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Sample records for accurate detection results

  1. Obtaining Accurate Change Detection Results from High-Resolution Satellite Sensors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bryant, N.; Bunch, W.; Fretz, R.; Kim, P.; Logan, T.; Smyth, M.; Zobrist, A.

    2012-01-01

    Multi-date acquisitions of high-resolution imaging satellites (e.g. GeoEye and WorldView), can display local changes of current economic interest. However, their large data volume precludes effective manual analysis, requiring image co-registration followed by image-to-image change detection, preferably with minimal analyst attention. We have recently developed an automatic change detection procedure that minimizes false-positives. The processing steps include: (a) Conversion of both the pre- and post- images to reflectance values (this step is of critical importance when different sensors are involved); reflectance values can be either top-of-atmosphere units or have full aerosol optical depth calibration applied using bi-directional reflectance knowledge. (b) Panchromatic band image-to-image co-registration, using an orthorectified base reference image (e.g. Digital Orthophoto Quadrangle) and a digital elevation model; this step can be improved if a stereo-pair of images have been acquired on one of the image dates. (c) Pan-sharpening of the multispectral data to assure recognition of change objects at the highest resolution. (d) Characterization of multispectral data in the post-image ( i.e. the background) using unsupervised cluster analysis. (e) Band ratio selection in the post-image to separate surface materials of interest from the background. (f) Preparing a pre-to-post change image. (g) Identifying locations where change has occurred involving materials of interest.

  2. High Frequency QRS ECG Accurately Detects Cardiomyopathy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schlegel, Todd T.; Arenare, Brian; Poulin, Gregory; Moser, Daniel R.; Delgado, Reynolds

    2005-01-01

    High frequency (HF, 150-250 Hz) analysis over the entire QRS interval of the ECG is more sensitive than conventional ECG for detecting myocardial ischemia. However, the accuracy of HF QRS ECG for detecting cardiomyopathy is unknown. We obtained simultaneous resting conventional and HF QRS 12-lead ECGs in 66 patients with cardiomyopathy (EF = 23.2 plus or minus 6.l%, mean plus or minus SD) and in 66 age- and gender-matched healthy controls using PC-based ECG software recently developed at NASA. The single most accurate ECG parameter for detecting cardiomyopathy was an HF QRS morphological score that takes into consideration the total number and severity of reduced amplitude zones (RAZs) present plus the clustering of RAZs together in contiguous leads. This RAZ score had an area under the receiver operator curve (ROC) of 0.91, and was 88% sensitive, 82% specific and 85% accurate for identifying cardiomyopathy at optimum score cut-off of 140 points. Although conventional ECG parameters such as the QRS and QTc intervals were also significantly longer in patients than controls (P less than 0.001, BBBs excluded), these conventional parameters were less accurate (area under the ROC = 0.77 and 0.77, respectively) than HF QRS morphological parameters for identifying underlying cardiomyopathy. The total amplitude of the HF QRS complexes, as measured by summed root mean square voltages (RMSVs), also differed between patients and controls (33.8 plus or minus 11.5 vs. 41.5 plus or minus 13.6 mV, respectively, P less than 0.003), but this parameter was even less accurate in distinguishing the two groups (area under ROC = 0.67) than the HF QRS morphologic and conventional ECG parameters. Diagnostic accuracy was optimal (86%) when the RAZ score from the HF QRS ECG and the QTc interval from the conventional ECG were used simultaneously with cut-offs of greater than or equal to 40 points and greater than or equal to 445 ms, respectively. In conclusion 12-lead HF QRS ECG employing

  3. Accurate glucose detection in a small etalon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martini, Joerg; Kuebler, Sebastian; Recht, Michael; Torres, Francisco; Roe, Jeffrey; Kiesel, Peter; Bruce, Richard

    2010-02-01

    We are developing a continuous glucose monitor for subcutaneous long-term implantation. This detector contains a double chamber Fabry-Perot-etalon that measures the differential refractive index (RI) between a reference and a measurement chamber at 850 nm. The etalon chambers have wavelength dependent transmission maxima which dependent linearly on the RI of their contents. An RI difference of ▵n=1.5.10-6 changes the spectral position of a transmission maximum by 1pm in our measurement. By sweeping the wavelength of a single-mode Vertical-Cavity-Surface-Emitting-Laser (VCSEL) linearly in time and detecting the maximum transmission peaks of the etalon we are able to measure the RI of a liquid. We have demonstrated accuracy of ▵n=+/-3.5.10-6 over a ▵n-range of 0 to 1.75.10-4 and an accuracy of 2% over a ▵nrange of 1.75.10-4 to 9.8.10-4. The accuracy is primarily limited by the reference measurement. The RI difference between the etalon chambers is made specific to glucose by the competitive, reversible release of Concanavalin A (ConA) from an immobilized dextran matrix. The matrix and ConA bound to it, is positioned outside the optical detection path. ConA is released from the matrix by reacting with glucose and diffuses into the optical path to change the RI in the etalon. Factors such as temperature affect the RI in measurement and detection chamber equally but do not affect the differential measurement. A typical standard deviation in RI is +/-1.4.10-6 over the range 32°C to 42°C. The detector enables an accurate glucose specific concentration measurement.

  4. Accurate detection of differential RNA processing

    PubMed Central

    Drewe, Philipp; Stegle, Oliver; Hartmann, Lisa; Kahles, André; Bohnert, Regina; Wachter, Andreas; Borgwardt, Karsten; Rätsch, Gunnar

    2013-01-01

    Deep transcriptome sequencing (RNA-Seq) has become a vital tool for studying the state of cells in the context of varying environments, genotypes and other factors. RNA-Seq profiling data enable identification of novel isoforms, quantification of known isoforms and detection of changes in transcriptional or RNA-processing activity. Existing approaches to detect differential isoform abundance between samples either require a complete isoform annotation or fall short in providing statistically robust and calibrated significance estimates. Here, we propose a suite of statistical tests to address these open needs: a parametric test that uses known isoform annotations to detect changes in relative isoform abundance and a non-parametric test that detects differential read coverages and can be applied when isoform annotations are not available. Both methods account for the discrete nature of read counts and the inherent biological variability. We demonstrate that these tests compare favorably to previous methods, both in terms of accuracy and statistical calibrations. We use these techniques to analyze RNA-Seq libraries from Arabidopsis thaliana and Drosophila melanogaster. The identified differential RNA processing events were consistent with RT–qPCR measurements and previous studies. The proposed toolkit is available from http://bioweb.me/rdiff and enables in-depth analyses of transcriptomes, with or without available isoform annotation. PMID:23585274

  5. Accurate stress resultants equations for laminated composite deep thick shells

    SciTech Connect

    Qatu, M.S.

    1995-11-01

    This paper derives accurate equations for the normal and shear force as well as bending and twisting moment resultants for laminated composite deep, thick shells. The stress resultant equations for laminated composite thick shells are shown to be different from those of plates. This is due to the fact the stresses over the thickness of the shell have to be integrated on a trapezoidal-like shell element to obtain the stress resultants. Numerical results are obtained and showed that accurate stress resultants are needed for laminated composite deep thick shells, especially if the curvature is not spherical.

  6. Accurate colon residue detection algorithm with partial volume segmentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xiang; Liang, Zhengrong; Zhang, PengPeng; Kutcher, Gerald J.

    2004-05-01

    Colon cancer is the second leading cause of cancer-related death in the United States. Earlier detection and removal of polyps can dramatically reduce the chance of developing malignant tumor. Due to some limitations of optical colonoscopy used in clinic, many researchers have developed virtual colonoscopy as an alternative technique, in which accurate colon segmentation is crucial. However, partial volume effect and existence of residue make it very challenging. The electronic colon cleaning technique proposed by Chen et al is a very attractive method, which is also kind of hard segmentation method. As mentioned in their paper, some artifacts were produced, which might affect the accurate colon reconstruction. In our paper, instead of labeling each voxel with a unique label or tissue type, the percentage of different tissues within each voxel, which we call a mixture, was considered in establishing a maximum a posterior probability (MAP) image-segmentation framework. A Markov random field (MRF) model was developed to reflect the spatial information for the tissue mixtures. The spatial information based on hard segmentation was used to determine which tissue types are in the specific voxel. Parameters of each tissue class were estimated by the expectation-maximization (EM) algorithm during the MAP tissue-mixture segmentation. Real CT experimental results demonstrated that the partial volume effects between four tissue types have been precisely detected. Meanwhile, the residue has been electronically removed and very smooth and clean interface along the colon wall has been obtained.

  7. Accurately Detecting Students' Lies regarding Relational Aggression by Correctional Instructions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dickhauser, Oliver; Reinhard, Marc-Andre; Marksteiner, Tamara

    2012-01-01

    This study investigates the effect of correctional instructions when detecting lies about relational aggression. Based on models from the field of social psychology, we predict that correctional instruction will lead to a less pronounced lie bias and to more accurate lie detection. Seventy-five teachers received videotapes of students' true denial…

  8. A fast and accurate FPGA based QRS detection system.

    PubMed

    Shukla, Ashish; Macchiarulo, Luca

    2008-01-01

    An accurate Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) based ECG Analysis system is described in this paper. The design, based on a popular software based QRS detection algorithm, calculates the threshold value for the next peak detection cycle, from the median of eight previously detected peaks. The hardware design has accuracy in excess of 96% in detecting the beats correctly when tested with a subset of five 30 minute data records obtained from the MIT-BIH Arrhythmia database. The design, implemented using a proprietary design tool (System Generator), is an extension of our previous work and uses 76% resources available in a small-sized FPGA device (Xilinx Spartan xc3s500), has a higher detection accuracy as compared to our previous design and takes almost half the analysis time in comparison to software based approach.

  9. Building dynamic population graph for accurate correspondence detection.

    PubMed

    Du, Shaoyi; Guo, Yanrong; Sanroma, Gerard; Ni, Dong; Wu, Guorong; Shen, Dinggang

    2015-12-01

    In medical imaging studies, there is an increasing trend for discovering the intrinsic anatomical difference across individual subjects in a dataset, such as hand images for skeletal bone age estimation. Pair-wise matching is often used to detect correspondences between each individual subject and a pre-selected model image with manually-placed landmarks. However, the large anatomical variability across individual subjects can easily compromise such pair-wise matching step. In this paper, we present a new framework to simultaneously detect correspondences among a population of individual subjects, by propagating all manually-placed landmarks from a small set of model images through a dynamically constructed image graph. Specifically, we first establish graph links between models and individual subjects according to pair-wise shape similarity (called as forward step). Next, we detect correspondences for the individual subjects with direct links to any of model images, which is achieved by a new multi-model correspondence detection approach based on our recently-published sparse point matching method. To correct those inaccurate correspondences, we further apply an error detection mechanism to automatically detect wrong correspondences and then update the image graph accordingly (called as backward step). After that, all subject images with detected correspondences are included into the set of model images, and the above two steps of graph expansion and error correction are repeated until accurate correspondences for all subject images are established. Evaluations on real hand X-ray images demonstrate that our proposed method using a dynamic graph construction approach can achieve much higher accuracy and robustness, when compared with the state-of-the-art pair-wise correspondence detection methods as well as a similar method but using static population graph.

  10. Accurate detection of blood vessels improves the detection of exudates in color fundus images.

    PubMed

    Youssef, Doaa; Solouma, Nahed H

    2012-12-01

    Exudates are one of the earliest and most prevalent symptoms of diseases leading to blindness such as diabetic retinopathy and macular degeneration. Certain areas of the retina with such conditions are to be photocoagulated by laser to stop the disease progress and prevent blindness. Outlining these areas is dependent on outlining the lesions and the anatomic structures of the retina. In this paper, we provide a new method for the detection of blood vessels that improves the detection of exudates in fundus photographs. The method starts with an edge detection algorithm which results in a over segmented image. Then the new feature-based algorithm can be used to accurately detect the blood vessels. This algorithm considers the characteristics of a retinal blood vessel such as its width range, intensities and orientations for the purpose of selective segmentation. Because of its bulb shape and its color similarity with exudates, the optic disc can be detected using the common Hough transform technique. The extracted blood vessel tree and optic disc could be subtracted from the over segmented image to get an initial estimate of exudates. The final estimation of exudates can then be obtained by morphological reconstruction based on the appearance of exudates. This method is shown to be promising since it increases the sensitivity and specificity of exudates detection to 80% and 100% respectively.

  11. Accurate feature detection and estimation using nonlinear and multiresolution analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rudin, Leonid; Osher, Stanley

    1994-11-01

    A program for feature detection and estimation using nonlinear and multiscale analysis was completed. The state-of-the-art edge detection was combined with multiscale restoration (as suggested by the first author) and robust results in the presence of noise were obtained. Successful applications to numerous images of interest to DOD were made. Also, a new market in the criminal justice field was developed, based in part, on this work.

  12. An accurate fuzzy edge detection method using wavelet details subimages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sedaghat, Nafiseh; Pourreza, Hamidreza

    2010-02-01

    Edge detection is a basic and important subject in computer vision and image processing. An edge detector is defined as a mathematical operator of small spatial extent that responds in some way to these discontinuities, usually classifying every image pixel as either belonging to an edge or not. Many researchers have been spent attempting to develop effective edge detection algorithms. Despite this extensive research, the task of finding the edges that correspond to true physical boundaries remains a difficult problem.Edge detection algorithms based on the application of human knowledge show their flexibility and suggest that the use of human knowledge is a reasonable alternative. In this paper we propose a fuzzy inference system with two inputs: gradient and wavelet details. First input is calculated by Sobel operator and the second is calculated by wavelet transform of input image and then reconstruction of image only with details subimages by inverse wavelet transform. There are many fuzzy edge detection methods, but none of them utilize wavelet transform as it is used in this paper. For evaluating our method, we detect edges of images with different brightness characteristics and compare results with canny edge detector. The results show the high performance of our method in finding true edges.

  13. Accurate lithography hotspot detection based on PCA-SVM classifier with hierarchical data clustering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Jhih-Rong; Yu, Bei; Pan, David Z.

    2014-03-01

    As technology nodes continues shrinking, layout patterns become more sensitive to lithography processes, resulting in lithography hotspots that need to be identified and eliminated during physical verification. In this paper, we propose an accurate hotspot detection approach based on PCA (principle component analysis)-SVM (sup- port vector machine) classifier. Several techniques, including hierarchical data clustering, data balancing, and multi-level training, are provided to enhance performance of the proposed approach. Our approach is accurate and more efficient than conventional time-consuming lithography simulation; in the meanwhile, provides high flexibility to adapt to new lithography processes and rules.

  14. Robust and Accurate Anomaly Detection in ECG Artifacts Using Time Series Motif Discovery

    PubMed Central

    Sivaraks, Haemwaan

    2015-01-01

    Electrocardiogram (ECG) anomaly detection is an important technique for detecting dissimilar heartbeats which helps identify abnormal ECGs before the diagnosis process. Currently available ECG anomaly detection methods, ranging from academic research to commercial ECG machines, still suffer from a high false alarm rate because these methods are not able to differentiate ECG artifacts from real ECG signal, especially, in ECG artifacts that are similar to ECG signals in terms of shape and/or frequency. The problem leads to high vigilance for physicians and misinterpretation risk for nonspecialists. Therefore, this work proposes a novel anomaly detection technique that is highly robust and accurate in the presence of ECG artifacts which can effectively reduce the false alarm rate. Expert knowledge from cardiologists and motif discovery technique is utilized in our design. In addition, every step of the algorithm conforms to the interpretation of cardiologists. Our method can be utilized to both single-lead ECGs and multilead ECGs. Our experiment results on real ECG datasets are interpreted and evaluated by cardiologists. Our proposed algorithm can mostly achieve 100% of accuracy on detection (AoD), sensitivity, specificity, and positive predictive value with 0% false alarm rate. The results demonstrate that our proposed method is highly accurate and robust to artifacts, compared with competitive anomaly detection methods. PMID:25688284

  15. Robust and accurate anomaly detection in ECG artifacts using time series motif discovery.

    PubMed

    Sivaraks, Haemwaan; Ratanamahatana, Chotirat Ann

    2015-01-01

    Electrocardiogram (ECG) anomaly detection is an important technique for detecting dissimilar heartbeats which helps identify abnormal ECGs before the diagnosis process. Currently available ECG anomaly detection methods, ranging from academic research to commercial ECG machines, still suffer from a high false alarm rate because these methods are not able to differentiate ECG artifacts from real ECG signal, especially, in ECG artifacts that are similar to ECG signals in terms of shape and/or frequency. The problem leads to high vigilance for physicians and misinterpretation risk for nonspecialists. Therefore, this work proposes a novel anomaly detection technique that is highly robust and accurate in the presence of ECG artifacts which can effectively reduce the false alarm rate. Expert knowledge from cardiologists and motif discovery technique is utilized in our design. In addition, every step of the algorithm conforms to the interpretation of cardiologists. Our method can be utilized to both single-lead ECGs and multilead ECGs. Our experiment results on real ECG datasets are interpreted and evaluated by cardiologists. Our proposed algorithm can mostly achieve 100% of accuracy on detection (AoD), sensitivity, specificity, and positive predictive value with 0% false alarm rate. The results demonstrate that our proposed method is highly accurate and robust to artifacts, compared with competitive anomaly detection methods.

  16. An accurate assay for HCV based on real-time fluorescence detection of isothermal RNA amplification.

    PubMed

    Wu, Xuping; Wang, Jianfang; Song, Jinyun; Li, Jiayan; Yang, Yongfeng

    2016-09-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is one of the common reasons of liver fibrosis and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Early, rapid and accurate HCV RNA detection is important to prevent and control liver disease. A simultaneous amplification and testing (SAT) assay, which is based on isothermal amplification of RNA and real-time fluorescence detection, was designed to optimize routine HCV RNA detection. In this study, HCV RNA and an internal control (IC) were amplified and analyzed simultaneously by SAT assay and detection of fluorescence using routine real-time PCR equipment. The assay detected as few as 10 copies of HCV RNA transcripts. We tested 705 serum samples with SAT, among which 96.4% (680/705) showed consistent results compared with routine real-time PCR. About 92% (23/25) discordant samples were confirmed to be same results as SAT-HCV by using a second real-time PCR. The sensitivity and specificity of SAT-HCV assay were 99.6% (461/463) and 100% (242/242), respectively. In conclusion, the SAT assay is an accurate test with a high specificity and sensitivity which may increase the detection rate of HCV. It is therefore a promising tool to diagnose HCV infection.

  17. PATHOME: an algorithm for accurately detecting differentially expressed subpathways

    PubMed Central

    Nam, S; Chang, H R; Kim, K-T; Kook, M-C; Hong, D; Kwon, C H; Jung, H R; Park, H S; Powis, G; Liang, H; Park, T; Kim, Y H

    2014-01-01

    The translation of high-throughput gene expression data into biologically meaningful information remains a bottleneck. We developed a novel computational algorithm, PATHOME, for detecting differentially expressed biological pathways. This algorithm employs straightforward statistical tests to evaluate the significance of differential expression patterns along subpathways. Applying it to gene expression data sets of gastric cancer (GC), we compared its performance with those of other leading programs. Based on a literature-driven reference set, PATHOME showed greater consistency in identifying known cancer-related pathways. For the WNT pathway uniquely identified by PATHOME, we validated its involvement in gastric carcinogenesis through experimental perturbation of both cell lines and animal models. We identified HNF4α-WNT5A regulation in the cross-talk between the AMPK metabolic pathway and the WNT signaling pathway, and further identified WNT5A as a potential therapeutic target for GC. We have demonstrated PATHOME to be a powerful tool, with improved sensitivity for identifying disease-related dysregulated pathways. PMID:24681952

  18. Highly accurate moving object detection in variable bit rate video-based traffic monitoring systems.

    PubMed

    Huang, Shih-Chia; Chen, Bo-Hao

    2013-12-01

    Automated motion detection, which segments moving objects from video streams, is the key technology of intelligent transportation systems for traffic management. Traffic surveillance systems use video communication over real-world networks with limited bandwidth, which frequently suffers because of either network congestion or unstable bandwidth. Evidence supporting these problems abounds in publications about wireless video communication. Thus, to effectively perform the arduous task of motion detection over a network with unstable bandwidth, a process by which bit-rate is allocated to match the available network bandwidth is necessitated. This process is accomplished by the rate control scheme. This paper presents a new motion detection approach that is based on the cerebellar-model-articulation-controller (CMAC) through artificial neural networks to completely and accurately detect moving objects in both high and low bit-rate video streams. The proposed approach is consisted of a probabilistic background generation (PBG) module and a moving object detection (MOD) module. To ensure that the properties of variable bit-rate video streams are accommodated, the proposed PBG module effectively produces a probabilistic background model through an unsupervised learning process over variable bit-rate video streams. Next, the MOD module, which is based on the CMAC network, completely and accurately detects moving objects in both low and high bit-rate video streams by implementing two procedures: 1) a block selection procedure and 2) an object detection procedure. The detection results show that our proposed approach is capable of performing with higher efficacy when compared with the results produced by other state-of-the-art approaches in variable bit-rate video streams over real-world limited bandwidth networks. Both qualitative and quantitative evaluations support this claim; for instance, the proposed approach achieves Similarity and F1 accuracy rates that are 76

  19. Accurate Automatic Detection of Densely Distributed Cell Nuclei in 3D Space

    PubMed Central

    Tokunaga, Terumasa; Kanamori, Manami; Teramoto, Takayuki; Jang, Moon Sun; Kuge, Sayuri; Ishihara, Takeshi; Yoshida, Ryo; Iino, Yuichi

    2016-01-01

    To measure the activity of neurons using whole-brain activity imaging, precise detection of each neuron or its nucleus is required. In the head region of the nematode C. elegans, the neuronal cell bodies are distributed densely in three-dimensional (3D) space. However, no existing computational methods of image analysis can separate them with sufficient accuracy. Here we propose a highly accurate segmentation method based on the curvatures of the iso-intensity surfaces. To obtain accurate positions of nuclei, we also developed a new procedure for least squares fitting with a Gaussian mixture model. Combining these methods enables accurate detection of densely distributed cell nuclei in a 3D space. The proposed method was implemented as a graphical user interface program that allows visualization and correction of the results of automatic detection. Additionally, the proposed method was applied to time-lapse 3D calcium imaging data, and most of the nuclei in the images were successfully tracked and measured. PMID:27271939

  20. How Accurate Are We in Detecting Biceps Tendinopathy?

    PubMed

    Carr, Ryan M; Shishani, Yousef; Gobezie, Reuben

    2016-01-01

    Biceps tendon pain is frequently called biceps "tendinitis," or inflammation of the biceps tendon. Histologic analysis of biceps tendon biopsies demonstrates changes in tenocyte size, ground substance, collagen organization, and vascularity observed with many different tendinopathies. There are distinct symptoms of biceps tendinopathy and a few provocative maneuvers can help make the diagnosis. Imaging studies (eg, MRI) can show changes in signal sequence or tears. However, MRI has a low sensitivity and frequently results in missed or misdiagnosed biceps pathology. Clinical decision making is best guided by a strong clinical suspicion based on patient history, physical examination, and MRI.

  1. Continuous digital ECG analysis over accurate R-peak detection using adaptive wavelet technique.

    PubMed

    Gopalakrishnan Nair, T R; Geetha, A P; Asharani, M

    2013-10-01

    Worldwide, health care segment is under a severe challenge to achieve more accurate and intelligent biomedical systems in order to assist healthcare professionals with more accurate and consistent data as well as reliability. The role of ECG in healthcare is one of the paramount importances and it has got a multitude of abnormal relations and anomalies which characterizes intricate cardiovascular performance image. Until the recent past, ECG instruments and analysis played the role of providing the PQRST signal as raw observational output either on paper or on a console or in a file having many diagnostic clues embedded in the signal left to the expert cardiologist to look out for characteristic intervals and to detect the cardiovascular abnormality. Methods and practises are required more and more, to automate this process of cardiac expertise using knowledge engineering and an intelligent systems approach. This paper presents one of the challenging R-peak detections to classify diagnosis and estimate cardio disorders in a fully automated signal processing sequence. This study used an adaptive wavelet approach to generate an appropriate wavelet for R-signal identification under noise, baseband wandering and temporal variations of R-positions. This study designed an adaptive wavelet and successfully detected R- peak variations under various ECG signal conditions. The result and analysis of this method and the ways to use it for further purposes are presented here.

  2. Accurate detection and quantitation of heteroplasmic mitochondrial point mutations by pyrosequencing.

    PubMed

    White, Helen E; Durston, Victoria J; Seller, Anneke; Fratter, Carl; Harvey, John F; Cross, Nicholas C P

    2005-01-01

    Disease-causing mutations in mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) are typically heteroplasmic and therefore interpretation of genetic tests for mitochondrial disorders can be problematic. Detection of low level heteroplasmy is technically demanding and it is often difficult to discriminate between the absence of a mutation or the failure of a technique to detect the mutation in a particular tissue. The reliable measurement of heteroplasmy in different tissues may help identify individuals who are at risk of developing specific complications and allow improved prognostic advice for patients and family members. We have evaluated Pyrosequencing technology for the detection and estimation of heteroplasmy for six mitochondrial point mutations associated with the following diseases: Leber's hereditary optical neuropathy (LHON), G3460A, G11778A, and T14484C; mitochondrial encephalopathy with lactic acidosis and stroke-like episodes (MELAS), A3243G; myoclonus epilepsy with ragged red fibers (MERRF), A8344G, and neurogenic muscle weakness, ataxia, and retinitis pigmentosa (NARP)/Leighs: T8993G/C. Results obtained from the Pyrosequencing assays for 50 patients with presumptive mitochondrial disease were compared to those obtained using the commonly used diagnostic technique of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and restriction enzyme digestion. The Pyrosequencing assays provided accurate genotyping and quantitative determination of mutational load with a sensitivity and specificity of 100%. The MELAS A3243G mutation was detected reliably at a level of 1% heteroplasmy. We conclude that Pyrosequencing is a rapid and robust method for detecting heteroplasmic mitochondrial point mutations.

  3. Accurate Monitoring and Fault Detection in Wind Measuring Devices through Wireless Sensor Networks

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Komal Saifullah; Tariq, Muhammad

    2014-01-01

    Many wind energy projects report poor performance as low as 60% of the predicted performance. The reason for this is poor resource assessment and the use of new untested technologies and systems in remote locations. Predictions about the potential of an area for wind energy projects (through simulated models) may vary from the actual potential of the area. Hence, introducing accurate site assessment techniques will lead to accurate predictions of energy production from a particular area. We solve this problem by installing a Wireless Sensor Network (WSN) to periodically analyze the data from anemometers installed in that area. After comparative analysis of the acquired data, the anemometers transmit their readings through a WSN to the sink node for analysis. The sink node uses an iterative algorithm which sequentially detects any faulty anemometer and passes the details of the fault to the central system or main station. We apply the proposed technique in simulation as well as in practical implementation and study its accuracy by comparing the simulation results with experimental results to analyze the variation in the results obtained from both simulation model and implemented model. Simulation results show that the algorithm indicates faulty anemometers with high accuracy and low false alarm rate when as many as 25% of the anemometers become faulty. Experimental analysis shows that anemometers incorporating this solution are better assessed and performance level of implemented projects is increased above 86% of the simulated models. PMID:25421739

  4. Accurate monitoring and fault detection in wind measuring devices through wireless sensor networks.

    PubMed

    Khan, Komal Saifullah; Tariq, Muhammad

    2014-11-24

    Many wind energy projects report poor performance as low as 60% of the predicted performance. The reason for this is poor resource assessment and the use of new untested technologies and systems in remote locations. Predictions about the potential of an area for wind energy projects (through simulated models) may vary from the actual potential of the area. Hence, introducing accurate site assessment techniques will lead to accurate predictions of energy production from a particular area. We solve this problem by installing a Wireless Sensor Network (WSN) to periodically analyze the data from anemometers installed in that area. After comparative analysis of the acquired data, the anemometers transmit their readings through a WSN to the sink node for analysis. The sink node uses an iterative algorithm which sequentially detects any faulty anemometer and passes the details of the fault to the central system or main station. We apply the proposed technique in simulation as well as in practical implementation and study its accuracy by comparing the simulation results with experimental results to analyze the variation in the results obtained from both simulation model and implemented model. Simulation results show that the algorithm indicates faulty anemometers with high accuracy and low false alarm rate when as many as 25% of the anemometers become faulty. Experimental analysis shows that anemometers incorporating this solution are better assessed and performance level of implemented projects is increased above 86% of the simulated models.

  5. Distributed Pedestrian Detection Alerts Based on Data Fusion with Accurate Localization

    PubMed Central

    García, Fernando; Jiménez, Felipe; Anaya, José Javier; Armingol, José María; Naranjo, José Eugenio; de la Escalera, Arturo

    2013-01-01

    Among Advanced Driver Assistance Systems (ADAS) pedestrian detection is a common issue due to the vulnerability of pedestrians in the event of accidents. In the present work, a novel approach for pedestrian detection based on data fusion is presented. Data fusion helps to overcome the limitations inherent to each detection system (computer vision and laser scanner) and provides accurate and trustable tracking of any pedestrian movement. The application is complemented by an efficient communication protocol, able to alert vehicles in the surroundings by a fast and reliable communication. The combination of a powerful location, based on a GPS with inertial measurement, and accurate obstacle localization based on data fusion has allowed locating the detected pedestrians with high accuracy. Tests proved the viability of the detection system and the efficiency of the communication, even at long distances. By the use of the alert communication, dangerous situations such as occlusions or misdetections can be avoided. PMID:24008284

  6. Distributed pedestrian detection alerts based on data fusion with accurate localization.

    PubMed

    García, Fernando; Jiménez, Felipe; Anaya, José Javier; Armingol, José María; Naranjo, José Eugenio; de la Escalera, Arturo

    2013-09-04

    Among Advanced Driver Assistance Systems (ADAS) pedestrian detection is a common issue due to the vulnerability of pedestrians in the event of accidents. In the present work, a novel approach for pedestrian detection based on data fusion is presented. Data fusion helps to overcome the limitations inherent to each detection system (computer vision and laser scanner) and provides accurate and trustable tracking of any pedestrian movement. The application is complemented by an efficient communication protocol, able to alert vehicles in the surroundings by a fast and reliable communication. The combination of a powerful location, based on a GPS with inertial measurement, and accurate obstacle localization based on data fusion has allowed locating the detected pedestrians with high accuracy. Tests proved the viability of the detection system and the efficiency of the communication, even at long distances. By the use of the alert communication, dangerous situations such as occlusions or misdetections can be avoided.

  7. ROM Plus®: accurate point-of-care detection of ruptured fetal membranes

    PubMed Central

    McQuivey, Ross W; Block, Jon E

    2016-01-01

    Accurate and timely diagnosis of rupture of fetal membranes is imperative to inform and guide gestational age-specific interventions to optimize perinatal outcomes and reduce the risk of serious complications, including preterm delivery and infections. The ROM Plus is a rapid, point-of-care, qualitative immunochromatographic diagnostic test that uses a unique monoclonal/polyclonal antibody approach to detect two different proteins found in amniotic fluid at high concentrations: alpha-fetoprotein and insulin-like growth factor binding protein-1. Clinical study results have uniformly demonstrated high diagnostic accuracy and performance characteristics with this point-of-care test that exceeds conventional clinical testing with external laboratory evaluation. The description, indications for use, procedural steps, and laboratory and clinical characterization of this assay are presented in this article. PMID:27274316

  8. ROM Plus(®): accurate point-of-care detection of ruptured fetal membranes.

    PubMed

    McQuivey, Ross W; Block, Jon E

    2016-01-01

    Accurate and timely diagnosis of rupture of fetal membranes is imperative to inform and guide gestational age-specific interventions to optimize perinatal outcomes and reduce the risk of serious complications, including preterm delivery and infections. The ROM Plus is a rapid, point-of-care, qualitative immunochromatographic diagnostic test that uses a unique monoclonal/polyclonal antibody approach to detect two different proteins found in amniotic fluid at high concentrations: alpha-fetoprotein and insulin-like growth factor binding protein-1. Clinical study results have uniformly demonstrated high diagnostic accuracy and performance characteristics with this point-of-care test that exceeds conventional clinical testing with external laboratory evaluation. The description, indications for use, procedural steps, and laboratory and clinical characterization of this assay are presented in this article.

  9. Medical Image Watermarking Technique for Accurate Tamper Detection in ROI and Exact Recovery of ROI.

    PubMed

    Eswaraiah, R; Sreenivasa Reddy, E

    2014-01-01

    In telemedicine while transferring medical images tampers may be introduced. Before making any diagnostic decisions, the integrity of region of interest (ROI) of the received medical image must be verified to avoid misdiagnosis. In this paper, we propose a novel fragile block based medical image watermarking technique to avoid embedding distortion inside ROI, verify integrity of ROI, detect accurately the tampered blocks inside ROI, and recover the original ROI with zero loss. In this proposed method, the medical image is segmented into three sets of pixels: ROI pixels, region of noninterest (RONI) pixels, and border pixels. Then, authentication data and information of ROI are embedded in border pixels. Recovery data of ROI is embedded into RONI. Results of experiments conducted on a number of medical images reveal that the proposed method produces high quality watermarked medical images, identifies the presence of tampers inside ROI with 100% accuracy, and recovers the original ROI without any loss.

  10. A highly accurate wireless digital sun sensor based on profile detecting and detector multiplexing technologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Minsong; Xing, Fei; You, Zheng

    2017-01-01

    The advancing growth of micro- and nano-satellites requires miniaturized sun sensors which could be conveniently applied in the attitude determination subsystem. In this work, a profile detecting technology based high accurate wireless digital sun sensor was proposed, which could transform a two-dimensional image into two-linear profile output so that it can realize a high update rate under a very low power consumption. A multiple spots recovery approach with an asymmetric mask pattern design principle was introduced to fit the multiplexing image detector method for accuracy improvement of the sun sensor within a large Field of View (FOV). A FOV determination principle based on the concept of FOV region was also proposed to facilitate both sub-FOV analysis and the whole FOV determination. A RF MCU, together with solar cells, was utilized to achieve the wireless and self-powered functionality. The prototype of the sun sensor is approximately 10 times lower in size and weight compared with the conventional digital sun sensor (DSS). Test results indicated that the accuracy of the prototype was 0.01° within a cone FOV of 100°. Such an autonomous DSS could be equipped flexibly on a micro- or nano-satellite, especially for highly accurate remote sensing applications.

  11. Joint iris boundary detection and fit: a real-time method for accurate pupil tracking.

    PubMed

    Barbosa, Marconi; James, Andrew C

    2014-08-01

    A range of applications in visual science rely on accurate tracking of the human pupil's movement and contraction in response to light. While the literature for independent contour detection and fitting of the iris-pupil boundary is vast, a joint approach, in which it is assumed that the pupil has a given geometric shape has been largely overlooked. We present here a global method for simultaneously finding and fitting of an elliptic or circular contour against a dark interior, which produces consistently accurate results even under non-ideal recording conditions, such as reflections near and over the boundary, droopy eye lids, or the sudden formation of tears. The specific form of the proposed optimization problem allows us to write down closed analytic formulae for the gradient and the Hessian of the objective function. Moreover, both the objective function and its derivatives can be cast into vectorized form, making the proposed algorithm significantly faster than its closest relative in the literature. We compare methods in multiple ways, both analytically and numerically, using real iris images as well as idealizations of the iris for which the ground truth boundary is precisely known. The method proposed here is illustrated under challenging recording conditions and it is shown to be robust.

  12. Joint iris boundary detection and fit: a real-time method for accurate pupil tracking

    PubMed Central

    Barbosa, Marconi; James, Andrew C.

    2014-01-01

    A range of applications in visual science rely on accurate tracking of the human pupil’s movement and contraction in response to light. While the literature for independent contour detection and fitting of the iris-pupil boundary is vast, a joint approach, in which it is assumed that the pupil has a given geometric shape has been largely overlooked. We present here a global method for simultaneously finding and fitting of an elliptic or circular contour against a dark interior, which produces consistently accurate results even under non-ideal recording conditions, such as reflections near and over the boundary, droopy eye lids, or the sudden formation of tears. The specific form of the proposed optimization problem allows us to write down closed analytic formulae for the gradient and the Hessian of the objective function. Moreover, both the objective function and its derivatives can be cast into vectorized form, making the proposed algorithm significantly faster than its closest relative in the literature. We compare methods in multiple ways, both analytically and numerically, using real iris images as well as idealizations of the iris for which the ground truth boundary is precisely known. The method proposed here is illustrated under challenging recording conditions and it is shown to be robust. PMID:25136477

  13. Breaking Snake Camouflage: Humans Detect Snakes More Accurately than Other Animals under Less Discernible Visual Conditions.

    PubMed

    Kawai, Nobuyuki; He, Hongshen

    2016-01-01

    Humans and non-human primates are extremely sensitive to snakes as exemplified by their ability to detect pictures of snakes more quickly than those of other animals. These findings are consistent with the Snake Detection Theory, which hypothesizes that as predators, snakes were a major source of evolutionary selection that favored expansion of the visual system of primates for rapid snake detection. Many snakes use camouflage to conceal themselves from both prey and their own predators, making it very challenging to detect them. If snakes have acted as a selective pressure on primate visual systems, they should be more easily detected than other animals under difficult visual conditions. Here we tested whether humans discerned images of snakes more accurately than those of non-threatening animals (e.g., birds, cats, or fish) under conditions of less perceptual information by presenting a series of degraded images with the Random Image Structure Evolution technique (interpolation of random noise). We find that participants recognize mosaic images of snakes, which were regarded as functionally equivalent to camouflage, more accurately than those of other animals under dissolved conditions. The present study supports the Snake Detection Theory by showing that humans have a visual system that accurately recognizes snakes under less discernible visual conditions.

  14. Breaking Snake Camouflage: Humans Detect Snakes More Accurately than Other Animals under Less Discernible Visual Conditions

    PubMed Central

    He, Hongshen

    2016-01-01

    Humans and non-human primates are extremely sensitive to snakes as exemplified by their ability to detect pictures of snakes more quickly than those of other animals. These findings are consistent with the Snake Detection Theory, which hypothesizes that as predators, snakes were a major source of evolutionary selection that favored expansion of the visual system of primates for rapid snake detection. Many snakes use camouflage to conceal themselves from both prey and their own predators, making it very challenging to detect them. If snakes have acted as a selective pressure on primate visual systems, they should be more easily detected than other animals under difficult visual conditions. Here we tested whether humans discerned images of snakes more accurately than those of non-threatening animals (e.g., birds, cats, or fish) under conditions of less perceptual information by presenting a series of degraded images with the Random Image Structure Evolution technique (interpolation of random noise). We find that participants recognize mosaic images of snakes, which were regarded as functionally equivalent to camouflage, more accurately than those of other animals under dissolved conditions. The present study supports the Snake Detection Theory by showing that humans have a visual system that accurately recognizes snakes under less discernible visual conditions. PMID:27783686

  15. Accurate band-to-band registration of AOTF imaging spectrometer using motion detection technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Pengwei; Zhao, Huijie; Jin, Shangzhong; Li, Ningchuan

    2016-05-01

    This paper concerns the problem of platform vibration induced band-to-band misregistration with acousto-optic imaging spectrometer in spaceborne application. Registrating images of different bands formed at different time or different position is difficult, especially for hyperspectral images form acousto-optic tunable filter (AOTF) imaging spectrometer. In this study, a motion detection method is presented using the polychromatic undiffracted beam of AOTF. The factors affecting motion detect accuracy are analyzed theoretically, and calculations show that optical distortion is an easily overlooked factor to achieve accurate band-to-band registration. Hence, a reflective dual-path optical system has been proposed for the first time, with reduction of distortion and chromatic aberration, indicating the potential of higher registration accuracy. Consequently, a spectra restoration experiment using additional motion detect channel is presented for the first time, which shows the accurate spectral image registration capability of this technique.

  16. Accurate derivation of heart rate variability signal for detection of sleep disordered breathing in children.

    PubMed

    Chatlapalli, S; Nazeran, H; Melarkod, V; Krishnam, R; Estrada, E; Pamula, Y; Cabrera, S

    2004-01-01

    The electrocardiogram (ECG) signal is used extensively as a low cost diagnostic tool to provide information concerning the heart's state of health. Accurate determination of the QRS complex, in particular, reliable detection of the R wave peak, is essential in computer based ECG analysis. ECG data from Physionet's Sleep-Apnea database were used to develop, test, and validate a robust heart rate variability (HRV) signal derivation algorithm. The HRV signal was derived from pre-processed ECG signals by developing an enhanced Hilbert transform (EHT) algorithm with built-in missing beat detection capability for reliable QRS detection. The performance of the EHT algorithm was then compared against that of a popular Hilbert transform-based (HT) QRS detection algorithm. Autoregressive (AR) modeling of the HRV power spectrum for both EHT- and HT-derived HRV signals was achieved and different parameters from their power spectra as well as approximate entropy were derived for comparison. Poincare plots were then used as a visualization tool to highlight the detection of the missing beats in the EHT method After validation of the EHT algorithm on ECG data from the Physionet, the algorithm was further tested and validated on a dataset obtained from children undergoing polysomnography for detection of sleep disordered breathing (SDB). Sensitive measures of accurate HRV signals were then derived to be used in detecting and diagnosing sleep disordered breathing in children. All signal processing algorithms were implemented in MATLAB. We present a description of the EHT algorithm and analyze pilot data for eight children undergoing nocturnal polysomnography. The pilot data demonstrated that the EHT method provides an accurate way of deriving the HRV signal and plays an important role in extraction of reliable measures to distinguish between periods of normal and sleep disordered breathing (SDB) in children.

  17. An Accurate Heading Solution using MEMS-based Gyroscope and Magnetometer Integrated System (Preliminary Results)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El-Diasty, M.

    2014-11-01

    An accurate heading solution is required for many applications and it can be achieved by high grade (high cost) gyroscopes (gyros) which may not be suitable for such applications. Micro-Electro Mechanical Systems-based (MEMS) is an emerging technology, which has the potential of providing heading solution using a low cost MEMS-based gyro. However, MEMS-gyro-based heading solution drifts significantly over time. The heading solution can also be estimated using MEMS-based magnetometer by measuring the horizontal components of the Earth magnetic field. The MEMS-magnetometer-based heading solution does not drift over time, but are contaminated by high level of noise and may be disturbed by the presence of magnetic field sources such as metal objects. This paper proposed an accurate heading estimation procedure based on the integration of MEMS-based gyro and magnetometer measurements that correct gyro and magnetometer measurements where gyro angular rates of changes are estimated using magnetometer measurements and then integrated with the measured gyro angular rates of changes with a robust filter to estimate the heading. The proposed integration solution is implemented using two data sets; one was conducted in static mode without magnetic disturbances and the second was conducted in kinematic mode with magnetic disturbances. The results showed that the proposed integrated heading solution provides accurate, smoothed and undisturbed solution when compared with magnetometerbased and gyro-based heading solutions.

  18. Optimization of sample preparation for accurate results in quantitative NMR spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamazaki, Taichi; Nakamura, Satoe; Saito, Takeshi

    2017-04-01

    Quantitative nuclear magnetic resonance (qNMR) spectroscopy has received high marks as an excellent measurement tool that does not require the same reference standard as the analyte. Measurement parameters have been discussed in detail and high-resolution balances have been used for sample preparation. However, the high-resolution balances, such as an ultra-microbalance, are not general-purpose analytical tools and many analysts may find those balances difficult to use, thereby hindering accurate sample preparation for qNMR measurement. In this study, we examined the relationship between the resolution of the balance and the amount of sample weighed during sample preparation. We were able to confirm the accuracy of the assay results for samples weighed on a high-resolution balance, such as the ultra-microbalance. Furthermore, when an appropriate tare and amount of sample was weighed on a given balance, accurate assay results were obtained with another high-resolution balance. Although this is a fundamental result, it offers important evidence that would enhance the versatility of the qNMR method.

  19. Automatic identification and accurate temporal detection of inhalations in asthma inhaler recordings.

    PubMed

    Holmes, Martin S; Le Menn, Marine; D'Arcy, Shona; Rapcan, Viliam; MacHale, Elaine; Costello, Richard W; Reilly, Richard B

    2012-01-01

    Asthma is chronic airways disease characterized by recurrent attacks of breathlessness and wheezing. Adherence to medication regimes is a common failing for asthmatic patients and there exists a requirement to monitor such patients' adherence. The detection of inhalations from recordings of inhaler use can provide empirical evidence about patients' adherence to their asthma medication regime. Manually listening to recordings of inhaler use is a tedious and time consuming process and thus an algorithm which can automatically and accurately carry out this task would be of great value. This study employs a recording device attached to a commonly used dry powder inhaler to record the acoustic signals of patients taking their prescribed medication. An algorithm was developed to automatically detect and accurately demarcate inhalations from the acoustic signals. This algorithm was tested on a dataset of 255 separate recordings of inhaler use in real world environments. The dataset was obtained from 12 asthma outpatients who attended a respiratory clinic over a three month period. Evaluation of the algorithm on this dataset achieved sensitivity of 95%, specificity of 94% and an accuracy of 89% in detecting inhalations compared to manual inhalation detection.

  20. Accurate Detection of Dysmorphic Nuclei Using Dynamic Programming and Supervised Classification.

    PubMed

    Verschuuren, Marlies; De Vylder, Jonas; Catrysse, Hannes; Robijns, Joke; Philips, Wilfried; De Vos, Winnok H

    2017-01-01

    A vast array of pathologies is typified by the presence of nuclei with an abnormal morphology. Dysmorphic nuclear phenotypes feature dramatic size changes or foldings, but also entail much subtler deviations such as nuclear protrusions called blebs. Due to their unpredictable size, shape and intensity, dysmorphic nuclei are often not accurately detected in standard image analysis routines. To enable accurate detection of dysmorphic nuclei in confocal and widefield fluorescence microscopy images, we have developed an automated segmentation algorithm, called Blebbed Nuclei Detector (BleND), which relies on two-pass thresholding for initial nuclear contour detection, and an optimal path finding algorithm, based on dynamic programming, for refining these contours. Using a robust error metric, we show that our method matches manual segmentation in terms of precision and outperforms state-of-the-art nuclear segmentation methods. Its high performance allowed for building and integrating a robust classifier that recognizes dysmorphic nuclei with an accuracy above 95%. The combined segmentation-classification routine is bound to facilitate nucleus-based diagnostics and enable real-time recognition of dysmorphic nuclei in intelligent microscopy workflows.

  1. Accurate Detection of Dysmorphic Nuclei Using Dynamic Programming and Supervised Classification

    PubMed Central

    Verschuuren, Marlies; De Vylder, Jonas; Catrysse, Hannes; Robijns, Joke; Philips, Wilfried

    2017-01-01

    A vast array of pathologies is typified by the presence of nuclei with an abnormal morphology. Dysmorphic nuclear phenotypes feature dramatic size changes or foldings, but also entail much subtler deviations such as nuclear protrusions called blebs. Due to their unpredictable size, shape and intensity, dysmorphic nuclei are often not accurately detected in standard image analysis routines. To enable accurate detection of dysmorphic nuclei in confocal and widefield fluorescence microscopy images, we have developed an automated segmentation algorithm, called Blebbed Nuclei Detector (BleND), which relies on two-pass thresholding for initial nuclear contour detection, and an optimal path finding algorithm, based on dynamic programming, for refining these contours. Using a robust error metric, we show that our method matches manual segmentation in terms of precision and outperforms state-of-the-art nuclear segmentation methods. Its high performance allowed for building and integrating a robust classifier that recognizes dysmorphic nuclei with an accuracy above 95%. The combined segmentation-classification routine is bound to facilitate nucleus-based diagnostics and enable real-time recognition of dysmorphic nuclei in intelligent microscopy workflows. PMID:28125723

  2. Methodological Guidelines for Accurate Detection of Viruses in Wild Plant Species.

    PubMed

    Lacroix, Christelle; Renner, Kurra; Cole, Ellen; Seabloom, Eric W; Borer, Elizabeth T; Malmstrom, Carolyn M

    2016-01-15

    Ecological understanding of disease risk, emergence, and dynamics and of the efficacy of control strategies relies heavily on efficient tools for microorganism identification and characterization. Misdetection, such as the misclassification of infected hosts as healthy, can strongly bias estimates of disease prevalence and lead to inaccurate conclusions. In natural plant ecosystems, interest in assessing microbial dynamics is increasing exponentially, but guidelines for detection of microorganisms in wild plants remain limited, particularly so for plant viruses. To address this gap, we explored issues and solutions associated with virus detection by serological and molecular methods in noncrop plant species as applied to the globally important Barley yellow dwarf virus PAV (Luteoviridae), which infects wild native plants as well as crops. With enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA), we demonstrate how virus detection in a perennial wild plant species may be much greater in stems than in leaves, although leaves are most commonly sampled, and may also vary among tillers within an individual, thereby highlighting the importance of designing effective sampling strategies. With reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR), we demonstrate how inhibitors in tissues of perennial wild hosts can suppress virus detection but can be overcome with methods and products that improve isolation and amplification of nucleic acids. These examples demonstrate the paramount importance of testing and validating survey designs and virus detection methods for noncrop plant communities to ensure accurate ecological surveys and reliable assumptions about virus dynamics in wild hosts.

  3. Methodological Guidelines for Accurate Detection of Viruses in Wild Plant Species

    PubMed Central

    Renner, Kurra; Cole, Ellen; Seabloom, Eric W.; Borer, Elizabeth T.; Malmstrom, Carolyn M.

    2016-01-01

    Ecological understanding of disease risk, emergence, and dynamics and of the efficacy of control strategies relies heavily on efficient tools for microorganism identification and characterization. Misdetection, such as the misclassification of infected hosts as healthy, can strongly bias estimates of disease prevalence and lead to inaccurate conclusions. In natural plant ecosystems, interest in assessing microbial dynamics is increasing exponentially, but guidelines for detection of microorganisms in wild plants remain limited, particularly so for plant viruses. To address this gap, we explored issues and solutions associated with virus detection by serological and molecular methods in noncrop plant species as applied to the globally important Barley yellow dwarf virus PAV (Luteoviridae), which infects wild native plants as well as crops. With enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA), we demonstrate how virus detection in a perennial wild plant species may be much greater in stems than in leaves, although leaves are most commonly sampled, and may also vary among tillers within an individual, thereby highlighting the importance of designing effective sampling strategies. With reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR), we demonstrate how inhibitors in tissues of perennial wild hosts can suppress virus detection but can be overcome with methods and products that improve isolation and amplification of nucleic acids. These examples demonstrate the paramount importance of testing and validating survey designs and virus detection methods for noncrop plant communities to ensure accurate ecological surveys and reliable assumptions about virus dynamics in wild hosts. PMID:26773088

  4. A simplified and accurate detection of the genetically modified wheat MON71800 with one calibrator plasmid.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jae-Hwan; Park, Saet-Byul; Roh, Hyo-Jeong; Park, Sunghoon; Shin, Min-Ki; Moon, Gui Im; Hong, Jin-Hwan; Kim, Hae-Yeong

    2015-06-01

    With the increasing number of genetically modified (GM) events, unauthorized GMO releases into the food market have increased dramatically, and many countries have developed detection tools for them. This study described the qualitative and quantitative detection methods of unauthorized the GM wheat MON71800 with a reference plasmid (pGEM-M71800). The wheat acetyl-CoA carboxylase (acc) gene was used as the endogenous gene. The plasmid pGEM-M71800, which contains both the acc gene and the event-specific target MON71800, was constructed as a positive control for the qualitative and quantitative analyses. The limit of detection in the qualitative PCR assay was approximately 10 copies. In the quantitative PCR assay, the standard deviation and relative standard deviation repeatability values ranged from 0.06 to 0.25 and from 0.23% to 1.12%, respectively. This study supplies a powerful and very simple but accurate detection strategy for unauthorized GM wheat MON71800 that utilizes a single calibrator plasmid.

  5. Functional neuroimaging of visuospatial working memory tasks enables accurate detection of attention deficit and hyperactivity disorder

    PubMed Central

    Hammer, Rubi; Cooke, Gillian E.; Stein, Mark A.; Booth, James R.

    2015-01-01

    Finding neurobiological markers for neurodevelopmental disorders, such as attention deficit and hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), is a major objective of clinicians and neuroscientists. We examined if functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) data from a few distinct visuospatial working memory (VSWM) tasks enables accurately detecting cases with ADHD. We tested 20 boys with ADHD combined type and 20 typically developed (TD) boys in four VSWM tasks that differed in feedback availability (feedback, no-feedback) and reward size (large, small). We used a multimodal analysis based on brain activity in 16 regions of interest, significantly activated or deactivated in the four VSWM tasks (based on the entire participants' sample). Dimensionality of the data was reduced into 10 principal components that were used as the input variables to a logistic regression classifier. fMRI data from the four VSWM tasks enabled a classification accuracy of 92.5%, with high predicted ADHD probability values for most clinical cases, and low predicted ADHD probabilities for most TDs. This accuracy level was higher than those achieved by using the fMRI data of any single task, or the respective behavioral data. This indicates that task-based fMRI data acquired while participants perform a few distinct VSWM tasks enables improved detection of clinical cases. PMID:26509111

  6. COSMOS: accurate detection of somatic structural variations through asymmetric comparison between tumor and normal samples.

    PubMed

    Yamagata, Koichi; Yamanishi, Ayako; Kokubu, Chikara; Takeda, Junji; Sese, Jun

    2016-05-05

    An important challenge in cancer genomics is precise detection of structural variations (SVs) by high-throughput short-read sequencing, which is hampered by the high false discovery rates of existing analysis tools. Here, we propose an accurate SV detection method named COSMOS, which compares the statistics of the mapped read pairs in tumor samples with isogenic normal control samples in a distinct asymmetric manner. COSMOS also prioritizes the candidate SVs using strand-specific read-depth information. Performance tests on modeled tumor genomes revealed that COSMOS outperformed existing methods in terms of F-measure. We also applied COSMOS to an experimental mouse cell-based model, in which SVs were induced by genome engineering and gamma-ray irradiation, followed by polymerase chain reaction-based confirmation. The precision of COSMOS was 84.5%, while the next best existing method was 70.4%. Moreover, the sensitivity of COSMOS was the highest, indicating that COSMOS has great potential for cancer genome analysis.

  7. COSMOS: accurate detection of somatic structural variations through asymmetric comparison between tumor and normal samples

    PubMed Central

    Yamagata, Koichi; Yamanishi, Ayako; Kokubu, Chikara; Takeda, Junji; Sese, Jun

    2016-01-01

    An important challenge in cancer genomics is precise detection of structural variations (SVs) by high-throughput short-read sequencing, which is hampered by the high false discovery rates of existing analysis tools. Here, we propose an accurate SV detection method named COSMOS, which compares the statistics of the mapped read pairs in tumor samples with isogenic normal control samples in a distinct asymmetric manner. COSMOS also prioritizes the candidate SVs using strand-specific read-depth information. Performance tests on modeled tumor genomes revealed that COSMOS outperformed existing methods in terms of F-measure. We also applied COSMOS to an experimental mouse cell-based model, in which SVs were induced by genome engineering and gamma-ray irradiation, followed by polymerase chain reaction-based confirmation. The precision of COSMOS was 84.5%, while the next best existing method was 70.4%. Moreover, the sensitivity of COSMOS was the highest, indicating that COSMOS has great potential for cancer genome analysis. PMID:26833260

  8. Molecular Detection of Foodborne Pathogens: A Rapid and Accurate Answer to Food Safety.

    PubMed

    Mangal, Manisha; Bansal, Sangita; Sharma, Satish K; Gupta, Ram K

    2016-07-03

    Food safety is a global health concern. For the prevention and recognition of problems related to health and safety, detection of foodborne pathogen is of utmost importance at all levels of food production chain. For several decades, a lot of research has been targeted at the development of rapid methodology as reducing the time needed to complete pathogen detection tests has been the primary goal of food microbiologists. With the result, food microbiology laboratories now have a wide array of detection methods and automated technologies such as enzyme immunoassay, polymerase chain reaction, and microarrays, which can cut test times considerably. Nucleic acid amplification strategies and advances in amplicon detection methodologies have been the key factors in the progress of molecular microbiology. A comprehensive literature survey has been carried out to give an overview in the field of foodborne pathogen detection. In this paper, we describe the conventional methods, as well as recent developments in food pathogen detection, identification, and quantification, with a major emphasis on molecular detection methods.

  9. Full house of fears: evidence that people high in attachment anxiety are more accurate in detecting deceit.

    PubMed

    Ein-Dor, Tsachi; Perry, Adi

    2014-04-01

    Lying is deep-rooted in our nature, as over 90% of all people lie. Laypeople, however, do only slightly better than chance when detecting lies and deceptions. Recently, attachment anxiety was linked with people's hypervigilance toward threat-related cues. Accordingly, we tested whether attachment anxiety predicts people's ability to detect deceit and to play poker-a game that is based on players' ability to detect cheating. In Study 1, 202 participants watched a series of interpersonal interactions that comprised subtle clues to the honesty or dishonesty of the speakers. In Study 2, 58 participants watched clips in which such cues were absent. Participants were asked to decide whether the main characters were honest or dishonest. In Study 3, we asked 35 semiprofessional poker players to participate in a poker tournament, and then we predicted the amount of money won during the game. Results indicated that attachment anxiety, but not other types of anxiety, predicted more accurate detection of deceitful statements (Studies 1-2) and a greater amount of money won during a game of poker (Study 3). Results are discussed in relation to the possible adaptive functions of certain personality characteristics, such as attachment anxiety, often viewed as undesirable.

  10. How Accurately Can Your Wrist Device Recognize Daily Activities and Detect Falls?

    PubMed Central

    Gjoreski, Martin; Gjoreski, Hristijan; Luštrek, Mitja; Gams, Matjaž

    2016-01-01

    Although wearable accelerometers can successfully recognize activities and detect falls, their adoption in real life is low because users do not want to wear additional devices. A possible solution is an accelerometer inside a wrist device/smartwatch. However, wrist placement might perform poorly in terms of accuracy due to frequent random movements of the hand. In this paper we perform a thorough, large-scale evaluation of methods for activity recognition and fall detection on four datasets. On the first two we showed that the left wrist performs better compared to the dominant right one, and also better compared to the elbow and the chest, but worse compared to the ankle, knee and belt. On the third (Opportunity) dataset, our method outperformed the related work, indicating that our feature-preprocessing creates better input data. And finally, on a real-life unlabeled dataset the recognized activities captured the subject’s daily rhythm and activities. Our fall-detection method detected all of the fast falls and minimized the false positives, achieving 85% accuracy on the first dataset. Because the other datasets did not contain fall events, only false positives were evaluated, resulting in 9 for the second, 1 for the third and 15 for the real-life dataset (57 days data). PMID:27258282

  11. How Accurately Can Your Wrist Device Recognize Daily Activities and Detect Falls?

    PubMed

    Gjoreski, Martin; Gjoreski, Hristijan; Luštrek, Mitja; Gams, Matjaž

    2016-06-01

    Although wearable accelerometers can successfully recognize activities and detect falls, their adoption in real life is low because users do not want to wear additional devices. A possible solution is an accelerometer inside a wrist device/smartwatch. However, wrist placement might perform poorly in terms of accuracy due to frequent random movements of the hand. In this paper we perform a thorough, large-scale evaluation of methods for activity recognition and fall detection on four datasets. On the first two we showed that the left wrist performs better compared to the dominant right one, and also better compared to the elbow and the chest, but worse compared to the ankle, knee and belt. On the third (Opportunity) dataset, our method outperformed the related work, indicating that our feature-preprocessing creates better input data. And finally, on a real-life unlabeled dataset the recognized activities captured the subject's daily rhythm and activities. Our fall-detection method detected all of the fast falls and minimized the false positives, achieving 85% accuracy on the first dataset. Because the other datasets did not contain fall events, only false positives were evaluated, resulting in 9 for the second, 1 for the third and 15 for the real-life dataset (57 days data).

  12. MIDAS robust trend estimator for accurate GPS station velocities without step detection.

    PubMed

    Blewitt, Geoffrey; Kreemer, Corné; Hammond, William C; Gazeaux, Julien

    2016-03-01

    Automatic estimation of velocities from GPS coordinate time series is becoming required to cope with the exponentially increasing flood of available data, but problems detectable to the human eye are often overlooked. This motivates us to find an automatic and accurate estimator of trend that is resistant to common problems such as step discontinuities, outliers, seasonality, skewness, and heteroscedasticity. Developed here, Median Interannual Difference Adjusted for Skewness (MIDAS) is a variant of the Theil-Sen median trend estimator, for which the ordinary version is the median of slopes vij  = (xj-xi )/(tj-ti ) computed between all data pairs i > j. For normally distributed data, Theil-Sen and least squares trend estimates are statistically identical, but unlike least squares, Theil-Sen is resistant to undetected data problems. To mitigate both seasonality and step discontinuities, MIDAS selects data pairs separated by 1 year. This condition is relaxed for time series with gaps so that all data are used. Slopes from data pairs spanning a step function produce one-sided outliers that can bias the median. To reduce bias, MIDAS removes outliers and recomputes the median. MIDAS also computes a robust and realistic estimate of trend uncertainty. Statistical tests using GPS data in the rigid North American plate interior show ±0.23 mm/yr root-mean-square (RMS) accuracy in horizontal velocity. In blind tests using synthetic data, MIDAS velocities have an RMS accuracy of ±0.33 mm/yr horizontal, ±1.1 mm/yr up, with a 5th percentile range smaller than all 20 automatic estimators tested. Considering its general nature, MIDAS has the potential for broader application in the geosciences.

  13. MIDAS robust trend estimator for accurate GPS station velocities without step detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blewitt, Geoffrey; Kreemer, Corné; Hammond, William C.; Gazeaux, Julien

    2016-03-01

    Automatic estimation of velocities from GPS coordinate time series is becoming required to cope with the exponentially increasing flood of available data, but problems detectable to the human eye are often overlooked. This motivates us to find an automatic and accurate estimator of trend that is resistant to common problems such as step discontinuities, outliers, seasonality, skewness, and heteroscedasticity. Developed here, Median Interannual Difference Adjusted for Skewness (MIDAS) is a variant of the Theil-Sen median trend estimator, for which the ordinary version is the median of slopes vij = (xj-xi)/(tj-ti) computed between all data pairs i > j. For normally distributed data, Theil-Sen and least squares trend estimates are statistically identical, but unlike least squares, Theil-Sen is resistant to undetected data problems. To mitigate both seasonality and step discontinuities, MIDAS selects data pairs separated by 1 year. This condition is relaxed for time series with gaps so that all data are used. Slopes from data pairs spanning a step function produce one-sided outliers that can bias the median. To reduce bias, MIDAS removes outliers and recomputes the median. MIDAS also computes a robust and realistic estimate of trend uncertainty. Statistical tests using GPS data in the rigid North American plate interior show ±0.23 mm/yr root-mean-square (RMS) accuracy in horizontal velocity. In blind tests using synthetic data, MIDAS velocities have an RMS accuracy of ±0.33 mm/yr horizontal, ±1.1 mm/yr up, with a 5th percentile range smaller than all 20 automatic estimators tested. Considering its general nature, MIDAS has the potential for broader application in the geosciences.

  14. MIDAS robust trend estimator for accurate GPS station velocities without step detection

    PubMed Central

    Kreemer, Corné; Hammond, William C.; Gazeaux, Julien

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Automatic estimation of velocities from GPS coordinate time series is becoming required to cope with the exponentially increasing flood of available data, but problems detectable to the human eye are often overlooked. This motivates us to find an automatic and accurate estimator of trend that is resistant to common problems such as step discontinuities, outliers, seasonality, skewness, and heteroscedasticity. Developed here, Median Interannual Difference Adjusted for Skewness (MIDAS) is a variant of the Theil‐Sen median trend estimator, for which the ordinary version is the median of slopes vij = (xj–xi)/(tj–ti) computed between all data pairs i > j. For normally distributed data, Theil‐Sen and least squares trend estimates are statistically identical, but unlike least squares, Theil‐Sen is resistant to undetected data problems. To mitigate both seasonality and step discontinuities, MIDAS selects data pairs separated by 1 year. This condition is relaxed for time series with gaps so that all data are used. Slopes from data pairs spanning a step function produce one‐sided outliers that can bias the median. To reduce bias, MIDAS removes outliers and recomputes the median. MIDAS also computes a robust and realistic estimate of trend uncertainty. Statistical tests using GPS data in the rigid North American plate interior show ±0.23 mm/yr root‐mean‐square (RMS) accuracy in horizontal velocity. In blind tests using synthetic data, MIDAS velocities have an RMS accuracy of ±0.33 mm/yr horizontal, ±1.1 mm/yr up, with a 5th percentile range smaller than all 20 automatic estimators tested. Considering its general nature, MIDAS has the potential for broader application in the geosciences. PMID:27668140

  15. Accurate means of detecting and characterizing abnormal patterns of ventricular activation by phase image analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Botvinick, E.H.; Frais, M.A.; Shosa, D.W.; O'Connell, J.W.; Pacheco-Alvarez, J.A.; Scheinman, M.; Hattner, R.S.; Morady, F.; Faulkner, D.B.

    1982-08-01

    The ability of scintigraphic phase image analysis to characterize patterns of abnormal ventricular activation was investigated. The pattern of phase distribution and sequential phase changes over both right and left ventricular regions of interest were evaluated in 16 patients with normal electrical activation and wall motion and compared with those in 8 patients with an artificial pacemaker and 4 patients with sinus rhythm with the Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome and delta waves. Normally, the site of earliest phase angle was seen at the base of the interventricular septum, with sequential change affecting the body of the septum and the cardiac apex and then spreading laterally to involve the body of both ventricles. The site of earliest phase angle was located at the apex of the right ventricle in seven patients with a right ventricular endocardial pacemaker and on the lateral left ventricular wall in one patient with a left ventricular epicardial pacemaker. In each case the site corresponded exactly to the position of the pacing electrode as seen on posteroanterior and left lateral chest X-ray films, and sequential phase changes spread from the initial focus to affect both ventricles. In each of the patients with the Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome, the site of earliest ventricular phase angle was located, and it corresponded exactly to the site of the bypass tract as determined by endocardial mapping. In this way, four bypass pathways, two posterior left paraseptal, one left lateral and one right lateral, were correctly localized scintigraphically. On the basis of the sequence of mechanical contraction, phase image analysis provides an accurate noninvasive method of detecting abnormal foci of ventricular activation.

  16. Accurate Point-of-Care Detection of Ruptured Fetal Membranes: Improved Diagnostic Performance Characteristics with a Monoclonal/Polyclonal Immunoassay

    PubMed Central

    Rogers, Linda C.; Scott, Laurie; Block, Jon E.

