Accurate modeling of parallel scientific computations
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Nicol, David M.; Townsend, James C.
1988-01-01
Scientific codes are usually parallelized by partitioning a grid among processors. To achieve top performance it is necessary to partition the grid so as to balance workload and minimize communication/synchronization costs. This problem is particularly acute when the grid is irregular, changes over the course of the computation, and is not known until load time. Critical mapping and remapping decisions rest on the ability to accurately predict performance, given a description of a grid and its partition. This paper discusses one approach to this problem, and illustrates its use on a one-dimensional fluids code. The models constructed are shown to be accurate, and are used to find optimal remapping schedules.
An Accurate and Dynamic Computer Graphics Muscle Model
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Levine, David Asher
1997-01-01
A computer based musculo-skeletal model was developed at the University in the departments of Mechanical and Biomedical Engineering. This model accurately represents human shoulder kinematics. The result of this model is the graphical display of bones moving through an appropriate range of motion based on inputs of EMGs and external forces. The need existed to incorporate a geometric muscle model in the larger musculo-skeletal model. Previous muscle models did not accurately represent muscle geometries, nor did they account for the kinematics of tendons. This thesis covers the creation of a new muscle model for use in the above musculo-skeletal model. This muscle model was based on anatomical data from the Visible Human Project (VHP) cadaver study. Two-dimensional digital images from the VHP were analyzed and reconstructed to recreate the three-dimensional muscle geometries. The recreated geometries were smoothed, reduced, and sliced to form data files defining the surfaces of each muscle. The muscle modeling function opened these files during run-time and recreated the muscle surface. The modeling function applied constant volume limitations to the muscle and constant geometry limitations to the tendons.
Creation of Anatomically Accurate Computer-Aided Design (CAD) Solid Models from Medical Images
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Stewart, John E.; Graham, R. Scott; Samareh, Jamshid A.; Oberlander, Eric J.; Broaddus, William C.
1999-01-01
Most surgical instrumentation and implants used in the world today are designed with sophisticated Computer-Aided Design (CAD)/Computer-Aided Manufacturing (CAM) software. This software automates the mechanical development of a product from its conceptual design through manufacturing. CAD software also provides a means of manipulating solid models prior to Finite Element Modeling (FEM). Few surgical products are designed in conjunction with accurate CAD models of human anatomy because of the difficulty with which these models are created. We have developed a novel technique that creates anatomically accurate, patient specific CAD solids from medical images in a matter of minutes.
Khan, Usman; Falconi, Christian
2014-01-01
Ideally, the design of high-performance micro-hotplates would require a large number of simulations because of the existence of many important design parameters as well as the possibly crucial effects of both spread and drift. However, the computational cost of FEM simulations, which are the only available tool for accurately predicting the temperature in micro-hotplates, is very high. As a result, micro-hotplate designers generally have no effective simulation-tools for the optimization. In order to circumvent these issues, here, we propose a model for practical circular-symmetric micro-hot-plates which takes advantage of modified Bessel functions, computationally efficient matrix-approach for considering the relevant boundary conditions, Taylor linearization for modeling the Joule heating and radiation losses, and external-region-segmentation strategy in order to accurately take into account radiation losses in the entire micro-hotplate. The proposed model is almost as accurate as FEM simulations and two to three orders of magnitude more computationally efficient (e.g., 45 s versus more than 8 h). The residual errors, which are mainly associated to the undesired heating in the electrical contacts, are small (e.g., few degrees Celsius for an 800 °C operating temperature) and, for important analyses, almost constant. Therefore, we also introduce a computationally-easy single-FEM-compensation strategy in order to reduce the residual errors to about 1 °C. As illustrative examples of the power of our approach, we report the systematic investigation of a spread in the membrane thermal conductivity and of combined variations of both ambient and bulk temperatures. Our model enables a much faster characterization of micro-hotplates and, thus, a much more effective optimization prior to fabrication. PMID:24763214
An Accurate and Computationally Efficient Model for Membrane-Type Circular-Symmetric Micro-Hotplates
Khan, Usman; Falconi, Christian
2014-01-01
Ideally, the design of high-performance micro-hotplates would require a large number of simulations because of the existence of many important design parameters as well as the possibly crucial effects of both spread and drift. However, the computational cost of FEM simulations, which are the only available tool for accurately predicting the temperature in micro-hotplates, is very high. As a result, micro-hotplate designers generally have no effective simulation-tools for the optimization. In order to circumvent these issues, here, we propose a model for practical circular-symmetric micro-hot-plates which takes advantage of modified Bessel functions, computationally efficient matrix-approach for considering the relevant boundary conditions, Taylor linearization for modeling the Joule heating and radiation losses, and external-region-segmentation strategy in order to accurately take into account radiation losses in the entire micro-hotplate. The proposed model is almost as accurate as FEM simulations and two to three orders of magnitude more computationally efficient (e.g., 45 s versus more than 8 h). The residual errors, which are mainly associated to the undesired heating in the electrical contacts, are small (e.g., few degrees Celsius for an 800 °C operating temperature) and, for important analyses, almost constant. Therefore, we also introduce a computationally-easy single-FEM-compensation strategy in order to reduce the residual errors to about 1 °C. As illustrative examples of the power of our approach, we report the systematic investigation of a spread in the membrane thermal conductivity and of combined variations of both ambient and bulk temperatures. Our model enables a much faster characterization of micro-hotplates and, thus, a much more effective optimization prior to fabrication. PMID:24763214
Wijma, Hein J; Marrink, Siewert J; Janssen, Dick B
2014-07-28
Computational approaches could decrease the need for the laborious high-throughput experimental screening that is often required to improve enzymes by mutagenesis. Here, we report that using multiple short molecular dynamics (MD) simulations makes it possible to accurately model enantioselectivity for large numbers of enzyme-substrate combinations at low computational costs. We chose four different haloalkane dehalogenases as model systems because of the availability of a large set of experimental data on the enantioselective conversion of 45 different substrates. To model the enantioselectivity, we quantified the frequency of occurrence of catalytically productive conformations (near attack conformations) for pairs of enantiomers during MD simulations. We found that the angle of nucleophilic attack that leads to carbon-halogen bond cleavage was a critical variable that limited the occurrence of productive conformations; enantiomers for which this angle reached values close to 180° were preferentially converted. A cluster of 20-40 very short (10 ps) MD simulations allowed adequate conformational sampling and resulted in much better agreement to experimental enantioselectivities than single long MD simulations (22 ns), while the computational costs were 50-100 fold lower. With single long MD simulations, the dynamics of enzyme-substrate complexes remained confined to a conformational subspace that rarely changed significantly, whereas with multiple short MD simulations a larger diversity of conformations of enzyme-substrate complexes was observed. PMID:24916632
Toward accurate tooth segmentation from computed tomography images using a hybrid level set model
Gan, Yangzhou; Zhao, Qunfei; Xia, Zeyang E-mail: jing.xiong@siat.ac.cn; Hu, Ying; Xiong, Jing E-mail: jing.xiong@siat.ac.cn; Zhang, Jianwei
2015-01-15
Purpose: A three-dimensional (3D) model of the teeth provides important information for orthodontic diagnosis and treatment planning. Tooth segmentation is an essential step in generating the 3D digital model from computed tomography (CT) images. The aim of this study is to develop an accurate and efficient tooth segmentation method from CT images. Methods: The 3D dental CT volumetric images are segmented slice by slice in a two-dimensional (2D) transverse plane. The 2D segmentation is composed of a manual initialization step and an automatic slice by slice segmentation step. In the manual initialization step, the user manually picks a starting slice and selects a seed point for each tooth in this slice. In the automatic slice segmentation step, a developed hybrid level set model is applied to segment tooth contours from each slice. Tooth contour propagation strategy is employed to initialize the level set function automatically. Cone beam CT (CBCT) images of two subjects were used to tune the parameters. Images of 16 additional subjects were used to validate the performance of the method. Volume overlap metrics and surface distance metrics were adopted to assess the segmentation accuracy quantitatively. The volume overlap metrics were volume difference (VD, mm{sup 3}) and Dice similarity coefficient (DSC, %). The surface distance metrics were average symmetric surface distance (ASSD, mm), RMS (root mean square) symmetric surface distance (RMSSSD, mm), and maximum symmetric surface distance (MSSD, mm). Computation time was recorded to assess the efficiency. The performance of the proposed method has been compared with two state-of-the-art methods. Results: For the tested CBCT images, the VD, DSC, ASSD, RMSSSD, and MSSD for the incisor were 38.16 ± 12.94 mm{sup 3}, 88.82 ± 2.14%, 0.29 ± 0.03 mm, 0.32 ± 0.08 mm, and 1.25 ± 0.58 mm, respectively; the VD, DSC, ASSD, RMSSSD, and MSSD for the canine were 49.12 ± 9.33 mm{sup 3}, 91.57 ± 0.82%, 0.27 ± 0.02 mm, 0
Stable, accurate and efficient computation of normal modes for horizontal stratified models
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wu, Bo; Chen, Xiaofei
2016-08-01
We propose an adaptive root-determining strategy that is very useful when dealing with trapped modes or Stoneley modes whose energies become very insignificant on the free surface in the presence of low-velocity layers or fluid layers in the model. Loss of modes in these cases or inaccuracy in the calculation of these modes may then be easily avoided. Built upon the generalized reflection/transmission coefficients, the concept of `family of secular functions' that we herein call `adaptive mode observers' is thus naturally introduced to implement this strategy, the underlying idea of which has been distinctly noted for the first time and may be generalized to other applications such as free oscillations or applied to other methods in use when these cases are encountered. Additionally, we have made further improvements upon the generalized reflection/transmission coefficient method; mode observers associated with only the free surface and low-velocity layers (and the fluid/solid interface if the model contains fluid layers) are adequate to guarantee no loss and high precision at the same time of any physically existent modes without excessive calculations. Finally, the conventional definition of the fundamental mode is reconsidered, which is entailed in the cases under study. Some computational aspects are remarked on. With the additional help afforded by our superior root-searching scheme and the possibility of speeding calculation using a less number of layers aided by the concept of `turning point', our algorithm is remarkably efficient as well as stable and accurate and can be used as a powerful tool for widely related applications.
Stable, accurate and efficient computation of normal modes for horizontal stratified models
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wu, Bo; Chen, Xiaofei
2016-06-01
We propose an adaptive root-determining strategy that is very useful when dealing with trapped modes or Stoneley modes whose energies become very insignificant on the free surface in the presence of low-velocity layers or fluid layers in the model. Loss of modes in these cases or inaccuracy in the calculation of these modes may then be easily avoided. Built upon the generalized reflection/transmission coefficients, the concept of "family of secular functions" that we herein call "adaptive mode observers", is thus naturally introduced to implement this strategy, the underlying idea of which has been distinctly noted for the first time and may be generalized to other applications such as free oscillations or applied to other methods in use when these cases are encountered. Additionally, we have made further improvements upon the generalized reflection/transmission coefficient method; mode observers associated with only the free surface and low-velocity layers (and the fluid/solid interface if the model contains fluid layers) are adequate to guarantee no loss and high precision at the same time of any physically existent modes without excessive calculations. Finally, the conventional definition of the fundamental mode is reconsidered, which is entailed in the cases under study. Some computational aspects are remarked on. With the additional help afforded by our superior root-searching scheme and the possibility of speeding calculation using a less number of layers aided by the concept of "turning point", our algorithm is remarkably efficient as well as stable and accurate and can be used as a powerful tool for widely related applications.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Ellison, Donald; Conway, Bruce; Englander, Jacob
2015-01-01
A significant body of work exists showing that providing a nonlinear programming (NLP) solver with expressions for the problem constraint gradient substantially increases the speed of program execution and can also improve the robustness of convergence, especially for local optimizers. Calculation of these derivatives is often accomplished through the computation of spacecraft's state transition matrix (STM). If the two-body gravitational model is employed as is often done in the context of preliminary design, closed form expressions for these derivatives may be provided. If a high fidelity dynamics model, that might include perturbing forces such as the gravitational effect from multiple third bodies and solar radiation pressure is used then these STM's must be computed numerically. We present a method for the power hardward model and a full ephemeris model. An adaptive-step embedded eight order Dormand-Prince numerical integrator is discussed and a method for the computation of the time of flight derivatives in this framework is presented. The use of these numerically calculated derivatieves offer a substantial improvement over finite differencing in the context of a global optimizer. Specifically the inclusion of these STM's into the low thrust missiondesign tool chain in use at NASA Goddard Spaceflight Center allows for an increased preliminary mission design cadence.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kees, C. E.; Farthing, M. W.; Terrel, A.; Certik, O.; Seljebotn, D.
2013-12-01
This presentation will focus on two barriers to progress in the hydrological modeling community, and research and development conducted to lessen or eliminate them. The first is a barrier to sharing hydrological models among specialized scientists that is caused by intertwining the implementation of numerical methods with the implementation of abstract numerical modeling information. In the Proteus toolkit for computational methods and simulation, we have decoupled these two important parts of computational model through separate "physics" and "numerics" interfaces. More recently we have begun developing the Strong Form Language for easy and direct representation of the mathematical model formulation in a domain specific language embedded in Python. The second major barrier is sharing ANY scientific software tools that have complex library or module dependencies, as most parallel, multi-physics hydrological models must have. In this setting, users and developer are dependent on an entire distribution, possibly depending on multiple compilers and special instructions depending on the environment of the target machine. To solve these problem we have developed, hashdist, a stateless package management tool and a resulting portable, open source scientific software distribution.
A model for the accurate computation of the lateral scattering of protons in water.
Bellinzona, E V; Ciocca, M; Embriaco, A; Ferrari, A; Fontana, A; Mairani, A; Parodi, K; Rotondi, A; Sala, P; Tessonnier, T
2016-02-21
A pencil beam model for the calculation of the lateral scattering in water of protons for any therapeutic energy and depth is presented. It is based on the full Molière theory, taking into account the energy loss and the effects of mixtures and compounds. Concerning the electromagnetic part, the model has no free parameters and is in very good agreement with the FLUKA Monte Carlo (MC) code. The effects of the nuclear interactions are parametrized with a two-parameter tail function, adjusted on MC data calculated with FLUKA. The model, after the convolution with the beam and the detector response, is in agreement with recent proton data in water from HIT. The model gives results with the same accuracy of the MC codes based on Molière theory, with a much shorter computing time. PMID:26808380
A model for the accurate computation of the lateral scattering of protons in water
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bellinzona, E. V.; Ciocca, M.; Embriaco, A.; Ferrari, A.; Fontana, A.; Mairani, A.; Parodi, K.; Rotondi, A.; Sala, P.; Tessonnier, T.
2016-02-01
A pencil beam model for the calculation of the lateral scattering in water of protons for any therapeutic energy and depth is presented. It is based on the full Molière theory, taking into account the energy loss and the effects of mixtures and compounds. Concerning the electromagnetic part, the model has no free parameters and is in very good agreement with the FLUKA Monte Carlo (MC) code. The effects of the nuclear interactions are parametrized with a two-parameter tail function, adjusted on MC data calculated with FLUKA. The model, after the convolution with the beam and the detector response, is in agreement with recent proton data in water from HIT. The model gives results with the same accuracy of the MC codes based on Molière theory, with a much shorter computing time.
Gray, Alan; Harlen, Oliver G.; Harris, Sarah A.; Khalid, Syma; Leung, Yuk Ming; Lonsdale, Richard; Mulholland, Adrian J.; Pearson, Arwen R.; Read, Daniel J.; Richardson, Robin A.
2015-01-01
Despite huge advances in the computational techniques available for simulating biomolecules at the quantum-mechanical, atomistic and coarse-grained levels, there is still a widespread perception amongst the experimental community that these calculations are highly specialist and are not generally applicable by researchers outside the theoretical community. In this article, the successes and limitations of biomolecular simulation and the further developments that are likely in the near future are discussed. A brief overview is also provided of the experimental biophysical methods that are commonly used to probe biomolecular structure and dynamics, and the accuracy of the information that can be obtained from each is compared with that from modelling. It is concluded that progress towards an accurate spatial and temporal model of biomacromolecules requires a combination of all of these biophysical techniques, both experimental and computational. PMID:25615870
Accurate Time-Dependent Traveling-Wave Tube Model Developed for Computational Bit-Error-Rate Testing
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kory, Carol L.
2001-01-01
The phenomenal growth of the satellite communications industry has created a large demand for traveling-wave tubes (TWT's) operating with unprecedented specifications requiring the design and production of many novel devices in record time. To achieve this, the TWT industry heavily relies on computational modeling. However, the TWT industry's computational modeling capabilities need to be improved because there are often discrepancies between measured TWT data and that predicted by conventional two-dimensional helical TWT interaction codes. This limits the analysis and design of novel devices or TWT's with parameters differing from what is conventionally manufactured. In addition, the inaccuracy of current computational tools limits achievable TWT performance because optimized designs require highly accurate models. To address these concerns, a fully three-dimensional, time-dependent, helical TWT interaction model was developed using the electromagnetic particle-in-cell code MAFIA (Solution of MAxwell's equations by the Finite-Integration-Algorithm). The model includes a short section of helical slow-wave circuit with excitation fed by radiofrequency input/output couplers, and an electron beam contained by periodic permanent magnet focusing. A cutaway view of several turns of the three-dimensional helical slow-wave circuit with input/output couplers is shown. This has been shown to be more accurate than conventionally used two-dimensional models. The growth of the communications industry has also imposed a demand for increased data rates for the transmission of large volumes of data. To achieve increased data rates, complex modulation and multiple access techniques are employed requiring minimum distortion of the signal as it is passed through the TWT. Thus, intersymbol interference (ISI) becomes a major consideration, as well as suspected causes such as reflections within the TWT. To experimentally investigate effects of the physical TWT on ISI would be
Vela, Sergi; Fumanal, Maria; Ribas-Arino, Jordi; Robert, Vincent
2015-07-01
The DFT + U methodology is regarded as one of the most-promising strategies to treat the solid state of molecular materials, as it may provide good energetic accuracy at a moderate computational cost. However, a careful parametrization of the U-term is mandatory since the results may be dramatically affected by the selected value. Herein, we benchmarked the Hubbard-like U-term for seven Fe(ii)N6-based pseudo-octahedral spin crossover (SCO) compounds, using as a reference an estimation of the electronic enthalpy difference (ΔHelec) extracted from experimental data (T1/2, ΔS and ΔH). The parametrized U-value obtained for each of those seven compounds ranges from 2.37 eV to 2.97 eV, with an average value of U = 2.65 eV. Interestingly, we have found that this average value can be taken as a good starting point since it leads to an unprecedented mean absolute error (MAE) of only 4.3 kJ mol(-1) in the evaluation of ΔHelec for the studied compounds. Moreover, by comparing our results on the solid state and the gas phase of the materials, we quantify the influence of the intermolecular interactions on the relative stability of the HS and LS states, with an average effect of ca. 5 kJ mol(-1), whose sign cannot be generalized. Overall, the findings reported in this manuscript pave the way for future studies devoted to understand the crystalline phase of SCO compounds, or the adsorption of individual molecules on organic or metallic surfaces, in which the rational incorporation of the U-term within DFT + U yields the required energetic accuracy that is dramatically missing when using bare-DFT functionals. PMID:26040609
Gray, Alan; Harlen, Oliver G.; Harris, Sarah A.; Khalid, Syma; Leung, Yuk Ming; Lonsdale, Richard; Mulholland, Adrian J.; Pearson, Arwen R.; Read, Daniel J.; Richardson, Robin A.
2015-01-01
The current computational techniques available for biomolecular simulation are described, and the successes and limitations of each with reference to the experimental biophysical methods that they complement are presented. Despite huge advances in the computational techniques available for simulating biomolecules at the quantum-mechanical, atomistic and coarse-grained levels, there is still a widespread perception amongst the experimental community that these calculations are highly specialist and are not generally applicable by researchers outside the theoretical community. In this article, the successes and limitations of biomolecular simulation and the further developments that are likely in the near future are discussed. A brief overview is also provided of the experimental biophysical methods that are commonly used to probe biomolecular structure and dynamics, and the accuracy of the information that can be obtained from each is compared with that from modelling. It is concluded that progress towards an accurate spatial and temporal model of biomacromolecules requires a combination of all of these biophysical techniques, both experimental and computational.
Chang, Chih-Hao . E-mail: chchang@engineering.ucsb.edu; Liou, Meng-Sing . E-mail: meng-sing.liou@grc.nasa.gov
2007-07-01
In this paper, we propose a new approach to compute compressible multifluid equations. Firstly, a single-pressure compressible multifluid model based on the stratified flow model is proposed. The stratified flow model, which defines different fluids in separated regions, is shown to be amenable to the finite volume method. We can apply the conservation law to each subregion and obtain a set of balance equations. Secondly, the AUSM{sup +} scheme, which is originally designed for the compressible gas flow, is extended to solve compressible liquid flows. By introducing additional dissipation terms into the numerical flux, the new scheme, called AUSM{sup +}-up, can be applied to both liquid and gas flows. Thirdly, the contribution to the numerical flux due to interactions between different phases is taken into account and solved by the exact Riemann solver. We will show that the proposed approach yields an accurate and robust method for computing compressible multiphase flows involving discontinuities, such as shock waves and fluid interfaces. Several one-dimensional test problems are used to demonstrate the capability of our method, including the Ransom's water faucet problem and the air-water shock tube problem. Finally, several two dimensional problems will show the capability to capture enormous details and complicated wave patterns in flows having large disparities in the fluid density and velocities, such as interactions between water shock wave and air bubble, between air shock wave and water column(s), and underwater explosion.
Sundaramurthy, Aravind; Alai, Aaron; Ganpule, Shailesh; Holmberg, Aaron; Plougonven, Erwan; Chandra, Namas
2012-09-01
Blast waves generated by improvised explosive devices (IEDs) cause traumatic brain injury (TBI) in soldiers and civilians. In vivo animal models that use shock tubes are extensively used in laboratories to simulate field conditions, to identify mechanisms of injury, and to develop injury thresholds. In this article, we place rats in different locations along the length of the shock tube (i.e., inside, outside, and near the exit), to examine the role of animal placement location (APL) in the biomechanical load experienced by the animal. We found that the biomechanical load on the brain and internal organs in the thoracic cavity (lungs and heart) varied significantly depending on the APL. When the specimen is positioned outside, organs in the thoracic cavity experience a higher pressure for a longer duration, in contrast to APL inside the shock tube. This in turn will possibly alter the injury type, severity, and lethality. We found that the optimal APL is where the Friedlander waveform is first formed inside the shock tube. Once the optimal APL was determined, the effect of the incident blast intensity on the surface and intracranial pressure was measured and analyzed. Noticeably, surface and intracranial pressure increases linearly with the incident peak overpressures, though surface pressures are significantly higher than the other two. Further, we developed and validated an anatomically accurate finite element model of the rat head. With this model, we determined that the main pathway of pressure transmission to the brain was through the skull and not through the snout; however, the snout plays a secondary role in diffracting the incoming blast wave towards the skull. PMID:22620716
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Huang, X.; Schwenke, D.; Lee, T. J.
2014-12-01
Last year we reported a semi-empirical 32S16O2 spectroscopic line list (denoted Ames-296K) for its atmospheric characterization in Venus and other Exoplanetary environments. In order to facilitate the Sulfur isotopic ratio and Sulfur chemistry model determination, now we present Ames-296K line lists for both 626 (upgraded) and other 4 symmetric isotopologues: 636, 646, 666 and 828. The line lists are computed on an ab initio potential energy surface refined with most reliable high resolution experimental data, using a high quality CCSD(T)/aug-cc-pV(Q+d)Z dipole moment surface. The most valuable part of our approach is to provide "truly reliable" predictions (and alternatives) for those unknown or hard-to-measure/analyze spectra. This strategy has guaranteed the lists are the best available alternative for those wide spectra region missing from spectroscopic databases such as HITRAN and GEISA, where only very limited data exist for 626/646 and no Infrared data at all for 636/666 or other minor isotopologues. Our general line position accuracy up to 5000 cm-1 is 0.01 - 0.02 cm-1 or better. Most transition intensity deviations are less than 5%, compare to experimentally measured quantities. Note that we have solved a convergence issue and further improved the quality and completeness of the main isotopologue 626 list at 296K. We will compare the lists to available models in CDMS/JPL/HITRAN and discuss the future mutually beneficial interactions between theoretical and experimental efforts.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Feldgus, Steven; Shields, George C.
2001-10-01
The Bergman cyclization of large polycyclic enediyne systems that mimic the cores of the enediyne anticancer antibiotics was studied using the ONIOM hybrid method. Tests on small enediynes show that ONIOM can accurately match experimental data. The effect of the triggering reaction in the natural products is investigated, and we support the argument that it is strain effects that lower the cyclization barrier. The barrier for the triggered molecule is very low, leading to a reasonable half-life at biological temperatures. No evidence is found that would suggest a concerted cyclization/H-atom abstraction mechanism is necessary for DNA cleavage.
Direct computation of parameters for accurate polarizable force fields
Verstraelen, Toon Vandenbrande, Steven; Ayers, Paul W.
2014-11-21
We present an improved electronic linear response model to incorporate polarization and charge-transfer effects in polarizable force fields. This model is a generalization of the Atom-Condensed Kohn-Sham Density Functional Theory (DFT), approximated to second order (ACKS2): it can now be defined with any underlying variational theory (next to KS-DFT) and it can include atomic multipoles and off-center basis functions. Parameters in this model are computed efficiently as expectation values of an electronic wavefunction, obviating the need for their calibration, regularization, and manual tuning. In the limit of a complete density and potential basis set in the ACKS2 model, the linear response properties of the underlying theory for a given molecular geometry are reproduced exactly. A numerical validation with a test set of 110 molecules shows that very accurate models can already be obtained with fluctuating charges and dipoles. These features greatly facilitate the development of polarizable force fields.
Anatomically accurate individual face modeling.
Zhang, Yu; Prakash, Edmond C; Sung, Eric
2003-01-01
This paper presents a new 3D face model of a specific person constructed from the anatomical perspective. By exploiting the laser range data, a 3D facial mesh precisely representing the skin geometry is reconstructed. Based on the geometric facial mesh, we develop a deformable multi-layer skin model. It takes into account the nonlinear stress-strain relationship and dynamically simulates the non-homogenous behavior of the real skin. The face model also incorporates a set of anatomically-motivated facial muscle actuators and underlying skull structure. Lagrangian mechanics governs the facial motion dynamics, dictating the dynamic deformation of facial skin in response to the muscle contraction. PMID:15455936
The importance of accurate atmospheric modeling
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Payne, Dylan; Schroeder, John; Liang, Pang
2014-11-01
This paper will focus on the effect of atmospheric conditions on EO sensor performance using computer models. We have shown the importance of accurately modeling atmospheric effects for predicting the performance of an EO sensor. A simple example will demonstrated how real conditions for several sites in China will significantly impact on image correction, hyperspectral imaging, and remote sensing. The current state-of-the-art model for computing atmospheric transmission and radiance is, MODTRAN® 5, developed by the US Air Force Research Laboratory and Spectral Science, Inc. Research by the US Air Force, Navy and Army resulted in the public release of LOWTRAN 2 in the early 1970's. Subsequent releases of LOWTRAN and MODTRAN® have continued until the present. Please verify that (1) all pages are present, (2) all figures are correct, (3) all fonts and special characters are correct, and (4) all text and figures fit within the red margin lines shown on this review document. Complete formatting information is available at http://SPIE.org/manuscripts Return to the Manage Active Submissions page at http://spie.org/submissions/tasks.aspx and approve or disapprove this submission. Your manuscript will not be published without this approval. Please contact author_help@spie.org with any questions or concerns. The paper will demonstrate the importance of using validated models and local measured meteorological, atmospheric and aerosol conditions to accurately simulate the atmospheric transmission and radiance. Frequently default conditions are used which can produce errors of as much as 75% in these values. This can have significant impact on remote sensing applications.
Accurate mask model for advanced nodes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zine El Abidine, Nacer; Sundermann, Frank; Yesilada, Emek; Ndiaye, El Hadji Omar; Mishra, Kushlendra; Paninjath, Sankaranarayanan; Bork, Ingo; Buck, Peter; Toublan, Olivier; Schanen, Isabelle
2014-07-01
Standard OPC models consist of a physical optical model and an empirical resist model. The resist model compensates the optical model imprecision on top of modeling resist development. The optical model imprecision may result from mask topography effects and real mask information including mask ebeam writing and mask process contributions. For advanced technology nodes, significant progress has been made to model mask topography to improve optical model accuracy. However, mask information is difficult to decorrelate from standard OPC model. Our goal is to establish an accurate mask model through a dedicated calibration exercise. In this paper, we present a flow to calibrate an accurate mask enabling its implementation. The study covers the different effects that should be embedded in the mask model as well as the experiment required to model them.
Efficient and accurate computation of generalized singular-value decompositions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Drmac, Zlatko
2001-11-01
We present a new family of algorithms for accurate floating--point computation of the singular value decomposition (SVD) of various forms of products (quotients) of two or three matrices. The main goal of such an algorithm is to compute all singular values to high relative accuracy. This means that we are seeking guaranteed number of accurate digits even in the smallest singular values. We also want to achieve computational efficiency, while maintaining high accuracy. To illustrate, consider the SVD of the product A=BTSC. The new algorithm uses certain preconditioning (based on diagonal scalings, the LU and QR factorizations) to replace A with A'=(B')TS'C', where A and A' have the same singular values and the matrix A' is computed explicitly. Theoretical analysis and numerical evidence show that, in the case of full rank B, C, S, the accuracy of the new algorithm is unaffected by replacing B, S, C with, respectively, D1B, D2SD3, D4C, where Di, i=1,...,4 are arbitrary diagonal matrices. As an application, the paper proposes new accurate algorithms for computing the (H,K)-SVD and (H1,K)-SVD of S.
A fast and accurate computational approach to protein ionization
Spassov, Velin Z.; Yan, Lisa
2008-01-01
We report a very fast and accurate physics-based method to calculate pH-dependent electrostatic effects in protein molecules and to predict the pK values of individual sites of titration. In addition, a CHARMm-based algorithm is included to construct and refine the spatial coordinates of all hydrogen atoms at a given pH. The present method combines electrostatic energy calculations based on the Generalized Born approximation with an iterative mobile clustering approach to calculate the equilibria of proton binding to multiple titration sites in protein molecules. The use of the GBIM (Generalized Born with Implicit Membrane) CHARMm module makes it possible to model not only water-soluble proteins but membrane proteins as well. The method includes a novel algorithm for preliminary refinement of hydrogen coordinates. Another difference from existing approaches is that, instead of monopeptides, a set of relaxed pentapeptide structures are used as model compounds. Tests on a set of 24 proteins demonstrate the high accuracy of the method. On average, the RMSD between predicted and experimental pK values is close to 0.5 pK units on this data set, and the accuracy is achieved at very low computational cost. The pH-dependent assignment of hydrogen atoms also shows very good agreement with protonation states and hydrogen-bond network observed in neutron-diffraction structures. The method is implemented as a computational protocol in Accelrys Discovery Studio and provides a fast and easy way to study the effect of pH on many important mechanisms such as enzyme catalysis, ligand binding, protein–protein interactions, and protein stability. PMID:18714088
Pre-Modeling Ensures Accurate Solid Models
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Gow, George
2010-01-01
Successful solid modeling requires a well-organized design tree. The design tree is a list of all the object's features and the sequential order in which they are modeled. The solid-modeling process is faster and less prone to modeling errors when the design tree is a simple and geometrically logical definition of the modeled object. Few high…
New model accurately predicts reformate composition
Ancheyta-Juarez, J.; Aguilar-Rodriguez, E. )
1994-01-31
Although naphtha reforming is a well-known process, the evolution of catalyst formulation, as well as new trends in gasoline specifications, have led to rapid evolution of the process, including: reactor design, regeneration mode, and operating conditions. Mathematical modeling of the reforming process is an increasingly important tool. It is fundamental to the proper design of new reactors and revamp of existing ones. Modeling can be used to optimize operating conditions, analyze the effects of process variables, and enhance unit performance. Instituto Mexicano del Petroleo has developed a model of the catalytic reforming process that accurately predicts reformate composition at the higher-severity conditions at which new reformers are being designed. The new AA model is more accurate than previous proposals because it takes into account the effects of temperature and pressure on the rate constants of each chemical reaction.
Photoacoustic computed tomography without accurate ultrasonic transducer responses
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sheng, Qiwei; Wang, Kun; Xia, Jun; Zhu, Liren; Wang, Lihong V.; Anastasio, Mark A.
2015-03-01
Conventional photoacoustic computed tomography (PACT) image reconstruction methods assume that the object and surrounding medium are described by a constant speed-of-sound (SOS) value. In order to accurately recover fine structures, SOS heterogeneities should be quantified and compensated for during PACT reconstruction. To address this problem, several groups have proposed hybrid systems that combine PACT with ultrasound computed tomography (USCT). In such systems, a SOS map is reconstructed first via USCT. Consequently, this SOS map is employed to inform the PACT reconstruction method. Additionally, the SOS map can provide structural information regarding tissue, which is complementary to the functional information from the PACT image. We propose a paradigm shift in the way that images are reconstructed in hybrid PACT-USCT imaging. Inspired by our observation that information about the SOS distribution is encoded in PACT measurements, we propose to jointly reconstruct the absorbed optical energy density and SOS distributions from a combined set of USCT and PACT measurements, thereby reducing the two reconstruction problems into one. This innovative approach has several advantages over conventional approaches in which PACT and USCT images are reconstructed independently: (1) Variations in the SOS will automatically be accounted for, optimizing PACT image quality; (2) The reconstructed PACT and USCT images will possess minimal systematic artifacts because errors in the imaging models will be optimally balanced during the joint reconstruction; (3) Due to the exploitation of information regarding the SOS distribution in the full-view PACT data, our approach will permit high-resolution reconstruction of the SOS distribution from sparse array data.
Passeri, A; Formiconi, A R; De Cristofaro, M T; Pupi, A; Meldolesi, U
1997-04-01
It is well known that the quantitative potential of emission computed tomography (ECT) relies on the ability to compensate for resolution, attenuation and scatter effects. Reconstruction algorithms which are able to take these effects into account are highly demanding in terms of computing resources. The reported work aimed to investigate the use of a parallel high-performance computing platform for ECT reconstruction taking into account an accurate model of the acquisition of single-photon emission tomographic (SPET) data. An iterative algorithm with an accurate model of the variable system response was ported on the MIMD (Multiple Instruction Multiple Data) parallel architecture of a 64-node Cray T3D massively parallel computer. The system was organized to make it easily accessible even from low-cost PC-based workstations through standard TCP/IP networking. A complete brain study of 30 (64x64) slices could be reconstructed from a set of 90 (64x64) projections with ten iterations of the conjugate gradients algorithm in 9 s, corresponding to an actual speed-up factor of 135. This work demonstrated the possibility of exploiting remote high-performance computing and networking resources from hospital sites by means of low-cost workstations using standard communication protocols without particular problems for routine use. The achievable speed-up factors allow the assessment of the clinical benefit of advanced reconstruction techniques which require a heavy computational burden for the compensation effects such as variable spatial resolution, scatter and attenuation. The possibility of using the same software on the same hardware platform with data acquired in different laboratories with various kinds of SPET instrumentation is appealing for software quality control and for the evaluation of the clinical impact of the reconstruction methods. PMID:9096089
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Liu, Yen; Vinokur, Marcel
1989-01-01
This paper treats the accurate and efficient calculation of thermodynamic properties of arbitrary gas mixtures for equilibrium flow computations. New improvements in the Stupochenko-Jaffe model for the calculation of thermodynamic properties of diatomic molecules are presented. A unified formulation of equilibrium calculations for gas mixtures in terms of irreversible entropy is given. Using a highly accurate thermo-chemical data base, a new, efficient and vectorizable search algorithm is used to construct piecewise interpolation procedures with generate accurate thermodynamic variable and their derivatives required by modern computational algorithms. Results are presented for equilibrium air, and compared with those given by the Srinivasan program.
Neutron supermirrors: an accurate theory for layer thickness computation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bray, Michael
2001-11-01
We present a new theory for the computation of Super-Mirror stacks, using accurate formulas derived from the classical optics field. Approximations are introduced into the computation, but at a later stage than existing theories, providing a more rigorous treatment of the problem. The final result is a continuous thickness stack, whose properties can be determined at the outset of the design. We find that the well-known fourth power dependence of number of layers versus maximum angle is (of course) asymptotically correct. We find a formula giving directly the relation between desired reflectance, maximum angle, and number of layers (for a given pair of materials). Note: The author of this article, a classical opticist, has limited knowledge of the Neutron world, and begs forgiveness for any shortcomings, erroneous assumptions and/or misinterpretation of previous authors' work on the subject.
Accurate Computation of Survival Statistics in Genome-Wide Studies
Vandin, Fabio; Papoutsaki, Alexandra; Raphael, Benjamin J.; Upfal, Eli
2015-01-01
A key challenge in genomics is to identify genetic variants that distinguish patients with different survival time following diagnosis or treatment. While the log-rank test is widely used for this purpose, nearly all implementations of the log-rank test rely on an asymptotic approximation that is not appropriate in many genomics applications. This is because: the two populations determined by a genetic variant may have very different sizes; and the evaluation of many possible variants demands highly accurate computation of very small p-values. We demonstrate this problem for cancer genomics data where the standard log-rank test leads to many false positive associations between somatic mutations and survival time. We develop and analyze a novel algorithm, Exact Log-rank Test (ExaLT), that accurately computes the p-value of the log-rank statistic under an exact distribution that is appropriate for any size populations. We demonstrate the advantages of ExaLT on data from published cancer genomics studies, finding significant differences from the reported p-values. We analyze somatic mutations in six cancer types from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA), finding mutations with known association to survival as well as several novel associations. In contrast, standard implementations of the log-rank test report dozens-hundreds of likely false positive associations as more significant than these known associations. PMID:25950620
Measurement of Fracture Geometry for Accurate Computation of Hydraulic Conductivity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chae, B.; Ichikawa, Y.; Kim, Y.
2003-12-01
mechanical aperture from hydraulic aperture due to rough geometry of fracture walls. The hydraulic conductivity did not follow the cubic law. It verifies that a parallel plate model is not suitable to express the hydraulic conductivity including local fracture geometry. The measurement results are used to compute hydraulic conductivity along a rock fracture based on the homogenization theory.
More-Accurate Model of Flows in Rocket Injectors
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hosangadi, Ashvin; Chenoweth, James; Brinckman, Kevin; Dash, Sanford
2011-01-01
An improved computational model for simulating flows in liquid-propellant injectors in rocket engines has been developed. Models like this one are needed for predicting fluxes of heat in, and performances of, the engines. An important part of predicting performance is predicting fluctuations of temperature, fluctuations of concentrations of chemical species, and effects of turbulence on diffusion of heat and chemical species. Customarily, diffusion effects are represented by parameters known in the art as the Prandtl and Schmidt numbers. Prior formulations include ad hoc assumptions of constant values of these parameters, but these assumptions and, hence, the formulations, are inaccurate for complex flows. In the improved model, these parameters are neither constant nor specified in advance: instead, they are variables obtained as part of the solution. Consequently, this model represents the effects of turbulence on diffusion of heat and chemical species more accurately than prior formulations do, and may enable more-accurate prediction of mixing and flows of heat in rocket-engine combustion chambers. The model has been implemented within CRUNCH CFD, a proprietary computational fluid dynamics (CFD) computer program, and has been tested within that program. The model could also be implemented within other CFD programs.
Accurate theoretical chemistry with coupled pair models.
Neese, Frank; Hansen, Andreas; Wennmohs, Frank; Grimme, Stefan
2009-05-19
Quantum chemistry has found its way into the everyday work of many experimental chemists. Calculations can predict the outcome of chemical reactions, afford insight into reaction mechanisms, and be used to interpret structure and bonding in molecules. Thus, contemporary theory offers tremendous opportunities in experimental chemical research. However, even with present-day computers and algorithms, we cannot solve the many particle Schrodinger equation exactly; inevitably some error is introduced in approximating the solutions of this equation. Thus, the accuracy of quantum chemical calculations is of critical importance. The affordable accuracy depends on molecular size and particularly on the total number of atoms: for orientation, ethanol has 9 atoms, aspirin 21 atoms, morphine 40 atoms, sildenafil 63 atoms, paclitaxel 113 atoms, insulin nearly 800 atoms, and quaternary hemoglobin almost 12,000 atoms. Currently, molecules with up to approximately 10 atoms can be very accurately studied by coupled cluster (CC) theory, approximately 100 atoms with second-order Møller-Plesset perturbation theory (MP2), approximately 1000 atoms with density functional theory (DFT), and beyond that number with semiempirical quantum chemistry and force-field methods. The overwhelming majority of present-day calculations in the 100-atom range use DFT. Although these methods have been very successful in quantum chemistry, they do not offer a well-defined hierarchy of calculations that allows one to systematically converge to the correct answer. Recently a number of rather spectacular failures of DFT methods have been found-even for seemingly simple systems such as hydrocarbons, fueling renewed interest in wave function-based methods that incorporate the relevant physics of electron correlation in a more systematic way. Thus, it would be highly desirable to fill the gap between 10 and 100 atoms with highly correlated ab initio methods. We have found that one of the earliest (and now
Accurate pressure gradient calculations in hydrostatic atmospheric models
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Carroll, John J.; Mendez-Nunez, Luis R.; Tanrikulu, Saffet
1987-01-01
A method for the accurate calculation of the horizontal pressure gradient acceleration in hydrostatic atmospheric models is presented which is especially useful in situations where the isothermal surfaces are not parallel to the vertical coordinate surfaces. The present method is shown to be exact if the potential temperature lapse rate is constant between the vertical pressure integration limits. The technique is applied to both the integration of the hydrostatic equation and the computation of the slope correction term in the horizontal pressure gradient. A fixed vertical grid and a dynamic grid defined by the significant levels in the vertical temperature distribution are employed.
Zhang, Hao; Zhao, Yan; Cao, Liangcai; Jin, Guofan
2015-02-23
We propose an algorithm based on fully computed holographic stereogram for calculating full-parallax computer-generated holograms (CGHs) with accurate depth cues. The proposed method integrates point source algorithm and holographic stereogram based algorithm to reconstruct the three-dimensional (3D) scenes. Precise accommodation cue and occlusion effect can be created, and computer graphics rendering techniques can be employed in the CGH generation to enhance the image fidelity. Optical experiments have been performed using a spatial light modulator (SLM) and a fabricated high-resolution hologram, the results show that our proposed algorithm can perform quality reconstructions of 3D scenes with arbitrary depth information. PMID:25836429
Computer-based personality judgments are more accurate than those made by humans
Youyou, Wu; Kosinski, Michal; Stillwell, David
2015-01-01
Judging others’ personalities is an essential skill in successful social living, as personality is a key driver behind people’s interactions, behaviors, and emotions. Although accurate personality judgments stem from social-cognitive skills, developments in machine learning show that computer models can also make valid judgments. This study compares the accuracy of human and computer-based personality judgments, using a sample of 86,220 volunteers who completed a 100-item personality questionnaire. We show that (i) computer predictions based on a generic digital footprint (Facebook Likes) are more accurate (r = 0.56) than those made by the participants’ Facebook friends using a personality questionnaire (r = 0.49); (ii) computer models show higher interjudge agreement; and (iii) computer personality judgments have higher external validity when predicting life outcomes such as substance use, political attitudes, and physical health; for some outcomes, they even outperform the self-rated personality scores. Computers outpacing humans in personality judgment presents significant opportunities and challenges in the areas of psychological assessment, marketing, and privacy. PMID:25583507
Computer-based personality judgments are more accurate than those made by humans.
Youyou, Wu; Kosinski, Michal; Stillwell, David
2015-01-27
Judging others' personalities is an essential skill in successful social living, as personality is a key driver behind people's interactions, behaviors, and emotions. Although accurate personality judgments stem from social-cognitive skills, developments in machine learning show that computer models can also make valid judgments. This study compares the accuracy of human and computer-based personality judgments, using a sample of 86,220 volunteers who completed a 100-item personality questionnaire. We show that (i) computer predictions based on a generic digital footprint (Facebook Likes) are more accurate (r = 0.56) than those made by the participants' Facebook friends using a personality questionnaire (r = 0.49); (ii) computer models show higher interjudge agreement; and (iii) computer personality judgments have higher external validity when predicting life outcomes such as substance use, political attitudes, and physical health; for some outcomes, they even outperform the self-rated personality scores. Computers outpacing humans in personality judgment presents significant opportunities and challenges in the areas of psychological assessment, marketing, and privacy. PMID:25583507
On the importance of having accurate data for astrophysical modelling
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lique, Francois
2016-06-01
The Herschel telescope and the ALMA and NOEMA interferometers have opened new windows of observation for wavelengths ranging from far infrared to sub-millimeter with spatial and spectral resolutions previously unmatched. To make the most of these observations, an accurate knowledge of the physical and chemical processes occurring in the interstellar and circumstellar media is essential.In this presentation, I will discuss what are the current needs of astrophysics in terms of molecular data and I will show that accurate molecular data are crucial for the proper determination of the physical conditions in molecular clouds.First, I will focus on collisional excitation studies that are needed for molecular lines modelling beyond the Local Thermodynamic Equilibrium (LTE) approach. In particular, I will show how new collisional data for the HCN and HNC isomers, two tracers of star forming conditions, have allowed solving the problem of their respective abundance in cold molecular clouds. I will also present the last collisional data that have been computed in order to analyse new highly resolved observations provided by the ALMA interferometer.Then, I will present the calculation of accurate rate constants for the F+H2 → HF+H and Cl+H2 ↔ HCl+H reactions, which have allowed a more accurate determination of the physical conditions in diffuse molecular clouds. I will also present the recent work on the ortho-para-H2 conversion due to hydrogen exchange that allow more accurate determination of the ortho-to-para-H2 ratio in the universe and that imply a significant revision of the cooling mechanism in astrophysical media.
Accurate astronomical atmospheric dispersion models in ZEMAX
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Spanò, P.
2014-07-01
ZEMAX provides a standard built-in atmospheric model to simulate atmospheric refraction and dispersion. This model has been compared with other ones to assess its intrinsic accuracy, critical for very demanding application like ADCs for AO-assisted extremely large telescopes. A revised simple model, based on updated published data of the air refractivity, is proposed by using the "Gradient 5" surface of Zemax. At large zenith angles (65 deg), discrepancies up to 100 mas in the differential refraction are expected near the UV atmospheric transmission cutoff. When high-accuracy modeling is required, the latter model should be preferred.
Generating Facial Expressions Using an Anatomically Accurate Biomechanical Model.
Wu, Tim; Hung, Alice; Mithraratne, Kumar
2014-11-01
This paper presents a computational framework for modelling the biomechanics of human facial expressions. A detailed high-order (Cubic-Hermite) finite element model of the human head was constructed using anatomical data segmented from magnetic resonance images. The model includes a superficial soft-tissue continuum consisting of skin, the subcutaneous layer and the superficial Musculo-Aponeurotic system. Embedded within this continuum mesh, are 20 pairs of facial muscles which drive facial expressions. These muscles were treated as transversely-isotropic and their anatomical geometries and fibre orientations were accurately depicted. In order to capture the relative composition of muscles and fat, material heterogeneity was also introduced into the model. Complex contact interactions between the lips, eyelids, and between superficial soft tissue continuum and deep rigid skeletal bones were also computed. In addition, this paper investigates the impact of incorporating material heterogeneity and contact interactions, which are often neglected in similar studies. Four facial expressions were simulated using the developed model and the results were compared with surface data obtained from a 3D structured-light scanner. Predicted expressions showed good agreement with the experimental data. PMID:26355331
An accurate model potential for alkali neon systems.
Zanuttini, D; Jacquet, E; Giglio, E; Douady, J; Gervais, B
2009-12-01
We present a detailed investigation of the ground and lowest excited states of M-Ne dimers, for M=Li, Na, and K. We show that the potential energy curves of these Van der Waals dimers can be obtained accurately by considering the alkali neon systems as one-electron systems. Following previous authors, the model describes the evolution of the alkali valence electron in the combined potentials of the alkali and neon cores by means of core polarization pseudopotentials. The key parameter for an accurate model is the M(+)-Ne potential energy curve, which was obtained by means of ab initio CCSD(T) calculation using a large basis set. For each MNe dimer, a systematic comparison with ab initio computation of the potential energy curve for the X, A, and B states shows the remarkable accuracy of the model. The vibrational analysis and the comparison with existing experimental data strengthens this conclusion and allows for a precise assignment of the vibrational levels. PMID:19968334
Accurate spectral modeling for infrared radiation
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Tiwari, S. N.; Gupta, S. K.
1977-01-01
Direct line-by-line integration and quasi-random band model techniques are employed to calculate the spectral transmittance and total band absorptance of 4.7 micron CO, 4.3 micron CO2, 15 micron CO2, and 5.35 micron NO bands. Results are obtained for different pressures, temperatures, and path lengths. These are compared with available theoretical and experimental investigations. For each gas, extensive tabulations of results are presented for comparative purposes. In almost all cases, line-by-line results are found to be in excellent agreement with the experimental values. The range of validity of other models and correlations are discussed.
Turbulence Models for Accurate Aerothermal Prediction in Hypersonic Flows
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhang, Xiang-Hong; Wu, Yi-Zao; Wang, Jiang-Feng
Accurate description of the aerodynamic and aerothermal environment is crucial to the integrated design and optimization for high performance hypersonic vehicles. In the simulation of aerothermal environment, the effect of viscosity is crucial. The turbulence modeling remains a major source of uncertainty in the computational prediction of aerodynamic forces and heating. In this paper, three turbulent models were studied: the one-equation eddy viscosity transport model of Spalart-Allmaras, the Wilcox k-ω model and the Menter SST model. For the k-ω model and SST model, the compressibility correction, press dilatation and low Reynolds number correction were considered. The influence of these corrections for flow properties were discussed by comparing with the results without corrections. In this paper the emphasis is on the assessment and evaluation of the turbulence models in prediction of heat transfer as applied to a range of hypersonic flows with comparison to experimental data. This will enable establishing factor of safety for the design of thermal protection systems of hypersonic vehicle.
An accurate and simple quantum model for liquid water.
Paesani, Francesco; Zhang, Wei; Case, David A; Cheatham, Thomas E; Voth, Gregory A
2006-11-14
The path-integral molecular dynamics and centroid molecular dynamics methods have been applied to investigate the behavior of liquid water at ambient conditions starting from a recently developed simple point charge/flexible (SPC/Fw) model. Several quantum structural, thermodynamic, and dynamical properties have been computed and compared to the corresponding classical values, as well as to the available experimental data. The path-integral molecular dynamics simulations show that the inclusion of quantum effects results in a less structured liquid with a reduced amount of hydrogen bonding in comparison to its classical analog. The nuclear quantization also leads to a smaller dielectric constant and a larger diffusion coefficient relative to the corresponding classical values. Collective and single molecule time correlation functions show a faster decay than their classical counterparts. Good agreement with the experimental measurements in the low-frequency region is obtained for the quantum infrared spectrum, which also shows a higher intensity and a redshift relative to its classical analog. A modification of the original parametrization of the SPC/Fw model is suggested and tested in order to construct an accurate quantum model, called q-SPC/Fw, for liquid water. The quantum results for several thermodynamic and dynamical properties computed with the new model are shown to be in a significantly better agreement with the experimental data. Finally, a force-matching approach was applied to the q-SPC/Fw model to derive an effective quantum force field for liquid water in which the effects due to the nuclear quantization are explicitly distinguished from those due to the underlying molecular interactions. Thermodynamic and dynamical properties computed using standard classical simulations with this effective quantum potential are found in excellent agreement with those obtained from significantly more computationally demanding full centroid molecular dynamics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
McMillin, L. M.; Crone, L. J.; Goldberg, M. D.; Kleespies, T. J.
1995-09-01
A fast and accurate method for the generation of atmospheric transmittances, optical path transmittance (OPTRAN), is described. Results from OPTRAN are compared with those produced by other currently used methods. OPTRAN produces transmittances that can be used to generate brightness temperatures that are accurate to better than 0.2 K, well over 10 times as accurate as the current methods. This is significant because it brings the accuracy of transmittance computation to a level at which it will not adversely affect atmospheric retrievals. OPTRAN is the product of an evolution of approaches developed earlier at the National Environmental Satellite, Data, and Information Service. A majorfeature of OPTRAN that contributes to its accuracy is that transmittance is obtained as a function of the absorber amount rather than the pressure.
Computing accurate age and distance factors in cosmology
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Christiansen, Jodi L.; Siver, Andrew
2012-05-01
As the universe expands astronomical observables such as brightness and angular size on the sky change in ways that differ from our simple Cartesian expectation. We show how observed quantities depend on the expansion of space and demonstrate how to calculate such quantities using the Friedmann equations. The general solution to the Friedmann equations requires a numerical solution, which is easily coded in any computing language (including excel). We use these numerical calculations in four projects that help students build their understanding of high-redshift phenomena and cosmology. Instructions for these projects are available as supplementary materials.
Accurate calculation of computer-generated holograms using angular-spectrum layer-oriented method.
Zhao, Yan; Cao, Liangcai; Zhang, Hao; Kong, Dezhao; Jin, Guofan
2015-10-01
Fast calculation and correct depth cue are crucial issues in the calculation of computer-generated hologram (CGH) for high quality three-dimensional (3-D) display. An angular-spectrum based algorithm for layer-oriented CGH is proposed. Angular spectra from each layer are synthesized as a layer-corresponded sub-hologram based on the fast Fourier transform without paraxial approximation. The proposed method can avoid the huge computational cost of the point-oriented method and yield accurate predictions of the whole diffracted field compared with other layer-oriented methods. CGHs of versatile formats of 3-D digital scenes, including computed tomography and 3-D digital models, are demonstrated with precise depth performance and advanced image quality. PMID:26480062
Accurate computation of Stokes flow driven by an open immersed interface
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, Yi; Layton, Anita T.
2012-06-01
We present numerical methods for computing two-dimensional Stokes flow driven by forces singularly supported along an open, immersed interface. Two second-order accurate methods are developed: one for accurately evaluating boundary integral solutions at a point, and another for computing Stokes solution values on a rectangular mesh. We first describe a method for computing singular or nearly singular integrals, such as a double layer potential due to sources on a curve in the plane, evaluated at a point on or near the curve. To improve accuracy of the numerical quadrature, we add corrections for the errors arising from discretization, which are found by asymptotic analysis. When used to solve the Stokes equations with sources on an open, immersed interface, the method generates second-order approximations, for both the pressure and the velocity, and preserves the jumps in the solutions and their derivatives across the boundary. We then combine the method with a mesh-based solver to yield a hybrid method for computing Stokes solutions at N2 grid points on a rectangular grid. Numerical results are presented which exhibit second-order accuracy. To demonstrate the applicability of the method, we use the method to simulate fluid dynamics induced by the beating motion of a cilium. The method preserves the sharp jumps in the Stokes solution and their derivatives across the immersed boundary. Model results illustrate the distinct hydrodynamic effects generated by the effective stroke and by the recovery stroke of the ciliary beat cycle.
Towards Accurate Molecular Modeling of Plastic Bonded Explosives
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chantawansri, T. L.; Andzelm, J.; Taylor, D.; Byrd, E.; Rice, B.
2010-03-01
There is substantial interest in identifying the controlling factors that influence the susceptibility of polymer bonded explosives (PBXs) to accidental initiation. Numerous Molecular Dynamics (MD) simulations of PBXs using the COMPASS force field have been reported in recent years, where the validity of the force field in modeling the solid EM fill has been judged solely on its ability to reproduce lattice parameters, which is an insufficient metric. Performance of the COMPASS force field in modeling EMs and the polymeric binder has been assessed by calculating structural, thermal, and mechanical properties, where only fair agreement with experimental data is obtained. We performed MD simulations using the COMPASS force field for the polymer binder hydroxyl-terminated polybutadiene and five EMs: cyclotrimethylenetrinitramine, 1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tetra-azacyclo-octane, 2,4,6,8,10,12-hexantirohexaazazisowurzitane, 2,4,6-trinitro-1,3,5-benzenetriamine, and pentaerythritol tetranitate. Predicted EM crystallographic and molecular structural parameters, as well as calculated properties for the binder will be compared with experimental results for different simulation conditions. We also present novel simulation protocols, which improve agreement between experimental and computation results thus leading to the accurate modeling of PBXs.
Joldes, Grand Roman; Wittek, Adam; Miller, Karol
2008-01-01
Real time computation of soft tissue deformation is important for the use of augmented reality devices and for providing haptic feedback during operation or surgeon training. This requires algorithms that are fast, accurate and can handle material nonlinearities and large deformations. A set of such algorithms is presented in this paper, starting with the finite element formulation and the integration scheme used and addressing common problems such as hourglass control and locking. The computation examples presented prove that by using these algorithms, real time computations become possible without sacrificing the accuracy of the results. For a brain model having more than 7000 degrees of freedom, we computed the reaction forces due to indentation with frequency of around 1000 Hz using a standard dual core PC. Similarly, we conducted simulation of brain shift using a model with more than 50 000 degrees of freedom in less than a minute. The speed benefits of our models results from combining the Total Lagrangian formulation with explicit time integration and low order finite elements. PMID:19152791
Accurate methods for computing inviscid and viscous Kelvin-Helmholtz instability
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chen, Michael J.; Forbes, Lawrence K.
2011-02-01
The Kelvin-Helmholtz instability is modelled for inviscid and viscous fluids. Here, two bounded fluid layers flow parallel to each other with the interface between them growing in an unstable fashion when subjected to a small perturbation. In the various configurations of this problem, and the related problem of the vortex sheet, there are several phenomena associated with the evolution of the interface; notably the formation of a finite time curvature singularity and the ‘roll-up' of the interface. Two contrasting computational schemes will be presented. A spectral method is used to follow the evolution of the interface in the inviscid version of the problem. This allows the interface shape to be computed up to the time that a curvature singularity forms, with several computational difficulties overcome to reach that point. A weakly compressible viscous version of the problem is studied using finite difference techniques and a vorticity-streamfunction formulation. The two versions have comparable, but not identical, initial conditions and so the results exhibit some differences in timing. By including a small amount of viscosity the interface may be followed to the point that it rolls up into a classic ‘cat's-eye' shape. Particular attention was given to computing a consistent initial condition and solving the continuity equation both accurately and efficiently.
Pediatric Computational Models
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Soni, Bharat K.; Kim, Jong-Eun; Ito, Yasushi; Wagner, Christina D.; Yang, King-Hay
A computational model is a computer program that attempts to simulate a behavior of a complex system by solving mathematical equations associated with principles and laws of physics. Computational models can be used to predict the body's response to injury-producing conditions that cannot be simulated experimentally or measured in surrogate/animal experiments. Computational modeling also provides means by which valid experimental animal and cadaveric data can be extrapolated to a living person. Widely used computational models for injury biomechanics include multibody dynamics and finite element (FE) models. Both multibody and FE methods have been used extensively to study adult impact biomechanics in the past couple of decades.
Accurate 3-D finite difference computation of traveltimes in strongly heterogeneous media
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Noble, M.; Gesret, A.; Belayouni, N.
2014-12-01
Seismic traveltimes and their spatial derivatives are the basis of many imaging methods such as pre-stack depth migration and tomography. A common approach to compute these quantities is to solve the eikonal equation with a finite-difference scheme. If many recently published algorithms for resolving the eikonal equation do now yield fairly accurate traveltimes for most applications, the spatial derivatives of traveltimes remain very approximate. To address this accuracy issue, we develop a new hybrid eikonal solver that combines a spherical approximation when close to the source and a plane wave approximation when far away. This algorithm reproduces properly the spherical behaviour of wave fronts in the vicinity of the source. We implement a combination of 16 local operators that enables us to handle velocity models with sharp vertical and horizontal velocity contrasts. We associate to these local operators a global fast sweeping method to take into account all possible directions of wave propagation. Our formulation allows us to introduce a variable grid spacing in all three directions of space. We demonstrate the efficiency of this algorithm in terms of computational time and the gain in accuracy of the computed traveltimes and their derivatives on several numerical examples.
Water wave model with accurate dispersion and vertical vorticity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bokhove, Onno
2010-05-01
Cotter and Bokhove (Journal of Engineering Mathematics 2010) derived a variational water wave model with accurate dispersion and vertical vorticity. In one limit, it leads to Luke's variational principle for potential flow water waves. In the another limit it leads to the depth-averaged shallow water equations including vertical vorticity. Presently, focus will be put on the Hamiltonian formulation of the variational model and its boundary conditions.
Development of highly accurate approximate scheme for computing the charge transfer integral.
Pershin, Anton; Szalay, Péter G
2015-08-21
The charge transfer integral is a key parameter required by various theoretical models to describe charge transport properties, e.g., in organic semiconductors. The accuracy of this important property depends on several factors, which include the level of electronic structure theory and internal simplifications of the applied formalism. The goal of this paper is to identify the performance of various approximate approaches of the latter category, while using the high level equation-of-motion coupled cluster theory for the electronic structure. The calculations have been performed on the ethylene dimer as one of the simplest model systems. By studying different spatial perturbations, it was shown that while both energy split in dimer and fragment charge difference methods are equivalent with the exact formulation for symmetrical displacements, they are less efficient when describing transfer integral along the asymmetric alteration coordinate. Since the "exact" scheme was found computationally expensive, we examine the possibility to obtain the asymmetric fluctuation of the transfer integral by a Taylor expansion along the coordinate space. By exploring the efficiency of this novel approach, we show that the Taylor expansion scheme represents an attractive alternative to the "exact" calculations due to a substantial reduction of computational costs, when a considerably large region of the potential energy surface is of interest. Moreover, we show that the Taylor expansion scheme, irrespective of the dimer symmetry, is very accurate for the entire range of geometry fluctuations that cover the space the molecule accesses at room temperature. PMID:26298117
Development of highly accurate approximate scheme for computing the charge transfer integral
Pershin, Anton; Szalay, Péter G.
2015-08-21
The charge transfer integral is a key parameter required by various theoretical models to describe charge transport properties, e.g., in organic semiconductors. The accuracy of this important property depends on several factors, which include the level of electronic structure theory and internal simplifications of the applied formalism. The goal of this paper is to identify the performance of various approximate approaches of the latter category, while using the high level equation-of-motion coupled cluster theory for the electronic structure. The calculations have been performed on the ethylene dimer as one of the simplest model systems. By studying different spatial perturbations, it was shown that while both energy split in dimer and fragment charge difference methods are equivalent with the exact formulation for symmetrical displacements, they are less efficient when describing transfer integral along the asymmetric alteration coordinate. Since the “exact” scheme was found computationally expensive, we examine the possibility to obtain the asymmetric fluctuation of the transfer integral by a Taylor expansion along the coordinate space. By exploring the efficiency of this novel approach, we show that the Taylor expansion scheme represents an attractive alternative to the “exact” calculations due to a substantial reduction of computational costs, when a considerably large region of the potential energy surface is of interest. Moreover, we show that the Taylor expansion scheme, irrespective of the dimer symmetry, is very accurate for the entire range of geometry fluctuations that cover the space the molecule accesses at room temperature.
Haley, William E.; Ibrahim, El-Sayed H.; Qu, Mingliang; Cernigliaro, Joseph G.; Goldfarb, David S.; McCollough, Cynthia H.
2015-01-01
Dual-energy computed tomography (DECT) has recently been suggested as the imaging modality of choice for kidney stones due to its ability to provide information on stone composition. Standard postprocessing of the dual-energy images accurately identifies uric acid stones, but not other types. Cystine stones can be identified from DECT images when analyzed with advanced postprocessing. This case report describes clinical implications of accurate diagnosis of cystine stones using DECT. PMID:26688770
Haley, William E; Ibrahim, El-Sayed H; Qu, Mingliang; Cernigliaro, Joseph G; Goldfarb, David S; McCollough, Cynthia H
2015-01-01
Dual-energy computed tomography (DECT) has recently been suggested as the imaging modality of choice for kidney stones due to its ability to provide information on stone composition. Standard postprocessing of the dual-energy images accurately identifies uric acid stones, but not other types. Cystine stones can be identified from DECT images when analyzed with advanced postprocessing. This case report describes clinical implications of accurate diagnosis of cystine stones using DECT. PMID:26688770
Local Debonding and Fiber Breakage in Composite Materials Modeled Accurately
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Bednarcyk, Brett A.; Arnold, Steven M.
