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Sample records for accurate constitutive model

  1. A Viscoelastic Constitutive Model Can Accurately Represent Entire Creep Indentation Tests of Human Patella Cartilage

    PubMed Central

    Pal, Saikat; Lindsey, Derek P.; Besier, Thor F.; Beaupre, Gary S.

    2013-01-01

    Cartilage material properties provide important insights into joint health, and cartilage material models are used in whole-joint finite element models. Although the biphasic model representing experimental creep indentation tests is commonly used to characterize cartilage, cartilage short-term response to loading is generally not characterized using the biphasic model. The purpose of this study was to determine the short-term and equilibrium material properties of human patella cartilage using a viscoelastic model representation of creep indentation tests. We performed 24 experimental creep indentation tests from 14 human patellar specimens ranging in age from 20 to 90 years (median age 61 years). We used a finite element model to reproduce the experimental tests and determined cartilage material properties from viscoelastic and biphasic representations of cartilage. The viscoelastic model consistently provided excellent representation of the short-term and equilibrium creep displacements. We determined initial elastic modulus, equilibrium elastic modulus, and equilibrium Poisson’s ratio using the viscoelastic model. The viscoelastic model can represent the short-term and equilibrium response of cartilage and may easily be implemented in whole-joint finite element models. PMID:23027200

  2. Constitutive models in LAME.

    SciTech Connect

    Hammerand, Daniel Carl; Scherzinger, William Mark

    2007-09-01

    The Library of Advanced Materials for Engineering (LAME) provides a common repository for constitutive models that can be used in computational solid mechanics codes. A number of models including both hypoelastic (rate) and hyperelastic (total strain) constitutive forms have been implemented in LAME. The structure and testing of LAME is described in Scherzinger and Hammerand ([3] and [4]). The purpose of the present report is to describe the material models which have already been implemented into LAME. The descriptions are designed to give useful information to both analysts and code developers. Thus far, 33 non-ITAR/non-CRADA protected material models have been incorporated. These include everything from the simple isotropic linear elastic models to a number of elastic-plastic models for metals to models for honeycomb, foams, potting epoxies and rubber. A complete description of each model is outside the scope of the current report. Rather, the aim here is to delineate the properties, state variables, functions, and methods for each model. However, a brief description of some of the constitutive details is provided for a number of the material models. Where appropriate, the SAND reports available for each model have been cited. Many models have state variable aliases for some or all of their state variables. These alias names can be used for outputting desired quantities. The state variable aliases available for results output have been listed in this report. However, not all models use these aliases. For those models, no state variable names are listed. Nevertheless, the number of state variables employed by each model is always given. Currently, there are four possible functions for a material model. This report lists which of these four methods are employed in each material model. As far as analysts are concerned, this information is included only for the awareness purposes. The analyst can take confidence in the fact that model has been properly implemented

  3. Crushed Salt Constitutive Model

    SciTech Connect

    Callahan, G.D.

    1999-02-01

    The constitutive model used to describe the deformation of crushed salt is presented in this report. Two mechanisms -- dislocation creep and grain boundary diffusional pressure solution -- are combined to form the basis for the constitutive model governing the deformation of crushed salt. The constitutive model is generalized to represent three-dimensional states of stress. Upon complete consolidation, the crushed-salt model reproduces the Multimechanism Deformation (M-D) model typically used for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) host geological formation salt. New shear consolidation tests are combined with an existing database that includes hydrostatic consolidation and shear consolidation tests conducted on WIPP and southeastern New Mexico salt. Nonlinear least-squares model fitting to the database produced two sets of material parameter values for the model -- one for the shear consolidation tests and one for a combination of the shear and hydrostatic consolidation tests. Using the parameter values determined from the fitted database, the constitutive model is validated against constant strain-rate tests. Shaft seal problems are analyzed to demonstrate model-predicted consolidation of the shaft seal crushed-salt component. Based on the fitting statistics, the ability of the model to predict the test data, and the ability of the model to predict load paths and test data outside of the fitted database, the model appears to capture the creep consolidation behavior of crushed salt reasonably well.

  4. Constitutive modeling for isotropic materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lindholm, Ulric S.

    1985-01-01

    The objective is to develop a unified constitutive model for finite element structural analysis of turbine engine hot-section components. This effort constitutes a different approach for non-linear finite-element computer codes which have heretofore been based on classical inelastic methods. The unified constitutive theory to be developed will avoid the simplifying assumptions of classical theory and should more accurately represent the behavior of superalloy materials under cyclic loading conditions and high temperature environments. During the first two years of the program, extensive experimental correlations were made with two representative unified models. The experiments were both uniaxial and biaxial at temperatures up to 1093 C (2000 F). In addition, the unified models were adopted to the MARC finite element code and used for stress analysis of notched bar and turbine blade geometries.

  5. Testing of constitutive models in LAME.

    SciTech Connect

    Hammerand, Daniel Carl; Scherzinger, William Mark

    2007-09-01

    Constitutive models for computational solid mechanics codes are in LAME--the Library of Advanced Materials for Engineering. These models describe complex material behavior and are used in our finite deformation solid mechanics codes. To ensure the correct implementation of these models, regression tests have been created for constitutive models in LAME. A selection of these tests is documented here. Constitutive models are an important part of any solid mechanics code. If an analysis code is meant to provide accurate results, the constitutive models that describe the material behavior need to be implemented correctly. Ensuring the correct implementation of constitutive models is the goal of a testing procedure that is used with the Library of Advanced Materials for Engineering (LAME) (see [1] and [2]). A test suite for constitutive models can serve three purposes. First, the test problems provide the constitutive model developer a means to test the model implementation. This is an activity that is always done by any responsible constitutive model developer. Retaining the test problem in a repository where the problem can be run periodically is an excellent means of ensuring that the model continues to behave correctly. A second purpose of a test suite for constitutive models is that it gives application code developers confidence that the constitutive models work correctly. This is extremely important since any analyst that uses an application code for an engineering analysis will associate a constitutive model in LAME with the application code, not LAME. Therefore, ensuring the correct implementation of constitutive models is essential for application code teams. A third purpose of a constitutive model test suite is that it provides analysts with example problems that they can look at to understand the behavior of a specific model. Since the choice of a constitutive model, and the properties that are used in that model, have an enormous effect on the results of an

  6. Constitutive modeling of inelastic anisotropic material response

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stouffer, D. C.

    1984-01-01

    A constitutive equation was developed to predict the inelastic thermomechanical response of single crystal turbine blades. These equations are essential for developing accurate finite element models of hot section components and contribute significantly to the understanding and prediction of crack initiation and propagation. The method used was limited to unified state variable constitutive equations. Two approaches to developing an anisotropic constitutive equation were reviewed. One approach was to apply the Stouffer-Bodner representation for deformation induced anisotropy to materials with an initial anisotropy such as single crystals. The second approach was to determine the global inelastic strain rate from the contribution of the slip in each of the possible crystallographic slip systems. A three dimensional finite element is being developed with a variable constitutive equation link that can be used for constitutive equation development and to predict the response of an experiment using the actual specimen geometry and loading conditions.

  7. Constitutive modeling for isotropic materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lindholm, U. S.

    1984-01-01

    A state-of-the-art review of applicable constitutive models with selection of two for detailed comparison with a wide range of experimental tests was conducted. The experimental matrix contained uniaxial and biaxial tensile, creep, stress relaxation, and cyclic fatigue tests at temperatures to 1093 C and strain rates from .0000001 to .001/sec. Some nonisothermal cycles will also be run. The constitutive models will be incorporated into the MARC finite element structural analysis program with a demonstration computation made for advanced turbine blade configuration. In the code development work, particular emphasis is being placed on developing efficient integration algorithms for the highly nonlinear and stiff constitutive equations. Another area of emphasis is the appropriate and efficient methodology for determing constitutive constants from a minimum extent of experimental data.

  8. Constitutive modeling for isotropic materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chan, K. S.; Lindholm, U. S.; Bodner, S. R.

    1988-01-01

    The third and fourth years of a 4-year research program, part of the NASA HOST Program, are described. The program goals were: (1) to develop and validate unified constitutive models for isotropic materials, and (2) to demonstrate their usefulness for structural analysis of hot section components of gas turbine engines. The unified models selected for development and evaluation were those of Bodner-Partom and of Walker. The unified approach for elastic-viscoplastic constitutive equations is a viable method for representing and predicting material response characteristics in the range where strain rate and temperature dependent inelastic deformations are experienced. This conclusion is reached by extensive comparison of model calculations against the experimental results of a test program of two high temperature Ni-base alloys, B1900+Hf and Mar-M247, over a wide temperature range for a variety of deformation and thermal histories including uniaxial, multiaxial, and thermomechanical loading paths. The applicability of the Bodner-Partom and the Walker models for structural applications has been demonstrated by implementing these models into the MARC finite element code and by performing a number of analyses including thermomechanical histories on components of hot sections of gas turbine engines and benchmark notch tensile specimens. The results of the 4-year program have been published in four annual reports. The results of the base program are summarized in this report. The tasks covered include: (1) development of material test procedures, (2) thermal history effects, and (3) verification of the constitutive model for an alternative material.

  9. Constitutive modeling for isotropic materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lindholm, Ulric S.; Chan, Kwai S.

    1986-01-01

    The objective of the program is to evaluate and develop existing constitutive models for use in finite-element structural analysis of turbine engine hot section components. The class of constitutive equation studied is considered unified in that all inelastic deformation including plasticity, creep, and stress relaxation are treated in a single term rather than a classical separation of plasticity (time independent) and creep (time dependent) behavior. The unified theories employed also do not utilize the classical yield surface or plastic potential concept. The models are constructed from an appropriate flow law, a scalar kinetic relation between strain rate, temperature and stress, and evolutionary equations for internal variables describing strain or work hardening, both isotropic and directional (kinematic). This and other studies have shown that the unified approach is particularly suited for determining the cyclic behavior of superalloy type blade and vane materials and is entirely compatible with three-dimensional inelastic finite-element formulations. The behavior was examined of a second nickel-base alloy, MAR-M247, and compared it with the Bodner-Partom model, further examined procedures for determining the material-specific constants in the models, and exercised the MARC code for a turbine blade under simulated flight spectrum loading. Results are summarized.

  10. Constitutive modeling for isotropic materials (HOST)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chan, Kwai S.; Lindholm, Ulric S.; Bodner, S. R.; Hill, Jeff T.; Weber, R. M.; Meyer, T. G.

    1986-01-01

    The results of the third year of work on a program which is part of the NASA Hot Section Technology program (HOST) are presented. The goals of this program are: (1) the development of unified constitutive models for rate dependent isotropic materials; and (2) the demonstration of the use of unified models in structural analyses of hot section components of gas turbine engines. The unified models selected for development and evaluation are those of Bodner-Partom and of Walker. A test procedure was developed for assisting the generation of a data base for the Bodner-Partom model using a relatively small number of specimens. This test procedure involved performing a tensile test at a temperature of interest that involves a succession of strain-rate changes. The results for B1900+Hf indicate that material constants related to hardening and thermal recovery can be obtained on the basis of such a procedure. Strain aging, thermal recovery, and unexpected material variations, however, preluded an accurate determination of the strain-rate sensitivity parameter is this exercise. The effects of casting grain size on the constitutive behavior of B1900+Hf were studied and no particular grain size effect was observed. A systematic procedure was also developed for determining the material constants in the Bodner-Partom model. Both the new test procedure and the method for determining material constants were applied to the alternate material, Mar-M247 . Test data including tensile, creep, cyclic and nonproportional biaxial (tension/torsion) loading were collected. Good correlations were obtained between the Bodner-Partom model and experiments. A literature survey was conducted to assess the effects of thermal history on the constitutive behavior of metals. Thermal history effects are expected to be present at temperature regimes where strain aging and change of microstructure are important. Possible modifications to the Bodner-Partom model to account for these effects are outlined

  11. Constitutive modeling for isotropic materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ramaswamy, V. G.; Vanstone, R. H.; Dame, L. T.; Laflen, J. H.

    1985-01-01

    The first year of progress on a NASA-Lewis contract with the General Electric Co is documented. The purpose of this contract (NAS3-23927) is to develop and evaluate unified constitutive equations for applications to hot-path components of aircraft gas turbine engines such as high pressure turbine blades and vanes. To accomplish this goal, uniaxial, notched, and multiaxial specimens made of conventionally cast Rene 80 are being tested under conditions that simulate engine operating conditions. To reduce the raw data, automated data reduction techniques are being developed that produce computer files containing the information needed to analyze proposed constitutive theories. Described are the analytical methods being developed to determine the parameters for these nonlinear unified theories by using the reduced data files. In another activity, a dedicated finite-element computer code is being developed to use unified theories in the structural analysis of hot-section components. This code was extensively verified for one such theory by successfully predicting the strain histories measured experimentally at the notch root of complex specimens taken from complex laboratory specimens.

  12. Material modeling and structural analysis with the microplane constitutive model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brocca, Michele

    The microplane model is a versatile and powerful approach to constitutive modeling in which the stress-strain relations are defined in terms of vectors rather than tensors on planes of all possible orientations. Such planes are called the microplanes and are representative of the microstructure of the material. The microplane model with kinematic constraint has been successfully employed in the past in the modeling of concrete, soils, ice, rocks, fiber composites and other quasibrittle materials. The microplane model provides a powerful and efficient numerical and theoretical framework for the development and implementation of constitutive models for any kind of material. The dissertation presents a review of the background from which the microplane model stems, highlighting differences and similarities with other approaches. The basic structure of the microplane model is then presented, together with its extension to finite strain deformation. To show the effectiveness of the microplane model approach, some examples are given demonstrating applications of microplane models in structural analysis with the finite element method. Some new constitutive models are also introduced for materials characterized by very different properties and microstructures, showing that the approach is indeed very versatile and provides a robust basis for the study of a broad range of problems. New models are introduced for metal plasticity, shape memory alloys and cellular materials. The new models are compared quantitatively with the existing models and experimental data. In particular, the newly introduced microplane models for metal plasticity are compared with the classical J2-flow theory for incremental plasticity. An existing microplane model for concrete is employed in finite element analysis of the 'tube-squash' test, in which concrete undergoes very large deviatoric deformation, and of the size effect in compressive failure of concrete columns. The microplane model for shape

  13. Crushed-salt constitutive model update

    SciTech Connect

    Callahan, G.D.; Loken, M.C.; Mellegard, K.D.

    1998-01-01

    Modifications to the constitutive model used to describe the deformation of crushed salt are presented in this report. Two mechanisms--dislocation creep and grain boundary diffusional pressure solutioning--defined previously but used separately are combined to form the basis for the constitutive model governing the deformation of crushed salt. The constitutive model is generalized to represent three-dimensional states of stress. New creep consolidation tests are combined with an existing database that includes hydrostatic consolidation and shear consolidation tests conducted on Waste Isolation Pilot Plant and southeastern New Mexico salt to determine material parameters for the constitutive model. Nonlinear least-squares model fitting to data from the shear consolidation tests and a combination of the shear and hydrostatic consolidation tests produced two sets of material parameter values for the model. The change in material parameter values from test group to test group indicates the empirical nature of the model but demonstrates improvement over earlier work with the previous models. Key improvements are the ability to capture lateral strain reversal and better resolve parameter values. To demonstrate the predictive capability of the model, each parameter value set was used to predict each of the tests in the database. Based on the fitting statistics and the ability of the model to predict the test data, the model appears to capture the creep consolidation behavior of crushed salt quite well.

  14. A constitutive mechanical model for energetic materials

    SciTech Connect

    Hobbs, M.L.; Baer, M.R.; Gross, R.J.

    1994-06-01

    Cookoff modeling of energetic materials has traditionally addressed reactive heat flow with the goal of defining the onset of runaway combustion behavior. Current modeling efforts are now aimed toward predicting the violence of the event. Combined thermal, chemical, and mechanical response must be modeled, since confinement results in pressure buildup which can breach confinement or enhance gas-phase combustion rates leading to runaway combustion behavior. Thermally induced stresses can also cause gaps which inhibit heat flow. These mechanical effects must also be included in cookoff modeling. A new reactive elastic-plastic constitutive model for micromechanical response has been developed which represents a stress-strain relation for reacting materials such as explosives, propellants, pyrotechnics, or burning foams. This micromechanical model is based on bubble mechanics. A local force balance, with mass continuity constraints, forms the basis of the constitutive model requiring input of temperature and reacted fraction. This constitutive material model has been incorporated into a quasistatic mechanics code, SANTOS. To provide temperature and reacted gas fraction, the thermal-chemical solver, XCHEM, has been coupled to SANTOS. This paper summarizes the development of the micromechanical model with material property estimates for conventional energetic materials. This study shows that large pressures can arise from small reacted fractions which implies that cookoff modeling must consider the strong interaction between thermochemistry and mechanics.

  15. Relationships among certain joint constitutive models.

    SciTech Connect

    Segalman, Daniel Joseph; Starr, Michael James

    2004-09-01

    In a recent paper, Starr and Segalman demonstrated that any Masing model can be represented as a parallel-series Iwan model. A preponderance of the constitutive models that have been suggested for simulating mechanical joints are Masing models, and the purpose of this discussion is to demonstrate how the Iwan representation of those models can yield insight into their character. In particular, this approach can facilitate a critical comparison among numerous plausible constitutive models. It is explicitly shown that three-parameter models such as Smallwood's (Ramberg-Osgood) calculate parameters in such a manner that macro-slip is not an independent parameter, yet the model admits macro-slip. The introduction of a fourth parameter is therefore required. It is shown that when a macro-slip force is specified for the Smallwood model the result is a special case of the Segalman four-parameter model. Both of these models admit a slope discontinuity at the inception of macro-slip. A five-parameter model that has the beneficial features of Segalman's four-parameter model is proposed. This model manifests a force-displacement curve having a continuous first derivative.

  16. Evaluation of constitutive models for crushed salt

    SciTech Connect

    Callahan, G.D.; Loken, M.C. [RE Hurtado, L.D.; Hansen, F.D.

    1996-05-01

    Three constitutive models are recommended as candidates for describing the deformation of crushed salt. These models are generalized to three-dimensional states of stress to include the effects of mean and deviatoric stress and modified to include effects of temperature, grain size, and moisture content. A database including hydrostatic consolidation and shear consolidation tests conducted on Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) and southeastern New Mexico salt is used to determine material parameters for the models. To evaluate the capability of the models, parameter values obtained from fitting the complete database are used to predict the individual tests. Finite element calculations of a WIPP shaft with emplaced crushed salt demonstrate the model predictions.

  17. Anatomically accurate individual face modeling.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yu; Prakash, Edmond C; Sung, Eric

    2003-01-01

    This paper presents a new 3D face model of a specific person constructed from the anatomical perspective. By exploiting the laser range data, a 3D facial mesh precisely representing the skin geometry is reconstructed. Based on the geometric facial mesh, we develop a deformable multi-layer skin model. It takes into account the nonlinear stress-strain relationship and dynamically simulates the non-homogenous behavior of the real skin. The face model also incorporates a set of anatomically-motivated facial muscle actuators and underlying skull structure. Lagrangian mechanics governs the facial motion dynamics, dictating the dynamic deformation of facial skin in response to the muscle contraction. PMID:15455936

  18. Constitutive Modeling of Crosslinked Nanotube Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Odegard, G. M.; Frankland, S. J. V.; Herzog, M. N.; Gates, T. S.; Fay, C. C.

    2004-01-01

    A non-linear, continuum-based constitutive model is developed for carbon nanotube materials in which bundles of aligned carbon nanotubes have varying amounts of crosslinks between the nanotubes. The model accounts for the non-linear elastic constitutive behavior of the material in terms of strain, and is developed using a thermodynamic energy approach. The model is used to examine the effect of the crosslinking on the overall mechanical properties of variations of the crosslinked carbon nanotube material with varying degrees of crosslinking. It is shown that the presence of the crosslinks has significant effects on the mechanical properties of the carbon nanotube materials. An increase in the transverse shear properties is observed when the nanotubes are crosslinked. However, this increase is accompanied by a decrease in axial mechanical properties of the nanotube material upon crosslinking.

  19. A review of nonlinear constitutive models for metals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allen, David H.; Harris, Charles E.

    1990-01-01

    Over the past two decades a number of thermomechanical constitutive theories have been proposed for viscoplastic metals. These models are in most cases similar in that they utilize a set of internal state variables which provide locally averaged representations of microphysical phenomena such as dislocation rearrangement and grain boundary sliding. The state of development of several of these models is now at the point where accurate theoretical solutions can be obtained for a wide variety of structural problems at elevated temperatures. The fundamentals of viscoplasticity are briefly reviewed and a general framework is outlined. Several of the more prominent models are reviewed, and predictions from models are compared to experimental results.

  20. Constitutive Modeling of Piezoelectric Polymer Composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Odegard, Gregory M.; Gates, Tom (Technical Monitor)

    2003-01-01

    A new modeling approach is proposed for predicting the bulk electromechanical properties of piezoelectric composites. The proposed model offers the same level of convenience as the well-known Mori-Tanaka method. In addition, it is shown to yield predicted properties that are, in most cases, more accurate or equally as accurate as the Mori-Tanaka scheme. In particular, the proposed method is used to determine the electromechanical properties of four piezoelectric polymer composite materials as a function of inclusion volume fraction. The predicted properties are compared to those calculated using the Mori-Tanaka and finite element methods.

  1. Constitutive modeling for isotropic materials (HOST)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lindholm, Ulric S.; Chan, Kwai S.; Bodner, S. R.; Weber, R. M.; Walker, K. P.; Cassenti, B. N.

    1984-01-01

    The results of the first year of work on a program to validate unified constitutive models for isotropic materials utilized in high temperature regions of gas turbine engines and to demonstrate their usefulness in computing stress-strain-time-temperature histories in complex three-dimensional structural components. The unified theories combine all inelastic strain-rate components in a single term avoiding, for example, treating plasticity and creep as separate response phenomena. An extensive review of existing unified theories is given and numerical methods for integrating these stiff time-temperature-dependent constitutive equations are discussed. Two particular models, those developed by Bodner and Partom and by Walker, were selected for more detailed development and evaluation against experimental tensile, creep and cyclic strain tests on specimens of a cast nickel base alloy, B19000+Hf. Initial results comparing computed and test results for tensile and cyclic straining for temperature from ambient to 982 C and strain rates from 10(exp-7) 10(exp-3) s(exp-1) are given. Some preliminary date correlations are presented also for highly non-proportional biaxial loading which demonstrate an increase in biaxial cyclic hardening rate over uniaxial or proportional loading conditions. Initial work has begun on the implementation of both constitutive models in the MARC finite element computer code.

  2. Constitutive modeling for isotropic materials (HOST)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lindholm, U. S.; Chan, K. S.; Bodner, S. R.; Weber, R. M.; Walker, K. P.; Cassenti, B. N.

    1985-01-01

    This report presents the results of the second year of work on a problem which is part of the NASA HOST Program. Its goals are: (1) to develop and validate unified constitutive models for isotropic materials, and (2) to demonstrate their usefulness for structural analyses of hot section components of gas turbine engines. The unified models selected for development and evaluation are that of Bodner-Partom and Walker. For model evaluation purposes, a large constitutive data base is generated for a B1900 + Hf alloy by performing uniaxial tensile, creep, cyclic, stress relation, and thermomechanical fatigue (TMF) tests as well as biaxial (tension/torsion) tests under proportional and nonproportional loading over a wide range of strain rates and temperatures. Systematic approaches for evaluating material constants from a small subset of the data base are developed. Correlations of the uniaxial and biaxial tests data with the theories of Bodner-Partom and Walker are performed to establish the accuracy, range of applicability, and integability of the models. Both models are implemented in the MARC finite element computer code and used for TMF analyses. Benchmark notch round experiments are conducted and the results compared with finite-element analyses using the MARC code and the Walker model.

  3. Constitutive modelling of composite biopolymer networks.

    PubMed

    Fallqvist, B; Kroon, M

    2016-04-21

    The mechanical behaviour of biopolymer networks is to a large extent determined at a microstructural level where the characteristics of individual filaments and the interactions between them determine the response at a macroscopic level. Phenomena such as viscoelasticity and strain-hardening followed by strain-softening are observed experimentally in these networks, often due to microstructural changes (such as filament sliding, rupture and cross-link debonding). Further, composite structures can also be formed with vastly different mechanical properties as compared to the individual networks. In this present paper, we present a constitutive model presented in a continuum framework aimed at capturing these effects. Special care is taken to formulate thermodynamically consistent evolution laws for dissipative effects. This model, incorporating possible anisotropic network properties, is based on a strain energy function, split into an isochoric and a volumetric part. Generalisation to three dimensions is performed by numerical integration over the unit sphere. Model predictions indicate that the constitutive model is well able to predict the elastic and viscoelastic response of biological networks, and to an extent also composite structures. PMID:26851172

  4. Improvements to constitutive material model for fabrics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morea, Mihai I.

    2011-12-01

    The high strength to weight ratio of woven fabric offers a cost effective solution to be used in a containment system for aircraft propulsion engines. Currently, Kevlar is the only Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) approved fabric for usage in systems intended to mitigate fan blade-out events. This research builds on an earlier constitutive model of Kevlar 49 fabric developed at Arizona State University (ASU) with the addition of new and improved modeling details. Latest stress strain experiments provided new and valuable data used to modify the material model post peak behavior. These changes reveal an overall improvement of the Finite Element (FE) model's ability to predict experimental results. First, the steel projectile is modeled using Johnson-Cook material model and provides a more realistic behavior in the FE ballistic models. This is particularly noticeable when comparing FE models with laboratory tests where large deformations in projectiles are observed. Second, follow-up analysis of the results obtained through the new picture frame tests conducted at ASU provides new values for the shear moduli and corresponding strains. The new approach for analysis of data from picture frame tests combines digital image analysis and a two-level factorial optimization formulation. Finally, an additional improvement in the material model for Kevlar involves checking the convergence at variation of mesh density of fabrics. The study performed and described herein shows the converging trend, therefore validating the FE model.

  5. Hyperelastic anisotropic microplane constitutive model for annulus fibrosus.

    PubMed

    Caner, Ferhun C; Guo, Zaoyang; Moran, Brian; Bazant, Zdenek P; Carol, Ignacio

    2007-10-01

    In a recent paper, Peng et al. (2006, "An Anisotropic Hyperelastic Constitutive Model With Fiber-Matrix Interaction for the Human Annulus Fibrosis," ASME J. Appl. Mech., 73(5), pp. 815-824) developed an anisotropic hyperelastic constitutive model for the human annulus fibrosus in which fiber-matrix interaction plays a crucial role in simulating experimental observations reported in the literature. Later, Guo et al. (2006, "A Composites-Based Hyperelastic Constitutive Model for Soft Tissue With Application to the Human Fibrosis," J. Mech. Phys. Solids, 54(9), pp. 1952-1971) used fiber reinforced continuum mechanics theory to formulate a model in which the fiber-matrix interaction was simulated using only composite effect. It was shown in these studies that the classical anisotropic hyperelastic constitutive models for soft tissue, which do not account for this shear interaction, cannot accurately simulate the test data on human annulus fibrosus. In this study, we show that the microplane model for soft tissue developed by Caner and Carol (2006, "Microplane Constitutive Model and Computational Framework for Blood Vessel Tissue," ASME J. Biomech. Eng., 128(3), pp. 419-427) can be adjusted for human annulus fibrosus and the resulting model can accurately simulate the experimental observations without explicit fiber-matrix interaction because, in microplane model, the shear interaction between the individual fibers distributed in the tissue provides the required additional rigidity to explain these experimental facts. The intensity of the shear interaction between the fibers can be adjusted by adjusting the spread in the distribution while keeping the total amount of the fiber constant. A comparison of results obtained from (i) a fiber-matrix parallel coupling model, which does not account for the fiber-matrix interaction, (ii) the same model but enriched with fiber-matrix interaction, and (iii) microplane model for soft tissue adapted to annulus fibrosus with two

  6. Accurate mask model for advanced nodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zine El Abidine, Nacer; Sundermann, Frank; Yesilada, Emek; Ndiaye, El Hadji Omar; Mishra, Kushlendra; Paninjath, Sankaranarayanan; Bork, Ingo; Buck, Peter; Toublan, Olivier; Schanen, Isabelle

    2014-07-01

    Standard OPC models consist of a physical optical model and an empirical resist model. The resist model compensates the optical model imprecision on top of modeling resist development. The optical model imprecision may result from mask topography effects and real mask information including mask ebeam writing and mask process contributions. For advanced technology nodes, significant progress has been made to model mask topography to improve optical model accuracy. However, mask information is difficult to decorrelate from standard OPC model. Our goal is to establish an accurate mask model through a dedicated calibration exercise. In this paper, we present a flow to calibrate an accurate mask enabling its implementation. The study covers the different effects that should be embedded in the mask model as well as the experiment required to model them.

  7. Final Report for DOE Grant DE-FG02-03ER25579; Development of High-Order Accurate Interface Tracking Algorithms and Improved Constitutive Models for Problems in Continuum Mechanics with Applications to Jetting

    SciTech Connect

    Puckett, Elbridge Gerry; Miller, Gregory Hale

    2012-10-14

    . Phillip Colella, the head of ANAG, and some of his colleagues. Chris Algieri is now employed as a staff member in Dr. Bill Collins' Climate Science Department in the Earth Sciences Division at LBNL working with computational models of climate change. Finally, it should be noted that the work conducted by Professor Puckett and his students Sarah Williams and Chris Algieri and described in this final report for DOE grant # DE-FC02-03ER25579 is closely related to work performed by Professor Puckett and his students under the auspices of Professor Puckett's DOE SciDAC grant DE-FC02-01ER25473 An Algorithmic and Software Framework for Applied Partial Differential Equations: A DOE SciDAC Integrated Software Infrastructure Center (ISIC). Dr. Colella was the lead PI for this SciDAC grant, which was comprised of several research groups from DOE national laboratories and five university PI's from five different universities. In theory Professor Puckett tried to use funds from the SciDAC grant to support work directly involved in implementing algorithms developed by members of his research group at UCD as software that might be of use to Puckett's SciDAC CoPIs. (For example, see the work reported in Section 2.2.2 of this final report.) However, since there is considerable lead time spent developing such algorithms before they are ready to become `software' and research plans and goals change as the research progresses, Professor Puckett supported each member of his research group partially with funds from the SciDAC APDEC ISIC DE-FC02-01ER25473 and partially with funds from this DOE MICS grant DE-FC02-03ER25579. This has necessarily resulted in a significant overlap of project areas that were funded by both grants. In particular, both Sarah Williams and Chris Algieri were supported partially with funds from grant # DE-FG02-03ER25579, for which this is the final report, and in part with funds from Professor Puckett's DOE SciDAC grant # DE-FC02-01ER25473. For example, Sarah Williams

  8. Constitutive Models for Shape Memory Alloy Polycrystals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Comstock, R. J., Jr.; Somerday, M.; Wert, J. A.

    1996-01-01

    Shape memory alloys (SMA) exhibiting the superelastic or one-way effects can produce large recoverable strains upon application of a stress. In single crystals this stress and resulting strain are very orientation dependent. We show experimental stress/strain curves for a Ni-Al single crystal for various loading orientations. Also shown are model predictions; the open and closed circles indicate recoverable strains obtained at various stages in the transformation process. Because of the strong orientation dependence of shape memory properties, crystallographic texture can be expected to play an important role in the mechanical behavior of polycrystalline SMA. It is desirable to formulate a constitutive model to better understand and exploit the unique properties of SMA.

  9. Mesoscale constitutive modeling of magnetic dispersions.

    PubMed

    Bhandar, Anand S; Wiest, John M

    2003-01-15

    A constitutive model for dispersions of acicular magnetic particles has been developed by modeling the particles as rigid dumbbells dispersed in a solvent. The effects of Brownian motion, anisotropic hydrodynamic drag, a steric force in the form of the Maier-Saupe potential, and, most importantly, a mean-field magnetic potential are included in the model. The development is similar to previous models for liquid-crystalline polymers. The model predicts multiple orientational states for the dispersion, and this phase behavior is described in terms of an orientational order parameter S and an average alignment parameter J; the latter is introduced because the magnetic particles have distinguishable direction due to polarity. A transition from isotropic to nematic phases at equilibrium is predicted. Multiple nematic phases-both prolate and oblate-are predicted in the presence of steady shear flow and external magnetic field parallel to the flow. The effect of increasing magnetic interparticle interactions and particle concentration is also presented. Comparisons with experimental data for the steady shear viscosity show very good agreement. PMID:16256493

  10. Slag Behavior in Gasifiers. Part II: Constitutive Modeling of Slag

    SciTech Connect

    Massoudi, Mehrdad; Wang, Ping

    2013-02-07

    The viscosity of slag and the thermal conductivity of ash deposits are among two of the most important constitutive parameters that need to be studied. The accurate formulation or representations of the (transport) properties of coal present a special challenge of modeling efforts in computational fluid dynamics applications. Studies have indicated that slag viscosity must be within a certain range of temperatures for tapping and the membrane wall to be accessible, for example, between 1,300 °C and 1,500 °C, the viscosity is approximately 25 Pa·s. As the operating temperature decreases, the slag cools and solid crystals begin to form. Since slag behaves as a non-linear fluid, we discuss the constitutive modeling of slag and the important parameters that must be studied. We propose a new constitutive model, where the stress tensor not only has a yield stress part, but it also has a viscous part with a shear rate dependency of the viscosity, along with temperature and concentration dependency, while allowing for the possibility of the normal stress effects. In Part I, we reviewed, identify and discuss the key coal ash properties and the operating conditions impacting slag behavior.

  11. Constitutive modeling for single crystal superalloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stouffer, D. C.; Jayaraman, N.; Sheh, M.; Alden, D.

    1986-01-01

    The inelastic response of single crystal gamma/gamma prime superalloys is quite different from the behavior of polycrystalline nickel base superalloys. Upto a critical temperature the yield stress of single crystal alloys is a function of the material orientation relative to the direction of the applied stress and the material exhibits significant tension/compression asymmetry. This behavior is primarily due to slip on the octahedral slip system. Above the critical temperature there is a sharp drop in the yield stress, cube slip becomes more predominant and the tension/compression asymmetry is reduced. Similar orientation and tension/compression asymmetry is observed in creep and secondary creep above the critical temperature is inferred to occur by octahedral slip. There are two exceptions to this behavior. First, loading near the (111) orientation exhibits cube slip at all temperatures, and; second, loading near the (001) orientation produces only octahedral slip at all temperatures. The constitutive model is based on separating the total global strain into elastic and inelastic components. This model is developed and briefly discussed.

  12. Pre-Modeling Ensures Accurate Solid Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gow, George

    2010-01-01

    Successful solid modeling requires a well-organized design tree. The design tree is a list of all the object's features and the sequential order in which they are modeled. The solid-modeling process is faster and less prone to modeling errors when the design tree is a simple and geometrically logical definition of the modeled object. Few high…

  13. New model accurately predicts reformate composition

    SciTech Connect

    Ancheyta-Juarez, J.; Aguilar-Rodriguez, E. )

    1994-01-31

    Although naphtha reforming is a well-known process, the evolution of catalyst formulation, as well as new trends in gasoline specifications, have led to rapid evolution of the process, including: reactor design, regeneration mode, and operating conditions. Mathematical modeling of the reforming process is an increasingly important tool. It is fundamental to the proper design of new reactors and revamp of existing ones. Modeling can be used to optimize operating conditions, analyze the effects of process variables, and enhance unit performance. Instituto Mexicano del Petroleo has developed a model of the catalytic reforming process that accurately predicts reformate composition at the higher-severity conditions at which new reformers are being designed. The new AA model is more accurate than previous proposals because it takes into account the effects of temperature and pressure on the rate constants of each chemical reaction.

  14. Anisotropic effects on constitutive model parameters of aluminum alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brar, Nachhatter S.; Joshi, Vasant S.

    2012-03-01

    Simulation of low velocity impact on structures or high velocity penetration in armor materials heavily rely on constitutive material models. Model constants are determined from tension, compression or torsion stress-strain at low and high strain rates at different temperatures. These model constants are required input to computer codes (LS-DYNA, DYNA3D or SPH) to accurately simulate fragment impact on structural components made of high strength 7075-T651 aluminum alloy. Johnson- Cook model constants determined for Al7075-T651 alloy bar material failed to simulate correctly the penetration into 1' thick Al-7075-T651plates. When simulation go well beyond minor parameter tweaking and experimental results show drastically different behavior it becomes important to determine constitutive parameters from the actual material used in impact/penetration experiments. To investigate anisotropic effects on the yield/flow stress of this alloy quasi-static and high strain rate tensile tests were performed on specimens fabricated in the longitudinal "L", transverse "T", and thickness "TH" directions of 1' thick Al7075 Plate. While flow stress at a strain rate of ~1/s as well as ~1100/s in the thickness and transverse directions are lower than the longitudinal direction. The flow stress in the bar was comparable to flow stress in the longitudinal direction of the plate. Fracture strain data from notched tensile specimens fabricated in the L, T, and Thickness directions of 1' thick plate are used to derive fracture constants.

  15. Constitutive modeling of shock response of polytetrafluoroethylene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Resnyansky, A. D.; Bourne, N. K.; Millett, J. C. F.; Brown, E. N.

    2011-08-01

    Polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) is a polymer with a simple atomic structure that shows complex behavior under pressure and demonstrates a highly variable metastable phase structure in shock waves with amorphous and crystalline components. In turn, the crystalline component has four known phases with the high-pressure transition of the crystalline domain from crystalline phase IV at ambient through phase II to III. At the same time, as has been recently studied using spectrometry, the crystalline region nucleates from the amorphous one with load. Stress and velocity shock-wave profiles acquired recently with embedded gauges demonstrate features that may be related to the impedance mismatch between the phase domains subjected to such transitions resulting in variations of mechanical and thermophysical characteristics. We consider the inter-phase non-equilibrium and the amorphous-to-crystalline and inter-crystalline transitions that are associated with the high pressure and temperature transformations under shock wave loading as possible candidates for the analysis. The present work utilizes a multi-phase constitutive model that considers strength effects to describe the observed response under shock loading of the PTFE material. Experimental plate impact shock-wave histories are compared with calculated profiles using kinetics describing the transitions. The study demonstrates that the inter-phase pressure non-equilibrium of the state parameters plays the key role in the delay of the shock wave attenuation. At the same time, the forward transition associated with the crystallization might be responsible for the velocity spike in the experimental velocity profiles at high impact velocity and the modulus variation at low impact velocity. On the other hand, an accelerated attenuation of the velocity in the rarefaction wave is associated with another transition resulting in the residual crystallinity change during unloading.

  16. Anisotropic Effects on Constitutive Model Parameters of Aluminum Alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brar, Nachhatter; Joshi, Vasant

    2011-06-01

    Simulation of low velocity impact on structures or high velocity penetration in armor materials heavily rely on constitutive material models. The model constants are required input to computer codes (LS-DYNA, DYNA3D or SPH) to accurately simulate fragment impact on structural components made of high strength 7075-T651 aluminum alloys. Johnson-Cook model constants determined for Al7075-T651 alloy bar material failed to simulate correctly the penetration into 1' thick Al-7075-T651plates. When simulations go well beyond minor parameter tweaking and experimental results are drastically different it is important to determine constitutive parameters from the actual material used in impact/penetration experiments. To investigate anisotropic effects on the yield/flow stress of this alloy we performed quasi-static and high strain rate tensile tests on specimens fabricated in the longitudinal, transverse, and thickness directions of 1' thick Al7075-T651 plate. Flow stresses at a strain rate of ~1100/s in the longitudinal and transverse direction are similar around 670MPa and decreases to 620 MPa in the thickness direction. These data are lower than the flow stress of 760 MPa measured in Al7075-T651 bar stock.

  17. Accurate modeling of parallel scientific computations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nicol, David M.; Townsend, James C.

    1988-01-01

    Scientific codes are usually parallelized by partitioning a grid among processors. To achieve top performance it is necessary to partition the grid so as to balance workload and minimize communication/synchronization costs. This problem is particularly acute when the grid is irregular, changes over the course of the computation, and is not known until load time. Critical mapping and remapping decisions rest on the ability to accurately predict performance, given a description of a grid and its partition. This paper discusses one approach to this problem, and illustrates its use on a one-dimensional fluids code. The models constructed are shown to be accurate, and are used to find optimal remapping schedules.

  18. Constitutive modeling of ascending thoracic aortic aneurysms using microstructural parameters.

    PubMed

    Pasta, Salvatore; Phillippi, Julie A; Tsamis, Alkiviadis; D'Amore, Antonio; Raffa, Giuseppe M; Pilato, Michele; Scardulla, Cesare; Watkins, Simon C; Wagner, William R; Gleason, Thomas G; Vorp, David A

    2016-02-01

    Ascending thoracic aortic aneurysm (ATAA) has been associated with diminished biomechanical strength and disruption in the collagen fiber microarchitecture. Additionally, the congenital bicuspid aortic valve (BAV) leads to a distinct extracellular matrix structure that may be related to ATAA development at an earlier age than degenerative aneurysms arising in patients with the morphological normal tricuspid aortic valve (TAV). The purpose of this study was to model the fiber-reinforced mechanical response of ATAA specimens from patients with either BAV or TAV. This was achieved by combining image-analysis derived parameters of collagen fiber dispersion and alignment with tensile testing data. Then, numerical simulations were performed to assess the role of anisotropic constitutive formulation on the wall stress distribution of aneurysmal aorta. Results indicate that both BAV ATAA and TAV ATAA have altered collagen fiber architecture in the medial plane of experimentally-dissected aortic tissues when compared to normal ascending aortic specimens. The study findings highlight that differences in the collagen fiber distribution mostly influences the resulting wall stress distribution rather than the peak stress. We conclude that fiber-reinforced constitutive modeling that takes into account the collagen fiber defect inherent to the aneurysmal ascending aorta is paramount for accurate finite element predictions and ultimately for biomechanical-based indicators to reliably distinguish the more from the less 'malignant' ATAAs. PMID:26669606

  19. The importance of accurate atmospheric modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Payne, Dylan; Schroeder, John; Liang, Pang

    2014-11-01

    This paper will focus on the effect of atmospheric conditions on EO sensor performance using computer models. We have shown the importance of accurately modeling atmospheric effects for predicting the performance of an EO sensor. A simple example will demonstrated how real conditions for several sites in China will significantly impact on image correction, hyperspectral imaging, and remote sensing. The current state-of-the-art model for computing atmospheric transmission and radiance is, MODTRAN® 5, developed by the US Air Force Research Laboratory and Spectral Science, Inc. Research by the US Air Force, Navy and Army resulted in the public release of LOWTRAN 2 in the early 1970's. Subsequent releases of LOWTRAN and MODTRAN® have continued until the present. Please verify that (1) all pages are present, (2) all figures are correct, (3) all fonts and special characters are correct, and (4) all text and figures fit within the red margin lines shown on this review document. Complete formatting information is available at http://SPIE.org/manuscripts Return to the Manage Active Submissions page at http://spie.org/submissions/tasks.aspx and approve or disapprove this submission. Your manuscript will not be published without this approval. Please contact author_help@spie.org with any questions or concerns. The paper will demonstrate the importance of using validated models and local measured meteorological, atmospheric and aerosol conditions to accurately simulate the atmospheric transmission and radiance. Frequently default conditions are used which can produce errors of as much as 75% in these values. This can have significant impact on remote sensing applications.

  20. Failure Behavior and Constitutive Model of Weakly Consolidated Soft Rock

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Wei-ming; Zhao, Zeng-hui; Wang, Yong-ji; Gao, Xin

    2013-01-01

    Mining areas in western China are mainly located in soft rock strata with poor bearing capacity. In order to make the deformation failure mechanism and strength behavior of weakly consolidated soft mudstone and coal rock hosted in Ili No. 4 mine of Xinjiang area clear, some uniaxial and triaxial compression tests were carried out according to the samples of rocks gathered in the studied area, respectively. Meanwhile, a damage constitutive model which considered the initial damage was established by introducing a damage variable and a correction coefficient. A linearization process method was introduced according to the characteristics of the fitting curve and experimental data. The results showed that samples under different moisture contents and confining pressures presented completely different failure mechanism. The given model could accurately describe the elastic and plastic yield characteristics as well as the strain softening behavior of collected samples at postpeak stage. Moreover, the model could precisely reflect the relationship between the elastic modulus and confining pressure at prepeak stage. PMID:24489511

  1. A New Uncoupled Viscoplastic Constitutive Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bradley, W. L.; Yuen, S.

    1983-01-01

    A new uncoupled viscoplastic model has been proposed along with experiments and analysis to define the various material constraints. Distinguishing between rate sensitive and rate insensitive strain allows the rate sensitive strain to be modelled over a wide range of temperatures with very little variation in the stress component 'n'. Furthermore, it allows the rounded corners on stress-strain hysteresis loops to be achieved very naturally.

  2. Multiscale Constitutive Modeling of Asphalt Concrete

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Underwood, Benjamin Shane

    Multiscale modeling of asphalt concrete has become a popular technique for gaining improved insight into the physical mechanisms that affect the material's behavior and ultimately its performance. This type of modeling considers asphalt concrete, not as a homogeneous mass, but rather as an assemblage of materials at different characteristic length scales. For proper modeling these characteristic scales should be functionally definable and should have known properties. Thus far, research in this area has not focused significant attention on functionally defining what the characteristic scales within asphalt concrete should be. Instead, many have made assumptions on the characteristic scales and even the characteristic behaviors of these scales with little to no support. This research addresses these shortcomings by directly evaluating the microstructure of the material and uses these results to create materials of different characteristic length scales as they exist within the asphalt concrete mixture. The objectives of this work are to; 1) develop mechanistic models for the linear viscoelastic (LVE) and damage behaviors in asphalt concrete at different length scales and 2) develop a mechanistic, mechanistic/empirical, or phenomenological formulation to link the different length scales into a model capable of predicting the effects of microstructural changes on the linear viscoelastic behaviors of asphalt concrete mixture, e.g., a microstructure association model for asphalt concrete mixture. Through the microstructural study it is found that asphalt concrete mixture can be considered as a build-up of three different phases; asphalt mastic, fine aggregate matrix (FAM), and finally the coarse aggregate particles. The asphalt mastic is found to exist as a homogenous material throughout the mixture and FAM, and the filler content within this material is consistent with the volumetric averaged concentration, which can be calculated from the job mix formula. It is also

  3. A phenomenological constitutive model for low density polyurethane foams

    SciTech Connect

    Neilsen, M.K.; Morgan, H.S.; Krieg, R.D.

    1987-04-01

    Results from a series of hydrostatic and triaxial compression tests which were performed on polyurethane foams are presented in this report. These tests indicate that the volumetric and deviatoric parts of the foam behavior are strongly coupled. This coupling behavior could not be captured with any of several commonly used plasticity models. Thus, a new constitutive model was developed. This new model was based on a decomposition of the foam response into two parts: (1) response of the polymer skeleton, and (2) response of the air inside the cells. The air contribution was completely volumetric. The new constitutive model was implemented in two finite element codes, SANCHO and PRONTO. Results from a series of analyses completed with these codes indicated that the new constitutive model captured all of the foam behaviors that had been observed in the experiments. Finally, a typical dynamic problem was analyzed using the new constitutive model and other constitutive models to demonstrate differences between the models. Results from this series of analyses indicated that the new constitutive model generated displacement and acceleration predictions that were between predictions obtained using the other models. This result was expected. 9 refs., 45 figs., 4 tabs.

  4. Study on the Constitutive Model for Jointed Rock Mass

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Qiang; Chen, Jianyun; Li, Jing; Zhao, Chunfeng; Yuan, Chenyang

    2015-01-01

    A new elasto-plastic constitutive model for jointed rock mass, which can consider the persistence ratio in different visual angle and anisotropic increase of plastic strain, is proposed. The proposed the yield strength criterion, which is anisotropic, is not only related to friction angle and cohesion of jointed rock masses at the visual angle but also related to the intersection angle between the visual angle and the directions of the principal stresses. Some numerical examples are given to analyze and verify the proposed constitutive model. The results show the proposed constitutive model has high precision to calculate displacement, stress and plastic strain and can be applied in engineering analysis. PMID:25885695

  5. Evaluation of potential crushed-salt constitutive models

    SciTech Connect

    Callahan, G.D.; Loken, M.C.; Sambeek, L.L. Van; Chen, R.; Pfeifle, T.W.; Nieland, J.D.

    1995-12-01

    Constitutive models describing the deformation of crushed salt are presented in this report. Ten constitutive models with potential to describe the phenomenological and micromechanical processes for crushed salt were selected from a literature search. Three of these ten constitutive models, termed Sjaardema-Krieg, Zeuch, and Spiers models, were adopted as candidate constitutive models. The candidate constitutive models were generalized in a consistent manner to three-dimensional states of stress and modified to include the effects of temperature, grain size, and moisture content. A database including hydrostatic consolidation and shear consolidation tests conducted on Waste Isolation Pilot Plant and southeastern New Mexico salt was used to determine material parameters for the candidate constitutive models. Nonlinear least-squares model fitting to data from the hydrostatic consolidation tests, the shear consolidation tests, and a combination of the shear and hydrostatic tests produces three sets of material parameter values for the candidate models. The change in material parameter values from test group to test group indicates the empirical nature of the models. To evaluate the predictive capability of the candidate models, each parameter value set was used to predict each of the tests in the database. Based on the fitting statistics and the ability of the models to predict the test data, the Spiers model appeared to perform slightly better than the other two candidate models. The work reported here is a first-of-its kind evaluation of constitutive models for reconsolidation of crushed salt. Questions remain to be answered. Deficiencies in models and databases are identified and recommendations for future work are made. 85 refs.

  6. Remarks on ConstitutiveModeling of Nanofluids

    SciTech Connect

    Massoudi, Mehrdad; Tran X. Phuoc

    2012-01-01

    Nanofluids are made by adding nanoscale particles in low volumetric fractions to a fluid in order to enhance or improve their rheological, mechanical, optical, and thermal properties. The base fluid can be any liquid such as oil, water, ethylene glycol, or conventional fluid mixtures. Limited available studies on nanofluid viscosity have been reported [1-19]. In most of these studies, the behavior of the viscosity and the shear stress of nanofluids have been interpreted using the widely used empirical model developed by Casson [20].

  7. Constitutive modeling of shock response of PTFE

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, Eric N; Reanyansky, Anatoly D; Bourne, Neil K; Millett, Jeremy C F

    2009-01-01

    The PTFE (polytetrafluoroethylene) material is complex and attracts attention of the shock physics researchers because it has amorphous and crystalline components. In turn, the crystalline component has four known phases with the high pressure transition to phase III. At the same time, as has been recently studied using spectrometry, the crystalline region is growing with load. Stress and velocity shock-wave profiles acquired recently with embedded gauges demonstrate feature that may be related to impedance mismatches between the regions subjected to some transitions resulting in density and modulus variations. We consider the above mentioned amorphous-to-crystalline transition and the high pressure Phase II-to-III transitions as possible candidates for the analysis. The present work utilizes a multi-phase rate sensitive model to describe shock response of the PTFE material. One-dimensional experimental shock wave profiles are compared with calculated profiles with the kinetics describing the transitions. The objective of this study is to understand the role of the various transitions in the shock response of PTFE.

  8. Constitutive and damage material modeling in a high pressure hydrogen environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Russell, D. A.; Fritzemeier, L. G.

    1991-05-01

    Numerous components in reusable space propulsion systems such as the SSME are exposed to high pressure gaseous hydrogen environments. Flow areas and passages in the fuel turbopump, fuel and oxidizer preburners, main combustion chamber, and injector assembly contain high pressure hydrogen either high in purity or as hydrogen rich steam. Accurate constitutive and damage material models applicable to high pressure hydrogen environments are therefore needed for engine design and analysis. Existing constitutive and cyclic crack initiation models were evaluated only for conditions of oxidizing environments. The main objective is to evaluate these models for applicability to high pressure hydrogen environments.

  9. Constitutive and damage material modeling in a high pressure hydrogen environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Russell, D. A.; Fritzemeier, L. G.

    1991-01-01

    Numerous components in reusable space propulsion systems such as the SSME are exposed to high pressure gaseous hydrogen environments. Flow areas and passages in the fuel turbopump, fuel and oxidizer preburners, main combustion chamber, and injector assembly contain high pressure hydrogen either high in purity or as hydrogen rich steam. Accurate constitutive and damage material models applicable to high pressure hydrogen environments are therefore needed for engine design and analysis. Existing constitutive and cyclic crack initiation models were evaluated only for conditions of oxidizing environments. The main objective is to evaluate these models for applicability to high pressure hydrogen environments.

  10. Constitutive models for rubber networks undergoing simultaneous crosslinking and scission.

    SciTech Connect

    Thompson, Aidan Patrick; Curro, John G.; Rottach, Dana R.; Grest, Gary Stephen; Budzien, Joanne L.; Lo, David Chi S.

    2006-01-01

    Constitutive models for chemically reacting networks are formulated based on a generalization of the independent network hypothesis. These models account for the coupling between chemical reaction and strain histories, and have been tested by comparison with microscopic molecular dynamics simulations. An essential feature of these models is the introduction of stress transfer functions that describe the interdependence between crosslinks formed and broken at various strains. Efforts are underway to implement these constitutive models into the finite element code Adagio. Preliminary results are shown that illustrate the effects of changing crosslinking and scission rates and history.

  11. Dynamic mechanical response and a constitutive model of Fe-based high temperature alloy at high temperatures and strain rates.

    PubMed

    Su, Xiang; Wang, Gang; Li, Jianfeng; Rong, Yiming

    2016-01-01

    The effects of strain rate and temperature on the dynamic behavior of Fe-based high temperature alloy was studied. The strain rates were 0.001-12,000 s(-1), at temperatures ranging from room temperature to 800 °C. A phenomenological constitutive model (Power-Law constitutive model) was proposed considering adiabatic temperature rise and accurate material thermal physical properties. During which, the effects of the specific heat capacity on the adiabatic temperature rise was studied. The constitutive model was verified to be accurate by comparison between predicted and experimental results. PMID:27186468

  12. Development of a unified constitutive model for an isotropic nickel base superalloy Rene 80

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ramaswamy, V. G.; Vanstone, R. H.; Laflen, J. H.; Stouffer, D. C.

    1988-01-01

    Accurate analysis of stress-strain behavior is of critical importance in the evaluation of life capabilities of hot section turbine engine components such as turbine blades and vanes. The constitutive equations used in the finite element analysis of such components must be capable of modeling a variety of complex behavior exhibited at high temperatures by cast superalloys. The classical separation of plasticity and creep employed in most of the finite element codes in use today is known to be deficient in modeling elevated temperature time dependent phenomena. Rate dependent, unified constitutive theories can overcome many of these difficulties. A new unified constitutive theory was developed to model the high temperature, time dependent behavior of Rene' 80 which is a cast turbine blade and vane nickel base superalloy. Considerations in model development included the cyclic softening behavior of Rene' 80, rate independence at lower temperatures and the development of a new model for static recovery.

  13. Requirements for energy based constitutive modeling in tire mechanics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luchini, John R.; Peters, Jim M.; Mars, Will V.

    1995-08-01

    The history, requirements, and theoretical basis of a new energy based constitutive model for (rubber) material elasticity, hysteresis, and failure are presented. Energy based elasticity is handled by many constitutive models, both in one dimension and in three dimensions. Conversion of mechanical energy to heat can be modeled with viscoelasticity or as structural hysteresis. We are seeking unification of elasticity, hysteresis, and failure mechanisms such as fatigue and wear. An energy state characterization for failure criteria of (rubber) materials may provide this unification and also help explain the interaction of temperature effects with failure mechanisms which are described as creation of growth of internal crack surface. Improved structural modeling of tires with FEM should result from such a unified constitutive theory. The theory will also guide experimental work and should enable better interpretation of the results of computational stress analyses.

  14. Requirements for energy based constitutive modeling in tire mechanics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Luchini, John R.; Peters, Jim M.; Mars, Will V.

    1995-01-01

    The history, requirements, and theoretical basis of a new energy based constitutive model for (rubber) material elasticity, hysteresis, and failure are presented. Energy based elasticity is handled by many constitutive models, both in one dimension and in three dimensions. Conversion of mechanical energy to heat can be modeled with viscoelasticity or as structural hysteresis. We are seeking unification of elasticity, hysteresis, and failure mechanisms such as fatigue and wear. An energy state characterization for failure criteria of (rubber) materials may provide this unification and also help explain the interaction of temperature effects with failure mechanisms which are described as creation of growth of internal crack surface. Improved structural modeling of tires with FEM should result from such a unified constitutive theory. The theory will also guide experimental work and should enable better interpretation of the results of computational stress analyses.

  15. Deformation modeling and constitutive modeling for anisotropic superalloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Milligan, Walter W.; Antolovich, Stephen D.

    1989-01-01

    A study of deformation mechanisms in the single crystal superalloy PWA 1480 was conducted. Monotonic and cyclic tests were conducted from 20 to 1093 C. Both (001) and near-(123) crystals were tested, at strain rates of 0.5 and 50 percent/minute. The deformation behavior could be grouped into two temperature regimes: low temperatures, below 760 C; and high temperatures, above 820 to 950 C depending on the strain rate. At low temperatures, the mechanical behavior was very anisotropic. An orientation dependent CRSS, a tension-compression asymmetry, and anisotropic strain hardening were all observed. The material was deformed by planar octahedral slip. The anisotropic properties were correlated with the ease of cube cross-slip, as well as the number of active slip systems. At high temperatures, the material was isotropic, and deformed by homogeneous gamma by-pass. It was found that the temperature dependence of the formation of superlattice-intrinsic stacking faults was responsible for the local minimum in the CRSS of this alloy at 400 C. It was proposed that the cube cross-slip process must be reversible. This was used to explain the reversible tension-compression asymmetry, and was used to study models of cross-slip. As a result, the cross-slip model proposed by Paidar, Pope and Vitek was found to be consistent with the proposed slip reversibility. The results were related to anisotropic viscoplastic constitutive models. The model proposed by Walter and Jordan was found to be capable of modeling all aspects of the material anisotropy. Temperature and strain rate boundaries for the model were proposed, and guidelines for numerical experiments were proposed.

  16. The anisotropic material constitutive models for the human cornea.

    PubMed

    Li, Long-yuan; Tighe, Brian

    2006-03-01

    This paper presents an anisotropic analysis model for the human cornea. The model is based on the assumption that the fibrils in the cornea are organised into lamellae, which may have preferential orientation along the superior-inferior and nasal-temporal directions, while the alignment of lamellae with different orientations is assumed to be random. Hence, the cornea can be regarded as a laminated composite shell. The constitutive equation describing the relationships between membrane forces, bending moments, and membrane strains, bending curvatures are derived. The influences of lamella orientations and the random alignment of lamellae on the stiffness coefficients of the constitutive equation are discussed. PMID:16426861

  17. Unified constitutive model for single crystal deformation behavior with applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walker, K. P.; Meyer, T. G.; Jordan, E. H.

    1988-01-01

    Single crystal materials are being used in gas turbine airfoils and are candidates for other hot section components because of their increased temperature capabilities and resistance to thermal fatigue. Development of a constitutive model which assesses the inelastic behavior of these materials has been studied in 2 NASA programs: Life Prediction and Constitutive Models for Engine Hot Section Anisotropic Materials and Biaxial Constitutive Equation Development for Single Crystals. The model has been fit to a large body of constitutive data for single crystal PWA 1480 material. The model uses a unified approach for computing total inelastic strains (creep plus plasticity) on crystallographic slip systems reproducing observed directional and strain rate effects as a natural consequence of the summed slip system quantities. The model includes several of the effects that have been reported to influence deformation in single crystal materials, such as shear stress, latent hardening, and cross slip. The model is operational in a commercial Finite Element code and is being installed in a Boundary Element Method code.

  18. Accurate astronomical atmospheric dispersion models in ZEMAX

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spanò, P.

    2014-07-01

    ZEMAX provides a standard built-in atmospheric model to simulate atmospheric refraction and dispersion. This model has been compared with other ones to assess its intrinsic accuracy, critical for very demanding application like ADCs for AO-assisted extremely large telescopes. A revised simple model, based on updated published data of the air refractivity, is proposed by using the "Gradient 5" surface of Zemax. At large zenith angles (65 deg), discrepancies up to 100 mas in the differential refraction are expected near the UV atmospheric transmission cutoff. When high-accuracy modeling is required, the latter model should be preferred.

  19. Constitutive modeling of solid propellant materials with evolving microstructural damage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, F.; Aravas, N.; Sofronis, P.

    Solid propellants are composite materials with complex microstructure. In a generic form, the material consists of polymeric binder, crystal oxidizer (e.g., ammonium perchlorate), and fuel particles (e.g., aluminum). Severe stressing and extreme temperatures induce damage which is manifested in particle cracking, dewetting along particle/polymer interfaces, void nucleation and growth. Damage complicates the overall constitutive response of a solid propellant over and above the complexities associated with the differing constitutive properties of the particle and binder phases. Using rigorous homogenization theory for composite materials, we propose a general 3-D nonlinear macroscopic constitutive law that models microstructural damage evolution upon straining through continuous void formation and growth. The law addresses the viscous deformation rate within the framework of additive decomposition of the deformation rate and the concept of back stress is used to improve the model performance in stress relaxation. No restriction is placed on the magnitude of the strains. Experimental data from the standard relaxation and uniaxial tension tests are used to calibrate the model parameters in the case of a high elongation solid propellant. It is emphasized that the model parameters are descriptors of individual phase constitutive response and criticality conditions for particle decohesion which can systematically be determined through experiment. The model is used to predict the response of the material under more complex loading paths and to investigate the effect of crack tip damage on the mechanical behavior of a compact tension fracture specimen.

  20. Constitutive modeling of human liver based on in vivo measurements.

    PubMed

    Mazza, Edoardo; Grau, Patrick; Hollenstein, Marc; Bajka, Michael

    2008-01-01

    In vivo aspiration experiments on human livers are analyzed and material parameters for a non-linear-viscoelastic constitutive model are determined. A novel procedure is applied for the inverse analysis that accounts for the initial tissue deformation in the experiment and for the non-homogeneity of liver tissue. A numerical model is used consisting of a surface layer (capsule) and an underlying non-linear-viscoelastic solid (parenchyma). The capsule is modeled as hyperelastic membrane using data from measurements on bovine and human tissue. In a two step optimization procedure the set of constitutive model parameters for the "average" response of liver parenchyma is obtained. The proposed model is in line with literature values of high strain rate elastic modulus obtained from dynamic elastography. The model can be used to predict the nonlinear, time dependent behavior of human liver in computer simulations related to surgery training and planning. PMID:18982669

  1. An investigation of the material and model parameters for a constitutive model for MSMAs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dikes, Jason; Feigenbaum, Heidi; Ciocanel, Constantin

    2015-04-01

    A two dimensional constitutive model capable of predicting the magneto-mechanical response of a magnetic shape memory alloy (MSMA) has been developed and calibrated using a zero field-variable stress test1. This calibration approach is easy to perform and facilitates a faster evaluation of the three calibration constants required by the model (vs. five calibration constants required by previous models2,3). The calibration constants generated with this approach facilitate good model predictions of constant field-variable stress tests, for a wide range of loading conditions1. However, the same calibration constants yield less accurate model predictions for constant stress-variable field tests. Deployment of a separate calibration method for this type of loading, using a varying field-zero stress calibration test, also didn't lead to improved model predictions of this loading case. As a result, a sensitivity analysis was performed on most model and material parameters to identify which of them may influence model predictions the most, in both types of loading conditions. The sensitivity analysis revealed that changing most of these parameters did not improve model predictions for all loading types. Only the anisotropy coefficient was found to improve significantly field controlled model predictions and slightly worsen model predictions for stress controlled cases. This suggests that either the value of the anisotropy coefficient (which is provided by the manufacturer) is not accurate, or that the model is missing features associated with the magnetic energy of the material.

  2. Probabilistic constitutive relationships for cyclic material strength models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boyce, L.; Chamis, C. C.

    1988-01-01

    A methodology is developed that provides a probabilistic treatment for the lifetime of structural components of aerospace propulsion systems subjected to fatigue. Material strength degradation models, based on primitive variables, include both a fatigue strength reduction model and a fatigue crack growth model. Probabilistic analysis is based on simulation, and both maximum entropy and maximum penalized likelihood methods are used for the generation of probability density functions. The resulting constitutive relationships are included in several computer programs.

  3. Accurate spectral modeling for infrared radiation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tiwari, S. N.; Gupta, S. K.

    1977-01-01

    Direct line-by-line integration and quasi-random band model techniques are employed to calculate the spectral transmittance and total band absorptance of 4.7 micron CO, 4.3 micron CO2, 15 micron CO2, and 5.35 micron NO bands. Results are obtained for different pressures, temperatures, and path lengths. These are compared with available theoretical and experimental investigations. For each gas, extensive tabulations of results are presented for comparative purposes. In almost all cases, line-by-line results are found to be in excellent agreement with the experimental values. The range of validity of other models and correlations are discussed.

  4. Accurate theoretical chemistry with coupled pair models.

    PubMed

    Neese, Frank; Hansen, Andreas; Wennmohs, Frank; Grimme, Stefan

    2009-05-19

    Quantum chemistry has found its way into the everyday work of many experimental chemists. Calculations can predict the outcome of chemical reactions, afford insight into reaction mechanisms, and be used to interpret structure and bonding in molecules. Thus, contemporary theory offers tremendous opportunities in experimental chemical research. However, even with present-day computers and algorithms, we cannot solve the many particle Schrodinger equation exactly; inevitably some error is introduced in approximating the solutions of this equation. Thus, the accuracy of quantum chemical calculations is of critical importance. The affordable accuracy depends on molecular size and particularly on the total number of atoms: for orientation, ethanol has 9 atoms, aspirin 21 atoms, morphine 40 atoms, sildenafil 63 atoms, paclitaxel 113 atoms, insulin nearly 800 atoms, and quaternary hemoglobin almost 12,000 atoms. Currently, molecules with up to approximately 10 atoms can be very accurately studied by coupled cluster (CC) theory, approximately 100 atoms with second-order Møller-Plesset perturbation theory (MP2), approximately 1000 atoms with density functional theory (DFT), and beyond that number with semiempirical quantum chemistry and force-field methods. The overwhelming majority of present-day calculations in the 100-atom range use DFT. Although these methods have been very successful in quantum chemistry, they do not offer a well-defined hierarchy of calculations that allows one to systematically converge to the correct answer. Recently a number of rather spectacular failures of DFT methods have been found-even for seemingly simple systems such as hydrocarbons, fueling renewed interest in wave function-based methods that incorporate the relevant physics of electron correlation in a more systematic way. Thus, it would be highly desirable to fill the gap between 10 and 100 atoms with highly correlated ab initio methods. We have found that one of the earliest (and now

  5. The Constitutive Modeling of Thin Films with Randon Material Wrinkles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murphey, Thomas W.; Mikulas, Martin M.

    2001-01-01

    Material wrinkles drastically alter the structural constitutive properties of thin films. Normally linear elastic materials, when wrinkled, become highly nonlinear and initially inelastic. Stiffness' reduced by 99% and negative Poisson's ratios are typically observed. This paper presents an effective continuum constitutive model for the elastic effects of material wrinkles in thin films. The model considers general two-dimensional stress and strain states (simultaneous bi-axial and shear stress/strain) and neglects out of plane bending. The constitutive model is derived from a traditional mechanics analysis of an idealized physical model of random material wrinkles. Model parameters are the directly measurable wrinkle characteristics of amplitude and wavelength. For these reasons, the equations are mechanistic and deterministic. The model is compared with bi-axial tensile test data for wrinkled Kaptong(Registered Trademark) HN and is shown to deterministically predict strain as a function of stress with an average RMS error of 22%. On average, fitting the model to test data yields an RMS error of 1.2%

  6. Constitutive Modeling for Flow Stress Behavior of Nimonic 80A Superalloy During Hot Deformation Process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gu, Sendong; Zhang, Liwen; Zhang, Chi; Shen, Wenfei

    2016-03-01

    The hot deformation characteristics of nickel-based alloy Nimonic 80A were investigated by isothermal compression tests conducted in the temperature range of 1,000-1,200°C and the strain rate range of 0.01—5 s-1 on a Gleeble-1500 thermomechanical simulator. In order to establish the constitutive models for dynamic recrystallization (DRX) behavior and flow stress of Nimonic 80A, the material constants α, n and DRX activation energy Q in the constitutive models were calculated by the regression analysis of the experimental data. The dependences of initial stress, saturation stress, steady-state stress, dynamic recovery (DRV) parameter, peak strain, critical strain and DRX grain size on deformation parameters were obtained. Then, the Avrami equation including the critical strain for DRX and the peak strain as a function of strain was established to describe the DRX volume fraction. Finally, the constitutive model for flow stress of Nimonic 80A was developed in DRV region and DRX region, respectively. The flow stress values predicted by the constitutive model are in good agreement with the experimental ones, which indicates that the constitutive model can give an accurate estimate for the flow stress of Nimonic 80A under the deformation conditions.