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Accurate and timely diagnosis of rupture of membranes (ROM) is imperative to allow for gestational age-specific interventions. This study compared the diagnostic performance characteristics between two methods used for the detection of ROM as measured in the same patient. METHODS Vaginal secretions were evaluated using the conventional fern test as well as a point-of-care monoclonal/polyclonal immunoassay test (ROM Plus®) in 75 pregnant patients who presented to labor and delivery with complaints of leaking amniotic fluid. Both tests were compared to analytical confirmation of ROM using three external laboratory tests. Diagnostic performance characteristics were calculated including sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV), negative predictive value (NPV), and accuracy. RESULTS Diagnostic performance characteristics uniformly favored ROM detection using the immunoassay test compared to the fern test: sensitivity (100% vs. 77.8%), specificity (94.8% vs. 79.3%), PPV (75% vs. 36.8%), NPV (100% vs. 95.8%), and accuracy (95.5% vs. 79.1%). CONCLUSIONS The point-of-care immunoassay test provides improved diagnostic accuracy for the detection of ROM compared to fern testing. It has the potential of improving patient management decisions, thereby minimizing serious complications and perinatal morbidity. PMID:27199579

  17. Strategy for Accurate Detection of Escherichia Coli O157:H7 in Ground Pork Using a Lateral Flow Immunoassay.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Song; Chen, Ming-Hui; Zhang, Gang-Gang; Yu, Zhi-Biao; Liu, Dao-Feng; Xiong, Yong-Hua; Wei, Hua; Lai, Wei-Hua

    2017-04-02

    Escherichia coli O157:H7 is known to cause serious diseases including hemorrhagic colitis and hemolytic uremic syndrome. A gold nanoparticle lateral flow immunoassay (Au-LFIA) was used to detect Escherichia coli O157:H7 in ground pork samples. False-positive results were detected using Au-LFIA; a Citrobacterfreundii strain was isolated from the ground pork samples and identified by using CHROmagar(TM) plates, API 20E, and 16S RNA sequencing. Since C.freundii showed cross-reactivity with E. coli O157:H7 when Au-LFIA test strips were used, a novel method combining modified enrichment with a lateral flow immunoassay for accurate and convenient detection of E. coli O157:H7 in ground pork was developed in this study to minimize these false positives. MacConkey broth was optimized for E. coli O157:H7 enrichment and C.freundii inhibition by the addition of 5 mg/L potassium tellurite and 0.10 mg/L cefixime. Using the proposed modified enrichment procedure, the false-positive rate of ground pork samples spiked with 100 CFU/g C.freundii decreased to 5%.

  18. BlueDetect: An iBeacon-Enabled Scheme for Accurate and Energy-Efficient Indoor-Outdoor Detection and Seamless Location-Based Service.

    PubMed

    Zou, Han; Jiang, Hao; Luo, Yiwen; Zhu, Jianjie; Lu, Xiaoxuan; Xie, Lihua

    2016-02-22

    The location and contextual status (indoor or outdoor) is fundamental and critical information for upper-layer applications, such as activity recognition and location-based services (LBS) for individuals. In addition, optimizations of building management systems (BMS), such as the pre-cooling or heating process of the air-conditioning system according to the human traffic entering or exiting a building, can utilize the information, as well. The emerging mobile devices, which are equipped with various sensors, become a feasible and flexible platform to perform indoor-outdoor (IO) detection. However, power-hungry sensors, such as GPS and WiFi, should be used with caution due to the constrained battery storage on mobile device. We propose BlueDetect: an accurate, fast response and energy-efficient scheme for IO detection and seamless LBS running on the mobile device based on the emerging low-power iBeacon technology. By leveraging the on-broad Bluetooth module and our proposed algorithms, BlueDetect provides a precise IO detection service that can turn on/off on-board power-hungry sensors smartly and automatically, optimize their performances and reduce the power consumption of mobile devices simultaneously. Moreover, seamless positioning and navigation services can be realized by it, especially in a semi-outdoor environment, which cannot be achieved by GPS or an indoor positioning system (IPS) easily. We prototype BlueDetect on Android mobile devices and evaluate its performance comprehensively. The experimental results have validated the superiority of BlueDetect in terms of IO detection accuracy, localization accuracy and energy consumption.

  19. BlueDetect: An iBeacon-Enabled Scheme for Accurate and Energy-Efficient Indoor-Outdoor Detection and Seamless Location-Based Service

    PubMed Central

    Zou, Han; Jiang, Hao; Luo, Yiwen; Zhu, Jianjie; Lu, Xiaoxuan; Xie, Lihua

    2016-01-01

    The location and contextual status (indoor or outdoor) is fundamental and critical information for upper-layer applications, such as activity recognition and location-based services (LBS) for individuals. In addition, optimizations of building management systems (BMS), such as the pre-cooling or heating process of the air-conditioning system according to the human traffic entering or exiting a building, can utilize the information, as well. The emerging mobile devices, which are equipped with various sensors, become a feasible and flexible platform to perform indoor-outdoor (IO) detection. However, power-hungry sensors, such as GPS and WiFi, should be used with caution due to the constrained battery storage on mobile device. We propose BlueDetect: an accurate, fast response and energy-efficient scheme for IO detection and seamless LBS running on the mobile device based on the emerging low-power iBeacon technology. By leveraging the on-broad Bluetooth module and our proposed algorithms, BlueDetect provides a precise IO detection service that can turn on/off on-board power-hungry sensors smartly and automatically, optimize their performances and reduce the power consumption of mobile devices simultaneously. Moreover, seamless positioning and navigation services can be realized by it, especially in a semi-outdoor environment, which cannot be achieved by GPS or an indoor positioning system (IPS) easily. We prototype BlueDetect on Android mobile devices and evaluate its performance comprehensively. The experimental results have validated the superiority of BlueDetect in terms of IO detection accuracy, localization accuracy and energy consumption. PMID:26907295

  20. Magnetic resonance elastography is accurate in detecting advanced fibrosis in autoimmune hepatitis

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jin; Malik, Neera; Yin, Meng; Smyrk, Thomas C; Czaja, Albert J; Ehman, Richard L; Venkatesh, Sudhakar K

    2017-01-01

    AIM To assess the value of magnetic resonance elastography (MRE) in detecting advanced fibrosis/cirrhosis in autoimmune hepatitis (AIH). METHODS In this retrospective study, 36 patients (19 treated and 17 untreated) with histologically confirmed AIH and liver biopsy performed within 3 mo of MRE were identified at a tertiary care referral center. Liver stiffness (LS) with MRE was calculated by a radiologist, and inflammation grade and fibrosis stage in liver biopsy was assessed by a pathologist in a blinded fashion. Two radiologists evaluated morphological features of cirrhosis on conventional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Accuracy of MRE was compared to laboratory markers and MRI for detection of advanced fibrosis/cirrhosis. RESULTS Liver fibrosis stages of 0, 1, 2, 3 and 4 were present in 4, 6, 7, 6 and 13 patients respectively. There were no significant differences in distribution of fibrosis stage and inflammation grade between treated and untreated patient groups. LS with MRE demonstrated stronger correlation with liver fibrosis stage in comparison to laboratory markers for chronic liver disease (r = 0.88 vs -0.48-0.70). A trend of decreased mean LS in treated patients compared to untreated patients was observed (3.7 kPa vs 3.84 kPa) but was not statistically significant. MRE had an accuracy/sensitivity/specificity/positive predictive value/negative predictive value of 0.97/90%/100%/100%/90% and 0.98/92.3%/96%/92.3%/96% for detection of advanced fibrosis and cirrhosis, respectively. The performance of MRE was significantly better than laboratory tests for detection of advanced fibrosis (0.97 vs 0.53-0.80, P < 0.01), and cirrhosis (0.98 vs 0.58-0.80, P < 0.01) and better than conventional MRI for diagnosis of cirrhosis (0.98 vs 0.78, P = 0.002). CONCLUSION MRE is a promising modality for detection of advanced fibrosis and cirrhosis in patients with AIH with superior diagnostic accuracy compared to laboratory assessment and MRI. PMID:28223730

  1. A fast and accurate method for detection of IBD shared haplotypes in genome-wide SNP data.

    PubMed

    Bjelland, Douglas W; Lingala, Uday; Patel, Piyush S; Jones, Matt; Keller, Matthew C

    2017-02-08

    Identical by descent (IBD) segments are used to understand a number of fundamental issues in genetics. IBD segments are typically detected using long stretches of identical alleles between haplotypes in phased, whole-genome SNP data. Phase or SNP call errors in genomic data can degrade accuracy of IBD detection and lead to false-positive/negative calls and to under/overextension of true IBD segments. Furthermore, the number of comparisons increases quadratically with sample size, requiring high computational efficiency. We developed a new IBD segment detection program, FISHR (Find IBD Shared Haplotypes Rapidly), in an attempt to accurately detect IBD segments and to better estimate their endpoints using an algorithm that is fast enough to be deployed on very large whole-genome SNP data sets. We compared the performance of FISHR to three leading IBD segment detection programs: GERMLINE, refined IBD, and HaploScore. Using simulated and real genomic sequence data, we show that FISHR is slightly more accurate than all programs at detecting long (>3 cm) IBD segments but slightly less accurate than refined IBD at detecting short (~1 cm) IBD segments. More centrally, FISHR outperforms all programs in determining the true endpoints of IBD segments, which is crucial for several applications of IBD information. FISHR takes two to three times longer than GERMLINE to run, whereas both GERMLINE and FISHR were orders of magnitude faster than refined IBD and HaploScore. Overall, FISHR provides accurate IBD detection in unrelated individuals and is computationally efficient enough to be utilized on large SNP data sets >60 000 individuals.European Journal of Human Genetics advance online publication, 8 February 2017; doi:10.1038/ejhg.2017.6.

  2. Detecting Children's Lies: Are Parents Accurate Judges of Their Own Children's Lies?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Talwar, Victoria; Renaud, Sarah-Jane; Conway, Lauryn

    2015-01-01

    The current study investigated whether parents are accurate judges of their own children's lie-telling behavior. Participants included 250 mother-child dyads. Children were between three and 11 years of age. A temptation resistance paradigm was used to elicit a minor transgressive behavior from the children involving peeking at a forbidden toy and…

  3. Accurate determination of the diffusion coefficient of proteins by Fourier analysis with whole column imaging detection.

    PubMed

    Zarabadi, Atefeh S; Pawliszyn, Janusz

    2015-02-17

    Analysis in the frequency domain is considered a powerful tool to elicit precise information from spectroscopic signals. In this study, the Fourier transformation technique is employed to determine the diffusion coefficient (D) of a number of proteins in the frequency domain. Analytical approaches are investigated for determination of D from both experimental and data treatment viewpoints. The diffusion process is modeled to calculate diffusion coefficients based on the Fourier transformation solution to Fick's law equation, and its results are compared to time domain results. The simulations characterize optimum spatial and temporal conditions and demonstrate the noise tolerance of the method. The proposed model is validated by its application for the electropherograms from the diffusion path of a set of proteins. Real-time dynamic scanning is conducted to monitor dispersion by employing whole column imaging detection technology in combination with capillary isoelectric focusing (CIEF) and the imaging plug flow (iPF) experiment. These experimental techniques provide different peak shapes, which are utilized to demonstrate the Fourier transformation ability in extracting diffusion coefficients out of irregular shape signals. Experimental results confirmed that the Fourier transformation procedure substantially enhanced the accuracy of the determined values compared to those obtained in the time domain.

  4. Hypertension Detection and Results Among Young Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garner, Walton R.; Gerald, Michael C.

    1977-01-01

    A comprehensive hypertension education and detection program, in which 2,852 students were tested and, if necessary, referred to area physicians, illustrates the unique position a university setting offers for work in this area. (MB)

  5. Database for chemical weapons detection: first results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bellecci, C.; Gaudio, P.; Gelfusa, M.; Martellucci, S.; Richetta, M.; Ventura, P.; Antonucci, A.; Pasquino, F.; Ricci, V.; Sassolini, A.

    2008-10-01

    The quick increase of terrorism and asymmetric war is leading towards new needs involving defense and security. Nowadays we have to fight several kind of threats and use of chemical weapons against civil or military objectives is one of the most dangerous. For this reason it is necessary to find equipment, know-how and information that are useful in order to detect and identify dangerous molecules as quickly and far away as possible, so to minimize damage. Lidar/Dial are some of the most powerful optical technologies. Dial technology use two different wavelengths, in order to measure concentration profile of an investigated molecule. For this reason it is needed a "fingerprint" database which consists of an exhaustive collection of absorption coefficients data so to identify each molecule avoiding confusion with interfering ones. Nowadays there is not such a collection of data in scientific and technical literature. We used an FT-IR spectrometer and a CO2 laser source for absorption spectroscopy measurements using cells filled with the investigated molecules. The CO2 source is the transmitter of our DIAL facility. In this way we can make a proper "fingerprint" database necessary to identify dangerous molecules. The CO2 laser has been chosen because it is eye safe and, mainly, because it covers a spectral band where there is good absorption for this kind of molecules. In this paper IR spectra of mustard will be presented and compared to other substances which may interfere producing a false alarm. Methodology, experimental setup and first results are described.

  6. Accurate Mass Assignment of Native Protein Complexes Detected by Electrospray Mass Spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    Liepold, Lars O.; Oltrogge, Luke M.; Suci, Peter; Douglas, Trevor; Young, Mark J.

    2009-01-01

    Correct charge state assignment is crucial to assigning an accurate mass to supramolecular complexes analyzed by electrospray mass spectrometry. Conventional charge state assignment techniques fall short of reliably and unambiguously predicting the correct charge state for many supramolecular complexes. We provide an explanation of the shortcomings of the conventional techniques and have developed a robust charge state assignment method that is applicable to all spectra. PMID:19103497

  7. Accurate lithography hotspot detection based on principal component analysis-support vector machine classifier with hierarchical data clustering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Bei; Gao, Jhih-Rong; Ding, Duo; Zeng, Xuan; Pan, David Z.

    2015-01-01

    As technology nodes continue to shrink, layout patterns become more sensitive to lithography processes, resulting in lithography hotspots that need to be identified and eliminated during physical verification. We propose an accurate hotspot detection approach based on principal component analysis-support vector machine classifier. Several techniques, including hierarchical data clustering, data balancing, and multilevel training, are provided to enhance the performance of the proposed approach. Our approach is accurate and more efficient than conventional time-consuming lithography simulation and provides a high flexibility for adapting to new lithography processes and rules.

  8. Towards Accurate Node-Based Detection of P2P Botnets

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Botnets are a serious security threat to the current Internet infrastructure. In this paper, we propose a novel direction for P2P botnet detection called node-based detection. This approach focuses on the network characteristics of individual nodes. Based on our model, we examine node's flows and extract the useful features over a given time period. We have tested our approach on real-life data sets and achieved detection rates of 99-100% and low false positives rates of 0–2%. Comparison with other similar approaches on the same data sets shows that our approach outperforms the existing approaches. PMID:25089287

  9. Hydrogen sulfide detection based on reflection: from a poison test approach of ancient China to single-cell accurate localization.

    PubMed

    Kong, Hao; Ma, Zhuoran; Wang, Song; Gong, Xiaoyun; Zhang, Sichun; Zhang, Xinrong

    2014-08-05

    With the inspiration of an ancient Chinese poison test approach, we report a rapid hydrogen sulfide detection strategy in specific areas of live cells using silver needles with good spatial resolution of 2 × 2 μm(2). Besides the accurate-localization ability, this reflection-based strategy also has attractive merits of convenience and robust response when free pretreatment and short detection time are concerned. The success of endogenous H2S level evaluation in cellular cytoplasm and nuclear of human A549 cells promises the application potential of our strategy in scientific research and medical diagnosis.

  10. An accurate heart beat detection method in the EKG recorded in fMRI system.

    PubMed

    Oh, Sung Suk; Chung, Jun-Young; Yoon, Hyo Woon; Park, HyunWook

    2007-01-01

    The simultaneous recording of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and electroencephalogram (EEG) provides an efficient signal for the high spatiotemporal brain mapping because each modality provides complementary information. The peak detection in the EEG signal measured in the MR scanner is necessary for removal of the ballistocardiac artifact. Especially, it would be affected by the quality of the EKG signal and the variation of the heart beat rate. Therefore, we propose the peak detection method using a K-teager energy operator (K-TEO) as well as further refinement processes in order to detect precise peaks. We applied this technique to the analysis of simulation waves with random noise and abrupt heat beat changes.

  11. Accurate detection and complete tracking of large populations of features in three dimensions.

    PubMed

    Gao, Yongxiang; Kilfoil, Maria L

    2009-03-16

    Localization and tracking of colloidal particles in microscopy images generates the raw data necessary to understand both the dynamics and the mechanical properties of colloidal model systems. Yet, despite the obvious importance of analyzing particle movement in three dimensions (3D), accurate sub-pixel localization of the particles in 3D has received little attention so far. Tracking has been limited by the choice of whether to track all particles in a low-density system, or whether to neglect the most mobile fraction of particles in a dense system. Moreover, assertions are frequently made on the accuracies of methods for locating particles in colloid physics and in biology, and the field of particle locating and tracking can be well-served by quantitative comparison of relative performances. We show that by iterating sub-pixel localization in three dimensions, the centers of particles can be more accurately located in three-dimensions (3D) than with all previous methods by at least half an order of magnitude. In addition, we show that implementing a multi-pass deflation approach, greater fidelity can be achieved in reconstruction of trajectories, once particle positions are known. In general, all future work must defend the accuracy of the particle tracks to be considered reliable. Specifically, other researchers must use the methods presented here (or an alternative whose accuracy can be substantianted) in order for the entire investigation to be considered legitimate, if the basis of the physical argument (in colloids, biology, or any other application) depends on quantitative accuracy of particle positions. We compare our algorithms to other recent and related advances in location/tracking in colloids and in biology, and discuss the relative strengths and weaknesses of all the algorithms in various situations. We carry out performance tests directly comparing the accuracy of our and other 3D methods with simulated data for both location and tracking, and in

  12. Accurate and reproducible detection of proteins in water using an extended-gate type organic transistor biosensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Minamiki, Tsukuru; Minami, Tsuyoshi; Kurita, Ryoji; Niwa, Osamu; Wakida, Shin-ichi; Fukuda, Kenjiro; Kumaki, Daisuke; Tokito, Shizuo

    2014-06-01

    In this Letter, we describe an accurate antibody detection method using a fabricated extended-gate type organic field-effect-transistor (OFET), which can be operated at below 3 V. The protein-sensing portion of the designed device is the gate electrode functionalized with streptavidin. Streptavidin possesses high molecular recognition ability for biotin, which specifically allows for the detection of biotinylated proteins. Here, we attempted to detect biotinylated immunoglobulin G (IgG) and observed a shift of threshold voltage of the OFET upon the addition of the antibody in an aqueous solution with a competing bovine serum albumin interferent. The detection limit for the biotinylated IgG was 8 nM, which indicates the potential utility of the designed device in healthcare applications.

  13. A finite rate of innovation algorithm for fast and accurate spike detection from two-photon calcium imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oñativia, Jon; Schultz, Simon R.; Dragotti, Pier Luigi

    2013-08-01

    Objective. Inferring the times of sequences of action potentials (APs) (spike trains) from neurophysiological data is a key problem in computational neuroscience. The detection of APs from two-photon imaging of calcium signals offers certain advantages over traditional electrophysiological approaches, as up to thousands of spatially and immunohistochemically defined neurons can be recorded simultaneously. However, due to noise, dye buffering and the limited sampling rates in common microscopy configurations, accurate detection of APs from calcium time series has proved to be a difficult problem. Approach. Here we introduce a novel approach to the problem making use of finite rate of innovation (FRI) theory (Vetterli et al 2002 IEEE Trans. Signal Process. 50 1417-28). For calcium transients well fit by a single exponential, the problem is reduced to reconstructing a stream of decaying exponentials. Signals made of a combination of exponentially decaying functions with different onset times are a subclass of FRI signals, for which much theory has recently been developed by the signal processing community. Main results. We demonstrate for the first time the use of FRI theory to retrieve the timing of APs from calcium transient time series. The final algorithm is fast, non-iterative and parallelizable. Spike inference can be performed in real-time for a population of neurons and does not require any training phase or learning to initialize parameters. Significance. The algorithm has been tested with both real data (obtained by simultaneous electrophysiology and multiphoton imaging of calcium signals in cerebellar Purkinje cell dendrites), and surrogate data, and outperforms several recently proposed methods for spike train inference from calcium imaging data.

  14. A portable analog lock-in amplifier for accurate phase measurement and application in high-precision optical oxygen concentration detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Xi; Chang, Jun; Wang, Fupeng; Wang, Zongliang; Wei, Wei; Liu, Yuanyuan; Qin, Zengguang

    2017-03-01

    A portable analog lock-in amplifier capable of accurate phase detection is proposed in this paper. The proposed lock-in amplifier, which uses the dual-channel orthometric signals as the references to build the xy coordinate system, can detect the relative phase between the input and x-axis based on trigonometric function. The sensitivity of the phase measurement reaches 0.014 degree, and a detection precision of 0.1 degree is achieved. At the same time, the performance of the lock-in amplifier is verified in the high precision optical oxygen concentration detection. Experimental results reveal that the portable analog lock-in amplifier is accurate for phase detection applications. In the oxygen sensing experiments, 0.058% oxygen concentration resulted in 0.1 degree phase shift detected by the lock-in amplifier precisely. In addition, the lock-in amplifier is small and economical compared with the commercial lock-in equipments, so it can be easily integrated in many portable devices for industrial applications.

  15. A portable analog lock-in amplifier for accurate phase measurement and application in high-precision optical oxygen concentration detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Xi; Chang, Jun; Wang, Fupeng; Wang, Zongliang; Wei, Wei; Liu, Yuanyuan; Qin, Zengguang

    2016-10-01

    A portable analog lock-in amplifier capable of accurate phase detection is proposed in this paper. The proposed lock-in amplifier, which uses the dual-channel orthometric signals as the references to build the xy coordinate system, can detect the relative phase between the input and x-axis based on trigonometric function. The sensitivity of the phase measurement reaches 0.014 degree, and a detection precision of 0.1 degree is achieved. At the same time, the performance of the lock-in amplifier is verified in the high precision optical oxygen concentration detection. Experimental results reveal that the portable analog lock-in amplifier is accurate for phase detection applications. In the oxygen sensing experiments, 0.058% oxygen concentration resulted in 0.1 degree phase shift detected by the lock-in amplifier precisely. In addition, the lock-in amplifier is small and economical compared with the commercial lock-in equipments, so it can be easily integrated in many portable devices for industrial applications.

  16. Recent Results on the Accurate Measurements of the Dielectric Constant of Seawater at 1.413GHZ

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lang, R.H.; Tarkocin, Y.; Utku, C.; Le Vine, D.M.

    2008-01-01

    Measurements of the complex. dielectric constant of seawater at 30.00 psu, 35.00 psu and 38.27 psu over the temperature range from 5 C to 3 5 at 1.413 GHz are given and compared with the Klein-Swift results. A resonant cavity technique is used. The calibration constant used in the cavity perturbation formulas is determined experimentally using methanol and ethanediol (ethylene glycol) as reference liquids. Analysis of the data shows that the measurements are accurate to better than 1.0% in almost all cases studied.

  17. RT-PCR is a more accurate diagnostic tool for detection of BCR-ABL rearrangement

    SciTech Connect

    Zehnbauer, B.A.; Allen, A.P.; McGrath, S.D.

    1994-09-01

    Detection of the Philadelphia chromosome (Ph1) or genomic Southern hybridization for clonal gene rearrangement (GSH-R) has provided very specific identification of BCR-ABL gene rearrangement. Reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) is diagnostic for patterns of BCR-ABL expression which are undetected by GSH-R and/or Ph1 and provides increased sensitivity both at diagnosis and in detection of minimal residual leukemia. Fifty-three specimens (of 150 tested from 119 consecutive leukemia patients) were RT-PCR positive for BCR-ABL gene expression confirmed by hybridization of PCR products with b{sub 3}a{sub 2}, b{sub 2}a{sub 2}, or e{sub 1}a{sub 2} junction-specific oligonucleotides. In 6 cases of CML with GSH-R{sup {minus}}at diagnosis, RT-PCR provided specific BCR-ABL identification. Deletion of BCR regions, low mitotic index, or e{sub 1}a{sub 2} expression caused failure to detect GSH-R or Ph1 translocation.

  18. Avoiding incidental predation by mammalian herbivores: accurate detection and efficient response in aphids.

    PubMed

    Gish, Moshe; Dafni, Amots; Inbar, Moshe

    2011-09-01

    Mammalian herbivores eat plants that may also provide food and shelter for insects. The direct trophic effect of the browsing and grazing of mammalian herbivory on insects, which is probably prevalent in terrestrial ecosystems, has been mostly neglected by ecologists. We examined how the aphid Uroleucon sonchi L. deals with the danger of incidental predation by mammalian herbivores. We found that most (76%) of the aphids in a colony survive the ingestion of the plant by a feeding herbivore. They do so by sensing the combination of heat and humidity in the herbivore's breath and immediately dropping off the plant in large numbers. Their ability to sense the herbivore's breath or their tendency to drop off the plant weakens as ambient temperature rises. This could indicate a limitation of the aphids' sensory system or an adaptation that enables them to avoid the hostile conditions on a hot ground. Once on the ground, U. sonchi is highly mobile and capable of locating a new host plant by advancing in a pattern that differs significantly from random movement. The accurate and efficient defense mechanism of U. sonchi emphasizes the significance of incidental predation as a danger to plant-dwelling invertebrates.

  19. Avoiding incidental predation by mammalian herbivores: accurate detection and efficient response in aphids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gish, Moshe; Dafni, Amots; Inbar, Moshe

    2011-09-01

    Mammalian herbivores eat plants that may also provide food and shelter for insects. The direct trophic effect of the browsing and grazing of mammalian herbivory on insects, which is probably prevalent in terrestrial ecosystems, has been mostly neglected by ecologists. We examined how the aphid Uroleucon sonchi L. deals with the danger of incidental predation by mammalian herbivores. We found that most (76%) of the aphids in a colony survive the ingestion of the plant by a feeding herbivore. They do so by sensing the combination of heat and humidity in the herbivore's breath and immediately dropping off the plant in large numbers. Their ability to sense the herbivore's breath or their tendency to drop off the plant weakens as ambient temperature rises. This could indicate a limitation of the aphids' sensory system or an adaptation that enables them to avoid the hostile conditions on a hot ground. Once on the ground, U. sonchi is highly mobile and capable of locating a new host plant by advancing in a pattern that differs significantly from random movement. The accurate and efficient defense mechanism of U. sonchi emphasizes the significance of incidental predation as a danger to plant-dwelling invertebrates.

  20. SU-E-J-23: An Accurate Algorithm to Match Imperfectly Matched Images for Lung Tumor Detection Without Markers

    SciTech Connect

    Rozario, T; Bereg, S; Chiu, T; Liu, H; Kearney, V; Jiang, L; Mao, W

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: In order to locate lung tumors on projection images without internal markers, digitally reconstructed radiograph (DRR) is created and compared with projection images. Since lung tumors always move and their locations change on projection images while they are static on DRRs, a special DRR (background DRR) is generated based on modified anatomy from which lung tumors are removed. In addition, global discrepancies exist between DRRs and projections due to their different image originations, scattering, and noises. This adversely affects comparison accuracy. A simple but efficient comparison algorithm is reported. Methods: This method divides global images into a matrix of small tiles and similarities will be evaluated by calculating normalized cross correlation (NCC) between corresponding tiles on projections and DRRs. The tile configuration (tile locations) will be automatically optimized to keep the tumor within a single tile which has bad matching with the corresponding DRR tile. A pixel based linear transformation will be determined by linear interpolations of tile transformation results obtained during tile matching. The DRR will be transformed to the projection image level and subtracted from it. The resulting subtracted image now contains only the tumor. A DRR of the tumor is registered to the subtracted image to locate the tumor. Results: This method has been successfully applied to kV fluoro images (about 1000 images) acquired on a Vero (Brainlab) for dynamic tumor tracking on phantom studies. Radiation opaque markers are implanted and used as ground truth for tumor positions. Although, other organs and bony structures introduce strong signals superimposed on tumors at some angles, this method accurately locates tumors on every projection over 12 gantry angles. The maximum error is less than 2.6 mm while the total average error is 1.0 mm. Conclusion: This algorithm is capable of detecting tumor without markers despite strong background signals.

  1. Accurate Detection of Interaural Time Differences by a Population of Slowly Integrating Neurons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vasilkov, Viacheslav A.; Tikidji-Hamburyan, Ruben A.

    2012-03-01

    For localization of a sound source, animals and humans process the microsecond interaural time differences of arriving sound waves. How nervous systems, consisting of elements with time constants of about and more than 1 ms, can reach such high precision is still an open question. In this Letter we present a hypothesis and show theoretical and computational evidence that a rather large population of slowly integrating neurons with inhibitory and excitatory inputs (EI neurons) can detect minute temporal disparities in input signals which are significantly less than any time constant in the system.

  2. Possibility of detecting anisotropic expansion of the universe by very accurate astrometry measurements.

    PubMed

    Quercellini, Claudia; Quartin, Miguel; Amendola, Luca

    2009-04-17

    Refined astrometry measurements allow us to detect large-scale deviations from isotropy through real-time observations of changes in the angular separation between sources at cosmic distances. This "cosmic parallax" effect is a powerful consistency test of the Friedmann-Robertson-Walker metric and may set independent constraints on cosmic anisotropy. We apply this novel general test to Lemaitre-Tolman-Bondi cosmologies with off-center observers and show that future satellite missions such as Gaia might achieve accuracies that would put limits on the off-center distance which are competitive with cosmic microwave background dipole constraints.

  3. Accurate, multi-kb reads resolve complex populations and detect rare microorganisms

    PubMed Central

    Sharon, Itai; Kertesz, Michael; Hug, Laura A.; Pushkarev, Dmitry; Blauwkamp, Timothy A.; Castelle, Cindy J.; Amirebrahimi, Mojgan; Thomas, Brian C.; Burstein, David; Tringe, Susannah G.; Williams, Kenneth H.

    2015-01-01

    Accurate evaluation of microbial communities is essential for understanding global biogeochemical processes and can guide bioremediation and medical treatments. Metagenomics is most commonly used to analyze microbial diversity and metabolic potential, but assemblies of the short reads generated by current sequencing platforms may fail to recover heterogeneous strain populations and rare organisms. Here we used short (150-bp) and long (multi-kb) synthetic reads to evaluate strain heterogeneity and study microorganisms at low abundance in complex microbial communities from terrestrial sediments. The long-read data revealed multiple (probably dozens of) closely related species and strains from previously undescribed Deltaproteobacteria and Aminicenantes (candidate phylum OP8). Notably, these are the most abundant organisms in the communities, yet short-read assemblies achieved only partial genome coverage, mostly in the form of short scaffolds (N50 = ∼2200 bp). Genome architecture and metabolic potential for these lineages were reconstructed using a new synteny-based method. Analysis of long-read data also revealed thousands of species whose abundances were <0.1% in all samples. Most of the organisms in this “long tail” of rare organisms belong to phyla that are also represented by abundant organisms. Genes encoding glycosyl hydrolases are significantly more abundant than expected in rare genomes, suggesting that rare species may augment the capability for carbon turnover and confer resilience to changing environmental conditions. Overall, the study showed that a diversity of closely related strains and rare organisms account for a major portion of the communities. These are probably common features of many microbial communities and can be effectively studied using a combination of long and short reads. PMID:25665577

  4. Adsorption of lactate dehydrogenase enzyme on carbon nanotubes: how to get accurate results for the cytotoxicity of these nanomaterials.

    PubMed

    Forest, Valérie; Figarol, Agathe; Boudard, Delphine; Cottier, Michèle; Grosseau, Philippe; Pourchez, Jérémie

    2015-03-31

    Carbon nanotube (CNT) cytotoxicity is frequently investigated using in vitro classical toxicology assays. However, these cellular tests, usually based on the use of colorimetric or fluorimetric dyes, were designed for chemicals and may not be suitable for nanosized materials. Indeed, because of their unique physicochemical properties CNT can interfere with the assays and bias the results. To get accurate data and draw reliable conclusions, these artifacts should be carefully taken into account. The aim of this study was to evaluate qualitatively and quantitatively the interferences occurring between CNT and the commonly used lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) assay. Experiments under cell-free conditions were performed, and it was clearly demonstrated that artifacts occurred. They were due to the intrinsic absorbance of CNT on one hand and the adsorption of LDH at the CNT surface on the other hand. The adsorption of LDH on CNT was modeled and was found to fit the Langmuir model. The K(ads) and n(eq) constants were defined, allowing the correction of results obtained from cellular experiments to get more accurate data and lead to proper conclusions on the cytotoxicity of CNT.

  5. Pioneer 11 meteoroid detection experiment - Preliminary results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Humes, D. H.; Alvarez, J. M.; Kinard, W. H.; Oneal, R. L.

    1975-01-01

    The concentration of meteoroids of mass about 0.01 microgram in interplanetary space, in the asteroid belt, and near Jupiter has been measured. The data confirm the Pioneer 10 observation that the asteroid belt is not highly populated with small meteoroids, suggest that the high concentration of small particles around Jupiter is the result of gravitational focusing, and provide an indication of the mass distribution of meteoroids in interplanetary space.

  6. Theoretical Synthesis of Indirect Detection Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Profumo, Stefano

    2015-04-01

    Can we learn about New Physics with astronomical and astro-particle data? Understanding how this is possible is key to unraveling one of the most pressing mysteries at the interface of cosmology and particle physics: the fundamental, particle-physics nature of dark matter. I will discuss some of the recent puzzling findings in astro-particle and astronomical observations that might be related to signals from dark matter. I will first review the status of explanations to the cosmic-ray positron excess, emphasizing how we might be able to discriminate between astrophysical sources and dark matter. I will then discuss the evidence for an X-ray line at 3.5 keV, and present new results on systematic effects and on the role of previously underestimated astrophysical lines. Finally, I will briefly discuss a reported excess of gamma rays from the central regions of the Galaxy.

  7. Highly-accurate metabolomic detection of early-stage ovarian cancer

    PubMed Central

    Gaul, David A.; Mezencev, Roman; Long, Tran Q.; Jones, Christina M.; Benigno, Benedict B.; Gray, Alexander; Fernández, Facundo M.; McDonald, John F.

    2015-01-01

    High performance mass spectrometry was employed to interrogate the serum metabolome of early-stage ovarian cancer (OC) patients and age-matched control women. The resulting spectral features were used to establish a linear support vector machine (SVM) model of sixteen diagnostic metabolites that are able to identify early-stage OC with 100% accuracy in our patient cohort. The results provide evidence for the importance of lipid and fatty acid metabolism in OC and serve as the foundation of a clinically significant diagnostic test. PMID:26573008

  8. Detecting Elevated Cholesterol Levels: Part 1: How accurate is the Reflotron?

    PubMed

    Reimer, H L; Elford, R W; Shumak, S

    1991-11-01

    To assess accuracy of blood cholesterol measurements in the office, fingerprick blood cholesterol assays by a dry reagent chemistry analyzer were compared in 151 patients with simultaneous venipuncture cholesterol assays by standard laboratory methods. Compared with the laboratory assay, seven of eight analyzers had total absolute biases less than 5%. Variability in results was comparable to that of community laboratories.

  9. A 2015 survey of established or potential epigenetic biomarkers for the accurate detection of human cancers.

    PubMed

    Amacher, David E

    2016-07-01

    Context The silencing or activation of cancer-associated genes by epigenetic mechanisms can ultimately lead to the clonal expansion of cancer cells. Objective The aim of this review is to summarize all relevant epigenetic biomarkers that have been proposed to date for the diagnosis of some prevalent human cancers. Methods A Medline search for the terms epigenetic biomarkers, human cancers, DNA methylation, histone modifications and microRNAs was performed. Results One hundred fifty-seven relevant publications were found and reviewed. Conclusion To date, a significant number of potential epigenetic cancer biomarkers of human cancer have been investigated, and some have advanced to clinical implementation.

  10. Fast and accurate detection of cancer cell using a versatile three-channel plasmonic sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoseinian, M.; Ahmadi, A. R.; Bolorizadeh, M. A.

    2016-09-01

    Surface Plasmon Resonance (SPR) optical fiber sensors can be used as cost-effective small sized biosensors that are relatively simple to operate. Additionally, these instruments are label-free, hence rendering them highly sensitive to biological measurements. In this study, a three-channel microstructure optical fiber plasmonic-based portable biosensor is designed and analyzed using Finite Element Method. The proposed system is capable of determining changes in sample's refractive index with precision of order one thousandth. The biosensor measures three absorption resonance wavelengths of the analytes simultaneously. This property is one of the main advantages of the proposed biosensor since it reduces the error in the measured wavelength and enhances the accuracy of the results up to 10-5 m/RIU by reducing noise. In this paper, Jurkat cell, an indicator cell for leukemia cancer, is considered as the analyte; and its absorption resonance wavelengths as well as sensitivity in each channel are determined.

  11. Toward optimizing patient-specific IMRT QA techniques in the accurate detection of dosimetrically acceptable and unacceptable patient plans

    SciTech Connect

    McKenzie, Elizabeth M.; Balter, Peter A.; Stingo, Francesco C.; Jones, Jimmy; Followill, David S.; Kry, Stephen F.

    2014-12-15

    was no significant difference in the performance of any device between gamma criteria of 2%/2 mm, 3%/3 mm, and 5%/3 mm. Finally, optimal cutoffs (e.g., percent of pixels passing gamma) were determined for each device and while clinical practice commonly uses a threshold of 90% of pixels passing for most cases, these results showed variability in the optimal cutoff among devices. Conclusions: IMRT QA devices have differences in their ability to accurately detect dosimetrically acceptable and unacceptable plans. Field-by-field analysis with a MapCheck device and use of the MapCheck with a MapPhan phantom while delivering at planned rotational gantry angles resulted in a significantly poorer ability to accurately sort acceptable and unacceptable plans compared with the other techniques examined. Patient-specific IMRT QA techniques in general should be thoroughly evaluated for their ability to correctly differentiate acceptable and unacceptable plans. Additionally, optimal agreement thresholds should be identified and used as common clinical thresholds typically worked very poorly to identify unacceptable plans.

  12. Visual Mapping of Sedimentary Facies Can Yield Accurate And Geomorphically Meaningful Results at Morphological Unit to River Segment Scales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pasternack, G. B.; Wyrick, J. R.; Jackson, J. R.

    2014-12-01

    Long practiced in fisheries, visual substrate mapping of coarse-bedded rivers is eschewed by geomorphologists for inaccuracy and limited sizing data. Geomorphologists perform time-consuming measurements of surficial grains, with the few locations precluding spatially explicit mapping and analysis of sediment facies. Remote sensing works for bare land, but not vegetated or subaqueous sediments. As visual systems apply the log2 Wentworth scale made for sieving, they suffer from human inability to readily discern those classes. We hypothesized that size classes centered on the PDF of the anticipated sediment size distribution would enable field crews to accurately (i) identify presence/absence of each class in a facies patch and (ii) estimate the relative amount of each class to within 10%. We first tested 6 people using 14 measured samples with different mixtures. Next, we carried out facies mapping for ~ 37 km of the lower Yuba River in California. Finally, we tested the resulting data to see if it produced statistically significant hydraulic-sedimentary-geomorphic results. Presence/absence performance error was 0-4% for four people, 13% for one person, and 33% for one person. The last person was excluded from further effort. For the abundance estimation performance error was 1% for one person, 7-12% for three people, and 33% for one person. This last person was further trained and re-tested. We found that the samples easiest to visually quantify were unimodal and bimodal, while those most difficult had nearly equal amounts of each size. This confirms psychological studies showing that humans have a more difficult time quantifying abundances of subgroups when confronted with well-mixed groups. In the Yuba, mean grain size decreased downstream, as is typical for an alluvial river. When averaged by reach, mean grain size and bed slope were correlated with an r2 of 0.95. At the morphological unit (MU) scale, eight in-channel bed MU types had an r2 of 0.90 between mean

  13. Infectious titres of sheep scrapie and bovine spongiform encephalopathy agents cannot be accurately predicted from quantitative laboratory test results.

    PubMed

    González, Lorenzo; Thorne, Leigh; Jeffrey, Martin; Martin, Stuart; Spiropoulos, John; Beck, Katy E; Lockey, Richard W; Vickery, Christopher M; Holder, Thomas; Terry, Linda

    2012-11-01

    It is widely accepted that abnormal forms of the prion protein (PrP) are the best surrogate marker for the infectious agent of prion diseases and, in practice, the detection of such disease-associated (PrP(d)) and/or protease-resistant (PrP(res)) forms of PrP is the cornerstone of diagnosis and surveillance of the transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs). Nevertheless, some studies question the consistent association between infectivity and abnormal PrP detection. To address this discrepancy, 11 brain samples of sheep affected with natural scrapie or experimental bovine spongiform encephalopathy were selected on the basis of the magnitude and predominant types of PrP(d) accumulation, as shown by immunohistochemical (IHC) examination; contra-lateral hemi-brain samples were inoculated at three different dilutions into transgenic mice overexpressing ovine PrP and were also subjected to quantitative analysis by three biochemical tests (BCTs). Six samples gave 'low' infectious titres (10⁶·⁵ to 10⁶·⁷ LD₅₀ g⁻¹) and five gave 'high titres' (10⁸·¹ to ≥ 10⁸·⁷ LD₅₀ g⁻¹) and, with the exception of the Western blot analysis, those two groups tended to correspond with samples with lower PrP(d)/PrP(res) results by IHC/BCTs. However, no statistical association could be confirmed due to high individual sample variability. It is concluded that although detection of abnormal forms of PrP by laboratory methods remains useful to confirm TSE infection, infectivity titres cannot be predicted from quantitative test results, at least for the TSE sources and host PRNP genotypes used in this study. Furthermore, the near inverse correlation between infectious titres and Western blot results (high protease pre-treatment) argues for a dissociation between infectivity and PrP(res).

  14. Can Community Health Workers Report Accurately on Births and Deaths? Results of Field Assessments in Ethiopia, Malawi and Mali

    PubMed Central

    Silva, Romesh; Amouzou, Agbessi; Munos, Melinda; Marsh, Andrew; Hazel, Elizabeth; Victora, Cesar; Black, Robert; Bryce, Jennifer

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Most low-income countries lack complete and accurate vital registration systems. As a result, measures of under-five mortality rates rely mostly on household surveys. In collaboration with partners in Ethiopia, Ghana, Malawi, and Mali, we assessed the completeness and accuracy of reporting of births and deaths by community-based health workers, and the accuracy of annualized under-five mortality rate estimates derived from these data. Here we report on results from Ethiopia, Malawi and Mali. Method In all three countries, community health workers (CHWs) were trained, equipped and supported to report pregnancies, births and deaths within defined geographic areas over a period of at least fifteen months. In-country institutions collected these data every month. At each study site, we administered a full birth history (FBH) or full pregnancy history (FPH), to women of reproductive age via a census of households in Mali and via household surveys in Ethiopia and Malawi. Using these FBHs/FPHs as a validation data source, we assessed the completeness of the counts of births and deaths and the accuracy of under-five, infant, and neonatal mortality rates from the community-based method against the retrospective FBH/FPH for rolling twelve-month periods. For each method we calculated total cost, average annual cost per 1,000 population, and average cost per vital event reported. Results On average, CHWs submitted monthly vital event reports for over 95 percent of catchment areas in Ethiopia and Malawi, and for 100 percent of catchment areas in Mali. The completeness of vital events reporting by CHWs varied: we estimated that 30%-90% of annualized expected births (i.e. the number of births estimated using a FPH) were documented by CHWs and 22%-91% of annualized expected under-five deaths were documented by CHWs. Resulting annualized under-five mortality rates based on the CHW vital events reporting were, on average, under-estimated by 28% in Ethiopia, 32% in

  15. Accurate estimation of entropy in very short physiological time series: the problem of atrial fibrillation detection in implanted ventricular devices.

    PubMed

    Lake, Douglas E; Moorman, J Randall

    2011-01-01

    Entropy estimation is useful but difficult in short time series. For example, automated detection of atrial fibrillation (AF) in very short heart beat interval time series would be useful in patients with cardiac implantable electronic devices that record only from the ventricle. Such devices require efficient algorithms, and the clinical situation demands accuracy. Toward these ends, we optimized the sample entropy measure, which reports the probability that short templates will match with others within the series. We developed general methods for the rational selection of the template length m and the tolerance matching r. The major innovation was to allow r to vary so that sufficient matches are found for confident entropy estimation, with conversion of the final probability to a density by dividing by the matching region volume, 2r(m). The optimized sample entropy estimate and the mean heart beat interval each contributed to accurate detection of AF in as few as 12 heartbeats. The final algorithm, called the coefficient of sample entropy (COSEn), was developed using the canonical MIT-BIH database and validated in a new and much larger set of consecutive Holter monitor recordings from the University of Virginia. In patients over the age of 40 yr old, COSEn has high degrees of accuracy in distinguishing AF from normal sinus rhythm in 12-beat calculations performed hourly. The most common errors are atrial or ventricular ectopy, which increase entropy despite sinus rhythm, and atrial flutter, which can have low or high entropy states depending on dynamics of atrioventricular conduction.

  16. Three-dimensional accurate detection of lung emphysema in rats using ultra-short and zero echo time MRI.

    PubMed

    Bianchi, Andrea; Tibiletti, Marta; Kjørstad, Åsmund; Birk, Gerald; Schad, Lothar R; Stierstorfer, Birgit; Rasche, Volker; Stiller, Detlef

    2015-11-01

    Emphysema is a life-threatening pathology that causes irreversible destruction of alveolar walls. In vivo imaging techniques play a fundamental role in the early non-invasive pre-clinical and clinical detection and longitudinal follow-up of this pathology. In the present study, we aimed to evaluate the feasibility of using high resolution radial three-dimensional (3D) zero echo time (ZTE) and 3D ultra-short echo time (UTE) MRI to accurately detect lung pathomorphological changes in a rodent model of emphysema.Porcine pancreas elastase (PPE) was intratracheally administered to the rats to produce the emphysematous changes. 3D ZTE MRI, low and high definition 3D UTE MRI and micro-computed tomography images were acquired 4 weeks after the PPE challenge. Signal-to-noise ratios (SNRs) were measured in PPE-treated and control rats. T2* values were computed from low definition 3D UTE MRI. Histomorphometric measurements were made after euthanizing the animals. Both ZTE and UTE MR images showed a significant decrease in the SNR measured in PPE-treated lungs compared with controls, due to the pathomorphological changes taking place in the challenged lungs. A significant decrease in T2* values in PPE-challenged animals compared with controls was measured using UTE MRI. Histomorphometric measurements showed a significant increase in the mean linear intercept in PPE-treated lungs. UTE yielded significantly higher SNR compared with ZTE (14% and 30% higher in PPE-treated and non-PPE-treated lungs, respectively).This study showed that optimized 3D radial UTE and ZTE MRI can provide lung images of excellent quality, with high isotropic spatial resolution (400 µm) and SNR in parenchymal tissue (>25) and negligible motion artifacts in freely breathing animals. These techniques were shown to be useful non-invasive instruments to accurately and reliably detect the pathomorphological alterations taking place in emphysematous lungs, without incurring the risks of cumulative radiation

  17. New Method for Accurate Calibration of Micro-Channel Plate based Detection Systems and its use in the Fast Plasma Investigation of NASA's Magnetospheric MultiScale Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gliese, U.; Avanov, L. A.; Barrie, A.; Kujawski, J. T.; Mariano, A. J.; Tucker, C. J.; Chornay, D. J.; Cao, N. T.; Zeuch, M.; Pollock, C. J.; Jacques, A. D.

    2013-12-01

    concepts of this method, named threshold scan, will be presented. It will be shown how to derive all the individual detection system parameters. This new method has been successfully applied to achieve a highly accurate calibration of the 16 Dual Electron Spectrometers and 16 Dual Ion Spectrometers of the MMS mission. The practical application of the method will be presented together with the achieved calibration results and their significance. Finally, it will be shown how this method will be applied to ensure the best possible in flight calibration during the mission.

  18. An automatic method for fast and accurate liver segmentation in CT images using a shape detection level set method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Jeongjin; Kim, Namkug; Lee, Ho; Seo, Joon Beom; Won, Hyung Jin; Shin, Yong Moon; Shin, Yeong Gil

    2007-03-01

    Automatic liver segmentation is still a challenging task due to the ambiguity of liver boundary and the complex context of nearby organs. In this paper, we propose a faster and more accurate way of liver segmentation in CT images with an enhanced level set method. The speed image for level-set propagation is smoothly generated by increasing number of iterations in anisotropic diffusion filtering. This prevents the level-set propagation from stopping in front of local minima, which prevails in liver CT images due to irregular intensity distributions of the interior liver region. The curvature term of shape modeling level-set method captures well the shape variations of the liver along the slice. Finally, rolling ball algorithm is applied for including enhanced vessels near the liver boundary. Our approach are tested and compared to manual segmentation results of eight CT scans with 5mm slice distance using the average distance and volume error. The average distance error between corresponding liver boundaries is 1.58 mm and the average volume error is 2.2%. The average processing time for the segmentation of each slice is 5.2 seconds, which is much faster than the conventional ones. Accurate and fast result of our method will expedite the next stage of liver volume quantification for liver transplantations.

  19. Aptamer-conjugated live human immune cell based biosensors for the accurate detection of C-reactive protein

    PubMed Central

    Hwang, Jangsun; Seo, Youngmin; Jo, Yeonho; Son, Jaewoo; Choi, Jonghoon

    2016-01-01

    C-reactive protein (CRP) is a pentameric protein that is present in the bloodstream during inflammatory events, e.g., liver failure, leukemia, and/or bacterial infection. The level of CRP indicates the progress and prognosis of certain diseases; it is therefore necessary to measure CRP levels in the blood accurately. The normal concentration of CRP is reported to be 1–3 mg/L. Inflammatory events increase the level of CRP by up to 500 times; accordingly, CRP is a biomarker of acute inflammatory disease. In this study, we demonstrated the preparation of DNA aptamer-conjugated peripheral blood mononuclear cells (Apt-PBMCs) that specifically capture human CRP. Live PBMCs functionalized with aptamers could detect different levels of human CRP by producing immune complexes with reporter antibody. The binding behavior of Apt-PBMCs toward highly concentrated CRP sites was also investigated. The immune responses of Apt-PBMCs were evaluated by measuring TNF-alpha secretion after stimulating the PBMCs with lipopolysaccharides. In summary, engineered Apt-PBMCs have potential applications as live cell based biosensors and for in vitro tracing of CRP secretion sites. PMID:27708384

  20. Evaluation of a pan-serotype point-of-care rapid diagnostic assay for accurate detection of acute dengue infection.

    PubMed

    Vivek, Rosario; Ahamed, Syed Fazil; Kotabagi, Shalini; Chandele, Anmol; Khanna, Ira; Khanna, Navin; Nayak, Kaustuv; Dias, Mary; Kaja, Murali-Krishna; Shet, Anita

    2017-03-01

    The catastrophic rise in dengue infections in India and globally has created a need for an accurate, validated low-cost rapid diagnostic test (RDT) for dengue. We prospectively evaluated the diagnostic performance of NS1/IgM RDT (dengue day 1) using 211 samples from a pediatric dengue cohort representing all 4 serotypes in southern India. The dengue-positive panel consisted of 179 dengue real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) positive samples from symptomatic children. The dengue-negative panel consisted of 32 samples from dengue-negative febrile children and asymptomatic individuals that were negative for dengue RT-PCR/NS1 enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay/IgM/IgG. NS1/IgM RDT sensitivity was 89.4% and specificity was 93.8%. The NS1/IgM RDT showed high sensitivity throughout the acute phase of illness, in primary and secondary infections, in different severity groups, and detected all 4 dengue serotypes, including coinfections. This NS1/IgM RDT is a useful point-of-care assay for rapid and reliable diagnosis of acute dengue and an excellent surveillance tool in our battle against dengue.

  1. Aptamer-conjugated live human immune cell based biosensors for the accurate detection of C-reactive protein

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hwang, Jangsun; Seo, Youngmin; Jo, Yeonho; Son, Jaewoo; Choi, Jonghoon

    2016-10-01

    C-reactive protein (CRP) is a pentameric protein that is present in the bloodstream during inflammatory events, e.g., liver failure, leukemia, and/or bacterial infection. The level of CRP indicates the progress and prognosis of certain diseases; it is therefore necessary to measure CRP levels in the blood accurately. The normal concentration of CRP is reported to be 1–3 mg/L. Inflammatory events increase the level of CRP by up to 500 times; accordingly, CRP is a biomarker of acute inflammatory disease. In this study, we demonstrated the preparation of DNA aptamer-conjugated peripheral blood mononuclear cells (Apt-PBMCs) that specifically capture human CRP. Live PBMCs functionalized with aptamers could detect different levels of human CRP by producing immune complexes with reporter antibody. The binding behavior of Apt-PBMCs toward highly concentrated CRP sites was also investigated. The immune responses of Apt-PBMCs were evaluated by measuring TNF-alpha secretion after stimulating the PBMCs with lipopolysaccharides. In summary, engineered Apt-PBMCs have potential applications as live cell based biosensors and for in vitro tracing of CRP secretion sites.

  2. Fiber-optic immuno-biosensor for rapid and accurate detection of nerve growth factor in human blood.

    PubMed

    Tang, Liang; Cha, Yong-Mei; Li, Hongmei; Chen, Peng-Sheng; Lin, Shien-Fong

    2006-01-01

    An accurate and rapid assay of cardiac nerve growth factor (NGF) levels in blood can provide physicians with critical information regarding myocardial injury and neural remodeling in cardiac tissues to identify patients at risk of impending heart attack, thereby enabling them to receive appropriate lifesaving treatment more quickly. Currently used assay methods, such as enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), are usually time-consuming (hours to days), expensive and technically complicated. In this paper, we described the development and clinical study of a rapid and sensitive method for detection and quantification of NGF in human blood plasma. This method utilizes a fiber-optic, immuno-biosensing system which performs a fluorophore-mediated sandwich immunoassay on the surface of an optical fiber. Physiological concentrations of NGF could be quantified in both buffer and human blood plasma samples within 5 minutes. The NGF concentrations determined by the fiberoptic sensor were comparable to those by the gold standard, ELISA. Preliminary study of NGF assay in cardiac patient plasma samples showed a great potential of the fiber-optic sensor as a rapid diagnostic and prognostic tool in clinical applications.

  3. Duplicate portion sampling combined with spectrophotometric analysis affords the most accurate results when assessing daily dietary phosphorus intake.

    PubMed

    Navarro-Alarcon, Miguel; Zambrano, Esmeralda; Moreno-Montoro, Miriam; Agil, Ahmad; Olalla, Manuel

    2012-08-01

    The assessment of daily dietary phosphorus (P) intake is a major concern in human nutrition because of its relationship with Ca and Mg metabolism and osteoporosis. Within this context, we hypothesized that several of the methods available for the assessment of daily dietary intake of P are equally accurate and reliable, although few studies have been conducted to confirm this. The aim of this study then was to evaluate daily dietary P intake, which we did by 3 methods: duplicate portion sampling of 108 hospital meals, combined either with spectrophotometric analysis or the use of food composition tables, and 24-hour dietary recall for 3 consecutive days plus the use of food composition tables. The mean P daily dietary intakes found were 1106 ± 221, 1480 ± 221, and 1515 ± 223 mg/d, respectively. Daily dietary intake of P determined by spectrophotometric analysis was significantly lower (P < .001) and closer to dietary reference intakes for adolescents aged from 14 to 18 years (88.5%) and adult subjects (158.1%) compared with the other 2 methods. Duplicate portion sampling with P analysis takes into account the influence of technological and cooking processes on the P content of foods and meals and therefore afforded the most accurate and reliable P daily dietary intakes. The use of referred food composition tables overestimated daily dietary P intake. No adverse effects in relation to P nutrition (deficiencies or toxic effects) were encountered.

  4. Questioning the Specificity of ASRS-v1.1 to Accurately Detect ADHD in Substance Abusing Populations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chiasson, Jean-Pierre; Stavro, Katherine; Rizkallah, Elie; Lapierre, Luc; Dussault, Maxime; Legault, Louis; Potvin, Stephane

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To assess the specificity of the Adult ADHD Self-Report Scale (ASRS-v1.1) in detecting ADHD among individuals with substance use disorders (SUDs). Method: A chart review of 183 SUD patients was conducted. Patients were screened for ADHD with the ASRS-v1.1 and were later assessed by a psychiatrist specialized in ADHD. Results: Among SUD…

  5. Gravitational-Wave Detection (ii). Current Gravitational Wave Detector Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kanda, Nobuyuki

    2005-11-01

    The workshop session C1ii was focused on the results of recent operating detectors. 10 speakers presented the latest results of each experiments: ALLEGRO, GEO, LIGO, TAMA and VIRGO experiments. There were reports about searches for gravitational waves in analysis of observation data. The results are of no detection of gravitational waves, but observational upper-limits of gravitational waves are improved.

  6. DSS1/DSS2 astrometry for 1101 First Byurakan Survey blue stellar objects: Accurate positions and other results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mickaelian, A. M.

    2004-10-01

    Accurate measurements of the positions of 1101 First Byurakan Survey (FBS) blue stellar objects (the Second part of the FBS) have been carried out on the DSS1 and DSS2 (red and blue images). To establish the accuracy of the DSS1 and DSS2, measurements have been made for 153 AGN for which absolute VLBI coordinates have been published. The rms errors are: 0.45 arcsec for DSS1, 0.33 arcsec for DSS2 red, and 0.59 arcsec for DSS2 blue in each coordinate, the corresponding total positional errors being 0.64 arcsec, 0.46 arcsec, and 0.83 arcsec, respectively. The highest accuracy (0.42 arcsec) is obtained by weighted averaging of the DSS1 and DSS2 red positions. It is shown that by using all three DSS images accidental errors can be significantly reduced. The comparison of DSS2 and DSS1 images made it possible to reveal positional differences and proper motions for 78 objects (for 62 of these for the first time), including new high-probability candidate white dwarfs, and to find objects showing strong variability, i.e. high-probability candidate cataclysmic variables. Table 1 is only available in electronic form at the CDS via anonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/cgi-bin/qcat?J/A+A/426/367

  7. A novel, integrated PET-guided MRS technique resulting in more accurate initial diagnosis of high-grade glioma.

    PubMed

    Kim, Ellen S; Satter, Martin; Reed, Marilyn; Fadell, Ronald; Kardan, Arash

    2016-06-01

    Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is the most common and lethal malignant glioma in adults. Currently, the modality of choice for diagnosing brain tumor is high-resolution magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with contrast, which provides anatomic detail and localization. Studies have demonstrated, however, that MRI may have limited utility in delineating the full tumor extent precisely. Studies suggest that MR spectroscopy (MRS) can also be used to distinguish high-grade from low-grade gliomas. However, due to operator dependent variables and the heterogeneous nature of gliomas, the potential for error in diagnostic accuracy with MRS is a concern. Positron emission tomography (PET) imaging with (11)C-methionine (MET) and (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) has been shown to add additional information with respect to tumor grade, extent, and prognosis based on the premise of biochemical changes preceding anatomic changes. Combined PET/MRS is a technique that integrates information from PET in guiding the location for the most accurate metabolic characterization of a lesion via MRS. We describe a case of glioblastoma multiforme in which MRS was initially non-diagnostic for malignancy, but when MRS was repeated with PET guidance, demonstrated elevated choline/N-acetylaspartate (Cho/NAA) ratio in the right parietal mass consistent with a high-grade malignancy. Stereotactic biopsy, followed by PET image-guided resection, confirmed the diagnosis of grade IV GBM. To our knowledge, this is the first reported case of an integrated PET/MRS technique for the voxel placement of MRS. Our findings suggest that integrated PET/MRS may potentially improve diagnostic accuracy in high-grade gliomas.

  8. High-precision topography measurement through accurate in-focus plane detection with hybrid digital holographic microscope and white light interferometer module.

    PubMed

    Liżewski, Kamil; Tomczewski, Sławomir; Kozacki, Tomasz; Kostencka, Julianna

    2014-04-10

    High-precision topography measurement of micro-objects using interferometric and holographic techniques can be realized provided that the in-focus plane of an imaging system is very accurately determined. Therefore, in this paper we propose an accurate technique for in-focus plane determination, which is based on coherent and incoherent light. The proposed method consists of two major steps. First, a calibration of the imaging system with an amplitude object is performed with a common autofocusing method using coherent illumination, which allows for accurate localization of the in-focus plane position. In the second step, the position of the detected in-focus plane with respect to the imaging system is measured with white light interferometry. The obtained distance is used to accurately adjust a sample with the precision required for the measurement. The experimental validation of the proposed method is given for measurement of high-numerical-aperture microlenses with subwavelength accuracy.

  9. Low power underwater acoustic DPSK detection: Theoretical prediction and experimental results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dunne, Andrew

    This thesis presents two methods of analyzing the effectiveness of a prototype differential phase-shift keying (DPSK) detection circuit. The first method is to make modifications to the existing hardware to reliably output and record the cross-correlation values of the DPSK detection process. The second method is to write a MATLAB detection algorithm which accurately simulates the detection results of the hardware system without the need of any electronics. These two systems were tested and verified with a bench test using computer generated DPSK signals. The hardware system was tested using real acoustic data from shallow and deep water at-sea tests to determine the effectiveness of the DPSK detection circuit in different ocean environments. The hydrophone signals from the tests were recorded so that the cross-correlation values could be verified using the MATLAB detector. As a result of this study, these two systems provided more insight into how well the DPSK detection prototype works and helped to identify ways of improving the detection reliability and overall performance of the prototype DPSK detection circuit.

  10. Report: EPA Needs Accurate Data on Results of Pollution Prevention Grants to Maintain Program Integrity and Measure Effectiveness of Grants

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Report #15-P-0276, September 4, 2015. Inaccurate reporting of results misrepresents the impacts of pollution prevention activities provided to the public, and misinforms EPA management on the effectiveness of its investment in the program.

  11. An Optimized Method for Accurate Fetal Sex Prediction and Sex Chromosome Aneuploidy Detection in Non-Invasive Prenatal Testing

    PubMed Central

    Li, Haibo; Ding, Jie; Wen, Ping; Zhang, Qin; Xiang, Jingjing; Li, Qiong; Xuan, Liming; Kong, Lingyin; Mao, Yan; Zhu, Yijun; Shen, Jingjing; Liang, Bo; Li, Hong

    2016-01-01

    Massively parallel sequencing (MPS) combined with bioinformatic analysis has been widely applied to detect fetal chromosomal aneuploidies such as trisomy 21, 18, 13 and sex chromosome aneuploidies (SCAs) by sequencing cell-free fetal DNA (cffDNA) from maternal plasma, so-called non-invasive prenatal testing (NIPT). However, many technical challenges, such as dependency on correct fetal sex prediction, large variations of chromosome Y measurement and high sensitivity to random reads mapping, may result in higher false negative rate (FNR) and false positive rate (FPR) in fetal sex prediction as well as in SCAs detection. Here, we developed an optimized method to improve the accuracy of the current method by filtering out randomly mapped reads in six specific regions of the Y chromosome. The method reduces the FNR and FPR of fetal sex prediction from nearly 1% to 0.01% and 0.06%, respectively and works robustly under conditions of low fetal DNA concentration (1%) in testing and simulation of 92 samples. The optimized method was further confirmed by large scale testing (1590 samples), suggesting that it is reliable and robust enough for clinical testing. PMID:27441628

  12. Establishment of an accurate and fast detection method using molecular beacons in loop-mediated isothermal amplification assay

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Wei; Huang, Simo; Liu, Ningwei; Dong, Derong; Yang, Zhan; Tang, Yue; Ma, Wen; He, Xiaoming; Ao, Da; Xu, Yaqing; Zou, Dayang; Huang, Liuyu

    2017-01-01

    This study established a constant-temperature fluorescence quantitative detection method, combining loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) with molecular beacons. The advantages of LAMP are its convenience and efficiency, as it does not require a thermocycler and results are easily visualized by the naked eye. However, a major disadvantage of current LAMP techniques is the use of indirect evaluation methods (e.g., electrophoresis, SYBR Green I dye, precipitation, hydroxynaphthol blue dye, the turbidimetric method, calcein/Mn2+ dye, and the composite probe method), which cannot distinguish between the desired products and products of nonspecific amplification, thereby leading to false positives. Use of molecular beacons avoids this problem because molecular beacons produce fluorescence signals only when binding to target DNA, thus acting as a direct indicator of amplification products. Our analyses determined the optimal conditions for molecular beacons as an evaluation tool in LAMP: beacon length of 25–45 bp, beacon concentration of 0.6–1 pmol/μL, and reaction temperature of 60–65 °C. In conclusion, we validated a novel molecular beacon loop-mediated isothermal amplification method (MB-LAMP), realizing the direct detection of LAMP product. PMID:28059137

  13. DNA extraction techniques compared for accurate detection of genetically modified organisms (GMOs) in maize food and feed products.

    PubMed

    Turkec, Aydin; Kazan, Hande; Karacanli, Burçin; Lucas, Stuart J

    2015-08-01

    In this paper, DNA extraction methods have been evaluated to detect the presence of genetically modified organisms (GMOs) in maize food and feed products commercialised in Turkey. All the extraction methods tested performed well for the majority of maize foods and feed products analysed. However, the highest DNA content was achieved by the Wizard, Genespin or the CTAB method, all of which produced optimal DNA yield and purity for different maize food and feed products. The samples were then screened for the presence of GM elements, along with certified reference materials. Of the food and feed samples, 8 % tested positive for the presence of one GM element (NOS terminator), of which half (4 % of the total) also contained a second element (the Cauliflower Mosaic Virus 35S promoter). The results obtained herein clearly demonstrate the presence of GM maize in the Turkish market, and that the Foodproof GMO Screening Kit provides reliable screening of maize food and feed products.

  14. Nanoarray of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and carbon nanotubes for accurate and predictive detection in real-world environmental humidity.

    PubMed

    Zilberman, Yael; Ionescu, Radu; Feng, Xinliang; Müllen, Klaus; Haick, Hossam

    2011-08-23

    In the present work, we introduce a cross-reactive array of synthetically designed polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) and single-walled carbon nanotube (SWCNT) bilayers and demonstrate the huge potential of the array in discriminating between polar and nonpolar volatile organic compounds (VOCs), as well as between the different VOCs from each subgroup. Using appropriate combinations of PAH/SWCNT sensors, we demonstrate that high sensitivity and accuracy values can be obtained for discriminating polar and nonpolar VOCs in samples with variable humidity levels (5-80% RH). The same array of sensors exhibited self-learning capabilities that facilitated exchanging information about environmental properties under observation. The results presented here could lead to the development of a cost-effective, lightweight, low-power, and non-invasive tool for a widespread detection of VOCs in real-world environmental, security, food, health, and other applications.

  15. Towards more accurate isoscapes encouraging results from wine, water and marijuana data/model and model/model comparisons.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    West, J. B.; Ehleringer, J. R.; Cerling, T.

