and enamel porcelain mixtures, by applying the Kubelka-Munk Theory.

  3. Stork Color Proofing Technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ekman, C. Frederick

    1989-04-01

    For the past few years, Stork Colorproofing B.V. has been marketing an analog color proofing system in Europe based on electrophoto-graphic technology it pioneered for the purpose of high resolution, high fidelity color imaging in the field of the Graphic Arts. Based in part on this technology, it will make available on a commercial basis a digital color proofing system in 1989. Proofs from both machines will provide an exact reference for the user and will look, feel, and behave in a reproduction sense like the printed press sheet.

  4. Color Blindness

    MedlinePlus

    ... rose in full bloom. If you have a color vision defect, you may see these colors differently than most people. There are three main kinds of color vision defects. Red-green color vision defects are the most ...

  5. Digital color management in full-color holographic three-dimensional printer.

    PubMed

    Yang, Fei; Murakami, Yuri; Yamaguchi, Masahiro

    2012-07-01

    We propose a new method of color management for a full-color holographic, three-dimensional (3D) printer, which produces a volume reflection holographic stereogram using red, green, and blue three-color lasers. For natural color management in the holographic 3D printer, we characterize its color reproduction characteristics based on the spectral measurement of reproduced light. Then the color conversion formula, which comprises a one-dimensional lookup table and a 3×3 matrix, was derived from the measurement data. The color reproducibility was evaluated by printing a color chart hologram, and the average CIELAB ΔE=13.19 is fairly small.

  6. A subjective evaluation of high-chroma color with wide color-gamut display

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kishimoto, Junko; Yamaguchi, Masahiro; Ohyama, Nagaaki

    2009-01-01

    Displays tends to expand its color gamut, such as multi-primary color display, Adobe RGB and so on. Therefore displays got possible to display high chroma colors. However sometimes, we feel unnatural some for the image which only expanded chroma. Appropriate gamut mapping method to expand color gamut is not proposed very much. We are attempting preferred expanded color reproduction on wide color gamut display utilizing high chroma colors effectively. As a first step, we have conducted an experiment to investigate the psychological effect of color schemes including highly saturated colors. We used the six-primary-color projector that we have developed for the presentation of test colors. The six-primary-color projector's gamut volume in CIELAB space is about 1.8 times larger than the normal RGB projector. We conducted a subjective evaluation experiment using the SD (Semantic Differential) technique to find the quantitative psychological effect of high chroma colors.

  7. Color blindness

    MedlinePlus

    ... have trouble telling the difference between red and green. This is the most common type of color ... color blindness often have problems seeing reds and greens, too. The most severe form of color blindness ...

  8. Color universal design: analysis of color category dependency on color vision type (4)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ikeda, Tomohiro; Ichihara, Yasuyo G.; Kojima, Natsuki; Tanaka, Hisaya; Ito, Kei

    2013-02-01

    This report is af ollow-up to SPIE-IS+T / Vol. 7528 7528051-8, SPIE-IS+T / Vol. 7866 78660J-1-8 and SPIE-IS+T / Vol. 8292 829206-1-8. Colors are used to communicate information in various situations, not just for design and apparel. However, visual information given only by color may be perceived differently by individuals with different color vision types. Human color vision is non-uniform and the variation in most cases is genetically linked to L-cones and M-cones. Therefore, color appearance is not the same for all color vision types. Color Universal Design is an easy-to-understand system that was created to convey color-coded information accurately to most people, taking color vision types into consideration. In the present research, we studied trichromat (C-type), prolan (P-type), and deutan (D-type) forms of color vision. We here report the result of two experiments. The first was the validation of the confusion colors using the color chart on CIELAB uniform color space. We made an experimental color chart (total of color cells is 622, the color difference between color cells is 2.5) for fhis experiment, and subjects have P-type or D-type color vision. From the data we were able to determine "the limits with high probability of confusion" and "the limits with possible confusion" around various basing points. The direction of the former matched with the theoretical confusion locus, but the range did not extend across the entire a* range. The latter formed a belt-like zone above and below the theoretical confusion locus. This way we re-analyzed a part of the theoretical confusion locus suggested by Pitt-Judd. The second was an experiment in color classification of the subjects with C-type, P-type, or D-type color vision. The color caps of fhe 100 Hue Test were classified into seven categories for each color vision type. The common and different points of color sensation were compared for each color vision type, and we were able to find a group of color caps

  9. Spectrophotometric color evaluation of permanent incisors, canines and molars. A cross-sectional clinical study

    PubMed Central

    POP-CIUTRILA, IOANA-SOFIA; COLOSI, HORATIU ALEXANDRU; DUDEA, DIANA; BADEA, MANDRA EUGENIA

    2015-01-01

    Background and aims An accurate color reproduction represents the final validation level of an esthetic anterior or posterior restoration. The aim of this study was to evaluate the color of permanent maxillary incisors, canines and molars, using a clinical spectrophotometer. Methods The Vita Easyshade Advance 4.0® intraoral spectrophotometer was used by one clinician to determine the color of 369 permanent maxillary incisors, canines and molars. The best matches to Vitapan Classical® and 3D-Master® shade guides were recorded. A one-way analysis of variance and Kruskal-Wallis test were used to compare L*, a*, b*, c* and h* color coordinates among the 3 types of teeth. Differences between the mean values of all color coordinates were evaluated by use of Bonferroni corrections. Color difference (ΔE*) between incisors, canines and molars was calculated from ΔL*, Δa* and Δb* data and the results were compared to ΔE*=3.3 acceptability threshold. Results Except for Δa* and Δh* between canines and molars, statistically significant differences among the mean differences of all color coordinates were found when the 3 types of teeth were compared by pairs. The most frequently measured shades were A1 (48.4%), respectively 1M1 (31.5%) for incisors, B3 (36.6%), respectively 2M3 (39.8%) for canines and B3 (44.7%), respectively 2M3 (52%) for molars. Incisors had the highest lightness values, followed by canines and molars. Molars were the most chromatic with the highest a* and b* values. Conclusions Despite the limitations of this study, color differences among incisors, canines and molars were found to be statistically significant, above the clinical acceptability threshold established. In conclusion, successful esthetic restorations of permanent teeth of the same patient need an individual color assessment and reproduction of every type of tooth. PMID:26733753

  10. Reproductive Hazards

    MedlinePlus

    ... such as lead and mercury Chemicals such as pesticides Cigarettes Some viruses Alcohol For men, a reproductive hazard can affect the sperm. For a woman, a reproductive hazard can cause different effects during pregnancy, depending on when she is exposed. ...

  11. Evaluation of color mapping algorithms in different color spaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bronner, Timothée.-Florian; Boitard, Ronan; Pourazad, Mahsa T.; Nasiopoulos, Panos; Ebrahimi, Touradj

    2016-09-01

    The color gamut supported by current commercial displays is only a subset of the full spectrum of colors visible by the human eye. In High-Definition (HD) television technology, the scope of the supported colors covers 35.9% of the full visible gamut. For comparison, Ultra High-Definition (UHD) television, which is currently being deployed on the market, extends this range to 75.8%. However, when reproducing content with a wider color gamut than that of a television, typically UHD content on HD television, some original color information may lie outside the reproduction capabilities of the television. Efficient gamut mapping techniques are required in order to fit the colors of any source content into the gamut of a given display. The goal of gamut mapping is to minimize the distortion, in terms of perceptual quality, when converting video from one color gamut to another. It is assumed that the efficiency of gamut mapping depends on the color space in which it is computed. In this article, we evaluate 14 gamut mapping techniques, 12 combinations of two projection methods across six color spaces as well as R'G'B' Clipping and wrong gamut interpretation. Objective results, using the CIEDE2000 metric, show that the R'G'B' Clipping is slightly outperformed by only one combination of color space and projection method. However, analysis of images shows that R'G'B' Clipping can result in loss of contrast in highly saturated images, greatly impairing the quality of the mapped image.

  12. Color realism and color science.

    PubMed

    Byrne, Alex; Hilbert, David R

    2003-02-01

    The target article is an attempt to make some progress on the problem of color realism. Are objects colored? And what is the nature of the color properties? We defend the view that physical objects (for instance, tomatoes, radishes, and rubies) are colored, and that colors are physical properties, specifically, types of reflectance. This is probably a minority opinion, at least among color scientists. Textbooks frequently claim that physical objects are not colored, and that the colors are "subjective" or "in the mind." The article has two other purposes: First, to introduce an interdisciplinary audience to some distinctively philosophical tools that are useful in tackling the problem of color realism and, second, to clarify the various positions and central arguments in the debate. The first part explains the problem of color realism and makes some useful distinctions. These distinctions are then used to expose various confusions that often prevent people from seeing that the issues are genuine and difficult, and that the problem of color realism ought to be of interest to anyone working in the field of color science. The second part explains the various leading answers to the problem of color realism, and (briefly) argues that all views other than our own have serious difficulties or are unmotivated. The third part explains and motivates our own view, that colors are types of reflectances and defends it against objections made in the recent literature that are often taken as fatal.

  13. Number of discernible object colors is a conundrum.

    PubMed

    Masaoka, Kenichiro; Berns, Roy S; Fairchild, Mark D; Moghareh Abed, Farhad

    2013-02-01

    Widely varying estimates of the number of discernible object colors have been made by using various methods over the past 100 years. To clarify the source of the discrepancies in the previous, inconsistent estimates, the number of discernible object colors is estimated over a wide range of color temperatures and illuminance levels using several chromatic adaptation models, color spaces, and color difference limens. Efficient and accurate models are used to compute optimal-color solids and count the number of discernible colors. A comprehensive simulation reveals limitations in the ability of current color appearance models to estimate the number of discernible colors even if the color solid is smaller than the optimal-color solid. The estimates depend on the color appearance model, color space, and color difference limen used. The fundamental problem lies in the von Kries-type chromatic adaptation transforms, which have an unknown effect on the ranking of the number of discernible colors at different color temperatures.

  14. Entropy, color, and color rendering.

    PubMed

    Price, Luke L A

    2012-12-01

    The Shannon entropy [Bell Syst. Tech J.27, 379 (1948)] of spectral distributions is applied to the problem of color rendering. With this novel approach, calculations for visual white entropy, spectral entropy, and color rendering are proposed, indices that are unreliant on the subjectivity inherent in reference spectra and color samples. The indices are tested against real lamp spectra, showing a simple and robust system for color rendering assessment. The discussion considers potential roles for white entropy in several areas of color theory and psychophysics and nonextensive entropy generalizations of the entropy indices in mathematical color spaces.

  15. Running head: What color is it

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Young, Andrew T.

    1988-03-01

    Color vision provides low-resolution spectrophotometric information about candidate materials for planetary surfaces that is comparable in precision to wideband photoelectric photometry, and considerably superior to Voyager TV data. Briefly explained are the basic concepts, teminology, and notation of color science. Also shown is how to convert a reflectance spectrum into a color specification. An Appendix lists a simple computer subroutine to convert spectral reflectance into CIE coordinates, and the text explains how to convert these to a surface color in a standard color atlas. Target and printed Solar System colors are compared to show how accurate are the printed colors.

  16. Running head: What color is it

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Young, Andrew T.

    1988-01-01

    Color vision provides low-resolution spectrophotometric information about candidate materials for planetary surfaces that is comparable in precision to wideband photoelectric photometry, and considerably superior to Voyager TV data. Briefly explained are the basic concepts, teminology, and notation of color science. Also shown is how to convert a reflectance spectrum into a color specification. An Appendix lists a simple computer subroutine to convert spectral reflectance into CIE coordinates, and the text explains how to convert these to a surface color in a standard color atlas. Target and printed Solar System colors are compared to show how accurate are the printed colors.

  17. Color Facsimile.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1995-02-01

    modification of existing JPEG compression and decompression software available from Independent JPEG Users Group to process CIELAB color images and to use...externally specificed Huffman tables. In addition a conversion program was written to convert CIELAB color space images to red, green, blue color space

  18. Seeing Color

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Texley, Juliana

    2005-01-01

    Colors are powerful tools for engaging children, from the youngest years onward. We hang brightly patterned mobiles above their cribs and help them learn the names of colors as they begin to record their own ideas in pictures and words. Colors can also open the door to an invisible world of electromagnetism, even when children can barely imagine…

  19. Color Categories and Color Appearance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Webster, Michael A.; Kay, Paul

    2012-01-01

    We examined categorical effects in color appearance in two tasks, which in part differed in the extent to which color naming was explicitly required for the response. In one, we measured the effects of color differences on perceptual grouping for hues that spanned the blue-green boundary, to test whether chromatic differences across the boundary…

  20. Color Terms and Color Concepts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davidoff, Jules

    2006-01-01

    In their lead articles, both Kowalski and Zimiles (2006) and O'Hanlon and Roberson (2006) declare a general relation between color term knowledge and the ability to conceptually represent color. Kowalski and Zimiles, in particular, argue for a priority for the conceptual representation in color term acquisition. The complexities of the interaction…

  1. Color Perception in Children with Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Franklin, Anna; Sowden, Paul; Burley, Rachel; Notman, Leslie; Alder, Elizabeth

    2008-01-01

    This study examined whether color perception is atypical in children with autism. In experiment 1, accuracy of color memory and search was compared for children with autism and typically developing children matched on age and non-verbal cognitive ability. Children with autism were significantly less accurate at color memory and search than…

  2. Color terms and color concepts.

    PubMed

    Davidoff, Jules

    2006-08-01

    In their lead articles, both Kowalski and Zimiles (2006) and O'Hanlon and Roberson (2006) declare a general relation between color term knowledge and the ability to conceptually represent color. Kowalski and Zimiles, in particular, argue for a priority for the conceptual representation in color term acquisition. The complexities of the interaction are taken up in the current commentary, especially with regard to the neuropsychological evidence. Data from aphasic patients also argue for a priority for abstract thought, but nevertheless it may still be that the use of color terms is the only way in which to form color categories even if both linguistic and attentional factors play an important role.

  3. Color Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wrolstad, Ronald E.; Smith, Daniel E.

    Color, flavor, and texture are the three principal quality attributes that determine food acceptance, and color has a far greater influence on our judgment than most of us appreciate. We use color to determine if a banana is at our preferred ripeness level, and a discolored meat product can warn us that the product may be spoiled. The marketing departments of our food corporations know that, for their customers, the color must be "right." The University of California Davis scorecard for wine quality designates four points out of 20, or 20% of the total score, for color and appearance (1). Food scientists who establish quality control specifications for their product are very aware of the importance of color and appearance. While subjective visual assessment and use of visual color standards are still used in the food industry, instrumental color measurements are extensively employed. Objective measurement of color is desirable for both research and industrial applications, and the ruggedness, stability, and ease of use of today's color measurement instruments have resulted in their widespread adoption.

  4. Processing of Color Words Activates Color Representations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richter, Tobias; Zwaan, Rolf A.

    2009-01-01

    Two experiments were conducted to investigate whether color representations are routinely activated when color words are processed. Congruency effects of colors and color words were observed in both directions. Lexical decisions on color words were faster when preceding colors matched the color named by the word. Color-discrimination responses…

  5. Quantum Color

    ScienceCinema

    Lincoln, Don

    2016-07-20

    The idea of electric charges and electricity in general is a familiar one to the science savvy viewer. However, electromagnetism is but one of the four fundamental forces and not the strongest one. The strongest of the fundamental forces is called the strong nuclear force and it has its own associated charge. Physicists call this charge “color” in analogy with the primary colors, although there is no real connection with actual color. In this video, Fermilab’s Dr. Don Lincoln explains why it is that we live in a colorful world.

  6. Polar Color

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site]

    Released 3 May 2004 This nighttime visible color image was collected on January 1, 2003 during the Northern Summer season near the North Polar Troughs.

    This daytime visible color image was collected on September 4, 2002 during the Northern Spring season in Vastitas Borealis. The THEMIS VIS camera is capable of capturing color images of the martian surface using its five different color filters. In this mode of operation, the spatial resolution and coverage of the image must be reduced to accommodate the additional data volume produced from the use of multiple filters. To make a color image, three of the five filter images (each in grayscale) are selected. Each is contrast enhanced and then converted to a red, green, or blue intensity image. These three images are then combined to produce a full color, single image. Because the THEMIS color filters don't span the full range of colors seen by the human eye, a color THEMIS image does not represent true color. Also, because each single-filter image is contrast enhanced before inclusion in the three-color image, the apparent color variation of the scene is exaggerated. Nevertheless, the color variation that does appear is representative of some change in color, however subtle, in the actual scene. Note that the long edges of THEMIS color images typically contain color artifacts that do not represent surface variation.

    Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude 79, Longitude 346 East (14 West). 19 meter/pixel resolution.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with

  7. Domain coloring of complex functions: an implementation-oriented introduction.

    PubMed

    Poelke, Konstantin; Polthier, Konrad

    2012-01-01

    This article gives a short overview of domain coloring for complex functions that have four-dimensional function graphs and therefore can't be visualized traditionally. The authors discuss several color schemes, focus on various aspects of complex functions, and provide Java-like pseudocode examples explaining the crucial ideas of the coloring algorithms to allow for easy reproduction.

  8. Color of the ocean.

    PubMed

    Plass, G N; Humphreys, T J; Kattawar, G W

    1978-05-01

    The color of the ocean is calculated from a model that realistically takes into account the various types of scattering and absorption events that occur in both the atmosphere and ocean. Solar photons are followed through the atmosphere and into the ocean by a Monte Carlo technique. The reflection and refraction at the ocean surface are included in the calculation. The upward and downward flux is calculated at several different heights in the atmosphere, at thirteen different wavelengths from 0.4 mum to 0.7 mum. These results are compared with two approximate theories: (1) one-dimensional; (2) single scattering. The first of these theories gives results which are accurate within 10% in most cases and are easy to calculate. The chromaticity coordinates as well as the dominant wavelength and purity of the color are calculated from the Monte Carlo results for the variation of upward flux with wavelength. The ocean color near the horizon is almost entirely determined by the color of the sky reflected by the ocean surface. The upwelling light from the ocean can be observed near the nadir if precautions are taken to exclude as much light as possible reflected from the ocean surface. The color of this upwelling light from the ocean contains much information about the hydrosol, chlorophyll, and yellow substance amounts in the ocean water. The model calculations show how the ocean color changes from a deep blue of high purity for relatively pure water to a greenish blue and then to green of low purity as the cholorphyll and yellow substance amounts increase. Further increases in these substances cause the color to change to yellow green of a higher purity. A large increase in the hydrosol amount usually causes a marked decrease in the purity of the color.

  9. Color Metric.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Illinois State Office of Education, Springfield.

    This booklet was designed to convey metric information in pictoral form. The use of pictures in the coloring book enables the more mature person to grasp the metric message instantly, whereas the younger person, while coloring the picture, will be exposed to the metric information long enough to make the proper associations. Sheets of the booklet…

  10. Full-color holographic 3D printer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takano, Masami; Shigeta, Hiroaki; Nishihara, Takashi; Yamaguchi, Masahiro; Takahashi, Susumu; Ohyama, Nagaaki; Kobayashi, Akihiko; Iwata, Fujio

    2003-05-01

    A holographic 3D printer is a system that produces a direct hologram with full-parallax information using the 3-dimensional data of a subject from a computer. In this paper, we present a proposal for the reproduction of full-color images with the holographic 3D printer. In order to realize the 3-dimensional color image, we selected the 3 laser wavelength colors of red (λ=633nm), green (λ=533nm), and blue (λ=442nm), and we built a one-step optical system using a projection system and a liquid crystal display. The 3-dimensional color image is obtained by synthesizing in a 2D array the multiple exposure with these 3 wavelengths made on each 250mm elementary hologram, and moving recording medium on a x-y stage. For the natural color reproduction in the holographic 3D printer, we take the approach of the digital processing technique based on the color management technology. The matching between the input and output colors is performed by investigating first, the relation between the gray level transmittance of the LCD and the diffraction efficiency of the hologram and second, by measuring the color displayed by the hologram to establish a correlation. In our first experimental results a non-linear functional relation for single and multiple exposure of the three components were found. These results are the first step in the realization of a natural color 3D image produced by the holographic color 3D printer.

  11. Spatial Distribution of Flower Color Induced by Interspecific Sexual Interaction

    PubMed Central

    Takahashi, Yuma; Takakura, Koh-ichi; Kawata, Masakado

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the mechanisms shaping the spatiotemporal distribution of species has long been a central concern of ecology and evolutionary biology. Contemporary patterns of plant assemblies suggest that sexual interactions among species, i.e., reproductive interference, lead to the exclusive distributions of closely related species that share pollinators. However, the fitness consequences and the initial ecological/evolutionary responses to reproductive interference remain unclear in nature, since reproductive isolation or allopatric distribution has already been achieved in the natural community. In Japan, three species of blue-eyed grasses (Sisyrinchium) with incomplete reproductive isolation have recently colonized and occur sympatrically. Two of them are monomorphic with white flowers, whereas the other exhibits heritable color polymorphism (white and purple morphs). Here we investigated the effects of the presence of two monomorphic species on the distribution and reproductive success of color morphs. The frequency and reproductive success of white morphs decreased in area where monomorphic species were abundant, while those of purple morphs did not. The rate of hybridization between species was higher in white morphs than in the purple ones. Resource competition and habitat preference seemed not to contribute to the spatial distribution and reproductive success of two morphs. Our results supported that color-dependent reproductive interference determines the distribution of flower color polymorphism in a habitat, implying ecological sorting promoted by pollinator-mediated reproductive interference. Our study helps us to understand the evolution and spatial structure of flower color in a community. PMID:27723785

  12. Quantum Color

    SciTech Connect

    Lincoln, Don

    2016-07-05

    The idea of electric charges and electricity in general is a familiar one to the science savvy viewer. However, electromagnetism is but one of the four fundamental forces and not the strongest one. The strongest of the fundamental forces is called the strong nuclear force and it has its own associated charge. Physicists call this charge “color” in analogy with the primary colors, although there is no real connection with actual color. In this video, Fermilab’s Dr. Don Lincoln explains why it is that we live in a colorful world.

  13. Color constancy supports cross-illumination color selection

    PubMed Central

    Radonjić, Ana; Cottaris, Nicolas P.; Brainard, David H.

    2015-01-01

    We rely on color to select objects as the targets of our actions (e.g., the freshest fish, the ripest fruit). To be useful for selection, color must provide accurate guidance about object identity across changes in illumination. Although the visual system partially stabilizes object color appearance across illumination changes, how such color constancy supports object selection is not understood. To study how constancy operates in real-life tasks, we developed a novel paradigm in which subjects selected which of two test objects presented under a test illumination appeared closer in color to a target object presented under a standard illumination. From subjects' choices, we inferred a selection-based match for the target via a variant of maximum likelihood difference scaling, and used it to quantify constancy. Selection-based constancy was good when measured using naturalistic stimuli, but was dramatically reduced when the stimuli were simplified, indicating that a naturalistic stimulus context is critical for good constancy. Overall, our results suggest that color supports accurate object selection across illumination changes when both stimuli and task match how color is used in real life. We compared our selection-based constancy results with data obtained using a classic asymmetric matching task and found that the adjustment-based matches predicted selection well for our stimuli and instructions, indicating that the appearance literature provides useful guidance for the emerging study of constancy in natural tasks. PMID:26024460

  14. Color change as a potential behavioral strategy

    PubMed Central

    Korzan, Wayne J.; Robison, Rex R.; Zhao, Sheng; Fernald, Russell D.

    2008-01-01

    Within species, color morphs may enhance camouflage, improve communication and/or confer reproductive advantage. However, in the male cichlid Astatotilapia burtoni, body color may also signal a behavioral strategy. A. burtoni live in a lek-like social system in Lake Tanganyika, Africa where bright blue or yellow territorial (T) males (together ~ 10–30% of the population) are reproductively capable and defend territories containing food with a spawning site. In contrast, nonterritorial (NT) males are smaller, cryptically colored, shoal with females and have regressed gonads. Importantly, males switch between these social states depending on their success in aggressive encounters. Yellow and blue morphs were thought to be adaptations to particular habitats, but they co-exist both in nature and in the laboratory. Importantly, individual males can switch colors so we asked whether color influences behavioral and hormonal profiles. When pairing territorial males with opposite colored fish, yellow males became dominant over blue males significantly more frequently. Moreover, yellow T males had significantly higher levels of 11-ketotosterone than blue T males while only blue NT males had higher levels of the stress hormone cortisol compared to the other groups. Thus color differences alone predict dominance status and hormone profiles in T males. Since T males can and do change color, this suggests that A. burtoni may use color as a flexible behavioral strategy. PMID:18586245

  15. New approach to color calibration of high fidelity color digital camera by using unique wide gamut color generator based on LED diodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kretkowski, M.; Shimodaira, Y.; Jabłoński, R.

    2008-11-01

    Development of a high accuracy color reproduction system requires certain instrumentation and reference for color calibration. Our research led to development of a high fidelity color digital camera with implemented filters that realize the color matching functions. The output signal returns XYZ values which provide absolute description of color. In order to produce XYZ output a mathematical conversion must be applied to CCD output values introducing a conversion matrix. The conversion matrix coefficients are calculated by using a color reference with known XYZ values and corresponding output signals from the CCD sensor under each filter acquisition from a certain amount of color samples. The most important feature of the camera is its ability to acquire colors from the complete theoretically visible color gamut due to implemented filters. However market available color references such as various color checkers are enclosed within HDTV gamut, which is insufficient for calibration in the whole operating color range. This led to development of a unique color reference based on LED diodes called the LED Color Generator (LED CG). It is capable of displaying colors in a wide color gamut estimated by chromaticity coordinates of 12 primary colors. The total amount of colors possible to produce is 25512. The biggest advantage is a possibility of displaying colors with desired spectral distribution (with certain approximations) due to multiple primary colors it consists. The average color difference obtained for test colors was found to be ▵E~0.78 for calibration with LED CG. The result is much better and repetitive in comparison with the Macbeth ColorCheckerTM which typically gives ▵E~1.2 and in the best case ▵E~0.83 with specially developed techniques.

  16. Realistic fetus skin color processing for ultrasound volume rendering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Yun-Tae; Kim, Kyuhong; Park, Sung-Chan; Kang, Jooyoung; Kim, Jung-Ho

    2014-01-01

    This paper proposes realistic fetus skin color processing using a 2D color map and a tone mapping function (TMF) for ultrasound volume rendering. The contributions of this paper are a 2D color map generated through a gamut model of skin color and a TMF that depends on the lighting position. First, the gamut model of fetus skin color is calculated by color distribution of baby images. The 2D color map is created using a gamut model for tone mapping of ray casting. For the translucent effect, a 2D color map in which lightness is inverted is generated. Second, to enhance the contrast of rendered images, the luminance, color, and tone curve TMF parameters are changed using 2D Gaussian function that depends on the lighting position. The experimental results demonstrate that the proposed method achieves better realistic skin color reproduction than the conventional method.

  17. Humane reproduction.

    PubMed

    1974-03-01

    Discusses social, economic, and humane considerations in population control. Mental health aspects of controlled fertility are considered in relation to the family's psychosocial and material resources, the effects of reproduction on the individual the family, and community, and the advantages and disadvantages of controlled reproduction. A distinction between family planning and population control is outlined. It is suggested that there is hardly a single more effective tool for preventing psychological disorders than the prevention of unwanted pregnancies. Analyses of educational and medical services and methods of birth control are presented. A comprehensive neighborhood health station, which would consolidate these services, is suggested. It is concluded that humane programs of reproduction would lead to a reconciliation of biological drives with a responsible concern for the quality of life.

  18. Color vision test

    MedlinePlus

    ... from birth) color vision problems: Achromatopsia -- complete color blindness , seeing only shades of gray Deuteranopia -- difficulty telling ... test - color; Ishihara color vision test Images Color blindness tests References Adams AJ, Verdon WA, Spivey BE. ...

  19. Experiment M410: Color patch photography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brinkmann, J. R.; Jones, R. L.

    1971-01-01

    A slate that supported four calibrated color targets was photographed during Gemini 10 mission extravehicular activity to determine if existing outdoor-type color films can reproduce colored objects accurately in the space environment. The experiment resulted in the acquisition of sufficient information to confirm that objects can be photographed in space with good color fidelity by the use of existing materials. Available color film is balanced to the solar spectrum in space, and the effect of ultraviolet energy on film degradation appears to be negligible.

  20. Parental conflict and blue egg coloration in a seabird

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morales, Judith; Torres, Roxana; Velando, Alberto

    2010-02-01

    When both parents provide offspring care, equal sharing of costly parental duties may enhance reproductive success. This is crucial for longlived species, where increased parental effort in current reproduction profoundly affects future reproduction. Indication of reproductive value or willingness to invest in reproduction may promote matching responses by mates, thus reducing the conflict over care. In birds with biparental care, blue-green eggshell color may function as a signal of reproductive value that affects parental effort, as predicted by the signaling hypothesis of blue-green eggshell coloration. However, this hypothesis has not been explored during incubation, when the potential stimulus of egg color is present, and has been little studied in longlived birds. We experimentally studied if egg color affected incubation patterns in the blue-footed booby, a longlived species with biparental care and blue eggs. We exchanged fresh eggs between nests of the same laying date and recorded parental incubation effort on the following 4 days. Although egg color did not affect male effort, original eggshell color was correlated with pair matching in incubation. Exchanged eggshell color did not affect incubation patterns. This suggests that biliverdin-based egg coloration reflects female quality features that are associated with pair incubation effort or that blue-footed boobies mate assortatively high-quality pairs incubating more colorful clutches. An intriguing possibility is that egg coloration facilitates an equal sharing of incubation, the signal being functional only during a short period close to laying. Results also suggest that indication of reproductive value reduces the conflict over care.

  1. Ultrasonographic Doppler Use for Female Reproduction Management.

    PubMed

    Bollwein, Heinrich; Heppelmann, Maike; Lüttgenau, Johannes

    2016-03-01

    Transrectal color Doppler ultrasonography is a useful technique to get new information about physiologic and pathophysiologic alterations of the uterus and ovaries in female cattle. During all reproductive stages characteristic changes in uterine blood flow are observed. Cows with puerperal disturbances show delayed decrease in uterine blood flow in the first few weeks postparturition compared with healthy cows. Measurement of follicular blood flow is used to identify normally developing follicles and predict superovulatory response. Determination of luteal blood is more reliable than B-mode sonography to distinguish between functional and nonfunctional corpora lutea. Color Doppler ultrasonography is a promising tool to improve reproductive management in female cattle.

  2. Gray component replacement using color mixing models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, Henry R.

    1994-05-01

    A new approach to the gray component replacement (GCR) has been developed. It employs the color mixing theory for modeling the spectral fit between the 3-color and 4-color prints. To achieve this goal, we first examine the accuracy of the models with respect to the experimental results by applying them to the prints made by a Canon Color Laser Copier-500 (CLC-500). An empirical halftone correction factor is used for improving the data fitting. Among the models tested, the halftone corrected Kubelka-Munk theory gives the closest fit, followed by the halftone corrected Beer-Bouguer law and the Yule-Neilsen approach. We then apply the halftone corrected BB law to GCR. The main feature of this GCR approach is based on the spectral measurements of the primary color step wedges and a software package implementing the color mixing model. The software determines the amount of the gray component to be removed, then adjusts each primary color until a good match of the peak wavelengths between the 3-color and 4-color spectra is obtained. Results indicate that the average (Delta) Eab between cmy and cmyk renditions of 64 color patches is 3.11 (Delta) Eab. Eighty-seven percent of the patches has (Delta) Eab less than 5 units. The advantage of this approach is its simplicity; there is no need for the black printer and under color addition. Because this approach is based on the spectral reproduction, it minimizes the metamerism.

  3. Color superconductivity

    SciTech Connect

    Wilczek, F.

    1997-09-22

    The asymptotic freedom of QCD suggests that at high density - where one forms a Fermi surface at very high momenta - weak coupling methods apply. These methods suggest that chiral symmetry is restored and that an instability toward color triplet condensation (color superconductivity) sets in. Here I attempt, using variational methods, to estimate these effects more precisely. Highlights include demonstration of a negative pressure in the uniform density chiral broken phase for any non-zero condensation, which we take as evidence for the philosophy of the MIT bag model; and demonstration that the color gap is substantial - several tens of MeV - even at modest densities. Since the superconductivity is in a pseudoscalar channel, parity is spontaneously broken.

  4. Reproductive physiology

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gee, G.F.; Russman, S.E.; Ellis, David H.; Gee, George F.; Mirande, Claire M.

    1996-01-01

    Conclusions: Although the general pattern of avian physiology applies to cranes, we have identified many physiological mechanisms (e.g., effects of disturbance) that need further study. Studies with cranes are expensive compared to those done with domestic fowl because of the crane's larger size, low reproductive rate, and delayed sexual maturity. To summarize, the crane reproductive system is composed of physiological and anatomical elements whose function is controlled by an integrated neural-endocrine system. Males generally produce semen at a younger age than when females lay eggs. Eggs are laid in clutches of two (1 to 3), and females will lay additional clutches if the preceding clutches are removed. Both sexes build nests and incubate the eggs. Molt begins during incubation and body molt may be completed annually in breeding pairs. However, remiges are replaced sequentially over 2 to 3 years, or abruptly every 2 to 3 years in other species. Most immature birds replace their juvenal remiges over a 2 to 3 year period. Stress interferes with reproduction in cranes by reducing egg production or terminating the reproductive effort. In other birds, stress elevates corticosterone levels and decreases LHRH release. We know little about the physiological response of cranes to stress.

  5. SATURN, IN NATURAL COLORS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    NASA's Hubble Space Telescope has provided images of Saturn in many colors, from black-and-white, to orange, to blue, green, and red. But in this picture, image processing specialists have worked to provide a crisp, extremely accurate view of Saturn, which highlights the planet's pastel colors. Bands of subtle color - yellows, browns, grays - distinguish differences in the clouds over Saturn, the second largest planet in the solar system. Saturn's high-altitude clouds are made of colorless ammonia ice. Above these clouds is a layer of haze or smog, produced when ultraviolet light from the sun shines on methane gas. The smog contributes to the planet's subtle color variations. One of Saturn's moons, Enceladus, is seen casting a shadow on the giant planet as it passes just above the ring system. The flattened disk swirling around Saturn is the planet's most recognizable feature, and this image displays it in sharp detail. This is the planet's ring system, consisting mostly of chunks of water ice. Although it appears as if the disk is composed of only a few rings, it actually consists of tens of thousands of thin 'ringlets.' This picture also shows the two classic divisions in the ring system. The narrow Encke Gap is nearest to the disk's outer edge; the Cassini division, is the wide gap near the center. Scientists study Saturn and its ring system to gain insight into the birth of our solar system. Credit: Hubble Heritage Team (AURA/STScI/NASA)

  6. Assisted Reproductive Technology (ART)

    MedlinePlus

    ... American Society for Reproductive Medicine. (2012). Third-party reproduction (sperm, egg, and embryo donation and surrogacy): A ... from https://www.asrm.org/BOOKLET_Third-party_Reproduction [top] American Society for Reproductive Medicine. (2015). Assisted ...

  7. Color accuracy and reproducibility in whole slide imaging scanners

    PubMed Central

    Shrestha, Prarthana; Hulsken, Bas

    2014-01-01

    Abstract We propose a workflow for color reproduction in whole slide imaging (WSI) scanners, such that the colors in the scanned images match to the actual slide color and the inter-scanner variation is minimum. We describe a new method of preparation and verification of the color phantom slide, consisting of a standard IT8-target transmissive film, which is used in color calibrating and profiling the WSI scanner. We explore several International Color Consortium (ICC) compliant techniques in color calibration/profiling and rendering intents for translating the scanner specific colors to the standard display (sRGB) color space. Based on the quality of the color reproduction in histopathology slides, we propose the matrix-based calibration/profiling and absolute colorimetric rendering approach. The main advantage of the proposed workflow is that it is compliant to the ICC standard, applicable to color management systems in different platforms, and involves no external color measurement devices. We quantify color difference using the CIE-DeltaE2000 metric, where DeltaE values below 1 are considered imperceptible. Our evaluation on 14 phantom slides, manufactured according to the proposed method, shows an average inter-slide color difference below 1 DeltaE. The proposed workflow is implemented and evaluated in 35 WSI scanners developed at Philips, called the Ultra Fast Scanners (UFS). The color accuracy, measured as DeltaE between the scanner reproduced colors and the reference colorimetric values of the phantom patches, is improved on average to 3.5 DeltaE in calibrated scanners from 10 DeltaE in uncalibrated scanners. The average inter-scanner color difference is found to be 1.2 DeltaE. The improvement in color performance upon using the proposed method is apparent with the visual color quality of the tissue scans. PMID:26158041

  8. Color transparency

    SciTech Connect

    Jennings, B.K.; Miller, G.A.

    1993-11-01

    The anomously large transmission of nucleons through a nucleus following a hard collision is explored. This effect, known as color transparency, is believed to be a prediction of QCD. The necessary conditions for its occurrence and the effects that must be included a realistic calculation are discussed.

  9. Color Sense

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Heidi S. S.; Maki, Jennifer A.

    2009-01-01

    This article reports a study conducted by members of the WellU Academic Integration Subcommittee of The College of St. Scholastica's College's Healthy Campus Initiative plan whose purpose was to determine whether changing color in the classroom could have a measurable effect on students. One simple improvement a school can make in a classroom is…

  10. Diamond color measurement instrument based on image processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takahashi, H.; Mandal, S.; Toosi, M.; Zeng, J.; Wang, W.

    2016-09-01

    Gemological Institute of America (GIA) has developed a diamond color measurement instrument that can provide accurate and reproducible color measurement results. The instrument uses uniform illumination by a daylight-approximating light source; observations from a high-resolution color-camera with nearly zero-distortion bi-telecentric lens, and image processing to calculate color parameters of diamonds. Experiments show the instrument can provide reproducible color measurement results and also identify subtle color differences in diamonds with high sensitivity. The experimental setup of the prototype instrument and the image processing method for calculating diamond color parameters are presented in this report.

  11. A quantitative theory of human color choices.

    PubMed

    Komarova, Natalia L; Jameson, Kimberly A

    2013-01-01

    The system for colorimetry adopted by the Commission Internationale de l'Eclairage (CIE) in 1931, along with its subsequent improvements, represents a family of light mixture models that has served well for many decades for stimulus specification and reproduction when highly controlled color standards are important. Still, with regard to color appearance many perceptual and cognitive factors are known to contribute to color similarity, and, in general, to all cognitive judgments of color. Using experimentally obtained odd-one-out triad similarity judgments from 52 observers, we demonstrate that CIE-based models can explain a good portion (but not all) of the color similarity data. Color difference quantified by CIELAB ΔE explained behavior at levels of 81% (across all colors), 79% (across red colors), and 66% (across blue colors). We show that the unexplained variation cannot be ascribed to inter- or intra-individual variations among the observers, and points to the presence of additional factors shared by the majority of responders. Based on this, we create a quantitative model of a lexicographic semiorder type, which shows how different perceptual and cognitive influences can trade-off when making color similarity judgments. We show that by incorporating additional influences related to categorical and lightness and saturation factors, the model explains more of the triad similarity behavior, namely, 91% (all colors), 90% (reds), and 87% (blues). We conclude that distance in a CIE model is but the first of several layers in a hierarchy of higher-order cognitive influences that shape color triad choices. We further discuss additional mitigating influences outside the scope of CIE modeling, which can be incorporated in this framework, including well-known influences from language, stimulus set effects, and color preference bias. We also discuss universal and cultural aspects of the model as well as non-uniformity of the color space with respect to different

  12. Colorful drying.

    PubMed

    Lakio, Satu; Heinämäki, Jyrki; Yliruusi, Jouko

    2010-03-01

    Drying is one of the standard unit operations in the pharmaceutical industry and it is important to become aware of the circumstances that dominate during the process. The purpose of this study was to test microcapsulated thermochromic pigments as heat indicators in a fluid bed drying process. The indicator powders were manually granulated with alpha-lactose monohydrate resulting in three particle-size groups. Also, pellets were coated with the indicator powders. The granules and pellets were fluidized in fluid bed dryer to observe the progress of the heat flow in the material and to study the heat indicator properties of the indicator materials. A tristimulus colorimeter was used to measure CIELAB color values. Color indicator for heat detection can be utilized to test if the heat-sensitive API would go through physical changes during the pharmaceutical drying process. Both the prepared granules and pellets can be used as heat indicator in fluid bed drying process. The colored heat indicators give an opportunity to learn new aspects of the process at real time and could be exploded, for example, for scaling-up studies.

  13. Two plus blue equals green: grapheme-color synesthesia allows cognitive access to numerical information via color.

    PubMed

    McCarthy, J Daniel; Barnes, Lianne N; Alvarez, Bryan D; Caplovitz, Gideon Paul

    2013-12-01

    In grapheme-color synesthesia, graphemes (e.g., numbers or letters) evoke color experiences. It is generally reported that the opposite is not true: colors will not generate experiences of graphemes or their associated information. However, recent research has provided evidence that colors can implicitly elicit symbolic representations of associated graphemes. Here, we examine if these representations can be cognitively accessed. Using a mathematical verification task replacing graphemes with color patches, we find that synesthetes can verify such problems with colors as accurately as with graphemes. Doing so, however, takes time: ~250 ms per color. Moreover, we find minimal reaction time switch-costs for switching between computing with graphemes and colors. This demonstrates that given specific task demands, synesthetes can cognitively access numerical information elicited by physical colors, and they do so as accurately as with graphemes. We discuss these results in the context of possible cognitive strategies used to access the information.

  14. Introduction To Color Vision

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thorell, Lisa G.

    1983-08-01

    Several human cognitive studies have reported that color facilitates certain learning, memory and search tasks. Consideration of the color-opponent organization of human color vision and the spatial modulation transfer function for color suggests several simple sensory explanations.

  15. Utilizing typical color appearance models to represent perceptual brightness and colorfulness for digital images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gong, Rui; Wang, Qing; Shao, Xiaopeng; Zhou, Conghao

    2016-12-01

    This study aims to expand the applications of color appearance models to representing the perceptual attributes for digital images, which supplies more accurate methods for predicting image brightness and image colorfulness. Two typical models, i.e., the CIELAB model and the CIECAM02, were involved in developing algorithms to predict brightness and colorfulness for various images, in which three methods were designed to handle pixels of different color contents. Moreover, massive visual data were collected from psychophysical experiments on two mobile displays under three lighting conditions to analyze the characteristics of visual perception on these two attributes and to test the prediction accuracy of each algorithm. Afterward, detailed analyses revealed that image brightness and image colorfulness were predicted well by calculating the CIECAM02 parameters of lightness and chroma; thus, the suitable methods for dealing with different color pixels were determined for image brightness and image colorfulness, respectively. This study supplies an example of enlarging color appearance models to describe image perception.

  16. Cropping management using color and color infrared aerial photographs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morgan, K. M.; Morris-Jones, D. R.; Lee, G. B.; Kiefer, R. W.

    1979-01-01

    The Universal Soil Loss Equation (USLE) is a widely accepted tool for erosion prediction and conservation planning. Solving this equation yields the long-term average annual soil loss that can be expected from rill and inter-rill erosion. In this study, manual interpretation of color and color infrared 70 mm photography at the scale of 1:60,000 is used to determine the cropping management factor in the USLE. Accurate information was collected about plowing practices and crop residue cover (unharvested vegetation) for the winter season on agricultural land in Pheasant Branch Creek watershed in Dane County, Wisconsin.