2001-01-01
A prerequisite for full utilization of composite materials in aerospace components is accurate design and life prediction tools that enable the assessment of component performance and reliability. Such tools assist both structural analysts, who design and optimize structures composed of composite materials, and materials scientists who design and optimize the composite materials themselves. NASA Glenn Research Center's Micromechanics Analysis Code with Generalized Method of Cells (MAC/GMC) software package (http://www.grc.nasa.gov/WWW/LPB/mac) addresses this need for composite design and life prediction tools by providing a widely applicable and accurate approach to modeling composite materials. Furthermore, MAC/GMC serves as a platform for incorporating new local models and capabilities that are under development at NASA, thus enabling these new capabilities to progress rapidly to a stage in which they can be employed by the code's end users.
Computational Modeling of Tires
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Noor, Ahmed K. (Compiler); Tanner, John A. (Compiler)
1995-01-01
This document contains presentations and discussions from the joint UVA/NASA Workshop on Computational Modeling of Tires. The workshop attendees represented NASA, the Army and Air force, tire companies, commercial software developers, and academia. The workshop objectives were to assess the state of technology in the computational modeling of tires and to provide guidelines for future research.
An Accurate Temperature Correction Model for Thermocouple Hygrometers 1
Savage, Michael J.; Cass, Alfred; de Jager, James M.
1982-01-01
Numerous water relation studies have used thermocouple hygrometers routinely. However, the accurate temperature correction of hygrometer calibration curve slopes seems to have been largely neglected in both psychrometric and dewpoint techniques. In the case of thermocouple psychrometers, two temperature correction models are proposed, each based on measurement of the thermojunction radius and calculation of the theoretical voltage sensitivity to changes in water potential. The first model relies on calibration at a single temperature and the second at two temperatures. Both these models were more accurate than the temperature correction models currently in use for four psychrometers calibrated over a range of temperatures (15-38°C). The model based on calibration at two temperatures is superior to that based on only one calibration. The model proposed for dewpoint hygrometers is similar to that for psychrometers. It is based on the theoretical voltage sensitivity to changes in water potential. Comparison with empirical data from three dewpoint hygrometers calibrated at four different temperatures indicates that these instruments need only be calibrated at, e.g. 25°C, if the calibration slopes are corrected for temperature. PMID:16662241
An accurate temperature correction model for thermocouple hygrometers.
Savage, M J; Cass, A; de Jager, J M
1982-02-01
Numerous water relation studies have used thermocouple hygrometers routinely. However, the accurate temperature correction of hygrometer calibration curve slopes seems to have been largely neglected in both psychrometric and dewpoint techniques.In the case of thermocouple psychrometers, two temperature correction models are proposed, each based on measurement of the thermojunction radius and calculation of the theoretical voltage sensitivity to changes in water potential. The first model relies on calibration at a single temperature and the second at two temperatures. Both these models were more accurate than the temperature correction models currently in use for four psychrometers calibrated over a range of temperatures (15-38 degrees C). The model based on calibration at two temperatures is superior to that based on only one calibration.The model proposed for dewpoint hygrometers is similar to that for psychrometers. It is based on the theoretical voltage sensitivity to changes in water potential. Comparison with empirical data from three dewpoint hygrometers calibrated at four different temperatures indicates that these instruments need only be calibrated at, e.g. 25 degrees C, if the calibration slopes are corrected for temperature. PMID:16662241
Accurate method of modeling cluster scaling relations in modified gravity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
He, Jian-hua; Li, Baojiu
2016-06-01
We propose a new method to model cluster scaling relations in modified gravity. Using a suite of nonradiative hydrodynamical simulations, we show that the scaling relations of accumulated gas quantities, such as the Sunyaev-Zel'dovich effect (Compton-y parameter) and the x-ray Compton-y parameter, can be accurately predicted using the known results in the Λ CDM model with a precision of ˜3 % . This method provides a reliable way to analyze the gas physics in modified gravity using the less demanding and much more efficient pure cold dark matter simulations. Our results therefore have important theoretical and practical implications in constraining gravity using cluster surveys.
Anisotropic Turbulence Modeling for Accurate Rod Bundle Simulations
Baglietto, Emilio
2006-07-01
An improved anisotropic eddy viscosity model has been developed for accurate predictions of the thermal hydraulic performances of nuclear reactor fuel assemblies. The proposed model adopts a non-linear formulation of the stress-strain relationship in order to include the reproduction of the anisotropic phenomena, and in combination with an optimized low-Reynolds-number formulation based on Direct Numerical Simulation (DNS) to produce correct damping of the turbulent viscosity in the near wall region. This work underlines the importance of accurate anisotropic modeling to faithfully reproduce the scale of the turbulence driven secondary flows inside the bundle subchannels, by comparison with various isothermal and heated experimental cases. The very low scale secondary motion is responsible for the increased turbulence transport which produces a noticeable homogenization of the velocity distribution and consequently of the circumferential cladding temperature distribution, which is of main interest in bundle design. Various fully developed bare bundles test cases are shown for different geometrical and flow conditions, where the proposed model shows clearly improved predictions, in close agreement with experimental findings, for regular as well as distorted geometries. Finally the applicability of the model for practical bundle calculations is evaluated through its application in the high-Reynolds form on coarse grids, with excellent results. (author)
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
2000-01-01
Dr. Marc Pusey (seated) and Dr. Craig Kundrot use computers to analyze x-ray maps and generate three-dimensional models of protein structures. With this information, scientists at Marshall Space Flight Center can learn how proteins are made and how they work. The computer screen depicts a proten structure as a ball-and-stick model. Other models depict the actual volume occupied by the atoms, or the ribbon-like structures that are crucial to a protein's function.
Accurate charge capture and cost allocation: cost justification for bedside computing.
Grewal, R.; Reed, R. L.
1993-01-01
This paper shows that cost justification for bedside clinical computing can be made by recouping charges with accurate charge capture. Twelve months worth of professional charges for a sixteen bed surgical intensive care unit are computed from charted data in a bedside clinical database and are compared to the professional charges actually billed by the unit. A substantial difference in predicted charges and billed charges was found. This paper also discusses the concept of appropriate cost allocation in the inpatient environment and the feasibility of appropriate allocation as a by-product of bedside computing. PMID:8130444
Automated Development of Accurate Algorithms and Efficient Codes for Computational Aeroacoustics
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Goodrich, John W.; Dyson, Rodger W.
1999-01-01
The simulation of sound generation and propagation in three space dimensions with realistic aircraft components is a very large time dependent computation with fine details. Simulations in open domains with embedded objects require accurate and robust algorithms for propagation, for artificial inflow and outflow boundaries, and for the definition of geometrically complex objects. The development, implementation, and validation of methods for solving these demanding problems is being done to support the NASA pillar goals for reducing aircraft noise levels. Our goal is to provide algorithms which are sufficiently accurate and efficient to produce usable results rapidly enough to allow design engineers to study the effects on sound levels of design changes in propulsion systems, and in the integration of propulsion systems with airframes. There is a lack of design tools for these purposes at this time. Our technical approach to this problem combines the development of new, algorithms with the use of Mathematica and Unix utilities to automate the algorithm development, code implementation, and validation. We use explicit methods to ensure effective implementation by domain decomposition for SPMD parallel computing. There are several orders of magnitude difference in the computational efficiencies of the algorithms which we have considered. We currently have new artificial inflow and outflow boundary conditions that are stable, accurate, and unobtrusive, with implementations that match the accuracy and efficiency of the propagation methods. The artificial numerical boundary treatments have been proven to have solutions which converge to the full open domain problems, so that the error from the boundary treatments can be driven as low as is required. The purpose of this paper is to briefly present a method for developing highly accurate algorithms for computational aeroacoustics, the use of computer automation in this process, and a brief survey of the algorithms that
Mouse models of human AML accurately predict chemotherapy response
Zuber, Johannes; Radtke, Ina; Pardee, Timothy S.; Zhao, Zhen; Rappaport, Amy R.; Luo, Weijun; McCurrach, Mila E.; Yang, Miao-Miao; Dolan, M. Eileen; Kogan, Scott C.; Downing, James R.; Lowe, Scott W.
2009-01-01
The genetic heterogeneity of cancer influences the trajectory of tumor progression and may underlie clinical variation in therapy response. To model such heterogeneity, we produced genetically and pathologically accurate mouse models of common forms of human acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and developed methods to mimic standard induction chemotherapy and efficiently monitor therapy response. We see that murine AMLs harboring two common human AML genotypes show remarkably diverse responses to conventional therapy that mirror clinical experience. Specifically, murine leukemias expressing the AML1/ETO fusion oncoprotein, associated with a favorable prognosis in patients, show a dramatic response to induction chemotherapy owing to robust activation of the p53 tumor suppressor network. Conversely, murine leukemias expressing MLL fusion proteins, associated with a dismal prognosis in patients, are drug-resistant due to an attenuated p53 response. Our studies highlight the importance of genetic information in guiding the treatment of human AML, functionally establish the p53 network as a central determinant of chemotherapy response in AML, and demonstrate that genetically engineered mouse models of human cancer can accurately predict therapy response in patients. PMID:19339691
Mouse models of human AML accurately predict chemotherapy response.
Zuber, Johannes; Radtke, Ina; Pardee, Timothy S; Zhao, Zhen; Rappaport, Amy R; Luo, Weijun; McCurrach, Mila E; Yang, Miao-Miao; Dolan, M Eileen; Kogan, Scott C; Downing, James R; Lowe, Scott W
2009-04-01
The genetic heterogeneity of cancer influences the trajectory of tumor progression and may underlie clinical variation in therapy response. To model such heterogeneity, we produced genetically and pathologically accurate mouse models of common forms of human acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and developed methods to mimic standard induction chemotherapy and efficiently monitor therapy response. We see that murine AMLs harboring two common human AML genotypes show remarkably diverse responses to conventional therapy that mirror clinical experience. Specifically, murine leukemias expressing the AML1/ETO fusion oncoprotein, associated with a favorable prognosis in patients, show a dramatic response to induction chemotherapy owing to robust activation of the p53 tumor suppressor network. Conversely, murine leukemias expressing MLL fusion proteins, associated with a dismal prognosis in patients, are drug-resistant due to an attenuated p53 response. Our studies highlight the importance of genetic information in guiding the treatment of human AML, functionally establish the p53 network as a central determinant of chemotherapy response in AML, and demonstrate that genetically engineered mouse models of human cancer can accurately predict therapy response in patients. PMID:19339691
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Farah, A.
The Ionospheric delay is still one of the largest sources of error that affects the positioning accuracy of any satellite positioning system. This problem could be solved due to the dispersive nature of the Ionosphere by combining simultaneous measurements of signals at two different frequencies but it is still there for single- frequency users. Much effort has been made in establishing models for single- frequency users to make this effect as small as possible. These models vary in accuracy, input data and computational complexity, so the choice between the different models depends on the individual circumstances of the user. From the simulation point of view, the model needed should be accurate with a global coverage and good description to the Ionosphere's variable nature with both time and location. The author reviews some of these established models, starting with the BENT model, the Klobuchar model and the IRI (International Reference Ionosphere) model. Since quiet a long time, Klobuchar model considers the most widely used model ever in this field, due to its simplicity and time saving. Any GPS user could find Klobuchar model's coefficients in the broadcast navigation message. CODE, Centre for Orbit Determination in Europe provides a new set of coefficients for Klobuchar model, which gives more accurate results for the Ionospheric delay computation. IGS (International GPS Service) services include providing GPS community with a global Ionospheric maps in IONEX-format (IONosphere Map Exchange format) which enables the computation of the Ionospheric delay at the desired location and time. The study was undertaken from GPS-data simulation point of view. The aim was to select a model for the simulation of GPS data that gives a good description of the Ionosphere's nature with a high degree of accuracy in computing the Ionospheric delay that yields to better-simulated data. A new model developed by the author based on IGS global Ionospheric maps. A comparison
Accurate computation and interpretation of spin-dependent properties in metalloproteins
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rodriguez, Jorge
2006-03-01
Nature uses the properties of open-shell transition metal ions to carry out a variety of functions associated with vital life processes. Mononuclear and binuclear iron centers, in particular, are intriguing structural motifs present in many heme and non-heme proteins. Hemerythrin and methane monooxigenase, for example, are members of the latter class whose diiron active sites display magnetic ordering. We have developed a computational protocol based on spin density functional theory (SDFT) to accurately predict physico-chemical parameters of metal sites in proteins and bioinorganic complexes which traditionally had only been determined from experiment. We have used this new methodology to perform a comprehensive study of the electronic structure and magnetic properties of heme and non-heme iron proteins and related model compounds. We have been able to predict with a high degree of accuracy spectroscopic (Mössbauer, EPR, UV-vis, Raman) and magnetization parameters of iron proteins and, at the same time, gained unprecedented microscopic understanding of their physico-chemical properties. Our results have allowed us to establish important correlations between the electronic structure, geometry, spectroscopic data, and biochemical function of heme and non- heme iron proteins.
Aeroacoustic Flow Phenomena Accurately Captured by New Computational Fluid Dynamics Method
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Blech, Richard A.
2002-01-01
One of the challenges in the computational fluid dynamics area is the accurate calculation of aeroacoustic phenomena, especially in the presence of shock waves. One such phenomenon is "transonic resonance," where an unsteady shock wave at the throat of a convergent-divergent nozzle results in the emission of acoustic tones. The space-time Conservation-Element and Solution-Element (CE/SE) method developed at the NASA Glenn Research Center can faithfully capture the shock waves, their unsteady motion, and the generated acoustic tones. The CE/SE method is a revolutionary new approach to the numerical modeling of physical phenomena where features with steep gradients (e.g., shock waves, phase transition, etc.) must coexist with those having weaker variations. The CE/SE method does not require the complex interpolation procedures (that allow for the possibility of a shock between grid cells) used by many other methods to transfer information between grid cells. These interpolation procedures can add too much numerical dissipation to the solution process. Thus, while shocks are resolved, weaker waves, such as acoustic waves, are washed out.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rumple, Christopher; Krane, Michael; Richter, Joseph; Craven, Brent
2013-11-01
The mammalian nose is a multi-purpose organ that houses a convoluted airway labyrinth responsible for respiratory air conditioning, filtering of environmental contaminants, and chemical sensing. Because of the complexity of the nasal cavity, the anatomy and function of these upper airways remain poorly understood in most mammals. However, recent advances in high-resolution medical imaging, computational modeling, and experimental flow measurement techniques are now permitting the study of respiratory airflow and olfactory transport phenomena in anatomically-accurate reconstructions of the nasal cavity. Here, we focus on efforts to manufacture an anatomically-accurate transparent model for stereoscopic particle image velocimetry (SPIV) measurements. Challenges in the design and manufacture of an index-matched anatomical model are addressed. PIV measurements are presented, which are used to validate concurrent computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations of mammalian nasal airflow. Supported by the National Science Foundation.
A Unified Methodology for Computing Accurate Quaternion Color Moments and Moment Invariants.
Karakasis, Evangelos G; Papakostas, George A; Koulouriotis, Dimitrios E; Tourassis, Vassilios D
2014-02-01
In this paper, a general framework for computing accurate quaternion color moments and their corresponding invariants is proposed. The proposed unified scheme arose by studying the characteristics of different orthogonal polynomials. These polynomials are used as kernels in order to form moments, the invariants of which can easily be derived. The resulted scheme permits the usage of any polynomial-like kernel in a unified and consistent way. The resulted moments and moment invariants demonstrate robustness to noisy conditions and high discriminative power. Additionally, in the case of continuous moments, accurate computations take place to avoid approximation errors. Based on this general methodology, the quaternion Tchebichef, Krawtchouk, Dual Hahn, Legendre, orthogonal Fourier-Mellin, pseudo Zernike and Zernike color moments, and their corresponding invariants are introduced. A selected paradigm presents the reconstruction capability of each moment family, whereas proper classification scenarios evaluate the performance of color moment invariants. PMID:24216719
Computer Modeling and Simulation
Pronskikh, V. S.
2014-05-09
Verification and validation of computer codes and models used in simulation are two aspects of the scientific practice of high importance and have recently been discussed by philosophers of science. While verification is predominantly associated with the correctness of the way a model is represented by a computer code or algorithm, validation more often refers to model’s relation to the real world and its intended use. It has been argued that because complex simulations are generally not transparent to a practitioner, the Duhem problem can arise for verification and validation due to their entanglement; such an entanglement makes it impossible to distinguish whether a coding error or model’s general inadequacy to its target should be blamed in the case of the model failure. I argue that in order to disentangle verification and validation, a clear distinction between computer modeling (construction of mathematical computer models of elementary processes) and simulation (construction of models of composite objects and processes by means of numerical experimenting with them) needs to be made. Holding on to that distinction, I propose to relate verification (based on theoretical strategies such as inferences) to modeling and validation, which shares the common epistemology with experimentation, to simulation. To explain reasons of their intermittent entanglement I propose a weberian ideal-typical model of modeling and simulation as roles in practice. I suggest an approach to alleviate the Duhem problem for verification and validation generally applicable in practice and based on differences in epistemic strategies and scopes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Grandi, C.; Bonacorsi, D.; Colling, D.; Fisk, I.; Girone, M.
2014-06-01
The CMS Computing Model was developed and documented in 2004. Since then the model has evolved to be more flexible and to take advantage of new techniques, but many of the original concepts remain and are in active use. In this presentation we will discuss the changes planned for the restart of the LHC program in 2015. We will discuss the changes planning in the use and definition of the computing tiers that were defined with the MONARC project. We will present how we intend to use new services and infrastructure to provide more efficient and transparent access to the data. We will discuss the computing plans to make better use of the computing capacity by scheduling more of the processor nodes, making better use of the disk storage, and more intelligent use of the networking.
Computationally modeling interpersonal trust
Lee, Jin Joo; Knox, W. Bradley; Wormwood, Jolie B.; Breazeal, Cynthia; DeSteno, David
2013-01-01
We present a computational model capable of predicting—above human accuracy—the degree of trust a person has toward their novel partner by observing the trust-related nonverbal cues expressed in their social interaction. We summarize our prior work, in which we identify nonverbal cues that signal untrustworthy behavior and also demonstrate the human mind's readiness to interpret those cues to assess the trustworthiness of a social robot. We demonstrate that domain knowledge gained from our prior work using human-subjects experiments, when incorporated into the feature engineering process, permits a computational model to outperform both human predictions and a baseline model built in naiveté of this domain knowledge. We then present the construction of hidden Markov models to investigate temporal relationships among the trust-related nonverbal cues. By interpreting the resulting learned structure, we observe that models built to emulate different levels of trust exhibit different sequences of nonverbal cues. From this observation, we derived sequence-based temporal features that further improve the accuracy of our computational model. Our multi-step research process presented in this paper combines the strength of experimental manipulation and machine learning to not only design a computational trust model but also to further our understanding of the dynamics of interpersonal trust. PMID:24363649
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Goodwin, Sabine A.; Raj, P.
1999-01-01
Progress to date towards the development and validation of a fast, accurate and cost-effective aeroelastic method for advanced parallel computing platforms such as the IBM SP2 and the SGI Origin 2000 is presented in this paper. The ENSAERO code, developed at the NASA-Ames Research Center has been selected for this effort. The code allows for the computation of aeroelastic responses by simultaneously integrating the Euler or Navier-Stokes equations and the modal structural equations of motion. To assess the computational performance and accuracy of the ENSAERO code, this paper reports the results of the Navier-Stokes simulations of the transonic flow over a flexible aeroelastic wing body configuration. In addition, a forced harmonic oscillation analysis in the frequency domain and an analysis in the time domain are done on a wing undergoing a rigid pitch and plunge motion. Finally, to demonstrate the ENSAERO flutter-analysis capability, aeroelastic Euler and Navier-Stokes computations on an L-1011 wind tunnel model including pylon, nacelle and empennage are underway. All computational solutions are compared with experimental data to assess the level of accuracy of ENSAERO. As the computations described above are performed, a meticulous log of computational performance in terms of wall clock time, execution speed, memory and disk storage is kept. Code scalability is also demonstrated by studying the impact of varying the number of processors on computational performance on the IBM SP2 and the Origin 2000 systems.
Inverter Modeling For Accurate Energy Predictions Of Tracking HCPV Installations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bowman, J.; Jensen, S.; McDonald, Mark
2010-10-01
High efficiency high concentration photovoltaic (HCPV) solar plants of megawatt scale are now operational, and opportunities for expanded adoption are plentiful. However, effective bidding for sites requires reliable prediction of energy production. HCPV module nameplate power is rated for specific test conditions; however, instantaneous HCPV power varies due to site specific irradiance and operating temperature, and is degraded by soiling, protective stowing, shading, and electrical connectivity. These factors interact with the selection of equipment typically supplied by third parties, e.g., wire gauge and inverters. We describe a time sequence model accurately accounting for these effects that predicts annual energy production, with specific reference to the impact of the inverter on energy output and interactions between system-level design decisions and the inverter. We will also show two examples, based on an actual field design, of inverter efficiency calculations and the interaction between string arrangements and inverter selection.
Accurate, low-cost 3D-models of gullies
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Onnen, Nils; Gronz, Oliver; Ries, Johannes B.; Brings, Christine
2015-04-01
Soil erosion is a widespread problem in arid and semi-arid areas. The most severe form is the gully erosion. They often cut into agricultural farmland and can make a certain area completely unproductive. To understand the development and processes inside and around gullies, we calculated detailed 3D-models of gullies in the Souss Valley in South Morocco. Near Taroudant, we had four study areas with five gullies different in size, volume and activity. By using a Canon HF G30 Camcorder, we made varying series of Full HD videos with 25fps. Afterwards, we used the method Structure from Motion (SfM) to create the models. To generate accurate models maintaining feasible runtimes, it is necessary to select around 1500-1700 images from the video, while the overlap of neighboring images should be at least 80%. In addition, it is very important to avoid selecting photos that are blurry or out of focus. Nearby pixels of a blurry image tend to have similar color values. That is why we used a MATLAB script to compare the derivatives of the images. The higher the sum of the derivative, the sharper an image of similar objects. MATLAB subdivides the video into image intervals. From each interval, the image with the highest sum is selected. E.g.: 20min. video at 25fps equals 30.000 single images. The program now inspects the first 20 images, saves the sharpest and moves on to the next 20 images etc. Using this algorithm, we selected 1500 images for our modeling. With VisualSFM, we calculated features and the matches between all images and produced a point cloud. Then, MeshLab has been used to build a surface out of it using the Poisson surface reconstruction approach. Afterwards we are able to calculate the size and the volume of the gullies. It is also possible to determine soil erosion rates, if we compare the data with old recordings. The final step would be the combination of the terrestrial data with the data from our aerial photography. So far, the method works well and we
Time accurate application of the MacCormack 2-4 scheme on massively parallel computers
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hudson, Dale A.; Long, Lyle N.
1995-01-01
Many recent computational efforts in turbulence and acoustics research have used higher order numerical algorithms. One popular method has been the explicit MacCormack 2-4 scheme. The MacCormack 2-4 scheme is second order accurate in time and fourth order accurate in space, and is stable for CFL's below 2/3. Current research has shown that the method can give accurate results but does exhibit significant Gibbs phenomena at sharp discontinuities. The impact of adding Jameson type second, third, and fourth order artificial viscosity was examined here. Category 2 problems, the nonlinear traveling wave and the Riemann problem, were computed using a CFL number of 0.25. This research has found that dispersion errors can be significantly reduced or nearly eliminated by using a combination of second and third order terms in the damping. Use of second and fourth order terms reduced the magnitude of dispersion errors but not as effectively as the second and third order combination. The program was coded using Thinking Machine's CM Fortran, a variant of Fortran 90/High Performance Fortran, and was executed on a 2K CM-200. Simple extrapolation boundary conditions were used for both problems.
Palm computer demonstrates a fast and accurate means of burn data collection.
Lal, S O; Smith, F W; Davis, J P; Castro, H Y; Smith, D W; Chinkes, D L; Barrow, R E
2000-01-01
Manual biomedical data collection and entry of the data into a personal computer is time-consuming and can be prone to errors. The purpose of this study was to compare data entry into a hand-held computer versus hand written data followed by entry of the data into a personal computer. A Palm (3Com Palm IIIx, Santa, Clara, Calif) computer with a custom menu-driven program was used for the entry and retrieval of burn-related variables. These variables were also used to create an identical sheet that was filled in by hand. Identical data were retrieved twice from 110 charts 48 hours apart and then used to create an Excel (Microsoft, Redmond, Wash) spreadsheet. One time data were recorded by the Palm entry method, and the other time the data were handwritten. The method of retrieval was alternated between the Palm system and handwritten system every 10 charts. The total time required to log data and to generate an Excel spreadsheet was recorded and used as a study endpoint. The total time for the Palm method of data collection and downloading to a personal computer was 23% faster than hand recording with the personal computer entry method (P < 0.05), and 58% fewer errors were generated with the Palm method.) The Palm is a faster and more accurate means of data collection than a handwritten technique. PMID:11194811
Computational models of planning.
Geffner, Hector
2013-07-01
The selection of the action to do next is one of the central problems faced by autonomous agents. Natural and artificial systems address this problem in various ways: action responses can be hardwired, they can be learned, or they can be computed from a model of the situation, the actions, and the goals. Planning is the model-based approach to action selection and a fundamental ingredient of intelligent behavior in both humans and machines. Planning, however, is computationally hard as the consideration of all possible courses of action is not computationally feasible. The problem has been addressed by research in Artificial Intelligence that in recent years has uncovered simple but powerful computational principles that make planning feasible. The principles take the form of domain-independent methods for computing heuristics or appraisals that enable the effective generation of goal-directed behavior even over huge spaces. In this paper, we look at several planning models, at methods that have been shown to scale up to large problems, and at what these methods may suggest about the human mind. WIREs Cogn Sci 2013, 4:341-356. doi: 10.1002/wcs.1233 The authors have declared no conflicts of interest for this article. For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website. PMID:26304223
Erguel, Ozguer; Guerel, Levent
2008-12-01
We present a novel stabilization procedure for accurate surface formulations of electromagnetic scattering problems involving three-dimensional dielectric objects with arbitrarily low contrasts. Conventional surface integral equations provide inaccurate results for the scattered fields when the contrast of the object is low, i.e., when the electromagnetic material parameters of the scatterer and the host medium are close to each other. We propose a stabilization procedure involving the extraction of nonradiating currents and rearrangement of the right-hand side of the equations using fictitious incident fields. Then, only the radiating currents are solved to calculate the scattered fields accurately. This technique can easily be applied to the existing implementations of conventional formulations, it requires negligible extra computational cost, and it is also appropriate for the solution of large problems with the multilevel fast multipole algorithm. We show that the stabilization leads to robust formulations that are valid even for the solutions of extremely low-contrast objects.
An accurate quadrature technique for the contact boundary in 3D finite element computations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Duong, Thang X.; Sauer, Roger A.
2015-01-01
This paper presents a new numerical integration technique for 3D contact finite element implementations, focusing on a remedy for the inaccurate integration due to discontinuities at the boundary of contact surfaces. The method is based on the adaptive refinement of the integration domain along the boundary of the contact surface, and is accordingly denoted RBQ for refined boundary quadrature. It can be used for common element types of any order, e.g. Lagrange, NURBS, or T-Spline elements. In terms of both computational speed and accuracy, RBQ exhibits great advantages over a naive increase of the number of quadrature points. Also, the RBQ method is shown to remain accurate for large deformations. Furthermore, since the sharp boundary of the contact surface is determined, it can be used for various purposes like the accurate post-processing of the contact pressure. Several examples are presented to illustrate the new technique.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Peng, Liang-You; Gong, Qihuang
2010-12-01
The accurate computations of hydrogenic continuum wave functions are very important in many branches of physics such as electron-atom collisions, cold atom physics, and atomic ionization in strong laser fields, etc. Although there already exist various algorithms and codes, most of them are only reliable in a certain ranges of parameters. In some practical applications, accurate continuum wave functions need to be calculated at extremely low energies, large radial distances and/or large angular momentum number. Here we provide such a code, which can generate accurate hydrogenic continuum wave functions and corresponding Coulomb phase shifts at a wide range of parameters. Without any essential restrict to angular momentum number, the present code is able to give reliable results at the electron energy range [10,10] eV for radial distances of [10,10] a.u. We also find the present code is very efficient, which should find numerous applications in many fields such as strong field physics. Program summaryProgram title: HContinuumGautchi Catalogue identifier: AEHD_v1_0 Program summary URL:http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/AEHD_v1_0.html Program obtainable from: CPC Program Library, Queen's University, Belfast, N. Ireland Licensing provisions: Standard CPC licence, http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/licence/licence.html No. of lines in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 1233 No. of bytes in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 7405 Distribution format: tar.gz Programming language: Fortran90 in fixed format Computer: AMD Processors Operating system: Linux RAM: 20 MBytes Classification: 2.7, 4.5 Nature of problem: The accurate computation of atomic continuum wave functions is very important in many research fields such as strong field physics and cold atom physics. Although there have already existed various algorithms and codes, most of them can only be applicable and reliable in a certain range of parameters. We present here an accurate FORTRAN program for
Towards fast and accurate algorithms for processing fuzzy data: interval computations revisited
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Xiang, Gang; Kreinovich, Vladik
2013-02-01
In many practical applications, we need to process data, e.g. to predict the future values of different quantities based on their current values. Often, the only information that we have about the current values comes from experts, and is described in informal ('fuzzy') terms like 'small'. To process such data, it is natural to use fuzzy techniques, techniques specifically designed by Lotfi Zadeh to handle such informal information. In this survey, we start by revisiting the motivation behind Zadeh's formulae for processing fuzzy data, and explain how the algorithmic problem of processing fuzzy data can be described in terms of interval computations (α-cuts). Many fuzzy practitioners claim 'I tried interval computations, they did not work' - meaning that they got estimates which are much wider than the desired α-cuts. We show that such statements are usually based on a (widely spread) misunderstanding - that interval computations simply mean replacing each arithmetic operation with the corresponding operation with intervals. We show that while such straightforward interval techniques indeed often lead to over-wide estimates, the current advanced interval computations techniques result in estimates which are much more accurate. We overview such advanced interval computations techniques, and show that by using them, we can efficiently and accurately process fuzzy data. We wrote this survey with three audiences in mind. First, we want fuzzy researchers and practitioners to understand the current advanced interval computations techniques and to use them to come up with faster and more accurate algorithms for processing fuzzy data. For this 'fuzzy' audience, we explain these current techniques in detail. Second, we also want interval researchers to better understand this important application area for their techniques. For this 'interval' audience, we want to explain where fuzzy techniques come from, what are possible variants of these techniques, and what are the
Chung, S.; McGill, M.; Preece, D.S.
1994-12-31
Cast blasting can be designed to utilize explosive energy effectively and economically for coal mining operations to remove overburden material. This paper compares two blast models known as DMC (Distinct Motion Code) and SABREX (Scientific Approach to Breaking Rock with Explosives). DMC applies discrete spherical elements interacted with the flow of explosive gases and the explicit time integration to track particle motion resulting from a blast. The input to this model includes multi-layer rock properties, and both loading geometry and explosives equation-of-state parameters. It enables the user to have a wide range of control over drill pattern and explosive loading design parameters. SABREX assumes that heave process is controlled by the explosive gases which determines the velocity and time of initial movement of blocks within the burden, and then tracks the motion of the blocks until they come to a rest. In order to reduce computing time, the in-flight collisions of blocks are not considered and the motion of the first row is made to limit the motion of subsequent rows. Although modelling a blast is a complex task, the advance in computer technology has increased the computing power of small work stations as well as PC (personal computers) to permit a much shorter turn-around time for complex computations. The DMC can perform a blast simulation in 0.5 hours on the SUN SPARC station 10-41 while the new SABREX 3.5 produces results of a cast blast in ten seconds on a 486-PC. Predicted percentage of cast and face velocities from both computer codes compare well with the measured results from a full scale cast blast.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Tamma, Kumar K.; Railkar, Sudhir B.
1988-01-01
This paper represents an attempt to apply extensions of a hybrid transfinite element computational approach for accurately predicting thermoelastic stress waves. The applicability of the present formulations for capturing the thermal stress waves induced by boundary heating for the well known Danilovskaya problems is demonstrated. A unique feature of the proposed formulations for applicability to the Danilovskaya problem of thermal stress waves in elastic solids lies in the hybrid nature of the unified formulations and the development of special purpose transfinite elements in conjunction with the classical Galerkin techniques and transformation concepts. Numerical test cases validate the applicability and superior capability to capture the thermal stress waves induced due to boundary heating.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hrubý, Jan
2012-04-01
Mathematical modeling of the non-equilibrium condensing transonic steam flow in the complex 3D geometry of a steam turbine is a demanding problem both concerning the physical concepts and the required computational power. Available accurate formulations of steam properties IAPWS-95 and IAPWS-IF97 require much computation time. For this reason, the modelers often accept the unrealistic ideal-gas behavior. Here we present a computation scheme based on a piecewise, thermodynamically consistent representation of the IAPWS-95 formulation. Density and internal energy are chosen as independent variables to avoid variable transformations and iterations. On the contrary to the previous Tabular Taylor Series Expansion Method, the pressure and temperature are continuous functions of the independent variables, which is a desirable property for the solution of the differential equations of the mass, energy, and momentum conservation for both phases.
Computer Modeling Of Atomization
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Giridharan, M.; Ibrahim, E.; Przekwas, A.; Cheuch, S.; Krishnan, A.; Yang, H.; Lee, J.
1994-01-01
Improved mathematical models based on fundamental principles of conservation of mass, energy, and momentum developed for use in computer simulation of atomization of jets of liquid fuel in rocket engines. Models also used to study atomization in terrestrial applications; prove especially useful in designing improved industrial sprays - humidifier water sprays, chemical process sprays, and sprays of molten metal. Because present improved mathematical models based on first principles, they are minimally dependent on empirical correlations and better able to represent hot-flow conditions that prevail in rocket engines and are too severe to be accessible for detailed experimentation.
Accurate, efficient, and (iso)geometrically flexible collocation methods for phase-field models
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gomez, Hector; Reali, Alessandro; Sangalli, Giancarlo
2014-04-01
We propose new collocation methods for phase-field models. Our algorithms are based on isogeometric analysis, a new technology that makes use of functions from computational geometry, such as, for example, Non-Uniform Rational B-Splines (NURBS). NURBS exhibit excellent approximability and controllable global smoothness, and can represent exactly most geometries encapsulated in Computer Aided Design (CAD) models. These attributes permitted us to derive accurate, efficient, and geometrically flexible collocation methods for phase-field models. The performance of our method is demonstrated by several numerical examples of phase separation modeled by the Cahn-Hilliard equation. We feel that our method successfully combines the geometrical flexibility of finite elements with the accuracy and simplicity of pseudo-spectral collocation methods, and is a viable alternative to classical collocation methods.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Maloney, James G.; Smith, Glenn S.; Scott, Waymond R., Jr.
1990-07-01
Two antennas are considered, a cylindrical monopole and a conical monopole. Both are driven through an image plane from a coaxial transmission line. Each of these antennas corresponds to a well-posed theoretical electromagnetic boundary value problem and a realizable experimental model. These antennas are analyzed by a straightforward application of the time-domain finite-difference method. The computed results for these antennas are shown to be in excellent agreement with accurate experimental measurements for both the time domain and the frequency domain. The graphical displays presented for the transient near-zone and far-zone radiation from these antennas provide physical insight into the radiation process.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mehmani, Yashar; Oostrom, Mart; Balhoff, Matthew T.
2014-03-01
Several approaches have been developed in the literature for solving flow and transport at the pore scale. Some authors use a direct modeling approach where the fundamental flow and transport equations are solved on the actual pore-space geometry. Such direct modeling, while very accurate, comes at a great computational cost. Network models are computationally more efficient because the pore-space morphology is approximated. Typically, a mixed cell method (MCM) is employed for solving the flow and transport system which assumes pore-level perfect mixing. This assumption is invalid at moderate to high Peclet regimes. In this work, a novel Eulerian perspective on modeling flow and transport at the pore scale is developed. The new streamline splitting method (SSM) allows for circumventing the pore-level perfect-mixing assumption, while maintaining the computational efficiency of pore-network models. SSM was verified with direct simulations and validated against micromodel experiments; excellent matches were obtained across a wide range of pore-structure and fluid-flow parameters. The increase in the computational cost from MCM to SSM is shown to be minimal, while the accuracy of SSM is much higher than that of MCM and comparable to direct modeling approaches. Therefore, SSM can be regarded as an appropriate balance between incorporating detailed physics and controlling computational cost. The truly predictive capability of the model allows for the study of pore-level interactions of fluid flow and transport in different porous materials. In this paper, we apply SSM and MCM to study the effects of pore-level mixing on transverse dispersion in 3-D disordered granular media.
Mehmani, Yashar; Oostrom, Martinus; Balhoff, Matthew
2014-03-20
Several approaches have been developed in the literature for solving flow and transport at the pore-scale. Some authors use a direct modeling approach where the fundamental flow and transport equations are solved on the actual pore-space geometry. Such direct modeling, while very accurate, comes at a great computational cost. Network models are computationally more efficient because the pore-space morphology is approximated. Typically, a mixed cell method (MCM) is employed for solving the flow and transport system which assumes pore-level perfect mixing. This assumption is invalid at moderate to high Peclet regimes. In this work, a novel Eulerian perspective on modeling flow and transport at the pore-scale is developed. The new streamline splitting method (SSM) allows for circumventing the pore-level perfect mixing assumption, while maintaining the computational efficiency of pore-network models. SSM was verified with direct simulations and excellent matches were obtained against micromodel experiments across a wide range of pore-structure and fluid-flow parameters. The increase in the computational cost from MCM to SSM is shown to be minimal, while the accuracy of SSM is much higher than that of MCM and comparable to direct modeling approaches. Therefore, SSM can be regarded as an appropriate balance between incorporating detailed physics and controlling computational cost. The truly predictive capability of the model allows for the study of pore-level interactions of fluid flow and transport in different porous materials. In this paper, we apply SSM and MCM to study the effects of pore-level mixing on transverse dispersion in 3D disordered granular media.
A fourth order accurate finite difference scheme for the computation of elastic waves
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Bayliss, A.; Jordan, K. E.; Lemesurier, B. J.; Turkel, E.
1986-01-01
A finite difference for elastic waves is introduced. The model is based on the first order system of equations for the velocities and stresses. The differencing is fourth order accurate on the spatial derivatives and second order accurate in time. The model is tested on a series of examples including the Lamb problem, scattering from plane interf aces and scattering from a fluid-elastic interface. The scheme is shown to be effective for these problems. The accuracy and stability is insensitive to the Poisson ratio. For the class of problems considered here it is found that the fourth order scheme requires for two-thirds to one-half the resolution of a typical second order scheme to give comparable accuracy.
Computer modelling of minerals
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Catlow, C. R. A.; Parker, S. C.
We review briefly the methodology and achievements of computer simulation techniques in modelling structural and defect properties of inorganic solids. Special attention is paid to the role of interatomic potentials in such studies. We discuss the extension of the techniques to the modelling of minerals, and describe recent results on the study of structural properties of silicates. In a paper of this length, it is not possible to give a comprehensive survey of this field. We shall concentrate on the recent work of our own group. The reader should consult Tossell (1977), Gibbs (1982), and Busing (1970) for examples of other computational studies of inorganic solids. The techniques we discuss are all based on the principle of energy minimization. Simpler, "bridge-buildingrdquo procedures, based on known bond-lengths, of which distance least squares (DLS) techniques are the best known are discussed, for example, in Dempsey and Strens (1974).
Understanding student computational thinking with computational modeling
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Aiken, John M.; Caballero, Marcos D.; Douglas, Scott S.; Burk, John B.; Scanlon, Erin M.; Thoms, Brian D.; Schatz, Michael F.
2013-01-01
Recently, the National Research Council's framework for next generation science standards highlighted "computational thinking" as one of its "fundamental practices". 9th Grade students taking a physics course that employed the Arizona State University's Modeling Instruction curriculum were taught to construct computational models of physical systems. Student computational thinking was assessed using a proctored programming assignment, written essay, and a series of think-aloud interviews, where the students produced and discussed a computational model of a baseball in motion via a high-level programming environment (VPython). Roughly a third of the students in the study were successful in completing the programming assignment. Student success on this assessment was tied to how students synthesized their knowledge of physics and computation. On the essay and interview assessments, students displayed unique views of the relationship between force and motion; those who spoke of this relationship in causal (rather than observational) terms tended to have more success in the programming exercise.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Green, Terry J.
1988-01-01
A Polymer Molecular Analysis Display System (p-MADS) was developed for computer modeling of polymers. This method of modeling allows for the theoretical calculation of molecular properties such as equilibrium geometries, conformational energies, heats of formations, crystal packing arrangements, and other properties. Furthermore, p-MADS has the following capabilities: constructing molecules from internal coordinates (bonds length, angles, and dihedral angles), Cartesian coordinates (such as X-ray structures), or from stick drawings; manipulating molecules using graphics and making hard copy representation of the molecules on a graphics printer; and performing geometry optimization calculations on molecules using the methods of molecular mechanics or molecular orbital theory.
A simplified approach to characterizing a kilovoltage source spectrum for accurate dose computation
Poirier, Yannick; Kouznetsov, Alexei; Tambasco, Mauro
2012-06-15
% for the homogeneous and heterogeneous block phantoms, and agreement for the transverse dose profiles was within 6%. Conclusions: The HVL and kVp are sufficient for characterizing a kV x-ray source spectrum for accurate dose computation. As these parameters can be easily and accurately measured, they provide for a clinically feasible approach to characterizing a kV energy spectrum to be used for patient specific x-ray dose computations. Furthermore, these results provide experimental validation of our novel hybrid dose computation algorithm.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Blackman, Jonathan; Field, Scott E.; Galley, Chad R.; Szilágyi, Béla; Scheel, Mark A.; Tiglio, Manuel; Hemberger, Daniel A.
2015-09-01
Simulating a binary black hole coalescence by solving Einstein's equations is computationally expensive, requiring days to months of supercomputing time. Using reduced order modeling techniques, we construct an accurate surrogate model, which is evaluated in a millisecond to a second, for numerical relativity (NR) waveforms from nonspinning binary black hole coalescences with mass ratios in [1, 10] and durations corresponding to about 15 orbits before merger. We assess the model's uncertainty and show that our modeling strategy predicts NR waveforms not used for the surrogate's training with errors nearly as small as the numerical error of the NR code. Our model includes all spherical-harmonic -2Yℓm waveform modes resolved by the NR code up to ℓ=8 . We compare our surrogate model to effective one body waveforms from 50 M⊙ to 300 M⊙ for advanced LIGO detectors and find that the surrogate is always more faithful (by at least an order of magnitude in most cases).
Optical computed tomography of radiochromic gels for accurate three-dimensional dosimetry
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Babic, Steven
In this thesis, three-dimensional (3-D) radiochromic Ferrous Xylenol-orange (FX) and Leuco Crystal Violet (LCV) micelles gels were imaged by laser and cone-beam (Vista(TM)) optical computed tomography (CT) scanners. The objective was to develop optical CT of radiochromic gels for accurate 3-D dosimetry of intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) and small field techniques used in modern radiotherapy. First, the cause of a threshold dose response in FX gel dosimeters when scanned with a yellow light source was determined. This effect stems from a spectral sensitivity to multiple chemical complexes that are at different dose levels between ferric ions and xylenol-orange. To negate the threshold dose, an initial concentration of ferric ions is needed in order to shift the chemical equilibrium so that additional dose results in a linear production of a coloured complex that preferentially absorbs at longer wavelengths. Second, a low diffusion leuco-based radiochromic gel consisting of Triton X-100 micelles was developed. The diffusion coefficient of the LCV micelle gel was found to be minimal (0.036 + 0.001 mm2 hr-1 ). Although a dosimetric characterization revealed a reduced sensitivity to radiation, this was offset by a lower auto-oxidation rate and base optical density, higher melting point and no spectral sensitivity. Third, the Radiological Physics Centre (RPC) head-and-neck IMRT protocol was extended to 3-D dose verification using laser and cone-beam (Vista(TM)) optical CT scans of FX gels. Both optical systems yielded comparable measured dose distributions in high-dose regions and low gradients. The FX gel dosimetry results were crossed checked against independent thermoluminescent dosimeter and GAFChromicRTM EBT film measurements made by the RPC. It was shown that optical CT scanned FX gels can be used for accurate IMRT dose verification in 3-D. Finally, corrections for FX gel diffusion and scattered stray light in the Vista(TM) scanner were developed to
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Broderick, Daniel
2010-01-01
A computational model calculates the excitation of water rotational levels and emission-line spectra in a cometary coma with applications for the Micro-wave Instrument for Rosetta Orbiter (MIRO). MIRO is a millimeter-submillimeter spectrometer that will be used to study the nature of cometary nuclei, the physical processes of outgassing, and the formation of the head region of a comet (coma). The computational model is a means to interpret the data measured by MIRO. The model is based on the accelerated Monte Carlo method, which performs a random angular, spatial, and frequency sampling of the radiation field to calculate the local average intensity of the field. With the model, the water rotational level populations in the cometary coma and the line profiles for the emission from the water molecules as a function of cometary parameters (such as outgassing rate, gas temperature, and gas and electron density) and observation parameters (such as distance to the comet and beam width) are calculated.
Chavanon, O; Barbe, C; Troccaz, J; Carrat, L; Ribuot, C; Noirclerc, M; Maitrasse, B; Blin, D
1999-06-01
In the field of percutaneous access to soft tissues, our project was to improve classical pericardiocentesis by performing accurate guidance to a selected target, according to a model of the pericardial effusion acquired through three-dimensional (3D) data recording. Required hardware is an echocardiographic device and a needle, both linked to a 3D localizer, and a computer. After acquiring echographic data, a modeling procedure allows definition of the optimal puncture strategy, taking into consideration the mobility of the heart, by determining a stable region, whatever the period of the cardiac cycle. A passive guidance system is then used to reach the planned target accurately, generally a site in the middle of the stable region. After validation on a dynamic phantom and a feasibility study in dogs, an accuracy and reliability analysis protocol was realized on pigs with experimental pericardial effusion. Ten consecutive successful punctures using various trajectories were performed on eight pigs. Nonbloody liquid was collected from pericardial effusions in the stable region (5 to 9 mm wide) within 10 to 15 minutes from echographic acquisition to drainage. Accuracy of at least 2.5 mm was demonstrated. This study demonstrates the feasibility of computer-assisted pericardiocentesis. Beyond the simple improvement of the current technique, this method could be a new way to reach the heart or a new tool for percutaneous access and image-guided puncture of soft tissues. Further investigation will be necessary before routine human application. PMID:10414543
Computer modeling of photodegradation
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Guillet, J.
1986-01-01
A computer program to simulate the photodegradation of materials exposed to terrestrial weathering environments is being developed. Input parameters would include the solar spectrum, the daily levels and variations of temperature and relative humidity, and materials such as EVA. A brief description of the program, its operating principles, and how it works was initially described. After that, the presentation focuses on the recent work of simulating aging in a normal, terrestrial day-night cycle. This is significant, as almost all accelerated aging schemes maintain a constant light illumination without a dark cycle, and this may be a critical factor not included in acceleration aging schemes. For outdoor aging, the computer model is indicating that the night dark cycle has a dramatic influence on the chemistry of photothermal degradation, and hints that a dark cycle may be needed in an accelerated aging scheme.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kopper, Claudio; Antares Collaboration
2013-10-01
Completed in 2008, Antares is now the largest water Cherenkov neutrino telescope in the Northern Hemisphere. Its main goal is to detect neutrinos from galactic and extra-galactic sources. Due to the high background rate of atmospheric muons and the high level of bioluminescence, several on-line and off-line filtering algorithms have to be applied to the raw data taken by the instrument. To be able to handle this data stream, a dedicated computing infrastructure has been set up. The paper covers the main aspects of the current official Antares computing model. This includes an overview of on-line and off-line data handling and storage. In addition, the current usage of the “IceTray” software framework for Antares data processing is highlighted. Finally, an overview of the data storage formats used for high-level analysis is given.
Development of modified cable models to simulate accurate neuronal active behaviors
2014-01-01
In large network and single three-dimensional (3-D) neuron simulations, high computing speed dictates using reduced cable models to simulate neuronal firing behaviors. However, these models are unwarranted under active conditions and lack accurate representation of dendritic active conductances that greatly shape neuronal firing. Here, realistic 3-D (R3D) models (which contain full anatomical details of dendrites) of spinal motoneurons were systematically compared with their reduced single unbranched cable (SUC, which reduces the dendrites to a single electrically equivalent cable) counterpart under passive and active conditions. The SUC models matched the R3D model's passive properties but failed to match key active properties, especially active behaviors originating from dendrites. For instance, persistent inward currents (PIC) hysteresis, frequency-current (FI) relationship secondary range slope, firing hysteresis, plateau potential partial deactivation, staircase currents, synaptic current transfer ratio, and regional FI relationships were not accurately reproduced by the SUC models. The dendritic morphology oversimplification and lack of dendritic active conductances spatial segregation in the SUC models caused significant underestimation of those behaviors. Next, SUC models were modified by adding key branching features in an attempt to restore their active behaviors. The addition of primary dendritic branching only partially restored some active behaviors, whereas the addition of secondary dendritic branching restored most behaviors. Importantly, the proposed modified models successfully replicated the active properties without sacrificing model simplicity, making them attractive candidates for running R3D single neuron and network simulations with accurate firing behaviors. The present results indicate that using reduced models to examine PIC behaviors in spinal motoneurons is unwarranted. PMID:25277743
CoMOGrad and PHOG: From Computer Vision to Fast and Accurate Protein Tertiary Structure Retrieval
Karim, Rezaul; Aziz, Mohd. Momin Al; Shatabda, Swakkhar; Rahman, M. Sohel; Mia, Md. Abul Kashem; Zaman, Farhana; Rakin, Salman
2015-01-01
The number of entries in a structural database of proteins is increasing day by day. Methods for retrieving protein tertiary structures from such a large database have turn out to be the key to comparative analysis of structures that plays an important role to understand proteins and their functions. In this paper, we present fast and accurate methods for the retrieval of proteins having tertiary structures similar to a query protein from a large database. Our proposed methods borrow ideas from the field of computer vision. The speed and accuracy of our methods come from the two newly introduced features- the co-occurrence matrix of the oriented gradient and pyramid histogram of oriented gradient- and the use of Euclidean distance as the distance measure. Experimental results clearly indicate the superiority of our approach in both running time and accuracy. Our method is readily available for use from this website: http://research.buet.ac.bd:8080/Comograd/. PMID:26293226
CoMOGrad and PHOG: From Computer Vision to Fast and Accurate Protein Tertiary Structure Retrieval.
Karim, Rezaul; Aziz, Mohd Momin Al; Shatabda, Swakkhar; Rahman, M Sohel; Mia, Md Abul Kashem; Zaman, Farhana; Rakin, Salman
2015-01-01
The number of entries in a structural database of proteins is increasing day by day. Methods for retrieving protein tertiary structures from such a large database have turn out to be the key to comparative analysis of structures that plays an important role to understand proteins and their functions. In this paper, we present fast and accurate methods for the retrieval of proteins having tertiary structures similar to a query protein from a large database. Our proposed methods borrow ideas from the field of computer vision. The speed and accuracy of our methods come from the two newly introduced features- the co-occurrence matrix of the oriented gradient and pyramid histogram of oriented gradient- and the use of Euclidean distance as the distance measure. Experimental results clearly indicate the superiority of our approach in both running time and accuracy. Our method is readily available for use from this website: http://research.buet.ac.bd:8080/Comograd/. PMID:26293226
Computational modelling of atherosclerosis.
Parton, Andrew; McGilligan, Victoria; O'Kane, Maurice; Baldrick, Francina R; Watterson, Steven
2016-07-01
Atherosclerosis is one of the principle pathologies of cardiovascular disease with blood cholesterol a significant risk factor. The World Health Organization estimates that approximately 2.5 million deaths occur annually because of the risk from elevated cholesterol, with 39% of adults worldwide at future risk. Atherosclerosis emerges from the combination of many dynamical factors, including haemodynamics, endothelial damage, innate immunity and sterol biochemistry. Despite its significance to public health, the dynamics that drive atherosclerosis remain poorly understood. As a disease that depends on multiple factors operating on different length scales, the natural framework to apply to atherosclerosis is mathematical and computational modelling. A computational model provides an integrated description of the disease and serves as an in silico experimental system from which we can learn about the disease and develop therapeutic hypotheses. Although the work completed in this area to date has been limited, there are clear signs that interest is growing and that a nascent field is establishing itself. This article discusses the current state of modelling in this area, bringing together many recent results for the first time. We review the work that has been done, discuss its scope and highlight the gaps in our understanding that could yield future opportunities. PMID:26438419
Chung, S.; McGill, M.; Preece, D.S.
1994-07-01
Cast blasting can be designed to utilize explosive energy effectively and economically for coal mining operations to remove overburden material. The more overburden removed by explosives, the less blasted material there is left to be transported with mechanical equipment, such as draglines and trucks. In order to optimize the percentage of rock that is cast, a higher powder factor than normal is required plus an initiation technique designed to produce a much greater degree of horizontal muck movement. This paper compares two blast models known as DMC (Distinct Motion Code) and SABREX (Scientific Approach to Breaking Rock with Explosives). DMC, applies discrete spherical elements interacted with the flow of explosive gases and the explicit time integration to track particle motion resulting from a blast. The input to this model includes multi-layer rock properties, and both loading geometry and explosives equation-of-state parameters. It enables the user to have a wide range of control over drill pattern and explosive loading design parameters. SABREX assumes that heave process is controlled by the explosive gases which determines the velocity and time of initial movement of blocks within the burden, and then tracks the motion of the blocks until they come to a rest. In order to reduce computing time, the in-flight collisions of blocks are not considered and the motion of the first row is made to limit the motion of subsequent rows. Although modelling a blast is a complex task, the DMC can perform a blast simulation in 0.5 hours on the SUN SPARCstation 10--41 while the new SABREX 3.5 produces results of a cast blast in ten seconds on a 486-PC computer. Predicted percentage of cast and face velocities from both computer codes compare well with the measured results from a full scale cast blast.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hochlaf, M.; Puzzarini, C.; Senent, M. L.
2015-07-01
We present multi-component computations for rotational constants, vibrational and torsional levels of medium-sized molecules. Through the treatment of two organic sulphur molecules, ethyl mercaptan and dimethyl sulphide, which are relevant for atmospheric and astrophysical media, we point out the outstanding capabilities of explicitly correlated coupled clusters (CCSD(T)-F12) method in conjunction with the cc-pVTZ-F12 basis set for the accurate predictions of such quantities. Indeed, we show that the CCSD(T)-F12/cc-pVTZ-F12 equilibrium rotational constants are in good agreement with those obtained by means of a composite scheme based on CCSD(T) calculations that accounts for the extrapolation to the complete basis set (CBS) limit and core-correlation effects [CCSD(T)/CBS+CV], thus leading to values of ground-state rotational constants rather close to the corresponding experimental data. For vibrational and torsional levels, our analysis reveals that the anharmonic frequencies derived from CCSD(T)-F12/cc-pVTZ-F12 harmonic frequencies and anharmonic corrections (Δν = ω - ν) at the CCSD/cc-pVTZ level closely agree with experimental results. The pattern of the torsional transitions and the shape of the potential energy surfaces along the torsional modes are also well reproduced using the CCSD(T)-F12/cc-pVTZ-F12 energies. Interestingly, this good accuracy is accompanied with a strong reduction of the computational costs. This makes the procedures proposed here as schemes of choice for effective and accurate prediction of spectroscopic properties of organic compounds. Finally, popular density functional approaches are compared with the coupled cluster (CC) methodologies in torsional studies. The long-range CAM-B3LYP functional of Handy and co-workers is recommended for large systems.
Accurate Cold-Test Model of Helical TWT Slow-Wave Circuits
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kory, Carol L.; Dayton, J. A., Jr.
1998-01-01
Recently, a method has been established to accurately calculate cold-test data for helical slow-wave structures using the three-dimensional (3-D) electromagnetic computer code, MAFIA. Cold-test parameters have been calculated for several helical traveling-wave tube (TWT) slow-wave circuits possessing various support rod configurations, and results are presented here showing excellent agreement with experiment. The helical models include tape thickness, dielectric support shapes and material properties consistent with the actual circuits. The cold-test data from this helical model can be used as input into large-signal helical TWT interaction codes making it possible, for the first time, to design a complete TWT via computer simulation.
Accurate Cold-Test Model of Helical TWT Slow-Wave Circuits
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kory, Carol L.; Dayton, James A., Jr.
1998-01-01
Recently, a method has been established to accurately calculate cold-test data for helical slow-wave structures using the three-dimensional (3-D) electromagnetic computer code, MAxwell's equations by the Finite Integration Algorithm (MAFIA). Cold-test parameters have been calculated for several helical traveLing-wave tube (TWT) slow-wave circuits possessing various support rod configurations, and results are presented here showing excellent agreement with experiment. The helical models include tape thickness, dielectric support shapes and material properties consistent with the actual circuits. The cold-test data from this helical model can be used as input into large-signal helical TWT interaction codes making It possible, for the first time, to design complete TWT via computer simulation.
Accurate Cold-Test Model of Helical TWT Slow-Wave Circuits
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kory, Carol L.; Dayton, James A., Jr.
1997-01-01
Recently, a method has been established to accurately calculate cold-test data for helical slow-wave structures using the three-dimensional electromagnetic computer code, MAFIA. Cold-test parameters have been calculated for several helical traveling-wave tube (TWT) slow-wave circuits possessing various support rod configurations, and results are presented here showing excellent agreement with experiment. The helical models include tape thickness, dielectric support shapes and material properties consistent with the actual circuits. The cold-test data from this helical model can be used as input into large-signal helical TWT interaction codes making it possible, for the first time, to design a complete TWT via computer simulation.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kory, Carol L.
1999-01-01
The phenomenal growth of commercial communications has created a great demand for traveling-wave tube (TWT) amplifiers. Although the helix slow-wave circuit remains the mainstay of the TWT industry because of its exceptionally wide bandwidth, until recently it has been impossible to accurately analyze a helical TWT using its exact dimensions because of the complexity of its geometrical structure. For the first time, an accurate three-dimensional helical model was developed that allows accurate prediction of TWT cold-test characteristics including operating frequency, interaction impedance, and attenuation. This computational model, which was developed at the NASA Lewis Research Center, allows TWT designers to obtain a more accurate value of interaction impedance than is possible using experimental methods. Obtaining helical slow-wave circuit interaction impedance is an important part of the design process for a TWT because it is related to the gain and efficiency of the tube. This impedance cannot be measured directly; thus, conventional methods involve perturbing a helical circuit with a cylindrical dielectric rod placed on the central axis of the circuit and obtaining the difference in resonant frequency between the perturbed and unperturbed circuits. A mathematical relationship has been derived between this frequency difference and the interaction impedance (ref. 1). However, because of the complex configuration of the helical circuit, deriving this relationship involves several approximations. In addition, this experimental procedure is time-consuming and expensive, but until recently it was widely accepted as the most accurate means of determining interaction impedance. The advent of an accurate three-dimensional helical circuit model (ref. 2) made it possible for Lewis researchers to fully investigate standard approximations made in deriving the relationship between measured perturbation data and interaction impedance. The most prominent approximations made
Li, Xiangrui; Lu, Zhong-Lin
2012-01-01
Display systems based on conventional computer graphics cards are capable of generating images with 8-bit gray level resolution. However, most experiments in vision research require displays with more than 12 bits of luminance resolution. Several solutions are available. Bit++ (1) and DataPixx (2) use the Digital Visual Interface (DVI) output from graphics cards and high resolution (14 or 16-bit) digital-to-analog converters to drive analog display devices. The VideoSwitcher (3) described here combines analog video signals from the red and blue channels of graphics cards with different weights using a passive resister network (4) and an active circuit to deliver identical video signals to the three channels of color monitors. The method provides an inexpensive way to enable high-resolution monochromatic displays using conventional graphics cards and analog monitors. It can also provide trigger signals that can be used to mark stimulus onsets, making it easy to synchronize visual displays with physiological recordings or response time measurements. Although computer keyboards and mice are frequently used in measuring response times (RT), the accuracy of these measurements is quite low. The RTbox is a specialized hardware and software solution for accurate RT measurements. Connected to the host computer through a USB connection, the driver of the RTbox is compatible with all conventional operating systems. It uses a microprocessor and high-resolution clock to record the identities and timing of button events, which are buffered until the host computer retrieves them. The recorded button events are not affected by potential timing uncertainties or biases associated with data transmission and processing in the host computer. The asynchronous storage greatly simplifies the design of user programs. Several methods are available to synchronize the clocks of the RTbox and the host computer. The RTbox can also receive external triggers and be used to measure RT with respect
Accurate and efficient halo-based galaxy clustering modelling with simulations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zheng, Zheng; Guo, Hong
2016-06-01
Small- and intermediate-scale galaxy clustering can be used to establish the galaxy-halo connection to study galaxy formation and evolution and to tighten constraints on cosmological parameters. With the increasing precision of galaxy clustering measurements from ongoing and forthcoming large galaxy surveys, accurate models are required to interpret the data and extract relevant information. We introduce a method based on high-resolution N-body simulations to accurately and efficiently model the galaxy two-point correlation functions (2PCFs) in projected and redshift spaces. The basic idea is to tabulate all information of haloes in the simulations necessary for computing the galaxy 2PCFs within the framework of halo occupation distribution or conditional luminosity function. It is equivalent to populating galaxies to dark matter haloes and using the mock 2PCF measurements as the model predictions. Besides the accurate 2PCF calculations, the method is also fast and therefore enables an efficient exploration of the parameter space. As an example of the method, we decompose the redshift-space galaxy 2PCF into different components based on the type of galaxy pairs and show the redshift-space distortion effect in each component. The generalizations and limitations of the method are discussed.
Candel, A.; Kabel, A.; Lee, L.; Li, Z.; Limborg, C.; Ng, C.; Prudencio, E.; Schussman, G.; Uplenchwar, R.; Ko, K.; /SLAC
2009-06-19
Over the past years, SLAC's Advanced Computations Department (ACD), under SciDAC sponsorship, has developed a suite of 3D (2D) parallel higher-order finite element (FE) codes, T3P (T2P) and Pic3P (Pic2P), aimed at accurate, large-scale simulation of wakefields and particle-field interactions in radio-frequency (RF) cavities of complex shape. The codes are built on the FE infrastructure that supports SLAC's frequency domain codes, Omega3P and S3P, to utilize conformal tetrahedral (triangular)meshes, higher-order basis functions and quadratic geometry approximation. For time integration, they adopt an unconditionally stable implicit scheme. Pic3P (Pic2P) extends T3P (T2P) to treat charged-particle dynamics self-consistently using the PIC (particle-in-cell) approach, the first such implementation on a conformal, unstructured grid using Whitney basis functions. Examples from applications to the International Linear Collider (ILC), Positron Electron Project-II (PEP-II), Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS) and other accelerators will be presented to compare the accuracy and computational efficiency of these codes versus their counterparts using structured grids.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rumple, C.; Richter, J.; Craven, B. A.; Krane, M.
2012-11-01
A summary of the research being carried out by our multidisciplinary team to better understand the form and function of the nose in different mammalian species that include humans, carnivores, ungulates, rodents, and marine animals will be presented. The mammalian nose houses a convoluted airway labyrinth, where two hallmark features of mammals occur, endothermy and olfaction. Because of the complexity of the nasal cavity, the anatomy and function of these upper airways remain poorly understood in most mammals. However, recent advances in high-resolution medical imaging, computational modeling, and experimental flow measurement techniques are now permitting the study of airflow and respiratory and olfactory transport phenomena in anatomically-accurate reconstructions of the nasal cavity. Here, we focus on efforts to manufacture transparent, anatomically-accurate models for stereo particle image velocimetry (SPIV) measurements of nasal airflow. Challenges in the design and manufacture of index-matched anatomical models are addressed and preliminary SPIV measurements are presented. Such measurements will constitute a validation database for concurrent computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations of mammalian respiration and olfaction. Supported by the National Science Foundation.