    2006-12-01

    Understanding how the biosphere responds to change it at the heart of biogeochemistry, ecology, and other Earth sciences. The dramatic increase in human population and technological capacity over the past 200 years or so has resulted in numerous, simultaneous changes to biosphere structure and function. This, then, has lead to increased urgency in the scientific community to try to understand how systems have already responded to these changes, and how they might do so in the future. Since all biospheric processes exhibit some patchiness or patterns over space, as well as time, we believe that understanding the dynamic interactions between natural systems and human technological manipulations can be improved if these systems are studied in an explicitly spatial context. We present here results of some of our efforts to model the spatial variation in the stable isotope ratios (δ2H and δ18O) of plants over large spatial extents, and how these spatial model predictions compare to spatially explicit data. Stable isotopes trace and record ecological processes and as such, if modeled correctly over Earth's surface allow us insights into changes in biosphere states and processes across spatial scales. The data-model comparisons show good agreement, in spite of the remaining uncertainties (e.g., plant source water isotopic composition). For example, inter-annual changes in climate are recorded in wine stable isotope ratios. Also, a much simpler model of leaf water enrichment driven with spatially continuous global rasters of precipitation and climate normals largely agrees with complex GCM modeling that includes leaf water δ18O. Our results suggest that modeling plant stable isotope ratios across large spatial extents may be done with reasonable accuracy, including over time. These spatial maps, or isoscapes, can now be utilized to help understand spatially distributed data, as well as to help guide future studies designed to understand ecological change across

  16. Panel-based Genetic Diagnostic Testing for Inherited Eye Diseases is Highly Accurate and Reproducible and More Sensitive for Variant Detection Than Exome Sequencing

    PubMed Central

    Bujakowska, Kinga M.; Sousa, Maria E.; Fonseca-Kelly, Zoë D.; Taub, Daniel G.; Janessian, Maria; Wang, Dan Yi; Au, Elizabeth D.; Sims, Katherine B.; Sweetser, David A.; Fulton, Anne B.; Liu, Qin; Wiggs, Janey L.; Gai, Xiaowu; Pierce, Eric A.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Next-generation sequencing (NGS) based methods are being adopted broadly for genetic diagnostic testing, but the performance characteristics of these techniques have not been fully defined with regard to test accuracy and reproducibility. Methods We developed a targeted enrichment and NGS approach for genetic diagnostic testing of patients with inherited eye disorders, including inherited retinal degenerations, optic atrophy and glaucoma. In preparation for providing this Genetic Eye Disease (GEDi) test on a CLIA-certified basis, we performed experiments to measure the sensitivity, specificity, reproducibility as well as the clinical sensitivity of the test. Results The GEDi test is highly reproducible and accurate, with sensitivity and specificity for single nucleotide variant detection of 97.9% and 100%, respectively. The sensitivity for variant detection was notably better than the 88.3% achieved by whole exome sequencing (WES) using the same metrics, due to better coverage of targeted genes in the GEDi test compared to commercially available exome capture sets. Prospective testing of 192 patients with IRDs indicated that the clinical sensitivity of the GEDi test is high, with a diagnostic rate of 51%. Conclusion The data suggest that based on quantified performance metrics, selective targeted enrichment is preferable to WES for genetic diagnostic testing. PMID:25412400

  17. Accurate mass determination, quantification and determination of detection limits in liquid chromatography-high-resolution time-of-flight mass spectrometry: challenges and practical solutions.

    PubMed

    Vergeynst, Leendert; Van Langenhove, Herman; Joos, Pieter; Demeestere, Kristof

    2013-07-30

    Uniform guidelines for the data processing and validation of qualitative and quantitative multi-residue analysis using full-spectrum high-resolution mass spectrometry are scarce. Through systematic research, optimal mass accuracy and sensitivity are obtained after refining the post-processing of the HRMS data. For qualitative analysis, transforming the raw profile spectra to centroid spectra is recommended resulting in a 2.3 fold improved precision on the accurate mass determination of spectrum peaks. However, processing centroid data for quantitative purposes could lead to signal interruption when too narrow mass windows are applied for the construction of extracted ion chromatograms. Therefore, peak integration on the raw profile data is recommended. An optimal width of the mass window of 50 ppm, which is a trade-off between sensitivity and selectivity, was obtained for a TOF instrument providing a resolving power of 20,000 at full width at half maximum (FWHM). For the validation of HRMS analytical methods, widespread concepts such as the signal-to-noise ratios for the determination of decision limits and detection capabilities have shown to be not always applicable because in some cases almost no noise can be detected anymore. A statistical methodology providing a reliable alternative is extended and applied.

  18. The route to MBxNyCz molecular wheels: II. Results using accurate functionals and basis sets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Güthler, A.; Mukhopadhyay, S.; Pandey, R.; Boustani, I.

    2014-04-01

    Applying ab initio quantum chemical methods, molecular wheels composed of metal and light atoms were investigated. High quality basis sets 6-31G*, TZPV, and cc-pVTZ as well as exchange and non-local correlation functionals B3LYP, BP86 and B3P86 were used. The ground-state energy and structures of cyclic planar and pyramidal clusters TiBn (for n = 3-10) were computed. In addition, the relative stability and electronic structures of molecular wheels TiBxNyCz (for x, y, z = 0-10) and MBnC10-n (for n = 2 to 5 and M = Sc to Zn) were determined. This paper sustains a follow-up study to the previous one of Boustani and Pandey [Solid State Sci. 14 (2012) 1591], in which the calculations were carried out at the HF-SCF/STO3G/6-31G level of theory to determine the initial stability and properties. The results show that there is a competition between the 2D planar and the 3D pyramidal TiBn clusters (for n = 3-8). Different isomers of TiB10 clusters were also studied and a structural transition of 3D-isomer into 2D-wheel is presented. Substitution boron in TiB10 by carbon or/and nitrogen atoms enhances the stability and leads toward the most stable wheel TiB3C7. Furthermore, the computations show that Sc, Ti and V at the center of the molecular wheels are energetically favored over other transition metal atoms of the first row.

  19. Nucleic Acids Research Group (NRG): The Importance of DNA Extraction in Metagenomics: The Gatekeeper to Accurate Results!

    PubMed Central

    Carmical, R.; Nadella, V.; Herbert, Z.; Beckloff, N.; Chittur, S.; Rosato, C.; Perera, A.; Auer, H.; Robinson, M.; Tighe, S.; Holbrook, Jennifer

    2013-01-01

    It is well recognized that the field of metagenomics is becoming a critical tool for studying previously unobtainable population dynamics at both an identification of species level and a functional or transcriptional level. Because the power to resolve microbial information is so important for identifying the components in an mixed sample, metagenomics can be used to study nearly any possible environment or system including clinical, environmental, and industrial, to name a few. Clinically, it may be used to determine sub-populations colonizing regions of the body or determining a rare infection to assist in treatment strategies. Environmentally it may be used to identify microbial populations within a soil, water or air sample, or within a bioreactor to characterize a population- based functional process. The possibilities are endless. However, the accuracy of a metagenomics dataset relies on three important “gatekeepers” including 1) The ability to effectively extract all DNA or RNA from every cell within a sample, 2) The reliability of the methods used for deep or high-throughput sequencing, and 3) The software used to analyze the data. Since DNA extraction is the first step in the technical process of metagenomics, the Nucleic Acid Research Group (NARG) conducted a study to evaluate extraction methods using a synthetic microbial sample. The synthetic microbial sample was prepared from 10 known bacteria at specific concentrations and ranging in diversity. Samples were extracted in duplicate using various popular kit based methods as well as several homebrew protocols then analyzed by NextGen sequencing on an Illumina HiSeq. Results of the study include determining the percent recovery of those organisms by comparing to the known quantity in the original synthetic mix.

  20. Accurate detection for a wide range of mutation and editing sites of microRNAs from small RNA high-throughput sequencing profiles

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Yun; Ji, Bo; Song, Renhua; Wang, Shengpeng; Li, Ting; Zhang, Xiaotuo; Chen, Kun; Li, Tianqing; Li, Jinyan

    2016-01-01

    Various types of mutation and editing (M/E) events in microRNAs (miRNAs) can change the stabilities of pre-miRNAs and/or complementarities between miRNAs and their targets. Small RNA (sRNA) high-throughput sequencing (HTS) profiles can contain many mutated and edited miRNAs. Systematic detection of miRNA mutation and editing sites from the huge volume of sRNA HTS profiles is computationally difficult, as high sensitivity and low false positive rate (FPR) are both required. We propose a novel method (named MiRME) for an accurate and fast detection of miRNA M/E sites using a progressive sequence alignment approach which refines sensitivity and improves FPR step-by-step. From 70 sRNA HTS profiles with over 1.3 billion reads, MiRME has detected thousands of statistically significant M/E sites, including 3′-editing sites, 57 A-to-I editing sites (of which 32 are novel), as well as some putative non-canonical editing sites. We demonstrated that a few non-canonical editing sites were not resulted from mutations in genome by integrating the analysis of genome HTS profiles of two human cell lines, suggesting the existence of new editing types to further diversify the functions of miRNAs. Compared with six existing studies or methods, MiRME has shown much superior performance for the identification and visualization of the M/E sites of miRNAs from the ever-increasing sRNA HTS profiles. PMID:27229138

  1. Small telescopes: detectability and the evaluation of replication results.

    PubMed

    Simonsohn, Uri

    2015-05-01

    This article introduces a new approach for evaluating replication results. It combines effect-size estimation with hypothesis testing, assessing the extent to which the replication results are consistent with an effect size big enough to have been detectable in the original study. The approach is demonstrated by examining replications of three well-known findings. Its benefits include the following: (a) differentiating "unsuccessful" replication attempts (i.e., studies yielding p > .05) that are too noisy from those that actively indicate the effect is undetectably different from zero, (b) "protecting" true findings from underpowered replications, and (c) arriving at intuitively compelling inferences in general and for the revisited replications in particular.

  2. Extensive Peptide Fractionation and y1 Ion-Based Interference Detection Method for Enabling Accurate Quantification by Isobaric Labeling and Mass Spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Niu, Mingming; Cho, Ji-Hoon; Kodali, Kiran; Pagala, Vishwajeeth; High, Anthony A; Wang, Hong; Wu, Zhiping; Li, Yuxin; Bi, Wenjian; Zhang, Hui; Wang, Xusheng; Zou, Wei; Peng, Junmin

    2017-02-22

    Isobaric labeling quantification by mass spectrometry (MS) has emerged as a powerful technology for multiplexed large-scale protein profiling, but measurement accuracy in complex mixtures is confounded by the interference from coisolated ions, resulting in ratio compression. Here we report that the ratio compression can be essentially resolved by the combination of pre-MS peptide fractionation, MS2-based interference detection, and post-MS computational interference correction. To recapitulate the complexity of biological samples, we pooled tandem mass tag (TMT)-labeled Escherichia coli peptides at 1:3:10 ratios and added in ∼20-fold more rat peptides as background, followed by the analysis of two-dimensional liquid chromatography (LC)-MS/MS. Systematic investigation shows that quantitative interference was impacted by LC fractionation depth, MS isolation window, and peptide loading amount. Exhaustive fractionation (320 × 4 h) can nearly eliminate the interference and achieve results comparable to the MS3-based method. Importantly, the interference in MS2 scans can be estimated by the intensity of contaminated y1 product ions, and we thus developed an algorithm to correct reporter ion ratios of tryptic peptides. Our data indicate that intermediate fractionation (40 × 2 h) and y1 ion-based correction allow accurate and deep TMT profiling of more than 10 000 proteins, which represents a straightforward and affordable strategy in isobaric labeling proteomics.

  3. Accurate classification of 29 objects detected in the 39 month Palermo Swift/BAT hard X-ray catalogue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parisi, P.; Masetti, N.; Jiménez-Bailón, E.; Chavushyan, V.; Palazzi, E.; Landi, R.; Malizia, A.; Bassani, L.; Bazzano, A.; Bird, A. J.; Charles, P. A.; Galaz, G.; Mason, E.; McBride, V. A.; Minniti, D.; Morelli, L.; Schiavone, F.; Ubertini, P.

    2012-09-01

    Through an optical campaign performed at four telescopes located in the northern and the southern hemispheres, plus archival data from two on-line sky surveys, we obtained optical spectroscopy for 29 counterparts of unclassified or poorly studied hard X-ray emitting objects detected with Swift /Burst Alert Telescope (BAT) and listed in the 39 month Palermo catalogue. All these objects also have observations taken with Swift /X-ray Telescope (XRT) or XMM-European Photon Imaging Camera (EPIC) which not only allow us to pinpoint their optical counterpart, but also study their X-ray spectral properties (column density, power law photon index, and F2-10 keV flux). We find that 28 sources in our sample are active galactic nuclei (AGNs); 7 are classified as type 1, while 21 are of type 2; the remaining object is a Galactic cataclysmic variable. Among our type 1 AGNs, we find 5 objects of intermediate Seyfert type (1.2-1.9) and one narrow-line Seyfert 1 galaxy; for 4 out of 7 sources, we are able to estimate the central black hole mass. Three of the type 2 AGNs of our sample display optical features typical of low-ionization nuclear emission-line regions (LINER) and one is a likely Compton thick AGN. All galaxies classified in this work are relatively nearby objects since their redshifts lie in the range 0.008-0.075; the only Galactic object found lies at an estimated distance of 90 pc. We also investigate the optical versus X-ray emission ratio of the galaxies of our sample to test the AGN unified model. For these galaxies, we also compare the X-ray absorption (caused by gas) with the optical reddening (caused by dust): we find that for most of our sources, specifically those of type 1.9-2.0 the former is higher than the latter confirming early results of Maiolino and collaborators; this is possibly due to the properties of dust in the circumnuclear obscuring torus of the AGN. Based on observations obtained from the following observatories: the Astronomical Observatory of

  4. Rapid and highly accurate detection of Drosophila suzukii, spotted wing Drosophila (Diptera: Drosophilidae) by loop-mediated isothermal amplification assays

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Drosophila suzukii, the spotted wing drosophila (SWD), is currently a major pest that causes severe economic losses to thin-skinned, small fruit growers in North America and Europe. The monitoring and early detection of SWD in the field is of the utmost importance for its proper management. Althou...

  5. Are the Original and Second Edition of the California Verbal Learning Test Equally Accurate in Detecting Malingering?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greve, Kevin W.; Curtis, Kelly L.; Bianchini, Kevin J.; Ord, Jonathan S.

    2009-01-01

    This two-part study sought to determine the equivalence of the California Verbal Learning Tests (CVLT-1 and CVLT-2) in the detection of malingering in traumatic brain injury (TBI) and chronic pain. Part 1 compared a variety of scores from the two versions in carefully matched patient groups. Part 2 used criterion groups (known-groups) methodology…

  6. Development and validation of a high-performance liquid chromatography-fluorescence detection method for the accurate quantification of colistin in human plasma.

    PubMed

    Chepyala, Divyabharathi; Tsai, I-Lin; Sun, Hsin-Yun; Lin, Shu-Wen; Kuo, Ching-Hua

    2015-02-01

    Recently, colistin has become one of the most important drugs for treating infections caused by multidrug-resistant Gram-negative bacteria. Therapeutic drug monitoring is recommended to ensure the safety and efficacy of colistin and to improve clinical outcomes. This study developed an accurate and sensitive high-performance liquid chromatography-fluorescence detection (HPLC-FLD) method for the quantification of colistin in human plasma. The sample preparation included protein precipitation using trichloroacetic acid (TCA) and methanol, followed by in-solid phase extraction (In-SPE) derivatization with 9-fluorenylmethyl chloroformate (FMOC-Cl). A Poroshell 120 EC-C18 2.1×100mm (2.7μm) column was used in the HPLC method with a mobile phase composed of acetonitrile (ACN), tetrahydrofuran (THF), and deionized (DI) water (82%, 2%, 16% (v/v), respectively). Polymyxin B1 was used as the internal standard. The total analysis time was 22min under optimal separation conditions. The HPLC-FLD method was validated over a therapeutic range of 0.3-6.0μgmL(-1). The intra-day and inter-day precisions for colistin A and colistin B were below 9.9% and 4.5% relative standard deviations, respectively. The accuracy test results were between 100.2 and 118.4%. The extraction recoveries were between 81.6 and 94.1%. The method was linear over the test range, with a 0.9991 coefficient of determination. The limit of detection was 0.1μgmL(-1). The validated HPLC-FLD method was successfully applied to quantify the colistin concentrations in 2 patient samples for therapeutic drug monitoring.

  7. Performance of a Micro-Strip Gas Chamber for event wise, high rate thermal neutron detection with accurate 2D position determination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mindur, B.; Alimov, S.; Fiutowski, T.; Schulz, C.; Wilpert, T.

    2014-12-01

    A two-dimensional (2D) position sensitive detector for neutron scattering applications based on low-pressure gas amplification and micro-strip technology was built and tested with an innovative readout electronics and data acquisition system. This detector contains a thin solid neutron converter and was developed for time- and thus wavelength-resolved neutron detection in single-event counting mode, which improves the image contrast in comparison with integrating detectors. The prototype detector of a Micro-Strip Gas Chamber (MSGC) was built with a solid natGd/CsI thermal neutron converter for spatial resolutions of about 100 μm and counting rates up to 107 neutrons/s. For attaining very high spatial resolutions and counting rates via micro-strip readout with centre-of-gravity evaluation of the signal amplitude distributions, a fast, channel-wise, self-triggering ASIC was developed. The front-end chips (MSGCROCs), which are very first signal processing components, are read out into powerful ADC-FPGA boards for on-line data processing and thereafter via Gigabit Ethernet link into the data receiving PC. The workstation PC is controlled by a modular, high performance dedicated software suite. Such a fast and accurate system is crucial for efficient radiography/tomography, diffraction or imaging applications based on high flux thermal neutron beam. In this paper a brief description of the detector concept with its operation principles, readout electronics requirements and design together with the signals processing stages performed in hardware and software are presented. In more detail the neutron test beam conditions and measurement results are reported. The focus of this paper is on the system integration, two dimensional spatial resolution, the time resolution of the readout system and the imaging capabilities of the overall setup. The detection efficiency of the detector prototype is estimated as well.

  8. Airborne Turbulence Detection and Warning ACLAIM Flight Test Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hannon, Stephen M.; Bagley, Hal R.; Soreide, Dave C.; Bowdle, David A.; Bogue, Rodney K.; Ehernberger, L. Jack

    1999-01-01

    The Airborne Coherent Lidar for Advanced Inflight Measurements (ACLAIM) is a NASA/Dryden-lead program to develop and demonstrate a 2 micrometers pulsed Doppler lidar for airborne look-ahead turbulence detection and warning. Advanced warning of approaching turbulence can significantly reduce injuries to passengers and crew aboard commercial airliners. The ACLAIM instrument is a key asset to the ongoing Turbulence component of NASA's Aviation Safety Program, aimed at reducing the accident rate aboard commercial airliners by a factor of five over the next ten years and by a factor of ten over the next twenty years. As well, the advanced turbulence warning capability can prevent "unstarts" in the inlet of supersonic aircraft engines by alerting the flight control computer which then adjusts the engine to operate in a less fuel efficient, and more turbulence tolerant, mode. Initial flight tests of the ACLAIM were completed in March and April of 1998. This paper and presentation gives results from these initial flights, with validated demonstration of Doppler lidar wind turbulence detection several kilometers ahead of the aircraft.

  9. Full automatic fiducial marker detection on coil arrays for accurate instrumentation placement during MRI guided breast interventions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Filippatos, Konstantinos; Boehler, Tobias; Geisler, Benjamin; Zachmann, Harald; Twellmann, Thorsten

    2010-02-01

    With its high sensitivity, dynamic contrast-enhanced MR imaging (DCE-MRI) of the breast is today one of the first-line tools for early detection and diagnosis of breast cancer, particularly in the dense breast of young women. However, many relevant findings are very small or occult on targeted ultrasound images or mammography, so that MRI guided biopsy is the only option for a precise histological work-up [1]. State-of-the-art software tools for computer-aided diagnosis of breast cancer in DCE-MRI data offer also means for image-based planning of biopsy interventions. One step in the MRI guided biopsy workflow is the alignment of the patient position with the preoperative MR images. In these images, the location and orientation of the coil localization unit can be inferred from a number of fiducial markers, which for this purpose have to be manually or semi-automatically detected by the user. In this study, we propose a method for precise, full-automatic localization of fiducial markers, on which basis a virtual localization unit can be subsequently placed in the image volume for the purpose of determining the parameters for needle navigation. The method is based on adaptive thresholding for separating breast tissue from background followed by rigid registration of marker templates. In an evaluation of 25 clinical cases comprising 4 different commercial coil array models and 3 different MR imaging protocols, the method yielded a sensitivity of 0.96 at a false positive rate of 0.44 markers per case. The mean distance deviation between detected fiducial centers and ground truth information that was appointed from a radiologist was 0.94mm.

  10. Rapid and Accurate Detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in Sputum Samples by Cepheid Xpert MTB/RIF Assay—A Clinical Validation Study

    PubMed Central

    Rachow, Andrea; Zumla, Alimuddin; Heinrich, Norbert; Rojas-Ponce, Gabriel; Mtafya, Bariki; Reither, Klaus; Ntinginya, Elias N.; O'Grady, Justin; Huggett, Jim; Dheda, Keertan; Boehme, Catharina; Perkins, Mark; Saathoff, Elmar; Hoelscher, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Background A crucial impediment to global tuberculosis control is the lack of an accurate, rapid diagnostic test for detection of patients with active TB. A new, rapid diagnostic method, (Cepheid) Xpert MTB/RIF Assay, is an automated sample preparation and real-time PCR instrument, which was shown to have good potential as an alternative to current reference standard sputum microscopy and culture. Methods We performed a clinical validation study on diagnostic accuracy of the Xpert MTB/RIF Assay in a TB and HIV endemic setting. Sputum samples from 292 consecutively enrolled adults from Mbeya, Tanzania, with suspected TB were subject to analysis by the Xpert MTB/RIF Assay. The diagnostic performance of Xpert MTB/RIF Assay was compared to standard sputum smear microscopy and culture. Confirmed Mycobacterium tuberculosis in a positive culture was used as a reference standard for TB diagnosis. Results Xpert MTB/RIF Assay achieved 88.4% (95%CI = 78.4% to 94.9%) sensitivity among patients with a positive culture and 99% (95%CI = 94.7% to 100.0%) specificity in patients who had no TB. HIV status did not affect test performance in 172 HIV-infected patients (58.9% of all participants). Seven additional cases (9.1% of 77) were detected by Xpert MTB/RIF Assay among the group of patients with clinical TB who were culture negative. Within 45 sputum samples which grew non-tuberculous mycobacteria the assay's specificity was 97.8% (95%CI = 88.2% to 99.9%). Conclusions The Xpert MTB/RIF Assay is a highly sensitive, specific and rapid method for diagnosing TB which has potential to complement the current reference standard of TB diagnostics and increase its overall sensitivity. Its usefulness in detecting sputum smear and culture negative patients needs further study. Further evaluation in high burden TB and HIV areas under programmatic health care settings to ascertain applicability, cost-effectiveness, robustness and local acceptance are required. PMID:21738575

  11. No Detectable Hypoxia in Malignant Salivary Gland Tumors: Preliminary Results

    SciTech Connect

    Wijffels, Karien; Hoogsteen, Ilse J.; Lok, Jasper; Rijken, Paulus F.J.W.; Marres, Henri A.M.; Wilde, Peter C.M. de; Kogel, Albert J. van der; Kaanders, Johannes H.A.M.

    2009-04-01

    Purpose: Hypoxia is detected in most solid tumors and is associated with malignant progression and adverse treatment outcomes. However, the oxygenation status of malignant salivary gland tumors has not been previously studied. The aim of this study was to investigate the potential clinical relevance of hypoxia in this tumor type. Methods and Materials: Twelve patients scheduled for surgical resection of a salivary gland tumor were preoperatively injected with the hypoxia marker pimonidazole and the proliferation marker iododeoxyuridine. Tissue samples of the dissected tumor were immunohistochemically stained for blood vessels, pimonidazole, carbonic anhydrase-IX, glucose transporters-1 and -3 (Glut-1, Glut-3), hypoxia-inducible factor-1{alpha}, iododeoxyuridine, and epidermal growth factor receptor. The tissue sections were quantitatively assessed by computerized image analysis. Results: The tissue material from 8 patients was of sufficient quality for quantitative analysis. All tumors were negative for pimonidazole binding, as well as for carbonic anhydrase-IX, Glut-1, Glut-3, and hypoxia-inducible factor-1{alpha}. The vascular density was high, with a median value of 285 mm{sup -2} (range, 209-546). The iododeoxyuridine-labeling index varied from <0.1% to 12.2% (median, 2.2%). Epidermal growth factor receptor expression levels were mostly moderate to high. In one-half of the cases, nuclear expression of epidermal growth factor receptor was observed. Conclusion: The absence of detectable pimonidazole binding, as well as the lack of expression of hypoxia-associated proteins in all tumors, indicates that malignant salivary gland tumors are generally well oxygenated. It is unlikely that hypoxia is a relevant factor for their clinical behavior and treatment responsiveness.

  12. Evaluating species richness: biased ecological inference results from spatial heterogeneity in species detection probabilities

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McNew, Lance B.; Handel, Colleen M.

    2015-01-01

    Accurate estimates of species richness are necessary to test predictions of ecological theory and evaluate biodiversity for conservation purposes. However, species richness is difficult to measure in the field because some species will almost always be overlooked due to their cryptic nature or the observer's failure to perceive their cues. Common measures of species richness that assume consistent observability across species are inviting because they may require only single counts of species at survey sites. Single-visit estimation methods ignore spatial and temporal variation in species detection probabilities related to survey or site conditions that may confound estimates of species richness. We used simulated and empirical data to evaluate the bias and precision of raw species counts, the limiting forms of jackknife and Chao estimators, and multi-species occupancy models when estimating species richness to evaluate whether the choice of estimator can affect inferences about the relationships between environmental conditions and community size under variable detection processes. Four simulated scenarios with realistic and variable detection processes were considered. Results of simulations indicated that (1) raw species counts were always biased low, (2) single-visit jackknife and Chao estimators were significantly biased regardless of detection process, (3) multispecies occupancy models were more precise and generally less biased than the jackknife and Chao estimators, and (4) spatial heterogeneity resulting from the effects of a site covariate on species detection probabilities had significant impacts on the inferred relationships between species richness and a spatially explicit environmental condition. For a real dataset of bird observations in northwestern Alaska, the four estimation methods produced different estimates of local species richness, which severely affected inferences about the effects of shrubs on local avian richness. Overall, our results

  13. Evaluating species richness: Biased ecological inference results from spatial heterogeneity in detection probabilities.

    PubMed

    McNew, Lance B; Handel, Colleen M

    2015-09-01

    Accurate estimates of species richness are necessary to test predictions of ecological theory and evaluate biodiversity for conservation purposes. However, species richness is difficult to measure in the field because some species will almost always be overlooked due to their cryptic nature or the observer's failure to perceive their cues. Common measures of species richness that assume consistent observability across species are inviting because they may require only single counts of species at survey sites. Single-visit estimation methods ignore spatial and temporal variation in species detection probabilities related to survey or site conditions that may confound estimates of species richness. We used simulated and empirical data to evaluate the bias and precision of raw species counts, the limiting forms of jackknife and Chao estimators, and multispecies occupancy models when estimating species richness to evaluate whether the choice of estimator can affect inferences about the relationships between environmental conditions and community size under variable detection processes. Four simulated scenarios with realistic and variable detection processes were considered. Results of simulations indicated that (1) raw species counts were always biased low, (2) single-visit jackknife and Chao estimators were significantly biased regardless of detection process, (3) multispecies occupancy models were more precise and generally less biased than the jackknife and Chao estimators, and (4) spatial heterogeneity resulting from the effects of a site covariate on species detection probabilities had significant impacts on the inferred relationships between species richness and a spatially explicit environmental condition. For a real data set of bird observations in northwestern Alaska, USA, the four estimation methods produced different estimates of local species richness, which severely affected inferences about the effects of shrubs on local avian richness. Overall, our

  14. The Detection of the Methylated Wif-1 Gene Is More Accurate than a Fecal Occult Blood Test for Colorectal Cancer Screening

    PubMed Central

    Baumgaertner, Isabelle; Delchier, Jean-Charles; Tournigand, Christophe; Furet, Jean-Pierre; Carrau, Jean-Pierre; Canoui-Poitrine, Florence; Sobhani, Iradj

    2014-01-01

    Background The clinical benefit of guaiac fecal occult blood tests (FOBT) is now well established for colorectal cancer screening. Growing evidence has demonstrated that epigenetic modifications and fecal microbiota changes, also known as dysbiosis, are associated with CRC pathogenesis and might be used as surrogate markers of CRC. Patients and Methods We performed a cross-sectional study that included all consecutive subjects that were referred (from 2003 to 2007) for screening colonoscopies. Prior to colonoscopy, effluents (fresh stools, sera-S and urine-U) were harvested and FOBTs performed. Methylation levels were measured in stools, S and U for 3 genes (Wif1, ALX-4, and Vimentin) selected from a panel of 63 genes; Kras mutations and seven dominant and subdominant bacterial populations in stools were quantified. Calibration was assessed with the Hosmer-Lemeshow chi-square, and discrimination was determined by calculating the C-statistic (Area Under Curve) and Net Reclassification Improvement index. Results There were 247 individuals (mean age 60.8±12.4 years, 52% of males) in the study group, and 90 (36%) of these individuals were patients with advanced polyps or invasive adenocarcinomas. A multivariate model adjusted for age and FOBT led to a C-statistic of 0.83 [0.77–0.88]. After supplementary sequential (one-by-one) adjustment, Wif-1 methylation (S or U) and fecal microbiota dysbiosis led to increases of the C-statistic to 0.90 [0.84–0.94] (p = 0.02) and 0.81 [0.74–0.86] (p = 0.49), respectively. When adjusted jointly for FOBT and Wif-1 methylation or fecal microbiota dysbiosis, the increase of the C-statistic was even more significant (0.91 and 0.85, p<0.001 and p = 0.10, respectively). Conclusion The detection of methylated Wif-1 in either S or U has a higher performance accuracy compared to guaiac FOBT for advanced colorectal neoplasia screening. Conversely, fecal microbiota dysbiosis detection was not more accurate. Blood and urine

  15. Compact and cost-effective temperature-insensitive bio-sensor based on long-period fiber gratings for accurate detection of E. coli bacteria in water.

    PubMed

    Dandapat, Krishnendu; Tripathi, Saurabh Mani; Chinifooroshan, Yasser; Bock, Wojtek J; Mikulic, Predrag

    2016-09-15

    We propose and demonstrate a novel temperature-insensitive bio-sensor for accurate and quantitative detection of Escherichia coli (E. coli) bacteria in water. Surface sensitivity is maximized by operating the long-period fiber grating (LPFG) closest to its turnaround wavelength, and the temperature insensitivity is achieved by selectively exciting a pair of cladding modes with opposite dispersion characteristics. Our sensor shows a nominal temperature sensitivity of ∼1.25  pm/°C, which can be further reduced by properly adjusting the LPFG lengths, while maintaining a high refractive index sensitivity of 1929 nm/RIU. The overall length of the sensor is ∼3.6  cm, making it ideally suitable for bio-sensing applications. As an example, we also show the sensor's capability for reliable, quantitative detection of E. coli bacteria in water over a temperature fluctuation of room temperature to 40°C.

  16. Can MRI accurately detect pilon articular malreduction? A quantitative comparison between CT and 3T MRI bone models

    PubMed Central

    Radzi, Shairah; Dlaska, Constantin Edmond; Cowin, Gary; Robinson, Mark; Pratap, Jit; Schuetz, Michael Andreas; Mishra, Sanjay

    2016-01-01

    Background Pilon fracture reduction is a challenging surgery. Radiographs are commonly used to assess the quality of reduction, but are limited in revealing the remaining bone incongruities. The study aimed to develop a method in quantifying articular malreductions using 3D computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) models. Methods CT and MRI data were acquired using three pairs of human cadaveric ankle specimens. Common tibial pilon fractures were simulated by performing osteotomies to the ankle specimens. Five of the created fractures [three AO type-B (43-B1), and two AO type-C (43-C1) fractures] were then reduced and stabilised using titanium implants, then rescanned. All datasets were reconstructed into CT and MRI models, and were analysed in regards to intra-articular steps and gaps, surface deviations, malrotations and maltranslations of the bone fragments. Results Initial results reveal that type B fracture CT and MRI models differed by ~0.2 (step), ~0.18 (surface deviations), ~0.56° (rotation) and ~0.4 mm (translation). Type C fracture MRI models showed metal artefacts extending to the articular surface, thus unsuitable for analysis. Type C fracture CT models differed from their CT and MRI contralateral models by ~0.15 (surface deviation), ~1.63° (rotation) and ~0.4 mm (translation). Conclusions Type B fracture MRI models were comparable to CT and may potentially be used for the postoperative assessment of articular reduction on a case-to-case basis. PMID:28090442

  17. Alpha detection for decontamination and decommissioning: Results and possibilities

    SciTech Connect

    MacArthur, D.

    1995-08-01

    Alpha detectors based on the long-range alpha detection (LRAD) technology have numerous uses, both potential and demonstrated, in facility D&D. These monitors operate by detecting the ions created by alpha particles interacting with ambient air. Thus, detection is not limited by the short range of the alpha particle and no window is required between the contamination and the detection region. These properties make LRAD-based detectors ideal for operation in field environments where complex objects to be monitored are the norm and reliability is crucial. Three monitors of particular interest in D&D operations are the building surface monitor, the internal volume monitor for use on the inner surfaces of pipes, ducts, and tanks, and the conveyer belt monitor for concrete rubble and structural steel. Surface monitors have been used extensively, both in laboratory and field environments, internal volume monitors have been tested in the laboratory, and the conveyer system is still a conceptual design. These monitors and related applications demonstrate the utility of LRAD-based monitors for D&D operations as well as exploring some of the new ways that fieldable monitoring systems can be used for D&D. Ion collection sensing technology can be used to solve many of the alpha detection problems unique to the D&D field.

  18. Accurate method for measurement of pipe wall thickness using a circumferential guided wave generated and detected by a pair of noncontact transducers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nishino, H.; Taniguchi, Y.; Yoshida, K.

    2012-05-01

    A noncontact method of an accurate estimation of a pipe wall thickness using a circumferential (C-) Lamb wave is presented. The C-Lamb waves circling along the circumference of pipes are transmitted and received by the critical angle method using a pair of noncontact air-coupled ultrasonic transducers. For the accurate estimation of a pipe wall thickness, the accurate measurement of the angular wave number that changes minutely owing to the thickness must be achieved. To achieve the accurate measurement, a large number of tone-burst cycles are used so as to superpose the C-Lamb wave on itself along its circumferential orbit. In this setting, the amplitude of the superposed region changes considerably with the angular wave number, from which the wall thickness can be estimated. This paper presents the principle of the method and experimental verifications. As results of the experimental verifications, it was confirmed that the maximum error between the estimates and the theoretical model was less than 10 micrometers.

  19. Rapid and Accurate Detection of Urinary Pathogens by Mobile IMS-Based Electronic Nose: A Proof-of-Principle Study

    PubMed Central

    Roine, Antti; Saviauk, Taavi; Kumpulainen, Pekka; Karjalainen, Markus; Tuokko, Antti; Aittoniemi, Janne; Vuento, Risto; Lekkala, Jukka; Lehtimäki, Terho; Tammela, Teuvo L.; Oksala, Niku K. J.

    2014-01-01

    Urinary tract infection (UTI) is a common disease with significant morbidity and economic burden, accounting for a significant part of the workload in clinical microbiology laboratories. Current clinical chemisty point-of-care diagnostics rely on imperfect dipstick analysis which only provides indirect and insensitive evidence of urinary bacterial pathogens. An electronic nose (eNose) is a handheld device mimicking mammalian olfaction that potentially offers affordable and rapid analysis of samples without preparation at athmospheric pressure. In this study we demonstrate the applicability of ion mobility spectrometry (IMS) –based eNose to discriminate the most common UTI pathogens from gaseous headspace of culture plates rapidly and without sample preparation. We gathered a total of 101 culture samples containing four most common UTI bacteries: E. coli, S. saprophyticus, E. faecalis, Klebsiella spp and sterile culture plates. The samples were analyzed using ChemPro 100i device, consisting of IMS cell and six semiconductor sensors. Data analysis was conducted by linear discriminant analysis (LDA) and logistic regression (LR). The results were validated by leave-one-out and 5-fold cross validation analysis. In discrimination of sterile and bacterial samples sensitivity of 95% and specificity of 97% were achieved. The bacterial species were identified with sensitivity of 95% and specificity of 96% using eNose as compared to urine bacterial cultures. In conclusion: These findings strongly demonstrate the ability of our eNose to discriminate bacterial cultures and provides a proof of principle to use this method in urinanalysis of UTI. PMID:25526592

  20. Automated detection of presence of mucus foci in airway diseases: preliminary results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Odry, Benjamin L.; Kiraly, Atilla P.; Novak, Carol L.; Naidich, David P.; Ko, Jane; Godoy, Myrna C. B.

    2009-02-01

    Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) is often characterized by partial or complete obstruction of airflow in the lungs. This can be due to airway wall thickening and retained secretions, resulting in foci of mucoid impactions. Although radiologists have proposed scoring systems to assess extent and severity of airway diseases from CT images, these scores are seldom used clinically due to impracticality. The high level of subjectivity from visual inspection and the sheer number of airways in the lungs mean that automation is critical in order to realize accurate scoring. In this work we assess the feasibility of including an automated mucus detection method in a clinical scoring system. Twenty high-resolution datasets of patients with mild to severe bronchiectasis were randomly selected, and used to test the ability of the computer to detect the presence or absence of mucus in each lobe (100 lobes in all). Two experienced radiologists independently scored the presence or absence of mucus in each lobe based on the visual assessment method recommended by Sheehan et al [1]. These results were compared with an automated method developed for mucus plug detection [2]. Results showed agreement between the two readers on 44% of the lobes for presence of mucus, 39% of lobes for absence of mucus, and discordant opinions on 17 lobes. For 61 lobes where 1 or both readers detected mucus, the computer sensitivity was 75.4%, the specificity was 69.2%, and the positive predictive value (PPV) was 79.3%. Six computer false positives were a-posteriori reviewed by the experts and reassessed as true positives, yielding results of 77.6% sensitivity, 81.8% for specificity, and 89.6% PPV.

  1. An Integrated Tool to Study MHC Region: Accurate SNV Detection and HLA Genes Typing in Human MHC Region Using Targeted High-Throughput Sequencing

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Xiao; Xu, Yinyin; Liang, Dequan; Gao, Peng; Sun, Yepeng; Gifford, Benjamin; D’Ascenzo, Mark; Liu, Xiaomin; Tellier, Laurent C. A. M.; Yang, Fang; Tong, Xin; Chen, Dan; Zheng, Jing; Li, Weiyang; Richmond, Todd; Xu, Xun; Wang, Jun; Li, Yingrui

    2013-01-01

    The major histocompatibility complex (MHC) is one of the most variable and gene-dense regions of the human genome. Most studies of the MHC, and associated regions, focus on minor variants and HLA typing, many of which have been demonstrated to be associated with human disease susceptibility and metabolic pathways. However, the detection of variants in the MHC region, and diagnostic HLA typing, still lacks a coherent, standardized, cost effective and high coverage protocol of clinical quality and reliability. In this paper, we presented such a method for the accurate detection of minor variants and HLA types in the human MHC region, using high-throughput, high-coverage sequencing of target regions. A probe set was designed to template upon the 8 annotated human MHC haplotypes, and to encompass the 5 megabases (Mb) of the extended MHC region. We deployed our probes upon three, genetically diverse human samples for probe set evaluation, and sequencing data show that ∼97% of the MHC region, and over 99% of the genes in MHC region, are covered with sufficient depth and good evenness. 98% of genotypes called by this capture sequencing prove consistent with established HapMap genotypes. We have concurrently developed a one-step pipeline for calling any HLA type referenced in the IMGT/HLA database from this target capture sequencing data, which shows over 96% typing accuracy when deployed at 4 digital resolution. This cost-effective and highly accurate approach for variant detection and HLA typing in the MHC region may lend further insight into immune-mediated diseases studies, and may find clinical utility in transplantation medicine research. This one-step pipeline is released for general evaluation and use by the scientific community. PMID:23894464

  2. Towards accurate assessments of CH4 and N2O soil-atmosphere exchange rates with the combination of automated systems and new detection techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Díaz-Pinés, E.; Wolf, B.; Kiese, R.; Butterbach-Bahl, K.

    2012-04-01

    Soils can be either a source or a sink of CH4 and N2O. Accurate assessment of CH4 and N2O soil-atmosphere exchange processes is necessary in order to estimate the contribution of soil to the global warming potential under current and future conditions. Soil-atmosphere exchange processes of both CH4 and N2O depend on a combination of soil temperature and soil moisture status, as well as on nutrient availability and various microbial processes. The task of measuring CH4 and N2O exchange processes is challenging due to, among other factors: high spatial ("hot spots") and temporal heterogeneity ("hot moments") in the emissions of these species. In addition, accurate determination of CH4 and N2O concentrations is still difficult. So far, this prevents from a full understanding and contributes to a high uncertainty degree in the assessment of CH4 and N2O soil-atmosphere exchange rates across different ecosystems. Aiming at the achievement of a deeper understanding of the role of the soil in the GHG balance, we have combined new laser spectroscopy detection techniques (Quantum Cascade Laser, QCL) with automatic and semi-automatic chamber measurement systems. Therefore, different applications will be presented: A three-month-long field campaign in a poplar plantation in NE Romania allowed us to demonstrate the feasibility of the QCL coupled with automatic chambers to accurately estimate the soil-atmosphere GHG exchange at a high time resolution with a very low detection limit. A new semi-automatic system with relatively low human-maintenance requirements was tested in a poplar plantation in SW Germany. The system is not able to record fine-scale temporal variations of the GHG exchange processes; however, cumulative fluxes obtained with the semi-automatic system were very close to those measured with an automatic system with high temporal resolution. Within a climate change experiment in grassland ecosystems, an application of the QCL in combination with a robotized chamber

  3. Coherent Change Detection: Theoretical Description and Experimental Results

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-08-01

    multilook polarimetric and interferometric SAR imagery,” IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote Sensing, vol. 32, no. 5, pp. 1017–1027, 1994. 50. J. W...scene changes using repeat pass Synthetic Aperture Radar ( SAR ) imagery. As SAR is a coherent imaging system two forms of change detection may be...changes to the sub-resolution cell scattering structure that may be undetectable using inco- herent techniques. The repeat pass SAR imagery however, must

  4. Cosmic dust detection by the Cluster spacecraft: First results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vaverka, Jakub; De Spiegeleer, Alexandre; Hamrin, Maria; Kero, Johan; Mann, Ingrid; Norberg, Carol; Pellinen-Wannberg, Asta; Pitkänen, Timo

    2016-04-01

    There are several different techniques that are used to measure cosmic dust entering the Earth's atmosphere such as space-born dust detectors, meteor and HPLA radars, and optical methods. One complementary method could be to use electric field instruments initially designed to measure electric waves. A plasma cloud generated by a hypervelocity dust impact on a spacecraft body can be detected by the electric field instruments commonly operated on spacecraft. Since Earth-orbiting missions are generally not equipped with conventional dust detectors, the electric field instruments offer an alternative method to measure the Earth's dust environment. We present the first detection of dust impacts on one of the Earth-orbiting Cluster satellites with the Wideband Data Plasma Wave Receiver (WBD). We first describe the concept of dust impact ionization and of the impact detection. Based on these considerations the mass and the velocity of the impinging dust grains can be estimated from the amplitude of the Cluster voltage pulses. In the case of the Cluster instrument an automatic gain control adjusts the dynamic range of the recorded signals. Depending on the gain level the impact signal can both be affected by saturation or be too weak for analysis. We describe how this influences the duty cycle of the impact measurements. We finally discuss the suitability of this method for monitoring dust fluxes near Earth and compare it with other methods.

  5. A versatile ratiometric nanosensing approach for sensitive and accurate detection of Hg(2+) and biological thiols based on new fluorescent carbon quantum dots.

    PubMed

    Fu, Huili; Ji, Zhongyin; Chen, Xuejie; Cheng, Anwei; Liu, Shucheng; Gong, Peiwei; Li, Guoliang; Chen, Guang; Sun, Zhiwei; Zhao, Xianen; Cheng, Feng; You, Jinmao

    2017-03-01

    Herein, we first reported a facile synthesis method for fabrication of highly photoluminescent carbon quantum dots (CQDs) using sodium alginate as the carbon source and histidine as both the nitrogen source and functional monomer by one-pot hydrothermal synthesis. The as-prepared CQDs gave a high quantum yield of 32%. By employing the new CQDs and rhodamine B (RhB), we demonstrated a simple, facile, sensitive, and accurate ratiometric sensor for detection of Hg(2+) and biological thiols. The photoluminescence of CQDs in the ratiometric sensor can be selectively and intensively suppressed by Hg(2+) due to strong electrostatic interaction between the surface functional groups of the CQDs and Hg(2+). When glutathione (GSH) was introduced into the "Turn Off" CQDs-RhB-Hg(2+) sensing system, the fluorescence of the CQDs can be recovered rapidly due to the stronger affinity between thiol and Hg(2+), while the fluorescence of the RhB remained constant in this sensing process. Based on the above principle, the ratiometric strategy for detecting Hg(2+) and GSH can be achieved readily, and gives satisfactory limit of detections (LODs) of 30 and 20 nM for Hg(2+) and GSH, respectively. The dual-emission fluorescent CQDs-RhB sensor does not need the complicated molecular design and the synthesis of dual-emission fluorophores. Meanwhile, the feasibility of the proposed method for analysis of water samples, food samples, and biological samples (plasma from mice oxidative stress study) was investigated. The developed ratiometric nanosensor is proven to be facile, with less sample consumption, rapid, lost cost, highly sensitive, and very selective for Hg(2+) and biological thiol detection, which offers a new approach for environmental, food, and biological analysis. Graphical abstract Ratiometric nanosensing approach detection of Hg(2+) and biological thiols.

  6. Helicopter Based Magnetic Detection Of Wells At The Teapot Dome (Naval Petroleum Reserve No. 3 Oilfield: Rapid And Accurate Geophysical Algorithms For Locating Wells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harbert, W.; Hammack, R.; Veloski, G.; Hodge, G.

    2011-12-01

    In this study Airborne magnetic data was collected by Fugro Airborne Surveys from a helicopter platform (Figure 1) using the Midas II system over the 39 km2 NPR3 (Naval Petroleum Reserve No. 3) oilfield in east-central Wyoming. The Midas II system employs two Scintrex CS-2 cesium vapor magnetometers on opposite ends of a transversely mounted, 13.4-m long horizontal boom located amidships (Fig. 1). Each magnetic sensor had an in-flight sensitivity of 0.01 nT. Real time compensation of the magnetic data for magnetic noise induced by maneuvering of the aircraft was accomplished using two fluxgate magnetometers mounted just inboard of the cesium sensors. The total area surveyed was 40.5 km2 (NPR3) near Casper, Wyoming. The purpose of the survey was to accurately locate wells that had been drilled there during more than 90 years of continuous oilfield operation. The survey was conducted at low altitude and with closely spaced flight lines to improve the detection of wells with weak magnetic response and to increase the resolution of closely spaced wells. The survey was in preparation for a planned CO2 flood to enhance oil recovery, which requires a complete well inventory with accurate locations for all existing wells. The magnetic survey was intended to locate wells that are missing from the well database and to provide accurate locations for all wells. The well location method used combined an input dataset (for example, leveled total magnetic field reduced to the pole), combined with first and second horizontal spatial derivatives of this input dataset, which were then analyzed using focal statistics and finally combined using a fuzzy combination operation. Analytic signal and the Shi and Butt (2004) ZS attribute were also analyzed using this algorithm. A parameter could be adjusted to determine sensitivity. Depending on the input dataset 88% to 100% of the wells were located, with typical values being 95% to 99% for the NPR3 field site.

  7. Detection and quantitation of trace phenolphthalein (in pharmaceutical preparations and in forensic exhibits) by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry, a sensitive and accurate method.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Kakali; Sharma, Shiba P; Lahiri, Sujit C

    2013-01-01

    Phenolphthalein, an acid-base indicator and laxative, is important as a constituent of widely used weight-reducing multicomponent food formulations. Phenolphthalein is an useful reagent in forensic science for the identification of blood stains of suspected victims and for apprehending erring officials accepting bribes in graft or trap cases. The pink-colored alkaline hand washes originating from the phenolphthalein-smeared notes can easily be determined spectrophotometrically. But in many cases, colored solution turns colorless with time, which renders the genuineness of bribe cases doubtful to the judiciary. No method is known till now for the detection and identification of phenolphthalein in colorless forensic exhibits with positive proof. Liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry had been found to be most sensitive, accurate method capable of detection and quantitation of trace phenolphthalein in commercial formulations and colorless forensic exhibits with positive proof. The detection limit of phenolphthalein was found to be 1.66 pg/L or ng/mL, and the calibration curve shows good linearity (r(2) = 0.9974).

  8. A colorimetric method for highly sensitive and accurate detection of iodide by finding the critical color in a color change process using silver triangular nanoplates.

    PubMed

    Yang, Xiu-Hua; Ling, Jian; Peng, Jun; Cao, Qiu-E; Ding, Zhong-Tao; Bian, Long-Chun

    2013-10-10

    In this contribution, we demonstrated a novel colorimetric method for highly sensitive and accurate detection of iodide using citrate-stabilized silver triangular nanoplates (silver TNPs). Very lower concentration of iodide can induce an appreciable color change of silver TNPs solution from blue to yellow by fusing of silver TNPs to nanoparticles, as confirmed by UV-vis absorption spectroscopy and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The principle of this colorimetric assay is not an ordinary colorimetry, but a new colorimetric strategy by finding the critical color in a color change process. With this strategy, 0.1 μM of iodide can be recognized within 30 min by naked-eyes observation, and lower concentration of iodide down to 8.8 nM can be detected using a spectrophotometer. Furthermore, this high sensitive colorimetric assay has good accuracy, stability and reproducibility comparing with other ordinary colorimetry. We believe this new colorimetric method will open up a fresh insight of simple, rapid and reliable detection of iodide and can find its future application in the biochemical analysis or clinical diagnosis.

  9. The weirdest SDSS galaxies: results from an outlier detection algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baron, Dalya; Poznanski, Dovi

    2017-03-01

    How can we discover objects we did not know existed within the large data sets that now abound in astronomy? We present an outlier detection algorithm that we developed, based on an unsupervised Random Forest. We test the algorithm on more than two million galaxy spectra from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey and examine the 400 galaxies with the highest outlier score. We find objects which have extreme emission line ratios and abnormally strong absorption lines, objects with unusual continua, including extremely reddened galaxies. We find galaxy-galaxy gravitational lenses, double-peaked emission line galaxies and close galaxy pairs. We find galaxies with high ionization lines, galaxies that host supernovae and galaxies with unusual gas kinematics. Only a fraction of the outliers we find were reported by previous studies that used specific and tailored algorithms to find a single class of unusual objects. Our algorithm is general and detects all of these classes, and many more, regardless of what makes them peculiar. It can be executed on imaging, time series and other spectroscopic data, operates well with thousands of features, is not sensitive to missing values and is easily parallelizable.

  10. Kepler planet-detection mission: introduction and first results.

    PubMed

    Borucki, William J; Koch, David; Basri, Gibor; Batalha, Natalie; Brown, Timothy; Caldwell, Douglas; Caldwell, John; Christensen-Dalsgaard, Jørgen; Cochran, William D; DeVore, Edna; Dunham, Edward W; Dupree, Andrea K; Gautier, Thomas N; Geary, John C; Gilliland, Ronald; Gould, Alan; Howell, Steve B; Jenkins, Jon M; Kondo, Yoji; Latham, David W; Marcy, Geoffrey W; Meibom, Søren; Kjeldsen, Hans; Lissauer, Jack J; Monet, David G; Morrison, David; Sasselov, Dimitar; Tarter, Jill; Boss, Alan; Brownlee, Don; Owen, Toby; Buzasi, Derek; Charbonneau, David; Doyle, Laurance; Fortney, Jonathan; Ford, Eric B; Holman, Matthew J; Seager, Sara; Steffen, Jason H; Welsh, William F; Rowe, Jason; Anderson, Howard; Buchhave, Lars; Ciardi, David; Walkowicz, Lucianne; Sherry, William; Horch, Elliott; Isaacson, Howard; Everett, Mark E; Fischer, Debra; Torres, Guillermo; Johnson, John Asher; Endl, Michael; MacQueen, Phillip; Bryson, Stephen T; Dotson, Jessie; Haas, Michael; Kolodziejczak, Jeffrey; Van Cleve, Jeffrey; Chandrasekaran, Hema; Twicken, Joseph D; Quintana, Elisa V; Clarke, Bruce D; Allen, Christopher; Li, Jie; Wu, Haley; Tenenbaum, Peter; Verner, Ekaterina; Bruhweiler, Frederick; Barnes, Jason; Prsa, Andrej

    2010-02-19

    The Kepler mission was designed to determine the frequency of Earth-sized planets in and near the habitable zone of Sun-like stars. The habitable zone is the region where planetary temperatures are suitable for water to exist on a planet's surface. During the first 6 weeks of observations, Kepler monitored 156,000 stars, and five new exoplanets with sizes between 0.37 and 1.6 Jupiter radii and orbital periods from 3.2 to 4.9 days were discovered. The density of the Neptune-sized Kepler-4b is similar to that of Neptune and GJ 436b, even though the irradiation level is 800,000 times higher. Kepler-7b is one of the lowest-density planets (approximately 0.17 gram per cubic centimeter) yet detected. Kepler-5b, -6b, and -8b confirm the existence of planets with densities lower than those predicted for gas giant planets.

  11. Kepler Planet-Detection Mission: Introduction and First Results

    SciTech Connect

    Borucki, William J.; Koch, David; Basri, Gibor; Batalha, Natalie; Brown, Timothy; Caldwell, Douglas; Caldwell, John; Christensen-Dalsgaard, Jorgen; Cochran, William D.; DeVore, Edna; Dunham, Edward W.; /Lowell Observ. /Harvard-Smithsonian Ctr. Astrophys.

    2010-01-01

    The Kepler mission was designed to determine the frequency of Earth-sized planets in and near the habitable zone of Sun-like stars. The habitable zone is the region where planetary temperatures are suitable for water to exist on a planet's surface. During the first 6 weeks of observations, Kepler monitored 156,000 stars, and five new exoplanets with sizes between 0.37 and 1.6 Jupiter radii and orbital periods from 3.2 to 4.9 days were discovered. The density of the Neptune-sized Kepler-4b is similar to that of Neptune and GJ 436b, even though the irradiation level is 800,000 times higher. Kepler-7b is one of the lowest-density planets ({approx}0.17 gram per cubic centimeter) yet detected. Kepler-5b, -6b, and -8b confirm the existence of planets with densities lower than those predicted for gas giant planets.

  12. Kepler Planet Detection Mission: Introduction and First Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borucki, William J.; Koch, D.; Basri, G.; Batalha, N. M.; Brown, T.; Caldwell, D. A.; Caldwell, J.; Christensen-Dalsgaard, J.; Cochran, W.; DeVore, E.; Dunham, E.; Dupree, A.; Gautier, T.; Geary, J.; Gilliland, R.; Gould, A.; Howell, S.; Jenkins, J.; Kjeldsen, H.; Kondo, Y.; Latham, D.; Lissauer, J.; Marcy, G.; Meibom, S.; Monet, D.; Morrison, D.; Sasselov, D.; Tarter, J.

    2010-01-01

    The Kepler Mission is designed to determine the frequency of Earth-size and terrestrial size planets in and near the HZ of solar-like stars. It was competitively selected as Discovery Mission #10 and launched on March 6, 2009. Since completion of commissioning, it has continuously observed over 145,000 main sequence stars. The photometric precision reaches 20 ppm for 12th magnitude stars on the least noisy detectors in 6.5 hours. During the first month of operation, the photometer detected transit-like signatures from over 100 stars. Careful examination of these events shows many of them to be false-positives such as background eclipsing binaries. However ground-based follow up observations confirm the discovery of exoplanets with sizes ranging from 0.6 Rj to1.5Rj and orbital periods ranging from 3 to 9 days. Observations at Keck, Hobby-Eberly, Harlan-Smith, WIYN, MMT, Tillighast, Shane, and Nordic Optic telescopes are vetting many of the candidates and measuring their masses. Discovery of the HAT-P7b occultation will be used to derive atmospheric properties and demonstrates the precision necessary to detect Earth-size planets. Asteroseismic analyses of several stars show the presence of p-mode oscillations that can be used to determine stellar size and age. This effort is being organized by the Kepler Asteroseismic Science Consortium at Aarhus University in Denmark. Stellar parallaxes are determined from the centroid motion of the stellar images and will be combined with photometric measurements to get the sizes of stars too dim for asteroseismic measurement. Four open clusters are being observed to determine rotation rates with stellar age and spectral type. Many types of stellar variability are observed with unprecedented precision and over long continuous time periods. Examples of many of these discoveries are presented. Funding by the Exoplanet Exploration Program of the NASA Astrophysics Division is gratefully acknowledged.

  13. Diversification of visual media retrieval results using saliency detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muratov, Oleg; Boato, Giulia; De Natale, Franesco G. B.

    2013-03-01

    Diversification of retrieval results allows for better and faster search. Recently there has been proposed different methods for diversification of image retrieval results mainly utilizing text information and techniques imported from natural language processing domain. However, images contain visual information that is impossible to describe in text and the use of visual features is inevitable. Visual saliency is information about the main object of an image implicitly included by humans while creating visual content. For this reason it is naturally to exploit this information for the task of diversification of the content. In this work we study whether visual saliency can be used for the task of diversification and propose a method for re-ranking image retrieval results using saliency. The evaluation has shown that the use of saliency information results in higher diversity of retrieval results.

  14. Early detection of ovarian cancer: preliminary results of the Yale Early Detection Program.

    PubMed Central

    Schwartz, P. E.; Chambers, J. T.; Taylor, K. J.; Pellerito, J.; Hammers, L.; Cole, L. A.; Yang-Feng, T. L.; Smith, P.; Mayne, S. T.; Makuch, R.

    1991-01-01

    Eighty-four women at high risk for ovarian cancer by having first-degree relatives with epithelial ovarian cancer participated in a newly established, early ovarian cancer detection program at Yale University. Participants were to be evaluated with physical examinations and circulating tumor markers at entry and every six months thereafter. Endovaginal ultrasound and color Doppler flow studies were to be performed at three and nine months following entry into the program. In addition, women were encouraged to follow American Cancer Society guidelines for mammography. Stool was checked for occult blood. Endometrial sampling was offered to post-menopausal women. No participant has developed an ovarian cancer since entering the program. One woman has been diagnosed to have breast cancer. False-positive levels of circulating tumor markers (CA 125, 4/84 [4.8 percent]; lipid-associated sialic acid in plasma, 13/84 [15.5 percent]; NB/70K, 4/84 [4.8 percent]; and urinary gonadotropin fragment, 1/65 [1.5 percent]) were observed on entry into the program. Low resistive indices (less than 0.5) were documented in 8/91 (8.8 percent) ovaries studied by the color Doppler flow technique. One participant underwent a laparotomy based on a false-positive endovaginal ultrasound examination. Tests now being employed in community practice have a high likelihood of being associated with false-positive results. Therapeutic interventions based on isolated abnormal tumor markers or ultrasound studies obtained from women with family histories of ovarian cancer may lead to inappropriate surgery. It is necessary for cancer centers to develop expertise in ovarian cancer detection techniques to advise physicians in their geographic areas appropriately about the significance of the abnormal screening test. PMID:1810101

  15. Improved Detection System Description and New Method for Accurate Calibration of Micro-Channel Plate Based Instruments and Its Use in the Fast Plasma Investigation on NASA's Magnetospheric MultiScale Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gliese, U.; Avanov, L. A.; Barrie, A. C.; Kujawski, J. T.; Mariano, A. J.; Tucker, C. J.; Chornay, D. J.; Cao, N. T.; Gershman, D. J.; Dorelli, J. C.; Zeuch, M. A.; Pollock, C. J.; Jacques, A. D.

    2015-01-01

    system calibration method that enables accurate and repeatable measurement and calibration of MCP gain, MCP efficiency, signal loss due to variation in gain and efficiency, crosstalk from effects both above and below the MCP, noise margin, and stability margin in one single measurement. More precise calibration is highly desirable as the instruments will produce higher quality raw data that will require less post-acquisition data correction using results from in-flight pitch angle distribution measurements and ground calibration measurements. The detection system description and the fundamental concepts of this new calibration method, named threshold scan, will be presented. It will be shown how to derive all the individual detection system parameters and how to choose the optimum detection system operating point. This new method has been successfully applied to achieve a highly accurate calibration of the DESs and DISs of the MMS mission. The practical application of the method will be presented together with the achieved calibration results and their significance. Finally, it will be shown that, with further detailed modeling, this method can be extended for use in flight to achieve and maintain a highly accurate detection system calibration across a large number of instruments during the mission.

  16. Kepler Planet Detection Mission: Introduction and First Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Borucki, William; Koch, David; Basri, Gibor; Batalha, Natalie; Brown, Timothy; Lissauer, Jack J.; Morrison, David; Rowe, Jason; Bryson, Stephen T.; Dotson, Jessie; Haas,Michael; Gautier, Thomas N.

    2010-01-01

    The Kepler Mission is designed to determine the frequency of Earth-size and rocky planets in and near the habitable zone (HZ) of solar-like stars. The HZ is defined to be the region of space where a rocky planet could maintain liquid water on its surface. Kepler is the 10th competitively-selected Discovery Mission and was launched on March 6, 2009. Since completing its commissioning, Kepler has observed over 156,000 stars simultaneously and near continuously to search for planets that periodically pass in front of their host star (transit). The photometric precision is approximately 23 ppm for 50% of the 12th magnitude dwarf stars for an integration period of 6.5 hours. During the first 3 months of operation the photometer detected transit-like signatures from more than 200 stars. Careful examination shows that many of these events are false-positives such as small stars orbiting large stars or blends of target stars with eclipsing binary stars. Ground-based follow-up observations confirm the discovery of five new exoplanets with sizes between 0.37 andl.6 Jupiter radii (R(sub J)) and orbital periods ranging from 3.2 to 4.9 days. Ground-based observations with the Keck 1, Hobby-Ebberly, Hale, WIYN, MMT, Tillinghast, Shane, and Nordic Optical Telescopes are used to vet the planetary candidates and measure the masses of the putative planets. Observations of occultations and phase variations of hot, short-period planets such as HT-P-7b provide a probe of atmospheric properties. Asteroseismic analysis already shows the presence of p-mode oscillations in several stars. Such observations will be used to measure the mean stellar density and infer the stellar size and age. For stars too dim to permit asteroseismology, observations of the centroid motion of target stars will be used to measure the parallax and be combined with photometric measurements to estimate stellar sizes. Four open clusters are being observed to determine stellar rotation rates as a function of age and

  17. Some Results on Asymptotic Memoryless Detection in Strong Mixing Noise.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-01-01

    usef result: imposed for application of the Pitman- Noether We . theorem [8], whereas (d)-(e’) are exceedingly mild Theorem 1: Suppose {.?: R2 +2 *R ;i...is the analog to Lemma 1 employment of the Pitman- Noether Theorem [8]. of [6]: of [6:Term2:Spoe0 with an O , and g e W. Lemma 1: If (Ni; i=1,2...61)(1+c)1 > 61(2+6), I4- I II we obtain the desired result. Q.E.D. 8. G. E. Noether , "On a theorem of Pitman," Ann. Note the conditions on the optimal

  18. Sensitive, accurate and rapid detection of trace aliphatic amines in environmental samples with ultrasonic-assisted derivatization microextraction using a new fluorescent reagent for high performance liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Chen, Guang; Liu, Jianjun; Liu, Mengge; Li, Guoliang; Sun, Zhiwei; Zhang, Shijuan; Song, Cuihua; Wang, Hua; Suo, Yourui; You, Jinmao

    2014-07-25

    A new fluorescent reagent, 1-(1H-imidazol-1-yl)-2-(2-phenyl-1H-phenanthro[9,10-d]imidazol-1-yl)ethanone (IPPIE), is synthesized, and a simple pretreatment based on ultrasonic-assisted derivatization microextraction (UDME) with IPPIE is proposed for the selective derivatization of 12 aliphatic amines (C1: methylamine-C12: dodecylamine) in complex matrix samples (irrigation water, river water, waste water, cultivated soil, riverbank soil and riverbed soil). Under the optimal experimental conditions (solvent: ACN-HCl, catalyst: none, molar ratio: 4.3, time: 8 min and temperature: 80°C), micro amount of sample (40 μL; 5mg) can be pretreated in only 10 min, with no preconcentration, evaporation or other additional manual operations required. The interfering substances (aromatic amines, aliphatic alcohols and phenols) get the derivatization yields of <5%, causing insignificant matrix effects (<4%). IPPIE-analyte derivatives are separated by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and quantified by fluorescence detection (FD). The very low instrumental detection limits (IDL: 0.66-4.02 ng/L) and method detection limits (MDL: 0.04-0.33 ng/g; 5.96-45.61 ng/L) are achieved. Analytes are further identified from adjacent peaks by on-line ion trap mass spectrometry (MS), thereby avoiding additional operations for impurities. With this UDME-HPLC-FD-MS method, the accuracy (-0.73-2.12%), precision (intra-day: 0.87-3.39%; inter-day: 0.16-4.12%), recovery (97.01-104.10%) and sensitivity were significantly improved. Successful applications in environmental samples demonstrate the superiority of this method in the sensitive, accurate and rapid determination of trace aliphatic amines in micro amount of complex samples.