  17. Full Color Rainbow Hologram Using A Photoresist Plate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohnuma, Kazuhiko; Nishihara, Takashi; Iwata, Fujio

    1989-05-01

    A new method of full color rainbow hologram which can reconstruct a natural color image is developed and has been shown in Applied Optics. This method uses a technique of achromatic holographic stereogram invented by Benton and is realized by only one wavelength of Argon-ion laser and a photoresist plate. It is found from the result of experiments that the reconstructed image has sufficient contrast and wide range of color reproduction in both bright and dark area.

  18. Accurate Finite Difference Algorithms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goodrich, John W.

    1996-01-01

    Two families of finite difference algorithms for computational aeroacoustics are presented and compared. All of the algorithms are single step explicit methods, they have the same order of accuracy in both space and time, with examples up to eleventh order, and they have multidimensional extensions. One of the algorithm families has spectral like high resolution. Propagation with high order and high resolution algorithms can produce accurate results after O(10(exp 6)) periods of propagation with eight grid points per wavelength.

  19. Accurate monotone cubic interpolation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huynh, Hung T.

    1991-01-01

    Monotone piecewise cubic interpolants are simple and effective. They are generally third-order accurate, except near strict local extrema where accuracy degenerates to second-order due to the monotonicity constraint. Algorithms for piecewise cubic interpolants, which preserve monotonicity as well as uniform third and fourth-order accuracy are presented. The gain of accuracy is obtained by relaxing the monotonicity constraint in a geometric framework in which the median function plays a crucial role.

  20. Do focal colors look particularly "colorful"?

    PubMed

    Witzel, Christoph; Franklin, Anna

    2014-04-01

    If the most typical red, yellow, green, and blue were particularly colorful (i.e., saturated), they would "jump out to the eye." This would explain why even fundamentally different languages have distinct color terms for these focal colors, and why unique hues play a prominent role in subjective color appearance. In this study, the subjective saturation of 10 colors around each of these focal colors was measured through a pairwise matching task. Results show that subjective saturation changes systematically across hues in a way that is strongly correlated to the visual gamut, and exponentially related to sensitivity but not to focal colors.

  1. Color accuracy and reproducibility in whole slide imaging scanners

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shrestha, Prarthana; Hulsken, Bas

    2014-03-01

    In this paper, we propose a work-flow for color reproduction in whole slide imaging (WSI) scanners such that the colors in the scanned images match to the actual slide color and the inter scanner variation is minimum. We describe a novel method of preparation and verification of the color phantom slide, consisting of a standard IT8- target transmissive film, which is used in color calibrating and profiling the WSI scanner. We explore several ICC compliant techniques in color calibration/profiling and rendering intents for translating the scanner specific colors to the standard display (sRGB) color-space. Based on the quality of color reproduction in histopathology tissue slides, we propose the matrix-based calibration/profiling and absolute colorimetric rendering approach. The main advantage of the proposed work-ow is that it is compliant to the ICC standard, applicable to color management systems in different platforms, and involves no external color measurement devices. We measure objective color performance using CIE-DeltaE2000 metric, where DeltaE values below 1 is considered imperceptible. Our evaluation 14 phantom slides, manufactured according to the proposed method, show an average inter-slide color difference below 1 DeltaE. The proposed work-flow is implemented and evaluated in 35 Philips Ultra Fast Scanners (UFS). The results show that the average color difference between a scanner and the reference is 3.5 DeltaE, and among the scanners is 3.1 DeltaE. The improvement on color performance upon using the proposed method is apparent on the visual color quality of the tissues scans.

  2. Male Reproductive System

    MedlinePlus

    ... gamete, the egg or ovum, meet in the female's reproductive system to create a baby. Both the male and female reproductive systems are essential for reproduction. Humans pass certain characteristics ...

  3. Reproduction, physiology and biochemistry

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This chapter summarizes fundamental knowledge and recent discoveries about the reproduction, physiology and biochemistry of plant-parasitic nematodes. Various types of reproduction are reviewed, including sexual reproduction and mitotic and meiotic parthenogenesis. Although much is known about the p...

  4. Society of Reproductive Surgeons

    MedlinePlus

    The Society of Reproductive Surgeons Home About Us About SRS Mission Statement Officers The Role of Reproductive Surgeons For ... Fact Sheets and Booklets SRS is an affiliated society to the American Society for Reproductive Medicine . Below ...

  5. Normal Female Reproductive Anatomy

    MedlinePlus

    ... hyphen, e.g. -historical Searches are case-insensitive Reproductive System, Female, Anatomy Add to My Pictures View /Download : Small: ... Reproductive System, Female, Anatomy Description: Anatomy of the female reproductive system; drawing shows the uterus, myometrium (muscular outer layer ...

  6. Reproductive Information and Reproductive Decision-Making.

    PubMed

    Mehlman, Maxwell J

    2015-01-01

    Opponents of reproductive choice are attempting to limit reproductive decisions based on certain underlying reasons. This commentary explores the rationales for these limitations and the objections to them. It concludes that reasoned-based limitations are unsupportable and unenforceable.

  7. Colors in mind: a novel paradigm to investigate pure color imagery.

    PubMed

    Wantz, Andrea L; Borst, Grégoire; Mast, Fred W; Lobmaier, Janek S

    2015-07-01

    Mental color imagery abilities are commonly measured using paradigms that involve naming, judging, or comparing the colors of visual mental images of well-known objects (e.g., "Is a sunflower darker yellow than a lemon"?). Although this approach is widely used in patient studies, differences in the ability to perform such color comparisons might simply reflect participants' general knowledge of object colors rather than their ability to generate accurate visual mental images of the colors of the objects. The aim of the present study was to design a new color imagery paradigm. Participants were asked to visualize a color for 3 s and then to determine a visually presented color by pressing 1 of 6 keys. We reasoned that participants would react faster when the imagined and perceived colors were congruent than when they were incongruent. In Experiment 1, participants were slower in incongruent than congruent trials but only when they were instructed to visualize the colors. The results in Experiment 2 demonstrate that the congruency effect reported in Experiment 1 cannot be attributed to verbalization of the color that had to be visualized. Finally, in Experiment 3, the congruency effect evoked by mental imagery correlated with performance in a perceptual version of the task. We discuss these findings with respect to the mechanisms that underlie mental imagery and patients suffering from color imagery deficits.

  8. Color Relationalism and Relativism.

    PubMed

    Byrne, Alex; Hilbert, David R

    2017-01-01

    This paper critically examines color relationalism and color relativism, two theories of color that are allegedly supported by variation in normal human color vision. We mostly discuss color relationalism, defended at length in Jonathan Cohen's The Red and the Real, and argue that the theory has insuperable problems.

  9. Primary Theme Club. Colors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walmsley, Bonnie Brown; Camp, Anne-Marie

    1997-01-01

    Presents a cross-curricular theme unit on colors that includes a pullout poster and a resource list. Social studies activities highlight flags of the world. Science activities teach about colors of animals and the science of color. Language arts activities describe colorful language. Mathematics activities involve sorting and graphing colors. (SM)

  10. Activities: Some Colorful Mathematics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeTemple, Duane W.; Walker, Dean A.

    1996-01-01

    Describes three activities in discrete mathematics that involve coloring geometric objects: counting colored regions of overlapping simple closed curves, counting colored triangulations of polygons, and determining the number of colors required to paint the plane so that no two points one inch apart are the same color. (MKR)

  11. Evolutionary constraints of warning signals: A genetic trade-off between the efficacy of larval and adult warning coloration can maintain variation in signal expression.

    PubMed

    Lindstedt, C; Schroderus, E; Lindström, L; Mappes, T; Mappes, J

    2016-11-01

    To predict evolutionary responses of warning signals under selection, we need to determine the inheritance pattern of the signals, and how they are genetically correlated with other traits contributing to fitness. Furthermore, protective coloration often undergoes remarkable changes within an individual's lifecycle, requiring us to quantify the genetic constraints of adaptive coloration across all the relevant life stages. Based on a 12 generation pedigree with > 11,000 individuals of the wood tiger moth (Arctia plantaginis), we show that high primary defense as a larva (large warning signal) results in weaker defenses as adult (less efficient warning color), due to the negative genetic correlation between the efficacy of larval and adult warning coloration. However, production of effective warning coloration as a larva did not incur any life-history costs and was positively genetically correlated with reproductive output. These results provide novel insights into the evolutionary constraints on protective coloration in animals, and explain the maintenance of variation in the signal expression despite the strong directional selection by predators. By analyzing the genetic and environmental effects on warning signal and life-history traits in all relevant life stages, we can accurately determine the mechanisms shaping the evolutionary responses of phenotypic traits under different selection environments.

  12. Accurate quantum chemical calculations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bauschlicher, Charles W., Jr.; Langhoff, Stephen R.; Taylor, Peter R.

    1989-01-01

    An important goal of quantum chemical calculations is to provide an understanding of chemical bonding and molecular electronic structure. A second goal, the prediction of energy differences to chemical accuracy, has been much harder to attain. First, the computational resources required to achieve such accuracy are very large, and second, it is not straightforward to demonstrate that an apparently accurate result, in terms of agreement with experiment, does not result from a cancellation of errors. Recent advances in electronic structure methodology, coupled with the power of vector supercomputers, have made it possible to solve a number of electronic structure problems exactly using the full configuration interaction (FCI) method within a subspace of the complete Hilbert space. These exact results can be used to benchmark approximate techniques that are applicable to a wider range of chemical and physical problems. The methodology of many-electron quantum chemistry is reviewed. Methods are considered in detail for performing FCI calculations. The application of FCI methods to several three-electron problems in molecular physics are discussed. A number of benchmark applications of FCI wave functions are described. Atomic basis sets and the development of improved methods for handling very large basis sets are discussed: these are then applied to a number of chemical and spectroscopic problems; to transition metals; and to problems involving potential energy surfaces. Although the experiences described give considerable grounds for optimism about the general ability to perform accurate calculations, there are several problems that have proved less tractable, at least with current computer resources, and these and possible solutions are discussed.

  13. Color vision and color formation in dragonflies.

    PubMed

    Futahashi, Ryo

    2016-10-01

    Dragonflies including damselflies are colorful and large-eyed insects, which show remarkable sexual dimorphism, color transition, and color polymorphism. Recent comprehensive visual transcriptomics has unveiled an extraordinary diversity of opsin genes within the lineage of dragonflies. These opsin genes are differentially expressed between aquatic larvae and terrestrial adults, as well as between dorsal and ventral regions of adult compound eyes. Recent topics of color formation in dragonflies are also outlined. Non-iridescent blue color is caused by coherent light scattering from the quasiordered nanostructures, whereas iridescent color is produced by multilayer structures. Wrinkles or wax crystals sometimes enhances multilayer structural colors. Sex-specific and stage-specific color differences in red dragonflies is attributed to redox states of ommochrome pigments.

  14. Urine - abnormal color

    MedlinePlus

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003139.htm Urine - abnormal color To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. The usual color of urine is straw-yellow. Abnormally colored urine ...

  15. Tooth - abnormal colors

    MedlinePlus

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003065.htm Tooth - abnormal colors To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Abnormal tooth color is any color other than white to yellowish- ...

  16. LED Color Characteristics

    SciTech Connect

    2012-01-01

    Color quality is an important consideration when evaluating LED-based products for general illumination. This fact sheet reviews the basics regarding light and color and summarizes the most important color issues related to white-light LED systems.

  17. Color Blindness Simulations

    MedlinePlus

    ... Coordinator Color blindness Simulations Normal Color Vision Deuteranopia Color blindness marked by confusion of purplish red and green Tritanopia A dichromatism in which the spectrum is seen in tones of red and green. ...

  18. Male Reproductive System

    MedlinePlus

    ... Old Feeding Your 1- to 2-Year-Old Male Reproductive System KidsHealth > For Parents > Male Reproductive System Print A ... understand your son's reproductive health. continue About the Male Reproductive System Most species have two sexes: male and female. ...

  19. BIOACCESSIBILITY TESTS ACCURATELY ESTIMATE ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Hazards of soil-borne Pb to wild birds may be more accurately quantified if the bioavailability of that Pb is known. To better understand the bioavailability of Pb to birds, we measured blood Pb concentrations in Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica) fed diets containing Pb-contaminated soils. Relative bioavailabilities were expressed by comparison with blood Pb concentrations in quail fed a Pb acetate reference diet. Diets containing soil from five Pb-contaminated Superfund sites had relative bioavailabilities from 33%-63%, with a mean of about 50%. Treatment of two of the soils with P significantly reduced the bioavailability of Pb. The bioaccessibility of the Pb in the test soils was then measured in six in vitro tests and regressed on bioavailability. They were: the “Relative Bioavailability Leaching Procedure” (RBALP) at pH 1.5, the same test conducted at pH 2.5, the “Ohio State University In vitro Gastrointestinal” method (OSU IVG), the “Urban Soil Bioaccessible Lead Test”, the modified “Physiologically Based Extraction Test” and the “Waterfowl Physiologically Based Extraction Test.” All regressions had positive slopes. Based on criteria of slope and coefficient of determination, the RBALP pH 2.5 and OSU IVG tests performed very well. Speciation by X-ray absorption spectroscopy demonstrated that, on average, most of the Pb in the sampled soils was sorbed to minerals (30%), bound to organic matter 24%, or present as Pb sulfate 18%. Ad

  20. Color preference in red–green dichromats

    PubMed Central

    Álvaro, Leticia; Moreira, Humberto; Lillo, Julio; Franklin, Anna

    2015-01-01

    Around 2% of males have red–green dichromacy, which is a genetic disorder of color vision where one type of cone photoreceptor is missing. Here we investigate the color preferences of dichromats. We aim (i) to establish whether the systematic and reliable color preferences of normal trichromatic observers (e.g., preference maximum at blue, minimum at yellow-green) are affected by dichromacy and (ii) to test theories of color preference with a dichromatic sample. Dichromat and normal trichromat observers named and rated how much they liked saturated, light, dark, and focal colors twice. Trichromats had the expected pattern of preference. Dichromats had a reliable pattern of preference that was different to trichromats, with a preference maximum rather than minimum at yellow and a much weaker preference for blue than trichromats. Color preference was more affected in observers who lacked the cone type sensitive to long wavelengths (protanopes) than in those who lacked the cone type sensitive to medium wavelengths (deuteranopes). Trichromats’ preferences were summarized effectively in terms of cone-contrast between color and background, and yellow-blue cone-contrast could account for dichromats’ pattern of preference, with some evidence for residual red–green activity in deuteranopes’ preference. Dichromats’ color naming also could account for their color preferences, with colors named more accurately and quickly being more preferred. This relationship between color naming and preference also was present for trichromat males but not females. Overall, the findings provide novel evidence on how dichromats experience color, advance the understanding of why humans like some colors more than others, and have implications for general theories of aesthetics. PMID:26170287

  1. Color preference in red-green dichromats.

    PubMed

    Álvaro, Leticia; Moreira, Humberto; Lillo, Julio; Franklin, Anna

    2015-07-28

    Around 2% of males have red-green dichromacy, which is a genetic disorder of color vision where one type of cone photoreceptor is missing. Here we investigate the color preferences of dichromats. We aim (i) to establish whether the systematic and reliable color preferences of normal trichromatic observers (e.g., preference maximum at blue, minimum at yellow-green) are affected by dichromacy and (ii) to test theories of color preference with a dichromatic sample. Dichromat and normal trichromat observers named and rated how much they liked saturated, light, dark, and focal colors twice. Trichromats had the expected pattern of preference. Dichromats had a reliable pattern of preference that was different to trichromats, with a preference maximum rather than minimum at yellow and a much weaker preference for blue than trichromats. Color preference was more affected in observers who lacked the cone type sensitive to long wavelengths (protanopes) than in those who lacked the cone type sensitive to medium wavelengths (deuteranopes). Trichromats' preferences were summarized effectively in terms of cone-contrast between color and background, and yellow-blue cone-contrast could account for dichromats' pattern of preference, with some evidence for residual red-green activity in deuteranopes' preference. Dichromats' color naming also could account for their color preferences, with colors named more accurately and quickly being more preferred. This relationship between color naming and preference also was present for trichromat males but not females. Overall, the findings provide novel evidence on how dichromats experience color, advance the understanding of why humans like some colors more than others, and have implications for general theories of aesthetics.

  2. Reproductive Medicine in Amphibians.

    PubMed

    Chai, Norin

    2017-02-04

    Reproduction of amphibians includes ovulation, spermiation, fertilization, oviposition, larval stage and development, and metamorphosis. A problem at any stage could lead to reproductive failure. To stimulate reproduction, environmental conditions must be arranged to simulate changes in natural habits. Reproductive life history is well documented in amphibians; a thorough knowledge of this subject will aid the practitioner in diagnosis and treatment. Technologies for artificial reproduction are developing rapidly, and some protocols may be transferable to privately kept or endangered species. Reproductive tract disorders are rarely described; no bacterial or viral diseases are known that specifically target the amphibian reproductive system.

  3. Reproductive Disorders in Snakes.

    PubMed

    Di Girolamo, Nicola; Selleri, Paolo

    2017-05-01

    Reproduction of snakes is one of the challenging aspects of herpetology medicine. Due to the complexity of reproduction, several disorders may present before, during, or after this process. This article describes the physical examination, and radiographic, ultrasonographic, and endoscopic findings associated with reproductive disorders in snakes. Surgical techniques used to resolve reproductive disorders in snakes are described. Finally, common reproductive disorders in snakes are individually discussed.

  4. Light Field Imaging Based Accurate Image Specular Highlight Removal

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Haoqian; Xu, Chenxue; Wang, Xingzheng; Zhang, Yongbing; Peng, Bo

    2016-01-01

    Specular reflection removal is indispensable to many computer vision tasks. However, most existing methods fail or degrade in complex real scenarios for their individual drawbacks. Benefiting from the light field imaging technology, this paper proposes a novel and accurate approach to remove specularity and improve image quality. We first capture images with specularity by the light field camera (Lytro ILLUM). After accurately estimating the image depth, a simple and concise threshold strategy is adopted to cluster the specular pixels into “unsaturated” and “saturated” category. Finally, a color variance analysis of multiple views and a local color refinement are individually conducted on the two categories to recover diffuse color information. Experimental evaluation by comparison with existed methods based on our light field dataset together with Stanford light field archive verifies the effectiveness of our proposed algorithm. PMID:27253083

  5. Toward an improved color rendering metric

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davis, Wendy; Ohno, Yoshi

    2005-09-01

    Several aspects of the Color Rendering Index (CRI) are flawed, limiting its usefulness in assessing the color rendering capabilities of LEDs for general illumination. At NIST, we are developing recommendations to modify the CRI that would overcome these problems. The current CRI is based on only eight reflective samples, all of which are low to medium chromatic saturation. These colors do not adequately span the range of normal object colors. Some lights that are able to accurately render colors of low saturation perform poorly with highly saturated colors. This is particularly prominent with light sources with peaked spectral distributions as realized by solid-state lighting. We have assembled 15 Munsell samples that overcome these problems and have performed analysis to show the improvement. Additionally, the CRI penalizes lamps for showing increases in object chromatic saturation compared to reference lights, which is actually desirable for most applications. We suggest a new computation scheme for determining the color rendering score that differentiates between hue and saturation shifts and takes their directions into account. The uniform color space used in the CRI is outdated and a replacement will be recommended. The CRI matches the CCT of the reference to that of the test light. This can be problematic when lights are substantially bluish or reddish. Lights of extreme CCTs are frequently poor color renderers, though they can score very high on the current CRI. An improved chromatic adaptation correction calculation would eliminate the need to match CCT and an updated correction is being considered.

  6. Diffractive parameric colors.

    PubMed

    Orava, Joni; Heikkila, Noora; Jaaskelainen, Timo; Parkkinen, Jussi

    2008-12-01

    A method of producing inkless parameric color pairs is studied. In this method, colors are formed additively using diffraction gratings with differing grating periods as primary colors. Gratings with different grating periods reflect different spectral radiance peaks of a fluorescent lamp to the desired viewing angle, according to the grating equation. Four spectral peaks of a 4000 K fluorescent lamp--red, green, cyan, and blue-are used as the primary colors. The colors are mixed additively by fixing the relative areas of different grating periods inside a pixel. With four primary colors it is possible to mix certain colors with different triplets of primary colors. Thus, it is theoretically possible to produce metameric colors. In this study, three parameric color pairs are fabricated using electron beam lithography, electroplating, and hot embossing. The radiance spectra of the color pairs are measured by spectroradiometer from hot-embossed plastic samples. The CIELAB DeltaE(ab) and CIEDE2000 color differences between radiance spectra of the color pairs are calculated. The CIEDE2000 color differences of color pairs are between 2.6 and 7.2 units in reference viewing conditions. The effects of viewing angle and different light sources are also evaluated. It is found that both the viewing angle and the light source have very strong influences on the color differences of the color pairs.

  7. Inkjet Color Printing by Interference Nanostructures.

    PubMed

    Yakovlev, Aleksandr V; Milichko, Valentin A; Vinogradov, Vladimir V; Vinogradov, Alexandr V

    2016-03-22

    Color printing technology is developing rapidly; in less than 40 years, it moved from dot matrix printers with an ink-soaked cloth ribbon to 3D printers used to make three-dimensional color objects. Nevertheless, what remained unchanged over this time is the fact that in each case, dye inks (CMYK or RGB color schemes) were exclusively used for coloring, which inevitably limits the technological possibilities and color reproduction. As a next step in printing color images and storing information, we propose the technology of producing optical nanostructures. In this paper, we report use of inkjet technology to create colored interference layers with high accuracy without the need for high-temperature fixing. This was made possible due to using titania-based colloidal ink yielding monolithic coatings with a high refractive index (2.00 ± 0.08 over the entire visible range) when naturally dried. By controlling the film thickness by using inkjet deposition, we produced images based on controlled interference and implementing color printing with one ink. The lack of dyes in the proposed method has good environmental prospects, because applied systems based on a crystalline anatase sol are nontoxic and biologically inert. The paper explains in detail the principle of producing interference images by the classical inkjet method and shows the advantages of this technique in depositing coatings with uniform thickness, which are required for large-scale interference color imaging even on unprepared polymer films. This article demonstrates the possibility of inkjet printing of nanostructures with a precision in thickness of up to 50 nm, we believe that the proposed approach will be the groundwork for developing interference color printing approach and allow to implement new methods of forming optical nano-objects by widely available techniques.

  8. Mobile image based color correction using deblurring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yu; Xu, Chang; Boushey, Carol; Zhu, Fengqing; Delp, Edward J.

    2015-03-01

    Dietary intake, the process of determining what someone eats during the course of a day, provides valuable insights for mounting intervention programs for prevention of many chronic diseases such as obesity and cancer. The goals of the Technology Assisted Dietary Assessment (TADA) System, developed at Purdue University, is to automatically identify and quantify foods and beverages consumed by utilizing food images acquired with a mobile device. Color correction serves as a critical step to ensure accurate food identification and volume estimation. We make use of a specifically designed color checkerboard (i.e. a fiducial marker) to calibrate the imaging system so that the variations of food appearance under different lighting conditions can be determined. In this paper, we propose an image quality enhancement technique by combining image de-blurring and color correction. The contribution consists of introducing an automatic camera shake removal method using a saliency map and improving the polynomial color correction model using the LMS color space.

  9. Uniform color space based on color matching

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liao, Shih-Fang; Yang, Tsung-Hsun; Lee, Cheng-Chung

    2007-09-01

    This research intends to explore with a uniform color space based on the CIE 1931 x-y chromatic coordinate system. The goal is to improve the non-uniformity of the CIE 1931 x-y chromaticity diagram such as to approach the human color sensation as possible; however, its simple methodology still can be kept. In spite of the existence of various kinds of the uniform color coordinate systems built up early (CIE u'-v', CIE Lab, CIE LUV, etc.), the establishment of a genuine uniform color space is actually still an important work both for the basic research in color science and the practical applications of colorimetry, especially for recent growing request in illumination engineering and in display technology. In this study, the MacAdam ellipses and the Munsell color chips are utilized for the comparison with the human color sensation. One specific linear transformation matrix is found for the CIE 1931 color matching functions (see manuscript) to become the novel uniform ones. With the aid of the optimization method, the transformation matrix can be easily discovered and makes the 25 MacAdam ellipses are similar to each other in the novel uniform color space. On the other hand, the perfectiveness of the equal-hue curves and the equal-chroma contours from the Mnusell color chips evaluates for the best optimization conditions among several different definitions for the similarity of all the MacAdam ellipses. Finally, the color difference between any two colors can be simply measured by the Euclidean distance in the novel uniform color space and is still fitted to the human color sensation.

  10. Computer graphics solutions for pottery colors specification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stanco, F.; Gueli, A. M.

    2013-01-01

    The objective and repeatable measurement of the color of artifacts is a much needed practice in archeological research. Indeed, in many cases, color information are crucial for the interpretation of cultural products. To avoid the risks of a too subjective autoptic recognition, Munsell system is commonly adopted. This method requires that a human operator matches the perceived color to its standardized version in Munsell Charts. This approach has significant limitations that can mislead archaeologists in their daily work. The alternative would be the use of accurately calibrated sensors in a controlled illumination environment. These commodities are rarely available for most of the "on field" studies. In this paper a simple, economical, based on consumer level electronics and sensors, semi-automatic method of color detection on accurately and precisely selected regions of digital images of ancient pottery is presented. The proposed method indeed uses only the data from a common CCD sensor supported by a simple color measurement pipeline. Our tool is aimed to prevent subjective errors during color identification and to speed up the process of identification itself. The results obtained and percentages of successful matching with human Munsell color identification have statistically shown that our proposal is an interesting starting point to develop a full, cheap, easy to use system that could facilitate some aspects of the archaeologist's work.

  11. Color identification testing device

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brawner, E. L.; Martin, R.; Pate, W.

    1970-01-01

    Testing device, which determines ability of a technician to identify color-coded electric wires, is superior to standard color blindness tests. It tests speed of wire selection, detects partial color blindness, allows rapid testing, and may be administered by a color blind person.

  12. Color Me Understood.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, Judy J.

    2000-01-01

    Describes the "color system" as a way of grouping children into different personality types based on a certain color: orange, blue, green, and gold. Lists stress producers for specific color people. Asserts that, through making groups of different colors, children begin to see the various specialties others can bring to the group and learn to…

  13. Digital Color Image Restoration

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1975-08-01

    color image recording system is derived and the equations representing the model and the equations of colorimetry are expressed in matrix form. Computer ... algorithms are derived which correct color errors introduced by imperfections in the color recording system. The sources of color error which are

  14. Estimation of gonad volume, fecundity, and reproductive stage of shovelnose sturgeon using sonography and endoscopy with application to the endangered pallid sturgeon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bryan, J.L.; Wildhaber, M.L.; Papoulias, D.M.; DeLonay, A.J.; Tillitt, D.E.; Annis, M.L.

    2007-01-01

    Most species of sturgeon are declining in the Mississippi River Basin of North America including pallid (Scaphirhynchus albus F. and R.) and shovelnose sturgeons (S. platorynchus R.). Understanding the reproductive cycle of sturgeon in the Mississippi River Basin is important in evaluating the status and viability of sturgeon populations. We used non-invasive, non-lethal methods for examining internal reproductive organs of shovelnose and pallid sturgeon. We used an ultrasound to measure egg diameter, fecundity, and gonad volume; endoscope was used to visually examine the gonad. We found the ultrasound to accurately measure the gonad volume, but it underestimated egg diameter by 52%. After correcting for the measurement error, the ultrasound accurately measured the gonad volume but it was higher than the true gonad volume for stages I and II. The ultrasound underestimated the fecundity of shovelnose sturgeon by 5%. The ultrasound fecundity was lower than the true fecundity for stage III and during August. Using the endoscope, we viewed seven different egg color categories. Using a model selection procedure, the presence of four egg categories correctly predicted the reproductive stage ± one reproductive stage of shovelnose sturgeon 95% of the time. For pallid sturgeon, the ultrasound overestimated the density of eggs by 49% and the endoscope was able to view eggs in 50% of the pallid sturgeon. Individually, the ultrasound and endoscope can be used to assess certain reproductive characteristics in sturgeon. The use of both methods at the same time can be complementary depending on the parameter measured. These methods can be used to track gonad characteristics, including measuring Gonadosomatic Index in individuals and/or populations through time, which can be very useful when associating gonad characteristics with environmental spawning triggers or with repeated examinations of individual fish throughout the reproductive cycle.

  15. Estimation of gonad volume, fecundity, and reproductive stage of shovelnose sturgeon using sonography and endoscopy with application to the endangered pallid sturgeon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bryan, J.L.; Wildhaber, M.L.; Papoulias, D.M.; DeLonay, A.J.; Tillitt, D.E.; Annis, M.L.

    2007-01-01

    Most species of sturgeon are declining in the Mississippi River Basin of North America including pallid (Scaphirhynchus albus F. and R.) and shovelnose sturgeons (S. platorynchus R.). Understanding the reproductive cycle of sturgeon in the Mississippi River Basin is important in evaluating the status and viability of sturgeon populations. We used non-invasive, non-lethal methods for examining internal reproductive organs of shovelnose and pallid sturgeon. We used an ultrasound to measure egg diameter, fecundity, and gonad volume; endoscope was used to visually examine the gonad. We found the ultrasound to accurately measure the gonad volume, but it underestimated egg diameter by 52%. After correcting for the measurement error, the ultrasound accurately measured the gonad volume but it was higher than the true gonad volume for stages I and II. The ultrasound underestimated the fecundity of shovelnose sturgeon by 5%. The ultrasound fecundity was lower than the true fecundity for stage III and during August. Using the endoscope, we viewed seven different egg color categories. Using a model selection procedure, the presence of four egg categories correctly predicted the reproductive stage ?? one reproductive stage of shovelnose sturgeon 95% of the time. For pallid sturgeon, the ultrasound overestimated the density of eggs by 49% and the endoscope was able to view eggs in 50% of the pallid sturgeon. Individually, the ultrasound and endoscope can be used to assess certain reproductive characteristics in sturgeon. The use of both methods at the same time can be complementary depending on the parameter measured. These methods can be used to track gonad characteristics, including measuring Gonadosomatic Index in individuals and/or populations through time, which can be very useful when associating gonad characteristics with environmental spawning triggers or with repeated examinations of individual fish throughout the reproductive cycle. ?? 2007 Blackwell Verlag.

  16. Disorders of reproduction.

    PubMed

    Sweeney, Anne; del Junco, Deborah

    2011-01-01

    This chapter focuses on biomarkers of reproductive health and disease that have been developed in the past 15 years. Due to the gender- and age-dependency of most of the advances in measuring reproductive health status and outcomes, these biomarkers have been categorized with respect to the unique member of the reproductive triad of interest (i.e. mother, father, conceptus). Biomarkers of female and male puberty, female reproductive function, fetal and infant development, and male reproductive function are discussed. The strengths and limitations of developing and implementing biomarkers in reproductive health studies over the past decade are explored.

  17. CFA-aware features for steganalysis of color images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goljan, Miroslav; Fridrich, Jessica

    2015-03-01

    Color interpolation is a form of upsampling, which introduces constraints on the relationship between neighboring pixels in a color image. These constraints can be utilized to substantially boost the accuracy of steganography detectors. In this paper, we introduce a rich model formed by 3D co-occurrences of color noise residuals split according to the structure of the Bayer color filter array to further improve detection. Some color interpolation algorithms, AHD and PPG, impose pixel constraints so tight that extremely accurate detection becomes possible with merely eight features eliminating the need for model richification. We carry out experiments on non-adaptive LSB matching and the content-adaptive algorithm WOW on five different color interpolation algorithms. In contrast to grayscale images, in color images that exhibit traces of color interpolation the security of WOW is significantly lower and, depending on the interpolation algorithm, may even be lower than non-adaptive LSB matching.

  18. Design and evaluation of controls for drift, video gain, and color balance in spaceborne facsimile cameras

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Katzberg, S. J.; Kelly, W. L., IV; Rowland, C. W.; Burcher, E. E.

    1973-01-01

    The facsimile camera is an optical-mechanical scanning device which has become an attractive candidate as an imaging system for planetary landers and rovers. This paper presents electronic techniques which permit the acquisition and reconstruction of high quality images with this device, even under varying lighting conditions. These techniques include a control for low frequency noise and drift, an automatic gain control, a pulse-duration light modulation scheme, and a relative spectral gain control. Taken together, these techniques allow the reconstruction of radiometrically accurate and properly balanced color images from facsimile camera video data. These techniques have been incorporated into a facsimile camera and reproduction system, and experimental results are presented for each technique and for the complete system.

  19. Color enhancement in multispectral image of human skin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitsui, Masanori; Murakami, Yuri; Obi, Takashi; Yamaguchi, Masahiro; Ohyama, Nagaaki

    2003-07-01

    Multispectral imaging is receiving attention in medical color imaging, as high-fidelity color information can be acquired by the multispectral image capturing. On the other hand, as color enhancement in medical color image is effective for distinguishing lesion from normal part, we apply a new technique for color enhancement using multispectral image to enhance the features contained in a certain spectral band, without changing the average color distribution of original image. In this method, to keep the average color distribution, KL transform is applied to spectral data, and only high-order KL coefficients are amplified in the enhancement. Multispectral images of human skin of bruised arm are captured by 16-band multispectral camera, and the proposed color enhancement is applied. The resultant images are compared with the color images reproduced assuming CIE D65 illuminant (obtained by natural color reproduction technique). As a result, the proposed technique successfully visualizes unclear bruised lesions, which are almost invisible in natural color images. The proposed technique will provide support tool for the diagnosis in dermatology, visual examination in internal medicine, nursing care for preventing bedsore, and so on.

  20. Male reproductive proteins and reproductive outcomes.

    PubMed

    Ness, Roberta B; Grainger, David A

    2008-06-01

    Male reproductive proteins (MRPs), associated with sperm and semen, are the moieties responsible for carrying male genes into the next generation. Evolutionary biologists have focused on their capacity to control conception. Immunologists have shown that MRPs cause female genital tract inflammation as preparatory for embryo implantation and placentation. These observations argue that MRPs are critically important to reproductive success. Yet the impact of male reproductive proteins on obstetrical outcomes in women is largely unstudied. Epidemiologic and clinical observations suggest that shorter-duration exposure to MRPs prior to conception may elevate the risk for preeclampsia. A limited literature has also linked sexual behavior to bacterial vaginosis and preterm birth. We offer a clinical opinion that MRPs may have broad implications for successful reproduction, potentially involved in the composition of vaginal microflora, risks of preterm birth and preeclampsia, and success of assisted reproduction.

  1. A grayscale image color transfer method based on region texture analysis using GLCM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Yuanmeng; Wang, Lingxue; Jin, Weiqi; Luo, Yuan; Li, Jiakun

    2011-08-01

    In order to improve the performance of grayscale image colorization based on color transfer, this paper proposes a novel method by which pixels are matched accurately between images through region texture analysis using Gray Level Co-occurrence Matrix (GLCM). This method consists of six steps: reference image selection, color space transformation, grayscale linear transformation and compression, texture analysis using GLCM, pixel matching through texture value comparison, and color value transfer between pixels. We applied this method to kinds of grayscale images, and they gained natural color appearance like the reference images. Experimental results proved that this method is more effective than conventional method in accurately transferring color to grayscale images.

  2. Men's Reproductive Health

    MedlinePlus

    ... NICHD Research Information Clinical Trials Resources and Publications Men's Reproductive Health: Overview Skip sharing on social media ... Content Reproductive health is an important component of men's overall health and well-being. Too often, males ...

  3. Female Reproductive System

    MedlinePlus

    ... Ectopic Pregnancy A Week-by-Week Pregnancy Calendar Male Reproductive System Five Things Girls Want to Know About Periods ... Coping With Common Period Problems All About Menstruation Male Reproductive System Everything You Wanted to Know About Puberty Polycystic ...

  4. Material design and structural color inspired by biomimetic approach.

    PubMed

    Saito, Akira

    2011-12-01

    Generation of structural color is one of the essential functions realized by living organisms, and its industrial reproduction can result in numerous applications. From this viewpoint, the mechanisms, materials, analytical methods and fabrication technologies of the structural color are reviewed in this paper. In particular, the basic principles of natural photonic materials, the ideas developed from these principles, the directions of applications and practical industrial realizations are presented by summarizing the recent research results.

  5. Material design and structural color inspired by biomimetic approach

    PubMed Central

    Saito, Akira

    2011-01-01

    Generation of structural color is one of the essential functions realized by living organisms, and its industrial reproduction can result in numerous applications. From this viewpoint, the mechanisms, materials, analytical methods and fabrication technologies of the structural color are reviewed in this paper. In particular, the basic principles of natural photonic materials, the ideas developed from these principles, the directions of applications and practical industrial realizations are presented by summarizing the recent research results. PMID:27877459

  6. Motion Alters Color Appearance

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Sang-Wook; Kang, Min-Suk

    2016-01-01

    Chromatic induction compellingly demonstrates that chromatic context as well as spectral lights reflected from an object determines its color appearance. Here, we show that when one colored object moves around an identical stationary object, the perceived saturation of the stationary object decreases dramatically whereas the saturation of the moving object increases. These color appearance shifts in the opposite directions suggest that normalization induced by the object’s motion may mediate the shift in color appearance. We ruled out other plausible alternatives such as local adaptation, attention, and transient neural responses that could explain the color shift without assuming interaction between color and motion processing. These results demonstrate that the motion of an object affects both its own color appearance and the color appearance of a nearby object, suggesting a tight coupling between color and motion processing. PMID:27824098

  7. Female Reproductive System

    MedlinePlus

    ... Old Feeding Your 1- to 2-Year-Old Female Reproductive System KidsHealth > For Parents > Female Reproductive System A A ... the egg or sperm. continue Parts of the Female Reproductive System Unlike the male, the human female has a ...

  8. Female Reproductive System (For Teens)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Loss Surgery? A Week of Healthy Breakfasts Shyness Female Reproductive System KidsHealth > For Teens > Female Reproductive System A A ... and female reproductive systems. continue What Is the Female Reproductive System? Most species have two sexes: male and female. ...

  9. Female Reproductive System (For Teens)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Loss Surgery? A Week of Healthy Breakfasts Shyness Female Reproductive System KidsHealth > For Teens > Female Reproductive System Print A ... and female reproductive systems. continue What Is the Female Reproductive System? Most species have two sexes: male and female. ...

  10. Colorimetric Determination of Color of Aerial Mycelium of Streptomycetes1

    PubMed Central

    Lyons, Allister J.; Pridham, Thomas G.

    1965-01-01

    Lyons, Allister J., Jr. (Northern Regional Research Laboratory, Peoria, Ill.) and Thomas G. Pridham. Colorimetric determination of color of aerial mycelium of streptomycetes. J. Bacteriol. 89:159–169. 1965.—For some time, streptomycete taxonomists have been seeking to describe more accurately the colors of aerial mycelium. Some of the descriptive systems involve many different color names and groups. Others combine many colors into a few groups. All the systems and methods leave much to be desired. To obtain an accurate description, a colorimeter with a reflectance attachment was used to examine streptomycete aerial mycelium of 37 strains, representing all of the major aerial mycelium color groups. Each color was characterized by three values: dominant wavelength in millimicrons, and purity and brightness in percentages. All colors of aerial mycelium were of low purity (< 25%). Most of the dominant wavelengths were in the yellow to yellow-green bands of the spectrum. Most of the color tabs matched visually with the streptomycete strains had purities of a higher value than those of the cultures. The reflectance instrument seems to allow an objective description, and its use may help to clarify the color problem with streptomycetes. It is concluded that present color descriptions are inadequate and that the significance of color in speciation requires critical examination. PMID:14255657

  11. Radiation coloration resistant glass

    DOEpatents

    Tomozawa, M.; Watson, E.B.; Acocella, J.

    1986-11-04

    A radiation coloration resistant glass is disclosed which is used in a radiation environment sufficient to cause coloration in most forms of glass. The coloration resistant glass includes higher proportions by weight of water and has been found to be extremely resistant to color change when exposed to such radiation levels. The coloration resistant glass is free of cerium oxide and has more than about 0.5% by weight water content. Even when exposed to gamma radiation of more than 10[sup 7] rad, the coloration resistant glass does not lose transparency. 3 figs.

  12. Radiation coloration resistant glass

    DOEpatents

    Tomozawa, Minoru; Watson, E. Bruce; Acocella, John

    1986-01-01

    A radiation coloration resistant glass is disclosed which is used in a radiation environment sufficient to cause coloration in most forms of glass. The coloration resistant glass includes higher proportions by weight of water and has been found to be extremely resistant to color change when exposed to such radiation levels. The coloration resistant glass is free of cerium oxide and has more than about 0.5% by weight water content. Even when exposed to gamma radiation of more than 10.sup.7 rad, the coloration resistant glass does not lose transparency.

  13. Color Adaptation for Color Deficient Learners.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Donald D.

    1995-01-01

    Describes a corrective method of color adaptation designed to allow most, if not all, individuals to participate in the learning process as well as social and work-related environments. Provides a concise summation of facts and theories concerning color deficiency. Includes anatomical drawings, graphs, and statistical data. (MJP)

  14. Color and Streptomycetes1

    PubMed Central

    Pridham, Thomas G.

    1965-01-01

    A report summarizing the results of an international workshop on determination of color of streptomycetes is presented. The results suggest that the color systems which seem most practically appealing and effective to specialists on actinomycetes are those embracing a limited number of color names and groups. The broad groupings allow placement of isolates into reasonably well-defined categories based on color of aerial mycelium. Attempts to expand such systems (more color groups) lead to difficulties. It is common knowledge that many, if not all, of the individual groups would in these broad systems contain strains that differ in many other respects, e.g., spore-wall ornamentation, color of vegetative (substratal) mycelium, morphology of chains of spores, and numerous physiological criteria. Also, cultures of intermediate color can be found, which makes placement difficult. As it now stands, color as a criterion for characterization of streptomycetes and streptoverticillia is in questionable status. Although much useful color information can be obtained by an individual, the application of this information to that in the literature or its use in communication with other individuals leaves much to be desired. More objective methods of color determination are needed. At present, the most effective method that could be used internationally is the color-wheel system of Tresner and Backus. Furthermore, the significance of color in speciation of these organisms is an open question. Obviously, more critical work on the color problem is needed. PMID:14264847

  15. Graphemes evoke synesthetic colors even before they are consciously recognized.

    PubMed

    Ramachandran, Vilayanur S; Seckel, Elizabeth

    2011-01-01

    We showed a grapheme-color synesthete three different examples of stimuli in which the graphemes were 'hidden'--as in puzzle pictures--and became visible as letters only after prolonged viewing. Intriguingly the subject saw the appropriate colors accurately long before the graphemes became consciously visible--a novel form of blindsight.