COSP - A computer model of cyclic oxidation
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Lowell, Carl E.; Barrett, Charles A.; Palmer, Raymond W.; Auping, Judith V.; Probst, Hubert B.
1991-01-01
A computer model useful in predicting the cyclic oxidation behavior of alloys is presented. The model considers the oxygen uptake due to scale formation during the heating cycle and the loss of oxide due to spalling during the cooling cycle. The balance between scale formation and scale loss is modeled and used to predict weight change and metal loss kinetics. A simple uniform spalling model is compared to a more complex random spall site model. In nearly all cases, the simpler uniform spall model gave predictions as accurate as the more complex model. The model has been applied to several nickel-base alloys which, depending upon composition, form Al2O3 or Cr2O3 during oxidation. The model has been validated by several experimental approaches. Versions of the model that run on a personal computer are available.
Cupola Furnace Computer Process Model
Seymour Katz
2004-12-31
The cupola furnace generates more than 50% of the liquid iron used to produce the 9+ million tons of castings annually. The cupola converts iron and steel into cast iron. The main advantages of the cupola furnace are lower energy costs than those of competing furnaces (electric) and the ability to melt less expensive metallic scrap than the competing furnaces. However the chemical and physical processes that take place in the cupola furnace are highly complex making it difficult to operate the furnace in optimal fashion. The results are low energy efficiency and poor recovery of important and expensive alloy elements due to oxidation. Between 1990 and 2004 under the auspices of the Department of Energy, the American Foundry Society and General Motors Corp. a computer simulation of the cupola furnace was developed that accurately describes the complex behavior of the furnace. When provided with the furnace input conditions the model provides accurate values of the output conditions in a matter of seconds. It also provides key diagnostics. Using clues from the diagnostics a trained specialist can infer changes in the operation that will move the system toward higher efficiency. Repeating the process in an iterative fashion leads to near optimum operating conditions with just a few iterations. More advanced uses of the program have been examined. The program is currently being combined with an ''Expert System'' to permit optimization in real time. The program has been combined with ''neural network'' programs to affect very easy scanning of a wide range of furnace operation. Rudimentary efforts were successfully made to operate the furnace using a computer. References to these more advanced systems will be found in the ''Cupola Handbook''. Chapter 27, American Foundry Society, Des Plaines, IL (1999).
Oksel, Ceyda; Winkler, David A; Ma, Cai Y; Wilkins, Terry; Wang, Xue Z
2016-09-01
The number of engineered nanomaterials (ENMs) being exploited commercially is growing rapidly, due to the novel properties they exhibit. Clearly, it is important to understand and minimize any risks to health or the environment posed by the presence of ENMs. Data-driven models that decode the relationships between the biological activities of ENMs and their physicochemical characteristics provide an attractive means of maximizing the value of scarce and expensive experimental data. Although such structure-activity relationship (SAR) methods have become very useful tools for modelling nanotoxicity endpoints (nanoSAR), they have limited robustness and predictivity and, most importantly, interpretation of the models they generate is often very difficult. New computational modelling tools or new ways of using existing tools are required to model the relatively sparse and sometimes lower quality data on the biological effects of ENMs. The most commonly used SAR modelling methods work best with large datasets, are not particularly good at feature selection, can be relatively opaque to interpretation, and may not account for nonlinearity in the structure-property relationships. To overcome these limitations, we describe the application of a novel algorithm, a genetic programming-based decision tree construction tool (GPTree) to nanoSAR modelling. We demonstrate the use of GPTree in the construction of accurate and interpretable nanoSAR models by applying it to four diverse literature datasets. We describe the algorithm and compare model results across the four studies. We show that GPTree generates models with accuracies equivalent to or superior to those of prior modelling studies on the same datasets. GPTree is a robust, automatic method for generation of accurate nanoSAR models with important advantages that it works with small datasets, automatically selects descriptors, and provides significantly improved interpretability of models. PMID:26956430
Seth, Ajay; Matias, Ricardo; Veloso, António P.; Delp, Scott L.
2016-01-01
The complexity of shoulder mechanics combined with the movement of skin relative to the scapula makes it difficult to measure shoulder kinematics with sufficient accuracy to distinguish between symptomatic and asymptomatic individuals. Multibody skeletal models can improve motion capture accuracy by reducing the space of possible joint movements, and models are used widely to improve measurement of lower limb kinematics. In this study, we developed a rigid-body model of a scapulothoracic joint to describe the kinematics of the scapula relative to the thorax. This model describes scapular kinematics with four degrees of freedom: 1) elevation and 2) abduction of the scapula on an ellipsoidal thoracic surface, 3) upward rotation of the scapula normal to the thoracic surface, and 4) internal rotation of the scapula to lift the medial border of the scapula off the surface of the thorax. The surface dimensions and joint axes can be customized to match an individual’s anthropometry. We compared the model to “gold standard” bone-pin kinematics collected during three shoulder tasks and found modeled scapular kinematics to be accurate to within 2mm root-mean-squared error for individual bone-pin markers across all markers and movement tasks. As an additional test, we added random and systematic noise to the bone-pin marker data and found that the model reduced kinematic variability due to noise by 65% compared to Euler angles computed without the model. Our scapulothoracic joint model can be used for inverse and forward dynamics analyses and to compute joint reaction loads. The computational performance of the scapulothoracic joint model is well suited for real-time applications; it is freely available for use with OpenSim 3.2, and is customizable and usable with other OpenSim models. PMID:26734761
Seth, Ajay; Matias, Ricardo; Veloso, António P; Delp, Scott L
2016-01-01
The complexity of shoulder mechanics combined with the movement of skin relative to the scapula makes it difficult to measure shoulder kinematics with sufficient accuracy to distinguish between symptomatic and asymptomatic individuals. Multibody skeletal models can improve motion capture accuracy by reducing the space of possible joint movements, and models are used widely to improve measurement of lower limb kinematics. In this study, we developed a rigid-body model of a scapulothoracic joint to describe the kinematics of the scapula relative to the thorax. This model describes scapular kinematics with four degrees of freedom: 1) elevation and 2) abduction of the scapula on an ellipsoidal thoracic surface, 3) upward rotation of the scapula normal to the thoracic surface, and 4) internal rotation of the scapula to lift the medial border of the scapula off the surface of the thorax. The surface dimensions and joint axes can be customized to match an individual's anthropometry. We compared the model to "gold standard" bone-pin kinematics collected during three shoulder tasks and found modeled scapular kinematics to be accurate to within 2 mm root-mean-squared error for individual bone-pin markers across all markers and movement tasks. As an additional test, we added random and systematic noise to the bone-pin marker data and found that the model reduced kinematic variability due to noise by 65% compared to Euler angles computed without the model. Our scapulothoracic joint model can be used for inverse and forward dynamics analyses and to compute joint reaction loads. The computational performance of the scapulothoracic joint model is well suited for real-time applications; it is freely available for use with OpenSim 3.2, and is customizable and usable with other OpenSim models. PMID:26734761
Computational modelling of polymers
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Celarier, Edward A.
1991-01-01
Polymeric materials and polymer/graphite composites show a very diverse range of material properties, many of which make them attractive candidates for a variety of high performance engineering applications. Their properties are ultimately determined largely by their chemical structure, and the conditions under which they are processed. It is the aim of computational chemistry to be able to simulate candidate polymers on a computer, and determine what their likely material properties will be. A number of commercially available software packages purport to predict the material properties of samples, given the chemical structures of their constituent molecules. One such system, Cerius, has been in use at LaRC. It is comprised of a number of modules, each of which performs a different kind of calculation on a molecule in the programs workspace. Particularly, interest is in evaluating the suitability of this program to aid in the study of microcrystalline polymeric materials. One of the first model systems examined was benzophenone. The results of this investigation are discussed.
Linaro, Daniele; Storace, Marco; Giugliano, Michele
2011-01-01
Stochastic channel gating is the major source of intrinsic neuronal noise whose functional consequences at the microcircuit- and network-levels have been only partly explored. A systematic study of this channel noise in large ensembles of biophysically detailed model neurons calls for the availability of fast numerical methods. In fact, exact techniques employ the microscopic simulation of the random opening and closing of individual ion channels, usually based on Markov models, whose computational loads are prohibitive for next generation massive computer models of the brain. In this work, we operatively define a procedure for translating any Markov model describing voltage- or ligand-gated membrane ion-conductances into an effective stochastic version, whose computer simulation is efficient, without compromising accuracy. Our approximation is based on an improved Langevin-like approach, which employs stochastic differential equations and no Montecarlo methods. As opposed to an earlier proposal recently debated in the literature, our approximation reproduces accurately the statistical properties of the exact microscopic simulations, under a variety of conditions, from spontaneous to evoked response features. In addition, our method is not restricted to the Hodgkin-Huxley sodium and potassium currents and is general for a variety of voltage- and ligand-gated ion currents. As a by-product, the analysis of the properties emerging in exact Markov schemes by standard probability calculus enables us for the first time to analytically identify the sources of inaccuracy of the previous proposal, while providing solid ground for its modification and improvement we present here. PMID:21423712
Construction of feasible and accurate kinetic models of metabolism: A Bayesian approach
Saa, Pedro A.; Nielsen, Lars K.
2016-01-01
Kinetic models are essential to quantitatively understand and predict the behaviour of metabolic networks. Detailed and thermodynamically feasible kinetic models of metabolism are inherently difficult to formulate and fit. They have a large number of heterogeneous parameters, are non-linear and have complex interactions. Many powerful fitting strategies are ruled out by the intractability of the likelihood function. Here, we have developed a computational framework capable of fitting feasible and accurate kinetic models using Approximate Bayesian Computation. This framework readily supports advanced modelling features such as model selection and model-based experimental design. We illustrate this approach on the tightly-regulated mammalian methionine cycle. Sampling from the posterior distribution, the proposed framework generated thermodynamically feasible parameter samples that converged on the true values, and displayed remarkable prediction accuracy in several validation tests. Furthermore, a posteriori analysis of the parameter distributions enabled appraisal of the systems properties of the network (e.g., control structure) and key metabolic regulations. Finally, the framework was used to predict missing allosteric interactions. PMID:27417285
New process model proves accurate in tests on catalytic reformer
Aguilar-Rodriguez, E.; Ancheyta-Juarez, J. )
1994-07-25
A mathematical model has been devised to represent the process that takes place in a fixed-bed, tubular, adiabatic catalytic reforming reactor. Since its development, the model has been applied to the simulation of a commercial semiregenerative reformer. The development of mass and energy balances for this reformer led to a model that predicts both concentration and temperature profiles along the reactor. A comparison of the model's results with experimental data illustrates its accuracy at predicting product profiles. Simple steps show how the model can be applied to simulate any fixed-bed catalytic reformer.
Validation of an Accurate Three-Dimensional Helical Slow-Wave Circuit Model
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kory, Carol L.
1997-01-01
The helical slow-wave circuit embodies a helical coil of rectangular tape supported in a metal barrel by dielectric support rods. Although the helix slow-wave circuit remains the mainstay of the traveling-wave tube (TWT) industry because of its exceptionally wide bandwidth, a full helical circuit, without significant dimensional approximations, has not been successfully modeled until now. Numerous attempts have been made to analyze the helical slow-wave circuit so that the performance could be accurately predicted without actually building it, but because of its complex geometry, many geometrical approximations became necessary rendering the previous models inaccurate. In the course of this research it has been demonstrated that using the simulation code, MAFIA, the helical structure can be modeled with actual tape width and thickness, dielectric support rod geometry and materials. To demonstrate the accuracy of the MAFIA model, the cold-test parameters including dispersion, on-axis interaction impedance and attenuation have been calculated for several helical TWT slow-wave circuits with a variety of support rod geometries including rectangular and T-shaped rods, as well as various support rod materials including isotropic, anisotropic and partially metal coated dielectrics. Compared with experimentally measured results, the agreement is excellent. With the accuracy of the MAFIA helical model validated, the code was used to investigate several conventional geometric approximations in an attempt to obtain the most computationally efficient model. Several simplifications were made to a standard model including replacing the helical tape with filaments, and replacing rectangular support rods with shapes conforming to the cylindrical coordinate system with effective permittivity. The approximate models are compared with the standard model in terms of cold-test characteristics and computational time. The model was also used to determine the sensitivity of various
Fast and accurate computation of two-dimensional non-separable quadratic-phase integrals.
Koç, Aykut; Ozaktas, Haldun M; Hesselink, Lambertus
2010-06-01
We report a fast and accurate algorithm for numerical computation of two-dimensional non-separable linear canonical transforms (2D-NS-LCTs). Also known as quadratic-phase integrals, this class of integral transforms represents a broad class of optical systems including Fresnel propagation in free space, propagation in graded-index media, passage through thin lenses, and arbitrary concatenations of any number of these, including anamorphic/astigmatic/non-orthogonal cases. The general two-dimensional non-separable case poses several challenges which do not exist in the one-dimensional case and the separable two-dimensional case. The algorithm takes approximately N log N time, where N is the two-dimensional space-bandwidth product of the signal. Our method properly tracks and controls the space-bandwidth products in two dimensions, in order to achieve information theoretically sufficient, but not wastefully redundant, sampling required for the reconstruction of the underlying continuous functions at any stage of the algorithm. Additionally, we provide an alternative definition of general 2D-NS-LCTs that shows its kernel explicitly in terms of its ten parameters, and relate these parameters bidirectionally to conventional ABCD matrix parameters. PMID:20508697
Accurate computation of surface stresses and forces with immersed boundary methods
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Goza, Andres; Liska, Sebastian; Morley, Benjamin; Colonius, Tim
2016-09-01
Many immersed boundary methods solve for surface stresses that impose the velocity boundary conditions on an immersed body. These surface stresses may contain spurious oscillations that make them ill-suited for representing the physical surface stresses on the body. Moreover, these inaccurate stresses often lead to unphysical oscillations in the history of integrated surface forces such as the coefficient of lift. While the errors in the surface stresses and forces do not necessarily affect the convergence of the velocity field, it is desirable, especially in fluid-structure interaction problems, to obtain smooth and convergent stress distributions on the surface. To this end, we show that the equation for the surface stresses is an integral equation of the first kind whose ill-posedness is the source of spurious oscillations in the stresses. We also demonstrate that for sufficiently smooth delta functions, the oscillations may be filtered out to obtain physically accurate surface stresses. The filtering is applied as a post-processing procedure, so that the convergence of the velocity field is unaffected. We demonstrate the efficacy of the method by computing stresses and forces that converge to the physical stresses and forces for several test problems.
Coupling Efforts to the Accurate and Efficient Tsunami Modelling System
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Son, S.
2015-12-01
In the present study, we couple two different types of tsunami models, i.e., nondispersive shallow water model of characteristic form(MOST ver.4) and dispersive Boussinesq model of non-characteristic form(Son et al. (2011)) in an attempt to improve modelling accuracy and efficiency. Since each model deals with different type of primary variables, additional care on matching boundary condition is required. Using an absorbing-generating boundary condition developed by Van Dongeren and Svendsen(1997), model coupling and integration is achieved. Characteristic variables(i.e., Riemann invariants) in MOST are converted to non-characteristic variables for Boussinesq solver without any loss of physical consistency. Established modelling system has been validated through typical test problems to realistic tsunami events. Simulated results reveal good performance of developed modelling system. Since coupled modelling system provides advantageous flexibility feature during implementation, great efficiencies and accuracies are expected to be gained through spot-focusing application of Boussinesq model inside the entire domain of tsunami propagation.
Workshop on Computational Turbulence Modeling
Not Available
1993-01-01
This document contains presentations given at Workshop on Computational Turbulence Modeling held 15-16 Sep. 1993. The purpose of the meeting was to discuss the current status and future development of turbulence modeling in computational fluid dynamics for aerospace propulsion systems. Papers cover the following topics: turbulence modeling activities at the Center for Modeling of Turbulence and Transition (CMOTT); heat transfer and turbomachinery flow physics; aerothermochemistry and computational methods for space systems; computational fluid dynamics and the k-epsilon turbulence model; propulsion systems; and inlet, duct, and nozzle flow. Separate abstracts have been prepared for articles from this report.
Workshop on Computational Turbulence Modeling
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
1993-01-01
This document contains presentations given at Workshop on Computational Turbulence Modeling held 15-16 Sep. 1993. The purpose of the meeting was to discuss the current status and future development of turbulence modeling in computational fluid dynamics for aerospace propulsion systems. Papers cover the following topics: turbulence modeling activities at the Center for Modeling of Turbulence and Transition (CMOTT); heat transfer and turbomachinery flow physics; aerothermochemistry and computational methods for space systems; computational fluid dynamics and the k-epsilon turbulence model; propulsion systems; and inlet, duct, and nozzle flow.
Double Cluster Heads Model for Secure and Accurate Data Fusion in Wireless Sensor Networks
Fu, Jun-Song; Liu, Yun
2015-01-01
Secure and accurate data fusion is an important issue in wireless sensor networks (WSNs) and has been extensively researched in the literature. In this paper, by combining clustering techniques, reputation and trust systems, and data fusion algorithms, we propose a novel cluster-based data fusion model called Double Cluster Heads Model (DCHM) for secure and accurate data fusion in WSNs. Different from traditional clustering models in WSNs, two cluster heads are selected after clustering for each cluster based on the reputation and trust system and they perform data fusion independently of each other. Then, the results are sent to the base station where the dissimilarity coefficient is computed. If the dissimilarity coefficient of the two data fusion results exceeds the threshold preset by the users, the cluster heads will be added to blacklist, and the cluster heads must be reelected by the sensor nodes in a cluster. Meanwhile, feedback is sent from the base station to the reputation and trust system, which can help us to identify and delete the compromised sensor nodes in time. Through a series of extensive simulations, we found that the DCHM performed very well in data fusion security and accuracy. PMID:25608211
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wohlfeil, J.; Hirschmüller, H.; Piltz, B.; Börner, A.; Suppa, M.
2012-07-01
Modern pixel-wise image matching algorithms like Semi-Global Matching (SGM) are able to compute high resolution digital surface models from airborne and spaceborne stereo imagery. Although image matching itself can be performed automatically, there are prerequisites, like high geometric accuracy, which are essential for ensuring the high quality of resulting surface models. Especially for line cameras, these prerequisites currently require laborious manual interaction using standard tools, which is a growing problem due to continually increasing demand for such surface models. The tedious work includes partly or fully manual selection of tie- and/or ground control points for ensuring the required accuracy of the relative orientation of images for stereo matching. It also includes masking of large water areas that seriously reduce the quality of the results. Furthermore, a good estimate of the depth range is required, since accurate estimates can seriously reduce the processing time for stereo matching. In this paper an approach is presented that allows performing all these steps fully automated. It includes very robust and precise tie point selection, enabling the accurate calculation of the images' relative orientation via bundle adjustment. It is also shown how water masking and elevation range estimation can be performed automatically on the base of freely available SRTM data. Extensive tests with a large number of different satellite images from QuickBird and WorldView are presented as proof of the robustness and reliability of the proposed method.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kopparla, P.; Natraj, V.; Spurr, R. J. D.; Shia, R. L.; Yung, Y. L.
2014-12-01
Radiative transfer (RT) computations are an essential component of energy budget calculations in climate models. However, full treatment of RT processes is computationally expensive, prompting usage of 2-stream approximations in operational climate models. This simplification introduces errors of the order of 10% in the top of the atmosphere (TOA) fluxes [Randles et al., 2013]. Natraj et al. [2005, 2010] and Spurr and Natraj [2013] demonstrated the ability of a technique using principal component analysis (PCA) to speed up RT simulations. In the PCA method for RT performance enhancement, empirical orthogonal functions are developed for binned sets of inherent optical properties that possess some redundancy; costly multiple-scattering RT calculations are only done for those (few) optical states corresponding to the most important principal components, and correction factors are applied to approximate radiation fields. Here, we extend the PCA method to a broadband spectral region from the ultraviolet to the shortwave infrared (0.3-3 micron), accounting for major gas absorptions in this region. Comparisons between the new model, called Universal Principal Component Analysis model for Radiative Transfer (UPCART), 2-stream models (such as those used in climate applications) and line-by-line RT models are performed, in order for spectral radiances, spectral fluxes and broadband fluxes. Each of these are calculated at the TOA for several scenarios with varying aerosol types, extinction and scattering optical depth profiles, and solar and viewing geometries. We demonstrate that very accurate radiative forcing estimates can be obtained, with better than 1% accuracy in all spectral regions and better than 0.1% in most cases as compared to an exact line-by-line RT model. The model is comparable in speeds to 2-stream models, potentially rendering UPCART useful for operational General Circulation Models (GCMs). The operational speed and accuracy of UPCART can be further
Efficiency and Accuracy of Time-Accurate Turbulent Navier-Stokes Computations
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Rumsey, Christopher L.; Sanetrik, Mark D.; Biedron, Robert T.; Melson, N. Duane; Parlette, Edward B.
1995-01-01
The accuracy and efficiency of two types of subiterations in both explicit and implicit Navier-Stokes codes are explored for unsteady laminar circular-cylinder flow and unsteady turbulent flow over an 18-percent-thick circular-arc (biconvex) airfoil. Grid and time-step studies are used to assess the numerical accuracy of the methods. Nonsubiterative time-stepping schemes and schemes with physical time subiterations are subject to time-step limitations in practice that are removed by pseudo time sub-iterations. Computations for the circular-arc airfoil indicate that a one-equation turbulence model predicts the unsteady separated flow better than an algebraic turbulence model; also, the hysteresis with Mach number of the self-excited unsteadiness due to shock and boundary-layer separation is well predicted.
Pipe network flow analysis was among the first civil engineering applications programmed for solution on the early commercial mainframe computers in the 1960s. Since that time, advancements in analytical techniques and computing power have enabled us to solve systems with tens o...
Gröning, Flora; Jones, Marc E. H.; Curtis, Neil; Herrel, Anthony; O'Higgins, Paul; Evans, Susan E.; Fagan, Michael J.
2013-01-01
Computer-based simulation techniques such as multi-body dynamics analysis are becoming increasingly popular in the field of skull mechanics. Multi-body models can be used for studying the relationships between skull architecture, muscle morphology and feeding performance. However, to be confident in the modelling results, models need to be validated against experimental data, and the effects of uncertainties or inaccuracies in the chosen model attributes need to be assessed with sensitivity analyses. Here, we compare the bite forces predicted by a multi-body model of a lizard (Tupinambis merianae) with in vivo measurements, using anatomical data collected from the same specimen. This subject-specific model predicts bite forces that are very close to the in vivo measurements and also shows a consistent increase in bite force as the bite position is moved posteriorly on the jaw. However, the model is very sensitive to changes in muscle attributes such as fibre length, intrinsic muscle strength and force orientation, with bite force predictions varying considerably when these three variables are altered. We conclude that accurate muscle measurements are crucial to building realistic multi-body models and that subject-specific data should be used whenever possible. PMID:23614944
Gröning, Flora; Jones, Marc E H; Curtis, Neil; Herrel, Anthony; O'Higgins, Paul; Evans, Susan E; Fagan, Michael J
2013-07-01
Computer-based simulation techniques such as multi-body dynamics analysis are becoming increasingly popular in the field of skull mechanics. Multi-body models can be used for studying the relationships between skull architecture, muscle morphology and feeding performance. However, to be confident in the modelling results, models need to be validated against experimental data, and the effects of uncertainties or inaccuracies in the chosen model attributes need to be assessed with sensitivity analyses. Here, we compare the bite forces predicted by a multi-body model of a lizard (Tupinambis merianae) with in vivo measurements, using anatomical data collected from the same specimen. This subject-specific model predicts bite forces that are very close to the in vivo measurements and also shows a consistent increase in bite force as the bite position is moved posteriorly on the jaw. However, the model is very sensitive to changes in muscle attributes such as fibre length, intrinsic muscle strength and force orientation, with bite force predictions varying considerably when these three variables are altered. We conclude that accurate muscle measurements are crucial to building realistic multi-body models and that subject-specific data should be used whenever possible. PMID:23614944
Accurate modelling of flow induced stresses in rigid colloidal aggregates
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Vanni, Marco
2015-07-01
A method has been developed to estimate the motion and the internal stresses induced by a fluid flow on a rigid aggregate. The approach couples Stokesian dynamics and structural mechanics in order to take into account accurately the effect of the complex geometry of the aggregates on hydrodynamic forces and the internal redistribution of stresses. The intrinsic error of the method, due to the low-order truncation of the multipole expansion of the Stokes solution, has been assessed by comparison with the analytical solution for the case of a doublet in a shear flow. In addition, it has been shown that the error becomes smaller as the number of primary particles in the aggregate increases and hence it is expected to be negligible for realistic reproductions of large aggregates. The evaluation of internal forces is performed by an adaptation of the matrix methods of structural mechanics to the geometric features of the aggregates and to the particular stress-strain relationship that occurs at intermonomer contacts. A preliminary investigation on the stress distribution in rigid aggregates and their mode of breakup has been performed by studying the response to an elongational flow of both realistic reproductions of colloidal aggregates (made of several hundreds monomers) and highly simplified structures. A very different behaviour has been evidenced between low-density aggregates with isostatic or weakly hyperstatic structures and compact aggregates with highly hyperstatic configuration. In low-density clusters breakup is caused directly by the failure of the most stressed intermonomer contact, which is typically located in the inner region of the aggregate and hence originates the birth of fragments of similar size. On the contrary, breakup of compact and highly cross-linked clusters is seldom caused by the failure of a single bond. When this happens, it proceeds through the removal of a tiny fragment from the external part of the structure. More commonly, however
Efficient and Accurate Explicit Integration Algorithms with Application to Viscoplastic Models
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Arya, Vinod K.
1994-01-01
Several explicit integration algorithms with self-adative time integration strategies are developed and investigated for efficiency and accuracy. These algorithms involve the Runge-Kutta second order, the lower Runge-Kutta method of orders one and two, and the exponential integration method. The algorithms are applied to viscoplastic models put forth by Freed and Verrilli and Bodner and Partom for thermal/mechanical loadings (including tensile, relaxation, and cyclic loadings). The large amount of computations performed showed that, for comparable accuracy, the efficiency of an integration algorithm depends significantly on the type of application (loading). However, in general, for the aforementioned loadings and viscoplastic models, the exponential integration algorithm with the proposed self-adaptive time integration strategy worked more (or comparably) efficiently and accurately than the other integration algorithms. Using this strategy for integrating viscoplastic models may lead to considerable savings in computer time (better efficiency) without adversely affecting the accuracy of the results. This conclusion should encourage the utilization of viscoplastic models in the stress analysis and design of structural components.
Magnetic field models of nine CP stars from "accurate" measurements
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Glagolevskij, Yu. V.
2013-01-01
The dipole models of magnetic fields in nine CP stars are constructed based on the measurements of metal lines taken from the literature, and performed by the LSD method with an accuracy of 10-80 G. The model parameters are compared with the parameters obtained for the same stars from the hydrogen line measurements. For six out of nine stars the same type of structure was obtained. Some parameters, such as the field strength at the poles B p and the average surface magnetic field B s differ considerably in some stars due to differences in the amplitudes of phase dependences B e (Φ) and B s (Φ), obtained by different authors. It is noted that a significant increase in the measurement accuracy has little effect on the modelling of the large-scale structures of the field. By contrast, it is more important to construct the shape of the phase dependence based on a fairly large number of field measurements, evenly distributed by the rotation period phases. It is concluded that the Zeeman component measurement methods have a strong effect on the shape of the phase dependence, and that the measurements of the magnetic field based on the lines of hydrogen are more preferable for modelling the large-scale structures of the field.
An Accurate In Vitro Model of the E. coli Envelope
Clifton, Luke A; Holt, Stephen A; Hughes, Arwel V; Daulton, Emma L; Arunmanee, Wanatchaporn; Heinrich, Frank; Khalid, Syma; Jefferies, Damien; Charlton, Timothy R; Webster, John R P; Kinane, Christian J; Lakey, Jeremy H
2015-01-01
Gram-negative bacteria are an increasingly serious source of antibiotic-resistant infections, partly owing to their characteristic protective envelope. This complex, 20 nm thick barrier includes a highly impermeable, asymmetric bilayer outer membrane (OM), which plays a pivotal role in resisting antibacterial chemotherapy. Nevertheless, the OM molecular structure and its dynamics are poorly understood because the structure is difficult to recreate or study in vitro. The successful formation and characterization of a fully asymmetric model envelope using Langmuir–Blodgett and Langmuir–Schaefer methods is now reported. Neutron reflectivity and isotopic labeling confirmed the expected structure and asymmetry and showed that experiments with antibacterial proteins reproduced published in vivo behavior. By closely recreating natural OM behavior, this model provides a much needed robust system for antibiotic development. PMID:26331292
Leidenfrost effect: accurate drop shape modeling and new scaling laws
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sobac, Benjamin; Rednikov, Alexey; Dorbolo, Stéphane; Colinet, Pierre
2014-11-01
In this study, we theoretically investigate the shape of a drop in a Leidenfrost state, focusing on the geometry of the vapor layer. The drop geometry is modeled by numerically matching the solution of the hydrostatic shape of a superhydrophobic drop (for the upper part) with the solution of the lubrication equation of the vapor flow underlying the drop (for the bottom part). The results highlight that the vapor layer, fed by evaporation, forms a concave depression in the drop interface that becomes increasingly marked with the drop size. The vapor layer then consists of a gas pocket in the center and a thin annular neck surrounding it. The film thickness increases with the size of the drop, and the thickness at the neck appears to be of the order of 10--100 μm in the case of water. The model is compared to recent experimental results [Burton et al., Phys. Rev. Lett., 074301 (2012)] and shows an excellent agreement, without any fitting parameter. New scaling laws also emerge from this model. The geometry of the vapor pocket is only weakly dependent on the superheat (and thus on the evaporation rate), this weak dependence being more pronounced in the neck region. In turn, the vapor layer characteristics strongly depend on the drop size.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kopparla, P.; Natraj, V.; Shia, R. L.; Spurr, R. J. D.; Crisp, D.; Yung, Y. L.
2015-12-01
Radiative transfer (RT) computations form the engine of atmospheric retrieval codes. However, full treatment of RT processes is computationally expensive, prompting usage of two-stream approximations in current exoplanetary atmospheric retrieval codes [Line et al., 2013]. Natraj et al. [2005, 2010] and Spurr and Natraj [2013] demonstrated the ability of a technique using principal component analysis (PCA) to speed up RT computations. In the PCA method for RT performance enhancement, empirical orthogonal functions are developed for binned sets of inherent optical properties that possess some redundancy; costly multiple-scattering RT calculations are only done for those few optical states corresponding to the most important principal components, and correction factors are applied to approximate radiation fields. Kopparla et al. [2015, in preparation] extended the PCA method to a broadband spectral region from the ultraviolet to the shortwave infrared (0.3-3 micron), accounting for major gas absorptions in this region. Here, we apply the PCA method to a some typical (exo-)planetary retrieval problems. Comparisons between the new model, called Universal Principal Component Analysis Radiative Transfer (UPCART) model, two-stream models and line-by-line RT models are performed, for spectral radiances, spectral fluxes and broadband fluxes. Each of these are calculated at the top of the atmosphere for several scenarios with varying aerosol types, extinction and scattering optical depth profiles, and stellar and viewing geometries. We demonstrate that very accurate radiance and flux estimates can be obtained, with better than 1% accuracy in all spectral regions and better than 0.1% in most cases, as compared to a numerically exact line-by-line RT model. The accuracy is enhanced when the results are convolved to typical instrument resolutions. The operational speed and accuracy of UPCART can be further improved by optimizing binning schemes and parallelizing the codes, work
Accurate Experiment to Computation Coupling for Understanding QH-mode physics using NIMROD
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
King, J. R.; Burrell, K. H.; Garofalo, A. M.; Groebner, R. J.; Hanson, J. D.; Hebert, J. D.; Hudson, S. R.; Pankin, A. Y.; Kruger, S. E.; Snyder, P. B.
2015-11-01
It is desirable to have an ITER H-mode regime that is quiescent to edge-localized modes (ELMs). The quiescent H-mode (QH-mode) with edge harmonic oscillations (EHO) is one such regime. High quality equilibria are essential for accurate EHO simulations with initial-value codes such as NIMROD. We include profiles outside the LCFS which generate associated currents when we solve the Grad-Shafranov equation with open-flux regions using the NIMEQ solver. The new solution is an equilibrium that closely resembles the original reconstruction (which does not contain open-flux currents). This regenerated equilibrium is consistent with the profiles that are measured by the high quality diagnostics on DIII-D. Results from nonlinear NIMROD simulations of the EHO are presented. The full measured rotation profiles are included in the simulation. The simulation develops into a saturated state. The saturation mechanism of the EHO is explored and simulation is compared to magnetic-coil measurements. This work is currently supported in part by the US DOE Office of Science under awards DE-FC02-04ER54698, DE-AC02-09CH11466 and the SciDAC Center for Extended MHD Modeling.
Digitalized accurate modeling of SPCB with multi-spiral surface based on CPC algorithm
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Huang, Yanhua; Gu, Lizhi
2015-09-01
The main methods of the existing multi-spiral surface geometry modeling include spatial analytic geometry algorithms, graphical method, interpolation and approximation algorithms. However, there are some shortcomings in these modeling methods, such as large amount of calculation, complex process, visible errors, and so on. The above methods have, to some extent, restricted the design and manufacture of the premium and high-precision products with spiral surface considerably. This paper introduces the concepts of the spatially parallel coupling with multi-spiral surface and spatially parallel coupling body. The typical geometry and topological features of each spiral surface forming the multi-spiral surface body are determined, by using the extraction principle of datum point cluster, the algorithm of coupling point cluster by removing singular point, and the "spatially parallel coupling" principle based on the non-uniform B-spline for each spiral surface. The orientation and quantitative relationships of datum point cluster and coupling point cluster in Euclidean space are determined accurately and in digital description and expression, coupling coalescence of the surfaces with multi-coupling point clusters under the Pro/E environment. The digitally accurate modeling of spatially parallel coupling body with multi-spiral surface is realized. The smooth and fairing processing is done to the three-blade end-milling cutter's end section area by applying the principle of spatially parallel coupling with multi-spiral surface, and the alternative entity model is processed in the four axis machining center after the end mill is disposed. And the algorithm is verified and then applied effectively to the transition area among the multi-spiral surface. The proposed model and algorithms may be used in design and manufacture of the multi-spiral surface body products, as well as in solving essentially the problems of considerable modeling errors in computer graphics and
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mead, A. J.; Peacock, J. A.; Heymans, C.; Joudaki, S.; Heavens, A. F.
2015-12-01
We present an optimized variant of the halo model, designed to produce accurate matter power spectra well into the non-linear regime for a wide range of cosmological models. To do this, we introduce physically motivated free parameters into the halo-model formalism and fit these to data from high-resolution N-body simulations. For a variety of Λ cold dark matter (ΛCDM) and wCDM models, the halo-model power is accurate to ≃ 5 per cent for k ≤ 10h Mpc-1 and z ≤ 2. An advantage of our new halo model is that it can be adapted to account for the effects of baryonic feedback on the power spectrum. We demonstrate this by fitting the halo model to power spectra from the OWLS (OverWhelmingly Large Simulations) hydrodynamical simulation suite via parameters that govern halo internal structure. We are able to fit all feedback models investigated at the 5 per cent level using only two free parameters, and we place limits on the range of these halo parameters for feedback models investigated by the OWLS simulations. Accurate predictions to high k are vital for weak-lensing surveys, and these halo parameters could be considered nuisance parameters to marginalize over in future analyses to mitigate uncertainty regarding the details of feedback. Finally, we investigate how lensing observables predicted by our model compare to those from simulations and from HALOFIT for a range of k-cuts and feedback models and quantify the angular scales at which these effects become important. Code to calculate power spectra from the model presented in this paper can be found at https://github.com/alexander-mead/hmcode.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Emmons, Louisa; De Zafra, Robert
1991-01-01
A simple method for milling accurate off-axis parabolic mirrors with a computer-controlled milling machine is discussed. For machines with a built-in circle-cutting routine, an exact paraboloid can be milled with few computer commands and without the use of the spherical or linear approximations. The proposed method can be adapted easily to cut off-axis sections of elliptical or spherical mirrors.
Blackman, Jonathan; Field, Scott E; Galley, Chad R; Szilágyi, Béla; Scheel, Mark A; Tiglio, Manuel; Hemberger, Daniel A
2015-09-18
Simulating a binary black hole coalescence by solving Einstein's equations is computationally expensive, requiring days to months of supercomputing time. Using reduced order modeling techniques, we construct an accurate surrogate model, which is evaluated in a millisecond to a second, for numerical relativity (NR) waveforms from nonspinning binary black hole coalescences with mass ratios in [1, 10] and durations corresponding to about 15 orbits before merger. We assess the model's uncertainty and show that our modeling strategy predicts NR waveforms not used for the surrogate's training with errors nearly as small as the numerical error of the NR code. Our model includes all spherical-harmonic _{-2}Y_{ℓm} waveform modes resolved by the NR code up to ℓ=8. We compare our surrogate model to effective one body waveforms from 50M_{⊙} to 300M_{⊙} for advanced LIGO detectors and find that the surrogate is always more faithful (by at least an order of magnitude in most cases). PMID:26430979
A fast and accurate PCA based radiative transfer model: Extension to the broadband shortwave region
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kopparla, Pushkar; Natraj, Vijay; Spurr, Robert; Shia, Run-Lie; Crisp, David; Yung, Yuk L.
2016-04-01
Accurate radiative transfer (RT) calculations are necessary for many earth-atmosphere applications, from remote sensing retrieval to climate modeling. A Principal Component Analysis (PCA)-based spectral binning method has been shown to provide an order of magnitude increase in computational speed while maintaining an overall accuracy of 0.01% (compared to line-by-line calculations) over narrow spectral bands. In this paper, we have extended the PCA method for RT calculations over the entire shortwave region of the spectrum from 0.3 to 3 microns. The region is divided into 33 spectral fields covering all major gas absorption regimes. We find that the RT performance runtimes are shorter by factors between 10 and 100, while root mean square errors are of order 0.01%.
Accurate technique for complete geometric calibration of cone-beam computed tomography systems.
Cho, Youngbin; Moseley, Douglas J; Siewerdsen, Jeffrey H; Jaffray, David A
2005-04-01
Cone-beam computed tomography systems have been developed to provide in situ imaging for the purpose of guiding radiation therapy. Clinical systems have been constructed using this approach, a clinical linear accelerator (Elekta Synergy RP) and an iso-centric C-arm. Geometric calibration involves the estimation of a set of parameters that describes the geometry of such systems, and is essential for accurate image reconstruction. We have developed a general analytic algorithm and corresponding calibration phantom for estimating these geometric parameters in cone-beam computed tomography (CT) systems. The performance of the calibration algorithm is evaluated and its application is discussed. The algorithm makes use of a calibration phantom to estimate the geometric parameters of the system. The phantom consists of 24 steel ball bearings (BBs) in a known geometry. Twelve BBs are spaced evenly at 30 deg in two plane-parallel circles separated by a given distance along the tube axis. The detector (e.g., a flat panel detector) is assumed to have no spatial distortion. The method estimates geometric parameters including the position of the x-ray source, position, and rotation of the detector, and gantry angle, and can describe complex source-detector trajectories. The accuracy and sensitivity of the calibration algorithm was analyzed. The calibration algorithm estimates geometric parameters in a high level of accuracy such that the quality of CT reconstruction is not degraded by the error of estimation. Sensitivity analysis shows uncertainty of 0.01 degrees (around beam direction) to 0.3 degrees (normal to the beam direction) in rotation, and 0.2 mm (orthogonal to the beam direction) to 4.9 mm (beam direction) in position for the medical linear accelerator geometry. Experimental measurements using a laboratory bench Cone-beam CT system of known geometry demonstrate the sensitivity of the method in detecting small changes in the imaging geometry with an uncertainty of 0
Time-Accurate Computational Fluid Dynamics Simulation of a Pair of Moving Solid Rocket Boosters
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Strutzenberg, Louise L.; Williams, Brandon R.
2011-01-01
Since the Columbia accident, the threat to the Shuttle launch vehicle from debris during the liftoff timeframe has been assessed by the Liftoff Debris Team at NASA/MSFC. In addition to engineering methods of analysis, CFD-generated flow fields during the liftoff timeframe have been used in conjunction with 3-DOF debris transport methods to predict the motion of liftoff debris. Early models made use of a quasi-steady flow field approximation with the vehicle positioned at a fixed location relative to the ground; however, a moving overset mesh capability has recently been developed for the Loci/CHEM CFD software which enables higher-fidelity simulation of the Shuttle transient plume startup and liftoff environment. The present work details the simulation of the launch pad and mobile launch platform (MLP) with truncated solid rocket boosters (SRBs) moving in a prescribed liftoff trajectory derived from Shuttle flight measurements. Using Loci/CHEM, time-accurate RANS and hybrid RANS/LES simulations were performed for the timeframe T0+0 to T0+3.5 seconds, which consists of SRB startup to a vehicle altitude of approximately 90 feet above the MLP. Analysis of the transient flowfield focuses on the evolution of the SRB plumes in the MLP plume holes and the flame trench, impingement on the flame deflector, and especially impingment on the MLP deck resulting in upward flow which is a transport mechanism for debris. The results show excellent qualitative agreement with the visual record from past Shuttle flights, and comparisons to pressure measurements in the flame trench and on the MLP provide confidence in these simulation capabilities.
Discrete state model and accurate estimation of loop entropy of RNA secondary structures.
Zhang, Jian; Lin, Ming; Chen, Rong; Wang, Wei; Liang, Jie
2008-03-28
Conformational entropy makes important contribution to the stability and folding of RNA molecule, but it is challenging to either measure or compute conformational entropy associated with long loops. We develop optimized discrete k-state models of RNA backbone based on known RNA structures for computing entropy of loops, which are modeled as self-avoiding walks. To estimate entropy of hairpin, bulge, internal loop, and multibranch loop of long length (up to 50), we develop an efficient sampling method based on the sequential Monte Carlo principle. Our method considers excluded volume effect. It is general and can be applied to calculating entropy of loops with longer length and arbitrary complexity. For loops of short length, our results are in good agreement with a recent theoretical model and experimental measurement. For long loops, our estimated entropy of hairpin loops is in excellent agreement with the Jacobson-Stockmayer extrapolation model. However, for bulge loops and more complex secondary structures such as internal and multibranch loops, we find that the Jacobson-Stockmayer extrapolation model has large errors. Based on estimated entropy, we have developed empirical formulae for accurate calculation of entropy of long loops in different secondary structures. Our study on the effect of asymmetric size of loops suggest that loop entropy of internal loops is largely determined by the total loop length, and is only marginally affected by the asymmetric size of the two loops. Our finding suggests that the significant asymmetric effects of loop length in internal loops measured by experiments are likely to be partially enthalpic. Our method can be applied to develop improved energy parameters important for studying RNA stability and folding, and for predicting RNA secondary and tertiary structures. The discrete model and the program used to calculate loop entropy can be downloaded at http://gila.bioengr.uic.edu/resources/RNA.html. PMID:18376982
Argudo, David; Bethel, Neville P; Marcoline, Frank V; Grabe, Michael
2016-07-01
Biological membranes deform in response to resident proteins leading to a coupling between membrane shape and protein localization. Additionally, the membrane influences the function of membrane proteins. Here we review contributions to this field from continuum elastic membrane models focusing on the class of models that couple the protein to the membrane. While it has been argued that continuum models cannot reproduce the distortions observed in fully-atomistic molecular dynamics simulations, we suggest that this failure can be overcome by using chemically accurate representations of the protein. We outline our recent advances along these lines with our hybrid continuum-atomistic model, and we show the model is in excellent agreement with fully-atomistic simulations of the nhTMEM16 lipid scramblase. We believe that the speed and accuracy of continuum-atomistic methodologies will make it possible to simulate large scale, slow biological processes, such as membrane morphological changes, that are currently beyond the scope of other computational approaches. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Membrane Proteins edited by J.C. Gumbart and Sergei Noskov. PMID:26853937
A Simple and Accurate Model to Predict Responses to Multi-electrode Stimulation in the Retina
Maturana, Matias I.; Apollo, Nicholas V.; Hadjinicolaou, Alex E.; Garrett, David J.; Cloherty, Shaun L.; Kameneva, Tatiana; Grayden, David B.; Ibbotson, Michael R.; Meffin, Hamish
2016-01-01
Implantable electrode arrays are widely used in therapeutic stimulation of the nervous system (e.g. cochlear, retinal, and cortical implants). Currently, most neural prostheses use serial stimulation (i.e. one electrode at a time) despite this severely limiting the repertoire of stimuli that can be applied. Methods to reliably predict the outcome of multi-electrode stimulation have not been available. Here, we demonstrate that a linear-nonlinear model accurately predicts neural responses to arbitrary patterns of stimulation using in vitro recordings from single retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) stimulated with a subretinal multi-electrode array. In the model, the stimulus is projected onto a low-dimensional subspace and then undergoes a nonlinear transformation to produce an estimate of spiking probability. The low-dimensional subspace is estimated using principal components analysis, which gives the neuron’s electrical receptive field (ERF), i.e. the electrodes to which the neuron is most sensitive. Our model suggests that stimulation proportional to the ERF yields a higher efficacy given a fixed amount of power when compared to equal amplitude stimulation on up to three electrodes. We find that the model captures the responses of all the cells recorded in the study, suggesting that it will generalize to most cell types in the retina. The model is computationally efficient to evaluate and, therefore, appropriate for future real-time applications including stimulation strategies that make use of recorded neural activity to improve the stimulation strategy. PMID:27035143
A Simple and Accurate Model to Predict Responses to Multi-electrode Stimulation in the Retina.
Maturana, Matias I; Apollo, Nicholas V; Hadjinicolaou, Alex E; Garrett, David J; Cloherty, Shaun L; Kameneva, Tatiana; Grayden, David B; Ibbotson, Michael R; Meffin, Hamish
2016-04-01
Implantable electrode arrays are widely used in therapeutic stimulation of the nervous system (e.g. cochlear, retinal, and cortical implants). Currently, most neural prostheses use serial stimulation (i.e. one electrode at a time) despite this severely limiting the repertoire of stimuli that can be applied. Methods to reliably predict the outcome of multi-electrode stimulation have not been available. Here, we demonstrate that a linear-nonlinear model accurately predicts neural responses to arbitrary patterns of stimulation using in vitro recordings from single retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) stimulated with a subretinal multi-electrode array. In the model, the stimulus is projected onto a low-dimensional subspace and then undergoes a nonlinear transformation to produce an estimate of spiking probability. The low-dimensional subspace is estimated using principal components analysis, which gives the neuron's electrical receptive field (ERF), i.e. the electrodes to which the neuron is most sensitive. Our model suggests that stimulation proportional to the ERF yields a higher efficacy given a fixed amount of power when compared to equal amplitude stimulation on up to three electrodes. We find that the model captures the responses of all the cells recorded in the study, suggesting that it will generalize to most cell types in the retina. The model is computationally efficient to evaluate and, therefore, appropriate for future real-time applications including stimulation strategies that make use of recorded neural activity to improve the stimulation strategy. PMID:27035143
Computational Models for Neuromuscular Function
Valero-Cuevas, Francisco J.; Hoffmann, Heiko; Kurse, Manish U.; Kutch, Jason J.; Theodorou, Evangelos A.
2011-01-01
Computational models of the neuromuscular system hold the potential to allow us to reach a deeper understanding of neuromuscular function and clinical rehabilitation by complementing experimentation. By serving as a means to distill and explore specific hypotheses, computational models emerge from prior experimental data and motivate future experimental work. Here we review computational tools used to understand neuromuscular function including musculoskeletal modeling, machine learning, control theory, and statistical model analysis. We conclude that these tools, when used in combination, have the potential to further our understanding of neuromuscular function by serving as a rigorous means to test scientific hypotheses in ways that complement and leverage experimental data. PMID:21687779
Computer-Aided Geometry Modeling
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Shoosmith, J. N. (Compiler); Fulton, R. E. (Compiler)
1984-01-01
Techniques in computer-aided geometry modeling and their application are addressed. Mathematical modeling, solid geometry models, management of geometric data, development of geometry standards, and interactive and graphic procedures are discussed. The applications include aeronautical and aerospace structures design, fluid flow modeling, and gas turbine design.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yoshidome, Takashi; Ekimoto, Toru; Matubayasi, Nobuyuki; Harano, Yuichi; Kinoshita, Masahiro; Ikeguchi, Mitsunori
2015-05-01
The hydration free energy (HFE) is a crucially important physical quantity to discuss various chemical processes in aqueous solutions. Although an explicit-solvent computation with molecular dynamics (MD) simulations is a preferable treatment of the HFE, huge computational load has been inevitable for large, complex solutes like proteins. In the present paper, we propose an efficient computation method for the HFE. In our method, the HFE is computed as a sum of
Are Quasi-Steady-State Approximated Models Suitable for Quantifying Intrinsic Noise Accurately?
Sengupta, Dola; Kar, Sandip
2015-01-01
Large gene regulatory networks (GRN) are often modeled with quasi-steady-state approximation (QSSA) to reduce the huge computational time required for intrinsic noise quantification using Gillespie stochastic simulation algorithm (SSA). However, the question still remains whether the stochastic QSSA model measures the intrinsic noise as accurately as the SSA performed for a detailed mechanistic model or not? To address this issue, we have constructed mechanistic and QSSA models for few frequently observed GRNs exhibiting switching behavior and performed stochastic simulations with them. Our results strongly suggest that the performance of a stochastic QSSA model in comparison to SSA performed for a mechanistic model critically relies on the absolute values of the mRNA and protein half-lives involved in the corresponding GRN. The extent of accuracy level achieved by the stochastic QSSA model calculations will depend on the level of bursting frequency generated due to the absolute value of the half-life of either mRNA or protein or for both the species. For the GRNs considered, the stochastic QSSA quantifies the intrinsic noise at the protein level with greater accuracy and for larger combinations of half-life values of mRNA and protein, whereas in case of mRNA the satisfactory accuracy level can only be reached for limited combinations of absolute values of half-lives. Further, we have clearly demonstrated that the abundance levels of mRNA and protein hardly matter for such comparison between QSSA and mechanistic models. Based on our findings, we conclude that QSSA model can be a good choice for evaluating intrinsic noise for other GRNs as well, provided we make a rational choice based on experimental half-life values available in literature. PMID:26327626
Highly Accurate Frequency Calculations of Crab Cavities Using the VORPAL Computational Framework
Austin, T.M.; Cary, J.R.; Bellantoni, L.; /Argonne
2009-05-01
We have applied the Werner-Cary method [J. Comp. Phys. 227, 5200-5214 (2008)] for extracting modes and mode frequencies from time-domain simulations of crab cavities, as are needed for the ILC and the beam delivery system of the LHC. This method for frequency extraction relies on a small number of simulations, and post-processing using the SVD algorithm with Tikhonov regularization. The time-domain simulations were carried out using the VORPAL computational framework, which is based on the eminently scalable finite-difference time-domain algorithm. A validation study was performed on an aluminum model of the 3.9 GHz RF separators built originally at Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory in the US. Comparisons with measurements of the A15 cavity show that this method can provide accuracy to within 0.01% of experimental results after accounting for manufacturing imperfections. To capture the near degeneracies two simulations, requiring in total a few hours on 600 processors were employed. This method has applications across many areas including obtaining MHD spectra from time-domain simulations.
Accurate integral equation theory for the central force model of liquid water and ionic solutions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ichiye, Toshiko; Haymet, A. D. J.
1988-10-01
The atom-atom pair correlation functions and thermodynamics of the central force model of water, introduced by Lemberg, Stillinger, and Rahman, have been calculated accurately by an integral equation method which incorporates two new developments. First, a rapid new scheme has been used to solve the Ornstein-Zernike equation. This scheme combines the renormalization methods of Allnatt, and Rossky and Friedman with an extension of the trigonometric basis-set solution of Labik and co-workers. Second, by adding approximate ``bridge'' functions to the hypernetted-chain (HNC) integral equation, we have obtained predictions for liquid water in which the hydrogen bond length and number are in good agreement with ``exact'' computer simulations of the same model force laws. In addition, for dilute ionic solutions, the ion-oxygen and ion-hydrogen coordination numbers display both the physically correct stoichiometry and good agreement with earlier simulations. These results represent a measurable improvement over both a previous HNC solution of the central force model and the ex-RISM integral equation solutions for the TIPS and other rigid molecule models of water.
An accurate and efficient Lagrangian sub-grid model for multi-particle dispersion
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Toschi, Federico; Mazzitelli, Irene; Lanotte, Alessandra S.
2014-11-01
Many natural and industrial processes involve the dispersion of particle in turbulent flows. Despite recent theoretical progresses in the understanding of particle dynamics in simple turbulent flows, complex geometries often call for numerical approaches based on eulerian Large Eddy Simulation (LES). One important issue related to the Lagrangian integration of tracers in under-resolved velocity fields is connected to the lack of spatial correlations at unresolved scales. Here we propose a computationally efficient Lagrangian model for the sub-grid velocity of tracers dispersed in statistically homogeneous and isotropic turbulent flows. The model incorporates the multi-scale nature of turbulent temporal and spatial correlations that are essential to correctly reproduce the dynamics of multi-particle dispersion. The new model is able to describe the Lagrangian temporal and spatial correlations in clouds of particles. In particular we show that pairs and tetrads dispersion compare well with results from Direct Numerical Simulations of statistically isotropic and homogeneous 3d turbulence. This model may offer an accurate and efficient way to describe multi-particle dispersion in under resolved turbulent velocity fields such as the one employed in eulerian LES. This work is part of the research programmes FP112 of the Foundation for Fundamental Research on Matter (FOM), which is part of the Netherlands Organisation for Scientific Research (NWO). We acknowledge support from the EU COST Action MP0806.
Fortenberry, Ryan C; Huang, Xinchuan; Schwenke, David W; Lee, Timothy J
2014-02-01
In this work, computational procedures are employed to compute the rotational and rovibrational spectra and line lists for H2O, CO2, and SO2. Building on the established use of quartic force fields, MP2 and CCSD(T) Dipole Moment Surfaces (DMSs) are computed for each system of study in order to produce line intensities as well as the transition energies. The computed results exhibit a clear correlation to reference data available in the HITRAN database. Additionally, even though CCSD(T) DMSs produce more accurate intensities as compared to experiment, the use of MP2 DMSs results in reliable line lists that are still comparable to experiment. The use of the less computationally costly MP2 method is beneficial in the study of larger systems where use of CCSD(T) would be more costly. PMID:23692860
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zakrzewski, Jakub; Delande, Dominique
2008-11-01
The quantum phase transition point between the insulator and the superfluid phase at unit filling factor of the infinite one-dimensional Bose-Hubbard model is numerically computed with a high accuracy. The method uses the infinite system version of the time evolving block decimation algorithm, here tested in a challenging case. We provide also the accurate estimate of the phase transition point at double occupancy.
On the capabilities and computational costs of neuron models.
Skocik, Michael J; Long, Lyle N
2014-08-01
We review the Hodgkin-Huxley, Izhikevich, and leaky integrate-and-fire neuron models in regular spiking modes solved with the forward Euler, fourth-order Runge-Kutta, and exponential Euler methods and determine the necessary time steps and corresponding computational costs required to make the solutions accurate. We conclude that the leaky integrate-and-fire needs the least number of computations, and that the Hodgkin-Huxley and Izhikevich models are comparable in computational cost. PMID:25050945
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lee, Timothy J.; Huang, Xinchuan; Fortenberry, Ryan C.; Schwenke, David W.
2013-06-01
Theoretical chemists have been computing vibrational and rovibrational spectra of small molecules for more than 40 years, but over the last decade the interest in this application has grown significantly. The increased interest in computing accurate rotational and rovibrational spectra for small molecules could not come at a better time, as NASA and ESA have begun to acquire a mountain of high-resolution spectra from the Herschel mission, and soon will from the SOFIA and JWST missions. In addition, the ground-based telescope, ALMA, has begun to acquire high-resolution spectra in the same time frame. Hence the need for highly accurate line lists for many small molecules, including their minor isotopologues, will only continue to increase. I will present the latest developments from our group on using the "Best Theory + High-Resolution Experimental Data" strategy to compute highly accurate rotational and rovibrational spectra for small molecules, including NH3, CO2, and SO2. I will also present the latest work from our group in producing purely ab initio line lists and spectroscopic constants for small molecules thought to exist in various astrophysical environments, but for which there is either limited or no high-resolution experimental data available. These more limited line lists include purely rotational transitions as well as rovibrational transitions for bands up through a few combination/overtones.
toolkit computational mesh conceptual model.
Baur, David G.; Edwards, Harold Carter; Cochran, William K.; Williams, Alan B.; Sjaardema, Gregory D.
2010-03-01
The Sierra Toolkit computational mesh is a software library intended to support massively parallel multi-physics computations on dynamically changing unstructured meshes. This domain of intended use is inherently complex due to distributed memory parallelism, parallel scalability, heterogeneity of physics, heterogeneous discretization of an unstructured mesh, and runtime adaptation of the mesh. Management of this inherent complexity begins with a conceptual analysis and modeling of this domain of intended use; i.e., development of a domain model. The Sierra Toolkit computational mesh software library is designed and implemented based upon this domain model. Software developers using, maintaining, or extending the Sierra Toolkit computational mesh library must be familiar with the concepts/domain model presented in this report.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Patel, Umesh D.; DellaTorre, Edward; Day, John H. (Technical Monitor)
2001-01-01
A fast differential equation approach for the DOK model has been extented to the CMH model. Also, a cobweb technique for calculating the CMH model is also presented. The two techniques are contrasted from the point of view of flexibility and computation time.
Santolini, Marc; Mora, Thierry; Hakim, Vincent
2014-01-01
The identification of transcription factor binding sites (TFBSs) on genomic DNA is of crucial importance for understanding and predicting regulatory elements in gene networks. TFBS motifs are commonly described by Position Weight Matrices (PWMs), in which each DNA base pair contributes independently to the transcription factor (TF) binding. However, this description ignores correlations between nucleotides at different positions, and is generally inaccurate: analysing fly and mouse in vivo ChIPseq data, we show that in most cases the PWM model fails to reproduce the observed statistics of TFBSs. To overcome this issue, we introduce the pairwise interaction model (PIM), a generalization of the PWM model. The model is based on the principle of maximum entropy and explicitly describes pairwise correlations between nucleotides at different positions, while being otherwise as unconstrained as possible. It is mathematically equivalent to considering a TF-DNA binding energy that depends additively on each nucleotide identity at all positions in the TFBS, like the PWM model, but also additively on pairs of nucleotides. We find that the PIM significantly improves over the PWM model, and even provides an optimal description of TFBS statistics within statistical noise. The PIM generalizes previous approaches to interdependent positions: it accounts for co-variation of two or more base pairs, and predicts secondary motifs, while outperforming multiple-motif models consisting of mixtures of PWMs. We analyse the structure of pairwise interactions between nucleotides, and find that they are sparse and dominantly located between consecutive base pairs in the flanking region of TFBS. Nonetheless, interactions between pairs of non-consecutive nucleotides are found to play a significant role in the obtained accurate description of TFBS statistics. The PIM is computationally tractable, and provides a general framework that should be useful for describing and predicting TFBSs beyond
Nielsen, Jens; D’Avezac, Mayeul; Hetherington, James; Stamatakis, Michail
2013-12-14
Ab initio kinetic Monte Carlo (KMC) simulations have been successfully applied for over two decades to elucidate the underlying physico-chemical phenomena on the surfaces of heterogeneous catalysts. These simulations necessitate detailed knowledge of the kinetics of elementary reactions constituting the reaction mechanism, and the energetics of the species participating in the chemistry. The information about the energetics is encoded in the formation energies of gas and surface-bound species, and the lateral interactions between adsorbates on the catalytic surface, which can be modeled at different levels of detail. The majority of previous works accounted for only pairwise-additive first nearest-neighbor interactions. More recently, cluster-expansion Hamiltonians incorporating long-range interactions and many-body terms have been used for detailed estimations of catalytic rate [C. Wu, D. J. Schmidt, C. Wolverton, and W. F. Schneider, J. Catal. 286, 88 (2012)]. In view of the increasing interest in accurate predictions of catalytic performance, there is a need for general-purpose KMC approaches incorporating detailed cluster expansion models for the adlayer energetics. We have addressed this need by building on the previously introduced graph-theoretical KMC framework, and we have developed Zacros, a FORTRAN2003 KMC package for simulating catalytic chemistries. To tackle the high computational cost in the presence of long-range interactions we introduce parallelization with OpenMP. We further benchmark our framework by simulating a KMC analogue of the NO oxidation system established by Schneider and co-workers [J. Catal. 286, 88 (2012)]. We show that taking into account only first nearest-neighbor interactions may lead to large errors in the prediction of the catalytic rate, whereas for accurate estimates thereof, one needs to include long-range terms in the cluster expansion.
Molecular Sieve Bench Testing and Computer Modeling
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Mohamadinejad, Habib; DaLee, Robert C.; Blackmon, James B.
1995-01-01
The design of an efficient four-bed molecular sieve (4BMS) CO2 removal system for the International Space Station depends on many mission parameters, such as duration, crew size, cost of power, volume, fluid interface properties, etc. A need for space vehicle CO2 removal system models capable of accurately performing extrapolated hardware predictions is inevitable due to the change of the parameters which influences the CO2 removal system capacity. The purpose is to investigate the mathematical techniques required for a model capable of accurate extrapolated performance predictions and to obtain test data required to estimate mass transfer coefficients and verify the computer model. Models have been developed to demonstrate that the finite difference technique can be successfully applied to sorbents and conditions used in spacecraft CO2 removal systems. The nonisothermal, axially dispersed, plug flow model with linear driving force for 5X sorbent and pore diffusion for silica gel are then applied to test data. A more complex model, a non-darcian model (two dimensional), has also been developed for simulation of the test data. This model takes into account the channeling effect on column breakthrough. Four FORTRAN computer programs are presented: a two-dimensional model of flow adsorption/desorption in a packed bed; a one-dimensional model of flow adsorption/desorption in a packed bed; a model of thermal vacuum desorption; and a model of a tri-sectional packed bed with two different sorbent materials. The programs are capable of simulating up to four gas constituents for each process, which can be increased with a few minor changes.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wosnik, M.; Bachant, P.
2014-12-01
Cross-flow turbines, often referred to as vertical-axis turbines, show potential for success in marine hydrokinetic (MHK) and wind energy applications, ranging from small- to utility-scale installations in tidal/ocean currents and offshore wind. As turbine designs mature, the research focus is shifting from individual devices to the optimization of turbine arrays. It would be expensive and time-consuming to conduct physical model studies of large arrays at large model scales (to achieve sufficiently high Reynolds numbers), and hence numerical techniques are generally better suited to explore the array design parameter space. However, since the computing power available today is not sufficient to conduct simulations of the flow in and around large arrays of turbines with fully resolved turbine geometries (e.g., grid resolution into the viscous sublayer on turbine blades), the turbines' interaction with the energy resource (water current or wind) needs to be parameterized, or modeled. Models used today--a common model is the actuator disk concept--are not able to predict the unique wake structure generated by cross-flow turbines. This wake structure has been shown to create "constructive" interference in some cases, improving turbine performance in array configurations, in contrast with axial-flow, or horizontal axis devices. Towards a more accurate parameterization of cross-flow turbines, an extensive experimental study was carried out using a high-resolution turbine test bed with wake measurement capability in a large cross-section tow tank. The experimental results were then "interpolated" using high-fidelity Navier--Stokes simulations, to gain insight into the turbine's near-wake. The study was designed to achieve sufficiently high Reynolds numbers for the results to be Reynolds number independent with respect to turbine performance and wake statistics, such that they can be reliably extrapolated to full scale and used for model validation. The end product of
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Franz, J. R.