  19. Stereotactic hypofractionated accurate radiotherapy of the prostate (SHARP), 33.5 Gy in five fractions for localized disease: First clinical trial results

    SciTech Connect

    Madsen, Berit L. . E-mail: ronblm@vmmc.org; Hsi, R. Alex; Pham, Huong T.; Fowler, Jack F.; Esagui, Laura C.; Corman, John

    2007-03-15

    Purpose: To evaluate the feasibility and toxicity of stereotactic hypofractionated accurate radiotherapy (SHARP) for localized prostate cancer. Methods and Materials: A Phase I/II trial of SHARP performed for localized prostate cancer using 33.5 Gy in 5 fractions, calculated to be biologically equivalent to 78 Gy in 2 Gy fractions ({alpha}/{beta} ratio of 1.5 Gy). Noncoplanar conformal fields and daily stereotactic localization of implanted fiducials were used for treatment. Genitourinary (GU) and gastrointestinal (GI) toxicity were evaluated by American Urologic Association (AUA) score and Common Toxicity Criteria (CTC). Prostate-specific antigen (PSA) values and self-reported sexual function were recorded at specified follow-up intervals. Results: The study includes 40 patients. The median follow-up is 41 months (range, 21-60 months). Acute toxicity Grade 1-2 was 48.5% (GU) and 39% (GI); 1 acute Grade 3 GU toxicity. Late Grade 1-2 toxicity was 45% (GU) and 37% (GI). No late Grade 3 or higher toxicity was reported. Twenty-six patients reported potency before therapy; 6 (23%) have developed impotence. Median time to PSA nadir was 18 months with the majority of nadirs less than 1.0 ng/mL. The actuarial 48-month biochemical freedom from relapse is 70% for the American Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology definition and 90% by the alternative nadir + 2 ng/mL failure definition. Conclusions: SHARP for localized prostate cancer is feasible with minimal acute or late toxicity. Dose escalation should be possible.

  20. Results from a Forward-Looking GPR Mine Detection System

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2002-01-01

    ratio test was then used on each image. Finally, multilook processing combined the results from several independent views of the same mines (at various...four orders of magnitude over the baseline. Keywords: radar, GPR, SAR , land mine, wideband, forward-looking, standoff, GLRT, PCA 1. INTRODUCTION In 1999...Table 1 Radar Parameters Radar approach: Stepped frequency SAR Transmitter waveform: Chopped CW Peak power: 0.5 W Duty cycle: 6% Frequency span: 0.3 to

  1. Rapid and accurate measurement of left ventricular function with a new second-harmonic fast-rotating transducer and semi-automated border detection.

    PubMed

    Krenning, Boudewijn J; Voormolen, Marco M; van Geuns, Robert-Jan; Vletter, W B; Lancée, Charles T; de Jong, Nico; Ten Cate, Folkert J; van der Steen, Anton F W; Roelandt, Jos R T C

    2006-07-01

    Measurement of left ventricular (LV) volume and function are the most common clinical referral questions to the echocardiography laboratory. A fast, practical, and accurate method would offer important advantages to obtain this important information. To validate a new practical method for rapid measurement of LV volume and function. We developed a continuous fast-rotating transducer, with second-harmonic capabilities, for three-dimensional echocardiography (3DE). Fifteen cardiac patients underwent both 3DE and magnetic resonance imaging (reference method) on the same day. 3DE image acquisition was performed during a 10-second breath-hold with a frame rate of 100 frames/sec and a rotational speed of 6 rotations/sec. The individual images were postprocessed with Matlab software using multibeat data fusion. Subsequently, with these images, 12 datasets per cardiac cycle were reconstructed, each comprising seven equidistant cross-sectional images for analysis in the new TomTec 4DLV analysis software, which uses a semi-automated border detection (ABD) algorithm. The ABD requires an average analysis time of 15 minutes per patient. A strong correlation was found between LV end-diastolic volume (r = 0.99; y = 0.95x - 1.14 ml; SEE = 6.5 ml), LV end-systolic volume (r = 0.96; y = 0.89x + 7.91 ml; SEE = 7.0 ml), and LV ejection fraction (r = 0.93; y = 0.69x + 13.36; SEE = 2.4%). Inter- and intraobserver agreement for all measurements was good. The fast-rotating transducer with new ABD software is a dedicated tool for rapid and accurate analysis of LV volume and function.

  2. Asteroid Detection Results Using the Space Surveillance Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruprecht, Jessica D.; Ushomirsky, Gregory; Woods, Deborah F.; Viggh, Herbert E. M.; Varey, Jacob; Cornell, Mark E.; Stokes, Grant

    2015-11-01

    From 1998-2013, MIT Lincoln Laboratory operated a highly successful near-Earth asteroid search program using two 1-m optical telescopes located at the MIT Lincoln Laboratory Experimental Test Site (ETS) in Socorro, N.M. In 2014, the Lincoln Near-Earth Asteroid Research (LINEAR) program successfully transitioned operations from the two 1-m telescopes to the 3.5-m Space Surveillance Telescope (SST) located at Atom Site on White Sands Missile Range, N.M. This paper provides a summary of first-year performance and results for the LINEAR program with SST and provides an update on recent improvements to the moving-object pipeline architecture that increase utility of SST data for NEO discovery and improve sensitivity to fast-moving objects. Ruprecht et al. (2014) made predictions for SST NEO search productivity as a function of population model. This paper assesses the NEO search performance of SST in the first 1.5 years of operation and compares results to model predictions.This work is sponsored by the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration under Air Force Contract #FA8721-05-C-0002. The views, opinions, and/or findings contained in this article/presentation are those of the authors / presenters and should not be interpreted as representing the official views or policies of the Department of Defense or the U.S. Government. Distribution Statement A: Approved for public release, distribution unlimited.

  3. Asteroid Detection Results Using the Space Surveillance Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruprecht, J.; Ushomirsky, G.; Woods, D.; Viggh, H.; Varey, J.; Cornell, M.; Stokes, G.

    From 1998-2013, MIT Lincoln Laboratory operated a highly successful near-Earth asteroid search program using two 1-m optical telescopes located at the MIT Lincoln Laboratory Experimental Test Site (ETS) in Socorro, N.M. In 2014, the Lincoln Near-Earth Asteroid Research (LINEAR) program successfully transitioned operations from the two 1-m telescopes to the 3.5-m Space Surveillance Telescope (SST) located at Atom Site on White Sands Missile Range, N.M. This paper provides a summary of first-year performance and results for the LINEAR program with SST and provides an update on recent improvements to the moving-object pipeline architecture that increase utility of SST data for NEO discovery and improve sensitivity to fast-moving objects. Ruprecht et al. (2014) made predictions for SST NEO search productivity as a function of population model. This paper assesses the NEO search performance of SST in the first 1.5 years of operation and compares results to model predictions. This work is sponsored by the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration under Air Force Contract #FA8721-05-C-0002. The views, opinions, and/or findings contained in this article/presentation are those of the authors / presenters and should not be interpreted as representing the official views or policies of the Department of Defense or the U.S. Government. Distribution Statement A: Approved for public release, distribution unlimited.

  4. Recent Results in Dark Matter Direct Detection Experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Kelso, Christopher Michael

    2012-08-01

    In this dissertation, we study the original excess of low energy events observed by the Co- GeNT collaboration and the annual modulation reported by the DAMA/LIBRA collaboration, and discuss whether these signals could both be the result of the same elastically scattering dark matter particle. We find that, without channeling but when taking into account uncertainties in the relevant quenching factors, a dark matter candidate with a mass of approximately ~7.0 GeV and a cross section with nucleons of σDM-N ~2 x 10-40 cm2 could account for both of these observations. We also compare the region of parameter space favored by DAMA/LIBRA and CoGeNT to the constraints from XENON 10, XENON 100, and CDMS (Si).

  5. The allele distribution in next-generation sequencing data sets is accurately described as the result of a stochastic branching process.

    PubMed

    Heinrich, Verena; Stange, Jens; Dickhaus, Thorsten; Imkeller, Peter; Krüger, Ulrike; Bauer, Sebastian; Mundlos, Stefan; Robinson, Peter N; Hecht, Jochen; Krawitz, Peter M

    2012-03-01

    With the availability of next-generation sequencing (NGS) technology, it is expected that sequence variants may be called on a genomic scale. Here, we demonstrate that a deeper understanding of the distribution of the variant call frequencies at heterozygous loci in NGS data sets is a prerequisite for sensitive variant detection. We model the crucial steps in an NGS protocol as a stochastic branching process and derive a mathematical framework for the expected distribution of alleles at heterozygous loci before measurement that is sequencing. We confirm our theoretical results by analyzing technical replicates of human exome data and demonstrate that the variance of allele frequencies at heterozygous loci is higher than expected by a simple binomial distribution. Due to this high variance, mutation callers relying on binomial distributed priors are less sensitive for heterozygous variants that deviate strongly from the expected mean frequency. Our results also indicate that error rates can be reduced to a greater degree by technical replicates than by increasing sequencing depth.

  6. A dual-modality photoacoustic and ultrasound imaging system for noninvasive sentinel lymph node detection: preliminary clinical results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erpelding, Todd N.; Garcia-Uribe, Alejandro; Krumholz, Arie; Ke, Haixin; Maslov, Konstantin; Appleton, Catherine; Margenthaler, Julie; Wang, Lihong V.

    2014-03-01

    Sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB) has emerged as an accurate, less invasive alternative to axillary lymph node dissection, and it has rapidly become the standard of care for patients with clinically node-negative breast cancer. The sentinel lymph node (SLN) hypothesis states that the pathological status of the axilla can be accurately predicted by determining the status of the first (i.e., sentinel) lymph nodes that drain from the primary tumor. Physicians use radio-labeled sulfur colloid and/or methylene blue dye to identify the SLN, which is most likely to contain metastatic cancer cells. However, the surgical procedure causes morbidity and associated expenses. To overcome these limitations, we developed a dual-modality photoacoustic and ultrasound imaging system to noninvasively detect SLNs based on the accumulation of methylene blue dye. Ultimately, we aim to guide percutaneous needle biopsies and provide a minimally invasive method for axillary staging of breast cancer. The system consists of a tunable dye laser pumped by a Nd:YAG laser, a commercial ultrasound imaging system (Philips iU22), and a multichannel data acquisition system which displays co-registered photoacoustic and ultrasound images in real-time. Our clinical results demonstrate that real-time photoacoustic imaging can provide sensitive and specific detection of methylene blue dye in vivo. While preliminary studies have shown that in vivo detection of SLNs by using co-registered photoacoustic and ultrasound imaging is feasible, further investigation is needed to demonstrate robust SLN detection.

  7. Accurate measurements of vadose zone fluxes using automated equilibrium tension plate lysimeters: A synopsis of results from the Spydia research facility, New Zealand.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wöhling, Thomas; Barkle, Greg; Stenger, Roland; Moorhead, Brian; Wall, Aaron; Clague, Juliet

    2014-05-01

    Automated equilibrium tension plate lysimeters (AETLs) are arguably the most accurate method to measure unsaturated water and contaminant fluxes below the root zone at the scale of up to 1 m². The AETL technique utilizes a porous sintered stainless-steel plate to provide a comparatively large sampling area with a continuously controlled vacuum that is in "equilibrium" with the surrounding vadose zone matric pressure to ensure measured fluxes represent those under undisturbed conditions. This novel lysimeter technique was used at an intensive research site for investigations of contaminant pathways from the land surface to the groundwater on a sheep and beef farm under pastoral land use in the Tutaeuaua subcatchment, New Zealand. The Spydia research facility was constructed in 2005 and was fully operational between 2006 and 2011. Extending from a central access caisson, 15 separately controlled AETLs with 0.2 m² surface area were installed at five depths between 0.4 m and 5.1 m into the undisturbed volcanic vadose zone materials. The unique setup of the facility ensured minimum interference of the experimental equipment and external factors with the measurements. Over the period of more than five years, a comprehensive data set was collected at each of the 15 AETL locations which comprises of time series of soil water flux, pressure head, volumetric water contents, and soil temperature. The soil water was regularly analysed for EC, pH, dissolved carbon, various nitrogen compounds (including nitrate, ammonia, and organic N), phosphorus, bromide, chloride, sulphate, silica, and a range of other major ions, as well as for various metals. Climate data was measured directly at the site (rainfall) and a climate station at 500m distance. The shallow groundwater was sampled at three different depths directly from the Spydia caisson and at various observation wells surrounding the facility. Two tracer experiments were conducted at the site in 2009 and 2010. In the 2009

  8. Remote detection of trace effluents using Resonance Raman spectroscopy: Field results and evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Sedlacek, A.J.; Chen, C.L.

    1995-10-01

    Resonance Raman spectroscopy (RRS) possesses many characteristics that are important for detecting, identifying and monitoring chemical effluents. Raman scattering is a coherent, inelastic, two-photon scattering process where an exciting photon of energy h{nu} promotes a molecule to a virtual level and the subsequently emitted photon is shifted in frequency in accordance with the rotational-vibrational structure of the irradiated species, thereby providing a unique fingerprint of the molecule. Under resonance enhancement, the Raman scattering cross-sections have been observed to increase up to 6 orders of magnitude above the normal scattering cross-sections, thereby providing the practical basis for a remote chemical sensor. Some of the other advantages that a Raman sensor possesses are: (1) very high selectivity (chemical specific fingerprints), (2) independence of the spectral fingerprint on the excitation wavelength (ability to monitor in the solar blind region), (3) chemical mixture fingerprints are the sum of its individual components (no spectral cross-talk), (4) near independence of the Raman fingerprint to its physical state (very similar spectra for gas, liquid, solid or solutions), (5) no absolute calibration is necessary because all Raman signals observed from a given species can be compared with the Raman signal for N{sub 2}, whose concentration is known very accurately, and (6) insensitivity of the Raman signature to environmental conditions (no quenching, or interference from water vapor). In this presentation, the technology of resonance Raman spectroscopy as applied to the detection of narcotics production activities will be presented along with some recent experimental results.

  9. A simple, yet accurate method for detecting and quantifying secretions from human minor salivary glands using the iodine-starch reaction.

    PubMed

    Shoji, N; Sasano, T; Inukai, K; Satoh-Kuriwada, S; Iikubo, M; Furuuchi, T; Sakamoto, M

    2003-11-01

    The lack of published information about the minor salivary glands is due in part to the difficulties experienced in collecting and quantifying their secretions. In fact, no method exists for measuring their secretions that is both simple and accurate. This investigation examined the accuracy of our newly developed method (which simply employs the iodine-starch reaction) in 10 healthy non-medicated adults. A strip painted with a solution of iodine in absolute alcohol then with a fine starch powder mixed with castor oil was placed at a designated location on the lower-lip mucosa for 2 min to collect saliva. Black-stained spots of various sizes corresponding to the individual glands could be accurately visualized. After removal of the strip, the total stained area (mm2) was calculated by digitizing the spot areas using a computer system. The correlation coefficient (r) between known volumes of saliva and stain size was 0.995, indicating a close correlation. The correlation coefficient (r) between area values obtained in the first trial in each subject (Y) and the second (X; 10 min later) was 0.963, and the simple regression equation was close to Y=X, indicating good reproducibility. The mean flow rate microl/cm2 per min) obtained by converting mean total area to volume and thence to flow rate was 0.49+/-0.26, in good agreement with published values obtained by others. These results suggest that our newly developed method allows both the distribution and secretion rate of the minor salivary glands to be observed, and that it should be of practical value due to its simplicity, accuracy, and reproducibility.

  10. A diagnostic one-step real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction method for accurate detection of influenza virus type A

    PubMed Central

    Behzadi, Mohammad Amin; Alborzi, Abdolvahab

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Influenza A is known as a public health concern worldwide. In this study, a novel one-step real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (rtRT-PCR) assay was designed and optimized for the detection of influenza A viruses. Material and methods The primers and probe were designed based on the analysis of 90 matrix nucleotide sequence data of influenza type A subtypes from the GenBank database of the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI). The influenza virus A/Tehran/5652/2010 (H1N1 pdm09) was used as a reference. The rtRT-PCR assay was optimized, compared with that of the World Health Organization (WHO), and its analytical sensitivity, specificity and reproducibility were evaluated. In total, 64 nasopharyngeal swabs from patients with influenza-like illness (ILI) and 41 samples without ILI symptoms were tested for the virus, using conventional cell culture, direct immunofluorescence antibody (DFA) methods, and one-step rtRT-PCR with the designed primer set and probe and the WHO’s. Results The optimized assay results were similar to the WHO’s. The optimized assay results were similar to WHO’s, with non-significant differences for 10–103 copies of viral RNA/reaction (p > 0.05). It detected 10 copies of viral RNA/reaction with high reproducibility and no cross reactivity with other respiratory viruses. A specific cytopathic effect was observed in 6/64 (9.37%) of the ILI group using conventional culture and DFA staining methods; however, it was not seen in non-ILI. Also, the results of our assay and the WHO’s were similar to those of viral isolation and DFA staining. Conclusions Given the high specificity, sensitivity and reproducibility of this novel assay, it can serve as a reliable diagnostic tool for the detection of influenza A viruses in clinical specimens and lab experiments. PMID:27904520

  11. Electrical detection of C-reactive protein using a single free-standing, thermally controlled piezoresistive microcantilever for highly reproducible and accurate measurements.

    PubMed

    Yen, Yi-Kuang; Lai, Yu-Cheng; Hong, Wei-Ting; Pheanpanitporn, Yotsapoom; Chen, Chuin-Shan; Huang, Long-Sun

    2013-07-29

    This study demonstrates a novel method for electrical detection of C-reactive protein (CRP) as a means of identifying an infection in the body, or as a cardiovascular disease risk assay. The method uses a single free-standing, thermally controlled piezoresistive microcantilever biosensor. In a commonly used sensing arrangement of conventional dual cantilevers in the Wheatstone bridge circuit, reference and gold-coated sensing cantilevers that inherently have heterogeneous surface materials and different multilayer structures may yield independent responses to the liquid environmental changes of chemical substances, flow field and temperature, leading to unwanted signal disturbance for biosensing targets. In this study, the single free-standing microcantilever for biosensing applications is employed to resolve the dual-beam problem of individual responses in chemical solutions and, in a thermally controlled system, to maintain its sensor performance due to the sensitive temperature effect. With this type of single temperature-controlled microcantilever sensor, the electrical detection of various CRP concentrations from 1 µg/mL to 200 µg/mL was performed, which covers the clinically relevant range. Induced surface stresses were measured at between 0.25 N/m and 3.4 N/m with high reproducibility. Moreover, the binding affinity (KD) of CRP and anti-CRP interaction was found to be 18.83 ± 2.99 µg/mL, which agreed with results in previous reported studies. This biosensing technique thus proves valuable in detecting inflammation, and in cardiovascular disease risk assays.

  12. Development of a strand-specific real-time qRT-PCR for the accurate detection and quantitation of West Nile virus RNA.

    PubMed

    Lim, Stephanie M; Koraka, Penelope; Osterhaus, Albert D M E; Martina, Byron E E

    2013-12-01

    Studying the tropism and replication kinetics of West Nile virus (WNV) in different cell types in vitro and in tissues in animal models is important for understanding its pathogenesis. As detection of the negative strand viral RNA is a more reliable indicator of active replication for single-stranded positive-sense RNA viruses, the specificity of qRT-PCR assays currently used for the detection of WNV positive and negative strand RNA was reassessed. It was shown that self- and falsely-primed cDNA was generated during the reverse transcription step in an assay employing unmodified primers and several reverse transcriptases. As a result, a qRT-PCR assay using the thermostable rTth in combination with tagged primers was developed, which greatly improved strand specificity by circumventing the events of self- and false-priming. The reliability of the assay was then addressed in vitro using BV-2 microglia cells as well as in C57/BL6 mice. It was possible to follow the kinetics of positive and negative-strand RNA synthesis both in vitro and in vivo; however, the sensitivity of the assay will need to be optimized in order to detect and quantify negative-strand RNA synthesis in the very early stages of infection. Overall, the strand-specific qRT-PCR assay developed in this study is an effective tool to quantify WNV RNA, reassess viral replication, and study tropism of WNV in the context of WNV pathogenesis.

  13. Accurate Finite Difference Algorithms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goodrich, John W.

    1996-01-01

    Two families of finite difference algorithms for computational aeroacoustics are presented and compared. All of the algorithms are single step explicit methods, they have the same order of accuracy in both space and time, with examples up to eleventh order, and they have multidimensional extensions. One of the algorithm families has spectral like high resolution. Propagation with high order and high resolution algorithms can produce accurate results after O(10(exp 6)) periods of propagation with eight grid points per wavelength.

  14. Concepts and Results of New Method for Accurate Ground and In-Flight Calibration of the Particle Spectrometers of the Fast Plasma Investigation on NASA's Magnetospheric MultiScale Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gliese, U.; Gershman, D. J.; Dorelli, J.; Avanov, L. A.; Barrie, A. C.; Clark, G. B.; Kujawski, J. T.; Mariano, A. J.; Coffey, V. N.; Tucker, C. J.; Chornay, D. J.; Cao, N. T.; Zeuch, M. A.; Dickson, C.; Smith, D. L.; Salo, C.; MacDonald, E.; Kreisler, S.; Jacques, A. D.; Giles, B. L.; Pollock, C. J.

    2015-12-01

    The Fast Plasma Investigation (FPI) on NASA's Magnetospheric MultiScale (MMS) mission employs 16 Dual Electron Spectrometers and 16 Dual Ion Spectrometers with 4 of each type on each of 4 spacecraft to enable fast (30 ms for electrons; 150 ms for ions) and spatially differentiated measurements of the full 3D particle velocity distributions. This approach presents a new and challenging aspect to the calibration and operation of these instruments on ground and in flight. The response uniformity, the reliability of their calibration and the approach to handling any temporal evolution of these calibrated characteristics all assume enhanced importance in this application, where we attempt to understand the meaning of particle distributions within the ion and electron diffusion regions of magnetically reconnecting plasmas. We have developed a detailed model of the spectrometer detection system, its behavior and its signal, crosstalk and noise sources. Based on this, we have devised a new calibration method that enables accurate and repeatable measurement of micro-channel plate (MCP) gain, signal loss due to variation in MCP gain and crosstalk effects in one single measurement. The foundational concepts of this new calibration method, named threshold scan, are presented. It is shown how this method has been successfully applied both on ground and in-flight to achieve highly accurate and precise calibration of all 64 spectrometers. Calibration parameters that will evolve in flight are determined daily providing a robust characterization of sensor suite performance, as a basis for both in-situ hardware adjustment and data processing to scientific units, throughout mission lifetime. This is shown to be very desirable as the instruments will produce higher quality raw science data that will require smaller post-acquisition data-corrections using results from in-flight derived pitch angle distribution measurements and ground calibration measurements. The practical application

  15. Accurate and efficient detection of pulmonary seed embolization in prostate iodine-125 permanent brachytherapy with a collimated gamma scintillation survey meter.

    PubMed

    Chen, Qin-Sheng; Blair, Henry F

    2003-05-01

    Pulmonary seed embolization is frequently observed in permanent prostate brachytherapy. Postoperative chest radiographic examination does not always detect seed embolization. To overcome this deficiency, a low energy gamma scintillation survey meter was converted to a seed-migration detector by adding a cone-shaped single-hole collimation cap to the window end of the scintillation probe. The response functions of the seed-migration detector to iodine-125 (I-125) for different source-to-detector distances in air and in water were measured. The spatial discrimination power of the survey meter, represented by the full width at half maximum measured in water, is typically improved from more than 7 cm to about 3 cm. Seventy-nine patients with I-125 implantation were scanned with the seed-migration detector at the patients' 30-day postevaluation visit. Fifteen patients showed single-seed embolization to the chest region and four patients displayed two-seed embolization. In other words, 24% of the patients present with embolized seeds. The detection accuracy of each patient was validated by a comprehensive investigation procedure. The comprehensive investigation consists of reviewing the patient's treatment history, orally questioning the patient for possible seed loss via the urethra route outside the hospital, examining all available chest radiographs before and after the seed implantation, and counting the seeds on the postevaluation CT scans. In comparison, examinations relying only on the analysis of postoperative chest radiographs yielded a false-positive detection in four patients and a false-negative detection in two patients. Another advantage of the seed-migration detector is that multiple seed-migration scans can be performed without exposing the patient to any additional radiation, for this device is a passive detector. Our clinical implementation also demonstrated that the seed-migration detector is a convenient and cost-effective method. As a result of this

  16. Assessing the clinical uses of fuzzy detection results in the automated detection of CVC-related infections: a preliminary report.

    PubMed

    de Bruin, Jeroen S; Blacky, Alexander; Adlassnig, Klaus-Peter

    2012-01-01

    Central venous catheters (CVCs) play an essential role in the care of the critically ill, but their use comes at the risk of infection. By using fuzzy set theory and logic to model clinical linguistic CVC-related infection criteria, clinical detection systems can detect borderline infections where not all infection parameters have been (fully) met, also called fuzzy results. In this paper we analyzed the clinical use of these results. We used a fuzzy-logic-based computerized infection control system for the monitoring of healthcare-associated infections to uncover fuzzy results and periods, after which we classified them, and used these classifications together with knowledge of prior CVC-related infection episodes in temporal association rule mining. As a result, we uncovered several rules which can help with the early detection of re-occurring CVC-related infections.

  17. Development and Validation of a Novel Fusion Algorithm for Continuous, Accurate and Automated R-wave Detection and Calculation of Signal-Derived Metrics

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-01-01

    into sub-bands using a filter bank , feature extraction, single-channel detection blocks and decision levels, the adaptation of detection strengths...2004;3:1-9. [10] Afonso VX, Tompkins WJ, Nguyen TQ, et al. ECG beat detection using filter banks . IEEE Trans Biomed Eng 1999;46:192-202. [11] Zong W... systems ; Automatic data processing Abstract Purpose: Previous studies have shown that heart rate complexity may be a useful indicator of patient

  18. Rapid and accurate detection of the CFTR gene mutation 1811+1.6 kbA>G by real-time fluorescence resonance energy transfer PCR.

    PubMed

    Reboul, Marie-Pierre; Higueret, Laurent; Biteau, Nicolas; Iron, Albert

    2005-10-01

    The CFTR gene mutation 1811+1.6 kbA>G has been reported as associated with a severe phenotype of cystic fibrosis with pancreatic insufficiency. This mutation has been identified as a rather common one in the South West of France and in the Iberian Peninsula. Because of the precise geographical origin of the subjects and its frequency, the mutation has to be investigated with accuracy. We have developed an original real-time Fluorescence Resonance Energy Transfer (FRET) PCR assay for genotyping the mutation 1811+1.6 kbA>G. It is based on the amplification of a region spanning the mutation with simultaneous detection of the amplicon by hybridization with a bi-probe followed by a melting curve analysis. The results obtained are identical with those resulting from either restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis or sequencing. The distinction between the wild type and the mutation 1811+1.6 kbA>G is easy because the corresponding melting points shows a difference of 6 or 9.5 degrees C depending on the associated SNP A/T located 16 bp downstream. We demonstrated that a FRET assay showed enough sensitivity to discriminate between two nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the sequence of the sensor. In conclusion, this method is specific, fast, easy to perform, reproducible, inexpensive as it uses only one bi-probe and well adapted to daily practice.

  19. A non-contact method based on multiple signal classification algorithm to reduce the measurement time for accurately heart rate detection.

    PubMed

    Bechet, P; Mitran, R; Munteanu, M

    2013-08-01

    Non-contact methods for the assessment of vital signs are of great interest for specialists due to the benefits obtained in both medical and special applications, such as those for surveillance, monitoring, and search and rescue. This paper investigates the possibility of implementing a digital processing algorithm based on the MUSIC (Multiple Signal Classification) parametric spectral estimation in order to reduce the observation time needed to accurately measure the heart rate. It demonstrates that, by proper dimensioning the signal subspace, the MUSIC algorithm can be optimized in order to accurately assess the heart rate during an 8-28 s time interval. The validation of the processing algorithm performance was achieved by minimizing the mean error of the heart rate after performing simultaneous comparative measurements on several subjects. In order to calculate the error the reference value of heart rate was measured using a classic measurement system through direct contact.

  20. A non-contact method based on multiple signal classification algorithm to reduce the measurement time for accurately heart rate detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bechet, P.; Mitran, R.; Munteanu, M.

    2013-08-01

    Non-contact methods for the assessment of vital signs are of great interest for specialists due to the benefits obtained in both medical and special applications, such as those for surveillance, monitoring, and search and rescue. This paper investigates the possibility of implementing a digital processing algorithm based on the MUSIC (Multiple Signal Classification) parametric spectral estimation in order to reduce the observation time needed to accurately measure the heart rate. It demonstrates that, by proper dimensioning the signal subspace, the MUSIC algorithm can be optimized in order to accurately assess the heart rate during an 8-28 s time interval. The validation of the processing algorithm performance was achieved by minimizing the mean error of the heart rate after performing simultaneous comparative measurements on several subjects. In order to calculate the error the reference value of heart rate was measured using a classic measurement system through direct contact.

  1. Results and simulation of the prototype detection unit of KM3NeT-ARCA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hugon, C. M. F.

    2017-03-01

    KM3NeT-ARCA is a deep sea high energy neutrino detector. A detection unit prototype was deployed in the future KM3NeT-ARCA deep-sea site, off of the Sicilian coast. This detection unit is composed of a line of 3 digital optical modules with 31 photomultiplier tubes on each one. The prototype detection unit was operated since its deployment in May 2014 until its decommissioning in July 2015. The results of the calibration of this detection unit and its simulation are presented and discussed.

  2. ICGA-PSO-ELM approach for accurate multiclass cancer classification resulting in reduced gene sets in which genes encoding secreted proteins are highly represented.

    PubMed

    Saraswathi, Saras; Sundaram, Suresh; Sundararajan, Narasimhan; Zimmermann, Michael; Nilsen-Hamilton, Marit

    2011-01-01

    A combination of Integer-Coded Genetic Algorithm (ICGA) and Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO), coupled with the neural-network-based Extreme Learning Machine (ELM), is used for gene selection and cancer classification. ICGA is used with PSO-ELM to select an optimal set of genes, which is then used to build a classifier to develop an algorithm (ICGA_PSO_ELM) that can handle sparse data and sample imbalance. We evaluate the performance of ICGA-PSO-ELM and compare our results with existing methods in the literature. An investigation into the functions of the selected genes, using a systems biology approach, revealed that many of the identified genes are involved in cell signaling and proliferation. An analysis of these gene sets shows a larger representation of genes that encode secreted proteins than found in randomly selected gene sets. Secreted proteins constitute a major means by which cells interact with their surroundings. Mounting biological evidence has identified the tumor microenvironment as a critical factor that determines tumor survival and growth. Thus, the genes identified by this study that encode secreted proteins might provide important insights to the nature of the critical biological features in the microenvironment of each tumor type that allow these cells to thrive and proliferate.

  3. Computerized detection of vertebral compression fractures on lateral chest radiographs: Preliminary results with a tool for early detection of osteoporosis

    SciTech Connect

    Kasai, Satoshi; Li Feng; Shiraishi, Junji; Li Qiang; Doi, Kunio

    2006-12-15

    -positive fractures per image. The accuracy of identifying vertebral end plates, marked by radiologists in a morphometric study, was 76.6% (400/522) and 70.9% (420/592) for cases used for training and those for testing, respectively. We prepared 32 additional fracture cases for a validation test, and we examined the detection accuracy of our computerized method. The sensitivity for these cases was 75% (24/32) at 1.03 (33/32) false-positive fractures per image. Our preliminary results show that the automated computerized scheme for detecting vertebral fractures on lateral chest radiographs has the potential to assist radiologists in detecting vertebral fractures.

  4. Oil Spill Detection and Modelling: Preliminary Results for the Cercal Accident

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    da Costa, R. T.; Azevedo, A.; da Silva, J. C. B.; Oliveira, A.

    2013-03-01

    Oil spill research has significantly increased mainly as a result of the severe consequences experienced from industry accidents. Oil spill models are currently able to simulate the processes that determine the fate of oil slicks, playing an important role in disaster prevention, control and mitigation, generating valuable information for decision makers and the population in general. On the other hand, satellite Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) imagery has demonstrated significant potential in accidental oil spill detection, when they are accurately differentiated from look-alikes. The combination of both tools can lead to breakthroughs, particularly in the development of Early Warning Systems (EWS). This paper presents a hindcast simulation of the oil slick resulting from the Motor Tanker (MT) Cercal oil spill, listed by the Portuguese Navy as one of the major oil spills in the Portuguese Atlantic Coast. The accident took place nearby Leix˜oes Harbour, North of the Douro River, Porto (Portugal) on the 2nd of October 1994. The oil slick was segmented from available European Remote Sensing (ERS) satellite SAR images, using an algorithm based on a simplified version of the K-means clustering formulation. The image-acquired information, added to the initial conditions and forcings, provided the necessary inputs for the oil spill model. Simulations were made considering the tri-dimensional hydrodynamics in a crossscale domain, from the interior of the Douro River Estuary to the open-ocean on the Iberian Atlantic shelf. Atmospheric forcings (from ECMWF - the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts and NOAA - the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration), river forcings (from SNIRH - the Portuguese National Information System of the Hydric Resources) and tidal forcings (from LNEC - the National Laboratory for Civil Engineering), including baroclinic gradients (NOAA), were considered. The lack of data for validation purposes only allowed the use of the

  5. Exploring results of the possibility on detecting cosmic ray particles by acoustic way

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jiang, Y.; Yuan, Y.; Li, Y.; Chen, D.; Zheng, R.; Song, J.

    1985-01-01

    It has been demonstrated experimentally and theoretically that high energy particles produce detectable sounds in water. However, no one has been able to detect an acoustic signal generated by a high energy cosmic ray particle in water. Results show that transient ultrasonic signals in a large lake or reservoir are fairly complex and that the transient signals under water may arise mainly from sound radiation from microbubbles. This field is not explored in detail. Perhaps, the sounds created by cosmic ray particles hide in these ultrasonic signals. In order to develop the technique of acoustic detection, it is most important to make a thorough investigation of these ultrasonic signals in water.

  6. Significance of "Not Detected but Amplified" Results by Real-Time PCR Method for HPV DNA Detection.

    PubMed

    Kim, Taek Soo; Lim, Mi Suk; Hong, Yun Ji; Hwang, Sang Mee; Park, Kyoung Un; Song, Junghan; Kim, Eui-Chong

    2016-01-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) infection is an important etiologic factor in cervical carcinogenesis. Various HPV DNA detection methods have been evaluated for clinicopathological level. For the specimens with normal cytological finding, discrepancies among the detection methods were frequently found and adequate interpretation can be difficult. 6,322 clinical specimens were submitted and evaluated for real-time PCR and Hybrid Capture 2 (HC2). 573 positive or "Not Detected but Amplified" (NDBA) specimens by real-time PCR were additionally tested using genetic analyzer. For the reliability of real-time PCR, 325 retests were performed. Optimal cut-off cycle threshold (CT ) value was evaluated also. 78.7% of submitted specimens showed normal or nonspecific cytological finding. The distributions of HPV types by real-time PCR were not different between positive and NDBA cases. For positive cases by fragment analysis, concordance rates with real-time PCR and HC2 were 94.2% and 84.2%. In NDBA cases, fragment analysis and real-time PCR showed identical results in 77.0% and HC2 revealed 27.6% of concordance with fragment analysis. Optimal cut-off CT value was different for HPV types. NDBA results in real-time PCR should be regarded as equivocal, not negative. The adjustment of cut-off CT value for HPV types will be helpful for the appropriate result interpretation.

  7. Significance of “Not Detected but Amplified” Results by Real-Time PCR Method for HPV DNA Detection

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Taek Soo; Lim, Mi Suk; Hwang, Sang Mee; Song, Junghan; Kim, Eui-Chong

    2016-01-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) infection is an important etiologic factor in cervical carcinogenesis. Various HPV DNA detection methods have been evaluated for clinicopathological level. For the specimens with normal cytological finding, discrepancies among the detection methods were frequently found and adequate interpretation can be difficult. 6,322 clinical specimens were submitted and evaluated for real-time PCR and Hybrid Capture 2 (HC2). 573 positive or “Not Detected but Amplified” (NDBA) specimens by real-time PCR were additionally tested using genetic analyzer. For the reliability of real-time PCR, 325 retests were performed. Optimal cut-off cycle threshold (CT) value was evaluated also. 78.7% of submitted specimens showed normal or nonspecific cytological finding. The distributions of HPV types by real-time PCR were not different between positive and NDBA cases. For positive cases by fragment analysis, concordance rates with real-time PCR and HC2 were 94.2% and 84.2%. In NDBA cases, fragment analysis and real-time PCR showed identical results in 77.0% and HC2 revealed 27.6% of concordance with fragment analysis. Optimal cut-off CT value was different for HPV types. NDBA results in real-time PCR should be regarded as equivocal, not negative. The adjustment of cut-off CT value for HPV types will be helpful for the appropriate result interpretation. PMID:28097135

  8. Preliminary clinical results: an analyzing tool for 2D optical imaging in detection of active inflammation in rheumatoid arthritis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adi Aizudin Bin Radin Nasirudin, Radin; Meier, Reinhard; Ahari, Carmen; Sievert, Matti; Fiebich, Martin; Rummeny, Ernst J.; No"l, Peter B.

    2011-03-01

    Optical imaging (OI) is a relatively new method in detecting active inflammation of hand joints of patients suffering from rheumatoid arthritis (RA). With the high number of people affected by this disease especially in western countries, the availability of OI as an early diagnostic imaging method is clinically highly relevant. In this paper, we present a newly in-house developed OI analyzing tool and a clinical evaluation study. Our analyzing tool extends the capability of existing OI tools. We include many features in the tool, such as region-based image analysis, hyper perfusion curve analysis, and multi-modality image fusion to aid clinicians in localizing and determining the intensity of inflammation in joints. Additionally, image data management options, such as the full integration of PACS/RIS, are included. In our clinical study we demonstrate how OI facilitates the detection of active inflammation in rheumatoid arthritis. The preliminary clinical results indicate a sensitivity of 43.5%, a specificity of 80.3%, an accuracy of 65.7%, a positive predictive value of 76.6%, and a negative predictive value of 64.9% in relation to clinical results from MRI. The accuracy of inflammation detection serves as evidence to the potential of OI as a useful imaging modality for early detection of active inflammation in patients with rheumatoid arthritis. With our in-house developed tool we extend the usefulness of OI imaging in the clinical arena. Overall, we show that OI is a fast, inexpensive, non-invasive and nonionizing yet highly sensitive and accurate imaging modality.-

  9. Preliminary results of heterodyne detection with quantum-cascade lasers in the 9 microm region.

    PubMed

    Parvitte, B; Joly, L; Zéninari, V; Courtois, D

    2004-12-01

    In this paper, we describe recent results in mid-infrared heterodyne detection using quantum-cascade (QC) lasers as local oscillator (LO). In the 9 microm range, the heterodyne detection technique was first developed with CO(2) lasers and then with Pb-salt diode lasers. Quantum-cascade lasers are promising high quality tunable mid-infrared sources. We developed a quantum-cascade laser based heterodyne spectrometer. Atmospheric absorption spectra of ozone are presented.

  10. Accurate detection of the tumor clone in peripheral T-cell lymphoma biopsies by flow cytometric analysis of TCR-Vβ repertoire.

    PubMed

    Salameire, Dimitri; Solly, Françoise; Fabre, Blandine; Lefebvre, Christine; Chauvet, Martine; Gressin, Rémy; Corront, Bernadette; Ciapa, Agnès; Pernollet, Martine; Plumas, Joël; Macintyre, Elizabeth; Callanan, Mary B; Leroux, Dominique; Jacob, Marie-Christine

    2012-09-01

    Multiparametric flow cytometry has proven to be a powerful method for detection and immunophenotypic characterization of clonal subsets, particularly in lymphoproliferative disorders of the B-cell lineage. Although in theory promising, this approach has not been comparably fulfilled in mature T-cell malignancies. Specifically, the T-cell receptor-Vβ repertoire analysis in blood can provide strong evidence of clonality, particularly when a single expanded Vß family is detected. The purpose of this study was to determine the relevance of this approach when applied to biopsies, at the site of tumor involvement. To this end, 30 peripheral T-cell lymphoma and 94 control biopsies were prospectively studied. Vβ expansions were commonly detected within CD4+ or CD8+ T cells (97% of peripheral T-cell lymphoma and 54% of non-peripheral T-cell lymphoma cases); thus, not differentiating malignant from reactive processes. Interestingly, we demonstrated that using a standardized evaluation, the detection of a high Vβ expansion was closely associated with diagnosis of peripheral T-cell lymphoma, with remarkable specificity (98%) and sensitivity (90%). This approach also identified eight cases of peripheral T-cell lymphoma that were not detectable by other forms of immunophenotyping. Moreover, focusing Vβ expression analysis to T-cell subsets with aberrant immunophenotypes, we demonstrated that the T-cell clone might be heterogeneous with regard to surface CD7 or CD10 expression (4/11 cases), providing indication on 'phenotypic plasticity'. Finally, among the wide variety of Vβ families, the occurrence of a Vβ17 expansion in five cases was striking. To our knowledge, this is the first report demonstrating the power of T-cell receptor-Vβ repertoire analysis by flow cytometry in biopsies as a basis for peripheral T-cell lymphoma diagnosis and precise T-cell clone identification and characterization.

  11. Accurate quantum chemical calculations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bauschlicher, Charles W., Jr.; Langhoff, Stephen R.; Taylor, Peter R.

    1989-01-01

    An important goal of quantum chemical calculations is to provide an understanding of chemical bonding and molecular electronic structure. A second goal, the prediction of energy differences to chemical accuracy, has been much harder to attain. First, the computational resources required to achieve such accuracy are very large, and second, it is not straightforward to demonstrate that an apparently accurate result, in terms of agreement with experiment, does not result from a cancellation of errors. Recent advances in electronic structure methodology, coupled with the power of vector supercomputers, have made it possible to solve a number of electronic structure problems exactly using the full configuration interaction (FCI) method within a subspace of the complete Hilbert space. These exact results can be used to benchmark approximate techniques that are applicable to a wider range of chemical and physical problems. The methodology of many-electron quantum chemistry is reviewed. Methods are considered in detail for performing FCI calculations. The application of FCI methods to several three-electron problems in molecular physics are discussed. A number of benchmark applications of FCI wave functions are described. Atomic basis sets and the development of improved methods for handling very large basis sets are discussed: these are then applied to a number of chemical and spectroscopic problems; to transition metals; and to problems involving potential energy surfaces. Although the experiences described give considerable grounds for optimism about the general ability to perform accurate calculations, there are several problems that have proved less tractable, at least with current computer resources, and these and possible solutions are discussed.

  12. Accurate Evaluation of Quantum Integrals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Galant, D. C.; Goorvitch, D.; Witteborn, Fred C. (Technical Monitor)

    1995-01-01

    Combining an appropriate finite difference method with Richardson's extrapolation results in a simple, highly accurate numerical method for solving a Schrodinger's equation. Important results are that error estimates are provided, and that one can extrapolate expectation values rather than the wavefunctions to obtain highly accurate expectation values. We discuss the eigenvalues, the error growth in repeated Richardson's extrapolation, and show that the expectation values calculated on a crude mesh can be extrapolated to obtain expectation values of high accuracy.

  13. Functional requirements with survey results for integrated intrusion detection and access control annunciator systems

    SciTech Connect

    Arakaki, L.H.; Monaco, F.M.

    1995-09-01

    This report contains the guidance Functional Requirements for an Integrated Intrusion Detection and Access Control Annunciator System, and survey results of selected commercial systems. The survey questions were based upon the functional requirements; therefore, the results reflect which and sometimes how the guidance recommendations were met.

  14. An Accurate and Efficient Algorithm for Detection of Radio Bursts with an Unknown Dispersion Measure, for Single-dish Telescopes and Interferometers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zackay, Barak; Ofek, Eran O.

    2017-01-01

    Astronomical radio signals are subjected to phase dispersion while traveling through the interstellar medium. To optimally detect a short-duration signal within a frequency band, we have to precisely compensate for the unknown pulse dispersion, which is a computationally demanding task. We present the “fast dispersion measure transform” algorithm for optimal detection of such signals. Our algorithm has a low theoretical complexity of 2{N}f{N}t+{N}t{N}{{Δ }}{{log}}2({N}f), where Nf, Nt, and NΔ are the numbers of frequency bins, time bins, and dispersion measure bins, respectively. Unlike previously suggested fast algorithms, our algorithm conserves the sensitivity of brute-force dedispersion. Our tests indicate that this algorithm, running on a standard desktop computer and implemented in a high-level programming language, is already faster than the state-of-the-art dedispersion codes running on graphical processing units (GPUs). We also present a variant of the algorithm that can be efficiently implemented on GPUs. The latter algorithm’s computation and data-transport requirements are similar to those of a two-dimensional fast Fourier transform, indicating that incoherent dedispersion can now be considered a nonissue while planning future surveys. We further present a fast algorithm for sensitive detection of pulses shorter than the dispersive smearing limits of incoherent dedispersion. In typical cases, this algorithm is orders of magnitude faster than enumerating dispersion measures and coherently dedispersing by convolution. We analyze the computational complexity of pulsed signal searches by radio interferometers. We conclude that, using our suggested algorithms, maximally sensitive blind searches for dispersed pulses are feasible using existing facilities. We provide an implementation of these algorithms in Python and MATLAB.

  15. An epigenetic biomarker combination of PCDH17 and POU4F2 detects bladder cancer accurately by methylation analyses of urine sediment DNA in Han Chinese

    PubMed Central

    Li, Qiaoling; An, Dan; Fang, Lu; Lin, Youcheng; Hou, Yong; Xu, Abai; Fu, Yu; Lu, Wei; Chen, Xin; Chen, Mingwei; Zhang, Meng; Jiang, Huiling; Zhang, Chuanxia; Dong, Pei; Li, Chong; Chen, Jun; Yang, Guosheng; Liu, Chunxiao; Cai, Zhiming; Zhou, Fangjian; Wu, Song

    2016-01-01

    To develop a routine and effectual procedure of detecting bladder cancer (BlCa), an optimized combination of epigenetic biomarkers that work synergistically with high sensitivity and specificity is necessary. In this study, methylation levels of seven biomarkers (EOMES, GDF15, NID2, PCDH17, POU4F2, TCF21, and ZNF154) in 148 individuals—which including 58 urothelial cell carcinoma (UCC) patients, 20 infected urinary calculi (IUC) patients, 20 kidney cancer (KC) patients,20 prostate cancer (PC) patients, and 30 healthy volunteers (HV)—were quantified by qMSP using the urine sediment DNA. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves were generated for each biomarker. The combining predictors of possible combinations were calculated through logistic regression model. Subsequently, ROC curves of the three best performing combinations were constructed. Then, we validated the three best performing combinations and POU4F2 in another 72 UCC, 21 IUC, 26 KC and 22 PC, and 23 HV urine samples. The combination of POU4F2/PCDH17 has yielded the highest sensitivity and specificity of 90.00% and 93.96% in all the 312 individuals, showing the capability of detecting BlCa effectively among pathologically varied sample groups. PMID:26700620

  16. Trimodal color-fluorescence-polarization endoscopy aided by a tumor selective molecular probe accurately detects flat lesions in colitis-associated cancer

    PubMed Central

    Charanya, Tauseef; York, Timothy; Bloch, Sharon; Sudlow, Gail; Liang, Kexian; Garcia, Missael; Akers, Walter J.; Rubin, Deborah; Gruev, Viktor; Achilefu, Samuel

    2014-01-01

    Abstract. Colitis-associated cancer (CAC) arises from premalignant flat lesions of the colon, which are difficult to detect with current endoscopic screening approaches. We have developed a complementary fluorescence and polarization reporting strategy that combines the unique biochemical and physical properties of dysplasia and cancer for real-time detection of these lesions. Using azoxymethane-dextran sodium sulfate (AOM-DSS) treated mice, which recapitulates human CAC and dysplasia, we show that an octapeptide labeled with a near-infrared (NIR) fluorescent dye selectively identified all precancerous and cancerous lesions. A new thermoresponsive sol-gel formulation allowed topical application of the molecular probe during endoscopy. This method yielded high contrast-to-noise ratios (CNR) between adenomatous tumors (20.6±1.65) and flat lesions (12.1±1.03) and surrounding uninvolved colon tissue versus CNR of inflamed tissues (1.62±0.41). Incorporation of nanowire-filtered polarization imaging into NIR fluorescence endoscopy shows a high depolarization contrast in both adenomatous tumors and flat lesions in CAC, reflecting compromised structural integrity of these tissues. Together, the real-time polarization imaging provides real-time validation of suspicious colon tissue highlighted by molecular fluorescence endoscopy. PMID:25473883

  17. Trimodal color-fluorescence-polarization endoscopy aided by a tumor selective molecular probe accurately detects flat lesions in colitis-associated cancer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Charanya, Tauseef; York, Timothy; Bloch, Sharon; Sudlow, Gail; Liang, Kexian; Garcia, Missael; Akers, Walter J.; Rubin, Deborah; Gruev, Viktor; Achilefu, Samuel

    2014-12-01

    Colitis-associated cancer (CAC) arises from premalignant flat lesions of the colon, which are difficult to detect with current endoscopic screening approaches. We have developed a complementary fluorescence and polarization reporting strategy that combines the unique biochemical and physical properties of dysplasia and cancer for real-time detection of these lesions. Using azoxymethane-dextran sodium sulfate (AOM-DSS) treated mice, which recapitulates human CAC and dysplasia, we show that an octapeptide labeled with a near-infrared (NIR) fluorescent dye selectively identified all precancerous and cancerous lesions. A new thermoresponsive sol-gel formulation allowed topical application of the molecular probe during endoscopy. This method yielded high contrast-to-noise ratios (CNR) between adenomatous tumors (20.6±1.65) and flat lesions (12.1±1.03) and surrounding uninvolved colon tissue versus CNR of inflamed tissues (1.62±0.41). Incorporation of nanowire-filtered polarization imaging into NIR fluorescence endoscopy shows a high depolarization contrast in both adenomatous tumors and flat lesions in CAC, reflecting compromised structural integrity of these tissues. Together, the real-time polarization imaging provides real-time validation of suspicious colon tissue highlighted by molecular fluorescence endoscopy.

  18. Flight test results of failure detection and isolation algorithms for a redundant strapdown inertial measurement unit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morrell, F. R.; Motyka, P. R.; Bailey, M. L.

    1990-01-01

    Flight test results for two sensor fault-tolerant algorithms developed for a redundant strapdown inertial measurement unit are presented. The inertial measurement unit (IMU) consists of four two-degrees-of-freedom gyros and accelerometers mounted on the faces of a semi-octahedron. Fault tolerance is provided by edge vector test and generalized likelihood test algorithms, each of which can provide dual fail-operational capability for the IMU. To detect the wide range of failure magnitudes in inertial sensors, which provide flight crucial information for flight control and navigation, failure detection and isolation are developed in terms of a multi level structure. Threshold compensation techniques, developed to enhance the sensitivity of the failure detection process to navigation level failures, are presented. Four flight tests were conducted in a commercial transport-type environment to compare and determine the performance of the failure detection and isolation methods. Dual flight processors enabled concurrent tests for the algorithms. Failure signals such as hard-over, null, or bias shift, were added to the sensor outputs as simple or multiple failures during the flights. Both algorithms provided timely detection and isolation of flight control level failures. The generalized likelihood test algorithm provided more timely detection of low-level sensor failures, but it produced one false isolation. Both algorithms demonstrated the capability to provide dual fail-operational performance for the skewed array of inertial sensors.

  19. COBRA ATD minefield detection results for the Joint Countermine ACTD Demonstrations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stetson, Suzanne P.; Witherspoon, Ned H.; Holloway, John H., Jr.; Suiter, Harold R.; Crosby, Frank J.; Hilton, Russell J.; McCarley, Karen A.

    2000-08-01

    The Coastal Battlefield Reconnaissance and Analysis)COBRA) system described here was a Marine Corps Advanced Technology Demonstration (ATD) development consisting of an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) airborne multispectral video sensor system and ground station which processes the multispectral video data to automatically detect minefields along the flight path. After successful completion of the ATD, the residual COBRA ATD system participated in the Joint Countermine (JCM) Advanced Concept Technology Demonstration (ACTD) Demo I held at Camp Lejeune, North Carolina in conjunction with JTFX97 and Demo II held in Stephenville, Newfoundland in conjunction with MARCOT98. These exercises demonstrated the COBRA ATD system in an operational environment, detecting minefields that included several different mine types in widely varying backgrounds. The COBRA system performed superbly during these demonstrations, detecting mines under water, in the surf zone, on the beach, and inland, and has transitioned to an acquisition program. This paper describes the COBRA operation and performance results for these demonstrations, which represent the first demonstrated capability for remote tactical minefield detection from a UAV. The successful COBRA technologies and techniques demonstrated for tactical UAV minefield detection in the Joint Countermine Advanced Concept Technology Demonstrations have formed the technical foundation for future developments in Marine Corps, Navy, and Army tactical remote airborne mine detection systems.

  20. Fault detection, isolation and reconfiguration in FTMP Methods and experimental results. [fault tolerant multiprocessor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lala, J. H.

    1983-01-01

    The Fault-Tolerant Multiprocessor (FTMP) is a highly reliable computer designed to meet a goal of 10 to the -10th failures per hour and built with the objective of flying an active-control transport aircraft. Fault detection, identification, and recovery software is described, and experimental results obtained by injecting faults in the pin level in the FTMP are presented. Over 21,000 faults were injected in the CPU, memory, bus interface circuits, and error detection, masking, and error reporting circuits of one LRU of the multiprocessor. Detection, isolation, and reconfiguration times were recorded for each fault, and the results were found to agree well with earlier assumptions made in reliability modeling.

  1. Beam test results on the detection of single particles and electromagnetic showers with microchannel plates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barnyakov, A.; Barnyakov, M.; Brianza, L.; Cavallari, F.; Ciriolo, V.; Del Re, D.; Gelli, S.; Ghezzi, A.; Gotti, C.; Govoni, P.; Martelli, A.; Marzocchi, B.; Meridiani, P.; Organtini, G.; Paramatti, R.; Pigazzini, S.; Rahatlou, S.; Rovelli, C.; Santanastasio, F.; Tabarelli de Fatis, T.

    2017-02-01

    I-MCP is an R&D project aimed at the exploitation of secondary emission of electrons from the surface of micro-channel plates (MCP) for single ionizing particles and fast timing of showers in high rate environments. Results from tests with electrons with energies up to 50 GeV of MCP devices with different characteristics are presented. In particular detection efficiency and time resolution are measured for a range of MCP prototypes: different MCP channel diameter and layers configuration are studied. Devices operated in I-MCP configuration, where the particle detection proceed through direct ionization of the MCP layers, are studied in comparison with the more usual PMT-MCP configuration. The results show efficiencies up to 70% for single charge particle detection for I-MCP devices with a time resolution of about 40 ps. The efficiency raise to 100% in response to high energy electromagnetic showers.

  2. CRSP, numerical results for an electrical resistivity array to detect underground cavities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amini, Amin; Ramazi, Hamidreza

    2017-01-01

    This paper is devoted to the application of the Combined Resistivity Sounding and Profiling electrode configuration (CRSP) to detect underground cavities. Electrical resistivity surveying is among the most favorite geophysical methods due to its nondestructive and economical properties in a wide range of geosciences. Several types of the electrode arrays are applied to detect different certain objectives. In one hand, the electrode array plays an important role in determination of output resolution and depth of investigations in all resistivity surveys. On the other hand, they have their own merits and demerits in terms of depth of investigations, signal strength, and sensitivity to resistivity variations. In this article several synthetic models, simulating different conditions of cavity occurrence, were used to examine the responses of some conventional electrode arrays and also CRSP array. The results showed that CRSP electrode configuration can detect the desired objectives with a higher resolution rather than some other types of arrays. Also a field case study was discussed in which electrical resistivity approach was conducted in Abshenasan expressway (Tehran, Iran) U-turn bridge site for detecting potential cavities and/or filling loose materials. The results led to detect an aqueduct tunnel passing beneath the study area.

  3. Fast and accurate metrology of multi-layered ceramic materials by an automated boundary detection algorithm developed for optical coherence tomography data

    PubMed Central

    Ekberg, Peter; Su, Rong; Chang, Ernest W.; Yun, Seok Hyun; Mattsson, Lars

    2014-01-01

    Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is useful for materials defect analysis and inspection with the additional possibility of quantitative dimensional metrology. Here, we present an automated image-processing algorithm for OCT analysis of roll-to-roll multilayers in 3D manufacturing of advanced ceramics. It has the advantage of avoiding filtering and preset modeling, and will, thus, introduce a simplification. The algorithm is validated for its capability of measuring the thickness of ceramic layers, extracting the boundaries of embedded features with irregular shapes, and detecting the geometric deformations. The accuracy of the algorithm is very high, and the reliability is better than 1 µm when evaluating with the OCT images using the same gauge block step height reference. The method may be suitable for industrial applications to the rapid inspection of manufactured samples with high accuracy and robustness. PMID:24562018

  4. Fast and accurate metrology of multi-layered ceramic materials by an automated boundary detection algorithm developed for optical coherence tomography data.

    PubMed

    Ekberg, Peter; Su, Rong; Chang, Ernest W; Yun, Seok Hyun; Mattsson, Lars

    2014-02-01

    Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is useful for materials defect analysis and inspection with the additional possibility of quantitative dimensional metrology. Here, we present an automated image-processing algorithm for OCT analysis of roll-to-roll multilayers in 3D manufacturing of advanced ceramics. It has the advantage of avoiding filtering and preset modeling, and will, thus, introduce a simplification. The algorithm is validated for its capability of measuring the thickness of ceramic layers, extracting the boundaries of embedded features with irregular shapes, and detecting the geometric deformations. The accuracy of the algorithm is very high, and the reliability is better than 1 μm when evaluating with the OCT images using the same gauge block step height reference. The method may be suitable for industrial applications to the rapid inspection of manufactured samples with high accuracy and robustness.

  5. A robust and accurate approach to automatic blood vessel detection and segmentation from angiography x-ray images using multistage random forests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gupta, Vipin; Kale, Amit; Sundar, Hari

    2012-03-01

    In this paper we propose a novel approach based on multi-stage random forests to address problems faced by traditional vessel segmentation algorithms on account of image artifacts such as stitches organ shadows etc.. Our approach consists of collecting a very large number of training data consisting of positive and negative examples of valid seed points. The method makes use of a 14x14 window around a putative seed point. For this window three types of feature vectors are computed viz. vesselness, eigenvalue and a novel effective margin feature. A random forest RF is trained for each of the feature vectors. At run time the three RFs are applied in succession to a putative seed point generated by a naiive vessel detection algorithm based on vesselness. Our approach will prune this set of putative seed points to correctly identify true seed points thereby avoiding false positives. We demonstrate the effectiveness of our algorithm on a large dataset of angio images.

  6. Multiplexed direct genomic selection (MDiGS): a pooled BAC capture approach for highly accurate CNV and SNP/INDEL detection.

    PubMed

    Alvarado, David M; Yang, Ping; Druley, Todd E; Lovett, Michael; Gurnett, Christina A

    2014-06-01

    Despite declining sequencing costs, few methods are available for cost-effective single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP), insertion/deletion (INDEL) and copy number variation (CNV) discovery in a single assay. Commercially available methods require a high investment to a specific region and are only cost-effective for large samples. Here, we introduce a novel, flexible approach for multiplexed targeted sequencing and CNV analysis of large genomic regions called multiplexed direct genomic selection (MDiGS). MDiGS combines biotinylated bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) capture and multiplexed pooled capture for SNP/INDEL and CNV detection of 96 multiplexed samples on a single MiSeq run. MDiGS is advantageous over other methods for CNV detection because pooled sample capture and hybridization to large contiguous BAC baits reduces sample and probe hybridization variability inherent in other methods. We performed MDiGS capture for three chromosomal regions consisting of ∼ 550 kb of coding and non-coding sequence with DNA from 253 patients with congenital lower limb disorders. PITX1 nonsense and HOXC11 S191F missense mutations were identified that segregate in clubfoot families. Using a novel pooled-capture reference strategy, we identified recurrent chromosome chr17q23.1q23.2 duplications and small HOXC 5' cluster deletions (51 kb and 12 kb). Given the current interest in coding and non-coding variants in human disease, MDiGS fulfills a niche for comprehensive and low-cost evaluation of CNVs, coding, and non-coding variants across candidate regions of interest.

  7. Detection of circulating prostate tumor cells: alternative spliced variant of PSM induced false-positive result.

    PubMed

    Hisatomi, Hisashi; Nagao, Kumi; Kawakita, Mutsuji; Matsuda, Tadashi; Hirata, Hiroyuki; Yamamoto, Shigeki; Nakamoto, Takaaki; Harasawa, Hiroshi; Kaneko, Noboru; Hikiji, Kazumasa; Tsukada, Yutaka

    2002-11-01

    RT-nested PCR has been introduced as a highly specific and sensitive assay method to detect the prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSM) mRNA in peripheral blood. However, appreciable percentages of false-positive cases have been reported. Additionally, primer sets reported previously could not discriminate between PSM and PSM', an alternatively spliced variant, mRNA. These isoforms can be produced from a single gene. Switches in alternative splicing patterns are often controlled with strict cell-type or developmental-stage specificity. Therefore, it is most important to discriminate between PSM mRNA and PSM' mRNA. Using our highly specific primer sets, PSM mRNA was detected in 3 of 24 peripheral blood samples of normal male volunteers (12.5%) and was not detected in peripheral blood of 11 normal female volunteers. PSM' mRNA was detected in 5 of 24 peripheral blood samples of normal male volunteers (20.8%) and in 4 of 11 of normal female volunteers (36.4%). PSM' mRNA induced false-positive results, it is important for genetic diagnosis of prostate cancer to discriminate between PSM and PSM' using our primer sets with high specificity. The advances in the uniquely designed primer sets may allow researchers to detect a real PSM mRNA without PSM' mRNA.

  8. Vibration Based Crack Detection in a Rotating Disk. Part 2; Experimental Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gyekenyesi, Andrew L.; Sawicki, Jerzy T.; Martin, Richard E.; Haase, Wayne C.; Baaklini, George

    2005-01-01

    This paper describes the experimental results concerning the detection of a crack in a rotating disk. The goal was to utilize blade tip clearance and shaft vibration measurements to monitor changes in the system's center of mass and/or blade deformation behaviors. The concept of the approach is based on the fact that the development of a disk crack results in a distorted strain field within the component. As a result, a minute deformation in the disk's geometry as well as a change in the system's center of mass occurs. Here, a notch was used to simulate an actual crack. The vibration based experimental results failed to identify the existence of a notch when utilizing the approach described above, even with a rather large, circumferential notch (l.2 in.) located approximately mid-span on the disk (disk radius = 4.63 in. with notch at r = 2.12 in.). This was somewhat expected, since the finite element based results in Part 1 of this study predicted changes in blade tip clearance as well as center of mass shifts due to a notch to be less than 0.001 in. Therefore, the small changes incurred by the notch could not be differentiated from the mechanical and electrical noise of the rotor system. Although the crack detection technique of interest failed to identify the existence ofthe notch, the vibration data produced and captured here will be utilized in upcoming studies that will focus on different data mining techniques concerning damage detection in a disk.

  9. Accurate classification of 75 counterparts of objects detected in the 54-month Palermo Swift/BAT hard X-ray catalogue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parisi, P.; Masetti, N.; Rojas, A. F.; Jiménez-Bailón, E.; Chavushyan, V.; Palazzi, E.; Bassani, L.; Bazzano, A.; Bird, A. J.; Galaz, G.; Minniti, D.; Morelli, L.; Ubertini, P.

    2014-01-01

    Through an optical campaign performed at four telescopes located in the northern and southern hemispheres, we have obtained optical spectroscopy for 75 counterparts of unclassified or poorly studied hard X-ray emitting objects detected with Swift/BAT and listed in the 54-month Palermo BAT catalogue. All these objects also have observations taken with the Swift/XRT, ROSAT, or Chandra satellites, which allowed us to reduce the high-energy error box and pinpoint the most likely optical counterpart(s). We found that 69 sources in our sample are active galactic nuclei (AGNs) of which, 35 are classified as type 1 (with broad and narrow emission lines), 33 are classified as type 2 (with only narrow emission lines), and one is a high-redshift quasi-stellar object; the remaining 6 objects are galactic cataclysmic variables. Of the type 1 AGNs, 32 are objects of intermediate Seyfert type (1.2-1.9) and one is narrow-line Seyfert 1 galaxy; for 29 of the 35 type 1 AGNs, we have been able to estimate the central black hole mass and the Eddington ratio. Of the type 2 AGNs, two display optical features typical of the low-ionization nuclear emission-line region class, three are classified as transition objects, one is a starburst galaxy, and two are X-ray bright, optically normal galaxies. All galaxies classified in this work are relatively nearby objects (0.006-0.213) except for one at redshift 1.137. Based on observations obtained from the following observatories: Astronomical Observatory of Bologna in Loiano (Italy); Observatorio Astronómico Nacional (San Pedro Mártir, Mexico), Astronomical Observatory of Asiago (Italy), Cerro Tololo Interamerican Observatory (Chile).Tables 2 and 3 and Fig. 2 are available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.orgFITS files are only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (ftp://130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/561/A67

  10. Modelling Study at Kutlular Copper FIELD with Spat This Study, Evaluation Steps of Copper Mine Field SP Data Are Shown How to Reach More Accurate Results for SP Inversion Method.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sahin, O. K.; Asci, M.

    2014-12-01

    At this study, determination of theoretical parameters for inversion process of Trabzon-Sürmene-Kutlular ore bed anomalies was examined. Making a decision of which model equation can be used for inversion is the most important step for the beginning. It is thought that will give a chance to get more accurate results. So, sections were evaluated with sphere-cylinder nomogram. After that, same sections were analyzed with cylinder-dike nomogram to determine the theoretical parameters for inversion process for every single model equations. After comparison of results, we saw that only one of them was more close to parameters of nomogram evaluations. But, other inversion result parameters were different from their nomogram parameters.

  11. Accurate spectral color measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hiltunen, Jouni; Jaeaeskelaeinen, Timo; Parkkinen, Jussi P. S.

    1999-08-01

    Surface color measurement is of importance in a very wide range of industrial applications including paint, paper, printing, photography, textiles, plastics and so on. For a demanding color measurements spectral approach is often needed. One can measure a color spectrum with a spectrophotometer using calibrated standard samples as a reference. Because it is impossible to define absolute color values of a sample, we always work with approximations. The human eye can perceive color difference as small as 0.5 CIELAB units and thus distinguish millions of colors. This 0.5 unit difference should be a goal for the precise color measurements. This limit is not a problem if we only want to measure the color difference of two samples, but if we want to know in a same time exact color coordinate values accuracy problems arise. The values of two instruments can be astonishingly different. The accuracy of the instrument used in color measurement may depend on various errors such as photometric non-linearity, wavelength error, integrating sphere dark level error, integrating sphere error in both specular included and specular excluded modes. Thus the correction formulas should be used to get more accurate results. Another question is how many channels i.e. wavelengths we are using to measure a spectrum. It is obvious that the sampling interval should be short to get more precise results. Furthermore, the result we get is always compromise of measuring time, conditions and cost. Sometimes we have to use portable syste or the shape and the size of samples makes it impossible to use sensitive equipment. In this study a small set of calibrated color tiles measured with the Perkin Elmer Lamda 18 and the Minolta CM-2002 spectrophotometers are compared. In the paper we explain the typical error sources of spectral color measurements, and show which are the accuracy demands a good colorimeter should have.