  16. Research on color constancy computation based on YCbCr color space and gray surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Hong; Yang, Jianfeng; Xue, Bin; Yan, Xingtao; Liang, Xiaofen

    2014-11-01

    Color constancy is of important for many computer vision applications, such as image classification, color object recognition, object tracking and so on. But unlike the human visual system, imaging device cannot be able to compute color constant descriptors which do not vary with the color of the illuminant, so solving color constancy problem is necessary. In the calculation of color constancy, illuminant estimation is the key. Because grey surfaces can perfectly reflect the color of the scene illumination, many methods have been proposed to identify grey surfaces to estimate the illuminant. But they either rely on the camera's parameters, lacking universality, or work inaccurate in worse conditions. In order to solve these problems, in this paper, an iterative method is proposed. The quality of the proposed method is tested and compared to the previous color constancy methods on the Macbeth Chart and two data sets of synthetic and real images. Through MATLAB simulation, experimental pictures and quantitative data for performance evaluation were gotten. The simulated results show that the proposed algorithm is accurate and efficient in identification of the grey surfaces, even in worse condition. And it performs well in color constancy computation on both synthetic and real images.

  17. Quantitative genetics of plumage color: lifetime effects of early nest environment on a colorful sexual signal.

    PubMed

    Hubbard, Joanna K; Jenkins, Brittany R; Safran, Rebecca J

    2015-08-01

    Phenotypic differences among individuals are often linked to differential survival and mating success. Quantifying the relative influence of genetic and environmental variation on phenotype allows evolutionary biologists to make predictions about the potential for a given trait to respond to selection and various aspects of environmental variation. In particular, the environment individuals experience during early development can have lasting effects on phenotype later in life. Here, we used a natural full-sib/half-sib design as well as within-individual longitudinal analyses to examine genetic and various environmental influences on plumage color. We find that variation in melanin-based plumage color - a trait known to influence mating success in adult North American barn swallows (Hirundo rustica erythrogaster) - is influenced by both genetics and aspects of the developmental environment, including variation due to the maternal phenotype and the nest environment. Within individuals, nestling color is predictive of adult color. Accordingly, these early environmental influences are relevant to the sexually selected plumage color variation in adults. Early environmental conditions appear to have important lifelong implications for individual reproductive performance through sexual signal development in barn swallows. Our results indicate that feather color variation conveys information about developmental conditions and maternal care alleles to potential mates in North American barn swallows. Melanin-based colors are used for sexual signaling in many organisms, and our study suggests that these signals may be more sensitive to environmental variation than previously thought.

  18. Quantitative genetics of plumage color: lifetime effects of early nest environment on a colorful sexual signal

    PubMed Central

    Hubbard, Joanna K; Jenkins, Brittany R; Safran, Rebecca J

    2015-01-01

    Phenotypic differences among individuals are often linked to differential survival and mating success. Quantifying the relative influence of genetic and environmental variation on phenotype allows evolutionary biologists to make predictions about the potential for a given trait to respond to selection and various aspects of environmental variation. In particular, the environment individuals experience during early development can have lasting effects on phenotype later in life. Here, we used a natural full-sib/half-sib design as well as within-individual longitudinal analyses to examine genetic and various environmental influences on plumage color. We find that variation in melanin-based plumage color – a trait known to influence mating success in adult North American barn swallows (Hirundo rustica erythrogaster) – is influenced by both genetics and aspects of the developmental environment, including variation due to the maternal phenotype and the nest environment. Within individuals, nestling color is predictive of adult color. Accordingly, these early environmental influences are relevant to the sexually selected plumage color variation in adults. Early environmental conditions appear to have important lifelong implications for individual reproductive performance through sexual signal development in barn swallows. Our results indicate that feather color variation conveys information about developmental conditions and maternal care alleles to potential mates in North American barn swallows. Melanin-based colors are used for sexual signaling in many organisms, and our study suggests that these signals may be more sensitive to environmental variation than previously thought. PMID:26380676

  19. The Trouble with Color.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Merchant, David

    1999-01-01

    Discusses problems with color quality in Web sites. Topics include differences in monitor settings, including contrast; amount of video RAM; user preference settings; browser-safe colors; cross-platform readability; and gamma values. (LRW)

  20. Focus on Color Photography

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Galindez, Peter

    1978-01-01

    Photographs and text describe techniques by which color negative film can be developed and printed. An equipment list, by which black and white printing facilities can be converted to make color prints, is provided. (CP)

  1. Digital slide reproduction using densitometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fornaro, Peter R.; Gschwind, Rudolf; Rosenthaler, Lukas; Laurenson, Pip

    2002-06-01

    Many contemporary art collections contain important art installations where artists have used 35 mm slides as the primary medium. The number of ours these works are on show makes it necessary to regularly change the slides due to light fading. With funding from the Henry Moore Foundation. The conservation department at Tate initiated a project to examine ways in which digital technology could be used to aid the conservation of these works. The aim of the project was to place the original slides in cold storage and explored the possibility of using digital technology to make duplicate sets for display in the gallery. The reproductions needed to be of very high quality both in terms of resolution and color management. This paper discusses the use of densitometry to calibrate both device dependent and device independent systems for digitally reproducing 35 mm slides using a scanner and a film recorder and the effect of metamery when using slide films which employ different dyes.

  2. Color rendition engine.

    PubMed

    Zukauskas, Artūras; Vaicekauskas, Rimantas; Vitta, Pranciškus; Tuzikas, Arūnas; Petrulis, Andrius; Shur, Michael

    2012-02-27

    A source of white light with continuously tuned color rendition properties, such as color fidelity, as well as color saturating and color dulling ability has been developed. The source, which is composed of red (R), amber (A), green (G), and blue (B) light-emitting diodes, has a spectral power distribution varied as a weighted sum of "white" RGB and AGB blends. At the RGB and AGB end-points, the source has a highest color saturating and color dulling ability, respectively, as follows from the statistical analysis of the color-shift vectors for 1269 Munsell samples. The variation of the weight parameter allows for continuously traversing all possible metameric RAGB blends, including that with the highest color fidelity. The source was used in a psychophysical experiment on the estimation of the color appearance of familiar objects, such as vegetables, fruits, and soft-drink cans of common brands, at correlated color temperatures of 3000 K, 4500 K, and 6500 K. By continuously tuning the weight parameter, each of 100 subjects selected RAGB blends that, to their opinion, matched lighting characterized as "most saturating," "most dulling," "most natural," and "preferential". The end-point RGB and AGB blends have been almost unambiguously attributed to "most saturating" and "most dulling" lighting, respectively. RAGB blends that render a highest number of colors with high fidelity have, on average, been attributed to "most natural" lighting. The "preferential" color quality of lighting has, on average, been matched to RAGB blends that provide color rendition with fidelity somewhat reduced in favor of a higher saturation. Our results infer that tunable "color rendition engines" can validate color rendition metrics and provide lighting meeting specific needs and preferences to color quality.

  3. Classification of luminaire color using CCDs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McMenemy, Karen; Niblock, James

    2006-02-01

    The International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) is the regulatory body for Airports. ICAO standards dictate that luminaires used within an airport landing lighting pattern must have a color as defined within the 1931 color chart defined by the Commission Internationale De L'Eclairage (CIE). Currently, visual checks are used to ensure luminaires are operating at the right color within the pattern. That is, during an approach to an airport the pilot must visually check each luminaire within the landing pattern. These visual tests are combined with on the spot meter reading tests. This method is not accurate and it is impossible to assess the color of every luminaire. This paper presents a novel, automated method for assessing the color of luminaires using low cost single chip CCD video camera technology. Images taken from a camera placed within an aircraft cockpit during a normal approach to an airport are post-processed to determine the color of each luminaire in the pattern. In essence, the pixel coverage and total RGB level for each luminaire within the pattern must be extracted and tracked throughout the complete image sequence and an average RGB value used to predict the luminaire color. This prediction is based on a novel pixel model which was derived to determine the minimum pixel coverage required to accurately predict the color of an imaged luminaire. Analysis of how many pixels are required for color recognition and position within a CIE color chart is given and proved empirically. From the analysis it is found that, a minimum diameter of four pixels is required for color recognition of the major luminaires types within the airport landing pattern. The number of pixels required for classification of the color is then derived. This is important as the luminaries are far away when imaged and may cover only a few pixels since a large area must be viewed by the camera. The classification is then verified by laboratory based experiments with different

  4. Reproduction (II): Human Control of Reproductive Processes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jost, Alfred

    1970-01-01

    Describes methods of intervening in reproduction of animals and humans (artificial insemination, contraception, ovular and blastodisc transplants, pre selection of sex, cloning) and discusses the social implications of their use with humans. (AL)

  5. From reproductive choice to reproductive justice.

    PubMed

    Cook, Rebecca J; Dickens, Bernard M

    2009-08-01

    Since the 1994 Cairo Conference on Population and Development, the human rights movement has embraced the concept of reproductive rights. These are often pursued, however, by means to which objection is taken. Some conservative political and religious forces continue to resist implementation of several means of protecting and advancing reproductive rights. Individuals' rights to grant and to deny consent to medical procedures affecting their reproductive health and confidentiality have been progressively advanced. However, access to contraceptive services, while not necessarily opposed, is unjustifiably obstructed in some settings. Rights to lawful abortion have been considerably liberalized by legislative and judicial decisions, although resistance remains. Courts are increasingly requiring that lawful services be accommodated under transparent conditions of access and of legal protection. The conflict between rights of resort to lawful reproductive health services and to conscientious objection to participation is resolved by legal duties to refer patients to non-objecting providers.

  6. Reimagining the Color Wheel

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snyder, Jennifer

    2011-01-01

    Color wheels are a traditional project for many teachers. The author has used them in art appreciation classes for many years, but one problem she found when her pre-service art education students created colored wheels was that they were boring: simple circles, with pie-shaped pieces, which students either painted or colored in. This article…

  7. Color: Implications in dentistry

    PubMed Central

    Sikri, Vimal K

    2010-01-01

    The success of restorative dentistry is determined on the basis of functional and esthetic results. To achieve esthetics, four basic determinants are required in sequence; viz., position, contour, texture and color. The knowledge of the concept of color is essential for achieving good esthetics. This review compiles the various aspects of color, its measurements and shade matching in dentistry. PMID:21217954

  8. Biology of Skin Color.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corcos, Alain

    1983-01-01

    Information from scientific journals on the biology of skin color is discussed. Major areas addressed include: (1) biology of melanin, melanocytes, and melanosomes; (2) melanosome and human diversity; (3) genetics of skin color; and (4) skin color, geography, and natural selection. (JN)

  9. Color vision deficiencies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vannorren, D.

    1982-04-01

    Congenital and acquired color vision defects are described in the context of physiological data. Light sources, photometry, color systems and test methods are described. A list of medicines is also presented. The practical social consequences of color vision deficiencies are discussed.

  10. Color Television in Instruction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bretz, Rudy

    In spite of repeated research into the matter, no evidence has been discovered to support the claim that color television is superior to black-and-white television as an instructional aid. It is possible that there are advantages to color television which are unmeasured or unmeasurable, but the current claims for color; that it heightens realism,…

  11. Color Discrimination Work Sample.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shawsheen Valley Regional Vocational-Technical High School, Billerica, MA.

    This manual contains a work sample intended to assess a handicapped student's ability to see likenesses or differences in colors or shades, identifying or matching certain colors, and selecting colors that go together. Section 1 describes the assessment and lists related occupations and DOT codes. Instructions to the evaluator are provided in the…

  12. Study on color difference estimation method of medicine biochemical analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Chunhong; Zhou, Yue; Zhao, Hongxia; Sun, Jiashi; Zhou, Fengkun

    2006-01-01

    The biochemical analysis in medicine is an important inspection and diagnosis method in hospital clinic. The biochemical analysis of urine is one important item. The Urine test paper shows corresponding color with different detection project or different illness degree. The color difference between the standard threshold and the test paper color of urine can be used to judge the illness degree, so that further analysis and diagnosis to urine is gotten. The color is a three-dimensional physical variable concerning psychology, while reflectance is one-dimensional variable; therefore, the estimation method of color difference in urine test can have better precision and facility than the conventional test method with one-dimensional reflectance, it can make an accurate diagnose. The digital camera is easy to take an image of urine test paper and is used to carry out the urine biochemical analysis conveniently. On the experiment, the color image of urine test paper is taken by popular color digital camera and saved in the computer which installs a simple color space conversion (RGB -> XYZ -> L *a *b *)and the calculation software. Test sample is graded according to intelligent detection of quantitative color. The images taken every time were saved in computer, and the whole illness process will be monitored. This method can also use in other medicine biochemical analyses that have relation with color. Experiment result shows that this test method is quick and accurate; it can be used in hospital, calibrating organization and family, so its application prospect is extensive.

  13. Color encoding for gamut extension and bit-depth extension

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeng, Huanzhao

    2005-02-01

    Monitor oriented RGB color spaces (e.g. sRGB) are widely applied for digital image representation for the simplicity in displaying images on monitor displays. However, the physical gamut limits its ability to encode colors accurately for color images that are not limited to the display RGB gamut. To extend the encoding gamut, non-physical RGB primaries may be used to define the color space, or the RGB tone ranges may be extended beyond the physical range. An out-of-gamut color has at least one of the R, G, and B channels that are smaller than 0 or higher than 100%. Instead of using wide-gamut RGB primaries for gamut expansion, we may extend the tone ranges to expand the encoding gamut. Negative tone values and tone values over 100% are allowed. Methods to efficiently and accurately encode out-of-gamut colors are discussed in this paper. Interpretation bits are added to interpret the range of color values or to encode color values with a higher bit-depth. The interpretation bits of R, G, and B primaries can be packed and stored in an alpha channel in some image formats (e.g. TIFF) or stored in a data tag (e.g. in JEPG format). If a color image does not have colors that are out of a regular RGB gamut, a regular program (e.g. Photoshop) is able to manipulate the data correctly.

  14. Availability of color calibration for consistent color display in medical images and optimization of reference brightness for clinical use

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iwai, Daiki; Suganami, Haruka; Hosoba, Minoru; Ohno, Kazuko; Emoto, Yutaka; Tabata, Yoshito; Matsui, Norihisa

    2013-03-01

    Color image consistency has not been accomplished yet except the Digital Imaging and Communication in Medicine (DICOM) Supplement 100 for implementing a color reproduction pipeline and device independent color spaces. Thus, most healthcare enterprises could not check monitor degradation routinely. To ensure color consistency in medical color imaging, monitor color calibration should be introduced. Using simple color calibration device . chromaticity of colors including typical color (Red, Green, Blue, Green and White) are measured as device independent profile connection space value called u'v' before and after calibration. In addition, clinical color images are displayed and visual differences are observed. In color calibration, monitor brightness level has to be set to quite lower value 80 cd/m2 according to sRGB standard. As Maximum brightness of most color monitors available currently for medical use have much higher brightness than 80 cd/m2, it is not seemed to be appropriate to use 80 cd/m2 level for calibration. Therefore, we propose that new brightness standard should be introduced while maintaining the color representation in clinical use. To evaluate effects of brightness to chromaticity experimentally, brightness level is changed in two monitors from 80 to 270cd/m2 and chromaticity value are compared with each brightness levels. As a result, there are no significant differences in chromaticity diagram when brightness levels are changed. In conclusion, chromaticity is close to theoretical value after color calibration. Moreover, chromaticity isn't moved when brightness is changed. The results indicate optimized reference brightness level for clinical use could be set at high brightness in current monitors .

  15. Color Classification of Coordination Compounds.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poncini, Laurence; Wimmer, Franz L.

    1987-01-01

    Proposes that colored compounds be classified by reference to a standard color-order system incorporating a color dictionary. Argues that the colors of new compounds could be incorporated into the characterization process and into computer storage systems. (TW)

  16. Watermarking spot colors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alattar, Osama M.; Reed, Alastair M.

    2003-06-01

    Watermarking of printed materials has usually focused on process inks of cyan, magenta, yellow and black (CMYK). In packaging, almost three out of four printed materials include spot colors. Spot colors are special premixed inks, which can be produced in a vibrant range of colors, often outside the CMYK color gamut. In embedding a watermark into printed material, a common approach is to modify the luminance value of each pixel in the image. In the case of process color work pieces, the luminance change can be scaled to the C, M, Y and K channels using a weighting function, to produce the desired change in luminance. In the case of spot color art designs, there is only one channel available and the luminance change is applied to this channel. In this paper we develop a weighting function to embed the watermark signal across the range of different spot colors. This weighting function normalizes visibility effect and signal robustness across a wide range of different spot colors. It normalizes the signal robustness level over the range of an individual spot color"s intensity levels. Further, it takes into account the sensitivity of the capturing device to the different spot colors.

  17. True Colors Shining Through

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    This image mosaic illustrates how scientists use the color calibration targets (upper left) located on both Mars Exploration Rovers to fine-tune the rovers' sense of color. In the center, spectra, or light signatures, acquired in the laboratory of the colored chips on the targets are shown as lines. Actual data from Mars Exploration Rover Spirit's panoramic camera is mapped on top of these lines as dots. The plot demonstrates that the observed colors of Mars match the colors of the chips, and thus approximate the red planet's true colors. This finding is further corroborated by the picture taken on Mars of the calibration target, which shows the colored chips as they would appear on Earth.

  18. Acquired color vision deficiency.

    PubMed

    Simunovic, Matthew P

    2016-01-01

    Acquired color vision deficiency occurs as the result of ocular, neurologic, or systemic disease. A wide array of conditions may affect color vision, ranging from diseases of the ocular media through to pathology of the visual cortex. Traditionally, acquired color vision deficiency is considered a separate entity from congenital color vision deficiency, although emerging clinical and molecular genetic data would suggest a degree of overlap. We review the pathophysiology of acquired color vision deficiency, the data on its prevalence, theories for the preponderance of acquired S-mechanism (or tritan) deficiency, and discuss tests of color vision. We also briefly review the types of color vision deficiencies encountered in ocular disease, with an emphasis placed on larger or more detailed clinical investigations.

  19. Impaired acquisition of novel grapheme-color correspondences in synesthesia.

    PubMed

    Brang, David; Ghiam, Michael; Ramachandran, Vilayanur S

    2013-01-01

    Grapheme-color synesthesia is a neurological phenomenon in which letters and numbers (graphemes) consistently evoke particular colors (e.g., A may be experienced as red). These sensations are thought to arise through the cross-activation of grapheme processing regions in the fusiform gyrus and color area V4, supported by anatomical and functional imaging. However, the developmental onset of grapheme-color synesthesia remains elusive as research in this area has largely relied on self-report of these experiences in children. One possible account suggests that synesthesia is present at or near birth and initially binds basic shapes and forms to colors, which are later refined to grapheme-color associations through experience. Consistent with this view, studies show that similarly shaped letters and numbers tend to elicit similar colors in synesthesia and that some synesthetes consciously associate basic shapes with colors; research additionally suggests that synesthetic colors can emerge for newly learned characters with repeated presentation. This model further predicts that the initial shape-color correspondences in synesthesia may persist as implicit associations, driving the acquisition of colors for novel characters. To examine the presence of latent color associations for novel characters, synesthetes and controls were trained on pre-defined associations between colors and complex shapes, on the assumption that the prescribed shape-color correspondences would on average differ from implicit synesthetic associations. Results revealed synesthetes were less accurate than controls to learn novel shape-color associations, consistent with our suggestion that implicit form-color associations conflicted with the learned pairings.

  20. Person First, Student Second: Staff and Administrators of Color Supporting Students of Color Authentically in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luedke, Courtney L.

    2017-01-01

    In this qualitative study I explored the mentoring roles of staff and administrators for first-generation Black, Latinx, and Biracial students. Social reproduction theory (which assesses how inequality is perpetuated or disrupted generationally) was used to analyze social capital cultivated by mentors. Staff of Color nurtured the capital that…

  1. Colors, colored overlays, and reading skills.

    PubMed

    Uccula, Arcangelo; Enna, Mauro; Mulatti, Claudio

    2014-01-01

    In this article, we are concerned with the role of colors in reading written texts. It has been argued that colored overlays applied above written texts positively influence both reading fluency and reading speed. These effects would be particularly evident for those individuals affected by the so called Meares-Irlen syndrome, i.e., who experience eyestrain and/or visual distortions - e.g., color, shape, or movement illusions - while reading. This condition would interest the 12-14% of the general population and up to the 46% of the dyslexic population. Thus, colored overlays have been largely employed as a remedy for some aspects of the difficulties in reading experienced by dyslexic individuals, as fluency and speed. Despite the wide use of colored overlays, how they exert their effects has not been made clear yet. Also, according to some researchers, the results supporting the efficacy of colored overlays as a tool for helping readers are at least controversial. Furthermore, the very nature of the Meares-Irlen syndrome has been questioned. Here we provide a concise, critical review of the literature.

  2. Colors, colored overlays, and reading skills

    PubMed Central

    Uccula, Arcangelo; Enna, Mauro; Mulatti, Claudio

    2014-01-01

    In this article, we are concerned with the role of colors in reading written texts. It has been argued that colored overlays applied above written texts positively influence both reading fluency and reading speed. These effects would be particularly evident for those individuals affected by the so called Meares-Irlen syndrome, i.e., who experience eyestrain and/or visual distortions – e.g., color, shape, or movement illusions – while reading. This condition would interest the 12–14% of the general population and up to the 46% of the dyslexic population. Thus, colored overlays have been largely employed as a remedy for some aspects of the difficulties in reading experienced by dyslexic individuals, as fluency and speed. Despite the wide use of colored overlays, how they exert their effects has not been made clear yet. Also, according to some researchers, the results supporting the efficacy of colored overlays as a tool for helping readers are at least controversial. Furthermore, the very nature of the Meares-Irlen syndrome has been questioned. Here we provide a concise, critical review of the literature. PMID:25120525

  3. Miniature Color Display Phase 4

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-05-01

    is used to generate full color. By spectral tuning of the xenon arc-lamp backlight and the color polarizers, a color gamut comparable to that of a...5 1.2 Phase IV Accom plishments ................................... 5 1.2.1 Subtractive Color Gamut ...Technical Achievem ents .............................................. 8 2.1 Subtractive Color Gamut 2.1.1 Sub Color LC Technology

  4. Accurate Evaluation of Quantum Integrals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Galant, D. C.; Goorvitch, D.; Witteborn, Fred C. (Technical Monitor)

    1995-01-01

    Combining an appropriate finite difference method with Richardson's extrapolation results in a simple, highly accurate numerical method for solving a Schrodinger's equation. Important results are that error estimates are provided, and that one can extrapolate expectation values rather than the wavefunctions to obtain highly accurate expectation values. We discuss the eigenvalues, the error growth in repeated Richardson's extrapolation, and show that the expectation values calculated on a crude mesh can be extrapolated to obtain expectation values of high accuracy.

  5. Advances in reproductive biotechnologies

    PubMed Central

    Choudhary, K. K.; Kavya, K. M.; Jerome, A.; Sharma, R. K.

    2016-01-01

    In recent times, reproductive biotechnologies have emerged and started to replace the conventional techniques. It is noteworthy that for sustained livestock productivity, it is imperative to start using these techniques for facing the increasing challenges for productivity, reproduction and health with impending environment conditions. These recent biotechniques, both in male and female, have revolutionized and opened avenues for studying and manipulating the reproductive process both in vitro and in vivo in various livestock species for improving tis efficiency. This review attempts to highlight pros and cons, on the recent developments in reproductive biotechnologies, both in male and female in livestock species. PMID:27182135

  6. Modeling of display color parameters and algorithmic color selection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silverstein, Louis D.; Lepkowski, James S.; Carter, Robert C.; Carter, Ellen C.

    1986-01-01

    An algorithmic approach to color selection, which is based on psychophysical models of color processing, is described. The factors that affect color differentiation, such as wavelength separation, color stimulus size, and brightness adaptation level, are discussed. The use of the CIE system of colorimetry and the CIELUV color difference metric for display color modeling is examined. The computer program combines the selection algorithm with internally derived correction factors for color image field size, ambient lighting characteristics, and anomalous red-green color vision deficiencies of display operators. The performance of the program is evaluated and uniform chromaticity scale diagrams for six-color and seven-color selection problems are provided.

  7. Information through color imagery

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Colvocoresses, Alden P.

    1975-01-01

    The color-sensing capability of the human eye is a powerful tool. In remote sensing we should use color to display data more meaningfully, not to re-create the scene. Color disappears with distance, and features change color with viewing angle. Color infrared film lets us apply color with additional meaning even though we introduce a false color response. Although the marginal gray scale on an ERTS (Earth Resources Technology Satellite) image may indicate balance between the green, red, and infrared bands, and although each band may be printed in a primary color, tests show that we are not fully applying the three primary colors. Therefore, contrast in the green band should be raised. For true three-color remote sensing of the Earth, we must find two generally meaningful signatures in the visible spectrum, or perhaps extend our spectral range. Before turning to costly digital processing we should explore analog processing. Most ERTS users deal with relative spectral radiance; the few concerned with absolute radiance could use the computer-compatible tapes or special annotations. NASA (National Aeronautics and Space Administration), which assigns the range and contrast to the ERTS image, controls processing and could adjust the density range for maximum contrast in any ERTS scene. NASA cannot alter processing for local changes in reflective characteristics of the Earth but could adjust for Sun elevation and optimize the contrast in a given band.

  8. The nature of colors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    da Pos, Osvaldo

    2002-06-01

    Color is a visible aspect of objects and lights, and as such is an objective characteristic of our phenomenal world. Correspondingly also objects and lights are objective, although their subjectivity cannot be disregarded since they belong to our phenomenal world. The distinction between perception and sensation deals with colors seen either in complex displays or in isolation. Reality of colors is apparently challenged by virtual reality, while virtual reality is a good example of what colors are. It seems difficult to combine that aspect of reality colors have in our experience and the concept that colors represent something in the external environment: the distinction between stimulation and perceived object is crucial for understanding the relationships between phenomenal world and physical reality. A modern concept of isomorphism seems useful in interpreting the role of colors. The relationship between the psychological structure of colors and the physical stimulation is enlightened by the analysis of pseudocolors. The perceptual, subjective characteristics of colors go along with the subjectivity of scientific concepts. Colors, emotions, and concepts are all in some people's mind: none of them is independent of the subject mind. Nevertheless they can be communicated from person to person by an appropriate scientific terminology.

  9. Selection of small color palette for color image quantization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chau, Wing K.; Wong, S. K. M.; Yang, Xuedong; Wan, Shijie J.

    1992-05-01

    Two issues are involved in color image quantization: color palette selection and color mapping. A common practice for color palette selection is to minimize the color distortion for each pixel (the median-cut, the variance-based and the k-means algorithms). After the color palette has been chosen, a quantized image may be generated by mapping the original color of each pixel onto its nearest color in the color palette. Such an approach can usually produce quantized images of high quality with 128 or more colors. For 32 - 64 colors, the quality of the quantized images is often acceptable with the aid of dithering techniques in the color mapping process. For 8 - 16 color, however, the above statistical method for color selection becomes no longer suitable because of the great reduction of color gamut. In order to preserve the color gamut of the original image, one may want to select the colors in such a way that the convex hull formed by these colors in the RGB color space encloses most colors of the original image. Quantized images generated in such a geometrical way usually preserve a lot of image details, but may contain too much high frequency noises. This paper presents an effective algorithm for the selection of very small color palette by combining the strengths of the above statistical and geometrical approaches. We demonstrate that with the new method images of high quality can be produced by using only 4 to 8 colors.

  10. Two-out-of-two color matching based visual cryptography schemes.

    PubMed

    Machizaud, Jacques; Fournel, Thierry

    2012-09-24

    Visual cryptography which consists in sharing a secret message between transparencies has been extended to color prints. In this paper, we propose a new visual cryptography scheme based on color matching. The stacked printed media reveal a uniformly colored message decoded by the human visual system. In contrast with the previous color visual cryptography schemes, the proposed one enables to share images without pixel expansion and to detect a forgery as the color of the message is kept secret. In order to correctly print the colors on the media and to increase the security of the scheme, we use spectral models developed for color reproduction describing printed colors from an optical point of view.

  11. Porcelain three-dimensional shape reconstruction and its color reconstruction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Xiaoyang; Wu, Haibin; Yang, Xue; Yu, Shuang; Wang, Beiyi; Chen, Deyun

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, structured light three-dimensional measurement technology was used to reconstruct the porcelain shape, and further more the porcelain color was reconstructed. So the accurate reconstruction of the shape and color of porcelain was realized. Our shape measurement installation drawing is given. Because the porcelain surface is color complex and highly reflective, the binary Gray code encoding is used to reduce the influence of the porcelain surface. The color camera was employed to obtain the color of the porcelain surface. Then, the comprehensive reconstruction of the shape and color was realized in Java3D runtime environment. In the reconstruction process, the space point by point coloration method is proposed and achieved. Our coloration method ensures the pixel corresponding accuracy in both of shape and color aspects. The porcelain surface shape and color reconstruction experimental results completed by proposed method and our installation, show that: the depth range is 860 ˜ 980mm, the relative error of the shape measurement is less than 0.1%, the reconstructed color of the porcelain surface is real, refined and subtle, and has the same visual effect as the measured surface.

  12. Digital color representation

    DOEpatents

    White, James M.; Faber, Vance; Saltzman, Jeffrey S.

    1992-01-01

    An image population having a large number of attributes is processed to form a display population with a predetermined smaller number of attributes which represent the larger number of attributes. In a particular application, the color values in an image are compressed for storage in a discrete lookup table (LUT) where an 8-bit data signal is enabled to form a display of 24-bit color values. The LUT is formed in a sampling and averaging process from the image color values with no requirement to define discrete Voronoi regions for color compression. Image color values are assigned 8-bit pointers to their closest LUT value whereby data processing requires only the 8-bit pointer value to provide 24-bit color values from the LUT.

  13. True Colors of Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    This image taken on Mars by the panoramic camera on the Mars Exploration Rover Spirit shows the rover's color calibration target, also known as the MarsDial. The target's mirror and the shadows cast on it by the Sun help scientists determine the degree to which dusty martian skies alter the panoramic camera's perception of color. By adjusting for this effect, Mars can be seen in all its true colors.

  14. Reproduction, Physiology and Biochemistry

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This chapter focuses on the reproduction, physiology, and biochemistry of the root-knot nematodes. The extensive amount of information on the reproduction and cytogenetics of species of Meloidogyne contrasts with the limited information on physiology, biochemistry, and biochemical pathways. In commo...

  15. Reproductive Physiology of Marsupials

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sharman, G. B.

    1970-01-01

    Describes some unique features of marsupial reproduction which include (1) chromosomal sex determination, (2) reproductive system, (3) birth, (4) location, and (5) embryonic diapause. These features suggest that viviparity evolved separately in eutherian and marsupial stocks after their derivation from a common oviparous ancestor. Bibliography.…

  16. Aerial photographic reproductions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    1971-01-01

    Geological Survey vertical aerial photography is obtained primarily for topographic and geologic mapping. Reproductions from this photography are usually satisfactory for general use. Because reproductions are not stocked, but are custom processed for each order, they cannot be returned for credit or refund.

  17. Sexual Reproduction and Breeding

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In the second edition of Plant Propagation Concepts and Laboratory Exercises, we have combined the first edition chapters 36: Sexual Reproduction in Angiosperms and 37: Breeding Horticultural Plants into the present single chapter Sexual Reproduction and Breeding. These topics are so closely relate...

  18. The Reproduction of Intelligence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meisenberg, Gerhard

    2010-01-01

    Although a negative relationship between fertility and education has been described consistently in most countries of the world, less is known about the relationship between intelligence and reproductive outcomes. Also the paths through which intelligence influences reproductive outcomes are uncertain. The present study uses the NLSY79 to analyze…

  19. MonoColor CMOS sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Ynjiun P.

    2009-02-01

    A new breed of CMOS color sensor called MonoColor sensor is developed for a barcode reading application in AIDC industry. The RGBW color filter array (CFA) in a MonoColor sensor is arranged in a 8 x 8 pixels CFA with only 4 pixels of them are color (RGB) pixels and the rest of 60 pixels are transparent or monochrome. Since the majority of pixels are monochrome, MonoColor sensor maintains 98% barcode decode performance compared with a pure monochrome CMOS sensor. With the help of monochrome and color pixel fusion technique, the resulting color pictures have similar color quality in terms of Color Semantic Error (CSE) compared with a Bayer pattern (RGB) CMOS color camera. Since monochrome pixels are more sensitive than color pixels, a MonoColor sensor produces in general about 2X brighter color picture and higher luminance pixel resolution.

  20. The Colors of 'Endurance'

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    This false-color image shows visible mineral changes between the materials that make up the rim of the impact crater known as 'Endurance.' The image was taken by the panoramic camera on NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity using all 13 color filters. The cyan blue color denotes basalts, whereas the dark green color denotes a mixture of iron oxide and basaltic materials. Reds and yellows indicate dusty material containing sulfates. Scientists are very interested in exploring the interior and exterior material around the crater's rim for clues to the processes that formed the crater, as well as the rocks and textures that define the crater.

  1. Universality of color names.

    PubMed

    Lindsey, Delwin T; Brown, Angela M

    2006-10-31

    We analyzed the World Color Survey (WCS) color-naming data set by using k-means cluster and concordance analyses. Cluster analysis relied on a similarity metric based on pairwise Pearson correlation of the complete chromatic color-naming patterns obtained from individual WCS informants. When K, the number of k-means clusters, varied from 2 to 10, we found that (i) the average color-naming patterns of the clusters all glossed easily to single or composite English patterns, and (ii) the structures of the k-means clusters unfolded in a hierarchical way that was reminiscent of the Berlin and Kay sequence of color category evolution. Gap statistical analysis showed that 8 was the optimal number of WCS chromatic categories: RED, GREEN, YELLOW-OR-ORANGE, BLUE, PURPLE, BROWN, PINK, and GRUE (GREEN-OR-BLUE). Analysis of concordance in color naming within WCS languages revealed small regions in color space that exhibited statistically significantly high concordance across languages. These regions agreed well with five of six primary focal colors of English. Concordance analysis also revealed boundary regions of statistically significantly low concordance. These boundary regions coincided with the boundaries associated with English WARM and COOL. Our results provide compelling evidence for similarities in the mechanisms that guide the lexical partitioning of color space among WCS languages and English.

  2. Crater Floor in Color

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site]

    Released 5 May 2004 This daytime visible color image was collected on November 18, 2003 during the Southern Summer season in Terra Cimmeria.

    This daytime visible color image was collected on September 4, 2002 during the Northern Spring season in Vastitas Borealis. The THEMIS VIS camera is capable of capturing color images of the martian surface using its five different color filters. In this mode of operation, the spatial resolution and coverage of the image must be reduced to accommodate the additional data volume produced from the use of multiple filters. To make a color image, three of the five filter images (each in grayscale) are selected. Each is contrast enhanced and then converted to a red, green, or blue intensity image. These three images are then combined to produce a full color, single image. Because the THEMIS color filters don't span the full range of colors seen by the human eye, a color THEMIS image does not represent true color. Also, because each single-filter image is contrast enhanced before inclusion in the three-color image, the apparent color variation of the scene is exaggerated. Nevertheless, the color variation that does appear is representative of some change in color, however subtle, in the actual scene. Note that the long edges of THEMIS color images typically contain color artifacts that do not represent surface variation.

    Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude -23.7, Longitude 135.6 East (224.4 West). 19 meter/pixel resolution.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with

  3. Society for Assisted Reproductive Technology

    MedlinePlus

    The Society for Assisted Reproductive Technology PATIENTS Patient Information What Is SART? Risks of IVF Third Party Reproduction A ... Read Article View All News ©1996 - 2016 SART, Society for Assisted Reproductive Technology . All Rights Reserved. ASRM/ ...

  4. Male Reproductive System (For Teens)

    MedlinePlus

    ... gamete, the egg or ovum , meet in the female's reproductive system to create a new individual. Both the male and female reproductive systems are essential for reproduction. Humans, like other organisms, ...

  5. Assessment of Male Reproductive Toxicity##

    EPA Science Inventory

    This review covers all aspects of male reproductive toxicology. It begins with an overview of male reproductive biology and then transitions to the considerations of conducting male reproductive toxicology studies. We discuss multigenerational study as proposed in EPAs harmoniz...

  6. Male Reproductive System (For Teens)

    MedlinePlus

    ... español Sistema reproductor masculino All living things reproduce. Reproduction — the process by which organisms make more organisms ... male and female reproductive systems are essential for reproduction. Humans, like other organisms, pass certain characteristics of ...

  7. Color image quality in projection displays: a case study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strand, Monica; Hardeberg, Jon Y.; Nussbaum, Peter

    2005-01-01

    Recently the use of projection displays has increased dramatically in different applications such as digital cinema, home theatre, and business and educational presentations. Even if the color image quality of these devices has improved significantly over the years, it is still a common situation for users of projection displays that the projected colors differ significantly from the intended ones. This study presented in this paper attempts to analyze the color image quality of a large set of projection display devices, particularly investigating the variations in color reproduction. As a case study, a set of 14 projectors (LCD and DLP technology) at Gjovik University College have been tested under four different conditions: dark and light room, with and without using an ICC-profile. To find out more about the importance of the illumination conditions in a room, and the degree of improvement when using an ICC-profile, the results from the measurements was processed and analyzed. Eye-One Beamer from GretagMacbeth was used to make the profiles. The color image quality was evaluated both visually and by color difference calculations. The results from the analysis indicated large visual and colorimetric differences between the projectors. Our DLP projectors have generally smaller color gamut than LCD projectors. The color gamuts of older projectors are significantly smaller than that of newer ones. The amount of ambient light reaching the screen is of great importance for the visual impression. If too much reflections and other ambient light reaches the screen, the projected image gets pale and has low contrast. When using a profile, the differences in colors between the projectors gets smaller and the colors appears more correct. For one device, the average ΔE*ab color difference when compared to a relative white reference was reduced from 22 to 11, for another from 13 to 6. Blue colors have the largest variations among the projection displays and makes them

  8. Luminance contours can gate afterimage colors and "real" colors.

    PubMed

    Anstis, Stuart; Vergeer, Mark; Van Lier, Rob

    2012-09-06

    It has long been known that colored images may elicit afterimages in complementary colors. We have already shown (Van Lier, Vergeer, & Anstis, 2009) that one and the same adapting image may result in different afterimage colors, depending on the test contours presented after the colored image. The color of the afterimage depends on two adapting colors, those both inside and outside the test. Here, we further explore this phenomenon and show that the color-contour interactions shown for afterimage colors also occur for "real" colors. We argue that similar mechanisms apply for both types of stimulation.

  9. Reproduction in female reindeer.

    PubMed

    Ropstad, E

    2000-07-02

    Reindeer are either wild or kept under very extensive farming systems. They are seasonal breeders, with mating coinciding with the decreasing photoperiod in the autumn, and with calving in the spring. Little is known regarding the factors that influence reproduction in reindeer or of their reproductive physiology. Studies carried out to date have mainly focused on issues related to the population dynamics of wild populations and semi-domestic herds, and to a limited extent on the reproductive physiology of the female. Nor is much known about reproductive disorders and their medical treatment, or of the possibilities to manipulate or control reproduction by the use of hormones. Modern reproductive techniques such as artificial insemination and in vitro fertilisation, maturation and transfer of embryos have so far received scant attention.In the future, it is possible that reindeer under certain conditions might be kept in more intensive production systems. Limited access to high-quality winter pastures and increased demands for productivity have resulted in artificial feeding becoming a common practice in various reindeer herding areas in Scandinavia. In efforts to enhance the productivity of reindeer herds, attention has been focused on factors affecting reproduction in the female and survival of the offspring. Further knowledge on these issues seems necessary when developing strategies for optimalization of meat production in domestic herds and the harvesting of wild populations. This paper puts a broad focus on various aspects of reproduction, including factors influencing the fecundity of reproductively active females. In order to understand these effects it is important also to have a basic understanding of the reproductive physiology of these animals.

  10. Ocean color imagery: Coastal zone color scanner

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hovis, W. A.

    1975-01-01

    Investigations into the feasibility of sensing ocean color from high altitude for determination of chlorophyll and sediment distributions were carried out using sensors on NASA aircraft, coordinated with surface measurements carried out by oceanographic vessels. Spectrometer measurements in 1971 and 1972 led to development of an imaging sensor now flying on a NASA U-2 and the Coastal Zone Color Scanner to fly on Nimbus G in 1978. Results of the U-2 effort show the imaging sensor to be of great value in sensing pollutants in the ocean.

  11. Polar Cap Colors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site]

    Released 12 May 2004 This daytime visible color image was collected on June 6, 2003 during the Southern Spring season near the South Polar Cap Edge.

    The THEMIS VIS camera is capable of capturing color images of the martian surface using its five different color filters. In this mode of operation, the spatial resolution and coverage of the image must be reduced to accommodate the additional data volume produced from the use of multiple filters. To make a color image, three of the five filter images (each in grayscale) are selected. Each is contrast enhanced and then converted to a red, green, or blue intensity image. These three images are then combined to produce a full color, single image. Because the THEMIS color filters don't span the full range of colors seen by the human eye, a color THEMIS image does not represent true color. Also, because each single-filter image is contrast enhanced before inclusion in the three-color image, the apparent color variation of the scene is exaggerated. Nevertheless, the color variation that does appear is representative of some change in color, however subtle, in the actual scene. Note that the long edges of THEMIS color images typically contain color artifacts that do not represent surface variation.

    Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude -77.8, Longitude 195 East (165 West). 38 meter/pixel resolution.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA

  12. Requirements to Sustain Global Ocean Color Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mengelt, C.; Yoder, J. A.; Antoine, D.; Del Castillo, C. E.; Evans, R. H.; Mobley, C.; Sarmiento, J. L.; Sathyendranath, S.; Schueler, C. F.; Siegel, D. A.; Wilson, C.

    2011-12-01

    Satellite measurements of ocean color provide a unique vantage point to measure global phytoplankton abundance and their contribution to the health of marine ecosystems, the global cycle of nutrients, oxygen, and carbon, and their response to long-term climate change. However, the United States is at risk of losing access to ocean color data because the Sea-viewing Wide Field-of-view Sensor (SeaWiFS) has ceased operation, Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) is aging and planned new satellite missions might not be able to acquire data at the accuracy levels required for climate research. Given the importance of maintaining the ocean color time-series, the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration, the National Science Foundation, and the Office of Naval Research requested the National Research Council (NRC) convene a committee of experts to review the minimum requirements to sustain global ocean color measurements for research and operational applications, and identify options to minimize the risk of a data gap. This poster summarizes the NRC report's findings. In particular, it reviews the minimum mission requirements to sustain at least the current capabilities for measuring ocean color at a global scale such as the need for post-launch vicarious calibration and monitoring of the sensor's stability. The poster will also summarize the report's recommendations regarding the options to improve the VIIRS/NPP mission. Moreover, it details how a data-centric planning effort could ensure that ocean color research can be advanced and maintained over the long term. The poster concludes that the ever broadening user community that depends on accurate and timely ocean color data highlights the urgency for fixing the VIIRS sensor and developing the next generation capability. In particular, NASA's climate continuity and decadal survey missions PACE/ACE, GEOCAPE and HyspIRI are required to advance ocean

  13. Navigation lights color study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barbosa, Jose G.; Alberg, Matthew T.