1993-01-01
Numerical calculations of the electronic properties of liquid II-VI semiconductors, particularly CdTe and ZnTe were performed. The measured conductivity of these liquid alloys were modeled by assuming that the dominant temperature effect is the increase in the number of dangling bonds with increasing temperature. For low to moderate values of electron correlation, the calculated conductivity as a function of dangling bond concentration closely follows the measured conductivity as a function of temperature. Both the temperature dependence of the chemical potential and the thermal smearing in region of the Fermi surface have a large effect on calculated values of conductivity.
Computational models of epileptiform activity.
Wendling, Fabrice; Benquet, Pascal; Bartolomei, Fabrice; Jirsa, Viktor
2016-02-15
We reviewed computer models that have been developed to reproduce and explain epileptiform activity. Unlike other already-published reviews on computer models of epilepsy, the proposed overview starts from the various types of epileptiform activity encountered during both interictal and ictal periods. Computational models proposed so far in the context of partial and generalized epilepsies are classified according to the following taxonomy: neural mass, neural field, detailed network and formal mathematical models. Insights gained about interictal epileptic spikes and high-frequency oscillations, about fast oscillations at seizure onset, about seizure initiation and propagation, about spike-wave discharges and about status epilepticus are described. This review shows the richness and complementarity of the various modeling approaches as well as the fruitful contribution of the computational neuroscience community in the field of epilepsy research. It shows that models have progressively gained acceptance and are now considered as an efficient way of integrating structural, functional and pathophysiological data about neural systems into "coherent and interpretable views". The advantages, limitations and future of modeling approaches are discussed. Perspectives in epilepsy research and clinical epileptology indicate that very promising directions are foreseen, like model-guided experiments or model-guided therapeutic strategy, among others. PMID:25843066
Bonetto, Paola; Qi, Jinyi; Leahy, Richard M.
1999-10-01
We describe a method for computing linear observer statistics for maximum a posteriori (MAP) reconstructions of PET images. The method is based on a theoretical approximation for the mean and covariance of MAP reconstructions. In particular, we derive here a closed form for the channelized Hotelling observer (CHO) statistic applied to 2D MAP images. We show reasonably good correspondence between these theoretical results and Monte Carlo studies. The accuracy and low computational cost of the approximation allow us to analyze the observer performance over a wide range of operating conditions and parameter settings for the MAP reconstruction algorithm.
Time-Accurate Computations of Isolated Circular Synthetic Jets in Crossflow
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Rumsey, C. L.; Schaeffler, N. W.; Milanovic, I. M.; Zaman, K. B. M. Q.
2007-01-01
Results from unsteady Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes computations are described for two different synthetic jet flows issuing into a turbulent boundary layer crossflow through a circular orifice. In one case the jet effect is mostly contained within the boundary layer, while in the other case the jet effect extends beyond the boundary layer edge. Both cases have momentum flux ratios less than 2. Several numerical parameters are investigated, and some lessons learned regarding the CFD methods for computing these types of flow fields are summarized. Results in both cases are compared to experiment.
Time-Accurate Computations of Isolated Circular Synthetic Jets in Crossflow
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Rumsey, Christoper L.; Schaeffler, Norman W.; Milanovic, I. M.; Zaman, K. B. M. Q.
2005-01-01
Results from unsteady Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes computations are described for two different synthetic jet flows issuing into a turbulent boundary layer crossflow through a circular orifice. In one case the jet effect is mostly contained within the boundary layer, while in the other case the jet effect extends beyond the boundary layer edge. Both cases have momentum flux ratios less than 2. Several numerical parameters are investigated, and some lessons learned regarding the CFD methods for computing these types of flow fields are outlined. Results in both cases are compared to experiment.
Computational modeling of properties
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Franz, Judy R.
1994-01-01
A simple model was developed to calculate the electronic transport parameters in disordered semiconductors in strong scattered regime. The calculation is based on a Green function solution to Kubo equation for the energy-dependent conductivity. This solution together with a rigorous calculation of the temperature-dependent chemical potential allows the determination of the dc conductivity and the thermopower. For wise-gap semiconductors with single defect bands, these transport properties are investigated as a function of defect concentration, defect energy, Fermi level, and temperature. Under certain conditions the calculated conductivity is quite similar to the measured conductivity in liquid II-VI semiconductors in that two distinct temperature regimes are found. Under different conditions the conductivity is found to decrease with temperature; this result agrees with measurements in amorphous Si. Finally the calculated thermopower can be positive or negative and may change sign with temperature or defect concentration.
Computational modeling of properties
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Franz, Judy R.
1994-01-01
A simple model was developed to calculate the electronic transport parameters in disordered semiconductors in strong scattered regime. The calculation is based on a Green function solution to Kubo equation for the energy-dependent conductivity. This solution together with a rigorous calculation of the temperature-dependent chemical potential allows the determination of the dc conductivity and the thermopower. For wide-gap semiconductors with single defect bands, these transport properties are investigated as a function of defect concentration, defect energy, Fermi level, and temperature. Under certain conditions the calculated conductivity is quite similar to the measured conductivity in liquid 2-6 semiconductors in that two distinct temperature regimes are found. Under different conditions the conductivity is found to decrease with temperature; this result agrees with measurements in amorphous Si. Finally the calculated thermopower can be positive or negative and may change sign with temperature or defect concentration.
Accurate modeling of cache replacement policies in a Data-Grid.
Otoo, Ekow J.; Shoshani, Arie
2003-01-23
Caching techniques have been used to improve the performance gap of storage hierarchies in computing systems. In data intensive applications that access large data files over wide area network environment, such as a data grid,caching mechanism can significantly improve the data access performance under appropriate workloads. In a data grid, it is envisioned that local disk storage resources retain or cache the data files being used by local application. Under a workload of shared access and high locality of reference, the performance of the caching techniques depends heavily on the replacement policies being used. A replacement policy effectively determines which set of objects must be evicted when space is needed. Unlike cache replacement policies in virtual memory paging or database buffering, developing an optimal replacement policy for data grids is complicated by the fact that the file objects being cached have varying sizes and varying transfer and processing costs that vary with time. We present an accurate model for evaluating various replacement policies and propose a new replacement algorithm referred to as ''Least Cost Beneficial based on K backward references (LCB-K).'' Using this modeling technique, we compare LCB-K with various replacement policies such as Least Frequently Used (LFU), Least Recently Used (LRU), Greedy DualSize (GDS), etc., using synthetic and actual workload of accesses to and from tertiary storage systems. The results obtained show that (LCB-K) and (GDS) are the most cost effective cache replacement policies for storage resource management in data grids.
Computer subroutine ISUDS accurately solves large system of simultaneous linear algebraic equations
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Collier, G.
1967-01-01
Computer program, an Iterative Scheme Using a Direct Solution, obtains double precision accuracy using a single-precision coefficient matrix. ISUDS solves a system of equations written in matrix form as AX equals B, where A is a square non-singular coefficient matrix, X is a vector, and B is a vector.
Time-Accurate Computation of Viscous Flow Around Deforming Bodies Using Overset Grids
Fast, P; Henshaw, W D
2001-04-02
Dynamically evolving boundaries and deforming bodies interacting with a flow are commonly encountered in fluid dynamics. However, the numerical simulation of flows with dynamic boundaries is difficult with current methods. We propose a new method for studying such problems. The key idea is to use the overset grid method with a thin, body-fitted grid near the deforming boundary, while using fixed Cartesian grids to cover most of the computational domain. Our approach combines the strengths of earlier moving overset grid methods for rigid body motion, and unstructured grid methods for Aow-structure interactions. Large scale deformation of the flow boundaries can be handled without a global regridding, and in a computationally efficient way. In terms of computational cost, even a full overset grid regridding is significantly cheaper than a full regridding of an unstructured grid for the same domain, especially in three dimensions. Numerical studies are used to verify accuracy and convergence of our flow solver. As a computational example, we consider two-dimensional incompressible flow past a flexible filament with prescribed dynamics.
Efficient Computational Model of Hysteresis
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Shields, Joel
2005-01-01
A recently developed mathematical model of the output (displacement) versus the input (applied voltage) of a piezoelectric transducer accounts for hysteresis. For the sake of computational speed, the model is kept simple by neglecting the dynamic behavior of the transducer. Hence, the model applies to static and quasistatic displacements only. A piezoelectric transducer of the type to which the model applies is used as an actuator in a computer-based control system to effect fine position adjustments. Because the response time of the rest of such a system is usually much greater than that of a piezoelectric transducer, the model remains an acceptably close approximation for the purpose of control computations, even though the dynamics are neglected. The model (see Figure 1) represents an electrically parallel, mechanically series combination of backlash elements, each having a unique deadband width and output gain. The zeroth element in the parallel combination has zero deadband width and, hence, represents a linear component of the input/output relationship. The other elements, which have nonzero deadband widths, are used to model the nonlinear components of the hysteresis loop. The deadband widths and output gains of the elements are computed from experimental displacement-versus-voltage data. The hysteresis curve calculated by use of this model is piecewise linear beyond deadband limits.
Ch. 33 Modeling: Computational Thermodynamics
Besmann, Theodore M
2012-01-01
This chapter considers methods and techniques for computational modeling for nuclear materials with a focus on fuels. The basic concepts for chemical thermodynamics are described and various current models for complex crystalline and liquid phases are illustrated. Also included are descriptions of available databases for use in chemical thermodynamic studies and commercial codes for performing complex equilibrium calculations.
MONA: An accurate two-phase well flow model based on phase slippage
Asheim, H.
1984-10-01
In two phase flow, holdup and pressure loss are related to interfacial slippage. A model based on the slippage concept has been developed and tested using production well data from Forties, the Ekofisk area, and flowline data from Prudhoe Bay. The model developed turned out considerably more accurate than the standard models used for comparison.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhang, Xiang; Vu-Quoc, Loc
2007-07-01
We present in this paper the displacement-driven version of a tangential force-displacement (TFD) model that accounts for both elastic and plastic deformations together with interfacial friction occurring in collisions of spherical particles. This elasto-plastic frictional TFD model, with its force-driven version presented in [L. Vu-Quoc, L. Lesburg, X. Zhang. An accurate tangential force-displacement model for granular-flow simulations: contacting spheres with plastic deformation, force-driven formulation, Journal of Computational Physics 196(1) (2004) 298-326], is consistent with the elasto-plastic frictional normal force-displacement (NFD) model presented in [L. Vu-Quoc, X. Zhang. An elasto-plastic contact force-displacement model in the normal direction: displacement-driven version, Proceedings of the Royal Society of London, Series A 455 (1991) 4013-4044]. Both the NFD model and the present TFD model are based on the concept of additive decomposition of the radius of contact area into an elastic part and a plastic part. The effect of permanent indentation after impact is represented by a correction to the radius of curvature. The effect of material softening due to plastic flow is represented by a correction to the elastic moduli. The proposed TFD model is accurate, and is validated against nonlinear finite element analyses involving plastic flows in both the loading and unloading conditions. The proposed consistent displacement-driven, elasto-plastic NFD and TFD models are designed for implementation in computer codes using the discrete-element method (DEM) for granular-flow simulations. The model is shown to be accurate and is validated against nonlinear elasto-plastic finite-element analysis.
Accurate Analysis and Computer Aided Design of Microstrip Dual Mode Resonators and Filters.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Grounds, Preston Whitfield, III
1995-01-01
Microstrip structures are of interest due to their many applications in microwave circuit design. Their small size and ease of connection to both passive and active components make them well suited for use in systems where size and space is at a premium. These include satellite communication systems, radar systems, satellite navigation systems, cellular phones and many others. In general, space is always a premium for any mobile system. Microstrip resonators find particular application in oscillators and filters. In typical filters each microstrip patch corresponds to one resonator. However, when dual mode patches are employed, each patch acts as two resonators and therefore reduces the amount of space required to build the filter. This dissertation focuses on the accurate electromagnetic analysis of the components of planar dual mode filters. Highly accurate analyses are required so that the resonator to resonator coupling and the resonator to input/output can be predicted with precision. Hence, filters can be built with a minimum of design iterations and tuning. The analysis used herein is an integral equation formulation in the spectral domain. The analysis is done in the spectral domain since the Green's function can be derived in closed form, and the spatial domain convolution becomes a simple product. The resulting set of equations is solved using the Method of Moments with Galerkin's procedure. The electromagnetic analysis is applied to range of problems including unloaded dual mode patches, dual mode patches coupled to microstrip feedlines, and complete filter structures. At each step calculated results are compared to measured results and good agreement is found. The calculated results are also compared to results from the circuit analysis program HP EESOF^{ rm TM} and again good agreement is found. A dual mode elliptic filter is built and good performance is obtained.
Enabling fast, stable and accurate peridynamic computations using multi-time-step integration
Lindsay, P.; Parks, M. L.; Prakash, A.
2016-04-13
Peridynamics is a nonlocal extension of classical continuum mechanics that is well-suited for solving problems with discontinuities such as cracks. This paper extends the peridynamic formulation to decompose a problem domain into a number of smaller overlapping subdomains and to enable the use of different time steps in different subdomains. This approach allows regions of interest to be isolated and solved at a small time step for increased accuracy while the rest of the problem domain can be solved at a larger time step for greater computational efficiency. Lastly, performance of the proposed method in terms of stability, accuracy, andmore » computational cost is examined and several numerical examples are presented to corroborate the findings.« less
Matrix-vector multiplication using digital partitioning for more accurate optical computing
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Gary, C. K.
1992-01-01
Digital partitioning offers a flexible means of increasing the accuracy of an optical matrix-vector processor. This algorithm can be implemented with the same architecture required for a purely analog processor, which gives optical matrix-vector processors the ability to perform high-accuracy calculations at speeds comparable with or greater than electronic computers as well as the ability to perform analog operations at a much greater speed. Digital partitioning is compared with digital multiplication by analog convolution, residue number systems, and redundant number representation in terms of the size and the speed required for an equivalent throughput as well as in terms of the hardware requirements. Digital partitioning and digital multiplication by analog convolution are found to be the most efficient alogrithms if coding time and hardware are considered, and the architecture for digital partitioning permits the use of analog computations to provide the greatest throughput for a single processor.
Johnson, K.A.; Holman, B.L.; Rosen, T.J.; Nagel, J.S.; English, R.J.; Growdon, J.H. )
1990-04-01
To determine the diagnostic accuracy of iofetamine hydrochloride I 123 (IMP) with single photon emission computed tomography in Alzheimer's disease, we studied 58 patients with AD and 15 age-matched healthy control subjects. We used a qualitative method to assess regional IMP uptake in the entire brain and to rate image data sets as normal or abnormal without knowledge of subjects'clinical classification. The sensitivity and specificity of IMP with single photon emission computed tomography in AD were 88% and 87%, respectively. In 15 patients with mild cognitive deficits (Blessed Dementia Scale score, less than or equal to 10), sensitivity was 80%. With the use of a semiquantitative measure of regional cortical IMP uptake, the parietal lobes were the most functionally impaired in AD and the most strongly associated with the patients' Blessed Dementia Scale scores. These results indicated that IMP with single photon emission computed tomography may be a useful adjunct in the clinical diagnosis of AD in early, mild disease.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Grasso, Robert J.; Russo, Leonard P.; Barrett, John L.; Odhner, Jefferson E.; Egbert, Paul I.
2007-09-01
BAE Systems presents the results of a program to model the performance of Raman LIDAR systems for the remote detection of atmospheric gases, air polluting hydrocarbons, chemical and biological weapons, and other molecular species of interest. Our model, which integrates remote Raman spectroscopy, 2D and 3D LADAR, and USAF atmospheric propagation codes permits accurate determination of the performance of a Raman LIDAR system. The very high predictive performance accuracy of our model is due to the very accurate calculation of the differential scattering cross section for the specie of interest at user selected wavelengths. We show excellent correlation of our calculated cross section data, used in our model, with experimental data obtained from both laboratory measurements and the published literature. In addition, the use of standard USAF atmospheric models provides very accurate determination of the atmospheric extinction at both the excitation and Raman shifted wavelengths.
Computational Modeling of Multiphase Reactors.
Joshi, J B; Nandakumar, K
2015-01-01
Multiphase reactors are very common in chemical industry, and numerous review articles exist that are focused on types of reactors, such as bubble columns, trickle beds, fluid catalytic beds, etc. Currently, there is a high degree of empiricism in the design process of such reactors owing to the complexity of coupled flow and reaction mechanisms. Hence, we focus on synthesizing recent advances in computational and experimental techniques that will enable future designs of such reactors in a more rational manner by exploring a large design space with high-fidelity models (computational fluid dynamics and computational chemistry models) that are validated with high-fidelity measurements (tomography and other detailed spatial measurements) to provide a high degree of rigor. Understanding the spatial distributions of dispersed phases and their interaction during scale up are key challenges that were traditionally addressed through pilot scale experiments, but now can be addressed through advanced modeling. PMID:26134737
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Osei-Kuffuor, Daniel; Fattebert, Jean-Luc
2014-01-01
We present the first truly scalable first-principles molecular dynamics algorithm with O(N) complexity and controllable accuracy, capable of simulating systems with finite band gaps of sizes that were previously impossible with this degree of accuracy. By avoiding global communications, we provide a practical computational scheme capable of extreme scalability. Accuracy is controlled by the mesh spacing of the finite difference discretization, the size of the localization regions in which the electronic wave functions are confined, and a cutoff beyond which the components of the overlap matrix can be omitted when computing selected elements of its inverse. We demonstrate the algorithm's excellent parallel scaling for up to 101 952 atoms on 23 328 processors, with a wall-clock time of the order of 1 min per molecular dynamics time step and numerical error on the forces of less than 7×10-4 Ha/Bohr.
Osei-Kuffuor, Daniel; Fattebert, Jean-Luc
2014-01-01
We present the first truly scalable first-principles molecular dynamics algorithm with O(N) complexity and controllable accuracy, capable of simulating systems with finite band gaps of sizes that were previously impossible with this degree of accuracy. By avoiding global communications, we provide a practical computational scheme capable of extreme scalability. Accuracy is controlled by the mesh spacing of the finite difference discretization, the size of the localization regions in which the electronic wave functions are confined, and a cutoff beyond which the components of the overlap matrix can be omitted when computing selected elements of its inverse. We demonstrate the algorithm's excellent parallel scaling for up to 101 952 atoms on 23 328 processors, with a wall-clock time of the order of 1 min per molecular dynamics time step and numerical error on the forces of less than 7x10^{-4} Ha/Bohr.
iTagPlot: an accurate computation and interactive drawing tool for tag density plot
Kim, Sung-Hwan; Ezenwoye, Onyeka; Cho, Hwan-Gue; Robertson, Keith D.; Choi, Jeong-Hyeon
2015-01-01
Motivation: Tag density plots are very important to intuitively reveal biological phenomena from capture-based sequencing data by visualizing the normalized read depth in a region. Results: We have developed iTagPlot to compute tag density across functional features in parallel using multicores and a grid engine and to interactively explore it in a graphical user interface. It allows us to stratify features by defining groups based on biological function and measurement, summary statistics and unsupervised clustering. Availability and implementation: http://sourceforge.net/projects/itagplot/. Contact: jechoi@gru.edu and jeochoi@gmail.com Supplementary information: Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. PMID:25792550
Computational models of adult neurogenesis
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cecchi, Guillermo A.; Magnasco, Marcelo O.
2005-10-01
Experimental results in recent years have shown that adult neurogenesis is a significant phenomenon in the mammalian brain. Little is known, however, about the functional role played by the generation and destruction of neurons in the context of an adult brain. Here, we propose two models where new projection neurons are incorporated. We show that in both models, using incorporation and removal of neurons as a computational tool, it is possible to achieve a higher computational efficiency that in purely static, synapse-learning-driven networks. We also discuss the implication for understanding the role of adult neurogenesis in specific brain areas like the olfactory bulb and the dentate gyrus.
Models for computing combat risk
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jelinek, Jan
2002-07-01
Combat always involves uncertainty and uncertainty entails risk. To ensure that a combat task is prosecuted with the desired probability of success, the task commander has to devise an appropriate task force and then adjust it continuously in the course of battle. In order to do so, he has to evaluate how the probability of task success is related to the structure, capabilities and numerical strengths of combatants. For this purpose, predictive models of combat dynamics for combats in which the combatants fire asynchronously at random instants are developed from the first principles. Combats involving forces with both unlimited and limited ammunition supply are studied and modeled by stochastic Markov processes. In addition to the Markov models, another class of models first proposed by Brown was explored. The models compute directly the probability of win, in which we are primarily interested, without integrating the state probability equations. Experiments confirm that they produce exactly the same results at much lower computational cost.
Gravitational Focusing and the Computation of an Accurate Moon/Mars Cratering Ratio
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Matney, Mark J.
2006-01-01
There have been a number of attempts to use asteroid populations to simultaneously compute cratering rates on the Moon and bodies elsewhere in the Solar System to establish the cratering ratio (e.g., [1],[2]). These works use current asteroid orbit population databases combined with collision rate calculations based on orbit intersections alone. As recent work on meteoroid fluxes [3] have highlighted, however, collision rates alone are insufficient to describe the cratering rates on planetary surfaces - especially planets with stronger gravitational fields than the Moon, such as Earth and Mars. Such calculations also need to include the effects of gravitational focusing, whereby the spatial density of the slower-moving impactors is preferentially "focused" by the gravity of the body. This leads overall to higher fluxes and cratering rates, and is highly dependent on the detailed velocity distributions of the impactors. In this paper, a comprehensive gravitational focusing algorithm originally developed to describe fluxes of interplanetary meteoroids [3] is applied to the collision rates and cratering rates of populations of asteroids and long-period comets to compute better cratering ratios for terrestrial bodies in the Solar System. These results are compared to the calculations of other researchers.
Thermal Conductivities in Solids from First Principles: Accurate Computations and Rapid Estimates
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Carbogno, Christian; Scheffler, Matthias
In spite of significant research efforts, a first-principles determination of the thermal conductivity κ at high temperatures has remained elusive. Boltzmann transport techniques that account for anharmonicity perturbatively become inaccurate under such conditions. Ab initio molecular dynamics (MD) techniques using the Green-Kubo (GK) formalism capture the full anharmonicity, but can become prohibitively costly to converge in time and size. We developed a formalism that accelerates such GK simulations by several orders of magnitude and that thus enables its application within the limited time and length scales accessible in ab initio MD. For this purpose, we determine the effective harmonic potential occurring during the MD, the associated temperature-dependent phonon properties and lifetimes. Interpolation in reciprocal and frequency space then allows to extrapolate to the macroscopic scale. For both force-field and ab initio MD, we validate this approach by computing κ for Si and ZrO2, two materials known for their particularly harmonic and anharmonic character. Eventually, we demonstrate how these techniques facilitate reasonable estimates of κ from existing MD calculations at virtually no additional computational cost.
Computational Modeling Method for Superalloys
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Bozzolo, Guillermo; Noebe, Ronald D.; Gayda, John
1997-01-01
Computer modeling based on theoretical quantum techniques has been largely inefficient due to limitations on the methods or the computer needs associated with such calculations, thus perpetuating the notion that little help can be expected from computer simulations for the atomistic design of new materials. In a major effort to overcome these limitations and to provide a tool for efficiently assisting in the development of new alloys, we developed the BFS method for alloys, which together with the experimental results from previous and current research that validate its use for large-scale simulations, provide the ideal grounds for developing a computationally economical and physically sound procedure for supplementing the experimental work at great cost and time savings.
Hu, Y.X.; Stamnes, K. )
1993-04-01
A new parameterization of the radiative Properties of water clouds is presented. Cloud optical properties for valent radius throughout the solar and both solar and terrestrial spectra and for cloud equivalent radii in the range 2.5-60 [mu]m are calculated from Mie theory. It is found that cloud optical properties depend mainly on equivalent radius throughout the solar and terrestrial spectrum and are insensitive to the details of the droplet size distribution, such as shape, skewness, width, and modality (single or bimodal). This suggests that in cloud models, aimed at predicting the evolution of cloud microphysics with climate change, it is sufficient to determine the third and the second moments of the size distribution (the ratio of which determines the equivalent radius). It also implies that measurements of the cloud liquid water content and the extinction coefficient are sufficient to determine cloud optical properties experimentally (i.e., measuring the complete droplet size distribution is not required). Based on the detailed calculations, the optical properties are parameterized as a function of cloud liquid water path and equivalent cloud droplet radius by using a nonlinear least-square fitting. The parameterization is performed separately for the range of radii 2.5-12 [mu]m, 12-30,[mu]m, and 30-60 [mu]m. Cloud heating and cooling rates are computed from this parameterization by using a comprehensive radiation model. Comparison with similar results obtained from exact Mie scattering calculations shows that this parameterization yields very accurate results and that it is several thousand times faster. This parameterization separates the dependence of cloud optical properties on droplet size and liquid water content, and is suitable for inclusion into climate models. 22 refs., 7 figs., 6 tabs.
Leng, Wei; Ju, Lili; Gunzburger, Max; Price, Stephen; Ringler, Todd
2012-01-01
The numerical modeling of glacier and ice sheet evolution is a subject of growing interest, in part because of the potential for models to inform estimates of global sea level change. This paper focuses on the development of a numerical model that determines the velocity and pressure fields within an ice sheet. Our numerical model features a high-fidelity mathematical model involving the nonlinear Stokes system and combinations of no-sliding and sliding basal boundary conditions, high-order accurate finite element discretizations based on variable resolution grids, and highly scalable parallel solution strategies, all of which contribute to a numerical model that can achieve accurate velocity and pressure approximations in a highly efficient manner. We demonstrate the accuracy and efficiency of our model by analytical solution tests, established ice sheet benchmark experiments, and comparisons with other well-established ice sheet models.
Climate Modeling Computing Needs Assessment
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Petraska, K. E.; McCabe, J. D.
2011-12-01
This paper discusses early findings of an assessment of computing needs for NASA science, engineering and flight communities. The purpose of this assessment is to document a comprehensive set of computing needs that will allow us to better evaluate whether our computing assets are adequately structured to meet evolving demand. The early results are interesting, already pointing out improvements we can make today to get more out of the computing capacity we have, as well as potential game changing innovations for the future in how we apply information technology to science computing. Our objective is to learn how to leverage our resources in the best way possible to do more science for less money. Our approach in this assessment is threefold: Development of use case studies for science workflows; Creating a taxonomy and structure for describing science computing requirements; and characterizing agency computing, analysis, and visualization resources. As projects evolve, science data sets increase in a number of ways: in size, scope, timelines, complexity, and fidelity. Generating, processing, moving, and analyzing these data sets places distinct and discernable requirements on underlying computing, analysis, storage, and visualization systems. The initial focus group for this assessment is the Earth Science modeling community within NASA's Science Mission Directorate (SMD). As the assessment evolves, this focus will expand to other science communities across the agency. We will discuss our use cases, our framework for requirements and our characterizations, as well as our interview process, what we learned and how we plan to improve our materials after using them in the first round of interviews in the Earth Science Modeling community. We will describe our plans for how to expand this assessment, first into the Earth Science data analysis and remote sensing communities, and then throughout the full community of science, engineering and flight at NASA.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Maeda, Chiaki; Tasaki, Satoko; Kirihara, Soshu
2011-05-01
Computer graphic models of bioscaffolds with four-coordinate lattice structures of solid rods in artificial bones were designed by using a computer aided design. The scaffold models composed of acryl resin with hydroxyapatite particles at 45vol. % were fabricated by using stereolithography of a computer aided manufacturing. After dewaxing and sintering heat treatment processes, the ceramics scaffold models with four-coordinate lattices and fine hydroxyapatite microstructures were obtained successfully. By using a computer aided analysis, it was found that bio-fluids could flow extensively inside the sintered scaffolds. This result shows that the lattice structures will realize appropriate bio-fluid circulations and promote regenerations of new bones.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kemp, James Herbert (Inventor); Talukder, Ashit (Inventor); Lambert, James (Inventor); Lam, Raymond (Inventor)
2008-01-01
A computer-implemented system and method of intra-oral analysis for measuring plaque removal is disclosed. The system includes hardware for real-time image acquisition and software to store the acquired images on a patient-by-patient basis. The system implements algorithms to segment teeth of interest from surrounding gum, and uses a real-time image-based morphing procedure to automatically overlay a grid onto each segmented tooth. Pattern recognition methods are used to classify plaque from surrounding gum and enamel, while ignoring glare effects due to the reflection of camera light and ambient light from enamel regions. The system integrates these components into a single software suite with an easy-to-use graphical user interface (GUI) that allows users to do an end-to-end run of a patient record, including tooth segmentation of all teeth, grid morphing of each segmented tooth, and plaque classification of each tooth image.
Quick, Accurate, Smart: 3D Computer Vision Technology Helps Assessing Confined Animals’ Behaviour
Calderara, Simone; Pistocchi, Simone; Cucchiara, Rita; Podaliri-Vulpiani, Michele; Messori, Stefano; Ferri, Nicola
2016-01-01
Mankind directly controls the environment and lifestyles of several domestic species for purposes ranging from production and research to conservation and companionship. These environments and lifestyles may not offer these animals the best quality of life. Behaviour is a direct reflection of how the animal is coping with its environment. Behavioural indicators are thus among the preferred parameters to assess welfare. However, behavioural recording (usually from video) can be very time consuming and the accuracy and reliability of the output rely on the experience and background of the observers. The outburst of new video technology and computer image processing gives the basis for promising solutions. In this pilot study, we present a new prototype software able to automatically infer the behaviour of dogs housed in kennels from 3D visual data and through structured machine learning frameworks. Depth information acquired through 3D features, body part detection and training are the key elements that allow the machine to recognise postures, trajectories inside the kennel and patterns of movement that can be later labelled at convenience. The main innovation of the software is its ability to automatically cluster frequently observed temporal patterns of movement without any pre-set ethogram. Conversely, when common patterns are defined through training, a deviation from normal behaviour in time or between individuals could be assessed. The software accuracy in correctly detecting the dogs’ behaviour was checked through a validation process. An automatic behaviour recognition system, independent from human subjectivity, could add scientific knowledge on animals’ quality of life in confinement as well as saving time and resources. This 3D framework was designed to be invariant to the dog’s shape and size and could be extended to farm, laboratory and zoo quadrupeds in artificial housing. The computer vision technique applied to this software is innovative in non
Quick, Accurate, Smart: 3D Computer Vision Technology Helps Assessing Confined Animals' Behaviour.
Barnard, Shanis; Calderara, Simone; Pistocchi, Simone; Cucchiara, Rita; Podaliri-Vulpiani, Michele; Messori, Stefano; Ferri, Nicola
2016-01-01
Mankind directly controls the environment and lifestyles of several domestic species for purposes ranging from production and research to conservation and companionship. These environments and lifestyles may not offer these animals the best quality of life. Behaviour is a direct reflection of how the animal is coping with its environment. Behavioural indicators are thus among the preferred parameters to assess welfare. However, behavioural recording (usually from video) can be very time consuming and the accuracy and reliability of the output rely on the experience and background of the observers. The outburst of new video technology and computer image processing gives the basis for promising solutions. In this pilot study, we present a new prototype software able to automatically infer the behaviour of dogs housed in kennels from 3D visual data and through structured machine learning frameworks. Depth information acquired through 3D features, body part detection and training are the key elements that allow the machine to recognise postures, trajectories inside the kennel and patterns of movement that can be later labelled at convenience. The main innovation of the software is its ability to automatically cluster frequently observed temporal patterns of movement without any pre-set ethogram. Conversely, when common patterns are defined through training, a deviation from normal behaviour in time or between individuals could be assessed. The software accuracy in correctly detecting the dogs' behaviour was checked through a validation process. An automatic behaviour recognition system, independent from human subjectivity, could add scientific knowledge on animals' quality of life in confinement as well as saving time and resources. This 3D framework was designed to be invariant to the dog's shape and size and could be extended to farm, laboratory and zoo quadrupeds in artificial housing. The computer vision technique applied to this software is innovative in non
Tiwari, Saumya; Reddy, Vijaya B.; Bhargava, Rohit; Raman, Jaishankar
2015-01-01
Rejection is a common problem after cardiac transplants leading to significant number of adverse events and deaths, particularly in the first year of transplantation. The gold standard to identify rejection is endomyocardial biopsy. This technique is complex, cumbersome and requires a lot of expertise in the correct interpretation of stained biopsy sections. Traditional histopathology cannot be used actively or quickly during cardiac interventions or surgery. Our objective was to develop a stain-less approach using an emerging technology, Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopic imaging to identify different components of cardiac tissue by their chemical and molecular basis aided by computer recognition, rather than by visual examination using optical microscopy. We studied this technique in assessment of cardiac transplant rejection to evaluate efficacy in an example of complex cardiovascular pathology. We recorded data from human cardiac transplant patients’ biopsies, used a Bayesian classification protocol and developed a visualization scheme to observe chemical differences without the need of stains or human supervision. Using receiver operating characteristic curves, we observed probabilities of detection greater than 95% for four out of five histological classes at 10% probability of false alarm at the cellular level while correctly identifying samples with the hallmarks of the immune response in all cases. The efficacy of manual examination can be significantly increased by observing the inherent biochemical changes in tissues, which enables us to achieve greater diagnostic confidence in an automated, label-free manner. We developed a computational pathology system that gives high contrast images and seems superior to traditional staining procedures. This study is a prelude to the development of real time in situ imaging systems, which can assist interventionists and surgeons actively during procedures. PMID:25932912
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Osei-Kuffuor, Daniel; Fattebert, Jean-Luc
2014-03-01
We present a truly scalable First-Principles Molecular Dynamics algorithm with O(N) complexity and fully controllable accuracy, capable of simulating systems of sizes that were previously impossible with this degree of accuracy. By avoiding global communication, we have extended W. Kohn's condensed matter ``nearsightedness'' principle to a practical computational scheme capable of extreme scalability. Accuracy is controlled by the mesh spacing of the finite difference discretization, the size of the localization regions in which the electronic wavefunctions are confined, and a cutoff beyond which the components of the overlap matrix can be omitted when computing selected elements of its inverse. We demonstrate the algorithm's excellent parallel scaling for up to 100,000 atoms on 100,000 processors, with a wall-clock time of the order of one minute per molecular dynamics time step. This work was performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344.
Keshavarz, Mohammad Hossein; Gharagheizi, Farhad; Shokrolahi, Arash; Zakinejad, Sajjad
2012-10-30
Most of benzoic acid derivatives are toxic, which may cause serious public health and environmental problems. Two novel simple and reliable models are introduced for desk calculations of the toxicity of benzoic acid compounds in mice via oral LD(50) with more reliance on their answers as one could attach to the more complex outputs. They require only elemental composition and molecular fragments without using any computer codes. The first model is based on only the number of carbon and hydrogen atoms, which can be improved by several molecular fragments in the second model. For 57 benzoic compounds, where the computed results of quantitative structure-toxicity relationship (QSTR) were recently reported, the predicted results of two simple models of present method are more reliable than QSTR computations. The present simple method is also tested with further 324 benzoic acid compounds including complex molecular structures, which confirm good forecasting ability of the second model. PMID:22959133
Improving light propagation Monte Carlo simulations with accurate 3D modeling of skin tissue
Paquit, Vincent C; Price, Jeffery R; Meriaudeau, Fabrice; Tobin Jr, Kenneth William
2008-01-01
In this paper, we present a 3D light propagation model to simulate multispectral reflectance images of large skin surface areas. In particular, we aim to simulate more accurately the effects of various physiological properties of the skin in the case of subcutaneous vein imaging compared to existing models. Our method combines a Monte Carlo light propagation model, a realistic three-dimensional model of the skin using parametric surfaces and a vision system for data acquisition. We describe our model in detail, present results from the Monte Carlo modeling and compare our results with those obtained with a well established Monte Carlo model and with real skin reflectance images.
Hydronic distribution system computer model
Andrews, J.W.; Strasser, J.J.
1994-10-01
A computer model of a hot-water boiler and its associated hydronic thermal distribution loop has been developed at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL). It is intended to be incorporated as a submodel in a comprehensive model of residential-scale thermal distribution systems developed at Lawrence Berkeley. This will give the combined model the capability of modeling forced-air and hydronic distribution systems in the same house using the same supporting software. This report describes the development of the BNL hydronics model, initial results and internal consistency checks, and its intended relationship to the LBL model. A method of interacting with the LBL model that does not require physical integration of the two codes is described. This will provide capability now, with reduced up-front cost, as long as the number of runs required is not large.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
O'Brien, Edward P.; Morrison, Greg; Brooks, Bernard R.; Thirumalai, D.
2009-03-01
Single molecule Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET) experiments are used to infer the properties of the denatured state ensemble (DSE) of proteins. From the measured average FRET efficiency, ⟨E⟩, the distance distribution P(R ) is inferred by assuming that the DSE can be described as a polymer. The single parameter in the appropriate polymer model (Gaussian chain, wormlike chain, or self-avoiding walk) for P(R ) is determined by equating the calculated and measured ⟨E⟩. In order to assess the accuracy of this "standard procedure," we consider the generalized Rouse model (GRM), whose properties [⟨E⟩ and P(R )] can be analytically computed, and the Molecular Transfer Model for protein L for which accurate simulations can be carried out as a function of guanadinium hydrochloride (GdmCl) concentration. Using the precisely computed ⟨E⟩ for the GRM and protein L, we infer P(R ) using the standard procedure. We find that the mean end-to-end distance can be accurately inferred (less than 10% relative error) using ⟨E⟩ and polymer models for P(R ). However, the value extracted for the radius of gyration (Rg) and the persistence length (lp) are less accurate. For protein L, the errors in the inferred properties increase as the GdmCl concentration increases for all polymer models. The relative error in the inferred Rg and lp, with respect to the exact values, can be as large as 25% at the highest GdmCl concentration. We propose a self-consistency test, requiring measurements of ⟨E⟩ by attaching dyes to different residues in the protein, to assess the validity of describing DSE using the Gaussian model. Application of the self-consistency test to the GRM shows that even for this simple model, which exhibits an order→disorder transition, the Gaussian P(R ) is inadequate. Analysis of experimental data of FRET efficiencies with dyes at several locations for the cold shock protein, and simulations results for protein L, for which accurate FRET
2011-01-01
Background Genes of the Major Histocompatibility Complex (MHC) are very popular genetic markers among evolutionary biologists because of their potential role in pathogen confrontation and sexual selection. However, MHC genotyping still remains challenging and time-consuming in spite of substantial methodological advances. Although computational haplotype inference has brought into focus interesting alternatives, high heterozygosity, extensive genetic variation and population admixture are known to cause inaccuracies. We have investigated the role of sample size, genetic polymorphism and genetic structuring on the performance of the popular Bayesian PHASE algorithm. To cover this aim, we took advantage of a large database of known genotypes (using traditional laboratory-based techniques) at single MHC class I (N = 56 individuals and 50 alleles) and MHC class II B (N = 103 individuals and 62 alleles) loci in the lesser kestrel Falco naumanni. Findings Analyses carried out over real MHC genotypes showed that the accuracy of gametic phase reconstruction improved with sample size as a result of the reduction in the allele to individual ratio. We then simulated different data sets introducing variations in this parameter to define an optimal ratio. Conclusions Our results demonstrate a critical influence of the allele to individual ratio on PHASE performance. We found that a minimum allele to individual ratio (1:2) yielded 100% accuracy for both MHC loci. Sampling effort is therefore a crucial step to obtain reliable MHC haplotype reconstructions and must be accomplished accordingly to the degree of MHC polymorphism. We expect our findings provide a foothold into the design of straightforward and cost-effective genotyping strategies of those MHC loci from which locus-specific primers are available. PMID:21615903
Accurate micro-computed tomography imaging of pore spaces in collagen-based scaffold.
Zidek, Jan; Vojtova, Lucy; Abdel-Mohsen, A M; Chmelik, Jiri; Zikmund, Tomas; Brtnikova, Jana; Jakubicek, Roman; Zubal, Lukas; Jan, Jiri; Kaiser, Jozef
2016-06-01
In this work we have used X-ray micro-computed tomography (μCT) as a method to observe the morphology of 3D porous pure collagen and collagen-composite scaffolds useful in tissue engineering. Two aspects of visualizations were taken into consideration: improvement of the scan and investigation of its sensitivity to the scan parameters. Due to the low material density some parts of collagen scaffolds are invisible in a μCT scan. Therefore, here we present different contrast agents, which increase the contrast of the scanned biopolymeric sample for μCT visualization. The increase of contrast of collagenous scaffolds was performed with ceramic hydroxyapatite microparticles (HAp), silver ions (Ag(+)) and silver nanoparticles (Ag-NPs). Since a relatively small change in imaging parameters (e.g. in 3D volume rendering, threshold value and μCT acquisition conditions) leads to a completely different visualized pattern, we have optimized these parameters to obtain the most realistic picture for visual and qualitative evaluation of the biopolymeric scaffold. Moreover, scaffold images were stereoscopically visualized in order to better see the 3D biopolymer composite scaffold morphology. However, the optimized visualization has some discontinuities in zoomed view, which can be problematic for further analysis of interconnected pores by commonly used numerical methods. Therefore, we applied the locally adaptive method to solve discontinuities issue. The combination of contrast agent and imaging techniques presented in this paper help us to better understand the structure and morphology of the biopolymeric scaffold that is crucial in the design of new biomaterials useful in tissue engineering. PMID:27153826
Accurate FDTD modelling for dispersive media using rational function and particle swarm optimisation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chung, Haejun; Ha, Sang-Gyu; Choi, Jaehoon; Jung, Kyung-Young
2015-07-01
This article presents an accurate finite-difference time domain (FDTD) dispersive modelling suitable for complex dispersive media. A quadratic complex rational function (QCRF) is used to characterise their dispersive relations. To obtain accurate coefficients of QCRF, in this work, we use an analytical approach and a particle swarm optimisation (PSO) simultaneously. In specific, an analytical approach is used to obtain the QCRF matrix-solving equation and PSO is applied to adjust a weighting function of this equation. Numerical examples are used to illustrate the validity of the proposed FDTD dispersion model.
Computational Modeling for Bedside Application
Kerckhoffs, Roy C.P.; Narayan, Sanjiv M.; Omens, Jeffrey H.; Mulligan, Lawrence J.; McCulloch, Andrew D.
2008-01-01
With growing computer power, novel diagnostic and therapeutic medical technologies, coupled with an increasing knowledge of pathophysiology from gene to organ systems, it is increasingly feasible to apply multi-scale patient-specific modeling based on proven disease mechanisms to guide and predict the response to therapy in many aspects of medicine. This is an exciting and relatively new approach, for which efficient methods and computational tools are of the utmost importance. Already, investigators have designed patient-specific models in almost all areas of human physiology. Not only will these models be useful on a large scale in the clinic to predict and optimize the outcome from surgery and non-interventional therapy, but they will also provide pathophysiologic insights from cell to tissue to organ system, and therefore help to understand why specific interventions succeed or fail. PMID:18598988
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yi, Sha-Sha; Pan, Cong; Hu, Zhong-Han
2015-12-01
Modern computer simulations of biological systems often involve an explicit treatment of the complex interactions among a large number of molecules. While it is straightforward to compute the short-ranged Van der Waals interaction in classical molecular dynamics simulations, it has been a long-lasting issue to develop accurate methods for the longranged Coulomb interaction. In this short review, we discuss three types of methodologies for the accurate treatment of electrostatics in simulations of explicit molecules: truncation-type methods, Ewald-type methods, and mean-field-type methods. Throughout the discussion, we brief the formulations and developments of these methods, emphasize the intrinsic connections among the three types of methods, and focus on the existing problems which are often associated with the boundary conditions of electrostatics. This brief survey is summarized with a short perspective on future trends along the method developments and applications in the field of biological simulations. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 91127015 and 21522304) and the Open Project from the State Key Laboratory of Theoretical Physics, and the Innovation Project from the State Key Laboratory of Supramolecular Structure and Materials.
Visualizing ultrasound through computational modeling
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Guo, Theresa W.
2004-01-01
The Doppler Ultrasound Hematocrit Project (DHP) hopes to find non-invasive methods of determining a person s blood characteristics. Because of the limits of microgravity and the space travel environment, it is important to find non-invasive methods of evaluating the health of persons in space. Presently, there is no well developed method of determining blood composition non-invasively. This projects hopes to use ultrasound and Doppler signals to evaluate the characteristic of hematocrit, the percentage by volume of red blood cells within whole blood. These non-invasive techniques may also be developed to be used on earth for trauma patients where invasive measure might be detrimental. Computational modeling is a useful tool for collecting preliminary information and predictions for the laboratory research. We hope to find and develop a computer program that will be able to simulate the ultrasound signals the project will work with. Simulated models of test conditions will more easily show what might be expected from laboratory results thus help the research group make informed decisions before and during experimentation. There are several existing Matlab based computer programs available, designed to interpret and simulate ultrasound signals. These programs will be evaluated to find which is best suited for the project needs. The criteria of evaluation that will be used are 1) the program must be able to specify transducer properties and specify transmitting and receiving signals, 2) the program must be able to simulate ultrasound signals through different attenuating mediums, 3) the program must be able to process moving targets in order to simulate the Doppler effects that are associated with blood flow, 4) the program should be user friendly and adaptable to various models. After a computer program is chosen, two simulation models will be constructed. These models will simulate and interpret an RF data signal and a Doppler signal.
Parallel computing in enterprise modeling.
Goldsby, Michael E.; Armstrong, Robert C.; Shneider, Max S.; Vanderveen, Keith; Ray, Jaideep; Heath, Zach; Allan, Benjamin A.
2008-08-01
This report presents the results of our efforts to apply high-performance computing to entity-based simulations with a multi-use plugin for parallel computing. We use the term 'Entity-based simulation' to describe a class of simulation which includes both discrete event simulation and agent based simulation. What simulations of this class share, and what differs from more traditional models, is that the result sought is emergent from a large number of contributing entities. Logistic, economic and social simulations are members of this class where things or people are organized or self-organize to produce a solution. Entity-based problems never have an a priori ergodic principle that will greatly simplify calculations. Because the results of entity-based simulations can only be realized at scale, scalable computing is de rigueur for large problems. Having said that, the absence of a spatial organizing principal makes the decomposition of the problem onto processors problematic. In addition, practitioners in this domain commonly use the Java programming language which presents its own problems in a high-performance setting. The plugin we have developed, called the Parallel Particle Data Model, overcomes both of these obstacles and is now being used by two Sandia frameworks: the Decision Analysis Center, and the Seldon social simulation facility. While the ability to engage U.S.-sized problems is now available to the Decision Analysis Center, this plugin is central to the success of Seldon. Because Seldon relies on computationally intensive cognitive sub-models, this work is necessary to achieve the scale necessary for realistic results. With the recent upheavals in the financial markets, and the inscrutability of terrorist activity, this simulation domain will likely need a capability with ever greater fidelity. High-performance computing will play an important part in enabling that greater fidelity.
Cosmic logic: a computational model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Vanchurin, Vitaly
2016-02-01
We initiate a formal study of logical inferences in context of the measure problem in cosmology or what we call cosmic logic. We describe a simple computational model of cosmic logic suitable for analysis of, for example, discretized cosmological systems. The construction is based on a particular model of computation, developed by Alan Turing, with cosmic observers (CO), cosmic measures (CM) and cosmic symmetries (CS) described by Turing machines. CO machines always start with a blank tape and CM machines take CO's Turing number (also known as description number or Gödel number) as input and output the corresponding probability. Similarly, CS machines take CO's Turing number as input, but output either one if the CO machines are in the same equivalence class or zero otherwise. We argue that CS machines are more fundamental than CM machines and, thus, should be used as building blocks in constructing CM machines. We prove the non-computability of a CS machine which discriminates between two classes of CO machines: mortal that halts in finite time and immortal that runs forever. In context of eternal inflation this result implies that it is impossible to construct CM machines to compute probabilities on the set of all CO machines using cut-off prescriptions. The cut-off measures can still be used if the set is reduced to include only machines which halt after a finite and predetermined number of steps.
Computational models for the nonlinear analysis of reinforced concrete plates
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hinton, E.; Rahman, H. H. A.; Huq, M. M.
1980-01-01
A finite element computational model for the nonlinear analysis of reinforced concrete solid, stiffened and cellular plates is briefly outlined. Typically, Mindlin elements are used to model the plates whereas eccentric Timoshenko elements are adopted to represent the beams. The layering technique, common in the analysis of reinforced concrete flexural systems, is incorporated in the model. The proposed model provides an inexpensive and reasonably accurate approach which can be extended for use with voided plates.
The S-model: A highly accurate MOST model for CAD
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Satter, J. H.
1986-09-01
A new MOST model which combines simplicity and a logical structure with a high accuracy of only 0.5-4.5% is presented. The model is suited for enhancement and depletion devices with either large or small dimensions. It includes the effects of scattering and carrier-velocity saturation as well as the influence of the intrinsic source and drain series resistance. The decrease of the drain current due to substrate bias is incorporated too. The model is in the first place intended for digital purposes. All necessary quantities are calculated in a straightforward manner without iteration. An almost entirely new way of determining the parameters is described and a new cluster parameter is introduced, which is responsible for the high accuracy of the model. The total number of parameters is 7. A still simpler β expression is derived, which is suitable for only one value of the substrate bias and contains only three parameters, while maintaining the accuracy. The way in which the parameters are determined is readily suited for automatic measurement. A simple linear regression procedure programmed in the computer, which controls the measurements, produces the parameter values.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Barbour, San-Lian S.; Barbour, Randall L.; Koo, Ping C.; Graber, Harry L.; Chang, Jenghwa
1995-05-01
We have computed optical images of the female breast based on analysis of tomographic data obtained from simulated time-independent optical measurements of anatomically accurate maps derived from segmented 3D magnetic resonance (MR) images. Images were segmented according to the measured MR contrast levels for fat and parenchymal tissue from T1 weighted acquisitions. Computed images were obtained from analysis of solutions to the forward problem for breasts containing 'added pathologies', representing tumors, to breasts lacking these inclusions. Both breast size and its optical properties have been examined in tissue. In each case, two small simulated tumors were 'added' to the background issue. Values of absorption and scattering coefficients of the tumors have been examined that are both greater and less than the surrounding tissue. Detector responses and the required imaging operators were computed by numerically solving the diffusion equation for inhomogeneous media. Detectors were distributed uniformly, in a circular fashion, around the breast in a plane positioned parallel and half-way between the chest wall and the nipple. A total of 20 sources were used, and for each 20 detectors. Reconstructed images were obtained by solving a linear perturbation equation derived from transport theory. Three algorithms were tested to solve the perturbation equation and include, the methods of conjugate gradient decent (CGD), projection onto convex sets (POCS), and simultaneous algebraic reconstruction technique (SART). Results obtained showed that in each case, high quality reconstructions were obtained. The computed images correctly resolved and identified the spatial position of the two tumors. Additional studies showed that computed images were stable to large systematic errors in the imaging operators and to added noise. Further, examination of the computed detector readings indicate that images of tissue up to approximately 10 cm in thickness should be possible. The
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jiang, Yongfei; Zhang, Jun; Zhao, Wanhua
2015-05-01
Hemodynamics altered by stent implantation is well-known to be closely related to in-stent restenosis. Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) method has been used to investigate the hemodynamics in stented arteries in detail and help to analyze the performances of stents. In this study, blood models with Newtonian or non-Newtonian properties were numerically investigated for the hemodynamics at steady or pulsatile inlet conditions respectively employing CFD based on the finite volume method. The results showed that the blood model with non-Newtonian property decreased the area of low wall shear stress (WSS) compared with the blood model with Newtonian property and the magnitude of WSS varied with the magnitude and waveform of the inlet velocity. The study indicates that the inlet conditions and blood models are all important for accurately predicting the hemodynamics. This will be beneficial to estimate the performances of stents and also help clinicians to select the proper stents for the patients.
Identification of accurate nonlinear rainfall-runoff models with unique parameters
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Schoups, G.; Vrugt, J. A.; Fenicia, F.; van de Giesen, N.
2009-04-01
We propose a strategy to identify models with unique parameters that yield accurate streamflow predictions, given a time-series of rainfall inputs. The procedure consists of five general steps. First, an a priori range of model structures is specified based on prior general and site-specific hydrologic knowledge. To this end, we rely on a flexible model code that allows a specification of a wide range of model structures, from simple to complex. Second, using global optimization each model structure is calibrated to a record of rainfall-runoff data, yielding optimal parameter values for each model structure. Third, accuracy of each model structure is determined by estimating model prediction errors using independent validation and statistical theory. Fourth, parameter identifiability of each calibrated model structure is estimated by means of Monte Carlo Markov Chain simulation. Finally, an assessment is made about each model structure in terms of its accuracy of mimicking rainfall-runoff processes (step 3), and the uniqueness of its parameters (step 4). The procedure results in the identification of the most complex and accurate model supported by the data, without causing parameter equifinality. As such, it provides insight into the information content of the data for identifying nonlinear rainfall-runoff models. We illustrate the method using rainfall-runoff data records from several MOPEX basins in the US.
A procedure for computing accurate ab initio quartic force fields: Application to HO2+ and H2O
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Huang, Xinchuan; Lee, Timothy J.
2008-07-01
A procedure for the calculation of molecular quartic force fields (QFFs) is proposed and investigated. The goal is to generate highly accurate ab initio QFFs that include many of the so-called ``small'' effects that are necessary to achieve high accuracy. The small effects investigated in the present study include correlation of the core electrons (core correlation), extrapolation to the one-particle basis set limit, correction for scalar relativistic contributions, correction for higher-order correlation effects, and inclusion of diffuse functions in the one-particle basis set. The procedure is flexible enough to allow for some effects to be computed directly, while others may be added as corrections. A single grid of points is used and is centered about an initial reference geometry that is designed to be as close as possible to the final ab initio equilibrium structure (with all effects included). It is shown that the least-squares fit of the QFF is not compromised by the added corrections, and the balance between elimination of contamination from higher-order force constants while retaining energy differences large enough to yield meaningful quartic force constants is essentially unchanged from the standard procedures we have used for many years. The initial QFF determined from the least-squares fit is transformed to the exact minimum in order to eliminate gradient terms and allow for the use of second-order perturbation theory for evaluation of spectroscopic constants. It is shown that this step has essentially no effect on the quality of the QFF largely because the initial reference structure is, by design, very close to the final ab initio equilibrium structure. The procedure is used to compute an accurate, purely ab initio QFF for the H2O molecule, which is used as a benchmark test case. The procedure is then applied to the ground and first excited electronic states of the HO2+ molecular cation. Fundamental vibrational frequencies and spectroscopic
Workshop on Computational Turbulence Modeling
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Shabbir, A. (Compiler); Shih, T.-H. (Compiler); Povinelli, L. A. (Compiler)
1994-01-01
The purpose of this meeting was to discuss the current status and future development of turbulence modeling in computational fluid dynamics for aerospace propulsion systems. Various turbulence models have been developed and applied to different turbulent flows over the past several decades and it is becoming more and more urgent to assess their performance in various complex situations. In order to help users in selecting and implementing appropriate models in their engineering calculations, it is important to identify the capabilities as well as the deficiencies of these models. This also benefits turbulence modelers by permitting them to further improve upon the existing models. This workshop was designed for exchanging ideas and enhancing collaboration between different groups in the Lewis community who are using turbulence models in propulsion related CFD. In this respect this workshop will help the Lewis goal of excelling in propulsion related research. This meeting had seven sessions for presentations and one panel discussion over a period of two days. Each presentation session was assigned to one or two branches (or groups) to present their turbulence related research work. Each group was asked to address at least the following points: current status of turbulence model applications and developments in the research; progress and existing problems; and requests about turbulence modeling. The panel discussion session was designed for organizing committee members to answer management and technical questions from the audience and to make concluding remarks.
Time-Accurate, Unstructured-Mesh Navier-Stokes Computations with the Space-Time CESE Method
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Chang, Chau-Lyan
2006-01-01
Application of the newly emerged space-time conservation element solution element (CESE) method to compressible Navier-Stokes equations is studied. In contrast to Euler equations solvers, several issues such as boundary conditions, numerical dissipation, and grid stiffness warrant systematic investigations and validations. Non-reflecting boundary conditions applied at the truncated boundary are also investigated from the stand point of acoustic wave propagation. Validations of the numerical solutions are performed by comparing with exact solutions for steady-state as well as time-accurate viscous flow problems. The test cases cover a broad speed regime for problems ranging from acoustic wave propagation to 3D hypersonic configurations. Model problems pertinent to hypersonic configurations demonstrate the effectiveness of the CESE method in treating flows with shocks, unsteady waves, and separations. Good agreement with exact solutions suggests that the space-time CESE method provides a viable alternative for time-accurate Navier-Stokes calculations of a broad range of problems.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Toyokuni, Genti; Takenaka, Hiroshi
2012-06-01
We propose a method for modeling global seismic wave propagation through an attenuative Earth model including the center. This method enables accurate and efficient computations since it is based on the 2.5-D approach, which solves wave equations only on a 2-D cross section of the whole Earth and can correctly model 3-D geometrical spreading. We extend a numerical scheme for the elastic waves in spherical coordinates using the finite-difference method (FDM), to solve the viscoelastodynamic equation. For computation of realistic seismic wave propagation, incorporation of anelastic attenuation is crucial. Since the nature of Earth material is both elastic solid and viscous fluid, we should solve stress-strain relations of viscoelastic material, including attenuative structures. These relations represent the stress as a convolution integral in time, which has had difficulty treating viscoelasticity in time-domain computation such as the FDM. However, we now have a method using so-called memory variables, invented in the 1980s, followed by improvements in Cartesian coordinates. Arbitrary values of the quality factor (Q) can be incorporated into the wave equation via an array of Zener bodies. We also introduce the multi-domain, an FD grid of several layers with different grid spacings, into our FDM scheme. This allows wider lateral grid spacings with depth, so as not to perturb the FD stability criterion around the Earth center. In addition, we propose a technique to avoid the singularity problem of the wave equation in spherical coordinates at the Earth center. We develop a scheme to calculate wavefield variables on this point, based on linear interpolation for the velocity-stress, staggered-grid FDM. This scheme is validated through a comparison of synthetic seismograms with those obtained by the Direct Solution Method for a spherically symmetric Earth model, showing excellent accuracy for our FDM scheme. As a numerical example, we apply the method to simulate seismic
Material Models for Accurate Simulation of Sheet Metal Forming and Springback
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yoshida, Fusahito
2010-06-01
For anisotropic sheet metals, modeling of anisotropy and the Bauschinger effect is discussed in the framework of Yoshida-Uemori kinematic hardening model incorporating with anisotropic yield functions. The performances of the models in predicting yield loci, cyclic stress-strain responses on several types of steel and aluminum sheets are demonstrated by comparing the numerical simulation results with the corresponding experimental observations. From some examples of FE simulation of sheet metal forming and springback, it is concluded that modeling of both the anisotropy and the Bauschinger effect is essential for the accurate numerical simulation.
Wang, Guotai; Zhang, Shaoting; Xie, Hongzhi; Metaxas, Dimitris N; Gu, Lixu
2015-01-01
Shape prior plays an important role in accurate and robust liver segmentation. However, liver shapes have complex variations and accurate modeling of liver shapes is challenging. Using large-scale training data can improve the accuracy but it limits the computational efficiency. In order to obtain accurate liver shape priors without sacrificing the efficiency when dealing with large-scale training data, we investigate effective and scalable shape prior modeling method that is more applicable in clinical liver surgical planning system. We employed the Sparse Shape Composition (SSC) to represent liver shapes by an optimized sparse combination of shapes in the repository, without any assumptions on parametric distributions of liver shapes. To leverage large-scale training data and improve the computational efficiency of SSC, we also introduced a homotopy-based method to quickly solve the L1-norm optimization problem in SSC. This method takes advantage of the sparsity of shape modeling, and solves the original optimization problem in SSC by continuously transforming it into a series of simplified problems whose solution is fast to compute. When new training shapes arrive gradually, the homotopy strategy updates the optimal solution on the fly and avoids re-computing it from scratch. Experiments showed that SSC had a high accuracy and efficiency in dealing with complex liver shape variations, excluding gross errors and preserving local details on the input liver shape. The homotopy-based SSC had a high computational efficiency, and its runtime increased very slowly when repository's capacity and vertex number rose to a large degree. When repository's capacity was 10,000, with 2000 vertices on each shape, homotopy method cost merely about 11.29 s to solve the optimization problem in SSC, nearly 2000 times faster than interior point method. The dice similarity coefficient (DSC), average symmetric surface distance (ASD), and maximum symmetric surface distance measurement
MODEL IDENTIFICATION AND COMPUTER ALGEBRA.
Bollen, Kenneth A; Bauldry, Shawn
2010-10-01
Multiequation models that contain observed or latent variables are common in the social sciences. To determine whether unique parameter values exist for such models, one needs to assess model identification. In practice analysts rely on empirical checks that evaluate the singularity of the information matrix evaluated at sample estimates of parameters. The discrepancy between estimates and population values, the limitations of numerical assessments of ranks, and the difference between local and global identification make this practice less than perfect. In this paper we outline how to use computer algebra systems (CAS) to determine the local and global identification of multiequation models with or without latent variables. We demonstrate a symbolic CAS approach to local identification and develop a CAS approach to obtain explicit algebraic solutions for each of the model parameters. We illustrate the procedures with several examples, including a new proof of the identification of a model for handling missing data using auxiliary variables. We present an identification procedure for Structural Equation Models that makes use of CAS and that is a useful complement to current methods. PMID:21769158
Evaluation of a Computational Model of Situational Awareness
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Burdick, Mark D.; Shively, R. Jay; Rutkewski, Michael (Technical Monitor)
2000-01-01
Although the use of the psychological construct of situational awareness (SA) assists researchers in creating a flight environment that is safer and more predictable, its true potential remains untapped until a valid means of predicting SA a priori becomes available. Previous work proposed a computational model of SA (CSA) that sought to Fill that void. The current line of research is aimed at validating that model. The results show that the model accurately predicted SA in a piloted simulation.
Computational acoustic modeling of cetacean vocalizations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gurevich, Michael Dixon
A framework for computational acoustic modeling of hypothetical vocal production mechanisms in cetaceans is presented. As a specific example, a model of a proposed source in the larynx of odontocetes is developed. Whales and dolphins generate a broad range of vocal sounds, but the exact mechanisms they use are not conclusively understood. In the fifty years since it has become widely accepted that whales can and do make sound, how they do so has remained particularly confounding. Cetaceans' highly divergent respiratory anatomy, along with the difficulty of internal observation during vocalization have contributed to this uncertainty. A variety of acoustical, morphological, ethological and physiological evidence has led to conflicting and often disputed theories of the locations and mechanisms of cetaceans' sound sources. Computational acoustic modeling has been used to create real-time parametric models of musical instruments and the human voice. These techniques can be applied to cetacean vocalizations to help better understand the nature and function of these sounds. Extensive studies of odontocete laryngeal morphology have revealed vocal folds that are consistently similar to a known but poorly understood acoustic source, the ribbon reed. A parametric computational model of the ribbon reed is developed, based on simplified geometrical, mechanical and fluid models drawn from the human voice literature. The physical parameters of the ribbon reed model are then adapted to those of the odontocete larynx. With reasonable estimates of real physical parameters, both the ribbon reed and odontocete larynx models produce sounds that are perceptually similar to their real-world counterparts, and both respond realistically under varying control conditions. Comparisons of acoustic features of the real-world and synthetic systems show a number of consistencies. While this does not on its own prove that either model is conclusively an accurate description of the source, it
Methodology to set up accurate OPC model using optical CD metrology and atomic force microscopy
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shim, Yeon-Ah; Kang, Jaehyun; Lee, Sang-Uk; Kim, Jeahee; Kim, Keeho
2007-03-01
For the 90nm node and beyond, smaller Critical Dimension(CD) control budget is required and the ways to control good CD uniformity are needed. Moreover Optical Proximity Correction(OPC) for the sub-90nm node demands more accurate wafer CD data in order to improve accuracy of OPC model. Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) is the typical method for measuring CD until ArF process. However SEM can give serious attack such as shrinkage of Photo Resist(PR) by burning of weak chemical structure of ArF PR due to high energy electron beam. In fact about 5nm CD narrowing occur when we measure CD by using CD-SEM in ArF photo process. Optical CD Metrology(OCD) and Atomic Force Microscopy(AFM) has been considered to the method for measuring CD without attack of organic materials. Also the OCD and AFM measurement system have the merits of speed, easiness and accurate data. For model-based OPC, the model is generated using CD data of test patterns transferred onto the wafer. In this study we discuss to generate accurate OPC model using OCD and AFM measurement system.