  7. Numerical considerations in the development and implementation of constitutive models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haisler, W. E.; Imbrie, P. K.

    1985-01-01

    Several unified constitutive models were tested in uniaxial form by specifying input strain histories and comparing output stress histories. The purpose of the tests was to evaluate several time integration methods with regard to accuracy, stability, and computational economy. The sensitivity of the models to slight changes in input constants was also investigated. Results are presented for In100 at 1350 F and Hastelloy-X at 1800 F.

  8. Rate dependent constitutive models for fiber reinforced polymer composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gates, Thomas S.

    1990-01-01

    A literature survey was conducted to assess the state-of-the-art in rate dependent constitutive models for continuous fiber reinforced polymer matrix composite (PMC) materials. Several recent models which include formulations for describing plasticity, viscoelasticity, viscoplasticity, and rate-dependent phenomenon such as creep and stress relaxation are outlined and compared. When appropriate, these comparisons include brief descriptions of the mathematical formulations, the test procedures required for generating material constants, and details of available data comparing test results to analytical predictions.

  9. Unified constitutive modeling for proportional and nonproportional cyclic plasticity responses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krishna, Shree

    Several features of cyclic plasticity, e.g. cyclic hardening/softening, ratcheting, relaxation, and their dependence on strain range, nonproportionality of loading, time, and temperature determine the stress-strain responses of materials under cyclic loading. Numerous efforts have been made in the past decades to characterize and model these responses. Many of these responses can be simulated reasonably by the existing constitutive models, but the same models would fail in simulating the structural responses, local stress-strain or global deformation. One of the reasons for this deficiency is that the constitutive models are not robust enough to simulate the cyclic plasticity responses when they interact with each other. This deficiency can be understood better or resolved by developing and validating constitutive models against a broad set of experimental responses and two or more of the responses interacting with each other. This dissertation develops a unified constitutive model by studying the cyclic plasticity features in an integrated manner and validating the model by simulating a broad set of proportional and nonproportional cyclic plasticity responses. The study demonstrates the drawbacks of the existing nonlinear kinematic hardening model originally developed by Chaboche and then develop and incorporate novel ideas into the model for improving its cyclic response simulations. The Chaboche model is modified by incorporating strain-range dependent cyclic hardening/softening through the kinematic hardening rule parameters, in addition to the conventional method of using only the isotropic hardening parameters. The nonproportional loading memory parameters of Tanaka and of Benallal and Marquis are incorporated to study the influence of nonproportionality. The model is assessed by simulating hysteresis loop shape, cyclic hardening-softening, cross-effect, cyclic relaxation, subsequent cyclic softening, and finally a series of ratcheting responses under

  10. Temperature Dependent Constitutive Modeling for Magnesium Alloy Sheet

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Jong K.; Lee, June K.; Kim, Hyung S.; Kim, Heon Y.

    2010-06-15

    Magnesium alloys have been increasingly used in automotive and electronic industries because of their excellent strength to weight ratio and EMI shielding properties. However, magnesium alloys have low formability at room temperature due to their unique mechanical behavior (twinning and untwining), prompting for forming at an elevated temperature. In this study, a temperature dependent constitutive model for magnesium alloy (AZ31B) sheet is developed. A hardening law based on non linear kinematic hardening model is used to consider Bauschinger effect properly. Material parameters are determined from a series of uni-axial cyclic experiments (T-C-T or C-T-C) with the temperature ranging 150-250 deg. C. The influence of temperature on the constitutive equation is introduced by the material parameters assumed to be functions of temperature. Fitting process of the assumed model to measured data is presented and the results are compared.

  11. Unified constitutive models for high-temperature structural applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lindholm, U. S.; Chan, K. S.; Bodner, S. R.; Weber, R. M.; Walker, K. P.

    1988-01-01

    Unified constitutive models are characterized by the use of a single inelastic strain rate term for treating all aspects of inelastic deformation, including plasticity, creep, and stress relaxation under monotonic or cyclic loading. The structure of this class of constitutive theory pertinent for high temperature structural applications is first outlined and discussed. The effectiveness of the unified approach for representing high temperature deformation of Ni-base alloys is then evaluated by extensive comparison of experimental data and predictions of the Bodner-Partom and the Walker models. The use of the unified approach for hot section structural component analyses is demonstrated by applying the Walker model in finite element analyses of a benchmark notch problem and a turbine blade problem.

  12. Temperature Dependent Constitutive Modeling for Magnesium Alloy Sheet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Jong K.; Lee, June K.; Kim, Hyung S.; Kim, Heon Y.

    2010-06-01

    Magnesium alloys have been increasingly used in automotive and electronic industries because of their excellent strength to weight ratio and EMI shielding properties. However, magnesium alloys have low formability at room temperature due to their unique mechanical behavior (twinning and untwining), prompting for forming at an elevated temperature. In this study, a temperature dependent constitutive model for magnesium alloy (AZ31B) sheet is developed. A hardening law based on non linear kinematic hardening model is used to consider Bauschinger effect properly. Material parameters are determined from a series of uni-axial cyclic experiments (T-C-T or C-T-C) with the temperature ranging 150-250° C. The influence of temperature on the constitutive equation is introduced by the material parameters assumed to be functions of temperature. Fitting process of the assumed model to measured data is presented and the results are compared.

  13. Comparison of two laryngeal tissue fiber constitutive models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hunter, Eric J.; Palaparthi, Anil Kumar Reddy; Siegmund, Thomas; Chan, Roger W.

    2014-02-01

    Biological tissues are complex time-dependent materials, and the best choice of the appropriate time-dependent constitutive description is not evident. This report reviews two constitutive models (a modified Kelvin model and a two-network Ogden-Boyce model) in the characterization of the passive stress-strain properties of laryngeal tissue under tensile deformation. The two models are compared, as are the automated methods for parameterization of tissue stress-strain data (a brute force vs. a common optimization method). Sensitivity (error curves) of parameters from both models and the optimized parameter set are calculated and contrast by optimizing to the same tissue stress-strain data. Both models adequately characterized empirical stress-strain datasets and could be used to recreate a good likeness of the data. Nevertheless, parameters in both models were sensitive to measurement errors or uncertainties in stress-strain, which would greatly hinder the confidence in those parameters. The modified Kelvin model emerges as a potential better choice for phonation models which use a tissue model as one component, or for general comparisons of the mechanical properties of one type of tissue to another (e.g., axial stress nonlinearity). In contrast, the Ogden-Boyce model would be more appropriate to provide a basic understanding of the tissue's mechanical response with better insights into the tissue's physical characteristics in terms of standard engineering metrics such as shear modulus and viscosity.

  14. Fault models and constitutive laws across the lithosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shimamoto, T.

    2011-12-01

    Establishment of fault model is important not only for modeling earthquake cycles (stress accumulation, earthquake generation and afterslip), but also for analyzing tectonics of lithosphere. Since Sibson (1977, J. Geol. Soc. London) proposed a famous fault model, several fault models have been proposed (Scholz, 1988, Geol. Rundschau; Shimamoto, 1989, J. Struct. Geol.; Kawamoto and Shimamoto, 1998, Tectonophy). There has not been much progress in fault models since then, and even those fault models had limited applications in the modeling earthquakes and tectonics because no constitutive laws describing brittle to high-temperature ductile deformation across the lithosphere have been proposed. Moreover there was no additional experimental data reported to cover the brittle-ductile transition under large shearing deformation. However, the situation has been changing since Shimamoto (2004, JpGU) and Shimamoto and Noda, 2010, AGU) proposed an empirical friction to flow law which describes the transition from friction to fully plastic flow under shear for halite. Only frictional constitutive parameters and parameters in flow law are used and properties in the transitional regime can be predicted once those parameters are known. Thus this law provides a working model for reanalyzing diverse fault properties such as clay-bearing faults, for planning experimental researches to produce friction to flow behavior for realistic rocks, and for modeling fault and plate-boundary behaviors including generation of large earthquakes. I will summarize the current status on fault models and friction to flow constitutive laws across the lithosphere focusing the following aspects. (1) Friction to flow transition for important rocks. Existing friction and flows laws will be combined to propose constitutive property across the lithosphere (e.g., rate and state friction law combined with flow law for diabase). I will show how such a law can be used in the modeling using 2D modeling of

  15. An internal variable constitutive model for the large deformation of metals at high temperatures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, Stuart; Anand, Lallit

    1988-01-01

    The advent of large deformation finite element methodologies is beginning to permit the numerical simulation of hot working processes whose design until recently has been based on prior industrial experience. Proper application of such finite element techniques requires realistic constitutive equations which more accurately model material behavior during hot working. A simple constitutive model for hot working is the single scalar internal variable model for isotropic thermal elastoplasticity proposed by Anand. The model is recalled and the specific scalar functions, for the equivalent plastic strain rate and the evolution equation for the internal variable, presented are slight modifications of those proposed by Anand. The modified functions are better able to represent high temperature material behavior. The monotonic constant true strain rate and strain rate jump compression experiments on a 2 percent silicon iron is briefly described. The model is implemented in the general purpose finite element program ABAQUS.

  16. Mesoscale constitutive modeling of non-crystallizing filled elastomers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harish, Ajay B.; Wriggers, Peter; Jungk, Juliane; Hojdis, Nils; Recker, Carla

    2016-04-01

    Elastomers are exceptional materials owing to their ability to undergo large deformations before failure. However, due to their very low stiffness, they are not always suitable for industrial applications. Addition of filler particles provides reinforcing effects and thus enhances the material properties that render them more versatile for applications like tyres etc. However, deformation behavior of filled polymers is accompanied by several nonlinear effects like Mullins and Payne effect. To this day, the physical and chemical changes resulting in such nonlinear effect remain an active area of research. In this work, we develop a heterogeneous (or multiphase) constitutive model at the mesoscale explicitly considering filler particle aggregates, elastomeric matrix and their mechanical interaction through an approximate interface layer. The developed constitutive model is used to demonstrate cluster breakage, also, as one of the possible sources for Mullins effect observed in non-crystallizing filled elastomers.

  17. A variational constitutive model for porous metal plasticity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weinberg, K.; Mota, A.; Ortiz, M.

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents a variational formulation of viscoplastic constitutive updates for porous elastoplastic materials. The material model combines von Mises plasticity with volumetric plastic expansion as induced, e.g., by the growth of voids and defects in metals. The finite deformation theory is based on the multiplicative decomposition of the deformation gradient and an internal variable formulation of continuum thermodynamics. By the use of logarithmic and exponential mappings the stress update algorithms are extended from small strains to finite deformations. Thus the time-discretized version of the porous-viscoplastic constitutive updates is described in a fully variational manner. The range of behavior predicted by the model and the performance of the variational update are demonstrated by its application to the forced expansion and fragmentation of U-6%Nb rings.

  18. Nonlinear creep damage constitutive model for soft rocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, H. Z.; Xie, H. Q.; He, J. D.; Xiao, M. L.; Zhuo, L.

    2016-06-01

    In some existing nonlinear creep damage models, it may be less rigorous to directly introduce a damage variable into the creep equation when the damage variable of the viscous component is a function of time or strain. In this paper, we adopt the Kachanov creep damage rate and introduce a damage variable into a rheological differential constitutive equation to derive an analytical integral solution for the creep damage equation of the Bingham model. We also propose a new nonlinear viscous component which reflects nonlinear properties related to the axial stress of soft rock in the steady-state creep stage. Furthermore, we build an improved Nishihara model by using this new component in series with the correctional Nishihara damage model that describes the accelerating creep, and deduce the rheological constitutive relation of the improved model. Based on superposition principle, we obtain the damage creep equation for conditions of both uniaxial and triaxial compression stress, and study the method for determining the model parameters. Finally, this paper presents the laboratory test results performed on mica-quartz schist in parallel with, or vertical to the schistosity direction, and applies the improved Nishihara model to the parameter identification of mica-quartz schist. Using a comparative analysis with test data, results show that the improved model has a superior ability to reflect the creep properties of soft rock in the decelerating creep stage, the steady-state creep stage, and particularly within the accelerating creep stage, in comparison with the traditional Nishihara model.

  19. A constitutive model of nanocomposite hydrogels with nanoparticle crosslinkers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Qiming; Gao, Zheming

    2016-09-01

    Nanocomposite hydrogels with only nanoparticle crosslinkers exhibit extraordinarily higher stretchability and toughness than the conventional organically crosslinked hydrogels, thus showing great potential in the applications of artificial muscles and cartilages. Despite their potential, the microscopic mechanics details underlying their mechanical performance have remained largely elusive. Here, we develop a constitutive model of the nanoparticle hydrogels to elucidate the microscopic mechanics behaviors, including the microarchitecture and evolution of the nanoparticle crosslinked polymer chains during the mechanical deformation. The constitutive model enables us to understand the Mullins effect of the nanocomposite hydrogels, and the effects of nanoparticle concentrations and sizes on their cyclic stress-strain behaviors. The theory is quantitatively validated by the tensile tests on a nanocomposite hydrogel with nanosilica crosslinkers. The theory can also be extended to explain the mechanical behaviors of existing hydrogels with nanoclay crosslinkers, and the necking instability of the composite hydrogels with both nanoparticle crosslinkers and organic crosslinkers. We expect that this constitutive model can be further exploited to reveal mechanics behaviors of novel particle-polymer chain interactions, and to design unprecedented hydrogels with both high stretchability and toughness.

  20. Bayesian calibration of hyperelastic constitutive models of soft tissue.

    PubMed

    Madireddy, Sandeep; Sista, Bhargava; Vemaganti, Kumar

    2016-06-01

    There is inherent variability in the experimental response used to characterize the hyperelastic mechanical response of soft tissues. This has to be accounted for while estimating the parameters in the constitutive models to obtain reliable estimates of the quantities of interest. The traditional least squares method of parameter estimation does not give due importance to this variability. We use a Bayesian calibration framework based on nested Monte Carlo sampling to account for the variability in the experimental data and its effect on the estimated parameters through a systematic probability-based treatment. We consider three different constitutive models to represent the hyperelastic nature of soft tissue: Mooney-Rivlin model, exponential model, and Ogden model. Three stress-strain data sets corresponding to the deformation of agarose gel, bovine liver tissue, and porcine brain tissue are considered. Bayesian fits and parameter estimates are compared with the corresponding least squares values. Finally, we propagate the uncertainty in the parameters to a quantity of interest (QoI), namely the force-indentation response, to study the effect of model form on the values of the QoI. Our results show that the quality of the fit alone is insufficient to determine the adequacy of the model, and due importance has to be given to the maximum likelihood value, the landscape of the likelihood distribution, and model complexity. PMID:26751706

  1. Anisotropic constitutive model for nickel base single crystal alloys: Development and finite element implementation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dame, L. T.; Stouffer, D. C.

    1986-01-01

    A tool for the mechanical analysis of nickel base single crystal superalloys, specifically Rene N4, used in gas turbine engine components is developed. This is achieved by a rate dependent anisotropic constitutive model implemented in a nonlinear three dimensional finite element code. The constitutive model is developed from metallurigical concepts utilizing a crystallographic approach. A non Schmid's law formulation is used to model the tension/compression asymmetry and orientation dependence in octahedral slip. Schmid's law is a good approximation to the inelastic response of the material in cube slip. The constitutive equations model the tensile behavior, creep response, and strain rate sensitivity of these alloys. Methods for deriving the material constants from standard tests are presented. The finite element implementation utilizes an initial strain method and twenty noded isoparametric solid elements. The ability to model piecewise linear load histories is included in the finite element code. The constitutive equations are accurately and economically integrated using a second order Adams-Moulton predictor-corrector method with a dynamic time incrementing procedure. Computed results from the finite element code are compared with experimental data for tensile, creep and cyclic tests at 760 deg C. The strain rate sensitivity and stress relaxation capabilities of the model are evaluated.

  2. Constitutive modeling of crimped collagen fibrils in soft tissues.

    PubMed

    Grytz, Rafael; Meschke, Günther

    2009-10-01

    A microstructurally oriented constitutive formulation for the hyperelastic response of crimped collagen fibrils existing in soft connective tissues is proposed. The model is based on observations that collagen fibrils embedded in a soft matrix crimp into a smooth three-dimensional pattern when unloaded. Following ideas presented by Beskos and Jenkins [Beskos, D., Jenkins, J., 1975. A mechanical model for mammalian tendon. ASME Journal of Applied Mechanics 42, 755-758] and Freed and Doehring [Freed, A., Doehring, T., 2005. Elastic model for crimped collagen fibrils. Journal of Biomechanical Engineering 127, 587-593] the collagen fibril crimp is approximated by a cylindrical helix to represent the constitutive behavior of the hierarchical organized substructure of biological tissues at the fibrillar level. The model is derived from the nonlinear axial force-stretch relationship of an extensible helical spring, including the full extension of the spring as a limit case. The geometrically nonlinear solution of the extensible helical spring is carried out by an iterative procedure. The model only requires one material parameter and two geometrical parameters to be determined from experiments. The ability of the proposed model to reproduce the biomechanical response of fibrous tissues is demonstrated for fascicles from rat tail tendons, for porcine cornea strips, and for bovine Achilles tendons. PMID:19627859

  3. A constitutive model for magnetostriction based on thermodynamic framework

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ho, Kwangsoo

    2016-08-01

    This work presents a general framework for the continuum-based formulation of dissipative materials with magneto-mechanical coupling in the viewpoint of irreversible thermodynamics. The thermodynamically consistent model developed for the magnetic hysteresis is extended to include the magnetostrictive effect. The dissipative and hysteretic response of magnetostrictive materials is captured through the introduction of internal state variables. The evolution rate of magnetostrictive strain as well as magnetization is derived from thermodynamic and dissipative potentials in accordance with the general principles of thermodynamics. It is then demonstrated that the constitutive model is competent to describe the magneto-mechanical behavior by comparing simulation results with the experimental data reported in the literature.

  4. Life prediction and constitutive models for engine hot section

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Swanson, G. A.; Meyer, T. G.; Nissley, D. M.

    1986-01-01

    The purpose of this program is to develop life prediction models for coated anisotropic materials used in gas turbine airfoils. In the program, two single crystal alloys and two coatings are being tested. These include PWA 1480, Alloy 185, overlay coating (PWA 286), and aluminide coating (PWA 273). Constitutive models are also being developed for these materials to predict the time independent (plastic) and time dependent (creep) strain histories of the materials in the lab tests and for actual design conditions. This nonlinear material behavior is particularly important for high temperature gas turbine applications and is basic to any life prediction system. Some of the accomplishments of the program are highlighted.

  5. Image guided constitutive modeling of the silicone brain phantom

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Puzrin, Alexander; Skrinjar, Oskar; Ozan, Cem; Kim, Sihyun; Mukundan, Srinivasan

    2005-04-01

    The goal of this work is to develop reliable constitutive models of the mechanical behavior of the in-vivo human brain tissue for applications in neurosurgery. We propose to define the mechanical properties of the brain tissue in-vivo, by taking the global MR or CT images of a brain response to ventriculostomy - the relief of the elevated intracranial pressure. 3D image analysis translates these images into displacement fields, which by using inverse analysis allow for the constitutive models of the brain tissue to be developed. We term this approach Image Guided Constitutive Modeling (IGCM). The presented paper demonstrates performance of the IGCM in the controlled environment: on the silicone brain phantoms closely simulating the in-vivo brain geometry, mechanical properties and boundary conditions. The phantom of the left hemisphere of human brain was cast using silicon gel. An inflatable rubber membrane was placed inside the phantom to model the lateral ventricle. The experiments were carried out in a specially designed setup in a CT scanner with submillimeter isotropic voxels. The non-communicative hydrocephalus and ventriculostomy were simulated by consequently inflating and deflating the internal rubber membrane. The obtained images were analyzed to derive displacement fields, meshed, and incorporated into ABAQUS. The subsequent Inverse Finite Element Analysis (based on Levenberg-Marquardt algorithm) allowed for optimization of the parameters of the Mooney-Rivlin non-linear elastic model for the phantom material. The calculated mechanical properties were consistent with those obtained from the element tests, providing justification for the future application of the IGCM to in-vivo brain tissue.

  6. A new constitutive model for nitrogen austenitic stainless steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fréchard, S.; Lichtenberger, A.; Rondot, F.; Faderl, N.; Redjaïmia, A.; Adoum, M.

    2003-09-01

    Quasi-static, quasi-dynamic and dynamic compression tests have been performed on a nitrogen alloyed austenitic stainless steel. For all strain rates, a high strain hardening rate and a good ductility have been achieved. In addition, this steel owns a great strain rate sensitivity. The temperature sensitivity bas been determined between 20°C and 400°C. Microstructural analysis has been performed after different loading conditions in relation to the behaviour of the material. Johnson-Cook and Zerilli-Armstrong models have been selected to fit the experimental data into constitutive equations. These models do not reproduce properly the behaviour of this type of steel over the complete range. A new constitutive model that fits very well all the experimental data at different strain, strain rate and temperature has been determined. The model is based on empirical considerations on the separated influence of the main parameters. Single Taylor tests have been realized to validate the models. Live observations of the specimen during impact have been achieved using a special CCD camera set-up. The overall profile at different times are compared to numerical predictions using LS-DYNA code.

  7. Micromechanics and constitutive modeling of connective soft tissues.

    PubMed

    Fallah, A; Ahmadian, M T; Firozbakhsh, K; Aghdam, M M

    2016-07-01

    In this paper, a micromechanical model for connective soft tissues based on the available histological evidences is developed. The proposed model constituents i.e. collagen fibers and ground matrix are considered as hyperelastic materials. The matrix material is assumed to be isotropic Neo-Hookean while the collagen fibers are considered to be transversely isotropic hyperelastic. In order to take into account the effects of tissue structure in lower scales on the macroscopic behavior of tissue, a strain energy density function (SEDF) is developed for collagen fibers based on tissue hierarchical structure. Macroscopic response and properties of tissue are obtained using the numerical homogenization method with the help of ABAQUS software. The periodic boundary conditions and the proposed constitutive models are implemented into ABAQUS using the DISP and the UMAT subroutines, respectively. The existence of the solution and stable material behavior of proposed constitutive model for collagen fibers are investigated based on the poly-convexity condition. Results of the presented micromechanics model for connective tissues are compared and validated with available experimental data. Effects of geometrical and material parameters variation at microscale on macroscopic mechanical behavior of tissues are investigated. The results show that decrease in collagen content of the connective tissues like the tendon due to diseases leads 20% more stretch than healthy tissue under the same load which can results in connective tissue malfunction and hypermobility in joints. PMID:26807767

  8. Modeling, simulation and experimental verification of constitutive models for energetic materials

    SciTech Connect

    Haberman, K.S.; Bennett, J.G.; Assay, B.W.

    1997-09-01

    Simulation of the complete response of components and systems composed of energetic materials, such as PBX-9501 is important in the determination of the safety of various explosive systems. For example, predicting the correct state of stress, rate of deformation and temperature during penetration is essential in the prediction of ignition. Such simulation requires accurate constitutive models. These models must also be computationally efficient to enable analysis of large scale three dimensional problems using explicit lagrangian finite element codes such as DYNA3D. However, to be of maximum utility, these predictions must be validated against robust dynamic experiments. In this paper, the authors report comparisons between experimental and predicted displacement fields in PBX-9501 during dynamic deformation, and describe the modeling approach. The predictions used Visco-SCRAM and the Generalized Method of Cells which have been implemented into DYNA3D. The experimental data were obtained using laser-induced fluorescence speckle photography. Results from this study have lead to more accurate models and have also guided further experimental work.

  9. Constitutive Modeling of Nanotube-Reinforced Polymer Composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Odegard, G. M.; Gates, T. S.; Wise, K. E.

    2002-01-01

    In this study, a technique is presented for developing constitutive models for polymer composite systems reinforced with single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNT). Because the polymer molecules are on the same size scale as the nanotubes, the interaction at the polymer/nanotube interface is highly dependent on the local molecular structure and bonding. At these small length scales, the lattice structures of the nanotube and polymer chains cannot be considered continuous, and the bulk mechanical properties can no longer be determined through traditional micromechanical approaches that are formulated by using continuum mechanics. It is proposed herein that the nanotube, the local polymer near the nanotube, and the nanotube/polymer interface can be modeled as an effective continuum fiber using an equivalent-continuum modeling method. The effective fiber serves as a means for incorporating micromechanical analyses for the prediction of bulk mechanical properties of SWNT/polymer composites with various nanotube shapes, sizes, concentrations, and orientations. As an example, the proposed approach is used for the constitutive modeling of two SWNT/LaRC-SI (with a PmPV interface) composite systems, one with aligned SWNTs and the other with three-dimensionally randomly oriented SWNTs. The Young's modulus and shear modulus have been calculated for the two systems for various nanotube lengths and volume fractions.

  10. Constitutive Modeling of Nanotube-Reinforced Polymer Composite Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Odegard, Gregory M.; Harik, Vasyl M.; Wise, Kristopher E.; Gates, Thomas S.

    2001-01-01

    In this study, a technique has been proposed for developing constitutive models for polymer composite systems reinforced with single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNT). Since the polymer molecules are on the same size scale as the nanotubes, the interaction at the polymer/nanotube interface is highly dependent on the local molecular structure and bonding. At these small length scales, the lattice structures of the nanotube and polymer chains cannot be considered continuous, and the bulk mechanical properties of the SWNT/polymer composites can no longer be determined through traditional micromechanical approaches that are formulated using continuum mechanics. It is proposed herein that the nanotube, the local polymer near the nanotube, and the nanotube/polymer interface can be modeled as an effective continuum fiber using an equivalent-continuum modeling method. The effective fiber retains the local molecular structure and bonding information and serves as a means for incorporating micromechanical analyses for the prediction of bulk mechanical properties of SWNT/polymer composites with various nanotube sizes and orientations. As an example, the proposed approach is used for the constitutive modeling of two SWNT/polyethylene composite systems, one with continuous and aligned SWNT and the other with discontinuous and randomly aligned nanotubes.

  11. Constitutive Modeling of Nanotube-Reinforced Polymer Composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Odegard, G. M.; Gates, T. S.; Wise, K. E.; Park, C.; Siochi, E. J.; Bushnell, Dennis M. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    In this study, a technique is presented for developing constitutive models for polymer composite systems reinforced with single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNT). Because the polymer molecules are on the same size scale as the nanotubes, the interaction at the polymer/nanotube interface is highly dependent on the local molecular structure and bonding. At these small length scales, the lattice structures of the nanotube and polymer chains cannot be considered continuous, and the bulk mechanical properties can no longer be determined through traditional micromechanical approaches that are formulated by using continuum mechanics. It is proposed herein that the nanotube, the local polymer near the nanotube, and the nanotube/polymer interface can be modeled as an effective continuum fiber using an equivalent-continuum modeling method. The effective fiber serves as a means for incorporating micromechanical analyses for the prediction of bulk mechanical properties of SWNT/polymer composites with various nanotube lengths, concentrations, and orientations. As an example, the proposed approach is used for the constitutive modeling of two SWNT/polyimide composite systems.

  12. Constitutive Modeling of Nanotube-Reinforced Polymer Composite Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Odegard, Gregory M.; Harik, Vasyl M.; Wise, Kristopher E.; Gates, Thomas S.

    2004-01-01

    In this study, a technique has been proposed for developing constitutive models for polymer composite systems reinforced with single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNT). Since the polymer molecules are on the same size scale as the nanotubes, the interaction at the polymer/nanotube interface is highly dependent on the local molecular structure and bonding. At these small length scales, the lattice structures of the nanotube and polymer chains cannot be considered continuous, and the bulk mechanical properties of the SWNT/polymer composites can no longer be determined through traditional micromechanical approaches that are formulated using continuum mechanics. It is proposed herein that the nanotube, the local polymer near the nanotube, and the nanotube/polymer interface can be modeled as an effective continuum fiber using an equivalent-continuum modeling method. The effective fiber retains the local molecular structure and bonding information and serves as a means for incorporating micromechanical analyses for the prediction of bulk mechanical properties of SWNT/polymer composites with various nanotube sizes and orientations. As an example, the proposed approach is used for the constitutive modeling of two SWNT/polyethylene composite systems, one with continuous and aligned SWNT and the other with discontinuous and randomly aligned nanotubes.

  13. Constitutive modelling of evolving flow anisotropy including distortional hardening

    SciTech Connect

    Pietryga, Michael P.; Vladimirov, Ivaylo N.; Reese, Stefanie

    2011-05-04

    The paper presents a new constitutive model for anisotropic metal plasticity that takes into account the expansion or contraction (isotropic hardening), translation (kinematic hardening) and change of shape (distortional hardening) of the yield surface. The experimentally observed region of high curvature ('nose') on the yield surface in the loading direction and flattened shape in the reverse loading direction are modelled here by means of the concept of directional distortional hardening. The modelling of directional distortional hardening is accomplished by means of an evolving fourth-order tensor. The applicability of the model is illustrated by fitting experimental subsequent yield surfaces at finite plastic deformation. Comparisons with test data for aluminium low and high work hardening alloys display a good agreement between the simulation results and the experimental data.

  14. Constitutive modeling and computational implementation for finite strain plasticity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reed, K. W.; Atluri, S. N.

    1985-01-01

    This paper describes a simple alternate approach to the difficult problem of modeling material behavior. Starting from a general representation for a rate-tpe constitutive equation, it is shown by example how sets of test data may be used to derive restrictions on the scalar functions appearing in the representation. It is not possible to determine these functions from experimental data, but the aforementioned restrictions serve as a guide in their eventual definition. The implications are examined for hypo-elastic, isotropically hardening plastic, and kinematically hardening plastic materials. A simple model for the evolution of the 'back-stress,' in a kinematic-hardening plasticity theory, that is entirely analogous to a hypoelastic stress-strain relation is postulated and examined in detail in modeling finitely plastic tension-torsion test. The implementation of rate-type material models in finite element algorithms is also discussed.

  15. Prediction of multiaxial mechanical behavior for conventional and highly crosslinked UHMWPE using a hybrid constitutive model.

    PubMed

    Bergström, J S; Rimnac, C M; Kurtz, S M

    2003-04-01

    The development of theoretical failure, fatigue, and wear models for ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) used in joint replacements has been hindered by the lack of a validated constitutive model that can accurately predict large deformation mechanical behavior under clinically relevant, multiaxial loading conditions. Recently, a new Hybrid constitutive model for unirradiated UHMWPE was developed Bergström et al., (Biomaterials 23 (2002) 2329) based on a physics-motivated framework which incorporates the governing micro-mechanisms of polymers into an effective and accurate continuum representation. The goal of the present study was to compare the predictive capability of the new Hybrid model with the J(2)-plasticity model for four conventional and highly crosslinked UHMWPE materials during multiaxial loading. After calibration under uniaxial loading, the predictive capabilities of the J(2)-plasticity and Hybrid model were tested by comparing the load-displacement curves from experimental multiaxial (small punch) tests with simulated load-displacement curves calculated using a finite element model of the experimental apparatus. The quality of the model predictions was quantified using the coefficient of determination (r(2)). The results of the study demonstrate that the Hybrid model outperforms the J(2)-plasticity model both for combined uniaxial tension and compression predictions and for simulating multiaxial large deformation mechanical behavior produced by the small punch test. The results further suggest that the parameters of the HM may be generalizable for a wide range of conventional, highly crosslinked, and thermally treated UHMWPE materials, based on the characterization of four material properties related to the elastic modulus, yield stress, rate of strain hardening, and locking stretch of the polymer chains. Most importantly, from a practical perspective, these four key material properties for the Hybrid constitutive model can be measured

  16. A constitutive model for ballistic gelatin at surgical strain rates.

    PubMed

    Ravikumar, Nishant; Noble, Christopher; Cramphorn, Edward; Taylor, Zeike A

    2015-07-01

    This paper describes a constitutive model for ballistic gelatin at the low strain rates experienced, for example, by soft tissues during surgery. While this material is most commonly associated with high speed projectile penetration and impact investigations, it has also been used extensively as a soft tissue simulant in validation studies for surgical technologies (e.g. surgical simulation and guidance systems), for which loading speeds and the corresponding mechanical response of the material are quite different. We conducted mechanical compression experiments on gelatin specimens at strain rates spanning two orders of magnitude (~0.001-0.1s(-1)) and observed a nonlinear load-displacement history and strong strain rate-dependence. A compact and efficient visco-hyperelastic constitutive model was then formulated and found to fit the experimental data well. An Ogden type strain energy density function was employed for the elastic component. A single Prony exponential term was found to be adequate to capture the observed rate-dependence of the response over multiple strain rates. The model lends itself to immediate use within many commercial finite element packages. PMID:25863009

  17. Determination of the Johnson-Cook Constitutive Model Parameters of Materials by Cluster Global Optimization Algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Zhipeng; Gao, Lihong; Wang, Yangwei; Wang, Fuchi

    2016-06-01

    The Johnson-Cook (J-C) constitutive model is widely used in the finite element simulation, as this model shows the relationship between stress and strain in a simple way. In this paper, a cluster global optimization algorithm is proposed to determine the J-C constitutive model parameters of materials. A set of assumed parameters is used for the accuracy verification of the procedure. The parameters of two materials (401 steel and 823 steel) are determined. Results show that the procedure is reliable and effective. The relative error between the optimized and assumed parameters is no more than 4.02%, and the relative error between the optimized and assumed stress is 0.2% × 10-5. The J-C constitutive parameters can be determined more precisely and quickly than the traditional manual procedure. Furthermore, all the parameters can be simultaneously determined using several curves under different experimental conditions. A strategy is also proposed to accurately determine the constitutive parameters.

  18. An Experimental Study and Constitutive Modeling of Saturated Porous Rocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, S. Y.; Shao, J. F.

    2015-01-01

    This paper is devoted to the experimental characterization and constitutive modeling of saturated porous rocks. A typical porous chalk is investigated. Drained hydrostatic and triaxial compression tests are first performed to characterize the basic mechanical behavior of chalk. Drained triaxial tests with constant interstitial pressure are then carried out to study the effects of interstitial pressure on the plastic deformation and failure criterion. Finally, undrained triaxial compression tests are performed to investigate poromechanical coupling in saturated conditions. Based on the experimental data and some relevant micromechanical considerations, a micromechanics-based plastic model is proposed and extended to poroplastic coupling using the effective stress concept. The proposed model is verified through comparisons between the numerical results and experimental data for both drained and undrained tests.

  19. Materials constitutive models for nonlinear analysis of thermally cycled structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaufman, A.; Hunt, L. E.

    1982-01-01

    Effects of inelastic materials models on computed stress-strain solutions for thermally loaded structures were studied by performing nonlinear (elastoplastic creep) and elastic structural analyses on a prismatic, double edge wedge specimen of IN 100 alloy that was subjected to thermal cycling in fluidized beds. Four incremental plasticity creep models (isotropic, kinematic, combined isotropic kinematic, and combined plus transient creep) were exercised for the problem by using the MARC nonlinear, finite element computer program. Maximum total strain ranges computed from the elastic and nonlinear analyses agreed within 5 percent. Mean cyclic stresses, inelastic strain ranges, and inelastic work were significantly affected by the choice of inelastic constitutive model. The computing time per cycle for the nonlinear analyses was more than five times that required for the elastic analysis.

  20. Application of constitutive model considering nonlinear unloading behavior for Gen.3 AHSS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Li; Wagoner, R. H.

    2013-05-01

    Nonlinear unloading behavior has been reported as an important factor for accurate springback prediction. In this study, a newly proposed special component of strain: "Quasi-Plastic-Elastic" ("QPE") strain was utilized to study the springback behavior of Advanced High Strength Steels (AHSS). Several types of steels, including IF steel, DP780, TRIP780, DP980, TWIP980 and QP980 were considered in this research. The results showed that all the tested steels have following behavior: 1) QPE strain is recoverable, like elastic deformation. 2) It dissipates work, like plastic deformation. A 3-D constitutive model considering QPE behavior was implemented in Abaqus/Standard with shell element and applied to draw-bend springback test for Gen. 3 AHSS, QP980. Predictions for springback using the QPE model were more accurate compared with standard elastic-plastic models.

  1. High rate constitutive modeling of aluminium alloy tube

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salisbury, C. P.; Worswick, M. J.; Mayer, R.

    2006-08-01

    As the need for fuel efficient automobiles increases, car designers are investigating light-weight materials for automotive bodies that will reduce the overall automobile weight. Aluminium alloy tube is a desirable material to use in automotive bodies due to its light weight. However, aluminium suffers from lower formability than steel and its energy absorption ability in a crash event after a forming operation is largely unknown. As part of a larger study on the relationship between crashworthiness and forming processes, constitutive models for 3mm AA5754 aluminium tube were developed. A nominal strain rate of 100/s is often used to characterize overall automobile crash events, whereas strain rates on the order of 1000/s can occur locally. Therefore, tests were performed at quasi-static rates using an Instron test fixture and at strain rates of 500/s to 1500/s using a tensile split Hopkinson bar. High rate testing was then conducted at rates of 500/s, 1000/s and 1500/s at 21circC, 150circC and 300circC. The generated data was then used to determine the constitutive parameters for the Johnson-Cook and Zerilli-Armstrong material models.

  2. Mechanistic Constitutive Models for Rubber Elasticity and Viscoelasticity

    SciTech Connect

    Puso, M

    2003-01-21

    Physically based models which describe the finite strain behavior of vulcanized rubber are developed. Constitutive laws for elasticity and viscoelasticity are derived by integrating over orientation space the forces due to each individual polymer chain. A novel scheme is presented which effectively approximates these integrals in terms of strain and strain invariants. In addition, the details involving the implementation of such models into a quasi-static large strain finite element formulation are provided. In order to account for the finite extensibility of a molecular chain, Langevin statistics is used to model the chain response. The classical statistical model of rubber assumes that polymer chains interact only at the chemical crosslinks. It is shown that such model when fitted for uniaxial tension data cannot fit compression or equibiaxial data. A model which incorporates the entanglement interactions of surrounding chains, in addition to the finite extensibility of the chains, is shown to give better predictions than the classical model. The technique used for approximating the orientation space integral was applied to both the classical and entanglement models. A viscoelasticity model based on the force equilibration process as described by Doi and Edwards is developed. An assumed form for the transient force in the chain is postulated. The resulting stress tensor is composed of an elastic and a viscoelastic portion with the elastic stress given by the proposed entanglement model. In order to improve the simulation of experimental data, it was found necessary to include the effect of unattached or dangling polymer chains in the viscoelasticity model. The viscoelastic effect of such chains is the manifestation of a disengagement process. This disengagement model for unattached polymer chains motivated an empirical model which was very successful in simulating the experimental results considered.

  3. Constitutive modeling of calcium carbonate supersaturated seawater mixtures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reis, Martina; Sousa, Maria De Fátima; Bertran, Celso; Bassi, Adalberto

    2014-11-01

    Calcium carbonate supersaturated seawater mixtures have attracted attention of many researchers since the deposition of CaCO3(s) from such solutions can lead to scaling problems in oil fields. However, despite their evident practical importance in petroleum engineering, the hydro and thermodynamic behaviors of these mixtures have not been well-understood yet. In this work, a constitutive model based on the foundations of the constitutive theory of continuum mechanics, and the Müller-Liu entropy principle is proposed. The calcium carbonate supersaturated seawater mixture is regarded as a reactive viscous fluid with heat and electrical conductions. The obtained results indicate that the thermodynamic behavior of CaCO3 supersaturated seawater mixtures is closely related to the individual dynamics of each constituent of the mixture, particularly to the linear momentum, and mass exchanges. Furthermore, the results show that, unlike classical continuum mixtures, the extra entropy flux is not null, and higher-order gradients of deformation contribute to the residual entropy production of the class of mixtures under study. The results of this work may be relevant for the prevention of the mineral scale formation in oil fields. The first author acknowledges the São Paulo Research Foundation (Grant 2013/ 20872-2) for its funding.

  4. Constitutive models for static and dynamic response of geotechnical materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nemat-Nasser, S.

    1983-11-01

    The objective of this research program has been to develop realistic macroscopic constitutive relations which describe static and dynamic properties of geotechnical materials (soils and rocks). To this end a coordinated theoretical and experimental activity has been followed. The theoretical work includes a balanced combination of statistical microscopic (at the grain size level) modeling and a nonclassical elasto-plastic macroscopic formulation. The latter includes the effects of internal friction, plastic compressibility, and pressure sensitivity, as well as anisotropy which is commonly observed in geotechnical materials. The following specific goals have been sought: (1) to develop three-dimensional constitutive relations under ordinary or high pressures (such as those induced by blasting or tectonic forces which may cause a large amount of densification by relative motion and possible crushing of grains); and (2) to examine and characterize the behavior of saturated granular materials under dynamic loading. The latter item includes characterization of possible liquefaction and subsidence which may be induced in granular materials under confining pressure by ground vibration or passage of waves. The theoretical work has been carefully coordinated with key experiments in order to: (1) understand the basic physics of the process, both at macroscopic and microscopic levels; (2) to verify the corresponding theoretical predictions; and (3) to establish relevant material parameters.

  5. Constitutive modelling of dual phase steel sheet and tube

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thompson, A. C.; Salisbury, C. P.; Worswick, M. J.; Mayer, R.

    2006-08-01

    Automobile manufacturers are currently striving to improve vehicle fuel efficiency through reduction of vehicle weight. Dual phase steels are good candidates for automotive bodies due to their high strength-to-weight ratio, and good formablity and weldability. As part of a project on the interaction between forming and crashworthiness, constitutive parameters of a dual phase steel were determined for both sheet and tube stock in order to support analysis of the tube response throughout forming processes and in crash simulations. Stress - strain data was collected at a quasi-static rate as well as rates from 0.1 to 1500 s - 1. The intermediate strain rate response was captured using an instrumented falling weight tensile tester (35 100 s - 1), while a tensile split Hopkinson bar (500 1500 s - 1) was used to capture the high-rate response. This range of strain rates is typical of the rates seen in a crash simulation. Tests were also performed at higher temperatures (150°C and 300°C) at rates of 500 and 1500 s - 1 to capture the thermal softening response. The dual phase steel sheet and tube show an appreciable amount of strain rate sensitivity throughout the complete range of strain rates. It also exhibited a large amount of thermal softening. The thermal sensitivity is identical for the sheet and tube. Fits to the Johnson-Cook constitutive model were obtained from the experimental results.

  6. Towards a Simple Constitutive Model for Bread Dough

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanner, Roger I.

    2008-07-01

    Wheat flour dough is an example of a soft solid material consisting of a gluten (rubbery) network with starch particles as a filler. The volume fraction of the starch filler is high-typically 60%. A computer-friendly constitutive model has been lacking for this type of material and here we report on progress towards finding such a model. The model must describe the response to small strains, simple shearing starting from rest, simple elongation, biaxial straining, recoil and various other transient flows. A viscoelastic Lodge-type model involving a damage function. which depends on strain from an initial reference state fits the given data well, and it is also able to predict the thickness at exit from dough sheeting, which has been a long-standing unsolved puzzle. The model also shows an apparent rate-dependent yield stress, although no explicit yield stress is built into the model. This behaviour agrees with the early (1934) observations of Schofield and Scott Blair on dough recoil after unloading.

  7. Modeling the Constitutive Behaviour of PET for Stretch Blow Moulding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, S. Y.; Menary, G.

    2011-05-01

    There are a substantial amount of constitutive models that have been developed to capture the finite deformation behavior of polymers for forming simulations. Most of these models have been used to capture the behavior in uniaxial and simultaneous biaxial modes of deformation. However, very few have attempted to model the sequential biaxial deformation behavior which is more appropriate for the stretch blow moulding process. The aim of this work is to develop a model for PET to successfully capture the sequential stress-strain behavior as a function of temperature and strain rate, thus making it suitable for use in simulations of stretch blow moulding. Biaxial test data has been generated at temperatures and strain rates appropriate for stretch blow moulding and a model developed by Buckley et al. has been implemented within the commercial finite element package Abaqus/Explicit. In parallel, an efficient automatic curve fitting procedure has been developed to enable the material parameters to be easily found from biaxial test data. The results show that the Buckley model can predict the stress response of equibiaxial deformation well, but cannot predict the sequential biaxial deformation.

  8. An uncoupled viscoplastic constitutive model for metals at elevated temperature

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haisler, W. E.; Cronenworth, J.

    1983-01-01

    An uncoupled constitutive model for predicting the transient response of thermal and rate dependent, inelastic material behavior is presented. The uncoupled model assumes that there is a temperature below which the total strain consists essentially of elastic and rate insensitive inelastic strains only. Above this temperature, the rate dependent inelastic strain (creep) dominates. The rate insensitive inelastic strain component is modeled in an incremental form with a yield function, flow rule and hardening law. Revisions to the hardening rule permit the model to predict temperature-dependent kinematic-isotropic hardening behavior, cyclic saturation, asymmetric stress-strain response upon stress reversal, and variable Bauschinger effect. The rate dependent inelastic strain component is modeled using a rate equation in terms of back stress, drag stress and exponent n as functions of temperature and strain. A sequence of hysteresis loops and relaxation tests are utilized to define the rate dependent inelastic strain rate. Evaluation of the model is performed by comparison with experiments involving various thermal and mechanical load histories on 5086 aluminum alloy, 304 stainless steel and Hastelloy-X.

  9. Constitutive Modeling and Numerical Simulation of Frp Confined Concrete Specimens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smitha, Gopinath; Ramachandramurthy, Avadhanam; Nagesh, Ranganatha Iyer; Shahulhameed, Eduvammal Kunhimoideen

    2014-09-01

    Fiber-reinforced polymer (FRP) composites are generally used for the seismic retrofit of concrete members to enhance their strength and ductility. In the present work, the confining effect of Carbon Fiber-Reinforced Polymer (CFRP) composite layers has been investigated by numerical simulation. The numerical simulation has been carried out using nonlinear finite element analysis (FEA) to predict the response behaviour of CFRP-wrapped concrete cylinders. The nonlinear behaviour of concrete in compression and the linear elastic behaviour of CFRP has been modeled using an appropriate constitutive relationship. A cohesive model has been developed for modeling the interface between the concrete and CFRP. The interaction and damage failure criteria between the concrete to the cohesive element and the cohesive element to the CFRP has also been accounted for in the modeling. The response behaviour of the wrapped concrete specimen has been compared with the proposed interface model and with a perfectly bonded condition. The results obtained from the present study showed good agreement with the experimental load-displacement response and the failure pattern in the literature. Further, a sensitivity analysis has been carried out to study the effect of the number of layers of CFRP on the concrete specimens. It has been observed that wrapping with two layers was found to be the optimum, beyond which the response becomes flexible but with a higher load-carrying capacity

  10. Constitutive model development for lightly cemented scrap rubber tire chips

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsoi, Wa Yeung

    2005-11-01

    Rubber-soil (lightly cemented scrap rubber tire chips) is a promising solution for the global scrap tire problem. It is also a promising material for various geotechnical engineering applications because of its advantageous properties such as lightweight, high permeability, high ductility and ease to cast. Intensive laboratory studies, mostly under triaxial testing, are conducted and a constitutive model is proposed. Firstly, the effective stress principle is proven applicable for Rubber-soil under normal engineering stress level although the inter-particle contact area is large. Secondly, because of the gravel-sized surface voids on the testing samples, membrane penetration is serious so an integrated remedy method is proposed, where the surface voids are patched up first and then a lubricated reinforced membrane is dressed on. It is found that the volumetric deformation of Rubber-soil is very recoverable even after 20% volume contraction but the over consolidation results illustrate a decreasing stiffness, which is believed due to volumetric damage. Shearing on the sample gives typical results as sands where clear phase transformation is observed, but the strains involved are higher and more recoverable. Besides, shear stiffness is observed decreasing with deformation, which is believed due to shear damage. There are other observations such as the difference in the curvatures of unloading and reloading curves in CD tests, which might be a frictional phenomenon. Based on the laboratory observations and on the analogy of a continuum spring-block system, a constitutive model termed as Analogical Model is proposed. Fifteen model parameters are involved but most of them are typical soil parameters. The remaining ones have clear physical meanings and can be easily calibrated. It is found that the model can satisfactorily capture many features observed from the experiments, such as hardening, softening, apparent permanent deformations, stiffness decay due to damage

  11. A meso-scale layer-specific structural constitutive model of the mitral heart valve leaflets.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Will; Ayoub, Salma; Liao, Jun; Sacks, Michael S

    2016-03-01

    Fundamental to developing a deeper understanding of pathophysiological remodeling in mitral valve (MV) disease is the development of an accurate tissue-level constitutive model. In the present work, we developed a novel meso-scale (i.e. at the level of the fiber, 10-100μm in length scale) structural constitutive model (MSSCM) for MV leaflet tissues. Due to its four-layer structure, we focused on the contributions from the distinct collagen and elastin fiber networks within each tissue layer. Requisite collagen and elastin fibrous structural information for each layer were quantified using second harmonic generation microscopy and conventional histology. A comprehensive mechanical dataset was also used to guide model formulation and parameter estimation. Furthermore, novel to tissue-level structural constitutive modeling approaches, we allowed the collagen fiber recruitment function to vary with orientation. Results indicated that the MSSCM predicted a surprisingly consistent mean effective collagen fiber modulus of 162.72MPa, and demonstrated excellent predictive capability for extra-physiological loading regimes. There were also anterior-posterior leaflet-specific differences, such as tighter collagen and elastin fiber orientation distributions (ODF) in the anterior leaflet, and a thicker and stiffer atrialis in the posterior leaflet. While a degree of angular variance was observed, the tight valvular tissue ODF also left little room for any physically meaningful angular variance in fiber mechanical responses. Finally, a novel fibril-level (0.1-1μm) validation approach was used to compare the predicted collagen fiber/fibril mechanical behavior with extant MV small angle X-ray scattering data. Results demonstrated excellent agreement, indicating that the MSSCM fully captures the tissue-level function. Future utilization of the MSSCM in computational models of the MV will aid in producing highly accurate simulations in non-physiological loading states that can

  12. Constitutive model of friction stir weld with consideration of its inhomogeneous mechanical properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Ling; Min, Junying; Wang, Bin; Lin, Jianping; Li, Fangfang; Liu, Jing

    2016-03-01

    In practical engineering, finite element(FE) modeling for weld seam is commonly simplified by neglecting its inhomogeneous mechanical properties. This will cause a significant loss in accuracy of FE forming analysis, in particular, for friction stir welded(FSW) blanks due to the large width and good formability of its weld seam. The inhomogeneous mechanical properties across weld seam need to be well characterized for an accurate FE analysis. Based on a similar AA5182 FSW blank, the metallographic observation and micro-Vickers hardness analysis upon the weld cross-section are performed to identify the interfaces of different sub-zones, i.e., heat affected zone(HAZ), thermal-mechanically affected zone(TMAZ) and weld nugget(WN). Based on the rule of mixture and hardness distribution, a constitutive model is established for each sub-zone to characterize the inhomogeneous mechanical properties across the weld seam. Uniaxial tensile tests of the AA5182 FSW blank are performed with the aid of digital image correlation(DIC) techniques. Experimental local stress-strain curves are obtained for different weld sub-zones. The experimental results show good agreement with those derived from the constitutive models, which demonstrates the feasibility and accuracy of these models. The proposed research gives an accurate characterization of inhomogeneous mechanical properties across the weld seam produced by FSW, which provides solutions for improving the FE simulation accuracy of FSW sheet forming.

  13. Some advances in experimentation supporting development of viscoplastic constitutive models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ellis, J. R.; Robinson, D. N.

    1985-01-01

    The development of a biaxial extensometer capable of measuring axial, torsion, and diametral strains to near-microstrain resolution at elevated temperatures is discussed. An instrument with this capability was needed to provide experimental support to the development of viscoplastic constitutive models. The advantages gained when torsional loading is used to investigate inelastic material response at elevated temperatures are highlighted. The development of the biaxial extensometer was conducted in two stages. The first involved a series of bench calibration experiments performed at room temperature. The second stage involved a series of in-place calibration experiments conducted at room and elevated temperature. A review of the calibration data indicated that all performance requirements regarding resolution, range, stability, and crosstalk had been met by the subject instrument over the temperature range of interest, 21 C to 651 C. The scope of the in-place calibration experiments was expanded to investigate the feasibility of generating stress relaxation data under torsional loading.

  14. Some advances in experimentation supporting development of viscoplastic constitutive models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ellis, J. R.; Robinson, D. N.

    1985-01-01

    The development of a biaxial extensometer capable of measuring axial, torsion, and diametral strains to near-microstrain resolution at elevated temperatures is discussed. An instrument with this capability was needed to provide experimental support to the development of viscoplastic constitutive models. The advantages gained when torsional loading is used to investigate inelastic material response at elevated temperatures are highlighted. The development of the biaxial extensometer was conducted in two stages. The first involved a series of bench calibration experiments performed at room temperature. The second stage involved a series of in-place calibration experiments performed at room temperature. A review of the calibration data indicated that all performance requirements regarding resolution, range, stability, and crosstalk had been met by the subject instrument over the temperature range of interest, 21 C to 651 C. The scope of the in-placed calibration experiments was expanded to investigate the feasibility of generating stress relaxation data under torsional loading.

  15. Life prediction and constitutive models for anisotropic materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bill, R. C.

    1982-01-01

    The intent of this program is to develop a basic understanding of cyclic creep-fatigue deformation mechanisms and damage accumulation, a capability for reliable life prediction, and the ability to model the constitutive behavior of anisotropic single crystal (SC) and directionally solidified or recrystallized (DSR) comprise the program, and the work breakdown for each option reflects a distinct concern for two classes of anisotropic materials, SC and DSR materials, at temperatures encountered in the primary gas path (airfoil temperatures), and at temperatures typical of the blade root attachment and shank area. Work directed toward the higher temperature area of concern in the primary gas path includes effects of coatings on the behavior and properties of the materials of interest. The blade root attachment work areas will address the effects of stress concentrations associated with attachment features.

  16. A Micromechanics Finite-Strain Constitutive Model of Fibrous Tissue

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Huan; Liu, Yi; Zhao, Xuefeng; Lanir, Yoram; Kassab, Ghassan S.

    2011-01-01

    Biological tissues have unique mechanical properties due to the wavy fibrous collagen and elastin microstructure. In inflation, a vessel easily distends under low pressure but becomes stiffer when the fibers are straightened to take up the load. The current microstructural models of blood vessels assume affine deformation; i.e., the deformation of each fiber is assumed to be identical to the macroscopic deformation of the tissue. This uniform-field (UF) assumption leads to the macroscopic (or effective) strain energy of the tissue that is the volumetric sum of the contributions of the tissue components. Here, a micromechanics-based constitutive model of fibrous tissue is developed to remove the affine assumption and to take into consideration the heterogeneous interactions between the fibers and the ground substance. The development is based on the framework of a recently developed second-order homogenization theory, and takes into account the waviness, orientations, and spatial distribution of the fibers, as well as the material nonlinearity at finite-strain deformation. In an illustrative simulation, the predictions of the macroscopic stress-strain relation, and the statistical deformation of the fibers are compared to the UF model, as well as finite-element (FE) simulation. Our predictions agree well with the FE results, while the UF predictions significantly overestimate. The effects of fiber distribution and waviness on the macroscopic stress-strain relation are also investigated. The present mathematical model may serves as a foundation for native as well as for engineered tissues and biomaterials. PMID:21927506

  17. A constitutive model for predicting rock fragmentation by blasting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Liqing; Katsabanis, P. D.

    1996-05-01

    This paper describes the development of a constitutive model for predicting rock damage and fragment size distribution due to explosive loading. The model is based on continuum mechanics and statistical fracture mechanics, assuming the rock medium is an isotropic, continuous and homogeneous material with pre-existing microcracks. In the model, damage to the rock medium is defined as the probability of fracture at a given crack density which is obtained by integrating a crack density function over time. The material constants used in the crack density function are determined according to their physical meaning. The minimum damage value at which the fragments may be formed is set by assuming that there is at least one crack per unit volume. Fragment size distribution is achieved considering the equilibrium between kinetic energy and surface energy. The simulation results are in good accordance with the theory of explosive energy partitioning in a rock medium. As a result, the damage zone induced by the shock wave and stress waves, once established, remains stable. The model has been calibrated by field crater blasting and small scale bench blasting tests.

  18. A micromechanics finite-strain constitutive model of fibrous tissue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Huan; Liu, Yi; Zhao, Xuefeng; Lanir, Yoram; Kassab, Ghassan S.

    2011-09-01

    Biological tissues have unique mechanical properties due to the wavy fibrous collagen and elastin microstructure. In inflation, a vessel easily distends under low pressure but becomes stiffer when the fibers are straightened to take up the load. The current microstructural models of blood vessels assume affine deformation, i.e., the deformation of each fiber is assumed to be identical to the macroscopic deformation of the tissue. This uniform-field (UF) assumption leads to the macroscopic (or effective) strain energy of the tissue that is the volumetric sum of the contributions of the tissue components. Here, a micromechanics-based constitutive model of fibrous tissue is developed to remove the affine assumption and to take into consideration the heterogeneous interactions between the fibers and the ground substance. The development is based on the framework of a recently developed second-order homogenization theory, and takes into account the waviness, orientations and spatial distribution of the fibers, as well as the material nonlinearity at finite-strain deformation. In an illustrative simulation, the predictions of the macroscopic stress-strain relation and the statistical deformation of the fibers are compared to the UF model, as well as finite-element (FE) simulation. Our predictions agree well with the FE results, while the UF predictions significantly overestimate. The effects of fiber distribution and waviness on the macroscopic stress-strain relation are also investigated. The present mathematical model may serves as a foundation for native as well as for engineered tissues and biomaterials.

  19. Flow Curve Determination at Large Plastic Strain Levels to Accurately Constitutive Equations of AHSS in Forming Simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lemoine, X.; Sriram, S.; Kergen, R.

    2011-05-01

    ArcelorMittal continuously develops new steel grades (AHSS) with high performance for the automotive industry to improve the weight reduction and the passive safety. The wide market introduction of AHSS raises a new challenge for manufacturers in terms of material models in the prediction of forming—especially formability and springback. The relatively low uniform elongation, the high UTS and the low forming limit curve of these AHSS may cause difficulties in forming simulations. One of these difficulties is the consequence of the relatively low uniform elongation on the parameters identification of isotropic hardening model. Different experimental tests allow to reach large plastic strain levels (hydraulic bulge test, stack compression test, shear test…). After a description on how to determine the flow curve in these experimental tests, a comparison of the different flow curves is made for different steel grades. The ArcelorMittal identification protocol for hardening models is only based on stress-strain curves determined in uniaxial tension. Experimental tests where large plastic strain levels are reached are used to validate our identification protocol and to recommend some hardening models. Finally, the influence of isotropic hardening models and yield loci in forming prediction for AHSS steels will be presented.

  20. A constitutive model for Sn-Pb solder.

    SciTech Connect

    Neilsen, Michael K.; Vianco, Paul Thomas; Boyce, Brad Lee

    2010-10-01

    A unified creep plasticity damage (UCPD) model for Sn-Pb solder is developed in this paper. Stephens and Frear (1999) studied the creep behavior of near-eutectic 60Sn-40Pb solder subjected to low strain rates and found that the inelastic (creep and plastic) strain rate could be accurately described using a hyperbolic Sine function of the applied effective stress. A recently developed high-rate servo-hydraulic method was employed to characterize the temperature and strain-rate dependent stress-strain behavior of eutectic Sn-Pb solder over a wide range of strain rates (10{sup -4} to 10{sup 2} per second). The steady state inelastic strain rate data from these latest experiments were also accurately captured by the hyperbolic Sine equation developed by Stephens and Frear. Thus, this equation was used as the basis for the UCPD model for Sn-Pb solder developed in this paper. Stephens, J.J., and Frear, D.R., Metallurgical and Materials Transactions A, Volume 30A, pp. 1301-1313, May 1999.

  1. Water wave model with accurate dispersion and vertical vorticity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bokhove, Onno

    2010-05-01

    Cotter and Bokhove (Journal of Engineering Mathematics 2010) derived a variational water wave model with accurate dispersion and vertical vorticity. In one limit, it leads to Luke's variational principle for potential flow water waves. In the another limit it leads to the depth-averaged shallow water equations including vertical vorticity. Presently, focus will be put on the Hamiltonian formulation of the variational model and its boundary conditions.

  2. An Accurate and Dynamic Computer Graphics Muscle Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Levine, David Asher

    1997-01-01

    A computer based musculo-skeletal model was developed at the University in the departments of Mechanical and Biomedical Engineering. This model accurately represents human shoulder kinematics. The result of this model is the graphical display of bones moving through an appropriate range of motion based on inputs of EMGs and external forces. The need existed to incorporate a geometric muscle model in the larger musculo-skeletal model. Previous muscle models did not accurately represent muscle geometries, nor did they account for the kinematics of tendons. This thesis covers the creation of a new muscle model for use in the above musculo-skeletal model. This muscle model was based on anatomical data from the Visible Human Project (VHP) cadaver study. Two-dimensional digital images from the VHP were analyzed and reconstructed to recreate the three-dimensional muscle geometries. The recreated geometries were smoothed, reduced, and sliced to form data files defining the surfaces of each muscle. The muscle modeling function opened these files during run-time and recreated the muscle surface. The modeling function applied constant volume limitations to the muscle and constant geometry limitations to the tendons.

  3. Constitutive Modeling of Superalloy Single Crystals and Directionally Solidified Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walker, K. P.; Jordan, E. H.

    1985-01-01

    A unified viscoplastic constitutive relation based on crystallographic slip theory was developed for the deformation analysis of nickel base face centered cubic superalloy single crystals at elevated temperature. The single crystal theory is embedded in a self consistent method to derive a constitutive relation for a directionally solidified material comprised of a polycrystalline aggregate of columnar cylindrical grains. One of the crystallographic axes of the cylindrical crystals points in the columnar direction while the remaining crystallographic axes are oriented at random in the basal plane perpendicular to the columnar direction. These constitutive formulations are coded in FORTRAN for use in nonlinear finite element and boundary element programs.

  4. Local Debonding and Fiber Breakage in Composite Materials Modeled Accurately

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bednarcyk, Brett A.; Arnold, Steven M.

    2001-01-01

    A prerequisite for full utilization of composite materials in aerospace components is accurate design and life prediction tools that enable the assessment of component performance and reliability. Such tools assist both structural analysts, who design and optimize structures composed of composite materials, and materials scientists who design and optimize the composite materials themselves. NASA Glenn Research Center's Micromechanics Analysis Code with Generalized Method of Cells (MAC/GMC) software package (http://www.grc.nasa.gov/WWW/LPB/mac) addresses this need for composite design and life prediction tools by providing a widely applicable and accurate approach to modeling composite materials. Furthermore, MAC/GMC serves as a platform for incorporating new local models and capabilities that are under development at NASA, thus enabling these new capabilities to progress rapidly to a stage in which they can be employed by the code's end users.

  5. Constitutive computational modelling foundation of piezoelectronic microstructures and application to high-frequency microchip DSAW resonators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Zhang; Jinchun, Tang

    2002-04-01

    This paper establishes a piezoelectric constitutive computational approach based on generalized eigenvalue and multivariable finite element solutions with potential applications to accurate and effective analysis of layered piezoelectric microstructures of arbitrary geometries and different anisotropic materials, to ease the limitation of current computer capacity in analyzing large-scale high-frequency disturbed surface acoustic waves (DSAW) by mounted electrodes in piezoelectric devices such as microchip SAW resonators. A new incompatible generalized hybrid/mixed element GQM5 is also proposed for improving predictions of the piezoelectric surface mount thermal stresses that are shear-dominated. The (generalized) plane strain constitutive model is numerically verified for piezoelectric finite element computation. With the help of computational piezoelectricity (electro-mechanics) for general layered structures with metal electrodes and anisotropic piezoelectric substrates, some new interesting, reliable and fundamental constitutive finite element results are obtained for high-frequency piezoelectric and mechanical SAW propagations and can be used for further applications. The ST-cut FEA results agree quite well with available exact and lab solutions for free surface case.

  6. An Accurate Temperature Correction Model for Thermocouple Hygrometers 1

    PubMed Central

    Savage, Michael J.; Cass, Alfred; de Jager, James M.

    1982-01-01

    Numerous water relation studies have used thermocouple hygrometers routinely. However, the accurate temperature correction of hygrometer calibration curve slopes seems to have been largely neglected in both psychrometric and dewpoint techniques. In the case of thermocouple psychrometers, two temperature correction models are proposed, each based on measurement of the thermojunction radius and calculation of the theoretical voltage sensitivity to changes in water potential. The first model relies on calibration at a single temperature and the second at two temperatures. Both these models were more accurate than the temperature correction models currently in use for four psychrometers calibrated over a range of temperatures (15-38°C). The model based on calibration at two temperatures is superior to that based on only one calibration. The model proposed for dewpoint hygrometers is similar to that for psychrometers. It is based on the theoretical voltage sensitivity to changes in water potential. Comparison with empirical data from three dewpoint hygrometers calibrated at four different temperatures indicates that these instruments need only be calibrated at, e.g. 25°C, if the calibration slopes are corrected for temperature. PMID:16662241

  7. An accurate temperature correction model for thermocouple hygrometers.

    PubMed

    Savage, M J; Cass, A; de Jager, J M

    1982-02-01

    Numerous water relation studies have used thermocouple hygrometers routinely. However, the accurate temperature correction of hygrometer calibration curve slopes seems to have been largely neglected in both psychrometric and dewpoint techniques.In the case of thermocouple psychrometers, two temperature correction models are proposed, each based on measurement of the thermojunction radius and calculation of the theoretical voltage sensitivity to changes in water potential. The first model relies on calibration at a single temperature and the second at two temperatures. Both these models were more accurate than the temperature correction models currently in use for four psychrometers calibrated over a range of temperatures (15-38 degrees C). The model based on calibration at two temperatures is superior to that based on only one calibration.The model proposed for dewpoint hygrometers is similar to that for psychrometers. It is based on the theoretical voltage sensitivity to changes in water potential. Comparison with empirical data from three dewpoint hygrometers calibrated at four different temperatures indicates that these instruments need only be calibrated at, e.g. 25 degrees C, if the calibration slopes are corrected for temperature. PMID:16662241

  8. More-Accurate Model of Flows in Rocket Injectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hosangadi, Ashvin; Chenoweth, James; Brinckman, Kevin; Dash, Sanford

    2011-01-01

    An improved computational model for simulating flows in liquid-propellant injectors in rocket engines has been developed. Models like this one are needed for predicting fluxes of heat in, and performances of, the engines. An important part of predicting performance is predicting fluctuations of temperature, fluctuations of concentrations of chemical species, and effects of turbulence on diffusion of heat and chemical species. Customarily, diffusion effects are represented by parameters known in the art as the Prandtl and Schmidt numbers. Prior formulations include ad hoc assumptions of constant values of these parameters, but these assumptions and, hence, the formulations, are inaccurate for complex flows. In the improved model, these parameters are neither constant nor specified in advance: instead, they are variables obtained as part of the solution. Consequently, this model represents the effects of turbulence on diffusion of heat and chemical species more accurately than prior formulations do, and may enable more-accurate prediction of mixing and flows of heat in rocket-engine combustion chambers. The model has been implemented within CRUNCH CFD, a proprietary computational fluid dynamics (CFD) computer program, and has been tested within that program. The model could also be implemented within other CFD programs.