    2015-05-01

    The chromaticity of navigation lights are defined by areas on the International Commission on Illumination (CIE) 1931 chromaticity diagram. The corner coordinates for these areas are specified in the International Regulations for Prevention of Collisions at Sea, 1972 (72 COLREGS). The navigation light's color of white, red, green, and yellow are bounded by these areas. The chromaticity values specified by the COLREGS for navigation lights were intended for the human visual system (HVS). The HVS can determine the colors of these lights easily under various conditions. For digital color camera imaging systems the colors of these lights are dependent on the camera's color spectral sensitivity, settings, and color correction. At night the color of these lights are used to quickly determine the relative course of vessels. If these lights are incorrectly identified or there is a delay in identifying them this could be a potential safety of ship concern. Vessels that use camera imaging systems exclusively for sight, at night, need to detect, identify, and discriminate navigation lights for navigation and collision avoidance. The introduction of light emitting diode (LED) lights and lights with different spectral signatures have the potential to be imaged very differently with an RGB color filter array (CFA) color camera than with the human eye. It has been found that some green navigation lights' images appear blue verse green. This has an impact on vessels that use camera imaging systems exclusively for navigation. This paper will characterize color cameras ability to properly reproducing navigation lights' color and survey a set of navigation light to determine if they conform to the COLREGS.

  14. Knowledge, attitudes, and practices in reproductive and sexual health

    PubMed Central

    Beckwith, Jessica

    2006-01-01

    To help support and direct the Lions Club's construction of a Community Health Clinic specializing in Reproductive and Sexual Health, this descriptive study began in November of 2004 and was completed in May 2005. The sample consists of 552 high school students in Rumiñahui County, and surveys were used to study four principle themes: reproductive and sexual health education, family planning, sexually transmitted infections, and domestic violence. The results show a widespread lack of accurate and adequate information about reproductive and sexual health. Statistically significant variables studied include sex, age, monthly income, and age of first sexual experience. Female sex, younger age, lower monthly income, and younger age of first sexual experience all contribute to a lower quality of reproductive and sexual health, in terms of having less information about and access to these four aspects of reproductive and sexual health. PMID:18523623

  15. Reproductive strategies in snakes.

    PubMed Central

    Shine, Richard

    2003-01-01

    Snakes of both sexes display remarkable flexibility and diversity in their reproductive tactics. Many features of reproduction in female snakes (such as reproductive mode and frequency, seasonality and multiple mating) allow flexible maternal control. For example, females can manipulate not only the genotypes of their offspring (through mate choice or enhanced sperm competition) but also the phenotypes of their offspring (through allocation 'decisions', behavioural and physiological thermoregulation, and nest-site selection). Reliance on stored energy ('capital') to fuel breeding results in low frequencies of female reproduction and, in extreme cases, semelparity. A sophisticated vomeronasal system not only allows male snakes to locate reproductive females by following scent trails, but also facilitates pheromonally mediated mate choice by males. Male-male rivalry takes diverse forms, including female mimicry and mate guarding; combat bouts impose strong selection for large body size in males of some species. Intraspecific (geographical) variation and phenotypic plasticity in a wide array of reproductive traits (offspring size and number; reproductive frequency; incidence of multiple mating; male tactics such as mate guarding and combat; mate choice criteria) provide exceptional opportunities for future studies. PMID:12803888

  16. Reproductive strategies in snakes.

    PubMed

    Shine, Richard

    2003-05-22

    Snakes of both sexes display remarkable flexibility and diversity in their reproductive tactics. Many features of reproduction in female snakes (such as reproductive mode and frequency, seasonality and multiple mating) allow flexible maternal control. For example, females can manipulate not only the genotypes of their offspring (through mate choice or enhanced sperm competition) but also the phenotypes of their offspring (through allocation 'decisions', behavioural and physiological thermoregulation, and nest-site selection). Reliance on stored energy ('capital') to fuel breeding results in low frequencies of female reproduction and, in extreme cases, semelparity. A sophisticated vomeronasal system not only allows male snakes to locate reproductive females by following scent trails, but also facilitates pheromonally mediated mate choice by males. Male-male rivalry takes diverse forms, including female mimicry and mate guarding; combat bouts impose strong selection for large body size in males of some species. Intraspecific (geographical) variation and phenotypic plasticity in a wide array of reproductive traits (offspring size and number; reproductive frequency; incidence of multiple mating; male tactics such as mate guarding and combat; mate choice criteria) provide exceptional opportunities for future studies.

  17. 3-D Color Wheels

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DuBois, Ann

    2010-01-01

    The blending of information from an academic class with projects from art class can do nothing but strengthen the learning power of the student. Creating three-dimensional color wheels provides the perfect opportunity to combine basic geometry knowledge with color theory. In this article, the author describes how her seventh-grade painting…

  18. Drawing Color Lines.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gude, Olivia

    2000-01-01

    Addresses the teaching of color symbolism and asserts that racism is embodied and perpetuated through conventional notions of black and white symbolism. Discusses a project with two eighth grade classes, focusing on the discussion of color symbolism in school and popular culture. Considers the importance of analyzing contemporary languages of…

  19. Color: an exosomatic organ?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Brakel, Jaap; Saunders, Barbara

    2001-12-01

    According to the dominant view in cognitive science, in particular in its more popularized versions, color sensings or perceptions are located in a 'quality space'. This space has three dimensions: hue (the chromatic aspect of color), saturation (the 'intensity' of hue), and brightness. This space is structured further via a small number of primitive hues or landmark colors, usually four (red, yellow, green, blue) or six (if white and black are included). It has also been suggested that there are eleven semantic universals - the six colors previously mentioned plus orange, pink, brown, purple, and grey. Scientific evidence for these widely accepted theories is at best minimal, based on sloppy methodology and at worst non-existent. Against the standard view, it is argued that color might better be regarded as the outcome of a social-historical developmental trajectory in which there is mutual shaping of philosophical presuppositions, scientific theories, experimental practices, technological tools, industrial products, rhetorical frameworks, and their intercalated and recursive interactions with the practices of daily life. That is: color, the domain of color, is the outcome of interactive processes of scientific, instrumental, industrial, and everyday lifeworlds. That is: color might better be called an exosomatic organ, a second nature.

  20. A Semester of Color

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rabinovitch, Andrea

    2006-01-01

    Every Thursday evening, ten high school students meet at the Riverdale Art Project, a New York City-based art program that the author co-founded ten years ago. Students are participating in a semester-long color workshop where they learn about color theory in a structured and engaging way. Focusing on five essential characteristics of color…

  1. Equivalent Colorings with "Maple"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cecil, David R.; Wang, Rongdong

    2005-01-01

    Many counting problems can be modeled as "colorings" and solved by considering symmetries and Polya's cycle index polynomial. This paper presents a "Maple 7" program link http://users.tamuk.edu/kfdrc00/ that, given Polya's cycle index polynomial, determines all possible associated colorings and their partitioning into equivalence classes. These…

  2. Dynamic egg color mimicry.

    PubMed

    Hanley, Daniel; Šulc, Michal; Brennan, Patricia L R; Hauber, Mark E; Grim, Tomáš; Honza, Marcel

    2016-06-01

    Evolutionary hypotheses regarding the function of eggshell phenotypes, from solar protection through mimicry, have implicitly assumed that eggshell appearance remains static throughout the laying and incubation periods. However, recent research demonstrates that egg coloration changes over relatively short, biologically relevant timescales. Here, we provide the first evidence that such changes impact brood parasite-host eggshell color mimicry during the incubation stage. First, we use long-term data to establish how rapidly the Acrocephalus arundinaceus Linnaeus (great reed warbler) responded to natural parasitic eggs laid by the Cuculus canorus Linnaeus (common cuckoo). Most hosts rejected parasitic eggs just prior to clutch completion, but the host response period extended well into incubation (~10 days after clutch completion). Using reflectance spectrometry and visual modeling, we demonstrate that eggshell coloration in the great reed warbler and its brood parasite, the common cuckoo, changes rapidly, and the extent of eggshell color mimicry shifts dynamically over the host response period. Specifically, 4 days after being laid, the host should notice achromatic color changes to both cuckoo and warbler eggs, while chromatic color changes would be noticeable after 8 days. Furthermore, we demonstrate that the perceived match between host and cuckoo eggshell color worsened over the incubation period. These findings have important implications for parasite-host coevolution dynamics, because host egg discrimination may be aided by disparate temporal color changes in host and parasite eggs.

  3. Disabled Students of Color.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frank, Zelma Lloyd; Ball-Brown, Brenda

    1993-01-01

    Explores why few disabled students of color use student services. Details why some of these students were unnecessarily placed in special education programs and focuses on the experiences of this group. Addresses general cultural differences that can affect responses between people of color and disability services. Provides guidelines for service…

  4. Plasmonic color tuning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Byoungho; Yun, Hansik; Lee, Seung-Yeol; Kim, Hwi

    2016-03-01

    In general, color filter is an optical component to permit the transmission of a specific color in cameras, displays, and microscopes. Each filter has its own unchangeable color because it is made by chemical materials such as dyes and pigments. Therefore, in order to express various colorful images in a display, one pixel should have three sub-pixels of red, green, and blue colors. Here, we suggest new plasmonic structure and method to change the color in a single pixel. It is comprised of a cavity and a metal nanoaperture. The optical cavity generally supports standing waves inside it, and various standing waves having different wavelength can be confined together in one cavity. On the other hand, although light cannot transmit sub-wavelength sized aperture, surface plasmons can propagate through the metal nanoaperture with high intensity due to the extraordinary transmission. If we combine the two structures, we can organize the spatial distribution of amplitudes according to wavelength of various standing waves using the cavity, and we can extract a light with specific wavelength and amplitude using the nanoaperture. Therefore, this cavity-aperture structure can simultaneously tune the color and intensity of the transmitted light through the single nanoaperture. We expect that the cavity-apertures have a potential for dynamic color pixels, micro-imaging system, and multiplexed sensors.

  5. Color quality scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davis, Wendy; Ohno, Yoshi

    2010-03-01

    The color rendering index (CRI) has been shown to have deficiencies when applied to white light-emitting-diode-based sources. Furthermore, evidence suggests that the restricted scope of the CRI unnecessarily penalizes some light sources with desirable color qualities. To solve the problems of the CRI and include other dimensions of color quality, the color quality scale (CQS) has been developed. Although the CQS uses many of elements of the CRI, there are a number of fundamental differences. Like the CRI, the CQS is a test-samples method that compares the appearance of a set of reflective samples when illuminated by the test lamp to their appearance under a reference illuminant. The CQS uses a larger set of reflective samples, all of high chroma, and combines the color differences of the samples with a root mean square. Additionally, the CQS does not penalize light sources for causing increases in the chroma of object colors but does penalize sources with smaller rendered color gamut areas. The scale of the CQS is converted to span 0-100, and the uniform object color space and chromatic adaptation transform used in the calculations are updated. Supplementary scales have also been developed for expert users.

  6. Colorful Underwater Sea Creatures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCutcheon, Heather

    2011-01-01

    In this article, the author describes a project wherein students created colorful underwater sea creatures. This project began with a discussion about underwater sea creatures and how they live. The first step was making the multi-colored tissue paper that would become sea creatures and seaweed. Once students had the shapes of their sea creatures…

  7. TOCM digital color photography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Baoying; Mu, Guoguang; Fang, Zhiliang; Li, Zhengqun; Fang, Hui; Yang, Yong

    2009-11-01

    In this paper, total optical color modulator (TOCM) digital color photography is presented. TOCM has the character of multi-wave superposed in spatial domain and separated in frequency domain. If TOCM is close-contacted with the image plane of a black-and-white (B&W) CCD, the encoding B&W CCD is formed. Image from the encoding B&W CCD are digital encoded by the TOCM. The decoded color image can be obtained by computer program. The program includes four main steps. The first step is Fourier transforming of the encoded image. The second step is filtering the spectra of the first and zero order in frequency domain. The third is inverse Fourier transforming of the filtered spectra. The last is melting the image with zero order. Then the digital color image will be shown on the display of the computer. The experiment proves that this technique is feasible. The principle of encoding color information in B&W image can be applied to color-blind sensors to get digital color image. Furthermore, it can be applied to digital multi-spectra color photography.

  8. Image color reduction method for color-defective observers using a color palette composed of 20 particular colors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakamoto, Takashi

    2015-01-01

    This study describes a color enhancement method that uses a color palette especially designed for protan and deutan defects, commonly known as red-green color blindness. The proposed color reduction method is based on a simple color mapping. Complicated computation and image processing are not required by using the proposed method, and the method can replace protan and deutan confusion (p/d-confusion) colors with protan and deutan safe (p/d-safe) colors. Color palettes for protan and deutan defects proposed by previous studies are composed of few p/d-safe colors. Thus, the colors contained in these palettes are insufficient for replacing colors in photographs. Recently, Ito et al. proposed a p/dsafe color palette composed of 20 particular colors. The author demonstrated that their p/d-safe color palette could be applied to image color reduction in photographs as a means to replace p/d-confusion colors. This study describes the results of the proposed color reduction in photographs that include typical p/d-confusion colors, which can be replaced. After the reduction process is completed, color-defective observers can distinguish these confusion colors.

  9. The politics of reproduction.

    PubMed

    Ginsburg, F; Rapp, R

    1991-01-01

    The topic of human reproduction encompasses events throughout the human and especially female life-cycle as well as ideas and practices surrounding fertility, birth, and child care. Most of the scholarship on the subject, up through the 1960s, was based on cross-cultural surveys focused on the beliefs, norms, and values surrounding reproductive behaviors. Multiple methodologies and subspecialties, and fields like social history, human biology, and demography were utilized for the analysis. The concept of the politics of reproduction synthesizes local and global perspectives. The themes investigated include: the concept of reproduction, population control, and the internationalization of state and market interests (new reproductive technologies); social movements and contested domains; medicalization and its discontents; fertility and its control; adolescence and teen pregnancy; birth; birth attendants; the construction of infancy and the politics of child survival; rethinking the demographic transition; networks of nurturance; and meanings of menopause. The medicalization of reproduction is a central issue of studies of birth, midwifery, infertility, and reproductive technologies. Scholars have also analyzed different parts of the female life-cycle as medical problems. Other issues worth analysis include the internationalization of adoption and child care workers; the crisis of infertility of low-income and minority women who are not candidates for expensive reproductive technologies; the concerns of women at high risk for HIV whose cultural status depends on their fertility; questions of reproduction concerning, lesbians and gay men (artificial insemination and discrimination in child rearing); the study of menopause; and fatherhood. New discourse analysis is used to analyze state eugenic policies; conflicts over Western neocolonial influences in which women's status as childbearers represent nationalist interests; fundamentalist attacks on abortion rights; and

  10. Outer Space Research Helps Color Habitability in Earth Interiors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haines, Richard F.

    1977-01-01

    Color is one of the most important elements in making an environment habitable. Both color and light level combine to create comfortable and efficient work areas and satisfying leisure time environments. Indeed, without light, color cannot even be experienced. It is vitally important for the designer to understand the subject of habitability and to know how to make a positive impact upon the habitability of spaces through the application of proven principles of color-design developed by the scientific community. Consider some of these possibilities and pitfalls: A color chosen in broad daylight will not appear the same under dim lighting conditions. If a designer were creating a dimly lit cocktail lounge, for example, there is little sense in using dark colors, which also tend to be more expensive. When the eyes have dark-adapted for even five minutes, any color reflecting 20 percent or less will appear black, and the color experience will be lost. Therefore, surface reflectances should be kept at least above 20 to 25 percent to maintain color where illumination is at low levels. In effect, for lower reflectance surfaces, higher levels of illumination are required to produce the most accurate color discriminability.

  11. Color spaces for color-gamut mapping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCann, John J.

    1999-10-01

    Before doing extensive color gamut experiments, we wanted to test the uniformity of CIE L*a*b*. This paper shows surprisingly large discrepancies between CIE L*a*b* and isotropic observation-based color spaces, such as Munsell: (1) L*a*b* chroma exaggerate yellows and underestimate blues. (2) The average discrepancy between L*a*b* and ideal is 27%. (3) Chips with identical L*a*b* hue angles are not the same color. L*a*b* introduces errors larger than many gamut mapping corrections. We have isotropic data in the Munsell Book. Computers allow 3D lookup tables to convert instantly any measured L*a*b* to interpolated Munsell Book values. We call this space ML, Ma, and Mb in honor of Munsell. LUTs have been developed for both LabtoMLab and MLabtoLab. With this zero-error, isotropic space we can return our attention to the original problem of color-gamut image processing.

  12. Color vision and dentistry.

    PubMed

    Wasson, W; Schuman, N

    1992-05-01

    Color vision is a critical component of restorative and esthetic dentistry, but dentists, as a group, do not have their color vision tested at any time during their careers. A study was undertaken to ascertain the color-vision status of practicing dental personnel at the University of Tennessee, College of Dentistry. One hundred fifty individuals, 75 men and 75 women, were screened. The results corroborated the existing medical data for the general population. It was found that 9.3% of the men and none of the women exhibited color-vision defect. Since most dentists are male, this study demonstrates an area of potential weakness for some practitioners. Once a color-vision problem is found, it is simple to remedy by employing a team approach to shade matching or mechanical means of matching shades (by the practitioner). No ethnic or racial distinctions were detected, although these have been reported in other studies.

  13. Human reproduction: Jewish perspectives.

    PubMed

    Schenker, Joseph G

    2013-11-01

    Developments in science and technology and corresponding clinical applications raise new religious questions, often without clear answers. The role of theology in bioethics is integral to clarify perceived attitudes toward these developments for different religious communities. The Jewish attitude towards procreation is derived from the first commandment of God to Adam to 'Be fruitful and multiply'. Judaism allows the practice of all techniques of assisted reproduction when the oocyte and spermatozoon originate from the wife and husband respectively. This paper presents the attitude of Jewish Law -- Halacha to therapeutic procedures, such as IVF-embryo transfer, spermatozoa, oocytes, embryo donation, cryopreservation of genetic material, surrogacy, posthumous reproduction, gender preselection, reproductive and therapeutic cloning.

  14. The diversity of male nuptial coloration leads to species diversity in Lake Victoria cichlids.

    PubMed

    Miyagi, Ryutaro; Terai, Yohey

    2013-01-01

    The amazing coloration shown by diverse cichlid fish not only fascinates aquarium keepers, but also receives great attention from biologists interested in speciation because of its recently-revealed role in their adaptive radiation in an African lake. We review the important role of coloration in the speciation and adaptive evolution of Lake Victoria cichlids, which have experienced adaptive radiation during a very short evolutionary period. Mature male cichlids display their colors during mate choice. The color of their skin reflects light, and the reflected light forms a color signal that is received by the visual system of females. The adaptive divergence of visual perceptions shapes and diverges colorations, to match the adapted visual perceptions. The divergence of visual perception and coloration indicates that the divergence of color signals causes reproductive isolation between species, and this process leads to speciation. Differences in color signals among coexisting species act to maintain reproductive isolation by preventing hybridization. Thus, the diversity of coloration has caused speciation and has maintained species diversity in Lake Victoria cichlids.

  15. Evaluation of color categorization for representing vehicle colors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeng, Nan; Crisman, Jill D.

    1997-02-01

    This paper evaluates the accuracy of three color categorization techniques in describing vehicles colors for a system, AutoColor, which we are developing for Intelligent Transportation Systems. Color categorization is used to efficiently represent 24-bit color images with up to 8 bits of color information. Our inspiration for color categorization is based on the fact that humans typically use only a few color names to describe the numerous colors they perceive. Our Crayon color categorization technique uses a naming scheme for digitized colors which is roughly based on human names for colors. The fastest and most straight forward method for compacting a 24-bit representation into an 8-bit representation is to use the most significant bits (MSB) to represent the colors. In addition, we have developed an Adaptive color categorization technique which can derive a set of color categories for the current imaging conditions. In this paper, we detail the three color categorization techniques, Crayon, MSB, and Adaptive, and we evaluate their performance on representing vehicle colors in our AutoColor system.

  16. Research on real-time measurement and grading method for pearl color

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Feng; Wu, Kaihua; Ma, Li; Zhou, Jilin

    2007-12-01

    The pearl color and color uniformity are important to its price. The paper presented a new real-time method to measure and grade the pearl color based on optoelectronic techniques. The method uses HSI (Hue, Saturation and Intensity) color model, diffuse reflection illumination, CCD (Charge Couple Device) camera with fine color reproduction and digital image processing technology to realize the parameters of color matrix of pearl color. These parameters, including mean values (h and s), variances (σ h and σ s) and absolute values of third moments (|t h| and |t s|) of H and S, were acquired. Then the industrial control computer acquires the grading signals. The grading devices graded the pearls. The method could measure and grade the pearl on real-time and meet the requirement of grading.

  17. Teaching Plant Reproduction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tolman, Marvin N., Ed.; Hardy, Garry R., Ed.

    2000-01-01

    Recommends using Amaryllis hippeastrum to teach young children about plant reproduction. Provides tips for growing these plants, discusses the fast growing rate of the plant, and explains the anatomy. (YDS)

  18. Stool Color: When to Worry

    MedlinePlus

    ... to worry Yesterday, my stool color was bright green. Should I be concerned? Answers from Michael F. ... of colors. All shades of brown and even green are considered normal. Only rarely does stool color ...

  19. Interference Colors in Thin Films.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Armstrong, H. L.

    1979-01-01

    Explains interference colors in thin films as being due to the removal, or considerable reduction, of a certain color by destructive inteference that results in the complementary color being seen. (GA)

  20. Avian reproductive physiology

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gee, G.F.; Gibbons, Edward F.; Durrant, Barbara S.; Demarest, Jack

    1995-01-01

    Knowledge of the many physiological factors associated with egg production , fertility, incubation, and brooding in nondomestic birds is limited. Science knows even less about reproduction in most of the 238 endangered or threatened birds. This discussion uses studies of nondomestic and, when necessary, domestic birds to describe physiological control of reproduction. Studies of the few nondomestic avian species show large variation in physiological control of reproduction. Aviculturists, in order to successfully propagate an endangered bird, must understand the bird's reproductive peculiarities. First, investigators can do studies with carefully chosen surrogate species, but eventually they need to confirm the results in the target endangered bird. Studies of reproduction in nondomestic birds increased in the last decade. Still, scientists need to do more comparative studies to understand the mechanisms that control reproduction in birds. New technologies are making it possible to study reproductive physiology of nondomestic species in less limiting ways. These technologies include telemetry to collect information without inducing stress on captives (Howey et al., 1987; Klugman, 1987), new tests for most of the humoral factors associated with reproduction, and the skill to collect small samples and manipulate birds without disrupting the physiological mechanisms (Bercovitz et al., 1985). Managers are using knowledge from these studies to improve propagation in zoological parks, private and public propagation facilities, and research institutions. Researchers need to study the control of ovulation, egg formation, and oviposition in the species of nondomestic birds that lay very few eggs in a season, hold eggs in the oviduct for longer intervals, or differ in other ways from the more thoroughly studied domestic birds. Other techniques that would enhance propagation for nondomestlc birds include tissue culture of cloned embryonic cells, cryopreservation of embryos

  1. The Munsell Color System: a scientific compromise from the world of art.

    PubMed

    Cochrane, Sally

    2014-09-01

    Color systems make accurate color specification and matching possible in science, art, and industry by defining a coordinate system for all possible color perceptions. The Munsell Color System, developed by the artist Albert Henry Munsell in the early twentieth century, has influenced color science to this day. I trace the development of the Munsell Color System from its origins in the art world to its acceptance in the scientific community. Munsell's system was the first to accurately and quantitatively describe the psychological experience of color. By considering the problems that color posed for Munsell's art community and examining his diaries and published material, I conclude that Munsell arrived at his results by remaining agnostic as to the scientific definition of color, while retaining faith that color perceptions could be objectively quantified. I argue that Munsell was able to interest the scientific community in his work because color had become a controversial topic between physicists and psychologists. Parts of Munsell's system appealed to each field, making it a workable compromise. For contrast, I suggest that three contemporary scientists with whom Munsell had contact--Wilhelm Ostwald, Ogden Rood, and Edward Titchener--did not reach the same conclusions in their color systems because they started from scientific assumptions about the nature of color.

  2. Asexual Reproduction in Holothurians

    PubMed Central

    Dolmatov, Igor Yu.

    2014-01-01

    Aspects of asexual reproduction in holothurians are discussed. Holothurians are significant as fishery and aquaculture items and have high commercial value. The last review on holothurian asexual reproduction was published 18 years ago and included only 8 species. An analysis of the available literature shows that asexual reproduction has now been confirmed in 16 holothurian species. Five additional species are also most likely capable of fission. The recent discovery of new fissiparous holothurian species indicates that this reproduction mode is more widespread in Holothuroidea than previously believed. New data about the history of the discovery of asexual reproduction in holothurians, features of fission, and regeneration of anterior and posterior fragments are described here. Asexual reproduction is obviously controlled by the integrated systems of the organism, primarily the nervous system. Special molecular mechanisms appear to determine the location where fission occurs along the anterior-posterior axis of the body. Alteration of the connective tissue strength of the body wall may play an important role during fission of holothurians. The basic mechanism of fission is the interaction of matrix metalloproteinases, their inhibitors, and enzymes forming cross-link complexes between fibrils of collagen. The population dynamics of fissiparous holothurians are discussed. PMID:25405228

  3. Asexual reproduction in holothurians.

    PubMed

    Dolmatov, Igor Yu

    2014-01-01

    Aspects of asexual reproduction in holothurians are discussed. Holothurians are significant as fishery and aquaculture items and have high commercial value. The last review on holothurian asexual reproduction was published 18 years ago and included only 8 species. An analysis of the available literature shows that asexual reproduction has now been confirmed in 16 holothurian species. Five additional species are also most likely capable of fission. The recent discovery of new fissiparous holothurian species indicates that this reproduction mode is more widespread in Holothuroidea than previously believed. New data about the history of the discovery of asexual reproduction in holothurians, features of fission, and regeneration of anterior and posterior fragments are described here. Asexual reproduction is obviously controlled by the integrated systems of the organism, primarily the nervous system. Special molecular mechanisms appear to determine the location where fission occurs along the anterior-posterior axis of the body. Alteration of the connective tissue strength of the body wall may play an important role during fission of holothurians. The basic mechanism of fission is the interaction of matrix metalloproteinases, their inhibitors, and enzymes forming cross-link complexes between fibrils of collagen. The population dynamics of fissiparous holothurians are discussed.

  4. Can grapheme-color synesthesia be induced by hypnosis?

    PubMed

    Anderson, Hazel P; Seth, Anil K; Dienes, Zoltan; Ward, Jamie

    2014-01-01

    Grapheme-color synesthesia is a perceptual experience where graphemes, letters or words evoke a specific color, which are experienced either as spatially coincident with the grapheme inducer (projector sub-type) or elsewhere, perhaps without a definite spatial location (associator sub-type). Here, we address the question of whether synesthesia can be rapidly produced using a hypnotic color suggestion to examine the possibility of "hypnotic synesthesia", i.e., subjectively experienced color hallucinations similar to those experienced by projector synesthetes. We assess the efficacy of this intervention using an "embedded figures" test, in which participants are required to detect a shape (e.g., a square) composed of local graphemic elements. For grapheme-color synesthetes, better performance on the task has been linked to a higher proportion of graphemes perceived as colored. We found no performance benefits on this test when using a hypnotic suggestion, as compared to a no-suggestion control condition. The same result was found when participants were separated according to the degree to which they were susceptible to the suggestion (number of colored trials perceived). However, we found a relationship between accuracy and subjective reports of color in those participants who reported a large proportion of colored trials: trials in which the embedded figure was accurately recognized (relative to trials in which it was not) were associated with reports of more intense colors occupying a greater spatial extent. Collectively, this implies that hypnotic color was only perceived after shape detection rather than aiding in shape detection via color-based perceptual grouping. The results suggest that hypnotically induced colors are not directly comparable to synesthetic ones.

  5. Color universal design: analysis of color category dependency on color vision type (3)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kojima, Natsuki; Ichihara, Yasuyo G.; Ikeda, Tomohiro; Kamachi, Miyuki G.; Ito, Kei

    2012-01-01

    We report on the results of a study investigating the color perception characteristics of people with red-green color confusion. We believe that this is an important step towards achieving Color Universal Design. In Japan, approximately 5% of men and 0.2% of women have red-green confusion. The percentage for men is higher in Europe and the United States; up to 8% in some countries. Red-green confusion involves a perception of colors different from normal color vision. Colors are used as a means of disseminating clear information to people; however, it may be difficult to convey the correct information to people who have red-green confusion. Consequently, colors should be chosen that minimize accidents and that promote more effective communication. In a previous survey, we investigated color categories common to each color vision type, trichromat (C-type color vision), protan (P-type color vision) and deuteran (D-type color vision). In the present study, first, we conducted experiments in order to verify a previous survey of C-type color vision and P-type color vision. Next, we investigated color difference levels within "CIE 1976 L*a*b*" (the CIELAB uniform color space), where neither C-type nor P-type color vision causes accidents under certain conditions (rain maps/contour line levels and graph color legend levels). As a result, we propose a common chromaticity of colors that the two color vision types are able to categorize by means of color names common to C-type color vision. We also offer a proposal to explain perception characteristics of color differences with normal color vision and red-green confusion using the CIELAB uniform color space. This report is a follow-up to SPIE-IS & T / Vol. 7528 7528051-8 and SPIE-IS & T /vol. 7866 78660J-1-8.

  6. Simultaneous image reproduction on CRT screen: Moves ultrasonic sectional view and electrocardiogram curves

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    A method for simultaneous reproduction of images, requiring different amounts of time to reproduce, on a cathode ray tube (CRT) screen is disclosed. Ultrasonic sectional views and electrocardiogram curves are simultaneously reproduced on the CRT screen by producing the images on different areas of a screen with two phosphors having different persistence times and luminous colors, within the times required for the appearance of the images. In front of the area on which is produced the image requiring the shorter time is a color filter which is permeable to the color of the phosphor with the shorter persistence time by which absorbs the color of the other phosphor.

  7. Colors on Jupiter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Owen, T.; Terrile, R. J.

    1981-01-01

    The colors present in the clouds of Jupiter at the time of the Voyager encounters are described as they appear in high resolution images. It is shown that latitude, altitude and dwelltime are all critical factors in determining which colors appear where, although the identities of the responsible chromophores remain unestablished. Simultaneous ground-based 5 micron observations are used to determine the relative altitudes of the cloud systems which are characterized as white clouds, tawny clouds, dark brown cloud belts, and blue-grey hot spots in equatorial regions. Correlations between cloud color and certain latitudes have been maintained for decades, which suggests the importance of the internal energy source.

  8. Colors and contact dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Bonamonte, Domenico; Foti, Caterina; Romita, Paolo; Vestita, Michelangelo; Angelini, Gianni

    2014-01-01

    The diagnosis of skin diseases relies on several clinical signs, among which color is of paramount importance. In this review, we consider certain clinical presentations of both eczematous and noneczematous contact dermatitis in which color plays a peculiar role orientating toward the right diagnosis. The conditions that will be discussed include specific clinical-morphologic subtypes of eczematous contact dermatitis, primary melanocytic, and nonmelanocytic contact hyperchromia, black dermographism, contact chemical leukoderma, and others. Based on the physical, chemical, and biologic factors underlying a healthy skin color, the various skin shades drawing a disease picture are thoroughly debated, stressing their etiopathogenic origins and histopathologic aspects.

  9. Digital images for eternity: color microfilm as archival medium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Normand, C.; Gschwind, R.; Fornaro, P.

    2007-01-01

    In the archiving and museum communities, the long-term preservation of artworks has traditionally been guaranteed by making duplicates of the original. For photographic reproductions, digital imaging devices have now become standard, providing better quality control and lower costs than film photography. However, due to the very short life cycle of digital data, losses are unavoidable without repetitive data migrations to new file formats and storage media. We present a solution for the long-term archiving of digital images on color microfilm (Ilfochrome® Micrographic). This extremely stable and high-resolution medium, combined with the use of a novel laser film recorder is particularly well suited for this task. Due to intrinsic limitations of the film, colorimetric reproductions of the originals are not always achievable. The microfilm must be first considered as an information carrier and not primarily as an imaging medium. Color transformations taking into account the film characteristics and possible degradations of the medium due to aging are investigated. An approach making use of readily available color management tools is presented which assures the recovery of the original colors after re-digitization. An extension of this project considering the direct recording of digital information as color bit-code on the film is also introduced.

  10. Color ornaments and territory position in king penguins.

    PubMed

    Keddar, Ismaël; Jouventin, Pierre; Dobson, F Stephen

    2015-10-01

    King penguins exhibit mutual color ornamentation of feathers and beak color. They breed in dense colonies and produce a single chick every 2 years. Thus, males and females must choose partners carefully to be reproductively successful, and auricular patches of males and UV coloration of beak spots have been shown to influence mate choice. Position in the breeding colony is also important to reproductive success, with pairs on the edge of the colony less successful than those in the center. We studied the mutual ornaments, individual condition, and position of pairs in their breeding colony. Males were significantly larger than females in size, body mass, and auricular patch size. Within pairs, auricular patch size of males and females were significantly correlated, and male auricular patch size and body mass were significantly associated, suggesting a link between this ornament and male body condition. Moving from the edge to the center of the colony, pairs had larger yellow-orange auricular patches, indicating a link between this ornament and settlement in higher quality territories in the center of the colony. Pairs were also less brightly brown colored on the breast and less saturated in UV color of the beak spot. Since we observed pairs that were settling for egg laying, location in the colony may have reflected aspects of pair condition, rather than later jockeying for positioning using ornaments as signals of behavioral dominance.

  11. Recent advances in equine reproduction.

    PubMed

    Dawson, F L

    1977-01-01

    Mares rarely ovulate in winter; ovulation is induced by increase in daylight length. Ova accumulate in the oviducts of unserved mares. During pregnancy, corpora lutea accumulate; all regress together at mid pregnancy. Plasma progesterone levels rise and oestrogen levels fall towards the end of pregnancy. Methods are available for early termination of pregnancy and for induction of parturition. Pregnancy can be diagnosed efficiently by rectal examination, and by immunological assay of pregnant mare serum gonadotrophin. Service at the foal heat is associated with an increased prevalence of early embryonic death; twinning is the commonest single cause of abortion. Spontaneous prolonged dioestrus is common in summer but may be effectively treated. Bacterial endometritis may result mainly from secondary pathogenic activity by organisms of the normal uterine flora; diagnosis by endometrial smear examination is accurate and methods of treatment have improved. The virus of horse pox has been identified, and the occurrence of equine infection with Mycoplasma has been confirmed. In the male, recent work has emphasized that reproductive function is seasonal. The presence or absence of an undescended testis can now be accurately determined.

  12. Color Video Petrography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nagle, Frederick

    1981-01-01

    Describes the production and use of color videocassettes with an inexpensive, conventional TV camera and an ordinary petrographic microscope. The videocassettes are used in optical mineralogy and petrology courses. (Author/WB)

  13. Copying and Coloring

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kohl, Herb

    1977-01-01

    Investigates what appeals to students in using coloring books and whether they use them in imaginative ways. The intent was to use the information to develop creative book activities that interest and challenge students. (Author/RK)

  14. Phoenix Color Targets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    These images of three Phoenix color targets were taken on sols 1 and 2 by the Surface Stereo Imager (SSI) on board the Phoenix lander. The bottom target was imaged in approximate color (SSI's red, green, and blue filters: 600, 530, and 480 nanometers), while the others were imaged with an infrared filter (750 nanometers). All of them will be imaged many times over the mission to monitor the color calibration of the camera. The two at the top show grains 2 to 3 millimeters in size that were likely lifted to the Phoenix deck during landing. Each of the large color chips on each target contains a strong magnet to protect the interior material from Mars' magnetic dust.

    The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  15. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

    MedlinePlus

    ... Halloween Hazard: The Hidden Dangers of Buying Decorative Contact Lenses Without a Prescription Sep. 26, 2013 It ... the truth." Real People, Real Problems with Colored Contact Lenses Julian: Teenager Blinded In One Eye By ...

  16. Colors of the Sky.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bohren, Craig F.; Fraser, Alistair B.

    1985-01-01

    Explains the physical principles which result in various colors of the sky. Topics addressed include: blueness, mystical properties of water vapor, ozone, fluctuation theory of scattering, variation of purity and brightness, and red sunsets and sunrises. (DH)

  17. Chemistry, Color, and Art.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Orna, Mary Virginia

    2001-01-01

    Describes pigments and artists' colors from a chronological perspective. Explains how chemical analysis can be used to distinguish the differences between artists' palettes, identify the evolution of art, and lead to restoration of an art work. (Contains 13 references.) (YDS)

  18. Color harmonization for images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Zhen; Miao, Zhenjiang; Wan, Yanli; Wang, Zhifei

    2011-04-01

    Color harmonization is an artistic technique to adjust a set of colors in order to enhance their visual harmony so that they are aesthetically pleasing in terms of human visual perception. We present a new color harmonization method that treats the harmonization as a function optimization. For a given image, we derive a cost function based on the observation that pixels in a small window that have similar unharmonic hues should be harmonized with similar harmonic hues. By minimizing the cost function, we get a harmonized image in which the spatial coherence is preserved. A new matching function is proposed to select the best matching harmonic schemes, and a new component-based preharmonization strategy is proposed to preserve the hue distribution of the harmonized images. Our approach overcomes several shortcomings of the existing color harmonization methods. We test our algorithm with a variety of images to demonstrate the effectiveness of our approach.

  19. Glucocorticoid Regulation of Reproduction.

    PubMed

    Geraghty, Anna C; Kaufer, Daniela

    2015-01-01

    It is well accepted that stress, measured by increased glucocorticoid secretion, leads to profound reproductive dysfunction. In times of stress, glucocorticoids activate many parts of the fight or flight response, mobilizing energy and enhancing survival, while inhibiting metabolic processes that are not necessary for survival in the moment. This includes reproduction, an energetically costly procedure that is very finely regulated. In the short term, this is meant to be beneficial, so that the organism does not waste precious energy needed for survival. However, long-term inhibition can lead to persistent reproductive dysfunction, even if no longer stressed. This response is mediated by the increased levels of circulating glucocorticoids, which orchestrate complex inhibition of the entire reproductive axis. Stress and glucocorticoids exhibits both central and peripheral inhibition of the reproductive hormonal axis. While this has long been recognized as an issue, understanding the complex signaling mechanism behind this inhibition remains somewhat of a mystery. What makes this especially difficult is attempting to differentiate the many parts of both of these hormonal axes, and new neuropeptide discoveries in the last decade in the reproductive field have added even more complexity to an already complicated system. Glucocorticoids (GCs) and other hormones within the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis (as well as contributors in the sympathetic system) can modulate the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis at all levels-GCs can inhibit release of GnRH from the hypothalamus, inhibit gonadotropin synthesis and release in the pituitary, and inhibit testosterone synthesis and release from the gonads, while also influencing gametogenesis and sexual behavior. This chapter is not an exhaustive review of all the known literature, however is aimed at giving a brief look at both the central and peripheral effects of glucocorticoids on the reproductive function.

  20. Color Laser Microscope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Awamura, D.; Ode, T.; Yonezawa, M.

    1987-04-01

    A color laser microscope utilizing a new color laser imaging system has been developed for the visual inspection of semiconductors. The light source, produced by three lasers (Red; He-Ne, Green; Ar, Blue; He-Cd), is deflected horizontally by an AOD (Acoustic Optical Deflector) and vertically by a vibration mirror. The laser beam is focused in a small spot which is scanned over the sample at high speed. The light reflected back from the sample is reformed to contain linear information by returning to the original vibration mirror. The linear light is guided to the CCD image sensor where it is converted into a video signal. Individual CCD image sensors are used for each of the three R, G, or B color image signals. The confocal optical system with its laser light source yields a color TV monitor image with no flaring and a much sharper resolution than that of the conventional optical microscope. The AOD makes possible a high speed laser scan and a NTSC or PAL TV video signal is produced in real time without any video memory. Since the light source is composed of R, G, and B laser beams, color separation superior to that of white light illumination is achieved. Because of the photometric linearity of the image detector, the R, G, and B outputs of the system are most suitably used for hue analysis. The CCD linear image sensors in the optical system produce no geometrical distortion, and good color registration is available principally. The output signal can be used for high accuracy line width measuring. The many features of the color laser microscope make it ideally suited for the visual inspection of semiconductor processing. A number of these systems have already been installed in such a capacity. The Color Laser Microscope can also be a very useful tool for the fields of material engineering and biotechnology.

  1. Implementing color transformation across media based on color appearance model by neural networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chai, Binghua; Liao, Ningfang; Zhao, Dazun

    2005-02-01

    Interest in color appearance models (CAM) has been greatly stimulated recently by the need in handling digital images. This article demonstrates that a multi-layers feed-forward artificial neural network with the error back-propagation algorithm was used to approximate color appearance model CIECAM02 with different white points and different media. For the prediction of the forward and inverse model respectively, in order to realize accurate mapping, especially to the inverse model, color spaces conversion between input color space and output color space (that is cylindrical coordinates and rectangular coordinates) was implemented before training the neural networks. Meanwhile we approximated the combination of the forward and inverse CIECAM02 models employing a neural network for different conditions including whites (D65 or D50) and media (booth and CRT) in order to realize the color transformation from one medium to another conveniently. The experimental results indicated that the prediction could satisfy the accuracy requirement. So in practice we can choose these two kinds of different prediction ways to meet our need according to different situations.

  2. Color-Blindness Study: Color Discrimination on the TICCIT System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Asay, Calvin S.; Schneider, Edward W.

    The question studied whether the specific seven TICCIT system colors used within color coding schemes can be a source of confusion, or not seen at all, by the color-blind segment of target populations. Subjects were 11 color-blind and three normally sighted students at Brigham Young University. After a preliminary training exercise to acquaint the…

  3. Color planner for designers based on color emotions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Ka-Man; Xin, John H.; Taylor, Gail

    2002-06-01

    During the color perception process, an associated feeling or emotion is induced in our brains, and this kind of emotion is termed as 'color emotion.' The researchers in the field of color emotions have put many efforts in quantifying color emotions with the standard color specifications and evaluating the influence of hue, lightness and chroma to the color emotions of human beings. In this study, a color planner was derived according to these findings so that the correlation of color emotions and standard color specifications was clearly indicated. Since people of different nationalities usually have different color emotions as different cultural and traditional backgrounds, the subjects in this study were all native Hong Kong Chinese and the color emotion words were all written in Chinese language in the visual assessments. Through the color planner, the designers from different areas, no matter fashion, graphic, interior or web site etc., can select suitable colors for inducing target color emotions to the customers or product-users since different colors convey different meanings to them. In addition, the designers can enhance the functionality and increase the attractiveness of their designed products by selecting suitable colors.

  4. Color television system using single gun color cathode ray tube

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gaiser, E. E.; Hilborn, E. H.

    1970-01-01

    Two-primary color and single gun system provides quality differential color and variation in brightness for specific colors by varying current and controlling duty cycle of electron beam. Number of video amplifiers, deflection circuits, and guns required to display color TV picture is reduced and less complex tube is required.

  5. Color measurement and discrimination

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wandell, B. A.

    1985-01-01

    Theories of color measurement attempt to provide a quantative means for predicting whether two lights will be discriminable to an average observer. All color measurement theories can be characterized as follows: suppose lights a and b evoke responses from three color channels characterized as vectors, v(a) and v(b); the vector difference v(a) - v(b) corresponds to a set of channel responses that would be generated by some real light, call it *. According to theory a and b will be discriminable when * is detectable. A detailed development and test of the classic color measurement approach are reported. In the absence of a luminance component in the test stimuli, a and b, the theory holds well. In the presence of a luminance component, the theory is clearly false. When a luminance component is present discrimination judgements depend largely on whether the lights being discriminated fall in separate, categorical regions of color space. The results suggest that sensory estimation of surface color uses different methods, and the choice of method depends upon properties of the image. When there is significant luminance variation a categorical method is used, while in the absence of significant luminance variation judgments are continuous and consistant with the measurement approach.