Can phenological models predict tree phenology accurately under climate change conditions?
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chuine, Isabelle; Bonhomme, Marc; Legave, Jean Michel; García de Cortázar-Atauri, Inaki; Charrier, Guillaume; Lacointe, André; Améglio, Thierry
2014-05-01
The onset of the growing season of trees has been globally earlier by 2.3 days/decade during the last 50 years because of global warming and this trend is predicted to continue according to climate forecast. The effect of temperature on plant phenology is however not linear because temperature has a dual effect on bud development. On one hand, low temperatures are necessary to break bud dormancy, and on the other hand higher temperatures are necessary to promote bud cells growth afterwards. Increasing phenological changes in temperate woody species have strong impacts on forest trees distribution and productivity, as well as crops cultivation areas. Accurate predictions of trees phenology are therefore a prerequisite to understand and foresee the impacts of climate change on forests and agrosystems. Different process-based models have been developed in the last two decades to predict the date of budburst or flowering of woody species. They are two main families: (1) one-phase models which consider only the ecodormancy phase and make the assumption that endodormancy is always broken before adequate climatic conditions for cell growth occur; and (2) two-phase models which consider both the endodormancy and ecodormancy phases and predict a date of dormancy break which varies from year to year. So far, one-phase models have been able to predict accurately tree bud break and flowering under historical climate. However, because they do not consider what happens prior to ecodormancy, and especially the possible negative effect of winter temperature warming on dormancy break, it seems unlikely that they can provide accurate predictions in future climate conditions. It is indeed well known that a lack of low temperature results in abnormal pattern of bud break and development in temperate fruit trees. An accurate modelling of the dormancy break date has thus become a major issue in phenology modelling. Two-phases phenological models predict that global warming should delay
Los Alamos Center for Computer Security formal computer security model
Dreicer, J.S.; Hunteman, W.J.; Markin, J.T.
1989-01-01
This paper provides a brief presentation of the formal computer security model currently being developed at the Los Alamos Department of Energy (DOE) Center for Computer Security (CCS). The need to test and verify DOE computer security policy implementation first motivated this effort. The actual analytical model was a result of the integration of current research in computer security and previous modeling and research experiences. The model is being developed to define a generic view of the computer and network security domains, to provide a theoretical basis for the design of a security model, and to address the limitations of present formal mathematical models for computer security. The fundamental objective of computer security is to prevent the unauthorized and unaccountable access to a system. The inherent vulnerabilities of computer systems result in various threats from unauthorized access. The foundation of the Los Alamos DOE CCS model is a series of functionally dependent probability equations, relations, and expressions. The model is undergoing continued discrimination and evolution. We expect to apply the model to the discipline of the Bell and LaPadula abstract sets of objects and subjects. 6 refs.
Building an accurate 3D model of a circular feature for robot vision
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, L.
2012-06-01
In this paper, an accurate 3D model analysis of a circular feature is built with error compensation for robot vision. We propose an efficient method of fitting ellipses to data points by minimizing the algebraic distance subject to the constraint that a conic should be an ellipse and solving the ellipse parameters through a direct ellipse fitting method by analysing the 3D geometrical representation in a perspective projection scheme, the 3D position of a circular feature with known radius can be obtained. A set of identical circles, machined on a calibration board whose centres were known, was calibrated with a camera and did the model analysis that our method developed. Experimental results show that our method is more accurate than other methods.
Seth A Veitzer
2008-10-21
Effects of stray electrons are a main factor limiting performance of many accelerators. Because heavy-ion fusion (HIF) accelerators will operate in regimes of higher current and with walls much closer to the beam than accelerators operating today, stray electrons might have a large, detrimental effect on the performance of an HIF accelerator. A primary source of stray electrons is electrons generated when halo ions strike the beam pipe walls. There is some research on these types of secondary electrons for the HIF community to draw upon, but this work is missing one crucial ingredient: the effect of grazing incidence. The overall goal of this project was to develop the numerical tools necessary to accurately model the effect of grazing incidence on the behavior of halo ions in a HIF accelerator, and further, to provide accurate models of heavy ion stopping powers with applications to ICF, WDM, and HEDP experiments.
Computer modeling of piezoresistive gauges
Nutt, G. L.; Hallquist, J. O.
1981-08-07
A computer model of a piezoresistive gauge subject to shock loading is developed. The time-dependent two-dimensional response of the gauge is calculated. The stress and strain components of the gauge are determined assuming elastic-plastic material properties. The model is compared with experiment for four cases. An ytterbium foil gauge in a PPMA medum subjected to a 0.5 Gp plane shock wave, where the gauge is presented to the shock with its flat surface both parallel and perpendicular to the front. A similar comparison is made for a manganin foil subjected to a 2.7 Gp shock. The signals are compared also with a calibration equation derived with the gauge and medium properties accounted for but with the assumption that the gauge is in stress equilibrium with the shocked medium.
Li, Rui; Ye, Hongfei; Zhang, Weisheng; Ma, Guojun; Su, Yewang
2015-01-01
Spring constant calibration of the atomic force microscope (AFM) cantilever is of fundamental importance for quantifying the force between the AFM cantilever tip and the sample. The calibration within the framework of thin plate theory undoubtedly has a higher accuracy and broader scope than that within the well-established beam theory. However, thin plate theory-based accurate analytic determination of the constant has been perceived as an extremely difficult issue. In this paper, we implement the thin plate theory-based analytic modeling for the static behavior of rectangular AFM cantilevers, which reveals that the three-dimensional effect and Poisson effect play important roles in accurate determination of the spring constants. A quantitative scaling law is found that the normalized spring constant depends only on the Poisson’s ratio, normalized dimension and normalized load coordinate. Both the literature and our refined finite element model validate the present results. The developed model is expected to serve as the benchmark for accurate calibration of rectangular AFM cantilevers. PMID:26510769
Li, Rui; Ye, Hongfei; Zhang, Weisheng; Ma, Guojun; Su, Yewang
2015-01-01
Spring constant calibration of the atomic force microscope (AFM) cantilever is of fundamental importance for quantifying the force between the AFM cantilever tip and the sample. The calibration within the framework of thin plate theory undoubtedly has a higher accuracy and broader scope than that within the well-established beam theory. However, thin plate theory-based accurate analytic determination of the constant has been perceived as an extremely difficult issue. In this paper, we implement the thin plate theory-based analytic modeling for the static behavior of rectangular AFM cantilevers, which reveals that the three-dimensional effect and Poisson effect play important roles in accurate determination of the spring constants. A quantitative scaling law is found that the normalized spring constant depends only on the Poisson's ratio, normalized dimension and normalized load coordinate. Both the literature and our refined finite element model validate the present results. The developed model is expected to serve as the benchmark for accurate calibration of rectangular AFM cantilevers. PMID:26510769
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, Rui; Ye, Hongfei; Zhang, Weisheng; Ma, Guojun; Su, Yewang
2015-10-01
Spring constant calibration of the atomic force microscope (AFM) cantilever is of fundamental importance for quantifying the force between the AFM cantilever tip and the sample. The calibration within the framework of thin plate theory undoubtedly has a higher accuracy and broader scope than that within the well-established beam theory. However, thin plate theory-based accurate analytic determination of the constant has been perceived as an extremely difficult issue. In this paper, we implement the thin plate theory-based analytic modeling for the static behavior of rectangular AFM cantilevers, which reveals that the three-dimensional effect and Poisson effect play important roles in accurate determination of the spring constants. A quantitative scaling law is found that the normalized spring constant depends only on the Poisson’s ratio, normalized dimension and normalized load coordinate. Both the literature and our refined finite element model validate the present results. The developed model is expected to serve as the benchmark for accurate calibration of rectangular AFM cantilevers.
Chuine, Isabelle; Bonhomme, Marc; Legave, Jean-Michel; García de Cortázar-Atauri, Iñaki; Charrier, Guillaume; Lacointe, André; Améglio, Thierry
2016-10-01
The onset of the growing season of trees has been earlier by 2.3 days per decade during the last 40 years in temperate Europe because of global warming. The effect of temperature on plant phenology is, however, not linear because temperature has a dual effect on bud development. On one hand, low temperatures are necessary to break bud endodormancy, and, on the other hand, higher temperatures are necessary to promote bud cell growth afterward. Different process-based models have been developed in the last decades to predict the date of budbreak of woody species. They predict that global warming should delay or compromise endodormancy break at the species equatorward range limits leading to a delay or even impossibility to flower or set new leaves. These models are classically parameterized with flowering or budbreak dates only, with no information on the endodormancy break date because this information is very scarce. Here, we evaluated the efficiency of a set of phenological models to accurately predict the endodormancy break dates of three fruit trees. Our results show that models calibrated solely with budbreak dates usually do not accurately predict the endodormancy break date. Providing endodormancy break date for the model parameterization results in much more accurate prediction of this latter, with, however, a higher error than that on budbreak dates. Most importantly, we show that models not calibrated with endodormancy break dates can generate large discrepancies in forecasted budbreak dates when using climate scenarios as compared to models calibrated with endodormancy break dates. This discrepancy increases with mean annual temperature and is therefore the strongest after 2050 in the southernmost regions. Our results claim for the urgent need of massive measurements of endodormancy break dates in forest and fruit trees to yield more robust projections of phenological changes in a near future. PMID:27272707
Accurate protein structure modeling using sparse NMR data and homologous structure information
Thompson, James M.; Sgourakis, Nikolaos G.; Liu, Gaohua; Rossi, Paolo; Tang, Yuefeng; Mills, Jeffrey L.; Szyperski, Thomas; Montelione, Gaetano T.; Baker, David
2012-01-01
While information from homologous structures plays a central role in X-ray structure determination by molecular replacement, such information is rarely used in NMR structure determination because it can be incorrect, both locally and globally, when evolutionary relationships are inferred incorrectly or there has been considerable evolutionary structural divergence. Here we describe a method that allows robust modeling of protein structures of up to 225 residues by combining , 13C, and 15N backbone and 13Cβ chemical shift data, distance restraints derived from homologous structures, and a physically realistic all-atom energy function. Accurate models are distinguished from inaccurate models generated using incorrect sequence alignments by requiring that (i) the all-atom energies of models generated using the restraints are lower than models generated in unrestrained calculations and (ii) the low-energy structures converge to within 2.0 Å backbone rmsd over 75% of the protein. Benchmark calculations on known structures and blind targets show that the method can accurately model protein structures, even with very remote homology information, to a backbone rmsd of 1.2–1.9 Å relative to the conventional determined NMR ensembles and of 0.9–1.6 Å relative to X-ray structures for well-defined regions of the protein structures. This approach facilitates the accurate modeling of protein structures using backbone chemical shift data without need for side-chain resonance assignments and extensive analysis of NOESY cross-peak assignments. PMID:22665781
Monte Carlo modeling provides accurate calibration factors for radionuclide activity meters.
Zagni, F; Cicoria, G; Lucconi, G; Infantino, A; Lodi, F; Marengo, M
2014-12-01
Accurate determination of calibration factors for radionuclide activity meters is crucial for quantitative studies and in the optimization step of radiation protection, as these detectors are widespread in radiopharmacy and nuclear medicine facilities. In this work we developed the Monte Carlo model of a widely used activity meter, using the Geant4 simulation toolkit. More precisely the "PENELOPE" EM physics models were employed. The model was validated by means of several certified sources, traceable to primary activity standards, and other sources locally standardized with spectrometry measurements, plus other experimental tests. Great care was taken in order to accurately reproduce the geometrical details of the gas chamber and the activity sources, each of which is different in shape and enclosed in a unique container. Both relative calibration factors and ionization current obtained with simulations were compared against experimental measurements; further tests were carried out, such as the comparison of the relative response of the chamber for a source placed at different positions. The results showed a satisfactory level of accuracy in the energy range of interest, with the discrepancies lower than 4% for all the tested parameters. This shows that an accurate Monte Carlo modeling of this type of detector is feasible using the low-energy physics models embedded in Geant4. The obtained Monte Carlo model establishes a powerful tool for first instance determination of new calibration factors for non-standard radionuclides, for custom containers, when a reference source is not available. Moreover, the model provides an experimental setup for further research and optimization with regards to materials and geometrical details of the measuring setup, such as the ionization chamber itself or the containers configuration. PMID:25195174
A fast and accurate method for computing the Sunyaev-Zel'dovich signal of hot galaxy clusters
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chluba, Jens; Nagai, Daisuke; Sazonov, Sergey; Nelson, Kaylea
2012-10-01
New-generation ground- and space-based cosmic microwave background experiments have ushered in discoveries of massive galaxy clusters via the Sunyaev-Zel'dovich (SZ) effect, providing a new window for studying cluster astrophysics and cosmology. Many of the newly discovered, SZ-selected clusters contain hot intracluster plasma (kTe ≳ 10 keV) and exhibit disturbed morphology, indicative of frequent mergers with large peculiar velocity (v ≳ 1000 km s-1). It is well known that for the interpretation of the SZ signal from hot, moving galaxy clusters, relativistic corrections must be taken into account, and in this work, we present a fast and accurate method for computing these effects. Our approach is based on an alternative derivation of the Boltzmann collision term which provides new physical insight into the sources of different kinematic corrections in the scattering problem. In contrast to previous works, this allows us to obtain a clean separation of kinematic and scattering terms. We also briefly mention additional complications connected with kinematic effects that should be considered when interpreting future SZ data for individual clusters. One of the main outcomes of this work is SZPACK, a numerical library which allows very fast and precise (≲0.001 per cent at frequencies hν ≲ 20kTγ) computation of the SZ signals up to high electron temperature (kTe ≃ 25 keV) and large peculiar velocity (v/c ≃ 0.01). The accuracy is well beyond the current and future precision of SZ observations and practically eliminates uncertainties which are usually overcome with more expensive numerical evaluation of the Boltzmann collision term. Our new approach should therefore be useful for analysing future high-resolution, multifrequency SZ observations as well as computing the predicted SZ effect signals from numerical simulations.
Coarse-grained red blood cell model with accurate mechanical properties, rheology and dynamics.
Fedosov, Dmitry A; Caswell, Bruce; Karniadakis, George E
2009-01-01
We present a coarse-grained red blood cell (RBC) model with accurate and realistic mechanical properties, rheology and dynamics. The modeled membrane is represented by a triangular mesh which incorporates shear inplane energy, bending energy, and area and volume conservation constraints. The macroscopic membrane elastic properties are imposed through semi-analytic theory, and are matched with those obtained in optical tweezers stretching experiments. Rheological measurements characterized by time-dependent complex modulus are extracted from the membrane thermal fluctuations, and compared with those obtained from the optical magnetic twisting cytometry results. The results allow us to define a meaningful characteristic time of the membrane. The dynamics of RBCs observed in shear flow suggests that a purely elastic model for the RBC membrane is not appropriate, and therefore a viscoelastic model is required. The set of proposed analyses and numerical tests can be used as a complete model testbed in order to calibrate the modeled viscoelastic membranes to accurately represent RBCs in health and disease. PMID:19965026
Accurate Analytic Results for the Steady State Distribution of the Eigen Model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Huang, Guan-Rong; Saakian, David B.; Hu, Chin-Kun
2016-04-01
Eigen model of molecular evolution is popular in studying complex biological and biomedical systems. Using the Hamilton-Jacobi equation method, we have calculated analytic equations for the steady state distribution of the Eigen model with a relative accuracy of O(1/N), where N is the length of genome. Our results can be applied for the case of small genome length N, as well as the cases where the direct numerics can not give accurate result, e.g., the tail of distribution.
A Computationally Efficient Bedrock Model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fastook, J. L.
2002-05-01
Full treatments of the Earth's crust, mantle, and core for ice sheet modeling are often computationally overwhelming, in that the requirements to calculate a full self-gravitating spherical Earth model for the time-varying load history of an ice sheet are considerably greater than the computational requirements for the ice dynamics and thermodynamics combined. For this reason, we adopt a ``reasonable'' approximation for the behavior of the deforming bedrock beneath the ice sheet. This simpler model of the Earth treats the crust as an elastic plate supported from below by a hydrostatic fluid. Conservation of linear and angular momentum for an elastic plate leads to the classical Poisson-Kirchhoff fourth order differential equation in the crustal displacement. By adding a time-dependent term this treatment allows for an exponentially-decaying response of the bed to loading and unloading events. This component of the ice sheet model (along with the ice dynamics and thermodynamics) is solved using the Finite Element Method (FEM). C1 FEMs are difficult to implement in more than one dimension, and as such the engineering community has turned away from classical Poisson-Kirchhoff plate theory to treatments such as Reissner-Mindlin plate theory, which are able to accommodate transverse shear and hence require only C0 continuity of basis functions (only the function, and not the derivative, is required to be continuous at the element boundary) (Hughes 1987). This method reduces the complexity of the C1 formulation by adding additional degrees of freedom (the transverse shear in x and y) at each node. This ``reasonable'' solution is compared with two self-gravitating spherical Earth models (1. Ivins et al. (1997) and James and Ivins (1998) } and 2. Tushingham and Peltier 1991 ICE3G run by Jim Davis and Glenn Milne), as well as with preliminary results of residual rebound rates measured with GPS by the BIFROST project. Modeled responses of a simulated ice sheet experiencing a
Pino, Francisco; Roé, Nuria; Aguiar, Pablo; Falcon, Carles; Ros, Domènec; Pavía, Javier
2015-02-15
Purpose: Single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) has become an important noninvasive imaging technique in small-animal research. Due to the high resolution required in small-animal SPECT systems, the spatially variant system response needs to be included in the reconstruction algorithm. Accurate modeling of the system response should result in a major improvement in the quality of reconstructed images. The aim of this study was to quantitatively assess the impact that an accurate modeling of spatially variant collimator/detector response has on image-quality parameters, using a low magnification SPECT system equipped with a pinhole collimator and a small gamma camera. Methods: Three methods were used to model the point spread function (PSF). For the first, only the geometrical pinhole aperture was included in the PSF. For the second, the septal penetration through the pinhole collimator was added. In the third method, the measured intrinsic detector response was incorporated. Tomographic spatial resolution was evaluated and contrast, recovery coefficients, contrast-to-noise ratio, and noise were quantified using a custom-built NEMA NU 4–2008 image-quality phantom. Results: A high correlation was found between the experimental data corresponding to intrinsic detector response and the fitted values obtained by means of an asymmetric Gaussian distribution. For all PSF models, resolution improved as the distance from the point source to the center of the field of view increased and when the acquisition radius diminished. An improvement of resolution was observed after a minimum of five iterations when the PSF modeling included more corrections. Contrast, recovery coefficients, and contrast-to-noise ratio were better for the same level of noise in the image when more accurate models were included. Ring-type artifacts were observed when the number of iterations exceeded 12. Conclusions: Accurate modeling of the PSF improves resolution, contrast, and recovery
A Model Computer Literacy Course.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Orndorff, Joseph
Designed to address the varied computer skill levels of college students, this proposed computer literacy course would be modular in format, with modules tailored to address various levels of expertise and permit individualized instruction. An introductory module would present both the history and future of computers and computing, followed by an…
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pau, George Shu Heng; Shen, Chaopeng; Riley, William J.; Liu, Yaning
2016-02-01
The topography, and the biotic and abiotic parameters are typically upscaled to make watershed-scale hydrologic-biogeochemical models computationally tractable. However, upscaling procedure can produce biases when nonlinear interactions between different processes are not fully captured at coarse resolutions. Here we applied the Proper Orthogonal Decomposition Mapping Method (PODMM) to downscale the field solutions from a coarse (7 km) resolution grid to a fine (220 m) resolution grid. PODMM trains a reduced-order model (ROM) with coarse-resolution and fine-resolution solutions, here obtained using PAWS+CLM, a quasi-3-D watershed processes model that has been validated for many temperate watersheds. Subsequent fine-resolution solutions were approximated based only on coarse-resolution solutions and the ROM. The approximation errors were efficiently quantified using an error estimator. By jointly estimating correlated variables and temporally varying the ROM parameters, we further reduced the approximation errors by up to 20%. We also improved the method's robustness by constructing multiple ROMs using different set of variables, and selecting the best approximation based on the error estimator. The ROMs produced accurate downscaling of soil moisture, latent heat flux, and net primary production with O(1000) reduction in computational cost. The subgrid distributions were also nearly indistinguishable from the ones obtained using the fine-resolution model. Compared to coarse-resolution solutions, biases in upscaled ROM solutions were reduced by up to 80%. This method has the potential to help address the long-standing spatial scaling problem in hydrology and enable long-time integration, parameter estimation, and stochastic uncertainty analysis while accurately representing the heterogeneities.
A Computational Theory of Modelling
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rossberg, Axel G.
2003-04-01
A metatheory is developed which characterizes the relationship between a modelled system, which complies with some ``basic theory'', and a model, which does not, and yet reproduces important aspects of the modelled system. A model is represented by an (in a certain sense, s.b.) optimal algorithm which generates data that describe the model's state or evolution complying with a ``reduced theory''. Theories are represented by classes of (in a similar sense, s.b.) optimal algorithms that test if their input data comply with the theory. The metatheory does not prescribe the formalisms (data structure, language) to be used for the description of states or evolutions. Transitions to other formalisms and loss of accuracy, common to theory reduction, are explicitly accounted for. The basic assumption of the theory is that resources such as the code length (~ programming time) and the computation time for modelling and testing are costly, but the relative cost of each recourse is unknown. Thus, if there is an algorithm a for which there is no other algorithm b solving the same problem but using less of each recourse, then a is considered optimal. For tests (theories), the set X of wrongly admitted inputs is treated as another resource. It is assumed that X1 is cheaper than X2 when X1 ⊂ X2 (X1 ≠ X2). Depending on the problem, the algorithmic complexity of a reduced theory can be smaller or larger than that of the basic theory. The theory might help to distinguish actual properties of complex systems from mere mental constructs. An application to complex spatio-temporal patterns is discussed.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mead, A. J.; Heymans, C.; Lombriser, L.; Peacock, J. A.; Steele, O. I.; Winther, H. A.
2016-06-01
We present an accurate non-linear matter power spectrum prediction scheme for a variety of extensions to the standard cosmological paradigm, which uses the tuned halo model previously developed in Mead et al. We consider dark energy models that are both minimally and non-minimally coupled, massive neutrinos and modified gravitational forces with chameleon and Vainshtein screening mechanisms. In all cases, we compare halo-model power spectra to measurements from high-resolution simulations. We show that the tuned halo-model method can predict the non-linear matter power spectrum measured from simulations of parametrized w(a) dark energy models at the few per cent level for k < 10 h Mpc-1, and we present theoretically motivated extensions to cover non-minimally coupled scalar fields, massive neutrinos and Vainshtein screened modified gravity models that result in few per cent accurate power spectra for k < 10 h Mpc-1. For chameleon screened models, we achieve only 10 per cent accuracy for the same range of scales. Finally, we use our halo model to investigate degeneracies between different extensions to the standard cosmological model, finding that the impact of baryonic feedback on the non-linear matter power spectrum can be considered independently of modified gravity or massive neutrino extensions. In contrast, considering the impact of modified gravity and massive neutrinos independently results in biased estimates of power at the level of 5 per cent at scales k > 0.5 h Mpc-1. An updated version of our publicly available HMCODE can be found at https://github.com/alexander-mead/hmcode.
Computational model for chromosomal instabilty
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zapperi, Stefano; Bertalan, Zsolt; Budrikis, Zoe; La Porta, Caterina
2015-03-01
Faithful segregation of genetic material during cell division requires alignment of the chromosomes between the spindle poles and attachment of their kinetochores to each of the poles. Failure of these complex dynamical processes leads to chromosomal instability (CIN), a characteristic feature of several diseases including cancer. While a multitude of biological factors regulating chromosome congression and bi-orientation have been identified, it is still unclear how they are integrated into a coherent picture. Here we address this issue by a three dimensional computational model of motor-driven chromosome congression and bi-orientation. Our model reveals that successful cell division requires control of the total number of microtubules: if this number is too small bi-orientation fails, while if it is too large not all the chromosomes are able to congress. The optimal number of microtubules predicted by our model compares well with early observations in mammalian cell spindles. Our results shed new light on the origin of several pathological conditions related to chromosomal instability.
Accurate modeling of switched reluctance machine based on hybrid trained WNN
Song, Shoujun Ge, Lefei; Ma, Shaojie; Zhang, Man
2014-04-15
According to the strong nonlinear electromagnetic characteristics of switched reluctance machine (SRM), a novel accurate modeling method is proposed based on hybrid trained wavelet neural network (WNN) which combines improved genetic algorithm (GA) with gradient descent (GD) method to train the network. In the novel method, WNN is trained by GD method based on the initial weights obtained per improved GA optimization, and the global parallel searching capability of stochastic algorithm and local convergence speed of deterministic algorithm are combined to enhance the training accuracy, stability and speed. Based on the measured electromagnetic characteristics of a 3-phase 12/8-pole SRM, the nonlinear simulation model is built by hybrid trained WNN in Matlab. The phase current and mechanical characteristics from simulation under different working conditions meet well with those from experiments, which indicates the accuracy of the model for dynamic and static performance evaluation of SRM and verifies the effectiveness of the proposed modeling method.
Beyond Ellipse(s): Accurately Modelling the Isophotal Structure of Galaxies with ISOFIT and CMODEL
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ciambur, B. C.
2015-09-01
This work introduces a new fitting formalism for isophotes that enables more accurate modeling of galaxies with non-elliptical shapes, such as disk galaxies viewed edge-on or galaxies with X-shaped/peanut bulges. Within this scheme, the angular parameter that defines quasi-elliptical isophotes is transformed from the commonly used, but inappropriate, polar coordinate to the “eccentric anomaly.” This provides a superior description of deviations from ellipticity, better capturing the true isophotal shape. Furthermore, this makes it possible to accurately recover both the surface brightness profile, using the correct azimuthally averaged isophote, and the two-dimensional model of any galaxy: the hitherto ubiquitous, but artificial, cross-like features in residual images are completely removed. The formalism has been implemented into the Image Reduction and Analysis Facility tasks Ellipse and Bmodel to create the new tasks “Isofit,” and “Cmodel.” The new tools are demonstrated here with application to five galaxies, chosen to be representative case-studies for several areas where this technique makes it possible to gain new scientific insight. Specifically: properly quantifying boxy/disky isophotes via the fourth harmonic order in edge-on galaxies, quantifying X-shaped/peanut bulges, higher-order Fourier moments for modeling bars in disks, and complex isophote shapes. Higher order (n > 4) harmonics now become meaningful and may correlate with structural properties, as boxyness/diskyness is known to do. This work also illustrates how the accurate construction, and subtraction, of a model from a galaxy image facilitates the identification and recovery of over-lapping sources such as globular clusters and the optical counterparts of X-ray sources.
A Method for Accurate in silico modeling of Ultrasound Transducer Arrays
Guenther, Drake A.; Walker, William F.
2009-01-01
This paper presents a new approach to improve the in silico modeling of ultrasound transducer arrays. While current simulation tools accurately predict the theoretical element spatio-temporal pressure response, transducers do not always behave as theorized. In practice, using the probe's physical dimensions and published specifications in silico, often results in unsatisfactory agreement between simulation and experiment. We describe a general optimization procedure used to maximize the correlation between the observed and simulated spatio-temporal response of a pulsed single element in a commercial ultrasound probe. A linear systems approach is employed to model element angular sensitivity, lens effects, and diffraction phenomena. A numerical deconvolution method is described to characterize the intrinsic electro-mechanical impulse response of the element. Once the response of the element and optimal element characteristics are known, prediction of the pressure response for arbitrary apertures and excitation signals is performed through direct convolution using available tools. We achieve a correlation of 0.846 between the experimental emitted waveform and simulated waveform when using the probe's physical specifications in silico. A far superior correlation of 0.988 is achieved when using the optimized in silico model. Electronic noise appears to be the main effect preventing the realization of higher correlation coefficients. More accurate in silico modeling will improve the evaluation and design of ultrasound transducers as well as aid in the development of sophisticated beamforming strategies. PMID:19041997
Towards more accurate numerical modeling of impedance based high frequency harmonic vibration
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lim, Yee Yan; Kiong Soh, Chee
2014-03-01
The application of smart materials in various fields of engineering has recently become increasingly popular. For instance, the high frequency based electromechanical impedance (EMI) technique employing smart piezoelectric materials is found to be versatile in structural health monitoring (SHM). Thus far, considerable efforts have been made to study and improve the technique. Various theoretical models of the EMI technique have been proposed in an attempt to better understand its behavior. So far, the three-dimensional (3D) coupled field finite element (FE) model has proved to be the most accurate. However, large discrepancies between the results of the FE model and experimental tests, especially in terms of the slope and magnitude of the admittance signatures, continue to exist and are yet to be resolved. This paper presents a series of parametric studies using the 3D coupled field finite element method (FEM) on all properties of materials involved in the lead zirconate titanate (PZT) structure interaction of the EMI technique, to investigate their effect on the admittance signatures acquired. FE model updating is then performed by adjusting the parameters to match the experimental results. One of the main reasons for the lower accuracy, especially in terms of magnitude and slope, of previous FE models is the difficulty in determining the damping related coefficients and the stiffness of the bonding layer. In this study, using the hysteretic damping model in place of Rayleigh damping, which is used by most researchers in this field, and updated bonding stiffness, an improved and more accurate FE model is achieved. The results of this paper are expected to be useful for future study of the subject area in terms of research and application, such as modeling, design and optimization.
Computational modelling of microfluidic capillary breakup phenomena
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, Yuan; Sprittles, James; Oliver, Jim
2013-11-01
Capillary breakup phenomena occur in microfluidic flows when liquid volumes divide. The fundamental process of breakup is a key factor in the functioning of a number of microfluidic devices such as 3D-Printers or Lab-on-Chip biomedical technologies. It is well known that the conventional model of breakup is singular as pinch-off is approached, but, despite this, theoretical predictions of the global flow on the millimetre-scale appear to agree well with experimental data, at least until the topological change. However, as one approaches smaller scales, where interfacial effects become more dominant, it is likely that such unphysical singularities will influence the global dynamics of the drop formation process. In this talk we develop a computational framework based on the finite element method capable of resolving diverse spatio-temporal scales for the axisymmetric breakup of a liquid jet, so that the pinch-off dynamics can be accurately captured. As well as the conventional model, we discuss the application of the interface formation model to this problem, which allows the pinch-off to be resolved singularity-free, and has already been shown to produce improved flow predictions for related ``singular'' capillary flows.
Computational neurorehabilitation: modeling plasticity and learning to predict recovery.
Reinkensmeyer, David J; Burdet, Etienne; Casadio, Maura; Krakauer, John W; Kwakkel, Gert; Lang, Catherine E; Swinnen, Stephan P; Ward, Nick S; Schweighofer, Nicolas
2016-01-01
Despite progress in using computational approaches to inform medicine and neuroscience in the last 30 years, there have been few attempts to model the mechanisms underlying sensorimotor rehabilitation. We argue that a fundamental understanding of neurologic recovery, and as a result accurate predictions at the individual level, will be facilitated by developing computational models of the salient neural processes, including plasticity and learning systems of the brain, and integrating them into a context specific to rehabilitation. Here, we therefore discuss Computational Neurorehabilitation, a newly emerging field aimed at modeling plasticity and motor learning to understand and improve movement recovery of individuals with neurologic impairment. We first explain how the emergence of robotics and wearable sensors for rehabilitation is providing data that make development and testing of such models increasingly feasible. We then review key aspects of plasticity and motor learning that such models will incorporate. We proceed by discussing how computational neurorehabilitation models relate to the current benchmark in rehabilitation modeling - regression-based, prognostic modeling. We then critically discuss the first computational neurorehabilitation models, which have primarily focused on modeling rehabilitation of the upper extremity after stroke, and show how even simple models have produced novel ideas for future investigation. Finally, we conclude with key directions for future research, anticipating that soon we will see the emergence of mechanistic models of motor recovery that are informed by clinical imaging results and driven by the actual movement content of rehabilitation therapy as well as wearable sensor-based records of daily activity. PMID:27130577
Beekhuizen, Johan; Kromhout, Hans; Bürgi, Alfred; Huss, Anke; Vermeulen, Roel
2015-01-01
The increase in mobile communication technology has led to concern about potential health effects of radio frequency electromagnetic fields (RF-EMFs) from mobile phone base stations. Different RF-EMF prediction models have been applied to assess population exposure to RF-EMF. Our study examines what input data are needed to accurately model RF-EMF, as detailed data are not always available for epidemiological studies. We used NISMap, a 3D radio wave propagation model, to test models with various levels of detail in building and antenna input data. The model outcomes were compared with outdoor measurements taken in Amsterdam, the Netherlands. Results showed good agreement between modelled and measured RF-EMF when 3D building data and basic antenna information (location, height, frequency and direction) were used: Spearman correlations were >0.6. Model performance was not sensitive to changes in building damping parameters. Antenna-specific information about down-tilt, type and output power did not significantly improve model performance compared with using average down-tilt and power values, or assuming one standard antenna type. We conclude that 3D radio wave propagation modelling is a feasible approach to predict outdoor RF-EMF levels for ranking exposure levels in epidemiological studies, when 3D building data and information on the antenna height, frequency, location and direction are available. PMID:24472756
Ku-Band rendezvous radar performance computer simulation model
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Magnusson, H. G.; Goff, M. F.
1984-01-01
All work performed on the Ku-band rendezvous radar performance computer simulation model program since the release of the preliminary final report is summarized. Developments on the program fall into three distinct categories: (1) modifications to the existing Ku-band radar tracking performance computer model; (2) the addition of a highly accurate, nonrealtime search and acquisition performance computer model to the total software package developed on this program; and (3) development of radar cross section (RCS) computation models for three additional satellites. All changes in the tracking model involved improvements in the automatic gain control (AGC) and the radar signal strength (RSS) computer models. Although the search and acquisition computer models were developed under the auspices of the Hughes Aircraft Company Ku-Band Integrated Radar and Communications Subsystem program office, they have been supplied to NASA as part of the Ku-band radar performance comuter model package. Their purpose is to predict Ku-band acquisition performance for specific satellite targets on specific missions. The RCS models were developed for three satellites: the Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF) spacecraft, the Solar Maximum Mission (SMM) spacecraft, and the Space Telescopes.
Computational modeling of membrane proteins
Leman, Julia Koehler; Ulmschneider, Martin B.; Gray, Jeffrey J.
2014-01-01
The determination of membrane protein (MP) structures has always trailed that of soluble proteins due to difficulties in their overexpression, reconstitution into membrane mimetics, and subsequent structure determination. The percentage of MP structures in the protein databank (PDB) has been at a constant 1-2% for the last decade. In contrast, over half of all drugs target MPs, only highlighting how little we understand about drug-specific effects in the human body. To reduce this gap, researchers have attempted to predict structural features of MPs even before the first structure was experimentally elucidated. In this review, we present current computational methods to predict MP structure, starting with secondary structure prediction, prediction of trans-membrane spans, and topology. Even though these methods generate reliable predictions, challenges such as predicting kinks or precise beginnings and ends of secondary structure elements are still waiting to be addressed. We describe recent developments in the prediction of 3D structures of both α-helical MPs as well as β-barrels using comparative modeling techniques, de novo methods, and molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. The increase of MP structures has (1) facilitated comparative modeling due to availability of more and better templates, and (2) improved the statistics for knowledge-based scoring functions. Moreover, de novo methods have benefitted from the use of correlated mutations as restraints. Finally, we outline current advances that will likely shape the field in the forthcoming decade. PMID:25355688
Accurate verification of the conserved-vector-current and standard-model predictions
Sirlin, A.; Zucchini, R.
1986-10-20
An approximate analytic calculation of O(Z..cap alpha../sup 2/) corrections to Fermi decays is presented. When the analysis of Koslowsky et al. is modified to take into account the new results, it is found that each of the eight accurately studied scrFt values differs from the average by approx. <1sigma, thus significantly improving the comparison of experiments with conserved-vector-current predictions. The new scrFt values are lower than before, which also brings experiments into very good agreement with the three-generation standard model, at the level of its quantum corrections.
Applying an accurate spherical model to gamma-ray burst afterglow observations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Leventis, K.; van der Horst, A. J.; van Eerten, H. J.; Wijers, R. A. M. J.
2013-05-01
We present results of model fits to afterglow data sets of GRB 970508, GRB 980703 and GRB 070125, characterized by long and broad-band coverage. The model assumes synchrotron radiation (including self-absorption) from a spherical adiabatic blast wave and consists of analytic flux prescriptions based on numerical results. For the first time it combines the accuracy of hydrodynamic simulations through different stages of the outflow dynamics with the flexibility of simple heuristic formulas. The prescriptions are especially geared towards accurate description of the dynamical transition of the outflow from relativistic to Newtonian velocities in an arbitrary power-law density environment. We show that the spherical model can accurately describe the data only in the case of GRB 970508, for which we find a circumburst medium density n ∝ r-2. We investigate in detail the implied spectra and physical parameters of that burst. For the microphysics we show evidence for equipartition between the fraction of energy density carried by relativistic electrons and magnetic field. We also find that for the blast wave to be adiabatic, the fraction of electrons accelerated at the shock has to be smaller than 1. We present best-fitting parameters for the afterglows of all three bursts, including uncertainties in the parameters of GRB 970508, and compare the inferred values to those obtained by different authors.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Sokalski, W. A.; Shibata, M.; Ornstein, R. L.; Rein, R.
1992-01-01
The quality of several atomic charge models based on different definitions has been analyzed using cumulative atomic multipole moments (CAMM). This formalism can generate higher atomic moments starting from any atomic charges, while preserving the corresponding molecular moments. The atomic charge contribution to the higher molecular moments, as well as to the electrostatic potentials, has been examined for CO and HCN molecules at several different levels of theory. The results clearly show that the electrostatic potential obtained from CAMM expansion is convergent up to R-5 term for all atomic charge models used. This illustrates that higher atomic moments can be used to supplement any atomic charge model to obtain more accurate description of electrostatic properties.
Gritzo, L.A.; Koski, J.A.; Suo-Anttila, A.J.
1999-03-16
The Container Analysis Fire Environment computer code (CAFE) is intended to provide Type B package designers with an enhanced engulfing fire boundary condition when combined with the PATRAN/P-Thermal commercial code. Historically an engulfing fire boundary condition has been modeled as {sigma}T{sup 4} where {sigma} is the Stefan-Boltzman constant, and T is the fire temperature. The CAFE code includes the necessary chemistry, thermal radiation, and fluid mechanics to model an engulfing fire. Effects included are the local cooling of gases that form a protective boundary layer that reduces the incoming radiant heat flux to values lower than expected from a simple {sigma}T{sup 4} model. In addition, the effect of object shape on mixing that may increase the local fire temperature is included. Both high and low temperature regions that depend upon the local availability of oxygen are also calculated. Thus the competing effects that can both increase and decrease the local values of radiant heat flux are included in a reamer that is not predictable a-priori. The CAFE package consists of a group of computer subroutines that can be linked to workstation-based thermal analysis codes in order to predict package performance during regulatory and other accident fire scenarios.
An accurate and comprehensive model of thin fluid flows with inertia on curved substrates
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Roberts, A. J.; Li, Zhenquan
2006-04-01
Consider the three-dimensional flow of a viscous Newtonian fluid upon a curved two-dimensional substrate when the fluid film is thin, as occurs in many draining, coating and biological flows. We derive a comprehensive model of the dynamics of the film, the model being expressed in terms of the film thickness eta and the average lateral velocity bar{bm u}. Centre manifold theory assures us that the model accurately and systematically includes the effects of the curvature of substrate, gravitational body force, fluid inertia and dissipation. The model resolves wavelike phenomena in the dynamics of viscous fluid flows over arbitrarily curved substrates such as cylinders, tubes and spheres. We briefly illustrate its use in simulating drop formation on cylindrical fibres, wave transitions, three-dimensional instabilities, Faraday waves, viscous hydraulic jumps, flow vortices in a compound channel and flow down and up a step. These models are the most complete models for thin-film flow of a Newtonian fluid; many other thin-film models can be obtained by different restrictions and truncations of the model derived here.
Predictive models and computational toxicology.
Knudsen, Thomas; Martin, Matthew; Chandler, Kelly; Kleinstreuer, Nicole; Judson, Richard; Sipes, Nisha
2013-01-01
Understanding the potential health risks posed by environmental chemicals is a significant challenge elevated by the large number of diverse chemicals with generally uncharacterized exposures, mechanisms, and toxicities. The ToxCast computational toxicology research program was launched by EPA in 2007 and is part of the federal Tox21 consortium to develop a cost-effective approach for efficiently prioritizing the toxicity testing of thousands of chemicals and the application of this information to assessing human toxicology. ToxCast addresses this problem through an integrated workflow using high-throughput screening (HTS) of chemical libraries across more than 650 in vitro assays including biochemical assays, human cells and cell lines, and alternative models such as mouse embryonic stem cells and zebrafish embryo development. The initial phase of ToxCast profiled a library of 309 environmental chemicals, mostly pesticidal actives having rich in vivo data from guideline studies that include chronic/cancer bioassays in mice and rats, multigenerational reproductive studies in rats, and prenatal developmental toxicity endpoints in rats and rabbits. The first phase of ToxCast was used to build models that aim to determine how well in vivo animal effects can be predicted solely from the in vitro data. Phase I is now complete and both the in vitro data (ToxCast) and anchoring in vivo database (ToxRefDB) have been made available to the public (http://actor.epa.gov/). As Phase II of ToxCast is now underway, the purpose of this chapter is to review progress to date with ToxCast predictive modeling, using specific examples on developmental and reproductive effects in rats and rabbits with lessons learned during Phase I. PMID:23138916
Direct modeling for computational fluid dynamics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Xu, Kun
2015-06-01
All fluid dynamic equations are valid under their modeling scales, such as the particle mean free path and mean collision time scale of the Boltzmann equation and the hydrodynamic scale of the Navier-Stokes (NS) equations. The current computational fluid dynamics (CFD) focuses on the numerical solution of partial differential equations (PDEs), and its aim is to get the accurate solution of these governing equations. Under such a CFD practice, it is hard to develop a unified scheme that covers flow physics from kinetic to hydrodynamic scales continuously because there is no such governing equation which could make a smooth transition from the Boltzmann to the NS modeling. The study of fluid dynamics needs to go beyond the traditional numerical partial differential equations. The emerging engineering applications, such as air-vehicle design for near-space flight and flow and heat transfer in micro-devices, do require further expansion of the concept of gas dynamics to a larger domain of physical reality, rather than the traditional distinguishable governing equations. At the current stage, the non-equilibrium flow physics has not yet been well explored or clearly understood due to the lack of appropriate tools. Unfortunately, under the current numerical PDE approach, it is hard to develop such a meaningful tool due to the absence of valid PDEs. In order to construct multiscale and multiphysics simulation methods similar to the modeling process of constructing the Boltzmann or the NS governing equations, the development of a numerical algorithm should be based on the first principle of physical modeling. In this paper, instead of following the traditional numerical PDE path, we introduce direct modeling as a principle for CFD algorithm development. Since all computations are conducted in a discretized space with limited cell resolution, the flow physics to be modeled has to be done in the mesh size and time step scales. Here, the CFD is more or less a direct
Disciplines, models, and computers: the path to computational quantum chemistry.
Lenhard, Johannes
2014-12-01
Many disciplines and scientific fields have undergone a computational turn in the past several decades. This paper analyzes this sort of turn by investigating the case of computational quantum chemistry. The main claim is that the transformation from quantum to computational quantum chemistry involved changes in three dimensions. First, on the side of instrumentation, small computers and a networked infrastructure took over the lead from centralized mainframe architecture. Second, a new conception of computational modeling became feasible and assumed a crucial role. And third, the field of computa- tional quantum chemistry became organized in a market-like fashion and this market is much bigger than the number of quantum theory experts. These claims will be substantiated by an investigation of the so-called density functional theory (DFT), the arguably pivotal theory in the turn to computational quantum chemistry around 1990. PMID:25571750
TRIM—3D: a three-dimensional model for accurate simulation of shallow water flow
Casulli, Vincenzo; Bertolazzi, Enrico; Cheng, Ralph T.
1993-01-01
A semi-implicit finite difference formulation for the numerical solution of three-dimensional tidal circulation is discussed. The governing equations are the three-dimensional Reynolds equations in which the pressure is assumed to be hydrostatic. A minimal degree of implicitness has been introduced in the finite difference formula so that the resulting algorithm permits the use of large time steps at a minimal computational cost. This formulation includes the simulation of flooding and drying of tidal flats, and is fully vectorizable for an efficient implementation on modern vector computers. The high computational efficiency of this method has made it possible to provide the fine details of circulation structure in complex regions that previous studies were unable to obtain. For proper interpretation of the model results suitable interactive graphics is also an essential tool.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Smith, R.; Flynn, C.; Candlish, G. N.; Fellhauer, M.; Gibson, B. K.
2015-04-01
We present accurate models of the gravitational potential produced by a radially exponential disc mass distribution. The models are produced by combining three separate Miyamoto-Nagai discs. Such models have been used previously to model the disc of the Milky Way, but here we extend this framework to allow its application to discs of any mass, scalelength, and a wide range of thickness from infinitely thin to near spherical (ellipticities from 0 to 0.9). The models have the advantage of simplicity of implementation, and we expect faster run speeds over a double exponential disc treatment. The potentials are fully analytical, and differentiable at all points. The mass distribution of our models deviates from the radial mass distribution of a pure exponential disc by <0.4 per cent out to 4 disc scalelengths, and <1.9 per cent out to 10 disc scalelengths. We tabulate fitting parameters which facilitate construction of exponential discs for any scalelength, and a wide range of disc thickness (a user-friendly, web-based interface is also available). Our recipe is well suited for numerical modelling of the tidal effects of a giant disc galaxy on star clusters or dwarf galaxies. We consider three worked examples; the Milky Way thin and thick disc, and a discy dwarf galaxy.
Algal productivity modeling: a step toward accurate assessments of full-scale algal cultivation.
Béchet, Quentin; Chambonnière, Paul; Shilton, Andy; Guizard, Guillaume; Guieysse, Benoit
2015-05-01
A new biomass productivity model was parameterized for Chlorella vulgaris using short-term (<30 min) oxygen productivities from algal microcosms exposed to 6 light intensities (20-420 W/m(2)) and 6 temperatures (5-42 °C). The model was then validated against experimental biomass productivities recorded in bench-scale photobioreactors operated under 4 light intensities (30.6-74.3 W/m(2)) and 4 temperatures (10-30 °C), yielding an accuracy of ± 15% over 163 days of cultivation. This modeling approach addresses major challenges associated with the accurate prediction of algal productivity at full-scale. Firstly, while most prior modeling approaches have only considered the impact of light intensity on algal productivity, the model herein validated also accounts for the critical impact of temperature. Secondly, this study validates a theoretical approach to convert short-term oxygen productivities into long-term biomass productivities. Thirdly, the experimental methodology used has the practical advantage of only requiring one day of experimental work for complete model parameterization. The validation of this new modeling approach is therefore an important step for refining feasibility assessments of algae biotechnologies. PMID:25502920
Davis, J.L.; Grant, J.W.
2014-01-01
Anatomically correct turtle utricle geometry was incorporated into two finite element models. The geometrically accurate model included appropriately shaped macular surface and otoconial layer, compact gel and column filament (or shear) layer thicknesses and thickness distributions. The first model included a shear layer where the effects of hair bundle stiffness was included as part of the shear layer modulus. This solid model’s undamped natural frequency was matched to an experimentally measured value. This frequency match established a realistic value of the effective shear layer Young’s modulus of 16 Pascals. We feel this is the most accurate prediction of this shear layer modulus and fits with other estimates (Kondrachuk, 2001b). The second model incorporated only beam elements in the shear layer to represent hair cell bundle stiffness. The beam element stiffness’s were further distributed to represent their location on the neuroepithelial surface. Experimentally measured striola hair cell bundles mean stiffness values were used in the striolar region and the mean extrastriola hair cell bundles stiffness values were used in this region. The results from this second model indicated that hair cell bundle stiffness contributes approximately 40% to the overall stiffness of the shear layer– hair cell bundle complex. This analysis shows that high mass saccules, in general, achieve high gain at the sacrifice of frequency bandwidth. We propose the mechanism by which this can be achieved is through increase the otoconial layer mass. The theoretical difference in gain (deflection per acceleration) is shown for saccules with large otoconial layer mass relative to saccules and utricles with small otoconial layer mass. Also discussed is the necessity of these high mass saccules to increase their overall system shear layer stiffness. Undamped natural frequencies and mode shapes for these sensors are shown. PMID:25445820
Xiao, Suzhi; Tao, Wei; Zhao, Hui
2016-01-01
In order to acquire an accurate three-dimensional (3D) measurement, the traditional fringe projection technique applies complex and laborious procedures to compensate for the errors that exist in the vision system. However, the error sources in the vision system are very complex, such as lens distortion, lens defocus, and fringe pattern nonsinusoidality. Some errors cannot even be explained or rendered with clear expressions and are difficult to compensate directly as a result. In this paper, an approach is proposed that avoids the complex and laborious compensation procedure for error sources but still promises accurate 3D measurement. It is realized by the mathematical model extension technique. The parameters of the extended mathematical model for the ’phase to 3D coordinates transformation’ are derived using the least-squares parameter estimation algorithm. In addition, a phase-coding method based on a frequency analysis is proposed for the absolute phase map retrieval to spatially isolated objects. The results demonstrate the validity and the accuracy of the proposed flexible fringe projection vision system on spatially continuous and discontinuous objects for 3D measurement. PMID:27136553
Accurately modeling Gaussian beam propagation in the context of Monte Carlo techniques
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hokr, Brett H.; Winblad, Aidan; Bixler, Joel N.; Elpers, Gabriel; Zollars, Byron; Scully, Marlan O.; Yakovlev, Vladislav V.; Thomas, Robert J.
2016-03-01
Monte Carlo simulations are widely considered to be the gold standard for studying the propagation of light in turbid media. However, traditional Monte Carlo methods fail to account for diffraction because they treat light as a particle. This results in converging beams focusing to a point instead of a diffraction limited spot, greatly effecting the accuracy of Monte Carlo simulations near the focal plane. Here, we present a technique capable of simulating a focusing beam in accordance to the rules of Gaussian optics, resulting in a diffraction limited focal spot. This technique can be easily implemented into any traditional Monte Carlo simulation allowing existing models to be converted to include accurate focusing geometries with minimal effort. We will present results for a focusing beam in a layered tissue model, demonstrating that for different scenarios the region of highest intensity, thus the greatest heating, can change from the surface to the focus. The ability to simulate accurate focusing geometries will greatly enhance the usefulness of Monte Carlo for countless applications, including studying laser tissue interactions in medical applications and light propagation through turbid media.
Fu, Q.; Sun, W.B.; Yang, P.
1998-09-01
An accurate parameterization is presented for the infrared radiative properties of cirrus clouds. For the single-scattering calculations, a composite scheme is developed for randomly oriented hexagonal ice crystals by comparing results from Mie theory, anomalous diffraction theory (ADT), the geometric optics method (GOM), and the finite-difference time domain technique. This scheme employs a linear combination of single-scattering properties from the Mie theory, ADT, and GOM, which is accurate for a wide range of size parameters. Following the approach of Q. Fu, the extinction coefficient, absorption coefficient, and asymmetry factor are parameterized as functions of the cloud ice water content and generalized effective size (D{sub ge}). The present parameterization of the single-scattering properties of cirrus clouds is validated by examining the bulk radiative properties for a wide range of atmospheric conditions. Compared with reference results, the typical relative error in emissivity due to the parameterization is {approximately}2.2%. The accuracy of this parameterization guarantees its reliability in applications to climate models. The present parameterization complements the scheme for the solar radiative properties of cirrus clouds developed by Q. Fu for use in numerical models.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kopasakis, George
2014-01-01
The presentation covers a recently developed methodology to model atmospheric turbulence as disturbances for aero vehicle gust loads and for controls development like flutter and inlet shock position. The approach models atmospheric turbulence in their natural fractional order form, which provides for more accuracy compared to traditional methods like the Dryden model, especially for high speed vehicle. The presentation provides a historical background on atmospheric turbulence modeling and the approaches utilized for air vehicles. This is followed by the motivation and the methodology utilized to develop the atmospheric turbulence fractional order modeling approach. Some examples covering the application of this method are also provided, followed by concluding remarks.
Burward-Hoy, J. M.; Geist, W. H.; Krick, M. S.; Mayo, D. R.
2004-01-01
Neutron multiplicity counting is a technique for the rapid, nondestructive measurement of plutonium mass in pure and impure materials. This technique is very powerful because it uses the measured coincidence count rates to determine the sample mass without requiring a set of representative standards for calibration. Interpreting measured singles, doubles, and triples count rates using the three-parameter standard point model accurately determines plutonium mass, neutron multiplication, and the ratio of ({alpha},n) to spontaneous-fission neutrons (alpha) for oxides of moderate mass. However, underlying standard point model assumptions - including constant neutron energy and constant multiplication throughout the sample - cause significant biases for the mass, multiplication, and alpha in measurements of metal and large, dense oxides.
An Accurate Model for Biomolecular Helices and Its Application to Helix Visualization
Wang, Lincong; Qiao, Hui; Cao, Chen; Xu, Shutan; Zou, Shuxue
2015-01-01
Helices are the most abundant secondary structural elements in proteins and the structural forms assumed by double stranded DNAs (dsDNA). Though the mathematical expression for a helical curve is simple, none of the previous models for the biomolecular helices in either proteins or DNAs use a genuine helical curve, likely because of the complexity of fitting backbone atoms to helical curves. In this paper we model a helix as a series of different but all bona fide helical curves; each one best fits the coordinates of four consecutive backbone Cα atoms for a protein or P atoms for a DNA molecule. An implementation of the model demonstrates that it is more accurate than the previous ones for the description of the deviation of a helix from a standard helical curve. Furthermore, the accuracy of the model makes it possible to correlate deviations with structural and functional significance. When applied to helix visualization, the ribbon diagrams generated by the model are less choppy or have smaller side chain detachment than those by the previous visualization programs that typically model a helix as a series of low-degree splines. PMID:26126117
Computational Modeling in Concert with Laboratory Studies: Application to B Cell Differentiation
Remediation is expensive, so accurate prediction of dose-response is important to help control costs. Dose response is a function of biological mechanisms. Computational models of these mechanisms improve the efficiency of research and provide the capability for prediction.
The Fermilab Central Computing Facility architectural model
Nicholls, J.
1989-05-01
The goal of the current Central Computing Upgrade at Fermilab is to create a computing environment that maximizes total productivity, particularly for high energy physics analysis. The Computing Department and the Next Computer Acquisition Committee decided upon a model which includes five components: an interactive front end, a Large-Scale Scientific Computer (LSSC, a mainframe computing engine), a microprocessor farm system, a file server, and workstations. With the exception of the file server, all segments of this model are currently in production: a VAX/VMS Cluster interactive front end, an Amdahl VM computing engine, ACP farms, and (primarily) VMS workstations. This presentation will discuss the implementation of the Fermilab Central Computing Facility Architectural Model. Implications for Code Management in such a heterogeneous environment, including issues such as modularity and centrality, will be considered. Special emphasis will be placed on connectivity and communications between the front-end, LSSC, and workstations, as practiced at Fermilab. 2 figs.
Fast Computation of the Inverse CMH Model
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Patel, Umesh D.; Torre, Edward Della; Day, John H. (Technical Monitor)
2001-01-01
A fast computational method based on differential equation approach for inverse DOK model has been extended for the inverse CMH model. Also, a cobweb technique for calculating the inverse CMH model is also presented. The two techniques are differed from the point of view of flexibility and computation time.
Fitmunk: improving protein structures by accurate, automatic modeling of side-chain conformations.
Porebski, Przemyslaw Jerzy; Cymborowski, Marcin; Pasenkiewicz-Gierula, Marta; Minor, Wladek
2016-02-01
Improvements in crystallographic hardware and software have allowed automated structure-solution pipelines to approach a near-`one-click' experience for the initial determination of macromolecular structures. However, in many cases the resulting initial model requires a laborious, iterative process of refinement and validation. A new method has been developed for the automatic modeling of side-chain conformations that takes advantage of rotamer-prediction methods in a crystallographic context. The algorithm, which is based on deterministic dead-end elimination (DEE) theory, uses new dense conformer libraries and a hybrid energy function derived from experimental data and prior information about rotamer frequencies to find the optimal conformation of each side chain. In contrast to existing methods, which incorporate the electron-density term into protein-modeling frameworks, the proposed algorithm is designed to take advantage of the highly discriminatory nature of electron-density maps. This method has been implemented in the program Fitmunk, which uses extensive conformational sampling. This improves the accuracy of the modeling and makes it a versatile tool for crystallographic model building, refinement and validation. Fitmunk was extensively tested on over 115 new structures, as well as a subset of 1100 structures from the PDB. It is demonstrated that the ability of Fitmunk to model more than 95% of side chains accurately is beneficial for improving the quality of crystallographic protein models, especially at medium and low resolutions. Fitmunk can be used for model validation of existing structures and as a tool to assess whether side chains are modeled optimally or could be better fitted into electron density. Fitmunk is available as a web service at http://kniahini.med.virginia.edu/fitmunk/server/ or at http://fitmunk.bitbucket.org/. PMID:26894674
Fitmunk: improving protein structures by accurate, automatic modeling of side-chain conformations
Porebski, Przemyslaw Jerzy; Cymborowski, Marcin; Pasenkiewicz-Gierula, Marta; Minor, Wladek
2016-01-01
Improvements in crystallographic hardware and software have allowed automated structure-solution pipelines to approach a near-‘one-click’ experience for the initial determination of macromolecular structures. However, in many cases the resulting initial model requires a laborious, iterative process of refinement and validation. A new method has been developed for the automatic modeling of side-chain conformations that takes advantage of rotamer-prediction methods in a crystallographic context. The algorithm, which is based on deterministic dead-end elimination (DEE) theory, uses new dense conformer libraries and a hybrid energy function derived from experimental data and prior information about rotamer frequencies to find the optimal conformation of each side chain. In contrast to existing methods, which incorporate the electron-density term into protein-modeling frameworks, the proposed algorithm is designed to take advantage of the highly discriminatory nature of electron-density maps. This method has been implemented in the program Fitmunk, which uses extensive conformational sampling. This improves the accuracy of the modeling and makes it a versatile tool for crystallographic model building, refinement and validation. Fitmunk was extensively tested on over 115 new structures, as well as a subset of 1100 structures from the PDB. It is demonstrated that the ability of Fitmunk to model more than 95% of side chains accurately is beneficial for improving the quality of crystallographic protein models, especially at medium and low resolutions. Fitmunk can be used for model validation of existing structures and as a tool to assess whether side chains are modeled optimally or could be better fitted into electron density. Fitmunk is available as a web service at http://kniahini.med.virginia.edu/fitmunk/server/ or at http://fitmunk.bitbucket.org/. PMID:26894674
Fast and accurate modeling of molecular atomization energies with machine learning.
Rupp, Matthias; Tkatchenko, Alexandre; Müller, Klaus-Robert; von Lilienfeld, O Anatole
2012-02-01
We introduce a machine learning model to predict atomization energies of a diverse set of organic molecules, based on nuclear charges and atomic positions only. The problem of solving the molecular Schrödinger equation is mapped onto a nonlinear statistical regression problem of reduced complexity. Regression models are trained on and compared to atomization energies computed with hybrid density-functional theory. Cross validation over more than seven thousand organic molecules yields a mean absolute error of ∼10 kcal/mol. Applicability is demonstrated for the prediction of molecular atomization potential energy curves. PMID:22400967
Hybridization modeling of oligonucleotide SNP arrays for accurate DNA copy number estimation
Wan, Lin; Sun, Kelian; Ding, Qi; Cui, Yuehua; Li, Ming; Wen, Yalu; Elston, Robert C.; Qian, Minping; Fu, Wenjiang J
2009-01-01
Affymetrix SNP arrays have been widely used for single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) genotype calling and DNA copy number variation inference. Although numerous methods have achieved high accuracy in these fields, most studies have paid little attention to the modeling of hybridization of probes to off-target allele sequences, which can affect the accuracy greatly. In this study, we address this issue and demonstrate that hybridization with mismatch nucleotides (HWMMN) occurs in all SNP probe-sets and has a critical effect on the estimation of allelic concentrations (ACs). We study sequence binding through binding free energy and then binding affinity, and develop a probe intensity composite representation (PICR) model. The PICR model allows the estimation of ACs at a given SNP through statistical regression. Furthermore, we demonstrate with cell-line data of known true copy numbers that the PICR model can achieve reasonable accuracy in copy number estimation at a single SNP locus, by using the ratio of the estimated AC of each sample to that of the reference sample, and can reveal subtle genotype structure of SNPs at abnormal loci. We also demonstrate with HapMap data that the PICR model yields accurate SNP genotype calls consistently across samples, laboratories and even across array platforms. PMID:19586935
Fast and accurate analytical model to solve inverse problem in SHM using Lamb wave propagation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Poddar, Banibrata; Giurgiutiu, Victor
2016-04-01
Lamb wave propagation is at the center of attention of researchers for structural health monitoring of thin walled structures. This is due to the fact that Lamb wave modes are natural modes of wave propagation in these structures with long travel distances and without much attenuation. This brings the prospect of monitoring large structure with few sensors/actuators. However the problem of damage detection and identification is an "inverse problem" where we do not have the luxury to know the exact mathematical model of the system. On top of that the problem is more challenging due to the confounding factors of statistical variation of the material and geometric properties. Typically this problem may also be ill posed. Due to all these complexities the direct solution of the problem of damage detection and identification in SHM is impossible. Therefore an indirect method using the solution of the "forward problem" is popular for solving the "inverse problem". This requires a fast forward problem solver. Due to the complexities involved with the forward problem of scattering of Lamb waves from damages researchers rely primarily on numerical techniques such as FEM, BEM, etc. But these methods are slow and practically impossible to be used in structural health monitoring. We have developed a fast and accurate analytical forward problem solver for this purpose. This solver, CMEP (complex modes expansion and vector projection), can simulate scattering of Lamb waves from all types of damages in thin walled structures fast and accurately to assist the inverse problem solver.
Development and application of accurate analytical models for single active electron potentials
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Miller, Michelle; Jaron-Becker, Agnieszka; Becker, Andreas
2015-05-01
The single active electron (SAE) approximation is a theoretical model frequently employed to study scenarios in which inner-shell electrons may productively be treated as frozen spectators to a physical process of interest, and accurate analytical approximations for these potentials are sought as a useful simulation tool. Density function theory is often used to construct a SAE potential, requiring that a further approximation for the exchange correlation functional be enacted. In this study, we employ the Krieger, Li, and Iafrate (KLI) modification to the optimized-effective-potential (OEP) method to reduce the complexity of the problem to the straightforward solution of a system of linear equations through simple arguments regarding the behavior of the exchange-correlation potential in regions where a single orbital dominates. We employ this method for the solution of atomic and molecular potentials, and use the resultant curve to devise a systematic construction for highly accurate and useful analytical approximations for several systems. Supported by the U.S. Department of Energy (Grant No. DE-FG02-09ER16103), and the U.S. National Science Foundation (Graduate Research Fellowship, Grants No. PHY-1125844 and No. PHY-1068706).