  9. Peripapillary and Posterior Scleral Mechanics, Part I – Development of an Anisotropic Hyperelastic Constitutive Model

    PubMed Central

    Downs, J. Crawford; Burgoyne, Claude F.; Suh, J-K. Francis

    2009-01-01

    Background The sclera is the white outer shell and principal load-bearing tissue of the eye as it sustains the intraocular pressure. We have hypothesized that the mechanical properties of the posterior sclera play a significant role in, and are altered by the development of glaucoma – an ocular disease manifested by structural damage to the optic nerve head. Method of Approach An anisotropic hyperelastic constitutive model is presented to simulate the mechanical behavior of the posterior sclera under acute elevations of intraocular pressure. The constitutive model is derived from fiber-reinforced composite theory, and incorporates stretch-induced stiffening of the reinforcing collagen fibers. Collagen fiber alignment was assumed to be multi-directional at local material points, confined within the plane tangent to the scleral surface, and described by the semi-circular von-Mises distribution. The introduction of a model parameter, namely the fiber concentration factor, was used to control collagen fiber alignment along a preferred fiber orientation. To investigate the effects of scleral collagen fiber alignment on the overall behaviors of the posterior sclera and optic nerve head, finite element simulations of an idealized eye were performed. The four output quantities analyzed were the scleral canal expansion, the scleral canal twist, the posterior scleral canal deformation and the posterior laminar deformation. Results A circumferential fiber organization in the sclera restrained scleral canal expansion but created posterior laminar deformation, whereas the opposite was observed with a meridional fiber organization. Additionally, the fiber concentration factor acted as an amplifying parameter on the considered outputs. Conclusions The present model simulation suggests that the posterior sclera has a large impact on the overall behavior of the optic nerve head. It is therefore primordial to provide accurate mechanical properties for this tissue. In a companion

  10. On the importance of having accurate data for astrophysical modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lique, Francois

    2016-06-01

    The Herschel telescope and the ALMA and NOEMA interferometers have opened new windows of observation for wavelengths ranging from far infrared to sub-millimeter with spatial and spectral resolutions previously unmatched. To make the most of these observations, an accurate knowledge of the physical and chemical processes occurring in the interstellar and circumstellar media is essential.In this presentation, I will discuss what are the current needs of astrophysics in terms of molecular data and I will show that accurate molecular data are crucial for the proper determination of the physical conditions in molecular clouds.First, I will focus on collisional excitation studies that are needed for molecular lines modelling beyond the Local Thermodynamic Equilibrium (LTE) approach. In particular, I will show how new collisional data for the HCN and HNC isomers, two tracers of star forming conditions, have allowed solving the problem of their respective abundance in cold molecular clouds. I will also present the last collisional data that have been computed in order to analyse new highly resolved observations provided by the ALMA interferometer.Then, I will present the calculation of accurate rate constants for the F+H2 → HF+H and Cl+H2 ↔ HCl+H reactions, which have allowed a more accurate determination of the physical conditions in diffuse molecular clouds. I will also present the recent work on the ortho-para-H2 conversion due to hydrogen exchange that allow more accurate determination of the ortho-to-para-H2 ratio in the universe and that imply a significant revision of the cooling mechanism in astrophysical media.

  11. Constitutive modeling of fiber-reinforced cement composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boulfiza, Mohamed

    a diffused damage is more appropriate in the pre-peak regime whereas, NLFM is more suitable in the post-peak stage where the opening and propagation of a major crack will control the response of the material and not a deformation in a continuum sense as opposed to the pre-cracking zone. Tensile and compressive tests have been carried out for the sole purpose of calibrating the constitutive models proposed and/or developed in this thesis for FRC materials. The suitability of the models in predicting the response of different structural members has been performed by comparing the models' forecasts with experimental results carried out by the author, as well as experimental results from the literature. The different models proposed in this thesis have the possibility to account for the presence of fibers in the matrix, and give fairly good results for both high fiber volume fractions (vsb{f}≥2%) and low fiber volume fractions (vsb{f}<2%). Use of interface elements in a finite element code has been shown to be a powerful tool in analyzing the behavior of concrete substrate-FRC repair materials by the introduction of a zero thickness layer of interface elements to account for the interface properties which usually control the effectiveness of the repair material. ftnsp1NLFM: Non Linear Fracture Mechanics.

  12. Accurate method of modeling cluster scaling relations in modified gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Jian-hua; Li, Baojiu

    2016-06-01

    We propose a new method to model cluster scaling relations in modified gravity. Using a suite of nonradiative hydrodynamical simulations, we show that the scaling relations of accumulated gas quantities, such as the Sunyaev-Zel'dovich effect (Compton-y parameter) and the x-ray Compton-y parameter, can be accurately predicted using the known results in the Λ CDM model with a precision of ˜3 % . This method provides a reliable way to analyze the gas physics in modified gravity using the less demanding and much more efficient pure cold dark matter simulations. Our results therefore have important theoretical and practical implications in constraining gravity using cluster surveys.

  13. Constitutive modeling of cyclic plasticity and creep, using an internal time concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Watanabe, O.; Atluri, S. N.

    1986-01-01

    Using the concept of an internal time as related to plastic strains, a differential stress-strain relation for elastoplasticity is rederived, such that (1) the concept of a yield-surface is retained; (2) the definitions of elastic and plastic processes are analogous to those in classical plasticity theory; and (3) its computational implementation, via a 'tangent-stiffness' finite element method and a 'generalized-midpoint-radial-return' stress-integration algorithm, is simple and efficient. Also, using the concept of an internal time, as related to both the inelastic strains as well as the Newtonian time, a constitutive model for creep-plasticity interaction, is discussed. The problem of modeling experimental data for plasticity and creep, by the present analytical relations, as accurately as desired, is discussed. Numerical examples which illustrate the validity of the present relations are presented for the cases of cyclic plasticity and creep.

  14. Probabilistic constitutive relationships for material strength degradation models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boyce, L.; Chamis, C. C.

    1989-01-01

    In the present probabilistic methodology for the strength of aerospace propulsion system structural components subjected to such environmentally-induced primitive variables as loading stresses, high temperature, chemical corrosion, and radiation, time is encompassed as an interacting element, allowing the projection of creep and fatigue effects. A probabilistic constitutive equation is postulated to account for the degradation of strength due to these primitive variables which may be calibrated by an appropriately curve-fitted least-squares multiple regression of experimental data. The resulting probabilistic constitutive equation is embodied in the PROMISS code for aerospace propulsion component random strength determination.

  15. Anisotropic Turbulence Modeling for Accurate Rod Bundle Simulations

    SciTech Connect

    Baglietto, Emilio

    2006-07-01

    An improved anisotropic eddy viscosity model has been developed for accurate predictions of the thermal hydraulic performances of nuclear reactor fuel assemblies. The proposed model adopts a non-linear formulation of the stress-strain relationship in order to include the reproduction of the anisotropic phenomena, and in combination with an optimized low-Reynolds-number formulation based on Direct Numerical Simulation (DNS) to produce correct damping of the turbulent viscosity in the near wall region. This work underlines the importance of accurate anisotropic modeling to faithfully reproduce the scale of the turbulence driven secondary flows inside the bundle subchannels, by comparison with various isothermal and heated experimental cases. The very low scale secondary motion is responsible for the increased turbulence transport which produces a noticeable homogenization of the velocity distribution and consequently of the circumferential cladding temperature distribution, which is of main interest in bundle design. Various fully developed bare bundles test cases are shown for different geometrical and flow conditions, where the proposed model shows clearly improved predictions, in close agreement with experimental findings, for regular as well as distorted geometries. Finally the applicability of the model for practical bundle calculations is evaluated through its application in the high-Reynolds form on coarse grids, with excellent results. (author)

  16. A New Creep Constitutive Model for 7075 Aluminum Alloy Under Elevated Temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Y. C.; Jiang, Yu-Qiang; Zhou, Hua-Min; Liu, Guan

    2014-12-01

    Exposure of aluminum alloy to an elastic loading, during "creep-aging forming" or other manufacturing processes at relatively high temperature, may lead to the lasting creep deformation. The creep behaviors of 7075 aluminum alloy are investigated by uniaxial tensile creep experiments over wide ranges of temperature and external stress. The results show that the creep behaviors of the studied aluminum alloy strongly depend on the creep temperature, external stress, and creep time. With the increase of creep temperature and external stress, the creep strain increases quickly. In order to overcome the shortcomings of the Bailey-Norton law and θ projection method, a new constitutive model is proposed to describe the variations of creep strain with time for the studied aluminum alloy. In the proposed model, the dependences of creep strain on the creep temperature, external stress, and creep time are well taken into account. A good agreement between the predicted and measured creep strains shows that the established creep constitutive model can give an accurate description of the creep behaviors of 7075 aluminum alloy. Meanwhile, the obtained stress exponent indicates that the creep process is controlled by the dislocation glide, which is verified by the microstructural observations.

  17. Development of a Pressure-Dependent Constitutive Model with Combined Multilinear Kinematic and Isotropic Hardening

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allen Phillip A.; Wilson, Christopher D.

    2003-01-01

    The development of a pressure-dependent constitutive model with combined multilinear kinematic and isotropic hardening is presented. The constitutive model is developed using the ABAQUS user material subroutine (UMAT). First the pressure-dependent plasticity model is derived. Following this, the combined bilinear and combined multilinear hardening equations are developed for von Mises plasticity theory. The hardening rule equations are then modified to include pressure dependency. The method for implementing the new constitutive model into ABAQUS is given.

  18. Accurate pressure gradient calculations in hydrostatic atmospheric models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carroll, John J.; Mendez-Nunez, Luis R.; Tanrikulu, Saffet

    1987-01-01

    A method for the accurate calculation of the horizontal pressure gradient acceleration in hydrostatic atmospheric models is presented which is especially useful in situations where the isothermal surfaces are not parallel to the vertical coordinate surfaces. The present method is shown to be exact if the potential temperature lapse rate is constant between the vertical pressure integration limits. The technique is applied to both the integration of the hydrostatic equation and the computation of the slope correction term in the horizontal pressure gradient. A fixed vertical grid and a dynamic grid defined by the significant levels in the vertical temperature distribution are employed.

  19. Mouse models of human AML accurately predict chemotherapy response

    PubMed Central

    Zuber, Johannes; Radtke, Ina; Pardee, Timothy S.; Zhao, Zhen; Rappaport, Amy R.; Luo, Weijun; McCurrach, Mila E.; Yang, Miao-Miao; Dolan, M. Eileen; Kogan, Scott C.; Downing, James R.; Lowe, Scott W.

    2009-01-01

    The genetic heterogeneity of cancer influences the trajectory of tumor progression and may underlie clinical variation in therapy response. To model such heterogeneity, we produced genetically and pathologically accurate mouse models of common forms of human acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and developed methods to mimic standard induction chemotherapy and efficiently monitor therapy response. We see that murine AMLs harboring two common human AML genotypes show remarkably diverse responses to conventional therapy that mirror clinical experience. Specifically, murine leukemias expressing the AML1/ETO fusion oncoprotein, associated with a favorable prognosis in patients, show a dramatic response to induction chemotherapy owing to robust activation of the p53 tumor suppressor network. Conversely, murine leukemias expressing MLL fusion proteins, associated with a dismal prognosis in patients, are drug-resistant due to an attenuated p53 response. Our studies highlight the importance of genetic information in guiding the treatment of human AML, functionally establish the p53 network as a central determinant of chemotherapy response in AML, and demonstrate that genetically engineered mouse models of human cancer can accurately predict therapy response in patients. PMID:19339691

  20. Mouse models of human AML accurately predict chemotherapy response.

    PubMed

    Zuber, Johannes; Radtke, Ina; Pardee, Timothy S; Zhao, Zhen; Rappaport, Amy R; Luo, Weijun; McCurrach, Mila E; Yang, Miao-Miao; Dolan, M Eileen; Kogan, Scott C; Downing, James R; Lowe, Scott W

    2009-04-01

    The genetic heterogeneity of cancer influences the trajectory of tumor progression and may underlie clinical variation in therapy response. To model such heterogeneity, we produced genetically and pathologically accurate mouse models of common forms of human acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and developed methods to mimic standard induction chemotherapy and efficiently monitor therapy response. We see that murine AMLs harboring two common human AML genotypes show remarkably diverse responses to conventional therapy that mirror clinical experience. Specifically, murine leukemias expressing the AML1/ETO fusion oncoprotein, associated with a favorable prognosis in patients, show a dramatic response to induction chemotherapy owing to robust activation of the p53 tumor suppressor network. Conversely, murine leukemias expressing MLL fusion proteins, associated with a dismal prognosis in patients, are drug-resistant due to an attenuated p53 response. Our studies highlight the importance of genetic information in guiding the treatment of human AML, functionally establish the p53 network as a central determinant of chemotherapy response in AML, and demonstrate that genetically engineered mouse models of human cancer can accurately predict therapy response in patients. PMID:19339691

  1. An accurate model potential for alkali neon systems.

    PubMed

    Zanuttini, D; Jacquet, E; Giglio, E; Douady, J; Gervais, B

    2009-12-01

    We present a detailed investigation of the ground and lowest excited states of M-Ne dimers, for M=Li, Na, and K. We show that the potential energy curves of these Van der Waals dimers can be obtained accurately by considering the alkali neon systems as one-electron systems. Following previous authors, the model describes the evolution of the alkali valence electron in the combined potentials of the alkali and neon cores by means of core polarization pseudopotentials. The key parameter for an accurate model is the M(+)-Ne potential energy curve, which was obtained by means of ab initio CCSD(T) calculation using a large basis set. For each MNe dimer, a systematic comparison with ab initio computation of the potential energy curve for the X, A, and B states shows the remarkable accuracy of the model. The vibrational analysis and the comparison with existing experimental data strengthens this conclusion and allows for a precise assignment of the vibrational levels. PMID:19968334

  2. Turbulence Models for Accurate Aerothermal Prediction in Hypersonic Flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xiang-Hong; Wu, Yi-Zao; Wang, Jiang-Feng

    Accurate description of the aerodynamic and aerothermal environment is crucial to the integrated design and optimization for high performance hypersonic vehicles. In the simulation of aerothermal environment, the effect of viscosity is crucial. The turbulence modeling remains a major source of uncertainty in the computational prediction of aerodynamic forces and heating. In this paper, three turbulent models were studied: the one-equation eddy viscosity transport model of Spalart-Allmaras, the Wilcox k-ω model and the Menter SST model. For the k-ω model and SST model, the compressibility correction, press dilatation and low Reynolds number correction were considered. The influence of these corrections for flow properties were discussed by comparing with the results without corrections. In this paper the emphasis is on the assessment and evaluation of the turbulence models in prediction of heat transfer as applied to a range of hypersonic flows with comparison to experimental data. This will enable establishing factor of safety for the design of thermal protection systems of hypersonic vehicle.

  3. Constitutive Modeling and Testing of Polymer Matrix Composites Incorporating Physical Aging at Elevated Temperatures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Veazie, David R.

    1998-01-01

    Advanced polymer matrix composites (PMC's) are desirable for structural materials in diverse applications such as aircraft, civil infrastructure and biomedical implants because of their improved strength-to-weight and stiffness-to-weight ratios. For example, the next generation military and commercial aircraft requires applications for high strength, low weight structural components subjected to elevated temperatures. A possible disadvantage of polymer-based composites is that the physical and mechanical properties of the matrix often change significantly over time due to the exposure of elevated temperatures and environmental factors. For design, long term exposure (i.e. aging) of PMC's must be accounted for through constitutive models in order to accurately assess the effects of aging on performance, crack initiation and remaining life. One particular aspect of this aging process, physical aging, is considered in this research.

  4. A constitutive model for stress-induced permeability and porosity evolution of Berea sandstone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morris, J. P.; Lomov, I. N.; Glenn, L. A.

    2003-10-01

    Many applications in geophysics require good estimates of permeability evolution in response to deformation, pore collapse, dilatancy, and microfracturing. Simulations of the upper crust, oil well completion, and nuclear waste repositories depend upon reliable predictions of changes in rock permeability. For some applications, permeability can affect the strength of rock by influencing the pore pressure and effective stress. For example, the pore pressure during production from an oil bearing formation is controlled by the evolving permeability field. The rock strength, however, depends upon the effective stress which is influenced by the pore pressure. Accurate prediction of possible failure in such formations requires reliable estimates of permeability change. Ideally, such estimates could be obtained by directly simulating the changes in pore space connectivity at the microscale. In practice the system being studied is sufficiently large that constitutive models must be developed which address permeability evolution macroscopically. We develop a model for predicting porosity and permeability changes in Berea sandstone. The model has been kept as simple as possible in order to facilitate incorporation of the model into existing mechanics codes. For this reason we assume the existence of a separate material model capable of predicting the stress-strain response of the rock. In addition, the model assumes that the original pores and pores created by microfracturing can be treated separately with respect to permeability and porosity evolution. Despite these simplifying assumptions, the model is able to reproduce most of the key features observed in previously reported triaxial experiments performed on Berea sandstone.

  5. Generating Facial Expressions Using an Anatomically Accurate Biomechanical Model.

    PubMed

    Wu, Tim; Hung, Alice; Mithraratne, Kumar

    2014-11-01

    This paper presents a computational framework for modelling the biomechanics of human facial expressions. A detailed high-order (Cubic-Hermite) finite element model of the human head was constructed using anatomical data segmented from magnetic resonance images. The model includes a superficial soft-tissue continuum consisting of skin, the subcutaneous layer and the superficial Musculo-Aponeurotic system. Embedded within this continuum mesh, are 20 pairs of facial muscles which drive facial expressions. These muscles were treated as transversely-isotropic and their anatomical geometries and fibre orientations were accurately depicted. In order to capture the relative composition of muscles and fat, material heterogeneity was also introduced into the model. Complex contact interactions between the lips, eyelids, and between superficial soft tissue continuum and deep rigid skeletal bones were also computed. In addition, this paper investigates the impact of incorporating material heterogeneity and contact interactions, which are often neglected in similar studies. Four facial expressions were simulated using the developed model and the results were compared with surface data obtained from a 3D structured-light scanner. Predicted expressions showed good agreement with the experimental data. PMID:26355331

  6. Development of in vivo constitutive models for liver: application to surgical simulation.

    PubMed

    Lister, Kevin; Gao, Zhan; Desai, Jaydev P

    2011-03-01

    Advancements in real-time surgical simulation techniques have provided the ability to utilize more complex nonlinear constitutive models for biological tissues which result in increased haptic and graphic accuracy. When developing such a model, verification is necessary to determine the accuracy of the force response as well as the magnitude of tissue deformation for tool-tissue interactions. In this study, we present an experimental device which provides the ability to obtain force-displacement information as well as surface deformation of porcine liver for in vivo probing tasks. In addition, the system is capable of accurately determining the geometry of the liver specimen. These combined attributes provide the context required to simulate the experiment with accurate boundary conditions, whereby the only variable in the analysis is the material properties of the liver specimen. During the simulation, effects of settling due to gravity have been taken into account by a technique which incorporates the proper internal stress conditions in the model without altering the geometry. Initially, an Ogden model developed from ex vivo tension and compression experimentation is run through the simulation to determine the efficacy of utilizing an ex vivo model for simulation of in vivo probing tasks on porcine liver. Subsequently, a method for improving upon the ex vivo model was developed using different hyperelastic models such that increased accuracy could be achieved for the force characteristics compared to the displacement characteristics, since changes in the force variation would be more perceptible to a user in the simulation environment, while maintaining a high correlation with the surface displacement data. Furthermore, this study also presents the probing simulation which includes the capsule surrounding the liver. PMID:21161684

  7. Constitutive Modeling of High-Temperature Flow Behavior of an Nb Micro-alloyed Hot Stamping Steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Shiqi; Feng, Ding; Huang, Yunhua; Wei, Shizhong; Mohrbacher, Hardy; Zhang, Yue

    2016-03-01

    The thermal deformation behavior and constitutive models of an Nb micro-alloyed 22MnB5 steel were investigated by conducting isothermal uniaxial tensile tests at the temperature range of 873-1223 K with strain rates of 0.1-10 s-1. The results indicated that the investigated steel showed typical work hardening and dynamic recovery behavior during hot deformation, and the flow stress decreased with a decrease in strain rate and/or an increase in temperature. On the basis of the experimental data, the modified Johnson-Cook (modified JC), modified Norton-Hoff (modified NH), and Arrhenius-type (AT) constitutive models were established for the subject steel. However, the flow stress values predicted by these three models revealed some remarkable deviations from the experimental values for certain experimental conditions. Therefore, a new combined modified Norton-Hoff and Arrhenius-type constitutive model (combined modified NH-AT model), which accurately reflected both the work hardening and dynamic recovery behavior of the subject steel, was developed by introducing the modified parameter k ɛ. Furthermore, the accuracy of these constitutive models was assessed by the correlation coefficient, the average absolute relative error, and the root mean square error, which indicated that the flow stress values computed by the combined modified NH-AT model were highly consistent with the experimental values (R = 0.998, AARE = 1.63%, RMSE = 3.85 MPa). The result confirmed that the combined modified NH-AT model was suitable for the studied Nb micro-alloyed hot stamping steel. Additionally, the practicability of the new model was also verified using finite element simulations in ANSYS/LS-DYNA, and the results confirmed that the new model was practical and highly accurate.

  8. Modeling of rock friction 1. Experimental results and constitutive equations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dieterich, J.H.

    1979-01-01

    Direct shear experiments on ground surfaces of a granodiorite from Raymond, California, at normal stresses of ??6 MPa demonstrate that competing time, displacement, and velocity effects control rock friction. It is proposed that the strength of the population of points of contacts between sliding surfaces determines frictional strength and that the population of contacts changes continuously with displacements. Previous experiments demonstrate that the strength of the contacts increases with the age of the contacts. The present experiments establish that a characteristic displacement, proportional to surface roughness, is required to change the population of contacts. Hence during slip the average age of the points of contact and therefore frictional strength decrease as slip velocity increases. Displacement weakening and consequently the potential for unstable slip occur whenever displacement reduces the average age of the contacts. In addition to this velocity dependency, which arises from displacement dependency and time dependency, the experiments also show a competing but transient increase in friction whenever slip velocity increases. Creep of the sliding surface at stresses below that for steady state slip is also observed. Constitutive relationships are developed that permit quantitative simulation of the friction versus displacement data as a function of surface roughness and for different time and velocity histories. Unstable slip in experiments is controlled by these constitutive effects and by the stiffness of the experimental system. It is argued that analogous properties control earthquake instability. Copyright ?? 1979 by the American Geophysical Union.

  9. Integrated research in constitutive modelling at elevated temperatures, part 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haisler, W. E.; Allen, D. H.

    1986-01-01

    Four current viscoplastic models are compared experimentally with Inconel 718 at 1100 F. A series of tests were performed to create a sufficient data base from which to evaluate material constants. The models used include Bodner's anisotropic model; Krieg, Swearengen, and Rhode's model; Schmidt and Miller's model; and Walker's exponential model.

  10. Inverter Modeling For Accurate Energy Predictions Of Tracking HCPV Installations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bowman, J.; Jensen, S.; McDonald, Mark

    2010-10-01

    High efficiency high concentration photovoltaic (HCPV) solar plants of megawatt scale are now operational, and opportunities for expanded adoption are plentiful. However, effective bidding for sites requires reliable prediction of energy production. HCPV module nameplate power is rated for specific test conditions; however, instantaneous HCPV power varies due to site specific irradiance and operating temperature, and is degraded by soiling, protective stowing, shading, and electrical connectivity. These factors interact with the selection of equipment typically supplied by third parties, e.g., wire gauge and inverters. We describe a time sequence model accurately accounting for these effects that predicts annual energy production, with specific reference to the impact of the inverter on energy output and interactions between system-level design decisions and the inverter. We will also show two examples, based on an actual field design, of inverter efficiency calculations and the interaction between string arrangements and inverter selection.

  11. Accurate, low-cost 3D-models of gullies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Onnen, Nils; Gronz, Oliver; Ries, Johannes B.; Brings, Christine

    2015-04-01

    Soil erosion is a widespread problem in arid and semi-arid areas. The most severe form is the gully erosion. They often cut into agricultural farmland and can make a certain area completely unproductive. To understand the development and processes inside and around gullies, we calculated detailed 3D-models of gullies in the Souss Valley in South Morocco. Near Taroudant, we had four study areas with five gullies different in size, volume and activity. By using a Canon HF G30 Camcorder, we made varying series of Full HD videos with 25fps. Afterwards, we used the method Structure from Motion (SfM) to create the models. To generate accurate models maintaining feasible runtimes, it is necessary to select around 1500-1700 images from the video, while the overlap of neighboring images should be at least 80%. In addition, it is very important to avoid selecting photos that are blurry or out of focus. Nearby pixels of a blurry image tend to have similar color values. That is why we used a MATLAB script to compare the derivatives of the images. The higher the sum of the derivative, the sharper an image of similar objects. MATLAB subdivides the video into image intervals. From each interval, the image with the highest sum is selected. E.g.: 20min. video at 25fps equals 30.000 single images. The program now inspects the first 20 images, saves the sharpest and moves on to the next 20 images etc. Using this algorithm, we selected 1500 images for our modeling. With VisualSFM, we calculated features and the matches between all images and produced a point cloud. Then, MeshLab has been used to build a surface out of it using the Poisson surface reconstruction approach. Afterwards we are able to calculate the size and the volume of the gullies. It is also possible to determine soil erosion rates, if we compare the data with old recordings. The final step would be the combination of the terrestrial data with the data from our aerial photography. So far, the method works well and we

  12. A Constitutive Model for Long Time Duration Mechanical Behavior in Insensitive High Explosives

    SciTech Connect

    Darnell, I M; Oh, S; Hrousis, C A; Cunningham, B J; Gagliardi, F J

    2010-03-09

    An anisotropic constitutive model for the long term dimensional stability of insensitive high explosives is proposed. Elastic, creep, thermal, and ratchet growth strains are developed. Pressure and temperature effects are considered. The constitutive model is implemented in an implicit finite element code and compared to a variety of experimental data.

  13. Towards Accurate Molecular Modeling of Plastic Bonded Explosives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chantawansri, T. L.; Andzelm, J.; Taylor, D.; Byrd, E.; Rice, B.

    2010-03-01

    There is substantial interest in identifying the controlling factors that influence the susceptibility of polymer bonded explosives (PBXs) to accidental initiation. Numerous Molecular Dynamics (MD) simulations of PBXs using the COMPASS force field have been reported in recent years, where the validity of the force field in modeling the solid EM fill has been judged solely on its ability to reproduce lattice parameters, which is an insufficient metric. Performance of the COMPASS force field in modeling EMs and the polymeric binder has been assessed by calculating structural, thermal, and mechanical properties, where only fair agreement with experimental data is obtained. We performed MD simulations using the COMPASS force field for the polymer binder hydroxyl-terminated polybutadiene and five EMs: cyclotrimethylenetrinitramine, 1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tetra-azacyclo-octane, 2,4,6,8,10,12-hexantirohexaazazisowurzitane, 2,4,6-trinitro-1,3,5-benzenetriamine, and pentaerythritol tetranitate. Predicted EM crystallographic and molecular structural parameters, as well as calculated properties for the binder will be compared with experimental results for different simulation conditions. We also present novel simulation protocols, which improve agreement between experimental and computation results thus leading to the accurate modeling of PBXs.

  14. Peripapillary and posterior scleral mechanics--part I: development of an anisotropic hyperelastic constitutive model.

    PubMed

    Girard, Michaël J A; Downs, J Crawford; Burgoyne, Claude F; Suh, J-K Francis

    2009-05-01

    The sclera is the white outer shell and principal load-bearing tissue of the eye as it sustains the intraocular pressure. We have hypothesized that the mechanical properties of the posterior sclera play a significant role in and are altered by the development of glaucoma-an ocular disease manifested by structural damage to the optic nerve head. An anisotropic hyperelastic constitutive model is presented to simulate the mechanical behavior of the posterior sclera under acute elevations of intraocular pressure. The constitutive model is derived from fiber-reinforced composite theory, and incorporates stretch-induced stiffening of the reinforcing collagen fibers. Collagen fiber alignment was assumed to be multidirectional at local material points, confined within the plane tangent to the scleral surface, and described by the semicircular von Mises distribution. The introduction of a model parameter, namely, the fiber concentration factor, was used to control collagen fiber alignment along a preferred fiber orientation. To investigate the effects of scleral collagen fiber alignment on the overall behaviors of the posterior sclera and optic nerve head, finite element simulations of an idealized eye were performed. The four output quantities analyzed were the scleral canal expansion, the scleral canal twist, the posterior scleral canal deformation, and the posterior laminar deformation. A circumferential fiber organization in the sclera restrained scleral canal expansion but created posterior laminar deformation, whereas the opposite was observed with a meridional fiber organization. Additionally, the fiber concentration factor acted as an amplifying parameter on the considered outputs. The present model simulation suggests that the posterior sclera has a large impact on the overall behavior of the optic nerve head. It is therefore primordial to provide accurate mechanical properties for this tissue. In a companion paper (Girard, Downs, Bottlang, Burgoyne, and Suh, 2009

  15. An accurate and simple quantum model for liquid water.

    PubMed

    Paesani, Francesco; Zhang, Wei; Case, David A; Cheatham, Thomas E; Voth, Gregory A

    2006-11-14

    The path-integral molecular dynamics and centroid molecular dynamics methods have been applied to investigate the behavior of liquid water at ambient conditions starting from a recently developed simple point charge/flexible (SPC/Fw) model. Several quantum structural, thermodynamic, and dynamical properties have been computed and compared to the corresponding classical values, as well as to the available experimental data. The path-integral molecular dynamics simulations show that the inclusion of quantum effects results in a less structured liquid with a reduced amount of hydrogen bonding in comparison to its classical analog. The nuclear quantization also leads to a smaller dielectric constant and a larger diffusion coefficient relative to the corresponding classical values. Collective and single molecule time correlation functions show a faster decay than their classical counterparts. Good agreement with the experimental measurements in the low-frequency region is obtained for the quantum infrared spectrum, which also shows a higher intensity and a redshift relative to its classical analog. A modification of the original parametrization of the SPC/Fw model is suggested and tested in order to construct an accurate quantum model, called q-SPC/Fw, for liquid water. The quantum results for several thermodynamic and dynamical properties computed with the new model are shown to be in a significantly better agreement with the experimental data. Finally, a force-matching approach was applied to the q-SPC/Fw model to derive an effective quantum force field for liquid water in which the effects due to the nuclear quantization are explicitly distinguished from those due to the underlying molecular interactions. Thermodynamic and dynamical properties computed using standard classical simulations with this effective quantum potential are found in excellent agreement with those obtained from significantly more computationally demanding full centroid molecular dynamics

  16. Constitutive modeling for blast-induced wave propagation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drumm, E. C.

    1985-03-01

    The description of stress-time history acting on a buried structure is a major source of error in the analysis of underground structures to weapons loadings. The stress wave propagating spherically from the weapon is attenuated as it travels from the source. This attenuation is a function of the inelastic response of the soil, and results in an increase in the loading rise time or decrease in the loading rate. Since the inelastic soil response is a function of the loading rate, a wave propagation analysis should be conducted to determine the stresses on the structure. At the interface between the soil and structure, the stress is modified further by soil-structure interaction effects. Thus, the stress on the structure is a function of both the structural and soil properties as well as the distance traveled by the stress wave. These related phenomena can be included in a numerical analysis, but the accuracy depends on the constitutive representation of the materials. One-dimensional wave propagation experiments and impact tests with various soils are reviewed, and the attenuation as a function of the soil stress-strain response is discussed.

  17. Mathematical, Constitutive and Numerical Modelling of Catastrophic Landslides and Related Phenomena

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pastor, M.; Fernández Merodo, J. A.; Herreros, M. I.; Mira, P.; González, E.; Haddad, B.; Quecedo, M.; Tonni, L.; Drempetic, V.

    2008-02-01

    Mathematical and numerical models are a fundamental tool for predicting the behaviour of geostructures and their interaction with the environment. The term “mathematical model” refers to a mathematical description of the more relevant physical phenomena which take place in the problem being analyzed. It is indeed a wide area including models ranging from the very simple ones for which analytical solutions can be obtained to those more complicated requiring the use of numerical approximations such as the finite element method. During the last decades, mathematical, constitutive and numerical models have been very much improved and today their use is widespread both in industry and in research. One special case is that of fast catastrophic landslides, for which simplified methods are not able to provide accurate solutions in many occasions. Moreover, many finite element codes cannot be applied for propagation of the mobilized mass. The purpose of this work is to present an overview of the different alternative mathematical and numerical models which can be applied to both the initiation and propagation mechanisms of fast catastrophic landslides and other related problems such as waves caused by landslides.

  18. Integrated research in constitutive modelling at elevated temperatures, part 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haisler, W. E.; Allen, D. H.

    1986-01-01

    Topics covered include: numerical integration techniques; thermodynamics and internal state variables; experimental lab development; comparison of models at room temperature; comparison of models at elevated temperature; and integrated software development.

  19. Constitutive Modeling of the Mechanical Properties of Optical Fibers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moeti, L.; Moghazy, S.; Veazie, D.; Cuddihy, E.

    1998-01-01

    Micromechanical modeling of the composite mechanical properties of optical fibers was conducted. Good agreement was obtained between the values of Young's modulus obtained by micromechanics modeling and those determined experimentally for a single mode optical fiber where the wave guide and the jacket are physically coupled. The modeling was also attempted on a polarization-maintaining optical fiber (PANDA) where the wave guide and the jacket are physically decoupled, and found not to applicable since the modeling required perfect bonding at the interface. The modeling utilized constituent physical properties such as the Young's modulus, Poisson's ratio, and shear modulus to establish bounds on the macroscopic behavior of the fiber.

  20. Constitutive model for flake graphite cast iron automotive brake discs: from macroscopic multiscale models to a 1D rheological description

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Augustins, L.; Billardon, R.; Hild, F.

    2016-07-01

    One of the critical points of the thermomechanical fatigue design process is the correct description of the cyclic behavior of the material. This work focuses on the material of automotive brake discs, namely flake graphite cast iron. The specificity of this material is its asymmetric behavior under tensile and compressive loadings, which is due to the shape of graphite that acts as small cracks. Multiscale models inspired from the literature are first presented. They lead to a good description of the material behavior under cyclic loadings. An elastoviscoplastic constitutive model is then proposed in a one-dimensional setting in order to accurately describe cyclic tests from room temperature up to {600^{circ}{C}}.

  1. A Micromechanical Constitutive Model of Progressive Crushing in Random Carbon Fiber Polymer Matrix Composites

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, H.K.; Simunovic, S.

    1999-09-01

    A micromechanical damage constitutive model is presented to predict the overall elastoplastic behavior and damage evolution in random carbon fiber polymer matrix composites (RFPCs).To estimate the overall elastoplastic damage responses,an effective yield criterion is derived based on the ensemble-volume averaging process and first-order effects of eigenstrains due to the existence of spheroidal (prolate) fibers.The proposed effective yield criterion,to ether with the assumed overall associative plastic flow rule and hardening law, constitutes the analytical foundation for the estimation of effective elastoplastic behavior of ductile matrix composites.First,an effective elastoplastic constitutive dama e model for aligned fiber-reinforced composites is proposed.A micromechanical damage constitutive model for RFPCs is then developed.The average process over all orientations upon overning constitutive field equations and overall yield function for aligned fiber-reinforced composites i s performed to obtain the constitutive relations and effective yield function of RFPCs.The discrete numerical integration algorithms and the continuum tan ent operator are also presented to implement the proposed dama e constitutive model.The dama e constitutive model forms the basis for the pro ressive crushing in composite structures under impact loading.

  2. A constitutive model of polyether-ether-ketone (PEEK).

    PubMed

    Chen, Fei; Ou, Hengan; Lu, Bin; Long, Hui

    2016-01-01

    A modified Johnson-Cook (JC) model was proposed to describe the flow behaviour of polyether-ether-ketone (PEEK) with the consideration of coupled effects of strain, strain rate and temperature. As compared to traditional JC model, the modified one has better ability to predict the flow behaviour at elevated temperature conditions. In particular, the yield stress was found to be inversely proportional to temperature from the predictions of the proposed model. PMID:26409233

  3. Constitutive models used to simulate penetration and perforation of concrete targets

    SciTech Connect

    Akers, S.A.; Adley, M.D.

    1996-12-31

    Only a limited number of nonlinear constitutive models are available in wave propagation codes to simulate geologic materials, and these models often do not capture the fundamental and often complex mechanical behavior of these materials. Researchers at the WES have recently implemented two models, which were specifically designed for geologic materials, into the large-strain Lagrangian wave-propagation code EPIC. These models are currently being used in finite-element simulations of penetration and ground-shock problems. In this paper, the formulation of the constitutive models is examined and the implementation of the models into EPIC is briefly described. Results from a series of calculations are presented to illustrate the effect of the constitutive models on penetration and perforation problems. Three models are compared, one of the new WES models, the EPIC crushable-solids model, which is often employed to model geologic materials, and EPIC`s Holmquist-Johnson-Cook model for concrete.

  4. An analytical and explicit multi-field coupled nonlinear constitutive model for Terfenol-D giant magnetostrictive material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Hao-Miao; Li, Meng-Han; Li, Xiao-Hong; Zhang, Da-Guang

    2016-08-01

    For a giant magnetostrictive rod under the action of multiple physical loads, such as an external magnetic field, temperature and axial pre-stress, this paper proposes a general one-dimensional nonlinear magneto-thermo-mechanical coupled constitutive model. This model is based on the Taylor expansion of the elastic Gibbs free energy of giant magnetostrictive material and thermodynamic relations from the perspective of macro continuum mechanics. Predictions made using this model are in good agreement with experimental data for magnetization and the magnetostrictive strain curve under the collective effect of pre-stress and temperature. Additionally, the model overcomes the drawback of the existing magneto-thermo-mechanical constitutive model that cannot accurately predict the magnetization and magnetostrictive strain curve for different temperatures and pre-stresses. Furthermore, the constitutive model does not contain an implicit function and is compact, and can thus be applied in both situations of tensile and compressive stress and to both positive and negative magnetostrictive materials, and it is thus appropriate for engineering applications. Comprehensive analysis shows that the model fully describes the nonlinear coupling properties of a magnetic field, magnetostrictive strain and elasticity of a magnetostrictive material subjected to stress, a magnetic field and heat.

  5. Modeling and Algorithmic Approaches to Constitutively-Complex, Microstructured Fluids

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, Gregory H.; Forest, Gregory

    2011-12-22

    We present a new multiscale model for complex uids based on three scales: microscopic, kinetic, and continuum. We choose the microscopic level as Kramers' bead-rod model for polymers, which we describe as a system of stochastic di erential equations with an implicit constraint formulation. The associated Fokker-Planck equation is then derived, and adiabatic elimination removes the fast momentum coordinates. Approached in this way, the kinetic level reduces to a dispersive drift equation. The continuum level is modeled with a nite volume Godunov-projection algorithm. We demonstrate computation of viscoelastic stress divergence using this multiscale approach.

  6. Evaluation of Inelastic Constitutive Models for Nonlinear Structural Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaufman, A.

    1983-01-01

    The influence of inelastic material models on computed stress-strain states, and therefore predicted lives, was studied for thermomechanically loaded structures. Nonlinear structural analyses were performed on a fatigue specimen which was subjected to thermal cycling in fluidized beds and on a mechanically load cycled benchmark notch specimen. Four incremental plasticity creep models (isotropic, kinematic, combined isotropic-kinematic, combined plus transient creep) were exercised. Of the plasticity models, kinematic hardening gave results most consistent with experimental observations. Life predictions using the computed strain histories at the critical location with a Strainrange Partitioning approach considerably overpredicted the crack initiation life of the thermal fatigue specimen.

  7. Experience in calibrating the double-hardening constitutive model Monot

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hicks, M. A.

    2003-11-01

    The Monot double-hardening soil model has previously been implemented within a general purpose finite element algorithm, and used in the analysis of numerous practical problems. This paper reviews experience gained in calibrating Monot to laboratory data and demonstrates how the calibration process may be simplified without detriment to the range of behaviours modelled. It describes Monot's principal features, important governing equations and various calibration methods, including strategies for overconsolidated, cemented and cohesive soils. Based on a critical review of over 30 previous Monot calibrations, for sands and other geomaterials, trends in parameter values have been identified, enabling parameters to be categorized according to their relative importance. It is shown that, for most practical purposes, a maximum of only 5 parameters is needed; for the remaining parameters, standard default values are suggested. Hence, the advanced stress-strain modelling offered by Monot is attainable with a similar number of parameters as would be needed for some simpler, less versatile, models. Copyright

  8. Particle Image Velocimetry Measurements in Anatomically-Accurate Models of the Mammalian Nasal Cavity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rumple, C.; Richter, J.; Craven, B. A.; Krane, M.

    2012-11-01

    A summary of the research being carried out by our multidisciplinary team to better understand the form and function of the nose in different mammalian species that include humans, carnivores, ungulates, rodents, and marine animals will be presented. The mammalian nose houses a convoluted airway labyrinth, where two hallmark features of mammals occur, endothermy and olfaction. Because of the complexity of the nasal cavity, the anatomy and function of these upper airways remain poorly understood in most mammals. However, recent advances in high-resolution medical imaging, computational modeling, and experimental flow measurement techniques are now permitting the study of airflow and respiratory and olfactory transport phenomena in anatomically-accurate reconstructions of the nasal cavity. Here, we focus on efforts to manufacture transparent, anatomically-accurate models for stereo particle image velocimetry (SPIV) measurements of nasal airflow. Challenges in the design and manufacture of index-matched anatomical models are addressed and preliminary SPIV measurements are presented. Such measurements will constitute a validation database for concurrent computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations of mammalian respiration and olfaction. Supported by the National Science Foundation.

  9. What Constitutes a Relevant Animal Model of the Ketogenic Diet?

    PubMed Central

    Holmes, Gregory L.

    2009-01-01

    Summary Animal models of human disease have been enormously important in improving our understanding of the pathophysiological basis and the development of novel therapies. In epilepsy, modeling using both in vivo and in vitro preparations has provided insight into fundamental neuronal mechanisms. Indeed, much of our understanding of seizure mechanisms comes from animal studies. The conceptual advances in understanding basic mechanisms of epilepsies have been largely validated in humans, attesting to the validity of the rationale and providing a basis for bridging the gaps between experimental and human data. While the ketogenic diet is clearly efficacious in a wide variety of seizure types and syndromes, the mechanism of action of the diet has not been established. Animal models will continue to be enormously important in furthering our understanding of how dietary therapy can help individuals with epilepsy. PMID:19049589

  10. A kinematically driven anisotropic viscoelastic constitutive model applied to tires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, Arthur R.; Tanner, John A.; Mason, Angela J.

    1995-08-01

    Aircraft tires are composite structures manufactured with viscoelastic materials such as carbon black filled rubber and nylon cords. When loaded they experience large deflections and moderately large strains. Detailed structural models of tires require the use of either nonlinear shell or nonlinear three dimensional solid finite elements. Computational predictions of the dynamic response of tires must consider the composite viscoelastic material behavior in a realistic fashion. We describe a modification to a nonlinear anisotropic shell finite element so it can be used to model viscoelastic stresses during general deformations. The model is developed by introducing internal variables of the type used to model elastic strain energy. The internal variables are strains, curvatures, and transverse shear angles which are in a one-to-one correspondence with the generalized coordinates used to model the elastic strain energy for nonlinear response. A difference-relaxation equation is used to relate changes in the observable strain field to changes in the internal strain field. The internal stress state is introduced into the equilibrium equations by converting it to nodal loads associated with the element's displacement degrees of freedom. In this form the tangent matrix in the Newton-Raphson solution algorithm is not modified from its form for the nonlinear statics problem. Only the gradient vector is modified and the modification is not computationally costly. The existing finite element model for the Space Shuttle nose gear tire is used to provide examples of the algorithm. In the first example, the tire's rim is displaced at a constant rate up to a fixed value. In the second example, the tire's rim is enforced to follow a saw tooth load and unload curve to generate hysteresis loops.

  11. A kinematically driven anisotropic viscoelastic constitutive model applied to tires

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Arthur R.; Tanner, John A.; Mason, Angela J.

    1995-01-01

    Aircraft tires are composite structures manufactured with viscoelastic materials such as carbon black filled rubber and nylon cords. When loaded they experience large deflections and moderately large strains. Detailed structural models of tires require the use of either nonlinear shell or nonlinear three dimensional solid finite elements. Computational predictions of the dynamic response of tires must consider the composite viscoelastic material behavior in a realistic fashion. We describe a modification to a nonlinear anisotropic shell finite element so it can be used to model viscoelastic stresses during general deformations. The model is developed by introducing internal variables of the type used to model elastic strain energy. The internal variables are strains, curvatures, and transverse shear angles which are in a one-to-one correspondence with the generalized coordinates used to model the elastic strain energy for nonlinear response. A difference-relaxation equation is used to relate changes in the observable strain field to changes in the internal strain field. The internal stress state is introduced into the equilibrium equations by converting it to nodal loads associated with the element's displacement degrees of freedom. In this form the tangent matrix in the Newton-Raphson solution algorithm is not modified from its form for the nonlinear statics problem. Only the gradient vector is modified and the modification is not computationally costly. The existing finite element model for the Space Shuttle nose gear tire is used to provide examples of the algorithm. In the first example, the tire's rim is displaced at a constant rate up to a fixed value. In the second example, the tire's rim is enforced to follow a saw tooth load and unload curve to generate hysteresis loops.

  12. Formation of algae growth constitutive relations for improved algae modeling.

    SciTech Connect

    Gharagozloo, Patricia E.; Drewry, Jessica L.

    2013-01-01

    This SAND report summarizes research conducted as a part of a two year Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project to improve our abilities to model algal cultivation. Algae-based biofuels have generated much excitement due to their potentially large oil yield from relatively small land use and without interfering with the food or water supply. Algae mitigate atmospheric CO2 through metabolism. Efficient production of algal biofuels could reduce dependence on foreign oil by providing a domestic renewable energy source. Important factors controlling algal productivity include temperature, nutrient concentrations, salinity, pH, and the light-to-biomass conversion rate. Computational models allow for inexpensive predictions of algae growth kinetics in these non-ideal conditions for various bioreactor sizes and geometries without the need for multiple expensive measurement setups. However, these models need to be calibrated for each algal strain. In this work, we conduct a parametric study of key marine algae strains and apply the findings to a computational model.

  13. Constitutive Models for Debris-bearing Ice Layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moore, P. L.

    2013-12-01

    Rock debris is incorporated within many glaciers and ice sheets, particularly in basal ice layers and englacial debris bands. Field observations and laboratory experiments have shown that debris inclusions can both strengthen and weaken ice by as much as two orders of magnitude compared to debris-free ice under the same conditions. Nevertheless, models of glacier flow usually neglect any effect of debris-bearing layers. Where debris-bearing ice is present, proper treatment of its deformation could profoundly impact model results. A three-phase mechanical model is presented that reproduces many of the key observations of debris-bearing ice rheology. First order variables in the model are limited to debris concentration, particle size, solute concentration and temperature. At low debris concentrations (less than about 40% by volume), the mixture is treated under the framework of a dispersion-strengthened metal alloy but with a fluidity that is enhanced by premelted water at ice-debris interfaces. While debris strengthens the ice by interfering with the motion of dislocations, thermally-activated detachment can reduce the effect at temperatures close to melting. At these warm temperatures, recovery aided by unfrozen interfacial water acts to weaken the mixture, an effect that is further ehnanced by the presence of solutes at particle surfaces. Whether the debris-bearing ice is stronger or weaker than debris-free ice in the model depends strongly on the specific surface area of the debris and on a parameter that describes the thermal detachment of dislocations. As debris concentrations exceed about 40%, dispersion-strengthened ice flow still governs bulk deformation but the effective viscosity is further increased by enhanced strain rates in the ice "matrix" as the average inter-particle distance declines. At still higher concentrations (greater than about 52% by volume for sand), deformation is primarily frictional. The mixture is thus treated as a dilatant Coulomb

  14. Constitutive Relationships and Models in Continuum Theories of Multiphase Flows. [conferences

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Decker, Rand (Editor)

    1989-01-01

    In April, 1989, a workshop on constitutive relationships and models in continuum theories of multiphase flows was held at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center. Topics of constitutive relationships for the partial or per phase stresses, including the concept of solid phase pressure are discussed. Models used for the exchange of mass, momentum, and energy between the phases in a multiphase flow are also discussed. The program, abstracts, and texts of the presentations from the workshop are included.

  15. Non-linear approach in visco-hyperelastic constitutive modelling of polyurethane nanocomposite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pawlikowski, Marek

    2014-02-01

    The constitutive modelling of the polyurethane nanocomposite presented in the paper is done in the context of its possible application as one of the components of the intervertebral disc prosthesis. The constitutive study is a part of the researches aiming at creation of the new prosthetic device. The material is considered as incompressible, isotropic and visco-hyperelastic one. The focus of the work lies on the formulation of a constitutive equation for its further implementation in finite element analyses. The equation is formulated on the basis of uniaxial monotonic compression tests and relaxation tests performed at room temperature. The constants of the constitutive model are determined from the experimental data by means of the curve-fitting approach employing least-squares optimisation method. The constitutive modelling consisted of two steps. In the first one pure hyperelastic model was determined. The Mooney-Rivlin model proved to be the best one to describe hyperelastic behaviour of the material. In the second step non-linear visco-hyperelastic model was derived. Relaxation times, characteristic amplitudes and Mooney-Rivlin hyperelastic constants were calibrated on the basis of strain-stress curves (hysteresis loops) obtained experimentally at three strain rates, i.e. and . The constitutive law is validated on the basis of relaxation test. The paper concludes with summary and plans for further investigations in the area.

  16. Application of high performance computing to automotive design and manufacturing: Composite materials modeling task technical manual for constitutive models for glass fiber-polymer matrix composites

    SciTech Connect

    Simunovic, S; Zacharia, T

    1997-11-01

    This report provides a theoretical background for three constitutive models for a continuous strand mat (CSM) glass fiber-thermoset polymer matrix composite. The models were developed during fiscal years 1994 through 1997 as a part of the Cooperative Research and Development Agreement, "Application of High-Performance Computing to Automotive Design and Manufacturing." The full derivation of constitutive relations in the framework of the continuum program DYNA3D and have been used for the simulation and impact analysis of CSM composite tubes. The analysis of simulation and experimental results show that the model based on strain tensor split yields the most accurate results of the three implemented models. The parameters used in the models and their derivation from the physical tests are documented.

  17. Life prediction and constitutive models for engine hot section anisotropic materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Swanson, G. A.; Linask, I.; Nissley, D. M.; Norris, P. P.; Meyer, T. G.; Walker, K. P.

    1987-01-01

    The results are presented of a program designed to develop life prediction and constitutive models for two coated single crystal alloys used in gas turbine airfoils. The two alloys are PWA 1480 and Alloy 185. The two oxidation resistant coatings are PWA 273, an aluminide coating, and PWA 286, an overlay NiCoCrAlY coating. To obtain constitutive and fatigue data, tests were conducted on uncoated and coated specimens loaded in the CH76 100 CH110 , CH76 110 CH110 , CH76 111 CH110 and CH76 123 CH110 crystallographic directions. Two constitutive models are being developed and evaluated for the single crystal materials: a micromechanic model based on crystallographic slip systems, and a macroscopic model which employs anisotropic tensors to model inelastic deformation anisotropy. Based on tests conducted on the overlay coating material, constitutive models for coatings also appear feasible and two initial models were selected. A life prediction approach was proposed for coated single crystal materials, including crack initiation either in the coating or in the substrate. The coating initiated failures dominated in the tests at load levels typical of gas turbine operation. Coating life was related to coating stress/strain history which was determined from specimen data using the constitutive models.

  18. A micromechanical constitutive model for the dynamic response of brittle materials "Dynamic response of marble"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haberman, Keith

    2001-07-01

    A micromechanically based constitutive model for the dynamic inelastic behavior of brittle materials, specifically "Dionysus-Pentelicon marble" with distributed microcracking is presented. Dionysus-Pentelicon marble was used in the construction of the Parthenon, in Athens, Greece. The constitutive model is a key component in the ability to simulate this historic explosion and the preceding bombardment form cannon fire that occurred at the Parthenon in 1678. Experiments were performed by Rosakis (1999) that characterized the static and dynamic response of this unique material. A micromechanical constitutive model that was previously successfully used to model the dynamic response of granular brittle materials is presented. The constitutive model was fitted to the experimental data for marble and reproduced the experimentally observed basic uniaxial dynamic behavior quite well. This micromechanical constitutive model was then implemented into the three dimensional nonlinear lagrangain finite element code Dyna3d(1998). Implementing this methodology into the three dimensional nonlinear dynamic finite element code allowed the model to be exercised on several preliminary impact experiments. During future simulations, the model is to be used in conjunction with other numerical techniques to simulate projectile impact and blast loading on the Dionysus-Pentelicon marble and on the structure of the Parthenon.

  19. Research and development program for non-linear structural modeling with advanced time-temperature dependent constitutive relationships

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walker, K. P.

    1981-01-01

    Results of a 20-month research and development program for nonlinear structural modeling with advanced time-temperature constitutive relationships are reported. The program included: (1) the evaluation of a number of viscoplastic constitutive models in the published literature; (2) incorporation of three of the most appropriate constitutive models into the MARC nonlinear finite element program; (3) calibration of the three constitutive models against experimental data using Hastelloy-X material; and (4) application of the most appropriate constitutive model to a three dimensional finite element analysis of a cylindrical combustor liner louver test specimen to establish the capability of the viscoplastic model to predict component structural response.

  20. Life prediction and constitutive models for engine hot section anisotropic materials program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Swanson, G. A.; Linask, I.; Nissley, D. M.; Norris, P. P.; Meyer, T. G.; Walker, K. P.

    1986-01-01

    This report presents the results of the first year of a program designed to develop life prediction and constitutive models for two coated single crystal alloys used in gas turbine airfoils. The two alloys are PWA 1480 and Alloy 185. The two oxidation resistant coatings are PWA 273, an aluminide coating, and PWA 286, an overlay NiCoCrAlY coating. To obtain constitutive and/or fatigue data, tests were conducted on coated and uncoated PWA 1480 specimens tensilely loaded in the 100 , 110 , 111 , and 123 directions. A literature survey of constitutive models was completed for both single crystal alloys and metallic coating materials; candidate models were selected. One constitutive model under consideration for single crystal alloys applies Walker's micromechanical viscoplastic formulation to all slip systems participating in the single crystal deformation. The constitutive models for the overlay coating correlate the viscoplastic data well. For the aluminide coating, a unique test method is under development. LCF and TMF tests are underway. The two coatings caused a significant drop in fatigue life, and each produced a much different failure mechanism.

  1. Modeling the Constitutive Relationship of Powder Metallurgy Ti-47Al-2Nb-2Cr Alloy During Hot Deformation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Yu; Hu, Lianxi; Ren, Junshuai

    2015-03-01

    In the present work, the isothermal compression tests of PM alloy Ti-47Al-2Nb-2Cr were carried out in the temperature range of 950-1200 °C. A Gleeble 1500D thermosimulation machine was used, and samples were tested at strain rates ranging from 10-3 to 10-1 s-1. Based on the obtained flow stress curves, the hot deformation behavior was presented. The constitutive relationship of powder metallurgy (PM) Ti-47Al-2Nb-2Cr alloy was developed using an Arrhenius-type constitutive model that involves strain compensation in addition to an artificial neural network model. The accuracy and reliability of the developed models were quantified in terms of statistical parameters such as correlation coefficient and absolute value of relative error. It was found that deformation temperature and strain rate have obvious effects on the flow characteristics, and the flow stress increases with the increasing strain rate and the decreasing temperature. Moreover, the proposed models possess excellent prediction capability of flow stresses for the present alloy during hot deformation. Compared with the traditional Arrhenius-type model, the backpropagation neural network model is more accurate when presenting the isothermal compressing deformation behavior at elevated temperatures for PM Ti-47Al-2Nb-2Cr alloy.

  2. New process model proves accurate in tests on catalytic reformer

    SciTech Connect

    Aguilar-Rodriguez, E.; Ancheyta-Juarez, J. )

    1994-07-25

    A mathematical model has been devised to represent the process that takes place in a fixed-bed, tubular, adiabatic catalytic reforming reactor. Since its development, the model has been applied to the simulation of a commercial semiregenerative reformer. The development of mass and energy balances for this reformer led to a model that predicts both concentration and temperature profiles along the reactor. A comparison of the model's results with experimental data illustrates its accuracy at predicting product profiles. Simple steps show how the model can be applied to simulate any fixed-bed catalytic reformer.

  3. Coupling Efforts to the Accurate and Efficient Tsunami Modelling System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Son, S.

    2015-12-01

    In the present study, we couple two different types of tsunami models, i.e., nondispersive shallow water model of characteristic form(MOST ver.4) and dispersive Boussinesq model of non-characteristic form(Son et al. (2011)) in an attempt to improve modelling accuracy and efficiency. Since each model deals with different type of primary variables, additional care on matching boundary condition is required. Using an absorbing-generating boundary condition developed by Van Dongeren and Svendsen(1997), model coupling and integration is achieved. Characteristic variables(i.e., Riemann invariants) in MOST are converted to non-characteristic variables for Boussinesq solver without any loss of physical consistency. Established modelling system has been validated through typical test problems to realistic tsunami events. Simulated results reveal good performance of developed modelling system. Since coupled modelling system provides advantageous flexibility feature during implementation, great efficiencies and accuracies are expected to be gained through spot-focusing application of Boussinesq model inside the entire domain of tsunami propagation.

  4. Constitutive modeling of aluminum foam and finite element implementation for crash simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bi, Jing

    In the past decades metallic foams have been increasingly used as filler materials in crashworthiness applications due to their relatively low cost and high capacity of energy absorption. Due to the destructive nature of crashes, studies on the performance of metallic foams using physical testing have been limited to examining the crushing force histories and/or folding patterns that are insufficient for crashworthiness designs. For this reason, numerical simulations, particularly nonlinear finite element (FE) analyses, play an important role in designing crashworthy foam-filled structures. An effective and numerically stable model is needed for modeling metallic foams that are porous and encounter large nonlinear deformations in crashes. In this study a new constitutive model for metallic foams is developed to overcome the deficiency of existing models in commercial FE codes such as LS-DYNA. The new constitutive model accounts for volume changes under hydrostatic compression and combines the hydrostatic pressure and von Mises stress into one yield function. The change of the compressibility of the metallic foam is handled in the constitutive model by allowing for shape changes of the yield surface in the hydrostatic pressure-von Mises stress space. The backward Euler method is adopted to integrate the constitutive equations to achieve numerical accuracy and stability. The new foam model is verified and validated by existing experimental data before used in FE simulations of crushing of foam-filled columns that have square and hexagonal cross-sections.

  5. Parallel kinetic Monte Carlo simulation framework incorporating accurate models of adsorbate lateral interactions

    SciTech Connect

    Nielsen, Jens; D’Avezac, Mayeul; Hetherington, James; Stamatakis, Michail

    2013-12-14

    Ab initio kinetic Monte Carlo (KMC) simulations have been successfully applied for over two decades to elucidate the underlying physico-chemical phenomena on the surfaces of heterogeneous catalysts. These simulations necessitate detailed knowledge of the kinetics of elementary reactions constituting the reaction mechanism, and the energetics of the species participating in the chemistry. The information about the energetics is encoded in the formation energies of gas and surface-bound species, and the lateral interactions between adsorbates on the catalytic surface, which can be modeled at different levels of detail. The majority of previous works accounted for only pairwise-additive first nearest-neighbor interactions. More recently, cluster-expansion Hamiltonians incorporating long-range interactions and many-body terms have been used for detailed estimations of catalytic rate [C. Wu, D. J. Schmidt, C. Wolverton, and W. F. Schneider, J. Catal. 286, 88 (2012)]. In view of the increasing interest in accurate predictions of catalytic performance, there is a need for general-purpose KMC approaches incorporating detailed cluster expansion models for the adlayer energetics. We have addressed this need by building on the previously introduced graph-theoretical KMC framework, and we have developed Zacros, a FORTRAN2003 KMC package for simulating catalytic chemistries. To tackle the high computational cost in the presence of long-range interactions we introduce parallelization with OpenMP. We further benchmark our framework by simulating a KMC analogue of the NO oxidation system established by Schneider and co-workers [J. Catal. 286, 88 (2012)]. We show that taking into account only first nearest-neighbor interactions may lead to large errors in the prediction of the catalytic rate, whereas for accurate estimates thereof, one needs to include long-range terms in the cluster expansion.

  6. Constitutive model of creep in polycrystalline halite based on workhardening and recovery

    SciTech Connect

    Munson, D.E.

    1993-07-01

    A multimechanism constitutive model of creep has been developed which incorporates the workhardening and recovery transient creep behavior. This model has been applied to the creep of polycrystalline halite. The specific application of the model is in the calculation of the closure of underground rooms in layered salt deposits. Through the use of finite element calculations, this model, with appropriate laboratory material parameters and a Tresca flow potential, has predicted the measured closure of a number of large in situ experimental rooms.

  7. A micromechanics constitutive model of transformation plasticity with shear and dilatation effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Q. P.; Hwang, K. C.; Yu, S. W.

    B ASED on micromechanics, thermodynamics and microscale t → m transformation mechanism considerations a micromechanics constitutive model which takes into account both the dilatation and shear effects of the transformation is proposed to describe the plastic, pseudoelastic and shape memory behaviors of structural ceramics during transformation under different temperatures. In the derivation, a constitutive element (representative material sample) was used which contains many of the transformed m-ZrO 2 grains or precipitates as the second phase inclusions embedded in an elastic matrix. Under some basic assumptions, analytic expressions for the Helmholtz and complementary free energy of the constitutive element are derived in a self-consistent manner by using the Mori-Tanaka method which takes into account the interaction between the transformed inclusions. The derived free energy is a function of externally applied macroscopic stress (or strain), temperature, volume fraction of transformed phase and the averaged stressfree transformation strain (eigenstrain) of all the transformed inclusions in the constitutive element, the latter two quantities being considered to be the internal variables describing the micro-structural rearrangement in the constitutive element. In the framework of the Hill-Rice internal variable constitutive theory, the transformation yield function and incremental stress strain relations, in analogy to the theory of metal plasticity, for proportional and non-proportional loading histories are derived, respectively. The theoretical predictions are compared with the available experimental data of Mg-PSZ and Ce-TZP polycrystalline toughening ceramics.

  8. A constitutive material model for nonlinear finite element structural analysis using an iterative matrix approach

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koenig, Herbert A.; Chan, Kwai S.; Cassenti, Brice N.; Weber, Richard

    1988-01-01

    A unified numerical method for the integration of stiff time dependent constitutive equations is presented. The solution process is directly applied to a constitutive model proposed by Bodner. The theory confronts time dependent inelastic behavior coupled with both isotropic hardening and directional hardening behaviors. Predicted stress-strain responses from this model are compared to experimental data from cyclic tests on uniaxial specimens. An algorithm is developed for the efficient integration of the Bodner flow equation. A comparison is made with the Euler integration method. An analysis of computational time is presented for the three algorithms.

  9. Constitutive model for the dynamic response of a NiTi shape memory alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Xiaohong; Zeng, Xiangguo; Chen, Huayan

    2016-07-01

    In this paper, based on irreversible thermodynamic theory, the Helmholtz free energy function, was selected to deduce both the master equations and evolution equations of the constitutive model of a NiTi alloy under high strain. The Helmholtz free energy function contains the parameters of the reflecting phase transition and plastic property. The constitutive model for a NiTi alloy was implemented using a semi-implicit stress integration algorithm. Four successive stages can be differentiated and simulated: parent phase elasticity, martensitic phase transition, martensitic elasticity, and dislocation yield. The simulation results are in good agreement with the experimental results.

  10. Turbulence constitutive modeling of the square root of the Reynolds stress

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ariki, Taketo

    2015-11-01

    A methodology for turbulence constitutive modeling is discussed on the basis of the square-root tensor of the Reynolds stress. The present methodology can satisfy the realizability condition for the Reynolds stress proposed by Schumann [Phys. Fluids 20, 721 (1977)], 10.1063/1.861942 in a more general manner than the conventional methodologies. The definition and uniqueness of the square-root tensor have been discussed, and its boundary condition has been properly obtained consistently with that of the Reynolds stress. Examples of possible constitutive models of both tensor-expansion and transport-equation types have been proposed.

  11. Turbulence constitutive modeling of the square root of the Reynolds stress.

    PubMed

    Ariki, Taketo

    2015-11-01

    A methodology for turbulence constitutive modeling is discussed on the basis of the square-root tensor of the Reynolds stress. The present methodology can satisfy the realizability condition for the Reynolds stress proposed by Schumann [Phys. Fluids 20, 721 (1977)] in a more general manner than the conventional methodologies. The definition and uniqueness of the square-root tensor have been discussed, and its boundary condition has been properly obtained consistently with that of the Reynolds stress. Examples of possible constitutive models of both tensor-expansion and transport-equation types have been proposed. PMID:26651782

  12. An anisotropic hyperelastic constitutive model of brain white matter in biaxial tension and structural-mechanical relationships.

    PubMed

    Labus, Kevin M; Puttlitz, Christian M

    2016-09-01

    Computational models of the brain require accurate and robust constitutive models to characterize the mechanical behavior of brain tissue. The anisotropy of white matter has been previously demonstrated; however, there is a lack of data describing the effects of multi-axial loading, even though brain tissue experiences multi-axial stress states. Therefore, a biaxial tensile experiment was designed to more fully characterize the anisotropic behavior of white matter in a quasi-static loading state, and the mechanical data were modeled with an anisotropic hyperelastic continuum model. A probabilistic analysis was used to quantify the uncertainty in model predictions because the mechanical data of brain tissue can show a high degree of variability, and computational studies can benefit from reporting the probability distribution of model responses. The axonal structure in white matter can be heterogeneous and regionally dependent, which can affect computational model predictions. Therefore, corona radiata and corpus callosum regions were tested, and histology and transmission electron microscopy were performed on tested specimens to relate the distribution of axon orientations and the axon volume fraction to the mechanical behavior. These measured properties were implemented into a structural constitutive model. Results demonstrated a significant, but relatively low anisotropic behavior, yet there were no conclusive mechanical differences between the two regions tested. The inclusion of both biaxial and uniaxial tests in model fits improved the accuracy of model predictions. The mechanical anisotropy of individual specimens positively correlated with the measured axon volume fraction, and, accordingly, the structural model exhibited slightly decreased uncertainty in model predictions compared to the model without structural properties. PMID:27214689

  13. Biomechanical behavior of bovine periodontal ligament: Experimental tests and constitutive model.

    PubMed

    Oskui, Iman Z; Hashemi, Ata; Jafarzadeh, Hamid

    2016-09-01

    A viscohyperelastic constitutive model with the use of the internal variables approach was formulated to evaluate the nonlinear elastic and time dependent anisotropic mechanical behavior of the periodontal ligament (PDL). Since the relaxation response was found to depend on the applied stretch, the adoption of the nonlinear viscous behavior in the present model was necessary. In this paper, Helmholtz free energy function was assigned to the material as the sum of hyperelastic and viscous terms which is based on the physical concept of internal variables. The constitutive model parameters were evaluated from the comparison of the proposed model and experimental data. For this purpose, tensile response of the bovine PDL samples under different stretch rates was obtained. The good correspondence between the proposed model and the experimental results confirmed the capability of the model to interpret the stretch rate behavior of the PDL. Moreover, the validity of structural model parameters was checked according to the results of the stress relaxation tests. PMID:27315371

  14. Constitutive Modeling of Porcine Liver in Indentation Using 3D Ultrasound Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Jordan, P.; Socrate, S.; Zickler, T.E.; Howe, R.D.

    2009-01-01

    In this work we present an inverse finite-element modeling framework for constitutive modeling and parameter estimation of soft tissues using full-field volumetric deformation data obtained from 3D ultrasound. The finite-element model is coupled to full-field visual measurements by regularization springs attached at nodal locations. The free ends of the springs are displaced according to the locally estimated tissue motion and the normalized potential energy stored in all springs serves as a measure of model-experiment agreement for material parameter optimization. We demonstrate good accuracy of estimated parameters and consistent convergence properties on synthetically generated data. We present constitutive model selection and parameter estimation for perfused porcine liver in indentation and demonstrate that a quasilinear viscoelastic model with shear modulus relaxation offers good model-experiment agreement in terms of indenter displacement (0.19 mm RMS error) and tissue displacement field (0.97 mm RMS error). PMID:19627823

  15. Life prediction and constitutive models for engine hot section anisotropic materials program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nissley, D. M.; Meyer, T. G.; Walker, K. P.

    1992-01-01

    This report presents a summary of results from a 7 year program designed to develop generic constitutive and life prediction approaches and models for nickel-based single crystal gas turbine airfoils. The program was composed of a base program and an optional program. The base program addressed the high temperature coated single crystal regime above the airfoil root platform. The optional program investigated the low temperature uncoated single crystal regime below the airfoil root platform including the notched conditions of the airfoil attachment. Both base and option programs involved experimental and analytical efforts. Results from uniaxial constitutive and fatigue life experiments of coated and uncoated PWA 1480 single crystal material formed the basis for the analytical modeling effort. Four single crystal primary orientations were used in the experiments: group of zone axes (001), group of zone axes (011), group of zone axes (111), and group of zone axes (213). Specific secondary orientations were also selected for the notched experiments in the optional program. Constitutive models for an overlay coating and PWA 1480 single crystal materials were developed based on isothermal hysteresis loop data and verified using thermomechanical (TMF) hysteresis loop data. A fatigue life approach and life models were developed for TMF crack initiation of coated PWA 1480. A life model was developed for smooth and notched fatigue in the option program. Finally, computer software incorporating the overlay coating and PWA 1480 constitutive and life models was developed.

  16. Life prediction and constitutive models for engine hot section anisotropic materials program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nissley, D. M.; Meyer, T. G.