  6. A real-time error-free color-correction facility for digital consumers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shaw, Rodney

    2008-01-01

    It has been well known since the earliest days of color photography that color-balance in general, and facial reproduction (flesh tones) in particular, are of dominant interest to the consumer, and significant research resources have been expended in satisfying this need. The general problem is a difficult one, spanning the factors that govern perception and personal preference, the physics and chemistry of color reproduction, as well as wide field of color measurement specification, and analysis. However, with the advent of digital photography and its widespread acceptance in the consumer market, and with the possibility of a much greater degree of individual control over color reproduction, the field is taking on a new consumer-driven impetus, and the provision of user facilities for preferred color choice now constitutes an intense field of research. In addition, due to the conveniences of digital technology, the collection of large data bases and statistics relating to individual color preferences have now become a relatively straightforward operation. Using a consumer preference approach of this type, we have developed a user-friendly facility whereby unskilled consumers may manipulate the color of their personal digital images according to their preferred choice. By virtue of its ease of operation and the real-time nature of the color-correction transforms, this facility can readily be inserted anywhere a consumer interacts with a digital image, from camera, printer, or scanner, to web or photo-kiosk. Here the underlying scientific principles are explored in detail, and these are related to the practical color-preference outcomes. Examples are given of the application to the correction of images with unsatisfactory color balance, and especially to flesh tones and faces, and the nature of the consumer controls and their corresponding image transformations are explored.

  7. Red, green, blue equals 1, 2, 3: Digit-color synesthetes can use structured digit information to boost recall of color sequences.

    PubMed

    Teichmann, A Lina; Nieuwenstein, Mark R; Rich, Anina N

    2015-01-01

    Digit-color synesthetes report experiencing colors when perceiving letters and digits. The conscious experience is typically unidirectional (e.g., digits elicit colors but not vice versa) but recent evidence shows subtle bidirectional effects. We examined whether short-term memory for colors could be affected by the order of presentation reflecting more or less structure in the associated digits. We presented a stream of colored squares and asked participants to report the colors in order. The colors matched each synesthete's colors for digits 1-9 and the order of the colors corresponded either to a sequence of numbers (e.g., [red, green, blue] if 1 = red, 2 = green, 3 = blue) or no systematic sequence. The results showed that synesthetes recalled sequential color sequences more accurately than pseudo-randomized colors, whereas no such effect was found for the non-synesthetic controls. Synesthetes did not differ from non-synesthetic controls in recall of color sequences overall, providing no evidence of a general advantage in memory for serial recall of colors.

  8. Reproductive decisions after fetal genetic counselling.

    PubMed

    Pergament, Eugene; Pergament, Deborah

    2012-10-01

    A broad range of testing modalities for fetal genetic disease has been established. These include carrier screening for single-gene mutations, first-trimester and second-trimester screening for chromosome abnormalities and open neural-tube defects, prenatal diagnosis by means of chorionic villus sampling and amniocentesis, and preimplantation genetic diagnosis. Reproductive decisions before and after fetal genetic counselling represent the culmination of a dynamic interaction between prospective parents, obstetrician and genetic counsellor. The decision to undergo genetic testing before and after genetic counselling is influenced by a host of interrelated factors, including patient-partner and family relationships, patient-physician communication, societal mores, religious beliefs, and the media. Because of the complexity of personal and societal factors involved, it is not surprising that genetic counselling concerning reproductive decision-making must be individualised. A limited number of principles, guidelines and standards apply when counselling about testing for fetal genetic disease. These principles are that genetic counselling should be non-directive and unbiased and that parental decisions should be supported regardless of the reproductive choice. A critical responsibility of the obstetrician and genetic counsellor is to provide accurate and objective information about the implications, advantages, disadvantages and consequences of any genetic testing applied to prospective parents and their fetuses. These principles and responsibilities will be tested as newer technologies, such as array comparative genome hybridisation, non-invasive prenatal diagnosis and sequencing of the entire genome are introduced into the field of reproductive genetics and become routine practice.

  9. A method of determining spectral dye densities in color films

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Friederichs, G. A.; Scarpace, F. L.

    1977-01-01

    A mathematical analysis technique called characteristic vector analysis, reported by Simonds (1963), is used to determine spectral dye densities in multiemulsion film such as color or color-IR imagery. The technique involves examining a number of sets of multivariate data and determining linear transformations of these data to a smaller number of parameters which contain essentially all of the information contained in the original set of data. The steps involved in the actual procedure are outlined. It is shown that integral spectral density measurements of a large number of different color samples can be accurately reconstructed from the calculated spectral dye densities.

  10. Franchising Reproductive Health Services

    PubMed Central

    Stephenson, Rob; Tsui, Amy Ong; Sulzbach, Sara; Bardsley, Phil; Bekele, Getachew; Giday, Tilahun; Ahmed, Rehana; Gopalkrishnan, Gopi; Feyesitan, Bamikale

    2004-01-01

    Objectives Networks of franchised health establishments, providing a standardized set of services, are being implemented in developing countries. This article examines associations between franchise membership and family planning and reproductive health outcomes for both the member provider and the client. Methods Regression models are fitted examining associations between franchise membership and family planning and reproductive health outcomes at the service provider and client levels in three settings. Results Franchising has a positive association with both general and family planning client volumes, and the number of family planning brands available. Similar associations with franchise membership are not found for reproductive health service outcomes. In some settings, client satisfaction is higher at franchised than other types of health establishments, although the association between franchise membership and client outcomes varies across the settings. Conclusions Franchise membership has apparent benefits for both the provider and the client, providing an opportunity to expand access to reproductive health services, although greater attention is needed to shift the focus from family planning to a broader reproductive health context. PMID:15544644

  11. Adipokines in human reproduction.

    PubMed

    Dupont, Joëlle; Pollet-Villard, Xavier; Reverchon, Maxime; Mellouk, Namya; Levy, Rachel

    2015-10-01

    Adipose tissue communicates with other central and peripheral organs by the synthesis and release of substances called adipokines. The most studied adipokine is leptin but others have been recently identified including resistin, adiponectin, chemerin, omentin and visfatin. These adipokines have a critical role in the development of obesity-related complications and inflammatory conditions. However, they are also involved in other functions in the organism including reproductive functions. Indeed, many groups have demonstrated that adipokine receptors, such as adiponectin and chemerin, but also adipokines themselves (adiponectin, chemerin, resistin, visfatin and omentin) are expressed in human peripheral reproductive tissues and that these adipokines are likely to exert direct effects on these tissues. After a brief description of these new adipokines, an overview of their actions in different human reproductive organs (hypothalamus, pituitary, ovary, testis, uterus and placenta) will be presented. Finally, comments will be made on the eventual alterations of these adipokines in reproductive disorders, with special attention to polycystic ovary syndrome, a disease characterized by dysfunction of gonadal axis and systemic nerve endocrine metabolic network with a prevalence of up to 10% in women of reproductive age.

  12. Melatonin and male reproduction.

    PubMed

    Li, Chunjin; Zhou, Xu

    2015-06-15

    Melatonin is a neurohormone secreted by the pineal gland whose concentrations in the body are regulated by both the dark-light and seasonal cycles. The reproductive function of seasonal breeding animals is clearly influenced by the circadian variation in melatonin levels. Moreover, a growing body of evidence indicates that melatonin has important effects in the reproduction of some non-seasonal breeding animals. In males, melatonin affects reproductive regulation in three main ways. First, it regulates the secretion of two key neurohormones, GnRH and LH. Second, it regulates testosterone synthesis and testicular maturation. Third, as a potent free radical scavenger that is both lipophilic and hydrophilic, it prevents testicular damage caused by environmental toxins or inflammation. This review summarizes the existing data on the possible biological roles of melatonin in male reproduction. Overall, the literature data indicate that melatonin affects the secretion of both gonadotropins and testosterone while also improving sperm quality. This implies that it has important effects on the regulation of testicular development and male reproduction.

  13. How flatbed scanners upset accurate film dosimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Battum, L. J.; Huizenga, H.; Verdaasdonk, R. M.; Heukelom, S.

    2016-01-01

    Film is an excellent dosimeter for verification of dose distributions due to its high spatial resolution. Irradiated film can be digitized with low-cost, transmission, flatbed scanners. However, a disadvantage is their lateral scan effect (LSE): a scanner readout change over its lateral scan axis. Although anisotropic light scattering was presented as the origin of the LSE, this paper presents an alternative cause. Hereto, LSE for two flatbed scanners (Epson 1680 Expression Pro and Epson 10000XL), and Gafchromic film (EBT, EBT2, EBT3) was investigated, focused on three effects: cross talk, optical path length and polarization. Cross talk was examined using triangular sheets of various optical densities. The optical path length effect was studied using absorptive and reflective neutral density filters with well-defined optical characteristics (OD range 0.2-2.0). Linear polarizer sheets were used to investigate light polarization on the CCD signal in absence and presence of (un)irradiated Gafchromic film. Film dose values ranged between 0.2 to 9 Gy, i.e. an optical density range between 0.25 to 1.1. Measurements were performed in the scanner’s transmission mode, with red-green-blue channels. LSE was found to depend on scanner construction and film type. Its magnitude depends on dose: for 9 Gy increasing up to 14% at maximum lateral position. Cross talk was only significant in high contrast regions, up to 2% for very small fields. The optical path length effect introduced by film on the scanner causes 3% for pixels in the extreme lateral position. Light polarization due to film and the scanner’s optical mirror system is the main contributor, different in magnitude for the red, green and blue channel. We concluded that any Gafchromic EBT type film scanned with a flatbed scanner will face these optical effects. Accurate dosimetry requires correction of LSE, therefore, determination of the LSE per color channel and dose delivered to the film.

  14. On numerically accurate finite element

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nagtegaal, J. C.; Parks, D. M.; Rice, J. R.

    1974-01-01

    A general criterion for testing a mesh with topologically similar repeat units is given, and the analysis shows that only a few conventional element types and arrangements are, or can be made suitable for computations in the fully plastic range. Further, a new variational principle, which can easily and simply be incorporated into an existing finite element program, is presented. This allows accurate computations to be made even for element designs that would not normally be suitable. Numerical results are given for three plane strain problems, namely pure bending of a beam, a thick-walled tube under pressure, and a deep double edge cracked tensile specimen. The effects of various element designs and of the new variational procedure are illustrated. Elastic-plastic computation at finite strain are discussed.

  15. Dinosaur Reproduction and Parenting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horner, John R.

    Non-avian dinosaur reproductive and parenting behaviors were mostly similar to those of extant archosaurs. Non-avian dinosaurs were probably sexually dimorphic and some may have engaged in hierarchical rituals. Non-avian coelurosaurs (e.g. Troodontidae, Oviraptorosauria) had two active oviducts, each of which produced single eggs on a daily or greater time scale. The eggs of non-coelurosaurian dinosaurs (e.g. Ornithischia, Sauropoda) were incubated in soils, whereas the eggs of non-avian coelurosaurs (e.g. Troodon, Oviraptor) were incubated with a combination of soil and direct parental contact. Parental attention to the young was variable, ranging from protection from predators to possible parental feeding of nest-bound hatchlings. Semi-altricial hadrosaur hatchlings exited their respective nests near the time of their first linear doubling. Some reproductive behaviors, once thought exclusive to Aves, arose first in non-avian dinosaurs. The success of the Dinosauria may be related to reproductive strategies.

  16. Biofluidmechanics of Reproduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fauci, Lisa J.; Dillon, Robert

    2006-01-01

    Mammalian fertilization requires the coordinated activity of motile spermatozoa, muscular contractions of the uterus and oviduct, as well as ciliary beating. These elastic structures generate forces that drive fluid motion, but their configurations are, in turn, determined by the fluid dynamics. We review the basic fluid mechanical aspects of reproduction, including flagellar/ciliary beating and peristalsis. We report on recent biological studies that have shed light on the relative importance of the mechanical ingredients of reproduction. In particular, we examine sperm motility in the reproductive tract, ovum pickup and transport in the oviduct, as well as sperm-egg interactions. We review recent advances in understanding the internal mechanics of cilia and flagella, flagellar surface interaction, sperm motility in complex fluids, and the role of fluid dynamics in embryo transfer. We outline promising computational fluid dynamics frameworks that may be used to investigate these complex, fluid-structure interactions.

  17. Tribbles role in reproduction.

    PubMed

    Basatvat, Shaghayegh; Carter, Deborah Angela Louise; Kiss-Toth, Endre; Fazeli, Alireza

    2015-10-01

    Tribbles (TRIB) proteins, a family of evolutionary conserved psuedokinase proteins, modulate various signalling pathways within the cell. The regulatory roles of TRIB make them an important part of a number of biological processes ranging from cell proliferation to metabolism, immunity, inflammation and carcinogenesis. Innate immune system plays a pivotal role during the regulation of reproductive processes that allows successful creation of an offspring. Its involvement initiates from fertilization of the oocyte by spermatozoon and lasts throughout early embryonic development, pregnancy and labour. Therefore, there is a close cooperation between the reproductive system and the innate immune system. Evidence from our lab has demonstrated that improper activation of the innate immune system can reduce embryo implantation, thus leading to infertility. Therefore, control mechanisms regulating the innate immune system function can be critical for successful reproductive events.

  18. Color in Astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brecher, K.

    2002-05-01

    The vocabulary of astronomy is riddled with color terms. Stars are referred to as red or blue - even brown -- though rarely green. Astronomers say light from a star can be "blueshifted" or that it can be "reddened". Color, however, is not a simple one-dimensional physical parameter equal to wavelength or frequency. It is a complex, psychophysical phenomenon involving at least three degrees of freedom - hue, saturation and brightness -- as well as observational context. Nonetheless, many astronomers treat hue alone or hue plus saturation as the same thing as color. A recent report on "the color of the universe" is a case in point (Baldry and Glazebrook, Bull. Am. As. Soc., 34, No. 1, 571, 2002). Even discounting the authors' initial and (possibly) subsequent errors in arriving at a "color" associated with the composite spectrum derived from the 2dF Galaxy Redshift Survey (first reported as "pale turquoise", then "beige"), the method of viewing the light was left vague, and context is important. For example, consider the question "What color is the Moon?" When viewed from Earth, the Moon appears white against the black sky. Place a piece of "average" lunar material in a lighted room, and it will appear dark gray. To most human observers, the 2000 or so naked eye stars observable from the northern hemisphere all appear white, with the few exceptions which look reddish/orange such as Betelgeuse, Arcturus, Aldeberan, Antares and Pollux. Yet the dimmer double star companion to Alberio can appear bluish when viewed beside its much brighter yellowish/orange neighbor if both are viewed by eye through a small aperture, slightly defocused telescope. This presentation will explore several visual phenomena that can help clarify the concept of color in astronomy. Supported in part by NSF grant # DUE-9950551 for "Project LITE: Light Inquiry Through Experiments".

  19. Color Addition and Subtraction Apps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruiz, Frances; Ruiz, Michael J.

    2015-10-01

    Color addition and subtraction apps in HTML5 have been developed for students as an online hands-on experience so that they can more easily master principles introduced through traditional classroom demonstrations. The evolution of the additive RGB color model is traced through the early IBM color adapters so that students can proceed step by step in understanding mathematical representations of RGB color. Finally, color addition and subtraction are presented for the X11 colors from web design to illustrate yet another real-life application of color mixing.

  20. Groundtruth approach to accurate quantitation of fluorescence microarrays

    SciTech Connect

    Mascio-Kegelmeyer, L; Tomascik-Cheeseman, L; Burnett, M S; van Hummelen, P; Wyrobek, A J

    2000-12-01

    To more accurately measure fluorescent signals from microarrays, we calibrated our acquisition and analysis systems by using groundtruth samples comprised of known quantities of red and green gene-specific DNA probes hybridized to cDNA targets. We imaged the slides with a full-field, white light CCD imager and analyzed them with our custom analysis software. Here we compare, for multiple genes, results obtained with and without preprocessing (alignment, color crosstalk compensation, dark field subtraction, and integration time). We also evaluate the accuracy of various image processing and analysis techniques (background subtraction, segmentation, quantitation and normalization). This methodology calibrates and validates our system for accurate quantitative measurement of microarrays. Specifically, we show that preprocessing the images produces results significantly closer to the known ground-truth for these samples.

  1. Commercial printing and electronic color printing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Webb, Joseph W.

    1995-04-01

    Technologies such as Xeikon, Indigo, and the Heidelberg/Presstek GTO-DI can change both the way print buyers may purchase printed material and the way printers and trade services respond to changing demands. Our recent study surveys the graphic arts industry for their current views of these new products and provides forecasts of installations and usage with breakdowns by market segment and size of firm. The acceptance of desktop publishing and electronic prepress have not only paved the way for a totally electronic printing process, but it has broadened the base of people who develop color originals for reproduction. Electronic printing adds the ability to customize jobs on the fly. How print providers will respond to the impact of electronic color printing depends on how each firm perceives the 'threat.' Most printing companies are run by entrepreneurial individuals who have, as their highest priority, their own economic survival. Service bureaus are already looking at electronic color printing as yet another way to differentiate their businesses. The study was based on a mail survey with 682 responses from graphic arts firms, interviews with printers, suppliers, associations and industry executives, and detailed secondary research. Results of a new survey in progress in January 1995 is also presented.

  2. Reproductive rights under attack.

    PubMed

    Mcdonald, K

    1995-01-01

    Women's groups, politicians, nongovernmental organizations, funding groups, and donor countries must all be lobbied with the message that sexual and reproductive health issues are inextricably linked to women in development, education, and future economic strength of nations worldwide. In the Beijing Nongovernmental Organization (NGO) Forum the draft Plan of Action had 35% of its language bracketed and subject to negotiation in Beijing. The previous International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD) in Cairo had only 15% of its language bracketed. Much of the language bracketed for Beijing had already been fully agreed upon before the Cairo conference. The bracketed language was in the health and human rights sections, and most of the language pertained to sexual and reproductive health. The increase in controversy is due to an opposition better organized in Beijing than it had been in Cairo, due to the opposition's failure to recognize the implications of the Cairo declarations on women, men, and children, and due to the opposition's general intolerance of sexual and reproductive issues. The major factor, however, was the linking of women's rights with sexual and reproductive health issues. Family planners joined with women's rights groups, which had always promoted women's control over their bodies as the cornerstone of equality. This connection was interpreted as a threat to the social order by conservative societies. NGO participants included 1400 people representing 170 countries. The NGO anti-abortion contingent was well-funded, well-organized, and large. Lobbying was conducted in an effort to convince people to oppose any language pertaining to gender, sexual and reproductive health, and adolescent rights. Anti-abortion lobbyists also rifled through documents of pro-choice participants. In Canada and the United States anti-abortion groups are lobbying hard to overturn the Cairo Plan of Action and to expand their efforts internationally among

  3. Feminism and reproductive technologies.

    PubMed

    Callahan, Joan C

    1994-01-01

    ... Rowland is a social scientist and a radical feminist, and she has undertaken the task of making readers think twice about reproductive technologies. If a reader isn't thinking twice, it will not do to blame it on Rowland and the shortcomings of her book. She has a good deal to say that is extremely important and that needs to be considered by anyone who is interested in the moral issues, in general, and the issues for women and children, in particular, that are raised by the new and emerging reproductive technologies. Her book should be widely read. And it should generate the worries it is written to generate.

  4. Enhancing the color gamut of white displays using novel deep-blue organic fluorescent dyes to form color-changed thin films with improved efficiency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Wei-Ting; Huang, Wen-Yao

    2012-10-01

    This study used the novel fluorescence based deep-blue-emitting molecule BPVPDA in an organic fluorescent color thin film to exhibit deep blue color with CIE coordinates of (0.13, 0.16). The developed original organic RGB color thin film technology enables the optimization of the distinctive features of an organic light emitting diode (OLED) and thin-film-transistor (TFT) LCD display. The color filter structure maintains the same high resolution to obtain a higher level of brightness in comparison with conventional organic RGB color thin film. The image-processing engine is designed to achieve a sharp text image for a TFT LCD with organic color thin films. The organic color thin films structure uses an organic dye dopant in a limpid photoresist. With this technology, the following characteristics can be obtained: 1. high color reproduction of gamut ratio, and 2. improved luminous efficiency with organic color fluorescent thin film. This performance is among the best results ever reported for a color-filter used on TFT-LCD or OLED.

  5. An Effective Color Quantization Method Using Octree-Based Self-Organizing Maps.

    PubMed

    Park, Hyun Jun; Kim, Kwang Baek; Cha, Eui-Young

    2016-01-01

    Color quantization is an essential technique in color image processing, which has been continuously researched. It is often used, in particular, as preprocessing for many applications. Self-Organizing Map (SOM) color quantization is one of the most effective methods. However, it is inefficient for obtaining accurate results when it performs quantization with too few colors. In this paper, we present a more effective color quantization algorithm that reduces the number of colors to a small number by using octree quantization. This generates more natural results with less difference from the original image. The proposed method is evaluated by comparing it with well-known quantization methods. The experimental results show that the proposed method is more effective than other methods when using a small number of colors to quantize the colors. Also, it takes only 71.73% of the processing time of the conventional SOM method.

  6. An Effective Color Quantization Method Using Octree-Based Self-Organizing Maps

    PubMed Central

    Park, Hyun Jun; Kim, Kwang Baek; Cha, Eui-Young

    2016-01-01

    Color quantization is an essential technique in color image processing, which has been continuously researched. It is often used, in particular, as preprocessing for many applications. Self-Organizing Map (SOM) color quantization is one of the most effective methods. However, it is inefficient for obtaining accurate results when it performs quantization with too few colors. In this paper, we present a more effective color quantization algorithm that reduces the number of colors to a small number by using octree quantization. This generates more natural results with less difference from the original image. The proposed method is evaluated by comparing it with well-known quantization methods. The experimental results show that the proposed method is more effective than other methods when using a small number of colors to quantize the colors. Also, it takes only 71.73% of the processing time of the conventional SOM method. PMID:26884748

  7. Color Memory of University Students: Influence of Color Experience and Color Characteristic

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bynum, Carlisle; Epps, Helen H.; Kaya, Naz

    2006-01-01

    The ability to select a previously viewed color specimen from an array of specimens that differ in hue, value, or chroma varies among individuals, and may be related to one's basic color discrimination ability or to prior experience with color. This study investigated short-term color memory of 40 college students, 20 of whom were interior design…

  8. Precision of Synesthetic Color Matching Resembles That for Recollected Colors Rather than Physical Colors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arnold, Derek H.; Wegener, Signy V.; Brown, Francesca; Mattingley, Jason B.

    2012-01-01

    Grapheme-color synesthesia is an atypical condition in which individuals experience sensations of color when reading printed graphemes such as letters and digits. For some grapheme-color synesthetes, seeing a printed grapheme triggers a sensation of color, but "hearing" the name of a grapheme does not. This dissociation allowed us to…

  9. High-definition color image in dye thermal transfer printing by laser heating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kitamura, Takashi

    1999-12-01

    In laser thermal transfer printing using dye sublimation type medium, a high definition and continuous tone image can be obtained easily because the laser beam is focused to small spot and heat energy can be controlled by the pulse width modulation of laser light. The donor ink sheet is composed of the laser absorbing layer and sublimation dye layer. The tone reproduction was depend on the mixture ratio of dye to binder and thickness of ink layer. The four color ink sheets such as cyan, magenta, yellow and black were prepared for color printing image which have a high resolution and good continuous tone reproduction using sublimation dye transfer printing by laser heating.

  10. [Reproduction of trematode Leucochloridium paradoxum sporocysts (Trematoda: Leucochloridiidae)].

    PubMed

    Ataev, G L; Dobrovol'skiĭ, A A; Tokmakova, A S

    2013-01-01

    The histological study of the trematoda sporocysts Leucochloridium paradoxum confirmed the presence of three morphological zones in it: 1) central part (reproductive), where embryos are forming, 2) narrow tubes through which the embryos penetrate in colored broodsacs (3), where the development of metecercaria completes. It was found that germinal mass only is the reproduction organ of the sporocysts, located in reproductive zone. There are young (without embryos), mature (with embryos) and degenerated germinal masses. So, in the process of sporocysts development the centre of multiplication of germinal elements was changed. The old parts of central part are degenerated, but the new ones with young germinal masses appear. The multiplication of generative elements does not take place in the broodsacs which are breeding cameras functionally.

  11. Color matching using dot gain and intensity compensation for different papers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Cheol-Hee; Lee, Chae-Soo; Kim, Kyeong-Man; Ha, Yeong-Ho

    1997-04-01

    In a drop-on-demand thermal ink-jet printer, the dot size of an ink droplet expelled from printer depends on the absorption of the paper. This causes severe differences between output images on the different paper materials. In this paper, the color matching algorithm for different papers is proposed. To achieve corresponding color reproduction, dot gain compensation based on saturation was applied to predict color reproduction on printer. If the dot gain of pigment is increased, the white portion of paper decreases while the saturation value increases monotonically. As the result of dot gain compensation, intensity change may be appeared. Therefore, an intensity compensation without any hue variation is followed to match the colors of different substrates.

  12. Accurate ab Initio Spin Densities.

    PubMed

    Boguslawski, Katharina; Marti, Konrad H; Legeza, Ors; Reiher, Markus

    2012-06-12

    We present an approach for the calculation of spin density distributions for molecules that require very large active spaces for a qualitatively correct description of their electronic structure. Our approach is based on the density-matrix renormalization group (DMRG) algorithm to calculate the spin density matrix elements as a basic quantity for the spatially resolved spin density distribution. The spin density matrix elements are directly determined from the second-quantized elementary operators optimized by the DMRG algorithm. As an analytic convergence criterion for the spin density distribution, we employ our recently developed sampling-reconstruction scheme [J. Chem. Phys.2011, 134, 224101] to build an accurate complete-active-space configuration-interaction (CASCI) wave function from the optimized matrix product states. The spin density matrix elements can then also be determined as an expectation value employing the reconstructed wave function expansion. Furthermore, the explicit reconstruction of a CASCI-type wave function provides insight into chemically interesting features of the molecule under study such as the distribution of α and β electrons in terms of Slater determinants, CI coefficients, and natural orbitals. The methodology is applied to an iron nitrosyl complex which we have identified as a challenging system for standard approaches [J. Chem. Theory Comput.2011, 7, 2740].

  13. Reproductive Market Values Explain Post-reproductive Lifespans in Men.

    PubMed

    Vinicius, Lucio; Migliano, Andrea Bamberg

    2016-03-01

    Post-reproductive lifespans (PRLSs) of men vary across traditional societies. We argue that if sexual selection operates on male age-dependent resource availability (or 'reproductive market values') the result is variation in male late-life reproduction across subsistence systems. This perspective highlights the uniqueness of PRLS in both women and men.

  14. Male Reproductive Toxicology: Environmental Exposures vs Reproductive Competence

    EPA Science Inventory

    Like the lecture this chapter begins with an overview of male reproductive biology and transitions into male reproductive toxicology. It ends with a brief discussion of the strengths and weaknesses in male reproductive toxicology and epidemiology today. This chapter is highly il...

  15. PROCESS FOR COLORING DIAMONDS

    DOEpatents

    Dugdale, R.A.

    1960-07-19

    A process is given for coloring substantially colorless diamonds in the blue to blue-green range and comprises the steps of irradiating the colorless diamonds with electrons having an energy within the range 0.5 to 2 Mev to obtain an integrated electron flux of between 1 and 2 x 10/sup 18/ thc diamonds may be irradiated 1 hr when they take on a blue color with a slight green tint: After being heated at about 500 deg C for half an hour they become pure blue. Electrons within this energy range contam sufficient energy to displace the diamond atoms from their normal lattice sites into interstitial sites, thereby causing the color changes.

  16. Color education in architecture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Unver, Rengin

    2002-06-01

    Architecture is an interdisciplinary profession that combines and uses the elements of various major fields such as humanities, social and physical sciences, technology and creative arts. The main aim of architectural education is to enable students acquire the skills to create designs sufficient both aesthetically and technically. The goals of the under graduate program can be summarized as; the information transfer on subjects and problems related to the application of the profession, the acquisition of relevant skills, and information on specialist subjects. Color is one of the most important design parameters every architect has to use. Architect candidates should be equipped in the field of color just as they are in other relevant subjects. This paper deals with the significance, goals, methods and the place of color education in the undergraduate program of architectural education.

  17. Ethics of Reproductive Engineering

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buuck, R. John

    1977-01-01

    Artificial insemination, in vitro fertilization, artificial placentas, and cloning are examined from a ethical viewpoint. The moral, social, and legal implications of reproductive engineering are considered important to biology as well as medicine. The author suggests that these ethical issues should be included in the biology curriculum and lists…

  18. Telomeres and human reproduction.

    PubMed

    Kalmbach, Keri Horan; Fontes Antunes, Danielle Mota; Dracxler, Roberta Caetano; Knier, Taylor Warner; Seth-Smith, Michelle Louise; Wang, Fang; Liu, Lin; Keefe, David Lawrence

    2013-01-01

    Telomeres mediate biologic aging in organisms as diverse as plants, yeast, and mammals. We propose a telomere theory of reproductive aging that posits telomere shortening in the female germ line as the primary driver of reproductive aging in women. Experimental shortening of telomeres in mice, which normally do not exhibit appreciable oocyte aging, and which have exceptionally long telomeres, recapitulates the aging phenotype of human oocytes. Telomere shortening in mice reduces synapsis and chiasmata, increases embryo fragmentation, cell cycle arrest, apoptosis, spindle dysmorphologies, and chromosome abnormalities. Telomeres are shorter in the oocytes from women undergoing in vitro fertilization, who then produce fragmented, aneuploid embryos that fail to implant. In contrast, the testes are replete with spermatogonia that can rejuvenate telomere reserves throughout the life of the man by expressing telomerase. Differences in telomere dynamics across the life span of men and women may have evolved because of the difference in the inherent risks of aging on reproduction between men and women. Additionally, growing evidence links altered telomere biology to endometriosis and gynecologic cancers, thus future studies should examine the role of telomeres in pathologies of the reproductive tract.

  19. Male Reproductive System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turkington, B. A.

    This autoinstructional lesson deals with the study of the human body with emphasis on the life process of reproduction. It is a learning activity included in high school biology or health education classes. The behavioral objectives are listed and the equipment and materials needed to help the student gain these objectives are also included in the…

  20. Female Reproductive System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hodge, N. J.

    This autoinstructional lesson can be used with health education and/or biology classes in a high school curriculum. It deals with the study of human development with emphasis on the female reproductive organs and cycles. The behavioral objectives are given, and the materials and equipment needed to gain these objectives are itemized. Fifteen…

  1. Melatonin and female reproduction.

    PubMed

    Tamura, Hiroshi; Takasaki, Akihisa; Taketani, Toshiaki; Tanabe, Manabu; Lee, Lifa; Tamura, Isao; Maekawa, Ryo; Aasada, Hiromi; Yamagata, Yoshiaki; Sugino, Norihiro

    2014-01-01

    Melatonin (N-acetyl-5-methoxytryptamine) is secreted during the dark hours at night by the pineal gland. After entering the circulation, melatonin acts as an endocrine factor and a chemical messenger of light and darkness. It regulates a variety of important central and peripheral actions related to circadian rhythms and reproduction. It also affects the brain, immune, gastrointestinal, cardiovascular, renal, bone and endocrine functions and acts as an oncostatic and anti-aging molecule. Many of melatonin's actions are mediated through interactions with specific membrane-bound receptors expressed not only in the central nervous system, but also in peripheral tissues. Melatonin also acts through non-receptor-mediated mechanisms, for example serving as a scavenger for reactive oxygen species and reactive nitrogen species. At both physiological and pharmacological concentrations, melatonin attenuates and counteracts oxidative stress and regulates cellular metabolism. Growing scientific evidence of reproductive physiology supports the role of melatonin in human reproduction. This review was conducted to investigate the effects of melatonin on female reproduction and to summarize our findings in this field.

  2. Adaptive color correction based on object color classification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kotera, Hiroaki; Morimoto, Tetsuro; Yasue, Nobuyuki; Saito, Ryoichi

    1998-09-01

    An adaptive color management strategy depending on the image contents is proposed. Pictorial color image is classified into different object areas with clustered color distribution. Euclidian or Mahalanobis color distance measures, and maximum likelihood method based on Bayesian decision rule, are introduced to the classification. After the classification process, each clustered pixels are projected onto principal component space by Hotelling transform and the color corrections are performed for the principal components to be matched each other in between the individual clustered color areas of original and printed images.

  3. Preparing for Assisted Reproductive Technology

    MedlinePlus

    ... CDC Cancel Submit Search The CDC Assisted Reproductive Technology (ART) Note: Javascript is disabled or is not ... visit this page: About CDC.gov . Assisted Reproductive Technology (ART) What Is ART Patient Resources Preparing for ...

  4. Advanced technology development multi-color holography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vikram, Chandra S.

    1993-01-01

    This is the final report of the Multi-color Holography project. The comprehensive study considers some strategic aspects of multi-color holography. First, various methods of available techniques for accurate fringe counting are reviewed. These are heterodyne interferometry, quasi-heterodyne interferometry, and phase-shifting interferometry. Phase-shifting interferometry was found to be the most suitable for multi-color holography. Details of experimentation with a sugar solution are also reported where better than 1/200 of a fringe order measurement capability was established. Rotating plate glass phase shifter was used for the experimentation. The report then describes the possible role of using more than two wavelengths with special reference-to-object beam intensity ratio needs in multicolor holography. Some specific two- and three-color cases are also described in detail. Then some new analysis methods of the reconstructed wavefront are considered. These are deflectometry, speckle metrology, confocal optical signal processing, and phase shifting technique related applications. Finally, design aspects of an experimental breadboard are presented.

  5. Light and Color

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Overheim, R. Daniel; Wagner, David L.

    1982-08-01

    Equally valuable as a semester course for non-majors or an introduction for general readers, this text uses only a minimum of science and mathematical background to explain the physical principles of light. It emphasizes color: the properties of light and materials that give rise to it, how it is described and analyzed, how it is produced in nature, and how the eye sees it. Also discusses topics such as geometrical and wave optics and color phenomena, such as rainbows, that appear in nature. Learning aids include problems and exercises at the end of each chapter.

  6. The Colors of Saturn

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DeVogel, Kayla; Chanover, Nancy; Thelen, Alexander

    2015-11-01

    Very little is known about the coloring agents, or chromophores, that color the clouds of Saturn’s belts and zones. Although the clouds of Saturn are more muted in their coloration and do not exhibit the more striking variations seen among Jupiter’s belts, zones, and cyclonic storm features, the physical processes that render Saturn’s clouds a yellowish hue are likely similar to those at work on Jupiter. Thus, a comprehensive color study that includes both Jupiter and Saturn is warranted to advance our understanding of chromophores in the giant planet atmospheres. Here we report on our efforts to characterize the colors of Saturn’s clouds.This study involves the analysis of two imaging data sets: those from Cassini’s Imaging Science Subsystem (ISS), and Wide Field Planetary Camera 2 images taken with the Hubble Space Telescope (HST). The HST data were acquired in 1994, 1998, 2002 and 2004 using eleven different filters spanning 255-973 nm. After the images were photometrically and geometrically calibrated, we used them to create low resolution spectra for six different latitude regions: the Equatorial Zone, the Equatorial Belt, the South Equatorial Belt, the South Temperate Zone, the South Temperate Belt and the South South Temperate Belt. The Cassini ISS images were acquired in 2004 and 2011 using twelve different filters spanning 258-938 nm, and corresponding low resolution spectra of the same latitude regions were generated using the ISS images. We compare these low resolution spectra to Saturn’s full-disk spectrum (Karkoschka, E., 1994, Icarus 111, 174) to examine colors of discrete latitudes versus the full-disk spectrum of Saturn. The extensive temporal coverage afforded by the combination of the HST and ISS images will enable us to explore possible seasonal variations in Saturn’s cloud colors. Finally, we examine the color evolution of the major 2011 storm on Saturn using the ISS data.This work was supported by the Discovery Scholars Program in

  7. View of Earth from Apollo 10 taken from reproduction of tv transmission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1969-01-01

    A cloud-covered earth from about 12,800 nautical miles away is seen in this color reproduction taken from the second TV transmission made by the color television camera onboard the Apollo 10 spacecraft. The United States and Mexico are located at right center. The more cloud-free area is the western and southwestern part of the U.S. and northern Mexico. Clouds cover the eastern half of the U.S.

  8. Color constancy in Japanese animation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ichihara, Yasuyo G.

    2006-01-01

    In this study, we measure the colors used in a Japanese Animations. The result can be seen on CIE-xy color spaces. It clearly shows that the color system is not a natural appearance system but an imagined and artistic appearance system. Color constancy of human vision can tell the difference in skin and hair colors between under moonlight and day light. Human brain generates a match to the memorized color of an object from daylight viewing conditions to the color of the object in different viewing conditions. For example, Japanese people always perceive the color of the Rising Sun in the Japanese flag as red even in a different viewing condition such as under moonlight. Color images captured by a camera cannot present those human perceptions. However, Japanese colorists in Animation succeeded in painting the effects of color constancy not only under moonlight but also added the memory matching colors. They aim to create a greater impact on viewer's perceptions by using the effect of the memory matching colors. In this paper, we propose the Imagined Japanese Animation Color System. This system in art is currently a subject of research in Japan. Its importance is that it could also provide an explanation on how human brain perceives the same color under different viewing conditions.

  9. Network color management system using a cluster dividing method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nichogi, Mutsuko; Kanamori, Katsuhiro

    2001-12-01

    Recently the color reproduction of the real objects is becoming more and more important in the field of telemedicine and internet shopping. To reproduce the object's color under the various conditions, the surface spectral reflectance has to be estimated. In this paper we present the novel way to estimate it using conventional 3- band digital camera. Usually the precise estimation of the spectra from the 3-band image is very difficult, as it has metameric black and the simple camera model is not suitable. To improve the estimation accuracy, we propose dividing color space in to clusters and estimating spectra using different model parameters at each cluster. Clusters are set corresponding to the major objects in camera images. Next the estimated spectral image is reproduced on the monitor. When luminance and color temperature of the specified viewing illuminant and the monitor are different, the subject hardly perceives the object's real color. Therefore the image is converted using CIECAM97s. This paper shows the results of simulation using the image of enlarged human's mouth assuming remote consulting with dental clinic. In this system, a dentist can perceive the real color of patient's gums and teeth on the monitor.

  10. An object-color space.

    PubMed

    Logvinenko, Alexander D

    2009-10-05

    Putting aside metaphorical meanings of the term, color space is understood as a vector space, where lights having the same color (i.e., subjectively indistinguishable) are represented as a point. The CIE 1931 color space, empirically based on trichromatic color measurements, is a classical example. Its derivatives, such as CIELAB and sRGB, have been successfully used in many applications (e.g., in color management). However, having been designed for presenting the color of self-luminous objects, these spaces are less suitable for presenting color of reflecting objects. Specifically, they can be used to represent color of objects only for a fixed illumination. Here I put forward a color space to represent the color of objects independently of illumination. It is based on an ideal color atlas comprising the reflectance spectra taking two values: k or 1 - k (0 < or = k < or = 1), with two transitions (at wavelengths lambda(1) and lambda(2)) across the spectrum. This color atlas is complete; that is, every reflecting object is metameric to some element of the atlas. When illumination alters, the classes of metameric reflectance spectra are reshuffled but in each class there is exactly one element of the atlas. Hence, the atlas can uniquely represent the metameric classes irrespective of illumination. Each element of the atlas (thus, object color) is specified by three numbers: (i) lambda = (lambda(1) + lambda(2))/2, which correlates well with hue of object color (as dominant wavelength correlates with hue of light color); (ii) delta =/lambda(1) - lambda/, which correlates with whiteness/blackness; and (iii) alpha =/1 - 2k/, which correlates with chroma of object color (as colorimetric purity correlates with saturation of light color). Using a geographical coordinate system, each element of the atlas (thus, each object color) is geometrically represented as a radius vector so that its length equals alpha, the latitude and longitude being proportional to delta and lambda

  11. Application of remote sensing and colorimetry to classify water colors in Florida Bay

    SciTech Connect

    Lamb, A.P.; Leary, T.J.; Kuhl, D.; Stumpf, R.P.

    1997-08-01

    Since March of 1994, a monthly water color survey using visual observations from a light aircraft has been conducted in Florida Bay for the purpose of mapping algal bloom and sediment distributions. This mapping is based on a color classification-scheme consisting of nineteen colors that can also be reduced into five main color categories. Due to the subjective nature of the aerial surveys, a handheld hyperspectral radiometer (Spectrix) has been used to relate these observed water colors to a standard color system called the C.I.E. (Commission Internationale de L`Eclairage) color coordinate system. This ensures that the water colors are being classified on a consistent basis and it also describes the water colors in terms of a globally accepted and widely used color system. The C.I.E. color coordinate system provides an accurate and quantitative basis upon which to describe and predict color. The system is easily used to translate measured radiation in the visible spectrum to color coordinates by relating simple concepts of radiation theory to those of the C.I.E. system. A software application is currently being designed that allows for the seamless integration and analysis of Spectrix data with different spatial datasets. The initial analysis uses an expert based methodology. This tool will assist in the identification of algal bloom types and help to monitor the dynamics of different water bodies within the bay.

  12. The research of spectrophotometric color matching based on multi-peaks Gaussian fit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xiaopeng; Lv, Xuliang; Wang, Jing; Yang, Gaofeng; Jiang, Xiaojun

    2013-08-01

    Spectrophotometric color matching is an important method for computer color matching, which is more accurate but difficult than tri-stimulus values color matching, because which will result in metamerism. The fundamental theory of computer color matching is the linear relationship between Kubelka-Munk function and concentration of dye. In fact, the spectral reflectivity of every pixel in hyperspectral image composed of subpixel mixing in instantaneous field of view. According to the Glassman laws of color mixing, the mixed pixel's spectral reflectivity equals to the algebra sum of each reflectivity of subpixel multiply its area percentage. In this case, spectrophotometric color matching match the spectral reflectivity curve by adjusting the combined form of subpixel which constitute the pixel. According to numerical methods for Multi-peaks Guassian fitting, the spectral reflectivity curve can be fit as the sum of several characteristic peak, which accord with Normal Distribution. Then the spectrophotometric color matching can simplify the solution with infinite wavelength into solving the linear equations with finite known peak intensity. By using Imaging Spectrometer measure the color samples in standard color cards from different distance, the spectral reflectivity curve of each single color sample and the mixed color samples can be gotten, and the experiments results show that the spectrophotometric color matching based on Multi-peaks Gaussian fitting is superior to the tri-stimulus values color matching, and which is easy to operate.

  13. Color-dependent banding characterization and simulation on natural document images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Sirui; Nachlieli, Hila; Shaked, Doron; Shiffman, Smadar; Allebach, Jan P.