Brounstein, Anna; Hacihaliloglu, Ilker; Guy, Pierre; Hodgson, Antony; Abugharbieh, Rafeef
2015-12-01
Automatic, accurate and real-time registration is an important step in providing effective guidance and successful anatomic restoration in ultrasound (US)-based computer assisted orthopedic surgery. We propose a method in which local phase-based bone surfaces, extracted from intra-operative US data, are registered to pre-operatively segmented computed tomography data. Extracted bone surfaces are downsampled and reinforced with high curvature features. A novel hierarchical simplification algorithm is used to further optimize the point clouds. The final point clouds are represented as Gaussian mixture models and iteratively matched by minimizing the dissimilarity between them using an L2 metric. For 44 clinical data sets from 25 pelvic fracture patients and 49 phantom data sets, we report mean surface registration accuracies of 0.31 and 0.77 mm, respectively, with an average registration time of 1.41 s. Our results suggest the viability and potential of the chosen method for real-time intra-operative registration in orthopedic surgery. PMID:26365924
Predictive Models and Computational Toxicology
Understanding the potential health risks posed by environmental chemicals is a significant challenge elevated by the large number of diverse chemicals with generally uncharacterized exposures, mechanisms, and toxicities. The ToxCast computational toxicology research program was l...
Reliability models for dataflow computer systems
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kavi, K. M.; Buckles, B. P.
1985-01-01
The demands for concurrent operation within a computer system and the representation of parallelism in programming languages have yielded a new form of program representation known as data flow (DENN 74, DENN 75, TREL 82a). A new model based on data flow principles for parallel computations and parallel computer systems is presented. Necessary conditions for liveness and deadlock freeness in data flow graphs are derived. The data flow graph is used as a model to represent asynchronous concurrent computer architectures including data flow computers.
Do Ecological Niche Models Accurately Identify Climatic Determinants of Species Ranges?
Searcy, Christopher A; Shaffer, H Bradley
2016-04-01
Defining species' niches is central to understanding their distributions and is thus fundamental to basic ecology and climate change projections. Ecological niche models (ENMs) are a key component of making accurate projections and include descriptions of the niche in terms of both response curves and rankings of variable importance. In this study, we evaluate Maxent's ranking of environmental variables based on their importance in delimiting species' range boundaries by asking whether these same variables also govern annual recruitment based on long-term demographic studies. We found that Maxent-based assessments of variable importance in setting range boundaries in the California tiger salamander (Ambystoma californiense; CTS) correlate very well with how important those variables are in governing ongoing recruitment of CTS at the population level. This strong correlation suggests that Maxent's ranking of variable importance captures biologically realistic assessments of factors governing population persistence. However, this result holds only when Maxent models are built using best-practice procedures and variables are ranked based on permutation importance. Our study highlights the need for building high-quality niche models and provides encouraging evidence that when such models are built, they can reflect important aspects of a species' ecology. PMID:27028071
Pagán, Josué; Risco-Martín, José L; Moya, José M; Ayala, José L
2016-08-01
Prediction of symptomatic crises in chronic diseases allows to take decisions before the symptoms occur, such as the intake of drugs to avoid the symptoms or the activation of medical alarms. The prediction horizon is in this case an important parameter in order to fulfill the pharmacokinetics of medications, or the time response of medical services. This paper presents a study about the prediction limits of a chronic disease with symptomatic crises: the migraine. For that purpose, this work develops a methodology to build predictive migraine models and to improve these predictions beyond the limits of the initial models. The maximum prediction horizon is analyzed, and its dependency on the selected features is studied. A strategy for model selection is proposed to tackle the trade off between conservative but robust predictive models, with respect to less accurate predictions with higher horizons. The obtained results show a prediction horizon close to 40min, which is in the time range of the drug pharmacokinetics. Experiments have been performed in a realistic scenario where input data have been acquired in an ambulatory clinical study by the deployment of a non-intrusive Wireless Body Sensor Network. Our results provide an effective methodology for the selection of the future horizon in the development of prediction algorithms for diseases experiencing symptomatic crises. PMID:27260782
Computational modeling of vascular anastomoses.
Migliavacca, Francesco; Dubini, Gabriele
2005-06-01
Recent development of computational technology allows a level of knowledge of biomechanical factors in the healthy or pathological cardiovascular system that was unthinkable a few years ago. In particular, computational fluid dynamics (CFD) and computational structural (CS) analyses have been used to evaluate specific quantities, such as fluid and wall stresses and strains, which are very difficult to measure in vivo. Indeed, CFD and CS offer much more variability and resolution than in vitro and in vivo methods, yet computations must be validated by careful comparison with experimental and clinical data. The enormous parallel development of clinical imaging such as magnetic resonance or computed tomography opens a new way toward a detailed patient-specific description of the actual hemodynamics and structural behavior of living tissues. Coupling of CFD/CS and clinical images is becoming a standard evaluation that is expected to become part of the clinical practice in the diagnosis and in the surgical planning in advanced medical centers. This review focuses on computational studies of fluid and structural dynamics of a number of vascular anastomoses: the coronary bypass graft anastomoses, the arterial peripheral anastomoses, the arterio-venous graft anastomoses and the vascular anastomoses performed in the correction of congenital heart diseases. PMID:15772842
Application of thin plate splines for accurate regional ionosphere modeling with multi-GNSS data
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Krypiak-Gregorczyk, Anna; Wielgosz, Pawel; Borkowski, Andrzej
2016-04-01
GNSS-derived regional ionosphere models are widely used in both precise positioning, ionosphere and space weather studies. However, their accuracy is often not sufficient to support precise positioning, RTK in particular. In this paper, we presented new approach that uses solely carrier phase multi-GNSS observables and thin plate splines (TPS) for accurate ionospheric TEC modeling. TPS is a closed solution of a variational problem minimizing both the sum of squared second derivatives of a smoothing function and the deviation between data points and this function. This approach is used in UWM-rt1 regional ionosphere model developed at UWM in Olsztyn. The model allows for providing ionospheric TEC maps with high spatial and temporal resolutions - 0.2x0.2 degrees and 2.5 minutes, respectively. For TEC estimation, EPN and EUPOS reference station data is used. The maps are available with delay of 15-60 minutes. In this paper we compare the performance of UWM-rt1 model with IGS global and CODE regional ionosphere maps during ionospheric storm that took place on March 17th, 2015. During this storm, the TEC level over Europe doubled comparing to earlier quiet days. The performance of the UWM-rt1 model was validated by (a) comparison to reference double-differenced ionospheric corrections over selected baselines, and (b) analysis of post-fit residuals to calibrated carrier phase geometry-free observational arcs at selected test stations. The results show a very good performance of UWM-rt1 model. The obtained post-fit residuals in case of UWM maps are lower by one order of magnitude comparing to IGS maps. The accuracy of UWM-rt1 -derived TEC maps is estimated at 0.5 TECU. This may be directly translated to the user positioning domain.
Felmy, Andrew R.; Mason, Marvin; Qafoku, Odeta; Xia, Yuanxian; Wang, Zheming; MacLean, Graham
2003-03-27
Developing accurate thermodynamic models for predicting the chemistry of the high-level waste tanks at Hanford is an extremely daunting challenge in electrolyte and radionuclide chemistry. These challenges stem from the extremely high ionic strength of the tank waste supernatants, presence of chelating agents in selected tanks, wide temperature range in processing conditions and the presence of important actinide species in multiple oxidation states. This presentation summarizes progress made to date in developing accurate models for these tank waste solutions, how these data are being used at Hanford and the important challenges that remain. New thermodynamic measurements on Sr and actinide complexation with specific chelating agents (EDTA, HEDTA and gluconate) will also be presented.
A computationally efficient modelling of laminar separation bubbles
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dini, Paolo; Maughmer, Mark D.
1989-02-01
The goal is to accurately predict the characteristics of the laminar separation bubble and its effects on airfoil performance. Toward this end, a computational model of the separation bubble was developed and incorporated into the Eppler and Somers airfoil design and analysis program. Thus far, the focus of the research was limited to the development of a model which can accurately predict situations in which the interaction between the bubble and the inviscid velocity distribution is weak, the so-called short bubble. A summary of the research performed in the past nine months is presented. The bubble model in its present form is then described. Lastly, the performance of this model in predicting bubble characteristics is shown for a few cases.
A computationally efficient modelling of laminar separation bubbles
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Dini, Paolo; Maughmer, Mark D.
1989-01-01
The goal is to accurately predict the characteristics of the laminar separation bubble and its effects on airfoil performance. Toward this end, a computational model of the separation bubble was developed and incorporated into the Eppler and Somers airfoil design and analysis program. Thus far, the focus of the research was limited to the development of a model which can accurately predict situations in which the interaction between the bubble and the inviscid velocity distribution is weak, the so-called short bubble. A summary of the research performed in the past nine months is presented. The bubble model in its present form is then described. Lastly, the performance of this model in predicting bubble characteristics is shown for a few cases.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Somerville, W. R. C.; Auguié, B.; Le Ru, E. C.
2016-03-01
SMARTIES calculates the optical properties of oblate and prolate spheroidal particles, with comparable capabilities and ease-of-use as Mie theory for spheres. This suite of MATLAB codes provides a fully documented implementation of an improved T-matrix algorithm for the theoretical modelling of electromagnetic scattering by particles of spheroidal shape. Included are scripts that cover a range of scattering problems relevant to nanophotonics and plasmonics, including calculation of far-field scattering and absorption cross-sections for fixed incidence orientation, orientation-averaged cross-sections and scattering matrix, surface-field calculations as well as near-fields, wavelength-dependent near-field and far-field properties, and access to lower-level functions implementing the T-matrix calculations, including the T-matrix elements which may be calculated more accurately than with competing codes.
Accurate calculation of conductive conductances in complex geometries for spacecrafts thermal models
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Garmendia, Iñaki; Anglada, Eva; Vallejo, Haritz; Seco, Miguel
2016-02-01
The thermal subsystem of spacecrafts and payloads is always designed with the help of Thermal Mathematical Models. In the case of the Thermal Lumped Parameter (TLP) method, the non-linear system of equations that is created is solved to calculate the temperature distribution and the heat power that goes between nodes. The accuracy of the results depends largely on the appropriate calculation of the conductive and radiative conductances. Several established methods for the determination of conductive conductances exist but they present some limitations for complex geometries. Two new methods are proposed in this paper to calculate accurately these conductive conductances: The Extended Far Field method and the Mid-Section method. Both are based on a finite element calculation but while the Extended Far Field method uses the calculation of node mean temperatures, the Mid-Section method is based on assuming specific temperature values. They are compared with traditionally used methods showing the advantages of these two new methods.
Accurate force fields and methods for modelling organic molecular crystals at finite temperatures.
Nyman, Jonas; Pundyke, Orla Sheehan; Day, Graeme M
2016-06-21
We present an assessment of the performance of several force fields for modelling intermolecular interactions in organic molecular crystals using the X23 benchmark set. The performance of the force fields is compared to several popular dispersion corrected density functional methods. In addition, we present our implementation of lattice vibrational free energy calculations in the quasi-harmonic approximation, using several methods to account for phonon dispersion. This allows us to also benchmark the force fields' reproduction of finite temperature crystal structures. The results demonstrate that anisotropic atom-atom multipole-based force fields can be as accurate as several popular DFT-D methods, but have errors 2-3 times larger than the current best DFT-D methods. The largest error in the examined force fields is a systematic underestimation of the (absolute) lattice energy. PMID:27230942
Accurate calculation of binding energies for molecular clusters - Assessment of different models
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Friedrich, Joachim; Fiedler, Benjamin
2016-06-01
In this work we test different strategies to compute high-level benchmark energies for medium-sized molecular clusters. We use the incremental scheme to obtain CCSD(T)/CBS energies for our test set and carefully validate the accuracy for binding energies by statistical measures. The local errors of the incremental scheme are <1 kJ/mol. Since they are smaller than the basis set errors, we obtain higher total accuracy due to the applicability of larger basis sets. The final CCSD(T)/CBS benchmark values are ΔE = - 278.01 kJ/mol for (H2O)10, ΔE = - 221.64 kJ/mol for (HF)10, ΔE = - 45.63 kJ/mol for (CH4)10, ΔE = - 19.52 kJ/mol for (H2)20 and ΔE = - 7.38 kJ/mol for (H2)10 . Furthermore we test state-of-the-art wave-function-based and DFT methods. Our benchmark data will be very useful for critical validations of new methods. We find focal-point-methods for estimating CCSD(T)/CBS energies to be highly accurate and efficient. For foQ-i3CCSD(T)-MP2/TZ we get a mean error of 0.34 kJ/mol and a standard deviation of 0.39 kJ/mol.
O’Connor, James PB; Boult, Jessica KR; Jamin, Yann; Babur, Muhammad; Finegan, Katherine G; Williams, Kaye J; Little, Ross A; Jackson, Alan; Parker, Geoff JM; Reynolds, Andrew R; Waterton, John C; Robinson, Simon P
2015-01-01
There is a clinical need for non-invasive biomarkers of tumor hypoxia for prognostic and predictive studies, radiotherapy planning and therapy monitoring. Oxygen enhanced MRI (OE-MRI) is an emerging imaging technique for quantifying the spatial distribution and extent of tumor oxygen delivery in vivo. In OE-MRI, the longitudinal relaxation rate of protons (ΔR1) changes in proportion to the concentration of molecular oxygen dissolved in plasma or interstitial tissue fluid. Therefore, well-oxygenated tissues show positive ΔR1. We hypothesized that the fraction of tumor tissue refractory to oxygen challenge (lack of positive ΔR1, termed “Oxy-R fraction”) would be a robust biomarker of hypoxia in models with varying vascular and hypoxic features. Here we demonstrate that OE-MRI signals are accurate, precise and sensitive to changes in tumor pO2 in highly vascular 786-0 renal cancer xenografts. Furthermore, we show that Oxy-R fraction can quantify the hypoxic fraction in multiple models with differing hypoxic and vascular phenotypes, when used in combination with measurements of tumor perfusion. Finally, Oxy-R fraction can detect dynamic changes in hypoxia induced by the vasomodulator agent hydralazine. In contrast, more conventional biomarkers of hypoxia (derived from blood oxygenation-level dependent MRI and dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI) did not relate to tumor hypoxia consistently. Our results show that the Oxy-R fraction accurately quantifies tumor hypoxia non-invasively and is immediately translatable to the clinic. PMID:26659574
Ellis, D; Allaire, J C
1999-09-01
We proposed a mediation model to examine the effects of age, education, computer knowledge, and computer anxiety on computer interest in older adults. We hypothesized that computer knowledge and computer anxiety would fully mediate the effects of age and education on computer interest. A sample of 330 older adults from local senior-citizen apartment buildings completed a survey that included an assessment of the constructs included in the model. Using structural equation modeling, we found that the results supported the hypothesized mediation model. In particular, the effect of computer knowledge operated on computer interest through computer anxiety. The effect of age was not fully mitigated by the other model variables, indicating the need for future research that identifies and models other correlates of age and computer interest. The most immediate application of this research is the finding that a simple 3-item instrument can be used to assess computer interest in older populations. This will help professionals plan and implement computer services in public-access settings for older adults. An additional application of this research is the information it provides for training program designers. PMID:10665203
COMPUTATIONAL FLUID DYNAMICS MODELING ANALYSIS OF COMBUSTORS
Mathur, M.P.; Freeman, Mark; Gera, Dinesh
2001-11-06
In the current fiscal year FY01, several CFD simulations were conducted to investigate the effects of moisture in biomass/coal, particle injection locations, and flow parameters on carbon burnout and NO{sub x} inside a 150 MW GEEZER industrial boiler. Various simulations were designed to predict the suitability of biomass cofiring in coal combustors, and to explore the possibility of using biomass as a reburning fuel to reduce NO{sub x}. Some additional CFD simulations were also conducted on CERF combustor to examine the combustion characteristics of pulverized coal in enriched O{sub 2}/CO{sub 2} environments. Most of the CFD models available in the literature treat particles to be point masses with uniform temperature inside the particles. This isothermal condition may not be suitable for larger biomass particles. To this end, a stand alone program was developed from the first principles to account for heat conduction from the surface of the particle to its center. It is envisaged that the recently developed non-isothermal stand alone module will be integrated with the Fluent solver during next fiscal year to accurately predict the carbon burnout from larger biomass particles. Anisotropy in heat transfer in radial and axial will be explored using different conductivities in radial and axial directions. The above models will be validated/tested on various fullscale industrial boilers. The current NO{sub x} modules will be modified to account for local CH, CH{sub 2}, and CH{sub 3} radicals chemistry, currently it is based on global chemistry. It may also be worth exploring the effect of enriched O{sub 2}/CO{sub 2} environment on carbon burnout and NO{sub x} concentration. The research objective of this study is to develop a 3-Dimensional Combustor Model for Biomass Co-firing and reburning applications using the Fluent Computational Fluid Dynamics Code.
Climate Modeling using High-Performance Computing
Mirin, A A
2007-02-05
The Center for Applied Scientific Computing (CASC) and the LLNL Climate and Carbon Science Group of Energy and Environment (E and E) are working together to improve predictions of future climate by applying the best available computational methods and computer resources to this problem. Over the last decade, researchers at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) have developed a number of climate models that provide state-of-the-art simulations on a wide variety of massively parallel computers. We are now developing and applying a second generation of high-performance climate models. Through the addition of relevant physical processes, we are developing an earth systems modeling capability as well.
Toward Accurate Modeling of the Effect of Ion-Pair Formation on Solute Redox Potential.
Qu, Xiaohui; Persson, Kristin A
2016-09-13
A scheme to model the dependence of a solute redox potential on the supporting electrolyte is proposed, and the results are compared to experimental observations and other reported theoretical models. An improved agreement with experiment is exhibited if the effect of the supporting electrolyte on the redox potential is modeled through a concentration change induced via ion pair formation with the salt, rather than by only considering the direct impact on the redox potential of the solute itself. To exemplify the approach, the scheme is applied to the concentration-dependent redox potential of select molecules proposed for nonaqueous flow batteries. However, the methodology is general and enables rational computational electrolyte design through tuning of the operating window of electrochemical systems by shifting the redox potential of its solutes; including potentially both salts as well as redox active molecules. PMID:27500744
Random generalized linear model: a highly accurate and interpretable ensemble predictor
2013-01-01
Background Ensemble predictors such as the random forest are known to have superior accuracy but their black-box predictions are difficult to interpret. In contrast, a generalized linear model (GLM) is very interpretable especially when forward feature selection is used to construct the model. However, forward feature selection tends to overfit the data and leads to low predictive accuracy. Therefore, it remains an important research goal to combine the advantages of ensemble predictors (high accuracy) with the advantages of forward regression modeling (interpretability). To address this goal several articles have explored GLM based ensemble predictors. Since limited evaluations suggested that these ensemble predictors were less accurate than alternative predictors, they have found little attention in the literature. Results Comprehensive evaluations involving hundreds of genomic data sets, the UCI machine learning benchmark data, and simulations are used to give GLM based ensemble predictors a new and careful look. A novel bootstrap aggregated (bagged) GLM predictor that incorporates several elements of randomness and instability (random subspace method, optional interaction terms, forward variable selection) often outperforms a host of alternative prediction methods including random forests and penalized regression models (ridge regression, elastic net, lasso). This random generalized linear model (RGLM) predictor provides variable importance measures that can be used to define a “thinned” ensemble predictor (involving few features) that retains excellent predictive accuracy. Conclusion RGLM is a state of the art predictor that shares the advantages of a random forest (excellent predictive accuracy, feature importance measures, out-of-bag estimates of accuracy) with those of a forward selected generalized linear model (interpretability). These methods are implemented in the freely available R software package randomGLM. PMID:23323760
"Computational Modeling of Actinide Complexes"
Balasubramanian, K
2007-03-07
We will present our recent studies on computational actinide chemistry of complexes which are not only interesting from the standpoint of actinide coordination chemistry but also of relevance to environmental management of high-level nuclear wastes. We will be discussing our recent collaborative efforts with Professor Heino Nitsche of LBNL whose research group has been actively carrying out experimental studies on these species. Computations of actinide complexes are also quintessential to our understanding of the complexes found in geochemical, biochemical environments and actinide chemistry relevant to advanced nuclear systems. In particular we have been studying uranyl, plutonyl, and Cm(III) complexes are in aqueous solution. These studies are made with a variety of relativistic methods such as coupled cluster methods, DFT, and complete active space multi-configuration self-consistent-field (CASSCF) followed by large-scale CI computations and relativistic CI (RCI) computations up to 60 million configurations. Our computational studies on actinide complexes were motivated by ongoing EXAFS studies of speciated complexes in geo and biochemical environments carried out by Prof Heino Nitsche's group at Berkeley, Dr. David Clark at Los Alamos and Dr. Gibson's work on small actinide molecules at ORNL. The hydrolysis reactions of urnayl, neputyl and plutonyl complexes have received considerable attention due to their geochemical and biochemical importance but the results of free energies in solution and the mechanism of deprotonation have been topic of considerable uncertainty. We have computed deprotonating and migration of one water molecule from the first solvation shell to the second shell in UO{sub 2}(H{sub 2}O){sub 5}{sup 2+}, UO{sub 2}(H{sub 2}O){sub 5}{sup 2+}NpO{sub 2}(H{sub 2}O){sub 6}{sup +}, and PuO{sub 2}(H{sub 2}O){sub 5}{sup 2+} complexes. Our computed Gibbs free energy(7.27 kcal/m) in solution for the first time agrees with the experiment (7.1 kcal
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Huang, Guo-Jiao; Bai, Chao-Ying; Greenhalgh, Stewart
2013-09-01
The traditional grid/cell-based wavefront expansion algorithms, such as the shortest path algorithm, can only find the first arrivals or multiply reflected (or mode converted) waves transmitted from subsurface interfaces, but cannot calculate the other later reflections/conversions having a minimax time path. In order to overcome the above limitations, we introduce the concept of a stationary minimax time path of Fermat's Principle into the multistage irregular shortest path method. Here we extend it from Cartesian coordinates for a flat earth model to global ray tracing of multiple phases in a 3-D complex spherical earth model. The ray tracing results for 49 different kinds of crustal, mantle and core phases show that the maximum absolute traveltime error is less than 0.12 s and the average absolute traveltime error is within 0.09 s when compared with the AK135 theoretical traveltime tables for a 1-D reference model. Numerical tests in terms of computational accuracy and CPU time consumption indicate that the new scheme is an accurate, efficient and a practical way to perform 3-D multiphase arrival tracking in regional or global traveltime tomography.
COLD-SAT Dynamic Model Computer Code
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Bollenbacher, G.; Adams, N. S.
1995-01-01
COLD-SAT Dynamic Model (CSDM) computer code implements six-degree-of-freedom, rigid-body mathematical model for simulation of spacecraft in orbit around Earth. Investigates flow dynamics and thermodynamics of subcritical cryogenic fluids in microgravity. Consists of three parts: translation model, rotation model, and slosh model. Written in FORTRAN 77.
Gay, Guillaume; Courtheoux, Thibault; Reyes, Céline
2012-01-01
In fission yeast, erroneous attachments of spindle microtubules to kinetochores are frequent in early mitosis. Most are corrected before anaphase onset by a mechanism involving the protein kinase Aurora B, which destabilizes kinetochore microtubules (ktMTs) in the absence of tension between sister chromatids. In this paper, we describe a minimal mathematical model of fission yeast chromosome segregation based on the stochastic attachment and detachment of ktMTs. The model accurately reproduces the timing of correct chromosome biorientation and segregation seen in fission yeast. Prevention of attachment defects requires both appropriate kinetochore orientation and an Aurora B–like activity. The model also reproduces abnormal chromosome segregation behavior (caused by, for example, inhibition of Aurora B). It predicts that, in metaphase, merotelic attachment is prevented by a kinetochore orientation effect and corrected by an Aurora B–like activity, whereas in anaphase, it is corrected through unbalanced forces applied to the kinetochore. These unbalanced forces are sufficient to prevent aneuploidy. PMID:22412019
Accurate models for P-gp drug recognition induced from a cancer cell line cytotoxicity screen.
Levatić, Jurica; Ćurak, Jasna; Kralj, Marijeta; Šmuc, Tomislav; Osmak, Maja; Supek, Fran
2013-07-25
P-glycoprotein (P-gp, MDR1) is a promiscuous drug efflux pump of substantial pharmacological importance. Taking advantage of large-scale cytotoxicity screening data involving 60 cancer cell lines, we correlated the differential biological activities of ∼13,000 compounds against cellular P-gp levels. We created a large set of 934 high-confidence P-gp substrates or nonsubstrates by enforcing agreement with an orthogonal criterion involving P-gp overexpressing ADR-RES cells. A support vector machine (SVM) was 86.7% accurate in discriminating P-gp substrates on independent test data, exceeding previous models. Two molecular features had an overarching influence: nearly all P-gp substrates were large (>35 atoms including H) and dense (specific volume of <7.3 Å(3)/atom) molecules. Seven other descriptors and 24 molecular fragments ("effluxophores") were found enriched in the (non)substrates and incorporated into interpretable rule-based models. Biological experiments on an independent P-gp overexpressing cell line, the vincristine-resistant VK2, allowed us to reclassify six compounds previously annotated as substrates, validating our method's predictive ability. Models are freely available at http://pgp.biozyne.com . PMID:23772653
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Lindner, Bernhard Lee; Ackerman, Thomas P.; Pollack, James B.
1990-01-01
CO2 comprises 95 pct. of the composition of the Martian atmosphere. However, the Martian atmosphere also has a high aerosol content. Dust particles vary from less than 0.2 to greater than 3.0. CO2 is an active absorber and emitter in near IR and IR wavelengths; the near IR absorption bands of CO2 provide significant heating of the atmosphere, and the 15 micron band provides rapid cooling. Including both CO2 and aerosol radiative transfer simultaneously in a model is difficult. Aerosol radiative transfer requires a multiple scattering code, while CO2 radiative transfer must deal with complex wavelength structure. As an alternative to the pure atmosphere treatment in most models which causes inaccuracies, a treatment was developed called the exponential sum or k distribution approximation. The chief advantage of the exponential sum approach is that the integration over k space of f(k) can be computed more quickly than the integration of k sub upsilon over frequency. The exponential sum approach is superior to the photon path distribution and emissivity techniques for dusty conditions. This study was the first application of the exponential sum approach to Martian conditions.
Applications of computer modeling to fusion research
Dawson, J.M.
1989-01-01
Progress achieved during this report period is presented on the following topics: Development and application of gyrokinetic particle codes to tokamak transport, development of techniques to take advantage of parallel computers; model dynamo and bootstrap current drive; and in general maintain our broad-based program in basic plasma physics and computer modeling.
Leverage points in a computer model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Janošek, Michal
2016-06-01
This article is focused on the analysis of the leverage points (developed by D. Meadows) in a computer model. The goal is to find out if there is a possibility to find these points of leverage in a computer model (on the example of a predator-prey model) and to determine how the particular parameters, their ranges and monitored variables of the model are associated with the concept of leverage points.
2011-01-01
Background Data assimilation refers to methods for updating the state vector (initial condition) of a complex spatiotemporal model (such as a numerical weather model) by combining new observations with one or more prior forecasts. We consider the potential feasibility of this approach for making short-term (60-day) forecasts of the growth and spread of a malignant brain cancer (glioblastoma multiforme) in individual patient cases, where the observations are synthetic magnetic resonance images of a hypothetical tumor. Results We apply a modern state estimation algorithm (the Local Ensemble Transform Kalman Filter), previously developed for numerical weather prediction, to two different mathematical models of glioblastoma, taking into account likely errors in model parameters and measurement uncertainties in magnetic resonance imaging. The filter can accurately shadow the growth of a representative synthetic tumor for 360 days (six 60-day forecast/update cycles) in the presence of a moderate degree of systematic model error and measurement noise. Conclusions The mathematical methodology described here may prove useful for other modeling efforts in biology and oncology. An accurate forecast system for glioblastoma may prove useful in clinical settings for treatment planning and patient counseling. Reviewers This article was reviewed by Anthony Almudevar, Tomas Radivoyevitch, and Kristin Swanson (nominated by Georg Luebeck). PMID:22185645
Heuijerjans, Ashley; Matikainen, Marko K.; Julkunen, Petro; Eliasson, Pernilla; Aspenberg, Per; Isaksson, Hanna
2015-01-01
Background Computational models of Achilles tendons can help understanding how healthy tendons are affected by repetitive loading and how the different tissue constituents contribute to the tendon’s biomechanical response. However, available models of Achilles tendon are limited in their description of the hierarchical multi-structural composition of the tissue. This study hypothesised that a poroviscoelastic fibre-reinforced model, previously successful in capturing cartilage biomechanical behaviour, can depict the biomechanical behaviour of the rat Achilles tendon found experimentally. Materials and Methods We developed a new material model of the Achilles tendon, which considers the tendon’s main constituents namely: water, proteoglycan matrix and collagen fibres. A hyperelastic formulation of the proteoglycan matrix enabled computations of large deformations of the tendon, and collagen fibres were modelled as viscoelastic. Specimen-specific finite element models were created of 9 rat Achilles tendons from an animal experiment and simulations were carried out following a repetitive tensile loading protocol. The material model parameters were calibrated against data from the rats by minimising the root mean squared error (RMS) between experimental force data and model output. Results and Conclusions All specimen models were successfully fitted to experimental data with high accuracy (RMS 0.42-1.02). Additional simulations predicted more compliant and soft tendon behaviour at reduced strain-rates compared to higher strain-rates that produce a stiff and brittle tendon response. Stress-relaxation simulations exhibited strain-dependent stress-relaxation behaviour where larger strains produced slower relaxation rates compared to smaller strain levels. Our simulations showed that the collagen fibres in the Achilles tendon are the main load-bearing component during tensile loading, where the orientation of the collagen fibres plays an important role for the tendon
Elvira, L; Hernandez, F; Cuesta, P; Cano, S; Gonzalez-Martin, J-V; Astiz, S
2013-06-01
Although the intensive production system of Lacaune dairy sheep is the only profitable method for producers outside of the French Roquefort area, little is known about this type of systems. This study evaluated yield records of 3677 Lacaune sheep under intensive management between 2005 and 2010 in order to describe the lactation curve of this breed and to investigate the suitability of different mathematical functions for modeling this curve. A total of 7873 complete lactations during a 40-week lactation period corresponding to 201 281 pieces of weekly yield data were used. First, five mathematical functions were evaluated on the basis of the residual mean square, determination coefficient, Durbin Watson and Runs Test values. The two better models were found to be Pollott Additive and fractional polynomial (FP). In the second part of the study, the milk yield, peak of milk yield, day of peak and persistency of the lactations were calculated with Pollot Additive and FP models and compared with the real data. The results indicate that both models gave an extremely accurate fit to Lacaune lactation curves in order to predict milk yields (P = 0.871), with the FP model being the best choice to provide a good fit to an extensive amount of real data and applicable on farm without specific statistical software. On the other hand, the interpretation of the parameters of the Pollott Additive function helps to understand the biology of the udder of the Lacaune sheep. The characteristics of the Lacaune lactation curve and milk yield are affected by lactation number and length. The lactation curves obtained in the present study allow the early identification of ewes with low milk yield potential, which will help to optimize farm profitability. PMID:23257242
Computational Flow Modeling of Human Upper Airway Breathing
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mylavarapu, Goutham
Computational modeling of biological systems have gained a lot of interest in biomedical research, in the recent past. This thesis focuses on the application of computational simulations to study airflow dynamics in human upper respiratory tract. With advancements in medical imaging, patient specific geometries of anatomically accurate respiratory tracts can now be reconstructed from Magnetic Resonance Images (MRI) or Computed Tomography (CT) scans, with better and accurate details than traditional cadaver cast models. Computational studies using these individualized geometrical models have advantages of non-invasiveness, ease, minimum patient interaction, improved accuracy over experimental and clinical studies. Numerical simulations can provide detailed flow fields including velocities, flow rates, airway wall pressure, shear stresses, turbulence in an airway. Interpretation of these physical quantities will enable to develop efficient treatment procedures, medical devices, targeted drug delivery etc. The hypothesis for this research is that computational modeling can predict the outcomes of a surgical intervention or a treatment plan prior to its application and will guide the physician in providing better treatment to the patients. In the current work, three different computational approaches Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD), Flow-Structure Interaction (FSI) and Particle Flow simulations were used to investigate flow in airway geometries. CFD approach assumes airway wall as rigid, and relatively easy to simulate, compared to the more challenging FSI approach, where interactions of airway wall deformations with flow are also accounted. The CFD methodology using different turbulence models is validated against experimental measurements in an airway phantom. Two case-studies using CFD, to quantify a pre and post-operative airway and another, to perform virtual surgery to determine the best possible surgery in a constricted airway is demonstrated. The unsteady
Model Railroading and Computer Fundamentals
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
McCormick, John W.
2007-01-01
Less than one half of one percent of all processors manufactured today end up in computers. The rest are embedded in other devices such as automobiles, airplanes, trains, satellites, and nearly every modern electronic device. Developing software for embedded systems requires a greater knowledge of hardware than developing for a typical desktop…
A new geometric-based model to accurately estimate arm and leg inertial estimates.
Wicke, Jason; Dumas, Geneviève A
2014-06-01
Segment estimates of mass, center of mass and moment of inertia are required input parameters to analyze the forces and moments acting across the joints. The objectives of this study were to propose a new geometric model for limb segments, to evaluate it against criterion values obtained from DXA, and to compare its performance to five other popular models. Twenty five female and 24 male college students participated in the study. For the criterion measures, the participants underwent a whole body DXA scan, and estimates for segment mass, center of mass location, and moment of inertia (frontal plane) were directly computed from the DXA mass units. For the new model, the volume was determined from two standing frontal and sagittal photographs. Each segment was modeled as a stack of slices, the sections of which were ellipses if they are not adjoining another segment and sectioned ellipses if they were adjoining another segment (e.g. upper arm and trunk). Length of axes of the ellipses was obtained from the photographs. In addition, a sex-specific, non-uniform density function was developed for each segment. A series of anthropometric measurements were also taken by directly following the definitions provided of the different body segment models tested, and the same parameters determined for each model. Comparison of models showed that estimates from the new model were consistently closer to the DXA criterion than those from the other models, with an error of less than 5% for mass and moment of inertia and less than about 6% for center of mass location. PMID:24735506
Augustin, Christoph M.; Neic, Aurel; Liebmann, Manfred; Prassl, Anton J.; Niederer, Steven A.; Haase, Gundolf; Plank, Gernot
2016-01-01
Electromechanical (EM) models of the heart have been used successfully to study fundamental mechanisms underlying a heart beat in health and disease. However, in all modeling studies reported so far numerous simplifications were made in terms of representing biophysical details of cellular function and its heterogeneity, gross anatomy and tissue microstructure, as well as the bidirectional coupling between electrophysiology (EP) and tissue distension. One limiting factor is the employed spatial discretization methods which are not sufficiently flexible to accommodate complex geometries or resolve heterogeneities, but, even more importantly, the limited efficiency of the prevailing solver techniques which are not sufficiently scalable to deal with the incurring increase in degrees of freedom (DOF) when modeling cardiac electromechanics at high spatio-temporal resolution. This study reports on the development of a novel methodology for solving the nonlinear equation of finite elasticity using human whole organ models of cardiac electromechanics, discretized at a high para-cellular resolution. Three patient-specific, anatomically accurate, whole heart EM models were reconstructed from magnetic resonance (MR) scans at resolutions of 220 μm, 440 μm and 880 μm, yielding meshes of approximately 184.6, 24.4 and 3.7 million tetrahedral elements and 95.9, 13.2 and 2.1 million displacement DOF, respectively. The same mesh was used for discretizing the governing equations of both electrophysiology (EP) and nonlinear elasticity. A novel algebraic multigrid (AMG) preconditioner for an iterative Krylov solver was developed to deal with the resulting computational load. The AMG preconditioner was designed under the primary objective of achieving favorable strong scaling characteristics for both setup and solution runtimes, as this is key for exploiting current high performance computing hardware. Benchmark results using the 220 μm, 440 μm and 880 μm meshes demonstrate
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Augustin, Christoph M.; Neic, Aurel; Liebmann, Manfred; Prassl, Anton J.; Niederer, Steven A.; Haase, Gundolf; Plank, Gernot
2016-01-01
Electromechanical (EM) models of the heart have been used successfully to study fundamental mechanisms underlying a heart beat in health and disease. However, in all modeling studies reported so far numerous simplifications were made in terms of representing biophysical details of cellular function and its heterogeneity, gross anatomy and tissue microstructure, as well as the bidirectional coupling between electrophysiology (EP) and tissue distension. One limiting factor is the employed spatial discretization methods which are not sufficiently flexible to accommodate complex geometries or resolve heterogeneities, but, even more importantly, the limited efficiency of the prevailing solver techniques which is not sufficiently scalable to deal with the incurring increase in degrees of freedom (DOF) when modeling cardiac electromechanics at high spatio-temporal resolution. This study reports on the development of a novel methodology for solving the nonlinear equation of finite elasticity using human whole organ models of cardiac electromechanics, discretized at a high para-cellular resolution. Three patient-specific, anatomically accurate, whole heart EM models were reconstructed from magnetic resonance (MR) scans at resolutions of 220 μm, 440 μm and 880 μm, yielding meshes of approximately 184.6, 24.4 and 3.7 million tetrahedral elements and 95.9, 13.2 and 2.1 million displacement DOF, respectively. The same mesh was used for discretizing the governing equations of both electrophysiology (EP) and nonlinear elasticity. A novel algebraic multigrid (AMG) preconditioner for an iterative Krylov solver was developed to deal with the resulting computational load. The AMG preconditioner was designed under the primary objective of achieving favorable strong scaling characteristics for both setup and solution runtimes, as this is key for exploiting current high performance computing hardware. Benchmark results using the 220 μm, 440 μm and 880 μm meshes demonstrate
Computational modeling of peripheral pain: a commentary.
Argüello, Erick J; Silva, Ricardo J; Huerta, Mónica K; Avila, René S
2015-01-01
This commentary is intended to find possible explanations for the low impact of computational modeling on pain research. We discuss the main strategies that have been used in building computational models for the study of pain. The analysis suggests that traditional models lack biological plausibility at some levels, they do not provide clinically relevant results, and they cannot capture the stochastic character of neural dynamics. On this basis, we provide some suggestions that may be useful in building computational models of pain with a wider range of applications. PMID:26062616
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Guerlet, Sandrine; Spiga, A.; Sylvestre, M.; Fouchet, T.; Millour, E.; Wordsworth, R.; Leconte, J.; Forget, F.
2013-10-01
Recent observations of Saturn’s stratospheric thermal structure and composition revealed new phenomena: an equatorial oscillation in temperature, reminiscent of the Earth's Quasi-Biennal Oscillation ; strong meridional contrasts of hydrocarbons ; a warm “beacon” associated with the powerful 2010 storm. Those signatures cannot be reproduced by 1D photochemical and radiative models and suggest that atmospheric dynamics plays a key role. This motivated us to develop a complete 3D General Circulation Model (GCM) for Saturn, based on the LMDz hydrodynamical core, to explore the circulation, seasonal variability, and wave activity in Saturn's atmosphere. In order to closely reproduce Saturn's radiative forcing, a particular emphasis was put in obtaining fast and accurate radiative transfer calculations. Our radiative model uses correlated-k distributions and spectral discretization tailored for Saturn's atmosphere. We include internal heat flux, ring shadowing and aerosols. We will report on the sensitivity of the model to spectral discretization, spectroscopic databases, and aerosol scenarios (varying particle sizes, opacities and vertical structures). We will also discuss the radiative effect of the ring shadowing on Saturn's atmosphere. We will present a comparison of temperature fields obtained with this new radiative equilibrium model to that inferred from Cassini/CIRS observations. In the troposphere, our model reproduces the observed temperature knee caused by heating at the top of the tropospheric aerosol layer. In the lower stratosphere (20mbar
modeled temperature is 5-10K too low compared to measurements. This suggests that processes other than radiative heating/cooling by trace
Computer Models Simulate Fine Particle Dispersion
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
2010-01-01
Through a NASA Seed Fund partnership with DEM Solutions Inc., of Lebanon, New Hampshire, scientists at Kennedy Space Center refined existing software to study the electrostatic phenomena of granular and bulk materials as they apply to planetary surfaces. The software, EDEM, allows users to import particles and obtain accurate representations of their shapes for modeling purposes, such as simulating bulk solids behavior, and was enhanced to be able to more accurately model fine, abrasive, cohesive particles. These new EDEM capabilities can be applied in many industries unrelated to space exploration and have been adopted by several prominent U.S. companies, including John Deere, Pfizer, and Procter & Gamble.
An Approach to More Accurate Model Systems for Purple Acid Phosphatases (PAPs).
Bernhardt, Paul V; Bosch, Simone; Comba, Peter; Gahan, Lawrence R; Hanson, Graeme R; Mereacre, Valeriu; Noble, Christopher J; Powell, Annie K; Schenk, Gerhard; Wadepohl, Hubert
2015-08-01
The active site of mammalian purple acid phosphatases (PAPs) have a dinuclear iron site in two accessible oxidation states (Fe(III)2 and Fe(III)Fe(II)), and the heterovalent is the active form, involved in the regulation of phosphate and phosphorylated metabolite levels in a wide range of organisms. Therefore, two sites with different coordination geometries to stabilize the heterovalent active form and, in addition, with hydrogen bond donors to enable the fixation of the substrate and release of the product, are believed to be required for catalytically competent model systems. Two ligands and their dinuclear iron complexes have been studied in detail. The solid-state structures and properties, studied by X-ray crystallography, magnetism, and Mössbauer spectroscopy, and the solution structural and electronic properties, investigated by mass spectrometry, electronic, nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR), and Mössbauer spectroscopies and electrochemistry, are discussed in detail in order to understand the structures and relative stabilities in solution. In particular, with one of the ligands, a heterovalent Fe(III)Fe(II) species has been produced by chemical oxidation of the Fe(II)2 precursor. The phosphatase reactivities of the complexes, in particular, also of the heterovalent complex, are reported. These studies include pH-dependent as well as substrate concentration dependent studies, leading to pH profiles, catalytic efficiencies and turnover numbers, and indicate that the heterovalent diiron complex discussed here is an accurate PAP model system. PMID:26196255
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Walter, Johannes; Thajudeen, Thaseem; Süß, Sebastian; Segets, Doris; Peukert, Wolfgang
2015-04-01
Analytical centrifugation (AC) is a powerful technique for the characterisation of nanoparticles in colloidal systems. As a direct and absolute technique it requires no calibration or measurements of standards. Moreover, it offers simple experimental design and handling, high sample throughput as well as moderate investment costs. However, the full potential of AC for nanoparticle size analysis requires the development of powerful data analysis techniques. In this study we show how the application of direct boundary models to AC data opens up new possibilities in particle characterisation. An accurate analysis method, successfully applied to sedimentation data obtained by analytical ultracentrifugation (AUC) in the past, was used for the first time in analysing AC data. Unlike traditional data evaluation routines for AC using a designated number of radial positions or scans, direct boundary models consider the complete sedimentation boundary, which results in significantly better statistics. We demonstrate that meniscus fitting, as well as the correction of radius and time invariant noise significantly improves the signal-to-noise ratio and prevents the occurrence of false positives due to optical artefacts. Moreover, hydrodynamic non-ideality can be assessed by the residuals obtained from the analysis. The sedimentation coefficient distributions obtained by AC are in excellent agreement with the results from AUC. Brownian dynamics simulations were used to generate numerical sedimentation data to study the influence of diffusion on the obtained distributions. Our approach is further validated using polystyrene and silica nanoparticles. In particular, we demonstrate the strength of AC for analysing multimodal distributions by means of gold nanoparticles.
ACCURATE UNIVERSAL MODELS FOR THE MASS ACCRETION HISTORIES AND CONCENTRATIONS OF DARK MATTER HALOS
Zhao, D. H.; Jing, Y. P.; Mo, H. J.; Boerner, G.
2009-12-10
A large amount of observations have constrained cosmological parameters and the initial density fluctuation spectrum to a very high accuracy. However, cosmological parameters change with time and the power index of the power spectrum dramatically varies with mass scale in the so-called concordance LAMBDACDM cosmology. Thus, any successful model for its structural evolution should work well simultaneously for various cosmological models and different power spectra. We use a large set of high-resolution N-body simulations of a variety of structure formation models (scale-free, standard CDM, open CDM, and LAMBDACDM) to study the mass accretion histories, the mass and redshift dependence of concentrations, and the concentration evolution histories of dark matter halos. We find that there is significant disagreement between the much-used empirical models in the literature and our simulations. Based on our simulation results, we find that the mass accretion rate of a halo is tightly correlated with a simple function of its mass, the redshift, parameters of the cosmology, and of the initial density fluctuation spectrum, which correctly disentangles the effects of all these factors and halo environments. We also find that the concentration of a halo is strongly correlated with the universe age when its progenitor on the mass accretion history first reaches 4% of its current mass. According to these correlations, we develop new empirical models for both the mass accretion histories and the concentration evolution histories of dark matter halos, and the latter can also be used to predict the mass and redshift dependence of halo concentrations. These models are accurate and universal: the same set of model parameters works well for different cosmological models and for halos of different masses at different redshifts, and in the LAMBDACDM case the model predictions match the simulation results very well even though halo mass is traced to about 0.0005 times the final mass
Developing a computational model of human hand kinetics using AVS
Abramowitz, Mark S.
1996-05-01
As part of an ongoing effort to develop a finite element model of the human hand at the Institute for Scientific Computing Research (ISCR), this project extended existing computational tools for analyzing and visualizing hand kinetics. These tools employ a commercial, scientific visualization package called AVS. FORTRAN and C code, originally written by David Giurintano of the Gillis W. Long Hansen`s Disease Center, was ported to a different computing platform, debugged, and documented. Usability features were added and the code was made more modular and readable. When the code is used to visualize bone movement and tendon paths for the thumb, graphical output is consistent with expected results. However, numerical values for forces and moments at the thumb joints do not yet appear to be accurate enough to be included in ISCR`s finite element model. Future work includes debugging the parts of the code that calculate forces and moments and verifying the correctness of these values.
Computer-integrated finite element modeling of human middle ear.
Sun, Q; Gan, R Z; Chang, K-H; Dormer, K J
2002-10-01
The objective of this study was to produce an improved finite element (FE) model of the human middle ear and to compare the model with human data. We began with a systematic and accurate geometric modeling technique for reconstructing the middle ear from serial sections of a freshly frozen temporal bone. A geometric model of a human middle ear was constructed in a computer-aided design (CAD) environment with particular attention to geometry and microanatomy. Using the geometric model, a working FE model of the human middle ear was created using previously published material properties of middle ear components. This working FE model was finalized by a cross-calibration technique, comparing its predicted stapes footplate displacements with laser Doppler interferometry measurements from fresh temporal bones. The final FE model was shown to be reasonable in predicting the ossicular mechanics of the human middle ear. PMID:14595544
Filizola, Marta
2009-01-01
For years conventional drug design at G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs) has mainly focused on the inhibition of a single receptor at a usually well-defined ligand-binding site. The recent discovery of more and more physiologically relevant GPCR dimers/oligomers suggests that selectively targeting these complexes or designing small molecules that inhibit receptor-receptor interactions might provide new opportunities for novel drug discovery. To uncover the fundamental mechanisms and dynamics governing GPCR dimerization/oligomerization, it is crucial to understand the dynamic process of receptor-receptor association, and to identify regions that are suitable for selective drug binding. This minireview highlights current progress in the development of increasingly accurate dynamic molecular models of GPCR oligomers based on structural, biochemical, and biophysical information that has recently appeared in the literature. In view of this new information, there has never been a more exciting time for computational research into GPCRs than at present. Information-driven modern molecular models of GPCR complexes are expected to efficiently guide the rational design of GPCR oligomer-specific drugs, possibly allowing researchers to reach for the high-hanging fruits in GPCR drug discovery, i.e. more potent and selective drugs for efficient therapeutic interventions. PMID:19465029
Computational toxicology (CompTox) leverages the significant gains in computing power and computational techniques (e.g., numerical approaches, structure-activity relationships, bioinformatics) realized over the last few years, thereby reducing costs and increasing efficiency i...
Developing an Accurate CFD Based Gust Model for the Truss Braced Wing Aircraft
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Bartels, Robert E.
2013-01-01
The increased flexibility of long endurance aircraft having high aspect ratio wings necessitates attention to gust response and perhaps the incorporation of gust load alleviation. The design of civil transport aircraft with a strut or truss-braced high aspect ratio wing furthermore requires gust response analysis in the transonic cruise range. This requirement motivates the use of high fidelity nonlinear computational fluid dynamics (CFD) for gust response analysis. This paper presents the development of a CFD based gust model for the truss braced wing aircraft. A sharp-edged gust provides the gust system identification. The result of the system identification is several thousand time steps of instantaneous pressure coefficients over the entire vehicle. This data is filtered and downsampled to provide the snapshot data set from which a reduced order model is developed. A stochastic singular value decomposition algorithm is used to obtain a proper orthogonal decomposition (POD). The POD model is combined with a convolution integral to predict the time varying pressure coefficient distribution due to a novel gust profile. Finally the unsteady surface pressure response of the truss braced wing vehicle to a one-minus-cosine gust, simulated using the reduced order model, is compared with the full CFD.
Modeling of Non-Gravitational Forces for Precise and Accurate Orbit Determination
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hackel, Stefan; Gisinger, Christoph; Steigenberger, Peter; Balss, Ulrich; Montenbruck, Oliver; Eineder, Michael
2014-05-01
Remote sensing satellites support a broad range of scientific and commercial applications. The two radar imaging satellites TerraSAR-X and TanDEM-X provide spaceborne Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) and interferometric SAR data with a very high accuracy. The precise reconstruction of the satellite's trajectory is based on the Global Positioning System (GPS) measurements from a geodetic-grade dual-frequency Integrated Geodetic and Occultation Receiver (IGOR) onboard the spacecraft. The increasing demand for precise radar products relies on validation methods, which require precise and accurate orbit products. An analysis of the orbit quality by means of internal and external validation methods on long and short timescales shows systematics, which reflect deficits in the employed force models. Following the proper analysis of this deficits, possible solution strategies are highlighted in the presentation. The employed Reduced Dynamic Orbit Determination (RDOD) approach utilizes models for gravitational and non-gravitational forces. A detailed satellite macro model is introduced to describe the geometry and the optical surface properties of the satellite. Two major non-gravitational forces are the direct and the indirect Solar Radiation Pressure (SRP). The satellite TerraSAR-X flies on a dusk-dawn orbit with an altitude of approximately 510 km above ground. Due to this constellation, the Sun almost constantly illuminates the satellite, which causes strong across-track accelerations on the plane rectangular to the solar rays. The indirect effect of the solar radiation is called Earth Radiation Pressure (ERP). This force depends on the sunlight, which is reflected by the illuminated Earth surface (visible spectra) and the emission of the Earth body in the infrared spectra. Both components of ERP require Earth models to describe the optical properties of the Earth surface. Therefore, the influence of different Earth models on the orbit quality is assessed. The scope of
Introducing Seismic Tomography with Computational Modeling
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Neves, R.; Neves, M. L.; Teodoro, V.
2011-12-01
Learning seismic tomography principles and techniques involves advanced physical and computational knowledge. In depth learning of such computational skills is a difficult cognitive process that requires a strong background in physics, mathematics and computer programming. The corresponding learning environments and pedagogic methodologies should then involve sets of computational modelling activities with computer software systems which allow students the possibility to improve their mathematical or programming knowledge and simultaneously focus on the learning of seismic wave propagation and inverse theory. To reduce the level of cognitive opacity associated with mathematical or programming knowledge, several computer modelling systems have already been developed (Neves & Teodoro, 2010). Among such systems, Modellus is particularly well suited to achieve this goal because it is a domain general environment for explorative and expressive modelling with the following main advantages: 1) an easy and intuitive creation of mathematical models using just standard mathematical notation; 2) the simultaneous exploration of images, tables, graphs and object animations; 3) the attribution of mathematical properties expressed in the models to animated objects; and finally 4) the computation and display of mathematical quantities obtained from the analysis of images and graphs. Here we describe virtual simulations and educational exercises which enable students an easy grasp of the fundamental of seismic tomography. The simulations make the lecture more interactive and allow students the possibility to overcome their lack of advanced mathematical or programming knowledge and focus on the learning of seismological concepts and processes taking advantage of basic scientific computation methods and tools.
Abdelnour, Farras; Voss, Henning U.; Raj, Ashish
2014-01-01
The relationship between anatomic connectivity of large-scale brain networks and their functional connectivity is of immense importance and an area of active research. Previous attempts have required complex simulations which model the dynamics of each cortical region, and explore the coupling between regions as derived by anatomic connections. While much insight is gained from these non-linear simulations, they can be computationally taxing tools for predicting functional from anatomic connectivities. Little attention has been paid to linear models. Here we show that a properly designed linear model appears to be superior to previous non-linear approaches in capturing the brain’s long-range second order correlation structure that governs the relationship between anatomic and functional connectivities. We derive a linear network of brain dynamics based on graph diffusion, whereby the diffusing quantity undergoes a random walk on a graph. We test our model using subjects who underwent diffusion MRI and resting state fMRI. The network diffusion model applied to the structural networks largely predicts the correlation structures derived from their fMRI data, to a greater extent than other approaches. The utility of the proposed approach is that it can routinely be used to infer functional correlation from anatomic connectivity. And since it is linear, anatomic connectivity can also be inferred from functional data. The success of our model confirms the linearity of ensemble average signals in the brain, and implies that their long-range correlation structure may percolate within the brain via purely mechanistic processes enacted on its structural connectivity pathways. PMID:24384152
Ranked retrieval of Computational Biology models
2010-01-01
Background The study of biological systems demands computational support. If targeting a biological problem, the reuse of existing computational models can save time and effort. Deciding for potentially suitable models, however, becomes more challenging with the increasing number of computational models available, and even more when considering the models' growing complexity. Firstly, among a set of potential model candidates it is difficult to decide for the model that best suits ones needs. Secondly, it is hard to grasp the nature of an unknown model listed in a search result set, and to judge how well it fits for the particular problem one has in mind. Results Here we present an improved search approach for computational models of biological processes. It is based on existing retrieval and ranking methods from Information Retrieval. The approach incorporates annotations suggested by MIRIAM, and additional meta-information. It is now part of the search engine of BioModels Database, a standard repository for computational models. Conclusions The introduced concept and implementation are, to our knowledge, the first application of Information Retrieval techniques on model search in Computational Systems Biology. Using the example of BioModels Database, it was shown that the approach is feasible and extends the current possibilities to search for relevant models. The advantages of our system over existing solutions are that we incorporate a rich set of meta-information, and that we provide the user with a relevance ranking of the models found for a query. Better search capabilities in model databases are expected to have a positive effect on the reuse of existing models. PMID:20701772
Computational Medicine: Translating Models to Clinical Care
Winslow, Raimond L.; Trayanova, Natalia; Geman, Donald; Miller, Michael I.
2013-01-01
Because of the inherent complexity of coupled nonlinear biological systems, the development of computational models is necessary for achieving a quantitative understanding of their structure and function in health and disease. Statistical learning is applied to high-dimensional biomolecular data to create models that describe relationships between molecules and networks. Multiscale modeling links networks to cells, organs, and organ systems. Computational approaches are used to characterize anatomic shape and its variations in health and disease. In each case, the purposes of modeling are to capture all that we know about disease and to develop improved therapies tailored to the needs of individuals. We discuss advances in computational medicine, with specific examples in the fields of cancer, diabetes, cardiology, and neurology. Advances in translating these computational methods to the clinic are described, as well as challenges in applying models for improving patient health. PMID:23115356
Comprehensive computational model for thermal plasma processing
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chang, C. H.
A new numerical model is described for simulating thermal plasmas containing entrained particles, with emphasis on plasma spraying applications. The plasma is represented as a continuum multicomponent chemically reacting ideal gas, while the particles are tracked as discrete Lagrangian entities coupled to the plasma. The overall computational model is embodied in a new computer code called LAVA. Computational results are presented from a transient simulation of alumina spraying in a turbulent argon-helium plasma jet in air environment, including torch geometry, substrate, and multiple species with chemical reactions. Plasma-particle interactions including turbulent dispersion have been modeled in a fully self-consistent manner.
Computational Modeling of Semiconductor Dynamics at Femtosecond Time Scales
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Agrawal, Govind P.; Goorjian, Peter M.
1998-01-01
The Interchange No. NCC2-5149 deals with the emerging technology of photonic (or optoelectronic) integrated circuits (PICs or OEICs). In PICs, optical and electronic components are grown together on the same chip. To build such devices and subsystems, one needs to model the entire chip. PICs are useful for building components for integrated optical transmitters, integrated optical receivers, optical data storage systems, optical interconnects, and optical computers. For example, the current commercial rate for optical data transmission is 2.5 gigabits per second, whereas the use of shorter pulses to improve optical transmission rates would yield an increase of 400 to 1000 times. The improved optical data transmitters would be used in telecommunications networks and computer local-area networks. Also, these components can be applied to activities in space, such as satellite to satellite communications, when the data transmissions are made at optical frequencies. The research project consisted of developing accurate computer modeling of electromagnetic wave propagation in semiconductors. Such modeling is necessary for the successful development of PICs. More specifically, these computer codes would enable the modeling of such devices, including their subsystems, such as semiconductor lasers and semiconductor amplifiers in which there is femtosecond pulse propagation. Presently, there are no computer codes that could provide this modeling. Current codes do not solve the full vector, nonlinear, Maxwell's equations, which are required for these short pulses and also current codes do not solve the semiconductor Bloch equations, which are required to accurately describe the material's interaction with femtosecond pulses. The research performed under NCC2-5149 solves the combined Maxwell's and Bloch's equations.
Modeling communication in cluster computing
Stoica, I.; Sultan, F.; Keyes, D.
1995-12-01
We introduce a model for communication costs in parallel processing environments, called the {open_quotes}hyperbolic model,{close_quotes} that generalizes two-parameter dedicated-link models in an analytically simple way. The communication system is modeled as a directed communication graph in which terminal nodes represent the application processes and internal nodes, called communication blocks (CBs), reflect the layered structure of the underlying communication architecture. A CB is characterized by a two-parameter hyperbolic function of the message size that represents the service time needed for processing the message. Rules are given for reducing a communication graph consisting of many CBs to an equivalent two-parameter form, while maintaining a good approximation for the service time. In [4] we demonstrate a tight fit of the estimates of the cost of communication based on our model with actual measurements of the communication and synchronization time between end processes. We, also show the compatibility of our model (to within a factor of 3/4) with the recently proposed LogP model.
Accurate modeling of light trapping in thin film silicon solar cells
Abouelsaood, A.A.; Ghannam, M.Y.; Poortmans, J.; Mertens, R.P.
1997-12-31
An attempt is made to assess the accuracy of the simplifying assumption of total retransmission of light inside the escape or loss cone which is made in many models of optical confinement in thin-film silicon solar cells. A closed form expression is derived for the absorption enhancement factor as a function of the refractive index in the low-absorption limit for a thin-film cell with a flat front surface and a lambertian back reflector. Numerical calculations are carried out to investigate similar systems with antireflection coatings, and the investigation of cells with a textured front surface is achieved using a modified version of the existing ray-tracing computer simulation program TEXTURE.
Walter, Johannes; Thajudeen, Thaseem; Süss, Sebastian; Segets, Doris; Peukert, Wolfgang
2015-04-21
Analytical centrifugation (AC) is a powerful technique for the characterisation of nanoparticles in colloidal systems. As a direct and absolute technique it requires no calibration or measurements of standards. Moreover, it offers simple experimental design and handling, high sample throughput as well as moderate investment costs. However, the full potential of AC for nanoparticle size analysis requires the development of powerful data analysis techniques. In this study we show how the application of direct boundary models to AC data opens up new possibilities in particle characterisation. An accurate analysis method, successfully applied to sedimentation data obtained by analytical ultracentrifugation (AUC) in the past, was used for the first time in analysing AC data. Unlike traditional data evaluation routines for AC using a designated number of radial positions or scans, direct boundary models consider the complete sedimentation boundary, which results in significantly better statistics. We demonstrate that meniscus fitting, as well as the correction of radius and time invariant noise significantly improves the signal-to-noise ratio and prevents the occurrence of false positives due to optical artefacts. Moreover, hydrodynamic non-ideality can be assessed by the residuals obtained from the analysis. The sedimentation coefficient distributions obtained by AC are in excellent agreement with the results from AUC. Brownian dynamics simulations were used to generate numerical sedimentation data to study the influence of diffusion on the obtained distributions. Our approach is further validated using polystyrene and silica nanoparticles. In particular, we demonstrate the strength of AC for analysing multimodal distributions by means of gold nanoparticles. PMID:25789666
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lachaume, Regis; Rabus, Markus; Jordan, Andres
2015-08-01
In stellar interferometry, the assumption that the observables can be seen as Gaussian, independent variables is the norm. In particular, neither the optical interferometry FITS (OIFITS) format nor the most popular fitting software in the field, LITpro, offer means to specify a covariance matrix or non-Gaussian uncertainties. Interferometric observables are correlated by construct, though. Also, the calibration by an instrumental transfer function ensures that the resulting observables are not Gaussian, even if uncalibrated ones happened to be so.While analytic frameworks have been published in the past, they are cumbersome and there is no generic implementation available. We propose here a relatively simple way of dealing with correlated errors without the need to extend the OIFITS specification or making some Gaussian assumptions. By repeatedly picking at random which interferograms, which calibrator stars, and which are the errors on their diameters, and performing the data processing on the bootstrapped data, we derive a sampling of p(O), the multivariate probability density function (PDF) of the observables O. The results can be stored in a normal OIFITS file. Then, given a model m with parameters P predicting observables O = m(P), we can estimate the PDF of the model parameters f(P) = p(m(P)) by using a density estimation of the observables' PDF p.With observations repeated over different baselines, on nights several days apart, and with a significant set of calibrators systematic errors are de facto taken into account. We apply the technique to a precise and accurate assessment of stellar diameters obtained at the Very Large Telescope Interferometer with PIONIER.
Teaching Environmental Systems Modelling Using Computer Simulation.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Moffatt, Ian
1986-01-01
A computer modeling course in environmental systems and dynamics is presented. The course teaches senior undergraduates to analyze a system of interest, construct a system flow chart, and write computer programs to simulate real world environmental processes. An example is presented along with a course evaluation, figures, tables, and references.…
Computer modeling of human decision making
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Gevarter, William B.
1991-01-01
Models of human decision making are reviewed. Models which treat just the cognitive aspects of human behavior are included as well as models which include motivation. Both models which have associated computer programs, and those that do not, are considered. Since flow diagrams, that assist in constructing computer simulation of such models, were not generally available, such diagrams were constructed and are presented. The result provides a rich source of information, which can aid in construction of more realistic future simulations of human decision making.
Predictive Models and Computational Embryology
EPA’s ‘virtual embryo’ project is building an integrative systems biology framework for predictive models of developmental toxicity. One schema involves a knowledge-driven adverse outcome pathway (AOP) framework utilizing information from public databases, standardized ontologies...
Computer Model Locates Environmental Hazards
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
2008-01-01
Catherine Huybrechts Burton founded San Francisco-based Endpoint Environmental (2E) LLC in 2005 while she was a student intern and project manager at Ames Research Center with NASA's DEVELOP program. The 2E team created the Tire Identification from Reflectance model, which algorithmically processes satellite images using turnkey technology to retain only the darkest parts of an image. This model allows 2E to locate piles of rubber tires, which often are stockpiled illegally and cause hazardous environmental conditions and fires.
Accurate calculation and modeling of the adiabatic connection in density functional theory
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Teale, A. M.; Coriani, S.; Helgaker, T.
2010-04-01
AC. When parametrized in terms of the same input data, the AC-CI model offers improved performance over the corresponding AC-D model, which is shown to be the lowest-order contribution to the AC-CI model. The utility of the accurately calculated AC curves for the analysis of standard density functionals is demonstrated for the BLYP exchange-correlation functional and the interaction-strength-interpolation (ISI) model AC integrand. From the results of this analysis, we investigate the performance of our proposed two-parameter AC-D and AC-CI models when a simple density functional for the AC at infinite interaction strength is employed in place of information at the fully interacting point. The resulting two-parameter correlation functionals offer a qualitatively correct behavior of the AC integrand with much improved accuracy over previous attempts. The AC integrands in the present work are recommended as a basis for further work, generating functionals that avoid spurious error cancellations between exchange and correlation energies and give good accuracy for the range of densities and types of correlation contained in the systems studied here.