    1992-01-01

    This report presents the results from a 35 month period of a program designed to develop generic constitutive and life prediction approaches and models for nickel-based single crystal gas turbine airfoils. The program is composed of a base program and an optional program. The base program addresses the high temperature coated single crystal regime above the airfoil root platform. The optional program investigates the low temperature uncoated single crystal regime below the airfoil root platform including the notched conditions of the airfoil attachment. Both base and option programs involve experimental and analytical efforts. Results from uniaxial constitutive and fatigue life experiments of coated and uncoated PWA 1480 single crystal material form the basis for the analytical modeling effort. Four single crystal primary orientations were used in the experiments: (001), (011), (111), and (213). Specific secondary orientations were also selected for the notched experiments in the optional program. Constitutive models for an overlay coating and PWA 1480 single crystal material were developed based on isothermal hysteresis loop data and verified using thermomechanical (TMF) hysteresis loop data. A fatigue life approach and life models were selected for TMF crack initiation of coated PWA 1480. An initial life model used to correlate smooth and notched fatigue data obtained in the option program shows promise. Computer software incorporating the overlay coating and PWA 1480 constitutive models was developed.

  17. Systematic coarse graining flowing polymer melts: thermodynamically guided simulations and resulting constitutive model.

    PubMed

    Iig, Patrick

    2011-01-01

    Complex fluids, such as polymers, colloids, liquid-crystals etc., show intriguing viscoelastic properties, due to the complicated interplay between flow-induced structure formation and dynamical behavior. Starting from microscopic models of complex fluids, a systematic coarse-graining method is presented that allows us to derive closed-form and thermodynamically consistent constitutive equations for such fluids. Essential ingredients of the proposed approach are thermodynamically guided simulations within a consistent coarse-graining scheme. In addition to this new type of multiscale simulations, we reconstruct the building blocks that constitute the thermodynamically consistent coarse-grained model. We illustrate the method for low-molecular polymer melts, which are subject to different imposed flow fields like planar shear and different elongational flows. The constitutive equation for general flow conditions we obtain shows rheological behavior including shear thinning, normal stress differences, and elongational viscosities in good agreement with reference results. PMID:21678766

  18. Experimental study of cancellous bone under large strains and a constitutive probabilistic model.

    PubMed

    Kefalas, V; Eftaxiopoulos, D A

    2012-02-01

    Experimental study of bovine cancellous bone up to compaction under uniaxial compression and up to fracture under tension, has been pursued in this article. Compression experiments have revealed the known three stages of the constitutive response, namely the initial increasing and softening branches at moderate strains, the plateau region at large strains and the hardening part at very large strains under compaction. Tension tests have quantified the increasing and softening branches of the stress-strain curve up to fracture. Subsequently, a constitutive mechanical model, for the simulation of the experimental findings up to very large strains (75% engineering strain under compression), is proposed. The model is based on the statistical description of (a) the failure process of the trabecular structure at small and moderate strains and (b) the compaction process of the trabecular mass at very large strains under compression. Several fitting cases indicated that the presented constitutive law can capture the evolution of the experimental results. PMID:22301172

  19. Constitutive model for shape memory alloys and its use in design and finite element analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bose, Sudip; Santhanam, Sridhar

    2002-07-01

    A constitutive model for predicting the thermomechanical behavior of Shape Memory Alloys (SMAs) has been developed and validated. The model uses an approach similar to Brinson, Liang and Rogers, and Tanaka. It links key thermomechanical variables: stress, strain, temperature, and martensite fraction. A basic differential form for the SMA constitutive behavior, developed by Tanaka, forms the foundation of the model. The model is completed with a definition of the rules governing the behavior of martensite fraction. Like Brinson, the model distinguishes between de-twinned and twinned martensite. The phase transition temperatures are assumed to be a linear function of applied stress. The forward and reverse phase transformations are described by piecewise exponential functions. There are a number of parameters in the model that need to be determined using experimental data. The critical transformation temperatures are determined by resistivity measurements. All other parameters are determined by mechanical tension testing followed by nonlinear least-squares estimations. Mechanical testing consisted of displacement controlled, tension tests on Nitinol wires at several temperatures. The effectiveness of this model is demonstrated by its use in the design of an SMA actuated robotic arm. The constitutive model is used in conjunction with a lumped heat transfer model, a kinematic model, and a dynamic model to predict the behavior of the arm. Comparison between predictions and experimentally observed behavior is very good indicating a sound constitutive model. The model is also built into a finite element code that simulates pseudoelastic SMA behavior. The code considers geometric and material nonlinearities. The behavior of a simple pseudoelastic device is shown to be well predicted by the finite element code.

  20. Multi-step loading/unloading experiments that challenge constitutive models of glassy polymers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caruthers, James; Medvedev, Grigori

    2014-03-01

    The mechanical response of glassy polymers depends on the thermal and deformational history, where the resulting relaxation phenomenon remains a significant challenge for constitutive modeling. For strain controlled experiments the stress response is measured during loading/unloading ramps and a constant strain. By judiciously combining the basic steps, a set of multi-step experiments have been designed to challenge existing constitutive models for glassy polymers. A particular example is the ``stress memory'' experiment, i.e. loading through yield, unloading to zero stress, and holding at final strain, where the subsequent evolution of the stress exhibits an overshoot. The observed dependence of the overshoot on the loading strain rate cannot be explained by the models where the relaxation time is a function of stress or strain. Another discriminating multi-step history experiment involves strain accumulation to test the common assumption that the phenomenon of strain hardening is caused by a purely elastic contribution to stress. Experimental results will be presented for a low Tg epoxy system, and the data will be used to critically analyze the predictions of both traditional viscoelastic/viscoplastic constitutive models and a recently developed Stochastic Constitutive Model.

  1. Accurate modelling of flow induced stresses in rigid colloidal aggregates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vanni, Marco

    2015-07-01

    A method has been developed to estimate the motion and the internal stresses induced by a fluid flow on a rigid aggregate. The approach couples Stokesian dynamics and structural mechanics in order to take into account accurately the effect of the complex geometry of the aggregates on hydrodynamic forces and the internal redistribution of stresses. The intrinsic error of the method, due to the low-order truncation of the multipole expansion of the Stokes solution, has been assessed by comparison with the analytical solution for the case of a doublet in a shear flow. In addition, it has been shown that the error becomes smaller as the number of primary particles in the aggregate increases and hence it is expected to be negligible for realistic reproductions of large aggregates. The evaluation of internal forces is performed by an adaptation of the matrix methods of structural mechanics to the geometric features of the aggregates and to the particular stress-strain relationship that occurs at intermonomer contacts. A preliminary investigation on the stress distribution in rigid aggregates and their mode of breakup has been performed by studying the response to an elongational flow of both realistic reproductions of colloidal aggregates (made of several hundreds monomers) and highly simplified structures. A very different behaviour has been evidenced between low-density aggregates with isostatic or weakly hyperstatic structures and compact aggregates with highly hyperstatic configuration. In low-density clusters breakup is caused directly by the failure of the most stressed intermonomer contact, which is typically located in the inner region of the aggregate and hence originates the birth of fragments of similar size. On the contrary, breakup of compact and highly cross-linked clusters is seldom caused by the failure of a single bond. When this happens, it proceeds through the removal of a tiny fragment from the external part of the structure. More commonly, however

  2. Magnetic field models of nine CP stars from "accurate" measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glagolevskij, Yu. V.

    2013-01-01

    The dipole models of magnetic fields in nine CP stars are constructed based on the measurements of metal lines taken from the literature, and performed by the LSD method with an accuracy of 10-80 G. The model parameters are compared with the parameters obtained for the same stars from the hydrogen line measurements. For six out of nine stars the same type of structure was obtained. Some parameters, such as the field strength at the poles B p and the average surface magnetic field B s differ considerably in some stars due to differences in the amplitudes of phase dependences B e (Φ) and B s (Φ), obtained by different authors. It is noted that a significant increase in the measurement accuracy has little effect on the modelling of the large-scale structures of the field. By contrast, it is more important to construct the shape of the phase dependence based on a fairly large number of field measurements, evenly distributed by the rotation period phases. It is concluded that the Zeeman component measurement methods have a strong effect on the shape of the phase dependence, and that the measurements of the magnetic field based on the lines of hydrogen are more preferable for modelling the large-scale structures of the field.

  3. Continuum-Based FEM Modeling of Ceramic Powder Compaction Using a Cap-Plasticity Constitutive Model

    SciTech Connect

    ARGUELLO JR.,JOSE G.; FOSSUM,ARLO F.; ZEUCH,DAVID H.; EWSUK,KEVIN G.

    2000-05-01

    Software has been developed and extended to allow finite element (FE) modeling of ceramic powder compaction using a cap-plasticity constitutive model. The underlying, general-purpose FE software can be used to model even the most complex three-dimensional (3D) geometries envisioned. Additionally, specialized software has been developed within this framework to address a general subclass of axisymmetric compacts that are common in industry. The expertise required to build the input deck, run the FE code, and post-process the results for this subclass of compacts is embedded within the specialized software. The user simply responds to a series of prompts, evaluates the quality of the FE mesh that is generated, and analyzes the graphical results that are produced. The specialized software allows users with little or no FE expertise to benefit from the tremendous power and insight that FE analysis can bring to the design cycle. The more general underlying software provides complete flexibility to model more complicated geometries and processes of interest to ceramic component manufacturers but requires significantly more user interaction and expertise.

  4. An Accurate In Vitro Model of the E. coli Envelope

    PubMed Central

    Clifton, Luke A; Holt, Stephen A; Hughes, Arwel V; Daulton, Emma L; Arunmanee, Wanatchaporn; Heinrich, Frank; Khalid, Syma; Jefferies, Damien; Charlton, Timothy R; Webster, John R P; Kinane, Christian J; Lakey, Jeremy H

    2015-01-01

    Gram-negative bacteria are an increasingly serious source of antibiotic-resistant infections, partly owing to their characteristic protective envelope. This complex, 20 nm thick barrier includes a highly impermeable, asymmetric bilayer outer membrane (OM), which plays a pivotal role in resisting antibacterial chemotherapy. Nevertheless, the OM molecular structure and its dynamics are poorly understood because the structure is difficult to recreate or study in vitro. The successful formation and characterization of a fully asymmetric model envelope using Langmuir–Blodgett and Langmuir–Schaefer methods is now reported. Neutron reflectivity and isotopic labeling confirmed the expected structure and asymmetry and showed that experiments with antibacterial proteins reproduced published in vivo behavior. By closely recreating natural OM behavior, this model provides a much needed robust system for antibiotic development. PMID:26331292

  5. Leidenfrost effect: accurate drop shape modeling and new scaling laws

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sobac, Benjamin; Rednikov, Alexey; Dorbolo, Stéphane; Colinet, Pierre

    2014-11-01

    In this study, we theoretically investigate the shape of a drop in a Leidenfrost state, focusing on the geometry of the vapor layer. The drop geometry is modeled by numerically matching the solution of the hydrostatic shape of a superhydrophobic drop (for the upper part) with the solution of the lubrication equation of the vapor flow underlying the drop (for the bottom part). The results highlight that the vapor layer, fed by evaporation, forms a concave depression in the drop interface that becomes increasingly marked with the drop size. The vapor layer then consists of a gas pocket in the center and a thin annular neck surrounding it. The film thickness increases with the size of the drop, and the thickness at the neck appears to be of the order of 10--100 μm in the case of water. The model is compared to recent experimental results [Burton et al., Phys. Rev. Lett., 074301 (2012)] and shows an excellent agreement, without any fitting parameter. New scaling laws also emerge from this model. The geometry of the vapor pocket is only weakly dependent on the superheat (and thus on the evaporation rate), this weak dependence being more pronounced in the neck region. In turn, the vapor layer characteristics strongly depend on the drop size.

  6. Coupled Hydro-Mechanical Constitutive Model for Vegetated Soils: Validation and Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Switala, Barbara Maria; Veenhof, Rick; Wu, Wei; Askarinejad, Amin

    2016-04-01

    It is well known, that presence of vegetation influences stability of the slope. However, the quantitative assessment of this contribution remains challenging. It is essential to develop a numerical model, which combines mechanical root reinforcement and root water uptake, and allows modelling rainfall induced landslides of vegetated slopes. Therefore a novel constitutive formulation is proposed, which is based on the modified Cam-clay model for unsaturated soils. Mechanical root reinforcement is modelled introducing a new constitutive parameter, which governs the evolution of the Cam-clay failure surface with the degree of root reinforcement. Evapotranspiration is modelled in terms of the root water uptake, defined as a sink term in the water flow continuity equation. The original concept is extended for different shapes of the root architecture in three dimensions, and combined with the mechanical model. The model is implemented in the research finite element code Comes-Geo, and in the commercial software Abaqus. The formulation is tested, performing a series of numerical examples, which allow validation of the concept. The direct shear test and the triaxial test are modelled in order to test the performance of the mechanical part of the model. In order to validate the hydrological part of the constitutive formulation, evapotranspiration from the vegetated box is simulated and compared with the experimental results. Obtained numerical results exhibit a good agreement with the experimental data. The implemented model is capable of reproducing results of basic geotechnical laboratory tests. Moreover, the constitutive formulation can be used to model rainfall induced landslides of vegetated slopes, taking into account the most important factors influencing the slope stability (root reinforcement and evapotranspiration).

  7. A Constitutive Model of 6111-T4 Aluminum Alloy Sheet Based on the Warm Tensile Test

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hua, Lin; Meng, Fanzhi; Song, Yanli; Liu, Jianing; Qin, Xunpeng; Suo, Lianbing

    2014-03-01

    As main light-weight material, aluminum alloy sheets have been widely applied to produce auto body panels. In order to predict the formability and springback of aluminum alloy sheets, a precise constitutive model is a necessity. In this article, a series of warm tensile tests were conducted on Gleeble-1500D thermal mechanical simulator for 6111-T4 aluminum alloy sheets. The corresponding strain rate ranged from 0.015 to 1.5 s-1, and the temperature ranged from 25 to 350 °C. The relationship between the temperature, the strain rate, and the flow stress were discussed. A constitutive model based on the updated Fields-Backofen equation was established to describe the flow behavior of 6111-T4 aluminum alloy during the warm tensile tests. Subsequently, the average absolute relative error (AARE) was introduced to verify the predictability of the constitutive model. The value of AARE at the uniform plastic deformation stage was calculated to be 1.677%, which demonstrates that the predicted flow stress values were in accordance with the experimental ones. The constitutive model was validated by the fact that the simulated results of the warm tensile tests coincided with the experimental ones.

  8. Numerical implementation of constitutive model for arterial layers with distributed collagen fibre orientations.

    PubMed

    Skacel, Pavel; Bursa, Jiri

    2015-01-01

    Several constitutive models have been proposed for the description of mechanical behaviour of soft tissues containing collagen fibres. Some of the commonly used approaches accounting for the dispersion of fibre orientations are based on the summation of (mechanical) contributions of differently oriented fibre families. This leads to the need of numerical integration on the sphere surface, and the related numerical consumption is the main disadvantage of this category of constitutive models. The paper is focused on the comparison of various numerical integration methods applied to a specific constitutive model applicable for arterial walls. Robustness and efficiency of several integration rules were tested with respect to application in finite element (FE) codes. Among all the analysed numerical integration rules, the best results were reached by Lebedev quadrature; the related parameters for the specific constitutive model are presented in the paper. The results were implemented into the commercial FE code ANSYS via user subroutines, and their applicability was demonstrated by an example of FE simulation with non-homogenous stress field. PMID:24168517

  9. A solidification constitutive model for NIKE2D and NIKE3D

    SciTech Connect

    Raboin, P.J.

    1994-03-17

    This memo updates the current status of a solidification material model development which has been underway for more than a year. Significant modeling goals such as predicting cut-off stresses, thermo-elasto-plasticity, strain rate dependent plasticity and dynamic recovery have been completed. The model is called SOLMAT for solidification material model, and while developed for NIKE2D, it has already been implemented in NIKE3D and NIT03D by B. Maker. This memo details the future development strategy of SOLMAT including liquid and solid constitutive improvements, coupling of deviatoric and dilatational deformation and a plan to switch between constitutive theories. It explains some of the difficulties associated solidification modeling and proposes two experiments to measure properties for using SOLMAT. Due to the sensitive nature of these plans in relation to programmatic and CRADA concerns, this memo should be treated as confidential document.

  10. An experimental assessment of internal variables constitutive models for viscoelastic materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borges, F. C. L.; Castello, D. A.; Magluta, C.; Rochinha, F. A.; Roitman, N.

    2015-01-01

    The present work is aimed at presenting an experimental assessment of a constitutive model used to describe viscoelastic behavior. This strategy is built on the basic principles of the Verification and Validation (V&V) philosophy. The mechanical model used to describe the viscoelastic behavior is a constitutive one based on the concept of internal variables. The parameter estimation of the model is performed using frequency domain data through the Particle Swarm Optimization algorithm. A set of different experimental set-ups were built in order to span the structural operational domain from which data can be measured. The model validation is performed based on the use of validation metrics which take into account uncertainties both in the model predictions and observed data.

  11. A nonlinear magneto-thermo-elastic coupled hysteretic constitutive model for magnetostrictive alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, Ke; Kou, Yong; Zheng, Xiaojing

    2012-06-01

    This paper presents a general hysteretic constitutive law of nonlinear magneto-thermo-elastic coupling for magnetostrictive alloys. The model considered here is thermodynamically motivated and based on the Gibbs free energy function. A nonlinear part of the elastic strain arising from magnetic domain rotation induced by the pre-stress is taken into account. Furthermore, the movement of the domain walls is incorporated to describe hysteresis based on Jiles-Atherton's model. Then a set of closed and analytical expressions of the constitutive law for the magnetostrictive rods and films are obtained, and the parameters appearing in the model can be determined by those measurable experiments in mechanics and physics. Comparing this model with other existing models in this field, the quantitative results show that the relationships obtained here are more effective to describe the effects of the pre-stress or in-plane residual stress and ambient temperature on the magnetization or the magnetostriction hysteresis loops.

  12. Constitutive modeling of coronary arterial media--comparison of three model classes.

    PubMed

    Hollander, Yaniv; Durban, David; Lu, Xiao; Kassab, Ghassan S; Lanir, Yoram

    2011-06-01

    Accurate modeling of arterial elasticity is imperative for predicting pulsatile blood flow and transport to the periphery, and for evaluating the mechanical microenvironment of the vessel wall. The goal of the present study is to compare a recently developed structural model of porcine left anterior descending artery media to two commonly used typical representatives of phenomenological and structure-motivated invariant-based models, in terms of the number of model parameters, model descriptive and predictive powers, and requisite different test protocols for reliable parameter estimation. The three models were compared against 3D data of radial inflation, axial extension, and twist tests. Also checked are the models predictive capabilities to response data not used for estimation, including both tests outside the range of estimation database, as well as protocols of a different nature. The results show that the descriptive estimation error (model fit to estimation database), measured by the sum of squared residuals (SSE) between full 3D data and model predictions, was about twice as low for the structural (4.58%) model compared to the other two (9.71 and 8.99% for the phenomenological and structure-motivated models, respectively). Similar SSE ratios were obtained for the predictive capabilities. Prediction SSE at high stretch based on estimation of two low stretches yielded an SSE value of 2.81% for the structural model, and 10.54% and 7.87% for the phenomenological and structure-motivated models, respectively. For the prediction of twist from inflation-extension data, SSE values for the torsional stiffness was 1.76% for the structural model and 39.62 and 2.77% for the phenomenological and structure-motivated models. The required number of model parameters for the structural model is four, whereas the phenomenological model requires six to nine and the structure-motivated has four parameters. These results suggest that modeling based on the tissue structural

  13. An automated procedure for material parameter evaluation for viscoplastic constitutive models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Imbrie, P. K.; James, G. H.; Hill, P. S.; Allen, D. H.; Haisler, W. E.

    1988-01-01

    An automated procedure is presented for evaluating the material parameters in Walker's exponential viscoplastic constitutive model for metals at elevated temperature. Both physical and numerical approximations are utilized to compute the constants for Inconel 718 at 1100 F. When intermediate results are carefully scrutinized and engineering judgement applied, parameters may be computed which yield stress output histories that are in agreement with experimental results. A qualitative assessment of the theta-plot method for predicting the limiting value of stress is also presented. The procedure may also be used as a basis to develop evaluation schemes for other viscoplastic constitutive theories of this type.

  14. Fundamental properties of soils for complex dynamic loadings: Dynamic constitutive modeling of sandy soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dass, W.; Merkle, D. H.; Bratton, J. L.

    1983-04-01

    Constitutive modeling of cohesionless soil for both standard static test conditions and insitu impulsive dynamic load conditions is discussed in this annual report. Predicted laboratory response for several different types of models is evaluated using data from a coordinated testing program. The modeling of insitu soil response to explosive events (CIST and DISC Test) is considered, and the laboratory-derived models are tested for their convenience and accuracy in predicting ground motions. Several important laboratory and insitu phenomena which were not reflected by the model exercises are discussed. Based on the conclusions from this study, testing and modeling requirements for dynamic loading situations are proposed.

  15. High Strain Rate Deformation Modeling of a Polymer Matrix Composite. Part 1; Matrix Constitutive Equations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goldberg, Robert K.; Stouffer, Donald C.

    1998-01-01

    Recently applications have exposed polymer matrix composite materials to very high strain rate loading conditions, requiring an ability to understand and predict the material behavior under these extreme conditions. In this first paper of a two part report, background information is presented, along with the constitutive equations which will be used to model the rate dependent nonlinear deformation response of the polymer matrix. Strain rate dependent inelastic constitutive models which were originally developed to model the viscoplastic deformation of metals have been adapted to model the nonlinear viscoelastic deformation of polymers. The modified equations were correlated by analyzing the tensile/ compressive response of both 977-2 toughened epoxy matrix and PEEK thermoplastic matrix over a variety of strain rates. For the cases examined, the modified constitutive equations appear to do an adequate job of modeling the polymer deformation response. A second follow-up paper will describe the implementation of the polymer deformation model into a composite micromechanical model, to allow for the modeling of the nonlinear, rate dependent deformation response of polymer matrix composites.

  16. An accurate halo model for fitting non-linear cosmological power spectra and baryonic feedback models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mead, A. J.; Peacock, J. A.; Heymans, C.; Joudaki, S.; Heavens, A. F.

    2015-12-01

    We present an optimized variant of the halo model, designed to produce accurate matter power spectra well into the non-linear regime for a wide range of cosmological models. To do this, we introduce physically motivated free parameters into the halo-model formalism and fit these to data from high-resolution N-body simulations. For a variety of Λ cold dark matter (ΛCDM) and wCDM models, the halo-model power is accurate to ≃ 5 per cent for k ≤ 10h Mpc-1 and z ≤ 2. An advantage of our new halo model is that it can be adapted to account for the effects of baryonic feedback on the power spectrum. We demonstrate this by fitting the halo model to power spectra from the OWLS (OverWhelmingly Large Simulations) hydrodynamical simulation suite via parameters that govern halo internal structure. We are able to fit all feedback models investigated at the 5 per cent level using only two free parameters, and we place limits on the range of these halo parameters for feedback models investigated by the OWLS simulations. Accurate predictions to high k are vital for weak-lensing surveys, and these halo parameters could be considered nuisance parameters to marginalize over in future analyses to mitigate uncertainty regarding the details of feedback. Finally, we investigate how lensing observables predicted by our model compare to those from simulations and from HALOFIT for a range of k-cuts and feedback models and quantify the angular scales at which these effects become important. Code to calculate power spectra from the model presented in this paper can be found at https://github.com/alexander-mead/hmcode.

  17. Micromechanics and constitutive models for soft active materials with phase evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Binglian

    Soft active materials, such as shape memory polymers, liquid crystal elastomers, soft tissues, gels etc., are materials that can deform largely in response to external stimuli. Micromechanics analysis of heterogeneous materials based on finite element method is a typically numerical way to study the thermal-mechanical behaviors of soft active materials with phase evolution. While the constitutive models that can precisely describe the stress and strain fields of materials in the process of phase evolution can not be found in the databases of some commercial finite element analysis (FEA) tools such as ANSYS or Abaqus, even the specific constitutive behavior for each individual phase either the new formed one or the original one has already been well-known. So developing a computationally efficient and general three dimensional (3D) thermal-mechanical constitutive model for soft active materials with phase evolution which can be implemented into FEA is eagerly demanded. This paper first solved this problem theoretically by recording the deformation history of each individual phase in the phase evolution process, and adopted the idea of effectiveness by regarding all the new formed phase as an effective phase with an effective deformation to make this theory computationally efficient. A user material subroutine (UMAT) code based on this theoretical constitutive model has been finished in this work which can be added into the material database in Abaqus or ANSYS and can be easily used for most soft active materials with phase evolution. Model validation also has been done through comparison between micromechanical FEA and experiments on a particular composite material, shape memory elastomeric composite (SMEC) which consisted of an elastomeric matrix and the crystallizable fibre. Results show that the micromechanics and the constitutive models developed in this paper for soft active materials with phase evolution are completely relied on.

  18. Constitutive model development and micro-structural topology optimisation for nafion hydrogel membranes with ionic clustering.

    PubMed

    Li, Hua; Yuan, Z; Ng, T Y; Lee, H P; Lam, K Y; Wang, Q X; Wu, Shunnian; Fu, Jie; Hanes, Justin

    2003-01-01

    The deployment of electroactive ionic polymer hydrogel-metal composites in artificial muscle and BioMEMS applications has recently been intensively investigated. In order to analyse their electromechanical responses to externally applied electrical fields, it is critical to develop a constitutive model linking the macro-mechanical moduli with the micro-mechanical characteristics, and to determine the geometric size and shape of the micro-structural cluster and investigate the effect of cluster morphology on the effective electro-elastic moduli of the polymer hydrogels. As a typical ionic polymer-based hydrogel, the Nafion membrane is studied in this work. Based on the Biot poroelasticity theory, a multi-scale constitutive model which includes both macro and micro characteristics is developed using an asymptotic homogenisation method. The effect of water-volume fraction on the effective elastic moduli of the hydrogel membrane is examined for different equivalent weights. Numerical investigations show that the simulated effective constitutive moduli agree well with experimental data. The presently developed constitutive model is thus validated. In order to determine the micro-structural shape of the polymer skeleton subject to fluid pressure, a representative volume element (RVE) is designed by topology optimisation of the periodic microstructures of the Nafion hydrogels, through the minimisation of the electro-elastic interaction energy between the polymer-based fluorocarbon matrix and the surrounding fluid. This optimal RVE correctly predicts the geometric shapes of the clusters. PMID:14768907

  19. Constitutive Modeling of Nanotube/Polymer Composites with Various Nanotube Orientations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Odegard, Gregory M.; Gates, Thomas S.

    2002-01-01

    In this study, a technique has been proposed for developing constitutive models for polymer composite systems reinforced with single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNT) with various orientations with respect to the bulk material coordinates. A nanotube, the local polymer adjacent to the nanotube, and the nanotube/polymer interface have been modeled as an equivalent-continuum fiber by using an equivalent-continuum modeling method. The equivalent-continuum fiber accounts for the local molecular structure and bonding information and serves as a means for incorporating micromechanical analyses for the prediction of bulk mechanical properties of SWNT/polymer composite. As an example, the proposed approach is used for the constitutive modeling of a SWNT/LaRC-SI (with a PmPV interface) composite system, with aligned nanotubes, three-dimensionally randomly oriented nanotubes, and nanotubes oriented with varying degrees of axisymmetry. It is shown that the Young s modulus is highly dependent on the SWNT orientation distribution.

  20. Comparison and Tensorial Formulation of Inelastic Constitutive Models of Salt Rock Behaviour and Efficient Numerical Implementatio

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagel, T.; Böttcher, N.; Görke, U. J.; Kolditz, O.

    2014-12-01

    The design process of geotechnical installations includes the application of numerical simulation tools for safety assessment, dimensioning and long term effectiveness estimations. Underground salt caverns can be used for the storage of natural gas, hydrogen, oil, waste or compressed air. For their design one has to take into account fluctuating internal pressures due to different levels of filling, the stresses imposed by the surrounding rock mass, irregular geometries and possibly heterogeneous material properties [3] in order to estimate long term cavern convergence as well as locally critical wall stresses. Constitutive models applied to rock salt are usually viscoplastic in nature and most often based on a Burgers-type rheological model extended by non-linear viscosity functions and/or plastic friction elements. Besides plastic dilatation, healing and damage are sometimes accounted for as well [2]. The scales of the geotechnical system to be simulated and the laboratory tests from which material parameters are determined are vastly different. The most common material testing modalities to determine material parameters in geoengineering are the uniaxial and the triaxial compression tests. Some constitutive formulations in widespread use are formulated based on equivalent rather than tensorial quantities valid under these specific test conditions and are subsequently applied to heterogeneous underground systems and complex 3D load cases. We show here that this procedure is inappropriate and can lead to erroneous results. We further propose alternative formulations of the constitutive models in question that restore their validity under arbitrary loading conditions. For an efficient numerical simulation, the discussed constitutive models are integrated locally with a Newton-Raphson algorithm that directly provides the algorithmically consistent tangent matrix for the global Newton iteration of the displacement based finite element formulation. Finally, the finite

  1. Implementation of two geologic constitutive models in the HONDO finite-element code

    SciTech Connect

    Swenson, D.V.

    1983-05-01

    Two constitutive models for use with geologic materials have been incorporated into the HONDO finite-element program. Both models have the same behavior in tension, using a stress criterion to form cracks normal to the maximum principal stress. In compression, the two models give upper and lower bound solutions to the unconfined postfailure strength. The first model uses a Coulomb criterion to form explicit shear cracks, while the second model uses an elastic-plastic formulation developed by Krieg. Two sample applications, an indentor test and fracture of a borehole, are presented.

  2. Multi-step deformations - a stringent test for constitutive models for polymer glasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Medvedev, Grigori; Caruthers, James

    A number of constitutive models have been proposed to describe mechanical behavior of polymer glasses, where the focus has been on the stress-strain curve observed in a constant strain rate deformation. The stress-strain curve possesses several prominent features, including yield, post-yield softening, flow, and hardening, which have proven challenging to predict. As a result, both viscoplastic and nonlinear viscoelastic constitutive models have become quite intricate, where a new mechanism is invoked for each bend of the stress-strain curve. We demonstrate on several examples that when the models are used to describe the multi-step deformations vs. the more common single strain rate deformation, they produce responses that are qualitatively incorrect, revealing the existing models to be parameterizations of a single-step curve. A recently developed stochastic constitutive model has fewer problems than the traditional viscoelastic/viscoplastic models, but it also has difficulties. The implications for the mechanics and physics of glassy polymers will be discussed.

  3. A damage-softening statistical constitutive model considering rock residual strength

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Zhi-liang; Li, Yong-chi; Wang, J. G.

    2007-01-01

    Under stress, the microcracks in rock evolve (initiation, growth and coalescence) from damage to fracture with a continuous process. In order to describe this continuous process, a damage-softening statistical constitutive model for rock was proposed based on the Weibull distribution of mesoscopic element strength. This model usually adopts the Drucker-Prager criterion as its distribution parameter of mesoscopic element strength, which may produce larger damage zone in numerical simulations. This paper mainly studies the effects of strength criteria and residual strength on the performance of this damage-softening statistical constitutive model of rock. Main works include following three aspects: Firstly, the mechanical behaviors of rock are comparatively studied when the Drucker-Prager and the Mohr-Coulomb criteria are employed, respectively, as the distribution parameter. Then, a coefficient is introduced to make this constitutive model be capable of describing the residual strength of rock. Finally, a user-defined subroutine is concisely developed for this model and checked through typical strain paths. The current work lays a good foundation for further application of this model in geotechnics and geosciences.

  4. Application of symbolic computations to the constitutive modeling of structural materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arnold, Steven M.; Tan, H. Q.; Dong, X.

    1990-01-01

    In applications involving elevated temperatures, the derivation of mathematical expressions (constitutive equations) describing the material behavior can be quite time consuming, involved and error-prone. Therefore intelligent application of symbolic systems to faciliate this tedious process can be of significant benefit. Presented here is a problem oriented, self contained symbolic expert system, named SDICE, which is capable of efficiently deriving potential based constitutive models in analytical form. This package, running under DOE MACSYMA, has the following features: (1) potential differentiation (chain rule), (2) tensor computations (utilizing index notation) including both algebraic and calculus; (3) efficient solution of sparse systems of equations; (4) automatic expression substitution and simplification; (5) back substitution of invariant and tensorial relations; (6) the ability to form the Jacobian and Hessian matrix; and (7) a relational data base. Limited aspects of invariant theory were also incorporated into SDICE due to the utilization of potentials as a starting point and the desire for these potentials to be frame invariant (objective). The uniqueness of SDICE resides in its ability to manipulate expressions in a general yet pre-defined order and simplify expressions so as to limit expression growth. Results are displayed, when applicable, utilizing index notation. SDICE was designed to aid and complement the human constitutive model developer. A number of examples are utilized to illustrate the various features contained within SDICE. It is expected that this symbolic package can and will provide a significant incentive to the development of new constitutive theories.

  5. An Improved Arrhenius Constitutive Model and Three-Dimensional Processing Map of a Solution-Treated Ni-Based Superalloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Hong-Bin; Feng, Yun-Li

    2016-01-01

    The hot deformation behaviors of a solution-treated Ni-based superalloy are investigated by hot compression tests over wide ranges of strain rate and forming temperature. Based on the experimental data, the effects of forming temperature and strain rate on the hot deformation behaviors are discussed in detail. Considering the effects of strain on material constants, comprehensive constitutive models are developed to describe the relationships between the flow stress, strain rate and forming temperature for the studied superalloy. The three-dimensional processing map is constructed to optimize the hot working parameters. Meanwhile, the microstructures are analyzed to correlate with the processing map. It is found that the flow stress is sensitive to the forming temperature, strain rate and deformation degree. With the increase of forming temperature or the decrease of strain rate, the flow stress significantly decreases. The predicted flow stresses agree well with experimentally measured results, which confirm that the developed constitutive model can accurately estimate the flow stress of the studied superalloy. The three-dimensional processing map shows that the optimum deformation windows for hot working are the domains with 980-1,040°C or 0.001-0.1 s^{-1} when the strain is 0.6. Also, it is found that the dynamically recrystallized grain size increases with the increase of forming temperature or the decrease of strain rate.

  6. An Improved Arrhenius Constitutive Model and Three-Dimensional Processing Map of a Solution-Treated Ni-Based Superalloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Hong-Bin; Feng, Yun-Li

    2016-01-01

    The hot deformation behaviors of a solution-treated Ni-based superalloy are investigated by hot compression tests over wide ranges of strain rate and forming temperature. Based on the experimental data, the effects of forming temperature and strain rate on the hot deformation behaviors are discussed in detail. Considering the effects of strain on material constants, comprehensive constitutive models are developed to describe the relationships between the flow stress, strain rate and forming temperature for the studied superalloy. The three-dimensional processing map is constructed to optimize the hot working parameters. Meanwhile, the microstructures are analyzed to correlate with the processing map. It is found that the flow stress is sensitive to the forming temperature, strain rate and deformation degree. With the increase of forming temperature or the decrease of strain rate, the flow stress significantly decreases. The predicted flow stresses agree well with experimentally measured results, which confirm that the developed constitutive model can accurately estimate the flow stress of the studied superalloy. The three-dimensional processing map shows that the optimum deformation windows for hot working are the domains with 980-1,040°C or 0.001-0.1 {s}^{-1} when the strain is 0.6. Also, it is found that the dynamically recrystallized grain size increases with the increase of forming temperature or the decrease of strain rate.

  7. Modeling flow stress constitutive behavior of SA508-3 steel for nuclear reactor pressure vessels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Mingyue; Hao, Luhan; Li, Shijian; Li, Dianzhong; Li, Yiyi

    2011-11-01

    Based on the measured stress-strain curves under different temperatures and strain rates, a series of flow stress constitutive equations for SA508-3 steel were firstly established through the classical theories on work hardening and softening. The comparison between the experimental and modeling results has confirmed that the established constitutive equations can correctly describe the mechanical responses and microstructural evolutions of the steel under various hot deformation conditions. We further represented a successful industrial application of this model to simulate a forging process for a large conical shell used in a nuclear steam generator, which evidences its practical and promising perspective of our model with an aim of widely promoting the hot plasticity processing for heavy nuclear components of fission reactors.

  8. A simplified constitutive model for predicting shape memory polymers deformation behavior

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yunxin; Guo, Siu-Siu; He, Yuhao; Liu, Zishun

    2015-12-01

    Shape memory polymers (SMPs) can keep a temporary shape after pre-deformation at a higher temperature and subsequent cooling. When they are reheated, their original shapes can be recovered. Such special characteristics of SMPs make them widely used in aerospace structures, biomedical devices, functional textiles and other devices. Increasing usefulness of SMPs motivates us to further understand their thermomechanical properties and deformation behavior, of which the development of appropriate constitutive models for SMPs is imperative. There is much work in literatures that address constitutive models of the thermo-mechanical coupling in SMPs. However, due to their complex forms, it is difficult to apply these constitutive models in the real world. In this paper, a three-element model with simple form is proposed to investigate the thermo-mechanical small strain (within 10%) behavior of polyurethane under uniaxial tension. Two different cases of heated recovery are considered: (1) unconstrained free strain recovery and (2) stress recovery under full constraint at a strain level fixed during low temperature unloading. To validate the model, simulated and predicted results are compared with Tobushi's experimental results and good agreement can be observed.

  9. Fundamental properties of soils for complex dynamic loadings. Development of a three invariant constitutive model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Merkle, D. H.; Dass, W. C.

    1985-04-01

    This study sought to develop a general soil stress-strain model which can be used to solve a wide range of soil dynamics problems. The approach used was to review existing soil constitutive models used to predict the response of soil masses to complex dynamic loads, and then formulate a new model for that purpose. Eight existing soil dynamic stress-strain models were studied. The Lade model was selected as the best point of departure for developing a new soil stress-strain model for complex dynamic loading, because of its accuracy and flexibility in representing soil stress-strain behavior, ease of parameter determination, and ease of developing intuition for parameter physical significance and accuracy. The new conic model is so called because its principal mathematical surfaces are conic sections. The computer code used to exercise all nine soil constitutive models under eleven stress and strain paths is called the Soil Element Model (SEM). It can be incorporated in large finite difference or finite element codes for analyzing the response of soil masses to complex dynamic loads. The conic model performs well over a wide range of loading conditions. The parameters are determined in a straightforward manner, and the model reflects the influence of the intermediate principal stress on shear strength through a shear failure surface involving three independent stress invariants: the first total stress invariant and the second and third deviator stress invariants.

  10. Design of experiments for constitutive model selection: application to polycrystal elastoviscoplasticity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horstemeyer, M. F.; McDowell, D. L.; McGinty, R. D.

    1999-03-01

    To bridge length scales in plastic flow of polycrystalline fcc metals, the salient features of 3D polycrystalline elastoviscoplasticity at the crystal level (mesoscale) were studied to determine the relative influences on macroscale behaviour. This 3D study builds upon the 2D planar double-slip analysis performed by Horstemeyer and McDowell in which the relative influence of the constitutive-law features on macroscale properties in polycrystal plasticity were quantified for oxygen-free, high-conductivity copper. The mesoscale constitutive-law features considered include single-crystal elastic properties, slip-system-level hardening law, latent hardening, slip-system-level kinematic hardening, and intergranular constraint relation. Volume-averaged macroscale responses included the effective flow stress, plastic spin, elastic moduli, hardening behaviour, and axial extension (for the free-end torsion case). Each response was evaluated at 10% and 50% effective strain levels under rectilinear shear straining. In the existing literature, only one type of behaviour (e.g. texture or stress-strain response) is typically considered when assessing these various elements of the constitutive framework. In this paper, we develop a more comprehensive understanding of the relative importance of constitutive-law features as deformation proceeds. This study suggests that the design of experiments methodology is a valuable tool to assist in selecting relevant features for polycrystalline simulations and for development of macroscale unified-creep-plasticity models. In general, the results indicated that the intergranular constraint and kinematic hardening were more influential overall than the type of constitutive model used, whether isotropic or anisotropic elasticity was used, and whether or not latent hardening was used. Finally, 3D results were similar to the previous 2D planar double-slip study of Horstemeyer and McDowell, except that latent hardening had a stronger influence on

  11. On the Constitutive Model of Nitrogen-Containing Austenitic Stainless Steel 316LN at Elevated Temperature

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Lei; Feng, Xiao; Wang, Xin; Liu, Changyong

    2014-01-01

    The nitrogen-containing austenitic stainless steel 316LN has been chosen as the material for nuclear main-pipe, which is one of the key parts in 3rd generation nuclear power plants. In this research, a constitutive model of nitrogen-containing austenitic stainless steel is developed. The true stress-true strain curves obtained from isothermal hot compression tests over a wide range of temperatures (900–1250°C) and strain rates (10−3–10 s−1), were employed to study the dynamic deformational behavior of and recrystallization in 316LN steels. The constitutive model is developed through multiple linear regressions performed on the experimental data and based on an Arrhenius-type equation and Zener-Hollomon theory. The influence of strain was incorporated in the developed constitutive equation by considering the effect of strain on the various material constants. The reliability and accuracy of the model is verified through the comparison of predicted flow stress curves and experimental curves. Possible reasons for deviation are also discussed based on the characteristics of modeling process. PMID:25375345

  12. A procedure for utilization of a damage-dependent constitutive model for laminated composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lo, David C.; Allen, David H.; Harris, Charles E.

    1992-01-01

    Described here is the procedure for utilizing a damage constitutive model to predict progressive damage growth in laminated composites. In this model, the effects of the internal damage are represented by strain-like second order tensorial damage variables and enter the analysis through damage dependent ply level and laminate level constitutive equations. The growth of matrix cracks due to fatigue loading is predicted by an experimentally based damage evolutionary relationship. This model is incorporated into a computer code called FLAMSTR. This code is capable of predicting the constitutive response and matrix crack damage accumulation in fatigue loaded laminated composites. The structure and usage of FLAMSTR are presented along with sample input and output files to assist the code user. As an example problem, an analysis of crossply laminates subjected to two stage fatigue loading was conducted and the resulting damage accumulation and stress redistribution were examined to determine the effect of variations in fatigue load amplitude applied during the first stage of the load history. It was found that the model predicts a significant loading history effect on damage evolution.

  13. Constitutive modeling of time-dependent response of human plantar aponeurosis.

    PubMed

    Pavan, P G; Pachera, P; Stecco, C; Natali, A N

    2014-01-01

    The attention is focused on the viscoelastic behavior of human plantar aponeurosis tissue. At this purpose, stress relaxation tests were developed on samples taken from the plantar aponeurosis of frozen adult donors with age ranging from 67 to 78 years, imposing three levels of strain in the physiological range (4%, 6%, and 8%) and observing stress decay for 240 s. A viscohyperelastic fiber-reinforced constitutive model with transverse isotropy was assumed to describe the time-dependent behavior of the aponeurotic tissue. This model is consistent with the structural conformation of the tissue where collagen fibers are mainly aligned with the proximal-distal direction. Constitutive model fitting to experimental data was made by implementing a stochastic-deterministic procedure. The stress relaxation was found close to 40%, independently of the level of strain applied. The agreement between experimental data and numerical results confirms the suitability of the constitutive model to describe the viscoelastic behaviour of the plantar aponeurosis. PMID:24701249

  14. Dynamic materials testing and constitutive modeling of structural sheet steel for automotive applications. Final progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Cady, C.M.; Chen, S.R.; Gray, G.T. III

    1996-08-23

    The objective of this study was to characterize the dynamic mechanical properties of four different structural sheet steels used in automobile manufacture. The analysis of a drawing quality, special killed (DQSK) mild steel; high strength, low alloy (HSLA) steel; interstitial free (IF); and a high strength steel (M-190) have been completed. In addition to the true stress-true strain data, coefficients for the Johnson-Cook, Zerilli-Armstrong, and Mechanical Threshold Stress constitutive models have been determined from the mechanical test results at various strain rates and temperatures and are summarized. Compression, tensile, and biaxial bulge tests and low (below 0.1/s) strain rate tests were completed for all four steels. From these test results it was determined to proceed with the material modeling optimization using the through thickness compression results. Compression tests at higher strain rates and temperatures were also conducted and analyzed for all the steels. Constitutive model fits were generated from the experimental data. This report provides a compilation of information generated from mechanical tests, the fitting parameters for each of the constitutive models, and an index and description of data files.

  15. Paradigm Shift in Data Content and Informatics Infrastructure Required for Generalized Constitutive Modeling of Materials Behavior

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arnold, S. M.

    2006-01-01

    Materials property information such as composition and thermophysical/mechanical properties abound in the literature. Oftentimes, however, the corresponding response curves from which these data are determined are missing or at the very least difficult to retrieve. Further, the paradigm for collecting materials property information has historically centered on (1) properties for materials comparison/selection purposes and (2) input requirements for conventional design/analysis methods. However, just as not all materials are alike or equal, neither are all constitutive models (and thus design/ analysis methods) equal; each model typically has its own specific and often unique required materials parameters, some directly measurable and others indirectly measurable. Therefore, the type and extent of materials information routinely collected is not always sufficient to meet the current, much less future, needs of the materials modeling community. Informatics has been defined as the science concerned with gathering, manipulating, storing, retrieving, and classifying recorded information. A key aspect of informatics is its focus on understanding problems and applying information technology as needed to address those problems. The primary objective of this article is to highlight the need for a paradigm shift in materials data collection, analysis, and dissemination so as to maximize the impact on both practitioners and researchers. Our hope is to identify and articulate what constitutes "sufficient" data content (i.e., quality and quantity) for developing, characterizing, and validating sophisticated nonlinear time- and history-dependent (hereditary) constitutive models. Likewise, the informatics infrastructure required for handling the potentially massive amounts of materials data will be discussed.

  16. Analysis of a microcrack model and constitutive equations for time-dependent dilatancy of rocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Zuan

    2003-11-01

    Based on experimental observations and theoretical analyses, the author introduces an ideal microcrack model in which an array of cracks with the same shape and initial size is distributed evenly in rocks. The mechanism of creep dilatancy for rocks is analysed theoretically. Initiation, propagation and linkage of pre-existing microcracks during creep are well described. Also, the relationship between the velocity of microcrack growth and the duration of the creep process is derived numerically. The relationship agrees well with the character of typical experimental creep curves, and includes three stages of creep. Then the damage constitutive equations and damage evolution equations, which describe the dilatant behaviour of rocks, are presented. Because the dilatant estimated value is taken as the damage variable, the relationship between the microscopic model and the macroscopic constitutive equations is established. In this way the mechanical behaviour of rocks can be predicted.

  17. On finite element implementation and computational techniques for constitutive modeling of high temperature composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Saleeb, A. F.; Chang, T. Y. P.; Wilt, T.; Iskovitz, I.

    1989-01-01

    The research work performed during the past year on finite element implementation and computational techniques pertaining to high temperature composites is outlined. In the present research, two main issues are addressed: efficient geometric modeling of composite structures and expedient numerical integration techniques dealing with constitutive rate equations. In the first issue, mixed finite elements for modeling laminated plates and shells were examined in terms of numerical accuracy, locking property and computational efficiency. Element applications include (currently available) linearly elastic analysis and future extension to material nonlinearity for damage predictions and large deformations. On the material level, various integration methods to integrate nonlinear constitutive rate equations for finite element implementation were studied. These include explicit, implicit and automatic subincrementing schemes. In all cases, examples are included to illustrate the numerical characteristics of various methods that were considered.

  18. A surrogate-model-based identification of fractional viscoelastic constitutive parameters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Guoqing; Yang, Haitian; Xu, Yongsheng

    2015-02-01

    In order to reduce the computational expense, a Kriging surrogate model is developed as an approximation of a numerical model based on FEM (finite element method) and FDM (finite difference method) to solve direct fractional viscoelastic problems and then is combined with a gridding-partition-based continuous ant colony algorithm to identify constitutive parameters of fractional viscoelastic materials. Three kinds of modeling strategies are presented to generate the Kriging surrogate model, that is, global modeling, piecewise modeling, and reduced modeling. Two numerical examples are given to illustrate the proposed approach in terms of computing accuracy and expense. The utilization of Kriging surrogate model not only can provide a sufficient computing accuracy, but also can significantly reduce the computational cost in solving inverse fractional viscoelastic problems. In addition, regional inhomogeneity and impact of noisy data are taken into account.

  19. A constitutive model for the forces of a magnetic bearing including eddy currents

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taylor, D. L.; Hebbale, K. V.

    1993-01-01

    A multiple magnet bearing can be developed from N individual electromagnets. The constitutive relationships for a single magnet in such a bearing is presented. Analytical expressions are developed for a magnet with poles arranged circumferencially. Maxwell's field equations are used so the model easily includes the effects of induced eddy currents due to the rotation of the journal. Eddy currents must be included in any dynamic model because they are the only speed dependent parameter and may lead to a critical speed for the bearing. The model is applicable to bearings using attraction or repulsion.

  20. Analyses for Debonding of Stitched Composite Sandwich Structures Using Improved Constitutive Models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glaessgen, E. H.; Sleight, D. W.; Krishnamurthy, T.; Raju, I. S.

    2001-01-01

    A fracture mechanics analysis based on strain energy release rates is used to study the effect of stitching in bonded sandwich beam configurations. Finite elements are used to model the configurations. The stitches were modeled as discrete nonlinear spring elements with a compliance determined by experiment. The constitutive models were developed using the results of flatwise tension tests from sandwich material rather than monolithic material. The analyses show that increasing stitch stiffness, stitch density and debond length decrease strain energy release rates for a fixed applied load.

  1. Development of a constitutive model for creep and life prediction of advanced silicon nitride ceramics

    SciTech Connect

    Ding, J.L.; Liu, K.C.; Brinkman, C.R.

    1992-12-31

    A constitutive model capable of describing deformation and predicting rupture life was developed for high temperature ceramic materials under general thermal-mechanical loading conditions. The model was developed based on the deformation and fracture behavior observed from a systematic experimental study on an advanced silicon nitride (Si{sub 3}N{sub 4}) ceramic material. Validity of the model was evaluated with reference to creep and creep rupture data obtained under constant and stepwise-varied loading conditions, including the effects of annealing on creep and creep rupture behavior.

  2. Constitutive model for predicting dynamic interactions between soil ejecta and structural panels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deshpande, V. S.; McMeeking, R. M.; Wadley, H. N. G.; Evans, A. G.

    2009-08-01

    A constitutive model is developed for the high-rate deformation of an aggregate comprising of mono-sized spherical particles with a view to developing an understanding of dynamic soil-structure interactions in landmine explosions. The constitutive model accounts for two regimes of behaviour. When the particle assembly is widely dispersed ( regime I), the contacts between particles are treated as collisions, analogous to those between molecules in a gas or liquid. At high packing densities ( regime II) the contacts are semi-permanent and consolidation is dominated by particle deformation and inter-particle friction. Regime I is modelled by extending an approach proposed by Bagnold (1954. Experiments on a gravity-free dispersion of large solid particles in a Newtonian fluid under shear. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London A 225, 49-63) to a general strain history comprising volumetric and deviatoric deformation. For regime II, classical soil mechanics models (such as Drucker-Prager) are employed. The overall model is employed to investigate the one-dimensional impact of sand against a rigid stationary target. The calculations illustrate that, unlike single-particle impact, the momentum transmitted to a rigid target is insensitive to the particle co-efficient of restitution, but strongly dependent on initial density. The constitutive model is also used to examine the spherical expansion of a shell of sand (both dry and water saturated). In line with initial experimental observations, the wet sand is predicted to form clumps while the dry sand fully disperses. The model shows that this clumping of explosively loaded wet sand exerts higher pressures on nearby targets compared to equivalent dry sand explosions.

  3. Constitutive model for flake graphite cast iron automotive brake discs: induced anisotropic damage model under complex loadings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Augustins, L.; Billardon, R.; Hild, F.

    2016-01-01

    The present paper details an elasto-viscoplastic constitutive model for automotive brake discs made of flake graphite cast iron. In a companion paper (Augustins et al. in Contin Mech Thermodyn, 2015), the authors proposed a one-dimensional setting appropriate for representing the complex behavior of the material (i.e., asymmetry between tensile and compressive loadings) under anisothermal conditions. The generalization of this 1D model to 3D cases on a volume element and the associated challenges are addressed. A direct transposition is not possible, and an alternative solution without unilateral conditions is first proposed. Induced anisotropic damage and associated constitutive laws are then introduced. The transition from the volume element to the real structure and the numerical implementation require a specific basis change. Brake disc simulations with this constitutive model show that unilateral conditions are needed for the friction bands. A damage deactivation procedure is therefore defined.

  4. A 3-D constitutive model for pressure-dependent phase transformation of porous shape memory alloys.

    PubMed

    Ashrafi, M J; Arghavani, J; Naghdabadi, R; Sohrabpour, S

    2015-02-01

    Porous shape memory alloys (SMAs) exhibit the interesting characteristics of porous metals together with shape memory effect and pseudo-elasticity of SMAs that make them appropriate for biomedical applications. In this paper, a 3-D phenomenological constitutive model for the pseudo-elastic behavior and shape memory effect of porous SMAs is developed within the framework of irreversible thermodynamics. Comparing to micromechanical and computational models, the proposed model is computationally cost effective and predicts the behavior of porous SMAs under proportional and non-proportional multiaxial loadings. Considering the pressure dependency of phase transformation in porous SMAs, proper internal variables, free energy and limit functions are introduced. With the aim of numerical implementation, time discretization and solution algorithm for the proposed model are also presented. Due to lack of enough experimental data on multiaxial loadings of porous SMAs, we employ a computational simulation method (CSM) together with available experimental data to validate the proposed constitutive model. The method is based on a 3-D finite element model of a representative volume element (RVE) with random pores pattern. Good agreement between the numerical predictions of the model and CSM results is observed for elastic and phase transformation behaviors in various thermomechanical loadings. PMID:25528691

  5. Numerical simulation of soil creep with a visco-hypoplastic constitutive model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Shun; Wu, Wei

    2016-04-01

    Slow-moving landslides make up a great part of geohazards in the Three Gorges reservoir (TGR) in China. Most of them move at speed of several centimeters per year (or even less) and show evidence of creep behaviour. It has been suggested that motion of creep landslides is mainly governed by the viscous properties of sheared materials forming the rupture zone, as these zones are where most of the slope deformation localizes. Understanding of creep behaviour of slipping material calls for laboratory tests as well as advanced constitutive models. For this purpose, a high order visco-hypoplastic constitutive model has been introduced. Unlike some of the visco-hypoplasric models, which consider the total strain rate as a combination of reversible strain rate and viscous strain rate respectively, such as dot{bm{e}}=dot{bm{e}}^e+dot{bm{e}}vis (where dot{bm{e}}, dot{bm{e}}e and dot{bm{e}}vis are the total strain rate ,reversible strain rate and viscous strain rate respectively), the proposed visco-hypolastic constitutive model decompose the Cauchy stress into a statical part and a dynamical part, bm{s}=hat{bm{s}}+\\check{bm{s}} (where bm{s},hat{bm{s}} and \\check{bm{s}} are total stress ,statical stress and dynamical stress respectively), whereas the strain rate has been considered as a whole. Within in this framework, stress change induced by strain acceleration can be taken into account. Moreover, compared with some special creep models, which may only valid for one or two stages of the three-state creep, i.e. primary creep, secondary creep and tertiary creep, this novel scheme is able to describe creep test with the whole three stages. This model has been also implemented into FEM code to evaluate some boundary-value problems. An explicit adaptive Rung-Kutta-Fehlberg algorithm is applied for stress-point integration. For verification of this model, numerical triaxial tests compared with laboratory tests have been conducted. Then a homogenous slope has been taken as an

  6. Computer simulation of the mathematical modeling involved in constitutive equation development: Via symbolic computations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arnold, S. M.; Tan, H. Q.; Dong, X.

    1989-01-01

    Development of new material models for describing the high temperature constitutive behavior of real materials represents an important area of research in engineering disciplines. Derivation of mathematical expressions (constitutive equations) which describe this high temperature material behavior can be quite time consuming, involved and error prone; thus intelligent application of symbolic systems to facilitate this tedious process can be of significant benefit. A computerized procedure (SDICE) capable of efficiently deriving potential based constitutive models, in analytical form is presented. This package, running under MACSYMA, has the following features: partial differentiation, tensor computations, automatic grouping and labeling of common factors, expression substitution and simplification, back substitution of invariant and tensorial relations and a relational data base. Also limited aspects of invariant theory were incorporated into SDICE due to the utilization of potentials as a starting point and the desire for these potentials to be frame invariant (objective). Finally not only calculation of flow and/or evolutionary laws were accomplished but also the determination of history independent nonphysical coefficients in terms of physically measurable parameters, e.g., Young's modulus, was achieved. The uniqueness of SDICE resides in its ability to manipulate expressions in a general yet predefined order and simplify expressions so as to limit expression growth. Results are displayed when applicable utilizing index notation.

  7. A general one-dimension nonlinear magneto-elastic coupled constitutive model for magnetostrictive materials

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Da-Guang; Li, Meng-Han; Zhou, Hao-Miao

    2015-10-15

    For magnetostrictive rods under combined axial pre-stress and magnetic field, a general one-dimension nonlinear magneto-elastic coupled constitutive model was built in this paper. First, the elastic Gibbs free energy was expanded into polynomial, and the relationship between stress and strain and the relationship between magnetization and magnetic field with the polynomial form were obtained with the help of thermodynamic relations. Then according to microscopic magneto-elastic coupling mechanism and some physical facts of magnetostrictive materials, a nonlinear magneto-elastic constitutive with concise form was obtained when the relations of nonlinear strain and magnetization in the polynomial constitutive were instead with transcendental functions. The comparisons between the prediction and the experimental data of different magnetostrictive materials, such as Terfenol-D, Metglas and Ni showed that the predicted magnetostrictive strain and magnetization curves were consistent with experimental results under different pre-stresses whether in the region of low and moderate field or high field. Moreover, the model can fully reflect the nonlinear magneto-mechanical coupling characteristics between magnetic, magnetostriction and elasticity, and it can effectively predict the changes of material parameters with pre-stress and bias field, which is useful in practical applications.

  8. A size-dependent constitutive modelling framework for localised failure analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nguyen, Giang D.; Nguyen, Chi T.; Nguyen, Vinh P.; Bui, Ha H.; Shen, Luming

    2016-08-01

    Localised deformation of materials usually takes place in thin bands during the nonlinear phase of the deformation process. The orientation and size of these localisation bands are important properties characterising the post-localisation behaviour of the materials, and hence should be taken into account in constitutive modelling. In this research, a new approach is proposed for the integration of both size and orientation of a localisation band in the constitutive description beyond the onset of localisation. Since a length scale related to the size of the localisation band appears in the model description, its post-localisation response then scales with both the band size and the size of the volume element containing it. Therefore, size effects are intrinsically included and post-localisation behaviour is correctly captured, which helps ensure convergence of numerical solutions upon discretisation refinement in numerical analysis of boundary value problems. The concept together with implementation features of the framework and its performances at constitutive level and in the analysis of boundary value problems are presented in this paper.

  9. A size-dependent constitutive modelling framework for localised failure analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nguyen, Giang D.; Nguyen, Chi T.; Nguyen, Vinh P.; Bui, Ha H.; Shen, Luming

    2016-04-01

    Localised deformation of materials usually takes place in thin bands during the nonlinear phase of the deformation process. The orientation and size of these localisation bands are important properties characterising the post-localisation behaviour of the materials, and hence should be taken into account in constitutive modelling. In this research, a new approach is proposed for the integration of both size and orientation of a localisation band in the constitutive description beyond the onset of localisation. Since a length scale related to the size of the localisation band appears in the model description, its post-localisation response then scales with both the band size and the size of the volume element containing it. Therefore, size effects are intrinsically included and post-localisation behaviour is correctly captured, which helps ensure convergence of numerical solutions upon discretisation refinement in numerical analysis of boundary value problems. The concept together with implementation features of the framework and its performances at constitutive level and in the analysis of boundary value problems are presented in this paper.

  10. On the Finite Element Implementation of the Generalized Method of Cells Micromechanics Constitutive Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilt, T. E.

    1995-01-01

    The Generalized Method of Cells (GMC), a micromechanics based constitutive model, is implemented into the finite element code MARC using the user subroutine HYPELA. Comparisons in terms of transverse deformation response, micro stress and strain distributions, and required CPU time are presented for GMC and finite element models of fiber/matrix unit cell. GMC is shown to provide comparable predictions of the composite behavior and requires significantly less CPU time as compared to a finite element analysis of the unit cell. Details as to the organization of the HYPELA code are provided with the actual HYPELA code included in the appendix.

  11. Life prediction and constitutive models for engine hot section anisotropic materials program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Swanson, G. A.

    1985-01-01

    The purpose is to develop life prediction models for coated anisotropic materials used in gas temperature airfoils. Two single crystal alloys and two coatings are now being tested. These include PWA 1480; Alloy 185; overlay coating, PWA 286; and aluminide coating, PWA 273. Constitutive models are also being developed for these materials to predict the plastic and creep strain histories of the materials in the lab tests and for actual design conditions. This nonlinear material behavior is particularily important for high temperature gas turbine applications and is basic to any life prediction system.

  12. Influence of twinning on the constitutive response of Zr: Experiments and modeling

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Shuh Rong; Gray, G.T. III

    1997-05-01

    The stress-strain response of Zr due to twinning is distinctly different from that due to slip as a function of temperature and strain rate. When the applied stress is lower than the transition stress, dislocation slip is the dominant deformation mechanism. The traditional MTS model is shown to adequately represent the constitutive behavior of Zr. Above the transition stress twinning becomes the dominant deformation mechanism where the flow stress increases linearly with strain. In this regime the rate-dependent strain hardening can be described by equations based on thermal activation theory that are very similar to the formula used in the MTS model.

  13. Anisotropic constitutive model and FE simulation of the sintering process of slip cast traditional porcelain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarbandi, B.; Besson, J.; Boussuge, M.; Ryckelynck, D.

    2010-06-01

    Slip cast ceramic components undergo both sintering shrinkage and creep deformation caused by gravity during the firing cycle. In addition sintering may be anisotropic due to the development of preferential directions during slip casting. Both phenomena induce complex deformations of parts which make the design of casting molds difficult. To help solving this problem, anisotropic constitutive equations are proposed to represent the behavior of the ceramic compacts during sintering. The model parameters are identified using tests allowing to characterize both sintering and creep. The model was implemented in a finite element software and used to simulate the deformation of a traditional ceramic object during sintering.

  14. Anisotropic constitutive model and FE simulation of the sintering process of slip cast traditional porcelain

    SciTech Connect

    Sarbandi, B.; Besson, J.; Boussuge, M.; Ryckelynck, D.

    2010-06-15

    Slip cast ceramic components undergo both sintering shrinkage and creep deformation caused by gravity during the firing cycle. In addition sintering may be anisotropic due to the development of preferential directions during slip casting. Both phenomena induce complex deformations of parts which make the design of casting molds difficult. To help solving this problem, anisotropic constitutive equations are proposed to represent the behavior of the ceramic compacts during sintering. The model parameters are identified using tests allowing to characterize both sintering and creep. The model was implemented in a finite element software and used to simulate the deformation of a traditional ceramic object during sintering.

  15. Problems of orthotropic plastic constitutive models: Non-associated flow and evolution of anisotropy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, Haizhen

    Two main topics are addressed in this thesis for anisotropic plastic behavior, e.g. textured polycrystals: (i) non-associated plastic flow and (ii) deformation-induced evolution of microstructure. We consider a class of elastic-plastic materials that possess local orthotropic symmetry which is represented in terms of second-order orientation tensors. In developing constitutive equations, significant use is made of representation theory for functions of tensors (Wang, 1969, 1970; Smith, 1969, 1970). Recent developments in multiscale modeling have unequivocally demonstrated that plastic flow in a wide range of crystalline materials is non-associative (i.e., distinct yield and flow functions) due to the effects of non-glide stresses on the motion of dislocations and slip. As a consequence, experimental observations of tension and compression asymmetries are widely approached. To describe orthotropic, non-associated behavior for polycrystals, yield and flow functions are developed based upon representation theory. Anisotropic plastic flow is commonplace for all materials possessing non-random microstructures. The second part of work focuses on the development of anisotropic elastic-plastic constitutive models to account microstructural evolution. Examples of material systems include polycrystals, whisker-reinforced composites, polymers, as well as complex viscoplastic fluids. For persistent orthotropic behavior, microstructural evolution is represented by the rotation of orthonormal vectors, which is governed by the constitutive relations for plastic spin. Representations for scalar- and tensor-valued functions of tensors are also utilized to develop phenomenological constitutive relations for plastic spin. Good agreement is demonstrated with experimental data for microstructural evolution in textured polycrystals. The effects of both non-associated flow and evolution of microstructure on strain localization are investigated. From the analyses of stress and load maxima

  16. Applications of elastic-viscoplastic constitutive models in dynamic analyses of crack run-arrest events

    SciTech Connect

    Bass, B.R.; Pugh, C.E.; Swindeman, R.W.

    1986-01-01

    Various viscoplastic constitutive models and several nonlinear fracture criteria are being installed in the ADINA general purpose finite element computer program, and the combined predictive capabilities are being evaluated through applications to the HSST wide-plate experiments. The first two constitutive models selected for installation in ADINA were a variation of the Perzyna elastic-viscoplastic model with linear strain hardening and the Bodner-Partom viscoplastic model with strain hardening. Other models being examined include those due to Robinson-Pugh and Hart. The fracture criteria being examined for use with nonlinear analyses include several path-independent integrals that were formulated to remove limitations on the original J-integral of Rice. Some of these integrals represent slight modifications of the J-integral, while others have a different theoretical basis. This paper describes applications of these nonlinear techniques to the first series of six HSST wide-plate crack-arrest tests that have been performed. These experiments include crack initiations at low temperatures and relatively long (20 cm) cleavage propagation phases which are terminated by arrest in high-temperature regions. Crack arrests are then followed by ductile tearing events. Consequently, the crack-front regions in these tests are exposed to wide ranges of strain rates and temperatures.

  17. Fluid-structure interaction simulations of cerebral arteries modeled by isotropic and anisotropic constitutive laws

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tricerri, Paolo; Dedè, Luca; Deparis, Simone; Quarteroni, Alfio; Robertson, Anne M.; Sequeira, Adélia

    2015-03-01

    This paper considers numerical simulations of fluid-structure interaction (FSI) problems in hemodynamics for idealized geometries of healthy cerebral arteries modeled by both nonlinear isotropic and anisotropic material constitutive laws. In particular, it focuses on an anisotropic model initially proposed for cerebral arteries to characterize the activation of collagen fibers at finite strains. In the current work, this constitutive model is implemented for the first time in the context of an FSI formulation. In this framework, we investigate the influence of the material model on the numerical results and, in the case of the anisotropic laws, the importance of the collagen fibers on the overall mechanical behavior of the tissue. With this aim, we compare our numerical results by analyzing fluid dynamic indicators, vessel wall displacement, Von Mises stress, and deformations of the collagen fibers. Specifically, for an anisotropic model with collagen fiber recruitment at finite strains, we highlight the progressive activation and deactivation processes of the fibrous component of the tissue throughout the wall thickness during the cardiac cycle. The inclusion of collagen recruitment is found to have a substantial impact on the intramural stress, which will in turn impact the biological response of the intramural cells. Hence, the methodology presented here will be particularly useful for studies of mechanobiological processes in the healthy and diseased vascular wall.

  18. Application of the Bammann inelasticity internal state variable constitutive model to geological materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sherburn, J. A.; Horstemeyer, M. F.; Bammann, D. J.; Baumgardner, J. R.

    2011-03-01

    We describe how the Bammann internal state variable (ISV) constitutive approach, which has proven highly successful in modelling deformation processes in metals, can be applied with great benefit to silicate rocks and other geological materials in modelling their deformation dynamics. In its essence, ISV theory provides a constitutive framework to account for changing history states that arise from inelastic dissipative microstructural evolution of a polycrystalline solid. In this paper, we restrict our attention to a Bammann ISV elastic-viscoplastic model with temperature and strain rate dependence and use isotropic hardening and anisotropic hardening as our two ISVs. We show the Bammann model captures the inelastic behaviour of olivine aggregates (with and without water), lherzolite (with and without water), Carrara marble and rock salt using some experimental data found in the literature. These examples illustrate that when more experimental stress-strain data are gathered on other rock materials, much more realistic numerical simulation of rock behaviour becomes feasible. Though not available in the literature, we outline a set of experiments to obtain unique Bammann ISV model constants.