    2012-01-01

    Print defects like banding from a digital press involve not only luminance variation, but also chrominance variation. As digital presses place one color separation at a time, the contrast and spatial pattern of the print defects are color-space dependent. Characterizing the color-dependent features of the banding signal enables us to simulate the banding on natural document images in a more accurate way that matches the characteristics of the banding generation mechanism within the digital press. A framework is described for color-dependent banding characterization including the following steps: printing and scanning uniform patches that sample colorant combinations throughout the input document sRGB color space, extracting banding signals in the CMYK color space of the target device, and modeling the banding features in a perceptually uniform color space. We obtain a full banding features LUT for every color point in the input sRGB space by interpolating banding features extracted from measured color points. The color-dependent banding simulation framework is developed based on the banding features LUT. Using the information contained in this LUT, a single banding prototype signal is modulated in a color-space-dependent fashion that varies spatially across the natural document image. Proper execution of the framework of banding characterization and simulation requires careful calibration of each system component, as well as implementation of a complete color management pipeline.

  14. Aerial color infrared photography applications to citriculture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blazquez, C. H.; Horn, F. W., Jr.

    1980-01-01

    Results of a one-year experimental study on the use of aerial color infrared photography in citrus grove management are presented. It is found that the spring season, when trees are in flush (have young leaves), is the best season to photograph visible differences between healthy and diseased trees. It is also shown that the best photography can be obtained with a 12-in. focal length lens. The photographic scale that allowed good photo interpretation with simple inexpensive equipment was 1 in. = 330 ft. The use of a window-overlay transparency method allowed rapid photo interpretation and data recording in computer-compatible forms. Aerial color infrared photography carried out during the spring season revealed a more accurate status of tree condition than visual inspection.

  15. Reproductive rights approach to reproductive health in developing countries

    PubMed Central

    Pillai, Vijayan K.; Gupta, Rashmi

    2011-01-01

    Background Research on reproductive health in developing countries focuses mostly on the role of economic development on various components of reproductive health. Cross-sectional and empirical research studies in particular on the effects of non-economic factors such as reproductive rights remain few and far between. Objective This study investigates the influence of two components of an empowerment strategy, gender equality, and reproductive rights on women's reproductive health in developing countries. The empowerment strategy for improving reproductive health is theoretically situated on a number of background factors such as economic and social development. Design Cross-national socioeconomic and demographic data from a number of international organizations on 142 developing countries are used to test a model of reproductive rights and reproductive health. Results The findings suggest that both economic and democratic development have significant positive effects on levels of gender equality. The level of social development plays a prominent role in promoting reproductive rights. It is found that reproductive rights channel the influences of social structural factors and gender equality on reproductive health. PMID:22184501

  16. New Colors for Histology: Optimized Bivariate Color Maps Increase Perceptual Contrast in Histological Images

    PubMed Central

    Kather, Jakob Nikolas; Weis, Cleo-Aron; Marx, Alexander; Schuster, Alexander K.; Schad, Lothar R.; Zöllner, Frank Gerrit

    2015-01-01

    Background Accurate evaluation of immunostained histological images is required for reproducible research in many different areas and forms the basis of many clinical decisions. The quality and efficiency of histopathological evaluation is limited by the information content of a histological image, which is primarily encoded as perceivable contrast differences between objects in the image. However, the colors of chromogen and counterstain used for histological samples are not always optimally distinguishable, even under optimal conditions. Methods and Results In this study, we present a method to extract the bivariate color map inherent in a given histological image and to retrospectively optimize this color map. We use a novel, unsupervised approach based on color deconvolution and principal component analysis to show that the commonly used blue and brown color hues in Hematoxylin—3,3’-Diaminobenzidine (DAB) images are poorly suited for human observers. We then demonstrate that it is possible to construct improved color maps according to objective criteria and that these color maps can be used to digitally re-stain histological images. Validation To validate whether this procedure improves distinguishability of objects and background in histological images, we re-stain phantom images and N = 596 large histological images of immunostained samples of human solid tumors. We show that perceptual contrast is improved by a factor of 2.56 in phantom images and up to a factor of 2.17 in sets of histological tumor images. Context Thus, we provide an objective and reliable approach to measure object distinguishability in a given histological image and to maximize visual information available to a human observer. This method could easily be incorporated in digital pathology image viewing systems to improve accuracy and efficiency in research and diagnostics. PMID:26717571

  17. Color Wheel Windows

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leonard, Stephanie

    2012-01-01

    In this article, the author describes a painting and drawing lesson which was inspired by the beautiful circular windows found in cathedrals and churches (also known as "rose windows"). This two-week lesson would reinforce both the concept of symmetry and students' understanding of the color wheel. (Contains 1 online resource.)

  18. Color Us American.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baldwin, Virginia; Hodges, Ethel

    A coloring book containing drawings and information on eight different countries is designed to help children obtain cultural understanding of themselves and other persons as individuals and as members of groups within our society. The countries presented are Poland/Germany, the Navajo Nation (Native American), China, Nigeria (Africa), Mexico,…

  19. Colorful Kindergarten Mice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bobick, Bryna; Wheeler, Elizabeth

    2008-01-01

    Developing kindergarten lessons can be very challenging, especially at the beginning of the school year when many students are just learning to cut paper and hold crayons. The author's favorite beginning unit of the year is "mice paintings," a practical introduction to drawing, color theory, and painting. This unit also incorporates children's…

  20. Perfect Color Registration Realized.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lovedahl, Gerald G.

    1979-01-01

    Describes apparatus and procedures to design and construct a "printing box" as a graphic arts project to make color prints on T-shirts using photography, indirect and direct photo screen methods, and other types of stencils. Step-by-step photographs illustrate the process. (MF)

  1. Spas color camera

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Toffales, C.

    1983-01-01

    The procedures to be followed in assessing the performance of the MOS color camera are defined. Aspects considered include: horizontal and vertical resolution; value of the video signal; gray scale rendition; environmental (vibration and temperature) tests; signal to noise ratios; and white balance correction.

  2. Structural Colors of Birds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hall, Cecilia; Dushkina, Natalia

    2016-03-01

    Structural colors create iridescent colors in bird feathers. The goal is to understand why structural colors act the way they do in certain situations. The research conducted over the course of the fall semester was to understand the optical phenomenon producing colors in individual barbules. Through the use of a polarizing optical microscope, certain hypotheses were built to explain certain phenomenon. Using a dark field illumination involving light acting at wide angles in microscopy, the barbules were not affected by polarization. So it can be suggested that the barbules have certain characteristics, possibly internal, which prevents wide-angle polarization. More recently, it was found that the barbules, when stacked upon one another, create a discoloration at the cross over point. It can be suggested that the barbules act as thin films and create a situation of thin film interference. More data will be taken using the Scanning Electron Microscope as well as getting cross sectional data to help understand the internal characteristics of the barbules. From the support of the Neimeyer-Hodgson Grant, Chris Stull, and Millersville University of Pennsylvania.

  3. Color appearance in stereoscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gadia, Davide; Rizzi, Alessandro; Bonanomi, Cristian; Marini, Daniele; Galmonte, Alessandra; Agostini, Tiziano

    2011-03-01

    The relationship between color and lightness appearance and the perception of depth has been studied since a while in the field of perceptual psychology and psycho-physiology. It has been found that depth perception affects the final object color and lightness appearance. In the stereoscopy research field, many studies have been proposed on human physiological effects, considering e.g. geometry, motion sickness, etc., but few has been done considering lightness and color information. Goal of this paper is to realize some preliminar experiments in Virtual Reality in order to determine the effects of depth perception on object color and lightness appearance. We have created a virtual test scene with a simple 3D simultaneous contrast configuration. We have created three different versions of this scene, each with different choices of relative positions and apparent size of the objects. We have collected the perceptual responses of several users after the observation of the test scene in the Virtual Theater of the University of Milan, a VR immersive installation characterized by a semi-cylindrical screen that covers 120° of horizontal field of view from an observation distance of 3.5 m. We present a description of the experiments setup and procedure, and we discuss the obtained results.

  4. Hupa Nature Coloring Book.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bennett, Ruth, Ed.; And Others

    Animals familiar to the northwest region of California where Hupa Indians reside are depicted in this coloring book which belongs to a series of materials developed to promote the use of the Hupa language. Each page contains a bold pen and ink drawing of an animal and the animal's name in the Unifon alphabet used for writing the Hupa language.…

  5. Color Counts, Too!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sewell, Julia H.

    1983-01-01

    Students with undetected color blindness can have problems with specific teaching methods and materials. The problem should be ruled out in children with suspected learning disabilities and taken into account in career counseling. Nine examples of simple classroom modifications are described. (CL)

  6. "Color-Blind" Racism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carr, Leslie G.

    Examining race relations in the United States from a historical perspective, this book explains how the constitution is racist and how color blindness is actually a racist ideology. It is argued that Justice Harlan, in his dissenting opinion in Plessy v. Ferguson, meant that the constitution and the law must remain blind to the existence of race…

  7. Color Display Design Guide

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1978-10-01

    22 . 20 - MEAN/ALL COLORS/*. .. %.’ 18 -.-. YELLOW u- 16 . . RED /- ........ WHITE ൖ /- MAGENTA -,f 12 - / / CYAN ’"’- 10 /GREEN BLUE C= Ś S• l I I...Hawaii Laboratory P.O. Box 997 Kailua, Hawaii 96734 Attn: Dr. Ross L. Pepper Department of Psychology Panel Displays Incorporated Vanderbilt University

  8. Coastal Zone Color Scanner

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, B.

    1988-01-01

    The Coastal Zone Color Scanner (CZCS) spacecraft ocean color instrument is capable of measuring and mapping global ocean surface chlorophyll concentration. It is a scanning radiometer with multiband capability. With new electronics and some mechanical, and optical re-work, it probably can be made flight worthy. Some additional components of a second flight model are also available. An engineering study and further tests are necessary to determine exactly what effort is required to properly prepare the instrument for spaceflight and the nature of interfaces to prospective spacecraft. The CZCS provides operational instrument capability for monitoring of ocean productivity and currents. It could be a simple, low cost alternative to developing new instruments for ocean color imaging. Researchers have determined that with global ocean color data they can: specify quantitatively the role of oceans in the global carbon cycle and other major biogeochemical cycles; determine the magnitude and variability of annual primary production by marine phytoplankton on a global scale; understand the fate of fluvial nutrients and their possible affect on carbon budgets; elucidate the coupling mechanism between upwelling and large scale patterns in ocean basins; answer questions concerning the large scale distribution and timing of spring blooms in the global ocean; acquire a better understanding of the processes associated with mixing along the edge of eddies, coastal currents, western boundary currents, etc., and acquire global data on marine optical properties.

  9. Using Single Colors and Color Pairs to Communicate Basic Tastes.

    PubMed

    Woods, Andy T; Spence, Charles

    2016-01-01

    Recently, it has been demonstrated that people associate each of the basic tastes (e.g., sweet, sour, bitter, and salty) with specific colors (e.g., red, green, black, and white). In the present study, we investigated whether pairs of colors (both associated with a particular taste or taste word) would give rise to stronger associations relative to pairs of colors that were associated with different tastes. We replicate the findings of previous studies highlighting the existence of a robust crossmodal correspondence between individual colors and basic tastes. However, while there was evidence that pairs of colors could indeed communicate taste information more consistently than single colors, our participants took more than twice as long to match the color pairs with tastes than the single colors. Possible reasons for these results are discussed.

  10. Using Single Colors and Color Pairs to Communicate Basic Tastes

    PubMed Central

    Spence, Charles

    2016-01-01

    Recently, it has been demonstrated that people associate each of the basic tastes (e.g., sweet, sour, bitter, and salty) with specific colors (e.g., red, green, black, and white). In the present study, we investigated whether pairs of colors (both associated with a particular taste or taste word) would give rise to stronger associations relative to pairs of colors that were associated with different tastes. We replicate the findings of previous studies highlighting the existence of a robust crossmodal correspondence between individual colors and basic tastes. However, while there was evidence that pairs of colors could indeed communicate taste information more consistently than single colors, our participants took more than twice as long to match the color pairs with tastes than the single colors. Possible reasons for these results are discussed. PMID:27698979

  11. Red-green color vision in three catarrhine primates.

    PubMed

    Fornalé, Francesca; Vaglio, Stefano; Spiezio, Caterina; Previde, Emanuela Prato

    2012-11-01

    The evolution of the red-green visual subsystem in trichromatic primates has been linked to foraging advantages, specifically the detection of either ripe fruits or young leaves amid mature foliage, and to the intraspecific socio-sexual communication, namely the signal of the male rank, the mate choice and the reproductive strategies in females. New data should be added to the debate regarding the evolution of trichromatic color vision. Three catarrhine primates were observed to achieve this goal. The research was performed on captive groups of vervet monkeys (Chlorocebus aethiops), pig-tailed macaques (Macaca nemestrina) and chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) housed at Parco Natura Viva - Garda Zoological Park (Italy). Using pairs of red-green bags containing the same hidden reward in comparable outdoor enclosures, we recorded the choices by observed individuals (n = 25) to investigate the role of color cues in choosing an object. The results indicate that chimpanzees used red color as cue to choose an object that contains food by showing a preference toward red objects; in contrast, vervet monkeys and pig-tailed macaques do not demonstrate a clear choice based on the color of the object. Our findings highlight the importance of the foraging hypothesis but not rule out the potential role of the intraspecific socio-sexual communication and may serve to add useful information to the debate regarding the adaptive value of the evolution of color vision in order to fill a phylogenetic gap from Old World monkeys to humans. Future studies should address the role of socio-sexual communication, such as the selection of the reproductive partner of both high genetic quality and with compatible genes, to determine how this influenced the evolution of color vision in non-human primates.

  12. 7 CFR 51.892 - Color terms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Color terms. 51.892 Section 51.892 Agriculture... Definitions § 51.892 Color terms. The color terms well colored, reasonably well colored, and fairly well colored are defined in Table IV. Table IV Color terms Black varieties Red varieties White varieties...

  13. 7 CFR 51.892 - Color terms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Color terms. 51.892 Section 51.892 Agriculture... Definitions § 51.892 Color terms. The color terms well colored, reasonably well colored, and fairly well colored are defined in Table IV. Table IV Color terms Black varieties Red varieties White varieties...

  14. Human preference for individual colors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palmer, Stephen E.; Schloss, Karen B.

    2010-02-01

    Color preference is an important aspect of human behavior, but little is known about why people like some colors more than others. Recent results from the Berkeley Color Project (BCP) provide detailed measurements of preferences among 32 chromatic colors as well as other relevant aspects of color perception. We describe the fit of several color preference models, including ones based on cone outputs, color-emotion associations, and Palmer and Schloss's ecological valence theory. The ecological valence theory postulates that color serves an adaptive "steering' function, analogous to taste preferences, biasing organisms to approach advantageous objects and avoid disadvantageous ones. It predicts that people will tend to like colors to the extent that they like the objects that are characteristically that color, averaged over all such objects. The ecological valence theory predicts 80% of the variance in average color preference ratings from the Weighted Affective Valence Estimates (WAVEs) of correspondingly colored objects, much more variance than any of the other models. We also describe how hue preferences for single colors differ as a function of gender, expertise, culture, social institutions, and perceptual experience.

  15. Enhancing the color gamut of white displays using novel deep-blue organic fluorescent dyes to form color-changed thin films with improved efficiency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Wei-ting; Huang, Wen-Yao

    2012-06-01

    This study used novel fluorescence based deep-blue-emitting molecules, namely BPVPDA, an organic fluorescence color thin film using BPVPDA exhibit deep blue fluorine with CIE coordinates of (0.13,0.16). The developed original Organic RGB color thin film technology enables the optimization of the distinctive features of an organic light emitting diode (OLED) and (TFT) LCD display. The color filter structure maintains the same high resolution to obtain a higher level of brightness, in comparison with conventional organic RGB color thin film. The image-processing engine is designed to achieve a sharp text image for a thin-film-transistor (TFT) LCD with organic color thin films. The organic color thin films structure uses organic dye dopent in limpid photo resist. With this technology , the following characteristics can be obtained: (1) high color reproduction of gamut ratio, and (2) improved luminous efficiency with organic color fluorescence thin film. This performance is among the best results ever reported for a color-filter used on TFT-LCD and OLED.

  16. Relating raw rice color and composition to cooked rice color.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Traditionally, the color of milled rice is economically important. The whiter the rice the more it is preferred by consumers and the more value it has in the market place. Little attention has been given to relating raw rice color to cooked milled rice color and, specifically, to determining the i...

  17. At-line cotton color measurements by portable color spectrophotometers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    As a result of reports of cotton bales that had significant color changes from their initial Uster® High Volume Instrument (HVI™) color measurements, a program was implemented to measure cotton fiber color (Rd, +b) at-line in remote locations (warehouse, mill, etc.). The measurement of cotton fiber...

  18. Reducing Color/Brightness Interaction in Color Television

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marchman, Robert H.

    1987-01-01

    Proposed digitally sampled scan-conversion scheme for color television reduces unwanted interactions between chrominance and luminance signals. New scheme reduces luminance and chrominance bandwidth to increase frequency separation between signals. To avoid proportionally reducing horizontal brightness resolution and horizontal color resolution, horizontal interlace of luminance signal and two color-difference signals used.

  19. Changes of color coordinates of biological tissue with superficial skin damage due to mechanical trauma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pteruk, Vail; Mokanyuk, Olexander; Kvaternuk, Olena; Yakenina, Lesya; Kotyra, Andrzej; Romaniuk, Ryszard S.; Dussembayeva, Shynar

    2015-12-01

    Change of color coordinates of normal and pathological biological tissues is based on calculated spectral diffuse reflection. The proposed color coordinates of normal and pathological biological tissues of skin provided using standard light sources, allowing accurately diagnose skin damage due to mechanical trauma with a blunt object for forensic problems.

  20. How Safe Are Color Additives?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Home For Consumers Consumer Updates How Safe are Color Additives? Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing ... Consumer Updates RSS Feed Download PDF (380 K) Color additives give the red tint to your fruit ...

  1. Whither Artificial Reproduction?

    PubMed Central

    Percival-Smith, Robin

    1985-01-01

    Artificial reproduction now offers sub fertile couples a number of options which raise scientific and ethical questions. This article discusses the Canadian and British experiences in formulating regulations and legislation in this important field. Current work on mammalian embryo research foretells the direction which human research will take. This article stresses the need for family physicians' participation in the ethical decisions that accompany these new developments. PMID:21274181

  2. Introduction: Imaging in reproduction.

    PubMed

    Sella, Tamar; Laufer, Neri

    2016-06-01

    The authors of this Views and Reviews outline in detail the indispensable role of imaging tools-ultrasound, computed tomography, and magnetic resonance imaging-in the diagnosis and treatment of female and male factor infertility. Equipment producing diagnostic images, coupled with ever-increasing computing power, will pave the way for novel functional dynamic studies that will expand the understanding of reproductive processes and their management.

  3. 38 CFR 4.46 - Accurate measurement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Accurate measurement. 4... RATING DISABILITIES Disability Ratings The Musculoskeletal System § 4.46 Accurate measurement. Accurate measurement of the length of stumps, excursion of joints, dimensions and location of scars with respect...

  4. 38 CFR 4.46 - Accurate measurement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Accurate measurement. 4... RATING DISABILITIES Disability Ratings The Musculoskeletal System § 4.46 Accurate measurement. Accurate measurement of the length of stumps, excursion of joints, dimensions and location of scars with respect...

  5. 38 CFR 4.46 - Accurate measurement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Accurate measurement. 4... RATING DISABILITIES Disability Ratings The Musculoskeletal System § 4.46 Accurate measurement. Accurate measurement of the length of stumps, excursion of joints, dimensions and location of scars with respect...

  6. 38 CFR 4.46 - Accurate measurement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Accurate measurement. 4... RATING DISABILITIES Disability Ratings The Musculoskeletal System § 4.46 Accurate measurement. Accurate measurement of the length of stumps, excursion of joints, dimensions and location of scars with respect...

  7. 38 CFR 4.46 - Accurate measurement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Accurate measurement. 4... RATING DISABILITIES Disability Ratings The Musculoskeletal System § 4.46 Accurate measurement. Accurate measurement of the length of stumps, excursion of joints, dimensions and location of scars with respect...

  8. Clonal reproduction in fungi

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, John W.; Hann-Soden, Christopher; Branco, Sara; Sylvain, Iman; Ellison, Christopher E.

    2015-01-01

    Research over the past two decades shows that both recombination and clonality are likely to contribute to the reproduction of all fungi. This view of fungi is different from the historical and still commonly held view that a large fraction of fungi are exclusively clonal and that some fungi have been exclusively clonal for hundreds of millions of years. Here, we first will consider how these two historical views have changed. Then we will examine the impact on fungal research of the concept of restrained recombination [Tibayrenc M, Ayala FJ (2012) Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 109 (48):E3305–E3313]. Using animal and human pathogenic fungi, we examine extrinsic restraints on recombination associated with bottlenecks in genetic variation caused by geographic dispersal and extrinsic restraints caused by shifts in reproductive mode associated with either disease transmission or hybridization. Using species of the model yeast Saccharomyces and the model filamentous fungus Neurospora, we examine intrinsic restraints on recombination associated with mating systems that range from strictly clonal at one extreme to fully outbreeding at the other and those that lie between, including selfing and inbreeding. We also consider the effect of nomenclature on perception of reproductive mode and a means of comparing the relative impact of clonality and recombination on fungal populations. Last, we consider a recent hypothesis suggesting that fungi thought to have the most severe intrinsic constraints on recombination actually may have the fewest. PMID:26195774

  9. Salience of unique hues and implications for color theory

    PubMed Central

    Wool, Lauren E.; Komban, Stanley J.; Kremkow, Jens; Jansen, Michael; Li, Xiaobing; Alonso, Jose-Manuel; Zaidi, Qasim

    2015-01-01

    The unique hues—blue, green, yellow, red—form the fundamental dimensions of opponent-color theories, are considered universal across languages, and provide useful mental representations for structuring color percepts. However, there is no neural evidence for them from neurophysiology or low-level psychophysics. Tapping a higher prelinguistic perceptual level, we tested whether unique hues are particularly salient in search tasks. We found no advantage for unique hues over their nonunique complementary colors. However, yellowish targets were detected faster, more accurately, and with fewer saccades than their complementary bluish targets (including unique blue), while reddish-greenish pairs were not significantly different in salience. Similarly, local field potentials in primate V1 exhibited larger amplitudes and shorter latencies for yellowish versus bluish stimuli, whereas this effect was weaker for reddish versus greenish stimuli. Consequently, color salience is affected more by early neural response asymmetries than by any possible mental or neural representation of unique hues. PMID:25761328

  10. Wetting in Color

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burgess, Ian Bruce

    Colorimetric litmus tests such as pH paper have enjoyed wide commercial success due to their inexpensive production and exceptional ease of use. However, expansion of colorimetry to new sensing paradigms is challenging because macroscopic color changes are seldom coupled to arbitrary differences in the physical/chemical properties of a system. In this thesis I present in detail the development of Wetting in Color Technology, focusing primarily on its application as an inexpensive and highly selective colorimetric indicator for organic liquids. The technology exploits chemically-encoded inverse-opal photonic crystals to control the infiltration of fluids to liquid-specific spatial patterns, projecting minute differences in liquids' wettability to macroscopically distinct, easy-to-visualize structural color patterns. It is shown experimentally and corroborated with theoretical modeling using percolation theory that the high selectivity of wetting, upon-which the sensitivity of the indicator relies, is caused by the highly symmetric structure of our large-area, defect-free SiO2 inverse-opals. The regular structure also produces a bright iridescent color, which disappears when infiltrated with liquid - naturally coupling the optical and fluidic responses. Surface modification protocols are developed, requiring only silanization and selective oxidation, to facilitate the deterministic design of an indicator that differentiates a broad range of liquids. The resulting tunable, built-in horizontal and vertical chemistry gradients allow the wettability threshold to be tailored to specific liquids across a continuous range, and make the readout rely only on countable color differences. As wetting is a generic fluidic phenomenon, Wetting in Color technology could be suitable for applications in authentication or identification of unknown liquids across a broad range of industries. However, the generic nature of the response also ensures chemical non-specificity. It is shown

  11. Color correction using color-flow eigenspace model in color face recognition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, JaeYoung; Ro, Yong Man

    2009-02-01

    We propose a new color correction approach which, as opposed to existing methods, take advantages of a given pair of two color face images (probe and gallery) in the color face recognition (FR) framework. In the proposed color correction method, the color-flow vector and color-flow eigenspace model are developed to generate color corrected probe images. The main contribution of this paper is threefold: 1) the proposed method can reliably compensate the non-linear photic variations imposed on probe face images comparing to traditional color correction techniques; 2) to the best of our knowledge, for the first time, we conduct extensive experiment studies to compare the effectiveness of various color correction methods to deal with photometrical distortions in probe images; 3) the proposed method can significantly enhance the recognition performance degraded by severely illuminant probe face images. Two standard face databases CMU PIE and XM2VTSDB were used to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed color correction method. The usefulness of the proposed method in the color FR is shown in terms of both absolute and comparative recognition performances against four traditional color correction solutions of White balance, Gray-world, Retinex, and Color-by-correlation.

  12. Characterization of color texture: color texture based sorting of tiles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bourada, Y.; Lafon, Dominique; Eterradossi, O.

    1998-09-01

    Many materials used by the building industry show a color texture which affects the product commercial value. This texture can be seen as the spatial arrangement of regions of acceptable color differences. This work describes an appearance based automated sorting via color texture analysis, using ceramic tiles as example. Textural analysis of the tiles digital images expressed in CIEL*a*b* color system is performed through the analysis of intrinsic features of each region and relationships between regions. Results obtained through the automated process are compared to a visual sorting which leads to calculation of application dependant color and texture tolerances.

  13. Color Addition and Subtraction Apps

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruiz, Frances; Ruiz, Michael J.

    2015-01-01

    Color addition and subtraction apps in HTML5 have been developed for students as an online hands-on experience so that they can more easily master principles introduced through traditional classroom demonstrations. The evolution of the additive RGB color model is traced through the early IBM color adapters so that students can proceed step by step…

  14. Astronomy with the Color Blind

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Donald A.; Melrose, Justyn

    2014-01-01

    The standard method to create dramatic color images in astrophotography is to record multiple black and white images, each with a different color filter in the optical path, and then tint each frame with a color appropriate to the corresponding filter. When combined, the resulting image conveys information about the sources of emission in the…

  15. Image indexing using color correlograms

    DOEpatents

    Huang, Jing; Kumar, Shanmugasundaram Ravi; Mitra, Mandar; Zhu, Wei-Jing

    2001-01-01

    A color correlogram is a three-dimensional table indexed by color and distance between pixels which expresses how the spatial correlation of color changes with distance in a stored image. The color correlogram may be used to distinguish an image from other images in a database. To create a color correlogram, the colors in the image are quantized into m color values, c.sub.i . . . c.sub.m. Also, the distance values k.epsilon.[d] to be used in the correlogram are determined where [d] is the set of distances between pixels in the image, and where dmax is the maximum distance measurement between pixels in the image. Each entry (i, j, k) in the table is the probability of finding a pixel of color c.sub.i at a selected distance k from a pixel of color c.sub.i. A color autocorrelogram, which is a restricted version of the color correlogram that considers color pairs of the form (i,i) only, may also be used to identify an image.

  16. Unlocking the Color of White

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sabiston, Duane

    2004-01-01

    In this article, the author describes that teaching students how to unlock the color of white is his passion. Like so many other art teachers, he struggled for years teaching color wheels and making value scales, only to be frustrated when students produced colorful charts and then made colorless paintings. He was teaching students how to mix…

  17. Typography, Color, and Information Structure.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keyes, Elizabeth

    1993-01-01

    Focuses on how typography and color complement and differ from each other in signaling an underlying content structure; the synergism between typography, color, and page layout (use of white space) that aids audience understanding and use; and the characteristics of typography and of color that are most important in these contexts. (SR)

  18. Can Coloring Mandalas Reduce Anxiety?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Curry, Nancy A.; Kasser, Tim

    2005-01-01

    This study examined the effectiveness of different types of art activities in the reduction of anxiety. After undergoing a brief anxiety-induction, 84 undergraduate students were randomly assigned to color a mandala, to color a plaid form, or to color on a blank piece of paper. Results demonstrated that anxiety levels declined approximately the…

  19. Color-Video Thermal Maps

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wagner, W. R.; Laren, C. A.; Tonis, W. T.

    1987-01-01

    Computer-simulation method produces color-video representation of temperatures in combustion-chamber wall. New method displays two-dimensional or three-dimensional temperature variation. Colors in display represent specific temperature ranges. Colors change to show changes in temperature with flow, pressure, heat flux, and other factors during startup, steady-state operation, and shutdown.

  20. Violating expectations of color order

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burling, Bil; Bender, Walter R.

    1996-04-01

    An exploration of emotion in color communication is presented in this paper. It begins with an outline of a proposed theory of emotion and a hypothesis of how color may induce emotion. A discussion follows that details what is essential in a color message to predict emotional responses. Experiments are described that might assist in validating the theory put forth in this paper.

  1. The Problem of the Language Line: Cultural and Social Reproduction of Hegemonic Linguistic Structures for Learners of African Descent in the U.S.A.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hopson, Rodney

    2003-01-01

    Uses W.E.B. Du Bois' prophetic analysis of the color line problem to forecast the 21st century's language line problem, noting how language is central to the reproduction of racialized identities at school and in society for African American students. Juxtaposes language and cultural and social reproduction, hegemony, and race and articulates the…

  2. Improved Audio Reproduction System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chang, C. S.

    1972-01-01

    Circuitry utilizing electrical feedback of instantaneous speaker coil velocity compensates for loudspeaker resonance, transient peaks and frequency drop-off so that sounds of widely varying frequencies and amplitudes can be reproduced accurately from high fidelity recordings of any variety.

  3. Structural color in Myxomycetes.

    PubMed

    Inchaussandague, Marina; Skigin, Diana; Carmaran, Cecilia; Rosenfeldt, Sonia

    2010-07-19

    In this paper we report evidence of structural color in Myxomycetes, a group of eukaryotic microorganisms with an uncertain taxonomic position. We investigated the Diachea leucopoda, which belongs to the Physarales order, Myxomycetes class, and found that its peridium -protective layer that encloses the mass of spores- is basically a corrugated layer of a transparent material, which produces a multicolored pointillistic effect, characteristic of this species. Scanning (SEM) and transmission (TEM) electron microscopy techniques have been employed to characterize the samples. A simple optical model of a planar slab is proposed to calculate the reflectance. The chromaticity coordinates are obtained, and the results confirm that the color observed is a result of an interference effect.

  4. Color View of Ceres

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    This is a NASA Hubble Space Telescope color image of Ceres, the largest object in the asteroid belt.

    Astronomers enhanced the sharpness in these Advanced Camera for Surveys images to bring out features on Ceres' surface, including brighter and darker regions that could be asteroid impact features. The observations were made in visible and ultraviolet light between December 2003 and January 2004.

    The colors represent the differences between relatively red and blue regions. These differences may simply be due to variation on the surface among different types of material.

    Ceres' round shape suggests that its interior is layered like those of terrestrial planets such as Earth. Ceres may have a rocky inner core, an icy mantle, and a thin, dusty outer crust inferred from its density and rotation rate of 9 hours. Ceres is approximately 590 miles (950 kilometers) across and was first discovered in 1801.

  5. 'Burns Cliff' Color Panorama

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Click on the image for 'Burns Cliff' Color Panorama (QTVR)

    NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity captured this view of 'Burns Cliff' after driving right to the base of this southeastern portion of the inner wall of 'Endurance Crater.' The view combines frames taken by Opportunity's panoramic camera between the rover's 287th and 294th martian days (Nov. 13 to 20, 2004).

    This is a composite of 46 different images, each acquired in seven different Pancam filters. It is an approximately true-color rendering generated from the panoramic camera's 750-nanometer, 530-nanometer and 430-nanometer filters. The mosaic spans more than 180 degrees side to side. Because of this wide-angle view, the cliff walls appear to bulge out toward the camera. In reality the walls form a gently curving, continuous surface.

  6. Coloring the FITS Universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levay, Z. G.

    2004-12-01

    A new, freely-available accessory for Adobe's widely-used Photoshop image editing software makes it much more convenient to produce presentable images directly from FITS data. It merges a fully-functional FITS reader with an intuitive user interface and includes fully interactive flexibility in scaling data. Techniques for producing attractive images from astronomy data using the FITS plugin will be presented, including the assembly of full-color images. These techniques have been successfully applied to producing colorful images for public outreach with data from the Hubble Space Telescope and other major observatories. Now it is much less cumbersome for students or anyone not experienced with specialized astronomical analysis software, but reasonably familiar with digital photography, to produce useful and attractive images.

  7. The role of law in reproductive medicine: a new approach.

    PubMed Central

    Jabbari, D

    1990-01-01

    It is a common feature of debates on the regulation of reproductive medicine to find law portrayed as a crude form of intervention consisting in the imposition of inflexible rules on doctors and medical researchers. This paper argues that this view must be replaced by a more accurate assessment of the law's potential role in the regulation of reproductive medicine. From an analysis of the White Paper on human fertilisation and embryology, and in particular the proposed Statutory Licensing Authority, the author contends that far from being an inflexible method of regulation law can foster discussion and compromise. PMID:2181140

  8. Coloring geographical threshold graphs

    SciTech Connect

    Bradonjic, Milan; Percus, Allon; Muller, Tobias

    2008-01-01

    We propose a coloring algorithm for sparse random graphs generated by the geographical threshold graph (GTG) model, a generalization of random geometric graphs (RGG). In a GTG, nodes are distributed in a Euclidean space, and edges are assigned according to a threshold function involving the distance between nodes as well as randomly chosen node weights. The motivation for analyzing this model is that many real networks (e.g., wireless networks, the Internet, etc.) need to be studied by using a 'richer' stochastic model (which in this case includes both a distance between nodes and weights on the nodes). Here, we analyze the GTG coloring algorithm together with the graph's clique number, showing formally that in spite of the differences in structure between GTG and RGG, the asymptotic behavior of the chromatic number is identical: {chi}1n 1n n / 1n n (1 + {omicron}(1)). Finally, we consider the leading corrections to this expression, again using the coloring algorithm and clique number to provide bounds on the chromatic number. We show that the gap between the lower and upper bound is within C 1n n / (1n 1n n){sup 2}, and specify the constant C.

  9. Moon - False Color Mosaic

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    This false-color mosaic was constructed from a series of 53 images taken through three spectral filters by Galileo's imaging system as the spacecraft flew over the northern regions of the Moon on December 7, 1992. The part of the Moon visible from Earth is on the left side in this view. The color mosaic shows compositional variations in parts of the Moon's northern hemisphere. Bright pinkish areas are highlands materials, such as those surrounding the oval lava-filled Crisium impact basin toward the bottom of the picture. Blue to orange shades indicate volcanic lava flows. To the left of Crisium, the dark blue Mare Tranquillitatis is richer in titanium than the green and orange maria above it. Thin mineral-rich soils associated with relatively recent impacts are represented by light blue colors; the youngest craters have prominent blue rays extending from them. The Galileo project, whose primary mission is the exploration of the Jupiter system in 1995-97, is managed for NASA's Office of Space Science and Applications by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory.

  10. Color on emergency mapping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Lili; Qi, Qingwen; Zhang, An

    2007-06-01

    There are so many emergency issues in our daily life. Such as typhoons, tsunamis, earthquake, fires, floods, epidemics, etc. These emergencies made people lose their lives and their belongings. Every day, every hour, even every minute people probably face the emergency, so how to handle it and how to decrease its hurt are the matters people care most. If we can map it exactly before or after the emergencies; it will be helpful to the emergency researchers and people who live in the emergency place. So , through the emergency map, before emergency is occurring we can predict the situation, such as when and where the emergency will be happen; where people can refuge, etc. After disaster, we can also easily assess the lost, discuss the cause and make the lost less. The primary effect of mapping is offering information to the people who care about the emergency and the researcher who want to study it. Mapping allows the viewers to get a spatial sense of hazard. It can also provide the clues to study the relationship of the phenomenon in emergency. Color, as the basic element of the map, it can simplify and clarify the phenomenon. Color can also affects the general perceptibility of the map, and elicits subjective reactions to the map. It is to say, structure, readability, and the reader's psychological reactions can be affected by the use of color.

  11. Precision of synesthetic color matching resembles that for recollected colors rather than physical colors.

    PubMed

    Arnold, Derek H; Wegener, Signy V; Brown, Francesca; Mattingley, Jason B

    2012-10-01

    Grapheme-color synesthesia is an atypical condition in which individuals experience sensations of color when reading printed graphemes such as letters and digits. For some grapheme-color synesthetes, seeing a printed grapheme triggers a sensation of color, but hearing the name of a grapheme does not. This dissociation allowed us to compare the precision with which synesthetes are able to match their color experiences triggered by visible graphemes, with the precision of their matches for recalled colors based on the same graphemes spoken aloud. In six synesthetes, color matching for printed graphemes was equally variable relative to recalled experiences. In a control experiment, synesthetes and age-matched controls either matched the color of a circular patch while it was visible on a screen, or they judged its color from memory after it had disappeared. Both synesthetes and controls were more variable when matching from memory, and the variance of synesthetes' recalled color judgments matched that associated with their synesthetic judgments for visible graphemes in the first experiment. Results suggest that synesthetic experiences of color triggered by achromatic graphemes are analogous to recollections of color.

  12. The modern Japanese color lexicon.

    PubMed

    Kuriki, Ichiro; Lange, Ryan; Muto, Yumiko; Brown, Angela M; Fukuda, Kazuho; Tokunaga, Rumi; Lindsey, Delwin T; Uchikawa, Keiji; Shioiri, Satoshi

    2017-03-01

    Despite numerous prior studies, important questions about the Japanese color lexicon persist, particularly about the number of Japanese basic color terms and their deployment across color space. Here, 57 native Japanese speakers provided monolexemic terms for 320 chromatic and 10 achromatic Munsell color samples. Through k-means cluster analysis we revealed 16 statistically distinct Japanese chromatic categories. These included eight chromatic basic color terms (aka/red, ki/yellow, midori/green, ao/blue, pink, orange, cha/brown, and murasaki/purple) plus eight additional terms: mizu ("water")/light blue, hada ("skin tone")/peach, kon ("indigo")/dark blue, matcha ("green tea")/yellow-green, enji/maroon, oudo ("sand or mud")/mustard, yamabuki ("globeflower")/gold, and cream. Of these additional terms, mizu was used by 98% of informants, and emerged as a strong candidate for a 12th Japanese basic color term. Japanese and American English color-naming systems were broadly similar, except for color categories in one language (mizu, kon, teal, lavender, magenta, lime) that had no equivalent in the other. Our analysis revealed two statistically distinct Japanese motifs (or color-naming systems), which differed mainly in the extension of mizu across our color palette. Comparison of the present data with an earlier study by Uchikawa & Boynton (1987) suggests that some changes in the Japanese color lexicon have occurred over the last 30 years.

  13. Linear programming method for computing the gamut of object color solid.

    PubMed

    Li, Changjun; Luo, M Ronnier; Cho, Maeng-Sub; Kim, Jin-Seo

    2010-05-01

    Recently there has been great interest in establishing the color gamut of solid colors or the optimum colors. The optimum colors are widely used for quantifying the quality of light sources and evaluating reproduction devices. An enumeration method was developed by Martinez-Verdu et al. [J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 24, 1501 (2007)] for finding optimum colors. However, it was found that the method is too time-costly. In this paper, a linear programming approach is proposed. The proposed method is simple and faster and has the advantage of keeping the characteristics of the true boundary. Comparison of the present method with the method of Martinez-Verdu et al. is also given.

  14. Myoglobin chemistry and meat color.

    PubMed

    Suman, Surendranath P; Joseph, Poulson

    2013-01-01

    Consumers rely heavily on fresh meat color as an indicator of wholesomeness at the point of sale, whereas cooked color is exploited as an indicator of doneness at the point of consumption. Deviations from the bright cherry-red color of fresh meat lead to product rejection and revenue loss. Myoglobin is the sarcoplasmic heme protein primarily responsible for the meat color, and the chemistry of myoglobin is species specific. The mechanistic interactions between myoglobin and multiple extrinsic and intrinsic factors govern the color of raw as well as cooked meats. The objective of this review is to provide an overview of the current research in meat color and how the findings are applied in the meat industry. Characterizing the fundamental basis of myoglobin's interactions with biomolecules in postmortem skeletal muscles is necessary to interpret the chemistry of meat color phenomena and to engineer innovative processing strategies to minimize meat discoloration-induced revenue loss to the agricultural economy.

  15. Enriching tortoises: assessing color preference.

    PubMed

    Passos, Luiza F; Mello, Humberto Espirito Santo; Young, Robert John

    2014-01-01

    Environmental enrichment is a principle that is used to enhance the quality of care for nonhuman animals in captivity. To achieve this, it is necessary to understand the animal's needs. This study focused on color preference to provide food stimuli as a source of environmental enrichment for the tortoise, Chelonoidis denticulata. During this study, the stimuli green-, blue-, yellow-, and red-colored bananas and plaster blocks were randomly offered to the tortoises. Analysis of the data showed that the tortoises had a preference for the stimuli dyed with colors red and yellow over the other presented colors. It was possible to conclude that presenting food in different colors stimulated the animals to evaluate their environment and make choices in relation to their color preference. Thus, this experiment introduced an element of choice into their lives, beyond identifying color food preferences for the tortoises. The element of choice is known to be important to animal welfare.

  16. Nonrandom Composition of Flower Colors in a Plant Community: Mutually Different Co-Flowering Natives and Disturbance by Aliens

    PubMed Central

    Makino, Takashi T.; Yokoyama, Jun

    2015-01-01

    When pollinators use flower color to locate food sources, a distinct color can serve as a reproductive barrier against co-flowering species. This anti-interference function of flower color may result in a community assembly of plant species displaying mutually different flower colors. However, such color dispersion is not ubiquitous, suggesting a variable selection across communities and existence of some opposing factors. We conducted a 30-week study in a plant community and measured the floral reflectances of 244 species. The reflectances were evaluated in insect color spaces (bees, swallowtails, and flies), and the dispersion was compared with random expectations. We found that co-existing colors were overdispersed for each analyzed pollinator type, and this overdispersion was statistically significant for bees. Furthermore, we showed that exclusion of 32 aliens from the analysis significantly increased the color dispersion of native flowers in every color space. This result indicated that aliens disturbed a native plant–pollinator network via similarly colored flowers. Our results demonstrate the masking effects of aliens in the detection of color dispersion of native flowers and that variations in pollinator vision yield different outcomes. Our results also support the hypothesis that co-flowering species are one of the drivers of color diversification and affect the community assembly. PMID:26650121

  17. Nonrandom Composition of Flower Colors in a Plant Community: Mutually Different Co-Flowering Natives and Disturbance by Aliens.

    PubMed

    Makino, Takashi T; Yokoyama, Jun

    2015-01-01

    When pollinators use flower color to locate food sources, a distinct color can serve as a reproductive barrier against co-flowering species. This anti-interference function of flower color may result in a community assembly of plant species displaying mutually different flower colors. However, such color dispersion is not ubiquitous, suggesting a variable selection across communities and existence of some opposing factors. We conducted a 30-week study in a plant community and measured the floral reflectances of 244 species. The reflectances were evaluated in insect color spaces (bees, swallowtails, and flies), and the dispersion was compared with random expectations. We found that co-existing colors were overdispersed for each analyzed pollinator type, and this overdispersion was statistically significant for bees. Furthermore, we showed that exclusion of 32 aliens from the analysis significantly increased the color dispersion of native flowers in every color space. This result indicated that aliens disturbed a native plant-pollinator network via similarly colored flowers. Our results demonstrate the masking effects of aliens in the detection of color dispersion of native flowers and that variations in pollinator vision yield different outcomes. Our results also support the hypothesis that co-flowering species are one of the drivers of color diversification and affect the community assembly.