  12. Detections of Propellers in Saturn's Rings using Machine Learning: Preliminary Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gordon, Mitchell K.; Showalter, Mark R.; Odess, Jennifer; Del Villar, Ambi; LaMora, Andy; Paik, Jin; Lakhani, Karim; Sergeev, Rinat; Erickson, Kristen; Galica, Carol; Grayzeck, Edwin; Morgan, Thomas; Knopf, William

    2015-11-01

    We report on the initial analysis of the output of a tool designed to identify persistent, non-axisymmetric features in the rings of Saturn. This project introduces a new paradigm for scientific software development. The preliminary results include what appear to be new detections of propellers in the rings of Saturn.The Planetary Data System (PDS), working with the NASA Tournament Lab (NTL), Crowd Innovation Lab at Harvard University, and the Topcoder community at Appirio, Inc., under the umbrella “Cassini Rings Challenge”, sponsored a set of competitions employing crowd sourcing and machine learning to develop a tool which could be made available to the community at large. The Challenge was tackled by running a series of separate contests to solve individual tasks prior to the major machine learning challenge. Each contest was comprised of a set of requirements, a timeline, one or more prizes, and other incentives, and was posted by Appirio to the Topcoder Community. In the case of the machine learning challenge (a “Marathon Challenge” on the Topcoder platform), members competed against each other by submitting solutions that were scored in real time and posted to a public leader-board by a scoring algorithm developed by Appirio for this contest.The current version of the algorithm was run against ~30,000 of the highest resolution Cassini ISS images. That set included 668 images with a total of 786 features previously identified as propellers in the main rings. The tool identified 81% of those previously identified propellers. In a preliminary, close examination of 130 detections identified by the tool, we determined that of the 130 detections, 11 were previously identified propeller detections, 5 appear to be new detections of known propellers, and 4 appear to be detections of propellers which have not been seen previously. A total of 20 valid detections from 130 candidates implies a relatively high false positive rate which we hope to reduce by further

  13. Operation and results of the prototype KM3NeT detection unit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biagi, Simone

    2016-07-01

    KM3NeT will be a km3-scale neutrino telescope in the Mediterranean Sea. The detector will consist of blocks of about one hundred detection units. Each detection unit will host 18 digital optical modules, connected along a 700 m-long vertical structure. Electro-optical cables allow for data transmission and power supply to the optical modules. The optical module comprises 31 photomultiplier tubes of 3'', instruments to monitor environmental variables and electronic boards to communicate onshore and operate the photomultipliers. A prototype detection unit has been deployed in May 2014 at the KM3NeT-It installation site 80 km SE offshore of Capo Passero, Sicily. This prototype allowed to test the deployment procedures, the mechanics and the electronic of the apparatus, the data taking and analysis procedures. A general description of the detector and some results of the prototype are presented. The first detection unit of the KM3NeT neutrino telescope will be deployed and become operative by the end of 2015.

  14. Accurate detection and quantification of the fish viral hemorrhagic Septicemia virus (VHSv) with a two-color fluorometric real-time PCR assay.

    PubMed

    Pierce, Lindsey R; Willey, James C; Palsule, Vrushalee V; Yeo, Jiyoun; Shepherd, Brian S; Crawford, Erin L; Stepien, Carol A

    2013-01-01

    Viral Hemorrhagic Septicemia virus (VHSv) is one of the world's most serious fish pathogens, infecting >80 marine, freshwater, and estuarine fish species from Eurasia and North America. A novel and especially virulent strain - IVb - appeared in the Great Lakes in 2003, has killed many game fish species in a series of outbreaks in subsequent years, and shut down interstate transport of baitfish. Cell culture is the diagnostic method approved by the USDA-APHIS, which takes a month or longer, lacks sensitivity, and does not quantify the amount of virus. We thus present a novel, easy, rapid, and highly sensitive real-time quantitative reverse transcription PCR (qRT-PCR) assay that incorporates synthetic competitive template internal standards for quality control to circumvent false negative results. Results demonstrate high signal-to-analyte response (slope = 1.00±0.02) and a linear dynamic range that spans seven orders of magnitude (R(2) = 0.99), ranging from 6 to 6,000,000 molecules. Infected fishes are found to harbor levels of virus that range to 1,200,000 VHSv molecules/10(6) actb1 molecules with 1,000 being a rough cut-off for clinical signs of disease. This new assay is rapid, inexpensive, and has significantly greater accuracy than other published qRT-PCR tests and traditional cell culture diagnostics.

  15. Accurate Detection and Quantification of the Fish Viral Hemorrhagic Septicemia virus (VHSv) with a Two-Color Fluorometric Real-Time PCR Assay

    PubMed Central

    Palsule, Vrushalee V.; Yeo, Jiyoun; Shepherd, Brian S.; Crawford, Erin L.; Stepien, Carol A.

    2013-01-01

    Viral Hemorrhagic Septicemia virus (VHSv) is one of the world's most serious fish pathogens, infecting >80 marine, freshwater, and estuarine fish species from Eurasia and North America. A novel and especially virulent strain – IVb – appeared in the Great Lakes in 2003, has killed many game fish species in a series of outbreaks in subsequent years, and shut down interstate transport of baitfish. Cell culture is the diagnostic method approved by the USDA-APHIS, which takes a month or longer, lacks sensitivity, and does not quantify the amount of virus. We thus present a novel, easy, rapid, and highly sensitive real-time quantitative reverse transcription PCR (qRT-PCR) assay that incorporates synthetic competitive template internal standards for quality control to circumvent false negative results. Results demonstrate high signal-to-analyte response (slope = 1.00±0.02) and a linear dynamic range that spans seven orders of magnitude (R2 = 0.99), ranging from 6 to 6,000,000 molecules. Infected fishes are found to harbor levels of virus that range to 1,200,000 VHSv molecules/106 actb1 molecules with 1,000 being a rough cut-off for clinical signs of disease. This new assay is rapid, inexpensive, and has significantly greater accuracy than other published qRT-PCR tests and traditional cell culture diagnostics. PMID:23977162

  16. Binaural detection with narrowband and wideband reproducible noise maskers: II. Results for rabbit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Ling; Early, Susan J.; Mason, Christine R.; Idrobo, Fabio; Harrison, J. Michael; Carney, Laurel H.

    2002-01-01

    Binaural detection with narrowband and wideband noise maskers was examined by using a Pavlovian-conditioned eyeblink response in rabbits. The target was a tone at 500 Hz, and the maskers were ten individual noise samples having one of two bandwidths, 200 Hz (410 Hz to 610 Hz) or 2900 Hz (100 Hz to 3 kHz). The narrowband noise maskers were created by filtering the wideband noise maskers such that the two sets of maskers had identical spectra in the 200-Hz frequency region surrounding the tone. The responses across the set of noise maskers were compared across bandwidths and across interaural configurations (N0S0 and N0Sπ). Responses across the set of noise waveforms were not strongly correlated across bandwidths; this result is inconsistent with models for binaural detection that depend only upon the narrow band of energy centered at the frequency of the target tone. Responses were correlated across interaural configurations for the wideband masker condition, but not for the narrowband masker. All of these results were consistent with the companion study of human listeners [Evilsizer et al., J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 111, 336-345 (2002)] and with the results of human studies of binaural detection that used only wideband [Gilkey et al., J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 78, 1207-1219 (1985)] or narrowband [Isabelle and Colburn, J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 89, 352-259 (1991)] individual noise maskers.

  17. Accurate automated non-resonant NRA depth profiling: Application to the low 3He concentration detection in UO 2 and SiC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, G.; Sauvage, T.; Desgardin, P.; Garcia, P.; Carlot, G.; Barthe, M. F.

    2007-05-01

    An automated method was developed to extract elemental depth profiles from non-resonant nuclear reaction analyses (NRA), which involves a two-stage procedure. The first stage enables the determination of the number of layers to be used in the final depth profile determination along with the thicknesses of each of the layers. To this end, the RESNRA program, which relies on the SIMNRA 5.0 simulation software to calculate a multilayer target, was designed at CERI. A definition of the depth resolution based on statistical considerations is proposed. In the second stage of the fitting process, a depth profile and corresponding error bars are extracted from the experimental spectrum by running a generalized reduced gradient (GRG2) algorithm using the previously calculated multilayer target. The one-to-one correspondence between the experimental spectrum and the depth profile demonstrates the objectivity of the method. The method is then applied to determining low concentration 3He depth profiles in implanted UO 2 and SiC samples using the 3He( 2H, 4He) 1H non-resonant nuclear reaction. The results clearly demonstrate the relevance and potential of the method.

  18. Structural damage identification using multifunctional Bragg grating sensors: II. Damage detection results and analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Betz, Daniel C.; Staszewski, Wieslaw J.; Thursby, Graham; Culshaw, Brian

    2006-10-01

    Damage detection is an important issue in structural health monitoring. Lamb waves are the most widely used acousto-ultrasonic guided waves for damage detection. This paper gives the results of experiments carried out to study the identification of damage using Bragg grating sensors as ultrasonic receivers of Lamb waves. The experiments involve a rectangular aluminium plate. Damage was introduced into the plate by drilling a hole into the centre of the plate. In order to obtain different severity of damage, the hole diameter was increased step by step. Several signal processing tools are presented and then applied to the Lamb wave signals in order to find a parameter that corresponds to the severity of damage. The parameter that serves as the damage index has to have small cross-sensitivity to other physical parameters, e.g. temperature. Therefore, additional experiments have been carried out to study the temperature dependence of the Lamb wave signals. In order to determine the influence of the temperature on the damage detection results, the cross-sensitivity is studied within this paper.

  19. Detection of early bronchial cancer by autofluorescence: results in patients with H&N cancer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gabrecht, Tanja; Radu, Alexandre; Zellweger, Matthieu; Lovisa, Blaise; Goujon, Didier; Grosjean, Pierre; van den Bergh, Hubert; Monnier, Philippe; Wagnières, Georges

    2007-07-01

    Head and neck (H&N) cancer patients have a high incidence of second primary tumours in the tracheobronchial tree. Diagnostic autofluorescence bronchoscopy (DAFE) has shown promising results in the detection of early neoplastic and pre-neoplastic changes in the bronchi. We have investigated the medical impact of DAFE in a population of H&N cancer patients. The bronchoscopies were performed using a modified commercially available DAFE system. Endoscopic imaging of the tissue autofluorescence (AF) was combined with an online image analysis procedure allowing to discriminate between true and false positive results. White light (WL) bronchoscopy was performed as a control. Twenty-one patients with high lung cancer risk factors underwent WL and AF bronchoscopy with this improved system. Forty-one biopsies were taken on macroscopicall suspicious (WL or AF positive) sites. Seven patients were found to have second primary tumours in the bronchi. The sensitivity for the detection of these early lesions with the DAFE was 1.6 times larger than the sensitivity of WL bronchoscopy only. The positive predictive value (PPV) for AF is 79% (33% for WL alone). The PPV of both methods together is 100%. DAFE proved to be efficient for the detection of second primary lesions in H&N cancer patients and can be used as a simple addition to pre-operative work-up or follow-up in this patient population.

  20. Design and preliminary test results of the quench detection system for IFSMTF

    SciTech Connect

    Shen, S.S.; Walstrom, P.L.; Wilson, C.T.; Goddard, J.S.

    1985-01-01

    A unique quench detection system was designed for the International Fusion Superconducting Magnet Test Facility (IFSMTF), where a simultaneous test of six large superconducting toroidal field magnets will be carried out. The scheme was based on analog subtraction of self and neighboring pickup winding voltage from the coil voltage to yield a compensated signal proportional to a normal-zone voltage. The compensated signals were input to quench detection modules that give a quench output signal to discharge the coil if the compensated signals exceed preset thresholds for preset time durations. This paper summarizes the design and analysis of the system and presents the experimental results of the simulation tests, two-coil charging-discharging tests, and the normal-zone recovery tests.

  1. Infrasonic Detection of a Large Bolide over South Sulawesi, Indonesia on October 8, 2009: Preliminary Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Silber, E. A.; Brown, P. G.; Le Pinchon, A.

    2011-01-01

    In the morning hours of October 8, 2009, a bright object entered Earth's atmosphere over South Sulawesi, Indonesia. This bolide disintegrated above the ground, generating stratospheric infrasound returns that were detected by infrasonic stations of the global International Monitoring System (IMS) Network of the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty Organization (CTBTO) at distances up to 17 500 km. Here we present instrumental recordings and preliminary results of this extraordinary event. Using the infrasonic period-yield relations, originally derived for atmospheric nuclear detonations, we find the most probable source energy for this bolide to be 70+/-20 kt TNT equivalent explosive yield. A unique aspect of this event is the fact that it was apparently detected by infrasound only. Global events of such magnitude are expected only once per decade and can be utilized to calibrate infrasonic location and propagation tools on a global scale, and to evaluate energy yield formula, and event timing.

  2. Printed fingerprints: a framework and first results towards detection of artificially printed latent fingerprints for forensics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiltz, Stefan; Hildebrandt, Mario; Dittmann, Jana; Vielhauer, Claus; Kraetzer, Christian

    2011-01-01

    In Schwarz 1 an amino acid model for printing latent fingerprints to porous surfaces is introduced, motivated by the need for reproducibility tests of different development techniques for forensic investigations. However, this technique also enables the fabrication of artificial traces constituting a possible threat to security, motivating a need for research of appropriate detection techniques. In this paper a new framework for modelling the properties of a generic fingerprint examination process is introduced. Based on the framework, examination properties and detection properties are derived by a subjective evaluation. We suggest a first formalisation of exemplary properties, which can be easily extended to fit different needs. We present a first experimental setup limited to two printers and the Schwarz amino acid model using absorbing and non-absorbing material with first results to show tendencies and underline the necessity for further research.

  3. Beam hardening artifacts in micro-computed tomography scanning can be reduced by X-ray beam filtration and the resulting images can be used to accurately measure BMD.

    PubMed

    Meganck, Jeffrey A; Kozloff, Kenneth M; Thornton, Michael M; Broski, Stephen M; Goldstein, Steven A

    2009-12-01

    Bone mineral density (BMD) measurements are critical in many research studies investigating skeletal integrity. For pre-clinical research, micro-computed tomography (microCT) has become an essential tool in these studies. However, the ability to measure the BMD directly from microCT images can be biased by artifacts, such as beam hardening, in the image. This three-part study was designed to understand how the image acquisition process can affect the resulting BMD measurements and to verify that the BMD measurements are accurate. In the first part of this study, the effect of beam hardening-induced cupping artifacts on BMD measurements was examined. In the second part of this study, the number of bones in the X-ray path and the sampling process during scanning was examined. In the third part of this study, microCT-based BMD measurements were compared with ash weights to verify the accuracy of the measurements. The results indicate that beam hardening artifacts of up to 32.6% can occur in sample sizes of interest in studies investigating mineralized tissue and affect mineral density measurements. Beam filtration can be used to minimize these artifacts. The results also indicate that, for murine femora, the scan setup can impact densitometry measurements for both cortical and trabecular bone and morphologic measurements of trabecular bone. Last, when a scan setup that minimized all of these artifacts was used, the microCT-based measurements correlated well with ash weight measurements (R(2)=0.983 when air was excluded), indicating that microCT can be an accurate tool for murine bone densitometry.

  4. Learning to detect vocal hyperfunction from ambulatory neck-surface acceleration features: Initial results for vocal fold nodules

    PubMed Central

    Ghassemi, Marzyeh; Van Stan, Jarrad H.; Mehta, Daryush D.; Zañartu, Matías; Cheyne, Harold A.; Hillman, Robert E.; Guttag, John V.

    2014-01-01

    Voice disorders are medical conditions that often result from vocal abuse/misuse which is referred to generically as vocal hyperfunction. Standard voice assessment approaches cannot accurately determine the actual nature, prevalence, and pathological impact of hyperfunctional vocal behaviors because such behaviors can vary greatly across the course of an individual’s typical day and may not be clearly demonstrated during a brief clinical encounter. Thus, it would be clinically valuable to develop non-invasive ambulatory measures that can reliably differentiate vocal hyperfunction from normal patterns of vocal behavior. As an initial step towards this goal we used an accelerometer taped to the neck surface to provide a continuous, non-invasive acceleration signal designed to capture some aspects of vocal behavior related to a common manifestation of vocal hyperfunction; vocal cord nodules. We gathered data from 12 female adult patients diagnosed with vocal fold nodules and 12 control speakers matched for age and occupation. We derived features from weeklong neck-surface acceleration recordings by using distributions of sound pressure level and fundamental frequency over five-minute windows of the acceleration signal and normalized these features so that inter-subject comparisons were meaningful. We then used supervised machine learning to show that the two groups exhibit distinct vocal behaviors that can be detected using the acceleration signal. We were able to correctly classify 22 of the 24 subjects, suggesting that in the future measures of the acceleration signal could be used to detect patients with the types of aberrant vocal behaviors that are associated with hyperfunctional voice disorders. PMID:24845276

  5. Prostate cancer detection rate in patients with obstructive voiding symptoms by sextant biopsy: preliminary results.

    PubMed

    Kiknavelidze, K; Tsintsadze, O; Goguadze, M; Pertia, A; Managadze, L

    2006-04-01

    To evaluate the effectiveness of a laterally directed sextant biopsy in the group of high volume prostate patients with obstructive voiding symptoms and suspected of prostate cancer. Biopsy was performed in 197 men (age: median 63 years, range 47 to 82 years) because of elevated PSA and/or abnormality in digital rectal examinations (DRE). In most cases, a markedly enlarged prostate was noted: the mean prostate volume was 79,9+/-38,5 cc, and in 73% of the cases, the volume of the prostate was >50 cc. Prostate cancer was diagnosed in 56 of 197 cases (28,4%). The prostate cancer detection rate among patients with a prostate volume of 80cc (high volume) were 39,6%, 32,8% and 18,6%, respectively. Our results showed that the laterally directed sextant biopsy with the overall detection rate as high as 28,4% and very low complications is an effective method for the detection of prostate cancer among the suspected patients with obstructive voiding symptoms and markedly enlarged prostates.

  6. Automated detection of discourse segment and experimental types from the text of cancer pathway results sections

    PubMed Central

    Burns, Gully A.P.C.; Dasigi, Pradeep; de Waard, Anita; Hovy, Eduard H.

    2016-01-01

    Automated machine-reading biocuration systems typically use sentence-by-sentence information extraction to construct meaning representations for use by curators. This does not directly reflect the typical discourse structure used by scientists to construct an argument from the experimental data available within a article, and is therefore less likely to correspond to representations typically used in biomedical informatics systems (let alone to the mental models that scientists have). In this study, we develop Natural Language Processing methods to locate, extract, and classify the individual passages of text from articles’ Results sections that refer to experimental data. In our domain of interest (molecular biology studies of cancer signal transduction pathways), individual articles may contain as many as 30 small-scale individual experiments describing a variety of findings, upon which authors base their overall research conclusions. Our system automatically classifies discourse segments in these texts into seven categories (fact, hypothesis, problem, goal, method, result, implication) with an F-score of 0.68. These segments describe the essential building blocks of scientific discourse to (i) provide context for each experiment, (ii) report experimental details and (iii) explain the data’s meaning in context. We evaluate our system on text passages from articles that were curated in molecular biology databases (the Pathway Logic Datum repository, the Molecular Interaction MINT and INTACT databases) linking individual experiments in articles to the type of assay used (coprecipitation, phosphorylation, translocation etc.). We use supervised machine learning techniques on text passages containing unambiguous references to experiments to obtain baseline F1 scores of 0.59 for MINT, 0.71 for INTACT and 0.63 for Pathway Logic. Although preliminary, these results support the notion that targeting information extraction methods to experimental results could provide

  7. Prognosis of screen-detected breast cancers: results of a population based study

    PubMed Central

    Cortesi, Laura; Chiuri, Vincenzo E; Ruscelli, Silvia; Bellelli, Valeria; Negri, Rossella; Rashid, Ivan; Cirilli, Claudia; Fracca, Antonella; Gallo, Ennio; Federico, Massimo

    2006-01-01

    Background The reduced mortality rate from breast carcinoma among women offered screening mammography is demonstrated after 15–20 years of follow-up. However, the assessment of 5-year overall and event-free survival could represent an earlier measure of the efficacy of mammography screening program (MSP). Methods All cases of breast cancer diagnosed in the Province of Modena between years 1996 and 2000 in women aged 50 to 69 years, were identified through the Modena Cancer Registry (MCR). Stage of disease and treatment information were obtained from clinical records. All the events occurring up to June 30, 2003 were retrieved by experienced monitors. Five-year overall and event-free survival were the principal end-points of the study. Results During a 5-year period, 587 primary breast cancers were detected by the MSP and 471 primary breast cancers were diagnosed out of the MSP. The screen-detected breast cancers were smaller, more likely node negative, with low histological grade, low proliferative activity and positive receptors status. Furthermore, the breast cancer diagnosed through the MSP more frequently received a conservative surgery. The 5-year survival rate was 94% in the screen-detected group, versus 84% in the other group (p = 0.0001). The rate of 5-year event-free survival was 89% and 75% for the MSP participants and not participants, respectively (p = 0.0001). Conclusions Our data confirm a favourable outcome of screen-detected breast cancers in terms of five-year overall and event-free survival, which reflect the good quality assurance parameters of the MSP. Finally, a cancer registry should be implemented in every area covered by screening programs. PMID:16430776

  8. Electromagnetic (EM) earthquake precursor transmission and detection regarding experimental field and laboratory results.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, Kenneth B., II; Saxton, Patrick

    2016-04-01

    increased, variable geometry. The blocks were all successfully fractured with expansionary cement netting consecutive and identical EM emission results very similar to the Timpson pre-earthquake results. Cored granite made up the largest amount of rock test types, due to the large volume occurring as basement rock. EM transmission in the ELF range ascending from depth was theorized to follow paths of least resistance via faults and other fracture spaces than actual penetration through solid rock, which may attenuate both signal strength and frequency response. Fault geometry, fracture orientation/termination, and subsurface reflection may make epicenter determinations problematic; however, EM emissions will continually occur and be detectable with further signal analyses in refining epicentral locations.

  9. Body-borne IED detection: NATO DAT#10 BELCOAST 09 demonstration results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alexander, Naomi; Gómez, Ignacio; Ortega, Isabel; Fiore, Franco; Coman, Cristian

    2010-04-01

    Belgium leads the tenth initiative in the CNAD Programme of Work for the Defense Against Terrorism (PoW DAT), dealing with Critical Infrastructure Protection (CIP). The BELCOAST 09 event, comprising a series of technology demonstrations, was organized to tackle the need for an event that brings together the operational, armaments and technological communities in the field of CIP. A counter terrorism scenario has been created: Terrorist with body-borne IED approaching the entrance of an installation, and a millimeter-wave imager's ability to detect IEDs has been demonstrated. The results of this scenario-based demonstration are presented in this paper.

  10. Microfluidic disposables for cellular and chemical detection: CFD model results and fluidic verification experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bardell, Ron L.; Weigl, Bernhard H.; Kesler, Natasa; Schulte, Thomas H.; Hayenga, Jon W.; Battrell, Fred

    2001-05-01

    Micronics has developed a wide variety of microfluidic devices and integrated systems for clinical diagnostics and life sciences applications. They fall into two general classes: machine-controlled disposable cartridges, and passive self-contained disposable cards. They include particle separators, flow cytometers, valves, detection channels, mixers, and diluters. Current applications for these devices include a hematology analyzer, stand-alone blood plasma separators, and a variety of chemical and biological assays. In this paper, we will focus on microfluidic structures for chemical and cellular analysis. Experimental data as well as the results of fluid modeling will be shown.

  11. LSM: perceptually accurate line segment merging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamid, Naila; Khan, Nazar

    2016-11-01

    Existing line segment detectors tend to break up perceptually distinct line segments into multiple segments. We propose an algorithm for merging such broken segments to recover the original perceptually accurate line segments. The algorithm proceeds by grouping line segments on the basis of angular and spatial proximity. Then those line segment pairs within each group that satisfy unique, adaptive mergeability criteria are successively merged to form a single line segment. This process is repeated until no more line segments can be merged. We also propose a method for quantitative comparison of line segment detection algorithms. Results on the York Urban dataset show that our merged line segments are closer to human-marked ground-truth line segments compared to state-of-the-art line segment detection algorithms.

  12. Progress toward multiplexed sample-to-result detection in low resource settings using microfluidic immunoassay cards.

    PubMed

    Lafleur, Lisa; Stevens, Dean; McKenzie, Katherine; Ramachandran, Sujatha; Spicar-Mihalic, Paolo; Singhal, Mitra; Arjyal, Amit; Osborn, Jennifer; Kauffman, Peter; Yager, Paul; Lutz, Barry

    2012-03-21

    In many low resource settings multiple diseases are endemic. There is a need for appropriate multi-analyte diagnostics capable of differentiating between diseases that cause similar clinical symptoms. The work presented here was part of a larger effort to develop a microfluidic point-of-care system, the DxBox, for sample-to-result differential diagnosis of infections that present with high rapid-onset fever. Here we describe a platform that detects disease-specific antigens and IgM antibodies. The disposable microfluidic cards are based on a flow-through membrane immunoassay carried out on porous nitrocellulose, which provides rapid diffusion for short assay times and a high surface area for visual detection of colored assay spots. Fluid motion and on-card valves were driven by a pneumatic system and we present designs for using pneumatic control to carry out assay functions. Pneumatic actuation, while having the potential advantage of inexpensive and robust hardware, introduced bubbles that interfered with fluidic control and affected assay results. The cards performed all sample preparation steps including plasma filtration from whole blood, sample and reagent aliquoting for the two parallel assays, sample dilution, and IgG removal for the IgM assays. We demonstrated the system for detection of the malarial pfHRPII antigen (spiked) and IgM antibodies to Salmonella Typhi LPS (patient plasma samples). All reagents were stored on card in dry form; only the sample and buffer were required to run the tests. Here we detail the development of this platform and discuss its strengths and weaknesses.

  13. Preliminary results of a lidar-dial integrated system for the automatic detection of atmospheric pollutants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaudio, P.; Gelfusa, M.; Richetta, M.

    2012-11-01

    In the last decades, atmospheric pollution in urban and industrial areas has become a major concern of both developed and developing countries. In this context, surveying relative large areas in an automatic way is an increasing common objective of public health organisations. The Lidar-Dial techniques are widely recognized as a cost-effective approach to monitor large portions of the atmosphere and, for example, they have been successful applied to the early detection of forest fire. The studies and preliminary results reported in this paper concern the development of an integrated Lidar-Dial system able to detect sudden releases in air of harmful and polluting substances. The propose approach consists of continuous monitoring of the area under surveillance with a Lidar type measurement (by means of a low cost system). Once a significant increase in the density of a pollutant is revealed, the Dial technique is used to identify the released chemicals. In this paper, the specifications of the proposed station are discussed. The most stringent requirement is the need for a very compact system with a range of at least 600-700 m. Of course, the optical wavelengths must be in an absolute eye-safe range for humans. A conceptual design of the entire system is described and the most important characteristic of the main elements are provided. In particular the capability of the envisaged laser sources, Nd:YAG and CO2 lasers, to provide the necessary quality of the measurements is carefully assessed. Since the detection of dangerous substances must be performed in an automatic way, the monitoring station will be equipped with an adequate set of control and communication devices for independent autonomous operation. The results of the first preliminary tests illustrate the potential of the chosen approach.

  14. Results.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zemsky, Robert; Shaman, Susan; Shapiro, Daniel B.

    2001-01-01

    Describes the Collegiate Results Instrument (CRI), which measures a range of collegiate outcomes for alumni 6 years after graduation. The CRI was designed to target alumni from institutions across market segments and assess their values, abilities, work skills, occupations, and pursuit of lifelong learning. (EV)

  15. A queuing model for designing multi-modality buried target detection systems: preliminary results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malof, Jordan M.; Morton, Kenneth D.; Collins, Leslie M.; Torrione, Peter A.

    2015-05-01

    Many remote sensing modalities have been developed for buried target detection, each one offering its own relative advantages over the others. As a result there has been interest in combining several modalities into a single detection platform that benefits from the advantages of each constituent sensor, without suffering from their weaknesses. Traditionally this involves collecting data continuously on all sensors and then performing data, feature, or decision level fusion. While this is effective for lowering false alarm rates, this strategy neglects the potential benefits of a more general system-level fusion architecture. Such an architecture can involve dynamically changing which modalities are in operation. For example, a large standoff modality such as a forward-looking infrared (FLIR) camera can be employed until an alarm is encountered, at which point a high performance (but short standoff) sensor, such as ground penetrating radar (GPR), is employed. Because the system is dynamically changing its rate of advance and sensors, it becomes difficult to evaluate the expected false alarm rate and advance rate. In this work, a probabilistic model is proposed that can be used to estimate these quantities based on a provided operating policy. In this model the system consists of a set of states (e.g., sensors employed) and conditions encountered (e.g., alarm locations). The predictive accuracy of the model is evaluated using a collection of collocated FLIR and GPR data and the results indicate that the model is effective at predicting the desired system metrics.

  16. Implementation and performance results of neural network for power quality event detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Weijian; Tian, Wenzhi

    2008-10-01

    A novel method to detect power quality event in distributed power system combing wavelet network with the improved back-propagation algorithm is presented. The paper tries to explain to design complex supported orthogonal wavelets by compactly supported orthogonal real wavelets, and then explore the extraction of disturbance signal to obtain the feature information, and finally propose several novel wavelet combined information to analyze the disturbance signal, superior to real wavelet analysis result. The feature obtained from WT coefficients are inputted into wavelet network for power quality disturbance pattern recognition. The power quality disturbance recognition model is established and the improved back-propagation algorithm is used to fulfill the network parameter initialization. By means of choosing enough samples to train the recognition model, the type of disturbance can be obtained when signal representing fault is inputted to the trained network. The results of simulation analysis show that the complex wavelet transform combined with wavelet network are more sensitive to signal singularity, and found to be significant improvement over current methods in real-time detection.

  17. Accurate monotone cubic interpolation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huynh, Hung T.

    1991-01-01

    Monotone piecewise cubic interpolants are simple and effective. They are generally third-order accurate, except near strict local extrema where accuracy degenerates to second-order due to the monotonicity constraint. Algorithms for piecewise cubic interpolants, which preserve monotonicity as well as uniform third and fourth-order accuracy are presented. The gain of accuracy is obtained by relaxing the monotonicity constraint in a geometric framework in which the median function plays a crucial role.

  18. Detection of Pituitary Antibodies by Immunofluorescence: Approach and Results in Patients With Pituitary Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Ricciuti, Adriana; De Remigis, Alessandra; Landek-Salgado, Melissa A.; De Vincentiis, Ludovica; Guaraldi, Federica; Lupi, Isabella; Iwama, Shintaro; Wand, Gary S.; Salvatori, Roberto

    2014-01-01

    Context: Pituitary antibodies have been measured mainly to identify patients whose disease is caused or sustained by pituitary-specific autoimmunity. Although reported in over 100 publications, they have yielded variable results and are thus considered of limited clinical utility. Objectives: Our objectives were to analyze all publications reporting pituitary antibodies by immunofluorescence for detecting the major sources of variability, to experimentally test these sources and devise an optimized immunofluorescence protocol, and to assess prevalence and significance of pituitary antibodies in patients with pituitary diseases. Study Design and Outcome Measures: We first evaluated the effect of pituitary gland species, section fixation, autofluorescence quenching, blockade of unwanted antibody binding, and use of purified IgG on the performance of this antibody assay. We then measured cross-sectionally the prevalence of pituitary antibodies in 390 pituitary cases and 60 healthy controls, expressing results as present or absent and according to the (granular, diffuse, perinuclear, or mixed) staining pattern. Results: Human pituitary was the best substrate to detect pituitary antibodies and yielded an optimal signal-to-noise ratio when treated with Sudan black B to reduce autofluorescence. Pituitary antibodies were more common in cases (95 of 390, 24%) than controls (3 of 60, 5%, P = .001) but did not discriminate among pituitary diseases when reported dichotomously. However, when expressed according to their cytosolic staining, a granular pattern was highly predictive of pituitary autoimmunity (P < .0001). Conclusion: We report a comprehensive study of pituitary antibodies by immunofluorescence and provide a method and an interpretation scheme that should be useful for identifying and monitoring patients with pituitary autoimmunity. PMID:24606106

  19. Results of land cover change detection analysis in and around Cordillera Azul National Park, Peru

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sleeter, Benjamin M.; Halsing, David L.

    2005-01-01

    The first product of the Optimizing Design and Management of Protected Areas for Conservation Project is a land cover change detection analysis based on Landsat thematic mapper (TM) and enhanced thematic mapper plus (ETM+) imagery collected at intervals between 1989 and 2002. The goal of this analysis was to quantify and analyze patterns of forest clearing, land conversion, and other disturbances in and around the Cordillera Azul National Park in Peru. After removing clouds and cloud shadows from the imagery using a series of automatic and manual processes, a Tasseled Cap Transformation was used to detect pixels of high reflectance, which were classified as bare ground and areas of likely forest clearing. Results showed a slow but steady increase in cleared ground prior to 1999 and a rapid and increasing conversion rate after that time. The highest concentrations of clearings have spread upward from the western border of the study area on the Huallaga River. To date, most disturbances have taken place in the buffer zone around the park, not within it, but the data show dense clearings occurring closer to the park border each year.

  20. Preliminary Results of Earthquake-Induced Building Damage Detection with Object-Based Image Classification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sabuncu, A.; Uca Avci, Z. D.; Sunar, F.

    2016-06-01

    Earthquakes are the most destructive natural disasters, which result in massive loss of life, infrastructure damages and financial losses. Earthquake-induced building damage detection is a very important step after earthquakes since earthquake-induced building damage is one of the most critical threats to cities and countries in terms of the area of damage, rate of collapsed buildings, the damage grade near the epicenters and also building damage types for all constructions. Van-Ercis (Turkey) earthquake (Mw= 7.1) was occurred on October 23th, 2011; at 10:41 UTC (13:41 local time) centered at 38.75 N 43.36 E that places the epicenter about 30 kilometers northern part of the city of Van. It is recorded that, 604 people died and approximately 4000 buildings collapsed or seriously damaged by the earthquake. In this study, high-resolution satellite images of Van-Ercis, acquired by Quickbird-2 (Digital Globe Inc.) after the earthquake, were used to detect the debris areas using an object-based image classification. Two different land surfaces, having homogeneous and heterogeneous land covers, were selected as case study areas. As a first step of the object-based image processing, segmentation was applied with a convenient scale parameter and homogeneity criterion parameters. As a next step, condition based classification was used. In the final step of this preliminary study, outputs were compared with streetview/ortophotos for the verification and evaluation of the classification accuracy.

  1. Artifactual mutations resulting from DNA lesions limit detection levels in ultrasensitive sequencing applications

    PubMed Central

    Arbeithuber, Barbara; Makova, Kateryna D.; Tiemann-Boege, Irene

    2016-01-01

    The need in cancer research or evolutionary biology to detect rare mutations or variants present at very low frequencies (<10−5) poses an increasing demand on lowering the detection limits of available methods. Here we demonstrated that amplifiable DNA lesions introduce important error sources in ultrasensitive technologies such as single molecule PCR (smPCR) applications (e.g. droplet-digital PCR), or next-generation sequencing (NGS) based methods. Using templates with known amplifiable lesions (8-oxoguanine, deaminated 5-methylcytosine, uracil, and DNA heteroduplexes), we assessed with smPCR and duplex sequencing that templates with these lesions were amplified very efficiently by proofreading polymerases (except uracil), leading to G->T, and to a lesser extent, to unreported G->C substitutions at 8-oxoguanine lesions, and C->T transitions in amplified uracil containing templates. Long heat incubations common in many DNA extraction protocols significantly increased the number of G->T substitutions. Moreover, in ∼50-80% smPCR reactions we observed the random amplification preference of only one of both DNA strands explaining the known ‘PCR jackpot effect’, with the result that a lesion became indistinguishable from a true mutation or variant. Finally, we showed that artifactual mutations derived from uracil and 8-oxoguanine could be significantly reduced by DNA repair enzymes. PMID:27477585

  2. Artifactual mutations resulting from DNA lesions limit detection levels in ultrasensitive sequencing applications.

    PubMed

    Arbeithuber, Barbara; Makova, Kateryna D; Tiemann-Boege, Irene

    2016-12-01

    The need in cancer research or evolutionary biology to detect rare mutations or variants present at very low frequencies (<10(-5)) poses an increasing demand on lowering the detection limits of available methods. Here we demonstrated that amplifiable DNA lesions introduce important error sources in ultrasensitive technologies such as single molecule PCR (smPCR) applications (e.g. droplet-digital PCR), or next-generation sequencing (NGS) based methods. Using templates with known amplifiable lesions (8-oxoguanine, deaminated 5-methylcytosine, uracil, and DNA heteroduplexes), we assessed with smPCR and duplex sequencing that templates with these lesions were amplified very efficiently by proofreading polymerases (except uracil), leading to G->T, and to a lesser extent, to unreported G->C substitutions at 8-oxoguanine lesions, and C->T transitions in amplified uracil containing templates. Long heat incubations common in many DNA extraction protocols significantly increased the number of G->T substitutions. Moreover, in ∼50-80% smPCR reactions we observed the random amplification preference of only one of both DNA strands explaining the known 'PCR jackpot effect', with the result that a lesion became indistinguishable from a true mutation or variant. Finally, we showed that artifactual mutations derived from uracil and 8-oxoguanine could be significantly reduced by DNA repair enzymes.

  3. Detection of global runoff changes: results from observations and CMIP5 experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alkama, R.; Marchand, L.; Ribes, A.; Decharme, B.

    2013-07-01

    This paper assesses the detectability of changes in global streamflow. First, a statistical detection method is applied to observed (no missing data which represent 42% of global discharge) and reconstructed (gaps are filled in order to cover a larger area and about 60% of global discharge) streamflow. Observations show no change over the 1958-1992 period. Further, an extension to 2004 over the same catchment areas using reconstructed data does not provide evidence of a significant change. Conversely, a significant change is found in reconstructed streamflow when a larger area is considered. These results suggest that changes in global streamflow are still unclear. Moreover, changes in streamflow as simulated by models from Coupled Model Intercomparison Project 5 (CMIP5) using the historic and future RCP 8.5 scenarios are investigated. Most CMIP5 models are found to simulate the climatological streamflow reasonably well, except for over South America and Africa. Change becomes significant between 2016 and 2040 for all but three models.

  4. Detection and quantification of benzodiazepines in hair by ToF-SIMS: preliminary results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Audinot, J.-N.; Yegles, M.; Labarthe, A.; Ruch, D.; Wennig, R.; Migeon, H.-N.

    2003-01-01

    Successful results have been obtained in detection and quantification of buprenorphine in urine and hemolysed blood by time of flight-secondary ion mass spectrometry (ToF-SIMS). The present work is focused on four molecules of the benzodiazepine's family: nordiazepam, aminoflunitrozepam, diazepam and oxazepam. These drugs remain difficult to analyse in routine clinical and forensic toxicology because of their thermal instability and low therapeutic range (0.5-5 ng/ml). Internal standards are prepared by means of deuterated molecules. The benzadiazepine and their deuterated form (nordiazepam-D5, amino-flunitrazepam-D3, diazepam-D5 and oxazepam-D5) were added, in known concentration, in urine. These molecules were then extracted with several methods (pH, solvent, etc.) and, after adsorption on a noble metal, analysed by ToF-SIMS. The paper will focus for the different molecules on the comparison of the different preparation procedures, the optimisation of the SIMS conditions, the limits of detection and the limits of quantification.

  5. Low Frequency Vibrating Optical System for Detecting Objects Buried in Turbid Media: Preliminary Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cywiak, D.; Cywiak, M.; Pérez-Solano, R.; Gutiérrez-Juárez, G.

    2012-11-01

    Preliminary results of an in-plane vibrating system to image objects buried in turbid media are presented. The incident optical beam is vibrated in a periodic back-and-forth motion at low frequency and small constant amplitude in a plane perpendicular to the direction of the beam. The detection is performed in the AC mode, blocking the DC component. The system shows a dramatic increase in the AC signal whenever the target boundary intersects with the reference line between the incident laser beam and a photodiode after a small aperture. The system was capable to render visible 2 mm width objects buried at depths up to 3 cm from the front surface of a 1% intralipid sample.

  6. Multimodal imaging and detection strategy with 124 I-labeled chimeric monoclonal antibody cG250 for accurate localization and confirmation of extent of disease during laparoscopic and open surgical resection of clear cell renal cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Povoski, Stephen P; Hall, Nathan C; Murrey, Douglas A; Sharp, David S; Hitchcock, Charles L; Mojzisik, Cathy M; Bahnson, Eamonn E; Knopp, Michael V; Martin, Edward W; Bahnson, Robert R

    2013-02-01

    Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) accounts for approximately 85% to 90% of all primary kidney malignancies, with clear cell RCC (ccRCC) constituting approximately 70% to 85% of all RCCs. This study describes an innovative multimodal imaging and detection strategy that uses (124)I-labeled chimeric monoclonal antibody G250 ((124)I-cG250) for accurate preoperative and intraoperative localization and confirmation of extent of disease for both laparoscopic and open surgical resection of ccRCC. Two cases presented herein highlight how this technology can potentially guide complete surgical resection and confirm complete removal of all diseased tissues. This innovative (124)I-cG250 (ie, (124)I-girentuximab) multimodal imaging and detection approach, which would be clinically very useful to urologic surgeons, urologic medical oncologists, nuclear medicine physicians, radiologists, and pathologists who are involved in the care of ccRCC patients, holds great potential for improving the diagnostic accuracy, operative planning and approach, verification of disease resection, and monitoring for evidence of disease recurrence in ccRCC patients.

  7. Detecting sedimentation impacts to coral reefs resulting from dredging the Port of Miami, Florida USA

    PubMed Central

    Groves, Carolyn E.; Griffin, Sean; Moore, Tom; Wilber, Pace; Gregg, Kurtis

    2016-01-01

    The federal channel at Port of Miami, Florida, USA, was dredged between late 2013 and early 2015 to widen and deepen the channel. Due to the limited spatial extent of impact-assessment monitoring associated with the project, the extent of the dredging impacts on surrounding coral reefs has not been well quantified. Previously published remote sensing analyses, as well as agency and anecdotal reports suggest the most severe and largest area of sedimentation occurred on a coral reef feature referred to as the Inner Reef, particularly in the sector north of the channel. A confounding regional warm-water mass bleaching event followed by a coral disease outbreak during this same time frame made the assessment of dredging-related impacts to coral reefs adjacent to the federal channel difficult but still feasible. The current study sought to better understand the sedimentation impacts that occurred in the coral reef environment surrounding Port of Miami, to distinguish those impacts from other regional events or disturbances, and provide supplemental information on impact assessment that will inform discussions on compensatory mitigation requirements. To this end, in-water field assessments conducted after the completion of dredging and a time series analysis of tagged corals photographed pre-, during, and post-dredging, are used to discern dredging-related sedimentation impacts for the Inner Reef north. Results indicate increased sediment accumulation, severe in certain times and places, and an associated biological response (e.g., higher prevalence of partial mortality of corals) extended up to 700 m from the channel, whereas project-associated monitoring was limited to 50 m from the channel. These results can contribute to more realistic prediction of areas of indirect effect from dredging projects needed to accurately evaluate proposed projects and design appropriate compliance monitoring. Dredging projects near valuable and sensitive habitats subject to local and

  8. Detecting sedimentation impacts to coral reefs resulting from dredging the Port of Miami, Florida USA.

    PubMed

    Miller, Margaret W; Karazsia, Jocelyn; Groves, Carolyn E; Griffin, Sean; Moore, Tom; Wilber, Pace; Gregg, Kurtis

    2016-01-01

    The federal channel at Port of Miami, Florida, USA, was dredged between late 2013 and early 2015 to widen and deepen the channel. Due to the limited spatial extent of impact-assessment monitoring associated with the project, the extent of the dredging impacts on surrounding coral reefs has not been well quantified. Previously published remote sensing analyses, as well as agency and anecdotal reports suggest the most severe and largest area of sedimentation occurred on a coral reef feature referred to as the Inner Reef, particularly in the sector north of the channel. A confounding regional warm-water mass bleaching event followed by a coral disease outbreak during this same time frame made the assessment of dredging-related impacts to coral reefs adjacent to the federal channel difficult but still feasible. The current study sought to better understand the sedimentation impacts that occurred in the coral reef environment surrounding Port of Miami, to distinguish those impacts from other regional events or disturbances, and provide supplemental information on impact assessment that will inform discussions on compensatory mitigation requirements. To this end, in-water field assessments conducted after the completion of dredging and a time series analysis of tagged corals photographed pre-, during, and post-dredging, are used to discern dredging-related sedimentation impacts for the Inner Reef north. Results indicate increased sediment accumulation, severe in certain times and places, and an associated biological response (e.g., higher prevalence of partial mortality of corals) extended up to 700 m from the channel, whereas project-associated monitoring was limited to 50 m from the channel. These results can contribute to more realistic prediction of areas of indirect effect from dredging projects needed to accurately evaluate proposed projects and design appropriate compliance monitoring. Dredging projects near valuable and sensitive habitats subject to local and

  9. An illustration of the foreground emission subtraction process resulting in the DIRBE detection of t

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    An illustration of the foreground emission subtraction process resulting in the DIRBE detection of the Cosmic Infrared Background at 240 Aum. The map at the top is a false-color image showing the observed infrared sky brightness at wavelengths of 60 (blue), 100 (green) and 240 Aum (red). The bright white-yellow horizontal band across the middle of the image corresponds to emission from interstellar dust in the plane of our Milky Way Galaxy (the center of the Galaxy lies at the center of the map). The red regions above and below this bright band are 'infrared cirrus' clouds, wispy clouds of relatively cool Galactic dust. The blue S-shaped figure follows the ecliptic plane and represents emission from interplanetary dust in the solar system. The map in the middle is a 60-100-240 Aum false-color image depicting the sky after the foreground glow of the interplanetary dust has been modeled and subtracted; this image is dominated by emission from interstellar dust in the Milky Way. After the infrared light from our solar system and Galaxy has been removed, what remains is a uniform Cosmic Infrared Background. This is illustrated in the bottom image, which shows just the residual 240 Aum brightness. The line across the center is an artifact from removal of the Galactic light. The DIRBE team reports detection of this cosmic background light also at 140 Aum, and has set limits to its brightness at eight other infrared wavelengths from 1.25 to 100 Aum (see Slide 22). Credit: STScI OPO - PRC98-01; M. Hauser and NASA.

  10. Potentiality of SENTINEL-1 for landslide detection: first results in the Molise Region (Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barra, Anna; Monserrat, Oriol; Mazzanti, Paolo; Esposito, Carlo; Crosetto, Michele; Scarascia Mugnozza, Gabriele

    2016-04-01

    A detailed inventory map, including information on landslide activity, is one of the most important input to landslide susceptibility and hazard analyses. The contribution of satellite SAR Interferometry in landslide risk mitigation is well-known within the scientific community. In fact, many encouraging results have been obtained, principally, in areas characterized by high coherence of the images (e.g. due to rock lithology or urban environment setting). In terms of coherence, the expected increased capabilities of Sentinel-1 for landslide mapping and monitoring are connected to both wavelength (55.5 mm) and short temporal baseline (12 days). The latter one is expected to be a key feature for increasing coherence and for defining monitoring and updating plans. With the aim of assessing these potentialities, we processed a set of 14 Sentinel-1 SLC images, acquired during a temporal span of 7 months, over the Molise region (Southern Italy), a critical area geologically susceptible to landslides. Even though Molise is mostly covered by crops and forested areas (63% and 35% respectively), that means a non-optimal coherence condition for SAR interferometry, promising results have been obtained. This has been achieved by integrating differential interferometric SAR techniques (12-days interferograms and time series) with GIS multilayer analysis (optical, geological, geomorphological, etc.). Specifically, analyzing a single burst of a Sentinel-1 frame (approximately 1875 km2), 62 landslides have been detected, thus allowing to improve the pre-existing inventory maps both in terms of landslide boundaries and state of activity. The results of our ongoing research show that Sentinel-1 can give a significant improvement in terms of exploitation of SAR data for landslide mapping and monitoring. As a matter of fact, by analyzing longer periods, it is expected to achieve a better understanding of landslide behavior and its relationship with triggering factors. This will be key

  11. Are we detecting what we think we are? CEIRS QA/QC testing results

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Quality assurance and control (QA/QC) testing was implemented during year 6 of the centers for excellence in influenza research and surveillance (CEIRS) program to evaluate molecular detection of influenza and serological detection of influenza antibodies in labs which conduct animal surveillance. A...

  12. Prostate cancer detection using multiparametric 3 – tesla MRI and fusion biopsy: preliminary results

    PubMed Central

    Mussi, Thais Caldara; Garcia, Rodrigo Gobbo; de Queiroz, Marcos Roberto Gomes; Lemos, Gustavo Caserta; Baroni, Ronaldo Hueb

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective: To evaluate the diagnostic efficacy of transrectal ultrasonography (US) biopsy with imaging fusion using multiparametric (mp) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in patients with suspicion of prostate cancer (PCa), with an emphasis on clinically significant tumors according to histological criteria. Materials and Methods: A total of 189 consecutive US/MRI fusion biopsies were performed obtaining systematic and guided samples of suspicious areas on mpMRI using a 3 Tesla magnet without endorectal coil. Clinical significance for prostate cancer was established based on Epstein criteria. Results: In our casuistic, the average Gleason score was 7 and the average PSA was 5.0ng/mL. Of the 189 patients that received US/MRI biopsies, 110 (58.2%) were positive for PCa. Of those cases, 88 (80%) were clinically significant, accounting for 46.6% of all patients. We divided the MRI findings into 5 Likert scales of probability of having clinically significant PCa. The positivity of US/MRI biopsy for clinically significant PCa was 0%, 17.6% 23.5%, 53.4% and 84.4% for Likert scores 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5, respectively. There was a statistically significant difference in terms of biopsy results between different levels of suspicion on mpMRI and also when biopsy results were divided into groups of clinically non-significant versus clinically significant between different levels of suspicion on mpMRI (p-value <0.05 in both analyzes). Conclusion: We found that there is a significant difference in cancer detection using US/MRI fusion biopsy between low-probability and intermediate/high probability Likert scores using mpMRI. PMID:27532112

  13. Evaluation and validation of an accurate mass screening method for the analysis of pesticides in fruits and vegetables using liquid chromatography-quadrupole-time of flight-mass spectrometry with automated detection.

    PubMed

    López, Mónica García; Fussell, Richard J; Stead, Sara L; Roberts, Dominic; McCullagh, Mike; Rao, Ramesh

    2014-12-19

    This study reports the development and validation of a screening method for the detection of pesticides in 11 different fruit and vegetable commodities. The method was based on ultra performance liquid chromatography-quadrupole-time of flight-mass spectrometry (UPLC-QTOF-MS). The objective was to validate the method in accordance with the SANCO guidance document (12571/2013) on analytical quality control and validation procedures for pesticide residues analysis in food and feed. Samples were spiked with 199 pesticides, each at two different concentrations (0.01 and 0.05 mg kg(-1)) and extracted using the QuEChERS approach. Extracts were analysed by UPLC-QTOF-MS using generic acquisition parameters. Automated detection and data filtering were performed using the UNIFI™ software and the peaks detected evaluated against a proprietary scientific library containing information for 504 pesticides. The results obtained using different data processing parameters were evaluated for 4378 pesticide/commodities combinations at 0.01 and 0.05 mg kg(-1). Using mass accuracy (± 5 ppm) with retention time (± 0.2 min) and a low response threshold (100 counts) the validated Screening Detection Limits (SDLs) were 0.01 mg kg(-1) and 0.05 mg kg(-1) for 57% and 79% of the compounds tested, respectively, with an average of 10 false detects per sample analysis. Excluding the most complex matrices (onion and leek) the detection rates increased to 69% and 87%, respectively. The use of additional parameters such as isotopic pattern and fragmentation information further reduced the number of false detects but compromised the detection rates, particularly at lower residue concentrations. The challenges associated with the validation and subsequent implementation of a pesticide multi-residue screening method are also discussed.

  14. Multitemporal satellite data analyses for archaeological mark detection: preliminary results in Italy and Argentina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lasaponara, Rosa; Masini, Nicola

    2014-05-01

    within Basilicata and Puglia Region, southern Patagonia and Payunia-Campo Volcanicos Liancanelo e PayunMatru respectively, in Italy and Argentina. We focused our attention on diverse surfaces and soil types in different periods of the year in order to assess the capabilities of both optical and radar data to detect archaeological marks in different ecosystems and seasons. We investigated not only crop culture during the "favourable vegetative period" to enhance the presence of subsurface remains but also the "spectral response" of spontaneous, sparse herbaceous covers during periods considered and expected to be less favourable (as for example summer and winter) for this type of investigation. The main interesting results were the capability of radar (cosmoskymed) and multispectral optical data satellite data (Pleiades, Quickbird, Geoeye) to highlight the presence of structures below the surface even (i) in during period of years generally considered not "suitable for crop mark investigations" and even (ii) in areas only covered by sparse, spontaneous herbaceous plants in several test sites investigate din both Argentine and Italian areas of interest. Preliminary results conducted in both Italian and Argentina sites pointed out that Earth Observation (EO) technology can be successfully used for extracting useful information on traces the past human activities still fossilized in the modern landscape in different ecosystems and seasons. Moreover the multitemporal analyses of satellite data can fruitfully applied to: (i) improve knowledge, (ii) support monitoring of natural and cultural site, (iii) assess natural and man-made risks including emerging threats to the heritage sites. References Lasaponara R, N Masini 2009 Full-waveform Airborne Laser Scanning for the detection of medieval archaeological microtopographic relief Journal of Cultural Heritage 10, e78-e82 Ciminale M, D Gallo, R Lasaponara, N Masini 2009 A multiscale approach for reconstructing archaeological

  15. Detection of new psychoactive substance use among emergency room patients: results from the Swedish STRIDA project.

    PubMed

    Helander, Anders; Bäckberg, Matilda; Hultén, Peter; Al-Saffar, Yasir; Beck, Olof

    2014-10-01

    The "STRIDA" project monitors the occurrence and trends of new psychoactive substances (NPS; "Internet drugs/designer drugs/legal highs") in Sweden, and collects information about their clinical symptoms, toxicity and associated health hazards. The initial results of the project documented a widespread use of many different NPS by mainly adolescents and young (age range 13-63 years, median 20), male (79%) adults, among cases of drug intoxications presenting at emergency departments and intensive care units across the country. The new substances were identified in samples of urine and blood by a multi-component LC-MS/MS method, and the severity of clinical symptoms were graded by the Poisoning Severity Score (PSS). Of the initial 189 samples submitted for laboratory investigation, 156 (83%) tested positive for at least one drug. Besides classical substances such as ethanol, cannabis and amphetamines, many NPS were detected comprising synthetic cannabinoid receptor agonists ("Spice"), piperazines, substituted phenethylamines, synthetic cathinones, hallucinogenic tryptamines, piperidines, opioid related substances, ketamine and related substances, and GABA analogues (in total more than 50 substances). About half of the cases were demonstrated to be multiple drug intoxications, sometimes making it hard to associate the clinical presentations with one specific substance. In conclusion, the STRIDA project has documented use of a broad variety of NPS among mainly young people all over Sweden.

  16. Methods for detecting and correcting inaccurate results in inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry

    DOEpatents

    Chan, George C. Y.; Hieftje, Gary M.

    2010-08-03

    A method for detecting and correcting inaccurate results in inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES). ICP-AES analysis is performed across a plurality of selected locations in the plasma on an unknown sample, collecting the light intensity at one or more selected wavelengths of one or more sought-for analytes, creating a first dataset. The first dataset is then calibrated with a calibration dataset creating a calibrated first dataset curve. If the calibrated first dataset curve has a variability along the location within the plasma for a selected wavelength, errors are present. Plasma-related errors are then corrected by diluting the unknown sample and performing the same ICP-AES analysis on the diluted unknown sample creating a calibrated second dataset curve (accounting for the dilution) for the one or more sought-for analytes. The cross-over point of the calibrated dataset curves yields the corrected value (free from plasma related errors) for each sought-for analyte.

  17. Automatic detection and classification of EOL-concrete and resulting recovered products by hyperspectral imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palmieri, Roberta; Bonifazi, Giuseppe; Serranti, Silvia

    2014-05-01

    The recovery of materials from Demolition Waste (DW) represents one of the main target of the recycling industry and the its characterization is important in order to set up efficient sorting and/or quality control systems. End-Of-Life (EOL) concrete materials identification is necessary to maximize DW conversion into useful secondary raw materials, so it is fundamental to develop strategies for the implementation of an automatic recognition system of the recovered products. In this paper, HyperSpectral Imaging (HSI) technique was applied in order to detect DW composition. Hyperspectral images were acquired by a laboratory device equipped with a HSI sensing device working in the near infrared range (1000-1700 nm): NIR Spectral Camera™, embedding an ImSpector™ N17E (SPECIM Ltd, Finland). Acquired spectral data were analyzed adopting the PLS_Toolbox (Version 7.5, Eigenvector Research, Inc.) under Matlab® environment (Version 7.11.1, The Mathworks, Inc.), applying different chemometric methods: Principal Component Analysis (PCA) for exploratory data approach and Partial Least Square- Discriminant Analysis (PLS-DA) to build classification models. Results showed that it is possible to recognize DW materials, distinguishing recycled aggregates from contaminants (e.g. bricks, gypsum, plastics, wood, foam, etc.). The developed procedure is cheap, fast and non-destructive: it could be used to make some steps of the recycling process more efficient and less expensive.

  18. Prototype Test Results for the Single Photon Detection SLR2000 Satellite Laser Ranging System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zagwodzki, Thomas W.; McGarry, Jan F.; Degnan, John J.; Cheek, Jack W.; Dunn, Peter J.; Patterson, Don; Donovan, Howard

    2004-01-01

    NASA's aging Satellite Laser Ranging (SLR) network is scheduled to be replaced over the next few years with a fully automated single photon detection system. A prototype of this new system, called SLR2000, is currently undergoing field trials at the Goddard Space Flight Center in Greenbelt, Maryland to evaluate photon counting techniques and determine system hardware, software, and control algorithm performance levels and limitations. Newly developed diode pumped microchip lasers and quadrant microchannel plate-based photomultiplier tubes have enabled the development of this high repetition rate single photon detection SLR system. The SLR2000 receiver threshold is set at the single photoelectron (pe) level but tracks satellites with an average signal level typically much less than 1 pe. The 2 kHz laser fire rate aids in satellite acquisition and tracking and will enable closed loop tracking by accumulating single photon count statistics in a quadrant detector and using this information to correct for pointing errors. Laser transmitter beamwidths of 10 arcseconds (FWHM) or less are currently being used to maintain an adequate signal level for tracking while the receiver field of view (FOV) has been opened to 40 arcseconds to accommodate point ahead/look behind angular offsets. In the near future, the laser transmitter point ahead will be controlled by a pair of Risley prisms. This will allow the telescope to point behind and enable closure of the receiver FOV to roughly match the transmitter beam divergence. Bandpass filters (BPF) are removed for night tracking operations while 0.2 nm or 1 nm filters are used during daylight operation. Both day and night laser tracking of Low Earth Orbit (LEO) satellites has been achieved with a laser transmitter energy of only 65 microjoules per pulse. Satellite tracking is presently limited to LEO satellites until the brassboard laser transmitter can be upgraded or replaced. Simultaneous tracks have also been observed with NASA s

  19. Experimental results of antigliadin antibodies detection using long period fiber grating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corres, J. M.; Matias, I. R.; Goicoechea, J.; Arregui, F. J.; Viegas, D.; Araújo, F. M.; Santos, J. L.

    2008-04-01

    In this work a new nano-biofilm is proposed for the detection of celiac disease (CD). A long-period fiber grating (LPFG) is used as a transducer and the surface of the fiber is coated with a precursor layer of SiO2-nanospheres using the electrostatic self-assembly technique (ESA). This layer has been designed in order to create a substrate of high porosity where the gliadins could be deposited. Under the presence of specific antibodies antigliadin antibodies (AGA) the refractive index of the overlay changes giving a detectable shift in the resonance wavelength of the LPFG. Concentrations as low as 5 ppm were detected.

  20. Accurate detection of coronary artery disease by integrated analysis of the ST-segment depression/heart rate patterns during the exercise and recovery phases of the exercise electrocardiography test.

    PubMed

    Lehtinen, R; Sievänen, H; Viik, J; Turjanmaa, V; Niemelä, K; Malmivuo, J

    1996-11-01

    In this comparative cross-sectional study, we evaluated whether a novel computerized diagnostic variable, ST-segment depression/heart rate ST/HR analysis during both the exercise and postexercise recovery phases of the exercise electrocardiography (ECG) test, can detect coronary artery disease more accurately than methods using either exercise or recovery phase alone. The study population comprised 347 clinical patients referred for a routine bicycle exercise ECG test at Tampere University Hospital, Finland. Of these, 127 had angiographically proven coronary artery disease, whereas 13 had no coronary artery disease according to angiography, 18 had no perfusion defect according to technetium-99m sestamibi single-photon emission computed tomography, and 189 were clinically normal with respect to cardiac diseases. For each patient, the maximum values of the ST/HR hysteresis, ST/HR index, end-exercise ST depression, and recovery ST depression were determined from the Mason-Likar modification of the standard 12-lead exercise electrocardiogram [aVL, aVR, and V1 excluded]. The diagnostic performance of these continuous diagnostic variables was compared by means of receiver-operating characteristic analysis. The area under the receiver-operating characteristic curve of the ST/HR hysteresis was 89%, which was significantly larger than that of the end-exercise ST depression (76%, p < or = 0.0001), recovery ST depression (84%, p = 0.0063), or ST/HR index (83%, p = 0.0023), indicating superior diagnostic performance of the ST/HR hysteresis independent of the partition value selection. In conclusion, computerized analysis of the HR-adjusted ST depression pattern during the exercise phase, integrated with the HR-adjusted ST depression pattern during the recovery phase after exercise, can significantly improve the diagnostic performance and clinical utility of the exercise ECG test for the detection of coronary artery disease.

  1. BIOACCESSIBILITY TESTS ACCURATELY ESTIMATE ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Hazards of soil-borne Pb to wild birds may be more accurately quantified if the bioavailability of that Pb is known. To better understand the bioavailability of Pb to birds, we measured blood Pb concentrations in Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica) fed diets containing Pb-contaminated soils. Relative bioavailabilities were expressed by comparison with blood Pb concentrations in quail fed a Pb acetate reference diet. Diets containing soil from five Pb-contaminated Superfund sites had relative bioavailabilities from 33%-63%, with a mean of about 50%. Treatment of two of the soils with P significantly reduced the bioavailability of Pb. The bioaccessibility of the Pb in the test soils was then measured in six in vitro tests and regressed on bioavailability. They were: the “Relative Bioavailability Leaching Procedure” (RBALP) at pH 1.5, the same test conducted at pH 2.5, the “Ohio State University In vitro Gastrointestinal” method (OSU IVG), the “Urban Soil Bioaccessible Lead Test”, the modified “Physiologically Based Extraction Test” and the “Waterfowl Physiologically Based Extraction Test.” All regressions had positive slopes. Based on criteria of slope and coefficient of determination, the RBALP pH 2.5 and OSU IVG tests performed very well. Speciation by X-ray absorption spectroscopy demonstrated that, on average, most of the Pb in the sampled soils was sorbed to minerals (30%), bound to organic matter 24%, or present as Pb sulfate 18%. Ad

  2. Results from the National Legionella Outbreak Detection Program, the Netherlands, 2002-2012.

    PubMed

    Den Boer, Jeroen W; Euser, Sjoerd M; Brandsema, Petra; Reijnen, Linda; Bruin, Jacob P

    2015-07-01

    In 2002, the National Legionella Outbreak Detection Program was implemented in the Netherlands to detect and eliminate potential sources of organisms that cause Legionnaires' disease (LD). During 2002-2012, a total of 1,991 patients with LD were reported, and 1,484 source investigations were performed. Of those sources investigated, 24.7% were positive for Legionella spp. For 266 patients with LD, 105 cluster locations were identified. A genotype match was made between a strain detected in 41 patients and a strain from a source location. Despite the systematic approach used by the program, most sources of LD infections during 2002-2012 remained undiscovered. Explorative studies are needed to identify yet undiscovered reservoirs and transmission routes for Legionella bacteria, and improved laboratory techniques are needed to detect Legionella spp. in clinical samples with a high background of microbial flora (such as soil).

  3. Results from the National Legionella Outbreak Detection Program, the Netherlands, 2002–2012

    PubMed Central

    Euser, Sjoerd M.; Brandsema, Petra; Reijnen, Linda; Bruin, Jacob P.

    2015-01-01

    In 2002, the National Legionella Outbreak Detection Program was implemented in the Netherlands to detect and eliminate potential sources of organisms that cause Legionnaires’ disease (LD). During 2002–2012, a total of 1,991 patients with LD were reported, and 1,484 source investigations were performed. Of those sources investigated, 24.7% were positive for Legionella spp. For 266 patients with LD, 105 cluster locations were identified. A genotype match was made between a strain detected in 41 patients and a strain from a source location. Despite the systematic approach used by the program, most sources of LD infections during 2002–2012 remained undiscovered. Explorative studies are needed to identify yet undiscovered reservoirs and transmission routes for Legionella bacteria, and improved laboratory techniques are needed to detect Legionella spp. in clinical samples with a high background of microbial flora (such as soil). PMID:26079594

  4. Experimental Results of Ground Disturbance Detection Using Uncooled Infrared Imagers in Wideband and Multispectral Modes

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-02-01

    imaging for ground disturbance detection. We performed experiments to study ground disturbance detection using multispectral imaging. Multispectral...were investigated and experimentally validated on buried mines signature using MWIR and LWIR cameras [2-4]. As the performance of low cost, uncooled...NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT NUMBER 5e. TASK NUMBER 5f. WORK UNIT NUMBER 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) Defence R&D Canada

  5. Amniocentesis for the detection of congenital toxoplasmosis: results from the nationwide Austrian prenatal screening program.