  19. A size-dependent constitutive model of bulk metallic glasses in the supercooled liquid region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yao, Di; Deng, Lei; Zhang, Mao; Wang, Xinyun; Tang, Na; Li, Jianjun

    2015-01-01

    Size effect is of great importance in micro forming processes. In this paper, micro cylinder compression was conducted to investigate the deformation behavior of bulk metallic glasses (BMGs) in supercooled liquid region with different deformation variables including sample size, temperature and strain rate. It was found that the elastic and plastic behaviors of BMGs have a strong dependence on the sample size. The free volume and defect concentration were introduced to explain the size effect. In order to demonstrate the influence of deformation variables on steady stress, elastic modulus and overshoot phenomenon, four size-dependent factors were proposed to construct a size-dependent constitutive model based on the Maxwell-pulse type model previously presented by the authors according to viscosity theory and free volume model. The proposed constitutive model was then adopted in finite element method simulations, and validated by comparing the micro cylinder compression and micro double cup extrusion experimental data with the numerical results. Furthermore, the model provides a new approach to understanding the size-dependent plastic deformation behavior of BMGs.

  20. A size-dependent constitutive model of bulk metallic glasses in the supercooled liquid region.

    PubMed

    Yao, Di; Deng, Lei; Zhang, Mao; Wang, Xinyun; Tang, Na; Li, Jianjun

    2015-01-01

    Size effect is of great importance in micro forming processes. In this paper, micro cylinder compression was conducted to investigate the deformation behavior of bulk metallic glasses (BMGs) in supercooled liquid region with different deformation variables including sample size, temperature and strain rate. It was found that the elastic and plastic behaviors of BMGs have a strong dependence on the sample size. The free volume and defect concentration were introduced to explain the size effect. In order to demonstrate the influence of deformation variables on steady stress, elastic modulus and overshoot phenomenon, four size-dependent factors were proposed to construct a size-dependent constitutive model based on the Maxwell-pulse type model previously presented by the authors according to viscosity theory and free volume model. The proposed constitutive model was then adopted in finite element method simulations, and validated by comparing the micro cylinder compression and micro double cup extrusion experimental data with the numerical results. Furthermore, the model provides a new approach to understanding the size-dependent plastic deformation behavior of BMGs. PMID:25626690

  1. A Mathematical Model of Neonatal Rat Atrial Monolayers with Constitutively Active Acetylcholine-Mediated K+ Current

    PubMed Central

    Majumder, Rupamanjari; Jangsangthong, Wanchana; Feola, Iolanda; Ypey, Dirk L.; Pijnappels, Daniël A.; Panfilov, Alexander V.

    2016-01-01

    Atrial fibrillation (AF) is the most frequent form of arrhythmia occurring in the industrialized world. Because of its complex nature, each identified form of AF requires specialized treatment. Thus, an in-depth understanding of the bases of these arrhythmias is essential for therapeutic development. A variety of experimental studies aimed at understanding the mechanisms of AF are performed using primary cultures of neonatal rat atrial cardiomyocytes (NRAMs). Previously, we have shown that the distinct advantage of NRAM cultures is that they allow standardized, systematic, robust re-entry induction in the presence of a constitutively-active acetylcholine-mediated K+ current (IKACh-c). Experimental studies dedicated to mechanistic explorations of AF, using these cultures, often use computer models for detailed electrophysiological investigations. However, currently, no mathematical model for NRAMs is available. Therefore, in the present study we propose the first model for the action potential (AP) of a NRAM with constitutively-active acetylcholine-mediated K+ current (IKACh-c). The descriptions of the ionic currents were based on patch-clamp data obtained from neonatal rats. Our monolayer model closely mimics the action potential duration (APD) restitution and conduction velocity (CV) restitution curves presented in our previous in vitro studies. In addition, the model reproduces the experimentally observed dynamics of spiral wave rotation, in the absence and in the presence of drug interventions, and in the presence of localized myofibroblast heterogeneities. PMID:27332890

  2. A size-dependent constitutive model of bulk metallic glasses in the supercooled liquid region

    PubMed Central

    Yao, Di; Deng, Lei; Zhang, Mao; Wang, Xinyun; Tang, Na; Li, Jianjun

    2015-01-01

    Size effect is of great importance in micro forming processes. In this paper, micro cylinder compression was conducted to investigate the deformation behavior of bulk metallic glasses (BMGs) in supercooled liquid region with different deformation variables including sample size, temperature and strain rate. It was found that the elastic and plastic behaviors of BMGs have a strong dependence on the sample size. The free volume and defect concentration were introduced to explain the size effect. In order to demonstrate the influence of deformation variables on steady stress, elastic modulus and overshoot phenomenon, four size-dependent factors were proposed to construct a size-dependent constitutive model based on the Maxwell-pulse type model previously presented by the authors according to viscosity theory and free volume model. The proposed constitutive model was then adopted in finite element method simulations, and validated by comparing the micro cylinder compression and micro double cup extrusion experimental data with the numerical results. Furthermore, the model provides a new approach to understanding the size-dependent plastic deformation behavior of BMGs. PMID:25626690

  3. Constitutive equations for orthotropic nonlinear viscoelastic behaviour using a generalized Maxwell model Application to wood material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vidal-Sallé, Emmanuelle; Chassagne, Pierre

    2007-06-01

    This paper presents a nonlinear viscoelastic orthotropic constitutive equation applied to wood material. The proposed model takes into account mechanical and mechanosorptive creep via a 3D stress ratio and moisture change rate for a cylindrical orthotropic material. Orthotropic frame is based on the grain direction (L), radial (R) and hoop (T) directions, which are natural wood directions. Particular attention is taken to ensure the model to fulfill the necessary dissipation conditions. It is based on a rheological generalized Maxwell model with two elements in parallel in addition with a single linear spring taking into account the long term response. The proposed model is implemented in the finite element code ABAQUS/Standard® via a user subroutine UMAT and simple example is shown to demonstrate the capability of the proposed model. Future works would deal with damage and fracture prediction for wooden structures submitted to climate variations and mechanical loading.

  4. Constitutive JAK3 activation induces lymphoproliferative syndromes in murine bone marrow transplantation models

    PubMed Central

    Cornejo, Melanie G.; Kharas, Michael G.; Werneck, Miriam B.; Bras, Séverine Le; Moore, Sandra A.; Ball, Brian; Beylot-Barry, Marie; Rodig, Scott J.; Aster, Jon C.; Lee, Benjamin H.; Cantor, Harvey; Merlio, Jean-Philippe

    2009-01-01

    The tyrosine kinase JAK3 plays a well-established role during normal lymphocyte development and is constitutively phosphorylated in several lymphoid malignancies. However, its contribution to lymphomagenesis remains elusive. In this study, we used the newly identified activating JAK3A572V mutation to elucidate the effect of constitutive JAK3 signaling on murine lymphopoiesis. In a bone marrow transplantation model, JAK3A572V induces an aggressive, fatal, and transplantable lymphoproliferative disorder characterized by the expansion of CD8+TCRαβ+CD44+CD122+Ly-6C+ T cellsthat closely resemble an effector/memory T-cell subtype. Compared with wild-type counterparts, these cells show increased proliferative capacities in response to polyclonal stimulation, enhanced survival rates with elevated expression of Bcl-2, and increased production of interferon-γ (IFNγ) and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNFα), correlating with enhanced cytotoxic abilities against allogeneic target cells. Of interest, the JAK3A572V disease is epidermotropic and produces intraepidermal microabscesses. Taken together, these clinical features are reminiscent of those observed in an uncommon but aggressive subset of CD8+ human cutaneous T-cell lymphomas (CTCLs). However, we also observed a CD4+ CTCL-like phenotype when cells are transplanted in an MHC-I–deficient background. These data demonstrate that constitutive JAK3 activation disrupts T-cell homeostasis and induces lymphoproliferative diseases in mice. PMID:19139084

  5. Application of Gurson–Tvergaard–Needleman Constitutive Model to the Tensile Behavior of Reinforcing Bars with Corrosion Pits

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Yidong; Qian, Chunxiang

    2013-01-01

    Based on meso-damage mechanics and finite element analysis, the aim of this paper is to describe the feasibility of the Gurson–Tvergaard–Needleman (GTN) constitutive model in describing the tensile behavior of corroded reinforcing bars. The orthogonal test results showed that different fracture pattern and the related damage evolution process can be simulated by choosing different material parameters of GTN constitutive model. Compared with failure parameters, the two constitutive parameters are significant factors affecting the tensile strength. Both the nominal yield and ultimate tensile strength decrease markedly with the increase of constitutive parameters. Combining with the latest data and trial-and-error method, the suitable material parameters of GTN constitutive model were adopted to simulate the tensile behavior of corroded reinforcing bars in concrete under carbonation environment attack. The numerical predictions can not only agree very well with experimental measurements, but also simplify the finite element modeling process. PMID:23342140

  6. MONA: An accurate two-phase well flow model based on phase slippage

    SciTech Connect

    Asheim, H.

    1984-10-01

    In two phase flow, holdup and pressure loss are related to interfacial slippage. A model based on the slippage concept has been developed and tested using production well data from Forties, the Ekofisk area, and flowline data from Prudhoe Bay. The model developed turned out considerably more accurate than the standard models used for comparison.

  7. A three-dimensional constitutive model for the stress relaxation of articular ligaments.

    PubMed

    Davis, Frances M; De Vita, Raffaella

    2014-06-01

    A new nonlinear constitutive model for the three-dimensional stress relaxation of articular ligaments is proposed. The model accounts for finite strains, anisotropy, and strain-dependent stress relaxation behavior exhibited by these ligaments. The model parameters are identified using published uniaxial stress-stretch and stress relaxation data on human medial collateral ligaments (MCLs) subjected to tensile tests in the fiber and transverse to the fiber directions (Quapp and Weiss in J Biomech Eng Trans ASME 120:757-763, 1998; Bonifasi-Lista et al. in J Orthop Res 23(1):67-76, 2005). The constitutive equation is then used to predict the nonlinear elastic and stress relaxation response of ligaments subjected to shear deformations in the fiber direction and transverse to the fiber direction, and an equibiaxial extension. A direct comparison with stress relaxation data collected by subjecting human MCLs to shear deformation in the fiber direction is presented in order to demonstrate the predictive capabilities of the model. PMID:23990018

  8. A microplane constitutive model for shape memory alloys considering tension-compression asymmetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karamooz Ravari, M. R.; Kadkhodaei, M.; Ghaei, A.

    2015-07-01

    Shape memory alloys are a group of advanced materials that have found several industrial applications due to their interesting mechanical properties including a shape memory effect and superelasticity. In order to optimize the use of such materials in manufacturing different devices, appropriate advanced constitutive models are required. Recent experiments show that shape memory alloys exhibit an asymmetric response during tension and compression loading. In this paper, a new three-dimensional constitutive law is proposed based on microplane theory with the purpose of describing the tension-compression asymmetry. The model utilizes an equivalent stress on the foundation of second and third invariants of the deviatoric stress tensor in combination with two internal variables to distinguish between martensite volume fraction as well as martensite elastic modulus during tension and compression. The proposed model is then used to simulate uniaxial tension-compression loading in superelasticity as well as ferroelasticity regimes. The simulation results are compared with the corresponding results obtained by experiment and previous models reported in the literature, and a good agreement is observed. In addition, a four-point bending test is simulated for NiTi tubes in several cases. The predicted moment-curvature response and variations in the position of the neutral axis correlate fairly well with the experimental findings reported in the literature.

  9. Creation of Anatomically Accurate Computer-Aided Design (CAD) Solid Models from Medical Images

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stewart, John E.; Graham, R. Scott; Samareh, Jamshid A.; Oberlander, Eric J.; Broaddus, William C.

    1999-01-01

    Most surgical instrumentation and implants used in the world today are designed with sophisticated Computer-Aided Design (CAD)/Computer-Aided Manufacturing (CAM) software. This software automates the mechanical development of a product from its conceptual design through manufacturing. CAD software also provides a means of manipulating solid models prior to Finite Element Modeling (FEM). Few surgical products are designed in conjunction with accurate CAD models of human anatomy because of the difficulty with which these models are created. We have developed a novel technique that creates anatomically accurate, patient specific CAD solids from medical images in a matter of minutes.

  10. Constitutive Modeling During Simultaneous Forming and Quenching of a Boron Bearing Steel at High Temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salari, S.; Naderi, M.; Bleck, W.

    2015-02-01

    Simulation of hot stamping process needs reliable material data, especially at high temperatures where plastic deformation takes place in austenitic microstructure. In the current study, high-temperature non-isothermal compression tests (NICT) at different ranges of temperature, strain and strain rate as well as constitutive modeling of the flow curves were carried out. The Johnson-Cook and the Nemat-Nasser phenomenological models for isothermal deformation conditions were revised and applied to fit the flow curves during high-temperature NICT. It was shown that the models can satisfactorily predict the material flow stress at the mentioned conditions. Furthermore, the models were employed in order to describe the work-hardening behavior of the material. The results indicated that the fitted work-hardening rate can successfully follow the experimental data during deformation till no strain-induced phase transformation is initiated.

  11. Generalized Constitutive-Based Theoretical and Empirical Models for Hot Working Behavior of Functionally Graded Steels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vanini, Seyed Ali Sadough; Abolghasemzadeh, Mohammad; Assadi, Abbas

    2013-07-01

    Functionally graded steels with graded ferritic and austenitic regions including bainite and martensite intermediate layers produced by electroslag remelting have attracted much attention in recent years. In this article, an empirical model based on the Zener-Hollomon (Z-H) constitutive equation with generalized material constants is presented to investigate the effects of temperature and strain rate on the hot working behavior of functionally graded steels. Next, a theoretical model, generalized by strain compensation, is developed for the flow stress estimation of functionally graded steels under hot compression based on the phase mixture rule and boundary layer characteristics. The model is used for different strains and grading configurations. Specifically, the results for αβγMγ steels from empirical and theoretical models showed excellent agreement with those of experiments of other references within acceptable error.

  12. Application of an Uncoupled Elastic-plastic-creep Constitutive Model to Metals at High Temperature

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haisler, W. E.

    1983-01-01

    A uniaxial, uncoupled constitutive model to predict the response of thermal and rate dependent elastic-plastic material behavior is presented. The model is based on an incremental classicial plasticity theory extended to account for thermal, creep, and transient temperature conditions. Revisions to he combined hardening rule of the theory allow for better representation of cyclic phenomenon including the high rate of strain hardening upon cyclic reyield and cyclic saturation. An alternative approach is taken to model the rate dependent inelastic deformation which utilizes hysteresis loops and stress relaxation test data at various temperatures. The model is evaluated and compared to experiments which involve various thermal and mechanical load histories on 5086 aluminum alloy, 304 stainless steel and Hastelloy-X.

  13. Human Annulus Fibrosus Material Properties from Biaxial Testing and Constitutive Modeling are Altered with Degeneration

    PubMed Central

    O’Connell, Grace D.; Sen, Sounok; Elliott, Dawn M.

    2012-01-01

    The annulus fibrosus (AF) of the intervertebral disc undergoes large and multidirectional stresses and strains. Uniaxial tensile tests are limited for measuring AF material properties, because freely contracting edges can prevent fiber stretch and are not representative of in situ boundary conditions. The objectives of this study were to measure human AF biaxial tensile mechanics and to apply and validate a constitutive model to determine material properties. Biaxial tensile tests were performed on samples oriented along the circumferential-axial and the radial-axial directions. Data were fit to a structurally-motivated anisotropic hyperelastic model composed of isotropic extrafibrillar matrix, nonlinear fibers, and fiber-matrix interactions (FMI) normal to the fibers. The validated model was used to simulate shear and uniaxial tensile behavior, to investigate AF structure-function, and to quantify the effect of degeneration. The biaxial stress-strain response was described well by the model (R2>0.9). The model showed that the parameters for fiber nonlinearity and the normal FMI correlated with degeneration, resulting in an elongated toe region and lower stiffness with degeneration. The model simulations in shear and uniaxial tension successfully matched previously published circumferential direction Young’s modulus, provided an explanation for the low values in previously published axial direction Young’s modulus, and was able to simulate shear mechanics. The normal FMI were important contributors to stress and changed with degeneration, therefore, their microstructural and compositional source should be investigated. Finally, the biaxial mechanical data and constitutive model can be incorporated into a disc finite element model to provide improved quantification of disc mechanics. PMID:21748426

  14. Molecular simulation guided constitutive modeling on finite strain viscoelasticity of elastomers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Ying; Tang, Shan; Kröger, Martin; Liu, Wing Kam

    2016-03-01

    Viscoelasticity characterizes the most important mechanical behavior of elastomers. Understanding the viscoelasticity, especially finite strain viscoelasticity, of elastomers is the key for continuation of their dedicated use in industrial applications. In this work, we present a mechanistic and physics-based constitutive model to describe and design the finite strain viscoelastic behavior of elastomers. Mathematically, the viscoelasticity of elastomers has been decomposed into hyperelastic and viscous parts, which are attributed to the nonlinear deformation of the cross-linked polymer network and the diffusion of free chains, respectively. The hyperelastic deformation of a cross-linked polymer network is governed by the cross-linking density, the molecular weight of the polymer strands between cross-linkages, and the amount of entanglements between different chains, which we observe through large scale molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. Moreover, a recently developed non-affine network model (Davidson and Goulbourne, 2013) is confirmed in the current work to be able to capture these key physical mechanisms using MD simulation. The energy dissipation during a loading and unloading process of elastomers is governed by the diffusion of free chains, which can be understood through their reptation dynamics. The viscous stress can be formulated using the classical tube model (Doi and Edwards, 1986); however, it cannot be used to capture the energy dissipation during finite deformation. By considering the tube deformation during this process, as observed from the MD simulations, we propose a modified tube model to account for the finite deformation behavior of free chains. Combing the non-affine network model for hyperelasticity and modified tube model for viscosity, both understood by molecular simulations, we develop a mechanism-based constitutive model for finite strain viscoelasticity of elastomers. All the parameters in the proposed constitutive model have

  15. An accurate modeling, simulation, and analysis tool for predicting and estimating Raman LIDAR system performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grasso, Robert J.; Russo, Leonard P.; Barrett, John L.; Odhner, Jefferson E.; Egbert, Paul I.

    2007-09-01

    BAE Systems presents the results of a program to model the performance of Raman LIDAR systems for the remote detection of atmospheric gases, air polluting hydrocarbons, chemical and biological weapons, and other molecular species of interest. Our model, which integrates remote Raman spectroscopy, 2D and 3D LADAR, and USAF atmospheric propagation codes permits accurate determination of the performance of a Raman LIDAR system. The very high predictive performance accuracy of our model is due to the very accurate calculation of the differential scattering cross section for the specie of interest at user selected wavelengths. We show excellent correlation of our calculated cross section data, used in our model, with experimental data obtained from both laboratory measurements and the published literature. In addition, the use of standard USAF atmospheric models provides very accurate determination of the atmospheric extinction at both the excitation and Raman shifted wavelengths.

  16. A multipreferred fiber orientation constitutive model for fiber mat-reinforced thermoplastics with a random orientation applied to the stamp thermohydroforming process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zampaloni, Michael A.

    This work focuses on the development of a constitutive relationship for the modeling of a multi-preferred fiber orientation sheet that has several different primary fiber orientations, none of which are necessarily mutually perpendicular prior to, or during, deformation. One of the goals was to develop the constitutive relationship for the deformation behavior of the fiber mat reinforced thermoplastics with a random orientation, a material that is starting to gain in popularity but has not been extensively investigated. Two different types of mat fiber reinforced material were investigated; one a continuous fiber mat and one a chopped fiber mat, both with a polypropylene matrix. Both materials were characterized through a series of squeeze flow and uniaxial tensile tests to determine the preferred fiber orientations as well as the material properties. The constitutive model was implemented through a user-subroutine into the commercial finite element analysis code ABAQUS/Explicit and the numerical results were validated against experimental stamping results. Overall, the multi-preferred fiber orientation constitutive relationship was able to accurately capture the material instabilities that occurred during the stamping process. Since the mat fiber reinforced materials have not been extensively investigated this research creates one of the building blocks that can be used to develop more accurate models in the future. With the addition of a constitutive relationship for the interaction between the layers, this single layer model could be expanded into a constitutive relationship for the full sheet. In addition to the constitutive modeling aspect of this work there is also an experimental portion that deals with the development, design, build and verification of a new processing method for the shaping and forming of fiber reinforced thermoplastic materials, stamp thermo-hydroforming. Experimentation demonstrated that the process provides a 7--10 percent increase in

  17. Creep-fatigue modelling in structural steels using empirical and constitutive creep methods implemented in a strip-yield model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andrews, Benjamin J.

    The phenomena of creep and fatigue have each been thoroughly studied. More recently, attempts have been made to predict the damage evolution in engineering materials due to combined creep and fatigue loading, but these formulations have been strictly empirical and have not been used successfully outside of a narrow set of conditions. This work proposes a new creep-fatigue crack growth model based on constitutive creep equations (adjusted to experimental data) and Paris law fatigue crack growth. Predictions from this model are compared to experimental data in two steels: modified 9Cr-1Mo steel and AISI 316L stainless steel. Modified 9Cr-1Mo steel is a high-strength steel used in the construction of pressure vessels and piping for nuclear and conventional power plants, especially for high temperature applications. Creep-fatigue and pure creep experimental data from the literature are compared to model predictions, and they show good agreement. Material constants for the constitutive creep model are obtained for AISI 316L stainless steel, an alloy steel widely used for temperature and corrosion resistance for such components as exhaust manifolds, furnace parts, heat exchangers and jet engine parts. Model predictions are compared to pure creep experimental data, with satisfactory results. Assumptions and constraints inherent in the implementation of the present model are examined. They include: spatial discretization, similitude, plane stress constraint and linear elasticity. It is shown that the implementation of the present model had a non-trivial impact on the model solutions in 316L stainless steel, especially the spatial discretization. Based on these studies, the following conclusions are drawn: 1. The constitutive creep model consistently performs better than the Nikbin, Smith and Webster (NSW) model for predicting creep and creep-fatigue crack extension. 2. Given a database of uniaxial creep test data, a constitutive material model such as the one developed for

  18. Experimental analysis and constitutive modelling of steel of A-IIIN strength class

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kruszka, Leopold; Janiszewski, Jacek

    2015-09-01

    Fundamentally important is the better understanding of behaviour of new building steels under impact loadings, including plastic deformations. Results of the experimental analysis in wide range of strain rates in compression at room temperature, as well as constitutive modelling for and B500SP structural steels of new A-IIIN Polish strength class, examined dynamically by split Hopkinson pressure bar technique at high strain rates, are presented in table and graphic forms. Dynamic mechanical characteristics of compressive strength for tested building structural steel are determined as well as dynamic mechanical properties of this material are compared with 18G2-b steel of A-II strength class, including effects of the shape of tested specimens, i.e. their slenderness. The paper focuses the attention on those experimental tests, their interpretation, and constitutive semi-empirical modelling of the behaviour of tested steels based on Johnson-Cook's model. Obtained results of analyses presented here are used for designing and numerical simulations of reinforced concrete protective structures.

  19. A constitutive model for the periodontal ligament as a compressible transversely isotropic visco-hyperelastic tissue.

    PubMed

    Zhurov, Alexei I; Limbert, Georges; Aeschlimann, Daniel P; Middleton, John

    2007-06-01

    This study is devoted to the development of a non-linear anisotropic model for the human periodontal ligament (PDL). A thorough knowledge of the behaviour of the PDL is vital in understanding the mechanics of orthodontic tooth mobility, soft tissue response and proposed treatment plans. There is considerable evidence that the deformation of the PDL is the key factor determining the orthodontic tooth movement. The paper focuses on the biomechanical aspect of the behaviour of the PDL. In terms of continuous mechanics, the PDL may be treated as an anisotropic poro-visco-hyperelastic fibre-reinforced compressible material which is subject to large deformations and has an essentially non-linear behaviour. Furthermore, there are issues related to the non-linear tooth and PDL geometry. A new constitutive model for the PDL is proposed. The macroscopic continuum approach is used. The model is based on the non-linear large deformation theory, involving the Lagrangian description. The material is assumed to be compressible, visco-hyperelastic and transversely isotropic. A free-energy function is suggested that incorporates the properties. It also takes into account that the PDL behaves differently in tension and compression. The free-energy function and the associated constitutive equations involve several material parameters, which are to be evaluated from experimental strain-stress data available from the literature and the tooth movement experiments conducted by our team using novel optical motion analysis techniques. PMID:17558650

  20. A homeostatic-driven turnover remodelling constitutive model for healing in soft tissues.

    PubMed

    Comellas, Ester; Gasser, T Christian; Bellomo, Facundo J; Oller, Sergio

    2016-03-01

    Remodelling of soft biological tissue is characterized by interacting biochemical and biomechanical events, which change the tissue's microstructure, and, consequently, its macroscopic mechanical properties. Remodelling is a well-defined stage of the healing process, and aims at recovering or repairing the injured extracellular matrix. Like other physiological processes, remodelling is thought to be driven by homeostasis, i.e. it tends to re-establish the properties of the uninjured tissue. However, homeostasis may never be reached, such that remodelling may also appear as a continuous pathological transformation of diseased tissues during aneurysm expansion, for example. A simple constitutive model for soft biological tissues that regards remodelling as homeostatic-driven turnover is developed. Specifically, the recoverable effective tissue damage, whose rate is the sum of a mechanical damage rate and a healing rate, serves as a scalar internal thermodynamic variable. In order to integrate the biochemical and biomechanical aspects of remodelling, the healing rate is, on the one hand, driven by mechanical stimuli, but, on the other hand, subjected to simple metabolic constraints. The proposed model is formulated in accordance with continuum damage mechanics within an open-system thermodynamics framework. The numerical implementation in an in-house finite-element code is described, particularized for Ogden hyperelasticity. Numerical examples illustrate the basic constitutive characteristics of the model and demonstrate its potential in representing aspects of remodelling of soft tissues. Simulation results are verified for their plausibility, but also validated against reported experimental data. PMID:27009177

  1. An elasto-viscoplastic interface model for investigating the constitutive behavior of nacre

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, H.; Barthelat, F.; Espinosa, H. D.

    2007-07-01

    In order to better understand the strengthening mechanism observed in nacre, we have developed an interface computational model to simulate the behavior of the organic present at the interface between aragonite tablets. In the model, the single polymer-chain behavior is characterized by the worm-like-chain (WLC) model, which is in turn incorporated into the eight-chain cell model developed by Arruda and Boyce [Arruda, E.M., Boyce, M.C., 1993a. A three-dimensional constitutive model for the large stretches, with application to polymeric glasses. Int. J. Solids Struct. 40, 389-412] to achieve a continuum interface constitutive description. The interface model is formulated within a finite-deformation framework. A fully implicit time-integration algorithm is used for solving the discretized governing equations. Finite element simulations were performed on a representative volume element (RVE) to investigate the tensile response of nacre. The staggered arrangement of tablets and interface waviness obtained experimentally by Barthelat et al. [Barthelat, F., Tang, H., Zavattieri, P.D., Li, C.-M., Espinosa, H.D., 2007. On the mechanics of mother-of-pearl: a key feature in the material hierarchical structure. J. Mech. Phys. Solids 55 (2), 306-337] was included in the RVE simulations. The simulations showed that both the rate-dependence of the tensile response and hysteresis loops during loading, unloading and reloading cycles were captured by the model. Through a parametric study, the effect of the polymer constitutive response during tablet-climbing and its relation to interface hardening was investigated. It is shown that stiffening of the organic material is not required to achieve the experimentally observed strain hardening of nacre during tension. In fact, when ratios of contour length/persistent length experimentally identified are employed in the simulations, the predicted stress-strain behavior exhibits a deformation hardening consistent with the one measured

  2. New Constitutive Model for Hot Deformation Behaviors of Ni-Based Superalloy Considering the Effects of Initial δ Phase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Y. C.; He, Min; Zhou, Mi; Wen, Dong-Xu; Chen, Jian

    2015-09-01

    The hot deformation behaviors of a typical Ni-based superalloy are investigated by uniaxial tensile tests over wide ranges of strain rate and deformation temperature. The experimental results show that the flow stress is sensitive to strain, strain rate, and deformation temperature. Especially, initial δ phase (Ni3Nb) has a special effect on the flow stress. The initial δ phase can enhance the work-hardening behavior and result in the increased peak stress at relatively small strains. With the further straining, the initial δ phase can stimulate the dynamic recrystallization and promote the dynamic-softening behaviors. Considering the synthetical effects of deformation temperature, strain, strain rate, and initial δ phase on the hot deformation behaviors, a new phenomenological constitutive model is proposed. In the proposed model, the peak stress and material constant are expressed as functions of Zener-Hollomon parameter and the initial content of δ phase. A good agreement between the predicted and measured results shows that the proposed model can give an accurate and precise estimate of the hot deformation behaviors for the studied Ni-based superalloy.

  3. On the two-potential constitutive modeling of rubber viscoelastic materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Aditya; Lopez-Pamies, Oscar

    2016-02-01

    This Note lays out the specialization of the two-potential constitutive framework - also known as the "generalized standard materials" framework - to rubber viscoelasticity. Inter alia, it is shown that a number of popular rubber viscoelasticity formulations, introduced over the years following different approaches, are special cases of this framework. As a first application of practical relevance, the framework is utilized to put forth a new objective and thermodynamically consistent rubber viscoelastic model for incompressible isotropic elastomers. The model accounts for the non-Gaussian elasticity of elastomers, as well as for the deformation-enhanced shear thinning of their viscous dissipation governed by reptation dynamics. The descriptive and predictive capabilities of the model are illustrated via comparisons with experimental data available from the literature for two commercially significant elastomers.

  4. A model for the human cornea: constitutive formulation and numerical analysis.

    PubMed

    Pandolfi, A; Manganiello, F

    2006-11-01

    Abstract The human cornea (the external lens of the eye) has the macroscopic structure of a thin shell, originated by the organization of collagen lamellae parallel to the middle surface of the shell. The lamellae, composed of bundles of collagen fibrils, are responsible for the experimentally observed anisotropy of the cornea. Anomalies in the fibril structure may explain the changes in the mechanical behavior of the tissue observed in pathologies such as keratoconus. We employ a fiber-matrix constitutive model and propose a numerical model for the human cornea that is able to account for its mechanical behavior in healthy conditions or in the presence of keratoconus under increasing values of the intraocular pressure. The ability of our model to reproduce the behavior of the human cornea opens a promising perspective for the numerical simulation of refractive surgery. PMID:16444515

  5. Constitutive model used in computer simulation of time-resolved, shock-wave data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steinberg, D. J.

    1986-10-01

    A constitutive model was designed for use with high-speed, hydrodynamic computer codes. The model, valid at high-deformation rates, accounts for pressure and temperature dependence of the yield strength and shear modulus, work hardening, pressure-dependent melting, Bauschinger and strain-rate effects, and spall. There are a minimum number of parameters needed to implement the model, and most can be determined without recourse to shock-wave data. At Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, we assembled a library of these material properties for 44 metals, alloys, mixtures, and compounds. Shock and release data from plate-impact experiments for Be, U, Ta, Cu, 1100-0, and 6061-T6 al, with peak stresses from 6.4 to 230 GPa, are successfully compared against calculations.

  6. Theory and identification of a constitutive model of induced anisotropy by the Mullins effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Machado, G.; Chagnon, G.; Favier, D.

    2014-02-01

    Rubber-like materials present a stress softening phenomenon after a first loading known as the Mullins effect. Some recent experimental data on filled silicone rubber are presented in the literature, using uniaxial and biaxial tests to precondition samples thus induce some primary stress softening. A generic modeling based on the polymer network decomposition into an isotropic hyperelastic one, and a stress-softening evolutive one, is proposed taking into account the contribution of many spatial directions. A new stress softening criterion is built by means of a tensor that measures the repartition of energy in space. A general form of the stress softening function associated to a spatial direction is written by the way of two variables: one, the maximal eigenvalue of the energy tensor; the other, the energy in the considered direction. Finally, a particular form of constitutive equation is proposed. The model is fitted and compared to experimental data. The capacities of such modeling are finally discussed.

  7. Theoretical description of the gaseous Knudsen layer in Couette flow based on the second-order constitutive and slip-jump models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Myong, R. S.

    2016-01-01

    The Knudsen layer, found in the region of gas flow very close (in order of a few mean free paths) to the solid surfaces, plays a critical role in accurately modeling rarefied and micro-scale gases. In various previous investigations, abnormal behaviors at high Knudsen numbers such as nonlinear velocity profile, velocity gradient singularity, and pronounced thermal effect are identified to exist in the Knudsen layer. However, some behaviors, in particular, the velocity gradient singularity near the surface and higher temperature, remain elusive in the continuum framework. In this study, based on the second-order macroscopic constitutive equation recently derived from the kinetic Boltzmann equation via the balanced closure and cumulant expansion [R. S. Myong, "On the high Mach number shock structure singularity caused by overreach of Maxwellian molecules," Phys. Fluids 26(5), 056102 (2014)], the macroscopic second-order constitutive and slip-jump models that are able to explain qualitatively all the known non-classical and non-isothermal behaviors are proposed. As a result, new analytical solutions to the Knudsen layer in Couette flow, in conjunction with the algebraic nonlinearly coupled second-order constitutive and Maxwell velocity slip and Smoluchowski temperature jump models, are derived. It was shown that the velocity gradient singularity in the Knudsen layer can be explained within the continuum framework, when the nonlinearity of the constitutive model is morphed into the determination of the velocity slip in the nonlinear slip and jump model. Also, the smaller velocity slip and shear stress are shown to be caused by the shear-thinning property of the second-order constitutive model, that is, vanishing effective viscosity at high Knudsen number.

  8. A model-reduction approach in micromechanics of materials preserving the variational structure of constitutive relations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Michel, Jean-Claude; Suquet, Pierre

    2016-05-01

    In 2003 the authors proposed a model-reduction technique, called the Nonuniform Transformation Field Analysis (NTFA), based on a decomposition of the local fields of internal variables on a reduced basis of modes, to analyze the effective response of composite materials. The present study extends and improves on this approach in different directions. It is first shown that when the constitutive relations of the constituents derive from two potentials, this structure is passed to the NTFA model. Another structure-preserving model, the hybrid NTFA model of Fritzen and Leuschner, is analyzed and found to differ (slightly) from the primal NTFA model (it does not exhibit the same variational upper bound character). To avoid the "on-line" computation of local fields required by the hybrid model, new reduced evolution equations for the reduced variables are proposed, based on an expansion to second order (TSO) of the potential of the hybrid model. The coarse dynamics can then be entirely expressed in terms of quantities which can be pre-computed once for all. Roughly speaking, these pre-computed quantities depend only on the average and fluctuations per phase of the modes and of the associated stress fields. The accuracy of the new NTFA-TSO model is assessed by comparison with full-field simulations. The acceleration provided by the new coarse dynamics over the full-field computations (and over the hybrid model) is then spectacular, larger by three orders of magnitude than the acceleration due to the sole reduction of unknowns.

  9. Constitutive Modeling of Hot Deformation Behavior of High-Strength Armor Steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bobbili, Ravindranadh; Madhu, Vemuri

    2016-05-01

    The hot isothermal compression tests of high-strength armor steel under a wide range of deformation temperatures (1100-1250 °C) and strain rates of (0.001-1/s) were performed. Based on the experimental data, constitutive models were established using the original Johnson-Cook (JC) model, modified JC model, and strain-compensated Arrhenius model, respectively. The modified JC model considers the coupled effects of strain hardening, strain rate hardening, and thermal softening. Moreover, the prediction accuracy of these developed models was determined by estimating the correlation coefficient ( R) and average absolute relative error (AARE). The results demonstrate that the flow behavior of high-strength armor steel is considerably influenced by the strain rate and temperature. The original JC model is inadequate to provide good description on the flow stress at evaluated temperatures. The modified JC model and strain-compensated Arrhenius model significantly enhance the predictability. It is also observed from the microstructure study that at low strain rates (0.001-0.01/s) and high temperatures (1200-1250 °C), a typical dynamic recrystallization (DRX) occurs.

  10. A parallel high-order accurate finite element nonlinear Stokes ice sheet model and benchmark experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Leng, Wei; Ju, Lili; Gunzburger, Max; Price, Stephen; Ringler, Todd

    2012-01-01

    The numerical modeling of glacier and ice sheet evolution is a subject of growing interest, in part because of the potential for models to inform estimates of global sea level change. This paper focuses on the development of a numerical model that determines the velocity and pressure fields within an ice sheet. Our numerical model features a high-fidelity mathematical model involving the nonlinear Stokes system and combinations of no-sliding and sliding basal boundary conditions, high-order accurate finite element discretizations based on variable resolution grids, and highly scalable parallel solution strategies, all of which contribute to a numerical model that can achieve accurate velocity and pressure approximations in a highly efficient manner. We demonstrate the accuracy and efficiency of our model by analytical solution tests, established ice sheet benchmark experiments, and comparisons with other well-established ice sheet models.

  11. A Simple Iterative Model Accurately Captures Complex Trapline Formation by Bumblebees Across Spatial Scales and Flower Arrangements

    PubMed Central

    Reynolds, Andrew M.; Lihoreau, Mathieu; Chittka, Lars

    2013-01-01

    Pollinating bees develop foraging circuits (traplines) to visit multiple flowers in a manner that minimizes overall travel distance, a task analogous to the travelling salesman problem. We report on an in-depth exploration of an iterative improvement heuristic model of bumblebee traplining previously found to accurately replicate the establishment of stable routes by bees between flowers distributed over several hectares. The critical test for a model is its predictive power for empirical data for which the model has not been specifically developed, and here the model is shown to be consistent with observations from different research groups made at several spatial scales and using multiple configurations of flowers. We refine the model to account for the spatial search strategy of bees exploring their environment, and test several previously unexplored predictions. We find that the model predicts accurately 1) the increasing propensity of bees to optimize their foraging routes with increasing spatial scale; 2) that bees cannot establish stable optimal traplines for all spatial configurations of rewarding flowers; 3) the observed trade-off between travel distance and prioritization of high-reward sites (with a slight modification of the model); 4) the temporal pattern with which bees acquire approximate solutions to travelling salesman-like problems over several dozen foraging bouts; 5) the instability of visitation schedules in some spatial configurations of flowers; 6) the observation that in some flower arrays, bees' visitation schedules are highly individually different; 7) the searching behaviour that leads to efficient location of flowers and routes between them. Our model constitutes a robust theoretical platform to generate novel hypotheses and refine our understanding about how small-brained insects develop a representation of space and use it to navigate in complex and dynamic environments. PMID:23505353

  12. Constitutive model for shear yield stress of magnetorheological fluid based on the concept of state transition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Varela-Jiménez, M. I.; Vargas Luna, J. L.; Cortés-Ramírez, J. A.; Song, G.

    2015-04-01

    Magnetorheological fluid (MRF) is a smart material whose rheological properties can be varied by a magnetic field; it has been applied in the development of semiactive dampers for a variety of applications. The material essentially consists of a suspension of magnetic particles in a nonmagnetic carrier fluid. It is important to understand the magnetic response of MRF and its dependence on several parameters for improving and designing MRF devices. The purpose of this work is to develop a constitutive model that describes the behavior of the shear yield stress of the material as function of the magnetic field and composition. Taking into account that the material changes its rheology and apparent viscosity according to magnetic field, a magnetically induced state transition is proposed; by the use of a state transition equation, a constitutive model for shear yield stress is defined, consisting of an expression that relates composition of the material and the stimulus applied, it also associates the volume fraction of particles, magnetic field and the material that composes the particles.

  13. Constitutive modeling of the mechanical behavior of high strength ferritic steels for static and dynamic applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abed, Farid H.

    2010-11-01

    A constitutive relation is presented in this paper to describe the plastic behavior of ferritic steel over a broad range of temperatures and strain rates. The thermo-mechanical behavior of high strength low alloy (HSLA-65) and DH-63 naval structural steels is considered in this study at strains over 40%. The temperatures and strain rates are considered in the range where dynamic strain aging is not effective. The concept of thermal activation analysis as well as the dislocation interaction mechanism is used in developing the flow model for both the isothermal and adiabatic viscoplastic deformation. The flow stresses of the two steels are very sensitive to temperature and strain rate, the yield stresses increase with decreasing temperatures and increasing strain rates. That is, the thermal flow stress is mainly captured by the yield stresses while the hardening stresses are totally pertained to the athermal component of the flow stress. The proposed constitutive model predicts results that compare very well with the measured ones at initial temperature range of 77 K to 1000 K and strain rates between 0.001 s-1 and 8500 s-1 for both steels.

  14. Anisotropic constitutive model incorporating multiple damage mechanisms for multiscale simulation of dental enamel.

    PubMed

    Ma, Songyun; Scheider, Ingo; Bargmann, Swantje

    2016-09-01

    An anisotropic constitutive model is proposed in the framework of finite deformation to capture several damage mechanisms occurring in the microstructure of dental enamel, a hierarchical bio-composite. It provides the basis for a homogenization approach for an efficient multiscale (in this case: multiple hierarchy levels) investigation of the deformation and damage behavior. The influence of tension-compression asymmetry and fiber-matrix interaction on the nonlinear deformation behavior of dental enamel is studied by 3D micromechanical simulations under different loading conditions and fiber lengths. The complex deformation behavior and the characteristics and interaction of three damage mechanisms in the damage process of enamel are well captured. The proposed constitutive model incorporating anisotropic damage is applied to the first hierarchical level of dental enamel and validated by experimental results. The effect of the fiber orientation on the damage behavior and compressive strength is studied by comparing micro-pillar experiments of dental enamel at the first hierarchical level in multiple directions of fiber orientation. A very good agreement between computational and experimental results is found for the damage evolution process of dental enamel. PMID:27294283

  15. Thermomechanical behavior of thermoset shape memory polymer programmed by cold-compression: Testing and constitutive modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Guoqiang; Xu, Wei

    2011-06-01

    Programming is a key process for thermally activated stress or strain recovery of shape memory polymers (SMPs). Typically, programming requires an initial heating above the glass transition temperature ( Tg), subsequent cooling below Tg and removal of the applied load, in order to fix a temporary shape. This work adopted a new approach to program thermoset SMPs directly at temperatures well below Tg, which effectively simplified the shape fixing process. 1-D compression programming below Tg and free shape recovery of a thermoset SMP were experimentally investigated. Functional stability of the shape fixity under various environmental attacks was also experimentally evaluated. A mechanism-based thermoviscoelastic-thermoviscoplastic constitutive model incorporating structural and stress relaxation was then developed to predict the nonlinear shape memory behavior of the SMP trained below Tg. Comparison between the prediction and the experiment showed good agreement. The structure dependence of the thermomechanical behavior of the SMP was further discussed through a parametric study per the validated constitutive model. This study validates that programming by cold-compression is a viable alternative for thermally responsive thermoset SMPs.

  16. Constitutive modelling of lubricants in concentrated contacts at high slide to roll ratios

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tevaarwerk, J. L.

    1985-01-01

    A constitutive lubricant friction model for rolling/sliding concentrated contacts such as gears and cams was developed, based upon the Johnson and Tevaarwerk fluid rheology model developed earlier. The friction model reported herein differs from the earlier rheological models in that very large slide to roll ratios can now be accommodated by modifying the thermal response of the model. Also the elastic response of the fluid has been omitted from the model, thereby making it much simpler for use in the high slide to roll contacts. The effects of this simplification are very minimal on the outcome of the predicted friction losses (less than 1%). In essence then the lubricant friction model developed for the high slide to roll ratios treats the fluid in the concentrated contact as consisting of a nonlinear viscous element that is pressure, temperature, and strain rate dependent in its shear response. The fluid rheological constants required for the prediction of the friction losses at different contact conditions are obtained by traction measurements on several of the currently used gear lubricants. An example calculation, using this model and the fluid parameters obtained from the experiments, shows that it correctly predicts trends and magnitude of gear mesh losses measured elsewhere for the same fluids tested here.

  17. Modeling of Fracture Propagation in Concrete Structures Using a Constitutive Relation with Embedded Discontinuity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pietruszczak, Stanisław; Haghighat, Ehsan

    2015-02-01

    In this paper, the problem of modeling of mixed mode cracking in concrete structures is addressed within the context of a constitutive law with embedded discontinuity (CLED). This approach, which was originally developed for describing the propagation of localized deformation in a "smeared" sense, is enhanced here to model a discrete nature of crack propagation. The latter is achieved by coupling the CLED approach with the level-set method, which is commonly used within the framework of Extended Finite Element (XFEM). Numerical simulations of experimental tests conducted at Delft University, which involve four-point bending of a notched concrete beam under the action of two independent actuators, are presented. The results based on enhanced CLED approach are directly compared with XFEM simulations. The predictions from both these methodologies are quite consistent with the experimental data, thereby giving advantage to CLED scheme in view of its simplicity in the numerical implementation.

  18. A Micromechanics Based Constitutive Model For Brittle Failure at High Strain Rates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhat, H. S.; Rosakis, A.; Sammis, C. G.

    2011-12-01

    The micromechanical damage mechanics formulated by Ashby and Sammis [1] and generalized by Desh- pande and Evans [2] has been extended to allow for a more generalized stress state and to incorporate an ex- perimentally motivated new crack growth (damage evo- lution) law that is valid over a wide range of loading rates. This law is sensitive to both the crack tip stress field and its time derivative. Incorporating this feature produces strain-rate sensitivity in the constitutive re- sponse. The model is also experimentally verified by predicting the failure strength of Dionysus-Pentelicon marble over strain rates ranging from ˜ 10-6 to 103 s-1. Model parameters determined from from quasi-static experiments were used to predict the failure strength at higher loading rates. Agreement with experimental results was excellent.

  19. Constitutive and life modeling of single crystal blade alloys for root attachment analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meyer, T. G.; Mccarthy, G. J.; Favrow, L. H.; Anton, D. L.; Bak, Joe

    1988-01-01

    Work to develop fatigue life prediction and constitutive models for uncoated attachment regions of single crystal gas turbine blades is described. At temperatures relevant to attachment regions, deformation is dominated by slip on crystallographic planes. However, fatigue crack initiation and early crack growth are not always observed to be crystallographic. The influence of natural occurring microporosity will be investigated by testing both hot isostatically pressed and conventionally cast PWA 1480 single crystal specimens. Several differnt specimen configurations and orientations relative to the natural crystal axes are being tested to investigate the influence of notch acuity and the material's anisotropy. Global and slip system stresses in the notched regions were determined from three dimensional stress analyses and will be used to develop fatigue life prediction models consistent with the observed lives and crack characteristics.

  20. Dislocation Density-Based Constitutive Model for the Mechanical Behavior of Irradiated Cu

    SciTech Connect

    Arsenlis, A; Wirth, B D; Rhee, M

    2003-04-10

    Performance degradation of structural steels in nuclear environments results from the development of a high number density of nanometer scale defects. The defects observed in copper-based alloys are composed of vacancy clusters in the form of stacking fault tetrahedra and/or prismatic dislocation loops, which impede dislocation glide and are evidenced in macroscopic uniaxial stress-strain curves as increased yield strengths, decreased total strain to failure, decreased work hardening and the appearance of a distinct upper yield point above a critical defect concentration (neutron dose). In this paper, we describe the development of an internal state variable model for the mechanical behavior of materials subject to these environments. This model has been developed within an information-passing multiscale materials modeling framework, in which molecular dynamics simulations of dislocation--radiation defect interactions, inform the final coarse-grained continuum model. The plasticity model includes mechanisms for dislocation density growth and multiplication and for radiation defect density evolution with dislocation interaction. The general behavior of the constitutive (single material point) model shows that as the defect density increases, the initial yield point increases and the initial strain hardening decreases. The final coarse-grained model is implemented into a finite element framework and used to simulate the behavior of tensile specimens with varying levels of irradiation induced material damage. The simulation results compare favorably with the experimentally observed mechanical properties of irradiated materials in terms of their increased strength, decreased hardening, and decreased ductility with increasing irradiation dose.

  1. A Volume-Fraction Based Two-Phase Constitutive Model for Blood

    SciTech Connect

    Zhao, Rui; Massoudi, Mehrdad; Hund, S.J.; •Antaki, J.F.

    2008-06-01

    Mechanically-induced blood trauma such as hemolysis and thrombosis often occurs at microscopic channels, steps and crevices within cardiovascular devices. A predictive mathematical model based on a broad understanding of hemodynamics at micro scale is needed to mitigate these effects, and is the motivation of this research project. Platelet transport and surface deposition is important in thrombosis. Microfluidic experiments have previously revealed a significant impact of red blood cell (RBC)-plasma phase separation on platelet transport [5], whereby platelet localized concentration can be enhanced due to a non-uniform distribution of RBCs of blood flow in a capillary tube and sudden expansion. However, current platelet deposition models either totally ignored RBCs in the fluid by assuming a zero sample hematocrit or treated them as being evenly distributed. As a result, those models often underestimated platelet advection and deposition to certain areas [2]. The current study aims to develop a two-phase blood constitutive model that can predict phase separation in a RBC-plasma mixture at the micro scale. The model is based on a sophisticated theory known as theory of interacting continua, i.e., mixture theory. The volume fraction is treated as a field variable in this model, which allows the prediction of concentration as well as velocity profiles of both RBC and plasma phases. The results will be used as the input of successive platelet deposition models.

  2. Improving light propagation Monte Carlo simulations with accurate 3D modeling of skin tissue

    SciTech Connect

    Paquit, Vincent C; Price, Jeffery R; Meriaudeau, Fabrice; Tobin Jr, Kenneth William

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, we present a 3D light propagation model to simulate multispectral reflectance images of large skin surface areas. In particular, we aim to simulate more accurately the effects of various physiological properties of the skin in the case of subcutaneous vein imaging compared to existing models. Our method combines a Monte Carlo light propagation model, a realistic three-dimensional model of the skin using parametric surfaces and a vision system for data acquisition. We describe our model in detail, present results from the Monte Carlo modeling and compare our results with those obtained with a well established Monte Carlo model and with real skin reflectance images.

  3. On the effects of leaflet microstructure and constitutive model on the closing behavior of the mitral valve.

    PubMed

    Lee, Chung-Hao; Rabbah, Jean-Pierre; Yoganathan, Ajit P; Gorman, Robert C; Gorman, Joseph H; Sacks, Michael S

    2015-11-01

    Recent long-term studies showed an unsatisfactory recurrence rate of severe mitral regurgitation 3-5 years after surgical repair, suggesting that excessive tissue stresses and the resulting strain-induced tissue failure are potential etiological factors controlling the success of surgical repair for treating mitral valve (MV) diseases. We hypothesized that restoring normal MV tissue stresses in MV repair techniques would ultimately lead to improved repair durability through the restoration of MV normal homeostatic state. Therefore, we developed a micro- and macro- anatomically accurate MV finite element model by incorporating actual fiber microstructural architecture and a realistic structure-based constitutive model. We investigated MV closing behaviors, with extensive in vitro data used for validating the proposed model. Comparative and parametric studies were conducted to identify essential model fidelity and information for achieving desirable accuracy. More importantly, for the first time, the interrelationship between the local fiber ensemble behavior and the organ-level MV closing behavior was investigated using a computational simulation. These novel results indicated not only the appropriate parameter ranges, but also the importance of the microstructural tuning (i.e., straightening and re-orientation) of the collagen/elastin fiber networks at the macroscopic tissue level for facilitating the proper coaptation and natural functioning of the MV apparatus under physiological loading at the organ level. The proposed computational model would serve as a logical first step toward our long-term modeling goal-facilitating simulation-guided design of optimal surgical repair strategies for treating diseased MVs with significantly enhanced durability. PMID:25947879

  4. On the effects of leaflet microstructure and constitutive model on the closing behavior of the mitral valve

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Chung-Hao; Rabbah, Jean-Pierre; Yoganathan, Ajit P.; Gorman, Robert C.; Gorman, Joseph H.

    2016-01-01

    Recent long-term studies showed an unsatisfactory recurrence rate of severe mitral regurgitation 3–5 years after surgical repair, suggesting that excessive tissue stresses and the resulting strain-induced tissue failure are potential etiological factors controlling the success of surgical repair for treating mitral valve (MV) diseases. We hypothesized that restoring normal MV tissue stresses in MV repair techniques would ultimately lead to improved repair durability through the restoration of MV normal homeostatic state. Therefore, we developed a micro- and macro- anatomically accurate MV finite element model by incorporating actual fiber microstructural architecture and a realistic structure-based constitutive model. We investigated MV closing behaviors, with extensive in vitro data used for validating the proposed model. Comparative and parametric studies were conducted to identify essential model fidelity and information for achieving desirable accuracy. More importantly, for the first time, the interrelationship between the local fiber ensemble behavior and the organ-level MV closing behavior was investigated using a computational simulation. These novel results indicated not only the appropriate parameter ranges, but also the importance of the microstructural tuning (i.e., straightening and re-orientation) of the collagen/elastin fiber networks at the macroscopic tissue level for facilitating the proper coaptation and natural functioning of the MV apparatus under physiological loading at the organ level. The proposed computational model would serve as a logical first step toward our long-term modeling goal—facilitating simulation-guided design of optimal surgical repair strategies for treating diseased MVs with significantly enhanced durability. PMID:25947879

  5. Accurate FDTD modelling for dispersive media using rational function and particle swarm optimisation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chung, Haejun; Ha, Sang-Gyu; Choi, Jaehoon; Jung, Kyung-Young

    2015-07-01

    This article presents an accurate finite-difference time domain (FDTD) dispersive modelling suitable for complex dispersive media. A quadratic complex rational function (QCRF) is used to characterise their dispersive relations. To obtain accurate coefficients of QCRF, in this work, we use an analytical approach and a particle swarm optimisation (PSO) simultaneously. In specific, an analytical approach is used to obtain the QCRF matrix-solving equation and PSO is applied to adjust a weighting function of this equation. Numerical examples are used to illustrate the validity of the proposed FDTD dispersion model.

  6. High Temperature Formability Prediction of Dual Phase Brass Using Phenomenological and Physical Constitutive Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farabi, E.; Zarei-Hanzaki, A.; Abedi, H. R.

    2015-01-01

    Characterizing the high temperature flow behavior of a lead bearing duplex brass in a wide range of forming temperatures (673-1073 K) and strain rates (0.001-0.1 s-1) has been conducted in the present work. In order to establish the constitutive equations, two major modeling procedures, phenomenological (the Original Johnson-Cook and the Arrhenius-type) and physically based (the modified Zerilli-Armstrong) models, have been employed. The capability and accuracy of each model has been assessed via standard statistical parameters such as average absolute relative error and correlation coefficient. The comparative and comprehensive study of the flow behavior indicated that the accuracy of the phenomenological models was strongly dependent on the range of the testing temperatures and the corresponding mechanism which operate under the specified deformation conditions. It has been indicated that by limiting the temperature range a more precise Q-value is reached, which positively influences the accuracy of the Arrhenius-type model. In contrast, the modified Zerilli-Armstrong model was capable to overcome these limitations and properly considers the physical characteristics including dislocation dynamics and thermal activation to develop the materials constants.

  7. The contribution of mouse models to the understanding of constitutional thrombocytopenia

    PubMed Central

    Léon, Catherine; Dupuis, Arnaud; Gachet, Christian; Lanza, François

    2016-01-01

    Constitutional thrombocytopenias result from platelet production abnormalities of hereditary origin. Long misdiagnosed and poorly studied, knowledge about these rare diseases has increased considerably over the last twenty years due to improved technology for the identification of mutations, as well as an improvement in obtaining megakaryocyte culture from patient hematopoietic stem cells. Simultaneously, the manipulation of mouse genes (transgenesis, total or conditional inactivation, introduction of point mutations, random chemical mutagenesis) have helped to generate disease models that have contributed greatly to deciphering patient clinical and laboratory features. Most of the thrombocytopenias for which the mutated genes have been identified now have a murine model counterpart. This review focuses on the contribution that these mouse models have brought to the understanding of hereditary thrombocytopenias with respect to what was known in humans. Animal models have either i) provided novel information on the molecular and cellular pathways that were missing from the patient studies; ii) improved our understanding of the mechanisms of thrombocytopoiesis; iii) been instrumental in structure-function studies of the mutated gene products; and iv) been an invaluable tool as preclinical models to test new drugs or develop gene therapies. At present, the genetic determinants of thrombocytopenia remain unknown in almost half of all cases. Currently available high-speed sequencing techniques will identify new candidate genes, which will in turn allow the generation of murine models to confirm and further study the abnormal phenotype. In a complementary manner, programs of random mutagenesis in mice should also identify new candidate genes involved in thrombocytopenia. PMID:27478199

  8. The contribution of mouse models to the understanding of constitutional thrombocytopenia.

    PubMed

    Léon, Catherine; Dupuis, Arnaud; Gachet, Christian; Lanza, François

    2016-08-01

    Constitutional thrombocytopenias result from platelet production abnormalities of hereditary origin. Long misdiagnosed and poorly studied, knowledge about these rare diseases has increased considerably over the last twenty years due to improved technology for the identification of mutations, as well as an improvement in obtaining megakaryocyte culture from patient hematopoietic stem cells. Simultaneously, the manipulation of mouse genes (transgenesis, total or conditional inactivation, introduction of point mutations, random chemical mutagenesis) have helped to generate disease models that have contributed greatly to deciphering patient clinical and laboratory features. Most of the thrombocytopenias for which the mutated genes have been identified now have a murine model counterpart. This review focuses on the contribution that these mouse models have brought to the understanding of hereditary thrombocytopenias with respect to what was known in humans. Animal models have either i) provided novel information on the molecular and cellular pathways that were missing from the patient studies; ii) improved our understanding of the mechanisms of thrombocytopoiesis; iii) been instrumental in structure-function studies of the mutated gene products; and iv) been an invaluable tool as preclinical models to test new drugs or develop gene therapies. At present, the genetic determinants of thrombocytopenia remain unknown in almost half of all cases. Currently available high-speed sequencing techniques will identify new candidate genes, which will in turn allow the generation of murine models to confirm and further study the abnormal phenotype. In a complementary manner, programs of random mutagenesis in mice should also identify new candidate genes involved in thrombocytopenia. PMID:27478199

  9. Development of constitutive models for cyclic plasticity and creep behavior of super alloys at high temperature

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haisler, W. E.

    1983-01-01

    An uncoupled constitutive model for predicting the transient response of thermal and rate dependent, inelastic material behavior was developed. The uncoupled model assumes that there is a temperature below which the total strain consists essentially of elastic and rate insensitive inelastic strains only. Above this temperature, the rate dependent inelastic strain (creep) dominates. The rate insensitive inelastic strain component is modelled in an incremental form with a yield function, blow rule and hardening law. Revisions to the hardening rule permit the model to predict temperature-dependent kinematic-isotropic hardening behavior, cyclic saturation, asymmetric stress-strain response upon stress reversal, and variable Bauschinger effect. The rate dependent inelastic strain component is modelled using a rate equation in terms of back stress, drag stress and exponent n as functions of temperature and strain. A sequence of hysteresis loops and relaxation tests are utilized to define the rate dependent inelastic strain rate. Evaluation of the model has been performed by comparison with experiments involving various thermal and mechanical load histories on 5086 aluminum alloy, 304 stainless steel and Hastelloy X.

  10. Constitutive Model Constants for Al7075-T651 and Al7075-T6

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brar, N. S.; Joshi, V. S.; Harris, B. W.

    2009-12-01

    Aluminum 7075-T651 and 7075-T6 are characterized at quasi-static and high strain rates to determine Johnson-Cook (J-C) strength and fracture model constants. Constitutive model constants are required as input to computer codes to simulate projectile (fragment) impact or similar impact events on structural components made of these materials. Although the two tempers show similar elongation at breakage, the ultimate tensile strength of T651 temper is generally lower than the T6 temper. Johnson-Cook strength model constants (A, B, n, C, and m) for the two alloys are determined from high strain rate tension stress-strain data at room and high temperature to 250°C. The Johnson-Cook fracture model constants are determined from quasi-static and medium strain rate as well as high temperature tests on notched and smooth tension specimens. Although the J-C strength model constants are similar, the fracture model constants show wide variations. Details of the experimental method used and the results for the two alloys are presented.

  11. Constitutive Model Constants for Al7075-T651 and Al7075-T6

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brar, Nachhatter; Joshi, Vasant; Harris, Bryan

    2009-06-01

    Aluminum 7075-T651 and 7075-T6 are characterized at quasi-static and high strain rates to determine Johnson-Cook (J-C) strength and fracture model constants. Constitutive model constants are required as input to computer codes to simulate projectile (fragment) impact or similar impact events on structural components made of these material. J-C strength model constants (A, B, n, C, and m) for the two alloys are determined from tension stress-strain data at room and high temperature to 250^oC. J-C strength model constants for Al7075-T651 are: A=527 MPa, B=676 MPa, n=0.71, C=0.017, and m=1.61 and for Al7075-T6: A = 546 MPa, B = 674 MPa, n = 0.72, C = 0.059, and m =1.56. J-C fracture model constants are determined form quasi-static and high strain rate/high temperature tests on notched and smooth tension specimens. J-C fracture model constants for the two alloys are: Al7075-T651; D1 = 0.110, D2 = 0.573, D3= -3.4446, D4 = 0.016, and D 5= 1.099 and Al7075-T6; D1= 0.451 D2= -0.952 D3= -.068, D4 =0.036, and D5 = 0.697.

  12. Development and implementation of configurational forces based constitutive phase field models for shape memory alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agboola, Babatunde Omogbolahan

    Continuum thermodynamic constitutive phase field models are developed to simulate the rate dependent, thermomechanical response and precipitate formation in shape memory alloys (SMAs). The two models are based on the application of the balance of configurational forces, a scalar order parameter (a phase field) and atomic concentration to extend standard continuum thermodynamics approach. Constitutive field equations that capture the kinetics of solid-solid martensitic phase transition in SMA and the diffusion mediated precipitate formation in an elastic solid are developed. The coupled set of thermodynamically consistent field equations results from balance of configuration forces, balance of linear momentum, balance of energy and balance of atomic species mass. The field equations capture the kinetics of phase transition, deformation and elastic wave, heat transfer and atomic diffusion respectively. The first model is thermomechanical and is used to simulate the macroscopic response of SMA such as pseudoelasticity; transformation induced pseudo-creep, stress relaxation as well as the effect of cooling rate on mechanical and thermally induced phase transformation of SMA. The second model couples diffusion with elasticity to simulate growth and coarsening of precipitate and experimentally observed concentration depletion near the precipitates Results of the simulations of the macroscopic SMA response are in very good agreement with experimental observation. Simulations suggest that rate dependent and complex thermomechanical response of SMA are due to the interaction of an inherent time scale ( as well as length scale) of phase transformation, introduced through the balance of configurational forces, with other time scales. This work contributes to improved SMA modeling, scientific understanding and design. In particular, for aerospace application under stringent requirement and severe environmental conditions. Contribution of fundamental use of balance of

  13. Constitutive Model Constants for Low Carbon Steels from Tension and Torsion Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brar, Nachhatter; Joshi, Vasant; Harris, Bryan

    2007-06-01

    Low carbon C1010 steel is characterized under tension and torsion to determine Johnson-Cook (J-C) strength model constants. Constitutive model constants are required as input to computer codes to simulate projectile (fragment) impact on structural components made of this material. J-C model constants (A, B, n, C, and m) for the alloy are determined from tension and torsion stress-strain data. Tension tests are performed at a strain rate of ˜1/s at room temperature. Tests at high strain rates are performed at high temperatures to 750^oC. J-C strength model constants determined from these data are: A=367 MPa, B=700 MPa, n=0.935, C=0.045, and m=0.643. Similar values for other low carbon steels (1006, 1008, and 1020) are compared. Torsion tests at quasi-static and high strain rates are performed at room and high temperatures. J-C model constants are evaluated from equivalent tensile stress-strain data obtained from torsion data using von Mises flow rule. These constants are compared to those determined from directly measured tensile data.

  14. Dynamic mechanical behavior and the constitutive model of concrete subjected to impact loadings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ning, Jianguo; Liu, Haifeng; Shang, Lin

    2008-11-01

    Based on the theory of consecutive damage mechanics, micro-mechanics, statistics and the visco-plastic constitutive equation of Perzyna, a coupled model of damage and plasticity is developed to describe the complex behavior of concrete subjected to impact loadings. In this model, some suppositions about deformation of the material and evolution of the damage are made. First, concrete is macroscopically assumed to be homogeneous and consecutive, while it is microscopically filled with large amounts of micro-crack and micro-void defects. Second, the damage evolution of the micro-cracks is caused by the nucleation, growth and coalescence of the micro-cracks due to the interior tensile stress in concrete, which leads to a degradation in the strength and stiffness of concrete. Third, compaction of concrete is physically a collapse of the material micro-void. It produces irreversible plastic strains in the material and, at the same time, an increase in the bulk modulus. Fourth, there is no interaction between the micro-crack and the micro-void. Last, when the damage reaches a critical value, the concrete may fail totally. The model parameters for concrete are determined by plate impact experiments. The model predictions fit the experimental results well. So the model can be used to simulate the dynamic mechanical behavior of concrete under impact loadings.

  15. Viscoelastic properties of bovine orbital connective tissue and fat: constitutive models

    PubMed Central

    Yoo, Lawrence; Gupta, Vijay; Lee, Choongyeop; Kavehpore, Pirouz

    2012-01-01

    Reported mechanical properties of orbital connective tissue and fat have been too sparse to model strain–stress relationships underlying biomechanical interactions in strabismus. We performed rheological tests to develop a multi-mode upper convected Maxwell (UCM) model of these tissues under shear loading. From 20 fresh bovine orbits, 30 samples of connective tissue were taken from rectus pulley regions and 30 samples of fatty tissues from the posterior orbit. Additional samples were defatted to determine connective tissue weight proportion, which was verified histologically. Mechanical testing in shear employed a triborheometer to perform: strain sweeps at 0.5–2.0 Hz; shear stress relaxation with 1% strain; viscometry at 0.01–0.5 s−1 strain rate; and shear oscillation at 1% strain. Average connective tissue weight proportion was 98% for predominantly connective tissue and 76% for fatty tissue. Connective tissue specimens reached a long-term relaxation modulus of 668 Pa after 1,500 s, while corresponding values for fatty tissue specimens were 290 Pa and 1,100 s. Shear stress magnitude for connective tissue exceeded that of fatty tissue by five-fold. Based on these data, we developed a multimode UCM model with variable viscosities and time constants, and a damped hyperelastic response that accurately described measured properties of both connective and fatty tissues. Model parameters differed significantly between the two tissues. Viscoelastic properties of predominantly connective orbital tissues under shear loading differ markedly from properties of orbital fat, but both are accurately reflected using UCM models. These viscoelastic models will facilitate realistic global modeling of EOM behavior in binocular alignment and strabismus. PMID:21207094

  16. Downscaling parameters from groundwater model scale to properties of the constituting litho classes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lourens, Aris; van Geer, Frans

    2015-04-01

    Like other numerical models, groundwater models are created using the best knowledge available. Still, these models usually suffer from data uncertainty and model misconceptions. Calibration of such a model may yield parameter values with which the model produces output more closely to the observed values of the dependent variables than the uncalibrated model does. In groundwater models, the model parameters are often an aggregation of two or more observed properties. For example, the transmissivity is defined as the product of the layer thickness and the conductivity of the deposits, and the vertical resistance as the quotient of the layer thickness and the conductivity. Moreover, the parameters used in groundwater models are often constructed by vertical upscaling and horizontally interpolation of small geological units (litho-layers). When calibrating the groundwater model parameters, a better fit to the groundwater head data is achieved, but it is not clear to what extent the thickness or the conductivity of the individual litho-layers should be modified. This may yield parameter values at the litho-layer scale which are not very likely from geological point of view. The question is how can we downscale the calibrated model parameters to arrive at the most likely set of conductivities and thicknesses of the individual litho-layers, respecting the prior uncertainty from geological point of view. Here, we present a method to find the most likely values of parameters of constituting litho-layers of an aquitard, based on the parameter values of a calibrated groundwater model. The objective of this method is twofold. On one hand, finding the most likely parameter values for the thicknesses and the hydraulic conductivities of each individual litho layer. On the other hand, the most likely parameter values of the litho-layers may be very unlikely from geological perspective and, herewith, indicate connectional model errors. The properties of each litho-class at the

  17. SIMULATION OF PLANAR SOFT TISSUES USING A STRUCTURAL CONSTITUTIVE MODEL: FINITE ELEMENT IMPLEMENTATION AND VALIDATION

    PubMed Central

    Fan, Rong; Sacks, Michael S.