  18. VARIATIONS IN REPRODUCTIVE TOXICANT IDENTIFICATION

    SciTech Connect

    Simmons, F

    2008-05-13

    Reproductive toxicants are a very important class of compounds. They present unique hazards to those of child bearing ages, perform their 'dirty work' using a wide variety of mechanisms on a number of different organs, and are regulatorily important. Because of all of this, properly identifying reproductive toxicants is important, but fraught with difficulty. In this paper we will describe types or reproductive toxicants, their importance, and both mistakes and good practices that people who are not experts in reproductive toxicology may use in their attempts to identify them. Additionally, this paper will focus on chemical reproductive toxicants and will not address biological agents that could affect reproductive toxicity although many principles outlined here could be applied to that endeavor.

  19. Boosting color feature selection for color face recognition.

    PubMed

    Choi, Jae Young; Ro, Yong Man; Plataniotis, Konstantinos N

    2011-05-01

    This paper introduces the new color face recognition (FR) method that makes effective use of boosting learning as color-component feature selection framework. The proposed boosting color-component feature selection framework is designed for finding the best set of color-component features from various color spaces (or models), aiming to achieve the best FR performance for a given FR task. In addition, to facilitate the complementary effect of the selected color-component features for the purpose of color FR, they are combined using the proposed weighted feature fusion scheme. The effectiveness of our color FR method has been successfully evaluated on the following five public face databases (DBs): CMU-PIE, Color FERET, XM2VTSDB, SCface, and FRGC 2.0. Experimental results show that the results of the proposed method are impressively better than the results of other state-of-the-art color FR methods over different FR challenges including highly uncontrolled illumination, moderate pose variation, and small resolution face images.

  20. Computational color constancy using chromagenic filters in color filter arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shrestha, Raju; Hardeberg, Jon Yngve

    2012-03-01

    We have proposed, in this paper, a new color constancy technique, an extension to the chromagenic color constancy. Chromagenic based illuminant estimation methods take two shots of a scene, one without and one with a specially chosen color filter in front of the camera lens. Here, we introduce chromagenic filters into the color filter array itself by placing them on top of R, G or B filters and replacing one of the two green filters in the Bayer's pattern with them. This allows obtaining two images of the same scene via demosaicking: a normal RGB image, and a chromagenic image, equivalent of RGB image with a chromagenic filter. The illuminant can then be estimated using chromagenic based illumination estimation algorithms. The method, we named as CFA based chromagenic color constancy (or 4C in short), therefore, does not require two shots and no registration issues involved unlike as in the other chromagenic based color constancy algorithms, making it more practical and useful computational color constancy method in many applications. Experiments show that the proposed color filter array based chromagenic color constancy method produces comparable results with the chromagenic color constancy without interpolation.

  1. The Impact of Fabry Disease on Reproductive Fitness.

    PubMed

    Laney, Dawn A; Clarke, Virginia; Foley, Allison; Hall, Eric W; Gillespie, Scott E; Holida, Myrl; Simmons, Morgan; Wadley, Alexandrea

    2017-03-22

    Fabry disease (FD) is a pan-ethnic, X-linked, progressive lysosomal storage disorder caused by pathogenic mutations in the GLA gene. Published case reports and abstracts suggest that decreased reproductive fitness may occur in males with FD. In order to understand the impact of FD on reproductive fitness and increase the accuracy of reproductive genetic counseling, this study examines a large, multi-centered population of individuals with FD to determine if males have reduced reproductive fitness. Study data were collected on 376 patients through two, gender-specific surveys distributed across the United States and Canada. The number of biological live-born children among individuals with FD was compared to statistics from the general population. Information was also collected on reduced sperm count, depression, pain, use of assisted reproductive technology, and reproductive choice. On average, females affected by FD had more biological live-born children (1.8) than males affected by FD (1.1). However, males affected by FD had an increased mean number of biological children (1.1) compared to the mean number of biological children fathered by men in the United States (0.9). Sixteen of the 134 males with FD reported oligospermia, which suggests that an infertility work up may be indicated for males having difficulty impregnating their partners. In our large multicenter sample, males and females with FD do not exhibit reduced reproductive fitness; on average they have more biological children than the general population in the United States. This information should assist clinicians in providing accurate reproductive genetic counseling and treatment for individuals with FD.

  2. Alcoholism and reproduction.

    PubMed

    Heine, M W

    1981-01-01

    A brief overview of the reproductive capacities of both men and women in alcoholism is presented. A historical evaluation indicates a resurgence of interest in this area. The effect of chronic alcohol consumption on both male fertility and potency is reported in conjunction with alcohol-mediated effects on the female subject. Emphasis is placed on pharmacokinetics, metabolism and drinking behavior of the alcoholic female. The adverse actions of some therapeutic drugs and chronic alcohol consumption is discussed in relationship to fetal alcohol syndrome and the accompanied mental and somatic abnormalities.

  3. Cannabis, cannabinoids and reproduction.

    PubMed

    Park, Boram; McPartland, John M; Glass, Michelle

    2004-02-01

    In most countries Cannabis is the most widely used illegal drug. Its use during pregnancy in developed nations is estimated to be approximately 10%. Recent evidence suggests that the endogenous cannabinoid system, now consisting of two receptors and multiple endocannabinoid ligands, may also play an important role in the maintenance and regulation of early pregnancy and fertility. The purpose of this review is therefore twofold, to examine the impact that cannabis use may have on fertility and reproduction, and to review the potential role of the endocannabinoid system in hormonal regulation, embryo implantation and maintenance of pregnancy.

  4. The reproduction of America.

    PubMed

    Rudy, Kathy

    1994-01-01

    ... This essay draws a connection between the medical procedures produced by new reproductive technologies, most specifically the use of pre-natal tests which result in abortion, and the dictates of American liberal theory. There is, I believe, a strong link between certain contemporary American abortion practices and American liberalism's formulation of and emphasis on rational individualism. The touchstone and criterion of reason as the sole measure of humanity has influenced the conditions under which we reproduce, and consequently, when we abort. Although America purports to offer certain kinds of freedom to all individuals, only those who exercise the capacity for rationality are in fact permitted to reap the benefits of liberal society.

  5. 7 CFR 51.892 - Color terms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Color terms. 51.892 Section 51.892 Agriculture... Standards for Grades of Table Grapes (European or Vinifera Type) 1 Definitions § 51.892 Color terms. The color terms well colored, reasonably well colored, and fairly well colored are defined in Table...

  6. 7 CFR 51.892 - Color terms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Color terms. 51.892 Section 51.892 Agriculture... Standards for Grades of Table Grapes (European or Vinifera Type) 1 Definitions § 51.892 Color terms. The color terms well colored, reasonably well colored, and fairly well colored are defined in Table...

  7. 7 CFR 51.2276 - Color chart.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Color chart. 51.2276 Section 51.2276 Agriculture....2276 Color chart. The color chart (USDA Walnut Color Chart) to which reference is made in §§ 51.2281 and 51.2282 illustrates the four shades of walnut skin color listed as color classifications....

  8. 7 CFR 51.892 - Color terms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Color terms. 51.892 Section 51.892 Agriculture... Standards for Grades of Table Grapes (European or Vinifera Type) 1 Definitions § 51.892 Color terms. The color terms well colored, reasonably well colored, and fairly well colored are defined in Table...

  9. 7 CFR 51.2276 - Color chart.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Color chart. 51.2276 Section 51.2276 Agriculture....2276 Color chart. The color chart (USDA Walnut Color Chart) to which reference is made in §§ 51.2281 and 51.2282 illustrates the four shades of walnut skin color listed as color classifications....

  10. Maternal investment of female mallards is influenced by male carotenoid-based coloration

    PubMed Central

    Giraudeau, M.; Duval, C.; Czirják, G. Á.; Bretagnolle, V.; Eraud, C.; McGraw, K. J.; Heeb, P.

    2011-01-01

    The differential allocation hypothesis predicts that females modify their investment in a breeding attempt according to its reproductive value. One prediction of this hypothesis is that females will increase reproductive investment when mated to high-quality males. In birds, it was shown that females can modulate pre-hatch reproductive investment by manipulating egg and clutch sizes and/or the concentrations of egg internal compounds according to paternal attractiveness. However, the differential allocation of immune factors has seldom been considered, particularly with an experimental approach. The carotenoid-based ornaments can function as reliable signals of quality, indicating better immunity or ability to resist parasites. Thus, numerous studies show that females use the expression of carotenoid-based colour when choosing mates; but the influence of this paternal coloration on maternal investment decisions has seldom been considered and has only been experimentally studied with artificial manipulation of male coloration. Here, we used dietary carotenoid provisioning to manipulate male mallard (Anas platyrhynchos) bill coloration, a sexually selected trait, and followed female investment. We show that an increase of male bill coloration positively influenced egg mass and albumen lysozyme concentration. By contrast, yolk carotenoid concentration was not affected by paternal ornamentation. Maternal decisions highlighted in this study may influence chick survival and compel males to maintain carotenoid-based coloration from the mate-choice period until egg-laying has been finished. PMID:20843851

  11. Simultaneous Determination of Acetaminophen and Synthetic Color(s) by Derivative Spectroscopy in Syrup Formulations and Validation by HPLC: Exposure Risk of Colors to Children.

    PubMed

    Rastogi, Shanya Das; Dixit, Sumita; Tripathi, Anurag; Das, Mukul

    2015-06-01

    Color additives are used in pediatric syrup formulations as an excipient; though not pre-requisite, but pediatric syrup formulations are normally colored. An attempt has been made to measure simultaneously the single drug, acetaminophen (AT), along with the colors, carmoisine (CA), erythrosine (ET), and sunset yellow FCF (SSY) added in it by three derivative spectroscopy methods namely, 1st order, ratio, and differential derivative methods. Moreover, evaluation has been made for the exposure assessment of the colors added as excipient because some colors have been reported to cause allergic reactions and hypersensitivity in children. The present methods provide simple, accurate, and reproducible quantitative determination of the drug, AT, along with the color in synthetic mixtures and commercial drug formulations without any interference. The limit of detection varied from 0.0001-0.31 μg/ml while limit of quantification ranged from 0.002-1.04 μg/ml in all the three methods. The calibration curve of all the three derivative methods exhibited good linear relationship with excellent regression coefficients (0.9986-1.000). Both intra-day and inter-day precisions showed %RSD value less than 2% while the percentage recovery was found between 96.8-103.8%. The sensitivity of the proposed methods is almost comparable to HPLC and thus, can be used for determination of drug AT, and color simultaneously in pharmaceutical formulation on routine basis. The present methods also showed that colors like SSY and ET are saturating more than 50% of acceptable daily intake (ADI) value which is alarming and needs to be considered for modification by regulatory authorities to safeguard the health of children.

  12. Human reproductive issues in space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Santy, Patricia A.; Jennings, Richard T.

    1992-01-01

    A review of reproductive functioning in animal species studied during space flight demonstrated that most species were affected significantly by the absence of gravity and/or the presence of radiation. These two factors induced alterations in normal reproductive functioning independently of, as well as in combination with, each other. Based on animal models, several potential problem areas regarding human reproductive physiology and functioning in the space environment were identified. While there are no current space flight investigations, the animal studies suggest priorities for future research in human reproduction. Such studies will be critical for the successful colonization of the space frontier.

  13. Selective advantage for sexual reproduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tannenbaum, Emmanuel

    2006-06-01

    This paper develops a simplified model for sexual reproduction within the quasispecies formalism. The model assumes a diploid genome consisting of two chromosomes, where the fitness is determined by the number of chromosomes that are identical to a given master sequence. We also assume that there is a cost to sexual reproduction, given by a characteristic time τseek during which haploid cells seek out a mate with which to recombine. If the mating strategy is such that only viable haploids can mate, then when τseek=0 , it is possible to show that sexual reproduction will always out compete asexual reproduction. However, as τseek increases, sexual reproduction only becomes advantageous at progressively higher mutation rates. Once the time cost for sex reaches a critical threshold, the selective advantage for sexual reproduction disappears entirely. The results of this paper suggest that sexual reproduction is not advantageous in small populations per se, but rather in populations with low replication rates. In this regime, the cost for sex is sufficiently low that the selective advantage obtained through recombination leads to the dominance of the strategy. In fact, at a given replication rate and for a fixed environment volume, sexual reproduction is selected for in high populations because of the reduced time spent finding a reproductive partner.

  14. The application of color display techniques for the analysis of Nimbus infrared radiation data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allison, L. J.; Cherrix, G. T.; Ausfresser, H.

    1972-01-01

    A color enhancement system designed for the Applications Technology Satellite (ATS) spin scan experiment has been adapted for the analysis of Nimbus infrared radiation measurements. For a given scene recorded on magnetic tape by the Nimbus scanning radiometers, a virtually unlimited number of color images can be produced at the ATS Operations Control Center from a color selector paper tape input. Linear image interpolation has produced radiation analyses in which each brightness-color interval has a smooth boundary without any mosaic effects. An annotated latitude-longitude gridding program makes it possible to precisely locate geophysical parameters, which permits accurate interpretation of pertinent meteorological, geological, hydrological, and oceanographic features.

  15. Using Single Colors and Color Pairs to Communicate Basic Tastes II: Foreground-Background Color Combinations.

    PubMed

    Woods, Andy T; Marmolejo-Ramos, Fernando; Velasco, Carlos; Spence, Charles

    2016-01-01

    People associate basic tastes (e.g., sweet, sour, bitter, and salty) with specific colors (e.g., pink or red, green or yellow, black or purple, and white or blue). In the present study, we investigated whether a color bordered by another color (either the same or different) would give rise to stronger taste associations relative to a single patch of color. We replicate previous findings, highlighting the existence of a robust crossmodal correspondence between individual colors and basic tastes. On occasion, color pairs were found to communicate taste expectations more consistently than were single color patches. Furthermore, and in contrast to a recent study in which the color pairs were shown side-by-side, participants took no longer to match the color pairs with tastes than the single colors (they had taken twice as long to respond to the color pairs in the previous study). Possible reasons for these results are discussed, and potential applications for the results, and for the testing methodology developed, are outlined.

  16. Using Single Colors and Color Pairs to Communicate Basic Tastes II: Foreground–Background Color Combinations

    PubMed Central

    Marmolejo-Ramos, Fernando; Velasco, Carlos; Spence, Charles

    2016-01-01

    People associate basic tastes (e.g., sweet, sour, bitter, and salty) with specific colors (e.g., pink or red, green or yellow, black or purple, and white or blue). In the present study, we investigated whether a color bordered by another color (either the same or different) would give rise to stronger taste associations relative to a single patch of color. We replicate previous findings, highlighting the existence of a robust crossmodal correspondence between individual colors and basic tastes. On occasion, color pairs were found to communicate taste expectations more consistently than were single color patches. Furthermore, and in contrast to a recent study in which the color pairs were shown side-by-side, participants took no longer to match the color pairs with tastes than the single colors (they had taken twice as long to respond to the color pairs in the previous study). Possible reasons for these results are discussed, and potential applications for the results, and for the testing methodology developed, are outlined. PMID:27708752

  17. Flower color polymorphism maintained by overdominant selection in Sisyrinchium sp.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Yuma; Takakura, Koh-ichi; Kawata, Masakado

    2015-11-01

    Negative frequency-dependent selection derived from positive frequency-dependent foraging is the best-known selection force maintaining genetic polymorphism within a population. However, in flowering plants, positive frequency-dependent foraging by pollinators is expected to accelerate the loss of low-frequency morphs by conferring a fitness advantage to the common morph, leading to monomorphism. In Japan, a non-native species, Sisyrinchium sp., exhibits conspicuous flower color polymorphism within a population comprising both purple morphs (homozygous recessive) and white morphs (heterozygous or homozygous dominant). Here we quantified genotype-specific reproductive success in order to reveal the contribution of overdominant selection on the maintenance of flower color polymorphism in this species. In artificial pollination experiments using individuals with identified genotypes, female reproductive success was higher in the heterozygote than in either homozygote. The frequency of purple morphs in natural populations (ca. 31%) is similar to the frequency predicted by overdominant selection (25%). Our results suggest that overdominant selection contributes to the maintenance of color morphs in the natural population of this species.

  18. Linking movement and reproductive history of brook trout to assess habitat connectivity in a heterogeneous stream network

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kanno, Yoichiro; Letcher, Benjamin H.; Coombs, Jason A.; Nislow, Keith H.; Whiteley, Andrew R.

    2013-01-01

    This study highlighted the importance of characterising animal movement over the life cycle for inferring habitat connectivity accurately. Such movements of individuals can contribute to substantial gene movements in a fecund species characterised by high variation in reproductive success.

  19. The Classification of Tongue Colors with Standardized Acquisition and ICC Profile Correction in Traditional Chinese Medicine

    PubMed Central

    Tu, Li-ping; Chen, Jing-bo; Hu, Xiao-juan; Zhang, Zhi-feng

    2016-01-01

    Background and Goal. The application of digital image processing techniques and machine learning methods in tongue image classification in Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) has been widely studied nowadays. However, it is difficult for the outcomes to generalize because of lack of color reproducibility and image standardization. Our study aims at the exploration of tongue colors classification with a standardized tongue image acquisition process and color correction. Methods. Three traditional Chinese medical experts are chosen to identify the selected tongue pictures taken by the TDA-1 tongue imaging device in TIFF format through ICC profile correction. Then we compare the mean value of L*a*b* of different tongue colors and evaluate the effect of the tongue color classification by machine learning methods. Results. The L*a*b* values of the five tongue colors are statistically different. Random forest method has a better performance than SVM in classification. SMOTE algorithm can increase classification accuracy by solving the imbalance of the varied color samples. Conclusions. At the premise of standardized tongue acquisition and color reproduction, preliminary objectification of tongue color classification in Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) is feasible. PMID:28050555

  20. The Classification of Tongue Colors with Standardized Acquisition and ICC Profile Correction in Traditional Chinese Medicine.

    PubMed

    Qi, Zhen; Tu, Li-Ping; Chen, Jing-Bo; Hu, Xiao-Juan; Xu, Jia-Tuo; Zhang, Zhi-Feng

    2016-01-01

    Background and Goal. The application of digital image processing techniques and machine learning methods in tongue image classification in Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) has been widely studied nowadays. However, it is difficult for the outcomes to generalize because of lack of color reproducibility and image standardization. Our study aims at the exploration of tongue colors classification with a standardized tongue image acquisition process and color correction. Methods. Three traditional Chinese medical experts are chosen to identify the selected tongue pictures taken by the TDA-1 tongue imaging device in TIFF format through ICC profile correction. Then we compare the mean value of L(*)a(*)b(*) of different tongue colors and evaluate the effect of the tongue color classification by machine learning methods. Results. The L(*)a(*)b(*) values of the five tongue colors are statistically different. Random forest method has a better performance than SVM in classification. SMOTE algorithm can increase classification accuracy by solving the imbalance of the varied color samples. Conclusions. At the premise of standardized tongue acquisition and color reproduction, preliminary objectification of tongue color classification in Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) is feasible.

  1. Tree Colors: Color Schemes for Tree-Structured Data.

    PubMed

    Tennekes, Martijn; de Jonge, Edwin

    2014-12-01

    We present a method to map tree structures to colors from the Hue-Chroma-Luminance color model, which is known for its well balanced perceptual properties. The Tree Colors method can be tuned with several parameters, whose effect on the resulting color schemes is discussed in detail. We provide a free and open source implementation with sensible parameter defaults. Categorical data are very common in statistical graphics, and often these categories form a classification tree. We evaluate applying Tree Colors to tree structured data with a survey on a large group of users from a national statistical institute. Our user study suggests that Tree Colors are useful, not only for improving node-link diagrams, but also for unveiling tree structure in non-hierarchical visualizations.

  2. False Color Bands

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site]

    The theme for the weeks of 1/17 and 1/24 is the north polar region of Mars as seen in false color THEMIS images. Ice/frost will typically appear as bright blue in color; dust mantled ice will appear in tones of red/orange.

    In a gray scale image, the suble variations seen in this false color image are almost impossible to identify. Note the orange band in the center of the frame, and the bluer bands to either side of it.

    Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude 87, Longitude 65.5 East (294.5 West). 19 meter/pixel resolution.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen at Arizona State University. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the Odyssey project, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are conducted jointly from Lockheed Martin and from JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

  3. Reproductive cycle of goats.

    PubMed

    Fatet, Alice; Pellicer-Rubio, Maria-Teresa; Leboeuf, Bernard

    2011-04-01

    Goats are spontaneously ovulating, polyoestrous animals. Oestrous cycles in goats are reviewed in this paper with a view to clarifying interactions between cyclical changes in tissues, hormones and behaviour. Reproduction in goats is described as seasonal; the onset and length of the breeding season is dependent on various factors such as latitude, climate, breed, physiological stage, presence of the male, breeding system and specifically photoperiod. In temperate regions, reproduction in goats is described as seasonal with breeding period in the fall and winter and important differences in seasonality between breeds and locations. In tropical regions, goats are considered continuous breeders; however, restricted food availability often causes prolonged anoestrous and anovulatory periods and reduced fertility and prolificacy. Different strategies of breeding management have been developed to meet the supply needs and expectations of consumers, since both meat and milk industries are subjected to growing demands for year-round production. Hormonal treatments, to synchronize oestrus and ovulation in combination with artificial insemination (AI) or natural mating, allow out-of-season breeding and the grouping of the kidding period. Photoperiodic treatments coupled with buck effect now allow hormone-free synchronization of ovulation but fertility results after AI are still behind those of hormonal treatments. The latter techniques are still under study and will help meeting the emerging social demand of reducing the use of hormones for the management of breeding systems.

  4. Human reproduction: current status.

    PubMed

    Izzo, Carlos Roberto; Monteleone, Pedro Augusto Araújo; Serafini, Paulo C

    2015-01-01

    The concern about the maintenance of the human species has existed since the earliest civilizations. Progress in the diagnosis and treatment of infertility has led to the development of assisted reproductive techniques (ART) which, along with the evolution of genetics and molecular biology studies, have contributed in a concrete way to the management of infertile couples. Classic in vitro fertilization was initially developed 35 years ago for the treatment of women with tubal blockage, however, it remains inaccessible to a significant proportion of infertile couples around the world. This can be explained by the lack of specialized clinics in some countries and by the high cost of the procedures. Efforts have been employed to increase the number of treatment cycles for assisted reproduction, as for example, the creation of low-cost programs. Even today, infertility remains a problem of global proportions, affecting millions of couples. The estimate of the incidence of infertility is uncertain, mainly because of the criteria used for its definition. This article aims to review the most important aspects, succinctly, regarding the incidence, etiology, and treatment options available to infertile couples.

  5. Smoking and reproduction.

    PubMed

    Lincoln, R

    1986-01-01

    2 of the 5 health warnings that must now appear on American cigarette packs and cigarette advertising refer to some of the increased hazards smoking entails for the woman and her unborn child. Yet, the myriad reproductive risks associated with smoking are little known or considered by the general public--or even by physicians--when compared with the dangers of lung cancer, heart attacks and emphysema. In an attempt to remedy that deficit, 8 government agencies sponsored the 1st International Conference on Smoking and Reproductive Health, held October 15-17, 1985 in San Francisco. Speaker after expert speaker connected smoking during pregnancy with increased risks of low birth weight, miscarriage, infant mortality and morbidity--including poorer health of surviving children up to at least age 3--ectopic pregnancy, infertility, menstrual disorders, early menopause, osteoporosis, cervical cancer and dysplasia, cardiovascular disease and placental abnormalities. Similarly, the conference participants documented the association of smoking among men with lower sperm count and increased prevalence of abnormal sperm. The following measures were urged at the closing statements of the conference: 1) an increased effort to inform doctors and health professionals of these findings; 2) increasing the tax on cigarettes, so that smokers would pay for their own health costs; 3) decreasing or eliminating government subsidies for growing tobacco, while helping growers make the transition to nontobacco crops; 4) making smoking cessation programs more widely available; 5) prohibiting the sale of cigarettes through vending machines; and 6) banning all smoking in the workplace.

  6. Color Changing Hydrogen Sensors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roberson, Luke B.; Williams, Martha; Captain, Janine E.; Mohajeri, Nahid; Raissi, Ali

    2015-01-01

    During the Space Shuttle Program, one of the most hazardous operation that occurred was the loading of liquid hydrogen (LH2) during fueling operations of the spacecraft. Due to hydrogen's low explosive limit, any amount leaked could lead to catastrophic event. Hydrogen's chemical properties make it ideal as a rocket fuel; however, the fuel is deemed unsafe for most commercial use because of the inability to easily detect the gas leaking. The increased use of hydrogen over traditional fossil fuels would reduce greenhouse gases and America's dependency on foreign oil. Therefore a technology that would improve safety at NASA and in the commercial sector while creating a new economic sector would have a huge impact to NASA's mission. The Chemochromic Detector for sensing hydrogen gas leakage is a color-changing detector that is useful in any application where it is important to know not only the presence but also the location of the hydrogen gas leak. This technology utilizes a chemochromicpigment and polymer matrix that can be molded or spun into rigid or pliable shapes useable in variable temperature environments including atmospheres of inert gas, hydrogen gas, or mixtures of gases. A change in color of the detector material indicates where gaseous hydrogen leaks are occurring. The irreversible sensor has a dramatic color change from beige to dark grey and remains dark grey after exposure. A reversible pigment changes from white to blue in the presence of hydrogen and reverts back to white in the presence of oxygen. Both versions of the sensor's pigments were comprised of a mixture of a metal oxide substrate and a hydro-chromic compound (i.e., the compound that changed color in the presence of hydrogen) and immediately notified the operator of the presence of low levels of hydrogen. The detector can be used in a variety of formats including paint, tape, caulking, injection molded parts, textiles and fabrics, composites, and films. This technology brings numerous

  7. The Computation of Color

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-09-01

    reviews 14 cases of achromatopsia due to cerebral lesions, the earliest being MacKay and Dunlop’s of 1899 [69], the latest one of his own (1974). All but...Meadows [81] and Damasio et. al. [20] note, this is supported by the fact that prosopagnosia and achromatopsia may occur independently of each other... achromatopsia in a patient (C. B.) who suffered occipital lobe damage in an auto accident. C.B.’s color perception is "grossly impaired," as evidenced by

  8. Color measurement and discrimination

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wandell, B. A.

    1985-01-01

    The present investigation is concerned with new results which show that for test lights with slow temporal modulations, and thus little effect on the luminance system, the vector-difference hypothesis represents an adequate characterization of discrimination data. It is pointed out that for certain experimental conditions color measurements can be successfully extended to include a difference measure which predicts the discriminability of pairs of lights. When discrimination depends principally on opponent-channel responses, discrimination thresholds can be predicted from the detection contour alone. Attention is given to discriminations with a 6-Hz Gabor function, the categorization of stimulus regions, and the nature of the visual mechanisms.

  9. Displaying Colors of Specified Chrominance on a Color Graphics Display.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-12-01

    coordinates (such as Commission Internationale de l’Eclairage CIEXYZ coordinates). This report contains the description of a procedure for displaying...colors of known chrominance as specified by CIEXYZ coordinates. The procedure makes use of models of a color graphics system intensity (bits) to lumi...coordinates (e.g., CIELUV -1976 CT contrast equations as described in Robertson, 1977). Thus, the results of most efforts to specify a set of colors to

  10. Reproduction and advances in reproductive studies in carnivores.

    PubMed

    Jewgenow, Katarina; Songsasen, Nucharin

    2014-01-01

    Reproductive mechanisms are extraordinarily diverse among species, even within the same phylogenetic clade. Due to this, it has been difficult to directly apply reproductive technologies developed in human and livestock to genetically manage ex situ wildlife, including carnivores. To date, more common, closely related species, e.g., domestic cats, dogs and ferrets have served as valuable models for developing reproductive technologies for managing rare, endangered carnivores. Artificial insemination and sperm cryopreservation have already been successfully used to manage ex situ populations in some carnivore species, such as the black-footed ferret, cheetah and giant panda. However, technologies aiming at preserving genetics of valuable females have not been fully developed in carnivores, due to the lack of fundamental knowledge about reproductive anatomy and physiology, gamete development, embryogenesis and cryopreservation. The present chapter is divided into two parts. The first part focuses on current knowledge about carnivore reproduction, with emphasis on species diversity in reproductive mechanisms. The second part highlights the progress in reproductive science and related technologies made during the last decade. In addition, we provide examples of how reproductive technologies can contribute to carnivore management and conservation. Although carnivores are comprised of 19 families, we will only focus our attention on four taxonomic groups, including felids, canids, ursids and mustelids.

  11. Effect of the atmosphere on the color coordinates of sunlit surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Willers, Cornelius J.; Viljoen, Johan W.

    2016-02-01

    Aerosol attenuation in the atmosphere has a relatively weak spectral variation compared to molecular absorption. However, the solar spectral irradiance differs considerably for the sun at high zenith angles versus the sun at low zenith angles. The perceived color of a sunlit object depends on the object's spectral reflectivity as well as the irradiance spectrum. The color coordinates of the sunlit object, hence also the color balance in a scene, shift with changes in the solar zenith angle. The work reported here does not claim accurate color measurement. With proper calibration mobile phones may provide reasonably accurate color measurement, but the mobile phones used for taking these pictures and videos are not scientific instruments and were not calibrated. The focus here is on the relative shift of the observed colors, rather than absolute color. The work in this paper entails the theoretical analysis of color coordinates of surfaces and how they change for different colored surfaces. Then follows three separate investigations: (1) Analysis of a number of detailed atmospheric radiative transfer code (Modtran) runs to show from the theory how color coordinates should change. (2) Analysis of a still image showing how the colors of two sample surfaces vary between sunlit and shaded areas. (3) Time lapse video recordings showing how the color coordinates of a few surfaces change as a function of time of day. Both the theoretical and experimental work shows distinct shifts in color as function of atmospheric conditions. The Modtran simulations demonstrate the effect from clear atmospheric conditions (no aerosol) to low visibility conditions (5 km visibility). Even under moderate atmospheric conditions the effect was surprisingly large. The experimental work indicated significant shifts during the diurnal cycle.

  12. Human preferences for colorful birds: Vivid colors or pattern?

    PubMed

    Lišková, Silvie; Landová, Eva; Frynta, Daniel

    2015-04-29

    In a previous study, we found that the shape of a bird, rather than its color, plays a major role in the determination of human preferences. Thus, in the present study, we asked whether the preferences of human respondents towards uniformly shaped, colorful birds are determined by pattern rather than color. The experimental stimuli were pictures of small passerine birds of the family Pittidae possessing uniform shape but vivid coloration. We asked 200 participants to rank 43 colored and 43 identical, but grayscaled, pictures of birds. To find the traits determining human preferences, we performed GLM analysis in which we tried to explain the mean preference ranks and PC axes by the following explanatory variables: the overall lightness and saturation, edges (pattern), and the portion of each of the basic color hues. The results showed that the mean preference ranks of the grayscale set is explained mostly by the birds' pattern, whereas the colored set ranking is mostly determined by the overall lightness. The effect of colors was weaker, but still significant, and revealed that people liked blue and green birds. We found no significant role of the color red, the perception of which was acquired relatively recently in evolution.

  13. Note on color preference and color vision test performance.

    PubMed

    Buckalew, L W; Buckalew, N M; Ross, S

    1989-12-01

    The incidence of color deficient vision was investigated using the Pseudo-Isochromatic Plates on a relatively large and representative group. In the sample of 112 adults aged 20 to 80 yr. and comprised of 53% women and 12% minorities, 8% of men and 3% of women were color deficient. Over-all performance indicated no effects for sex or race. Nearly half of the plates were nondiscriminating among sex, minority/majority, and "normal" and "defective" color vision groups. Named color preferences within the "normal" group strongly favored blues and reflected no sex differences.

  14. Color adaptation induced from linguistic description of color

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Liling; Huang, Ping; Zhong, Xiao; Li, Tianfeng; Mo, Lei

    2017-01-01

    Recent theories propose that language comprehension can influence perception at the low level of perceptual system. Here, we used an adaptation paradigm to test whether processing language caused color adaptation in the visual system. After prolonged exposure to a color linguistic context, which depicted red, green, or non-specific color scenes, participants immediately performed a color detection task, indicating whether they saw a green color square in the middle of a white screen or not. We found that participants were more likely to perceive the green color square after listening to discourses denoting red compared to discourses denoting green or conveying non-specific color information, revealing that language comprehension caused an adaptation aftereffect at the perceptual level. Therefore, semantic representation of color may have a common neural substrate with color perception. These results are in line with the simulation view of embodied language comprehension theory, which predicts that processing language reactivates the sensorimotor systems that are engaged during real experience. PMID:28358807

  15. Color vision, cones, and color-coding in the cortex.

    PubMed

    Conway, Bevil R

    2009-06-01

    Color processing begins with the absorption of light by cone photoreceptors, and progresses through a series of hierarchical stages: Retinal signals carrying color information are transmitted through the lateral geniculate nucleus of the thalamus (LGN) up to the primary visual cortex (V1). From V1, the signals are processed by the second visual area (V2); then by cells located in subcompartments ("globs") within the posterior inferior temporal (PIT) cortex, a brain region that encompasses area V4 and brain regions immediately anterior to V4. Color signals are then processed by regions deep within the inferior temporal (IT) cortex including area TE. As a heuristic, one can consider each of these stages to be involved in constructing a distinct aspect of the color percept. The three cone types are the basis for trichromacy; retinal ganglion cells that respond in an opponent fashion to activation of different cone classes are the basis for color opponency (these "cone-opponent" cells increase their firing rate above baseline to activation of one cone class and decrease their firing rate below baseline to activation of a different cone class); double-opponent neurons in the V1 generate local color contrast and are the building blocks for color constancy; glob cells elaborate the perception of hue; and IT integrates color perception in the context of behavior. Finally, though nothing is known, these signals presumably interface with motor programs and emotional centers of the brain to mediate the widely acknowledged emotional salience of color.

  16. Model-based prediction of human hair color using DNA variants.

    PubMed

    Branicki, Wojciech; Liu, Fan; van Duijn, Kate; Draus-Barini, Jolanta; Pośpiech, Ewelina; Walsh, Susan; Kupiec, Tomasz; Wojas-Pelc, Anna; Kayser, Manfred

    2011-04-01

    Predicting complex human phenotypes from genotypes is the central concept of widely advocated personalized medicine, but so far has rarely led to high accuracies limiting practical applications. One notable exception, although less relevant for medical but important for forensic purposes, is human eye color, for which it has been recently demonstrated that highly accurate prediction is feasible from a small number of DNA variants. Here, we demonstrate that human hair color is predictable from DNA variants with similarly high accuracies. We analyzed in Polish Europeans with single-observer hair color grading 45 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) from 12 genes previously associated with human hair color variation. We found that a model based on a subset of 13 single or compound genetic markers from 11 genes predicted red hair color with over 0.9, black hair color with almost 0.9, as well as blond, and brown hair color with over 0.8 prevalence-adjusted accuracy expressed by the area under the receiver characteristic operating curves (AUC). The identified genetic predictors also differentiate reasonably well between similar hair colors, such as between red and blond-red, as well as between blond and dark-blond, highlighting the value of the identified DNA variants for accurate hair color prediction.

  17. Full Color Holographic Endoscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Osanlou, A.; Bjelkhagen, H.; Mirlis, E.; Crosby, P.; Shore, A.; Henderson, P.; Napier, P.

    2013-02-01

    The ability to produce color holograms from the human tissue represents a major medical advance, specifically in the areas of diagnosis and teaching. This has been achieved at Glyndwr University. In corporation with partners at Gooch & Housego, Moor Instruments, Vivid Components and peninsula medical school, Exeter, UK, for the first time, we have produced full color holograms of human cell samples in which the cell boundary and the nuclei inside the cells could be clearly focused at different depths - something impossible with a two-dimensional photographic image. This was the main objective set by the peninsula medical school at Exeter, UK. Achieving this objective means that clinically useful images essentially indistinguishable from the object human cells could be routinely recorded. This could potentially be done at the tip of a holo-endoscopic probe inside the body. Optimised recording exposure and development processes for the holograms were defined for bulk exposures. This included the optimisation of in-house recording emulsions for coating evaluation onto polymer substrates (rather than glass plates), a key step for large volume commercial exploitation. At Glyndwr University, we also developed a new version of our in-house holographic (world-leading resolution) emulsion.

  18. Martian soil color variations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    Rocks and soils on the surface are thought to be composed of minerals similar to those found on Earth's surface. One of the most important tools for recognizing these minerals is the spectrum of sunlight reflected by them. At the visible and near-infrared light wavelengths measured by the Imager for Mars Pathfinder (IMP), the most important coloring materials in the Martian surface are iron minerals. There are two broad classes of iron minerals. Minerals which occur in igneous rocks (such as pyroxene) have a relatively flat spectrum and they reflect only a small amount of light; they are said to have a low reflectance. Ferric iron minerals, which occur as weathering products, reflect longer-wavelength light and absorb short-wavelength light, hence their very red color. The relative brightnesses of Martian surface materials in IMP's different wavelength filter is a powerful tool for recognizing the iron minerals present.

    Mars Pathfinder is the second in NASA's Discovery program of low-cost spacecraft with highly focused science goals. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, developed and manages the Mars Pathfinder mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Imager for Mars Pathfinder (IMP) was developed by the University of Arizona Lunar and Planetary Laboratory under contract to JPL. Peter Smith is the Principal Investigator. JPL is an operating division of the California Institute of Technology (Caltech).

  19. Contrasting coloration in terrestrial mammals

    PubMed Central

    Caro, Tim

    2008-01-01

    Here I survey, collate and synthesize contrasting coloration in 5000 species of terrestrial mammals focusing on black and white pelage. After briefly reviewing alternative functional hypotheses for coloration in mammals, I examine nine colour patterns and combinations on different areas of the body and for each mammalian taxon to try to identify the most likely evolutionary drivers of contrasting coloration. Aposematism and perhaps conspecific signalling are the most consistent explanations for black and white pelage in mammals; background matching may explain white pelage. Evidence for contrasting coloration is being involved in crypsis through pattern blending, disruptive coloration or serving other functions, such as signalling dominance, lures, reducing eye glare or in temperature regulation has barely moved beyond anecdotal stages of investigation. Sexual dichromatism is limited in this taxon and its basis is unclear. Astonishingly, the functional significance of pelage coloration in most large charismatic black and white mammals that were new to science 150 years ago still remains a mystery. PMID:18990666

  20. Natural colorants from filamentous fungi.

    PubMed

    Torres, Fábio Aurélio Esteves; Zaccarim, Bruna Regina; de Lencastre Novaes, Letícia Celia; Jozala, Angela Faustino; Dos Santos, Carolina Alves; Teixeira, Maria Francisca Simas; Santos-Ebinuma, Valéria Carvalho

    2016-03-01

    In the last years, there is a trend towards the replacement of synthetic colorants by natural ones, mainly due to the increase of consumer demand for natural products. The natural colorants are used to enhance the appearance of pharmaceutical products, food, and different materials, making them preferable or attractive. This review intends to provide and describe a comprehensive overview of the history of colorants, from prehistory to modern time, of their market and their applications, as well as of the most important aspects of the fermentation process to obtain natural colorants. Focus is given to colorants produced by filamentous fungal species, aiming to demonstrate the importance of these microorganisms and biocompounds, highlighting the production performance to get high yields and the aspects of conclusion that should be taken into consideration in future studies about natural colorants.

  1. Sri Lanka, Colored Height

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    The topography of the island nation of Sri Lanka is well shown in this color-coded shaded relief map generated with digital elevation data from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM).

    Two visualization methods were combined to produce the image: shading and color coding of topographic height. The shade image was derived by computing topographic slope in the northwest-southeast direction, so that northwest slopes appear bright and southeast slopes appear dark. Color coding is directly related to topographic height, with green at the lower elevations, rising through yellow and tan, to white at the highest elevations.

    For this special view heights below 10 meters (33 feet) above sea level have been colored red. These low coastal elevations extend 5 to 10 km (3.1 to 6.2 mi) inland on Sri Lanka and are especially vulnerable to flooding associated with storm surges, rising sea level, or, as in the aftermath of the earthquake of December 26, 2004, tsunami. These so-called tidal waves have occurred numerous times in history and can be especially destructive, but with the advent of the near-global SRTM elevation data planners can better predict which areas are in the most danger and help develop mitigation plans in the event of particular flood events.

    Sri Lanka is shaped like a giant teardrop falling from the southern tip of the vast Indian subcontinent. It is separated from India by the 50km (31mi) wide Palk Strait, although there is a series of stepping-stone coral islets known as Adam's Bridge that almost form a land bridge between the two countries. The island is just 350km (217mi) long and only 180km (112mi) wide at its broadest, and is about the same size as Ireland, West Virginia or Tasmania.

    The southern half of the island is dominated by beautiful and rugged hill country, and includes Mt Pidurutalagala, the islandaE(TM)s highest point at 2524 meters (8281 ft). The entire northern half comprises a large plain extending from the edge of

  2. Color calculations for and perceptual assessment of computer graphic images

    SciTech Connect

    Meyer, G.W.

    1986-01-01

    Realistic image synthesis involves the modelling of an environment in accordance with the laws of physics and the production of a final simulation that is perceptually acceptable. To be considered a scientific endeavor, synthetic image generation should also include the final step of experimental verification. This thesis concentrates on the color calculations that are inherent in the production of the final simulation and on the perceptual assessment of the computer graphic images that result. The fundamental spectral sensitivity functions that are active in the human visual system are introduced and are used to address color-blindness issues in computer graphics. A digitally controlled color television monitor is employed to successfully implement both the Farnsworth Munsell 100 hues test and a new color vision test that yields more accurate diagnoses. Images that simulate color blind vision are synthesized and are used to evaluate color scales for data display. Gaussian quadrature is used with a set of opponent fundamental to select the wavelengths at which to perform synthetic image generation.

  3. Procedures for Testing Color Vision,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-01-01

    for the report were chosen for their special competences and with regard for appropriate balance. This report has been reviewed by a group other than...determine quantitatively whether the color-defective applicant was competent to make the color perception requirements of a particular job. The colors...reconnaissance des anomalies de la vision des couleurs. Archives des Maladies Professionnelles , de M6decine du Tray et de S~curit6 Sociale (Paris) 29:293-314

  4. Phthalates as developmental reproductive toxicants

    EPA Science Inventory

    PE are a large family ofcompounds used in a wide array ofconsumer, industrial and medical products. Studies have shown that in utero treatment with PE such as diethyl hexyl phthalate (DEHP) during the critical period offetal reproductive development produced male reproductive mal...

  5. Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) is the number one disease affecting US swine. It is caused by the PRRS virus (PRRSV) and is recognized as reproductive failure of sows and respiratory problems of piglets and growing pigs. This book chapter is part of the Office of International E...