Towards more accurate wind and solar power prediction by improving NWP model physics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Steiner, Andrea; Köhler, Carmen; von Schumann, Jonas; Ritter, Bodo
2014-05-01
nighttime to well mixed conditions during the day presents a big challenge to NWP models. Fast decrease and successive increase in hub-height wind speed after sunrise, and the formation of nocturnal low level jets will be discussed. For PV, the life cycle of low stratus clouds and fog is crucial. Capturing these processes correctly depends on the accurate simulation of diffusion or vertical momentum transport and the interaction with other atmospheric and soil processes within the numerical weather model. Results from Single Column Model simulations and 3d case studies will be presented. Emphasis is placed on wind forecasts; however, some references to highlights concerning the PV-developments will also be given. *) ORKA: Optimierung von Ensembleprognosen regenerativer Einspeisung für den Kürzestfristbereich am Anwendungsbeispiel der Netzsicherheitsrechnungen **) EWeLiNE: Erstellung innovativer Wetter- und Leistungsprognosemodelle für die Netzintegration wetterabhängiger Energieträger, www.projekt-eweline.de
Are satellite based rainfall estimates accurate enough for crop modelling under Sahelian climate?
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ramarohetra, J.; Sultan, B.
2012-04-01
EPSAT-SG) are integrated using a crop model, then compared and tested against simulations obtained using in situ data. As in situ data, kriged rain gauge measurements are computed from about 50 rain gauges within the square degree. We show that direct use of SRFE does not reproduce the yield variability obtained from in situ observations. In a second time, different satellite products errors (e.g. annual bias, accuracy at the beginning of the rainy season) are corrected before yield modelling to assess their impact on crop yield simulation and to be able to know which improvement in SRFE will be useful for crop yield estimation. We show that corrected satellite products enable a better yield variability representation and that error correction does not have the same impact on the different varieties computed. Finally, simulated yield quality versus precipitations temporal resolution is assessed - as well as SRFE accuracy versus SRFE temporal resolution - in order to sort out the best agreement between temporal resolution and SRFE accuracy.
Enhanced absorption cycle computer model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Grossman, G.; Wilk, M.
1993-09-01
Absorption heat pumps have received renewed and increasing attention in the past two decades. The rising cost of electricity has made the particular features of this heat-powered cycle attractive for both residential and industrial applications. Solar-powered absorption chillers, gas-fired domestic heat pumps, and waste-heat-powered industrial temperature boosters are a few of the applications recently subjected to intensive research and development. The absorption heat pump research community has begun to search for both advanced cycles in various multistage configurations and new working fluid combinations with potential for enhanced performance and reliability. The development of working absorption systems has created a need for reliable and effective system simulations. A computer code has been developed for simulation of absorption systems at steady state in a flexible and modular form, making it possible to investigate various cycle configurations with different working fluids. The code is based on unit subroutines containing the governing equations for the system's components and property subroutines containing thermodynamic properties of the working fluids. The user conveys to the computer an image of his cycle by specifying the different subunits and their interconnections. Based on this information, the program calculates the temperature, flow rate, concentration, pressure, and vapor fraction at each state point in the system, and the heat duty at each unit, from which the coefficient of performance (COP) may be determined. This report describes the code and its operation, including improvements introduced into the present version. Simulation results are described for LiBr-H2O triple-effect cycles, LiCl-H2O solar-powered open absorption cycles, and NH3-H2O single-effect and generator-absorber heat exchange cycles. An appendix contains the user's manual.
A computer simulation model to compute the radiation transfer of mountainous regions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, Yuguang; Zhao, Feng; Song, Rui
2011-11-01
In mountainous regions, the radiometric signal recorded at the sensor depends on a number of factors such as sun angle, atmospheric conditions, surface cover type, and topography. In this paper, a computer simulation model of radiation transfer is designed and evaluated. This model implements the Monte Carlo ray-tracing techniques and is specifically dedicated to the study of light propagation in mountainous regions. The radiative processes between sun light and the objects within the mountainous region are realized by using forward Monte Carlo ray-tracing methods. The performance of the model is evaluated through detailed comparisons with the well-established 3D computer simulation model: RGM (Radiosity-Graphics combined Model) based on the same scenes and identical spectral parameters, which shows good agreements between these two models' results. By using the newly developed computer model, series of typical mountainous scenes are generated to analyze the physical mechanism of mountainous radiation transfer. The results show that the effects of the adjacent slopes are important for deep valleys and they particularly affect shadowed pixels, and the topographic effect needs to be considered in mountainous terrain before accurate inferences from remotely sensed data can be made.
A new epidemic model of computer viruses
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yang, Lu-Xing; Yang, Xiaofan
2014-06-01
This paper addresses the epidemiological modeling of computer viruses. By incorporating the effect of removable storage media, considering the possibility of connecting infected computers to the Internet, and removing the conservative restriction on the total number of computers connected to the Internet, a new epidemic model is proposed. Unlike most previous models, the proposed model has no virus-free equilibrium and has a unique endemic equilibrium. With the aid of the theory of asymptotically autonomous systems as well as the generalized Poincare-Bendixson theorem, the endemic equilibrium is shown to be globally asymptotically stable. By analyzing the influence of different system parameters on the steady number of infected computers, a collection of policies is recommended to prohibit the virus prevalence.
Computer Model Buildings Contaminated with Radioactive Material
1998-05-19
The RESRAD-BUILD computer code is a pathway analysis model designed to evaluate the potential radiological dose incurred by an individual who works or lives in a building contaminated with radioactive material.
Applications of Computational Modeling in Cardiac Surgery
Lee, Lik Chuan; Genet, Martin; Dang, Alan B.; Ge, Liang; Guccione, Julius M.; Ratcliffe, Mark B.
2014-01-01
Although computational modeling is common in many areas of science and engineering, only recently have advances in experimental techniques and medical imaging allowed this tool to be applied in cardiac surgery. Despite its infancy in cardiac surgery, computational modeling has been useful in calculating the effects of clinical devices and surgical procedures. In this review, we present several examples that demonstrate the capabilities of computational cardiac modeling in cardiac surgery. Specifically, we demonstrate its ability to simulate surgery, predict myofiber stress and pump function, and quantify changes to regional myocardial material properties. In addition, issues that would need to be resolved in order for computational modeling to play a greater role in cardiac surgery are discussed. PMID:24708036
Computational modeling and multilevel cancer control interventions.
Morrissey, Joseph P; Lich, Kristen Hassmiller; Price, Rebecca Anhang; Mandelblatt, Jeanne
2012-05-01
This chapter presents an overview of computational modeling as a tool for multilevel cancer care and intervention research. Model-based analyses have been conducted at various "beneath the skin" or biological scales as well as at various "above the skin" or socioecological levels of cancer care delivery. We review the basic elements of computational modeling and illustrate its applications in four cancer control intervention areas: tobacco use, colorectal cancer screening, cervical cancer screening, and racial disparities in access to breast cancer care. Most of these models have examined cancer processes and outcomes at only one or two levels. We suggest ways these models can be expanded to consider interactions involving three or more levels. Looking forward, a number of methodological, structural, and communication barriers must be overcome to create useful computational models of multilevel cancer interventions and population health. PMID:22623597
Towards accurate kinetic modeling of prompt NO formation in hydrocarbon flames via the NCN pathway
Sutton, Jeffrey A.; Fleming, James W.
2008-08-15
A basic kinetic mechanism that can predict the appropriate prompt-NO precursor NCN, as shown by experiment, with relative accuracy while still producing postflame NO results that can be calculated as accurately as or more accurately than through the former HCN pathway is presented for the first time. The basic NCN submechanism should be a starting point for future NCN kinetic and prompt NO formation refinement.
Economic Analysis. Computer Simulation Models.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Sterling Inst., Washington, DC. Educational Technology Center.
A multimedia course in economic analysis was developed and used in conjunction with the United States Naval Academy. (See ED 043 790 and ED 043 791 for final reports of the project evaluation and development model.) This volume of the text discusses the simulation of behavioral relationships among variable elements in an economy and presents…
Computational study of lattice models
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zujev, Aleksander
This dissertation is composed of the descriptions of a few projects undertook to complete my doctorate at the University of California, Davis. Different as they are, the common feature of them is that they all deal with simulations of lattice models, and physics which results from interparticle interactions. As an example, both the Feynman-Kikuchi model (Chapter 3) and Bose-Fermi mixture (Chapter 4) deal with the conditions under which superfluid transitions occur. The dissertation is divided into two parts. Part I (Chapters 1-2) is theoretical. It describes the systems we study - superfluidity and particularly superfluid helium, and optical lattices. The numerical methods of working with them are described. The use of Monte Carlo methods is another unifying theme of the different projects in this thesis. Part II (Chapters 3-6) deals with applications. It consists of 4 chapters describing different projects. Two of them, Feynman-Kikuchi model, and Bose-Fermi mixture are finished and published. The work done on t - J model, described in Chapter 5, is more preliminary, and the project is far from complete. A preliminary report on it was given on 2009 APS March meeting. The Isentropic project, described in the last chapter, is finished. A report on it was given on 2010 APS March meeting, and a paper is in preparation. The quantum simulation program used for Bose-Fermi mixture project was written by our collaborators Valery Rousseau and Peter Denteneer. I had written my own code for the other projects.
Computational Methods to Model Persistence.
Vandervelde, Alexandra; Loris, Remy; Danckaert, Jan; Gelens, Lendert
2016-01-01
Bacterial persister cells are dormant cells, tolerant to multiple antibiotics, that are involved in several chronic infections. Toxin-antitoxin modules play a significant role in the generation of such persister cells. Toxin-antitoxin modules are small genetic elements, omnipresent in the genomes of bacteria, which code for an intracellular toxin and its neutralizing antitoxin. In the past decade, mathematical modeling has become an important tool to study the regulation of toxin-antitoxin modules and their relation to the emergence of persister cells. Here, we provide an overview of several numerical methods to simulate toxin-antitoxin modules. We cover both deterministic modeling using ordinary differential equations and stochastic modeling using stochastic differential equations and the Gillespie method. Several characteristics of toxin-antitoxin modules such as protein production and degradation, negative autoregulation through DNA binding, toxin-antitoxin complex formation and conditional cooperativity are gradually integrated in these models. Finally, by including growth rate modulation, we link toxin-antitoxin module expression to the generation of persister cells. PMID:26468111
O’Kane, Dermot B.; Lawrentschuk, Nathan; Bolton, Damien M.
2016-01-01
We herein present a case of a 76-year-old gentleman, where prostate-specific membrane antigen positron emission tomography-computed tomography (PSMA PET-CT) was used to accurately detect prostate cancer (PCa), pelvic lymph node (LN) metastasis in the setting of biochemical recurrence following definitive treatment for PCa. The positive PSMA PET-CT result was confirmed with histological examination of the involved pelvic LNs following pelvic LN dissection. PMID:27141207
Parallel computing in atmospheric chemistry models
Rotman, D.
1996-02-01
Studies of atmospheric chemistry are of high scientific interest, involve computations that are complex and intense, and require enormous amounts of I/O. Current supercomputer computational capabilities are limiting the studies of stratospheric and tropospheric chemistry and will certainly not be able to handle the upcoming coupled chemistry/climate models. To enable such calculations, the authors have developed a computing framework that allows computations on a wide range of computational platforms, including massively parallel machines. Because of the fast paced changes in this field, the modeling framework and scientific modules have been developed to be highly portable and efficient. Here, the authors present the important features of the framework and focus on the atmospheric chemistry module, named IMPACT, and its capabilities. Applications of IMPACT to aircraft studies will be presented.
Computational Tools To Model Halogen Bonds in Medicinal Chemistry.
Ford, Melissa Coates; Ho, P Shing
2016-03-10
The use of halogens in therapeutics dates back to the earliest days of medicine when seaweed was used as a source of iodine to treat goiters. The incorporation of halogens to improve the potency of drugs is now fairly standard in medicinal chemistry. In the past decade, halogens have been recognized as direct participants in defining the affinity of inhibitors through a noncovalent interaction called the halogen bond or X-bond. Incorporating X-bonding into structure-based drug design requires computational models for the anisotropic distribution of charge and the nonspherical shape of halogens, which lead to their highly directional geometries and stabilizing energies. We review here current successes and challenges in developing computational methods to introduce X-bonding into lead compound discovery and optimization during drug development. This fast-growing field will push further development of more accurate and efficient computational tools to accelerate the exploitation of halogens in medicinal chemistry. PMID:26465079
Multiconjugate adaptive optics applied to an anatomically accurate human eye model.
Bedggood, P A; Ashman, R; Smith, G; Metha, A B
2006-09-01
Aberrations of both astronomical telescopes and the human eye can be successfully corrected with conventional adaptive optics. This produces diffraction-limited imagery over a limited field of view called the isoplanatic patch. A new technique, known as multiconjugate adaptive optics, has been developed recently in astronomy to increase the size of this patch. The key is to model atmospheric turbulence as several flat, discrete layers. A human eye, however, has several curved, aspheric surfaces and a gradient index lens, complicating the task of correcting aberrations over a wide field of view. Here we utilize a computer model to determine the degree to which this technology may be applied to generate high resolution, wide-field retinal images, and discuss the considerations necessary for optimal use with the eye. The Liou and Brennan schematic eye simulates the aspheric surfaces and gradient index lens of real human eyes. We show that the size of the isoplanatic patch of the human eye is significantly increased through multiconjugate adaptive optics. PMID:19529172
Considering mask pellicle effect for more accurate OPC model at 45nm technology node
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Ching-Heng; Liu, Qingwei; Zhang, Liguo
2008-11-01
Now it comes to the 45nm technology node, which should be the first generation of the immersion micro-lithography. And the brand-new lithography tool makes many optical effects, which can be ignored at 90nm and 65nm nodes, now have significant impact on the pattern transmission process from design to silicon. Among all the effects, one that needs to be pay attention to is the mask pellicle effect's impact on the critical dimension variation. With the implement of hyper-NA lithography tools, light transmits the mask pellicle vertically is not a good approximation now, and the image blurring induced by the mask pellicle should be taken into account in the computational microlithography. In this works, we investigate how the mask pellicle impacts the accuracy of the OPC model. And we will show that considering the extremely tight critical dimension control spec for 45nm generation node, to take the mask pellicle effect into the OPC model now becomes necessary.
A Computational Framework for Realistic Retina Modeling.
Martínez-Cañada, Pablo; Morillas, Christian; Pino, Begoña; Ros, Eduardo; Pelayo, Francisco
2016-11-01
Computational simulations of the retina have led to valuable insights about the biophysics of its neuronal activity and processing principles. A great number of retina models have been proposed to reproduce the behavioral diversity of the different visual processing pathways. While many of these models share common computational stages, previous efforts have been more focused on fitting specific retina functions rather than generalizing them beyond a particular model. Here, we define a set of computational retinal microcircuits that can be used as basic building blocks for the modeling of different retina mechanisms. To validate the hypothesis that similar processing structures may be repeatedly found in different retina functions, we implemented a series of retina models simply by combining these computational retinal microcircuits. Accuracy of the retina models for capturing neural behavior was assessed by fitting published electrophysiological recordings that characterize some of the best-known phenomena observed in the retina: adaptation to the mean light intensity and temporal contrast, and differential motion sensitivity. The retinal microcircuits are part of a new software platform for efficient computational retina modeling from single-cell to large-scale levels. It includes an interface with spiking neural networks that allows simulation of the spiking response of ganglion cells and integration with models of higher visual areas. PMID:27354192
Computer Modeling of Direct Metal Laser Sintering
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Cross, Matthew
2014-01-01
A computational approach to modeling direct metal laser sintering (DMLS) additive manufacturing process is presented. The primary application of the model is for determining the temperature history of parts fabricated using DMLS to evaluate residual stresses found in finished pieces and to assess manufacturing process strategies to reduce part slumping. The model utilizes MSC SINDA as a heat transfer solver with imbedded FORTRAN computer code to direct laser motion, apply laser heating as a boundary condition, and simulate the addition of metal powder layers during part fabrication. Model results are compared to available data collected during in situ DMLS part manufacture.
Boyce, Christopher M; Holland, Daniel J; Scott, Stuart A; Dennis, John S
2013-12-18
Discrete element modeling is being used increasingly to simulate flow in fluidized beds. These models require complex measurement techniques to provide validation for the approximations inherent in the model. This paper introduces the idea of modeling the experiment to ensure that the validation is accurate. Specifically, a 3D, cylindrical gas-fluidized bed was simulated using a discrete element model (DEM) for particle motion coupled with computational fluid dynamics (CFD) to describe the flow of gas. The results for time-averaged, axial velocity during bubbling fluidization were compared with those from magnetic resonance (MR) experiments made on the bed. The DEM-CFD data were postprocessed with various methods to produce time-averaged velocity maps for comparison with the MR results, including a method which closely matched the pulse sequence and data processing procedure used in the MR experiments. The DEM-CFD results processed with the MR-type time-averaging closely matched experimental MR results, validating the DEM-CFD model. Analysis of different averaging procedures confirmed that MR time-averages of dynamic systems correspond to particle-weighted averaging, rather than frame-weighted averaging, and also demonstrated that the use of Gaussian slices in MR imaging of dynamic systems is valid. PMID:24478537
2013-01-01
Discrete element modeling is being used increasingly to simulate flow in fluidized beds. These models require complex measurement techniques to provide validation for the approximations inherent in the model. This paper introduces the idea of modeling the experiment to ensure that the validation is accurate. Specifically, a 3D, cylindrical gas-fluidized bed was simulated using a discrete element model (DEM) for particle motion coupled with computational fluid dynamics (CFD) to describe the flow of gas. The results for time-averaged, axial velocity during bubbling fluidization were compared with those from magnetic resonance (MR) experiments made on the bed. The DEM-CFD data were postprocessed with various methods to produce time-averaged velocity maps for comparison with the MR results, including a method which closely matched the pulse sequence and data processing procedure used in the MR experiments. The DEM-CFD results processed with the MR-type time-averaging closely matched experimental MR results, validating the DEM-CFD model. Analysis of different averaging procedures confirmed that MR time-averages of dynamic systems correspond to particle-weighted averaging, rather than frame-weighted averaging, and also demonstrated that the use of Gaussian slices in MR imaging of dynamic systems is valid. PMID:24478537
Computing a Comprehensible Model for Spam Filtering
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ruiz-Sepúlveda, Amparo; Triviño-Rodriguez, José L.; Morales-Bueno, Rafael
In this paper, we describe the application of the Desicion Tree Boosting (DTB) learning model to spam email filtering.This classification task implies the learning in a high dimensional feature space. So, it is an example of how the DTB algorithm performs in such feature space problems. In [1], it has been shown that hypotheses computed by the DTB model are more comprehensible that the ones computed by another ensemble methods. Hence, this paper tries to show that the DTB algorithm maintains the same comprehensibility of hypothesis in high dimensional feature space problems while achieving the performance of other ensemble methods. Four traditional evaluation measures (precision, recall, F1 and accuracy) have been considered for performance comparison between DTB and others models usually applied to spam email filtering. The size of the hypothesis computed by a DTB is smaller and more comprehensible than the hypothesis computed by Adaboost and Naïve Bayes.
Yu, Victoria Y.; Tran, Angelia; Nguyen, Dan; Cao, Minsong; Ruan, Dan; Low, Daniel A.; Sheng, Ke
2015-11-15
Purpose: Significant dosimetric benefits had been previously demonstrated in highly noncoplanar treatment plans. In this study, the authors developed and verified an individualized collision model for the purpose of delivering highly noncoplanar radiotherapy and tested the feasibility of total delivery automation with Varian TrueBeam developer mode. Methods: A hand-held 3D scanner was used to capture the surfaces of an anthropomorphic phantom and a human subject, which were positioned with a computer-aided design model of a TrueBeam machine to create a detailed virtual geometrical collision model. The collision model included gantry, collimator, and couch motion degrees of freedom. The accuracy of the 3D scanner was validated by scanning a rigid cubical phantom with known dimensions. The collision model was then validated by generating 300 linear accelerator orientations corresponding to 300 gantry-to-couch and gantry-to-phantom distances, and comparing the corresponding distance measurements to their corresponding models. The linear accelerator orientations reflected uniformly sampled noncoplanar beam angles to the head, lung, and prostate. The distance discrepancies between measurements on the physical and virtual systems were used to estimate treatment-site-specific safety buffer distances with 0.1%, 0.01%, and 0.001% probability of collision between the gantry and couch or phantom. Plans containing 20 noncoplanar beams to the brain, lung, and prostate optimized via an in-house noncoplanar radiotherapy platform were converted into XML script for automated delivery and the entire delivery was recorded and timed to demonstrate the feasibility of automated delivery. Results: The 3D scanner measured the dimension of the 14 cm cubic phantom within 0.5 mm. The maximal absolute discrepancy between machine and model measurements for gantry-to-couch and gantry-to-phantom was 0.95 and 2.97 cm, respectively. The reduced accuracy of gantry-to-phantom measurements was
Advances in Computationally Modeling Human Oral Bioavailability
Wang, Junmei; Hou, Tingjun
2015-01-01
Although significant progress has been made in experimental high throughput screening (HTS) of ADME (absorption, distribution, metabolism, excretion) and pharmacokinetic properties, the ADME and Toxicity (ADME-Tox) in silico modeling is still indispensable in drug discovery as it can guide us to wisely select drug candidates prior to expensive ADME screenings and clinical trials. Compared to other ADME-Tox properties, human oral bioavailability (HOBA) is particularly important but extremely difficult to predict. In this paper, the advances in human oral bioavailability modeling will be reviewed. Moreover, our deep insight on how to construct more accurate and reliable HOBA QSAR and classification models will also discussed. PMID:25582307
Advances in computationally modeling human oral bioavailability.
Wang, Junmei; Hou, Tingjun
2015-06-23
Although significant progress has been made in experimental high throughput screening (HTS) of ADME (absorption, distribution, metabolism, excretion) and pharmacokinetic properties, the ADME and Toxicity (ADME-Tox) in silico modeling is still indispensable in drug discovery as it can guide us to wisely select drug candidates prior to expensive ADME screenings and clinical trials. Compared to other ADME-Tox properties, human oral bioavailability (HOBA) is particularly important but extremely difficult to predict. In this paper, the advances in human oral bioavailability modeling will be reviewed. Moreover, our deep insight on how to construct more accurate and reliable HOBA QSAR and classification models will also discussed. PMID:25582307
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Infantino, Angelo; Marengo, Mario; Baschetti, Serafina; Cicoria, Gianfranco; Longo Vaschetto, Vittorio; Lucconi, Giulia; Massucci, Piera; Vichi, Sara; Zagni, Federico; Mostacci, Domiziano
2015-11-01
Biomedical cyclotrons for production of Positron Emission Tomography (PET) radionuclides and radiotherapy with hadrons or ions are widely diffused and established in hospitals as well as in industrial facilities and research sites. Guidelines for site planning and installation, as well as for radiation protection assessment, are given in a number of international documents; however, these well-established guides typically offer analytic methods of calculation of both shielding and materials activation, in approximate or idealized geometry set up. The availability of Monte Carlo codes with accurate and up-to-date libraries for transport and interactions of neutrons and charged particles at energies below 250 MeV, together with the continuously increasing power of nowadays computers, makes systematic use of simulations with realistic geometries possible, yielding equipment and site specific evaluation of the source terms, shielding requirements and all quantities relevant to radiation protection. In this work, the well-known Monte Carlo code FLUKA was used to simulate two representative models of cyclotron for PET radionuclides production, including their targetry; and one type of proton therapy cyclotron including the energy selection system. Simulations yield estimates of various quantities of radiological interest, including the effective dose distribution around the equipment, the effective number of neutron produced per incident proton and the activation of target materials, the structure of the cyclotron, the energy degrader, the vault walls and the soil. The model was validated against experimental measurements and comparison with well-established reference data. Neutron ambient dose equivalent H*(10) was measured around a GE PETtrace cyclotron: an average ratio between experimental measurement and simulations of 0.99±0.07 was found. Saturation yield of 18F, produced by the well-known 18O(p,n)18F reaction, was calculated and compared with the IAEA recommended
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lee, Y. C.; Thompson, H. M.; Gaskell, P. H.
2009-12-01
, industrial and physical applications. However, despite recent modelling advances, the accurate numerical solution of the equations governing such problems is still at a relatively early stage. Indeed, recent studies employing a simplifying long-wave approximation have shown that highly efficient numerical methods are necessary to solve the resulting lubrication equations in order to achieve the level of grid resolution required to accurately capture the effects of micro- and nano-scale topographical features. Solution method: A portable parallel multigrid algorithm has been developed for the above purpose, for the particular case of flow over submerged topographical features. Within the multigrid framework adopted, a W-cycle is used to accelerate convergence in respect of the time dependent nature of the problem, with relaxation sweeps performed using a fixed number of pre- and post-Red-Black Gauss-Seidel Newton iterations. In addition, the algorithm incorporates automatic adaptive time-stepping to avoid the computational expense associated with repeated time-step failure. Running time: 1.31 minutes using 128 processors on BlueGene/P with a problem size of over 16.7 million mesh points.
A computational model of the cerebellum
Travis, B.J.
1990-01-01
The need for realistic computational models of neural microarchitecture is growing increasingly apparent. While traditional neural networks have made inroads on understanding cognitive functions, more realism (in the form of structural and connectivity constraints) is required to explain processes such as vision or motor control. A highly detailed computational model of mammalian cerebellum has been developed. It is being compared to physiological recordings for validation purposes. The model is also being used to study the relative contributions of each component to cerebellar processing. 28 refs., 4 figs.
Mechanistic models in computational social science
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Holme, Petter; Liljeros, Fredrik
2015-09-01
Quantitative social science is not only about regression analysis or, in general, data inference. Computer simulations of social mechanisms have an over 60 years long history. They have been used for many different purposes—to test scenarios, to test the consistency of descriptive theories (proof-of-concept models), to explore emergent phenomena, for forecasting, etc. In this essay, we sketch these historical developments, the role of mechanistic models in the social sciences and the influences from the natural and formal sciences. We argue that mechanistic computational models form a natural common ground for social and natural sciences, and look forward to possible future information flow across the social-natural divide.
Teaching Forest Planning with Computer Models
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Howard, Richard A.; Magid, David
1977-01-01
This paper describes a series of FORTRAN IV computer models which are the content-oriented subject matter for a college course in forest planning. The course objectives, the planning problem, and the ten planning aid models are listed. Student comments and evaluation of the program are included. (BT)
Parallel computing for automated model calibration
Burke, John S.; Danielson, Gary R.; Schulz, Douglas A.; Vail, Lance W.
2002-07-29
Natural resources model calibration is a significant burden on computing and staff resources in modeling efforts. Most assessments must consider multiple calibration objectives (for example magnitude and timing of stream flow peak). An automated calibration process that allows real time updating of data/models, allowing scientists to focus effort on improving models is needed. We are in the process of building a fully featured multi objective calibration tool capable of processing multiple models cheaply and efficiently using null cycle computing. Our parallel processing and calibration software routines have been generically, but our focus has been on natural resources model calibration. So far, the natural resources models have been friendly to parallel calibration efforts in that they require no inter-process communication, only need a small amount of input data and only output a small amount of statistical information for each calibration run. A typical auto calibration run might involve running a model 10,000 times with a variety of input parameters and summary statistical output. In the past model calibration has been done against individual models for each data set. The individual model runs are relatively fast, ranging from seconds to minutes. The process was run on a single computer using a simple iterative process. We have completed two Auto Calibration prototypes and are currently designing a more feature rich tool. Our prototypes have focused on running the calibration in a distributed computing cross platform environment. They allow incorporation of?smart? calibration parameter generation (using artificial intelligence processing techniques). Null cycle computing similar to SETI@Home has also been a focus of our efforts. This paper details the design of the latest prototype and discusses our plans for the next revision of the software.
Computer Modeling and Visualization in Design Technology: An Instructional Model.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Guidera, Stan
2002-01-01
Design visualization can increase awareness of issues related to perceptual and psychological aspects of design that computer-assisted design and computer modeling may not allow. A pilot university course developed core skills in modeling and simulation using visualization. Students were consistently able to meet course objectives. (Contains 16…
Computer modeling of batteries from non-linear circuit elements
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Waaben, S.; Federico, J.; Moskowitz, I.
1983-01-01
A simple non-linear circuit model for battery behavior is given. It is based on time-dependent features of the well-known PIN change storage diode, whose behavior is described by equations similar to those associated with electrochemical cells. The circuit simulation computer program ADVICE was used to predict non-linear response from a topological description of the battery analog built from advice components. By a reasonable choice of one set of parameters, the circuit accurately simulates a wide spectrum of measured non-linear battery responses to within a few millivolts.
Improved computer modelling of magnetron injection guns for gyrotrons
Caplan, M.; Thorington, C.
1984-01-01
A variable mesh finite-element electron gun design code has been developed to simulate hollow beams produced by magnetron injection guns. Very accurate solutions of the self-consistent space charge forces are obtained by using a computational mesh, distorted in a way which allows a high density of mesh points within the hollow beam. A generalized hybrid model for cathode emission has been incorporated which combines temperature limited and space charge limited emission in a way justified from empirical and physical arguments. Beam characteristics of a magnetron injection gun are presented as the transition from temperature limited to space charge limited operation is made. Limited comparisons with experimental results are presented.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Xu, Li; Weng, Peifen
2014-02-01
An improved fifth-order weighted essentially non-oscillatory (WENO-Z) scheme combined with the moving overset grid technique has been developed to compute unsteady compressible viscous flows on the helicopter rotor in forward flight. In order to enforce periodic rotation and pitching of the rotor and relative motion between rotor blades, the moving overset grid technique is extended, where a special judgement standard is presented near the odd surface of the blade grid during search donor cells by using the Inverse Map method. The WENO-Z scheme is adopted for reconstructing left and right state values with the Roe Riemann solver updating the inviscid fluxes and compared with the monotone upwind scheme for scalar conservation laws (MUSCL) and the classical WENO scheme. Since the WENO schemes require a six point stencil to build the fifth-order flux, the method of three layers of fringes for hole boundaries and artificial external boundaries is proposed to carry out flow information exchange between chimera grids. The time advance on the unsteady solution is performed by the full implicit dual time stepping method with Newton type LU-SGS subiteration, where the solutions of pseudo steady computation are as the initial fields of the unsteady flow computation. Numerical results on non-variable pitch rotor and periodic variable pitch rotor in forward flight reveal that the approach can effectively capture vortex wake with low dissipation and reach periodic solutions very soon.
Human systems dynamics: Toward a computational model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Eoyang, Glenda H.
2012-09-01
A robust and reliable computational model of complex human systems dynamics could support advancements in theory and practice for social systems at all levels, from intrapersonal experience to global politics and economics. Models of human interactions have evolved from traditional, Newtonian systems assumptions, which served a variety of practical and theoretical needs of the past. Another class of models has been inspired and informed by models and methods from nonlinear dynamics, chaos, and complexity science. None of the existing models, however, is able to represent the open, high dimension, and nonlinear self-organizing dynamics of social systems. An effective model will represent interactions at multiple levels to generate emergent patterns of social and political life of individuals and groups. Existing models and modeling methods are considered and assessed against characteristic pattern-forming processes in observed and experienced phenomena of human systems. A conceptual model, CDE Model, based on the conditions for self-organizing in human systems, is explored as an alternative to existing models and methods. While the new model overcomes the limitations of previous models, it also provides an explanatory base and foundation for prospective analysis to inform real-time meaning making and action taking in response to complex conditions in the real world. An invitation is extended to readers to engage in developing a computational model that incorporates the assumptions, meta-variables, and relationships of this open, high dimension, and nonlinear conceptual model of the complex dynamics of human systems.
Concepts to accelerate water balance model computation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gronz, Oliver; Casper, Markus; Gemmar, Peter
2010-05-01
Computation time of water balance models has decreased with the increasing performance of CPUs within the last decades. Often, these advantages have been used to enhance the models, e. g. by enlarging spatial resolution or by using smaller simulation time steps. During the last few years, CPU development tended to focus on strong multi core concepts rather than 'simply being generally faster'. Additionally, computer clusters or even computer clouds have become much more commonly available. All these facts again extend our degrees of freedom in simulating water balance models - if the models are able to efficiently use the computer infrastructure. In the following, we present concepts to optimize especially repeated runs and we generally discuss concepts of parallel computing opportunities. Surveyed model In our examinations, we focused on the water balance model LARSIM. In this model, the catchment is subdivided into elements, each of which representing a certain section of a river and its contributory area. Each element is again subdivided into single compartments of homogeneous land use. During the simulation, the relevant hydrological processes are simulated individually for each compartment. The simulated runoff of all compartments leads into the river channel of the corresponding element. Finally, channel routing is simulated for all elements. Optimizing repeated runs During a typical simulation, several input files have to be read before simulation starts: the model structure, the initial model state and meteorological input files. Furthermore, some calculations have to be solved, like interpolating meteorological values. Thus, e. g. the application of Monte Carlo methods will typically use the following algorithm: 1) choose parameters, 2) set parameters in control files, 3) run model, 4) save result, 5) repeat from step 1. Obviously, the third step always includes the previously mentioned steps of reading and preprocessing. Consequently, the model can be
Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)
The three evapotranspiration (ET) measurement/retrieval techniques used in this study, lysimeter, scintillometer and remote sensing vary in their level of complexity, accuracy, resolution and applicability. The lysimeter with its point measurement is the most accurate and direct method to measure ET...
Automatic Model Generation Framework for Computational Simulation of Cochlear Implantation.
Mangado, Nerea; Ceresa, Mario; Duchateau, Nicolas; Kjer, Hans Martin; Vera, Sergio; Dejea Velardo, Hector; Mistrik, Pavel; Paulsen, Rasmus R; Fagertun, Jens; Noailly, Jérôme; Piella, Gemma; González Ballester, Miguel Ángel
2016-08-01
Recent developments in computational modeling of cochlear implantation are promising to study in silico the performance of the implant before surgery. However, creating a complete computational model of the patient's anatomy while including an external device geometry remains challenging. To address such a challenge, we propose an automatic framework for the generation of patient-specific meshes for finite element modeling of the implanted cochlea. First, a statistical shape model is constructed from high-resolution anatomical μCT images. Then, by fitting the statistical model to a patient's CT image, an accurate model of the patient-specific cochlea anatomy is obtained. An algorithm based on the parallel transport frame is employed to perform the virtual insertion of the cochlear implant. Our automatic framework also incorporates the surrounding bone and nerve fibers and assigns constitutive parameters to all components of the finite element model. This model can then be used to study in silico the effects of the electrical stimulation of the cochlear implant. Results are shown on a total of 25 models of patients. In all cases, a final mesh suitable for finite element simulations was obtained, in an average time of 94 s. The framework has proven to be fast and robust, and is promising for a detailed prognosis of the cochlear implantation surgery. PMID:26715210
CDF computing and event data models
Snider, F.D.; /Fermilab
2005-12-01
The authors discuss the computing systems, usage patterns and event data models used to analyze Run II data from the CDF-II experiment at the Tevatron collider. A critical analysis of the current implementation and design reveals some of the stronger and weaker elements of the system, which serve as lessons for future experiments. They highlight a need to maintain simplicity for users in the face of an increasingly complex computing environment.
Light reflection models for computer graphics.
Greenberg, D P
1989-04-14
During the past 20 years, computer graphic techniques for simulating the reflection of light have progressed so that today images of photorealistic quality can be produced. Early algorithms considered direct lighting only, but global illumination phenomena with indirect lighting, surface interreflections, and shadows can now be modeled with ray tracing, radiosity, and Monte Carlo simulations. This article describes the historical development of computer graphic algorithms for light reflection and pictorially illustrates what will be commonly available in the near future. PMID:17835348
Computational modelling of schizophrenic symptoms: basic issues.
Tretter, F; an der Heiden, U; Rujescu, D; Pogarell, O
2012-05-01
Emerging "(computational) systems medicine" challenges neuropsychiatry regarding the development of heuristic computational brain models which help to explore symptoms and syndromes of mental disorders. This methodology of exploratory modelling of mental functions and processes and of their pathology requires a clear and operational definition of the target variable (explanandum). In the case of schizophrenia, a complex and heterogeneous disorder, single psychopathological key symptoms such as working memory deficiency, hallucination or delusion need to be defined first. Thereafter, measures of brain structures can be used in a multilevel view as biological correlates of these symptoms. Then, in order to formally "explain" the symptoms, a qualitative model can be constructed. In another step, numerical values have to be integrated into the model and exploratory computer simulations can be performed. Normal and pathological functioning is to be tested in computer experiments allowing the formulation of new hypotheses and questions for empirical research. However, the crucial challenge is to point out the appropriate degree of complexity (or simplicity) of these models, which is required in order to achieve an epistemic value that might lead to new hypothetical explanatory models and could stimulate new empirical and theoretical research. Some outlines of these methodological issues are discussed here, regarding the fact that measurements alone are not sufficient to build models. PMID:22565230
Do's and Don'ts of Computer Models for Planning
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Hammond, John S., III
1974-01-01
Concentrates on the managerial issues involved in computer planning models. Describes what computer planning models are and the process by which managers can increase the likelihood of computer planning models being successful in their organizations. (Author/DN)
Knorr, K L; Hilsenbeck, S G; Wenger, C R; Pounds, G; Oldaker, T; Vendely, P; Pandian, M R; Harrington, D; Clark, G M
1992-01-01
Determining an appropriate level of adjuvant therapy is one of the most difficult facets of treating breast cancer patients. Although the myriad of prognostic factors aid in this decision, often they give conflicting reports of a patient's prognosis. What we need is a survival model which can properly utilize the information contained in these factors and give an accurate, reliable account of the patient's probability of recurrence. We also need a method of evaluating these models' predictive ability instead of simply measuring goodness-of-fit, as is currently done. Often, prognostic factors are broken into two categories such as positive or negative. But this dichotomization may hide valuable prognostic information. We investigated whether continuous representations of factors, including standard transformations--logarithmic, square root, categorical, and smoothers--might more accurately estimate the underlying relationship between each factor and survival. We chose the logistic regression model, a special case of the commonly used Cox model, to test our hypothesis. The model containing continuous transformed factors fit the data more closely than the model containing the traditional dichotomized factors. In order to appropriately evaluate these models, we introduce three predictive validity statistics--the Calibration score, the Overall Calibration score, and the Brier score--designed to assess the model's accuracy and reliability. These standardized scores showed the transformed factors predicted three year survival accurately and reliably. The scores can also be used to assess models or compare across studies. PMID:1391991
Increasing computational efficiency of cochlear models using boundary layers
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Alkhairy, Samiya A.; Shera, Christopher A.
2015-12-01
Our goal is to develop methods to improve the efficiency of computational models of the cochlea for applications that require the solution accurately only within a basal region of interest, specifically by decreasing the number of spatial sections needed for simulation of the problem with good accuracy. We design algebraic spatial and parametric transformations to computational models of the cochlea. These transformations are applied after the basal region of interest and allow for spatial preservation, driven by the natural characteristics of approximate spatial causality of cochlear models. The project is of foundational nature and hence the goal is to design, characterize and develop an understanding and framework rather than optimization and globalization. Our scope is as follows: designing the transformations; understanding the mechanisms by which computational load is decreased for each transformation; development of performance criteria; characterization of the results of applying each transformation to a specific physical model and discretization and solution schemes. In this manuscript, we introduce one of the proposed methods (complex spatial transformation) for a case study physical model that is a linear, passive, transmission line model in which the various abstraction layers (electric parameters, filter parameters, wave parameters) are clearer than other models. This is conducted in the frequency domain for multiple frequencies using a second order finite difference scheme for discretization and direct elimination for solving the discrete system of equations. The performance is evaluated using two developed simulative criteria for each of the transformations. In conclusion, the developed methods serve to increase efficiency of a computational traveling wave cochlear model when spatial preservation can hold, while maintaining good correspondence with the solution of interest and good accuracy, for applications in which the interest is in the solution
A computational efficient modelling of laminar separation bubbles
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dini, Paolo; Maughmer, Mark D.
1990-07-01
In predicting the aerodynamic characteristics of airfoils operating at low Reynolds numbers, it is often important to account for the effects of laminar (transitional) separation bubbles. Previous approaches to the modelling of this viscous phenomenon range from fast but sometimes unreliable empirical correlations for the length of the bubble and the associated increase in momentum thickness, to more accurate but significantly slower displacement-thickness iteration methods employing inverse boundary-layer formulations in the separated regions. Since the penalty in computational time associated with the more general methods is unacceptable for airfoil design applications, use of an accurate yet computationally efficient model is highly desirable. To this end, a semi-empirical bubble model was developed and incorporated into the Eppler and Somers airfoil design and analysis program. The generality and the efficiency was achieved by successfully approximating the local viscous/inviscid interaction, the transition location, and the turbulent reattachment process within the framework of an integral boundary-layer method. Comparisons of the predicted aerodynamic characteristics with experimental measurements for several airfoils show excellent and consistent agreement for Reynolds numbers from 2,000,000 down to 100,000.
A computationally efficient modelling of laminar separation bubbles
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dini, Paolo
1990-08-01
In predicting the aerodynamic characteristics of airfoils operating at low Reynolds numbers, it is often important to account for the effects of laminar (transitional) separation bubbles. Previous approaches to the modeling of this viscous phenomenon range from fast by sometimes unreliable empirical correlations for the length of the bubble and the associated increase in momentum thickness, to more accurate but significantly slower displacement thickness iteration methods employing inverse boundary layer formulations in the separated regions. Since the penalty in computational time associated with the more general methods is unacceptable for airfoil design applications, use of an accurate yet computationally efficient model is highly desirable. To this end, a semi-empirical bubble model was developed and incorporated into the Eppler and Somers airfoil design and analysis program. The generality and the efficiency were achieved by successfully approximating the local viscous/inviscid interaction, the transition location, and the turbulent reattachment process within the framework of an integral boundary-layer method. Comparisons of the predicted aerodynamic characteristics with experimental measurements for several airfoils show excellent and consistent agreement for Reynolds numbers from 2,000,000 down to 100,000.
A computational efficient modelling of laminar separation bubbles
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Dini, Paolo; Maughmer, Mark D.
1990-01-01
In predicting the aerodynamic characteristics of airfoils operating at low Reynolds numbers, it is often important to account for the effects of laminar (transitional) separation bubbles. Previous approaches to the modelling of this viscous phenomenon range from fast but sometimes unreliable empirical correlations for the length of the bubble and the associated increase in momentum thickness, to more accurate but significantly slower displacement-thickness iteration methods employing inverse boundary-layer formulations in the separated regions. Since the penalty in computational time associated with the more general methods is unacceptable for airfoil design applications, use of an accurate yet computationally efficient model is highly desirable. To this end, a semi-empirical bubble model was developed and incorporated into the Eppler and Somers airfoil design and analysis program. The generality and the efficiency was achieved by successfully approximating the local viscous/inviscid interaction, the transition location, and the turbulent reattachment process within the framework of an integral boundary-layer method. Comparisons of the predicted aerodynamic characteristics with experimental measurements for several airfoils show excellent and consistent agreement for Reynolds numbers from 2,000,000 down to 100,000.
Computational modeling of cardiac hemodynamics: Current status and future outlook
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mittal, Rajat; Seo, Jung Hee; Vedula, Vijay; Choi, Young J.; Liu, Hang; Huang, H. Howie; Jain, Saurabh; Younes, Laurent; Abraham, Theodore; George, Richard T.
2016-01-01
The proliferation of four-dimensional imaging technologies, increasing computational speeds, improved simulation algorithms, and the widespread availability of powerful computing platforms is enabling simulations of cardiac hemodynamics with unprecedented speed and fidelity. Since cardiovascular disease is intimately linked to cardiovascular hemodynamics, accurate assessment of the patient's hemodynamic state is critical for the diagnosis and treatment of heart disease. Unfortunately, while a variety of invasive and non-invasive approaches for measuring cardiac hemodynamics are in widespread use, they still only provide an incomplete picture of the hemodynamic state of a patient. In this context, computational modeling of cardiac hemodynamics presents as a powerful non-invasive modality that can fill this information gap, and significantly impact the diagnosis as well as the treatment of cardiac disease. This article reviews the current status of this field as well as the emerging trends and challenges in cardiovascular health, computing, modeling and simulation and that are expected to play a key role in its future development. Some recent advances in modeling and simulations of cardiac flow are described by using examples from our own work as well as the research of other groups.
Harb, Moussab
2015-10-14
Using accurate first-principles quantum calculations based on DFT (including the DFPT) with the range-separated hybrid HSE06 exchange-correlation functional, we can predict the essential fundamental properties (such as bandgap, optical absorption co-efficient, dielectric constant, charge carrier effective masses and exciton binding energy) of two stable monoclinic vanadium oxynitride (VON) semiconductor crystals for solar energy conversion applications. In addition to the predicted band gaps in the optimal range for making single-junction solar cells, both polymorphs exhibit a relatively high absorption efficiency in the visible range, high dielectric constant, high charge carrier mobility and much lower exciton binding energy than the thermal energy at room temperature. Moreover, their optical absorption, dielectric and exciton dissociation properties were found to be better than those obtained for semiconductors frequently utilized in photovoltaic devices such as Si, CdTe and GaAs. These novel results offer a great opportunity for this stoichiometric VON material to be properly synthesized and considered as a new good candidate for photovoltaic applications. PMID:26351755
Solving stochastic epidemiological models using computer algebra
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hincapie, Doracelly; Ospina, Juan
2011-06-01
Mathematical modeling in Epidemiology is an important tool to understand the ways under which the diseases are transmitted and controlled. The mathematical modeling can be implemented via deterministic or stochastic models. Deterministic models are based on short systems of non-linear ordinary differential equations and the stochastic models are based on very large systems of linear differential equations. Deterministic models admit complete, rigorous and automatic analysis of stability both local and global from which is possible to derive the algebraic expressions for the basic reproductive number and the corresponding epidemic thresholds using computer algebra software. Stochastic models are more difficult to treat and the analysis of their properties requires complicated considerations in statistical mathematics. In this work we propose to use computer algebra software with the aim to solve epidemic stochastic models such as the SIR model and the carrier-borne model. Specifically we use Maple to solve these stochastic models in the case of small groups and we obtain results that do not appear in standard textbooks or in the books updated on stochastic models in epidemiology. From our results we derive expressions which coincide with those obtained in the classical texts using advanced procedures in mathematical statistics. Our algorithms can be extended for other stochastic models in epidemiology and this shows the power of computer algebra software not only for analysis of deterministic models but also for the analysis of stochastic models. We also perform numerical simulations with our algebraic results and we made estimations for the basic parameters as the basic reproductive rate and the stochastic threshold theorem. We claim that our algorithms and results are important tools to control the diseases in a globalized world.
Aeroelastic Model Structure Computation for Envelope Expansion
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kukreja, Sunil L.
2007-01-01
Structure detection is a procedure for selecting a subset of candidate terms, from a full model description, that best describes the observed output. This is a necessary procedure to compute an efficient system description which may afford greater insight into the functionality of the system or a simpler controller design. Structure computation as a tool for black-box modelling may be of critical importance in the development of robust, parsimonious models for the flight-test community. Moreover, this approach may lead to efficient strategies for rapid envelope expansion which may save significant development time and costs. In this study, a least absolute shrinkage and selection operator (LASSO) technique is investigated for computing efficient model descriptions of nonlinear aeroelastic systems. The LASSO minimises the residual sum of squares by the addition of an l(sub 1) penalty term on the parameter vector of the traditional 2 minimisation problem. Its use for structure detection is a natural extension of this constrained minimisation approach to pseudolinear regression problems which produces some model parameters that are exactly zero and, therefore, yields a parsimonious system description. Applicability of this technique for model structure computation for the F/A-18 Active Aeroelastic Wing using flight test data is shown for several flight conditions (Mach numbers) by identifying a parsimonious system description with a high percent fit for cross-validated data.
Aeroelastic Model Structure Computation for Envelope Expansion
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kukreja, Sunil L.
2007-01-01
Structure detection is a procedure for selecting a subset of candidate terms, from a full model description, that best describes the observed output. This is a necessary procedure to compute an efficient system description which may afford greater insight into the functionality of the system or a simpler controller design. Structure computation as a tool for black-box modeling may be of critical importance in the development of robust, parsimonious models for the flight-test community. Moreover, this approach may lead to efficient strategies for rapid envelope expansion that may save significant development time and costs. In this study, a least absolute shrinkage and selection operator (LASSO) technique is investigated for computing efficient model descriptions of non-linear aeroelastic systems. The LASSO minimises the residual sum of squares with the addition of an l(Sub 1) penalty term on the parameter vector of the traditional l(sub 2) minimisation problem. Its use for structure detection is a natural extension of this constrained minimisation approach to pseudo-linear regression problems which produces some model parameters that are exactly zero and, therefore, yields a parsimonious system description. Applicability of this technique for model structure computation for the F/A-18 (McDonnell Douglas, now The Boeing Company, Chicago, Illinois) Active Aeroelastic Wing project using flight test data is shown for several flight conditions (Mach numbers) by identifying a parsimonious system description with a high percent fit for cross-validated data.
Benchmarking computational fluid dynamics models for lava flow simulation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dietterich, Hannah; Lev, Einat; Chen, Jiangzhi
2016-04-01
Numerical simulations of lava flow emplacement are valuable for assessing lava flow hazards, forecasting active flows, interpreting past eruptions, and understanding the controls on lava flow behavior. Existing lava flow models vary in simplifying assumptions, physics, dimensionality, and the degree to which they have been validated against analytical solutions, experiments, and natural observations. In order to assess existing models and guide the development of new codes, we conduct a benchmarking study of computational fluid dynamics models for lava flow emplacement, including VolcFlow, OpenFOAM, FLOW-3D, and COMSOL. Using the new benchmark scenarios defined in Cordonnier et al. (Geol Soc SP, 2015) as a guide, we model viscous, cooling, and solidifying flows over horizontal and sloping surfaces, topographic obstacles, and digital elevation models of natural topography. We compare model results to analytical theory, analogue and molten basalt experiments, and measurements from natural lava flows. Overall, the models accurately simulate viscous flow with some variability in flow thickness where flows intersect obstacles. OpenFOAM, COMSOL, and FLOW-3D can each reproduce experimental measurements of cooling viscous flows, and FLOW-3D simulations with temperature-dependent rheology match results from molten basalt experiments. We can apply these models to reconstruct past lava flows in Hawai'i and Saudi Arabia using parameters assembled from morphology, textural analysis, and eruption observations as natural test cases. Our study highlights the strengths and weaknesses of each code, including accuracy and computational costs, and provides insights regarding code selection.
Computational modeling of laser-tissue interaction
London, R.A.; Amendt, P.; Bailey, D.S.; Eder, D.C.; Maitland, D.J.; Glinsky, M.E.; Strauss, M.; Zimmerman, G.B.
1996-05-01
Computational modeling can play an important role both in designing laser-tissue interaction experiments and in understanding the underlying mechanisms. This can lead to more rapid and less expensive development if new procedures and instruments, and a better understanding of their operation. We have recently directed computer programs and associated expertise developed over many years to model high intensity laser-matter interactions for fusion research towards laser-tissue interaction problem. A program called LATIS is being developed to specifically treat laser-tissue interaction phenomena, such as highly scattering light transport, thermal coagulation, and hydrodynamic motion.
Computational algebraic geometry of epidemic models
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rodríguez Vega, Martín.
2014-06-01
Computational Algebraic Geometry is applied to the analysis of various epidemic models for Schistosomiasis and Dengue, both, for the case without control measures and for the case where control measures are applied. The models were analyzed using the mathematical software Maple. Explicitly the analysis is performed using Groebner basis, Hilbert dimension and Hilbert polynomials. These computational tools are included automatically in Maple. Each of these models is represented by a system of ordinary differential equations, and for each model the basic reproductive number (R0) is calculated. The effects of the control measures are observed by the changes in the algebraic structure of R0, the changes in Groebner basis, the changes in Hilbert dimension, and the changes in Hilbert polynomials. It is hoped that the results obtained in this paper become of importance for designing control measures against the epidemic diseases described. For future researches it is proposed the use of algebraic epidemiology to analyze models for airborne and waterborne diseases.
Computer modeling of commercial refrigerated warehouse facilities
Nicoulin, C.V.; Jacobs, P.C.; Tory, S.
1997-07-01
The use of computer models to simulate the energy performance of large commercial refrigeration systems typically found in food processing facilities is an area of engineering practice that has seen little development to date. Current techniques employed in predicting energy consumption by such systems have focused on temperature bin methods of analysis. Existing simulation tools such as DOE2 are designed to model commercial buildings and grocery store refrigeration systems. The HVAC and Refrigeration system performance models in these simulations tools model equipment common to commercial buildings and groceries, and respond to energy-efficiency measures likely to be applied to these building types. The applicability of traditional building energy simulation tools to model refrigerated warehouse performance and analyze energy-saving options is limited. The paper will present the results of modeling work undertaken to evaluate energy savings resulting from incentives offered by a California utility to its Refrigerated Warehouse Program participants. The TRNSYS general-purpose transient simulation model was used to predict facility performance and estimate program savings. Custom TRNSYS components were developed to address modeling issues specific to refrigerated warehouse systems, including warehouse loading door infiltration calculations, an evaporator model, single-state and multi-stage compressor models, evaporative condenser models, and defrost energy requirements. The main focus of the paper will be on the modeling approach. The results from the computer simulations, along with overall program impact evaluation results, will also be presented.
Computational Process Modeling for Additive Manufacturing
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Bagg, Stacey; Zhang, Wei
2014-01-01
Computational Process and Material Modeling of Powder Bed additive manufacturing of IN 718. Optimize material build parameters with reduced time and cost through modeling. Increase understanding of build properties. Increase reliability of builds. Decrease time to adoption of process for critical hardware. Potential to decrease post-build heat treatments. Conduct single-track and coupon builds at various build parameters. Record build parameter information and QM Meltpool data. Refine Applied Optimization powder bed AM process model using data. Report thermal modeling results. Conduct metallography of build samples. Calibrate STK models using metallography findings. Run STK models using AO thermal profiles and report STK modeling results. Validate modeling with additional build. Photodiode Intensity measurements highly linear with power input. Melt Pool Intensity highly correlated to Melt Pool Size. Melt Pool size and intensity increase with power. Applied Optimization will use data to develop powder bed additive manufacturing process model.
Computational Spectrum of Agent Model Simulation
Perumalla, Kalyan S
2010-01-01
The study of human social behavioral systems is finding renewed interest in military, homeland security and other applications. Simulation is the most generally applied approach to studying complex scenarios in such systems. Here, we outline some of the important considerations that underlie the computational aspects of simulation-based study of human social systems. The fundamental imprecision underlying questions and answers in social science makes it necessary to carefully distinguish among different simulation problem classes and to identify the most pertinent set of computational dimensions associated with those classes. We identify a few such classes and present their computational implications. The focus is then shifted to the most challenging combinations in the computational spectrum, namely, large-scale entity counts at moderate to high levels of fidelity. Recent developments in furthering the state-of-the-art in these challenging cases are outlined. A case study of large-scale agent simulation is provided in simulating large numbers (millions) of social entities at real-time speeds on inexpensive hardware. Recent computational results are identified that highlight the potential of modern high-end computing platforms to push the envelope with respect to speed, scale and fidelity of social system simulations. Finally, the problem of shielding the modeler or domain expert from the complex computational aspects is discussed and a few potential solution approaches are identified.
Integrated Multiscale Modeling of Molecular Computing Devices
Jerzy Bernholc
2011-02-03
will some day reach a miniaturization limit, forcing designers of Si-based electronics to pursue increased performance by other means. Any other alternative approach would have the unenviable task of matching the ability of Si technology to pack more than a billion interconnected and addressable devices on a chip the size of a thumbnail. Nevertheless, the prospects of developing alternative approaches to fabricate electronic devices have spurred an ever-increasing pace of fundamental research. One of the promising possibilities is molecular electronics (ME), self-assembled molecular-based electronic systems composed of single-molecule devices in ultra dense, ultra fast molecular-sized components. This project focused on developing accurate, reliable theoretical modeling capabilities for describing molecular electronics devices. The participants in the project are given in Table 1. The primary outcomes of this fundamental computational science grant are publications in the open scientific literature. As listed below, 62 papers have been published from this project. In addition, the research has also been the subject of more than 100 invited talks at conferences, including several plenary or keynote lectures. Many of the goals of the original proposal were completed. Specifically, the multi-disciplinary group developed a unique set of capabilities and tools for investigating electron transport in fabricated and self-assembled nanostructures at multiple length and time scales.
In vivo porcine left atrial wall stress: Computational model.
Di Martino, Elena S; Bellini, Chiara; Schwartzman, David S
2011-10-13
Most computational models of the heart have so far concentrated on the study of the left ventricle, mainly using simplified geometries. The same approach cannot be adopted to model the left atrium, whose irregular shape does not allow morphological simplifications. In addition, the deformation of the left atrium during the cardiac cycle strongly depends on the interaction with its surrounding structures. We present a procedure to generate a comprehensive computational model of the left atrium, including physiological loads (blood pressure), boundary conditions (pericardium, pulmonary veins and mitral valve annulus movement) and mechanical properties based on planar biaxial experiments. The model was able to accurately reproduce the in vivo dynamics of the left atrium during the passive portion of the cardiac cycle. A shift in time between the peak pressure and the maximum displacement of the mitral valve annulus allows the appendage to inflate and bend towards the ventricle before the pulling effect associated with the ventricle contraction takes place. The ventricular systole creates room for further expansion of the appendage, which gets in close contact with the pericardium. The temporal evolution of the volume in the atrial cavity as predicted by the finite element simulation matches the volume changes obtained from CT scans. The stress field computed at each time point shows remarkable spatial heterogeneity. In particular, high stress concentration occurs along the appendage rim and in the region surrounding the pulmonary veins. PMID:21907340
Predictive Computational Modeling of Chromatin Folding
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
di Pierro, Miichele; Zhang, Bin; Wolynes, Peter J.; Onuchic, Jose N.
In vivo, the human genome folds into well-determined and conserved three-dimensional structures. The mechanism driving the folding process remains unknown. We report a theoretical model (MiChroM) for chromatin derived by using the maximum entropy principle. The proposed model allows Molecular Dynamics simulations of the genome using as input the classification of loci into chromatin types and the presence of binding sites of loop forming protein CTCF. The model was trained to reproduce the Hi-C map of chromosome 10 of human lymphoblastoid cells. With no additional tuning the model was able to predict accurately the Hi-C maps of chromosomes 1-22 for the same cell line. Simulations show unknotted chromosomes, phase separation of chromatin types and a preference of chromatin of type A to sit at the periphery of the chromosomes.
Global detailed geoid computation and model analysis
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Marsh, J. G.; Vincent, S.
1974-01-01
Comparisons and analyses were carried out through the use of detailed gravimetric geoids which we have computed by combining models with a set of 26,000 1 deg x 1 deg mean free air gravity anomalies. The accuracy of the detailed gravimetric geoid computed using the most recent Goddard earth model (GEM-6) in conjunction with the set of 1 deg x 1 deg mean free air gravity anomalies is assessed at + or - 2 meters on the continents of North America, Europe, and Australia, 2 to 5 meters in the Northeast Pacific and North Atlantic areas, and 5 to 10 meters in other areas where surface gravity data are sparse. The R.M.S. differences between this detailed geoid and the detailed geoids computed using the other satellite gravity fields in conjuction with same set of surface data range from 3 to 7 meters.
Dybeck, Eric C; Schieber, Natalie P; Shirts, Michael R
2016-08-01
We examine the free energies of three benzene polymorphs as a function of temperature in the point-charge OPLS-AA and GROMOS54A7 potentials as well as the polarizable AMOEBA09 potential. For this system, using a polarizable Hamiltonian instead of the cheaper point-charge potentials is shown to have a significantly smaller effect on the stability at 250 K than on the lattice energy at 0 K. The benzene I polymorph is found to be the most stable crystal structure in all three potentials examined and at all temperatures examined. For each potential, we report the free energies over a range of temperatures and discuss the added value of using full free energy methods over the minimized lattice energy to determine the relative crystal stability at finite temperatures. The free energies in the polarizable Hamiltonian are efficiently calculated using samples collected in a cheaper point-charge potential. The polarizable free energies are estimated from the point-charge trajectories using Boltzmann reweighting with MBAR. The high configuration-space overlap necessary for efficient Boltzmann reweighting is achieved by designing point-charge potentials with intramolecular parameters matching those in the expensive polarizable Hamiltonian. Finally, we compare the computational cost of this indirect reweighted free energy estimate to the cost of simulating directly in the expensive polarizable Hamiltonian. PMID:27341280
Issa, Naiem T; Peters, Oakland J; Byers, Stephen W; Dakshanamurthy, Sivanesan
2015-01-01
We describe here RepurposeVS for the reliable prediction of drug-target signatures using X-ray protein crystal structures. RepurposeVS is a virtual screening method that incorporates docking, drug-centric and protein-centric 2D/3D fingerprints with a rigorous mathematical normalization procedure to account for the variability in units and provide high-resolution contextual information for drug-target binding. Validity was confirmed by the following: (1) providing the greatest enrichment of known drug binders for multiple protein targets in virtual screening experiments, (2) determining that similarly shaped protein target pockets are predicted to bind drugs of similar 3D shapes when RepurposeVS is applied to 2,335 human protein targets, and (3) determining true biological associations in vitro for mebendazole (MBZ) across many predicted kinase targets for potential cancer repurposing. Since RepurposeVS is a drug repurposing-focused method, benchmarking was conducted on a set of 3,671 FDA approved and experimental drugs rather than the Database of Useful Decoys (DUDE) so as to streamline downstream repurposing experiments. We further apply RepurposeVS to explore the overall potential drug repurposing space for currently approved drugs. RepurposeVS is not computationally intensive and increases performance accuracy, thus serving as an efficient and powerful in silico tool to predict drug-target associations in drug repurposing. PMID:26234515
Bedogni, Alberto; Fedele, Stefano; Bedogni, Giorgio; Scoletta, Matteo; Favia, Gianfranco; Colella, Giuseppe; Agrillo, Alessandro; Bettini, Giordana; Di Fede, Olga; Oteri, Giacomo; Fusco, Vittorio; Gabriele, Mario; Ottolenghi, Livia; Valsecchi, Stefano; Porter, Stephen; Petruzzi, Massimo; Arduino, Paolo; D'Amato, Salvatore; Ungari, Claudio; Fung Polly, Pok-Lam; Saia, Giorgia; Campisi, Giuseppina
2014-09-01
Management of osteonecrosis of the jaw associated with antiresorptive agents is challenging, and outcomes are unpredictable. The severity of disease is the main guide to management, and can help to predict prognosis. Most available staging systems for osteonecrosis, including the widely-used American Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons (AAOMS) system, classify severity on the basis of clinical and radiographic findings. However, clinical inspection and radiography are limited in their ability to identify the extent of necrotic bone disease compared with computed tomography (CT). We have organised a large multicentre retrospective study (known as MISSION) to investigate the agreement between the AAOMS staging system and the extent of osteonecrosis of the jaw (focal compared with diffuse involvement of bone) as detected on CT. We studied 799 patients with detailed clinical phenotyping who had CT images taken. Features of diffuse bone disease were identified on CT within all AAOMS stages (20%, 8%, 48%, and 24% of patients in stages 0, 1, 2, and 3, respectively). Of the patients classified as stage 0, 110/192 (57%) had diffuse disease on CT, and about 1 in 3 with CT evidence of diffuse bone disease was misclassified by the AAOMS system as having stages 0 and 1 osteonecrosis. In addition, more than a third of patients with AAOMS stage 2 (142/405, 35%) had focal bone disease on CT. We conclude that the AAOMS staging system does not correctly identify the extent of bony disease in patients with osteonecrosis of the jaw. PMID:24856927
Yildiz, Dilan; Bozkaya, Uğur
2016-01-30
The extended Koopmans' theorem (EKT) provides a straightforward way to compute ionization potentials and electron affinities from any level of theory. Although it is widely applied to ionization potentials, the EKT approach has not been applied to evaluation of the chemical reactivity. We present the first benchmarking study to investigate the performance of the EKT methods for predictions of chemical potentials (μ) (hence electronegativities), chemical hardnesses (η), and electrophilicity indices (ω). We assess the performance of the EKT approaches for post-Hartree-Fock methods, such as Møller-Plesset perturbation theory, the coupled-electron pair theory, and their orbital-optimized counterparts for the evaluation of the chemical reactivity. Especially, results of the orbital-optimized coupled-electron pair theory method (with the aug-cc-pVQZ basis set) for predictions of the chemical reactivity are very promising; the corresponding mean absolute errors are 0.16, 0.28, and 0.09 eV for μ, η, and ω, respectively. PMID:26458329
Alecu, I. M.; Truhlar, D. G.