    2014-01-01

    Computational implementation of physical and physiologically realistic constitutive models is critical for numerical simulation of soft biological tissues in a variety of biomedical applications. It is well established that the highly nonlinear and anisotropic mechanical behaviors of soft tissues are an emergent behavior of the underlying tissue microstructure. In the present study, we have implemented a structural constitutive model into a finite element framework specialized for membrane tissues. We noted that starting with a single element subjected to uniaxial tension, the non-fibrous tissue matrix must be present to prevent unrealistic tissue deformations. Flexural simulations were used to set the non-fibrous matrix modulus because fibers have little effects on tissue deformation under three-point bending. Multiple deformation modes were simulated, including strip biaxial, planar biaxial with two attachment methods, and membrane inflation. Detailed comparisons with experimental data were undertaken to insure faithful simulations of both the macro-level stress-strain insights into adaptations of the fiber architecture under stress, such as fiber reorientation and fiber recruitment. Results indicated a high degree of fidelity and demonstrated interesting microstructural adaptions to stress and the important role of the underlying tissue matrix. Moreover, we apparently resolve a discrepancy in our 1997 study (J Biomech. 1997 Jul;30(7):753–6) where we observed that under strip biaxial stretch the simulated fiber splay responses were not in good agreement with the experimental results, suggesting non-affine deformations may have occurred. However, by correctly accounting for the isotropic phase of the measured fiber splay, good agreement was obtained. While not the final word, these simulations suggest that affine kinematics for planar collagenous tissues is a reasonable assumption at the macro level. Simulation tools such as these are imperative in the design

  18. Springback Simulation: Impact of Some Advanced Constitutive Models and Numerical Parameters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haddag, Badis; Balan, Tudor; Abed-Meraim, Farid

    2005-08-01

    The impact of material models on the numerical simulation of springback is investigated. The study is focused on the strain-path sensitivity of two hardening models. While both models predict the Bauschinger effect, their response in the transient zone after a strain-path change is fairly different. Their respective predictions are compared in terms of sequential test response and of strip-drawing springback. For this purpose, an accurate and general time integration algorithm has been developed and implemented in the Abaqus code. The impact of several numerical parameters is also studied in order to assess the overall accuracy of the finite element prediction. For some test geometries, both material and numerical parameters are shown to clearly influence the springback behavior at a large extent. Moreover, a general trend cannot always be extracted, thus justifying the need for the finite element simulation of the stamping process.

  19. An Equilibrium Constitutive Model of Anisotropic Cartilage Damage to Elucidate Mechanisms of Damage Initiation and Progression.

    PubMed

    Stender, Michael E; Regueiro, Richard A; Klisch, Stephen M; Ferguson, Virginia L

    2015-08-01

    Traumatic injuries and gradual wear-and-tear of articular cartilage (AC) that can lead to osteoarthritis (OA) have been hypothesized to result from tissue damage to AC. In this study, a previous equilibrium constitutive model of AC was extended to a constitutive damage articular cartilage (CDAC) model. In particular, anisotropic collagen (COL) fibril damage and isotropic glycosaminoglycan (GAG) damage were considered in a 3D formulation. In the CDAC model, time-dependent effects, such as viscoelasticity and poroelasticity, were neglected, and thus all results represent the equilibrium response after all time-dependent effects have dissipated. The resulting CDAC model was implemented in two different finite-element models. The first simulated uniaxial tensile loading to failure, while the second simulated spherical indentation with a rigid indenter displaced into a bilayer AC sample. Uniaxial tension to failure simulations were performed for three COL fibril Lagrangian failure strain (i.e., the maximum elastic COL fibril strain) values of 15%, 30%, and 45%, while spherical indentation simulations were performed with a COL fibril Lagrangian failure strain of 15%. GAG damage parameters were held constant for all simulations. Our results indicated that the equilibrium postyield tensile response of AC and the macroscopic tissue failure strain are highly dependent on COL fibril Lagrangian failure strain. The uniaxial tensile response consisted of an initial nonlinear ramp region due to the recruitment of intact fibrils followed by a rapid decrease in tissue stress at initial COL fibril failure, as a result of COL fibril damage which continued until ultimate tissue failure. In the spherical indentation simulation, damage to both the COL fibril and GAG constituents was located only in the superficial zone (SZ) and near the articular surface with tissue thickening following unloading. Spherical indentation simulation results are in agreement with published experimental

  20. A one-dimensional strain-rate-dependent constitutive model for superelastic shape memory alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ren, Wenjie; Li, Hongnan; Song, Gangbing

    2007-02-01

    Recently, there is increasing interest in using superelastic shape memory alloys (SMAs) in civil, mechanical and aerospace engineering, attributed to their large recoverable strain range (up to 6-8%), high damping capacity, and excellent fatigue property. In this research, an improved Graesser's model is proposed to model the strain-rate-dependent hysteretic behavior of superelastic SMA wires. Cyclic loading tests of superelastic SMA wires are first performed to determine their hysteresis properties. The effects of the strain amplitude and the loading rate on the mechanical properties are studied and formulated using the least-square method. Based on Graesser's model, an improved model is developed. The improved model divides the full loop into three parts: the loading branch, the unloading branch before the completion of the reverse transformation and the elastic unloading branch after the completion of reverse transformation, where each part adopts its respective parameters. Numerical simulations are conducted using both the original and the improved Graesser's models. Comparisons indicate that the improved Graesser's model accurately reflects the hysteresis characteristics and provides a better prediction of the SMAs' actual hysteresis behavior than the original Graesser's model at varying levels of strain and loading rate.

  1. A validated 3D microstructure-based constitutive model of coronary artery adventitia.

    PubMed

    Chen, Huan; Guo, Xiaomei; Luo, Tong; Kassab, Ghassan S

    2016-07-01

    A structure-based model that accurately predicts micro- or macromechanical behavior of blood vessels is necessary to understand vascular physiology. Based on recently measured microstructural data, we propose a three-dimensional microstructural model of coronary adventitia that incorporates the elastin and collagen distributions throughout the wall. The role of ground substance was found to be negligible under physiological axial stretch λz = 1.3, based on enzyme degradation of glycosaminoglycans in swine coronary adventitia (n = 5). The thick collagen bundles of outer adventitia (n = 4) were found to be undulated and unengaged at physiological loads, whereas the inner adventitia consisted of multiple sublayers of entangled fibers that bear the majority of load at higher pressures. The microstructural model was validated against biaxial (inflation and extension) experiments of coronary adventitia (n = 5). The model accurately predicted the nonlinear responses of the adventitia, even at high axial force (axial stretch ratio λz = 1.5). The model also enabled a reliable estimation of material parameters of individual fibers that were physically reasonable. A sensitivity analysis was performed to assess the effect of using mean values of the distributions for fiber orientation and waviness as opposed to the full distributions. The simplified mean analysis affects the fiber stress-strain relation, resulting in incorrect estimation of mechanical parameters, which underscores the need for measurements of fiber distribution for a rigorous analysis of fiber mechanics. The validated structure-based model of coronary adventitia provides a deeper understanding of vascular mechanics in health and can be extended to disease conditions. PMID:27174925

  2. Constitutive Model Constants for Low Carbon Steels from Tension and Torsion Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brar, N. S.; Joshi, V. S.; Harris, B. W.

    2007-12-01

    Low carbon C1010 steel is characterized under tension and torsion to determine Johnson-Cook (J-C) strength model constants. Constitutive model constants are required as input to computer codes to simulate projectile (fragment) impact on structural components made of this material. J-C model constants (A, B, n, C, and m) for the alloy are determined from tension and torsion stress-strain data. Reference tension tests are performed at a strain rate of ˜1/s at room temperature. Tests at high strain rates are performed at temperatures to 750 °C. Torsion tests at quasi-static and high strain rates are performed at both room and high temperatures. Equivalent plastic tensile stress-strain data are obtained from torsion data using von Mises flow rule and compared directly to measured tensile data. J-C strength model constants are determined from these data. Similar low carbon steels (1006, 1008, and 1020) have their J-C constants compared.

  3. Identification of an advanced constitutive model of Magnesium alloy AZ31B

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Z. G.; Massoni, E.

    2011-05-04

    The main aim of this paper is to study the flow behavior of the AZ31B magnesium alloy by means of tensile tests performed in extended ranges of temperature and strain rates. The flow stress-strain curves analyzed by power law type constitutive equation can only fit well with experimental curves at the work-hardening stage. A new mathematical model is studied to describe the softening behavior of material based on tensile experiments. The relative parameters are obtained by fitting the equation with the experimental data. The genetic algorithm has been used to obtain the global optimal fitting parameters. The comparison between the fitted and experimental data proves the effectiveness of the model. The results indicate that this model leads to a better simulation of the flow stress during the softening stage than that of the power law equation. Based on this model, the deep drawing process has been simulated with the commercial finite element code FORGE registered. The punch load and thickness distribution of AZ31 sheet have been studied. The study of the results is helpful to the application of the stamping technology for the magnesium alloy sheet.

  4. Multiscale Modeling of Intergranular Fracture in Aluminum: Constitutive Relation For Interface Debonding

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yamakov, V.; Saether, E.; Glaessgen, E. H.

    2008-01-01

    Intergranular fracture is a dominant mode of failure in ultrafine grained materials. In the present study, the atomistic mechanisms of grain-boundary debonding during intergranular fracture in aluminum are modeled using a coupled molecular dynamics finite element simulation. Using a statistical mechanics approach, a cohesive-zone law in the form of a traction-displacement constitutive relationship, characterizing the load transfer across the plane of a growing edge crack, is extracted from atomistic simulations and then recast in a form suitable for inclusion within a continuum finite element model. The cohesive-zone law derived by the presented technique is free of finite size effects and is statistically representative for describing the interfacial debonding of a grain boundary (GB) interface examined at atomic length scales. By incorporating the cohesive-zone law in cohesive-zone finite elements, the debonding of a GB interface can be simulated in a coupled continuum-atomistic model, in which a crack starts in the continuum environment, smoothly penetrates the continuum-atomistic interface, and continues its propagation in the atomistic environment. This study is a step towards relating atomistically derived decohesion laws to macroscopic predictions of fracture and constructing multiscale models for nanocrystalline and ultrafine grained materials.

  5. Identification of accurate nonlinear rainfall-runoff models with unique parameters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schoups, G.; Vrugt, J. A.; Fenicia, F.; van de Giesen, N.

    2009-04-01

    We propose a strategy to identify models with unique parameters that yield accurate streamflow predictions, given a time-series of rainfall inputs. The procedure consists of five general steps. First, an a priori range of model structures is specified based on prior general and site-specific hydrologic knowledge. To this end, we rely on a flexible model code that allows a specification of a wide range of model structures, from simple to complex. Second, using global optimization each model structure is calibrated to a record of rainfall-runoff data, yielding optimal parameter values for each model structure. Third, accuracy of each model structure is determined by estimating model prediction errors using independent validation and statistical theory. Fourth, parameter identifiability of each calibrated model structure is estimated by means of Monte Carlo Markov Chain simulation. Finally, an assessment is made about each model structure in terms of its accuracy of mimicking rainfall-runoff processes (step 3), and the uniqueness of its parameters (step 4). The procedure results in the identification of the most complex and accurate model supported by the data, without causing parameter equifinality. As such, it provides insight into the information content of the data for identifying nonlinear rainfall-runoff models. We illustrate the method using rainfall-runoff data records from several MOPEX basins in the US.

  6. Logarithmic rate based elasto-viscoplastic cyclic constitutive model for soft biological tissues.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Yilin; Kang, Guozheng; Yu, Chao; Poh, Leong Hien

    2016-08-01

    Based on the logarithmic rate and piecewise linearization theory, a thermodynamically consistent elasto-viscoplastic constitutive model is developed in the framework of finite deformations to describe the nonlinear time-dependent biomechanical performances of soft biological tissues, such as nonlinear anisotropic monotonic stress-strain responses, stress relaxation, creep and ratchetting. In the proposed model, the soft biological tissue is assumed as a typical composites consisting of an isotropic matrix and anisotropic fiber aggregation. Accordingly, the free energy function and stress tensor are divided into two parts related to the matrix and fiber aggregation, respectively. The nonlinear biomechanical responses of the tissues are described by the piecewise linearization theory with hypo-elastic relations of fiber aggregation. The evolution equations of viscoplasticity are formulated from the dissipation inequalities by the co-directionality hypotheses. The anisotropy is considered in the hypo-elastic relations and viscoplastic flow rules by introducing some material parameters dependent on the loading direction. Then the capability of the proposed model to describe the nonlinear time-dependent deformation of soft biological tissues is verified by comparing the predictions with the corresponding experimental results of three tissues. It is seen that the predicted monotonic stress-strain responses, stress relaxation, creep and ratchetting of soft biological tissues are in good agreement with the corresponding experimental ones. PMID:27108349

  7. Constitutive Modeling of Anisotropic Finite-Deformation Hyperelastic Behaviors of Soft Materials Reinforced by Tortuous Fibers.

    PubMed

    Kao, Philip H; Lammers, Steven R; Hunter, Kendall; Stenmark, Kurt R; Shandas, Robin; Qi, H Jerry

    2010-04-01

    Many biological materials are composites composed of a soft matrix reinforced with stiffer fibers. These stiffer fibers may have a tortuous shape and wind through the soft matrix. At small material deformation, these fibers deform in a bending mode and contribute little to the material stiffness; at large material deformation, these fibers deform in a stretching mode and induce a stiffening effect in the material behavior. The transition from bending mode deformation to stretching mode deformation yields a characteristic J-shape stress-strain curve. In addition, the spatial distribution of these fibers may render the composite an anisotropic behavior. In this paper, we present an anisotropic finite-deformation hyperelastic constitutive model for such materials. Here, the matrix is modeled as an isotropic neo-Hookean material. "The behaviors of single tortuous fiber are represented by a crimped fiber model". The anisotropic behavior is introduced by a structure tensor representing the effective orientation distribution of crimped fibers. Parametric studies show the effect of fiber tortuosity and fiber orientation distribution on the overall stress-strain behaviors of the materials. PMID:21822502

  8. A constitutive model for layered wire mesh and aramid cloth fabric

    SciTech Connect

    Neilsen, M.K.; Pierce, J.D.; Krieg, R.D.

    1993-09-01

    A new package for the air transport of hazardous materials is currently being developed in the Transportation Systems Department at Sandia National Laboratories. The baseline design has a unique impact limiter which uses layers of aluminum screen wire and aramid cloth fabric. A primary motivation for selecting this unusual combination of materials is the need for the impact limiter to not only limit the amount of load transmitted to the primary container but also remain in place during impact events so that it provides a thermal barrier during a subsequent fire. A series of uniaxial and confined compression tests indicated that the layered material does not behave like other well characterized materials. No existing constitutive models were able to satisfactorily capture the behavior of the layered material; thus, a new plasticity model was developed. The new material model was then used to characterize the response of air transport packages with layered impact limiters to hypothetical accidental impact events. Responses predicted by these analyses compared favorably with experiments at Sandia`s rocket sled test facility in which a one-fourth scale package was subjected to side and end impacts at velocities of 428 and 650 fps, respectively.

  9. Mechanical effects of ionic replacements in articular cartilage. Part I: The constitutive model.

    PubMed

    Loret, Benjamin; Simões, Fernando M F

    2005-11-01

    A three-phase multi-species electro-chemo-mechanical model of articular cartilage is developed that accounts for the effect of two water compartments, namely intra-fibrillar water stored in between collagen fibrils and extra-fibrillar water covering proteoglycans. The collagen fibers constitute the solid phase while intra-fibrillar water and dissolved NaCl and CaCl(2) on one hand and extra-fibrillar water, ions Na(+), Ca(2+) and Cl(-) and proteoglycans on the other hand, form the two fluid phases. The complete picture that includes time-dependent mass transfers between the two fluid phases, diffusion of water and ions and electrical flow emerges from the Clausius-Duhem inequality but it is deferred to further study. The analysis is restricted to equilibrium states. The present work complements the mechanical model developed in Loret and Simões (Mech Material 36(5-6): 515-541, 2004a) where the presence of the sole NaCl was considered. In its current version, the model can handle mechanical and chemical loadings and unloadings involving the two salts, NaCl and CaCl(2). In order to reproduce experimental data, the shielding effects are made cation-dependent. Strong orientation of collagen fibers parallel to the joint surface implies anisotropic mechanical properties. Electro-chemo-mechanical couplings result in a chemistry-dependent apparent tensile Poisson's ratio, that increases to large values as the solution gets fresher. The model captures these aspects as well. The features of the model are first exposed in an infinitesimal strain context. Subsequently, large strains that typically occur in uniaxial traction under deionized water are accounted for, and a nonlinear anisotropic hyper-elastic behavior is developed. Parametric identification and simulations of actual loading processes are described in a companion paper, Loret and Simões (Biomech Model Mechanobiol, in press, DOI 10.1007/s10237-004-0063-6). PMID:16001249

  10. Implementation and Evaluation of the Virtual Fields Method: Determining Constitutive Model Parameters From Full-Field Deformation Data.

    SciTech Connect

    Kramer, Sharlotte Lorraine Bolyard; Scherzinger, William M.

    2014-09-01

    The Virtual Fields Method (VFM) is an inverse method for constitutive model parameter identication that relies on full-eld experimental measurements of displacements. VFM is an alternative to standard approaches that require several experiments of simple geometries to calibrate a constitutive model. VFM is one of several techniques that use full-eld exper- imental data, including Finite Element Method Updating (FEMU) techniques, but VFM is computationally fast, not requiring iterative FEM analyses. This report describes the im- plementation and evaluation of VFM primarily for nite-deformation plasticity constitutive models. VFM was successfully implemented in MATLAB and evaluated using simulated FEM data that included representative experimental noise found in the Digital Image Cor- relation (DIC) optical technique that provides full-eld displacement measurements. VFM was able to identify constitutive model parameters for the BCJ plasticity model even in the presence of simulated DIC noise, demonstrating VFM as a viable alternative inverse method. Further research is required before VFM can be adopted as a standard method for constitu- tive model parameter identication, but this study is a foundation for ongoing research at Sandia for improving constitutive model calibration.

  11. Material Models for Accurate Simulation of Sheet Metal Forming and Springback

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoshida, Fusahito

    2010-06-01

    For anisotropic sheet metals, modeling of anisotropy and the Bauschinger effect is discussed in the framework of Yoshida-Uemori kinematic hardening model incorporating with anisotropic yield functions. The performances of the models in predicting yield loci, cyclic stress-strain responses on several types of steel and aluminum sheets are demonstrated by comparing the numerical simulation results with the corresponding experimental observations. From some examples of FE simulation of sheet metal forming and springback, it is concluded that modeling of both the anisotropy and the Bauschinger effect is essential for the accurate numerical simulation.

  12. Development of modified cable models to simulate accurate neuronal active behaviors

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    In large network and single three-dimensional (3-D) neuron simulations, high computing speed dictates using reduced cable models to simulate neuronal firing behaviors. However, these models are unwarranted under active conditions and lack accurate representation of dendritic active conductances that greatly shape neuronal firing. Here, realistic 3-D (R3D) models (which contain full anatomical details of dendrites) of spinal motoneurons were systematically compared with their reduced single unbranched cable (SUC, which reduces the dendrites to a single electrically equivalent cable) counterpart under passive and active conditions. The SUC models matched the R3D model's passive properties but failed to match key active properties, especially active behaviors originating from dendrites. For instance, persistent inward currents (PIC) hysteresis, frequency-current (FI) relationship secondary range slope, firing hysteresis, plateau potential partial deactivation, staircase currents, synaptic current transfer ratio, and regional FI relationships were not accurately reproduced by the SUC models. The dendritic morphology oversimplification and lack of dendritic active conductances spatial segregation in the SUC models caused significant underestimation of those behaviors. Next, SUC models were modified by adding key branching features in an attempt to restore their active behaviors. The addition of primary dendritic branching only partially restored some active behaviors, whereas the addition of secondary dendritic branching restored most behaviors. Importantly, the proposed modified models successfully replicated the active properties without sacrificing model simplicity, making them attractive candidates for running R3D single neuron and network simulations with accurate firing behaviors. The present results indicate that using reduced models to examine PIC behaviors in spinal motoneurons is unwarranted. PMID:25277743

  13. Particle Image Velocimetry Measurements in an Anatomically-Accurate Scaled Model of the Mammalian Nasal Cavity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rumple, Christopher; Krane, Michael; Richter, Joseph; Craven, Brent

    2013-11-01

    The mammalian nose is a multi-purpose organ that houses a convoluted airway labyrinth responsible for respiratory air conditioning, filtering of environmental contaminants, and chemical sensing. Because of the complexity of the nasal cavity, the anatomy and function of these upper airways remain poorly understood in most mammals. However, recent advances in high-resolution medical imaging, computational modeling, and experimental flow measurement techniques are now permitting the study of respiratory airflow and olfactory transport phenomena in anatomically-accurate reconstructions of the nasal cavity. Here, we focus on efforts to manufacture an anatomically-accurate transparent model for stereoscopic particle image velocimetry (SPIV) measurements. Challenges in the design and manufacture of an index-matched anatomical model are addressed. PIV measurements are presented, which are used to validate concurrent computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations of mammalian nasal airflow. Supported by the National Science Foundation.

  14. The Concept of Sasang Health Index and Constitution-Based Health Assessment: An Integrative Model with Computerized Four Diagnosis Methods

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jaeuk U.; Ku, Boncho; Kim, Young-Min; Do, Jun-Hyeong; Jang, Eunsu; Jeon, Young Ju; Kim, Keun Ho; Kim, Jong Yeol

    2013-01-01

    Sasang constitutional medicine (SCM) shares its philosophy with that of personalized medicine: it provides constitution-specific treatment and healthcare individualized for each patient. In this work, we propose the concept of the Sasang Health Index (SHI) as an attempt to assess the individualized health status in the framework of SCM. From the target population of females in their fifties and older, we recruited 298 subjects and collected their physiological data, including complexion, radial pulse, and voice, and their questionnaire responses. The health status of each subject was evaluated by two Korean medical doctors independently, and the SHI model was obtained by combining all the integrative features of the phenotype data using a regression technique. As a result, most subjects belonged to either the healthy, subhealthy, or slightly diseased group, and the intraclass correlation coefficient between the two doctors' health scoring reached 0.95. We obtained an SHI model for each constitution type with adjusted R-squares of 0.50, 0.56, and 0.30, for the TE, SE, and SY constitution types, respectively. In the proposed SHI model, the significant characteristics used in the health assessment consisted of constitution-specific features in accordance with the classic literature and features common to all the constitution types. PMID:23843888

  15. A constitutive-relationship model for film flow on rough fracture surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, H. H.

    Film flow on fracture surfaces may be an important mechanism for fast flow in unsaturated fractured rocks. Incorporating this mechanism into a numerical model requires knowledge of constitutive relationships for film flow. Based on fractal concepts and a conceptual argument of Tokunaga et al. that water films could be treated as analogues to water in unsaturated porous media, a simple constitutive-relationship model has been developed. The validity of the model is supported by excellent agreements between calculation results and experimental observations for two different fracture surfaces. L'écoulement en film sur les surfaces de fracture peut être un mécanisme important pour l'écoulement rapide dans les roches fracturées non saturées. L'incorporation de ce mécanisme dans un modèle numérique nécessite la connaissance des relations fondamentales pour l'écoulement en film. Basé sur des concepts fractals et sur un argument conceptuel de Tokunaga et al. selon lequel des films d'eau peuvent être considérés comme des analogues de l'eau en milieu poreux non saturé, un modèle simple des relations fondamentales a été développé. La validité de ce modèle est confirmée grâce à une excellente concordance entre les résultats du calcul et les observations expérimentales pour deux surfaces différentes de fractures. El flujo pelicular en la superficie de las fracturas puede ser un mecanismo importante para el flujo rápido en rocas fracturadas no saturadas. Incorporarlo en un modelo numérico requiere conocer las relaciones constitutivas del flujo pelicular. Se ha desarrollado un modelo de una relación constitutiva sencilla partiendo de conceptos fractales y de un argumento conceptual de Tokunaga et al., según el cual las películas de agua pueden ser tratadas como análogos del agua en medios porosos no saturados. La validez del modelo es corroborada por los excelentes ajustes entre los resultados numéricos y las observaciones experimentales en dos

  16. Characterization, testing and constitutive modelling of an impact-modified polypropylene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yan

    2002-01-01

    Impact modified polypropylenes (or TPOs) are polymer blends of isotactic polypropylene (iPP), ethylene-propylene-diene monomer elastomer (EPDM), and high density polyethylene (HDPE). Currently, TPOs are extensively used in impact applications, such as car bumpers. However, the design process of TPO parts for impact applications is still an expensive, trial-and-error procedure. In this project, we aim to develop a material model with specific physical bases to represent a TPO material, so that TPO part design can be effective and efficient. In order to achieve our objective, morphology characterization and mechanical testing have been conducted to examine the intrinsic mechanisms of TPO. Tests were conducted over a broad range of strain rates using both a servohydraulic apparatus and an Aluminum split Hopkinson pressure bar. The TPO system we examined is multi-phasic in which an EPDM and HDPE blend forms the minor domain, distributed in the iPP matrix. The large deformation TPO response includes strain rate dependent initial stiffness; temperature, deformation state and strain rate dependent yield; temperature and deformation state dependent strain hardening. Its response is not unlike that of glassy polymers in many ways, owing to the flexibility of the iPP matrix, however the TPO shows a moderate strain hardening rate and little strain recovery upon unloading. A three-dimensional, four-element constitutive model has been developed for this TPO. The model includes rate dependent stiffness, rate and temperature dependent yield, temperature dependent strain hardening, and crystallographic slip. The model has been examined to be robust over a wide range of strain rates from quasi-static to impact, and predictive of different deformation states, such as uniaxial compression and plane strain compression. The model has been shown to capture the post-yield thermal softening and apparent lack of post-yield strain hardening at impact test conditions.

  17. Hot Deformation Behavior of Alloy 800H at Intermediate Temperatures: Constitutive Models and Microstructure Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Y.; Di, H. S.; Misra, R. D. K.; Zhang, Jiecen

    2014-12-01

    The hot deformation behavior of a Fe-Ni-Cr austenitic Alloy 800H was explored in the intermediate temperature range of 825-975 °C and strain rate range of 0.01-10 s-1. The study indicates that dynamic recrystallization (DRX) occurred at 875-975 °C for strain rates of 0.01-0.1 s-1 and adiabatic heating generated at high strain rates accelerated the DRX process. Based on the experimental data, the Johnson-Cook, modified Johnson-Cook, and Arrhenius-type constitutive models were established to predict the flow stress during hot deformation. A comparative study was made on the accuracy and effectiveness of the above three developed models. The microstructure analysis indicated that all the deformation structures exhibited elongated grains and evidence of some degree of DRX. The multiple DRX at 975 °C and 0.01 s-1 led to an increase in the intensity of {001} <100> "cube" texture component and a significant reduction in the intensity of {011} <211> "brass" component. Additionally, the average values of grain average misorientation and grain orientation spread for deformed microstructure were inversely proportional to the fraction of DRX.

  18. Constitutive Modeling of Dynamic Recrystallization Kinetics and Processing Maps of Solution and Aging FGH96 Superalloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nie, Longfei; Zhang, Liwen; Zhu, Zhi; Xu, Wei

    2013-12-01

    The hot deformation behavior of solution and aging FGH96 superalloy were investigated in the deformation temperature range of 1000-1175 °C and strain rate range of 0.001-5.0/s on a Gleeble-1500 thermo-mechanical simulator. The results show that the true stress-strain curves are typical of the occurrence of dynamic recrystallization (DRX). The value of the activation energy and materials constants of A and n was obtained through the hyperbolic sine function between the peak stress and Zener-Hollomon parameter. Optical microscopy observations of the grains showed that Zener-Hollomon parameter affected the DRX grain size obviously. In addition, the constitutive equations and DRX kinetics model were also built. The processing maps with the strain of 0.3 and 0.6 were obtained on the basis of dynamic materials model. The results predicted that there existed instability regions at around 1050 °C when the strain rate exceeds 0.01/s.

  19. Conjugated kinetic and kinematic measures for constitutive modeling of the thermoelastic continua

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Darijani, H.

    2015-11-01

    In this paper, the energy-type terms such as the stress power, the rate of the heat transferred to the system and the rate of the specific internal energy are presented in the Lagrangian, Eulerian and two-point descriptions for thermoelastic continua. In order to solve a problem based on the energy viewpoint, the mechanical, thermal and thermo-mechanical tensors conjugate to the Seth-Hill strains, and a general class of Lagrangian, Eulerian and two-point strain tensors are determined. Also, the energy pairs for thermoelastic continua are simplified for special cases of isentropic and isothermal deformation processes as well as the so-called entropic elastic materials (rubber-like materials and elastomers). At the end, a strain energy density function of the Saint Venant-Kirchhoff type in terms of different strain measures and temperature is considered for modeling the thermo-mechanical behavior of the rubber-like materials and elastomers. It is shown that this constitutive modeling can give results which are in good agreement with the experimental data.

  20. Methodology to set up accurate OPC model using optical CD metrology and atomic force microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shim, Yeon-Ah; Kang, Jaehyun; Lee, Sang-Uk; Kim, Jeahee; Kim, Keeho

    2007-03-01

    For the 90nm node and beyond, smaller Critical Dimension(CD) control budget is required and the ways to control good CD uniformity are needed. Moreover Optical Proximity Correction(OPC) for the sub-90nm node demands more accurate wafer CD data in order to improve accuracy of OPC model. Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) is the typical method for measuring CD until ArF process. However SEM can give serious attack such as shrinkage of Photo Resist(PR) by burning of weak chemical structure of ArF PR due to high energy electron beam. In fact about 5nm CD narrowing occur when we measure CD by using CD-SEM in ArF photo process. Optical CD Metrology(OCD) and Atomic Force Microscopy(AFM) has been considered to the method for measuring CD without attack of organic materials. Also the OCD and AFM measurement system have the merits of speed, easiness and accurate data. For model-based OPC, the model is generated using CD data of test patterns transferred onto the wafer. In this study we discuss to generate accurate OPC model using OCD and AFM measurement system.

  1. Material Properties and Constitutive Modeling of Infant Porcine Cerebellum Tissue in Tension at High Strain Rate

    PubMed Central

    Li, Kui; Zhao, Hui; Liu, Wenjun; Yin, Zhiyong

    2015-01-01

    Background The mechanical characterization of infant porcine cerebellum tissue in tension at high strain rate is crucial for modeling traumatic cerebellum injury, which is in turn helpful for understanding the biomechanics of such injuries suffered in traffic accidents. Material and Method In this study, the infant porcine cerebellum tissue was given three loading velocities, ie, 2s-1, 20s-1 and 100s-1 with up to 30% strain to investigate the tensile properties. At least six tensile tests for each strain rate were validly performed. Fung, Gent, Ogden and exponential models were applied to fit the constitutive equations, so as to obtain material parameters from the experimental data. Results The Lagrange stress of infant porcine cerebellum tissue in tension appeared to be no more than 3000Pa at each loading velocity. More specifically, the Lagrange stress at 30% strain was (393.7±84.4)Pa, (928.3±56.3)Pa and (2582.4±282.2)Pa at strain rates of 2s-1, 20s-1 and 100s-1, respectively. Fung (0.833≤R2≤0.924), Gent (0.797≤R2≤0.875), Ogden (0.859≤R2≤0.944) and exponential (0.930≤R2≤0.972) models provided excellent fitting to experimental data up to 30% strain. Conclusions The infant cerebellum tissue shows a stiffer response with increase of the loading speed, indicating a strong strain-rate sensitivity. This study will enrich the knowledge on the material properties of infant brain tissue, which may augment the biofidelity of finite element model of human pediatric cerebellum. PMID:25830545

  2. Modeling thermochemical heat storage in porous media with local thermal nonequilibrium - From constitutive theory to application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagel, T.; Shao, H.; Linder, M.; Wörner, A.; Kolditz, O.

    2013-12-01

    Heat processes in industry and for power generation can be made more cost-efficient and climate friendly by the integration of thermal energy storage devices. Due to high storage densities and superior long term storage characteristics, systems relying on thermochemical reactions are of great interest and often based on porous or granular media. As such, they share characteristic features in terms of mass and heat transport that are strongly coupled by physical and chemical phenomena. We have employed the theory of porous media to establish a model featuring reactive multicomponent compressible fluid mass transport through solid particle bed coupled to local thermal nonequilibrium heat transport. The model development has been based on an extensive evaluation of the Clausius-Duhem inequality to derive thermodynamically consistent constitutive relations for secondary variables as well as direct and indirect coupling terms. The model has then been implemented into the open source scientific simulation code OpenGeoSys using the finite element method. Lab and pilot scale thermochemical heat storage reactors with different reaction systems (oxidation reactions, hydration reactions) have been simulated successfully using axisymmetric geometries. The simulations show the strong coupling of pressure, concentration and temperature fields as well as the gas-solid reactions occurring inside the reactors. The effect of certain process parameters, such as mass flow and particle size, on the occurrence of local thermal nonequilibrium is illustrated. It is shown that the reactors can be used in a number of operating modes such as the extraction or release of heat accompanied by significant temperature drops or raises; the buffering or smoothing of temperature fluctuations at the inlet; the up- or downgrading of heat. The developed model therefore represents a useful tool to understand reactor behavior, optimize operating parameters, estimate thermal and parasitic losses, and

  3. Can phenological models predict tree phenology accurately under climate change conditions?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chuine, Isabelle; Bonhomme, Marc; Legave, Jean Michel; García de Cortázar-Atauri, Inaki; Charrier, Guillaume; Lacointe, André; Améglio, Thierry

    2014-05-01

    The onset of the growing season of trees has been globally earlier by 2.3 days/decade during the last 50 years because of global warming and this trend is predicted to continue according to climate forecast. The effect of temperature on plant phenology is however not linear because temperature has a dual effect on bud development. On one hand, low temperatures are necessary to break bud dormancy, and on the other hand higher temperatures are necessary to promote bud cells growth afterwards. Increasing phenological changes in temperate woody species have strong impacts on forest trees distribution and productivity, as well as crops cultivation areas. Accurate predictions of trees phenology are therefore a prerequisite to understand and foresee the impacts of climate change on forests and agrosystems. Different process-based models have been developed in the last two decades to predict the date of budburst or flowering of woody species. They are two main families: (1) one-phase models which consider only the ecodormancy phase and make the assumption that endodormancy is always broken before adequate climatic conditions for cell growth occur; and (2) two-phase models which consider both the endodormancy and ecodormancy phases and predict a date of dormancy break which varies from year to year. So far, one-phase models have been able to predict accurately tree bud break and flowering under historical climate. However, because they do not consider what happens prior to ecodormancy, and especially the possible negative effect of winter temperature warming on dormancy break, it seems unlikely that they can provide accurate predictions in future climate conditions. It is indeed well known that a lack of low temperature results in abnormal pattern of bud break and development in temperate fruit trees. An accurate modelling of the dormancy break date has thus become a major issue in phenology modelling. Two-phases phenological models predict that global warming should delay

  4. Experimental characterization of glass-ceramic seal properties and their constitutive implementation in solid oxide fuel cell stack models

    SciTech Connect

    Stephens, Elizabeth V.; Vetrano, John S.; Koeppel, Brian J.; Chou, Y. S.; Sun, Xin; Khaleel, Mohammad A.

    2009-09-05

    This paper discusses experimental determination of solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) glass-ceramic seal material properties and seal/interconnect interfacial properties to support development and optimization of SOFC designs through modeling. Material property experiments such as dynamic resonance, dilatometry, flexure, creep, tensile, and shear tests were performed on PNNL’s glass-ceramic sealant material, designated as G18, to obtain property data essential to constitutive and numerical model development. Characterization methods for the physical, mechanical, and interfacial properties of the sealing material, results, and their application to the constitutive implementation in SOFC stack modeling are described.

  5. Building an accurate 3D model of a circular feature for robot vision

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, L.

    2012-06-01

    In this paper, an accurate 3D model analysis of a circular feature is built with error compensation for robot vision. We propose an efficient method of fitting ellipses to data points by minimizing the algebraic distance subject to the constraint that a conic should be an ellipse and solving the ellipse parameters through a direct ellipse fitting method by analysing the 3D geometrical representation in a perspective projection scheme, the 3D position of a circular feature with known radius can be obtained. A set of identical circles, machined on a calibration board whose centres were known, was calibrated with a camera and did the model analysis that our method developed. Experimental results show that our method is more accurate than other methods.

  6. Final Report for "Accurate Numerical Models of the Secondary Electron Yield from Grazing-incidence Collisions".

    SciTech Connect

    Seth A Veitzer

    2008-10-21

    Effects of stray electrons are a main factor limiting performance of many accelerators. Because heavy-ion fusion (HIF) accelerators will operate in regimes of higher current and with walls much closer to the beam than accelerators operating today, stray electrons might have a large, detrimental effect on the performance of an HIF accelerator. A primary source of stray electrons is electrons generated when halo ions strike the beam pipe walls. There is some research on these types of secondary electrons for the HIF community to draw upon, but this work is missing one crucial ingredient: the effect of grazing incidence. The overall goal of this project was to develop the numerical tools necessary to accurately model the effect of grazing incidence on the behavior of halo ions in a HIF accelerator, and further, to provide accurate models of heavy ion stopping powers with applications to ICF, WDM, and HEDP experiments.

  7. Accurate and interpretable nanoSAR models from genetic programming-based decision tree construction approaches.

    PubMed

    Oksel, Ceyda; Winkler, David A; Ma, Cai Y; Wilkins, Terry; Wang, Xue Z

    2016-09-01

    The number of engineered nanomaterials (ENMs) being exploited commercially is growing rapidly, due to the novel properties they exhibit. Clearly, it is important to understand and minimize any risks to health or the environment posed by the presence of ENMs. Data-driven models that decode the relationships between the biological activities of ENMs and their physicochemical characteristics provide an attractive means of maximizing the value of scarce and expensive experimental data. Although such structure-activity relationship (SAR) methods have become very useful tools for modelling nanotoxicity endpoints (nanoSAR), they have limited robustness and predictivity and, most importantly, interpretation of the models they generate is often very difficult. New computational modelling tools or new ways of using existing tools are required to model the relatively sparse and sometimes lower quality data on the biological effects of ENMs. The most commonly used SAR modelling methods work best with large datasets, are not particularly good at feature selection, can be relatively opaque to interpretation, and may not account for nonlinearity in the structure-property relationships. To overcome these limitations, we describe the application of a novel algorithm, a genetic programming-based decision tree construction tool (GPTree) to nanoSAR modelling. We demonstrate the use of GPTree in the construction of accurate and interpretable nanoSAR models by applying it to four diverse literature datasets. We describe the algorithm and compare model results across the four studies. We show that GPTree generates models with accuracies equivalent to or superior to those of prior modelling studies on the same datasets. GPTree is a robust, automatic method for generation of accurate nanoSAR models with important advantages that it works with small datasets, automatically selects descriptors, and provides significantly improved interpretability of models. PMID:26956430

  8. An Irreversible Constitutive Law for Modeling the Delamination Process using Interface Elements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goyal, Vinay K.; Johnson, Eric R.; Davila, Carlos G.; Jaunky, Navin; Ambur, Damodar (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    An irreversible constitutive law is postulated for the formulation of interface elements to predict initiation and progression of delamination in composite structures. An exponential function is used for the constitutive law such that it satisfies a multi-axial stress criterion for the onset of delamination, and satisfies a mixed mode fracture criterion for the progression of delamination. A damage parameter is included to prevent the restoration of the previous cohesive state between the interfacial surfaces. To demonstrate the irreversibility capability of the constitutive law, steady-state crack growth is simulated for quasi-static loading-unloading cycle of various fracture test specimens.

  9. An Irreversible Constitutive Law for Modeling the Delamination Process Using Interface Elements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goyal, Vinay K.; Johnson, Eric R.; Davila, Carlos G.; Jaunky, Navin; Bushnell, Dennis M. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    An irreversible constitutive law is postulated for the formulation of interface elements to predict initiation and progression of delamination in composite structures. An exponential function is used for the constitutive law such that it satisfies a multi-axial stress criterion for the onset of delamination, and satisfies a mixed mode fracture criterion for the progression of delamination. A damage parameter is included to prevent the restoration of the previous cohesive state between the interfacial surfaces. To demonstrate the irreversibility capability of the constitutive law, steady-state crack growth is simulated for quasi-static loading-unloading cycle of various fracture test specimens.

  10. An analytic model for accurate spring constant calibration of rectangular atomic force microscope cantilevers

    PubMed Central

    Li, Rui; Ye, Hongfei; Zhang, Weisheng; Ma, Guojun; Su, Yewang

    2015-01-01

    Spring constant calibration of the atomic force microscope (AFM) cantilever is of fundamental importance for quantifying the force between the AFM cantilever tip and the sample. The calibration within the framework of thin plate theory undoubtedly has a higher accuracy and broader scope than that within the well-established beam theory. However, thin plate theory-based accurate analytic determination of the constant has been perceived as an extremely difficult issue. In this paper, we implement the thin plate theory-based analytic modeling for the static behavior of rectangular AFM cantilevers, which reveals that the three-dimensional effect and Poisson effect play important roles in accurate determination of the spring constants. A quantitative scaling law is found that the normalized spring constant depends only on the Poisson’s ratio, normalized dimension and normalized load coordinate. Both the literature and our refined finite element model validate the present results. The developed model is expected to serve as the benchmark for accurate calibration of rectangular AFM cantilevers. PMID:26510769

  11. An analytic model for accurate spring constant calibration of rectangular atomic force microscope cantilevers.

    PubMed

    Li, Rui; Ye, Hongfei; Zhang, Weisheng; Ma, Guojun; Su, Yewang

    2015-01-01

    Spring constant calibration of the atomic force microscope (AFM) cantilever is of fundamental importance for quantifying the force between the AFM cantilever tip and the sample. The calibration within the framework of thin plate theory undoubtedly has a higher accuracy and broader scope than that within the well-established beam theory. However, thin plate theory-based accurate analytic determination of the constant has been perceived as an extremely difficult issue. In this paper, we implement the thin plate theory-based analytic modeling for the static behavior of rectangular AFM cantilevers, which reveals that the three-dimensional effect and Poisson effect play important roles in accurate determination of the spring constants. A quantitative scaling law is found that the normalized spring constant depends only on the Poisson's ratio, normalized dimension and normalized load coordinate. Both the literature and our refined finite element model validate the present results. The developed model is expected to serve as the benchmark for accurate calibration of rectangular AFM cantilevers. PMID:26510769

  12. An analytic model for accurate spring constant calibration of rectangular atomic force microscope cantilevers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Rui; Ye, Hongfei; Zhang, Weisheng; Ma, Guojun; Su, Yewang

    2015-10-01

    Spring constant calibration of the atomic force microscope (AFM) cantilever is of fundamental importance for quantifying the force between the AFM cantilever tip and the sample. The calibration within the framework of thin plate theory undoubtedly has a higher accuracy and broader scope than that within the well-established beam theory. However, thin plate theory-based accurate analytic determination of the constant has been perceived as an extremely difficult issue. In this paper, we implement the thin plate theory-based analytic modeling for the static behavior of rectangular AFM cantilevers, which reveals that the three-dimensional effect and Poisson effect play important roles in accurate determination of the spring constants. A quantitative scaling law is found that the normalized spring constant depends only on the Poisson’s ratio, normalized dimension and normalized load coordinate. Both the literature and our refined finite element model validate the present results. The developed model is expected to serve as the benchmark for accurate calibration of rectangular AFM cantilevers.

  13. Accurate and efficient halo-based galaxy clustering modelling with simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Zheng; Guo, Hong

    2016-06-01

    Small- and intermediate-scale galaxy clustering can be used to establish the galaxy-halo connection to study galaxy formation and evolution and to tighten constraints on cosmological parameters. With the increasing precision of galaxy clustering measurements from ongoing and forthcoming large galaxy surveys, accurate models are required to interpret the data and extract relevant information. We introduce a method based on high-resolution N-body simulations to accurately and efficiently model the galaxy two-point correlation functions (2PCFs) in projected and redshift spaces. The basic idea is to tabulate all information of haloes in the simulations necessary for computing the galaxy 2PCFs within the framework of halo occupation distribution or conditional luminosity function. It is equivalent to populating galaxies to dark matter haloes and using the mock 2PCF measurements as the model predictions. Besides the accurate 2PCF calculations, the method is also fast and therefore enables an efficient exploration of the parameter space. As an example of the method, we decompose the redshift-space galaxy 2PCF into different components based on the type of galaxy pairs and show the redshift-space distortion effect in each component. The generalizations and limitations of the method are discussed.

  14. Fast and Accurate Prediction of Numerical Relativity Waveforms from Binary Black Hole Coalescences Using Surrogate Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blackman, Jonathan; Field, Scott E.; Galley, Chad R.; Szilágyi, Béla; Scheel, Mark A.; Tiglio, Manuel; Hemberger, Daniel A.

    2015-09-01

    Simulating a binary black hole coalescence by solving Einstein's equations is computationally expensive, requiring days to months of supercomputing time. Using reduced order modeling techniques, we construct an accurate surrogate model, which is evaluated in a millisecond to a second, for numerical relativity (NR) waveforms from nonspinning binary black hole coalescences with mass ratios in [1, 10] and durations corresponding to about 15 orbits before merger. We assess the model's uncertainty and show that our modeling strategy predicts NR waveforms not used for the surrogate's training with errors nearly as small as the numerical error of the NR code. Our model includes all spherical-harmonic -2Yℓm waveform modes resolved by the NR code up to ℓ=8 . We compare our surrogate model to effective one body waveforms from 50 M⊙ to 300 M⊙ for advanced LIGO detectors and find that the surrogate is always more faithful (by at least an order of magnitude in most cases).

  15. Can phenological models predict tree phenology accurately in the future? The unrevealed hurdle of endodormancy break.

    PubMed

    Chuine, Isabelle; Bonhomme, Marc; Legave, Jean-Michel; García de Cortázar-Atauri, Iñaki; Charrier, Guillaume; Lacointe, André; Améglio, Thierry

    2016-10-01

    The onset of the growing season of trees has been earlier by 2.3 days per decade during the last 40 years in temperate Europe because of global warming. The effect of temperature on plant phenology is, however, not linear because temperature has a dual effect on bud development. On one hand, low temperatures are necessary to break bud endodormancy, and, on the other hand, higher temperatures are necessary to promote bud cell growth afterward. Different process-based models have been developed in the last decades to predict the date of budbreak of woody species. They predict that global warming should delay or compromise endodormancy break at the species equatorward range limits leading to a delay or even impossibility to flower or set new leaves. These models are classically parameterized with flowering or budbreak dates only, with no information on the endodormancy break date because this information is very scarce. Here, we evaluated the efficiency of a set of phenological models to accurately predict the endodormancy break dates of three fruit trees. Our results show that models calibrated solely with budbreak dates usually do not accurately predict the endodormancy break date. Providing endodormancy break date for the model parameterization results in much more accurate prediction of this latter, with, however, a higher error than that on budbreak dates. Most importantly, we show that models not calibrated with endodormancy break dates can generate large discrepancies in forecasted budbreak dates when using climate scenarios as compared to models calibrated with endodormancy break dates. This discrepancy increases with mean annual temperature and is therefore the strongest after 2050 in the southernmost regions. Our results claim for the urgent need of massive measurements of endodormancy break dates in forest and fruit trees to yield more robust projections of phenological changes in a near future. PMID:27272707

  16. Accurate protein structure modeling using sparse NMR data and homologous structure information

    PubMed Central

    Thompson, James M.; Sgourakis, Nikolaos G.; Liu, Gaohua; Rossi, Paolo; Tang, Yuefeng; Mills, Jeffrey L.; Szyperski, Thomas; Montelione, Gaetano T.; Baker, David

    2012-01-01

    While information from homologous structures plays a central role in X-ray structure determination by molecular replacement, such information is rarely used in NMR structure determination because it can be incorrect, both locally and globally, when evolutionary relationships are inferred incorrectly or there has been considerable evolutionary structural divergence. Here we describe a method that allows robust modeling of protein structures of up to 225 residues by combining , 13C, and 15N backbone and 13Cβ chemical shift data, distance restraints derived from homologous structures, and a physically realistic all-atom energy function. Accurate models are distinguished from inaccurate models generated using incorrect sequence alignments by requiring that (i) the all-atom energies of models generated using the restraints are lower than models generated in unrestrained calculations and (ii) the low-energy structures converge to within 2.0 Å backbone rmsd over 75% of the protein. Benchmark calculations on known structures and blind targets show that the method can accurately model protein structures, even with very remote homology information, to a backbone rmsd of 1.2–1.9 Å relative to the conventional determined NMR ensembles and of 0.9–1.6 Å relative to X-ray structures for well-defined regions of the protein structures. This approach facilitates the accurate modeling of protein structures using backbone chemical shift data without need for side-chain resonance assignments and extensive analysis of NOESY cross-peak assignments. PMID:22665781

  17. Monte Carlo modeling provides accurate calibration factors for radionuclide activity meters.

    PubMed

    Zagni, F; Cicoria, G; Lucconi, G; Infantino, A; Lodi, F; Marengo, M

    2014-12-01

    Accurate determination of calibration factors for radionuclide activity meters is crucial for quantitative studies and in the optimization step of radiation protection, as these detectors are widespread in radiopharmacy and nuclear medicine facilities. In this work we developed the Monte Carlo model of a widely used activity meter, using the Geant4 simulation toolkit. More precisely the "PENELOPE" EM physics models were employed. The model was validated by means of several certified sources, traceable to primary activity standards, and other sources locally standardized with spectrometry measurements, plus other experimental tests. Great care was taken in order to accurately reproduce the geometrical details of the gas chamber and the activity sources, each of which is different in shape and enclosed in a unique container. Both relative calibration factors and ionization current obtained with simulations were compared against experimental measurements; further tests were carried out, such as the comparison of the relative response of the chamber for a source placed at different positions. The results showed a satisfactory level of accuracy in the energy range of interest, with the discrepancies lower than 4% for all the tested parameters. This shows that an accurate Monte Carlo modeling of this type of detector is feasible using the low-energy physics models embedded in Geant4. The obtained Monte Carlo model establishes a powerful tool for first instance determination of new calibration factors for non-standard radionuclides, for custom containers, when a reference source is not available. Moreover, the model provides an experimental setup for further research and optimization with regards to materials and geometrical details of the measuring setup, such as the ionization chamber itself or the containers configuration. PMID:25195174

  18. Coarse-grained red blood cell model with accurate mechanical properties, rheology and dynamics.

    PubMed

    Fedosov, Dmitry A; Caswell, Bruce; Karniadakis, George E

    2009-01-01

    We present a coarse-grained red blood cell (RBC) model with accurate and realistic mechanical properties, rheology and dynamics. The modeled membrane is represented by a triangular mesh which incorporates shear inplane energy, bending energy, and area and volume conservation constraints. The macroscopic membrane elastic properties are imposed through semi-analytic theory, and are matched with those obtained in optical tweezers stretching experiments. Rheological measurements characterized by time-dependent complex modulus are extracted from the membrane thermal fluctuations, and compared with those obtained from the optical magnetic twisting cytometry results. The results allow us to define a meaningful characteristic time of the membrane. The dynamics of RBCs observed in shear flow suggests that a purely elastic model for the RBC membrane is not appropriate, and therefore a viscoelastic model is required. The set of proposed analyses and numerical tests can be used as a complete model testbed in order to calibrate the modeled viscoelastic membranes to accurately represent RBCs in health and disease. PMID:19965026

  19. Accurate Analytic Results for the Steady State Distribution of the Eigen Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Guan-Rong; Saakian, David B.; Hu, Chin-Kun

    2016-04-01

    Eigen model of molecular evolution is popular in studying complex biological and biomedical systems. Using the Hamilton-Jacobi equation method, we have calculated analytic equations for the steady state distribution of the Eigen model with a relative accuracy of O(1/N), where N is the length of genome. Our results can be applied for the case of small genome length N, as well as the cases where the direct numerics can not give accurate result, e.g., the tail of distribution.

  20. Continuum-based FEM modeling of ceramic powder compaction using a cap-plasticity constitutive model

    SciTech Connect

    ARGUELLO JR.,JOSE G.; FOSSUM,ARLO F.; ZEUCH,DAVID H.; EWSUK,KEVIN G.

    2000-01-25

    Common ceramic component manufacturing typically involves the processing of the raw materials in powder form. Granulated powder is formed into a green body of the desired size and shape by consolidation, often by simply pressing nominally dry powder. Ceramic powders are commonly pressed in steel dies or rubber bags with the aim of producing a near-net-shape green body for subsequent sintering. Density gradients in these compacts, introduced during the pressing operation, are often severe enough to cause distortions in the shape of the part during sintering due to nonuniform shrinkage. In such cases, green machining or diamond grinding operations may be needed to obtain the desired final shape and size part. In severe cases, nonuniform shrinkage may even cause fracture in the parts during sintering. Likewise, density gradients can result in green bodies that break during ejection from the die or that are too fragile to be handled during subsequent processing. Empirical relationships currently exist to describe powder compaction but provide little understanding of how to control die design or compaction parameters to minimize density gradients thereby forcing the designer to use expensive and time consuming trial and error procedures. For this reason, interest has grown in developing computational tools to address this problem (Aydin et al., 1996 and Coube, 1998). The goal of the present work was to develop a general continuum-based finite element model for ceramic powder compaction that can be used to aid and guide the design and pressing of ceramic powders. Such a model can be used to improve both part and die/bag pressing design, resulting in more efficient and cost effective ways to make better parts.

  1. Constitutive modelling of creep in a long fiber random glass mat thermoplastic composite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dasappa, Prasad

    The primary objective of this proposed research is to characterize and model the creep behaviour of Glass Mat Thermoplastic (GMT) composites under thermo-mechanical loads. In addition, tensile testing has been performed to study the variability in mechanical properties. The thermo-physical properties of the polypropylene matrix including crystallinity level, transitions and the variation of the stiffness with temperature have also been determined. In this work, the creep of a long fibre GMT composite has been investigated for a relatively wide range of stresses from 5 to 80 MPa and temperatures from 25 to 90°C. The higher limit for stress is approximately 90% of the nominal tensile strength of the material. A Design of Experiments (ANOVA) statistical method was applied to determine the effects of stress and temperature in the random mat material which is known for wild experimental scatter. Two sets of creep tests were conducted. First, preliminary short-term creep tests consisting of 30 minutes creep followed by recovery were carried out over a wide range of stresses and temperatures. These tests were carried out to determine the linear viscoelastic region of the material. From these tests, the material was found to be linear viscoelastic up-to 20 MPa at room temperature and considerable non-linearities were observed with both stress and temperature. Using Time-Temperature superposition (TTS) a long term master curve for creep compliance for up-to 185 years at room temperature has been obtained. Further, viscoplastic strains were developed in these tests indicating the need for a non-linear viscoelastic viscoplastic constitutive model. The second set of creep tests was performed to develop a general non-linear viscoelastic viscoplastic constitutive model. Long term creep-recovery tests consisting of 1 day creep followed by recovery has been conducted over the stress range between 20 and 70 MPa at four temperatures: 25°C, 40°C, 60°C and 80°C. Findley's model

  2. Solid-State Constitutive Modelling of Glassy Polymers: Coupling the Rolie-Poly Equations for Melts with Anisotropic Viscoplastic Flow

    SciTech Connect

    De Focatiis, Davide S. A.; Buckley, C. Paul; Embery, John

    2008-07-07

    This paper investigates the behaviour of a well-characterised monodisperse grade of entangled atactic polystyrene across a very wide temperature and strain rate range through linear and non-linear melt rheology and solid-state deformation. In an effort to construct a constitutive model for large deformations able to describe rheological response right across this wide timescale, two well-established rheological models are combined: the well known RoliePoly (RP) conformational melt model and the Oxford glass-rubber constitutive model for glassy polymers. Comparisons between experimental data and simulations from a numerical implementation of the model illustrate that the model can cope well with the range of deformations in which orientation is limited to length-scales longer than an entanglement length. One approach in which the model can be expanded to incorporate the effects of orientation on shorter length scales using anisotropic viscoplastic flow is briefly discussed.

  3. Accurate halo-model matter power spectra with dark energy, massive neutrinos and modified gravitational forces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mead, A. J.; Heymans, C.; Lombriser, L.; Peacock, J. A.; Steele, O. I.; Winther, H. A.

    2016-06-01

    We present an accurate non-linear matter power spectrum prediction scheme for a variety of extensions to the standard cosmological paradigm, which uses the tuned halo model previously developed in Mead et al. We consider dark energy models that are both minimally and non-minimally coupled, massive neutrinos and modified gravitational forces with chameleon and Vainshtein screening mechanisms. In all cases, we compare halo-model power spectra to measurements from high-resolution simulations. We show that the tuned halo-model method can predict the non-linear matter power spectrum measured from simulations of parametrized w(a) dark energy models at the few per cent level for k < 10 h Mpc-1, and we present theoretically motivated extensions to cover non-minimally coupled scalar fields, massive neutrinos and Vainshtein screened modified gravity models that result in few per cent accurate power spectra for k < 10 h Mpc-1. For chameleon screened models, we achieve only 10 per cent accuracy for the same range of scales. Finally, we use our halo model to investigate degeneracies between different extensions to the standard cosmological model, finding that the impact of baryonic feedback on the non-linear matter power spectrum can be considered independently of modified gravity or massive neutrino extensions. In contrast, considering the impact of modified gravity and massive neutrinos independently results in biased estimates of power at the level of 5 per cent at scales k > 0.5 h Mpc-1. An updated version of our publicly available HMCODE can be found at https://github.com/alexander-mead/hmcode.

  4. Perspectives on using implicit type constitutive relations in the modelling of the behaviour of non-Newtonian fluids

    SciTech Connect

    Janečka, Adam Průša, Vít

    2015-04-28

    We discuss the benefits of using the so-called implicit type constitutive relations introduced by K. R. Rajagopal, J. Fluid Mech. 550, 243-249 (2006) and K. R. Rajagopal, Appl. Math. 48, 279-319 (2003) in the description of the behaviour of non-Newtonian fluids. In particular, we focus on the benefits of using the implicit type constitutive relations in the mathematical modelling of fluids in which the shear stress/shear rate dependence is given by an S-shaped curve, and in modelling of fluids that exhibit nonzero normal stress differences. We also discuss a thermodynamical framework that allows one to cope with the implicit type constitutive relations.

  5. Accurate modeling of switched reluctance machine based on hybrid trained WNN

    SciTech Connect

    Song, Shoujun Ge, Lefei; Ma, Shaojie; Zhang, Man

    2014-04-15

    According to the strong nonlinear electromagnetic characteristics of switched reluctance machine (SRM), a novel accurate modeling method is proposed based on hybrid trained wavelet neural network (WNN) which combines improved genetic algorithm (GA) with gradient descent (GD) method to train the network. In the novel method, WNN is trained by GD method based on the initial weights obtained per improved GA optimization, and the global parallel searching capability of stochastic algorithm and local convergence speed of deterministic algorithm are combined to enhance the training accuracy, stability and speed. Based on the measured electromagnetic characteristics of a 3-phase 12/8-pole SRM, the nonlinear simulation model is built by hybrid trained WNN in Matlab. The phase current and mechanical characteristics from simulation under different working conditions meet well with those from experiments, which indicates the accuracy of the model for dynamic and static performance evaluation of SRM and verifies the effectiveness of the proposed modeling method.

  6. Accurate, efficient, and (iso)geometrically flexible collocation methods for phase-field models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gomez, Hector; Reali, Alessandro; Sangalli, Giancarlo

    2014-04-01

    We propose new collocation methods for phase-field models. Our algorithms are based on isogeometric analysis, a new technology that makes use of functions from computational geometry, such as, for example, Non-Uniform Rational B-Splines (NURBS). NURBS exhibit excellent approximability and controllable global smoothness, and can represent exactly most geometries encapsulated in Computer Aided Design (CAD) models. These attributes permitted us to derive accurate, efficient, and geometrically flexible collocation methods for phase-field models. The performance of our method is demonstrated by several numerical examples of phase separation modeled by the Cahn-Hilliard equation. We feel that our method successfully combines the geometrical flexibility of finite elements with the accuracy and simplicity of pseudo-spectral collocation methods, and is a viable alternative to classical collocation methods.

  7. Beyond Ellipse(s): Accurately Modelling the Isophotal Structure of Galaxies with ISOFIT and CMODEL

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ciambur, B. C.

    2015-09-01

    This work introduces a new fitting formalism for isophotes that enables more accurate modeling of galaxies with non-elliptical shapes, such as disk galaxies viewed edge-on or galaxies with X-shaped/peanut bulges. Within this scheme, the angular parameter that defines quasi-elliptical isophotes is transformed from the commonly used, but inappropriate, polar coordinate to the “eccentric anomaly.” This provides a superior description of deviations from ellipticity, better capturing the true isophotal shape. Furthermore, this makes it possible to accurately recover both the surface brightness profile, using the correct azimuthally averaged isophote, and the two-dimensional model of any galaxy: the hitherto ubiquitous, but artificial, cross-like features in residual images are completely removed. The formalism has been implemented into the Image Reduction and Analysis Facility tasks Ellipse and Bmodel to create the new tasks “Isofit,” and “Cmodel.” The new tools are demonstrated here with application to five galaxies, chosen to be representative case-studies for several areas where this technique makes it possible to gain new scientific insight. Specifically: properly quantifying boxy/disky isophotes via the fourth harmonic order in edge-on galaxies, quantifying X-shaped/peanut bulges, higher-order Fourier moments for modeling bars in disks, and complex isophote shapes. Higher order (n > 4) harmonics now become meaningful and may correlate with structural properties, as boxyness/diskyness is known to do. This work also illustrates how the accurate construction, and subtraction, of a model from a galaxy image facilitates the identification and recovery of over-lapping sources such as globular clusters and the optical counterparts of X-ray sources.

  8. An accurate and computationally efficient model for membrane-type circular-symmetric micro-hotplates.

    PubMed

    Khan, Usman; Falconi, Christian

    2014-01-01

    Ideally, the design of high-performance micro-hotplates would require a large number of simulations because of the existence of many important design parameters as well as the possibly crucial effects of both spread and drift. However, the computational cost of FEM simulations, which are the only available tool for accurately predicting the temperature in micro-hotplates, is very high. As a result, micro-hotplate designers generally have no effective simulation-tools for the optimization. In order to circumvent these issues, here, we propose a model for practical circular-symmetric micro-hot-plates which takes advantage of modified Bessel functions, computationally efficient matrix-approach for considering the relevant boundary conditions, Taylor linearization for modeling the Joule heating and radiation losses, and external-region-segmentation strategy in order to accurately take into account radiation losses in the entire micro-hotplate. The proposed model is almost as accurate as FEM simulations and two to three orders of magnitude more computationally efficient (e.g., 45 s versus more than 8 h). The residual errors, which are mainly associated to the undesired heating in the electrical contacts, are small (e.g., few degrees Celsius for an 800 °C operating temperature) and, for important analyses, almost constant. Therefore, we also introduce a computationally-easy single-FEM-compensation strategy in order to reduce the residual errors to about 1 °C. As illustrative examples of the power of our approach, we report the systematic investigation of a spread in the membrane thermal conductivity and of combined variations of both ambient and bulk temperatures. Our model enables a much faster characterization of micro-hotplates and, thus, a much more effective optimization prior to fabrication. PMID:24763214

  9. An Accurate and Computationally Efficient Model for Membrane-Type Circular-Symmetric Micro-Hotplates

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Usman; Falconi, Christian

    2014-01-01

    Ideally, the design of high-performance micro-hotplates would require a large number of simulations because of the existence of many important design parameters as well as the possibly crucial effects of both spread and drift. However, the computational cost of FEM simulations, which are the only available tool for accurately predicting the temperature in micro-hotplates, is very high. As a result, micro-hotplate designers generally have no effective simulation-tools for the optimization. In order to circumvent these issues, here, we propose a model for practical circular-symmetric micro-hot-plates which takes advantage of modified Bessel functions, computationally efficient matrix-approach for considering the relevant boundary conditions, Taylor linearization for modeling the Joule heating and radiation losses, and external-region-segmentation strategy in order to accurately take into account radiation losses in the entire micro-hotplate. The proposed model is almost as accurate as FEM simulations and two to three orders of magnitude more computationally efficient (e.g., 45 s versus more than 8 h). The residual errors, which are mainly associated to the undesired heating in the electrical contacts, are small (e.g., few degrees Celsius for an 800 °C operating temperature) and, for important analyses, almost constant. Therefore, we also introduce a computationally-easy single-FEM-compensation strategy in order to reduce the residual errors to about 1 °C. As illustrative examples of the power of our approach, we report the systematic investigation of a spread in the membrane thermal conductivity and of combined variations of both ambient and bulk temperatures. Our model enables a much faster characterization of micro-hotplates and, thus, a much more effective optimization prior to fabrication. PMID:24763214

  10. Development of the Constitution. Grade 5 Model Lesson for Standard 5.7. California History-Social Science Course Models.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zachlod, Michelle, Ed.

    California State Standard 5.7 is delineated in the following manner: "Students describe the people and events associated with the development of the U.S. Constitution and analyze the Constitution's significance as the foundation of the American republic." Students answer six questions about the Constitution and present suggestions for addressing…

  11. A Method for Accurate in silico modeling of Ultrasound Transducer Arrays

    PubMed Central

    Guenther, Drake A.; Walker, William F.

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents a new approach to improve the in silico modeling of ultrasound transducer arrays. While current simulation tools accurately predict the theoretical element spatio-temporal pressure response, transducers do not always behave as theorized. In practice, using the probe's physical dimensions and published specifications in silico, often results in unsatisfactory agreement between simulation and experiment. We describe a general optimization procedure used to maximize the correlation between the observed and simulated spatio-temporal response of a pulsed single element in a commercial ultrasound probe. A linear systems approach is employed to model element angular sensitivity, lens effects, and diffraction phenomena. A numerical deconvolution method is described to characterize the intrinsic electro-mechanical impulse response of the element. Once the response of the element and optimal element characteristics are known, prediction of the pressure response for arbitrary apertures and excitation signals is performed through direct convolution using available tools. We achieve a correlation of 0.846 between the experimental emitted waveform and simulated waveform when using the probe's physical specifications in silico. A far superior correlation of 0.988 is achieved when using the optimized in silico model. Electronic noise appears to be the main effect preventing the realization of higher correlation coefficients. More accurate in silico modeling will improve the evaluation and design of ultrasound transducers as well as aid in the development of sophisticated beamforming strategies. PMID:19041997

  12. Towards more accurate numerical modeling of impedance based high frequency harmonic vibration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lim, Yee Yan; Kiong Soh, Chee

    2014-03-01

    The application of smart materials in various fields of engineering has recently become increasingly popular. For instance, the high frequency based electromechanical impedance (EMI) technique employing smart piezoelectric materials is found to be versatile in structural health monitoring (SHM). Thus far, considerable efforts have been made to study and improve the technique. Various theoretical models of the EMI technique have been proposed in an attempt to better understand its behavior. So far, the three-dimensional (3D) coupled field finite element (FE) model has proved to be the most accurate. However, large discrepancies between the results of the FE model and experimental tests, especially in terms of the slope and magnitude of the admittance signatures, continue to exist and are yet to be resolved. This paper presents a series of parametric studies using the 3D coupled field finite element method (FEM) on all properties of materials involved in the lead zirconate titanate (PZT) structure interaction of the EMI technique, to investigate their effect on the admittance signatures acquired. FE model updating is then performed by adjusting the parameters to match the experimental results. One of the main reasons for the lower accuracy, especially in terms of magnitude and slope, of previous FE models is the difficulty in determining the damping related coefficients and the stiffness of the bonding layer. In this study, using the hysteretic damping model in place of Rayleigh damping, which is used by most researchers in this field, and updated bonding stiffness, an improved and more accurate FE model is achieved. The results of this paper are expected to be useful for future study of the subject area in terms of research and application, such as modeling, design and optimization.

  13. Validation and application of an intervertebral disc finite element model utilizing independently constructed tissue-level constitutive formulations that are nonlinear, anisotropic, and time-dependent.