    PubMed

    Prusa, A-R; Kasper, D C; Pollak, A; Olischar, M; Gleiss, A; Hayde, M

    2015-02-01

    Prenatal diagnosis of congenital toxoplasmosis (CT) influences therapeutical management in pregnant women and their offspring. In Austria, a nationwide serological healthcare program to identify potential maternal toxoplasma infections during pregnancy exists. We assessed the clinical use of amniocentesis for toxoplasma-specific polymerase chain reaction (PCR) on amniotic fluid to detect CT. Data on serology, amniocentesis, PCR, complications, treatment, and paediatric clinical outcome were collected retrospectively among the birth cohort 1992-2008. There were 1386 women with amniocentesis, but only in 707 cases (51%) was acute maternal infection confirmed serologically. A high proportion (49%) of amniocenteses with negative PCR results in women with chronic infection or seronegativity were performed without clinical justification for the women or their foetuses. The positive and negative predictive values of PCR were 94.4% and 99.3%, respectively. Thirty-nine foetuses with CT, including four deaths, were reported. The five PCR-negative but infected infants were identified by the serological and clinical follow-up program. Thirty percent of amniocenteses were performed in the third trimester, and gestational age or treatment did not influence PCR sensitivity. Amniocentesis is indicated in women with acute maternal infection, and facilitated targeted therapies in pregnant women and their offspring. In women with late toxoplasma infection, negative amniotic fluid PCR made treatment of infants unnecessary. Serological and clinical follow-up of infants is important to confirm the infection status of the infant. Recommendations, based on our 17-year experience, to improve the current diagnostic strategies and to reduce unnecessary amniocentesis, are given.

  6. First results of an integrated monitoring concept to detect brine migration processes in freshwater aquifers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Möller, M.; Schmidt-Hattenberger, C.; Wagner, F.; Schröder, S.

    2012-04-01

    The reduction of new carbon dioxide emissions is an important contribution to realise climate change mitigation solutions. One possibility consists in the long-term storage of industrial produced greenhouse gas in deep saline aquifers. The most important research focus of the multidisciplinary integrated project BRINE is to ensure the safe storage operation. This research work refers to an area in eastern Brandenburg (Germany). However, the analysis can be applied to regions with comparable geological characteristics. The relevant reservoir horizon is located within a classic anticlinal structure, generated by salt tectonic processes. Due to the local geological site specifics, the CO2 injection could cause a pressure build-up and thus a brine migration in the reservoir layer. For this reason, an adequate monitoring system for the observation of possible brine displacement into upper freshwater aquifers is essential. For both the qualitatively and quantitatively investigation a combination of several geophysical methods is needed. The electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) is a measurement method with a comparatively high spatial resolution on small scales. Therefore it will be generally used for borehole and near subsurface investigations. The presented monitoring concept focusses on three potential pathways. Beside regional fault-zones, also formation defects in the upper aquitards and leakages around the wellbore could promote a saltwater migration. The main objective is to find an optimal combination of several electrode arrays like surface, surface-downhole and cross-borehole configurations to detect time-lapse effects of the resistivity distribution in the subsurface. By means of numerical modelling studies of different salinisation scenarios, we have tested several standard and several adapted electrode arrays. In order to further improve the results, an inversion code based on the measured resistance ratios is used. Parallel to the large-scale modelling

  7. Capillary electrophoresis mass spectrometry as a potential tool to detect lithium-induced nephropathy: Preliminary results.

    PubMed

    Raedler, Thomas J; Wittke, Stefan; Jahn, Holger; Koessler, Andreas; Mischak, Harald; Wiedemann, Klaus

    2008-04-01

    Lithium remains the treatment of choice for many patients suffering from bipolar disorder. However, long-term treatment with lithium carries the potential to cause renal and thyroid dysfunction. Lithium-induced nephropathies are characterised by deterioration of urinary concentrating ability as well as, less frequently, a progressive and potentially irreversible decrease in glomerular filtration rate (GFR). Pathological changes after treatment with lithium include both tubulointerstitial and glomerular changes. Besides monitoring of the kidney-function, no screening-instruments exist for early identification of patients at risk of lithium-induced nephropathy. CE-MS (capillary electrophoresis coupled to a mass spectrometer) is a new technique that has been applied to the differential diagnosis of nephropathies. We sought to determine if CE-MS can be used to identify lithium-induced renal changes. A urine-sample was obtained from 14 subjects (7 males, 7 females, mean age 51.1 years) under long-term treatment with lithium (mean duration 17.4 years, range 8-35 years) without known nephropathy (mean creatinine 0.96 mg/dl; range 0.7-1.6). Urine samples were stored at -20 degrees C until analysis. CE-MS was performed according to standard procedures and a screen for nephropathies was used. Among the 14 urine samples, two subjects tested positive for a nephropathy. One further subject had a borderline result. Since 3/14 subjects with no known nephropathy showed some degree of pathological findings, CE-MS from a urine-sample may be helpful for the early detection of renal damage under treatment with lithium. However, a specific screen for lithium-induced nephropathies still needs to be developed.

  8. Accurate upwind methods for the Euler equations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huynh, Hung T.

    1993-01-01

    A new class of piecewise linear methods for the numerical solution of the one-dimensional Euler equations of gas dynamics is presented. These methods are uniformly second-order accurate, and can be considered as extensions of Godunov's scheme. With an appropriate definition of monotonicity preservation for the case of linear convection, it can be shown that they preserve monotonicity. Similar to Van Leer's MUSCL scheme, they consist of two key steps: a reconstruction step followed by an upwind step. For the reconstruction step, a monotonicity constraint that preserves uniform second-order accuracy is introduced. Computational efficiency is enhanced by devising a criterion that detects the 'smooth' part of the data where the constraint is redundant. The concept and coding of the constraint are simplified by the use of the median function. A slope steepening technique, which has no effect at smooth regions and can resolve a contact discontinuity in four cells, is described. As for the upwind step, existing and new methods are applied in a manner slightly different from those in the literature. These methods are derived by approximating the Euler equations via linearization and diagonalization. At a 'smooth' interface, Harten, Lax, and Van Leer's one intermediate state model is employed. A modification for this model that can resolve contact discontinuities is presented. Near a discontinuity, either this modified model or a more accurate one, namely, Roe's flux-difference splitting. is used. The current presentation of Roe's method, via the conceptually simple flux-vector splitting, not only establishes a connection between the two splittings, but also leads to an admissibility correction with no conditional statement, and an efficient approximation to Osher's approximate Riemann solver. These reconstruction and upwind steps result in schemes that are uniformly second-order accurate and economical at smooth regions, and yield high resolution at discontinuities.

  9. ORD research and results using biological end points to detect exposures to contaminants of emerging concern

    EPA Science Inventory

    For the past nine years the Ecological Exposure Research Division (EERD) has been developing methods for the assessment of EDCs and other contaminants of emerging concern (CECs). These methods include genomic techniques for detecting the presence and potential exposure to human p...

  10. Automated detection of apnea/hypopnea events in healthy children polysomnograms: preliminary results.

    PubMed

    Held, Claudio M; Causa, Leonardo; Jaillet, Fabrice; Chamorro, Rodrigo; Garrido, Marcelo; Algarin, Cecilia; Peirano, Patricio

    2013-01-01

    A methodology to detect sleep apnea/hypopnea events in the respiratory signals of polysomnographic recordings is presented. It applies empirical mode decomposition (EMD), Hilbert-Huang transform (HHT), fuzzy logic and signal preprocessing techniques for feature extraction, expert criteria and context analysis. EMD, HHT and fuzzy logic are used for artifact detection and preliminary detection of respiration signal zones with significant variations in the amplitude of the signal; feature extraction, expert criteria and context analysis are used to characterize and validate the respiratory events. An annotated database of 30 all-night polysomnographic recordings, acquired from 30 healthy ten-year-old children, was divided in a training set of 15 recordings (485 sleep apnea/hypopnea events), a validation set of five recordings (109 sleep apnea/hypopnea events), and a testing set of ten recordings (281 sleep apnea/hypopnea events). The overall detection performance on the testing data set was 89.7% sensitivity and 16.3% false-positive rate. The next step is to include discrimination among apneas, hypopneas and respiratory pauses.

  11. Simulation results of liquid and plastic scintillator detectors for reactor antineutrino detection - A comparison

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kashyap, V. K. S.; Pant, L. M.; Mohanty, A. K.; Datar, V. M.

    2016-03-01

    A simulation study of two kinds of scintillation detectors has been done using GEANT4. We compare plastic scintillator and liquid scintillator based designs for detecting electron antineutrinos emitted from the core of reactors. The motivation for this study is to set up an experiment at the research reactor facility at BARC for very short baseline neutrino oscillation study and remote reactor monitoring.

  12. Interplanetary and near-Jupiter meteoroid environments - Preliminary results from the meteoroid detection experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kinard, W. H.; O'Neal, R. L.; Alvarez, J. M.; Humes, D. H.

    1974-01-01

    Data on interplanetary and near-Jupiter micrometer-sized particle encounters from the meteoroid-detection experiment on Pioneer 10 indicate that Jupiter is much 'dustier' than interplanetary space. Whereas the near-earth particulate flux showed very little increase over the interplanetary flux, the near-Jupiter penetration flux was over two orders of magnitude higher than the interplanetary flux.

  13. Clinical superficial Raman probe aimed for epithelial tumor detection: Phantom model results

    PubMed Central

    Agenant, Michelle; Grimbergen, Matthijs; Draga, Ronald; Marple, Eric; Bosch, Ruud; van Swol, Christiaan

    2014-01-01

    Abstract: A novel clinical Raman probe for sampling superficial tissue to improve in vivo detection of epithelial malignancies is compared to a non-superficial probe regarding depth response function and signal-to-noise ratio. Depth response measurements were performed in a phantom tissue model consisting of a polyethylene terephthalate disc in an 20%-Intralipid® solution. Sampling ranges of 0-200 and 0-300 μm were obtained for the superficial and non-superficial probe, respectively. The mean signal-to-noise ratio of the superficial probe increased by a factor of 2 compared with the non-superficial probe. This newly developed superficial Raman probe is expected to improve epithelial cancer detection in vivo. PMID:24761301

  14. Recent Results on "Approximations to Optimal Alarm Systems for Anomaly Detection"

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martin, Rodney Alexander

    2009-01-01

    An optimal alarm system and its approximations may use Kalman filtering for univariate linear dynamic systems driven by Gaussian noise to provide a layer of predictive capability. Predicted Kalman filter future process values and a fixed critical threshold can be used to construct a candidate level-crossing event over a predetermined prediction window. An optimal alarm system can be designed to elicit the fewest false alarms for a fixed detection probability in this particular scenario.

  15. Flight test results of a vector-based failure detection and isolation algorithm for a redundant strapdown inertial measurement unit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morrell, F. R.; Bailey, M. L.; Motyka, P. R.

    1988-01-01

    Flight test results of a vector-based fault-tolerant algorithm for a redundant strapdown inertial measurement unit are presented. Because the inertial sensors provide flight-critical information for flight control and navigation, failure detection and isolation is developed in terms of a multi-level structure. Threshold compensation techniques for gyros and accelerometers, developed to enhance the sensitivity of the failure detection process to low-level failures, are presented. Four flight tests, conducted in a commercial transport type environment, were used to determine the ability of the failure detection and isolation algorithm to detect failure signals, such a hard-over, null, or bias shifts. The algorithm provided timely detection and correct isolation of flight control- and low-level failures. The flight tests of the vector-based algorithm demonstrated its capability to provide false alarm free dual fail-operational performance for the skewed array of inertial sensors.

  16. Time-Domain Optical Mammography: Initial Clinical Results on Detection and Characterization of Breast Tumors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grosenick, Dirk; Moesta, K. Thomas; Wabnitz, Heidrun; Mucke, Jörg; Stroszczynski, Christian; MacDonald, Rainer; Schlag, Peter M.; Rinneberg, Herbert

    2003-06-01

    Mammograms of 35 patients suspected of breast cancer were taken along craniocaudal and mediolateral projections with a dual-wavelength scanning laser pulse mammograph measuring time-resolved transmittance. Among 26 tumors known from routine clinical diagnostics, 17 tumors were detected retrospectively in optical mammograms. Effective tumor optical properties derived from a homogeneous model were used to deduce physiological information. All tumors exhibited increased total hemoglobin concentration and decreased or unchanged blood oxygen saturation compared with surrounding healthy tissue. Scatter plots based on a pixelwise analysis of individual mammograms were introduced and applied to represent correlations between characteristic quantities derived from measured distributions of times of flight of photons.

  17. Preliminary results of heterodyne detection with quantum-cascade lasers in the 9 μm region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parvitte, B.; Joly, L.; Zéninari, V.; Courtois, D.

    2004-12-01

    In this paper, we describe recent results in mid-infrared heterodyne detection using quantum-cascade (QC) lasers as local oscillator (LO). In the 9 μm range, the heterodyne detection technique was first developed with CO 2 lasers and then with Pb-salt diode lasers. Quantum-cascade lasers are promising high quality tunable mid-infrared sources. We developed a quantum-cascade laser based heterodyne spectrometer. Atmospheric absorption spectra of ozone are presented.

  18. Design and validation of a qPCR assay for accurate detection and initial serogrouping of Legionella pneumophila in clinical specimens by the ESCMID Study Group for Legionella Infections (ESGLI).

    PubMed

    Mentasti, M; Kese, D; Echahidi, F; Uldum, S A; Afshar, B; David, S; Mrazek, J; De Mendonça, R; Harrison, T G; Chalker, V J

    2015-07-01

    Prompt detection of Legionella pneumophila is essential for rapid investigation of legionellosis. Furthermore, as the majority of L. pneumophila infections are caused by serogroup 1 (sg1) strains, rapid identification of such strains can be critical in both routine and outbreak scenarios. The ESCMID Study Group for Legionella Infections (ESGLI) was established in 2012 and immediately identified as a priority the validation of a reliable, easy to perform and interpret, cost-effective qPCR assay to standardise the detection of L. pneumophila DNA amongst members. A novel L. pneumophila assay targeting the mip gene was designed and combined with previously published methodologies amplifying the sg1 marker (wzm) and the green fluorescent protein gene (gfp) internal process control. The resulting triplex assay was validated internationally on the three qPCR platforms used by the majority of European Legionella reference laboratories: ABI 7500 (Life Technologies), LightCycler 480 Instrument II (Roche) and Rotor-Gene Q (Qiagen). Clinical and EQA specimens were tested together with a large panel of strains (251 in total) to validate the assay. The assay proved to be 100% specific for L. pneumophila and sg1 DNA both in silico and in vitro. Efficiency values for mip and wzm assays ranged between 91.97 and 97.69%. Limit of detection values estimated with 95% confidence were adopted for mip and wzm assays on all three qPCR platforms. Inhibition was not observed. This study describes a robust assay that could be widely implemented to standardise the molecular detection of L. pneumophila among ESGLI laboratories and beyond.

  19. Controlling false-positive results obtained with the Hodge and Masuda assays for detection of class a carbapenemase in species of enterobacteriaceae by incorporating boronic Acid.

    PubMed

    Pasteran, Fernando; Mendez, Tania; Rapoport, Melina; Guerriero, Leonor; Corso, Alejandra

    2010-04-01

    The modified Hodge method (MHT) has been recommended by the CLSI for confirmation of suspected class A carbapenemase production in species of Enterobacteriaceae. This test and the Masuda method (MAS) have advantages over traditional phenotypic methods in that they directly analyze carbapenemase activity. In order to identify the potential interferences of these tests, we designed a panel composed of diverse bacterial genera with distinct carbapenem susceptibility patterns (42 carbapenemase producers and 48 nonproducers). About 25% of results among carbapenemase nonproducers, mainly strains harboring CTX-M and AmpC hyperproducers, were observed to be false positive. Subsequently, we developed an optimized approach for more-accurate detection of suspicious isolates of carbapenemase by addition of boronic acid (BA) derivatives (reversible inhibitor of class A carbapenemases and AmpC cephalosporinases) and oxacillin (inhibitor of AmpCs enzymes). The use of the modified BA- and oxacillin-based MHT and MAS resulted in high sensitivity (>90%) and specificity (100%) for class A carbapenemase detection. By use of these methodologies, isolates producing KPCs and GES, Sme, IMI, and NMC-A carbapenemases were successfully distinguished from those producing other classes of ss-lactamases (extended-spectrum beta-lactamases [ESBLs], AmpC beta-lactamases, metallo-beta-lactamases [MBLs], etc.). These methods will provide the fast and useful information needed for targeting of antimicrobial therapy and appropriate infection control.

  20. Analysis for urinary catecholamines by liquid chromatography with amperometric detection: methodology and clinical interpretation of results.

    PubMed

    Moyer, T P; Jiang, N S; Tyce, G M; Sheps, S G

    1979-02-01

    A method is presented for the quantitative analysis of urinary unconjugated norepinephrine, epinephrine, and dopamine as discrete entities. The procedure requires initial purification of the specimen on aluminum oxide and a boric acid-gel. We used "high-performance" reversed-phase paired-ion chromatography, with a flow-through amperometric cell as the detector. The CV was 6% for determination of norepinephrine, 11% for epinephrine, and 6% for dopamine monitored at physiologic concentrations of these compounds in urine. In a population study, urine specimens from 117 normal pediatric and adult subjects, 85 hypertensive patients, and 22 patients with surgically proved pheochromocytoma were analyzed. The specificity of the method for detection of pheochromocytoma was 100%, with a sensitivity of 97%.

  1. Constraints on Universal Extra-Dimensional Dark Matter from Direct Detection Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torpin, Trevor; Duda, Gintaras

    2011-04-01

    Detection of dark matter is one of the most challenging and important problems in astro-particle physics. One theory that produces a viable particle dark matter candidate is Universal Extra Dimensions (UED), in which the existence of a 4th spatial dimension is theorized. The extra dimension is not seen because it is compactifed on a circular orbifold whose radius is too small to be observed with current technology. What separates this theory over other Kaluza-Klein-type theories is that UED allows all standard model particles and fields to propagate in the extra dimension. The dark matter candidate in UED theories is a stable particle known as the Lightest Kaluza-Klein Particle or LKP, and the LKP can exist with sufficient relic density to serve as the dark matter. This work will present bounds on UED model parameters from direct dark matter searches such as the CDMS II.

  2. On numerically accurate finite element

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nagtegaal, J. C.; Parks, D. M.; Rice, J. R.

    1974-01-01

    A general criterion for testing a mesh with topologically similar repeat units is given, and the analysis shows that only a few conventional element types and arrangements are, or can be made suitable for computations in the fully plastic range. Further, a new variational principle, which can easily and simply be incorporated into an existing finite element program, is presented. This allows accurate computations to be made even for element designs that would not normally be suitable. Numerical results are given for three plane strain problems, namely pure bending of a beam, a thick-walled tube under pressure, and a deep double edge cracked tensile specimen. The effects of various element designs and of the new variational procedure are illustrated. Elastic-plastic computation at finite strain are discussed.

  3. Contributions to oil-spill detection and analysis with radar and microwave radiometry: Results of the Archimedes II campaign

    SciTech Connect

    Bartsch, N.; Gruner, K.; Keydel, W.; Witte, F.

    1987-11-01

    During the Archimedes II campaign in November 1985 (conducted and sponsored by JRC ISPRA) different DFVLR-instruments were flown, an X-band SLAR, an elementary L-band SAR, and microwave radiometers at 32 and 90 GHz. The objective of these measurements was to evaluate the possibility of detection, localization, and qualification of oil pollution with microwave sensors. Examples of measurement results obtained are presented. As a main result, it can be stated that all of these microwave instruments are valuable and necessary tools for oil pollution detection and oil collection systems.

  4. Fractal Analysis of Elastographic Images for Automatic Detection of Diffuse Diseases of Salivary Glands: Preliminary Results

    PubMed Central

    Badea, Alexandru Florin; Lupsor Platon, Monica; Crisan, Maria; Cattani, Carlo; Badea, Iulia; Pierro, Gaetano; Sannino, Gianpaolo; Baciut, Grigore

    2013-01-01

    The geometry of some medical images of tissues, obtained by elastography and ultrasonography, is characterized in terms of complexity parameters such as the fractal dimension (FD). It is well known that in any image there are very subtle details that are not easily detectable by the human eye. However, in many cases like medical imaging diagnosis, these details are very important since they might contain some hidden information about the possible existence of certain pathological lesions like tissue degeneration, inflammation, or tumors. Therefore, an automatic method of analysis could be an expedient tool for physicians to give a faultless diagnosis. The fractal analysis is of great importance in relation to a quantitative evaluation of “real-time” elastography, a procedure considered to be operator dependent in the current clinical practice. Mathematical analysis reveals significant discrepancies among normal and pathological image patterns. The main objective of our work is to demonstrate the clinical utility of this procedure on an ultrasound image corresponding to a submandibular diffuse pathology. PMID:23762183

  5. Fractal analysis of elastographic images for automatic detection of diffuse diseases of salivary glands: preliminary results.

    PubMed

    Badea, Alexandru Florin; Lupsor Platon, Monica; Crisan, Maria; Cattani, Carlo; Badea, Iulia; Pierro, Gaetano; Sannino, Gianpaolo; Baciut, Grigore

    2013-01-01

    The geometry of some medical images of tissues, obtained by elastography and ultrasonography, is characterized in terms of complexity parameters such as the fractal dimension (FD). It is well known that in any image there are very subtle details that are not easily detectable by the human eye. However, in many cases like medical imaging diagnosis, these details are very important since they might contain some hidden information about the possible existence of certain pathological lesions like tissue degeneration, inflammation, or tumors. Therefore, an automatic method of analysis could be an expedient tool for physicians to give a faultless diagnosis. The fractal analysis is of great importance in relation to a quantitative evaluation of "real-time" elastography, a procedure considered to be operator dependent in the current clinical practice. Mathematical analysis reveals significant discrepancies among normal and pathological image patterns. The main objective of our work is to demonstrate the clinical utility of this procedure on an ultrasound image corresponding to a submandibular diffuse pathology.

  6. Detection of cow milk in donkey milk by chemometric procedures on triacylglycerol stereospecific analysis results.

    PubMed

    Cossignani, Lina; Blasi, Francesca; Bosi, Ancilla; D'Arco, Gilda; Maurelli, Silvia; Simonetti, Maria Stella; Damiani, Pietro

    2011-08-01

    Stereospecific analysis is an important tool for the characterization of lipid fraction of food matrices, and also of milk samples. The results of a chemical-enzymatic-chromatographic analytical method were elaborated by chemometric procedures such as linear discriminant analysis (LDA) and artificial neural network (ANN). According to the total composition and intrapositional fatty acid distribution in the triacylglycerol (TAG) backbone, the obtained results were able to characterize pure milk samples and milk mixtures with 1, 3, 5% cow milk added to donkey milk. The resulting score was very satisfactory. Totally correct classified samples were obtained when the TAG stereospecific results of all the considered milk mixtures (donkey-cow) were elaborated by LDA and ANN chemometric procedures.

  7. Why is methenamine detected in Goma-2 dynamites originally methenamine free? An interpretation of relevant forensic results.

    PubMed

    Sáiz, Jorge; Ferrando, José-Luis; Atoche, Juan-Carlos; García-Ruiz, Carmen

    2012-03-10

    After the train bombing in Madrid (Spain) on 11 March 2004, methenamine was detected in some of the specimens of Goma-2 ECO dynamite submitted to the forensic laboratories when analyzed by gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry detection (GC-MS). Methenamine is synthesized from formaldehyde and ammonia through a condensation reaction. However, neither methenamine nor any of these compounds were used to manufacture Goma-2 ECO dynamite. Four different experiments were designed in order to explain the presence of methenamine detected in the dynamite samples analyzed. In the first one, GC-MS was used to analyze the individual components of Goma-2 ECO provided by the manufacturer and the components mixed in a raw paste. Methenamine was detected in the manufacturer's ammonium nitrate and in the raw paste. The other experiments were designed to find the precursors sources for methenamine generation in Goma-2 ECO. Results revealed that these sources could be ammonium nitrate for ammonia and sawdust for formaldehyde. Under heating conditions, dynamite could produce these precursors, which could condense in the injection port of the GC-MS system and generate methenamine. However, methenamine was not always detected in these dynamites. This was explained by the existence of two opposite effects: (a) dynamite stability makes difficult that ammonium nitrate releases ammonia and (b) there is a gradual loss of formaldehyde in sawdust along the time. Both effects can prevent the formation of an amount of methenamine large enough to be detected.

  8. Qualitative and Quantitative Detection of Botulinum Neurotoxins from Complex Matrices: Results of the First International Proficiency Test.

    PubMed

    Worbs, Sylvia; Fiebig, Uwe; Zeleny, Reinhard; Schimmel, Heinz; Rummel, Andreas; Luginbühl, Werner; Dorner, Brigitte G

    2015-11-26

    In the framework of the EU project EQuATox, a first international proficiency test (PT) on the detection and quantification of botulinum neurotoxins (BoNT) was conducted. Sample materials included BoNT serotypes A, B and E spiked into buffer, milk, meat extract and serum. Different methods were applied by the participants combining different principles of detection, identification and quantification. Based on qualitative assays, 95% of all results reported were correct. Successful strategies for BoNT detection were based on a combination of complementary immunological, MS-based and functional methods or on suitable functional in vivo/in vitro approaches (mouse bioassay, hemidiaphragm assay and Endopep-MS assay). Quantification of BoNT/A, BoNT/B and BoNT/E was performed by 48% of participating laboratories. It turned out that precise quantification of BoNT was difficult, resulting in a substantial scatter of quantitative data. This was especially true for results obtained by the mouse bioassay which is currently considered as "gold standard" for BoNT detection. The results clearly demonstrate the urgent need for certified BoNT reference materials and the development of methods replacing animal testing. In this context, the BoNT PT provided the valuable information that both the Endopep-MS assay and the hemidiaphragm assay delivered quantitative results superior to the mouse bioassay.

  9. Qualitative and Quantitative Detection of Botulinum Neurotoxins from Complex Matrices: Results of the First International Proficiency Test

    PubMed Central

    Worbs, Sylvia; Fiebig, Uwe; Zeleny, Reinhard; Schimmel, Heinz; Rummel, Andreas; Luginbühl, Werner; Dorner, Brigitte G.

    2015-01-01

    In the framework of the EU project EQuATox, a first international proficiency test (PT) on the detection and quantification of botulinum neurotoxins (BoNT) was conducted. Sample materials included BoNT serotypes A, B and E spiked into buffer, milk, meat extract and serum. Different methods were applied by the participants combining different principles of detection, identification and quantification. Based on qualitative assays, 95% of all results reported were correct. Successful strategies for BoNT detection were based on a combination of complementary immunological, MS-based and functional methods or on suitable functional in vivo/in vitro approaches (mouse bioassay, hemidiaphragm assay and Endopep-MS assay). Quantification of BoNT/A, BoNT/B and BoNT/E was performed by 48% of participating laboratories. It turned out that precise quantification of BoNT was difficult, resulting in a substantial scatter of quantitative data. This was especially true for results obtained by the mouse bioassay which is currently considered as “gold standard” for BoNT detection. The results clearly demonstrate the urgent need for certified BoNT reference materials and the development of methods replacing animal testing. In this context, the BoNT PT provided the valuable information that both the Endopep-MS assay and the hemidiaphragm assay delivered quantitative results superior to the mouse bioassay. PMID:26703724

  10. Near-infrared reflectance spectroscopy (NIRS) enables the fast and accurate prediction of essential amino acid contents. 2. Results for wheat, barley, corn, triticale, wheat bran/middlings, rice bran, and sorghum.

    PubMed

    Fontaine, Johannes; Schirmer, Barbara; Hörr, Jutta

    2002-07-03

    Further NIRS calibrations were developed for the accurate and fast prediction of the total contents of methionine, cystine, lysine, threonine, tryptophan, and other essential amino acids, protein, and moisture in the most important cereals and brans or middlings for animal feed production. More than 1100 samples of global origin collected over five years were analyzed for amino acids following the Official Methods of the United States and European Union. Detailed data and graphics are given to characterize the obtained calibration equations. NIRS was validated with 98 independent samples for wheat and 78 samples for corn and compared to amino acid predictions using linear crude protein regression equations. With a few exceptions, validation showed that 70-98% of the amino acid variance in the samples could be explained using NIRS. Especially for lysine and methionine, the most limiting amino acids for farm animals, NIRS can predict contents in cereals much better than crude protein regressions. Through low cost and high speed of analysis NIRS enables the amino acid analysis of many samples in order to improve the accuracy of feed formulation and obtain better quality and lower production costs.

  11. Photon Detection with Cooled Avalanche Photodiodes: Theory and Preliminary Experimental Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robinson, D. L.; Hays, D. A.

    1985-01-01

    Avalanche photodiodes (APDs) can be operated in a geiger-tube mode so that they can respond to single electron events and thus be used as photon counting detectors. Operational characteristics and theory of APDs while used in this mode are analyzed and assessed. Preliminary experimental investigation of several commercially available APDs has commenced, and initial results for dark count statistics are presented.

  12. Extracting Time-Accurate Acceleration Vectors From Nontrivial Accelerometer Arrangements.

    PubMed

    Franck, Jennifer A; Blume, Janet; Crisco, Joseph J; Franck, Christian

    2015-09-01

    Sports-related concussions are of significant concern in many impact sports, and their detection relies on accurate measurements of the head kinematics during impact. Among the most prevalent recording technologies are videography, and more recently, the use of single-axis accelerometers mounted in a helmet, such as the HIT system. Successful extraction of the linear and angular impact accelerations depends on an accurate analysis methodology governed by the equations of motion. Current algorithms are able to estimate the magnitude of acceleration and hit location, but make assumptions about the hit orientation and are often limited in the position and/or orientation of the accelerometers. The newly formulated algorithm presented in this manuscript accurately extracts the full linear and rotational acceleration vectors from a broad arrangement of six single-axis accelerometers directly from the governing set of kinematic equations. The new formulation linearizes the nonlinear centripetal acceleration term with a finite-difference approximation and provides a fast and accurate solution for all six components of acceleration over long time periods (>250 ms). The approximation of the nonlinear centripetal acceleration term provides an accurate computation of the rotational velocity as a function of time and allows for reconstruction of a multiple-impact signal. Furthermore, the algorithm determines the impact location and orientation and can distinguish between glancing, high rotational velocity impacts, or direct impacts through the center of mass. Results are shown for ten simulated impact locations on a headform geometry computed with three different accelerometer configurations in varying degrees of signal noise. Since the algorithm does not require simplifications of the actual impacted geometry, the impact vector, or a specific arrangement of accelerometer orientations, it can be easily applied to many impact investigations in which accurate kinematics need to

  13. Optimal fluorescence excitation wavelengths for detection of squamous intra-epithelial neoplasia: results from an animal model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coghlan, Lezlee; Utzinger, Urs; Drezek, Rebekah A.; Heintzelmann, Doug; Zuluaga, Andres F.; Brookner, Carrie; Richards-Kortum, Rebecca R.; Gimenez-Conti, Irma; Follen, Michele

    2000-12-01

    Using the hamster cheek pouch carcinogenesis model, we explore which fluorescence excitation wavelengths are useful for the detection of neoplasia. 42 hamsters were treated with DMBA to induce carcinogenesis, and 20 control animals were treated only with mineral oil. Fluorescence excitation emission matrices were measured from the cheek pouches of the hamsters weekly. Results showed increased fluorescence near 350-370 nm and 410 nm excitation and decreased fluorescence near 450-470 nm excitation with neoplasia. The optimal diagnostic excitation wavelengths identified using this model - 350-370 nm excitation and 400-450 nm excitation - are similar to those identified for detection of human oral cavity neoplasia.

  14. Experimental Results: Detection and Tracking of Low SNR Sinusoids Using Real-Time LMS and RLS Lattice Adaptive Line Enhancers.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-08-01

    DETECTION AND TRACKING OF LOW SNR SINUSOIDS USING REAL-TIMNE LMS AND RI S LATTIICE, ADAPTIVE LINE PR: SSWh ENHANCRS RE: 0300000liN 6 AIJTHCRISI WVl: D68...RESULTS: DETECTION AND TRACKING OF LOW SNR SINUSOIDS USING REAL-TIME LMS AND RLS LATTICE ADAPTIVE LINE ENHANCERS i f. Terence R. Albert, Hana Abusalem...obtained from a real-time custom hardware SNR sinusoids and filter parameters such as system using 32-bit IEEE floating point filter length, and adaption

  15. Separation and sequence detection of overlapped fingerprints: experiments and first results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kärgel, Rainer; Giebel, Sascha; Leich, Marcus; Dittmann, Jana

    2011-11-01

    Latent fingerprints provide vital information in modern crime scene investigation. On frequently touched surfaces the fingerprints may overlap which poses a major problem for forensic analysis. In order to make such overlapping fingerprints available for analysis, they have to be separated. An additional evaluation of the sequence in which the fingerprints were brought onto the surface can help to reconstruct the progression of events. Advances in both tasks can considerably aid crime investigation agencies and are the subject of this work. Here, a statistical approach, initially devised for the separation of overlapping text patterns by Tonazzini et al.,1 is employed to separate overlapping fingerprints. The method involves a maximum a posteriori estimation of the single fingerprints and the mixing coefficients, computed by an expectation-maximization algorithm. A fingerprint age determination feature based on corrosion is evaluated for sequence estimation. The approaches are evaluated using 30 samples of overlapping latent fingerprints on two different substrates. The fingerprint images are acquired with a non-destructive chromatic white light surface measurement device, each sample containing exactly two fingerprints that overlap in the center of the image. Since forensic investigations rely on manual assessment of acquired fingerprints by forensics experts, a subjective scale ranging from 0 to 8 is used to rate the separation results. Our results indicate that the chosen method can separate overlapped fingerprints which exhibit strong differences in contrast, since results gradually improve with the growing contrast difference of the overlapping fingerprints. Investigating the effects of corrosion leads to a reliable determination of the fingerprints' sequence as the timespan between their leaving increases.

  16. Developing of Hardware to Detect Surfaces Images on Magnetic Materials: Preliminary Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hernández-Pavón, J. C.; Navarro, J.; Córdova, T.; Martínez, J. C.; Sosa, M.

    2006-09-01

    Implementation of a scanner system for magnetic surfaces images is proposed. The Magnetometer was built with a couple of coils arranged in a first order gradiometer. The magnetic sensor was connected to an electronic circuit, then a data acquisition card, which transmitted the signal to a PC. On the other hand, the sample was placed on a xy system, for realizing the records. The conversion of the magnetic signal to pixels, was carried out with an implemented routine in LabVIEW environment. Preliminary results suggest a reasonable correlation between the original shapes and the studied surfaces.

  17. Results from the XENON10 and the Race to Detect Dark Matter with Noble Liquids

    ScienceCinema

    Shutt, Tom [Case Western Reserve, Cleveland, Ohio, United States

    2016-07-12

    Detectors based on liquid noble gases have the potential to revolutionize the direct search for WIMP dark matter. The XENON10 experiment, of which I am a member, has recently announced the results from it's first data run and is now the leading WIMP search experiment. This and other experiments using xenon, argon and neon have the potential to rapidly move from the current kg-scale target mass to the ton scale and well beyond. This should allow a (nearly) definitive test or discovery of dark matter if it is in the form of weakly interacting massive particles.

  18. Detection of pathogenic protozoa in the diagnostic laboratory: result reproducibility, specimen pooling, and competency assessment.

    PubMed

    Libman, M D; Gyorkos, T W; Kokoskin, E; Maclean, J D

    2008-07-01

    Stool microscopy as performed in clinical parasitology laboratories is a complex procedure with subjective interpretation. Quality assurance (QA) programs often emphasize proficiency testing as an assessment tool. We describe a result reproducibility assessment tool, which can form part of a broader QA program, and which is based on the blinded resubmission of selected clinical samples, using concordance between the reports of the initial and resubmitted specimen as an indicator. Specimens preserved in sodium acetate-acetic acid-formalin can be stored for several months for use in such a program. The presence of multiple protozoa in one specimen does not affect concordance. Some dilution of specimens occurs in this process, and this may explain poor concordance when specimens with low protozoal concentrations are resubmitted. Evaluation of this tool in a large parasitology laboratory revealed concordance rates for pathogenic protozoa (Entamoeba histolytica/Entamoeba dispar, Giardia lamblia, and Dientamoeba fragilis) of about 80%, which may be considered for use as a benchmark value. We also used this tool to demonstrate that when pairs of specimens from one patient are pooled to create a single specimen, concordance between the results of the individual and pooled specimens is high.

  19. Respiratory rate detection algorithm based on RGB-D camera: theoretical background and experimental results.

    PubMed

    Benetazzo, Flavia; Freddi, Alessandro; Monteriù, Andrea; Longhi, Sauro

    2014-09-01

    Both the theoretical background and the experimental results of an algorithm developed to perform human respiratory rate measurements without any physical contact are presented. Based on depth image sensing techniques, the respiratory rate is derived by measuring morphological changes of the chest wall. The algorithm identifies the human chest, computes its distance from the camera and compares this value with the instantaneous distance, discerning if it is due to the respiratory act or due to a limited movement of the person being monitored. To experimentally validate the proposed algorithm, the respiratory rate measurements coming from a spirometer were taken as a benchmark and compared with those estimated by the algorithm. Five tests were performed, with five different persons sat in front of the camera. The first test aimed to choose the suitable sampling frequency. The second test was conducted to compare the performances of the proposed system with respect to the gold standard in ideal conditions of light, orientation and clothing. The third, fourth and fifth tests evaluated the algorithm performances under different operating conditions. The experimental results showed that the system can correctly measure the respiratory rate, and it is a viable alternative to monitor the respiratory activity of a person without using invasive sensors.

  20. Respiratory rate detection algorithm based on RGB-D camera: theoretical background and experimental results

    PubMed Central

    Freddi, Alessandro; Monteriù, Andrea; Longhi, Sauro

    2014-01-01

    Both the theoretical background and the experimental results of an algorithm developed to perform human respiratory rate measurements without any physical contact are presented. Based on depth image sensing techniques, the respiratory rate is derived by measuring morphological changes of the chest wall. The algorithm identifies the human chest, computes its distance from the camera and compares this value with the instantaneous distance, discerning if it is due to the respiratory act or due to a limited movement of the person being monitored. To experimentally validate the proposed algorithm, the respiratory rate measurements coming from a spirometer were taken as a benchmark and compared with those estimated by the algorithm. Five tests were performed, with five different persons sat in front of the camera. The first test aimed to choose the suitable sampling frequency. The second test was conducted to compare the performances of the proposed system with respect to the gold standard in ideal conditions of light, orientation and clothing. The third, fourth and fifth tests evaluated the algorithm performances under different operating conditions. The experimental results showed that the system can correctly measure the respiratory rate, and it is a viable alternative to monitor the respiratory activity of a person without using invasive sensors. PMID:26609383

  1. Microwave detection of hairline surface-breaking cracks in metals using open-ended coaxial sensors: preliminary results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zoughi, Reza; Hayes, Kent; Ganchev, Stoyan I.

    1996-11-01

    Recent microwave methods have shown to be capable of detecting and sizing surface slots and cracks in metals. These methods have incorporated the use of an open-ended rectangular waveguide probe for such measurements. A new microwave method utilizing an open-ended coaxial line sensor has been under investigation for some time now. Coaxial line sensors have certain features that make them quite attractive for surface crack detection. These features include their high level of sensitivity to the presence of very narrow cracks as will as the fact that their geometry may include complicated bends allowing access to hard to reach places. This paper presents and comments on some preliminary experimental results of using this sensor for hairline surface crack detection.

  2. Temperature control analysis and flight results for the Viking Orbiter 1975 Mars atmospheric water detection instrument

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kavanagh, H. M.; Murphy, F. L.

    1978-01-01

    The Mars atmospheric water detector (MAWD) instrument required a temperature of -70 C at the detector. The monochromator housing required +20 C + or - 1 C. This instrument was located on the scan platform, and slewed across two solar panels. The thermal design for the detector was an open flat plate radiator thermally isolated on four 1-in. tubes, with a flexible strap to the detector. MAWD radiator view factors and heat loads from the spacecraft were determined for the Lander on and off, for all angular positions of the scan platform. Subsystem and system tests were performed using the 25-ft diameter solar simulator. In-flight results have shown no anomalies, and no degradation has been observed. Servo-controlled heaters are used to control the temperature.

  3. Comparison of seismic and infrasonic avalanche detection systems: first results from the Dischma valley above Davos, Switzerland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Herwijnen, Alec; Schweizer, Jürg; Marchetti, Emanuele; Ripepe, Maurizio

    2016-04-01

    The reliable detection of snow avalanches is of crucial importance to better understand triggering mechanisms, identify possible precursors, or improve avalanche forecasting. An avalanche flowing down a mountain is a moving source well coupled with the ground and the atmosphere, which generates seismic and infrasonic waves. Seismic signals are produced by the impact of the dense flowing snow mass on the ground or on obstacles. Infrasonic signals are generated by rapidly accelerating snow particles in the turbulent snow-air flow (powder cloud) of the avalanche. Seismic and infrasound are therefore used as monitoring systems for the remote detection of snow avalanches. However, while it is well known that large avalanches can be detected by both systems over considerable distances, for smaller avalanches the threshold in terms of detection resolution is still unclear. During the winter of 2015-2016 we therefore installed a seismic and an infrasound array in the Dischma valley above Davos, Switzerland. Both arrays were deployed within a distance of 500 m to each other. Several automatic cameras were also installed to provide additional information on the location, type (dry or wet) and size of the avalanches released. The overall goal is to assess the limits of both monitoring systems in terms of avalanche type and size and to assess their resolution to locate avalanches in real-time. We present preliminary results that allow us to define detection capabilities of both methods depending on source-receiver distance as well as the type of the avalanche.

  4. Probability of acoustic transmitter detections by receiver lines in Lake Huron: results of multi-year field tests and simulations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hayden, Todd A.; Holbrook, Christopher M.; Binder, Thomas; Dettmers, John M.; Cooke, Steven J.; Vandergoot, Christopher S.; Krueger, Charles C.

    2016-01-01

    BackgroundAdvances in acoustic telemetry technology have led to an improved understanding of the spatial ecology of many freshwater and marine fish species. Understanding the performance of acoustic receivers is necessary to distinguish between tagged fish that may have been present but not detected and from those fish that were absent from the area. In this study, two stationary acoustic transmitters were deployed 250 m apart within each of four acoustic receiver lines each containing at least 10 receivers (i.e., eight acoustic transmitters) located in Saginaw Bay and central Lake Huron for nearly 2 years to determine whether the probability of detecting an acoustic transmission varied as a function of time (i.e., season), location, and distance between acoustic transmitter and receiver. Distances between acoustic transmitters and receivers ranged from 200 m to >10 km in each line. The daily observed probability of detecting an acoustic transmission was used in simulation models to estimate the probability of detecting a moving acoustic transmitter on a line of receivers.ResultsThe probability of detecting an acoustic transmitter on a receiver 1000 m away differed by month for different receiver lines in Lake Huron and Saginaw Bay but was similar for paired acoustic transmitters deployed 250 m apart within the same line. Mean probability of detecting an acoustic transmitter at 1000 m calculated over the study period varied among acoustic transmitters 250 m apart within a line and differed among receiver lines in Lake Huron and Saginaw Bay. The simulated probability of detecting a moving acoustic transmitter on a receiver line was characterized by short periods of time with decreased detection. Although increased receiver spacing and higher fish movement rates decreased simulated detection probability, the location of the simulated receiver line in Lake Huron had the strongest effect on simulated detection probability.ConclusionsPerformance of receiver

  5. LOPES — Recent Results and Open Questions on the Radio Detection of Air Showers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schröder, F. G.; Apel, W. D.; Arteaga-Velázquez, J. C.; Bähren, L.; Bekk, K.; Bertaina, M.; Biermann, P. L.; Blümer, J.; Bozdog, H.; Brancus, I. M.; Cantoni, E.; Chiavassa, A.; Daumiller, K.; de Souza, V.; Di Pierro, F.; Doll, P.; Engel, R.; Falcke, H.; Fuchs, B.; Gemmeke, H.; Grupen, C.; Haungs, A.; Heck, D.; Hörandel, J. R.; Horneffer, A.; Huber, D.; Huege, T.; Isar, P. G.; Kampert, K.-H.; Kang, D.; Krömer, O.; Kuijpers, J.; Link, K.; Łuczak, P.; Ludwig, M.; Mathes, H. J.; Melissas, M.; Morello, C.; Oehlschläger, J.; Palmieri, N.; Pierog, T.; Rautenberg, J.; Rebel, H.; Roth, M.; Rühle, C.; Saftoiu, A.; Schieler, H.; Schmidt, A.; Schoo, S.; Sima, O.; Toma, G.; Trinchero, G. C.; Weindl, A.; Wochele, J.; Zabierowski, J.; Zensus, J. A.

    2015-08-01

    LOPES was a digital antenna array operating for approximately 10 years until spring 2013 at the Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT). Triggered by the co-located KASCADE-Grande air-shower experiment, it measured the radio signal of around 1000 cosmic-ray air showers with energies E ≳ 1017 eV in an effective band of 43 - 74 MHz. Using the interferometric technique of cross-correlation beamforming, LOPES could reconstruct the shower direction with an accuracy < 0.7°, the shower energy with a precision < 20%, and the atmospheric depth of the shower maximum, Xmax, with a precision < 95g/cm2. In particular the reconstruction of the shower maximum suffers from significant measurement uncertainties due to the radio-loud environment of the site. This article summarizes our latest results on the reconstruction of the shower maximum, using two independent methods: the steepness of the hyperbolic radio wavefront and the slope of the lateral distribution of the radio amplitude. Moreover, we show vectorial measurements of the electric field with the tripole antennas of the latest LOPES setup. Finally, we discuss open questions as well as the potential impact of the lessons learned at LOPES for future antenna arrays.

  6. First results from a marine controlled-source electromagnetic survey to detect gas hydrates offshore Oregon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weitemeyer, K. A.; Constable, S. C.; Key, K. W.; Behrens, J. P.

    2006-02-01

    Submarine gas hydrate is a hazard to drilling, a potential hydrocarbon resource, and has been implicated as a factor in both submarine slope stability and climate change. Bulk in situ electrical resistivities evaluated from electromagnetic surveys have the potential to provide an estimate of the total hydrate volume fraction more directly than by using seismic and well log data. We conducted a marine controlled-source electromagnetic sounding at Hydrate Ridge, Oregon, USA, in August, 2004. Electromagnetic fields transmitted by a deep-towed horizontal electric dipole source were measured by a linear array of 25 seafloor electromagnetic receivers, positioned 600 m apart to produce a dense coverage in the recorded electric field data. Results are presented in simple form by apparent resistivity pseudosections, which produce an approximate image of lateral resistivity variations across the study region. Resistivity values are consistent with those from well logs collected in the area and pseudosection features are correlated with seismic reflectors. Archie's Law, based on pseudosection apparent resistivities, predicts volumetric hydrate concentrations vary from 0-30% across the ridge.

  7. Comparative Validation of Polyp Detection Methods in Video Colonoscopy: Results from the MICCAI 2015 Endoscopic Vision Challenge.

    PubMed

    Bernal, Jorge; Tajbakhsh, Nima; Sanchez, F Javier; Matuszewski, Bogdan J; Chen, Hao; Yu, Lequan; Angermann, Quentin; Romain, Olivier; Rustad, Bjorn; Balasingham, Ilangko; Pogorelov, Konstantin; Choi, Sungbin; Debard, Quentin; Maier-Hein, L; Speidel, Stefanie; Stoyanov, Danail; Brandao, Patrick; Cordova, Henry; Sanchez-Montes, Cristina; Gurudu, Suryakanth R; Fernandez-Esparrach, Gloria; Dray, Xavier; Liang, Jianming; Histace, Aymeric

    2017-02-02

    Colonoscopy is the gold standard for colon cancer screening though still some polyps are missed, thus preventing early disease detection and treatment. Several computational systems have been proposed to assist polyp detection during colonoscopy but so far without consistent evaluation. The lack of publicly available annotated databases has made it difficult to compare methods and to assess if they achieve performance levels acceptable for clinical use. The Automatic Polyp Detection subchallenge, conducted as part of the Endoscopic Vision Challenge (http://endovis.grand-challenge.org) at the international conference on Medical Image Computing and Computer Assisted Intervention (MICCAI) in 2015, was an effort to address this need. In this paper, we report the results of this comparative evaluation of polyp detection methods, as well as describe additional experiments to further explore differences between methods. We define performance metrics and provide evaluation databases that allow comparison of multiple methodologies. Results show that convolutional neural networks (CNNs) are the state of the art. Nevertheless it is also demonstrated that combining different methodologies can lead to an improved overall performance.

  8. An accurate method of extracting fat droplets in liver images for quantitative evaluation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ishikawa, Masahiro; Kobayashi, Naoki; Komagata, Hideki; Shinoda, Kazuma; Yamaguchi, Masahiro; Abe, Tokiya; Hashiguchi, Akinori; Sakamoto, Michiie

    2015-03-01

    The steatosis in liver pathological tissue images is a promising indicator of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and the possible risk of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). The resulting values are also important for ensuring the automatic and accurate classification of HCC images, because the existence of many fat droplets is likely to create errors in quantifying the morphological features used in the process. In this study we propose a method that can automatically detect, and exclude regions with many fat droplets by using the feature values of colors, shapes and the arrangement of cell nuclei. We implement the method and confirm that it can accurately detect fat droplets and quantify the fat droplet ratio of actual images. This investigation also clarifies the effective characteristics that contribute to accurate detection.

  9. Long-Term Frozen Storage of Urine Samples: A Trouble to Get PCR Results in Schistosoma spp. DNA Detection?

    PubMed Central

    Fernández-Soto, Pedro; Velasco Tirado, Virginia; Carranza Rodríguez, Cristina; Pérez-Arellano, José Luis; Muro, Antonio

    2013-01-01

    Background Human schistosomiasis remains a serious worldwide public health problem. At present, a sensitive and specific assay for routine diagnosis of schistosome infection is not yet available. The potential for detecting schistosome-derived DNA by PCR-based methods in human clinical samples is currently being investigated as a diagnostic tool with potential application in routine schistosomiasis diagnosis. Collection of diagnostic samples such as stool or blood is usually difficult in some populations. However, urine is a biological sample that can be collected in a non-invasive method, easy to get from people of all ages and easy in management, but as a sample for PCR diagnosis is still not widely used. This could be due to the high variability in the reported efficiency of detection as a result of the high variation in urine samples’ storage or conditions for handling and DNA preservation and extraction methods. Methodology/Principal Findings We evaluate different commercial DNA extraction methods from a series of long-term frozen storage human urine samples from patients with parasitological confirmed schistosomiasis in order to assess the PCR effectiveness for Schistosoma spp. detection. Patientś urine samples were frozen for 18 months up to 7 years until use. Results were compared with those obtained in PCR assays using fresh healthy human urine artificially contaminated with Schistosoma mansoni DNA and urine samples from mice experimentally infected with S. mansoni cercariae stored frozen for at least 12 months before use. PCR results in fresh human artificial urine samples using different DNA based extraction methods were much more effective than those obtained when long-term frozen human urine samples were used as the source of DNA template. Conclusions/Significance Long-term frozen human urine samples are probably not a good source for DNA extraction for use as a template in PCR detection of Schistosoma spp., regardless of the DNA method of

  10. [THE COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF RESULTS OF DETECTION OF CARCINOGENIC TYPES OF HUMAN PAPILLOMA VIRUS BY QUALITATIVE AND QUANTITATIVE TESTS].

    PubMed

    Kuzmenko, E T; Labigina, A V; Leshenko, O Ya; Rusanov, D N; Kuzmenko, V V; Fedko, L P; Pak, I P

    2015-05-01

    The analysis of results of screening (n = 3208; sexually active citizen aged from 18 to 59 years) was carried out to detect oncogene types of human papilloma virus in using qualitative (1150 females and 720 males) and quantitative (polymerase chain reaction in real-time (843 females and 115 males) techniques. The human papilloma virus of high oncogene type was detected in 65% and 68.4% of females and in 48.6% and 53% of males correspondingly. Among 12 types of human papilloma virus the most frequently diagnosed was human papilloma virus 16 independently of gender of examined and technique of analysis. In females, under application of qualitative tests rate of human papilloma virus 16 made up to 18.3% (n = 280) and under application of quantitative tests Rte of human papilloma virus made up to 14.9% (n = 126; p ≤ 0.05). Under examination of males using qualitative tests rate of human papilloma virus 16 made up to 8.3% (n = 60) and under application of qualitative tests made up to 12.2% (n = 14; p ≥ 0.05). Under application of qualitative tests rate of detection on the rest ofoncogene types of human papilloma virus varied in females from 3.4% to 8.4% and in males from 1.8% to 5.9%. Under application of qualitative tests to females rate of human papilloma virus with high viral load made up to 68.4%, with medium viral load - 2.85% (n = 24) and with low viral load -0.24% (n = 2). Under application of quantitative tests in males rate of detection of types of human papilloma virus made up to 53% and at that in all high viral load was established. In females, the most of oncogene types of human papilloma virus (except for 31, 39, 59) are detected significantly more often than in males.

  11. Test beam results of micro channel plates in 'ionisation mode' for the detection of single charged particle and electromagnetic showers

    SciTech Connect

    Barnyakov, A.; Barnyakov, M.; Brianza, L.; Ghezzi, A.; Gotti, C.; Govoni, P.; Martelli, A.; Marzocchi, B.; Pigazzini, S.; Tabarelli de Fatis, T.; Trevisani, N.; Cavallari, F.; Del Re, D.; Gelli, S.; Jorda Lope, C.; Meridiani, P.; Organtini, G.; Paramatti, R.; Pernie, L.; Rahatlou, S.; Rovelli, C.; Santanastasio, F.

    2015-07-01

    IMCP is an R and D project aimed at the exploitation of secondary emission of electrons from the surface of microchannel plates (MCP) for fast timing of showers in high rate environments. The usage of MCPs in 'ionisation' mode has long been proposed and is used extensively in ion time-of-flight mass spectrometers. What has not been investigated in depth is their use to detect the ionizing component of showers. The fast time resolution of MCPs exceeds anything that has been previously used in calorimeters, and, if exploited effectively, could aid in the event reconstruction at high luminosities. Results from tests with electrons with energies up to 150 GeV of MCP devices with different characteristics will be presented, in particular detection efficiency and time resolution. (authors)

  12. Efficient Direct Extended-Spectrum β-Lactamase Detection by Multiplex Real-Time PCR: Accurate Assignment of Phenotype by Use of a Limited Set of Genetic Markers ▿

    PubMed Central

    Ellem, Justin; Partridge, Sally R.; Iredell, Jonathan R.

    2011-01-01

    The number and diversity of genes potentially complicate genetic approaches to the rapid detection of transmissible extended-spectrum β-lactamase genes. We developed a robust multiplexed real-time PCR assay based on targets identified in a prior survey and used this to detect relevant genes in 617 consecutive clinical isolates of extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Enterobacteriaceae. PMID:21613435

  13. Evaluation of the efficiency of biofield diagnostic system in breast cancer detection using clinical study results and classifiers.

    PubMed

    Subbhuraam, Vinitha Sree; Ng, E Y K; Kaw, G; Acharya U, Rajendra; Chong, B K

    2012-02-01

    The division of breast cancer cells results in regions of electrical depolarisation within the breast. These regions extend to the skin surface from where diagnostic information can be obtained through measurements of the skin surface electropotentials using sensors. This technique is used by the Biofield Diagnostic System (BDS) to detect the presence of malignancy. This paper evaluates the efficiency of BDS in breast cancer detection and also evaluates the use of classifiers for improving the accuracy of BDS. 182 women scheduled for either mammography or ultrasound or both tests participated in the BDS clinical study conducted at Tan Tock Seng hospital, Singapore. Using the BDS index obtained from the BDS examination and the level of suspicion score obtained from mammography/ultrasound results, the final BDS result was deciphered. BDS demonstrated high values for sensitivity (96.23%), specificity (93.80%), and accuracy (94.51%). Also, we have studied the performance of five supervised learning based classifiers (back propagation network, probabilistic neural network, linear discriminant analysis, support vector machines, and a fuzzy classifier), by feeding selected features from the collected dataset. The clinical study results show that BDS can help physicians to differentiate benign and malignant breast lesions, and thereby, aid in making better biopsy recommendations.

  14. Role of secondary level laboratories in strengthening quality at primary level health facilities' laboratories: an innovative approach to ensure accurate HIV, tuberculosis, and malaria test results in resource-limited settings.

    PubMed

    Manyazewal, Tsegahun; Paterniti, Antonio D; Redfield, Robert R; Marinucci, Francesco

    2013-01-01

    Providing regular external quality assessment of primary level laboratories and timely feedback is crucial to ensure the reliability of testing capacity of the whole laboratory network. This study was aimed to assess the diagnostic performances of primary level laboratories in Southwest Showa Zone in Ethiopia. An external quality assessment protocol was devised whereby from among all the samples collected on-site at 4 health centers (HCs), each HC sent to a district hospital (DH) on a weekly basis 2 TB slides (1 Ziehl-Neelsen stained and another unstained), 2 malaria slides (1 Giemsa stained and another unstained), and 2 blood samples for HIV testing (1 whole blood and another plasma) for a comparative analysis. Similarly, the DH preserved the same amount and type of specimens to send to each HC for retesting. From October to November 2011, 192 single-blinded specimens were rechecked: 64 TB slides, 64 malaria slides, and 64 blood specimens for HIV testing. The analyses demonstrated an overall agreement of 95.3% (183/192) between the test and the retest, and 98.4% (63/64), 92.2% (59/64,) and 95.3% (61/64) for TB microscopy, malaria microscopy, and HIV rapid testing, respectively. Of the total TB slides tested positive, 20/23 (87%) were quantified similar in both laboratories. The agreement on HIV rapid testing was 100% (32/32) when plasma samples were tested either at HC (16/16) or at DH (16/16), while when whole blood specimens were tested, the agreement was 87.5% (14/16) and 93.8% (15/16) for samples prepared by HCs and DH, respectively. Results of this new approach proved that secondary laboratories could play a vital role in assuring laboratory qualities at primary level HCs, without depending on remotely located national and regional laboratories to provide this support.

  15. Unconscious deception detection measured by finger skin temperature and indirect veracity judgments-results of a registered report.

    PubMed

    van 't Veer, Anna E; Gallucci, Marcello; Stel, Mariëlle; van Beest, Ilja

    2015-01-01

    A pre-registered experiment was conducted to examine psychophysiological responses to being lied to. Bridging research on social cognition and deception detection, we hypothesized that observing a liar compared to a truth-teller would decrease finger skin temperature of observers. Participants first watched two targets while not forewarned that they would later be asked to judge (direct and indirect) veracity, and then watched another two targets while forewarned about this. During both these phases finger skin temperature was measured. Findings pertaining to temperature partly confirmed our main hypothesis. When participants were observing a liar, irrespective of being forewarned, on average finger skin temperature declined over time. In the forewarned phase, temperature trajectories of truth-tellers were higher than those of liars, however, in the not forewarned phase, this pattern was reversed. Results confirmed our further hypotheses that participants judge liars as less likeable and less trustworthy than truth-tellers-an indication of indirect deception detection. Our hypothesis that the effect size for trustworthiness would be bigger than that of liking was not supported by the data. Additionally, and also confirming our hypothesis, participants performed around chance level when directly judging whether the target person was lying. Exploratory analyses are reported with regard to truth bias and dependency between direct and indirect veracity judgments. Limitations and directions for future work related to the existence of psychophysiological indicators of deception detection are discussed.

  16. Unconscious deception detection measured by finger skin temperature and indirect veracity judgments—results of a registered report

    PubMed Central

    van ’t Veer, Anna E.; Gallucci, Marcello; Stel, Mariëlle; van Beest, Ilja

    2015-01-01

    A pre-registered experiment was conducted to examine psychophysiological responses to being lied to. Bridging research on social cognition and deception detection, we hypothesized that observing a liar compared to a truth-teller would decrease finger skin temperature of observers. Participants first watched two targets while not forewarned that they would later be asked to judge (direct and indirect) veracity, and then watched another two targets while forewarned about this. During both these phases finger skin temperature was measured. Findings pertaining to temperature partly confirmed our main hypothesis. When participants were observing a liar, irrespective of being forewarned, on average finger skin temperature declined over time. In the forewarned phase, temperature trajectories of truth-tellers were higher than those of liars, however, in the not forewarned phase, this pattern was reversed. Results confirmed our further hypotheses that participants judge liars as less likeable and less trustworthy than truth-tellers—an indication of indirect deception detection. Our hypothesis that the effect size for trustworthiness would be bigger than that of liking was not supported by the data. Additionally, and also confirming our hypothesis, participants performed around chance level when directly judging whether the target person was lying. Exploratory analyses are reported with regard to truth bias and dependency between direct and indirect veracity judgments. Limitations and directions for future work related to the existence of psychophysiological indicators of deception detection are discussed. PMID:26106339

  17. Emission-Line Galaxies from the PEARS Hubble Ultra Deep Field: A 2-D Detection Method and First Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gardner, J. P.; Straughn, Amber N.; Meurer, Gerhardt R.; Pirzkal, Norbert; Cohen, Seth H.; Malhotra, Sangeeta; Rhoads, james; Windhorst, Rogier A.; Gardner, Jonathan P.; Hathi, Nimish P.; Xu, Chun; Gronwall, Caryl; Koekemoer, Anton M.; Walsh, Jeremy; diSeregoAlighieri, Sperello

    2007-01-01

    The Hubble Space Telescope (HST) Advanced Camera for Surveys (ACS) grism PEARS (Probing Evolution And Reionization Spectroscopically) survey provides a large dataset of low-resolution spectra from thousands of galaxies in the GOODS North and South fields. One important subset of objects in these data are emission-line galaxies (ELGs), and we have investigated several different methods aimed at systematically selecting these galaxies. Here we present a new methodology and results of a search for these ELGs in the PEARS observations of the Hubble Ultra Deep Field (HUDF) using a 2D detection method that utilizes the observation that many emission lines originate from clumpy knots within galaxies. This 2D line-finding method proves to be useful in detecting emission lines from compact knots within galaxies that might not otherwise be detected using more traditional 1D line-finding techniques. We find in total 96 emission lines in the HUDF, originating from 81 distinct "knots" within 63 individual galaxies. We find in general that [0 1111 emitters are the most common, comprising 44% of the sample, and on average have high equivalent widths (70% of [0 1111 emitters having rest-frame EW> 100A). There are 12 galaxies with multiple emitting knots; several show evidence of variations in H-alpha flux in the knots, suggesting that the differing star formation properties across a single galaxy can in general be probed at redshifts approximately greater than 0.2 - 0.4. The most prevalent morphologies are large face-on spirals and clumpy interacting systems, many being unique detections owing to the 2D method described here, thus highlighting the strength of this technique.

  18. A Case Study Correlating Innovative Gamma Ray Scanning Detection Systems Data to Surface Soil Gamma Spectrometry Results - 13580

    SciTech Connect

    Thompson, Shannon; Rodriguez, Rene; Billock, Paul; Lit, Peter

    2013-07-01

    HydroGeoLogic (HGL), Inc. completed a United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) study to characterize radiological contamination at a site near Canoga Park, California. The characterized area contained 470 acres including the site of a prototype commercial nuclear reactor and other nuclear design, testing, and support operations from the 1950's until 1988 [1]. The site history included radiological releases during operation followed by D and D activities. The characterization was conducted under an accelerated schedule and the results will support the project remediation. The project has a rigorous cleanup to background agenda and does not allow for comparison to risk-based guidelines. To target soil sample locations, multiple lines of evidence were evaluated including a gamma radiation survey, geophysical surveys, historical site assessment, aerial photographs, and former worker interviews. Due to the time since production and decay, the primary gamma emitting radionuclide remaining is cesium-137 (Cs-137). The gamma ray survey covered diverse, rugged terrain using custom designed sodium iodide thallium-activated (NaI(Tl)) scintillation detection systems. The survey goals included attaining 100% ground surface coverage and detecting gamma radiation as sensitively as possible. The effectiveness of innovative gamma ray detection systems was tested by correlating field Cs-137 static count ratios to Cs-137 laboratory gamma spectrometry results. As a case study, the area encompassing the former location of the first nuclear power station in the U. S. was scanned, and second by second global positioning system (GPS)-linked gamma spectral data were evaluated by examining total count rate and nuclide-specific regions of interest. To compensate for Compton scattering from higher energy naturally occurring radionuclides (U-238, Th-232 and their progeny, and K-40), count rate ratios of anthropogenic nuclide-specific regions of interest to the total count rate were

  19. Accurate vessel segmentation with constrained B-snake.

    PubMed

    Yuanzhi Cheng; Xin Hu; Ji Wang; Yadong Wang; Tamura, Shinichi

    2015-08-01

    We describe an active contour framework with accurate shape and size constraints on the vessel cross-sectional planes to produce the vessel segmentation. It starts with a multiscale vessel axis tracing in a 3D computed tomography (CT) data, followed by vessel boundary delineation on the cross-sectional planes derived from the extracted axis. The vessel boundary surface is deformed under constrained movements on the cross sections and is voxelized to produce the final vascular segmentation. The novelty of this paper lies in the accurate contour point detection of thin vessels based on the CT scanning model, in the efficient implementation of missing contour points in the problematic regions and in the active contour model with accurate shape and size constraints. The main advantage of our framework is that it avoids disconnected and incomplete segmentation of the vessels in the problematic regions that contain touching vessels (vessels in close proximity to each other), diseased portions (pathologic structure attached to a vessel), and thin vessels. It is particularly suitable for accurate segmentation of thin and low contrast vessels. Our method is evaluated and demonstrated on CT data sets from our partner site, and its results are compared with three related methods. Our method is also tested on two publicly available databases and its results are compared with the recently published method. The applicability of the proposed method to some challenging clinical problems, the segmentation of the vessels in the problematic regions, is demonstrated with good results on both quantitative and qualitative experimentations; our segmentation algorithm can delineate vessel boundaries that have level of variability similar to those obtained manually.

  20. Results from the Lunar Prospector Alpha Particle Spectrometer: Detection of Radon-222 Over Craters Aristarchus and Kepler

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lawson, S. L.; Feldman, W. C.; Lawrence, D. J.; Moore, K. R.; Belian, R. D.; Maurice, S.; Binder, A. B.

    2001-11-01

    The Lunar Prospector Alpha Particle Spectrometer (LP APS) searched for lunar surface gas release events and mapped their distribution by detecting alpha particles produced by the decay of gaseous radon-222 (5.5 MeV, 3.8 day half-life), solid polonium-218 (6.0 MeV, 3 minute half-life), and solid polonium-210 (5.3 MeV, 138 day half-life, but held up in production by the 21 year half-life of lead-210). These three nuclides are radioactive daughters from the decay of uranium-238. Radon reaches the lunar surface either at areas of high soil porosity or where fissures release the trapped gases in which radon is entrained. We have examined APS data within +/- 45 degrees of the equator acquired during periods of low interplanetary alpha particle flux. The spectra were summed over all LP mapping cycles when the instrument was turned on (approximately 229 days over 16 months). To yield lunar alpha particle maps, we summed over a 0.2 MeV energy range centered on each of the three alpha particle energies noted above. The LP APS found only a faint indication of alpha particles resulting from the decay of polonium-218 and only a marginal detection of alpha particles from polonium-210. However, our radon-222 alpha particle map indicates that radon gas is presently emanating from the vicinity of craters Aristarchus and Kepler. The LP gamma-ray spectrometer, which effectively has significantly higher spatial resolution than the APS, identified thorium enrichments at these two craters. Thorium and uranium are both incompatible elements whose lunar surface abundances are highly correlated; thus, it is likely that the radon-222 alpha particles measured using the LP APS originate from Kepler and Aristarchus. Our detection of radon over Aristarchus is consistent with the results of the Apollo 15 APS.