2011-04-07
The reactions of CH_{3}OH with the HO_{2} and CH_{3} radicals are important in the combustion of methanol and are prototypes for reactions of heavier alcohols in biofuels. The reaction energies and barrier heights for these reaction systems are computed with CCSD(T) theory extrapolated to the complete basis set limit using correlation-consistent basis sets, both augmented and unaugmented, and further refined by including a fully coupled treatment of the connected triple excitations, a second-order perturbative treatment of quadruple excitations (by CCSDT(2)_{Q}), core–valence corrections, and scalar relativistic effects. It is shown that the M08-HX and M08-SO hybrid meta-GGA density functionals can achieve sub-kcal mol^{-1} agreement with the high-level ab initio results, identifying these functionals as important potential candidates for direct dynamics studies on the rates of these and homologous reaction systems.
Integrating interactive computational modeling in biology curricula.
Helikar, Tomáš; Cutucache, Christine E; Dahlquist, Lauren M; Herek, Tyler A; Larson, Joshua J; Rogers, Jim A
2015-03-01
While the use of computer tools to simulate complex processes such as computer circuits is normal practice in fields like engineering, the majority of life sciences/biological sciences courses continue to rely on the traditional textbook and memorization approach. To address this issue, we explored the use of the Cell Collective platform as a novel, interactive, and evolving pedagogical tool to foster student engagement, creativity, and higher-level thinking. Cell Collective is a Web-based platform used to create and simulate dynamical models of various biological processes. Students can create models of cells, diseases, or pathways themselves or explore existing models. This technology was implemented in both undergraduate and graduate courses as a pilot study to determine the feasibility of such software at the university level. First, a new (In Silico Biology) class was developed to enable students to learn biology by "building and breaking it" via computer models and their simulations. This class and technology also provide a non-intimidating way to incorporate mathematical and computational concepts into a class with students who have a limited mathematical background. Second, we used the technology to mediate the use of simulations and modeling modules as a learning tool for traditional biological concepts, such as T cell differentiation or cell cycle regulation, in existing biology courses. Results of this pilot application suggest that there is promise in the use of computational modeling and software tools such as Cell Collective to provide new teaching methods in biology and contribute to the implementation of the "Vision and Change" call to action in undergraduate biology education by providing a hands-on approach to biology. PMID:25790483
Dunn, Nicholas J. H.; Noid, W. G.
2015-12-28
The present work investigates the capability of bottom-up coarse-graining (CG) methods for accurately modeling both structural and thermodynamic properties of all-atom (AA) models for molecular liquids. In particular, we consider 1, 2, and 3-site CG models for heptane, as well as 1 and 3-site CG models for toluene. For each model, we employ the multiscale coarse-graining method to determine interaction potentials that optimally approximate the configuration dependence of the many-body potential of mean force (PMF). We employ a previously developed “pressure-matching” variational principle to determine a volume-dependent contribution to the potential, U{sub V}(V), that approximates the volume-dependence of the PMF. We demonstrate that the resulting CG models describe AA density fluctuations with qualitative, but not quantitative, accuracy. Accordingly, we develop a self-consistent approach for further optimizing U{sub V}, such that the CG models accurately reproduce the equilibrium density, compressibility, and average pressure of the AA models, although the CG models still significantly underestimate the atomic pressure fluctuations. Additionally, by comparing this array of models that accurately describe the structure and thermodynamic pressure of heptane and toluene at a range of different resolutions, we investigate the impact of bottom-up coarse-graining upon thermodynamic properties. In particular, we demonstrate that U{sub V} accounts for the reduced cohesion in the CG models. Finally, we observe that bottom-up coarse-graining introduces subtle correlations between the resolution, the cohesive energy density, and the “simplicity” of the model.
Computational modeling of dilute biomass slurries
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sprague, Michael; Stickel, Jonathan; Fischer, Paul; Lischeske, James
2012-11-01
The biochemical conversion of lignocellulosic biomass to liquid transportation fuels involves a multitude of physical and chemical transformations that occur in several distinct processing steps (e.g., pretreatment, enzymatic hydrolysis, and fermentation). In this work we focus on development of a computational fluid dynamics model of a dilute biomass slurry, which is a highly viscous particle-laden fluid that can exhibit yield-stress behavior. Here, we model the biomass slurry as a generalized Newtonian fluid that accommodates biomass transport due to settling and biomass-concentration-dependent viscosity. Within a typical mixing vessel, viscosity can vary over several orders of magnitude. We solve the model with the Nek5000 spectral-finite-element solver in a simple vane mixer, and validate against experimental results. This work is directed towards our goal of a fully coupled computational model of fluid dynamics and reaction kinetics for the enzymatic hydrolysis of lignocellulosic biomass.
Computing Linear Mathematical Models Of Aircraft
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Duke, Eugene L.; Antoniewicz, Robert F.; Krambeer, Keith D.
1991-01-01
Derivation and Definition of Linear Aircraft Model (LINEAR) computer program provides user with powerful, and flexible, standard, documented, and verified software tool for linearization of mathematical models of aerodynamics of aircraft. Intended for use in software tool to drive linear analysis of stability and design of control laws for aircraft. Capable of both extracting such linearized engine effects as net thrust, torque, and gyroscopic effects, and including these effects in linear model of system. Designed to provide easy selection of state, control, and observation variables used in particular model. Also provides flexibility of allowing alternate formulations of both state and observation equations. Written in FORTRAN.
A computationally efficient modelling of laminar separation bubbles
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Maughmer, Mark D.
1988-01-01
The goal of this research is to accurately predict the characteristics of the laminar separation bubble and its effects on airfoil performance. To this end, a model of the bubble is under development and will be incorporated in the analysis section of the Eppler and Somers program. As a first step in this direction, an existing bubble model was inserted into the program. It was decided to address the problem of the short bubble before attempting the prediction of the long bubble. In the second place, an integral boundary-layer method is believed more desirable than a finite difference approach. While these two methods achieve similar prediction accuracy, finite-difference methods tend to involve significantly longer computer run times than the integral methods. Finally, as the boundary-layer analysis in the Eppler and Somers program employs the momentum and kinetic energy integral equations, a short-bubble model compatible with these equations is most preferable.
A computationally efficient modelling of laminar separation bubbles
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Maughmer, Mark D.
1988-02-01
The goal of this research is to accurately predict the characteristics of the laminar separation bubble and its effects on airfoil performance. To this end, a model of the bubble is under development and will be incorporated in the analysis section of the Eppler and Somers program. As a first step in this direction, an existing bubble model was inserted into the program. It was decided to address the problem of the short bubble before attempting the prediction of the long bubble. In the second place, an integral boundary-layer method is believed more desirable than a finite difference approach. While these two methods achieve similar prediction accuracy, finite-difference methods tend to involve significantly longer computer run times than the integral methods. Finally, as the boundary-layer analysis in the Eppler and Somers program employs the momentum and kinetic energy integral equations, a short-bubble model compatible with these equations is most preferable.
An Algebraic Spline Model of Molecular Surfaces for Energetic Computations
Zhao, Wenqi; Bajaj, Chandrajit; Xu, Guoliang
2009-01-01
In this paper, we describe a new method to generate a smooth algebraic spline (AS) approximation of the molecular surface (MS) based on an initial coarse triangulation derived from the atomic coordinate information of the biomolecule, resident in the PDB (Protein data bank). Our method first constructs a triangular prism scaffold covering the PDB structure, and then generates a piecewise polynomial F on the Bernstein-Bezier (BB) basis within the scaffold. An ASMS model of the molecular surface is extracted as the zero contours of F which is nearly C1 and has dual implicit and parametric representations. The dual representations allow us easily do the point sampling on the ASMS model and apply it to the accurate estimation of the integrals involved in the electrostatic solvation energy computations. Meanwhile comparing with the trivial piecewise linear surface model, fewer number of sampling points are needed for the ASMS, which effectively reduces the complexity of the energy estimation. PMID:21519111
Computer Modelling of Photochemical Smog Formation
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Huebert, Barry J.
1974-01-01
Discusses a computer program that has been used in environmental chemistry courses as an example of modelling as a vehicle for teaching chemical dynamics, and as a demonstration of some of the factors which affect the production of smog. (Author/GS)
Applications of computational modeling in ballistics
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Sturek, Walter B.
1987-01-01
The development of the technology of ballistics as applied to gun launched Army weapon systems is the main objective of research at the U.S. Army Ballistic Research Laboratory (BRL). The primary research programs at the BRL consist of three major ballistic disciplines: exterior, interior, and terminal. The work done at the BRL in these areas was traditionally highly dependent on experimental testing. A considerable emphasis was placed on the development of computational modeling to augment the experimental testing in the development cycle; however, the impact of the computational modeling to this date is modest. With the availability of supercomputer computational resources recently installed at the BRL, a new emphasis on the application of computational modeling to ballistics technology is taking place. The major application areas are outlined which are receiving considerable attention at the BRL at present and to indicate the modeling approaches involved. An attempt was made to give some information as to the degree of success achieved and indicate the areas of greatest need.
Images as a basis for computer modelling
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Beaufils, D.; LeTouzé, J.-C.; Blondel, F.-M.
1994-03-01
New computer technologies such as the graphics data tablet, video digitization and numerical methods, can be used for measurement and mathematical modelling in physics. Two programs dealing with newtonian mechanics and some of related scientific activities for A-level students are described.
Informing Mechanistic Toxicology with Computational Molecular Models
Computational molecular models of chemicals interacting with biomolecular targets provides toxicologists a valuable, affordable, and sustainable source of in silico molecular level information that augments, enriches, and complements in vitro and in vivo effo...
A Computational Model of Spatial Visualization Capacity
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Lyon, Don R.; Gunzelmann, Glenn; Gluck, Kevin A.
2008-01-01
Visualizing spatial material is a cornerstone of human problem solving, but human visualization capacity is sharply limited. To investigate the sources of this limit, we developed a new task to measure visualization accuracy for verbally-described spatial paths (similar to street directions), and implemented a computational process model to…
Validation of a detailed computer model for the electric fields in the brain.
Laarne, P; Eskola, H; Hyttinen, J; Suihko, V; Malmivuo, J
1995-01-01
A computer model has been designed for the calculation of the electrical fields in the head, based on the finite difference method. This method has not previously been applied for head modelling. The model was validated by using three concentric spheres and comparing it with an analytic model. Three levels of accuracy were tested. The forward solutions show that the finite difference algorithm works correctly and, by selecting the size of the volume elements properly, accurate results are obtained. The model will be applied to accurate and realistic geometries of the human head obtained from magnetic resonance images. PMID:7494216
Accurate cortical tissue classification on MRI by modeling cortical folding patterns.
Kim, Hosung; Caldairou, Benoit; Hwang, Ji-Wook; Mansi, Tommaso; Hong, Seok-Jun; Bernasconi, Neda; Bernasconi, Andrea
2015-09-01
Accurate tissue classification is a crucial prerequisite to MRI morphometry. Automated methods based on intensity histograms constructed from the entire volume are challenged by regional intensity variations due to local radiofrequency artifacts as well as disparities in tissue composition, laminar architecture and folding patterns. Current work proposes a novel anatomy-driven method in which parcels conforming cortical folding were regionally extracted from the brain. Each parcel is subsequently classified using nonparametric mean shift clustering. Evaluation was carried out on manually labeled images from two datasets acquired at 3.0 Tesla (n = 15) and 1.5 Tesla (n = 20). In both datasets, we observed high tissue classification accuracy of the proposed method (Dice index >97.6% at 3.0 Tesla, and >89.2% at 1.5 Tesla). Moreover, our method consistently outperformed state-of-the-art classification routines available in SPM8 and FSL-FAST, as well as a recently proposed local classifier that partitions the brain into cubes. Contour-based analyses localized more accurate white matter-gray matter (GM) interface classification of the proposed framework compared to the other algorithms, particularly in central and occipital cortices that generally display bright GM due to their highly degree of myelination. Excellent accuracy was maintained, even in the absence of correction for intensity inhomogeneity. The presented anatomy-driven local classification algorithm may significantly improve cortical boundary definition, with possible benefits for morphometric inference and biomarker discovery. PMID:26037453
Ustinov, E A
2014-10-01
Commensurate-incommensurate (C-IC) transition of krypton molecular layer on graphite received much attention in recent decades in theoretical and experimental researches. However, there still exists a possibility of generalization of the phenomenon from thermodynamic viewpoint on the basis of accurate molecular simulation. Recently, a new technique was developed for analysis of two-dimensional (2D) phase transitions in systems involving a crystalline phase, which is based on accounting for the effect of temperature and the chemical potential on the lattice constant of the 2D layer using the Gibbs-Duhem equation [E. A. Ustinov, J. Chem. Phys. 140, 074706 (2014)]. The technique has allowed for determination of phase diagrams of 2D argon layers on the uniform surface and in slit pores. This paper extends the developed methodology on systems accounting for the periodic modulation of the substrate potential. The main advantage of the developed approach is that it provides highly accurate evaluation of the chemical potential of crystalline layers, which allows reliable determination of temperature and other parameters of various 2D phase transitions. Applicability of the methodology is demonstrated on the krypton-graphite system. Analysis of phase diagram of the krypton molecular layer, thermodynamic functions of coexisting phases, and a method of prediction of adsorption isotherms is considered accounting for a compression of the graphite due to the krypton-carbon interaction. The temperature and heat of C-IC transition has been reliably determined for the gas-solid and solid-solid system. PMID:25296827
Ustinov, E. A.
2014-10-07
Commensurate–incommensurate (C-IC) transition of krypton molecular layer on graphite received much attention in recent decades in theoretical and experimental researches. However, there still exists a possibility of generalization of the phenomenon from thermodynamic viewpoint on the basis of accurate molecular simulation. Recently, a new technique was developed for analysis of two-dimensional (2D) phase transitions in systems involving a crystalline phase, which is based on accounting for the effect of temperature and the chemical potential on the lattice constant of the 2D layer using the Gibbs–Duhem equation [E. A. Ustinov, J. Chem. Phys. 140, 074706 (2014)]. The technique has allowed for determination of phase diagrams of 2D argon layers on the uniform surface and in slit pores. This paper extends the developed methodology on systems accounting for the periodic modulation of the substrate potential. The main advantage of the developed approach is that it provides highly accurate evaluation of the chemical potential of crystalline layers, which allows reliable determination of temperature and other parameters of various 2D phase transitions. Applicability of the methodology is demonstrated on the krypton–graphite system. Analysis of phase diagram of the krypton molecular layer, thermodynamic functions of coexisting phases, and a method of prediction of adsorption isotherms is considered accounting for a compression of the graphite due to the krypton–carbon interaction. The temperature and heat of C-IC transition has been reliably determined for the gas–solid and solid–solid system.
Surface electron density models for accurate ab initio molecular dynamics with electronic friction
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Novko, D.; Blanco-Rey, M.; Alducin, M.; Juaristi, J. I.
2016-06-01
Ab initio molecular dynamics with electronic friction (AIMDEF) is a valuable methodology to study the interaction of atomic particles with metal surfaces. This method, in which the effect of low-energy electron-hole (e-h) pair excitations is treated within the local density friction approximation (LDFA) [Juaristi et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 116102 (2008), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.100.116102], can provide an accurate description of both e-h pair and phonon excitations. In practice, its applicability becomes a complicated task in those situations of substantial surface atoms displacements because the LDFA requires the knowledge at each integration step of the bare surface electron density. In this work, we propose three different methods of calculating on-the-fly the electron density of the distorted surface and we discuss their suitability under typical surface distortions. The investigated methods are used in AIMDEF simulations for three illustrative adsorption cases, namely, dissociated H2 on Pd(100), N on Ag(111), and N2 on Fe(110). Our AIMDEF calculations performed with the three approaches highlight the importance of going beyond the frozen surface density to accurately describe the energy released into e-h pair excitations in case of large surface atom displacements.
A computer program for modeling non-spherical eclipsing binary star systems
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Wood, D. B.
1972-01-01
The accurate analysis of eclipsing binary light curves is fundamental to obtaining information on the physical properties of stars. The model described accounts for the important geometric and photometric distortions such as rotational and tidal distortion, gravity brightening, and reflection effect. This permits a more accurate analysis of interacting eclipsing star systems. The model is designed to be useful to anyone with moderate computing resources. The programs, written in FORTRAN 4 for the IBM 360, consume about 80k bytes of core. The FORTRAN program listings are provided, and the computational aspects are described in some detail.
Automating sensitivity analysis of computer models using computer calculus
Oblow, E.M.; Pin, F.G.
1985-01-01
An automated procedure for performing sensitivity analyses has been developed. The procedure uses a new FORTRAN compiler with computer calculus capabilities to generate the derivatives needed to set up sensitivity equations. The new compiler is called GRESS - Gradient Enhanced Software System. Application of the automated procedure with ''direct'' and ''adjoint'' sensitivity theory for the analysis of non-linear, iterative systems of equations is discussed. Calculational efficiency consideration and techniques for adjoint sensitivity analysis are emphasized. The new approach is found to preserve the traditional advantages of adjoint theory while removing the tedious human effort previously needed to apply this theoretical methodology. Conclusions are drawn about the applicability of the automated procedure in numerical analysis and large-scale modelling sensitivity studies. 24 refs., 2 figs.
Computational Modeling: From Remote Sensing to Quantum Computing
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Healy, Dennis
2001-03-01
Recent DARPA investments have contributed to significant advances in numerically sound and computationally efficient physics-based modeling, enabling a wide variety of applications of critical interest to the DoD and Industry. Specific examples may be found in a wide variety of applications ranging from the design and operation of advanced synthetic aperture radar systems to the virtual integrated prototyping of reactors and control loops for the manufacture of thin-film functional material systems. This talk will survey the development and application of well-conditioned fast operators for particular physical problems and their critical contributions to various real world problems. We'll conclude with an indication of how these methods may contribute to exploring the revolutionary potential of quantum information theory.
Computational modeling of dynamic behaviors of human teeth.
Liao, Zhipeng; Chen, Junning; Zhang, Zhongpu; Li, Wei; Swain, Michael; Li, Qing
2015-12-16
Despite the importance of dynamic behaviors of dental and periodontal structures to clinics, the biomechanical roles of anatomic sophistication and material properties in quantification of vibratory characteristics remain under-studied. This paper aimed to generate an anatomically accurate and structurally detailed 3D finite element (FE) maxilla model and explore the dynamic behaviors of human teeth through characterizing the natural frequencies (NFs) and mode shapes. The FE models with different levels of structural integrities and material properties were established to quantify the effects of modeling techniques on the computation of vibratory characteristics. The results showed that the integrity of computational model considerably influences the characterization of vibratory behaviors, as evidenced by declined NFs and perceptibly altered mode shapes resulting from the models with higher degrees of completeness and accuracy. A primary NF of 889Hz and the corresponding mode shape featuring linguo-buccal vibration of maxillary right 2nd molar were obtained based on the complete maxilla model. It was found that the periodontal ligament (PDL), a connective soft tissue, plays an important role in quantifying NFs. It was also revealed that damping and heterogeneity of materials contribute to the quantification of vibratory characteristics. The study provided important biomechanical insights and clinical references for future studies on dynamic behaviors of dental and periodontal structures. PMID:26584964
A computational language approach to modeling prose recall in schizophrenia.
Rosenstein, Mark; Diaz-Asper, Catherine; Foltz, Peter W; Elvevåg, Brita
2014-06-01
Many cortical disorders are associated with memory problems. In schizophrenia, verbal memory deficits are a hallmark feature. However, the exact nature of this deficit remains elusive. Modeling aspects of language features used in memory recall have the potential to provide means for measuring these verbal processes. We employ computational language approaches to assess time-varying semantic and sequential properties of prose recall at various retrieval intervals (immediate, 30 min and 24 h later) in patients with schizophrenia, unaffected siblings and healthy unrelated control participants. First, we model the recall data to quantify the degradation of performance with increasing retrieval interval and the effect of diagnosis (i.e., group membership) on performance. Next we model the human scoring of recall performance using an n-gram language sequence technique, and then with a semantic feature based on Latent Semantic Analysis. These models show that automated analyses of the recalls can produce scores that accurately mimic human scoring. The final analysis addresses the validity of this approach by ascertaining the ability to predict group membership from models built on the two classes of language features. Taken individually, the semantic feature is most predictive, while a model combining the features improves accuracy of group membership prediction slightly above the semantic feature alone as well as over the human rating approach. We discuss the implications for cognitive neuroscience of such a computational approach in exploring the mechanisms of prose recall. PMID:24709122
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Reinhardt, Colin N.; Ritcey, James A.
2015-09-01
We present a novel method for efficient and physically-accurate modeling & simulation of anisoplanatic imaging through the atmosphere; in particular we present a new space-variant volumetric image blur algorithm. The method is based on the use of physical atmospheric meteorology models, such as vertical turbulence profiles and aerosol/molecular profiles which can be in general fully spatially-varying in 3 dimensions and also evolving in time. The space-variant modeling method relies on the metadata provided by 3D computer graphics modeling and rendering systems to decompose the image into a set of slices which can be treated in an independent but physically consistent manner to achieve simulated image blur effects which are more accurate and realistic than the homogeneous and stationary blurring methods which are commonly used today. We also present a simple illustrative example of the application of our algorithm, and show its results and performance are in agreement with the expected relative trends and behavior of the prescribed turbulence profile physical model used to define the initial spatially-varying environmental scenario conditions. We present the details of an efficient Fourier-transform-domain formulation of the SV volumetric blur algorithm and detailed algorithm pseudocode description of the method implementation and clarification of some nonobvious technical details.
Model-Invariant Hybrid Computations of Separated Flows for RCA Standard Test Cases
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Woodruff, Stephen
2016-01-01
NASA's Revolutionary Computational Aerosciences (RCA) subproject has identified several smooth-body separated flows as standard test cases to emphasize the challenge these flows present for computational methods and their importance to the aerospace community. Results of computations of two of these test cases, the NASA hump and the FAITH experiment, are presented. The computations were performed with the model-invariant hybrid LES-RANS formulation, implemented in the NASA code VULCAN-CFD. The model- invariant formulation employs gradual LES-RANS transitions and compensation for model variation to provide more accurate and efficient hybrid computations. Comparisons revealed that the LES-RANS transitions employed in these computations were sufficiently gradual that the compensating terms were unnecessary. Agreement with experiment was achieved only after reducing the turbulent viscosity to mitigate the effect of numerical dissipation. The stream-wise evolution of peak Reynolds shear stress was employed as a measure of turbulence dynamics in separated flows useful for evaluating computations.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wiktor, Julia; Jomard, Gérald; Torrent, Marc
2015-09-01
Many techniques have been developed in the past in order to compute positron lifetimes in materials from first principles. However, there is still a lack of a fast and accurate self-consistent scheme that could handle accurately the forces acting on the ions induced by the presence of the positron. We will show in this paper that we have reached this goal by developing the two-component density functional theory within the projector augmented-wave (PAW) method in the open-source code abinit. This tool offers the accuracy of the all-electron methods with the computational efficiency of the plane-wave ones. We can thus deal with supercells that contain few hundreds to thousands of atoms to study point defects as well as more extended defects clusters. Moreover, using the PAW basis set allows us to use techniques able to, for instance, treat strongly correlated systems or spin-orbit coupling, which are necessary to study heavy elements, such as the actinides or their compounds.
Computer Model Of Fragmentation Of Atomic Nuclei
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Wilson, John W.; Townsend, Lawrence W.; Tripathi, Ram K.; Norbury, John W.; KHAN FERDOUS; Badavi, Francis F.
1995-01-01
High Charge and Energy Semiempirical Nuclear Fragmentation Model (HZEFRG1) computer program developed to be computationally efficient, user-friendly, physics-based program for generating data bases on fragmentation of atomic nuclei. Data bases generated used in calculations pertaining to such radiation-transport applications as shielding against radiation in outer space, radiation dosimetry in outer space, cancer therapy in laboratories with beams of heavy ions, and simulation studies for designing detectors for experiments in nuclear physics. Provides cross sections for production of individual elements and isotopes in breakups of high-energy heavy ions by combined nuclear and Coulomb fields of interacting nuclei. Written in ANSI FORTRAN 77.
Computational Modeling of Ultrafast Pulse Propagation in Nonlinear Optical Materials
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Goorjian, Peter M.; Agrawal, Govind P.; Kwak, Dochan (Technical Monitor)
1996-01-01
There is an emerging technology of photonic (or optoelectronic) integrated circuits (PICs or OEICs). In PICs, optical and electronic components are grown together on the same chip. rib build such devices and subsystems, one needs to model the entire chip. Accurate computer modeling of electromagnetic wave propagation in semiconductors is necessary for the successful development of PICs. More specifically, these computer codes would enable the modeling of such devices, including their subsystems, such as semiconductor lasers and semiconductor amplifiers in which there is femtosecond pulse propagation. Here, the computer simulations are made by solving the full vector, nonlinear, Maxwell's equations, coupled with the semiconductor Bloch equations, without any approximations. The carrier is retained in the description of the optical pulse, (i.e. the envelope approximation is not made in the Maxwell's equations), and the rotating wave approximation is not made in the Bloch equations. These coupled equations are solved to simulate the propagation of femtosecond optical pulses in semiconductor materials. The simulations describe the dynamics of the optical pulses, as well as the interband and intraband.
Computer Model Predicts the Movement of Dust
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
2002-01-01
A new computer model of the atmosphere can now actually pinpoint where global dust events come from, and can project where they're going. The model may help scientists better evaluate the impact of dust on human health, climate, ocean carbon cycles, ecosystems, and atmospheric chemistry. Also, by seeing where dust originates and where it blows people with respiratory problems can get advanced warning of approaching dust clouds. 'The model is physically more realistic than previous ones,' said Mian Chin, a co-author of the study and an Earth and atmospheric scientist at Georgia Tech and the Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) in Greenbelt, Md. 'It is able to reproduce the short term day-to-day variations and long term inter-annual variations of dust concentrations and distributions that are measured from field experiments and observed from satellites.' The above images show both aerosols measured from space (left) and the movement of aerosols predicted by computer model for the same date (right). For more information, read New Computer Model Tracks and Predicts Paths Of Earth's Dust Images courtesy Paul Giroux, Georgia Tech/NASA Goddard Space Flight Center
Computational models of natural language processing
Bara, B.G.; Guida, G.
1984-01-01
The main concern in this work is the illustration of models for natural language processing, and the discussion of their role in the development of computational studies of language. Topics covered include the following: competence and performance in the design of natural language systems; planning and understanding speech acts by interpersonal games; a framework for integrating syntax and semantics; knowledge representation and natural language: extending the expressive power of proposition nodes; viewing parsing as word sense discrimination: a connectionist approach; a propositional language for text representation; from topic and focus of a sentence to linking in a text; language generation by computer; understanding the Chinese language; semantic primitives or meaning postulates: mental models of propositional representations; narrative complexity based on summarization algorithms; using focus to constrain language generation; and towards an integral model of language competence.
Queuing theory models for computer networks
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Galant, David C.
1989-01-01
A set of simple queuing theory models which can model the average response of a network of computers to a given traffic load has been implemented using a spreadsheet. The impact of variations in traffic patterns and intensities, channel capacities, and message protocols can be assessed using them because of the lack of fine detail in the network traffic rates, traffic patterns, and the hardware used to implement the networks. A sample use of the models applied to a realistic problem is included in appendix A. Appendix B provides a glossary of terms used in this paper. This Ames Research Center computer communication network is an evolving network of local area networks (LANs) connected via gateways and high-speed backbone communication channels. Intelligent planning of expansion and improvement requires understanding the behavior of the individual LANs as well as the collection of networks as a whole.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Valentine, A. P.; Kaeufl, P.; De Wit, R. W. L.; Trampert, J.
2014-12-01
Obtaining knowledge about source parameters in (near) real-time during or shortly after an earthquake is essential for mitigating damage and directing resources in the aftermath of the event. Therefore, a variety of real-time source-inversion algorithms have been developed over recent decades. This has been driven by the ever-growing availability of dense seismograph networks in many seismogenic areas of the world and the significant advances in real-time telemetry. By definition, these algorithms rely on short time-windows of sparse, local and regional observations, resulting in source estimates that are highly sensitive to observational errors, noise and missing data. In order to obtain estimates more rapidly, many algorithms are either entirely based on empirical scaling relations or make simplifying assumptions about the Earth's structure, which can in turn lead to biased results. It is therefore essential that realistic uncertainty bounds are estimated along with the parameters. A natural means of propagating probabilistic information on source parameters through the entire processing chain from first observations to potential end users and decision makers is provided by the Bayesian formalism.We present a novel method based on pattern recognition allowing us to incorporate highly accurate physical modelling into an uncertainty-aware real-time inversion algorithm. The algorithm is based on a pre-computed Green's functions database, containing a large set of source-receiver paths in a highly heterogeneous crustal model. Unlike similar methods, which often employ a grid search, we use a supervised learning algorithm to relate synthetic waveforms to point source parameters. This training procedure has to be performed only once and leads to a representation of the posterior probability density function p(m|d) --- the distribution of source parameters m given observations d --- which can be evaluated quickly for new data.Owing to the flexibility of the pattern
Multi Sensor Data Integration for AN Accurate 3d Model Generation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chhatkuli, S.; Satoh, T.; Tachibana, K.
2015-05-01
The aim of this paper is to introduce a novel technique of data integration between two different data sets, i.e. laser scanned RGB point cloud and oblique imageries derived 3D model, to create a 3D model with more details and better accuracy. In general, aerial imageries are used to create a 3D city model. Aerial imageries produce an overall decent 3D city models and generally suit to generate 3D model of building roof and some non-complex terrain. However, the automatically generated 3D model, from aerial imageries, generally suffers from the lack of accuracy in deriving the 3D model of road under the bridges, details under tree canopy, isolated trees, etc. Moreover, the automatically generated 3D model from aerial imageries also suffers from undulated road surfaces, non-conforming building shapes, loss of minute details like street furniture, etc. in many cases. On the other hand, laser scanned data and images taken from mobile vehicle platform can produce more detailed 3D road model, street furniture model, 3D model of details under bridge, etc. However, laser scanned data and images from mobile vehicle are not suitable to acquire detailed 3D model of tall buildings, roof tops, and so forth. Our proposed approach to integrate multi sensor data compensated each other's weakness and helped to create a very detailed 3D model with better accuracy. Moreover, the additional details like isolated trees, street furniture, etc. which were missing in the original 3D model derived from aerial imageries could also be integrated in the final model automatically. During the process, the noise in the laser scanned data for example people, vehicles etc. on the road were also automatically removed. Hence, even though the two dataset were acquired in different time period the integrated data set or the final 3D model was generally noise free and without unnecessary details.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Gong, Yue; Beck, Joseph E.; Heffernan, Neil T.
2011-01-01
Student modeling is a fundamental concept applicable to a variety of intelligent tutoring systems (ITS). However, there is not a lot of practical guidance on how to construct and train such models. This paper compares two approaches for student modeling, Knowledge Tracing (KT) and Performance Factors Analysis (PFA), by evaluating their predictive…
Models in biology: ‘accurate descriptions of our pathetic thinking’
2014-01-01
In this essay I will sketch some ideas for how to think about models in biology. I will begin by trying to dispel the myth that quantitative modeling is somehow foreign to biology. I will then point out the distinction between forward and reverse modeling and focus thereafter on the former. Instead of going into mathematical technicalities about different varieties of models, I will focus on their logical structure, in terms of assumptions and conclusions. A model is a logical machine for deducing the latter from the former. If the model is correct, then, if you believe its assumptions, you must, as a matter of logic, also believe its conclusions. This leads to consideration of the assumptions underlying models. If these are based on fundamental physical laws, then it may be reasonable to treat the model as ‘predictive’, in the sense that it is not subject to falsification and we can rely on its conclusions. However, at the molecular level, models are more often derived from phenomenology and guesswork. In this case, the model is a test of its assumptions and must be falsifiable. I will discuss three models from this perspective, each of which yields biological insights, and this will lead to some guidelines for prospective model builders. PMID:24886484
Concepts to accelerate water balance model computation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gronz, Oliver; Casper, Markus; Gemmar, Peter
2010-05-01
Computation time of water balance models has decreased with the increasing performance of CPUs within the last decades. Often, these advantages have been used to enhance the models, e. g. by enlarging spatial resolution or by using smaller simulation time steps. During the last few years, CPU development tended to focus on strong multi core concepts rather than 'simply being generally faster'. Additionally, computer clusters or even computer clouds have become much more commonly available. All these facts again extend our degrees of freedom in simulating water balance models - if the models are able to efficiently use the computer infrastructure. In the following, we present concepts to optimize especially repeated runs and we generally discuss concepts of parallel computing opportunities. Surveyed model In our examinations, we focused on the water balance model LARSIM. In this model, the catchment is subdivided into elements, each of which representing a certain section of a river and its contributory area. Each element is again subdivided into single compartments of homogeneous land use. During the simulation, the relevant hydrological processes are simulated individually for each compartment. The simulated runoff of all compartments leads into the river channel of the corresponding element. Finally, channel routing is simulated for all elements. Optimizing repeated runs During a typical simulation, several input files have to be read before simulation starts: the model structure, the initial model state and meteorological input files. Furthermore, some calculations have to be solved, like interpolating meteorological values. Thus, e. g. the application of Monte Carlo methods will typically use the following algorithm: 1) choose parameters, 2) set parameters in control files, 3) run model, 4) save result, 5) repeat from step 1. Obviously, the third step always includes the previously mentioned steps of reading and preprocessing. Consequently, the model can be
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fernandes, Stenio; Kamienski, Carlos; Sadok, Djamel
2003-08-01
Synthetic self-similar traffic in computer networks simulation is of imperative significance for the capturing and reproducing of actual Internet data traffic behavior. A universally used procedure for generating self-similar traffic is achieved by aggregating On/Off sources where the active (On) and idle (Off) periods exhibit heavy tailed distributions. This work analyzes the balance between accuracy and computational efficiency in generating self-similar traffic and presents important results that can be useful to parameterize existing heavy tailed distributions such as Pareto, Weibull and Lognormal in a simulation analysis. Our results were obtained through the simulation of various scenarios and were evaluated by estimating the Hurst (H) parameter, which measures the self-similarity level, using several methods.
Perry, Conrad; Ziegler, Johannes C; Zorzi, Marco
2007-04-01
At least 3 different types of computational model have been shown to account for various facets of both normal and impaired single word reading: (a) the connectionist triangle model, (b) the dual-route cascaded model, and (c) the connectionist dual process model. Major strengths and weaknesses of these models are identified. In the spirit of nested incremental modeling, a new connectionist dual process model (the CDP+ model) is presented. This model builds on the strengths of 2 of the previous models while eliminating their weaknesses. Contrary to the dual-route cascaded model, CDP+ is able to learn and produce graded consistency effects. Contrary to the triangle and the connectionist dual process models, CDP+ accounts for serial effects and has more accurate nonword reading performance. CDP+ also beats all previous models by an order of magnitude when predicting individual item-level variance on large databases. Thus, the authors show that building on existing theories by combining the best features of previous models--a nested modeling strategy that is commonly used in other areas of science but often neglected in psychology--results in better and more powerful computational models. PMID:17500628
More accurate predictions with transonic Navier-Stokes methods through improved turbulence modeling
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Johnson, Dennis A.
1989-01-01
Significant improvements in predictive accuracies for off-design conditions are achievable through better turbulence modeling; and, without necessarily adding any significant complication to the numerics. One well established fact about turbulence is it is slow to respond to changes in the mean strain field. With the 'equilibrium' algebraic turbulence models no attempt is made to model this characteristic and as a consequence these turbulence models exaggerate the turbulent boundary layer's ability to produce turbulent Reynolds shear stresses in regions of adverse pressure gradient. As a consequence, too little momentum loss within the boundary layer is predicted in the region of the shock wave and along the aft part of the airfoil where the surface pressure undergoes further increases. Recently, a 'nonequilibrium' algebraic turbulence model was formulated which attempts to capture this important characteristic of turbulence. This 'nonequilibrium' algebraic model employs an ordinary differential equation to model the slow response of the turbulence to changes in local flow conditions. In its original form, there was some question as to whether this 'nonequilibrium' model performed as well as the 'equilibrium' models for weak interaction cases. However, this turbulence model has since been further improved wherein it now appears that this turbulence model performs at least as well as the 'equilibrium' models for weak interaction cases and for strong interaction cases represents a very significant improvement. The performance of this turbulence model relative to popular 'equilibrium' models is illustrated for three airfoil test cases of the 1987 AIAA Viscous Transonic Airfoil Workshop, Reno, Nevada. A form of this 'nonequilibrium' turbulence model is currently being applied to wing flows for which similar improvements in predictive accuracy are being realized.
Beyerlein, S.W.; Lemmon, E.W.
1995-07-01
DETAIL and GROSS characterization methods outlined in the 2nd edition of AGA Report No. 8 and ISO 12213 were developed, documented, and implemented in this work. This includes FORTRAN computer programs which can be obtained on diskette from the American Gas Association. Natural gas compressibility factor data which are consistent with new PVT reference data were used to establish the uncertainty of both characterization methods.
Computer modeling of heat pipe performance
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Peterson, G. P.
1983-01-01
A parametric study of the defining equations which govern the steady state operational characteristics of the Grumman monogroove dual passage heat pipe is presented. These defining equations are combined to develop a mathematical model which describes and predicts the operational and performance capabilities of a specific heat pipe given the necessary physical characteristics and working fluid. Included is a brief review of the current literature, a discussion of the governing equations, and a description of both the mathematical and computer model. Final results of preliminary test runs of the model are presented and compared with experimental tests on actual prototypes.
Johnson, Timothy C.; Wellman, Dawn M.
2015-06-26
Electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) has been widely used in environmental applications to study processes associated with subsurface contaminants and contaminant remediation. Anthropogenic alterations in subsurface electrical conductivity associated with contamination often originate from highly industrialized areas with significant amounts of buried metallic infrastructure. The deleterious influence of such infrastructure on imaging results generally limits the utility of ERT where it might otherwise prove useful for subsurface investigation and monitoring. In this manuscript we present a method of accurately modeling the effects of buried conductive infrastructure within the forward modeling algorithm, thereby removing them from the inversion results. The method is implemented in parallel using immersed interface boundary conditions, whereby the global solution is reconstructed from a series of well-conditioned partial solutions. Forward modeling accuracy is demonstrated by comparison with analytic solutions. Synthetic imaging examples are used to investigate imaging capabilities within a subsurface containing electrically conductive buried tanks, transfer piping, and well casing, using both well casings and vertical electrode arrays as current sources and potential measurement electrodes. Results show that, although accurate infrastructure modeling removes the dominating influence of buried metallic features, the presence of metallic infrastructure degrades imaging resolution compared to standard ERT imaging. However, accurate imaging results may be obtained if electrodes are appropriately located.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
West, J. B.; Ehleringer, J. R.; Cerling, T.
2006-12-01
Understanding how the biosphere responds to change it at the heart of biogeochemistry, ecology, and other Earth sciences. The dramatic increase in human population and technological capacity over the past 200 years or so has resulted in numerous, simultaneous changes to biosphere structure and function. This, then, has lead to increased urgency in the scientific community to try to understand how systems have already responded to these changes, and how they might do so in the future. Since all biospheric processes exhibit some patchiness or patterns over space, as well as time, we believe that understanding the dynamic interactions between natural systems and human technological manipulations can be improved if these systems are studied in an explicitly spatial context. We present here results of some of our efforts to model the spatial variation in the stable isotope ratios (δ2H and δ18O) of plants over large spatial extents, and how these spatial model predictions compare to spatially explicit data. Stable isotopes trace and record ecological processes and as such, if modeled correctly over Earth's surface allow us insights into changes in biosphere states and processes across spatial scales. The data-model comparisons show good agreement, in spite of the remaining uncertainties (e.g., plant source water isotopic composition). For example, inter-annual changes in climate are recorded in wine stable isotope ratios. Also, a much simpler model of leaf water enrichment driven with spatially continuous global rasters of precipitation and climate normals largely agrees with complex GCM modeling that includes leaf water δ18O. Our results suggest that modeling plant stable isotope ratios across large spatial extents may be done with reasonable accuracy, including over time. These spatial maps, or isoscapes, can now be utilized to help understand spatially distributed data, as well as to help guide future studies designed to understand ecological change across
Pal, Saikat; Lindsey, Derek P.; Besier, Thor F.; Beaupre, Gary S.
2013-01-01
Cartilage material properties provide important insights into joint health, and cartilage material models are used in whole-joint finite element models. Although the biphasic model representing experimental creep indentation tests is commonly used to characterize cartilage, cartilage short-term response to loading is generally not characterized using the biphasic model. The purpose of this study was to determine the short-term and equilibrium material properties of human patella cartilage using a viscoelastic model representation of creep indentation tests. We performed 24 experimental creep indentation tests from 14 human patellar specimens ranging in age from 20 to 90 years (median age 61 years). We used a finite element model to reproduce the experimental tests and determined cartilage material properties from viscoelastic and biphasic representations of cartilage. The viscoelastic model consistently provided excellent representation of the short-term and equilibrium creep displacements. We determined initial elastic modulus, equilibrium elastic modulus, and equilibrium Poisson’s ratio using the viscoelastic model. The viscoelastic model can represent the short-term and equilibrium response of cartilage and may easily be implemented in whole-joint finite element models. PMID:23027200
GPU Computing in Space Weather Modeling
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Feng, X.; Zhong, D.; Xiang, C.; Zhang, Y.
2013-04-01
Space weather refers to conditions on the Sun and in the solar wind, magnetosphere, ionosphere, and thermosphere that can influence the performance and reliability of space-borne and ground-based technological systems and that affect human life or health. In order to make the real- or faster than real-time numerical prediction of adverse space weather events and their influence on the geospace environment, high-performance computational models are required. The main objective in this article is to explore the application of programmable graphic processing units (GPUs) to the numerical space weather modeling for the study of solar wind background that is a crucial part in the numerical space weather modeling. GPU programming is realized for our Solar-Interplanetary-CESE MHD model (SIP-CESE MHD model) by numerically studying the solar corona/interplanetary solar wind. The global solar wind structures is obtained by the established GPU model with the magnetic field synoptic data as input. The simulated global structures for Carrington rotation 2060 agrees well with solar observations and solar wind measurements from spacecraft near the Earth. The model's implementation of the adaptive-mesh-refinement (AMR) and message passing interface (MPI) enables the full exploitation of the computing power in a heterogeneous CPU/GPU cluster and significantly improves the overall performance. Our initial tests with available hardware show speedups of roughly 5x compared to traditional software implementation. This work presents a novel application of GPU to the space weather study.
Computational Modeling of Pollution Transmission in Rivers
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Parsaie, Abbas; Haghiabi, Amir Hamzeh
2015-08-01
Modeling of river pollution contributes to better management of water quality and this will lead to the improvement of human health. The advection dispersion equation (ADE) is the government equation on pollutant transmission in the river. Modeling the pollution transmission includes numerical solution of the ADE and estimating the longitudinal dispersion coefficient (LDC). In this paper, a novel approach is proposed for numerical modeling of the pollution transmission in rivers. It is related to use both finite volume method as numerical method and artificial neural network (ANN) as soft computing technique together in simulation. In this approach, the result of the ANN for predicting the LDC was considered as input parameter for the numerical solution of the ADE. To validate the model performance in real engineering problems, the pollutant transmission in Severn River has been simulated. Comparison of the final model results with measured data of the Severn River showed that the model has good performance. Predicting the LDC by ANN model significantly improved the accuracy of computer simulation of the pollution transmission in river.
Efficient and accurate approach to modeling the microstructure and defect properties of LaCoO3
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Buckeridge, J.; Taylor, F. H.; Catlow, C. R. A.
2016-04-01
Complex perovskite oxides are promising materials for cathode layers in solid oxide fuel cells. Such materials have intricate electronic, magnetic, and crystalline structures that prove challenging to model accurately. We analyze a wide range of standard density functional theory approaches to modeling a highly promising system, the perovskite LaCoO3, focusing on optimizing the Hubbard U parameter to treat the self-interaction of the B-site cation's d states, in order to determine the most appropriate method to study defect formation and the effect of spin on local structure. By calculating structural and electronic properties for different magnetic states we determine that U =4 eV for Co in LaCoO3 agrees best with available experiments. We demonstrate that the generalized gradient approximation (PBEsol +U ) is most appropriate for studying structure versus spin state, while the local density approximation (LDA +U ) is most appropriate for determining accurate energetics for defect properties.
Validation of Computational Models in Biomechanics
Henninger, Heath B.; Reese, Shawn P.; Anderson, Andrew E.; Weiss, Jeffrey A.
2010-01-01
The topics of verification and validation (V&V) have increasingly been discussed in the field of computational biomechanics, and many recent articles have applied these concepts in an attempt to build credibility for models of complex biological systems. V&V are evolving techniques that, if used improperly, can lead to false conclusions about a system under study. In basic science these erroneous conclusions may lead to failure of a subsequent hypothesis, but they can have more profound effects if the model is designed to predict patient outcomes. While several authors have reviewed V&V as they pertain to traditional solid and fluid mechanics, it is the intent of this manuscript to present them in the context of computational biomechanics. Specifically, the task of model validation will be discussed with a focus on current techniques. It is hoped that this review will encourage investigators to engage and adopt the V&V process in an effort to increase peer acceptance of computational biomechanics models. PMID:20839648
Multiscale mechanobiology: computational models for integrating molecules to multicellular systems
Mak, Michael; Kim, Taeyoon
2015-01-01
Mechanical signals exist throughout the biological landscape. Across all scales, these signals, in the form of force, stiffness, and deformations, are generated and processed, resulting in an active mechanobiological circuit that controls many fundamental aspects of life, from protein unfolding and cytoskeletal remodeling to collective cell motions. The multiple scales and complex feedback involved present a challenge for fully understanding the nature of this circuit, particularly in development and disease in which it has been implicated. Computational models that accurately predict and are based on experimental data enable a means to integrate basic principles and explore fine details of mechanosensing and mechanotransduction in and across all levels of biological systems. Here we review recent advances in these models along with supporting and emerging experimental findings. PMID:26019013
Modelling amorphous computations with transcription networks
Simpson, Zack Booth; Tsai, Timothy L.; Nguyen, Nam; Chen, Xi; Ellington, Andrew D.
2009-01-01
The power of electronic computation is due in part to the development of modular gate structures that can be coupled to carry out sophisticated logical operations and whose performance can be readily modelled. However, the equivalences between electronic and biochemical operations are far from obvious. In order to help cross between these disciplines, we develop an analogy between complementary metal oxide semiconductor and transcriptional logic gates. We surmise that these transcriptional logic gates might prove to be useful in amorphous computations and model the abilities of immobilized gates to form patterns. Finally, to begin to implement these computations, we design unique hairpin transcriptional gates and then characterize these gates in a binary latch similar to that already demonstrated by Kim et al. (Kim, White & Winfree 2006 Mol. Syst. Biol. 2, 68 (doi:10.1038/msb4100099)). The hairpin transcriptional gates are uniquely suited to the design of a complementary NAND gate that can serve as an underlying basis of molecular computing that can output matter rather than electronic information. PMID:19474083
Computational Modeling of Mammalian Signaling Networks
Hughey, Jacob J; Lee, Timothy K; Covert, Markus W
2011-01-01
One of the most exciting developments in signal transduction research has been the proliferation of studies in which a biological discovery was initiated by computational modeling. Here we review the major efforts that enable such studies. First, we describe the experimental technologies that are generally used to identify the molecular components and interactions in, and dynamic behavior exhibited by, a network of interest. Next, we review the mathematical approaches that are used to model signaling network behavior. Finally, we focus on three specific instances of “model-driven discovery”: cases in which computational modeling of a signaling network has led to new insights which have been verified experimentally. Signal transduction networks are the bridge between the extraordinarily complex extracellular environment and a carefully orchestrated cellular response. These networks are largely composed of proteins which can interact, move to specific cellular locations, or be modified or degraded. The integration of these events often leads to the activation or inactivation of transcription factors, which then induce or repress the expression of thousands of genes. Because of this critical role in translating environmental cues to cellular behaviors, malfunctioning signaling networks can lead to a variety of pathologies. One example is cancer, in which many of the key genes found to be involved in cancer onset and development are components of signaling pathways [1, 2]. A detailed understanding of the cellular signaling networks underlying such diseases would likely be extremely useful in developing new treatments. However, the complexity of signaling networks is such that their integrated functions cannot be determined without computational simulation. In recent years, mathematical modeling of signal transduction has led to some exciting new findings and biological discoveries. Here, we review the work that has enabled computational modeling of mammalian
Accurate analytical method for the extraction of solar cell model parameters
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Phang, J. C. H.; Chan, D. S. H.; Phillips, J. R.
1984-05-01
Single diode solar cell model parameters are rapidly extracted from experimental data by means of the presently derived analytical expressions. The parameter values obtained have a less than 5 percent error for most solar cells, in light of the extraction of model parameters for two cells of differing quality which were compared with parameters extracted by means of the iterative method.
Multiscale Computational Models of Complex Biological Systems
Walpole, Joseph; Papin, Jason A.; Peirce, Shayn M.
2014-01-01
Integration of data across spatial, temporal, and functional scales is a primary focus of biomedical engineering efforts. The advent of powerful computing platforms, coupled with quantitative data from high-throughput experimental platforms, has allowed multiscale modeling to expand as a means to more comprehensively investigate biological phenomena in experimentally relevant ways. This review aims to highlight recently published multiscale models of biological systems while using their successes to propose the best practices for future model development. We demonstrate that coupling continuous and discrete systems best captures biological information across spatial scales by selecting modeling techniques that are suited to the task. Further, we suggest how to best leverage these multiscale models to gain insight into biological systems using quantitative, biomedical engineering methods to analyze data in non-intuitive ways. These topics are discussed with a focus on the future of the field, the current challenges encountered, and opportunities yet to be realized. PMID:23642247
Active appearance model and deep learning for more accurate prostate segmentation on MRI
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cheng, Ruida; Roth, Holger R.; Lu, Le; Wang, Shijun; Turkbey, Baris; Gandler, William; McCreedy, Evan S.; Agarwal, Harsh K.; Choyke, Peter; Summers, Ronald M.; McAuliffe, Matthew J.
2016-03-01
Prostate segmentation on 3D MR images is a challenging task due to image artifacts, large inter-patient prostate shape and texture variability, and lack of a clear prostate boundary specifically at apex and base levels. We propose a supervised machine learning model that combines atlas based Active Appearance Model (AAM) with a Deep Learning model to segment the prostate on MR images. The performance of the segmentation method is evaluated on 20 unseen MR image datasets. The proposed method combining AAM and Deep Learning achieves a mean Dice Similarity Coefficient (DSC) of 0.925 for whole 3D MR images of the prostate using axial cross-sections. The proposed model utilizes the adaptive atlas-based AAM model and Deep Learning to achieve significant segmentation accuracy.
Fast and accurate Monte Carlo sampling of first-passage times from Wiener diffusion models
Drugowitsch, Jan
2016-01-01
We present a new, fast approach for drawing boundary crossing samples from Wiener diffusion models. Diffusion models are widely applied to model choices and reaction times in two-choice decisions. Samples from these models can be used to simulate the choices and reaction times they predict. These samples, in turn, can be utilized to adjust the models’ parameters to match observed behavior from humans and other animals. Usually, such samples are drawn by simulating a stochastic differential equation in discrete time steps, which is slow and leads to biases in the reaction time estimates. Our method, instead, facilitates known expressions for first-passage time densities, which results in unbiased, exact samples and a hundred to thousand-fold speed increase in typical situations. In its most basic form it is restricted to diffusion models with symmetric boundaries and non-leaky accumulation, but our approach can be extended to also handle asymmetric boundaries or to approximate leaky accumulation. PMID:26864391
D’Adamo, Giuseppe; Pelissetto, Andrea; Pierleoni, Carlo
2014-12-28
A coarse-graining strategy, previously developed for polymer solutions, is extended here to mixtures of linear polymers and hard-sphere colloids. In this approach, groups of monomers are mapped onto a single pseudoatom (a blob) and the effective blob-blob interactions are obtained by requiring the model to reproduce some large-scale structural properties in the zero-density limit. We show that an accurate parametrization of the polymer-colloid interactions is obtained by simply introducing pair potentials between blobs and colloids. For the coarse-grained (CG) model in which polymers are modelled as four-blob chains (tetramers), the pair potentials are determined by means of the iterative Boltzmann inversion scheme, taking full-monomer (FM) pair correlation functions at zero-density as targets. For a larger number n of blobs, pair potentials are determined by using a simple transferability assumption based on the polymer self-similarity. We validate the model by comparing its predictions with full-monomer results for the interfacial properties of polymer solutions in the presence of a single colloid and for thermodynamic and structural properties in the homogeneous phase at finite polymer and colloid density. The tetramer model is quite accurate for q ≲ 1 (q=R{sup ^}{sub g}/R{sub c}, where R{sup ^}{sub g} is the zero-density polymer radius of gyration and R{sub c} is the colloid radius) and reasonably good also for q = 2. For q = 2, an accurate coarse-grained description is obtained by using the n = 10 blob model. We also compare our results with those obtained by using single-blob models with state-dependent potentials.
conSSert: Consensus SVM Model for Accurate Prediction of Ordered Secondary Structure.
Kieslich, Chris A; Smadbeck, James; Khoury, George A; Floudas, Christodoulos A
2016-03-28
Accurate prediction of protein secondary structure remains a crucial step in most approaches to the protein-folding problem, yet the prediction of ordered secondary structure, specifically beta-strands, remains a challenge. We developed a consensus secondary structure prediction method, conSSert, which is based on support vector machines (SVM) and provides exceptional accuracy for the prediction of beta-strands with QE accuracy of over 0.82 and a Q2-EH of 0.86. conSSert uses as input probabilities for the three types of secondary structure (helix, strand, and coil) that are predicted by four top performing methods: PSSpred, PSIPRED, SPINE-X, and RAPTOR. conSSert was trained/tested using 4261 protein chains from PDBSelect25, and 8632 chains from PISCES. Further validation was performed using targets from CASP9, CASP10, and CASP11. Our data suggest that poor performance in strand prediction is likely a result of training bias and not solely due to the nonlocal nature of beta-sheet contacts. conSSert is freely available for noncommercial use as a webservice: http://ares.tamu.edu/conSSert/ . PMID:26928531
Geometric modeling for computer aided design
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Schwing, James L.
1993-01-01
Over the past several years, it has been the primary goal of this grant to design and implement software to be used in the conceptual design of aerospace vehicles. The work carried out under this grant was performed jointly with members of the Vehicle Analysis Branch (VAB) of NASA LaRC, Computer Sciences Corp., and Vigyan Corp. This has resulted in the development of several packages and design studies. Primary among these are the interactive geometric modeling tool, the Solid Modeling Aerospace Research Tool (smart), and the integration and execution tools provided by the Environment for Application Software Integration and Execution (EASIE). In addition, it is the purpose of the personnel of this grant to provide consultation in the areas of structural design, algorithm development, and software development and implementation, particularly in the areas of computer aided design, geometric surface representation, and parallel algorithms.
Computer modeling of a compact isochronous cyclotron
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Smirnov, V. L.
2015-11-01
The computer modeling methods of a compact isochronous cyclotron are described. The main stages of analysis of accelerator facilities systems are considered. The described methods are based on theoretical fundamentals of cyclotron physics and mention highlights of creation of the physical project of a compact cyclotron. The main attention is paid to the analysis of the beam dynamics, formation of a magnetic field, stability of the movement, and a realistic assessment of intensity of the generated bunch of particles. In the article, the stages of development of the accelerator computer model, analytical ways of assessment of the accelerator parameters, and the basic technique of the numerical analysis of dynamics of the particles are described.
Hydrogen program combustion research: Three dimensional computational modeling
Johnson, N.L.; Amsden, A.A.; Butler, T.D.
1995-05-01
We have significantly increased our computational modeling capability by the addition of a vertical valve model in KIVA-3, code used internationally for engine design. In this report the implementation and application of the valve model is described. The model is shown to reproduce the experimentally verified intake flow problem examined by Hessel. Furthermore, the sensitivity and performance of the model is examined for the geometry and conditions of the hydrogen-fueled Onan engine in development at Sandia National Laboratory. Overall the valve model is shown to have comparable accuracy as the general flow simulation capability in KIVA-3, which has been well validated by past comparisons to experiments. In the exploratory simulations of the Onan engine, the standard use of the single kinetic reaction for hydrogen oxidation was found to be inadequate for modeling the hydrogen combustion because of its inability to describe both the observed laminar flame speed and the absence of autoignition in the Onan engine. We propose a temporary solution that inhibits the autoignition without sacrificing the ability to model spark ignition. In the absence of experimental data on the Onan engine, a computational investigation was undertaken to evaluate the importance of modeling the intake flow on the combustion and NO{sub x} emissions. A simulation that began with the compression of a quiescent hydrogen-air mixture was compared to a simulation of the full induction process with resolved opening and closing of the intake valve. Although minor differences were observed in the cylinder-averaged pressure, temperature, bulk-flow kinetic energy and turbulent kinetic energy, large differences where observed in the hydrogen combustion rate and NO{sub x} emissions. The flow state at combustion is highly heterogeneous and sensitive to the details of the bulk and turbulent flow and that an accurate simulation of the Onan engine must include the modeling of the air-fuel induction.
Faster and more accurate graphical model identification of tandem mass spectra using trellises
Wang, Shengjie; Halloran, John T.; Bilmes, Jeff A.; Noble, William S.
2016-01-01
Tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) is the dominant high throughput technology for identifying and quantifying proteins in complex biological samples. Analysis of the tens of thousands of fragmentation spectra produced by an MS/MS experiment begins by assigning to each observed spectrum the peptide that is hypothesized to be responsible for generating the spectrum. This assignment is typically done by searching each spectrum against a database of peptides. To our knowledge, all existing MS/MS search engines compute scores individually between a given observed spectrum and each possible candidate peptide from the database. In this work, we use a trellis, a data structure capable of jointly representing a large set of candidate peptides, to avoid redundantly recomputing common sub-computations among different candidates. We show how trellises may be used to significantly speed up existing scoring algorithms, and we theoretically quantify the expected speedup afforded by trellises. Furthermore, we demonstrate that compact trellis representations of whole sets of peptides enables efficient discriminative learning of a dynamic Bayesian network for spectrum identification, leading to greatly improved spectrum identification accuracy. Contact: bilmes@uw.edu or william-noble@uw.edu Supplementary information: Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. PMID:27307634
Scattering Computations of Snow Aggregates from Simple Geometry Models
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Liao, L.; Meneghini, R.; Nowell, H.; Liu, G.
2012-12-01
Accurately characterizing electromagnetic scattering from snow aggregates is one of the essential components in the development of algorithms for the GPM DPR and GMI. Recently several realistic aggregate models have been developed by using randomized procedures. Using pristine ice crystal habits found in nature as the basic elements of which the aggregates are made, more complex randomly aggregated structures can be formed to replicate snowflakes. For these particles, a numerical scheme is needed to compute the scattered fields. These computations, however, are usually time consuming, and are often limited to a certain range of particle sizes and to a few frequencies. The scattering results at other frequencies and sizes are then obtained by either interpolation or extrapolation from nearby computed points (anchor points). Because of the nonlinear nature of the scattering, particularly in the particle resonance region, this sometimes leads to severe errors if the number of anchor points is not sufficiently large to cover the spectral domain and particle size range. As an alternative to these complex models, the simple geometric models, such as sphere and spheroid, are useful for radar and radiometer applications if their scattering results can be shown to closely approximate those from complex aggregate structures. A great advantage of the simple models is their computational efficiency because of existence of analytical solutions, so that the computations can be easily extended to as many frequencies and particle sizes as desired. In this study, two simple models are tested. One approach is to use a snow mass density that is defined as the ratio of the mass of the snow aggregate to the volume, where the volume is taken to be that of a sphere with a diameter equal to the maximum measured dimension of the aggregate; i.e., the diameter of the circumscribing sphere. Because of the way in which the aggregates are generated, where a size-density relation is used, the
Computational fluid dynamics modelling in cardiovascular medicine
Morris, Paul D; Narracott, Andrew; von Tengg-Kobligk, Hendrik; Silva Soto, Daniel Alejandro; Hsiao, Sarah; Lungu, Angela; Evans, Paul; Bressloff, Neil W; Lawford, Patricia V; Hose, D Rodney; Gunn, Julian P
2016-01-01
This paper reviews the methods, benefits and challenges associated with the adoption and translation of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) modelling within cardiovascular medicine. CFD, a specialist area of mathematics and a branch of fluid mechanics, is used routinely in a diverse range of safety-critical engineering systems, which increasingly is being applied to the cardiovascular system. By facilitating rapid, economical, low-risk prototyping, CFD modelling has already revolutionised research and development of devices such as stents, valve prostheses, and ventricular assist devices. Combined with cardiovascular imaging, CFD simulation enables detailed characterisation of complex physiological pressure and flow fields and the computation of metrics which cannot be directly measured, for example, wall shear stress. CFD models are now being translated into clinical tools for physicians to use across the spectrum of coronary, valvular, congenital, myocardial and peripheral vascular diseases. CFD modelling is apposite for minimally-invasive patient assessment. Patient-specific (incorporating data unique to the individual) and multi-scale (combining models of different length- and time-scales) modelling enables individualised risk prediction and virtual treatment planning. This represents a significant departure from traditional dependence upon registry-based, population-averaged data. Model integration is progressively moving towards ‘digital patient’ or ‘virtual physiological human’ representations. When combined with population-scale numerical models, these models have the potential to reduce the cost, time and risk associated with clinical trials. The adoption of CFD modelling signals a new era in cardiovascular medicine. While potentially highly beneficial, a number of academic and commercial groups are addressing the associated methodological, regulatory, education- and service-related challenges. PMID:26512019
Computational fluid dynamics modelling in cardiovascular medicine.
Morris, Paul D; Narracott, Andrew; von Tengg-Kobligk, Hendrik; Silva Soto, Daniel Alejandro; Hsiao, Sarah; Lungu, Angela; Evans, Paul; Bressloff, Neil W; Lawford, Patricia V; Hose, D Rodney; Gunn, Julian P
2016-01-01
This paper reviews the methods, benefits and challenges associated with the adoption and translation of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) modelling within cardiovascular medicine. CFD, a specialist area of mathematics and a branch of fluid mechanics, is used routinely in a diverse range of safety-critical engineering systems, which increasingly is being applied to the cardiovascular system. By facilitating rapid, economical, low-risk prototyping, CFD modelling has already revolutionised research and development of devices such as stents, valve prostheses, and ventricular assist devices. Combined with cardiovascular imaging, CFD simulation enables detailed characterisation of complex physiological pressure and flow fields and the computation of metrics which cannot be directly measured, for example, wall shear stress. CFD models are now being translated into clinical tools for physicians to use across the spectrum of coronary, valvular, congenital, myocardial and peripheral vascular diseases. CFD modelling is apposite for minimally-invasive patient assessment. Patient-specific (incorporating data unique to the individual) and multi-scale (combining models of different length- and time-scales) modelling enables individualised risk prediction and virtual treatment planning. This represents a significant departure from traditional dependence upon registry-based, population-averaged data. Model