    PubMed

    Jacobs, Nathan T; Cortes, Daniel H; Peloquin, John M; Vresilovic, Edward J; Elliott, Dawn M

    2014-08-22

    Finite element (FE) models are advantageous in the study of intervertebral disc mechanics as the stress-strain distributions can be determined throughout the tissue and the applied loading and material properties can be controlled and modified. However, the complicated nature of the disc presents a challenge in developing an accurate and predictive disc model, which has led to limitations in FE geometry, material constitutive models and properties, and model validation. The objective of this study was to develop a new FE model of the intervertebral disc, to validate the model's nonlinear and time-dependent responses without tuning or calibration, and to evaluate the effect of changes in nucleus pulposus (NP), cartilaginous endplate (CEP), and annulus fibrosus (AF) material properties on the disc mechanical response. The new FE disc model utilized an analytically-based geometry. The model was created from the mean shape of human L4/L5 discs, measured from high-resolution 3D MR images and averaged using signed distance functions. Structural hyperelastic constitutive models were used in conjunction with biphasic-swelling theory to obtain material properties from recent tissue tests in confined compression and uniaxial tension. The FE disc model predictions fit within the experimental range (mean ± 95% confidence interval) of the disc's nonlinear response for compressive slow loading ramp, creep, and stress-relaxation simulations. Changes in NP and CEP properties affected the neutral-zone displacement but had little effect on the final stiffness during slow-ramp compression loading. These results highlight the need to validate FE models using the disc's full nonlinear response in multiple loading scenarios. PMID:24998992

  14. What input data are needed to accurately model electromagnetic fields from mobile phone base stations?

    PubMed

    Beekhuizen, Johan; Kromhout, Hans; Bürgi, Alfred; Huss, Anke; Vermeulen, Roel

    2015-01-01

    The increase in mobile communication technology has led to concern about potential health effects of radio frequency electromagnetic fields (RF-EMFs) from mobile phone base stations. Different RF-EMF prediction models have been applied to assess population exposure to RF-EMF. Our study examines what input data are needed to accurately model RF-EMF, as detailed data are not always available for epidemiological studies. We used NISMap, a 3D radio wave propagation model, to test models with various levels of detail in building and antenna input data. The model outcomes were compared with outdoor measurements taken in Amsterdam, the Netherlands. Results showed good agreement between modelled and measured RF-EMF when 3D building data and basic antenna information (location, height, frequency and direction) were used: Spearman correlations were >0.6. Model performance was not sensitive to changes in building damping parameters. Antenna-specific information about down-tilt, type and output power did not significantly improve model performance compared with using average down-tilt and power values, or assuming one standard antenna type. We conclude that 3D radio wave propagation modelling is a feasible approach to predict outdoor RF-EMF levels for ranking exposure levels in epidemiological studies, when 3D building data and information on the antenna height, frequency, location and direction are available. PMID:24472756

  15. Accurate verification of the conserved-vector-current and standard-model predictions

    SciTech Connect

    Sirlin, A.; Zucchini, R.

    1986-10-20

    An approximate analytic calculation of O(Z..cap alpha../sup 2/) corrections to Fermi decays is presented. When the analysis of Koslowsky et al. is modified to take into account the new results, it is found that each of the eight accurately studied scrFt values differs from the average by approx. <1sigma, thus significantly improving the comparison of experiments with conserved-vector-current predictions. The new scrFt values are lower than before, which also brings experiments into very good agreement with the three-generation standard model, at the level of its quantum corrections.

  16. Constitutive Modeling of High-Temperature Flow Behavior of Al-0.62Mg-0.73Si Aluminum Alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Y.; Ye, W. H.; Hu, L. X.

    2016-04-01

    The high-temperature flow behavior of an aerospace structural material Al-0.62 Mg-0.73Si aluminum alloy was researched in this work. The isothermal compression tests were carried out in the temperature range of 683-783 K and strain rate range of 0.001-1 s-1. Based on the obtained true stress-true strain curves, the constitutive relationship of the alloy was revealed by establishing the Arrhenius-type constitutive model and a modified Johnson-Cook model. It was found that the flow characteristics were closely related to deformation temperature and strain rate. The activation energy of the studied material was calculated to be approximately 174 kJ mol-1. A comparative study has been conducted on the accuracy and reliability of the proposed models using statistics analysis method. It was proved by error analysis that the Arrhenius-type model had a better performance than the modified Johnson-Cook model.

  17. Double Cluster Heads Model for Secure and Accurate Data Fusion in Wireless Sensor Networks

    PubMed Central

    Fu, Jun-Song; Liu, Yun

    2015-01-01

    Secure and accurate data fusion is an important issue in wireless sensor networks (WSNs) and has been extensively researched in the literature. In this paper, by combining clustering techniques, reputation and trust systems, and data fusion algorithms, we propose a novel cluster-based data fusion model called Double Cluster Heads Model (DCHM) for secure and accurate data fusion in WSNs. Different from traditional clustering models in WSNs, two cluster heads are selected after clustering for each cluster based on the reputation and trust system and they perform data fusion independently of each other. Then, the results are sent to the base station where the dissimilarity coefficient is computed. If the dissimilarity coefficient of the two data fusion results exceeds the threshold preset by the users, the cluster heads will be added to blacklist, and the cluster heads must be reelected by the sensor nodes in a cluster. Meanwhile, feedback is sent from the base station to the reputation and trust system, which can help us to identify and delete the compromised sensor nodes in time. Through a series of extensive simulations, we found that the DCHM performed very well in data fusion security and accuracy. PMID:25608211

  18. Applying an accurate spherical model to gamma-ray burst afterglow observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leventis, K.; van der Horst, A. J.; van Eerten, H. J.; Wijers, R. A. M. J.

    2013-05-01

    We present results of model fits to afterglow data sets of GRB 970508, GRB 980703 and GRB 070125, characterized by long and broad-band coverage. The model assumes synchrotron radiation (including self-absorption) from a spherical adiabatic blast wave and consists of analytic flux prescriptions based on numerical results. For the first time it combines the accuracy of hydrodynamic simulations through different stages of the outflow dynamics with the flexibility of simple heuristic formulas. The prescriptions are especially geared towards accurate description of the dynamical transition of the outflow from relativistic to Newtonian velocities in an arbitrary power-law density environment. We show that the spherical model can accurately describe the data only in the case of GRB 970508, for which we find a circumburst medium density n ∝ r-2. We investigate in detail the implied spectra and physical parameters of that burst. For the microphysics we show evidence for equipartition between the fraction of energy density carried by relativistic electrons and magnetic field. We also find that for the blast wave to be adiabatic, the fraction of electrons accelerated at the shock has to be smaller than 1. We present best-fitting parameters for the afterglows of all three bursts, including uncertainties in the parameters of GRB 970508, and compare the inferred values to those obtained by different authors.

  19. Fully Automated Generation of Accurate Digital Surface Models with Sub-Meter Resolution from Satellite Imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wohlfeil, J.; Hirschmüller, H.; Piltz, B.; Börner, A.; Suppa, M.

    2012-07-01

    Modern pixel-wise image matching algorithms like Semi-Global Matching (SGM) are able to compute high resolution digital surface models from airborne and spaceborne stereo imagery. Although image matching itself can be performed automatically, there are prerequisites, like high geometric accuracy, which are essential for ensuring the high quality of resulting surface models. Especially for line cameras, these prerequisites currently require laborious manual interaction using standard tools, which is a growing problem due to continually increasing demand for such surface models. The tedious work includes partly or fully manual selection of tie- and/or ground control points for ensuring the required accuracy of the relative orientation of images for stereo matching. It also includes masking of large water areas that seriously reduce the quality of the results. Furthermore, a good estimate of the depth range is required, since accurate estimates can seriously reduce the processing time for stereo matching. In this paper an approach is presented that allows performing all these steps fully automated. It includes very robust and precise tie point selection, enabling the accurate calculation of the images' relative orientation via bundle adjustment. It is also shown how water masking and elevation range estimation can be performed automatically on the base of freely available SRTM data. Extensive tests with a large number of different satellite images from QuickBird and WorldView are presented as proof of the robustness and reliability of the proposed method.

  20. Cumulative atomic multipole moments complement any atomic charge model to obtain more accurate electrostatic properties

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sokalski, W. A.; Shibata, M.; Ornstein, R. L.; Rein, R.

    1992-01-01

    The quality of several atomic charge models based on different definitions has been analyzed using cumulative atomic multipole moments (CAMM). This formalism can generate higher atomic moments starting from any atomic charges, while preserving the corresponding molecular moments. The atomic charge contribution to the higher molecular moments, as well as to the electrostatic potentials, has been examined for CO and HCN molecules at several different levels of theory. The results clearly show that the electrostatic potential obtained from CAMM expansion is convergent up to R-5 term for all atomic charge models used. This illustrates that higher atomic moments can be used to supplement any atomic charge model to obtain more accurate description of electrostatic properties.

  1. Coupling Modified Constitutive Relation Error, Model Reduction and Kalman Filtering Algorithms for Real-Time Parameters Identification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marchand, Basile; Chamoin, Ludovic; Rey, Christian

    2015-11-01

    In this work we propose a new identification strategy based on the coupling between a probabilistic data assimilation method and a deterministic inverse problem approach using the modified Constitutive Relation Error energy functional. The idea is thus to offer efficient identification despite of highly corrupted data for time-dependent systems. In order to perform real-time identification, the modified Constitutive Relation Error is here associated to a model reduction method based on Proper Generalized Decomposition. The proposed strategy is applied to two thermal problems with identification of time-dependent boundary conditions, or material parameters.

  2. Validation and application of an intervertebral disc finite element model utilizing independently constructed tissue-level constitutive formulations that are nonlinear, anisotropic, and time-dependent

    PubMed Central

    Jacobs, Nathan T.; Cortes, Daniel H.; Peloquin, John M.; Vresilovic, Edward J.; Elliott, Dawn M.

    2014-01-01

    Finite element (FE) models are advantageous in the study of intervertebral disc mechanics as the stress–strain distributions can be determined throughout the tissue and the applied loading and material properties can be controlled and modified. However, the complicated nature of the disc presents a challenge in developing an accurate and predictive disc model, which has led to limitations in FE geometry, material constitutive models and properties, and model validation. The objective of this study was to develop a new FE model of the intervertebral disc, to validate the model’s nonlinear and time-dependent responses without tuning or calibration, and to evaluate the effect of changes in nucleus pulposus (NP), cartilaginous endplate (CEP), and annulus fibrosus (AF) material properties on the disc mechanical response. The new FE disc model utilized an analytically-based geometry. The model was created from the mean shape of human L4/L5 discs, measured from high-resolution 3D MR images and averaged using signed distance functions. Structural hyperelastic constitutive models were used in conjunction with biphasic-swelling theory to obtain material properties from recent tissue tests in confined compression and uniaxial tension. The FE disc model predictions fit within the experimental range (mean ± 95% confidence interval) of the disc’s nonlinear response for compressive slow loading ramp, creep, and stress-relaxation simulations. Changes in NP and CEP properties affected the neutral-zone displacement but had little effect on the final stiffness during slow-ramp compression loading. These results highlight the need to validate FE models using the disc’s full nonlinear response in multiple loading scenarios. PMID:24998992

  3. The importance of accurate muscle modelling for biomechanical analyses: a case study with a lizard skull

    PubMed Central

    Gröning, Flora; Jones, Marc E. H.; Curtis, Neil; Herrel, Anthony; O'Higgins, Paul; Evans, Susan E.; Fagan, Michael J.

    2013-01-01

    Computer-based simulation techniques such as multi-body dynamics analysis are becoming increasingly popular in the field of skull mechanics. Multi-body models can be used for studying the relationships between skull architecture, muscle morphology and feeding performance. However, to be confident in the modelling results, models need to be validated against experimental data, and the effects of uncertainties or inaccuracies in the chosen model attributes need to be assessed with sensitivity analyses. Here, we compare the bite forces predicted by a multi-body model of a lizard (Tupinambis merianae) with in vivo measurements, using anatomical data collected from the same specimen. This subject-specific model predicts bite forces that are very close to the in vivo measurements and also shows a consistent increase in bite force as the bite position is moved posteriorly on the jaw. However, the model is very sensitive to changes in muscle attributes such as fibre length, intrinsic muscle strength and force orientation, with bite force predictions varying considerably when these three variables are altered. We conclude that accurate muscle measurements are crucial to building realistic multi-body models and that subject-specific data should be used whenever possible. PMID:23614944

  4. The importance of accurate muscle modelling for biomechanical analyses: a case study with a lizard skull.

    PubMed

    Gröning, Flora; Jones, Marc E H; Curtis, Neil; Herrel, Anthony; O'Higgins, Paul; Evans, Susan E; Fagan, Michael J

    2013-07-01

    Computer-based simulation techniques such as multi-body dynamics analysis are becoming increasingly popular in the field of skull mechanics. Multi-body models can be used for studying the relationships between skull architecture, muscle morphology and feeding performance. However, to be confident in the modelling results, models need to be validated against experimental data, and the effects of uncertainties or inaccuracies in the chosen model attributes need to be assessed with sensitivity analyses. Here, we compare the bite forces predicted by a multi-body model of a lizard (Tupinambis merianae) with in vivo measurements, using anatomical data collected from the same specimen. This subject-specific model predicts bite forces that are very close to the in vivo measurements and also shows a consistent increase in bite force as the bite position is moved posteriorly on the jaw. However, the model is very sensitive to changes in muscle attributes such as fibre length, intrinsic muscle strength and force orientation, with bite force predictions varying considerably when these three variables are altered. We conclude that accurate muscle measurements are crucial to building realistic multi-body models and that subject-specific data should be used whenever possible. PMID:23614944

  5. An accurate and comprehensive model of thin fluid flows with inertia on curved substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roberts, A. J.; Li, Zhenquan

    2006-04-01

    Consider the three-dimensional flow of a viscous Newtonian fluid upon a curved two-dimensional substrate when the fluid film is thin, as occurs in many draining, coating and biological flows. We derive a comprehensive model of the dynamics of the film, the model being expressed in terms of the film thickness eta and the average lateral velocity bar{bm u}. Centre manifold theory assures us that the model accurately and systematically includes the effects of the curvature of substrate, gravitational body force, fluid inertia and dissipation. The model resolves wavelike phenomena in the dynamics of viscous fluid flows over arbitrarily curved substrates such as cylinders, tubes and spheres. We briefly illustrate its use in simulating drop formation on cylindrical fibres, wave transitions, three-dimensional instabilities, Faraday waves, viscous hydraulic jumps, flow vortices in a compound channel and flow down and up a step. These models are the most complete models for thin-film flow of a Newtonian fluid; many other thin-film models can be obtained by different restrictions and truncations of the model derived here.

  6. Digitalized accurate modeling of SPCB with multi-spiral surface based on CPC algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Yanhua; Gu, Lizhi

    2015-09-01

    The main methods of the existing multi-spiral surface geometry modeling include spatial analytic geometry algorithms, graphical method, interpolation and approximation algorithms. However, there are some shortcomings in these modeling methods, such as large amount of calculation, complex process, visible errors, and so on. The above methods have, to some extent, restricted the design and manufacture of the premium and high-precision products with spiral surface considerably. This paper introduces the concepts of the spatially parallel coupling with multi-spiral surface and spatially parallel coupling body. The typical geometry and topological features of each spiral surface forming the multi-spiral surface body are determined, by using the extraction principle of datum point cluster, the algorithm of coupling point cluster by removing singular point, and the "spatially parallel coupling" principle based on the non-uniform B-spline for each spiral surface. The orientation and quantitative relationships of datum point cluster and coupling point cluster in Euclidean space are determined accurately and in digital description and expression, coupling coalescence of the surfaces with multi-coupling point clusters under the Pro/E environment. The digitally accurate modeling of spatially parallel coupling body with multi-spiral surface is realized. The smooth and fairing processing is done to the three-blade end-milling cutter's end section area by applying the principle of spatially parallel coupling with multi-spiral surface, and the alternative entity model is processed in the four axis machining center after the end mill is disposed. And the algorithm is verified and then applied effectively to the transition area among the multi-spiral surface. The proposed model and algorithms may be used in design and manufacture of the multi-spiral surface body products, as well as in solving essentially the problems of considerable modeling errors in computer graphics and

  7. Validation of an Accurate Three-Dimensional Helical Slow-Wave Circuit Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kory, Carol L.

    1997-01-01

    The helical slow-wave circuit embodies a helical coil of rectangular tape supported in a metal barrel by dielectric support rods. Although the helix slow-wave circuit remains the mainstay of the traveling-wave tube (TWT) industry because of its exceptionally wide bandwidth, a full helical circuit, without significant dimensional approximations, has not been successfully modeled until now. Numerous attempts have been made to analyze the helical slow-wave circuit so that the performance could be accurately predicted without actually building it, but because of its complex geometry, many geometrical approximations became necessary rendering the previous models inaccurate. In the course of this research it has been demonstrated that using the simulation code, MAFIA, the helical structure can be modeled with actual tape width and thickness, dielectric support rod geometry and materials. To demonstrate the accuracy of the MAFIA model, the cold-test parameters including dispersion, on-axis interaction impedance and attenuation have been calculated for several helical TWT slow-wave circuits with a variety of support rod geometries including rectangular and T-shaped rods, as well as various support rod materials including isotropic, anisotropic and partially metal coated dielectrics. Compared with experimentally measured results, the agreement is excellent. With the accuracy of the MAFIA helical model validated, the code was used to investigate several conventional geometric approximations in an attempt to obtain the most computationally efficient model. Several simplifications were made to a standard model including replacing the helical tape with filaments, and replacing rectangular support rods with shapes conforming to the cylindrical coordinate system with effective permittivity. The approximate models are compared with the standard model in terms of cold-test characteristics and computational time. The model was also used to determine the sensitivity of various

  8. Hot compression deformation behavior and a modified physically-based constitutive model of Cu-6 %Ag alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meng, Lie; Wang, Menghan; Liu, Xiao; Wang, Fenglin

    2016-04-01

    In order to reveal the flow characteristics of Cu-6 %Ag alloy on the condition of hot deformation, the isothermal compression experiments are carried out at the temperatures of 973-1123 K under strain rates of 0.01-10 s-1. The effects of deformation condition on the hot compression deformation behavior are investigated. The low instability strain (ɛ i) behavior at high strain rate (10 s-1) is discussed in this paper. According to the experiment results and analyses, the deformation twinning and inhomogeneous grains are thought to be the possible reasons for low strain cracking. Then, a modified physically based constitutive model is established. The strain for maximum softening rate (\\varepsilon_{ *} ) is quoted in the constitutive equation which is proved that there is a nearly linear relationship between { ln }\\varepsilon_{ *} and { ln }Z . What's more, the correlation coefficient (R) and the average absolute relative error (AARE) are used to evaluate the accuracy of the established constitutive model. The values of R and AARE are 0.99612 and 3.47 %, respectively, which show that the modified constitutive model can exactly reveal the flow stress of Cu-6 %Ag alloy.

  9. Simple and accurate modelling of the gravitational potential produced by thick and thin exponential discs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, R.; Flynn, C.; Candlish, G. N.; Fellhauer, M.; Gibson, B. K.

    2015-04-01

    We present accurate models of the gravitational potential produced by a radially exponential disc mass distribution. The models are produced by combining three separate Miyamoto-Nagai discs. Such models have been used previously to model the disc of the Milky Way, but here we extend this framework to allow its application to discs of any mass, scalelength, and a wide range of thickness from infinitely thin to near spherical (ellipticities from 0 to 0.9). The models have the advantage of simplicity of implementation, and we expect faster run speeds over a double exponential disc treatment. The potentials are fully analytical, and differentiable at all points. The mass distribution of our models deviates from the radial mass distribution of a pure exponential disc by <0.4 per cent out to 4 disc scalelengths, and <1.9 per cent out to 10 disc scalelengths. We tabulate fitting parameters which facilitate construction of exponential discs for any scalelength, and a wide range of disc thickness (a user-friendly, web-based interface is also available). Our recipe is well suited for numerical modelling of the tidal effects of a giant disc galaxy on star clusters or dwarf galaxies. We consider three worked examples; the Milky Way thin and thick disc, and a discy dwarf galaxy.

  10. Algal productivity modeling: a step toward accurate assessments of full-scale algal cultivation.

    PubMed

    Béchet, Quentin; Chambonnière, Paul; Shilton, Andy; Guizard, Guillaume; Guieysse, Benoit

    2015-05-01

    A new biomass productivity model was parameterized for Chlorella vulgaris using short-term (<30 min) oxygen productivities from algal microcosms exposed to 6 light intensities (20-420 W/m(2)) and 6 temperatures (5-42 °C). The model was then validated against experimental biomass productivities recorded in bench-scale photobioreactors operated under 4 light intensities (30.6-74.3 W/m(2)) and 4 temperatures (10-30 °C), yielding an accuracy of ± 15% over 163 days of cultivation. This modeling approach addresses major challenges associated with the accurate prediction of algal productivity at full-scale. Firstly, while most prior modeling approaches have only considered the impact of light intensity on algal productivity, the model herein validated also accounts for the critical impact of temperature. Secondly, this study validates a theoretical approach to convert short-term oxygen productivities into long-term biomass productivities. Thirdly, the experimental methodology used has the practical advantage of only requiring one day of experimental work for complete model parameterization. The validation of this new modeling approach is therefore an important step for refining feasibility assessments of algae biotechnologies. PMID:25502920

  11. Turtle utricle dynamic behavior using a combined anatomically accurate model and experimentally measured hair bundle stiffness

    PubMed Central

    Davis, J.L.; Grant, J.W.

    2014-01-01

    Anatomically correct turtle utricle geometry was incorporated into two finite element models. The geometrically accurate model included appropriately shaped macular surface and otoconial layer, compact gel and column filament (or shear) layer thicknesses and thickness distributions. The first model included a shear layer where the effects of hair bundle stiffness was included as part of the shear layer modulus. This solid model’s undamped natural frequency was matched to an experimentally measured value. This frequency match established a realistic value of the effective shear layer Young’s modulus of 16 Pascals. We feel this is the most accurate prediction of this shear layer modulus and fits with other estimates (Kondrachuk, 2001b). The second model incorporated only beam elements in the shear layer to represent hair cell bundle stiffness. The beam element stiffness’s were further distributed to represent their location on the neuroepithelial surface. Experimentally measured striola hair cell bundles mean stiffness values were used in the striolar region and the mean extrastriola hair cell bundles stiffness values were used in this region. The results from this second model indicated that hair cell bundle stiffness contributes approximately 40% to the overall stiffness of the shear layer– hair cell bundle complex. This analysis shows that high mass saccules, in general, achieve high gain at the sacrifice of frequency bandwidth. We propose the mechanism by which this can be achieved is through increase the otoconial layer mass. The theoretical difference in gain (deflection per acceleration) is shown for saccules with large otoconial layer mass relative to saccules and utricles with small otoconial layer mass. Also discussed is the necessity of these high mass saccules to increase their overall system shear layer stiffness. Undamped natural frequencies and mode shapes for these sensors are shown. PMID:25445820

  12. The effect of heat developed during high strain rate deformation on the constitutive modeling of amorphous polymers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Safari, Keivan H.; Zamani, Jamal; Guedes, Rui M.; Ferreira, Fernando J.

    2016-02-01

    An adiabatic constitutive model is proposed for large strain deformation of polycarbonate (PC) at high strain rates. When the strain rate is sufficiently high such that the heat generated does not have time to transfer to the surroundings, temperature of material rises. The high strain rate deformation behavior of polymers is significantly affected by temperature-dependent constants and thermal softening. Based on the isothermal model which first was introduced by Mulliken and Boyce et al. (Int. J. Solids Struct. 43:1331-1356, 2006), an adiabatic model is proposed to predict the yield and post-yield behavior of glassy polymers at high strain rates. When calculating the heat generated and the temperature changes during the step by step simulation of the deformation, temperature-dependent elastic constants are incorporated to the constitutive equations. Moreover, better prediction of softening phenomena is achieved by the new definition for softening parameters of the proposed model. The constitutive model has been implemented numerically into a commercial finite element code through a user material subroutine (VUMAT). The experimental results, obtained using a split Hopkinson pressure bar, are supported by dynamic mechanical thermal analysis (DMTA) and Decompose/Shift/Reconstruct (DSR) method. Comparison of adiabatic model predictions with experimental data demonstrates the ability of the model to capture the characteristic features of stress-strain curve of the material at very high strain rates.

  13. Unified constitutive material models for nonlinear finite-element structural analysis. [gas turbine engine blades and vanes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaufman, A.; Laflen, J. H.; Lindholm, U. S.

    1985-01-01

    Unified constitutive material models were developed for structural analyses of aircraft gas turbine engine components with particular application to isotropic materials used for high-pressure stage turbine blades and vanes. Forms or combinations of models independently proposed by Bodner and Walker were considered. These theories combine time-dependent and time-independent aspects of inelasticity into a continuous spectrum of behavior. This is in sharp contrast to previous classical approaches that partition inelastic strain into uncoupled plastic and creep components. Predicted stress-strain responses from these models were evaluated against monotonic and cyclic test results for uniaxial specimens of two cast nickel-base alloys, B1900+Hf and Rene 80. Previously obtained tension-torsion test results for Hastelloy X alloy were used to evaluate multiaxial stress-strain cycle predictions. The unified models, as well as appropriate algorithms for integrating the constitutive equations, were implemented in finite-element computer codes.

  14. Unified constitutive material models for nonlinear finite-element structural analysis. [gas turbine engine blades and vanes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaufman, A.; Laflen, J. H.; Lindholm, U. S.

    1985-01-01

    Unified constitutive material models were developed for structural analyses of aircraft gas turbine engine components with particular application to isotropic materials used for high-pressure stage turbine blades and vanes. Forms or combinations of models independently proposed by Bodner and Walker were considered. These theories combine time-dependent and time-independent aspects of inelasticity into a continuous spectrum of behavior. This is in sharp contrast to previous classical approaches that partition inelastic strain into uncoupled plastic and creep components. Predicted stress-strain responses from these models were evaluated against monotonic and cyclic test results for uniaxial specimens of two cast nickel-base alloys, B1900+Hf and Rene' 80. Previously obtained tension-torsion test results for Hastelloy X alloy were used to evaluate multiaxial stress-strain cycle predictions. The unified models, as well as appropriate algorithms for integrating the constitutive equations, were implemented in finite-element computer codes.

  15. A Flexible Fringe Projection Vision System with Extended Mathematical Model for Accurate Three-Dimensional Measurement

    PubMed Central

    Xiao, Suzhi; Tao, Wei; Zhao, Hui

    2016-01-01

    In order to acquire an accurate three-dimensional (3D) measurement, the traditional fringe projection technique applies complex and laborious procedures to compensate for the errors that exist in the vision system. However, the error sources in the vision system are very complex, such as lens distortion, lens defocus, and fringe pattern nonsinusoidality. Some errors cannot even be explained or rendered with clear expressions and are difficult to compensate directly as a result. In this paper, an approach is proposed that avoids the complex and laborious compensation procedure for error sources but still promises accurate 3D measurement. It is realized by the mathematical model extension technique. The parameters of the extended mathematical model for the ’phase to 3D coordinates transformation’ are derived using the least-squares parameter estimation algorithm. In addition, a phase-coding method based on a frequency analysis is proposed for the absolute phase map retrieval to spatially isolated objects. The results demonstrate the validity and the accuracy of the proposed flexible fringe projection vision system on spatially continuous and discontinuous objects for 3D measurement. PMID:27136553

  16. Accurately modeling Gaussian beam propagation in the context of Monte Carlo techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hokr, Brett H.; Winblad, Aidan; Bixler, Joel N.; Elpers, Gabriel; Zollars, Byron; Scully, Marlan O.; Yakovlev, Vladislav V.; Thomas, Robert J.

    2016-03-01

    Monte Carlo simulations are widely considered to be the gold standard for studying the propagation of light in turbid media. However, traditional Monte Carlo methods fail to account for diffraction because they treat light as a particle. This results in converging beams focusing to a point instead of a diffraction limited spot, greatly effecting the accuracy of Monte Carlo simulations near the focal plane. Here, we present a technique capable of simulating a focusing beam in accordance to the rules of Gaussian optics, resulting in a diffraction limited focal spot. This technique can be easily implemented into any traditional Monte Carlo simulation allowing existing models to be converted to include accurate focusing geometries with minimal effort. We will present results for a focusing beam in a layered tissue model, demonstrating that for different scenarios the region of highest intensity, thus the greatest heating, can change from the surface to the focus. The ability to simulate accurate focusing geometries will greatly enhance the usefulness of Monte Carlo for countless applications, including studying laser tissue interactions in medical applications and light propagation through turbid media.

  17. An accurate parameterization of the infrared radiative properties of cirrus clouds for climate models

    SciTech Connect

    Fu, Q.; Sun, W.B.; Yang, P.

    1998-09-01

    An accurate parameterization is presented for the infrared radiative properties of cirrus clouds. For the single-scattering calculations, a composite scheme is developed for randomly oriented hexagonal ice crystals by comparing results from Mie theory, anomalous diffraction theory (ADT), the geometric optics method (GOM), and the finite-difference time domain technique. This scheme employs a linear combination of single-scattering properties from the Mie theory, ADT, and GOM, which is accurate for a wide range of size parameters. Following the approach of Q. Fu, the extinction coefficient, absorption coefficient, and asymmetry factor are parameterized as functions of the cloud ice water content and generalized effective size (D{sub ge}). The present parameterization of the single-scattering properties of cirrus clouds is validated by examining the bulk radiative properties for a wide range of atmospheric conditions. Compared with reference results, the typical relative error in emissivity due to the parameterization is {approximately}2.2%. The accuracy of this parameterization guarantees its reliability in applications to climate models. The present parameterization complements the scheme for the solar radiative properties of cirrus clouds developed by Q. Fu for use in numerical models.

  18. A Biomechanical Model of the Scapulothoracic Joint to Accurately Capture Scapular Kinematics during Shoulder Movements

    PubMed Central

    Seth, Ajay; Matias, Ricardo; Veloso, António P.; Delp, Scott L.

    2016-01-01

    The complexity of shoulder mechanics combined with the movement of skin relative to the scapula makes it difficult to measure shoulder kinematics with sufficient accuracy to distinguish between symptomatic and asymptomatic individuals. Multibody skeletal models can improve motion capture accuracy by reducing the space of possible joint movements, and models are used widely to improve measurement of lower limb kinematics. In this study, we developed a rigid-body model of a scapulothoracic joint to describe the kinematics of the scapula relative to the thorax. This model describes scapular kinematics with four degrees of freedom: 1) elevation and 2) abduction of the scapula on an ellipsoidal thoracic surface, 3) upward rotation of the scapula normal to the thoracic surface, and 4) internal rotation of the scapula to lift the medial border of the scapula off the surface of the thorax. The surface dimensions and joint axes can be customized to match an individual’s anthropometry. We compared the model to “gold standard” bone-pin kinematics collected during three shoulder tasks and found modeled scapular kinematics to be accurate to within 2mm root-mean-squared error for individual bone-pin markers across all markers and movement tasks. As an additional test, we added random and systematic noise to the bone-pin marker data and found that the model reduced kinematic variability due to noise by 65% compared to Euler angles computed without the model. Our scapulothoracic joint model can be used for inverse and forward dynamics analyses and to compute joint reaction loads. The computational performance of the scapulothoracic joint model is well suited for real-time applications; it is freely available for use with OpenSim 3.2, and is customizable and usable with other OpenSim models. PMID:26734761

  19. A Biomechanical Model of the Scapulothoracic Joint to Accurately Capture Scapular Kinematics during Shoulder Movements.

    PubMed

    Seth, Ajay; Matias, Ricardo; Veloso, António P; Delp, Scott L

    2016-01-01

    The complexity of shoulder mechanics combined with the movement of skin relative to the scapula makes it difficult to measure shoulder kinematics with sufficient accuracy to distinguish between symptomatic and asymptomatic individuals. Multibody skeletal models can improve motion capture accuracy by reducing the space of possible joint movements, and models are used widely to improve measurement of lower limb kinematics. In this study, we developed a rigid-body model of a scapulothoracic joint to describe the kinematics of the scapula relative to the thorax. This model describes scapular kinematics with four degrees of freedom: 1) elevation and 2) abduction of the scapula on an ellipsoidal thoracic surface, 3) upward rotation of the scapula normal to the thoracic surface, and 4) internal rotation of the scapula to lift the medial border of the scapula off the surface of the thorax. The surface dimensions and joint axes can be customized to match an individual's anthropometry. We compared the model to "gold standard" bone-pin kinematics collected during three shoulder tasks and found modeled scapular kinematics to be accurate to within 2 mm root-mean-squared error for individual bone-pin markers across all markers and movement tasks. As an additional test, we added random and systematic noise to the bone-pin marker data and found that the model reduced kinematic variability due to noise by 65% compared to Euler angles computed without the model. Our scapulothoracic joint model can be used for inverse and forward dynamics analyses and to compute joint reaction loads. The computational performance of the scapulothoracic joint model is well suited for real-time applications; it is freely available for use with OpenSim 3.2, and is customizable and usable with other OpenSim models. PMID:26734761

  20. Fractional Order Modeling of Atmospheric Turbulence - A More Accurate Modeling Methodology for Aero Vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kopasakis, George

    2014-01-01

    The presentation covers a recently developed methodology to model atmospheric turbulence as disturbances for aero vehicle gust loads and for controls development like flutter and inlet shock position. The approach models atmospheric turbulence in their natural fractional order form, which provides for more accuracy compared to traditional methods like the Dryden model, especially for high speed vehicle. The presentation provides a historical background on atmospheric turbulence modeling and the approaches utilized for air vehicles. This is followed by the motivation and the methodology utilized to develop the atmospheric turbulence fractional order modeling approach. Some examples covering the application of this method are also provided, followed by concluding remarks.

  1. Achieving accurate nuetron-multiplicity analysis of metals and oxides with weighted point model equations.

    SciTech Connect

    Burward-Hoy, J. M.; Geist, W. H.; Krick, M. S.; Mayo, D. R.

    2004-01-01

    Neutron multiplicity counting is a technique for the rapid, nondestructive measurement of plutonium mass in pure and impure materials. This technique is very powerful because it uses the measured coincidence count rates to determine the sample mass without requiring a set of representative standards for calibration. Interpreting measured singles, doubles, and triples count rates using the three-parameter standard point model accurately determines plutonium mass, neutron multiplication, and the ratio of ({alpha},n) to spontaneous-fission neutrons (alpha) for oxides of moderate mass. However, underlying standard point model assumptions - including constant neutron energy and constant multiplication throughout the sample - cause significant biases for the mass, multiplication, and alpha in measurements of metal and large, dense oxides.

  2. Accurate Cold-Test Model of Helical TWT Slow-Wave Circuits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kory, Carol L.; Dayton, J. A., Jr.

    1998-01-01

    Recently, a method has been established to accurately calculate cold-test data for helical slow-wave structures using the three-dimensional (3-D) electromagnetic computer code, MAFIA. Cold-test parameters have been calculated for several helical traveling-wave tube (TWT) slow-wave circuits possessing various support rod configurations, and results are presented here showing excellent agreement with experiment. The helical models include tape thickness, dielectric support shapes and material properties consistent with the actual circuits. The cold-test data from this helical model can be used as input into large-signal helical TWT interaction codes making it possible, for the first time, to design a complete TWT via computer simulation.

  3. Accurate Cold-Test Model of Helical TWT Slow-Wave Circuits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kory, Carol L.; Dayton, James A., Jr.

    1998-01-01

    Recently, a method has been established to accurately calculate cold-test data for helical slow-wave structures using the three-dimensional (3-D) electromagnetic computer code, MAxwell's equations by the Finite Integration Algorithm (MAFIA). Cold-test parameters have been calculated for several helical traveLing-wave tube (TWT) slow-wave circuits possessing various support rod configurations, and results are presented here showing excellent agreement with experiment. The helical models include tape thickness, dielectric support shapes and material properties consistent with the actual circuits. The cold-test data from this helical model can be used as input into large-signal helical TWT interaction codes making It possible, for the first time, to design complete TWT via computer simulation.

  4. Accurate Cold-Test Model of Helical TWT Slow-Wave Circuits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kory, Carol L.; Dayton, James A., Jr.

    1997-01-01

    Recently, a method has been established to accurately calculate cold-test data for helical slow-wave structures using the three-dimensional electromagnetic computer code, MAFIA. Cold-test parameters have been calculated for several helical traveling-wave tube (TWT) slow-wave circuits possessing various support rod configurations, and results are presented here showing excellent agreement with experiment. The helical models include tape thickness, dielectric support shapes and material properties consistent with the actual circuits. The cold-test data from this helical model can be used as input into large-signal helical TWT interaction codes making it possible, for the first time, to design a complete TWT via computer simulation.

  5. Fast and Accurate Prediction of Numerical Relativity Waveforms from Binary Black Hole Coalescences Using Surrogate Models.

    PubMed

    Blackman, Jonathan; Field, Scott E; Galley, Chad R; Szilágyi, Béla; Scheel, Mark A; Tiglio, Manuel; Hemberger, Daniel A

    2015-09-18

    Simulating a binary black hole coalescence by solving Einstein's equations is computationally expensive, requiring days to months of supercomputing time. Using reduced order modeling techniques, we construct an accurate surrogate model, which is evaluated in a millisecond to a second, for numerical relativity (NR) waveforms from nonspinning binary black hole coalescences with mass ratios in [1, 10] and durations corresponding to about 15 orbits before merger. We assess the model's uncertainty and show that our modeling strategy predicts NR waveforms not used for the surrogate's training with errors nearly as small as the numerical error of the NR code. Our model includes all spherical-harmonic _{-2}Y_{ℓm} waveform modes resolved by the NR code up to ℓ=8. We compare our surrogate model to effective one body waveforms from 50M_{⊙} to 300M_{⊙} for advanced LIGO detectors and find that the surrogate is always more faithful (by at least an order of magnitude in most cases). PMID:26430979

  6. Construction of feasible and accurate kinetic models of metabolism: A Bayesian approach

    PubMed Central

    Saa, Pedro A.; Nielsen, Lars K.

    2016-01-01

    Kinetic models are essential to quantitatively understand and predict the behaviour of metabolic networks. Detailed and thermodynamically feasible kinetic models of metabolism are inherently difficult to formulate and fit. They have a large number of heterogeneous parameters, are non-linear and have complex interactions. Many powerful fitting strategies are ruled out by the intractability of the likelihood function. Here, we have developed a computational framework capable of fitting feasible and accurate kinetic models using Approximate Bayesian Computation. This framework readily supports advanced modelling features such as model selection and model-based experimental design. We illustrate this approach on the tightly-regulated mammalian methionine cycle. Sampling from the posterior distribution, the proposed framework generated thermodynamically feasible parameter samples that converged on the true values, and displayed remarkable prediction accuracy in several validation tests. Furthermore, a posteriori analysis of the parameter distributions enabled appraisal of the systems properties of the network (e.g., control structure) and key metabolic regulations. Finally, the framework was used to predict missing allosteric interactions. PMID:27417285

  7. An Accurate Model for Biomolecular Helices and Its Application to Helix Visualization

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Lincong; Qiao, Hui; Cao, Chen; Xu, Shutan; Zou, Shuxue

    2015-01-01

    Helices are the most abundant secondary structural elements in proteins and the structural forms assumed by double stranded DNAs (dsDNA). Though the mathematical expression for a helical curve is simple, none of the previous models for the biomolecular helices in either proteins or DNAs use a genuine helical curve, likely because of the complexity of fitting backbone atoms to helical curves. In this paper we model a helix as a series of different but all bona fide helical curves; each one best fits the coordinates of four consecutive backbone Cα atoms for a protein or P atoms for a DNA molecule. An implementation of the model demonstrates that it is more accurate than the previous ones for the description of the deviation of a helix from a standard helical curve. Furthermore, the accuracy of the model makes it possible to correlate deviations with structural and functional significance. When applied to helix visualization, the ribbon diagrams generated by the model are less choppy or have smaller side chain detachment than those by the previous visualization programs that typically model a helix as a series of low-degree splines. PMID:26126117

  8. Constitutional Conservatism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berkowitz, Peter

    2009-01-01

    After their dismal performance in election 2008, conservatives are taking stock. As they examine the causes that have driven them into the political wilderness and as they explore paths out, they should also take heart. After all, election 2008 shows that America's constitutional order is working as designed. Indeed, while sorting out their errors…

  9. Fast and Accurate Radiative Transfer Calculations Using Principal Component Analysis for Climate Modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kopparla, P.; Natraj, V.; Spurr, R. J. D.; Shia, R. L.; Yung, Y. L.

    2014-12-01

    Radiative transfer (RT) computations are an essential component of energy budget calculations in climate models. However, full treatment of RT processes is computationally expensive, prompting usage of 2-stream approximations in operational climate models. This simplification introduces errors of the order of 10% in the top of the atmosphere (TOA) fluxes [Randles et al., 2013]. Natraj et al. [2005, 2010] and Spurr and Natraj [2013] demonstrated the ability of a technique using principal component analysis (PCA) to speed up RT simulations. In the PCA method for RT performance enhancement, empirical orthogonal functions are developed for binned sets of inherent optical properties that possess some redundancy; costly multiple-scattering RT calculations are only done for those (few) optical states corresponding to the most important principal components, and correction factors are applied to approximate radiation fields. Here, we extend the PCA method to a broadband spectral region from the ultraviolet to the shortwave infrared (0.3-3 micron), accounting for major gas absorptions in this region. Comparisons between the new model, called Universal Principal Component Analysis model for Radiative Transfer (UPCART), 2-stream models (such as those used in climate applications) and line-by-line RT models are performed, in order for spectral radiances, spectral fluxes and broadband fluxes. Each of these are calculated at the TOA for several scenarios with varying aerosol types, extinction and scattering optical depth profiles, and solar and viewing geometries. We demonstrate that very accurate radiative forcing estimates can be obtained, with better than 1% accuracy in all spectral regions and better than 0.1% in most cases as compared to an exact line-by-line RT model. The model is comparable in speeds to 2-stream models, potentially rendering UPCART useful for operational General Circulation Models (GCMs). The operational speed and accuracy of UPCART can be further

  10. Constitutive modeling of rate-dependent stress-strain behavior of human liver in blunt impact loading.

    PubMed

    Sparks, Jessica L; Dupaix, Rebecca B

    2008-11-01

    An understanding of the mechanical deformation behavior of the liver under high strain rate loading conditions could aid in the development of vehicle safety measures to reduce the occurrence of blunt liver injury. The purpose of this study was to develop a constitutive model of the stress-strain behavior of the human liver in blunt impact loading. Experimental stress and strain data was obtained from impact tests of 12 unembalmed human livers using a drop tower technique. A constitutive model previously developed for finite strain behavior of amorphous polymers was adapted to model the observed liver behavior. The elements of the model include a nonlinear spring in parallel with a linear spring and nonlinear dashpot. The model captures three features of liver stress-strain behavior in impact loading: (1) relatively stiff initial modulus, (2) rate-dependent yield or rollover to viscous "flow" behavior, and (3) strain hardening at large strains. Six material properties were used to define the constitutive model. This study represents a novel application of polymer mechanics concepts to understand the rate-dependent large strain behavior of human liver tissue under high strain rate loading. Applications of this research include finite element simulations of injury-producing liver or abdominal impact events. PMID:18751900

  11. Constitutive Modeling, Microstructure Evolution, and Processing Map for a Nitride-Strengthened Heat-Resistant Steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Wen-Feng; Sha, Wei; Yan, Wei; Wang, Wei; Shan, Yi-Yin; Yang, Ke

    2014-08-01

    A constitutive equation was established to describe the deformation behavior of a nitride-strengthened (NS) steel through isothermal compression simulation test. All the parameters in the constitutive equation including the constant and the activation energy were precisely calculated for the NS steel. The result also showed that from the stress-strain curves, there existed two different linear relationships between critical stress and critical strain in the NS steel due to the augmentation of auxiliary softening effect of the dynamic strain-induced transformation. In the calculation of processing maps, with the change of Zener-Hollomon value, three domains of different levels of workability were found, namely excellent workability region with equiaxed-grain microstructure, good workability region with "stripe" microstructure, and the poor workability region with martensitic-ferritic blend microstructure. With the increase of strain, the poor workability region first expanded, then shrank to barely existing, but appeared again at the strain of 0.6.

  12. Fitmunk: improving protein structures by accurate, automatic modeling of side-chain conformations.

    PubMed

    Porebski, Przemyslaw Jerzy; Cymborowski, Marcin; Pasenkiewicz-Gierula, Marta; Minor, Wladek

    2016-02-01

    Improvements in crystallographic hardware and software have allowed automated structure-solution pipelines to approach a near-`one-click' experience for the initial determination of macromolecular structures. However, in many cases the resulting initial model requires a laborious, iterative process of refinement and validation. A new method has been developed for the automatic modeling of side-chain conformations that takes advantage of rotamer-prediction methods in a crystallographic context. The algorithm, which is based on deterministic dead-end elimination (DEE) theory, uses new dense conformer libraries and a hybrid energy function derived from experimental data and prior information about rotamer frequencies to find the optimal conformation of each side chain. In contrast to existing methods, which incorporate the electron-density term into protein-modeling frameworks, the proposed algorithm is designed to take advantage of the highly discriminatory nature of electron-density maps. This method has been implemented in the program Fitmunk, which uses extensive conformational sampling. This improves the accuracy of the modeling and makes it a versatile tool for crystallographic model building, refinement and validation. Fitmunk was extensively tested on over 115 new structures, as well as a subset of 1100 structures from the PDB. It is demonstrated that the ability of Fitmunk to model more than 95% of side chains accurately is beneficial for improving the quality of crystallographic protein models, especially at medium and low resolutions. Fitmunk can be used for model validation of existing structures and as a tool to assess whether side chains are modeled optimally or could be better fitted into electron density. Fitmunk is available as a web service at http://kniahini.med.virginia.edu/fitmunk/server/ or at http://fitmunk.bitbucket.org/. PMID:26894674

  13. Are Quasi-Steady-State Approximated Models Suitable for Quantifying Intrinsic Noise Accurately?

    PubMed Central

    Sengupta, Dola; Kar, Sandip

    2015-01-01

    Large gene regulatory networks (GRN) are often modeled with quasi-steady-state approximation (QSSA) to reduce the huge computational time required for intrinsic noise quantification using Gillespie stochastic simulation algorithm (SSA). However, the question still remains whether the stochastic QSSA model measures the intrinsic noise as accurately as the SSA performed for a detailed mechanistic model or not? To address this issue, we have constructed mechanistic and QSSA models for few frequently observed GRNs exhibiting switching behavior and performed stochastic simulations with them. Our results strongly suggest that the performance of a stochastic QSSA model in comparison to SSA performed for a mechanistic model critically relies on the absolute values of the mRNA and protein half-lives involved in the corresponding GRN. The extent of accuracy level achieved by the stochastic QSSA model calculations will depend on the level of bursting frequency generated due to the absolute value of the half-life of either mRNA or protein or for both the species. For the GRNs considered, the stochastic QSSA quantifies the intrinsic noise at the protein level with greater accuracy and for larger combinations of half-life values of mRNA and protein, whereas in case of mRNA the satisfactory accuracy level can only be reached for limited combinations of absolute values of half-lives. Further, we have clearly demonstrated that the abundance levels of mRNA and protein hardly matter for such comparison between QSSA and mechanistic models. Based on our findings, we conclude that QSSA model can be a good choice for evaluating intrinsic noise for other GRNs as well, provided we make a rational choice based on experimental half-life values available in literature. PMID:26327626

  14. Fitmunk: improving protein structures by accurate, automatic modeling of side-chain conformations

    PubMed Central

    Porebski, Przemyslaw Jerzy; Cymborowski, Marcin; Pasenkiewicz-Gierula, Marta; Minor, Wladek

    2016-01-01

    Improvements in crystallographic hardware and software have allowed automated structure-solution pipelines to approach a near-‘one-click’ experience for the initial determination of macromolecular structures. However, in many cases the resulting initial model requires a laborious, iterative process of refinement and validation. A new method has been developed for the automatic modeling of side-chain conformations that takes advantage of rotamer-prediction methods in a crystallographic context. The algorithm, which is based on deterministic dead-end elimination (DEE) theory, uses new dense conformer libraries and a hybrid energy function derived from experimental data and prior information about rotamer frequencies to find the optimal conformation of each side chain. In contrast to existing methods, which incorporate the electron-density term into protein-modeling frameworks, the proposed algorithm is designed to take advantage of the highly discriminatory nature of electron-density maps. This method has been implemented in the program Fitmunk, which uses extensive conformational sampling. This improves the accuracy of the modeling and makes it a versatile tool for crystallographic model building, refinement and validation. Fitmunk was extensively tested on over 115 new structures, as well as a subset of 1100 structures from the PDB. It is demonstrated that the ability of Fitmunk to model more than 95% of side chains accurately is beneficial for improving the quality of crystallographic protein models, especially at medium and low resolutions. Fitmunk can be used for model validation of existing structures and as a tool to assess whether side chains are modeled optimally or could be better fitted into electron density. Fitmunk is available as a web service at http://kniahini.med.virginia.edu/fitmunk/server/ or at http://fitmunk.bitbucket.org/. PMID:26894674

  15. Constitutive modelling of magnetic shape memory alloys with discrete and continuous symmetries

    PubMed Central

    Haldar, K.; Lagoudas, D. C.

    2014-01-01

    A free energy-based constitutive formulation is considered for magnetic shape memory alloys. Internal state variables are introduced whose evolution describes the transition from reference state to the deformed and transformed one. We impose material symmetry restrictions on the Gibbs free energy and on the evolution equations of the internal state variables. Discrete symmetry is considered for single crystals, whereas continuous symmetry is considered for polycrystalline materials. PMID:25197247

  16. Constitutive modelling of magnetic shape memory alloys with discrete and continuous symmetries.

    PubMed

    Haldar, K; Lagoudas, D C

    2014-09-01

    A free energy-based constitutive formulation is considered for magnetic shape memory alloys. Internal state variables are introduced whose evolution describes the transition from reference state to the deformed and transformed one. We impose material symmetry restrictions on the Gibbs free energy and on the evolution equations of the internal state variables. Discrete symmetry is considered for single crystals, whereas continuous symmetry is considered for polycrystalline materials. PMID:25197247

  17. Continuum descriptions of membranes and their interaction with proteins: Towards chemically accurate models.

    PubMed

    Argudo, David; Bethel, Neville P; Marcoline, Frank V; Grabe, Michael

    2016-07-01

    Biological membranes deform in response to resident proteins leading to a coupling between membrane shape and protein localization. Additionally, the membrane influences the function of membrane proteins. Here we review contributions to this field from continuum elastic membrane models focusing on the class of models that couple the protein to the membrane. While it has been argued that continuum models cannot reproduce the distortions observed in fully-atomistic molecular dynamics simulations, we suggest that this failure can be overcome by using chemically accurate representations of the protein. We outline our recent advances along these lines with our hybrid continuum-atomistic model, and we show the model is in excellent agreement with fully-atomistic simulations of the nhTMEM16 lipid scramblase. We believe that the speed and accuracy of continuum-atomistic methodologies will make it possible to simulate large scale, slow biological processes, such as membrane morphological changes, that are currently beyond the scope of other computational approaches. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Membrane Proteins edited by J.C. Gumbart and Sergei Noskov. PMID:26853937

  18. A Simple and Accurate Model to Predict Responses to Multi-electrode Stimulation in the Retina

    PubMed Central

    Maturana, Matias I.; Apollo, Nicholas V.; Hadjinicolaou, Alex E.; Garrett, David J.; Cloherty, Shaun L.; Kameneva, Tatiana; Grayden, David B.; Ibbotson, Michael R.; Meffin, Hamish

    2016-01-01

    Implantable electrode arrays are widely used in therapeutic stimulation of the nervous system (e.g. cochlear, retinal, and cortical implants). Currently, most neural prostheses use serial stimulation (i.e. one electrode at a time) despite this severely limiting the repertoire of stimuli that can be applied. Methods to reliably predict the outcome of multi-electrode stimulation have not been available. Here, we demonstrate that a linear-nonlinear model accurately predicts neural responses to arbitrary patterns of stimulation using in vitro recordings from single retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) stimulated with a subretinal multi-electrode array. In the model, the stimulus is projected onto a low-dimensional subspace and then undergoes a nonlinear transformation to produce an estimate of spiking probability. The low-dimensional subspace is estimated using principal components analysis, which gives the neuron’s electrical receptive field (ERF), i.e. the electrodes to which the neuron is most sensitive. Our model suggests that stimulation proportional to the ERF yields a higher efficacy given a fixed amount of power when compared to equal amplitude stimulation on up to three electrodes. We find that the model captures the responses of all the cells recorded in the study, suggesting that it will generalize to most cell types in the retina. The model is computationally efficient to evaluate and, therefore, appropriate for future real-time applications including stimulation strategies that make use of recorded neural activity to improve the stimulation strategy. PMID:27035143

  19. Hybridization modeling of oligonucleotide SNP arrays for accurate DNA copy number estimation

    PubMed Central

    Wan, Lin; Sun, Kelian; Ding, Qi; Cui, Yuehua; Li, Ming; Wen, Yalu; Elston, Robert C.; Qian, Minping; Fu, Wenjiang J

    2009-01-01

    Affymetrix SNP arrays have been widely used for single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) genotype calling and DNA copy number variation inference. Although numerous methods have achieved high accuracy in these fields, most studies have paid little attention to the modeling of hybridization of probes to off-target allele sequences, which can affect the accuracy greatly. In this study, we address this issue and demonstrate that hybridization with mismatch nucleotides (HWMMN) occurs in all SNP probe-sets and has a critical effect on the estimation of allelic concentrations (ACs). We study sequence binding through binding free energy and then binding affinity, and develop a probe intensity composite representation (PICR) model. The PICR model allows the estimation of ACs at a given SNP through statistical regression. Furthermore, we demonstrate with cell-line data of known true copy numbers that the PICR model can achieve reasonable accuracy in copy number estimation at a single SNP locus, by using the ratio of the estimated AC of each sample to that of the reference sample, and can reveal subtle genotype structure of SNPs at abnormal loci. We also demonstrate with HapMap data that the PICR model yields accurate SNP genotype calls consistently across samples, laboratories and even across array platforms. PMID:19586935

  20. A Simple and Accurate Model to Predict Responses to Multi-electrode Stimulation in the Retina.

    PubMed

    Maturana, Matias I; Apollo, Nicholas V; Hadjinicolaou, Alex E; Garrett, David J; Cloherty, Shaun L; Kameneva, Tatiana; Grayden, David B; Ibbotson, Michael R; Meffin, Hamish

    2016-04-01

    Implantable electrode arrays are widely used in therapeutic stimulation of the nervous system (e.g. cochlear, retinal, and cortical implants). Currently, most neural prostheses use serial stimulation (i.e. one electrode at a time) despite this severely limiting the repertoire of stimuli that can be applied. Methods to reliably predict the outcome of multi-electrode stimulation have not been available. Here, we demonstrate that a linear-nonlinear model accurately predicts neural responses to arbitrary patterns of stimulation using in vitro recordings from single retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) stimulated with a subretinal multi-electrode array. In the model, the stimulus is projected onto a low-dimensional subspace and then undergoes a nonlinear transformation to produce an estimate of spiking probability. The low-dimensional subspace is estimated using principal components analysis, which gives the neuron's electrical receptive field (ERF), i.e. the electrodes to which the neuron is most sensitive. Our model suggests that stimulation proportional to the ERF yields a higher efficacy given a fixed amount of power when compared to equal amplitude stimulation on up to three electrodes. We find that the model captures the responses of all the cells recorded in the study, suggesting that it will generalize to most cell types in the retina. The model is computationally efficient to evaluate and, therefore, appropriate for future real-time applications including stimulation strategies that make use of recorded neural activity to improve the stimulation strategy. PMID:27035143

  1. A constitutive model for the warp-weft coupled non-linear behavior of knitted biomedical textiles.

    PubMed

    Yeoman, Mark S; Reddy, Daya; Bowles, Hellmut C; Bezuidenhout, Deon; Zilla, Peter; Franz, Thomas

    2010-11-01

    Knitted textiles have been used in medical applications due to their high flexibility and low tendency to fray. Their mechanics have, however, received limited attention. A constitutive model for soft tissue using a strain energy function was extended, by including shear and increasing the number and order of coefficients, to represent the non-linear warp-weft coupled mechanics of coarse textile knits under uniaxial tension. The constitutive relationship was implemented in a commercial finite element package. The model and its implementation were verified and validated for uniaxial tension and simple shear using patch tests and physical test data of uniaxial tensile tests of four very different knitted fabric structures. A genetic algorithm with step-wise increase in resolution and linear reduction in range of the search space was developed for the optimization of the fabric model coefficients. The numerically predicted stress-strain curves exhibited non-linear stiffening characteristic for fabrics. For three fabrics, the predicted mechanics correlated well with physical data, at least in one principal direction (warp or weft), and moderately in the other direction. The model exhibited limitations in approximating the linear elastic behavior of the fourth fabric. With proposals to address this limitation and to incorporate time-dependent changes in the fabric mechanics associated with tissue ingrowth, the constitutive model offers a tool for the design of tissue regenerative knit textile implants. PMID:20688383

  2. Fast and accurate analytical model to solve inverse problem in SHM using Lamb wave propagation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poddar, Banibrata; Giurgiutiu, Victor

    2016-04-01

    Lamb wave propagation is at the center of attention of researchers for structural health monitoring of thin walled structures. This is due to the fact that Lamb wave modes are natural modes of wave propagation in these structures with long travel distances and without much attenuation. This brings the prospect of monitoring large structure with few sensors/actuators. However the problem of damage detection and identification is an "inverse problem" where we do not have the luxury to know the exact mathematical model of the system. On top of that the problem is more challenging due to the confounding factors of statistical variation of the material and geometric properties. Typically this problem may also be ill posed. Due to all these complexities the direct solution of the problem of damage detection and identification in SHM is impossible. Therefore an indirect method using the solution of the "forward problem" is popular for solving the "inverse problem". This requires a fast forward problem solver. Due to the complexities involved with the forward problem of scattering of Lamb waves from damages researchers rely primarily on numerical techniques such as FEM, BEM, etc. But these methods are slow and practically impossible to be used in structural health monitoring. We have developed a fast and accurate analytical forward problem solver for this purpose. This solver, CMEP (complex modes expansion and vector projection), can simulate scattering of Lamb waves from all types of damages in thin walled structures fast and accurately to assist the inverse problem solver.

  3. Development and application of accurate analytical models for single active electron potentials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, Michelle; Jaron-Becker, Agnieszka; Becker, Andreas

    2015-05-01

    The single active electron (SAE) approximation is a theoretical model frequently employed to study scenarios in which inner-shell electrons may productively be treated as frozen spectators to a physical process of interest, and accurate analytical approximations for these potentials are sought as a useful simulation tool. Density function theory is often used to construct a SAE potential, requiring that a further approximation for the exchange correlation functional be enacted. In this study, we employ the Krieger, Li, and Iafrate (KLI) modification to the optimized-effective-potential (OEP) method to reduce the complexity of the problem to the straightforward solution of a system of linear equations through simple arguments regarding the behavior of the exchange-correlation potential in regions where a single orbital dominates. We employ this method for the solution of atomic and molecular potentials, and use the resultant curve to devise a systematic construction for highly accurate and useful analytical approximations for several systems. Supported by the U.S. Department of Energy (Grant No. DE-FG02-09ER16103), and the U.S. National Science Foundation (Graduate Research Fellowship, Grants No. PHY-1125844 and No. PHY-1068706).

  4. Do Ecological Niche Models Accurately Identify Climatic Determinants of Species Ranges?

    PubMed

    Searcy, Christopher A; Shaffer, H Bradley

    2016-04-01

    Defining species' niches is central to understanding their distributions and is thus fundamental to basic ecology and climate change projections. Ecological niche models (ENMs) are a key component of making accurate projections and include descriptions of the niche in terms of both response curves and rankings of variable importance. In this study, we evaluate Maxent's ranking of environmental variables based on their importance in delimiting species' range boundaries by asking whether these same variables also govern annual recruitment based on long-term demographic studies. We found that Maxent-based assessments of variable importance in setting range boundaries in the California tiger salamander (Ambystoma californiense; CTS) correlate very well with how important those variables are in governing ongoing recruitment of CTS at the population level. This strong correlation suggests that Maxent's ranking of variable importance captures biologically realistic assessments of factors governing population persistence. However, this result holds only when Maxent models are built using best-practice procedures and variables are ranked based on permutation importance. Our study highlights the need for building high-quality niche models and provides encouraging evidence that when such models are built, they can reflect important aspects of a species' ecology. PMID:27028071

  5. Accurate and Fast Simulation of Channel Noise in Conductance-Based Model Neurons by Diffusion Approximation

    PubMed Central

    Linaro, Daniele; Storace, Marco; Giugliano, Michele

    2011-01-01

    Stochastic channel gating is the major source of intrinsic neuronal noise whose functional consequences at the microcircuit- and network-levels have been only partly explored. A systematic study of this channel noise in large ensembles of biophysically detailed model neurons calls for the availability of fast numerical methods. In fact, exact techniques employ the microscopic simulation of the random opening and closing of individual ion channels, usually based on Markov models, whose computational loads are prohibitive for next generation massive computer models of the brain. In this work, we operatively define a procedure for translating any Markov model describing voltage- or ligand-gated membrane ion-conductances into an effective stochastic version, whose computer simulation is efficient, without compromising accuracy. Our approximation is based on an improved Langevin-like approach, which employs stochastic differential equations and no Montecarlo methods. As opposed to an earlier proposal recently debated in the literature, our approximation reproduces accurately the statistical properties of the exact microscopic simulations, under a variety of conditions, from spontaneous to evoked response features. In addition, our method is not restricted to the Hodgkin-Huxley sodium and potassium currents and is general for a variety of voltage- and ligand-gated ion currents. As a by-product, the analysis of the properties emerging in exact Markov schemes by standard probability calculus enables us for the first time to analytically identify the sources of inaccuracy of the previous proposal, while providing solid ground for its modification and improvement we present here. PMID:21423712

  6. Accurate integral equation theory for the central force model of liquid water and ionic solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ichiye, Toshiko; Haymet, A. D. J.

    1988-10-01

    The atom-atom pair correlation functions and thermodynamics of the central force model of water, introduced by Lemberg, Stillinger, and Rahman, have been calculated accurately by an integral equation method which incorporates two new developments. First, a rapid new scheme has been used to solve the Ornstein-Zernike equation. This scheme combines the renormalization methods of Allnatt, and Rossky and Friedman with an extension of the trigonometric basis-set solution of Labik and co-workers. Second, by adding approximate ``bridge'' functions to the hypernetted-chain (HNC) integral equation, we have obtained predictions for liquid water in which the hydrogen bond length and number are in good agreement with ``exact'' computer simulations of the same model force laws. In addition, for dilute ionic solutions, the ion-oxygen and ion-hydrogen coordination numbers display both the physically correct stoichiometry and good agreement with earlier simulations. These results represent a measurable improvement over both a previous HNC solution of the central force model and the ex-RISM integral equation solutions for the TIPS and other rigid molecule models of water.

  7. Efficient and Accurate Explicit Integration Algorithms with Application to Viscoplastic Models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arya, Vinod K.

    1994-01-01

    Several explicit integration algorithms with self-adative time integration strategies are developed and investigated for efficiency and accuracy. These algorithms involve the Runge-Kutta second order, the lower Runge-Kutta method of orders one and two, and the exponential integration method. The algorithms are applied to viscoplastic models put forth by Freed and Verrilli and Bodner and Partom for thermal/mechanical loadings (including tensile, relaxation, and cyclic loadings). The large amount of computations performed showed that, for comparable accuracy, the efficiency of an integration algorithm depends significantly on the type of application (loading). However, in general, for the aforementioned loadings and viscoplastic models, the exponential integration algorithm with the proposed self-adaptive time integration strategy worked more (or comparably) efficiently and accurately than the other integration algorithms. Using this strategy for integrating viscoplastic models may lead to considerable savings in computer time (better efficiency) without adversely affecting the accuracy of the results. This conclusion should encourage the utilization of viscoplastic models in the stress analysis and design of structural components.

  8. An accurate and efficient Lagrangian sub-grid model for multi-particle dispersion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toschi, Federico; Mazzitelli, Irene; Lanotte, Alessandra S.

    2014-11-01

    Many natural and industrial processes involve the dispersion of particle in turbulent flows. Despite recent theoretical progresses in the understanding of particle dynamics in simple turbulent flows, complex geometries often call for numerical approaches based on eulerian Large Eddy Simulation (LES). One important issue related to the Lagrangian integration of tracers in under-resolved velocity fields is connected to the lack of spatial correlations at unresolved scales. Here we propose a computationally efficient Lagrangian model for the sub-grid velocity of tracers dispersed in statistically homogeneous and isotropic turbulent flows. The model incorporates the multi-scale nature of turbulent temporal and spatial correlations that are essential to correctly reproduce the dynamics of multi-particle dispersion. The new model is able to describe the Lagrangian temporal and spatial correlations in clouds of particles. In particular we show that pairs and tetrads dispersion compare well with results from Direct Numerical Simulations of statistically isotropic and homogeneous 3d turbulence. This model may offer an accurate and efficient way to describe multi-particle dispersion in under resolved turbulent velocity fields such as the one employed in eulerian LES. This work is part of the research programmes FP112 of the Foundation for Fundamental Research on Matter (FOM), which is part of the Netherlands Organisation for Scientific Research (NWO). We acknowledge support from the EU COST Action MP0806.

  9. Modeling methodology for the accurate and prompt prediction of symptomatic events in chronic diseases.

    PubMed

    Pagán, Josué; Risco-Martín, José L; Moya, José M; Ayala, José L

    2016-08-01

    Prediction of symptomatic crises in chronic diseases allows to take decisions before the symptoms occur, such as the intake of drugs to avoid the symptoms or the activation of medical alarms. The prediction horizon is in this case an important parameter in order to fulfill the pharmacokinetics of medications, or the time response of medical services. This paper presents a study about the prediction limits of a chronic disease with symptomatic crises: the migraine. For that purpose, this work develops a methodology to build predictive migraine models and to improve these predictions beyond the limits of the initial models. The maximum prediction horizon is analyzed, and its dependency on the selected features is studied. A strategy for model selection is proposed to tackle the trade off between conservative but robust predictive models, with respect to less accurate predictions with higher horizons. The obtained results show a prediction horizon close to 40min, which is in the time range of the drug pharmacokinetics. Experiments have been performed in a realistic scenario where input data have been acquired in an ambulatory clinical study by the deployment of a non-intrusive Wireless Body Sensor Network. Our results provide an effective methodology for the selection of the future horizon in the development of prediction algorithms for diseases experiencing symptomatic crises. PMID:27260782

  10. A General Pairwise Interaction Model Provides an Accurate Description of In Vivo Transcription Factor Binding Sites

    PubMed Central

    Santolini, Marc; Mora, Thierry; Hakim, Vincent

    2014-01-01

    The identification of transcription factor binding sites (TFBSs) on genomic DNA is of crucial importance for understanding and predicting regulatory elements in gene networks. TFBS motifs are commonly described by Position Weight Matrices (PWMs), in which each DNA base pair contributes independently to the transcription factor (TF) binding. However, this description ignores correlations between nucleotides at different positions, and is generally inaccurate: analysing fly and mouse in vivo ChIPseq data, we show that in most cases the PWM model fails to reproduce the observed statistics of TFBSs. To overcome this issue, we introduce the pairwise interaction model (PIM), a generalization of the PWM model. The model is based on the principle of maximum entropy and explicitly describes pairwise correlations between nucleotides at different positions, while being otherwise as unconstrained as possible. It is mathematically equivalent to considering a TF-DNA binding energy that depends additively on each nucleotide identity at all positions in the TFBS, like the PWM model, but also additively on pairs of nucleotides. We find that the PIM significantly improves over the PWM model, and even provides an optimal description of TFBS statistics within statistical noise. The PIM generalizes previous approaches to interdependent positions: it accounts for co-variation of two or more base pairs, and predicts secondary motifs, while outperforming multiple-motif models consisting of mixtures of PWMs. We analyse the structure of pairwise interactions between nucleotides, and find that they are sparse and dominantly located between consecutive base pairs in the flanking region of TFBS. Nonetheless, interactions between pairs of non-consecutive nucleotides are found to play a significant role in the obtained accurate description of TFBS statistics. The PIM is computationally tractable, and provides a general framework that should be useful for describing and predicting TFBSs beyond

  11. Application of thin plate splines for accurate regional ionosphere modeling with multi-GNSS data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krypiak-Gregorczyk, Anna; Wielgosz, Pawel; Borkowski, Andrzej

    2016-04-01

    GNSS-derived regional ionosphere models are widely used in both precise positioning, ionosphere and space weather studies. However, their accuracy is often not sufficient to support precise positioning, RTK in particular. In this paper, we presented new approach that uses solely carrier phase multi-GNSS observables and thin plate splines (TPS) for accurate ionospheric TEC modeling. TPS is a closed solution of a variational problem minimizing both the sum of squared second derivatives of a smoothing function and the deviation between data points and this function. This approach is used in UWM-rt1 regional ionosphere model developed at UWM in Olsztyn. The model allows for providing ionospheric TEC maps with high spatial and temporal resolutions - 0.2x0.2 degrees and 2.5 minutes, respectively. For TEC estimation, EPN and EUPOS reference station data is used. The maps are available with delay of 15-60 minutes. In this paper we compare the performance of UWM-rt1 model with IGS global and CODE regional ionosphere maps during ionospheric storm that took place on March 17th, 2015. During this storm, the TEC level over Europe doubled comparing to earlier quiet days. The performance of the UWM-rt1 model was validated by (a) comparison to reference double-differenced ionospheric corrections over selected baselines, and (b) analysis of post-fit residuals to calibrated carrier phase geometry-free observational arcs at selected test stations. The results show a very good performance of UWM-rt1 model. The obtained post-fit residuals in case of UWM maps are lower by one order of magnitude comparing to IGS maps. The accuracy of UWM-rt1 -derived TEC maps is estimated at 0.5 TECU. This may be directly translated to the user positioning domain.