  1. [HIV antibody detection results in patients seeking medical care in Peking Union Medical College Hospital, 2003-2014].

    PubMed

    Song, X J; Qiu, Z F; Cao, W; Xie, J; Zhang, Z J; Xu, S X; Li, T S

    2017-01-10

    Objective: To better understand the infection status of HIV in the patients seeking medical care in Peking Union Medical College Hospital. Methods: The HIV detection data of the patients in the hospital from 2003-2014 were collected for a statistical analysis with software SPSS 19.0. Results: A total of 715 421 patients were screened, and 1 012 (0.14%) patients were HIV positive, and HIV infection were confirmed in 776 (0.11%) patients by Western Blot testing. The detection rate of HIV infection increased from 0.05% in 2003 to 0.17% in 2014 (trend χ(2)=66.83 , P=0.000), and the increase during 2012-2014 was obvious. Of the 776 newly diagnosed HIV-infected individuals, 631 (81.31%) were men and 145 (18.69%) were women. The percentage of the males infected with HIV increased from 50.00% to 90.26% (trend χ(2)=58.41, P=0.000). The median age was 36 years (interquartile range: 27-43), and the age group 18-50 years were mostly affected. In the 776 patients infected with HIV, 634 (81.70% ) were infected through sexual contacts, and the proportion of sexual transmissions increased with year (trend χ(2)=126.38, P=0.000). The proportion of infected men who have sex with men (MSM) increased from 0% in 2003 to 53.90% in 2014 (trend χ(2)=11.96, P=0.001), similar to the trend in western countries. The proportion of infected patients who were not married increased from 18.75% to 42.21% (trend χ(2)=43.74, P=0.000). The top three source departments of HIV/AIDS cases were internal medicine (51.03%), emergency room (18.30%) and dermatology (13.53%). The proportion of the HIV/AIDS patients from department of gynecology and obstetrics declined from 18.75% in 2003 to 2.60% in 2014. No HIV/AIDS patients were detected in department of surgery, department of otorhinolaryngology, department of ophthalmology, department of stomatology and health examination center in 2003, but 14 cases (9.10%), 11 cases (7.14%) and 4 cases (2.60%) were detected in these departments respectively in 2014

  2. Volcanic edifice alignment detection software in MATLAB: Test data and preliminary results for shield fields on Venus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomson, Bradley J.; Lang, Nicholas P.

    2016-08-01

    The scarcity of impact craters on Venus make it difficult to infer the relative ages of geologic units. Stratigraphic methods can be used to help infer the relative ordering of surface features, but the relatively coarse resolution of available radar data means ambiguity about the timing of certain features is common. Here we develop a set of statistical tools in MATLAB to help infer the relative timing between clusters of small shield volcanoes and sets of fractures in the surrounding terrain. Specifically, we employed two variants of the two-point azimuth method to detect anisotropy in the distribution of point-like features. The results of these methods are shown to successfully identify anisotropy at two spatial scales: at the whole-field level and at scales smaller than a set fraction of the mean value. Initial results on the test cases presented here are promising, at least for volcanic fields emplaced under uniform conditions. These methods could also be used for detecting anisotropy in other point-like geologic features, such as hydrothermal vents, springs, and earthquake epicenters.

  3. Cancer early detection program based on awareness and clinical breast examination: Interim results from an urban community in Mumbai, India.

    PubMed

    Gadgil, Anita; Sauvaget, Catherine; Roy, Nobhojit; Muwonge, Richard; Kantharia, Surita; Chakrabarty, Anuradha; Bantwal, Kanchan; Haldar, Indrani; Sankaranarayanan, Rengaswamy

    2017-02-01

    Indian women with breast cancer are usually diagnosed in advanced stages leading to poor survival. Improving breast awareness and increasing access to early diagnosis and adequate treatment has been advocated for breast cancer control. We implemented a program to increase awareness on breast cancer and access to its early detection in an occupational health care scheme in Mumbai, India. Breast awareness brochures were mailed annually between June 2013 and June 2016 to a cohort of 22,500 eligible women aged 30-69 years old receiving universal health care from an occupational health care scheme comprising of primary health centres and a referral secondary care hospital in Mumbai. Women with suspected breast cancers were provided with diagnostic investigations and treatment. Socio-demographic information and tumour characteristics were compared between the breast awareness pre-intervention period (Jan 2005-May 2013) and the breast awareness intervention period after four rounds of mailers (June 2013-June 2016). The proportion of women with early tumours and axillary lymph node negative cancers increased from 74% to 81% and 46% to 53% respectively, between the two periods. While the proportion of patients receiving breast conserving surgery increased from 39% to 51%, the proportion receiving chemotherapy decreased from 84% to 56%. Interim results following efforts to improve breast awareness and access to care in a cohort of women in an occupational health care scheme indicate early detection and more conservative treatment of breast cancers. Creating awareness and improving access to care may result in cancer down-staging.

  4. Hubble Space Telescope Images of Nearby Luminous Quasars. 2; Results for Eight Quasars and Tests of the Detection Sensitivity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bahcall, John N.; Kirhakos, Sofia; Schneider, Donald P.

    1995-01-01

    Observations with the Wide-Field Camera of the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) are presented for eight intrinsically luminous quasars with redshifts between 0.16 and 0.29. These observations, when combined with a similar HST study of the quasar PKS 2349-014, show that luminous nearby quasars exist in a variety of environments. Seven companion galaxies brighter than M(V) = 16.5 (H(sub 0) = 100 km s(sup -1) Mpc(sup -1), Omega(sub 0) = 1.0) lie within a projected distance of 25 kpc of the quasars; three of the companions are located closer than 3'' (6 kpc projected distance) from the quasars, well within the volume that would be enclosed by a typical L* host galaxy. The observed association of quasars and companion galaxies is statistically significant and may he an important element in the luminous-quasar phenomenon. Apparent host galaxies are detected for three of the quasars: PG 1116+215, 3C 273, and PG 1444+407; the hosts have an average absolute magnitude of about 0.6 mag brighter than L*. The agreement between the previously published major-axis directions in ground-based images and in the present HST images of 3C 273 and PG 1444+407 constitutes important evidence supporting the reality of these candidate host galaxies. Upper limits are placed on the visual-band brightnesses of representative galactic hosts for all the quasars. These limits are established by placing galaxy images obtained with HST underneath the quasars and measuring at what faintness level the known galaxies are detected. On average, the HST spirals would have been detected if they were as faint as 1 mag below L*, and the early-type galaxies could have been detected down to a brightness level of about L*, where L* is the Schechter characteristic luminosity of field galaxies. Smooth, featureless galaxy models (exponential disks or de Vaucouleurs profiles) are fitted to the residual light after a best-fitting point source is subtracted from the quasar images. The results show that smooth spiral

  5. Detection of Cryptosporidium Oocysts in Water: Effect of the Number of Samples and Analytic Replicates on Test Results

    PubMed Central

    Xiao, Lihua; Alderisio, Kerri A.; Jiang, Jianlin

    2006-01-01

    Due to the small number of Cryptosporidium oocysts in water, the number of samples taken and the analyses performed can affect the results of detection. In this study, 42 water samples were collected from one watershed during 20 storm events over 1 year, including duplicate or quadruplicate samples from 16 storm events. Ten samples from four events had three to eight subsamples. They were processed by EPA method 1623, and Cryptosporidium oocysts present were detected by immunofluorescent microscopy or PCR. Altogether, 24 of 39 samples (47 of 67 samples and subsamples) analyzed by microscopy were positive for Cryptosporidium. In contrast, 36 of 42 samples (62 of 76 samples and subsamples) were positive by PCR, including 10 microscopy-negative samples (13 microscopy-negative samples and subsamples). Six of the 24 microscopy-positive samples were negative by PCR, and all samples had one or less oocyst in a 0.5-ml packed pellet volume calculated. Discordant results were obtained by microscopy and PCR from six and three of the storm events, respectively, with multiple samples. Discordant microscopy or PCR results were also obtained among subsamples. Most of the 14 Cryptosporidium genotypes were found over a brief period. Cryptosporidium-positive samples had a mean of 1.9 genotypes per sample, with 39 of the 62 positive samples/subsamples having more than one genotype. Samples/subsamples with more than one genotype had an overall PCR-positive rate of 73%, compared to 34% for those with one genotype. The PCR amplification rate of samples was affected by the volume of DNA used in PCR. PMID:16957214

  6. Age-Adjusted PSA Levels in Prostate Cancer Prediction: Updated Results of the Tyrol Prostate Cancer Early Detection Program

    PubMed Central

    Heidegger, Isabel; Fritz, Josef; Klocker, Helmut; Pichler, Renate

    2015-01-01

    Objective To reduce the number of unnecessary biopsies in patients with benign prostatic disease, however, without missing significant PCa the present study re-evaluates the age-dependent PSA cut-offs in the Tyrol Prostate Cancer (PCa) early detection program. Patients and Methods The study population included 2225 patients who underwent prostate biopsy due to elevated PSA levels at our department. We divided our patient collective into four age groups: ≤49 years (n = 178), 50-59 years (n = 597), 60-69 years (n = 962) and ≥70 years (n = 488). We simulated different scenarios for PSA cut-off values between 1.25 and 6 ng/mL and fPSA% between 15 and 21% for all four age groups and calculated sensitivity, specificity, confidence intervals and predictive values. Results PCa was detected in 1218 men (54.7%). We found that in combination with free PSA ≤21% the following PSA cut-offs had the best cancer specificity: 1.75 ng/ml for men ≤49 years and 50-59 years, 2.25 ng/ml for men aged 60-69 years and 3.25 ng/ml for men ≥70 years. Using these adjusted PSA cut-off values all significant tumors are recognized in all age groups, yet the number of biopsies is reduced. Overall, one biopsy is avoided in 13 to 14 men (number needed to screen = 13.3, reduction of biopsies = 7.5%) when decision regarding biopsy is done according to the “new” cut-off values instead of the “old” ones. For the different age groups the number needed to screen to avoid one biopsy varied between 9.2 (≤49 years) and 17.4 (50-59 years). Conclusion With “new”, fine-tuned PSA cut-offs we detect all relevant PCa with a significant reduction of biopsies compared to the “old” cut-off values. Optimization of age-specific PSA cut-offs is one step towards a smarter strategy in the Tyrol PCa Early Detection Program. PMID:26218594

  7. Gaseous time projection chambers for rare event detection: results from the T-REX project. I. Double beta decay

    SciTech Connect

    Irastorza, I.G.; Aznar, F.; Castel, J. E-mail: faznar@unizar.es [Grupo de Física Nuclear y Astropartículas, Departamento de Física Teórica, Universidad de Zaragoza, C and others

    2016-01-01

    As part of the T-REX project, a number of R and D and prototyping activities have been carried out during the last years to explore the applicability of gaseous Time Projection Chambers (TPCs) with Micromesh Gas Structures (Micromegas) in rare event searches like double beta decay, axion research and low-mass WIMP searches. In both this and its companion paper, we compile the main results of the project and give an outlook of application prospects for this detection technique. While in the companion paper we focus on axions and WIMPs, in this paper we focus on the results regarding the measurement of the double beta decay (DBD) of {sup 136}Xe in a high pressure Xe (HPXe) TPC. Micromegas of the microbulk type have been extensively studied in high pressure Xe and Xe mixtures. Particularly relevant are the results obtained in Xe + trimethylamine (TMA) mixtures, showing very promising results in terms of gain, stability of operation, and energy resolution at high pressures up to 10 bar. The addition of TMA at levels of ∼ 1% reduces electron diffusion by up to a factor of 10 with respect to pure Xe, improving the quality of the topological pattern, with a positive impact on the discrimination capability. Operation with a medium size prototype of 30 cm diameter and 38 cm of drift (holding about 1 kg of Xe at 10 bar in the fiducial volume, enough to contain high energy electron tracks in the detector volume) has allowed to test the detection concept in realistic experimental conditions. Microbulk Micromegas are able to image the DBD ionization signature with high quality while, at the same time, measuring its energy deposition with a resolution of at least a ∼ 3% FWHM @ Q{sub ββ}. This value was experimentally demonstrated for high-energy extended tracks at 10 bar, and is probably improvable down to the ∼ 1% FWHM levels as extrapolated from low energy events. In addition, first results on the topological signature information (one straggling track ending in two

  8. Preliminary Results on Simulations of Ground Level Enhancements (GLEs) detected by The High Altitude Water Cherenkov Observatory (HAWC)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Enriquez Rivera, O.; Lara, A.

    2014-12-01

    The High Altitude Water Cherenkov Observatory (HAWC) is currently under construction at the Sierra Negra Volcano, Puebla in Mexico. Located 4100 m above sea level, this large array is mainly designed to observe high energy gamma rays (TeV). However, by recording scaler data that correspond to the rates of individual photomultiplier tubes, the detection and study of solar energetic particles (known as Ground Level Enhancements) as well as the decrease of the cosmic ray flux due to solar transients (known as Forbush decreases) will also be possible. In order to determine the response of the array to solar transients, we have performed simulations of the scaler output using different sub-array configurations. We present here our preliminary results of such simulations and their comparison with observed Forbush decreases.

  9. Real-Time PCR for Measles Virus Detection on Clinical Specimens with Negative IgM Result in Morocco.

    PubMed

    Benamar, Touria; Tajounte, Latifa; Alla, Amal; Khebba, Fatima; Ahmed, Hinda; Mulders, Mick N; Filali-Maltouf, Abdelkarim; El Aouad, Rajae

    2016-01-01

    Since the confirmation of measles cases represents an important indicator regarding the performance of the measles-elimination program, the aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of the routine procedures followed in Morocco for the laboratory confirmation of measles cases. Suspected cases reported between January 2010 and December 2012 were assessed for the timeliness of the sample collection, occurrence of measles clinical symptoms, and the results of the laboratory diagnoses. For 88% of the 2,708 suspected cases, a clinical specimen was collected within 7d of rash onset, of which 50% were IgM-positive and 2.6% were equivocal. The measles symptoms were reported in 91.4% of the cases; the occurrence of symptoms showed a positive association with the serological results (odds ratio [OR] = 2.9883, 95% confidence interval [CI] 2.2238-4.0157). Of the negative samples, 52% (n = 116) tested positive by real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR). These results are in favor of using molecular detection to complement serological diagnosis in the context of measles surveillance approach in Morocco. In addition, the introduction of additional laboratory methods for differential diagnosis is required for the final classification of suspected cases with maculopapular rash and fever in the context of the measles elimination program.

  10. The diagnostic accuracy of a single CEA blood test in detecting colorectal cancer recurrence: Results from the FACS trial

    PubMed Central

    Nicholson, Brian D.; Primrose, John; Perera, Rafael; James, Timothy; Pugh, Sian; Mant, David

    2017-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of a single CEA (carcinoembryonic antigen) blood test in detecting colorectal cancer recurrence. Background Patients who have undergone curative resection for primary colorectal cancer are typically followed up with scheduled CEA testing for 5 years. Decisions to investigate further (usually by CT imaging) are based on single test results, reflecting international guidelines. Methods A secondary analysis was undertaken of data from the FACS trial (two arms included CEA testing). The composite reference standard applied included CT-CAP imaging, clinical assessment and colonoscopy. Accuracy in detecting recurrence was evaluated in terms of sensitivity, specificity, likelihood ratios, predictive values, time-dependent area under the ROC curves, and operational performance when used prospectively in clinical practice are reported. Results Of 582 patients, 104 (17.9%) developed recurrence during the 5 year follow-up period. Applying the recommended threshold of 5μg/L achieves at best 50.0% sensitivity (95% CI: 40.1–59.9%); in prospective use in clinical practice it would lead to 56 missed recurrences (53.8%; 95% CI: 44.2–64.4%) and 89 false alarms (56.7% of 157 patients referred for investigation). Applying a lower threshold of 2.5μg/L would reduce the number of missed recurrences to 36.5% (95% CI: 26.5–46.5%) but would increase the false alarms to 84.2% (924/1097 referred). Some patients are more prone to false alarms than others—at the 5μg/L threshold, the 89 episodes of unnecessary investigation were clustered in 29 individuals. Conclusion Our results demonstrated very low sensitivity for CEA, bringing to question whether it could ever be used as an independent triage test. It is not feasible to improve the diagnostic performance of a single test result by reducing the recommended action threshold because of the workload and false alarms generated. Current national and international guidelines merit re

  11. Surveillance strategies for detecting chronic wasting disease in free-ranging deer and elk: results of a CWD surveillance workshop

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Samuel, Michael D.; Joly, Damien O.; Wild, Margaret A.; Wright, Scott D.; Otis, David L.; Werge, Rob W.; Miller, Michael W.

    2003-01-01

    Chronic Wasting Disease (CWD), a fatal brain disease of North American deer and elk, has recently emerged as an important wildlife management issue. Interest and concern over the spread of this disease and its potential impact on free-ranging cervid populations has increased with discovery of the disease in numerous states and provinces. Current studies suggest that CWD may adversely affect of these highly visible, socially desirable, and economically valuable species. Despite the lack of evidence that CWD affects humans or livestock, a significant concern has been the perceived risk to humans and livestock. Uncertainty about whether CWD poses a health risk to hunters and their families who consume venison has resulted in testing of free-ranging cervids for CWD. In response to many of these concerns, wildlife management agencies across the nation have undertaken surveillance programs to detect CWD in their cervid populations. The nation-wide costs for an extensive CWD surveillance program have been estimated at several million dollars. This document provides guidance on the development and conduct of scientifically sound surveillance programs to detect CWD in free-ranging deer and elk populations. These guidelines will not apply equally to all jurisdictions. In many cases local circumstances, resources, area(s) of concern, disease risk, animal and landscape ecology, political, social, and many other factors will influence the objectives, design, and conduct of CWD surveillance programs. Part I of this report discusses the importance of management goals, strategies, and disease risks in developing a surveillance program. Part II describes surveillance methods, steps in designing a sampling strategy to detect CWD, alternative collection methods, and statistical considerations. Part III describes costs (personnel, time, and money) associated with implementation of these plans that will influence program design. Part IV outlines research that is needed to further

  12. Toward accurate and fast iris segmentation for iris biometrics.

    PubMed

    He, Zhaofeng; Tan, Tieniu; Sun, Zhenan; Qiu, Xianchao

    2009-09-01

    Iris segmentation is an essential module in iris recognition because it defines the effective image region used for subsequent processing such as feature extraction. Traditional iris segmentation methods often involve an exhaustive search of a large parameter space, which is time consuming and sensitive to noise. To address these problems, this paper presents a novel algorithm for accurate and fast iris segmentation. After efficient reflection removal, an Adaboost-cascade iris detector is first built to extract a rough position of the iris center. Edge points of iris boundaries are then detected, and an elastic model named pulling and pushing is established. Under this model, the center and radius of the circular iris boundaries are iteratively refined in a way driven by the restoring forces of Hooke's law. Furthermore, a smoothing spline-based edge fitting scheme is presented to deal with noncircular iris boundaries. After that, eyelids are localized via edge detection followed by curve fitting. The novelty here is the adoption of a rank filter for noise elimination and a histogram filter for tackling the shape irregularity of eyelids. Finally, eyelashes and shadows are detected via a learned prediction model. This model provides an adaptive threshold for eyelash and shadow detection by analyzing the intensity distributions of different iris regions. Experimental results on three challenging iris image databases demonstrate that the proposed algorithm outperforms state-of-the-art methods in both accuracy and speed.

  13. Results from long-term detection of mixing layer height: ceilometer and comparison with Radio-Acoustic Sounding System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schäfer, Klaus; Emeis, Stefan; Jahn, Carsten; Tuma, Michael; Münkel, Christoph; Suppan, Peter

    2012-11-01

    The mixing layer height (MLH) is an important factor which influences exchange processes of ground level emissions. The continuous knowledge of MLH is supporting the understanding of processes directing air quality. If the MLH is located near to the ground, which occurs mainly during winter and night-time, air pollution can be high due to a strongly limited air mass dilution. Since 2006 different methods for long-term continuous remote sensing of mixing layer height (MLH) are operated in Augsburg. The Vaisala ceilometers LD40 and CL31 are used which are eye-safe commercial mini-lidar systems. The ceilometer measurements provide information about the range-dependent aerosol concentration; gradient minima within this profile mark the borders of mixed layers. Special software for these ceilometers provides routine retrievals of lower atmosphere layering from vertical profiles of laser backscatter data. The radiosonde data from the station Oberschleissheim near Munich (about 50 km away from Augsburg city) are also used for MLH determination. The profile behavior of relative humidity (strong decrease) and virtual potential temperature (inversion) of the radiosonde agree mostly well with the MLH indication from ceilometer laser backscatter density gradients. A RASS (Radio-Acoustic Sounding System) from Metek is applied which detects the height of a turbulent layer characterized by high acoustic backscatter intensities due to thermal fluctuations and a high variance of the vertical velocity component as well as the vertical temperature profile from the detection of acoustic signal propagation and thus temperature inversions which mark atmospheric layers. These data of RASS measurements are the input for a software-based determination of MLH. A comparison of the results of the remote sensing methods during simultaneous measurements was performed. The information content of the different remote sensing instruments for MLH in dependence from different weather classes was

  14. Epidemiology and detection of HIV-1 among pregnant women in the United Kingdom: results from national surveillance 1988-96.

    PubMed Central

    Nicoll, A.; McGarrigle, C.; Brady, A. R.; Ades, A. E.; Tookey, P.; Duong, T.; Mortimer, J.; Cliffe, S.; Goldberg, D.; Tappin, D.; Hudson, C.; Peckham, C.

    1998-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To describe the epidemiology of HIV-1 infection in pregnant women in the United Kingdom. DESIGN: Serial unlinked serosurveillance for HIV-1 in neonatal specimens and surveillance through registers of diagnosed maternal and paediatric infections from reporting by obstetricians, paediatricians, and microbiologists. SETTING: United Kingdom, 1988-96. SUBJECTS: Pregnant women proceeding to live births and their children. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Time trends in prevalence of HIV-1 seropositivity in newborn infants (as a proxy for infection in mothers); the proportions of mothers with diagnosed HIV-1 infections, and their characteristics. RESULTS: HIV-1 prevalence among mothers in London rose sixfold between 1988 and 1996 (0.19% of women tested; 1 in 520 in 1996). Apart from in Edinburgh and Dundee, levels remained low in Scotland (0.025%; 1 in 3970) and elsewhere in the United Kingdom (0.016%; 1 in 1930). Over a third of births to infected mothers in 1996 occurred outside London. In London the reported infections were predominantly among black African women, whereas in Scotland most were associated with drug injecting. The contribution of reported infection among African women increased over time as that of drug injecting declined. In Scotland 51% of mothers' infections were diagnosed before the birth. In England, despite a national policy initiative in 1992 to increase the antenatal detection rate of HIV, no improvement in detection was observed, and in 1996 only 15% of previously unrecognised HIV infections were diagnosed during pregnancy. CONCLUSIONS: HIV-1 infection affects mothers throughout the United Kingdom but is most common in London. Levels of diagnosis in pregnant women have not improved. Surveillance data can monitor effectively the impact of initiatives to reduce preventable HIV-1 infections in children. PMID:9472504

  15. An Accurate, Simplified Model Intrabeam Scattering

    SciTech Connect

    Bane, Karl LF

    2002-05-23

    Beginning with the general Bjorken-Mtingwa solution for intrabeam scattering (IBS) we derive an accurate, greatly simplified model of IBS, valid for high energy beams in normal storage ring lattices. In addition, we show that, under the same conditions, a modified version of Piwinski's IBS formulation (where {eta}{sub x,y}{sup 2}/{beta}{sub x,y} has been replaced by {Eta}{sub x,y}) asymptotically approaches the result of Bjorken-Mtingwa.

  16. On accurate determination of contact angle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Concus, P.; Finn, R.

    1992-01-01

    Methods are proposed that exploit a microgravity environment to obtain highly accurate measurement of contact angle. These methods, which are based on our earlier mathematical results, do not require detailed measurement of a liquid free-surface, as they incorporate discontinuous or nearly-discontinuous behavior of the liquid bulk in certain container geometries. Physical testing is planned in the forthcoming IML-2 space flight and in related preparatory ground-based experiments.

  17. Accurate Guitar Tuning by Cochlear Implant Musicians

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Thomas; Huang, Juan; Zeng, Fan-Gang

    2014-01-01

    Modern cochlear implant (CI) users understand speech but find difficulty in music appreciation due to poor pitch perception. Still, some deaf musicians continue to perform with their CI. Here we show unexpected results that CI musicians can reliably tune a guitar by CI alone and, under controlled conditions, match simultaneously presented tones to <0.5 Hz. One subject had normal contralateral hearing and produced more accurate tuning with CI than his normal ear. To understand these counterintuitive findings, we presented tones sequentially and found that tuning error was larger at ∼30 Hz for both subjects. A third subject, a non-musician CI user with normal contralateral hearing, showed similar trends in performance between CI and normal hearing ears but with less precision. This difference, along with electric analysis, showed that accurate tuning was achieved by listening to beats rather than discriminating pitch, effectively turning a spectral task into a temporal discrimination task. PMID:24651081

  18. Accurate guitar tuning by cochlear implant musicians.

    PubMed

    Lu, Thomas; Huang, Juan; Zeng, Fan-Gang

    2014-01-01

    Modern cochlear implant (CI) users understand speech but find difficulty in music appreciation due to poor pitch perception. Still, some deaf musicians continue to perform with their CI. Here we show unexpected results that CI musicians can reliably tune a guitar by CI alone and, under controlled conditions, match simultaneously presented tones to <0.5 Hz. One subject had normal contralateral hearing and produced more accurate tuning with CI than his normal ear. To understand these counterintuitive findings, we presented tones sequentially and found that tuning error was larger at ∼ 30 Hz for both subjects. A third subject, a non-musician CI user with normal contralateral hearing, showed similar trends in performance between CI and normal hearing ears but with less precision. This difference, along with electric analysis, showed that accurate tuning was achieved by listening to beats rather than discriminating pitch, effectively turning a spectral task into a temporal discrimination task.

  19. Transient Monoplegia as a Result of Unilateral Femoral Artery Ischemia Detected by Multimodal Intraoperative Neuromonitoring in Posterior Scoliosis Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Pankowski, Rafal; Roclawski, Marek; Dziegiel, Krzysztof; Ceynowa, Marcin; Mikulicz, Marcin; Mazurek, Tomasz; Kloc, Wojciech

    2016-01-01

    Abstract This is to report a case of 16-year-old girl with transient right lower limb monoplegia as a result of femoral artery ischemia detected by multimodal intraoperative spinal cord neuromonitoring (MISNM) during posterior correction surgery of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis. A patient with a marfanoid body habitus and LENKE IA type scoliosis with the right thoracic curve of 48° of Cobb angle was admitted for posterior spinal fusion from Th6 to L2. After selective pedicle screws instrumentation and corrective maneuvers motor evoked potentials (MEP) began to decrease with no concomitant changes in somato-sensory evoked potentials recordings. The instrumentation was released first partially than completely with rod removal but the patient demonstrated constantly increasing serious neurological motor deficit of the whole right lower limb. Every technical cause of the MEP changes was eliminated and during the wake-up test the right foot was found to be pale and cold with no popliteal and dorsalis pedis pulses palpable. The patient was repositioned and the pelvic pad was placed more cranially. Instantly, the pulse and color returned to the patient's foot. Following MEP recordings showed gradual return of motor function up to the baseline at the end of the surgery, whereas somato-sensory evoked potentials were within normal range through the whole procedure. This case emphasizes the importance of the proper pelvic pad positioning during the complex spine surgeries performed in prone position of the patient. A few cases of neurological complications have been described which were the result of vascular occlusion after prolonged pressure in the inguinal area during posterior scoliosis surgery when the patient was in prone position. If incorrectly interpreted, they would have a significant impact on the course of scoliosis surgery. PMID:26871822

  20. Highly accurate articulated coordinate measuring machine

    DOEpatents

    Bieg, Lothar F.; Jokiel, Jr., Bernhard; Ensz, Mark T.; Watson, Robert D.

    2003-12-30

    Disclosed is a highly accurate articulated coordinate measuring machine, comprising a revolute joint, comprising a circular encoder wheel, having an axis of rotation; a plurality of marks disposed around at least a portion of the circumference of the encoder wheel; bearing means for supporting the encoder wheel, while permitting free rotation of the encoder wheel about the wheel's axis of rotation; and a sensor, rigidly attached to the bearing means, for detecting the motion of at least some of the marks as the encoder wheel rotates; a probe arm, having a proximal end rigidly attached to the encoder wheel, and having a distal end with a probe tip attached thereto; and coordinate processing means, operatively connected to the sensor, for converting the output of the sensor into a set of cylindrical coordinates representing the position of the probe tip relative to a reference cylindrical coordinate system.

  1. Accurate Analysis of Array References

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-09-22

    This thesis addresses the problem of data dependence analysis, the base step in detecting loop level parallelism in scientific programs. Traditional...data dependence analysis research has concentrated on the simpler problem of affine memory disambiguation. Many algorithms have been developed that...can devise an experiment to test the effectiveness of affine memory disambiguation at approximating the full dependence problem. We discover that the

  2. MetaboQuant: a tool combining individual peak calibration and outlier detection for accurate metabolite quantification in 1D (1)H and (1)H-(13)C HSQC NMR spectra.

    PubMed

    Klein, Matthias S; Oefner, Peter J; Gronwald, Wolfram

    2013-05-01

    Solution nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy is widely used to analyze complex mixtures of organic compounds such as biological fluids and tissue extracts. Targeted profiling approaches with reliable compound quantitifcation are hampered, however, by signal overlap and other interferences. Here, we present a tool named MetaboQuant for automated compound quantification from pre-processed 1D and 2D heteronuclear single quantum coherence (HSQC) NMR spectral data and concomitant validation of results. Performance of MetaboQuant was tested on a urinary spike-in data set and compared with other quantification strategies. The use of individual calibration factors in combination with the validation algorithms of MetaboQuant raises the reliability of the quantification results. MetaboQuant can be downloaded at http://genomics.uni-regensburg.de/site/institute/software/metaboquant/ as stand-alone software for Windows or run on other operating systems from within Matlab. Separate software for peak fitting and integration is necessary in order to use MetaboQuant.

  3. Accurate ab Initio Spin Densities.

    PubMed

    Boguslawski, Katharina; Marti, Konrad H; Legeza, Ors; Reiher, Markus

    2012-06-12

    We present an approach for the calculation of spin density distributions for molecules that require very large active spaces for a qualitatively correct description of their electronic structure. Our approach is based on the density-matrix renormalization group (DMRG) algorithm to calculate the spin density matrix elements as a basic quantity for the spatially resolved spin density distribution. The spin density matrix elements are directly determined from the second-quantized elementary operators optimized by the DMRG algorithm. As an analytic convergence criterion for the spin density distribution, we employ our recently developed sampling-reconstruction scheme [J. Chem. Phys.2011, 134, 224101] to build an accurate complete-active-space configuration-interaction (CASCI) wave function from the optimized matrix product states. The spin density matrix elements can then also be determined as an expectation value employing the reconstructed wave function expansion. Furthermore, the explicit reconstruction of a CASCI-type wave function provides insight into chemically interesting features of the molecule under study such as the distribution of α and β electrons in terms of Slater determinants, CI coefficients, and natural orbitals. The methodology is applied to an iron nitrosyl complex which we have identified as a challenging system for standard approaches [J. Chem. Theory Comput.2011, 7, 2740].

  4. Determining accurate distances to nearby galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonanos, Alceste Zoe

    2005-11-01

    Determining accurate distances to nearby or distant galaxies is a very simple conceptually, yet complicated in practice, task. Presently, distances to nearby galaxies are only known to an accuracy of 10-15%. The current anchor galaxy of the extragalactic distance scale is the Large Magellanic Cloud, which has large (10-15%) systematic uncertainties associated with it, because of its morphology, its non-uniform reddening and the unknown metallicity dependence of the Cepheid period-luminosity relation. This work aims to determine accurate distances to some nearby galaxies, and subsequently help reduce the error in the extragalactic distance scale and the Hubble constant H 0 . In particular, this work presents the first distance determination of the DIRECT Project to M33 with detached eclipsing binaries. DIRECT aims to obtain a new anchor galaxy for the extragalactic distance scale by measuring direct, accurate (to 5%) distances to two Local Group galaxies, M31 and M33, with detached eclipsing binaries. It involves a massive variability survey of these galaxies and subsequent photometric and spectroscopic follow-up of the detached binaries discovered. In this work, I also present a catalog of variable stars discovered in one of the DIRECT fields, M31Y, which includes 41 eclipsing binaries. Additionally, we derive the distance to the Draco Dwarf Spheroidal galaxy, with ~100 RR Lyrae found in our first CCD variability study of this galaxy. A "hybrid" method of discovering Cepheids with ground-based telescopes is described next. It involves applying the image subtraction technique on the images obtained from ground-based telescopes and then following them up with the Hubble Space Telescope to derive Cepheid period-luminosity distances. By re-analyzing ESO Very Large Telescope data on M83 (NGC 5236), we demonstrate that this method is much more powerful for detecting variability, especially in crowded fields. I finally present photometry for the Wolf-Rayet binary WR 20a

  5. Efficient and Accurate Indoor Localization Using Landmark Graphs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gu, F.; Kealy, A.; Khoshelham, K.; Shang, J.

    2016-06-01

    Indoor localization is important for a variety of applications such as location-based services, mobile social networks, and emergency response. Fusing spatial information is an effective way to achieve accurate indoor localization with little or with no need for extra hardware. However, existing indoor localization methods that make use of spatial information are either too computationally expensive or too sensitive to the completeness of landmark detection. In this paper, we solve this problem by using the proposed landmark graph. The landmark graph is a directed graph where nodes are landmarks (e.g., doors, staircases, and turns) and edges are accessible paths with heading information. We compared the proposed method with two common Dead Reckoning (DR)-based methods (namely, Compass + Accelerometer + Landmarks and Gyroscope + Accelerometer + Landmarks) by a series of experiments. Experimental results show that the proposed method can achieve 73% accuracy with a positioning error less than 2.5 meters, which outperforms the other two DR-based methods.

  6. Higher order accurate partial implicitization: An unconditionally stable fourth-order-accurate explicit numerical technique

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Graves, R. A., Jr.

    1975-01-01

    The previously obtained second-order-accurate partial implicitization numerical technique used in the solution of fluid dynamic problems was modified with little complication to achieve fourth-order accuracy. The Von Neumann stability analysis demonstrated the unconditional linear stability of the technique. The order of the truncation error was deduced from the Taylor series expansions of the linearized difference equations and was verified by numerical solutions to Burger's equation. For comparison, results were also obtained for Burger's equation using a second-order-accurate partial-implicitization scheme, as well as the fourth-order scheme of Kreiss.

  7. First Results in the Use of Bovine Ear Notch Tag for Bovine Viral Diarrhoea Virus Detection and Genetic Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Quinet, Christian; Czaplicki, Guy; Dion, Elise; Dal Pozzo, Fabiana; Kurz, Anke; Saegerman, Claude

    2016-01-01

    Background Infection due to bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV) is endemic in most cattle-producing countries throughout the world. The key elements of a BVDV control programme are biosecurity, elimination of persistently infected animals and surveillance. Bovine viral diarrhoea (BVD) is a notifiable disease in Belgium and an official eradication programme started from January 2015, based on testing ear notches sampled during the official identification and registration of calves at birth. An antigen-capture ELISA test based on the detection of BVDV Erns protein is used. Ear notch sample may also be used to characterize the genotype of the calf when appropriate elution/dilution buffer is added. Both BVDV antigen-ELISA analysis and animal traceability could be performed. Methodology With regards to the reference protocol used in the preparation of ear notch samples, alternative procedures were tested in terms of BVDV analytic sensitivity, diagnostic sensitivity and specificity, as well as quality and purity of animal DNA. Principal Findings/Significance The Allflex DNA Buffer D showed promising results in BVDV diagnosis and genome analyses, opening new perspectives for the livestock industry by the exploitation of the animal genome. Due to the high number of cattle involved in the Belgian official BVDV eradication programme based on ear notch tags sample, a large database on both BVDV status of newborn calves and cattle genome could be created for subsequent different uses (e.g. traceability, determination of parentage, genetic signatures throughout the genome associated with particular traits) evolving through a more integrated animal health. PMID:27764130

  8. SPECTROSCOPIC CONSTANTS AND VIBRATIONAL FREQUENCIES FOR l-C{sub 3}H{sup +} AND ISOTOPOLOGUES FROM HIGHLY ACCURATE QUARTIC FORCE FIELDS: THE DETECTION OF l-C{sub 3}H{sup +} IN THE HORSEHEAD NEBULA PDR QUESTIONED

    SciTech Connect

    Huang Xinchuan; Fortenberry, Ryan C.; Lee, Timothy J.

    2013-05-10

    Very recently, molecular rotational transitions observed in the photon-dominated region of the Horsehead nebula have been attributed to l-C{sub 3}H{sup +}. In an effort to corroborate this finding, we employed state-of-the-art and proven high-accuracy quantum chemical techniques to compute spectroscopic constants for this cation and its isotopologues. Even though the B rotational constant from the fit of the observed spectrum and our computations agree to within 20 MHz, a typical level of accuracy, the D rotational constant differs by more than 40%, while the H rotational constant differs by three orders of magnitude. With the likely errors in the rotational transition energies resulting from this difference in D on the order of 1 MHz for the lowest observed transition (J = 4 {yields} 3) and growing as J increases, the assignment of the observed rotational lines from the Horsehead nebula to l-C{sub 3}H{sup +} is questionable.

  9. Spectroscopic Constants and Vibrational Frequencies for l-C3H+ and Isotopologues from Highly-Accurate Quartic Force Fields: The Detection of l-C3H+ in the Horsehead Nebula PDR Questioned

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huang, Xinchuan; Fortenberry, Ryan Clifton; Lee, Timothy J.

    2013-01-01

    Very recently, molecular rotational transitions observed in the photon-dominated region of the Horsehead nebula have been attributed to l-C3H+. In an effort to corroborate this finding, we employed state-of-the art and proven high-accuracy quantum chemical techniques to compute spectroscopic constants for this cation and its isotopologues. Even though the B rotational constant from the fit of the observed spectrum and our computations agree to within 20 MHz, a typical level of accuracy, the D rotational constant differs by more than 40%, while the H rotational constant differs by three orders of magnitude. With the likely errors in the rotational transition energies resulting from this difference in D on the order of 1 MHz for the lowest observed transition (J = 4 yields 3) and growing as J increases, the assignment of the observed rotational lines from the Horsehead nebula to l-C3H+ is questionable.

  10. Approaching system equilibrium with accurate or not accurate feedback information in a two-route system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Xiao-mei; Xie, Dong-fan; Li, Qi

    2015-02-01

    With the development of intelligent transport system, advanced information feedback strategies have been developed to reduce traffic congestion and enhance the capacity. However, previous strategies provide accurate information to travelers and our simulation results show that accurate information brings negative effects, especially in delay case. Because travelers prefer to the best condition route with accurate information, and delayed information cannot reflect current traffic condition but past. Then travelers make wrong routing decisions, causing the decrease of the capacity and the increase of oscillations and the system deviating from the equilibrium. To avoid the negative effect, bounded rationality is taken into account by introducing a boundedly rational threshold BR. When difference between two routes is less than the BR, routes have equal probability to be chosen. The bounded rationality is helpful to improve the efficiency in terms of capacity, oscillation and the gap deviating from the system equilibrium.

  11. Comparison of Transcription-Mediated Amplification and PCR Assay Results for Various Genital Specimen Types for Detection of Mycoplasma genitalium

    PubMed Central

    Wroblewski, Jennifer K. H.; Manhart, Lisa E.; Dickey, Kathleen A.; Hudspeth, Marie K.; Totten, Patricia A.

    2006-01-01

    Mycoplasma genitalium is now recognized as a possible cause of several idiopathic sexually transmitted disease (STD) syndromes. However, due to the difficulty of culture of this fastidious bacterium, nucleic acid amplification tests (NAATs) are necessary for its detection in patient specimens. In the current study we compared a newly developed research-only transcription-mediated amplification (TMA) assay (Gen-Probe Incorporated) to our in-house DNA-based PCR assay for detection of M. genitalium. The relative performance characteristics of these two NAATs were assessed with genital specimens from 284 women and 352 men reporting to an STD clinic in Seattle, WA. Among the women, M. genitalium was detected by the TMA and PCR assays in 36 (13%) and 39 (14%) vaginal swab specimens, respectively (κ = 0.923); 26 (9%) and 23 (8%) cervical swab specimens, respectively (κ = 0.843); and 25 (9%) and 28 (10%) urine specimens, respectively (κ = 0.687). Among the M. genitalium-positive women, the relative sensitivities of detection for the TMA and PCR assays were 84% and 91%, respectively, for vaginal swab specimens; 60% and 53%, respectively, for cervical swab specimens; and 58% and 65%, respectively, for urine specimens. By using an infected patient (a woman positive at any site by TMA assay and at any site by PCR) as a proxy for a “gold standard,” the specificities of detection were >99.5% for both the TMA and the PCR assays. Among the men, M. genitalium was detected in 24 urine specimens (6.8%) by the TMA assay, 26 (7.4%) urine specimens by PCR assay, and 32 urine specimens (9%) by either test (κ = 0.791). We conclude that the M. genitalium TMA and PCR assays are highly specific and that vaginal swab specimens are the most sensitive specimen type for the detection of M. genitalium in women. PMID:16954265

  12. Quality metric for accurate overlay control in <20nm nodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klein, Dana; Amit, Eran; Cohen, Guy; Amir, Nuriel; Har-Zvi, Michael; Huang, Chin-Chou Kevin; Karur-Shanmugam, Ramkumar; Pierson, Bill; Kato, Cindy; Kurita, Hiroyuki

    2013-04-01

    The semiconductor industry is moving toward 20nm nodes and below. As the Overlay (OVL) budget is getting tighter at these advanced nodes, the importance in the accuracy in each nanometer of OVL error is critical. When process owners select OVL targets and methods for their process, they must do it wisely; otherwise the reported OVL could be inaccurate, resulting in yield loss. The same problem can occur when the target sampling map is chosen incorrectly, consisting of asymmetric targets that will cause biased correctable terms and a corrupted wafer. Total measurement uncertainty (TMU) is the main parameter that process owners use when choosing an OVL target per layer. Going towards the 20nm nodes and below, TMU will not be enough for accurate OVL control. KLA-Tencor has introduced a quality score named `Qmerit' for its imaging based OVL (IBO) targets, which is obtained on the-fly for each OVL measurement point in X & Y. This Qmerit score will enable the process owners to select compatible targets which provide accurate OVL values for their process and thereby improve their yield. Together with K-T Analyzer's ability to detect the symmetric targets across the wafer and within the field, the Archer tools will continue to provide an independent, reliable measurement of OVL error into the next advanced nodes, enabling fabs to manufacture devices that meet their tight OVL error budgets.

  13. Preliminary results on the effect of sensor position on unobtrusive rollover detection for sleep monitoring in smart homes.

    PubMed

    Townsend, Daphne I; Goubran, Rafik; Frize, Monique; Knoefel, Frank

    2009-01-01

    Older adults experience increased sleep movement disorders and sleep fragmentation, and these are associated with serious health consequences such as falls. Monitoring sleep fragmentation and restlessness in older adults can reveal information about their daily and long-term health status. Long-term home monitoring is only realistic within the contact of unobtrusive, non-contact sensors. This paper presents exploratory work using the pressure sensor array as an instrument for rollover detection. The sensor output is used to calculate a center of gravity signal, from which five features are extracted. These features are used in a decision tree to classify detected movements in two categories; rollovers and other movements. Rollovers were detected with a sensitivity and specificity of 82% and 100% respectively, and a Mathew's correlation coefficient of 0.86 when data from all sensor positions were included. Intrapositional and interpositional effects of movements on sensors placed throughout the bed are described.

  14. Detection threshold for sound distortion resulting from noise reduction in normal-hearing and hearing-impaired listeners.

    PubMed

    Brons, Inge; Dreschler, Wouter A; Houben, Rolph

    2014-09-01

    Hearing-aid noise reduction should reduce background noise, but not disturb the target speech. This objective is difficult because noise reduction suffers from a trade-off between the amount of noise removed and signal distortion. It is unknown if this important trade-off differs between normal-hearing (NH) and hearing-impaired (HI) listeners. This study separated the negative effect of noise reduction (distortion) from the positive effect (reduction of noise) to allow the measurement of the detection threshold for noise-reduction (NR) distortion. Twelve NH subjects and 12 subjects with mild to moderate sensorineural hearing loss participated in this study. The detection thresholds for distortion were determined using an adaptive procedure with a three-interval, two-alternative forced-choice paradigm. Different levels of distortion were obtained by changing the maximum amount of noise reduction. Participants were also asked to indicate their preferred NR strength. The detection threshold for overall distortion was higher for HI subjects than for NH subjects, suggesting that stronger noise reduction can be applied for HI listeners without affecting the perceived sound quality. However, the preferred NR strength of HI listeners was closer to their individual detection threshold for distortion than in NH listeners. This implies that HI listeners tolerate fewer audible distortions than NH listeners.

  15. Detection of Spina Bifida by First Trimester Screening - Results of the Prospective Multicenter Berlin IT-Study.

    PubMed

    Chen, Frank Chih-Kang; Gerhardt, Janine; Entezami, Michael; Chaoui, Rabih; Henrich, Wolfgang

    2017-04-01

    Purpose To evaluate the potential of routine assessment of intracranial translucency (IT) and other posterior brain parameters in the early detection of open spina bifida during the 11 - 14 weeks screening examination. Materials and Methods This prospective, multicenter longitudinal study was conducted with the participation of 20 certified DEGUM II or III experts in Berlin, Germany, between June 2010 and October 2013. All pregnant women undergoing a first trimester screening were included in the study and in every patient were the IT, brain stem (BS), cisterna magna (CM), BS to occipital bone distance (BSOB) and BS/BSOB ratio measured. All patients with continuing pregnancy underwent a second trimester scan. Our data was used to develop our own reference ranges. The primary outcome parameter was the presence of open spina bifida. Results A total of 15 526 women with 16 164 fetuses were examined. Median of the IT was 2.1 mm, of the CM 1.6 mm, of the BS 2.7 mm, of the BSOB 5.5 mm, and of the BS/BSOB ratio 0.49. There were 11 cases with open spina bifida (incidence of 6.8/10 000). The detection rate was 100 % and in all cases of spina bifida, the anomaly was detected either at the first examination (n = 8) or considered suspicious and the lesion then detected a few weeks later (n = 3). Considering individual measurements, however, the detection rate was 18 % with the complete absence of the IT and 45 % with cut-off values. For the CM measurement, the detection rate was 64 % with the absence of the CM and 73 % with cut-off values. The other parameters proved not to be predictive of open spina bifida. Conclusion In the hands of an expert, open spina bifida can be reliably diagnosed early in gestation during the 11 - 14 weeks screening. The measurement of different parameters of the posterior brain, especially the CM and the use of cut-off values are of tremendous benefit in achieving a high sensitivity in the detection

  16. Serum albumin and globulin analysis for hepatocellular carcinoma detection avoiding false-negative results from alpha-fetoprotein test negative subjects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jing; Feng, Shangyuan; Lin, Juqiang; Zeng, Yongyi; Li, Ling; Huang, Zufang; Li, Buhong; Zeng, Haishan; Chen, Rong

    2013-11-01

    Surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) of serum albumin and globulin were employed to detect hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Tentative assignments of SERS bands show specific biomolecular changes associated with cancer development. These changes include a decrease in relative amounts of tryptophan, glutamine, glycine, and serine, indicating excessive consumption of amino acids for protein duplication. Principal component analysis was also introduced to analyze the obtained spectra, resulting in both diagnostic sensitivity and specificity of 100%. More importantly, it reveals that this method can detect HCC patients with alpha-fetoprotein negative test results, suggesting its great potential as a new alternative to detect HCC.

  17. Rates of mutant and inherited structural cytogenetic abnormalities detected at amniocentesis: results on about 63,000 fetuses.

    PubMed

    Hook, E B; Cross, P K

    1987-01-01

    We report data on diagnoses made on amniotic fluid specimens from 1977 to 1984 as reported to the New York State Chromosome Registry. The rate of all de novo (presumed mutant) abnormalities was about 2 per 1,000 in about 61,000 fetuses in which results are unlikely to be biased by the reason for amniocentesis (except for maternal age). This includes about 0.5 per 1,000 de novo markers, about 0.5 per 1,000 other de novo unbalanced, and about 1.0 per 1,000 de novo balanced rearrangements. In about 55,000 fetuses in which rates of inherited abnormalities could be evaluated without apparent bias, the rate of all inherited rearrangement was about 2.9 per 1,000. This includes about 0.3 per 1,000 inherited markers, about 0.2 per 1,000 other inherited unbalanced rearrangements, and about 2.4 per 1,000 inherited balanced abnormalities. Only mutant markers showed a clear association with maternal age (37.6 +/- 2.7 in 24 cases v. 35.8 +/- 3.6 in controls). Inherited markers did not exhibit this trend (35.8 +/- 2.0 in 12 cases v. 36.4 +/- 2.8 in controls). Paternal age does not appear to account for the association. Among abnormalities of known origin, the ratio of mutant to inherited cases is for markers 64:36, for other unbalanced rearrangements 73:27, and for all balanced abnormalities 29:71. In a subgroup of about 55,000 fetuses, of 263 total abnormalities there were 8 instances of apparent true somatic mosaics (5 mutant and 3 of unknown origin but almost certainly mutant). There were also 20 instances of markers in which presumptive somatic loss had resulted in mosaicism (10 mutant, 6 of unknown origin and 4 inherited) and 13 other instances of mosaicism associated with apparent somatic loss (9 mutant, 3 of unknown origin, and 1 inherited). The sex ratio (Y to non-Y karyotypes) for all abnormalities detected was 228:210 (1.09), not different from controls. Only deletions (5:14) and 'other' unbalanced rearrangements (5:13) exhibited a suggestive deviation from this trend

  18. Accurate measurement of unsteady state fluid temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaremkiewicz, Magdalena

    2017-03-01

    In this paper, two accurate methods for determining the transient fluid temperature were presented. Measurements were conducted for boiling water since its temperature is known. At the beginning the thermometers are at the ambient temperature and next they are immediately immersed into saturated water. The measurements were carried out with two thermometers of different construction but with the same housing outer diameter equal to 15 mm. One of them is a K-type industrial thermometer widely available commercially. The temperature indicated by the thermometer was corrected considering the thermometers as the first or second order inertia devices. The new design of a thermometer was proposed and also used to measure the temperature of boiling water. Its characteristic feature is a cylinder-shaped housing with the sheath thermocouple located in its center. The temperature of the fluid was determined based on measurements taken in the axis of the solid cylindrical element (housing) using the inverse space marching method. Measurements of the transient temperature of the air flowing through the wind tunnel using the same thermometers were also carried out. The proposed measurement technique provides more accurate results compared with measurements using industrial thermometers in conjunction with simple temperature correction using the inertial thermometer model of the first or second order. By comparing the results, it was demonstrated that the new thermometer allows obtaining the fluid temperature much faster and with higher accuracy in comparison to the industrial thermometer. Accurate measurements of the fast changing fluid temperature are possible due to the low inertia thermometer and fast space marching method applied for solving the inverse heat conduction problem.

  19. Results of optical Monte Carlo simulations of a compact γ camera for the detection of sentinel lymph nodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lowe, Dean; Truman, Andrew; Kwok, Harry; Bergman, Alanah

    2001-07-01

    Breast cancer is most often treatable when detected in the early stages, before the primary disease spreads to sentinel lymph nodes in the axilla and supraclavicular region. A sentinel lymph node is the closest adjacent lymph node to receive lymphatic drainage from a primary breast tumour. It is from these nodes that cancer cells metastasise throughout the lymphatic system, spreading the disease. This work details the optical Monte Carlo modelling of an ultra compact, nuclear medicine γ camera that will be used intra-operatively to detect malignant sentinel lymph nodes. This development will improve the identification and localisation of these sentinel nodes, thereby facilitating improved techniques for axillary lymph node dissection, and sentinel lymph node biopsy.

  20. Whole Blood Activation Results in Enhanced Detection of T Cell and Monocyte Cytokine Production by Flow Cytometry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sams, Clarence F.; Crucian, Brian E.

    2001-01-01

    An excellent monitor of the immune balance of peripheral circulating cells is to determine their cytokine production patterns in response to stimuli. Using flow cytometry a positive identification of cytokine producing cells in a mixed culture may be achieved. Recently, the ability to assess cytokine production following a wholeblood activation culture has been described. We compared whole blood culture to standard PBMC culture and determined the individual cytokine secretion patterns for both T cells and monocytes via flow cytometry. For T cells cytokine assessment following PMA +ionomycin activation: (1) a significantly greater percentages of T cells producing IFNgamma and IL-2 were observed following whole-blood culture; (2) altered T cell cytokine production kinetics were observed by varying whole blood culture times. In addition, a four-color cytometric analysis was used to allow accurate phenotyping and quantitation of cytokine producing lymphocyte populations. Using this technique we found IFNgamma production to be significantly elevated in the CD3+/CD8+ T cell population as compared to the CD3+/CD8- population following five hours of whole blood activation. Conversely, IL-2 and IL-10 production were significantly elevated in the CD3+/CD8- T cell population as compared to the CD3+/CD8+ population. Monocyte cytokine production was assessed in both culture systems following LPS activation for 24 hours. A three-color flow cytometric was used to assess two cytokines in conjunction with CD 14. The cytokine pairs used for analysis were IL-1a/IL-12, and IL-10ITNFa. Nearly all monocytes were stimulated to produce IL-1a, IL-12 and TNFalpha equally well in both culture systems. Monocyte production of IL-10 was significantly elevated following whole blood culture as compared to PBMC culture. IL-12 producing monocytes appeared to be a distinct subpopulation of the IL-1a producing set, whereas IL-10 and TNFa producing monocytes were largely mutually exclusive. IL-10 and

  1. Comparison of calculation results of neutron detection efficiency for models with silicon semiconductor detector and plastic scintillator for GAMMA-400 telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dedenko, G.; Zin, Thant; Kadilin, V.; Gavrikov, I.; Tyurin, E.; Isakov, S.

    2013-02-01

    Monte Carlo calculations were performed for two models of neutron detector. The first model of the neutron detector includes the layer of polyethylene as a moderator, boron as a target for (n, α) reaction and silicon as a detector of α-particles. The second model consists of polyethylene layers alternating with layers of plastic-boron scintillators. Calculations were performed for parallel neutron flux with evaporation spectrum. The calculation results of neutron detection efficiency for two proposed models were analyzed and compared. The high neutron detection efficiency is attained by using a plastic-boron scintillator. Using natural boron the 10% of detection efficiency is attained and in the case of enriched boron more than 15% of detection efficiency is attained when the detector thickness is 4 cm. The model using silicon detectors provides the detection efficiency about 4%.

  2. Accurate Quantification of Disease Markers in Human Serum Using Iron Oxide Nanoparticle-linked Immunosorbent Assay

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Linlin; Tong, Sheng; Zhou, Jun; Bao, Gang

    2016-01-01

    Accurate and reliable quantification of biomarkers in the blood is essential in disease screening and diagnosis. Here we describe an iron oxide nanoparticle (IONP)-linked immunosorbent assay (ILISA) for detecting biomolecules in human serum. Sandwich ILISA was optimized for the detection of four important serological markers, IgA, IgG, IgM, and C-reactive protein (CRP), and assessed with normal sera, simulated disease-state sera and the serum samples from patients infected with West Nile virus (WNV) or human herpes virus (HHV). Our study shows that using the detection assay formulated with 18.8 nm wüstite nanocrystals, ILISA can achieve sub-picomolar detection sensitivity, and all four markers can be accurately quantified over a large dynamic range. In addition, ILISA is not susceptible to variations in operating procedures and shows better linearity and higher stability compared with ELISA, which facilitates its integration into detection methods suitable for point of care. Our results demonstrate that ILISA is a simple and versatile nanoplatform for highly sensitive and reliable detection of serological biomarkers in biomedical research and clinical applications. PMID:27375784

  3. 38 CFR 4.46 - Accurate measurement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Accurate measurement. 4... RATING DISABILITIES Disability Ratings The Musculoskeletal System § 4.46 Accurate measurement. Accurate measurement of the length of stumps, excursion of joints, dimensions and location of scars with respect...

  4. 38 CFR 4.46 - Accurate measurement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Accurate measurement. 4... RATING DISABILITIES Disability Ratings The Musculoskeletal System § 4.46 Accurate measurement. Accurate measurement of the length of stumps, excursion of joints, dimensions and location of scars with respect...

  5. 38 CFR 4.46 - Accurate measurement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Accurate measurement. 4... RATING DISABILITIES Disability Ratings The Musculoskeletal System § 4.46 Accurate measurement. Accurate measurement of the length of stumps, excursion of joints, dimensions and location of scars with respect...

  6. 38 CFR 4.46 - Accurate measurement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Accurate measurement. 4... RATING DISABILITIES Disability Ratings The Musculoskeletal System § 4.46 Accurate measurement. Accurate measurement of the length of stumps, excursion of joints, dimensions and location of scars with respect...

  7. 38 CFR 4.46 - Accurate measurement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Accurate measurement. 4... RATING DISABILITIES Disability Ratings The Musculoskeletal System § 4.46 Accurate measurement. Accurate measurement of the length of stumps, excursion of joints, dimensions and location of scars with respect...

  8. Regional Monitoring Plan for the Detection of Allergens in Food from Campania Region. First Year Monitoring Results

    PubMed Central

    Biondi, Loredana; Pellicanò, Roberta; Caligiuri, Vincenzo; Nava, Donatella

    2014-01-01

    Food allergens are substances able to induce an abnormal immunological response in sensitive individuals. The presence of allergens in food must be reported in tables (Directive 2003/89/EC). In this study we report the data of a monitoring plan carried out in the Campania Region during the 2012 for the detection of allergens (ovoalbumine and β-lattoglobulin) in food of different origin. The analisys were performed by means of ELISA assays. The percentage of analyzes with the presence of allegens not declared on the label is 4.3%, out of a total of 208 analyzes. It is therefore important to continue monitoring activities by the competent Authorities. PMID:27800313

  9. Results of Tank-Leak Detection Demonstration Using Geophysical Techniques at the Hanford Mock Tank Site-Fiscal Year 2001

    SciTech Connect

    Barnett, D BRENT.; Gee, Glendon W.; Sweeney, Mark D.

    2002-03-01

    During July and August of 2001, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), hosted researchers from Lawrence Livermore and Lawrence Berkeley National laboratories, and a private contractor, HydroGEOPHYSICS, Inc., for deployment of the following five geophysical leak-detection technologies at the Hanford Site Mock Tank in a Tank Leak Detection Demonstration (TLDD): (1) Electrical Resistivity Tomography (ERT); (2) Cross-Borehole Electromagnetic Induction (CEMI); (3) High-Resolution Resistivity (HRR); (4) Cross-Borehole Radar (XBR); and (5) Cross-Borehole Seismic Tomography (XBS). Under a ''Tri-party Agreement'' with Federal and state regulators, the U.S. Department of Energy will remove wastes from single-shell tanks (SSTs) and other miscellaneous underground tanks for storage in the double-shell tank system. Waste retrieval methods are being considered that use very little, if any, liquid to dislodge, mobilize, and remove the wastes. As additional assurance of protection of the vadose zone beneath the SSTs, tank wastes and tank conditions may be aggressively monitored during retrieval operations by methods that are deployed outside the SSTs in the vadose zone.

  10. Accurate, reliable prototype earth horizon sensor head

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schwarz, F.; Cohen, H.

    1973-01-01

    The design and performance is described of an accurate and reliable prototype earth sensor head (ARPESH). The ARPESH employs a detection logic 'locator' concept and horizon sensor mechanization which should lead to high accuracy horizon sensing that is minimally degraded by spatial or temporal variations in sensing attitude from a satellite in orbit around the earth at altitudes in the 500 km environ 1,2. An accuracy of horizon location to within 0.7 km has been predicted, independent of meteorological conditions. This corresponds to an error of 0.015 deg-at 500 km altitude. Laboratory evaluation of the sensor indicates that this accuracy is achieved. First, the basic operating principles of ARPESH are described; next, detailed design and construction data is presented and then performance of the sensor under laboratory conditions in which the sensor is installed in a simulator that permits it to scan over a blackbody source against background representing the earth space interface for various equivalent plant temperatures.

  11. Accurate lineshape spectroscopy and the Boltzmann constant

    PubMed Central

    Truong, G.-W.; Anstie, J. D.; May, E. F.; Stace, T. M.; Luiten, A. N.

    2015-01-01

    Spectroscopy has an illustrious history delivering serendipitous discoveries and providing a stringent testbed for new physical predictions, including applications from trace materials detection, to understanding the atmospheres of stars and planets, and even constraining cosmological models. Reaching fundamental-noise limits permits optimal extraction of spectroscopic information from an absorption measurement. Here, we demonstrate a quantum-limited spectrometer that delivers high-precision measurements of the absorption lineshape. These measurements yield a very accurate measurement of the excited-state (6P1/2) hyperfine splitting in Cs, and reveals a breakdown in the well-known Voigt spectral profile. We develop a theoretical model that accounts for this breakdown, explaining the observations to within the shot-noise limit. Our model enables us to infer the thermal velocity dispersion of the Cs vapour with an uncertainty of 35 p.p.m. within an hour. This allows us to determine a value for Boltzmann's constant with a precision of 6 p.p.m., and an uncertainty of 71 p.p.m. PMID:26465085

  12. How accurate are the wrist-based heart rate monitors during walking and running activities? Are they accurate enough?

    PubMed Central

    An, Hyun-Sung; Dinkel, Danae M; Noble, John M; Lee, Jung-Min

    2016-01-01

    Background Heart rate (HR) monitors are valuable devices for fitness-orientated individuals. There has been a vast influx of optical sensing blood flow monitors claiming to provide accurate HR during physical activities. These monitors are worn on the arm and wrist to detect HR with photoplethysmography (PPG) techniques. Little is known about the validity of these wearable activity trackers. Aim Validate the Scosche Rhythm (SR), Mio Alpha (MA), Fitbit Charge HR (FH), Basis Peak (BP), Microsoft Band (MB), and TomTom Runner Cardio (TT) wireless HR monitors. Methods 50 volunteers (males: n=32, age 19–43 years; females: n=18, age 19–38 years) participated. All monitors were worn simultaneously in a randomised configuration. The Polar RS400 HR chest strap was the criterion measure. A treadmill protocol of one 30 min bout of continuous walking and running at 3.2, 4.8, 6.4, 8.0, and 9.6 km/h (5 min at each protocol speed) with HR manually recorded every minute was completed. Results For group comparisons, the mean absolute percentage error values were: 3.3%, 3.6%, 4.0%, 4.6%, 4.8% and 6.2% for TT, BP, RH, MA, MB and FH, respectively. Pearson product-moment correlation coefficient (r) was observed: r=0.959 (TT), r=0.956 (MB), r=0.954 (BP), r=0.933 (FH), r=0.930 (RH) and r=0.929 (MA). Results from 95% equivalency testing showed monitors were found to be equivalent to those of the criterion HR (±10% equivalence zone: 98.15–119.96). Conclusions The results demonstrate that the wearable activity trackers provide an accurate measurement of HR during walking and running activities. PMID:27900173

  13. Accurate Cross Sections for Microanalysis

    PubMed Central

    Rez, Peter

    2002-01-01

    To calculate the intensity of x-ray emission in electron beam microanalysis requires a knowledge of the energy distribution of the electrons in the solid, the energy variation of the ionization cross section of the relevant subshell, the fraction of ionizations events producing x rays of interest and the absorption coefficient of the x rays on the path to the detector. The theoretical predictions and experimental data available for ionization cross sections are limited mainly to K shells of a few elements. Results of systematic plane wave Born approximation calculations with exchange for K, L, and M shell ionization cross sections over the range of electron energies used in microanalysis are presented. Comparisons are made with experimental measurement for selected K shells and it is shown that the plane wave theory is not appropriate for overvoltages less than 2.5 V. PMID:27446747

  14. Accurate Automated Apnea Analysis in Preterm Infants

    PubMed Central

    Vergales, Brooke D.; Paget-Brown, Alix O.; Lee, Hoshik; Guin, Lauren E.; Smoot, Terri J.; Rusin, Craig G.; Clark, Matthew T.; Delos, John B.; Fairchild, Karen D.; Lake, Douglas E.; Moorman, Randall; Kattwinkel, John

    2017-01-01

    Objective In 2006 the apnea of prematurity (AOP) consensus group identified inaccurate counting of apnea episodes as a major barrier to progress in AOP research. We compare nursing records of AOP to events detected by a clinically validated computer algorithm that detects apnea from standard bedside monitors. Study Design Waveform, vital sign, and alarm data were collected continuously from all very low-birth-weight infants admitted over a 25-month period, analyzed for central apnea, bradycardia, and desaturation (ABD) events, and compared with nursing documentation collected from charts. Our algorithm defined apnea as > 10 seconds if accompanied by bradycardia and desaturation. Results Of the 3,019 nurse-recorded events, only 68% had any algorithm-detected ABD event. Of the 5,275 algorithm-detected prolonged apnea events > 30 seconds, only 26% had nurse-recorded documentation within 1 hour. Monitor alarms sounded in only 74% of events of algorithm-detected prolonged apnea events > 10 seconds. There were 8,190,418 monitor alarms of any description throughout the neonatal intensive care unit during the 747 days analyzed, or one alarm every 2 to 3 minutes per nurse. Conclusion An automated computer algorithm for continuous ABD quantitation is a far more reliable tool than the medical record to address the important research questions identified by the 2006 AOP consensus group. PMID:23592319

  15. Risk assessment of false-positive quantitative real-time PCR results in food, due to detection of DNA originating from dead cells.