  6. Assisted reproductive practice: religious perspectives.

    PubMed

    Schenker, Joscph G

    2005-03-01

    It is important to those who practise reproductive techniques to learn about different religious perspectives related to reproductive health problems. Religious groups are active in influencing the public regarding bioethical positions, and this is particularly evident with issues concerning procreation, abortion and infertility therapy. The Jewish attitude towards procreation is derived from the first commandment of God to Adam to 'Be fruitful and multiply'. Judaism allows the practice of all techniques of assisted reproduction when the oocyte and spermatozoon originate from the wife and husband respectively. The attitude toward reproductive practice varies among Christian groups. While assisted reproduction is not accepted by the Vatican, it may be practised by Protestant, Anglican and other denominations. According to traditional Christian views, beginning at conception, the embryo has moral status as a human being, and thus most assisted reproductive technologies are forbidden. According to Islam, the procedures of IVF and embryo transfer are acceptable, although they can be performed only for husband and wife. Developments in science and technology and corresponding clinical applications raise new religious questions, often without clear answers. The role of theology in bioethics is integral to clarify perceived attitudes toward these developments for different religious communities. This paper presents the attitude of monotheistic religions to therapeutic procedures, such as IVF-embryo transfer, spermatozoa, oocytes, embryo donation, cryopreservation of genetic material, surrogacy, posthumous reproduction, gender preselection, reproductive and therapeutic cloning.

  7. Correlation between nuptial colors and visual sensitivities tuned by opsins leads to species richness in sympatric Lake Victoria cichlid fishes.

    PubMed

    Miyagi, Ryutaro; Terai, Yohey; Aibara, Mitsuto; Sugawara, Tohru; Imai, Hiroo; Tachida, Hidenori; Mzighani, Semvua Isa; Okitsu, Takashi; Wada, Akimori; Okada, Norihiro

    2012-11-01

    Reproductive isolation that prevents interspecific hybridization between closely related coexisting species maintains sympatric species diversity. One of the reproductive isolations is mate choice based on color signals (breeding color perceived by color vision). This is well known in several animal taxa, yet little is known about its genetic and molecular mechanism. Lake Victoria cichlid fishes are thought to be an example of sympatric species diversity. In the species inhabiting different light environments in rocky shore, speciation by sensory drive through color signals has been proposed by analyses of the long wavelength-sensitive (LWS) opsin gene and the male nuptial coloration. However, the genetic and molecular mechanism of how diversity of sympatric species occurring in the same habitat is maintained remains unknown. To address this issue, we determined nucleotide sequences of eight opsins of six sympatric species collected from a sandy-muddy shore--an ideal model system for studying sympatric species. Among eight opsins, the LWS and RH1 alleles were diversified and one particular allele is dominant or fixed in each species, and we propose that this is due to natural selection. The functions of their LWS alleles were also diversified as shown by absorption measurements of reconstituted visual pigments. To analyze the relationship between nuptial coloration and the absorption of LWS pigments, we systematically evaluated and defined nuptial coloration. We showed that the coloration was species specific with respect to hue and significantly differentiated by the index values of hue (dominant wavelength: λ(d)). The λ(d) value of the male nuptial coloration correlated with the absorption of LWS pigments from all the species, suggesting that reproductive isolation through mate choice using color signals may prevent sympatric interspecific hybridization, thereby maintaining the species diversity in sympatric species in Lake Victoria.

  8. Colored Flag by Double Refraction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reid, Bill

    1994-01-01

    Describes various demonstrations that illustrate double refraction and rotation of the plane of polarization in stressed, transparent plastics, with the consequent production of colored designs. (ZWH)

  9. Task-dependent color discrimination

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Poirson, Allen B.; Wandell, Brian A.

    1990-01-01

    When color video displays are used in time-critical applications (e.g., head-up displays, video control panels), the observer must discriminate among briefly presented targets seen within a complex spatial scene. Color-discrimination threshold are compared by using two tasks. In one task the observer makes color matches between two halves of a continuously displayed bipartite field. In a second task the observer detects a color target in a set of briefly presented objects. The data from both tasks are well summarized by ellipsoidal isosensitivity contours. The fitted ellipsoids differ both in their size, which indicates an absolute sensitivity difference, and orientation, which indicates a relative sensitivity difference.

  10. Male reproductive health and yoga

    PubMed Central

    Sengupta, Pallav; Chaudhuri, Prasenjit; Bhattacharya, Koushik

    2013-01-01

    Now-a-days reproductive health problems along with infertility in male is very often observed. Various Assisted Reproductive Technologies have been introduced to solve the problem, but common people cannot afford the cost of such procedures. Various ayurvedic and other alternative medicines, along with regular yoga practice are proven to be not only effective to enhance the reproductive health in men to produce a successful pregnancy, but also to regulate sexual desire in men who practice celibacy. Yoga is reported to reduce stress and anxiety, improve autonomic functions by triggering neurohormonal mechanisms by the suppression of sympathetic activity, and even, today, several reports suggested regular yoga practice from childhood is beneficial for reproductive health. In this regard the present review is aimed to provide all the necessary information regarding the effectiveness of yoga practice to have a better reproductive health and to prevent infertility. PMID:23930026

  11. Genomic imprinting and reproduction.

    PubMed

    Swales, A K E; Spears, N

    2005-10-01

    Genomic imprinting is the parent-of-origin specific gene expression which is a vital mechanism through both development and adult life. One of the key elements of the imprinting mechanism is DNA methylation, controlled by DNA methyltransferase enzymes. Germ cells undergo reprogramming to ensure that sex-specific genomic imprinting is initiated, thus allowing normal embryo development to progress after fertilisation. In some cases, errors in genomic imprinting are embryo lethal while in others they lead to developmental disorders and disease. Recent studies have suggested a link between the use of assisted reproductive techniques and an increase in normally rare imprinting disorders. A greater understanding of the mechanisms of genomic imprinting and the factors that influence them are important in assessing the safety of these techniques.

  12. Prostaglandins in reproductive physiology*

    PubMed Central

    Craig, Gillian M.

    1975-01-01

    The role of prostaglandins in reproductive physiology is reviewed with particular emphasis on their possible importance in ovulation in humans. A possible interaction between gonadal steroids, biogenic amines and prostaglandins at hypothalamic-pituitary level, in relation to the release of luteinizing hormone releasing factor, and LH, is discussed. Anomalies regarding the role of oestrogens in LH release are noted, and it is suggested that high oestrogen levels may release prostaglandins from the uterus and/or centrally in humans, in connection with the mid-cycle LH surge and ovulation. A hypothetical role for prostaglandins in sexual behaviour and premenstrual changes is discussed. The hypotheses open up new areas for clinical research to establish the role of prostaglandins in human endocrinology. The need for measurement of prostaglandin metabolites in blood and urine is emphasized. PMID:1089972

  13. Color-managed 3D printing with highly translucent printing materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arikan, Can Ates; Brunton, Alan; Tanksale, Tejas Madan; Urban, Philipp

    2015-03-01

    Many 3D printing applications require the reproduction of an object's color in addition to its shape. One 3D printing technology, called multi-jetting (or poly-jetting), allows full color 3D reproductions by arranging multiple colored materials (UV curing photo-polymers) on a droplet level in a single object. One property of such printing materials is their high translucency posing new challenges for characterizing such 3D printers to create ICC profiles. In this paper, we will first describe the whole color-managed 3D printing workflow and will then focus on measuring the colors of highly translucent printing materials. We will show that measurements made by spectrophotometers used in the graphic arts industry are systematically biased towards lower reflection. We will then propose a trichromatic camera-based approach for measuring such colors. Error rates obtained in comparison with spectroradiometric measurements for the same viewing conditions are within the interinstrument-variability of hand-held spectrophotometers used in graphic arts.

  14. Reproductive health in adolescence.

    PubMed

    Friedman, H L

    1994-01-01

    The health and well-being of adolescents is closely intertwined with their physical, psychological and social development, but this is put at risk by sexual and reproductive health hazards which are increasing in much of the world. Changes in population growth and distribution, the rise of telecommunications, the increase in travel and a decline in the family, as well as a generally earlier start of menarche and later age of marriage are contributing to an increase in unprotected sexual relations before marriage. This, combined with risks from early marriage, result in too early or unwanted pregnancy and childbirth, induced abortion in hazardous circumstances and sexually transmitted diseases, including HIV infection leading to AIDS. With more than half the world's population below the age of 25, and 4 out of 5 young people living in developing countries with inadequate access to prevention and care, there is an urgent need for action. Young women are particularly vulnerable. Mortality and morbidity from early pregnancy whether ending in childbirth or abortion, is much higher for the younger adolescent. Young women, especially those who have less formal education, are more vulnerable to pressures for marriage, or sexual relations before marriage, often with older men. Young people generally lack adequate knowledge about their own development and information on how to get help. Those who could help are rarely trained for working with adolescents, and services which are generally designed for adults or children often deter young people from getting help when they most need it. Policy and legislation relating to sexual and reproductive health issues are often contradictory, and unclear or unenforced.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  15. What determines the relationship between color naming, unique hues, and sensory singularities: Illuminations, surfaces, or photoreceptors?

    PubMed

    Witzel, Christoph; Cinotti, François; O'Regan, J Kevin

    2015-01-01

    The relationship between the sensory signal of the photoreceptors on one hand and color appearance and language on the other hand is completely unclear. A recent finding established a surprisingly accurate correlation between focal colors, unique hues, and so-called singularities in the laws governing how sensory signals for different surfaces change across illuminations. This article examines how this correlation with singularities depends on reflectances, illuminants, and cone sensitivities. Results show that this correlation holds for a large range of illuminants and for a large range of sensors, including sensors that are fundamentally different from human photoreceptors. In contrast, the spectral characteristics of the reflectance spectra turned out to be the key factor that determines the correlation between focal colors, unique hues, and sensory singularities. These findings suggest that the origins of color appearance and color language may be found in particular characteristics of the reflectance spectra that correspond to focal colors and unique hues.

  16. Adaptation of spherical harmonic transform for color shape reconstruction and retrieval using quaternion algebra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dad, Nisrine; En-Nahnahi, Noureddine; Ouatik, Said El Alaoui; Oumsis, Mohammed

    2016-09-01

    A set of invariant quaternion moments based on an adaptation of the three-dimensional (3-D) spherical harmonic transform (SHT) for describing two-dimensional color shapes is proposed. The use of quaternions to deal with the color part is beneficial in the way the three color components are integrated in a single feature. An adequate mapping from the 3-D SHT to the unit disc allows a fast and accurate computation of the proposed moments. Experiments are conducted to evaluate the performance of the obtained moments in terms of color image reconstruction, robustness to geometric and photometric transformations, content-based color shape retrieval, and computation time. For this purpose, two image databases (COIL-100 and ALOI) are used. Results illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed moments in dealing with the color information.

  17. Planetwide Color Movie

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    The first color movie of Jupiter from NASA's Cassini spacecraft shows what it would look like to peel the entire globe of Jupiter, stretch it out on a wall into the form of a rectangular map, and watch its atmosphere evolve with time.

    The brief movie clip spans 24 Jupiter rotations between Oct. 31 and Nov. 9, 2000.

    Various patterns of motion are apparent all across Jupiter at the cloudtop level seen here. The Great Red Spot shows its counterclockwise rotation, and the uneven distribution of its high haze is obvious. To the east (right) of the Red Spot, oval storms, like ball bearings, roll over and pass each other. Horizontal bands adjacent to each other move at different rates. Strings of small storms rotate around northern-hemisphere ovals. The large grayish-blue 'hot spots' at the northern edge of the white Equatorial Zone change over the course of time as they march eastward across the planet. Ovals in the north rotate counter to those in the south. Small, very bright features appear quickly and randomly in turbulent regions, candidates for lightning storms.

    The clip consists of 14 unevenly spaced timesteps, each a true color cylindrical projection of the complete circumference of Jupiter, from 60 degrees south to 60 degrees north. The maps are made by first assembling mosaics of six images taken by Cassini's narrow-angle camera in the same spectral filter over the course of one Jupiter rotation and, consequently, covering the whole planet. Three such global maps -- in red, green and blue filters -- are combined to make one color map showing Jupiter during one Jovian rotation. Fourteen such maps, spanning 24 Jovian rotations at uneven time intervals comprise the movie. The maps were reduced in scale by a factor of two to make them accessible on the Internet at reasonable rates. Occasional appearances of Io, Europa, and their shadows have not been removed.

    The smallest visible features at the equator are about 600 kilometers (about 370 miles

  18. Canyon in DCS Color

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site]

    Released July 26, 2004 This image shows two representations of the same infra-red image covering a portion of Ganges Chasma. On the left is a grayscale image showing surface temperature, and on the right is a false-color composite made from 3 individual THEMIS bands. The false-color image is colorized using a technique called decorrelation stretch (DCS), which emphasizes the spectral differences between the bands to highlight compositional variations.

    The northern canyon at the top of this image is dominated by a bright red/magenta area consisting primarly basaltic materials on the floor of the canyon and atmospheric dust. Within that area, there are patches of purple, on the walls and in the landslides, that may be due to an olivine rich mineral layer. In the middle of the image, the green on the mesa between the two canyons is from a layer of dust. The patchy blue areas in the southern canyon are likely due to water ice clouds.

    Image information: IR instrument. Latitude -6.6, Longitude 316 East (44 West). 100 meter/pixel resolution.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen at Arizona State University. Lockheed Martin Astronautics

  19. Reproductive Rights or Reproductive Justice? Lessons from Argentina.

    PubMed

    Morgan, Lynn

    2015-06-11

    Argentine sexual and reproductive rights activists insist on using the language and framework of "human rights," even when many reproductive rights activists in the US and elsewhere now prefer the framework of "reproductive justice." Reflecting on conversations with Argentine feminist anthropologists, social scientists, and reproductive rights activists, this paper analyzes why the Argentine movement to legalize abortion relies on the contested concept of human rights. Its conclusion that "women's rights are human rights" is a powerful claim in post-dictatorship politics where abortion is not yet legal and the full scope of women's rights has yet to be included in the government's human rights agenda. Argentine feminist human rights activists have long been attentive to the ways that social class, gender, migration, and racism intersect with reproduction. Because their government respects and responds to a human rights framework, however, they have not felt it necessary--as U.S. feminists have--to invent a new notion of reproductive justice in order to be heard. Given the increasing popularity of reproductive justice in health and human rights, the Argentine case shows that rights-based claims can still be politically useful when a State values the concept of human rights.

  20. DUST-CORRECTED COLORS REVEAL BIMODALITY IN THE HOST-GALAXY COLORS OF ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEI AT z {approx} 1

    SciTech Connect

    Cardamone, Carolin N.; Megan Urry, C.; Brammer, Gabriel; Schawinski, Kevin; Treister, Ezequiel; Gawiser, Eric

    2010-09-20

    Using new, highly accurate photometric redshifts from the MUSYC medium-band survey in the Extended Chandra Deep Field-South (ECDF-S), we fit synthetic stellar population models to compare active galactic nucleus (AGN) host galaxies to inactive galaxies at 0.8 {<=} z {<=} 1.2. We find that AGN host galaxies are predominantly massive galaxies on the red sequence and in the green valley of the color-mass diagram. Because both passive and dusty galaxies can appear red in optical colors, we use rest-frame near-infrared colors to separate passively evolving stellar populations from galaxies that are reddened by dust. As with the overall galaxy population, {approx}25% of the 'red' AGN host galaxies and {approx}75% of the 'green' AGN host galaxies have colors consistent with young stellar populations reddened by dust. The dust-corrected rest-frame optical colors are the blue colors of star-forming galaxies, which imply that these AGN hosts are not passively aging to the red sequence. At z {approx} 1, AGN activity is roughly evenly split between two modes of black hole growth: the first in passively evolving host galaxies, which may be heating up the galaxy's gas and preventing future episodes of star formation, and the second in dust-reddened young galaxies, which may be ionizing the galaxy's interstellar medium and shutting down star formation.

  1. Children's Color Perception in Relation to Habitat and Skin Color.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gaines, Rosslyn; Powell, Gloria J.

    1981-01-01

    Developmental color perception of 278 four- and eight-year-old Black and White children in three societies was examined in relation to the theories that proximity to the equator and that fundus pigmentation (as measured by skin color) reduce shortwave (blue-green) in comparison to long-wave perception. (Author/MP)

  2. Resource Letter CCV-1: Color and Color Vision.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stuewer, Roger H., Ed.; Pease, Paul L.

    1980-01-01

    Listed are selected resource materials on color vision and the measurement and specification of the stimulus for vision, photometry, and colorimetry. The author's purpose is to equip teachers and students with an understanding of normal and abnormal color vision. References are categorized relative to content level. (Author/DS)

  3. Sequential color video to parallel color video converter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    The engineering design, development, breadboard fabrication, test, and delivery of a breadboard field sequential color video to parallel color video converter is described. The converter was designed for use onboard a manned space vehicle to eliminate a flickering TV display picture and to reduce the weight and bulk of previous ground conversion systems.

  4. Colorful solar selective absorber integrated with different colored units.

    PubMed

    Chen, Feiliang; Wang, Shao-Wei; Liu, Xingxing; Ji, Ruonan; Li, Zhifeng; Chen, Xiaoshuang; Chen, Yuwei; Lu, Wei

    2016-01-25

    Solar selective absorbers are the core part for solar thermal technologies such as solar water heaters, concentrated solar power, solar thermoelectric generators and solar thermophotovoltaics. Colorful solar selective absorber can provide new freedom and flexibility beyond energy performance, which will lead to wider utilization of solar technologies. In this work, we present a monolithic integration of colored solar absorber array with different colors on a single substrate based on a multilayered structure of Cu/TiN(x)O(y)/TiO(2)/Si(3)N(4)/SiO(2). A colored solar absorber array with 16 color units is demonstrated experimentally by using combinatorial deposition technique via changing the thickness of SiO(2) layer. The solar absorptivity and thermal emissivity of all the color units is higher than 92% and lower than 5.5%, respectively. The colored solar selective absorber array can have colorful appearance and designable patterns while keeping high energy performance at the same time. It is a new candidate for a number of solar applications, especially for architecture integration and military camouflage.

  5. Determination of the cost of worker reproduction via diminished life span in the ant Diacamma sp.

    PubMed

    Tsuji, Kazuki; Kikuta, Noritsugu; Kikuchi, Tomonori

    2012-05-01

    Workers of social Hymenoptera can usually produce male offspring, but rarely do so in the presence of a queen despite the potential individual fitness benefit. Various mechanisms have been hypothesized to regulate worker reproduction, including avoiding the colony-level cost of worker reproduction. However, firm quantitative evidence is lacking to support that hypothesis. Here, we accurately quantified this cost by studying an ant species (Diacamma sp.) in which worker reproduction is rare in the presence of the gamergate (the functional queen). A series of experiments to manipulate worker-gamergate contact revealed that short-term brood-production efficiency is not changed by the presence of worker reproduction. However, when workers reproduce, their average life span is reduced to between 74% and 88% of that in the absence of reproduction, indicating a long-term cost to the colony. In theory, this cost can explain the policing of worker reproduction under a queen-single mating system, but the cost does not appear to be high enough to stop worker reproduction. When contact with the gamergate is lost, it is only the nonreproductive workers whose life span was reduced; the reproductive workers lived as long as nonorphaned workers. We suggest that an increased workload can account for the reduction in life span better than a trade-off between reproduction and longevity.

  6. The austral peregrine falcon: Color variation, productivity, and pesticides

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ellis, D.H.

    1985-01-01

    The austral peregrine falcon (Falco peregrinus cassini) was studied in the Andean foot- hills and across the Patagonian steppe from November to December 1981. The birds under study (18 pairs) were reproducing at or near normal (pre-DDT) levels for other races. Pesticide residues, while elevated, were well below the values associated with reproductive failure in other populations. With one exception, eggshells were not abnormally thin. The peregrine falcon in Patagonia exhibits extreme color variation. Pallid birds are nearly pure white below (light cream as juveniles), whereas normally pigmented birds are black-crowned and conspicuously barred with black ventrally. Rare individuals of the Normal Phase display black heads, broad black ventral barring, and warm reddish-brown ventral background coloration.

  7. Light Vision Color

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valberg, Arne

    2005-04-01

    Light Vision Color takes a well-balanced, interdisciplinary approach to our most important sensory system. The book successfully combines basics in vision sciences with recent developments from different areas such as neuroscience, biophysics, sensory psychology and philosophy. Originally published in 1998 this edition has been extensively revised and updated to include new chapters on clinical problems and eye diseases, low vision rehabilitation and the basic molecular biology and genetics of colour vision. Takes a broad interdisciplinary approach combining basics in vision sciences with the most recent developments in the area Includes an extensive list of technical terms and explanations to encourage student understanding Successfully brings together the most important areas of the subject in to one volume

  8. Cornering color SU(5)

    SciTech Connect

    Carlson, E.D. ); Hall, L.J. ); Sarid, U. ); Burton, J.W. )

    1991-09-01

    Planned collider experiments will decisively test the color SU(5) model of Foot and Hernandez, in which an extended QCD group is broken at the TeV scale. Constraints from cosmology and from neutral-kaon mixing imply that exotic charge-1/2 fermions of this model cannot all be given masses above about 1 TeV. These quirks'' carry a new strong confining force, from the surviving unbroken gauge symmetry. Searches for the leptonic decay products of quirkonium at CERN LEP II will probe quirk masses up to near the beam energy, while searches at planned hadron colliders will be sensitive to quirk masses all the way up to the TeV upper bound.

  9. False color viewing device

    DOEpatents

    Kronberg, J.W.

    1992-10-20

    A viewing device for observing objects in near-infrared false-color comprising a pair of goggles with one or more filters in the apertures, and pads that engage the face for blocking stray light from the sides so that all light reaching the user's eyes come through the filters. The filters attenuate most visible light and pass near-infrared (having wavelengths longer than approximately 700 nm) and a small amount of blue-green and blue-violet (having wavelengths in the 500 to 520 nm and shorter than 435 nm, respectively). The goggles are useful for looking at vegetation to identify different species and for determining the health of the vegetation, and to detect some forms of camouflage. 7 figs.

  10. False color viewing device

    DOEpatents

    Kronberg, James W.

    1992-01-01

    A viewing device for observing objects in near-infrared false-color comprising a pair of goggles with one or more filters in the apertures, and pads that engage the face for blocking stray light from the sides so that all light reaching the user's eyes come through the filters. The filters attenuate most visible light and pass near-infrared (having wavelengths longer than approximately 700 nm) and a small amount of blue-green and blue-violet (having wavelengths in the 500 to 520 nm and shorter than 435 nm, respectively). The goggles are useful for looking at vegetation to identify different species and for determining the health of the vegetation, and to detect some forms of camouflage.

  11. False color viewing device

    DOEpatents

    Kronberg, J.W.

    1991-05-08

    This invention consists of a viewing device for observing objects in near-infrared false-color comprising a pair of goggles with one or more filters in the apertures, and pads that engage the face for blocking stray light from the sides so that all light reaching, the user`s eyes come through the filters. The filters attenuate most visible light and pass near-infrared (having wavelengths longer than approximately 700 nm) and a small amount of blue-green and blue-violet (having wavelengths in the 500 to 520 nm and shorter than 435 nm, respectively). The goggles are useful for looking at vegetation to identify different species and for determining the health of the vegetation, and to detect some forms of camouflage.

  12. Ocean color spectrum calculations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mccluney, W. R.

    1974-01-01

    There is obvious value in developing the means for measuring a number of subsurface oceanographic parameters using remotely sensed ocean color data. The first step in this effort should be the development of adequate theoretical models relating the desired oceanographic parameters to the upwelling radiances to be observed. A portion of a contributory theoretical model can be described by a modified single scattering approach based on a simple treatment of multiple scattering. The resulting quasisingle scattering model can be used to predict the upwelling distribution of spectral radiance emerging from the sea. The shape of the radiance spectrum predicted by this model for clear ocean water shows encouraging agreement with measurements made at the edge of the Sargasso Sea off Cape Hatteras.

  13. White Rock in False Color

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site]

    The THEMIS VIS camera is capable of capturing color images of the Martian surface using five different color filters. In this mode of operation, the spatial resolution and coverage of the image must be reduced to accommodate the additional data volume produced from using multiple filters. To make a color image, three of the five filter images (each in grayscale) are selected. Each is contrast enhanced and then converted to a red, green, or blue intensity image. These three images are then combined to produce a full color, single image. Because the THEMIS color filters don't span the full range of colors seen by the human eye, a color THEMIS image does not represent true color. Also, because each single-filter image is contrast enhanced before inclusion in the three-color image, the apparent color variation of the scene is exaggerated. Nevertheless, the color variation that does appear is representative of some change in color, however subtle, in the actual scene. Note that the long edges of THEMIS color images typically contain color artifacts that do not represent surface variation.

    This false color image shows the wind eroded deposit in Pollack Crater called 'White Rock'. This image was collected during the Southern Fall Season.

    Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude -8, Longitude 25.2 East (334.8 West). 0 meter/pixel resolution.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of

  14. Iani Chaos in False Color

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site]

    The THEMIS VIS camera is capable of capturing color images of the Martian surface using five different color filters. In this mode of operation, the spatial resolution and coverage of the image must be reduced to accommodate the additional data volume produced from using multiple filters. To make a color image, three of the five filter images (each in grayscale) are selected. Each is contrast enhanced and then converted to a red, green, or blue intensity image. These three images are then combined to produce a full color, single image. Because the THEMIS color filters don't span the full range of colors seen by the human eye, a color THEMIS image does not represent true color. Also, because each single-filter image is contrast enhanced before inclusion in the three-color image, the apparent color variation of the scene is exaggerated. Nevertheless, the color variation that does appear is representative of some change in color, however subtle, in the actual scene. Note that the long edges of THEMIS color images typically contain color artifacts that do not represent surface variation.

    This false color image of a portion of the Iani Chaos region was collected during the Southern Fall season.

    Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude -2.6 Longitude 342.4 East (17.6 West). 36 meter/pixel resolution.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The

  15. False-color Dalmatian Terrain

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site]

    Released 10 May 2004 This daytime visible color image was collected on May 18, 2003 during the Southern Spring season in Noachis Terra.

    The THEMIS VIS camera is capable of capturing color images of the martian surface using its five different color filters. In this mode of operation, the spatial resolution and coverage of the image must be reduced to accommodate the additional data volume produced from the use of multiple filters. To make a color image, three of the five filter images (each in grayscale) are selected. Each is contrast enhanced and then converted to a red, green, or blue intensity image. These three images are then combined to produce a full color, single image. Because the THEMIS color filters don't span the full range of colors seen by the human eye, a color THEMIS image does not represent true color. Also, because each single-filter image is contrast enhanced before inclusion in the three-color image, the apparent color variation of the scene is exaggerated. Nevertheless, the color variation that does appear is representative of some change in color, however subtle, in the actual scene. Note that the long edges of THEMIS color images typically contain color artifacts that do not represent surface variation.

    Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude -74, Longitude 351.9 East (8.1 West). 38 meter/pixel resolution.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space

  16. North Polar False Color

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site]

    The theme for the weeks of 1/17 and 1/24 is the north polar region of Mars as seen in false color THEMIS images. Ice/frost will typically appear as bright blue in color; dust mantled ice will appear in tones of red/orange.

    This full resolution image contains dunes, and small areas of 'blue' which may represent fresh (ie. not dust covered) frost or ice.

    Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude 85, Longitude 235.8 East (124.2 West). 19 meter/pixel resolution.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen at Arizona State University. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the Odyssey project, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are conducted jointly from Lockheed Martin and from JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

  17. Moon Color Visualizations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    These color visualizations of the Moon were obtained by the Galileo spacecraft as it left the Earth after completing its first Earth Gravity Assist. The image on the right was acquired at 6:47 p.m. PST Dec. 8, 1990, from a distance of almost 220,000 miles, while that on the left was obtained at 9:35 a.m. PST Dec. 9, at a range of more than 350,000 miles. On the right, the nearside of the Moon and about 30 degrees of the far side (left edge) are visible. In the full disk on the left, a little less than half the nearside and more than half the far side (to the right) are visible. The color composites used images taken through the violet and two near infrared filters. The visualizations depict spectral properties of the lunar surface known from analysis of returned samples to be related to composition or weathering of surface materials. The greenish-blue region at the upper right in the full disk and the upper part of the right hand picture is Oceanus Procellarum. The deeper blue mare regions here and elsewhere are relatively rich in titanium, while the greens, yellows and light oranges indicate basalts low in titanium but rich in iron and magnesium. The reds (deep orange in the right hand picture) are typically cratered highlands relatively poor in titanium, iron and magnesium. In the full disk picture on the left, the yellowish area to the south is part of the newly confirmed South Pole Aitken basin, a large circular depression some 1,200 miles across, perhaps rich in iron and magnesium. Analysis of Apollo lunar samples provided the basis for calibration of this spectral map; Galileo data, in turn, permit broad extrapolation of the Apollo based composition information, reaching ultimately to the far side of the Moon.

  18. Topography of Io (color)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    The images used to create this color composite of Io were acquired by Galileo during its ninth orbit (C9) of Jupiter and are part of a sequence of images designed to map the topography or relief on Io and to monitor changes in the surface color due to volcanic activity. Obtaining images at low illumination angles is like taking a picture from a high altitude around sunrise or sunset. Such lighting conditions emphasize the topography of the volcanic satellite. Several mountains up to a few miles high can be seen in this view, especially near the upper right. Some of these mountains appear to be tilted crustal blocks. Most of the dark spots correspond to active volcanic centers.

    North is to the top of the picture which merges images obtained with the clear, red, green, and violet filters of the solid state imaging (CCD) system on NASA's Galileo spacecraft. . The resolution is 8.3 kilometers per picture element. The image was taken on June 27, 1997 at a range of 817,000 kilometers by the solid state imaging (CCD) system on NASA's Galileo spacecraft.

    The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA manages the Galileo mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, DC. JPL is an operating division of California Institute of Technology (Caltech).

    This image and other images and data received from Galileo are posted on the World Wide Web, on the Galileo mission home page at URL http://galileo.jpl.nasa.gov. Background information and educational context for the images can be found at URL http://www.jpl.nasa.gov/galileo/sepo

  19. Reproductive success is predicted by social dynamics and kinship in managed animal populations

    PubMed Central

    Newman, Saul J.; Eyre, Simon; Kimble, Catherine H.; Arcos-Burgos, Mauricio; Hogg, Carolyn; Easteal, Simon

    2016-01-01

    Kin and group interactions are important determinants of reproductive success in many species. Their optimization could, therefore, potentially improve the productivity and breeding success of managed populations used for agricultural and conservation purposes. Here we demonstrate this potential using a novel approach to measure and predict the effect of kin and group dynamics on reproductive output in a well-known species, the meerkat Suricata suricatta. Variation in social dynamics predicts 30% of the individual variation in reproductive success of this species in managed populations, and accurately forecasts reproductive output at least two years into the future. Optimization of social dynamics in captive meerkat populations doubles their projected reproductive output. These results demonstrate the utility of a quantitative approach to breeding programs informed by social and kinship dynamics. They suggest that this approach has great potential for improvements in the management of social endangered and agricultural species. PMID:27990255

  20. Reproductive success is predicted by social dynamics and kinship in managed animal populations.

    PubMed

    Newman, Saul J; Eyre, Simon; Kimble, Catherine H; Arcos-Burgos, Mauricio; Hogg, Carolyn; Easteal, Simon

    2016-01-01

    Kin and group interactions are important determinants of reproductive success in many species. Their optimization could, therefore, potentially improve the productivity and breeding success of managed populations used for agricultural and conservation purposes. Here we demonstrate this potential using a novel approach to measure and predict the effect of kin and group dynamics on reproductive output in a well-known species, the meerkat Suricata suricatta. Variation in social dynamics predicts 30% of the individual variation in reproductive success of this species in managed populations, and accurately forecasts reproductive output at least two years into the future. Optimization of social dynamics in captive meerkat populations doubles their projected reproductive output. These results demonstrate the utility of a quantitative approach to breeding programs informed by social and kinship dynamics. They suggest that this approach has great potential for improvements in the management of social endangered and agricultural species.

  1. Linkage of butterfly mate preference and wing color preference cue at the genomic location of wingless

    PubMed Central

    Kronforst, Marcus R.; Young, Laura G.; Kapan, Durrell D.; McNeely, Camille; O'Neill, Rachel J.; Gilbert, Lawrence E.

    2006-01-01

    Sexual isolation is a critical form of reproductive isolation in the early stages of animal speciation, yet little is known about the genetic basis of divergent mate preferences and preference cues in young species. Heliconius butterflies, well known for their diversity of wing color patterns, mate assortatively as a result of divergence in male preference for wing patterns. Here we show that the specific cue used by Heliconius cydno and Heliconius pachinus males to recognize conspecific females is the color of patches on the wings. In addition, male mate preference segregates with forewing color in hybrids, indicating a genetic association between the loci responsible for preference and preference cue. Quantitative trait locus mapping places a preference locus coincident with the locus that determines forewing color, which itself is perfectly linked to the wing patterning candidate gene, wingless. Furthermore, yellow-colored males of the polymorphic race H. cydno alithea prefer to court yellow females, indicating that wing color and color preference are controlled by loci that are located in an inversion or are pleiotropic effects of a single locus. Tight genetic associations between preference and preference cue, although rare, make divergence and speciation particularly likely because the effects of natural and sexual selection on one trait are transferred to the other, leading to the coordinated evolution of mate recognition. This effect of linkage on divergence is especially important in Heliconius because differentiation of wing color patterns in the genus has been driven and maintained by natural selection for Müllerian mimicry. PMID:16611733

  2. A Technique Using Calibrated Photography and Photoshop for Accurate Shade Analysis and Communication.

    PubMed

    McLaren, Edward A; Figueira, Johan; Goldstein, Ronald E

    2017-02-01

    This article reviews the critical aspects of controlling the shade-taking environment and discusses various modalities introduced throughout the years to acquire and communicate shade information. Demonstrating a highly calibrated digital photographic technique for capturing shade information, this article shows how to use Photoshop® to standardize images and extract color information from the tooth and shade tab for use by a ceramist for an accurate shade-matching restoration.

  3. The Chemistry of Color Photography

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guida, Wayne C.; Raber, Douglas J.

    1975-01-01

    Presents several topics in color photography which can serve as an introduction of scientific concepts into the classroom, such as: photochemistry (energy transport), organic chemistry (dye formation), physics (nature of light), psychology (color perception), and engineering (isolation of different chemical processes within layers of the film).…

  4. A Quilt of Many Colors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Masse, Don

    2012-01-01

    The author discovered artist Eleanor McCain's work on "Dear Ada," an art blog he follows. McCain makes brightly colored art quilts using various rectangles and squares. She creates visual "pop" by using these shapes in a variety of sizes and bright colors. There is an interesting spatial "push and pull" that happens when looking at her quilts.…

  5. New flesh colors in watermelon?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    There are currently six published flesh colors in watermelon along with the associated genes for each of the designated flesh colors. Previous results have shown that segregation patterns did not fit with published results for canary yellow and red flesh. We believe that part of the problem has been...

  6. Social regulation of male reproductive plasticity in an African cichlid fish.

    PubMed

    Maruska, Karen P; Fernald, Russell D

    2013-12-01

    Social interactions with the outcome of a position in a dominance hierarchy can have profound effects on reproductive behavior and physiology, requiring animals to integrate environmental information with their internal physiological state; but how is salient information from the animal's dynamic social environment transformed into adaptive behavioral, physiological, and molecular-level changes? The African cichlid fish, Astatotilapia burtoni, is ideally suited to understand socially controlled reproductive plasticity because activity of the male reproductive (brain-pituitary-gonad) axis is tightly linked to social status. Males form hierarchies in which a small percentage of brightly colored dominant individuals have an active reproductive axis, defend territories, and spawn with females, while the remaining males are subordinate, drably colored, do not hold a territory, and have a suppressed reproductive system with minimal opportunities for spawning. These social phenotypes are plastic and quickly reversible, meaning that individual males may switch between dominant and subordinate status multiple times within a lifetime. Here, we review the rapid and remarkable plasticity that occurs along the entire reproductive axis when males rise in social rank, a transition that has important implications for the operational sex ratio of the population. When males rise in rank, transformations occur in the brain, pituitary, circulation, and testes over short time-scales (minutes to days). Changes are evident in overt behavior, as well as modifications at the physiological, cellular, and molecular levels that regulate reproductive capacity. Widespread changes triggered by a switch in rank highlight the significance of external social information in shaping internal physiology and reproductive competence.

  7. Sixty-five thousand shades of gray: importance of color in surgical pathology diagnoses.

    PubMed

    Campbell, W Scott; Talmon, Geoffrey A; Foster, Kirk W; Lele, Subodh M; Kozel, Jessica A; West, William W

    2015-12-01

    Digital whole slide imaging (WSI) is a diagnostic modality that has gained acceptance as a tool for use in some areas of surgical pathology such as remote consultations. Accurate control of color representation of digitally rendered images of histologic sections is considered an important parameter of WSI. Currently, professional societies, physicians, and other stakeholders are in the process of establishing clinical guidelines outlining the use of these devices, which include color integrity and color calibration of scanners and viewing devices. Although color is a component of surgical pathology diagnoses, it was posited that pathologists could accurately diagnose surgical specimens without color. To test this hypothesis, 5 pathologists were presented breast biopsy specimens from 20 patients consisting of 22 separate tissue specimens and WSI of 158 hematoxylin and eosin-stained slides imaged at ×20. No special stains were included. The pathologists reviewed each case using a 16-bit grayscale monitor and rendered a diagnosis for each case. Diagnoses were compared to the original light microscopy diagnoses and scored for concordance. A 92.7% concordance was observed. Discordant diagnoses represented well-known areas of diagnostic disagreement in breast pathology as well as known limitations of WSI. The research demonstrated that surgical pathologists did not rely primarily on color to render accurate diagnoses of breast biopsy cases but rather used architectural features of tissue and cellular morphology to reach a diagnostic conclusion. This research did not suggest that color is an unimportant factor in pathology diagnosis, but its importance may be overstated.

  8. You can't rely on color, yet we all do 2.0 (Manuscript Only)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Nes, Floris L.

    2014-01-01

    Everybody views and uses color from early childhood onwards. But this magnificent property of all objects around us turns out to be elusive if you try to specify it and communicate it to another person. Also, people often don't know what effects color may have under different conditions. However, color is so important and omnipresent, that people can hardly avoid to 'rely on it' - so they do, in particular on its predictability. Thus, there is a discrepancy between the seeming self-evidence of color and the difficulty in specifying it accurately, for the prevailing circumstances. In order to analyze this situation, and possibly remedy it, a short historic perspective of the utilization and specification of color is given. The 'utilization' includes the emotional effects of color, which are important in, for instance, interior decorating but also play a role in literature and religion. 'Specification' begins with the early efforts by scientists, philosophers and artists to bring some order and understanding in what was observed with and while using color. Color has a number of basic functions: embellishment; attracting attention; coding; and bringing order in text by causing text parts presented in the same color to be judged as belonging together. People with a profession that involves color choices for many others, such as designers and manufacturers of products, including electronic visual displays, should have a fairly thorough knowledge of colorimetry and color perception. Unfortunately, they often don't, simply because for 'practitioners' whose work involves different aspects, applying color being only one of those, the available tools for specifying and applying color turn out to be too difficult to use. Two consequences of an insufficient knowledge of the effects color may have are given here. The first of these consequences, on color blindness, relates to 8% of the population, but the second one, on reading colored text, bears on everyone. Practical

  9. True Color of Mars - Pathfinder Sol 39 Sunrise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    Sunrise, sol 39. This true color, pre-sunrise image (approximately 0530LST) is composed of six images extending 30 o in azimuth and 45 o in elevation and shows the brownish gray predawn sky. A description of the techniques used to generate this color image from IMP data can be found in Maki et al., 1999. Note: a calibrated output device is required accurately reproduce the correct colors.

    Mars Pathfinder is the second in NASA's Discovery program of low-cost spacecraft with highly focused science goals. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, developed and manages the Mars Pathfinder mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. JPL is an operating division of the California Institute of Technology (Caltech). The IMP was developed by the University of Arizona Lunar and Planetary Laboratory under contract to JPL. Peter Smith is the Principal investigator.

  10. Improved color interpolation method based on Bayer image

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jin

    2012-10-01

    Image sensors are important components of lunar exploration device. Considering volume and cost, image sensors generally adopt a single CCD or CMOS at the present time, and the surface of the sensor is covered with a layer of color filter array(CFA), which is usually Bayer CFA. In the Bayer CFA, each pixel can only get one of tricolor, so it is necessary to carry out color interpolation in order to get the full color image. An improved Bayer image interpolation method is presented, which is novel, practical, and also easy to be realized. The results of experiments to prove the effect of the interpolation are shown. Comparing with classic methods, this method can find edge of image more accurately, reduce the saw tooth phenomenon in the edge area, and keep the image smooth in other area. This method is applied successfully in a certain exploration imaging system.

  11. 7 CFR 29.3011 - Color intensity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Color intensity. 29.3011 Section 29.3011 Agriculture... Color intensity. The varying degree of saturation or chroma. Color intensity as applied to tobacco describes the strength or weakness of a specific color or hue. It is applicable to all colors...

  12. 7 CFR 29.3011 - Color intensity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Color intensity. 29.3011 Section 29.3011 Agriculture... Color intensity. The varying degree of saturation or chroma. Color intensity as applied to tobacco describes the strength or weakness of a specific color or hue. It is applicable to all colors...

  13. 7 CFR 28.403 - Middling Color.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Middling Color. 28.403 Section 28.403 Agriculture..., TESTING, AND STANDARDS Standards Official Cotton Standards of the United States for the Color Grade of American Upland Cotton § 28.403 Middling Color. Middling Color is color which is within the...

  14. 7 CFR 28.403 - Middling Color.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Middling Color. 28.403 Section 28.403 Agriculture..., TESTING, AND STANDARDS Standards Official Cotton Standards of the United States for the Color Grade of American Upland Cotton § 28.403 Middling Color. Middling Color is color which is within the...

  15. 7 CFR 51.1436 - Color classifications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Color classifications. 51.1436 Section 51.1436... STANDARDS) United States Standards for Grades of Shelled Pecans Color Classifications § 51.1436 Color classifications. (a) The skin color of pecan kernels may be described in terms of the color...

  16. 7 CFR 29.3011 - Color intensity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Color intensity. 29.3011 Section 29.3011 Agriculture... Color intensity. The varying degree of saturation or chroma. Color intensity as applied to tobacco describes the strength or weakness of a specific color or hue. It is applicable to all colors...

  17. 7 CFR 29.3011 - Color intensity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Color intensity. 29.3011 Section 29.3011 Agriculture... Color intensity. The varying degree of saturation or chroma. Color intensity as applied to tobacco describes the strength or weakness of a specific color or hue. It is applicable to all colors...

  18. 7 CFR 28.403 - Middling Color.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Middling Color. 28.403 Section 28.403 Agriculture..., TESTING, AND STANDARDS Standards Official Cotton Standards of the United States for the Color Grade of American Upland Cotton § 28.403 Middling Color. Middling Color is color which is within the...

  19. 7 CFR 51.1436 - Color classifications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Color classifications. 51.1436 Section 51.1436... STANDARDS) United States Standards for Grades of Shelled Pecans Color Classifications § 51.1436 Color classifications. (a) The skin color of pecan kernels may be described in terms of the color...

  20. 7 CFR 28.403 - Middling Color.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Middling Color. 28.403 Section 28.403 Agriculture..., TESTING, AND STANDARDS Standards Official Cotton Standards of the United States for the Color Grade of American Upland Cotton § 28.403 Middling Color. Middling Color is color which is within the...