  12. Development of Accurate Chemical Equilibrium Models for the Hanford Waste Tanks: New Thermodynamic Measurements and Model Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Felmy, Andrew R.; Mason, Marvin; Qafoku, Odeta; Xia, Yuanxian; Wang, Zheming; MacLean, Graham

    2003-03-27

    Developing accurate thermodynamic models for predicting the chemistry of the high-level waste tanks at Hanford is an extremely daunting challenge in electrolyte and radionuclide chemistry. These challenges stem from the extremely high ionic strength of the tank waste supernatants, presence of chelating agents in selected tanks, wide temperature range in processing conditions and the presence of important actinide species in multiple oxidation states. This presentation summarizes progress made to date in developing accurate models for these tank waste solutions, how these data are being used at Hanford and the important challenges that remain. New thermodynamic measurements on Sr and actinide complexation with specific chelating agents (EDTA, HEDTA and gluconate) will also be presented.

  13. SMARTIES: Spheroids Modelled Accurately with a Robust T-matrix Implementation for Electromagnetic Scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Somerville, W. R. C.; Auguié, B.; Le Ru, E. C.

    2016-03-01

    SMARTIES calculates the optical properties of oblate and prolate spheroidal particles, with comparable capabilities and ease-of-use as Mie theory for spheres. This suite of MATLAB codes provides a fully documented implementation of an improved T-matrix algorithm for the theoretical modelling of electromagnetic scattering by particles of spheroidal shape. Included are scripts that cover a range of scattering problems relevant to nanophotonics and plasmonics, including calculation of far-field scattering and absorption cross-sections for fixed incidence orientation, orientation-averaged cross-sections and scattering matrix, surface-field calculations as well as near-fields, wavelength-dependent near-field and far-field properties, and access to lower-level functions implementing the T-matrix calculations, including the T-matrix elements which may be calculated more accurately than with competing codes.

  14. Accurate calculation of conductive conductances in complex geometries for spacecrafts thermal models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garmendia, Iñaki; Anglada, Eva; Vallejo, Haritz; Seco, Miguel

    2016-02-01

    The thermal subsystem of spacecrafts and payloads is always designed with the help of Thermal Mathematical Models. In the case of the Thermal Lumped Parameter (TLP) method, the non-linear system of equations that is created is solved to calculate the temperature distribution and the heat power that goes between nodes. The accuracy of the results depends largely on the appropriate calculation of the conductive and radiative conductances. Several established methods for the determination of conductive conductances exist but they present some limitations for complex geometries. Two new methods are proposed in this paper to calculate accurately these conductive conductances: The Extended Far Field method and the Mid-Section method. Both are based on a finite element calculation but while the Extended Far Field method uses the calculation of node mean temperatures, the Mid-Section method is based on assuming specific temperature values. They are compared with traditionally used methods showing the advantages of these two new methods.

  15. A fast and accurate PCA based radiative transfer model: Extension to the broadband shortwave region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kopparla, Pushkar; Natraj, Vijay; Spurr, Robert; Shia, Run-Lie; Crisp, David; Yung, Yuk L.

    2016-04-01

    Accurate radiative transfer (RT) calculations are necessary for many earth-atmosphere applications, from remote sensing retrieval to climate modeling. A Principal Component Analysis (PCA)-based spectral binning method has been shown to provide an order of magnitude increase in computational speed while maintaining an overall accuracy of 0.01% (compared to line-by-line calculations) over narrow spectral bands. In this paper, we have extended the PCA method for RT calculations over the entire shortwave region of the spectrum from 0.3 to 3 microns. The region is divided into 33 spectral fields covering all major gas absorption regimes. We find that the RT performance runtimes are shorter by factors between 10 and 100, while root mean square errors are of order 0.01%.

  16. Accurate force fields and methods for modelling organic molecular crystals at finite temperatures.

    PubMed

    Nyman, Jonas; Pundyke, Orla Sheehan; Day, Graeme M

    2016-06-21

    We present an assessment of the performance of several force fields for modelling intermolecular interactions in organic molecular crystals using the X23 benchmark set. The performance of the force fields is compared to several popular dispersion corrected density functional methods. In addition, we present our implementation of lattice vibrational free energy calculations in the quasi-harmonic approximation, using several methods to account for phonon dispersion. This allows us to also benchmark the force fields' reproduction of finite temperature crystal structures. The results demonstrate that anisotropic atom-atom multipole-based force fields can be as accurate as several popular DFT-D methods, but have errors 2-3 times larger than the current best DFT-D methods. The largest error in the examined force fields is a systematic underestimation of the (absolute) lattice energy. PMID:27230942

  17. Oxygen-enhanced MRI accurately identifies, quantifies, and maps tumor hypoxia in preclinical cancer models

    PubMed Central

    O’Connor, James PB; Boult, Jessica KR; Jamin, Yann; Babur, Muhammad; Finegan, Katherine G; Williams, Kaye J; Little, Ross A; Jackson, Alan; Parker, Geoff JM; Reynolds, Andrew R; Waterton, John C; Robinson, Simon P

    2015-01-01

    There is a clinical need for non-invasive biomarkers of tumor hypoxia for prognostic and predictive studies, radiotherapy planning and therapy monitoring. Oxygen enhanced MRI (OE-MRI) is an emerging imaging technique for quantifying the spatial distribution and extent of tumor oxygen delivery in vivo. In OE-MRI, the longitudinal relaxation rate of protons (ΔR1) changes in proportion to the concentration of molecular oxygen dissolved in plasma or interstitial tissue fluid. Therefore, well-oxygenated tissues show positive ΔR1. We hypothesized that the fraction of tumor tissue refractory to oxygen challenge (lack of positive ΔR1, termed “Oxy-R fraction”) would be a robust biomarker of hypoxia in models with varying vascular and hypoxic features. Here we demonstrate that OE-MRI signals are accurate, precise and sensitive to changes in tumor pO2 in highly vascular 786-0 renal cancer xenografts. Furthermore, we show that Oxy-R fraction can quantify the hypoxic fraction in multiple models with differing hypoxic and vascular phenotypes, when used in combination with measurements of tumor perfusion. Finally, Oxy-R fraction can detect dynamic changes in hypoxia induced by the vasomodulator agent hydralazine. In contrast, more conventional biomarkers of hypoxia (derived from blood oxygenation-level dependent MRI and dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI) did not relate to tumor hypoxia consistently. Our results show that the Oxy-R fraction accurately quantifies tumor hypoxia non-invasively and is immediately translatable to the clinic. PMID:26659574

  18. The S-model: A highly accurate MOST model for CAD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Satter, J. H.

    1986-09-01

    A new MOST model which combines simplicity and a logical structure with a high accuracy of only 0.5-4.5% is presented. The model is suited for enhancement and depletion devices with either large or small dimensions. It includes the effects of scattering and carrier-velocity saturation as well as the influence of the intrinsic source and drain series resistance. The decrease of the drain current due to substrate bias is incorporated too. The model is in the first place intended for digital purposes. All necessary quantities are calculated in a straightforward manner without iteration. An almost entirely new way of determining the parameters is described and a new cluster parameter is introduced, which is responsible for the high accuracy of the model. The total number of parameters is 7. A still simpler β expression is derived, which is suitable for only one value of the substrate bias and contains only three parameters, while maintaining the accuracy. The way in which the parameters are determined is readily suited for automatic measurement. A simple linear regression procedure programmed in the computer, which controls the measurements, produces the parameter values.

  19. Life prediction and constitutive models for engine hot section anisotropic materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Swanson, G. A.

    1984-01-01

    The development of directionally solidified and single crystal alloys is perhaps the most important recent advancement in hot section materials technology. The objective is to develop knowledge that enables the designer to improve anisotropic gas turbine parts to their full potential. Two single crystal alloys selected were PWA 1480 and Alloy 185. The coatings selected were an overlay coating, PWA 286, and an aluminide diffusion coating, PWA 273. The constitutive specimens were solid and cylindrical; the fatigue specimens were hollow and cylindrical. Two thicknesses of substrate are utilized. Specimens of both thickness (0.4 and 1.5 mm) will be coated and then tested for tensile, creep, and fatigue properties.

  20. Random generalized linear model: a highly accurate and interpretable ensemble predictor

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Ensemble predictors such as the random forest are known to have superior accuracy but their black-box predictions are difficult to interpret. In contrast, a generalized linear model (GLM) is very interpretable especially when forward feature selection is used to construct the model. However, forward feature selection tends to overfit the data and leads to low predictive accuracy. Therefore, it remains an important research goal to combine the advantages of ensemble predictors (high accuracy) with the advantages of forward regression modeling (interpretability). To address this goal several articles have explored GLM based ensemble predictors. Since limited evaluations suggested that these ensemble predictors were less accurate than alternative predictors, they have found little attention in the literature. Results Comprehensive evaluations involving hundreds of genomic data sets, the UCI machine learning benchmark data, and simulations are used to give GLM based ensemble predictors a new and careful look. A novel bootstrap aggregated (bagged) GLM predictor that incorporates several elements of randomness and instability (random subspace method, optional interaction terms, forward variable selection) often outperforms a host of alternative prediction methods including random forests and penalized regression models (ridge regression, elastic net, lasso). This random generalized linear model (RGLM) predictor provides variable importance measures that can be used to define a “thinned” ensemble predictor (involving few features) that retains excellent predictive accuracy. Conclusion RGLM is a state of the art predictor that shares the advantages of a random forest (excellent predictive accuracy, feature importance measures, out-of-bag estimates of accuracy) with those of a forward selected generalized linear model (interpretability). These methods are implemented in the freely available R software package randomGLM. PMID:23323760

  1. Discrete state model and accurate estimation of loop entropy of RNA secondary structures.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jian; Lin, Ming; Chen, Rong; Wang, Wei; Liang, Jie

    2008-03-28

    Conformational entropy makes important contribution to the stability and folding of RNA molecule, but it is challenging to either measure or compute conformational entropy associated with long loops. We develop optimized discrete k-state models of RNA backbone based on known RNA structures for computing entropy of loops, which are modeled as self-avoiding walks. To estimate entropy of hairpin, bulge, internal loop, and multibranch loop of long length (up to 50), we develop an efficient sampling method based on the sequential Monte Carlo principle. Our method considers excluded volume effect. It is general and can be applied to calculating entropy of loops with longer length and arbitrary complexity. For loops of short length, our results are in good agreement with a recent theoretical model and experimental measurement. For long loops, our estimated entropy of hairpin loops is in excellent agreement with the Jacobson-Stockmayer extrapolation model. However, for bulge loops and more complex secondary structures such as internal and multibranch loops, we find that the Jacobson-Stockmayer extrapolation model has large errors. Based on estimated entropy, we have developed empirical formulae for accurate calculation of entropy of long loops in different secondary structures. Our study on the effect of asymmetric size of loops suggest that loop entropy of internal loops is largely determined by the total loop length, and is only marginally affected by the asymmetric size of the two loops. Our finding suggests that the significant asymmetric effects of loop length in internal loops measured by experiments are likely to be partially enthalpic. Our method can be applied to develop improved energy parameters important for studying RNA stability and folding, and for predicting RNA secondary and tertiary structures. The discrete model and the program used to calculate loop entropy can be downloaded at http://gila.bioengr.uic.edu/resources/RNA.html. PMID:18376982

  2. A stochastic model of kinetochore–microtubule attachment accurately describes fission yeast chromosome segregation

    PubMed Central

    Gay, Guillaume; Courtheoux, Thibault; Reyes, Céline

    2012-01-01

    In fission yeast, erroneous attachments of spindle microtubules to kinetochores are frequent in early mitosis. Most are corrected before anaphase onset by a mechanism involving the protein kinase Aurora B, which destabilizes kinetochore microtubules (ktMTs) in the absence of tension between sister chromatids. In this paper, we describe a minimal mathematical model of fission yeast chromosome segregation based on the stochastic attachment and detachment of ktMTs. The model accurately reproduces the timing of correct chromosome biorientation and segregation seen in fission yeast. Prevention of attachment defects requires both appropriate kinetochore orientation and an Aurora B–like activity. The model also reproduces abnormal chromosome segregation behavior (caused by, for example, inhibition of Aurora B). It predicts that, in metaphase, merotelic attachment is prevented by a kinetochore orientation effect and corrected by an Aurora B–like activity, whereas in anaphase, it is corrected through unbalanced forces applied to the kinetochore. These unbalanced forces are sufficient to prevent aneuploidy. PMID:22412019

  3. Computationally efficient and accurate enantioselectivity modeling by clusters of molecular dynamics simulations.

    PubMed

    Wijma, Hein J; Marrink, Siewert J; Janssen, Dick B

    2014-07-28

    Computational approaches could decrease the need for the laborious high-throughput experimental screening that is often required to improve enzymes by mutagenesis. Here, we report that using multiple short molecular dynamics (MD) simulations makes it possible to accurately model enantioselectivity for large numbers of enzyme-substrate combinations at low computational costs. We chose four different haloalkane dehalogenases as model systems because of the availability of a large set of experimental data on the enantioselective conversion of 45 different substrates. To model the enantioselectivity, we quantified the frequency of occurrence of catalytically productive conformations (near attack conformations) for pairs of enantiomers during MD simulations. We found that the angle of nucleophilic attack that leads to carbon-halogen bond cleavage was a critical variable that limited the occurrence of productive conformations; enantiomers for which this angle reached values close to 180° were preferentially converted. A cluster of 20-40 very short (10 ps) MD simulations allowed adequate conformational sampling and resulted in much better agreement to experimental enantioselectivities than single long MD simulations (22 ns), while the computational costs were 50-100 fold lower. With single long MD simulations, the dynamics of enzyme-substrate complexes remained confined to a conformational subspace that rarely changed significantly, whereas with multiple short MD simulations a larger diversity of conformations of enzyme-substrate complexes was observed. PMID:24916632

  4. Accurate models for P-gp drug recognition induced from a cancer cell line cytotoxicity screen.

    PubMed

    Levatić, Jurica; Ćurak, Jasna; Kralj, Marijeta; Šmuc, Tomislav; Osmak, Maja; Supek, Fran

    2013-07-25

    P-glycoprotein (P-gp, MDR1) is a promiscuous drug efflux pump of substantial pharmacological importance. Taking advantage of large-scale cytotoxicity screening data involving 60 cancer cell lines, we correlated the differential biological activities of ∼13,000 compounds against cellular P-gp levels. We created a large set of 934 high-confidence P-gp substrates or nonsubstrates by enforcing agreement with an orthogonal criterion involving P-gp overexpressing ADR-RES cells. A support vector machine (SVM) was 86.7% accurate in discriminating P-gp substrates on independent test data, exceeding previous models. Two molecular features had an overarching influence: nearly all P-gp substrates were large (>35 atoms including H) and dense (specific volume of <7.3 Å(3)/atom) molecules. Seven other descriptors and 24 molecular fragments ("effluxophores") were found enriched in the (non)substrates and incorporated into interpretable rule-based models. Biological experiments on an independent P-gp overexpressing cell line, the vincristine-resistant VK2, allowed us to reclassify six compounds previously annotated as substrates, validating our method's predictive ability. Models are freely available at http://pgp.biozyne.com . PMID:23772653

  5. A novel constitutive model for hot deformation behaviors of Ti-6Al-4V alloy based on probabilistic method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Y. C.; Zhao, Chun-Yang; Chen, Ming-Song; Chen, Dong-Dong

    2016-08-01

    The flow behaviors of Ti-6Al-4V alloy are studied by isothermal compressive experiments at the deformation temperature from 850 to 950 °C and strain rate from 0.001 to 1 s-1. To analyze the uncertainties induced by material itself and testing procedure, repetitive compressive tests are conducted under each experimental condition. It is found that the uncertainties of flow behaviors are too great to be ignored. The innovation of the study is that the probability theory is introduced to model flow behaviors. 312 (=531,441) sets of flow curves are created by the resampling method, in which 10,000 sets are used to determine the material parameters of constitutive equations. Therefore, the probability densities of material parameters can be easily obtained. It is found that the probability density functions of the most material parameters are similar to the normal distribution. The values of material parameters with the maximum probability density are selected for the established constitutive model. The advantage of the established constitutive model is that it can describe the most probable flow characteristics of Ti-6Al-4V alloy.

  6. Accurate state estimation from uncertain data and models: an application of data assimilation to mathematical models of human brain tumors

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Data assimilation refers to methods for updating the state vector (initial condition) of a complex spatiotemporal model (such as a numerical weather model) by combining new observations with one or more prior forecasts. We consider the potential feasibility of this approach for making short-term (60-day) forecasts of the growth and spread of a malignant brain cancer (glioblastoma multiforme) in individual patient cases, where the observations are synthetic magnetic resonance images of a hypothetical tumor. Results We apply a modern state estimation algorithm (the Local Ensemble Transform Kalman Filter), previously developed for numerical weather prediction, to two different mathematical models of glioblastoma, taking into account likely errors in model parameters and measurement uncertainties in magnetic resonance imaging. The filter can accurately shadow the growth of a representative synthetic tumor for 360 days (six 60-day forecast/update cycles) in the presence of a moderate degree of systematic model error and measurement noise. Conclusions The mathematical methodology described here may prove useful for other modeling efforts in biology and oncology. An accurate forecast system for glioblastoma may prove useful in clinical settings for treatment planning and patient counseling. Reviewers This article was reviewed by Anthony Almudevar, Tomas Radivoyevitch, and Kristin Swanson (nominated by Georg Luebeck). PMID:22185645

  7. Accurate mathematical models to describe the lactation curve of Lacaune dairy sheep under intensive management.

    PubMed

    Elvira, L; Hernandez, F; Cuesta, P; Cano, S; Gonzalez-Martin, J-V; Astiz, S

    2013-06-01

    Although the intensive production system of Lacaune dairy sheep is the only profitable method for producers outside of the French Roquefort area, little is known about this type of systems. This study evaluated yield records of 3677 Lacaune sheep under intensive management between 2005 and 2010 in order to describe the lactation curve of this breed and to investigate the suitability of different mathematical functions for modeling this curve. A total of 7873 complete lactations during a 40-week lactation period corresponding to 201 281 pieces of weekly yield data were used. First, five mathematical functions were evaluated on the basis of the residual mean square, determination coefficient, Durbin Watson and Runs Test values. The two better models were found to be Pollott Additive and fractional polynomial (FP). In the second part of the study, the milk yield, peak of milk yield, day of peak and persistency of the lactations were calculated with Pollot Additive and FP models and compared with the real data. The results indicate that both models gave an extremely accurate fit to Lacaune lactation curves in order to predict milk yields (P = 0.871), with the FP model being the best choice to provide a good fit to an extensive amount of real data and applicable on farm without specific statistical software. On the other hand, the interpretation of the parameters of the Pollott Additive function helps to understand the biology of the udder of the Lacaune sheep. The characteristics of the Lacaune lactation curve and milk yield are affected by lactation number and length. The lactation curves obtained in the present study allow the early identification of ewes with low milk yield potential, which will help to optimize farm profitability. PMID:23257242

  8. Fast and Accurate Radiative Transfer Calculations Using Principal Component Analysis for (Exo-)Planetary Retrieval Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kopparla, P.; Natraj, V.; Shia, R. L.; Spurr, R. J. D.; Crisp, D.; Yung, Y. L.

    2015-12-01

    Radiative transfer (RT) computations form the engine of atmospheric retrieval codes. However, full treatment of RT processes is computationally expensive, prompting usage of two-stream approximations in current exoplanetary atmospheric retrieval codes [Line et al., 2013]. Natraj et al. [2005, 2010] and Spurr and Natraj [2013] demonstrated the ability of a technique using principal component analysis (PCA) to speed up RT computations. In the PCA method for RT performance enhancement, empirical orthogonal functions are developed for binned sets of inherent optical properties that possess some redundancy; costly multiple-scattering RT calculations are only done for those few optical states corresponding to the most important principal components, and correction factors are applied to approximate radiation fields. Kopparla et al. [2015, in preparation] extended the PCA method to a broadband spectral region from the ultraviolet to the shortwave infrared (0.3-3 micron), accounting for major gas absorptions in this region. Here, we apply the PCA method to a some typical (exo-)planetary retrieval problems. Comparisons between the new model, called Universal Principal Component Analysis Radiative Transfer (UPCART) model, two-stream models and line-by-line RT models are performed, for spectral radiances, spectral fluxes and broadband fluxes. Each of these are calculated at the top of the atmosphere for several scenarios with varying aerosol types, extinction and scattering optical depth profiles, and stellar and viewing geometries. We demonstrate that very accurate radiance and flux estimates can be obtained, with better than 1% accuracy in all spectral regions and better than 0.1% in most cases, as compared to a numerically exact line-by-line RT model. The accuracy is enhanced when the results are convolved to typical instrument resolutions. The operational speed and accuracy of UPCART can be further improved by optimizing binning schemes and parallelizing the codes, work

  9. Constitutive modeling for Ti-6Al-4V alloy machining based on the SHPB tests and simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Guang; Ke, Zhihong; Ren, Chengzu; Li, Jun

    2016-06-01

    A constitutive model is critical for the prediction accuracy of a metal cutting simulation. The highest strain rate involved in the cutting process can be in the range of 104-106 s-1. Flow stresses at high strain rates are close to that of cutting are difficult to test via experiments. Split Hopkinson compression bar (SHPB) technology is used to study the deformation behavior of Ti-6Al-4V alloy at strain rates of 10-4-104s-1. The Johnson Cook (JC) model was applied to characterize the flow stresses of the SHPB tests at various conditions. The parameters of the JC model are optimized by using a genetic algorithm technology. The JC plastic model and the energy density-based ductile failure criteria are adopted in the proposed SHPB finite element simulation model. The simulated flow stresses and the failure characteristics, such as the cracks along the adiabatic shear bands agree well with the experimental results. Afterwards, the SHPB simulation is used to simulate higher strain rate(approximately 3×104 s-1) conditions by minimizing the size of the specimen. The JC model parameters covering higher strain rate conditions which are close to the deformation condition in cutting were calculated based on the flow stresses obtained by using the SHPB tests (10-4-104 s-1) and simulation (up to 3×104 s-1). The cutting simulation using the constitutive parameters is validated by the measured forces and chip morphology. The constitutive model and parameters for high strain rate conditions that are identical to those of cutting were obtained based on the SHPB tests and simulation.

  10. Global climate modeling of Saturn's atmosphere: fast and accurate radiative transfer and exploration of seasonal variability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guerlet, Sandrine; Spiga, A.; Sylvestre, M.; Fouchet, T.; Millour, E.; Wordsworth, R.; Leconte, J.; Forget, F.

    2013-10-01

    Recent observations of Saturn’s stratospheric thermal structure and composition revealed new phenomena: an equatorial oscillation in temperature, reminiscent of the Earth's Quasi-Biennal Oscillation ; strong meridional contrasts of hydrocarbons ; a warm “beacon” associated with the powerful 2010 storm. Those signatures cannot be reproduced by 1D photochemical and radiative models and suggest that atmospheric dynamics plays a key role. This motivated us to develop a complete 3D General Circulation Model (GCM) for Saturn, based on the LMDz hydrodynamical core, to explore the circulation, seasonal variability, and wave activity in Saturn's atmosphere. In order to closely reproduce Saturn's radiative forcing, a particular emphasis was put in obtaining fast and accurate radiative transfer calculations. Our radiative model uses correlated-k distributions and spectral discretization tailored for Saturn's atmosphere. We include internal heat flux, ring shadowing and aerosols. We will report on the sensitivity of the model to spectral discretization, spectroscopic databases, and aerosol scenarios (varying particle sizes, opacities and vertical structures). We will also discuss the radiative effect of the ring shadowing on Saturn's atmosphere. We will present a comparison of temperature fields obtained with this new radiative equilibrium model to that inferred from Cassini/CIRS observations. In the troposphere, our model reproduces the observed temperature knee caused by heating at the top of the tropospheric aerosol layer. In the lower stratosphere (20mbar modeled temperature is 5-10K too low compared to measurements. This suggests that processes other than radiative heating/cooling by trace

  11. Physical and Numerical Model Studies of Cross-flow Turbines Towards Accurate Parameterization in Array Simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wosnik, M.; Bachant, P.

    2014-12-01

    Cross-flow turbines, often referred to as vertical-axis turbines, show potential for success in marine hydrokinetic (MHK) and wind energy applications, ranging from small- to utility-scale installations in tidal/ocean currents and offshore wind. As turbine designs mature, the research focus is shifting from individual devices to the optimization of turbine arrays. It would be expensive and time-consuming to conduct physical model studies of large arrays at large model scales (to achieve sufficiently high Reynolds numbers), and hence numerical techniques are generally better suited to explore the array design parameter space. However, since the computing power available today is not sufficient to conduct simulations of the flow in and around large arrays of turbines with fully resolved turbine geometries (e.g., grid resolution into the viscous sublayer on turbine blades), the turbines' interaction with the energy resource (water current or wind) needs to be parameterized, or modeled. Models used today--a common model is the actuator disk concept--are not able to predict the unique wake structure generated by cross-flow turbines. This wake structure has been shown to create "constructive" interference in some cases, improving turbine performance in array configurations, in contrast with axial-flow, or horizontal axis devices. Towards a more accurate parameterization of cross-flow turbines, an extensive experimental study was carried out using a high-resolution turbine test bed with wake measurement capability in a large cross-section tow tank. The experimental results were then "interpolated" using high-fidelity Navier--Stokes simulations, to gain insight into the turbine's near-wake. The study was designed to achieve sufficiently high Reynolds numbers for the results to be Reynolds number independent with respect to turbine performance and wake statistics, such that they can be reliably extrapolated to full scale and used for model validation. The end product of

  12. Accurate modeling of cache replacement policies in a Data-Grid.

    SciTech Connect

    Otoo, Ekow J.; Shoshani, Arie

    2003-01-23

    Caching techniques have been used to improve the performance gap of storage hierarchies in computing systems. In data intensive applications that access large data files over wide area network environment, such as a data grid,caching mechanism can significantly improve the data access performance under appropriate workloads. In a data grid, it is envisioned that local disk storage resources retain or cache the data files being used by local application. Under a workload of shared access and high locality of reference, the performance of the caching techniques depends heavily on the replacement policies being used. A replacement policy effectively determines which set of objects must be evicted when space is needed. Unlike cache replacement policies in virtual memory paging or database buffering, developing an optimal replacement policy for data grids is complicated by the fact that the file objects being cached have varying sizes and varying transfer and processing costs that vary with time. We present an accurate model for evaluating various replacement policies and propose a new replacement algorithm referred to as ''Least Cost Beneficial based on K backward references (LCB-K).'' Using this modeling technique, we compare LCB-K with various replacement policies such as Least Frequently Used (LFU), Least Recently Used (LRU), Greedy DualSize (GDS), etc., using synthetic and actual workload of accesses to and from tertiary storage systems. The results obtained show that (LCB-K) and (GDS) are the most cost effective cache replacement policies for storage resource management in data grids.

  13. An Approach to More Accurate Model Systems for Purple Acid Phosphatases (PAPs).

    PubMed

    Bernhardt, Paul V; Bosch, Simone; Comba, Peter; Gahan, Lawrence R; Hanson, Graeme R; Mereacre, Valeriu; Noble, Christopher J; Powell, Annie K; Schenk, Gerhard; Wadepohl, Hubert

    2015-08-01

    The active site of mammalian purple acid phosphatases (PAPs) have a dinuclear iron site in two accessible oxidation states (Fe(III)2 and Fe(III)Fe(II)), and the heterovalent is the active form, involved in the regulation of phosphate and phosphorylated metabolite levels in a wide range of organisms. Therefore, two sites with different coordination geometries to stabilize the heterovalent active form and, in addition, with hydrogen bond donors to enable the fixation of the substrate and release of the product, are believed to be required for catalytically competent model systems. Two ligands and their dinuclear iron complexes have been studied in detail. The solid-state structures and properties, studied by X-ray crystallography, magnetism, and Mössbauer spectroscopy, and the solution structural and electronic properties, investigated by mass spectrometry, electronic, nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR), and Mössbauer spectroscopies and electrochemistry, are discussed in detail in order to understand the structures and relative stabilities in solution. In particular, with one of the ligands, a heterovalent Fe(III)Fe(II) species has been produced by chemical oxidation of the Fe(II)2 precursor. The phosphatase reactivities of the complexes, in particular, also of the heterovalent complex, are reported. These studies include pH-dependent as well as substrate concentration dependent studies, leading to pH profiles, catalytic efficiencies and turnover numbers, and indicate that the heterovalent diiron complex discussed here is an accurate PAP model system. PMID:26196255

  14. New possibilities of accurate particle characterisation by applying direct boundary models to analytical centrifugation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walter, Johannes; Thajudeen, Thaseem; Süß, Sebastian; Segets, Doris; Peukert, Wolfgang

    2015-04-01

    Analytical centrifugation (AC) is a powerful technique for the characterisation of nanoparticles in colloidal systems. As a direct and absolute technique it requires no calibration or measurements of standards. Moreover, it offers simple experimental design and handling, high sample throughput as well as moderate investment costs. However, the full potential of AC for nanoparticle size analysis requires the development of powerful data analysis techniques. In this study we show how the application of direct boundary models to AC data opens up new possibilities in particle characterisation. An accurate analysis method, successfully applied to sedimentation data obtained by analytical ultracentrifugation (AUC) in the past, was used for the first time in analysing AC data. Unlike traditional data evaluation routines for AC using a designated number of radial positions or scans, direct boundary models consider the complete sedimentation boundary, which results in significantly better statistics. We demonstrate that meniscus fitting, as well as the correction of radius and time invariant noise significantly improves the signal-to-noise ratio and prevents the occurrence of false positives due to optical artefacts. Moreover, hydrodynamic non-ideality can be assessed by the residuals obtained from the analysis. The sedimentation coefficient distributions obtained by AC are in excellent agreement with the results from AUC. Brownian dynamics simulations were used to generate numerical sedimentation data to study the influence of diffusion on the obtained distributions. Our approach is further validated using polystyrene and silica nanoparticles. In particular, we demonstrate the strength of AC for analysing multimodal distributions by means of gold nanoparticles.

  15. ACCURATE UNIVERSAL MODELS FOR THE MASS ACCRETION HISTORIES AND CONCENTRATIONS OF DARK MATTER HALOS

    SciTech Connect

    Zhao, D. H.; Jing, Y. P.; Mo, H. J.; Boerner, G.

    2009-12-10

    A large amount of observations have constrained cosmological parameters and the initial density fluctuation spectrum to a very high accuracy. However, cosmological parameters change with time and the power index of the power spectrum dramatically varies with mass scale in the so-called concordance LAMBDACDM cosmology. Thus, any successful model for its structural evolution should work well simultaneously for various cosmological models and different power spectra. We use a large set of high-resolution N-body simulations of a variety of structure formation models (scale-free, standard CDM, open CDM, and LAMBDACDM) to study the mass accretion histories, the mass and redshift dependence of concentrations, and the concentration evolution histories of dark matter halos. We find that there is significant disagreement between the much-used empirical models in the literature and our simulations. Based on our simulation results, we find that the mass accretion rate of a halo is tightly correlated with a simple function of its mass, the redshift, parameters of the cosmology, and of the initial density fluctuation spectrum, which correctly disentangles the effects of all these factors and halo environments. We also find that the concentration of a halo is strongly correlated with the universe age when its progenitor on the mass accretion history first reaches 4% of its current mass. According to these correlations, we develop new empirical models for both the mass accretion histories and the concentration evolution histories of dark matter halos, and the latter can also be used to predict the mass and redshift dependence of halo concentrations. These models are accurate and universal: the same set of model parameters works well for different cosmological models and for halos of different masses at different redshifts, and in the LAMBDACDM case the model predictions match the simulation results very well even though halo mass is traced to about 0.0005 times the final mass

  16. Deformation measurements and material property estimation of mouse carotid artery using a microstructure-based constitutive model.

    PubMed

    Ning, Jinfeng; Xu, Shaowen; Wang, Ying; Lessner, Susan M; Sutton, Michael A; Anderson, Kevin; Bischoff, Jeffrey E

    2010-12-01

    A series of pressurization and tensile loading experiments on mouse carotid arteries is performed with deformation measurements acquired during each experiment using three-dimensional digital image correlation. Using a combination of finite element analysis and a microstructure-based constitutive model to describe the response of biological tissue, the measured surface strains during pressurization, and the average axial strains during tensile loading, an inverse procedure is used to identify the optimal constitutive parameters for the mouse carotid artery. The results demonstrate that surface strain measurements can be combined with computational methods to identify material properties in a vascular tissue. Additional computational studies using the optimal material parameters for the mouse carotid artery are discussed with emphasis on the significance of the qualitative trends observed. PMID:21142324

  17. Constitutive modeling of ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene under large-deformation and cyclic loading conditions.

    PubMed

    Bergström, J S; Kurtz, S M; Rimnac, C M; Edidin, A A

    2002-06-01

    When subjected to a monotonically increasing deformation state, the mechanical behavior of UHMWPE is characterized by a linear elastic response followed by distributed yielding and strain hardening at large deformations. During the unloading phases of an applied cyclic deformation process, the response is characterized by nonlinear recovery driven by the release of stored internal energy. A number of different constitutive theories can be used to model these experimentally observed events. We compare the ability of the J2-plasticity theory, the "Arruda-Boyce" model, the "Hasan-Boyce" model, and the "Bergström-Boyce" model to reproduce the observed mechanical behavior of ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE). In addition a new hybrid model is proposed, which incorporates many features of the previous theories. This hybrid model is shown to most effectively predict the experimentally observed mechanical behavior of UHMWPE. PMID:12013180

  18. An accurate parameterization of the radiative properties of water clouds suitable for use in climate models

    SciTech Connect

    Hu, Y.X.; Stamnes, K. )

    1993-04-01

    A new parameterization of the radiative Properties of water clouds is presented. Cloud optical properties for valent radius throughout the solar and both solar and terrestrial spectra and for cloud equivalent radii in the range 2.5-60 [mu]m are calculated from Mie theory. It is found that cloud optical properties depend mainly on equivalent radius throughout the solar and terrestrial spectrum and are insensitive to the details of the droplet size distribution, such as shape, skewness, width, and modality (single or bimodal). This suggests that in cloud models, aimed at predicting the evolution of cloud microphysics with climate change, it is sufficient to determine the third and the second moments of the size distribution (the ratio of which determines the equivalent radius). It also implies that measurements of the cloud liquid water content and the extinction coefficient are sufficient to determine cloud optical properties experimentally (i.e., measuring the complete droplet size distribution is not required). Based on the detailed calculations, the optical properties are parameterized as a function of cloud liquid water path and equivalent cloud droplet radius by using a nonlinear least-square fitting. The parameterization is performed separately for the range of radii 2.5-12 [mu]m, 12-30,[mu]m, and 30-60 [mu]m. Cloud heating and cooling rates are computed from this parameterization by using a comprehensive radiation model. Comparison with similar results obtained from exact Mie scattering calculations shows that this parameterization yields very accurate results and that it is several thousand times faster. This parameterization separates the dependence of cloud optical properties on droplet size and liquid water content, and is suitable for inclusion into climate models. 22 refs., 7 figs., 6 tabs.

  19. Modeling of Non-Gravitational Forces for Precise and Accurate Orbit Determination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hackel, Stefan; Gisinger, Christoph; Steigenberger, Peter; Balss, Ulrich; Montenbruck, Oliver; Eineder, Michael

    2014-05-01

    Remote sensing satellites support a broad range of scientific and commercial applications. The two radar imaging satellites TerraSAR-X and TanDEM-X provide spaceborne Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) and interferometric SAR data with a very high accuracy. The precise reconstruction of the satellite's trajectory is based on the Global Positioning System (GPS) measurements from a geodetic-grade dual-frequency Integrated Geodetic and Occultation Receiver (IGOR) onboard the spacecraft. The increasing demand for precise radar products relies on validation methods, which require precise and accurate orbit products. An analysis of the orbit quality by means of internal and external validation methods on long and short timescales shows systematics, which reflect deficits in the employed force models. Following the proper analysis of this deficits, possible solution strategies are highlighted in the presentation. The employed Reduced Dynamic Orbit Determination (RDOD) approach utilizes models for gravitational and non-gravitational forces. A detailed satellite macro model is introduced to describe the geometry and the optical surface properties of the satellite. Two major non-gravitational forces are the direct and the indirect Solar Radiation Pressure (SRP). The satellite TerraSAR-X flies on a dusk-dawn orbit with an altitude of approximately 510 km above ground. Due to this constellation, the Sun almost constantly illuminates the satellite, which causes strong across-track accelerations on the plane rectangular to the solar rays. The indirect effect of the solar radiation is called Earth Radiation Pressure (ERP). This force depends on the sunlight, which is reflected by the illuminated Earth surface (visible spectra) and the emission of the Earth body in the infrared spectra. Both components of ERP require Earth models to describe the optical properties of the Earth surface. Therefore, the influence of different Earth models on the orbit quality is assessed. The scope of

  20. A Model-inspired Phenomenology Constitutive Equation for the Temperature-dependence of Flow Stress at Confined Dimension II

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saptono Duryat, Rahmat; Kim, Choong-Un

    2014-06-01

    This paper presents further development of the constitutive equations based on model-inspired phenomenological approach. In our previous approach, three figures of merit functions were examined to study the temperature-dependence of yield stress and found two model equations that may work especially well for the small volume materials in the moderate temperature ranges (25). We have investigated the underlying assumptions behind each model to substantiate their physical correctness. We examined the parameters in each models using the frame of flow stress being dislocation-mediated, thermally activated, and obstacle-controlled process. These examinations led us to find refined model equations with parameters that can be related to the characteristics of flow mechanisms.

  1. New possibilities of accurate particle characterisation by applying direct boundary models to analytical centrifugation.

    PubMed

    Walter, Johannes; Thajudeen, Thaseem; Süss, Sebastian; Segets, Doris; Peukert, Wolfgang

    2015-04-21

    Analytical centrifugation (AC) is a powerful technique for the characterisation of nanoparticles in colloidal systems. As a direct and absolute technique it requires no calibration or measurements of standards. Moreover, it offers simple experimental design and handling, high sample throughput as well as moderate investment costs. However, the full potential of AC for nanoparticle size analysis requires the development of powerful data analysis techniques. In this study we show how the application of direct boundary models to AC data opens up new possibilities in particle characterisation. An accurate analysis method, successfully applied to sedimentation data obtained by analytical ultracentrifugation (AUC) in the past, was used for the first time in analysing AC data. Unlike traditional data evaluation routines for AC using a designated number of radial positions or scans, direct boundary models consider the complete sedimentation boundary, which results in significantly better statistics. We demonstrate that meniscus fitting, as well as the correction of radius and time invariant noise significantly improves the signal-to-noise ratio and prevents the occurrence of false positives due to optical artefacts. Moreover, hydrodynamic non-ideality can be assessed by the residuals obtained from the analysis. The sedimentation coefficient distributions obtained by AC are in excellent agreement with the results from AUC. Brownian dynamics simulations were used to generate numerical sedimentation data to study the influence of diffusion on the obtained distributions. Our approach is further validated using polystyrene and silica nanoparticles. In particular, we demonstrate the strength of AC for analysing multimodal distributions by means of gold nanoparticles. PMID:25789666

  2. Precise and accurate assessment of uncertainties in model parameters from stellar interferometry. Application to stellar diameters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lachaume, Regis; Rabus, Markus; Jordan, Andres

    2015-08-01

    In stellar interferometry, the assumption that the observables can be seen as Gaussian, independent variables is the norm. In particular, neither the optical interferometry FITS (OIFITS) format nor the most popular fitting software in the field, LITpro, offer means to specify a covariance matrix or non-Gaussian uncertainties. Interferometric observables are correlated by construct, though. Also, the calibration by an instrumental transfer function ensures that the resulting observables are not Gaussian, even if uncalibrated ones happened to be so.While analytic frameworks have been published in the past, they are cumbersome and there is no generic implementation available. We propose here a relatively simple way of dealing with correlated errors without the need to extend the OIFITS specification or making some Gaussian assumptions. By repeatedly picking at random which interferograms, which calibrator stars, and which are the errors on their diameters, and performing the data processing on the bootstrapped data, we derive a sampling of p(O), the multivariate probability density function (PDF) of the observables O. The results can be stored in a normal OIFITS file. Then, given a model m with parameters P predicting observables O = m(P), we can estimate the PDF of the model parameters f(P) = p(m(P)) by using a density estimation of the observables' PDF p.With observations repeated over different baselines, on nights several days apart, and with a significant set of calibrators systematic errors are de facto taken into account. We apply the technique to a precise and accurate assessment of stellar diameters obtained at the Very Large Telescope Interferometer with PIONIER.

  3. Stable, accurate and efficient computation of normal modes for horizontal stratified models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Bo; Chen, Xiaofei

    2016-08-01

    We propose an adaptive root-determining strategy that is very useful when dealing with trapped modes or Stoneley modes whose energies become very insignificant on the free surface in the presence of low-velocity layers or fluid layers in the model. Loss of modes in these cases or inaccuracy in the calculation of these modes may then be easily avoided. Built upon the generalized reflection/transmission coefficients, the concept of `family of secular functions' that we herein call `adaptive mode observers' is thus naturally introduced to implement this strategy, the underlying idea of which has been distinctly noted for the first time and may be generalized to other applications such as free oscillations or applied to other methods in use when these cases are encountered. Additionally, we have made further improvements upon the generalized reflection/transmission coefficient method; mode observers associated with only the free surface and low-velocity layers (and the fluid/solid interface if the model contains fluid layers) are adequate to guarantee no loss and high precision at the same time of any physically existent modes without excessive calculations. Finally, the conventional definition of the fundamental mode is reconsidered, which is entailed in the cases under study. Some computational aspects are remarked on. With the additional help afforded by our superior root-searching scheme and the possibility of speeding calculation using a less number of layers aided by the concept of `turning point', our algorithm is remarkably efficient as well as stable and accurate and can be used as a powerful tool for widely related applications.

  4. Stable, accurate and efficient computation of normal modes for horizontal stratified models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Bo; Chen, Xiaofei

    2016-06-01

    We propose an adaptive root-determining strategy that is very useful when dealing with trapped modes or Stoneley modes whose energies become very insignificant on the free surface in the presence of low-velocity layers or fluid layers in the model. Loss of modes in these cases or inaccuracy in the calculation of these modes may then be easily avoided. Built upon the generalized reflection/transmission coefficients, the concept of "family of secular functions" that we herein call "adaptive mode observers", is thus naturally introduced to implement this strategy, the underlying idea of which has been distinctly noted for the first time and may be generalized to other applications such as free oscillations or applied to other methods in use when these cases are encountered. Additionally, we have made further improvements upon the generalized reflection/transmission coefficient method; mode observers associated with only the free surface and low-velocity layers (and the fluid/solid interface if the model contains fluid layers) are adequate to guarantee no loss and high precision at the same time of any physically existent modes without excessive calculations. Finally, the conventional definition of the fundamental mode is reconsidered, which is entailed in the cases under study. Some computational aspects are remarked on. With the additional help afforded by our superior root-searching scheme and the possibility of speeding calculation using a less number of layers aided by the concept of "turning point", our algorithm is remarkably efficient as well as stable and accurate and can be used as a powerful tool for widely related applications.

  5. Implementation of integral viscoelastic constitutive models in OpenFOAMxAE computational library

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Araújo, Manuel Silvino Batalha; Fernandes, Célio; Ferrás, Luís Lima; Tukovic, Željko; Jasak, Hrvoje; Nóbrega, João Miguel

    2015-04-01

    This work reports the implementation and verification of a new solver in OpenFOAM® open source computational library, able to cope with integral viscoelastic models based on the integral upper-convected Maxwell model. The code is verified through the comparison of its predictions with analytical solutions and numerical results obtained with the differential upper-convected Maxwell model.

  6. Accurate calculation and modeling of the adiabatic connection in density functional theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teale, A. M.; Coriani, S.; Helgaker, T.

    2010-04-01

    AC. When parametrized in terms of the same input data, the AC-CI model offers improved performance over the corresponding AC-D model, which is shown to be the lowest-order contribution to the AC-CI model. The utility of the accurately calculated AC curves for the analysis of standard density functionals is demonstrated for the BLYP exchange-correlation functional and the interaction-strength-interpolation (ISI) model AC integrand. From the results of this analysis, we investigate the performance of our proposed two-parameter AC-D and AC-CI models when a simple density functional for the AC at infinite interaction strength is employed in place of information at the fully interacting point. The resulting two-parameter correlation functionals offer a qualitatively correct behavior of the AC integrand with much improved accuracy over previous attempts. The AC integrands in the present work are recommended as a basis for further work, generating functionals that avoid spurious error cancellations between exchange and correlation energies and give good accuracy for the range of densities and types of correlation contained in the systems studied here.

  7. Towards more accurate wind and solar power prediction by improving NWP model physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steiner, Andrea; Köhler, Carmen; von Schumann, Jonas; Ritter, Bodo

    2014-05-01

    nighttime to well mixed conditions during the day presents a big challenge to NWP models. Fast decrease and successive increase in hub-height wind speed after sunrise, and the formation of nocturnal low level jets will be discussed. For PV, the life cycle of low stratus clouds and fog is crucial. Capturing these processes correctly depends on the accurate simulation of diffusion or vertical momentum transport and the interaction with other atmospheric and soil processes within the numerical weather model. Results from Single Column Model simulations and 3d case studies will be presented. Emphasis is placed on wind forecasts; however, some references to highlights concerning the PV-developments will also be given. *) ORKA: Optimierung von Ensembleprognosen regenerativer Einspeisung für den Kürzestfristbereich am Anwendungsbeispiel der Netzsicherheitsrechnungen **) EWeLiNE: Erstellung innovativer Wetter- und Leistungsprognosemodelle für die Netzintegration wetterabhängiger Energieträger, www.projekt-eweline.de

  8. Poro-viscoelastic constitutive modeling of unconfined creep of hydrogels using finite element analysis with integrated optimization method.

    PubMed

    Liu, Kaifeng; Ovaert, Timothy C

    2011-04-01

    Hydrogels are cross-linked polymer networks swollen with water and are being considered as potential replacements for deceased load bearing tissues such as cartilage. Hydrogels show nonlinear time dependent behavior, and are a challenge to model. A three-element poro-viscoelastic constitutive model was developed based on the structure and nature of the hydrogel. To identify the material parameters, an inverse finite element (FE) technique was used that combines experimental results with FE modeling and an optimization method. Unconfined compression creep tests were conducted on poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) and poly(ethylene-co-vinyl alcohol)-poly(vinyl pyrrolidone) (EVAL-PVP) hydrogels manufactured by injection molding. Results from the creep experiments showed that for PVA hydrogels, an increase in polymer concentration correlates with a decrease in the equilibrium water content (EWC) and the creep strain. In EVAL-PVP hydrogels, an increase in the hydrophobic segments (EVAL) correlates with a decrease in the EWC as well as the creep strain. An inverse FE method was used to identify the viscoelastic material parameters of the hydrogels in combination with creep testing using the poro-viscoelastic three-element constitutive model. The elastic modulus estimated from the inverse FE technique showed good agreement with the modulus estimated directly from the test data. PMID:21316632

  9. Arrhenius-Type Constitutive Model for High Temperature Flow Stress in a Nickel-Based Corrosion-Resistant Alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, L.; Liu, F.; Cheng, J. J.; Zuo, Q.; Chen, C. F.

    2016-04-01

    Hot deformation behavior of Nickel-based corrosion-resistant alloy (N08028) was studied in compression tests conducted in the temperature range of 1050-1200 °C and the strain rate range of 0.001-1 s-1. The flow stress behavior and microstructural evolution were observed during the hot deformation process. The results show that the flow stress increases with deformation temperature decreasing and strain rate increasing, and that the deformation activation energy ( Q) is not a constant but increases with strain rate increasing at a given strain, which is closely related with dislocation movement. On this basis, a revised strain-dependent hyperbolic sine constitutive model was established, which considered that the "material constants" in the original model vary as functions of the strain and strain rate. The flow curves of N08028 alloy predicted by the proposed model are in good agreement with the experimental results, which indicates that the revised constitutive model can estimate precisely the flow curves of N08028 alloy.

  10. Constitutive characterization of vocal fold viscoelasticity based on a modified Arruda-Boyce eight-chain model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chan, Roger W.

    2003-10-01

    Previous studies have shown that vocal fold tissues exhibit nonlinear viscoelastic behavior under different loading conditions. Hysteresis and strain rate dependence of stress-strain curves have been observed for vocal fold ligament and muscle tissues when subjected to sinusoidal tensile loading. Nonlinear viscoelastic response and tissue failure have also been described for vocal fold mucosa subjected to constant strain-rate tests under large-strain shear. These findings cannot be adequately described by the traditional constitutive formulations of linear and quasilinear viscoelasticity. This study attempts to characterize some nonlinear behavior of vocal fold tissues under tensile loading based on a modified version of the Arruda-Boyce (Bergström-Boyce) hyperelastic model for polymers, which has been shown to adequately predict the rate-dependent behavior of some elastomers and biological tissues. Results indicated that the model was only capable of describing the relatively linear portion of the nonlinear stress-strain curves of the vocal fold muscle (at strain smaller than 20%), while failing to predict the exponential increase of stress at higher strain. However, the model was capable of predicting the dependence of stress on strain rate reasonably well. This finding was consistent with the model's assumptions on the constitutive behavior of the two constituent polymer networks.

  11. Constitutive Modeling of Skeletal Muscle Tissue with an Explicit Strain-Energy Function

    PubMed Central

    Odegard, G.M.; Donahue, T.L. Haut; Morrow, D.A.; Kaufman, K.R.

    2010-01-01

    While much work has previously been done in the modeling of skeletal muscle, no model has, to date, been developed that describes the mechanical behavior with an explicit strain-energy function associated with the active response of skeletal muscle tissue. A model is presented herein that has been developed to accommodate this design consideration using a robust dynamical approach. The model shows excellent agreement with a previously published model of both the active and passive length-tension properties of skeletal muscle. PMID:19045546

  12. Toward accurate tooth segmentation from computed tomography images using a hybrid level set model

    SciTech Connect

    Gan, Yangzhou; Zhao, Qunfei; Xia, Zeyang E-mail: jing.xiong@siat.ac.cn; Hu, Ying; Xiong, Jing E-mail: jing.xiong@siat.ac.cn; Zhang, Jianwei

    2015-01-15

    Purpose: A three-dimensional (3D) model of the teeth provides important information for orthodontic diagnosis and treatment planning. Tooth segmentation is an essential step in generating the 3D digital model from computed tomography (CT) images. The aim of this study is to develop an accurate and efficient tooth segmentation method from CT images. Methods: The 3D dental CT volumetric images are segmented slice by slice in a two-dimensional (2D) transverse plane. The 2D segmentation is composed of a manual initialization step and an automatic slice by slice segmentation step. In the manual initialization step, the user manually picks a starting slice and selects a seed point for each tooth in this slice. In the automatic slice segmentation step, a developed hybrid level set model is applied to segment tooth contours from each slice. Tooth contour propagation strategy is employed to initialize the level set function automatically. Cone beam CT (CBCT) images of two subjects were used to tune the parameters. Images of 16 additional subjects were used to validate the performance of the method. Volume overlap metrics and surface distance metrics were adopted to assess the segmentation accuracy quantitatively. The volume overlap metrics were volume difference (VD, mm{sup 3}) and Dice similarity coefficient (DSC, %). The surface distance metrics were average symmetric surface distance (ASSD, mm), RMS (root mean square) symmetric surface distance (RMSSSD, mm), and maximum symmetric surface distance (MSSD, mm). Computation time was recorded to assess the efficiency. The performance of the proposed method has been compared with two state-of-the-art methods. Results: For the tested CBCT images, the VD, DSC, ASSD, RMSSSD, and MSSD for the incisor were 38.16 ± 12.94 mm{sup 3}, 88.82 ± 2.14%, 0.29 ± 0.03 mm, 0.32 ± 0.08 mm, and 1.25 ± 0.58 mm, respectively; the VD, DSC, ASSD, RMSSSD, and MSSD for the canine were 49.12 ± 9.33 mm{sup 3}, 91.57 ± 0.82%, 0.27 ± 0.02 mm, 0

  13. Towards accurate kinetic modeling of prompt NO formation in hydrocarbon flames via the NCN pathway

    SciTech Connect

    Sutton, Jeffrey A.; Fleming, James W.

    2008-08-15

    A basic kinetic mechanism that can predict the appropriate prompt-NO precursor NCN, as shown by experiment, with relative accuracy while still producing postflame NO results that can be calculated as accurately as or more accurately than through the former HCN pathway is presented for the first time. The basic NCN submechanism should be a starting point for future NCN kinetic and prompt NO formation refinement.

  14. A General Reversible Hereditary Constitutive Model. Part 2; Application to a Titanium Alloy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arnold, S. M.; Saleeb, A. F.; Castelli, M. G.

    1997-01-01

    Given the mathematical framework and specific viscoelastic model in Part 1 our primary goal in this second part is focused on model characterization and assessment for the specific titanium alloy, TIMETAL 21S. The model is motivated by experimental evidence suggesting the presence of significant rate/time effects in the so-called quasilinear, reversible, material response range. An explanation of the various experiments performed and their corresponding results are also included. Finally, model correlations and predictions are presented for a wide temperature range.

  15. Explicit robust schemes for implementation of a class of principal value-based constitutive models: Symbolic and numeric implementation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arnold, S. M.; Saleeb, A. F.; Tan, H. Q.; Zhang, Y.

    1993-01-01

    The issue of developing effective and robust schemes to implement a class of the Ogden-type hyperelastic constitutive models is addressed. To this end, special purpose functions (running under MACSYMA) are developed for the symbolic derivation, evaluation, and automatic FORTRAN code generation of explicit expressions for the corresponding stress function and material tangent stiffness tensors. These explicit forms are valid over the entire deformation range, since the singularities resulting from repeated principal-stretch values have been theoretically removed. The required computational algorithms are outlined, and the resulting FORTRAN computer code is presented.

  16. Determining the mechanical constitutive properties of metals as a function of strain rate and temperature: A combined experimental and modeling approach

    SciTech Connect

    I. M. Robertson; A. Beaudoin; J. Lambros

    2004-01-05

    OAK-135 Development and validation of constitutive models for polycrystalline materials subjected to high strain rate loading over a range of temperatures are needed to predict the response of engineering materials to in-service type conditions (foreign object damage, high-strain rate forging, high-speed sheet forming, deformation behavior during forming, response to extreme conditions, etc.). To account accurately for the complex effects that can occur during extreme and variable loading conditions, requires significant and detailed computational and modeling efforts. These efforts must be closely coupled with precise and targeted experimental measurements that not only verify the predictions of the models, but also provide input about the fundamental processes responsible for the macroscopic response. Achieving this coupling between modeling and experimentation is the guiding principle of this program. Specifically, this program seeks to bridge the length scale between discrete dislocation interactions with grain boundaries and continuum models for polycrystalline plasticity. Achieving this goal requires incorporating these complex dislocation-interface interactions into the well-defined behavior of single crystals. Despite the widespread study of metal plasticity, this aspect is not well understood for simple loading conditions, let alone extreme ones. Our experimental approach includes determining the high-strain rate response as a function of strain and temperature with post-mortem characterization of the microstructure, quasi-static testing of pre-deformed material, and direct observation of the dislocation behavior during reloading by using the in situ transmission electron microscope deformation technique. These experiments will provide the basis for development and validation of physically-based constitutive models, which will include dislocation-grain boundary interactions for polycrystalline systems. One aspect of the program will involve the dire ct

  17. Constitutive models for the Etchegoin Sands, Belridge Diatomite, and overburden formations at the Lost Hills oil field, California

    SciTech Connect

    FOSSUM,ARLO F.; FREDRICH,JOANNE T.

    2000-04-01

    This report documents the development of constitutive material models for the overburden formations, reservoir formations, and underlying strata at the Lost Hills oil field located about 45 miles northwest of Bakersfield in Kern County, California. Triaxial rock mechanics tests were performed on specimens prepared from cores recovered from the Lost Hills field, and included measurements of axial and radial stresses and strains under different load paths. The tested intervals comprise diatomaceous sands of the Etchegoin Formation and several diatomite types of the Belridge Diatomite Member of the Monterey Formation, including cycles both above and below the diagenetic phase boundary between opal-A and opal-CT. The laboratory data are used to drive constitutive parameters for the Extended Sandler-Rubin (ESR) cap model that is implemented in Sandia's structural mechanics finite element code JAS3D. Available data in the literature are also used to derive ESR shear failure parameters for overburden formations. The material models are being used in large-scale three-dimensional geomechanical simulations of the reservoir behavior during primary and secondary recovery.

  18. A comparison of hyperelastic constitutive models applicable to brain and fat tissues

    PubMed Central

    Mihai, L. Angela; Chin, LiKang; Janmey, Paul A.; Goriely, Alain

    2015-01-01

    In some soft biological structures such as brain and fat tissues, strong experimental evidence suggests that the shear modulus increases significantly under increasing compressive strain, but not under tensile strain, whereas the apparent Young's elastic modulus increases or remains almost constant when compressive strain increases. These tissues also exhibit a predominantly isotropic, incompressible behaviour. Our aim is to capture these seemingly contradictory mechanical behaviours, both qualitatively and quantitatively, within the framework of finite elasticity, by modelling a soft tissue as a homogeneous, isotropic, incompressible, hyperelastic material and comparing our results with available experimental data. Our analysis reveals that the Fung and Gent models, which are typically used to model soft tissues, are inadequate for the modelling of brain or fat under combined stretch and shear, and so are the classical neo-Hookean and Mooney–Rivlin models used for elastomers. However, a subclass of Ogden hyperelastic models are found to be in excellent agreement with the experiments. Our findings provide explicit models suitable for integration in large-scale finite-element computations. PMID:26354826

  19. A comparison of hyperelastic constitutive models applicable to brain and fat tissues.

    PubMed

    Mihai, L Angela; Chin, LiKang; Janmey, Paul A; Goriely, Alain

    2015-09-01

    In some soft biological structures such as brain and fat tissues, strong experimental evidence suggests that the shear modulus increases significantly under increasing compressive strain, but not under tensile strain, whereas the apparent Young's elastic modulus increases or remains almost constant when compressive strain increases. These tissues also exhibit a predominantly isotropic, incompressible behaviour. Our aim is to capture these seemingly contradictory mechanical behaviours, both qualitatively and quantitatively, within the framework of finite elasticity, by modelling a soft tissue as a homogeneous, isotropic, incompressible, hyperelastic material and comparing our results with available experimental data. Our analysis reveals that the Fung and Gent models, which are typically used to model soft tissues, are inadequate for the modelling of brain or fat under combined stretch and shear, and so are the classical neo-Hookean and Mooney-Rivlin models used for elastomers. However, a subclass of Ogden hyperelastic models are found to be in excellent agreement with the experiments. Our findings provide explicit models suitable for integration in large-scale finite-element computations. PMID:26354826

  20. Evaluation of inelastic constitutive models for nonlinear structural analysis. [for aircraft turbine engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaufman, A.

    1982-01-01

    The influence of inelastic material models on computed stress-strain states, and therefore predicted lives, was studied for thermomechanically loaded structures. Nonlinear structural analyses were performed on a fatigue specimen which had been subjected to thermal cycling in fluidized beds and on a mechanically load cycled benchmark notch specimen. Four incremental plasticity creep models (isotropic, kinematic, combined isotropic kinematic, combined plus transient creep) were exercised using the MARC program. Of the plasticity models, kinematic hardening gave results most consistent with experimental observations. Life predictions using the computed strain histories at the critical location with a strainrange partitioning approach considerably overpredicted the crack initiation life of the thermal fatigue specimen.

  1. A hybrid Brownian dynamics/constitutive model for yielding, aging, and rejuvenation in deforming polymeric glasses.

    PubMed

    Zou, Weizhong; Larson, Ronald G

    2016-08-10

    We present a hybrid model for polymeric glasses under deformation that combines a minimal model of segmental dynamics with a beads-and-springs model of a polymer, solved by Brownian dynamics (BD) simulations, whose relaxation is coupled to the segmental dynamics through the drag coefficient of the beads. This coarse-grained model allows simulations that are much faster than molecular dynamics and successfully capture the entire range of mechanical response including yielding, plastic flow, strain-hardening, and incomplete strain recovery. The beads-and-springs model improves upon the dumbbell model for glassy polymers proposed by Fielding et al. (Phys. Rev. Lett., 2012, 108, 048301) by capturing the small elastic recoil seen experimentally without the use of ad hoc adjustments of parameters required in the model of Fielding et al. With appropriate choice of parameters, predictions of creep, recovery, and segmental relaxation are found to be in good agreement with poly(methylmethacrylate) (PMMA) data of Lee et al. (Science, 2009, 323, 231-234). Our model shows dramatic differences in behavior of the segmental relaxation time between extensional creep and steady extension, and between extension and shear. The non-monotonic response of the segmental relaxation time to extensional creep and the small elastic recovery after removal of stress are shown to arise from sub-chains that are trapped between folds, and that become highly oriented and stretched at strains of order unity, connecting the behavior of glassy polymers under creep to that of dilute polymer solutions under fast extensional flows. We are also able to predict the effects of polymer pre-orientation in the parallel or orthogonal direction on the subsequent response to extensional deformation. PMID:27453365

  2. Mathematical model of cAMP-dependent signaling pathway in constitutive and UV-induced melanogenesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stolnitz, Mikhail M.; Peshkova, Anna Y.

    2002-07-01

    Cascade of reactions of cAMP-dependent signaling pathway in melanocytes is investigated by mathematical modeling. Model takes into account (alpha) -melanocyte stimulating hormone binding to melanocortin-1 receptor, adenylate cyclase activation by G-protein, increase of the intracellular cAMP concentration, PKA activation by cAMP, CREB phosphorylation by PKA, microphthalmia gene expression, microphthalmia binding to tyrosinase gene promoter, increase of tyrosinase synthesis. Positive and negative feedback loops of this system are analyzed.

  3. Modeling and Algorithmic Approaches to Constitutively-Complex, Micro-structured Fluids

    SciTech Connect

    Forest, Mark Gregory

    2014-05-06

    The team for this Project made significant progress on modeling and algorithmic approaches to hydrodynamics of fluids with complex microstructure. Our advances are broken down into modeling and algorithmic approaches. In experiments a driven magnetic bead in a complex fluid accelerates out of the Stokes regime and settles into another apparent linear response regime. The modeling explains the take-off as a deformation of entanglements, and the longtime behavior is a nonlinear, far-from-equilibrium property. Furthermore, the model has predictive value, as we can tune microstructural properties relative to the magnetic force applied to the bead to exhibit all possible behaviors. Wave-theoretic probes of complex fluids have been extended in two significant directions, to small volumes and the nonlinear regime. Heterogeneous stress and strain features that lie beyond experimental capability were studied. It was shown that nonlinear penetration of boundary stress in confined viscoelastic fluids is not monotone, indicating the possibility of interlacing layers of linear and nonlinear behavior, and thus layers of variable viscosity. Models, algorithms, and codes were developed and simulations performed leading to phase diagrams of nanorod dispersion hydrodynamics in parallel shear cells and confined cavities representative of film and membrane processing conditions. Hydrodynamic codes for polymeric fluids are extended to include coupling between microscopic and macroscopic models, and to the strongly nonlinear regime.

  4. Combining constitutive materials modeling with atomic force microscopy to understand the mechanical properties of living cells

    PubMed Central

    McElfresh, Mike; Baesu, Eveline; Balhorn, Rod; Belak, James; Allen, Michael J.; Rudd, Robert E.

    2002-01-01

    The goal of this work is to study the properties of living cells and cell membranes by using atomic force microscopy. During atomic force microscopy (AFM) measurement, there is a strong mechanical coupling between the AFM tip and the cell. The purpose of this paper is to present a model of the overall mechanical response of the cell that allows us to separate out the mechanical response of the cell from the local surface interactions we wish to quantify. These local interactions include recognition (or binding) events between molecules bound to an AFM tip (e.g., an antibody) and molecules or receptors on the cell surface (e.g., the respective antigen). The computational model differs from traditional Hertzian contact models by explicitly taking into account the mechanics of the biomembrane and cytoskeleton. The model also accounts for the mechanical response of the living cell during arbitrary deformation. The indentation of a bovine sperm cell is used to test the validity of this model, and further experiments are proposed to fully parameterize the model. PMID:11983924

  5. Fatigue strength reduction model: RANDOM3 and RANDOM4 user manual. Appendix 2: Development of advanced methodologies for probabilistic constitutive relationships of material strength models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boyce, Lola; Lovelace, Thomas B.

    1989-01-01

    FORTRAN programs RANDOM3 and RANDOM4 are documented in the form of a user's manual. Both programs are based on fatigue strength reduction, using a probabilistic constitutive model. The programs predict the random lifetime of an engine component to reach a given fatigue strength. The theoretical backgrounds, input data instructions, and sample problems illustrating the use of the programs are included.

  6. Unusual plastic deformation and damage features in titanium: Experimental tests and constitutive modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Revil-Baudard, Benoit; Cazacu, Oana; Flater, Philip; Chandola, Nitin; Alves, J. L.

    2016-03-01

    In this paper, we present an experimental study on plastic deformation and damage of polycrystalline pure HCP Ti, as well as modeling of the observed behavior. Mechanical characterization data were conducted, which indicate that the material is orthotropic and displays tension-compression asymmetry. The ex-situ and in-situ X-ray tomography measurements conducted reveal that damage distribution and evolution in this HCP Ti material is markedly different than in a typical FCC material such as copper. Stewart and Cazacu (2011) anisotropic elastic/plastic damage model is used to describe the behavior. All the parameters involved in this model have a clear physical significance, being related to plastic properties, and are determined from very few simple mechanical tests. It is shown that this model predicts correctly the anisotropy in plastic deformation, and its strong influence on damage distribution and damage accumulation. Specifically, for a smooth axisymmetric specimen subject to uniaxial tension, damage initiates at the center of the specimen, and is diffuse; the level of damage close to failure being very low. On the other hand, for a notched specimen subject to the same loading the model predicts that damage initiates at the outer surface of the specimen, and further grows from the outer surface to the center of the specimen, which corroborates with the in-situ tomography data.

  7. Physically-based constitutive modelling of residual stress development in welding of aluminium alloy 2024

    SciTech Connect

    Preston, R.V.; Shercliff, H.R. . E-mail: hrs@eng.cam.ac.uk; Withers, P.J.; Smith, S.

    2004-10-04

    A finite element model has been developed to predict the evolution of residual stress and distortion which takes into account the history-dependence of the yield stress-temperature response of heat-treatable aluminium alloys during welding. The model was applied to TIG welding of 2024-T3 aluminium alloy, and the residual strain predictions validated using high resolution X-ray synchrotron diffraction. The goal was to capture the influence of the permanent evolution of the microstructure during the thermal cycle with a straightforward numerical procedure, while retaining a sound physical basis. Hardness and resistivity measurements after isothermal hold-and-quench experiments were used to identify salient temperatures for zero, partial and full dissolution of the initial hardening precipitates, and the extent of softening - both immediately after welding, and after natural ageing. Based on these data, a numerical procedure for weld modelling was proposed for tracking the different yield responses during heating and cooling based on the peak temperature reached locally. This history-dependent model was superior to a conventional model in predicting the peak tensile strains, but otherwise the effect of temperature history was weak for 2024-T3. Predictions of the hardness profile immediately after welding compared with the post-weld naturally aged hardness provided insight into the competition between dissolution and coarsening of the precipitates in the heat-affected zone.

  8. Multiaxial mechanical properties and constitutive modeling of human adipose tissue: a basis for preoperative simulations in plastic and reconstructive surgery.

    PubMed

    Sommer, Gerhard; Eder, Maximilian; Kovacs, Laszlo; Pathak, Heramb; Bonitz, Lars; Mueller, Christoph; Regitnig, Peter; Holzapfel, Gerhard A

    2013-11-01

    A preoperative simulation of soft tissue deformations during plastic and reconstructive surgery is desirable to support the surgeon's planning and to improve surgical outcomes. The current dev