    PubMed

    Wolffs, Petra; Norling, Börje; Rådström, Peter

    2005-03-01

    Real-time PCR technology is increasingly used for detection and quantification of pathogens in food samples. A main disadvantage of nucleic acid detection is the inability to distinguish between signals originating from viable cells and DNA released from dead cells. In order to gain knowledge concerning risks of false-positive results due to detection of DNA originating from dead cells, quantitative PCR (qPCR) was used to investigate the degradation kinetics of free DNA in four types of meat samples. Results showed that the fastest degradation rate was observed (1 log unit per 0.5 h) in chicken homogenate, whereas the slowest rate was observed in pork rinse (1 log unit per 120.5 h). Overall results indicated that degradation occurred faster in chicken samples than in pork samples and faster at higher temperatures. Based on these results, it was concluded that, especially in pork samples, there is a risk of false-positive PCR results. This was confirmed in a quantitative study on cell death and signal persistence over a period of 28 days, employing three different methods, i.e. viable counts, direct qPCR, and finally floatation, a recently developed discontinuous density centrifugation method, followed by qPCR. Results showed that direct qPCR resulted in an overestimation of up to 10 times of the amount of cells in the samples compared to viable counts, due to detection of DNA from dead cells. However, after using floatation prior to qPCR, results resembled the viable count data. This indicates that by using of floatation as a sample treatment step prior to qPCR, the risk of false-positive PCR results due to detection of dead cells, can be minimized.

  16. Automatic oil slick detection from SAR images: Results and improvements in the framework of the PRIMI pilot project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trivero, Paolo; Adamo, Maria; Biamino, Walter; Borasi, Maria; Cavagnero, Marco; De Carolis, Giacomo; Di Matteo, Lorenza; Fontebasso, Fabio; Nirchio, Francesco; Tataranni, Francesco

    2016-11-01

    An automatic system capable of discriminating oil spills from other similar sea surface features in Synthetic Aperture Radar images has been developed and tested. This system, called Oil Spill Automatic Detector (OSAD), was originally conceived for C-band SAR images (mostly ERS PRI) and afterward adapted to ENVISAT data. In the framework of the Progetto pilota Rilevamento Inquinamento Marino da Idrocarburi (PRIMI) national project sponsored by the Italian Space Agency, the OSAD system has been greatly improved and is now able to process L- and X-band images from various satellites as well. OSAD performance, confirmed using a different dataset of verified slicks, shows an a priori overall correct classification of 80%. Moreover, new features have been added, such as an enhanced land masking algorithm, a built-in wind and wave extraction module, and oil spill characterization. OSAD has been integrated into a complex hardware and software architecture for operational sea monitoring, alarm generation, and oil slick drift forecasting. The system's detection capabilities have been validated during a measurement campaign in the Mediterranean Sea. The new improved system is described herein, with special attention to latest enhancements.

  17. Micron Accurate Absolute Ranging System: Range Extension

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smalley, Larry L.; Smith, Kely L.

    1999-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to investigate Fresnel diffraction as a means of obtaining absolute distance measurements with micron or greater accuracy. It is believed that such a system would prove useful to the Next Generation Space Telescope (NGST) as a non-intrusive, non-contact measuring system for use with secondary concentrator station-keeping systems. The present research attempts to validate past experiments and develop ways to apply the phenomena of Fresnel diffraction to micron accurate measurement. This report discusses past research on the phenomena, and the basis of the use Fresnel diffraction distance metrology. The apparatus used in the recent investigations, experimental procedures used, preliminary results are discussed in detail. Continued research and equipment requirements on the extension of the effective range of the Fresnel diffraction systems is also described.

  18. SETI-Italia 2003 status report and first results of a KL transform algorithm for ETI signal detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montebugnoli, S.; Bortolotti, C.; Cattani, A.; Maccaferri, A.; Orlati, A.; Poloni, M.; Poppi, S.; Monari, J.; Roma, M.; Pari, P. P.; Teodorani, M.; Righini, S.; Maccone, C.; Caliendo, D.; Cosmovici, C. B.; D'Amico, N.

    2006-02-01

    SETI-Italia is the Italian national SETI Program. It is run as a part of the Italian Bioastronomy Project, by IRA (Istituto di Radioastronomia) a subsidiary of the Istituto Nazionale di Astrofisica. At the moment, Italy is the only European country conducting a continuous SETI “listening” program, while occasional SETI searches may be conducted in France and the Ukraine. Outside Europe, continuous SETI programs are conducted in the USA, Australia and Argentina. The SETI-Italia activities started early in 1998 with a Serendip IV system connected in piggy-back mode to the Medicina VLBI 32-m antenna dish. In the years 2002/2003, considerable efforts were devoted to set up a fast computational system capable of computing the KLT (Karhunen Loève transform). This is a virtually new mathematical procedure in SETI, and is much more general than the FFT. It can search for the presence of signals both narrow-band and wide-band embedded in noise both coloured and white. The mathematical features the KLT have already been described in this Conference by Claudio Maccone [Innovative SETI by the KLT, Pešek Lecture 2003, paper # IAA.9.1.01 presented in Bremen, in this 2003 International Astronautical Congress [1]; Telecommunications, KLT and Relativity, vol. 1, IPI Press, Colorado Springs, CO, 1994, ISBN #1-880930-04-8 [2].]. Our software implementation of the KLT follows these lines and also is indebted to some basic ideas put forward by Robert S. Dixon [On the detection of unknown signals, in: G. Seth Shostak (Ed.), Third Decennial US USSR Conference on SETI, Astronomical Society of the Pacific Conference Series, vol. 47, 1993, pp. 128 140] of the Ohio State Radio Observatory as early as 1993.

  19. Fluid pressure and temperature transients detected at the Nankai Trough Megasplay Fault: Results from the SmartPlug borehole observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hammerschmidt, S.; Davis, E. E.; Kopf, A.

    2013-07-01

    The SmartPlug is the first borehole observatory in the IODP Nankai Trough Seismogenic Zone Experiment (NanTroSEIZE). It comprises a retrievable bridge plug with an autonomous instrument for pressure (P) and temperature (T) monitoring. The borehole observatory was installed at Site C0010 of the Integrated Ocean Drilling Program (IODP) Kumano transect crossing the Nankai Trough, SE offshore Japan, to obtain fluid pressure and temperature data from where the borehole penetrates one of the shallow branches of the subduction megasplay fault at 410 mbsf. In this manuscript, a 15 month-long P-T record collected by the SmartPlug is evaluated. Despite the 1 min sampling interval, pressure variations related to local storms and to tsunami and seismic waves from regional and distant earthquakes are observed. Seismic waves of one regional earthquake appear to have led to a drop in formation pressure that may be the consequence of a seismic-wave-induced increase in permeability. Pressure variations related to Rayleigh waves are typically larger in the formation than in the inadvertently sealed casing above, whereas seafloor loading signals imposed by tides, tsunamis, and storm-generated waves are larger in the casing than in the formation. This difference presumably reflects the different response to strain generated by formation deformation vs. strain caused by loading at the seafloor. No seismogenic or aseismic deformation event at the megasplay fault or within the accretionary prism was observed during this initial 15-month-long recording period. A SmartPlug observatory monitored the Nankai Trough Megasplay Fault for 15 months. In situ borehole pressure (P) and temperature (T) data were collected and evaluated. After the data were de-tided and filtered, several P transients were detected. P transients were caused by storm-induced microseism, seismic and tsunami waves. No indications for recent activity of the Megasplay Fault were found.

  20. Results from the Autonomous Triggering of in situ Sensors on Kilauea Volcano, HI, from Eruption Detection by Spacecraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doubleday, J.; Behar, A.; Davies, A.; Mora-Vargas, A.; Tran, D.; Abtahi, A.; Pieri, D. C.; Boudreau, K.; Cecava, J.

    2008-12-01

    Response time in acquiring sensor data in volcanic emergencies can be greatly improved through use of autonomous systems. For instance, ground-based observations and data processing applications of the JPL Volcano Sensor Web have promptly triggered spacecraft observations [e.g., 1]. The reverse command and information flow path can also be useful, using autonomous analysis of spacecraft data to trigger in situ sensors. In this demonstration project, SO2 sensors were incorporated into expendable "Volcano Monitor" capsules and placed downwind of the Pu'u 'O'o vent of Kilauea volcano, Hawai'i. In nominal (low) power conservation mode, data from these sensors were collected and transmitted every hour to the Volcano Sensor Web through the Iridium Satellite Network. When SO2 readings exceeded a predetermined threshold, the modem within the Volcano Monitor sent an alert to the Sensor Web, and triggered a request for prompt Earth Observing-1 (EO-1) spacecraft data acquisition. The Volcano Monitors were also triggered by the Sensor Web in response to an eruption detection by the MODIS instrument on Terra. During these pre- defined "critical events" the Sensor Web ordered the SO2 sensors within the Volcano Monitor to increase their sampling frequency to every 5 minutes (high power "burst mode"). Autonomous control of the sensors' sampling frequency enabled the Sensor Web to monitor and respond to rapidly evolving conditions, and allowed rapid compilation and dissemination of these data to the scientific community. Reference: [1] Davies et al., (2006) Eos, 87, (1), 1 and 5. This work was performed at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory-California Institute of Technology, under contract to NASA. Support was provided by the NASA AIST program, the Idaho Space Grant Consortium, and the New Mexico Space Grant Program. We also especially thank the personnel of the USGS Hawaiian Volcano Observatory for their invaluable scientific guidance and logistical assistance.

  1. Comparison of Digital Rectal Examination and Serum Prostate Specific Antigen in the Early Detection of Prostate Cancer: Results of a Multicenter Clinical Trial of 6,630 Men.

    PubMed

    Catalona, William J; Richie, Jerome P; Ahmann, Frederick R; Hudson, M'Liss A; Scardino, Peter T; Flanigan, Robert C; DeKernion, Jean B; Ratliff, Timothy L; Kavoussi, Louis R; Dalkin, Bruce L; Waters, W Bedford; MacFarlane, Michael T; Southwick, Paula C

    2017-02-01

    To compare the efficacy of digital rectal examination and serum prostate specific antigen (PSA) in the early detection of prostate cancer, we conducted a prospective clinical trial at 6 university centers of 6,630 male volunteers 50 years old or older who underwent PSA determination (Hybritech Tandom-E or Tandem-R assays) and digital rectal examination. Quadrant biopsies were performed if the PSA level was greater than 4 μg./l. or digital rectal examination was suspicious, even if transrectal ultrasonography revealed no areas suspicious for cancer. The results showed that 15% of the men had a PSA level of greater than 4 μg./l., 15% had a suspicious digital rectal examination and 26% had suspicious findings on either or both tests. Of 1,167 biopsies performed cancer was detected in 264. PSA detected significantly more tumors (82%, 216 of 264 cancers) than digital rectal examination (55%, 146 of 264, p = 0.001). The cancer detection rate was 3.2% for digital rectal examination, 4.6% for PSA and 5.8% for the 2 methods combined. Positive predictive value was 32% for PSA and 21% for digital rectal examination. Of 160 patients who underwent radical prostatectomy and pathological staging 114 (71%) had organ confined cancer: PSA detected 85 (75%) and digital rectal examination detected 64 (56%, p = 0.003). Use of the 2 methods in combination increased detection of organ confined disease by 78% (50 of 64 cases) over digital rectal examination alone. If the performance of a biopsy would have required suspicious transrectal ultrasonography findings, nearly 40% of the tumors would have been missed. We conclude that the use of PSA in conjunction with digital rectal examination enhances early prostate cancer detection. Prostatic biopsy should be considered if either the PSA level is greater than 4 μg./l. or digital rectal examination is suspicious for cancer, even in the absence of abnormal transrectal ultrasonography findings.

  2. Problems in publishing accurate color in IEEE journals.

    PubMed

    Vrhel, Michael J; Trussell, H J

    2002-01-01

    To demonstrate the performance of color image processing algorithms, it is desirable to be able to accurately display color images in archival publications. In poster presentations, the authors have substantial control of the printing process, although little control of the illumination. For journal publication, the authors must rely on professional intermediaries (printers) to accurately reproduce their results. Our previous work describes requirements for accurately rendering images using your own equipment. This paper discusses the problems of dealing with intermediaries and offers suggestions for improved communication and rendering.

  3. The performance of charcoal-based radon detection under time-varying radon conditions: Experimental and theoretical results

    SciTech Connect

    Sextro, R.G.; Lee, D.D.

    1988-10-01

    Radon adsorption by charcoal is a widely used technique for measuring indoor radon concentration, particularly when short-term results are desired. There are several different devices available, ranging from permeable envelopes filled with charcoal and open-face charcoal-filled canisters to devices incorporating diffusion limiting features to reduce losses of radon due to desorption. However, the integration characteristics of these samplers are not well understood, particularly under conditions of highly varying radon concentrations. A model for predicting the response of various types of charcoal based detectors to time-variant radon concentrations has been developed; the model predictions compare well with results from chamber experiments. Both the experimental and theoretical results have also been compared with integrated continuous-sampling measurements. The implications of these comparisons for use of charcoal for screening measurements is discussed. 5 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  4. Results of a self-triggered prototype system for radio-detection of extensive air showers at the Pierre Auger Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abreu, P.; Acounis, S.; Aglietta, M.; Ahlers, M.; Ahn, E. J.; Albuquerque, I. F. M.; Allekotte, I.; Allen, J.; Allison, P.; Almela, A.; Alvarez Castillo, J.; Alvarez-Muñiz, J.; Alves Batista, R.; Ambrosio, M.; Aminaei, A.; Anchordoqui, L.; Andringa, S.; Anti&cbreve; i'c, T.; Aramo, C.; Arqueros, F.; Asorey, H.; Assis, P.; Aublin, J.; Ave, M.; Avenir, M.; Avila, G.; Badescu, A. M.; Barber, K. B.; Barbosa, A. F.; Bardenet, R.; Baughman, B.; Bäuml, J.; Baus, C.; Beatty, J. J.; Becker, K. H.; Bellétoile, A.; Bellido, J. A.; BenZvi, S.; Berat, C.; Bertou, X.; Biermann, P. L.; Billoir, P.; Blaess, S. G.; Blanco, F.; Blanco, M.; Bleve, C.; Blümer, H.; Boháčová, M.; Boncioli, D.; Bonifazi, C.; Bonino, R.; Borodai, N.; Brack, J.; Brancus, I.; Brogueira, P.; Brown, W. C.; Buchholz, P.; Bueno, A.; Buroker, L.; Burton, R. E.; Buscemi, M.; Caballero-Mora, K. S.; Caccianiga, B.; Caramete, L.; Caruso, R.; Castellina, A.; Cataldi, G.; Cazon, L.; Cester, R.; Charrier, D.; Chauvin, J.; Cheng, S. H.; Chiavassa, A.; Chinellato, J. A.; Chirinos Diaz, J.; Chudoba, J.; Cilmo, M.; Clay, R. W.; Cocciolo, G.; Colalillo, R.; Collica, L.; Coluccia, M. R.; Conceição, R.; Contreras, F.; Cook, H.; Cooper, M. J.; Coppens, J.; Coutu, S.; Covault, C. E.; Criss, A.; Cronin, J.; Curutiu, J.; Dallier, R.; Daniel, B.; Dasso, S.; Daumiller, K.; Dawson, B. R.; de Almeida, R. M.; De Domenico, M.; De Donato, C.; de Jong, S. J.; De La Vega, G.; de Mello Junior, W. J. M.; de Mello Neto, J. R. T.; De Mitri, I.; de Souza, V.; de Vries, K. D.; del Peral, L.; Deligny, O.; Dembinski, H.; Dhital, N.; Di Giulio, C.; Díaz Castro, M. L.; Diep, P. N.; Diogo, F.; Dobrigkeit, C.; Docters, W.; D'Olivo, J. C.; Dong, P. N.; Dorofeev, A.; dos Anjos, J. C.; Dova, M. T.; D'Urso, D.; Ebr, J.; Engel, R.; Erdmann, M.; Escobar, C. O.; Espadanal, J.; Etchegoyen, A.; Facal San Luis, P.; Falcke, H.; Fang, K.; Farrar, G.; Fauth, A. C.; Fazzini, N.; Ferguson, A. P.; Fick, B.; Figueira, J. M.; Filevich, A.; Filipčič, A.; Fliescher, S.; Fox, B.; Fracchiolla, C. E.; Fraenkel, E. D.; Fratu, O.; Fröhlich, U.; Fuchs, B.; Gaior, R.; Gamarra, R. F.; Gambetta, S.; García, B.; Garcia Roca, S. T.; Garcia-Gamez, D.; Garcia-Pinto, D.; Garçon, T.; Garilli, G.; Gascon Bravo, A.; Gemmeke, H.; Ghia, P. L.; Giller, M.; Gitto, J.; Glass, H.; Gold, M. S.; Golup, G.; Gomez Albarracin, F.; Gómez Berisso, M.; Gómez Vitale, P. F.; Gonçalves, P.; Gonzalez, J. G.; Gookin, B.; Gorgi, A.; Gorham, P.; Gouffon, P.; Grashorn, E.; Grebe, S.; Griffith, N.; Grillo, A. F.; Guardincerri, Y.; Guarino, F.; Guedes, G. P.; Hansen, P.; Harari, D.; Harrison, T. A.; Harton, J. L.; Haungs, A.; Hebbeker, T.; Heck, D.; Herve, A. E.; Hill, G. C.; Hojvat, C.; Hollon, N.; Holmes, V. C.; Homola, P.; Hörandel, J. R.; Horvath, P.; Hrabovský, M.; Huber, D.; Huege, T.; Insolia, A.; Ionita, F.; Jansen, S.; Jarne, C.; Jiraskova, S.; Josebachuili, M.; Kadija, K.; Kampert, K. H.; Karhan, P.; Kasper, P.; Katkov, I.; Kégl, B.; Keilhauer, B.; Keivani, A.; Kelley, J. L.; Kemp, E.; Kieckhafer, R. M.; Klages, H. O.; Kleifges, M.; Kleinfeller, J.; Knapp, J.; Koang, D.-H.; Kotera, K.; Krohm, N.; Krömer, O.; Kruppke-Hansen, D.; Kuempel, D.; Kulbartz, J. K.; Kunka, N.; La Rosa, G.; LaHurd, D.; Latronico, L.; Lauer, R.; Lauscher, M.; Lautridou, P.; Le Coz, S.; Leão, M. S. A. B.; Lebrun, D.; Lebrun, P.; Leigui de Oliveira, M. A.; Letessier-Selvon, A.; Lhenry-Yvon, I.; Link, K.; López, R.; Lopez Agüera, A.; Louedec, K.; Lozano Bahilo, J.; Lu, L.; Lucero, A.; Ludwig, M.; Lyberis, H.; Maccarone, M. C.; Macolino, C.; Malacari, M.; Maldera, S.; Maller, J.; Mandat, D.; Mantsch, P.; Mariazzi, A. G.; Marin, J.; Marin, V.; Maris, I. C.; Marquez Falcon, H. R.; Marsella, G.; Martello, D.; Martin, L.; Martinez, H.; Martínez Bravo, O.; Martraire, D.; Masías Meza, J. J.; Mathes, H. J.; Matthews, J.; Matthews, J. A. J.; Matthiae, G.; Maurel, D.; Maurizio, D.; Mayotte, E.; Mazur, P. O.; Medina-Tanco, G.; Melissas, M.; Melo, D.; Menichetti, E.; Menshikov, A.; Mertsch, P.; Messina, S.; Meurer, C.; Meyhandan, R.; Mi'canovi'c, S.; Micheletti, M. I.; Minaya, I. A.; Miramonti, L.; Mitrica, B.; Molina-Bueno, L.; Mollerach, S.; Monasor, M.; Monnier Ragaigne, D.; Montanet, F.; Morales, B.; Morello, C.; Moreno, J. C.; Mostafá, M.; Moura, C. A.; Muller, M. A.; Müller, G.; Münchmeyer, M.; Mussa, R.; Navarra, G.; Navarro, J. L.; Navas, S.; Necesal, P.; Nellen, L.; Nelles, A.; Neuser, J.; Nhung, P. T.; Niechciol, M.; Niemietz, L.; Nierstenhoefer, N.; Niggemann, T.; Nitz, D.; Nosek, D.; Nožka, L.; Oehlschläger, J.; Olinto, A.; Oliveira, M.; Ortiz, M.; Pacheco, N.; Pakk Selmi-Dei, D.; Palatka, M.; Pallotta, J.; Palmieri, N.; Parente, G.; Parra, A.; Pastor, S.; Paul, T.; Pech, M.; Pȩkala, J.; Pelayo, R.; Pepe, I. M.; Perrone, L.; Pesce, R.; Petermann, E.; Petrera, S.; Petrolini, A.; Petrov, Y.; Pfendner, C.; Piegaia, R.; Pierog, T.; Pieroni, P.; Pimenta, M.; Pirronello, V.; Platino, M.; Plum, M.; Ponce, V. H.; Pontz, M.; Porcelli, A.; Privitera, P.; Prouza, M.; Quel, E. J.; Querchfeld, S.; Rautenberg, J.; Ravel, O.; Ravignani, D.; Revenu, B.; Ridky, J.; Riggi, S.; Risse, M.; Ristori, P.; Rivera, H.; Rivière, C.; Rizi, V.; Roberts, J.; Rodrigues de Carvalho, W.; Rodriguez Cabo, I.; Rodriguez Fernandez, G.; Rodriguez Martino, J.; Rodriguez Rojo, J.; Rodríguez-Frías, M. D.; Ros, G.; Rosado, J.; Rossler, T.; Roth, M.; Rouillé-d'Orfeuil, B.; Roulet, E.; Rovero, A. C.; Rühle, C.; Saffi, S. J.; Saftoiu, A.; Salamida, F.; Salazar, H.; Salesa Greus, F.; Salina, G.; Sánchez, F.; Santo, C. E.; Santos, E.; Santos, E. M.; Sarazin, F.; Sarkar, B.; Sarkar, S.; Sato, R.; Scharf, N.; Scherini, V.; Schieler, H.; Schiffer, P.; Schmidt, A.; Scholten, O.; Schoorlemmer, H.; Schovancova, J.; Schovánek, P.; Schröder, F.; Schulz, J.; Schuster, D.; Sciutto, S. J.; Scuderi, M.; Segreto, A.; Settimo, M.; Shadkam, A.; Shellard, R. C.; Sidelnik, I.; Sigl, G.; Silva Lopez, H. H.; Sima, O.; Śmiałkowski, A.; Šmída, R.; Snow, G. R.; Sommers, P.; Sorokin, J.; Spinka, H.; Squartini, R.; Srivastava, Y. N.; Stanic, S.; Stapleton, J.; Stasielak, J.; Stassi, P.; Stephan, M.; Straub, M.; Stutz, A.; Suarez, F.; Suomijärvi, T.; Supanitsky, A. D.; Šuša, T.; Sutherland, M. S.; Swain, J.; Szadkowski, Z.; Szuba, M.; Tapia, A.; Tartare, M.; Taşcău, O.; Tcaciuc, R.; Thao, N. T.; Thomas, D.; Tiffenberg, J.; Timmermans, C.; Tkaczyj, W.; Todero Peixoto, C. J.; Toma, G.; Tomankova, L.; Tomé, B.; Tonachini, A.; Torralba Elipe, G.; Torres Machado, D.; Travnicek, P.; Tridapalli, D. B.; Trovato, E.; Tueros, M.; Ulrich, R.; Unger, M.; Urban, M.; Valdés Galicia, J. F.; Valiño, I.; Valore, L.; van Aar, G.; van den Berg, A. M.; van Velzen, S.; van Vliet, A.; Varela, E.; Vargas Cárdenas, B.; Varner, G.; Vázquez, J. R.; Vázquez, R. A.; Veberič, D.; Verzi, V.; Vicha, J.; Videla, M.; Villaseñor, L.; Wahlberg, H.; Wahrlich, P.; Wainberg, O.; Walz, D.; Watson, A. A.; Weber, M.; Weidenhaupt, K.; Weindl, A.; Werner, F.; Westerhoff, S.; Whelan, B. J.; Widom, A.; Wieczorek, G.; Wiencke, L.; Wilczyńska, B.; Wilczyński, H.; Will, M.; Williams, C.; Winchen, T.; Wommer, M.; Wundheiler, B.; Yamamoto, T.; Yapici, T.; Younk, P.; Yuan, G.; Yushkov, A.; Zamorano Garcia, B.; Zas, E.; Zavrtanik, D.; Zavrtanik, M.; Zaw, I.; Zepeda, A.; Zhou, J.; Zhu, Y.; Zimbres Silva, M.; Ziolkowski, M.

    2012-11-01

    We describe the experimental setup and the results of RAuger, a small radio-antenna array, consisting of three fully autonomous and self-triggered radio-detection stations, installed close to the center of the Surface Detector (SD) of the Pierre Auger Observatory in Argentina. The setup has been designed for the detection of the electric field strength of air showers initiated by ultra-high energy cosmic rays, without using an auxiliary trigger from another detection system. Installed in December 2006, RAuger was terminated in May 2010 after 65 registered coincidences with the SD. The sky map in local angular coordinates (i.e., zenith and azimuth angles) of these events reveals a strong azimuthal asymmetry which is in agreement with a mechanism dominated by a geomagnetic emission process. The correlation between the electric field and the energy of the primary cosmic ray is presented for the first time, in an energy range covering two orders of magnitude between 0.1 EeV and 10 EeV. It is demonstrated that this setup is relatively more sensitive to inclined showers, with respect to the SD. In addition to these results, which underline the potential of the radio-detection technique, important information about the general behavior of self-triggering radio-detection systems has been obtained. In particular, we will discuss radio self-triggering under varying local electric-field conditions.

  5. Updated results from the RICE experiment and future prospects for ultra-high energy neutrino detection at the south pole

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kravchenko, I.; Hussain, S.; Seckel, D.; Besson, D.; Fensholt, E.; Ralston, J.; Taylor, J.; Ratzlaff, K.; Young, R.

    2012-03-01

    The RICE experiment seeks observation of ultra-high energy (UHE; Eν>1017eV) neutrinos interacting in Antarctic ice, by measurement of the radio frequency (RF) Cherenkov radiation resulting from the collision of a neutrino with an ice molecule. RICE was initiated in 1999 as a first-generation prototype for an eventual, large-scale in-ice UHE neutrino detector. Herein, we present updated limits on the diffuse UHE neutrino flux, based on 12 years of data taken between 1999 and 2010. We find no convincing neutrino candidates, resulting in 95% confidence-level model-dependent limits on the flux Eν2dϕ/dEν<0.5×10-6GeV/(cm2s-sr) in the energy range 1017results. Recently, the focus of RICE science has shifted to studies of radio frequency ice properties as the RICE experimental hardware has been absorbed into a new experimental initiative (the Askaryan Radio Array, or “ARA”) at the south pole. ARA seeks to improve on the RICE sensitivity by approximately 2 orders of magnitude by 2017 and thereby establish the cosmogenic neutrino flux. As detailed herein, RICE studies of Antarctic ice demonstrate that both birefringence and internal layer RF scattering result in no significant loss of ARA neutrino sensitivity, and, for the first time, verify in situ the decrease in attenuation length with depth into the Antarctic ice sheet.

  6. Primers determine the sensitivity of PCR-mediated hepatitis B virus DNA detection and pretreatment of PCR mixture with 8-methoxypsoralen eliminates false-positive results.

    PubMed

    Keum, W K; Park, C E; Lee, J H; Khil, L Y; Kang, I; Kim, S S; Jung, J C; Oh, S M; Woo, H J; Lee, J H; Kim, Y C; Yoon, Y; Choi, J W; Ha, J

    1997-04-30

    Most methods for the diagnosis of hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection largely depend on viral DNA detection by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) or radioimmunological assay of viral antigens or antibodies. The quality assurance program recently established in Europe reported that PCR-mediated HBV DNA detection methods used in many laboratories produced a high rate of false-positive and false-negative results. Thus, we attempted to improve the conditions of current PCR methods for detection of HBV DNA. In the present study, we applied a recently developed method of releasing HBV DNA from virion by NaOH treatment of patient serum. Using four different primer sets specific to the HBV core region, we found that the sensitivity of first-round PCR can be improved by more than two orders of magnitude depending on the primers. The second round of PCR using nested primers was sensitive enough to detect up to 10(-6) pg of the HBV DNA, which is equivalent to approximately 3 copies of the HBV genome. Among the approximately 800 HBV-infected patient sera investigated in our laboratory, more than 60% of the tested samples gave positive results in the first-round PCR. The rate of positive results obtained using our experimental conditions is very high in comparison with other reports. The reamplification of the first-round PCR reaction mixture with the nested primers produced practically 100% positive results. For diagnosis of HBV infection, we routinely used 1 microliter of patient serum, which was found to be optimum in our laboratory. Surprisingly, from 20% of our positive results, even serum diluted to 1/100 (0.01 microliter) produced a stronger signal than 1 microliter. This observation suggests that direct PCR amplification of HBV DNA released from serum by NaOH treatment has to be compensated by other DNA detection methods for correct quantitation. In order to eliminate the false positive signal resulting from the carry-over due to massive screening of a large number of

  7. OECD Detailed Review Paper (DRP) number 31 on "Cell Transformation Assays for Detection of Chemical Carcinogens": main results and conclusions.

    PubMed

    Vasseur, Paule; Lasne, Claude

    2012-04-11

    The Detailed Review Paper (DRP) number 31 of the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) analyses the performance of the three models used in Cell Transformation Assays (CTAs) to screen the carcinogenic potential of chemicals: the Syrian hamster embryo (SHE) cells, and the mouse cell lines BALB/c 3T3 and C3H10T1/2. The CTA results have been compared to results from recent genotoxicity tests using mammalian and non-mammalian cell systems. The performance of the CTAs in predicting carcinogenic potential has been established on several hundreds of chemicals, comprising organic and inorganic substances. The results have been analysed and the chemicals classified as rodent and/or human carcinogens. Based on this comparison and on their performance - concordance, sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive capacity, and evidence for intra- and inter-laboratory reproducibility - OECD recommended that the CTAs using the SHE cells (carried out at physiological or acidic pH) and the BALB/c 3T3 cell line should be developed into OECD test guidelines. The CTA using the C3H10T1/2 cell line was considered to be useful to elucidate molecular mechanisms of cell transformation at the genomic and transcriptomic level. However, due to the limited data available on reproducibility, a test guideline was not recommended at that time.

  8. Accurate multiple network alignment through context-sensitive random walk

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Background Comparative network analysis can provide an effective means of analyzing large-scale biological networks and gaining novel insights into their structure and organization. Global network alignment aims to predict the best overall mapping between a given set of biological networks, thereby identifying important similarities as well as differences among the networks. It has been shown that network alignment methods can be used to detect pathways or network modules that are conserved across different networks. Until now, a number of network alignment algorithms have been proposed based on different formulations and approaches, many of them focusing on pairwise alignment. Results In this work, we propose a novel multiple network alignment algorithm based on a context-sensitive random walk model. The random walker employed in the proposed algorithm switches between two different modes, namely, an individual walk on a single network and a simultaneous walk on two networks. The switching decision is made in a context-sensitive manner by examining the current neighborhood, which is effective for quantitatively estimating the degree of correspondence between nodes that belong to different networks, in a manner that sensibly integrates node similarity and topological similarity. The resulting node correspondence scores are then used to predict the maximum expected accuracy (MEA) alignment of the given networks. Conclusions Performance evaluation based on synthetic networks as well as real protein-protein interaction networks shows that the proposed algorithm can construct more accurate multiple network alignments compared to other leading methods. PMID:25707987

  9. Detection of right ventricular pressure overloading by thallium-201 myocardial scintigraphy. Results in 57 patients with chronic respiratory diseases

    SciTech Connect

    Weitzenblum, E.; Moyses, B.; Dickele, M.C.; Methlin, G.

    1984-02-01

    The diagnostic value of thallium 201 (/sup 201/Tl) myocardial imaging was studied in 57 patients with chronic respiratory diseases, most with COPD (n . 46), by comparing the results to hemodynamic findings. In healthy subjects, the right ventricle (RV) is not visualized; therefore, any recorded activity of the RV was considered as indicating RV hypertrophy due to RV pressure overloading (RVPO). RV activity was graded from 0 (no activity) to 3 (activity greater than or equal to that of the left ventricle). Patients were divided into three groups according to the level of the pulmonary artery mean pressure (PPA): PPA less than or equal to 20 mm Hg (no pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) ) . group 1, n . 20; PPA ranging from 21 to 30 mm Hg (mild to moderate PAH) . group 2, n . 20; PPA greater than 30 mm Hg (marked PAH) . group 3, n . 17. RV was visualized in 14 patients in group 3 (82 percent) and in 13 patients in group 2 (65 percent). For all patients with PAH (2 + 3) the sensitivity of /sup 201/Tl imaging for the diagnosis of RVPO was of 73 percent, higher than that of ECG and echocardiography (both 51 percent). The sensitivity of /sup 201/Tl, even if moderate (65 percent) was better than that of ECG (30 percent) or echo (40 percent) in patients with mild-to-moderate PAH (group 2). A high RV activity (grade 3) was observed in only three patients. The specificity of this method (obtained from results in group 1) was of 80 percent vs 89 percent for echo and 100 percent for ECG. These results suggest that 201Tl myocardial imaging is a rather sensitive method and could be of interest for the noninvasive diagnosis of RVPO in COPD patients.

  10. Detection of land-cover and land-use change in the Hohe Tauern National Park, Austria) using an object-based classification approach: first results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kern, Katharina; Sulzer, Wolfgang; Lieb, Gerhard K.

    2009-09-01

    Land-cover and land-use (LCLU) change reflects environmental as well as social changes. High-mountain environments such as the Hohe Tauern Range (Austria; its National Park are very sensitive to these changes. Remotely sensed data are ideally suited to detect and analyze land-cover and land-use changes on different spatial and temporal scales. In this study a Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) time-series from 1988 to 2003, aerial photographs and auxiliary GIS data were used detect land-cover and land-use changes in the National Park and its surroundings. The objective of the study was to develop and test a transferable method for change detection in comparable high-mountain environments. After applying a series of pre-processing steps, object-based image analysis, on the basis of Definiens Developer, was used to extracted land-cover and land-use information from the Landsat images. To generate meaningful image objects, a multiresolutions segmentation algorithm was combined with image object merging. The resultant image objects were then classified by using a hierarchically organized classification method. In a further step the resultant outputs of the land-cover and landuse classifications build the basis for the post-classification change detection. Moreover the advantages and disadvantages of the developed method, the first results as well as future adaptations of the method and applications are discussed in this paper.

  11. Comparison of outliers and novelty detection to identify ionospheric TEC irregularities during geomagnetic storm and substorm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pattisahusiwa, Asis; Houw Liong, The; Purqon, Acep

    2016-08-01

    In this study, we compare two learning mechanisms: outliers and novelty detection in order to detect ionospheric TEC disturbance by November 2004 geomagnetic storm and January 2005 substorm. The mechanisms are applied by using v-SVR learning algorithm which is a regression version of SVM. Our results show that both mechanisms are quiet accurate in learning TEC data. However, novelty detection is more accurate than outliers detection in extracting anomalies related to geomagnetic events. The detected anomalies by outliers detection are mostly related to trend of data, while novelty detection are associated to geomagnetic events. Novelty detection also shows evidence of LSTID during geomagnetic events.

  12. Taste detection of the non-volatile isothiocyanate moringin results in deterrence to glucosinolate-adapted insect larvae.

    PubMed

    Müller, Caroline; van Loon, Joop; Ruschioni, Sara; De Nicola, Gina Rosalinda; Olsen, Carl Erik; Iori, Renato; Agerbirk, Niels

    2015-10-01

    Isothiocyanates (ITCs), released from Brassicales plants after hydrolysis of glucosinolates, are known for their negative effects on herbivores but mechanisms have been elusive. The ITCs are initially present in dissolved form at the site of herbivore feeding, but volatile ITCs may subsequently enter the gas phase and all ITCs may react with matrix components. Deterrence to herbivores resulting from topically applied volatile ITCs in artificial feeding assays may hence lead to ambiguous conclusions. In the present study, the non-volatile ITC moringin (4-(α-L-rhamnopyranosyloxy)benzyl ITC) and its glucosinolate precursor glucomoringin were examined for effects on behaviour and taste physiology of specialist insect herbivores of Brassicales. In feeding bioassays, glucomoringin was not deterrent to larvae of Pieris napi (Lepidoptera: Pieridae) and Athalia rosae (Hymenoptera: Tenthredinidae), which are adapted to glucosinolates. Glucomoringin stimulated feeding of larvae of the related Pieris brassicae (Lepidoptera: Pieridae) and also elicited electrophysiological activity from a glucosinolate-sensitive gustatory neuron in the lateral maxillary taste sensilla. In contrast, the ITC moringin was deterrent to P. napi and P. brassicae at high levels and to A. rosae at both high and low levels when topically applied to cabbage leaf discs (either 12, 120 or 1200 nmol moringin per leaf disc of 1cm diameter). Survival of A. rosae was also significantly reduced when larvae were kept on leaves treated with moringin for several days. Furthermore, moringin elicited electrophysiological activity in a deterrent-sensitive neuron in the medial maxillary taste sensillum of P. brassicae, providing a sensory mechanism for the deterrence and the first known ITC taste response of an insect. In simulated feeding assays, recovery of moringin was high, in accordance with its non-volatile nature. Our results demonstrate taste-mediated deterrence of a non-volatile, natural ITC to glucosinolate

  13. The Rondonia Lightning Detection Network: Network Description, Science Objectives, Data Processing/Archival Methodology, and First Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blakelee, Richard

    1999-01-01

    A four station Advanced Lightning Direction Finder (ALDF) network was recently established in the state of Rondonia in western Brazil through a collaboration of U.S. and Brazilian participants from NASA, INPE, INMET, and various universities. The network utilizes ALDF IMPACT (Improved Accuracy from Combined Technology) sensors to provide cloud-to-ground lightning observations (i.e., stroke/flash locations, signal amplitude, and polarity) using both time-of-arrival and magnetic direction finding techniques. The observations are collected, processed and archived at a central site in Brasilia and at the NASA/Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) in Huntsville, Alabama. Initial, non-quality assured quick-look results are made available in near real-time over the internet. The network will remain deployed for several years to provide ground truth data for the Lightning Imaging Sensor (LIS) on the Tropical Rainfall Measurement Mission (TRMM) satellite which was launched in November 1997. The measurements will also be used to investigate the relationship between the electrical, microphysical and kinematic properties of tropical convection. In addition, the long-term observations from this network will contribute in establishing a regional lightning climatological data base, supplementing other data bases in Brazil that already exist or may soon be implemented. Analytic inversion algorithms developed at NASA/MSFC are now being applied to the Rondonian ALDF lightning observations to obtain site error corrections and improved location retrievals. The processing methodology and the initial results from an analysis of the first 6 months of network operations will be presented.

  14. The Rondonia Lightning Detection Network: Network Description, Science Objectives, Data Processing/Archival Methodology, and First Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blakeslee, Rich; Bailey, Jeff; Koshak, Bill

    1999-01-01

    A four station Advanced Lightning Direction Finder (ALDF) network was recently established in the state of Rondonia in western Brazil through a collaboration of U.S. and Brazilian participants from NASA, INPE, INMET, and various universities. The network utilizes ALDF IMPACT (Improved Accuracy from Combined Technology) sensors to provide cloud-to-ground lightning observations (i.e., stroke/flash locations, signal amplitude, and polarity) using both time-of-arrival and magnetic direction finding techniques. The observations are collected, processed and archived at a central site in Brasilia and at the NASA/ Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) in Huntsville, Alabama. Initial, non-quality assured quick-look results are made available in near real-time over the internet. The network will remain deployed for several years to provide ground truth data for the Lightning Imaging Sensor (LIS) on the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) satellite which was launched in November 1997. The measurements will also be used to investigate the relationship between the electrical, microphysical and kinematic properties of tropical convection. In addition, the long-term observations from this network will contribute in establishing a regional lightning climatological data base, supplementing other data bases in Brazil that already exist or may soon be implemented. Analytic inversion algorithms developed at NASA/Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) are now being applied to the Rondonian ALDF lightning observations to obtain site error corrections and improved location retrievals. The processing methodology and the initial results from an analysis of the first 6 months of network operations will be presented.

  15. Gaseous time projection chambers for rare event detection: results from the T-REX project. II. Dark matter

    SciTech Connect

    Irastorza, I.G.; Aznar, F.; Castel, J. E-mail: faznar@unizar.es [Grupo de Física Nuclear y Astropartículas, Departamento de Física Teórica, Universidad de Zaragoza, C and others

    2016-01-01

    As part of the T-REX project, a number of R and D and prototyping activities have been carried out during the last years to explore the applicability of gaseous Time Projection Chambers (TPCs) with Micromesh Gas Structures (Micromegas) in rare event searches like double beta decay, axion research and low-mass WIMP searches. While in the companion paper we focus on double beta decay, in this paper we focus on the results regarding the search for dark matter candidates, both axions and WIMPs. Small (few cm wide) ultra-low background Micromegas detectors are used to image the axion-induced x-ray signal expected in axion helioscopes like the CERN Axion Solar Telescope (CAST) experiment. Background levels as low as 0.8 × 10{sup −6} counts keV{sup −1} cm{sup −2} s{sup −1} have already been achieved in CAST while values down to ∼10{sup −7} counts keV{sup −1} cm{sup −2} s{sup −1} have been obtained in a test bench placed underground in the Laboratorio Subterráneo de Canfranc (LSC). Prospects to consolidate and further reduce these values down to ∼10{sup −8} counts keV{sup −1} cm{sup −2} s{sup −1} will be described. Such detectors, placed at the focal point of x-ray telescopes in the future International Axion Observatory (IAXO), would allow for 10{sup 5} better signal-to-noise ratio than CAST, and search for solar axions with g{sub a}γ down to few 10{sup 12} GeV{sup −1}, well into unexplored axion parameter space. In addition, a scaled-up version of these TPCs, properly shielded and placed underground, can be competitive in the search for low-mass WIMPs. The TREX-DM prototype, with ∼ 0.300 kg of Ar at 10 bar, or alternatively ∼ 0.160 kg of Ne at 10 bar, and energy threshold well below 1 keV, has been built to test this concept. We will describe the main technical solutions developed, as well as the results from the commissioning phase on surface. The anticipated sensitivity of this technique might reach ∼10{sup −44} cm{sup 2} for

  16. Blood-based detection of RAS mutations to guide anti-EGFR therapy in colorectal cancer patients: concordance of results from circulating tumor DNA and tissue-based RAS testing.

    PubMed

    Schmiegel, Wolff; Scott, Rodney J; Dooley, Susan; Lewis, Wendy; Meldrum, Cliff J; Pockney, Peter; Draganic, Brian; Smith, Steve; Hewitt, Chelsee; Philimore, Hazel; Lucas, Amanda; Shi, Elva; Namdarian, Kateh; Chan, Timmy; Acosta, Danilo; Ping-Chang, Su; Tannapfel, Andrea; Reinacher-Schick, Anke; Uhl, Waldemar; Teschendorf, Christian; Wolters, Heiner; Stern, Josef; Viebahn, Richard; Friess, Helmut; Janssen, Klaus-Peter; Nitsche, Ulrich; Slotta-Huspenina, Julia; Pohl, Michael; Vangala, Deepak; Baraniskin, Alexander; Dockhorn-Dworniczak, Barbara; Hegewisch-Becker, Susanne; Ronga, Philippe; Edelstein, Daniel L; Jones, Frederick S; Hahn, Stephan; Fox, Stephen B

    2017-02-01

    An accurate blood-based RAS mutation assay to determine eligibility of metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC) patients for anti-EGFR therapy would benefit clinical practice by better informing decisions to administer treatment independent of tissue availability. The objective of this study was to determine the level of concordance between plasma and tissue RAS mutation status in patients with mCRC to gauge whether blood-based RAS mutation testing is a viable alternative to standard-of-care RAS tumor testing. RAS testing was performed on plasma samples from newly diagnosed metastatic patients, or from recurrent mCRC patients using the highly sensitive digital PCR technology, BEAMing (beads, emulsions, amplification, and magnetics), and compared with DNA sequencing data of respective FFPE (formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded) tumor samples. Discordant tissue RAS results were re-examined by BEAMing, if possible. The prevalence of RAS mutations detected in plasma (51%) vs. tumor (53%) was similar, in accord with the known prevalence of RAS mutations observed in mCRC patient populations. The positive agreement between plasma and tumor RAS results was 90.4% (47/52), the negative agreement was 93.5% (43/46), and the overall agreement (concordance) was 91.8% (90/98). The high concordance of plasma and tissue results demonstrates that blood-based RAS mutation testing is a viable alternative to tissue-based RAS testing.

  17. VHF Interferometry System for Detecting Anomalous Propagation of FM Radio Broadcasting Wave Related to Earthquake and its Preliminary Result

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohno, Nozomi; Tone, Yuka; Hattori, Katsumi; Yamamoto, Isao; Shimakura, Shin; Takano, Toshiaki

    Earthquake-related anomalous electromagnetic phenomena have been reported in various frequency ranges in a few decades. Investigation on the anomalous propagation of VHF transmitter waves is one of promising approaches on the short-term prediction and crustal activity monitoring. The anomalous propagation is considered to be generated by disturbances of the atmosphere above the epicenter or along the propagation path prior to large earthquakes. Consequently, over-horizontal propagation has been received. A recent study shows that the appearance of anomalies was significantly enhanced within 5 days before earthquakes with M ≥ 4.8. However, there is no information on the scattered place, that is, the direction of wave arrival. Therefore, a simple interferometer system for VHF radio wave to identify the position between space-time of earthquake-related atmospheric disturbances has been developed and installed at Chiba University. In this paper, we will show you the developed interferometer system and results of fundamental tests to evaluate the performance of developed and installed interferometer at Chiba. In addition, facts on invisible propagation of VHF radio wave obtained from 1-year continuous measurement at Chiba are described in this paper. Those are possible radio duct propagations and possible earthquake-related anomalous propagations.

  18. Research on the rapid and accurate positioning and orientation approach for land missile-launching vehicle.

    PubMed

    Li, Kui; Wang, Lei; Lv, Yanhong; Gao, Pengyu; Song, Tianxiao

    2015-10-20

    Getting a land vehicle's accurate position, azimuth and attitude rapidly is significant for vehicle based weapons' combat effectiveness. In this paper, a new approach to acquire vehicle's accurate position and orientation is proposed. It uses biaxial optical detection platform (BODP) to aim at and lock in no less than three pre-set cooperative targets, whose accurate positions are measured beforehand. Then, it calculates the vehicle's accurate position, azimuth and attitudes by the rough position and orientation provided by vehicle based navigation systems and no less than three couples of azimuth and pitch angles measured by BODP. The proposed approach does not depend on Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS), thus it is autonomous and difficult to interfere. Meanwhile, it only needs a rough position and orientation as algorithm's iterative initial value, consequently, it does not have high performance requirement for Inertial Navigation System (INS), odometer and other vehicle based navigation systems, even in high precise applications. This paper described the system's working procedure, presented theoretical deviation of the algorithm, and then verified its effectiveness through simulation and vehicle experiments. The simulation and experimental results indicate that the proposed approach can achieve positioning and orientation accuracy of 0.2 m and 20″ respectively in less than 3 min.

  19. Fast and accurate exhaled breath ammonia measurement.

    PubMed

    Solga, Steven F; Mudalel, Matthew L; Spacek, Lisa A; Risby, Terence H

    2014-06-11

    This exhaled breath ammonia method uses a fast and highly sensitive spectroscopic method known as quartz enhanced photoacoustic spectroscopy (QEPAS) that uses a quantum cascade based laser. The monitor is coupled to a sampler that measures mouth pressure and carbon dioxide. The system is temperature controlled and specifically designed to address the reactivity of this compound. The sampler provides immediate feedback to the subject and the technician on the quality of the breath effort. Together with the quick response time of the monitor, this system is capable of accurately measuring exhaled breath ammonia representative of deep lung systemic levels. Because the system is easy to use and produces real time results, it has enabled experiments to identify factors that influence measurements. For example, mouth rinse and oral pH reproducibly and significantly affect results and therefore must be controlled. Temperature and mode of breathing are other examples. As our understanding of these factors evolves, error is reduced, and clinical studies become more meaningful. This system is very reliable and individual measurements are inexpensive. The sampler is relatively inexpensive and quite portable, but the monitor is neither. This limits options for some clinical studies and provides rational for future innovations.

  20. Concurrent and Accurate Short Read Mapping on Multicore Processors.

    PubMed

    Martínez, Héctor; Tárraga, Joaquín; Medina, Ignacio; Barrachina, Sergio; Castillo, Maribel; Dopazo, Joaquín; Quintana-Ortí, Enrique S

    2015-01-01

    We introduce a parallel aligner with a work-flow organization for fast and accurate mapping of RNA sequences on servers equipped with multicore processors. Our software, HPG Aligner SA (HPG Aligner SA is an open-source application. The software is available at http://www.opencb.org, exploits a suffix array to rapidly map a large fraction of the RNA fragments (reads), as well as leverages the accuracy of the Smith-Waterman algorithm to deal with conflictive reads. The aligner is enhanced with a careful strategy to detect splice junctions based on an adaptive division of RNA reads into small segments (or seeds), which are then mapped onto a number of candidate alignment locations, providing crucial information for the successful alignment of the complete reads. The experimental results on a platform with Intel multicore technology report the parallel performance of HPG Aligner SA, on RNA reads of 100-400 nucleotides, which excels in execution time/sensitivity to state-of-the-art aligners such as TopHat 2+Bowtie 2, MapSplice, and STAR.

  1. Accurate multipixel phase measurement with classical-light interferometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Mandeep; Khare, Kedar; Jha, Anand Kumar; Prabhakar, Shashi; Singh, R. P.

    2015-02-01

    We demonstrate accurate phase measurement from experimental low photon level interferograms using a constrained optimization method that takes into account the expected redundancy in the unknown phase function. This approach is shown to have significant noise advantage over traditional methods, such as balanced homodyning or phase shifting, that treat individual pixels in the interference data as independent of each other. Our interference experiments comparing the optimization method with the traditional phase-shifting method show that when the same photon resources are used, the optimization method provides phase recoveries with tighter error bars. In particular, rms phase error performance of the optimization method for low photon number data (10 photons per pixel) shows a >5 × noise gain over the phase-shifting method. In our experiments where a laser light source is used for illumination, the results imply phase measurement with an accuracy better than the conventional single-pixel-based shot-noise limit that assumes independent phases at individual pixels. The constrained optimization approach presented here is independent of the nature of the light source and may further enhance the accuracy of phase detection when a nonclassical-light source is used.

  2. An Accurate Projector Calibration Method Based on Polynomial Distortion Representation

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Miao; Sun, Changku; Huang, Shujun; Zhang, Zonghua

    2015-01-01

    In structure light measurement systems or 3D printing systems, the errors caused by optical distortion of a digital projector always affect the precision performance and cannot be ignored. Existing methods to calibrate the projection distortion rely on calibration plate and photogrammetry, so the calibration performance is largely affected by the quality of the plate and the imaging system. This paper proposes a new projector calibration approach that makes use of photodiodes to directly detect the light emitted from a digital projector. By analyzing the output sequence of the photoelectric module, the pixel coordinates can be accurately obtained by the curve fitting method. A polynomial distortion representation is employed to reduce the residuals of the traditional distortion representation model. Experimental results and performance evaluation show that the proposed calibration method is able to avoid most of the disadvantages in traditional methods and achieves a higher accuracy. This proposed method is also practically applicable to evaluate the geometric optical performance of other optical projection system. PMID:26492247

  3. Mill profiler machines soft materials accurately

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rauschl, J. A.

    1966-01-01

    Mill profiler machines bevels, slots, and grooves in soft materials, such as styrofoam phenolic-filled cores, to any desired thickness. A single operator can accurately control cutting depths in contour or straight line work.

  4. Accurate paleointensities - the multi-method approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Groot, Lennart

    2016-04-01

    The accuracy of models describing rapid changes in the geomagnetic field over the past millennia critically depends on the availability of reliable paleointensity estimates. Over the past decade methods to derive paleointensities from lavas (the only recorder of the geomagnetic field that is available all over the globe and through geologic times) have seen significant improvements and various alternative techniques were proposed. The 'classical' Thellier-style approach was optimized and selection criteria were defined in the 'Standard Paleointensity Definitions' (Paterson et al, 2014). The Multispecimen approach was validated and the importance of additional tests and criteria to assess Multispecimen results must be emphasized. Recently, a non-heating, relative paleointensity technique was proposed -the pseudo-Thellier protocol- which shows great potential in both accuracy and efficiency, but currently lacks a solid theoretical underpinning. Here I present work using all three of the aforementioned paleointensity methods on suites of young lavas taken from the volcanic islands of Hawaii, La Palma, Gran Canaria, Tenerife, and Terceira. Many of the sampled cooling units are <100 years old, the actual field strength at the time of cooling is therefore reasonably well known. Rather intuitively, flows that produce coherent results from two or more different paleointensity methods yield the most accurate estimates of the paleofield. Furthermore, the results for some flows pass the selection criteria for one method, but fail in other techniques. Scrutinizing and combing all acceptable results yielded reliable paleointensity estimates for 60-70% of all sampled cooling units - an exceptionally high success rate. This 'multi-method paleointensity approach' therefore has high potential to provide the much-needed paleointensities to improve geomagnetic field models for the Holocene.

  5. First results from the microwave air yield beam experiment (MAYBE): Measurement of GHz radiation for ultra-high energy cosmic ray detection

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, C.; Bohacova, M.; Bonifazi, C.; Cataldi, G.; Chemerisov, S.; De Mello Neto, J. R.T.; Facal San Luis, P.; Fox, B.; Gorham, P. W.; Hojvat, C.; Hollon, N.; Meyhandan, R.; Monasor, M.; D'Orfeuil, B. Rouille; Santos, E. M.; Pochez, J.; Privitera, P.; Spinka, H.; Verzi, V.; Zhou, J.

    2013-01-01

    We present measurements of microwave emission from an electron-beam induced air plasma performed at the 3 MeV electron Van de Graaff facility of the Argonne National Laboratory. Results include the emission spectrum between 1 and 15 GHz, the polarization of the microwave radiation and the scaling of the emitted power with respect to beam intensity. MAYBE measurements provide further insight on microwave emission from extensive air showers as a novel detection technique for Ultra-High Energy Cosmic Rays.

  6. Simple Mathematical Models Do Not Accurately Predict Early SIV Dynamics

    PubMed Central

    Noecker, Cecilia; Schaefer, Krista; Zaccheo, Kelly; Yang, Yiding; Day, Judy; Ganusov, Vitaly V.

    2015-01-01

    Upon infection of a new host, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) replicates in the mucosal tissues and is generally undetectable in circulation for 1–2 weeks post-infection. Several interventions against HIV including vaccines and antiretroviral prophylaxis target virus replication at this earliest stage of infection. Mathematical models have been used to understand how HIV spreads from mucosal tissues systemically and what impact vaccination and/or antiretroviral prophylaxis has on viral eradication. Because predictions of such models have been rarely compared to experimental data, it remains unclear which processes included in these models are critical for predicting early HIV dynamics. Here we modified the “standard” mathematical model of HIV infection to include two populations of infected cells: cells that are actively producing the virus and cells that are transitioning into virus production mode. We evaluated the effects of several poorly known parameters on infection outcomes in this model and compared model predictions to experimental data on infection of non-human primates with variable doses of simian immunodifficiency virus (SIV). First, we found that the mode of virus production by infected cells (budding vs. bursting) has a minimal impact on the early virus dynamics for a wide range of model parameters, as long as the parameters are constrained to provide the observed rate of SIV load increase in the blood of infected animals. Interestingly and in contrast with previous results, we found that the bursting mode of virus production generally results in a higher probability of viral extinction than the budding mode of virus production. Second, this mathematical model was not able to accurately describe the change in experimentally determined probability of host infection with increasing viral doses. Third and finally, the model was also unable to accurately explain the decline in the time to virus detection with increasing viral dose. These results

  7. Measuring the Detection Efficiency of the Kepler Pipeline: The First Results from a Simulated Transit Experiment Spanning the Full Observation Baseline

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Christiansen, Jessie Leigh; Clarke, Bruce; Burke, Christopher; Seader, Shawn; Jenkins, Jon Michael; Twicken, Joseph; smith, jeffrey; Batalha, Natalie; haas, michael; thompson, susan

    2015-08-01

    As the full Kepler dataset is analysed and made available, the Kepler project has published a series of planet candidate lists. In order for both the project and the community to determine the true planet occurrence rates from these candidate lists, we need to measure the detection efficiency of the Kepler pipeline from which the candidates are produced, that is, the rate at which planets are missed in the analysis. We present here the preliminary results from the first empirical measurement of the detection efficiency of the pipeline on the full seventeen quarters of data, extending our previous measurements using one and four quarters of data. For the first time, we are also able to use the identical data products and pipeline versions as those used to generate the Q1-Q17 planet candidate catalogue, and as a consequence, the measured detection efficiency can be used directly in the inference of the planet occurrence rates. In particular, we examine the impact of the large rate of false positives in the Kepler planet candidate lists at periods of 200-400 days, due to temperature-dependent electronic artifacts in the Kepler CCDs, on the detection of real planets at those periods, which are critical to habitable zone occurrence rate calculations.

  8. Accurate Theoretical Thermochemistry for Fluoroethyl Radicals.

    PubMed

    Ganyecz, Ádám; Kállay, Mihály; Csontos, József

    2017-02-09

    An accurate coupled-cluster (CC) based model chemistry was applied to calculate reliable thermochemical quantities for hydrofluorocarbon derivatives including radicals 1-fluoroethyl (CH3-CHF), 1,1-difluoroethyl (CH3-CF2), 2-fluoroethyl (CH2F-CH2), 1,2-difluoroethyl (CH2F-CHF), 2,2-difluoroethyl (CHF2-CH2), 2,2,2-trifluoroethyl (CF3-CH2), 1,2,2,2-tetrafluoroethyl (CF3-CHF), and pentafluoroethyl (CF3-CF2). The model chemistry used contains iterative triple and perturbative quadruple excitations in CC theory, as well as scalar relativistic and diagonal Born-Oppenheimer corrections. To obtain heat of formation values with better than chemical accuracy perturbative quadruple excitations and scalar relativistic corrections were inevitable. Their contributions to the heats of formation steadily increase with the number of fluorine atoms in the radical reaching 10 kJ/mol for CF3-CF2. When discrepancies were found between the experimental and our values it was always possible to resolve the issue by recalculating the experimental result with currently recommended auxiliary data. For each radical studied here this study delivers the best heat of formation as well as entropy data.

  9. Accurate equilibrium structures for piperidine and cyclohexane.

    PubMed

    Demaison, Jean; Craig, Norman C; Groner, Peter; Écija, Patricia; Cocinero, Emilio J; Lesarri, Alberto; Rudolph, Heinz Dieter

    2015-03-05

    Extended and improved microwave (MW) measurements are reported for the isotopologues of piperidine. New ground state (GS) rotational constants are fitted to MW transitions with quartic centrifugal distortion constants taken from ab initio calculations. Predicate values for the geometric parameters of piperidine and cyclohexane are found from a high level of ab initio theory including adjustments for basis set dependence and for correlation of the core electrons. Equilibrium rotational constants are obtained from GS rotational constants corrected for vibration-rotation interactions and electronic contributions. Equilibrium structures for piperidine and cyclohexane are fitted by the mixed estimation method. In this method, structural parameters are fitted concurrently to predicate parameters (with appropriate uncertainties) and moments of inertia (with uncertainties). The new structures are regarded as being accurate to 0.001 Å and 0.2°. Comparisons are made between bond parameters in equatorial piperidine and cyclohexane. Another interesting result of this study is that a structure determination is an effective way to check the accuracy of the ground state experimental rotational constants.

  10. Accurate upper body rehabilitation system using kinect.

    PubMed

    Sinha, Sanjana; Bhowmick, Brojeshwar; Chakravarty, Kingshuk; Sinha, Aniruddha; Das, Abhijit

    2016-08-01

    The growing importance of Kinect as a tool for clinical assessment and rehabilitation is due to its portability, low cost and markerless system for human motion capture. However, the accuracy of Kinect in measuring three-dimensional body joint center locations often fails to meet clinical standards of accuracy when compared to marker-based motion capture systems such as Vicon. The length of the body segment connecting any two joints, measured as the distance between three-dimensional Kinect skeleton joint coordinates, has been observed to vary with time. The orientation of the line connecting adjoining Kinect skeletal coordinates has also been seen to differ from the actual orientation of the physical body segment. Hence we have proposed an optimization method that utilizes Kinect Depth and RGB information to search for the joint center location that satisfies constraints on body segment length and as well as orientation. An experimental study have been carried out on ten healthy participants performing upper body range of motion exercises. The results report 72% reduction in body segment length variance and 2° improvement in Range of Motion (ROM) angle hence enabling to more accurate measurements for upper limb exercises.

  11. Usefulness of the pediatric electrocardiogram in detecting left ventricular hypertrophy: Results from the Prospective Pediatric Pulmonary and Cardiovascular Complications of Vertically Transmitted HIV Infection (P2C2 HIV) Multicenter study

    PubMed Central

    Rivenes, Shannon M.; Colan, Steven D.; Easley, Kirk A.; Kaplan, Samuel; Jenkins, Kathy J.; Khan, Mohammed N.; Lai, Wyman W.; Lipshultz, Steven E.; Moodie, Douglas S.; Starc, Thomas J.; Sopko, George; Zhang, Weihong; Bricker, J. Timothy

    2015-01-01

    Background A shortcoming of the pediatric electrocardiogram (ECG) appears to be its inability to accurately detect left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH). This study prospectively assesses the usefulness of the pediatric ECG as a screening modality for LVH. Methods Concomitant echocardiograms and ECGs from a large cohort of children who were exposed to the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV; uninfected) and children who were infected with HIV were compared. By use of the values of Davignon et al, qualitative determination of LVH and quantitative criteria for LVH (RV6, SV1, RV6+SV1, QV6, and QIII >98% for age, R/SV1 <98% for age, and [−]TV6) were compared to body surface area adjusted for left ventricular (LV) mass z score. Results were then stratified according to weight and weight-for-height z scores. New age-adjusted predicted values were then constructed from children of a mixed race who were HIV-uninfected, ≤6 years old, and similarly assessed. Results The sensitivity rate was <20% for detecting increased LV mass, irrespective of HIV status; the specificity rate was 88% to 92%. The sensitivity rate of the individual criteria ranged from 0 to 35%; the specificity rate was 76% to 99%. Test sensitivities remained low when stratified by weight and weight-for-height z scores. Areas under the receiver operator characteristic curves were between 0.59 and 0.70, also suggesting poor accuracy of the ECG criteria. By use of new age-adjusted predicted values, the sensitivity rate decreased to <17%, and the specificity rate increased to 94% to 100%. Conclusion The ECG is a poor screening tool for identifying LVH in children. Sensitivity is not improved with revision of current criteria. PMID:12679770

  12. Passive Detection of Biological Aerosols in the Atmosphere with a Fourier Transform Instrument (FTIR)—the Results of the Measurements in the Laboratory and in the Field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Błęcka, M. I.; Rataj, M.; Szymański, G.

    2012-06-01

    Fourier Transform Infrared Radiation (FTIR) spectroscopy is one of the most powerful methods for the detection of gaseous constituents, aerosols, and dust in planetary atmospheres. Infrared spectroscopy plays an important role in searching for biomarkers, organics and biological substances in the Universe. The possibility of detection and identifications with FTIR spectrometer of bio-aerosol spores ( Bacillus atrophaeus var. globigii=BG) in the atmosphere is discussed in this paper. We describe the results of initial spectral measurements performed in the laboratory and in the field. The purpose of these experiments was to detect and to identify bio-aerosol spores in two conditions: 1) In a closed chamber where the thermal contrast between the background and aerosols was large, and 2) In open air where the thermal contrast between the background and aerosols was small. The extinction spectrum of BG spores was deduced by comparing our measurements with models, and other measurements known from the literature. Our theoretical and experimental studies indicate that, during passive remote sensing measurements, it is difficult—but possible to detect and to identify bio-aerosol clouds by their spectral signatures. The simple spectral analysis described in the paper can be useful for the detection of various kinds of trace aerosols—not only in the Earth's atmosphere, but also during planetary missions in the environments of other astronomical objects such as planets, comets etc. We expect that the interpretation of data from spectrometric sounding of Venus and Mars during the current missions Mars and Venus Express, and later during the Rosetta mission will benefit from our experimental work and numerical modelling.

  13. Automatic classification and accurate size measurement of blank mask defects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhamidipati, Samir; Paninjath, Sankaranarayanan; Pereira, Mark; Buck, Peter

    2015-07-01

    A blank mask and its preparation stages, such as cleaning or resist coating, play an important role in the eventual yield obtained by using it. Blank mask defects' impact analysis directly depends on the amount of available information such as the number of defects observed, their accurate locations and sizes. Mask usability qualification at the start of the preparation process, is crudely based on number of defects. Similarly, defect information such as size is sought to estimate eventual defect printability on the wafer. Tracking of defect characteristics, specifically size and shape, across multiple stages, can further be indicative of process related information such as cleaning or coating process efficiencies. At the first level, inspection machines address the requirement of defect characterization by detecting and reporting relevant defect information. The analysis of this information though is still largely a manual process. With advancing technology nodes and reducing half-pitch sizes, a large number of defects are observed; and the detailed knowledge associated, make manual defect review process an arduous task, in addition to adding sensitivity to human errors. Cases where defect information reported by inspection machine is not sufficient, mask shops rely on other tools. Use of CDSEM tools is one such option. However, these additional steps translate into increased costs. Calibre NxDAT based MDPAutoClassify tool provides an automated software alternative to the manual defect review process. Working on defect images generated by inspection machines, the tool extracts and reports additional information such as defect location, useful for defect avoidance[4][5]; defect size, useful in estimating defect printability; and, defect nature e.g. particle, scratch, resist void, etc., useful for process monitoring. The tool makes use of smart and elaborate post-processing algorithms to achieve this. Their elaborateness is a consequence of the variety and

  14. First Results of a Detection Sensor for the Monitoring of Laying Hens Reared in a Commercial Organic Egg Production Farm Based on the Use of Infrared Technology

    PubMed Central

    Zaninelli, Mauro; Redaelli, Veronica; Tirloni, Erica; Bernardi, Cristian; Dell’Orto, Vittorio; Savoini, Giovanni

    2016-01-01

    The development of a monitoring system to identify the presence of laying hens, in a closed room of a free-range commercial organic egg production farm, was the aim of this study. This monitoring system was based on the infrared (IR) technology and had, as final target, a possible reduction of atmospheric ammonia levels and bacterial load. Tests were carried out for three weeks and involved 7 ISA (Institut de Sélection Animale) brown laying hens. The first 5 days was used to set up the detection sensor, while the other 15 days were used to evaluate the accuracy of the resulting monitoring system, in terms of sensitivity and specificity. The setup procedure included the evaluation of different color background (CB) thresholds, used to discriminate the information contents of the thermographic images. At the end of this procedure, a CB threshold equal to an increase of 3 °C from the floor temperature was chosen, and a cutoff level of 196 colored pixels was identified as the threshold to use to classify a positive case. The results of field tests showed that the developed monitoring system reached a fine detection accuracy (sensitivity = 97.9% and specificity = 94.9%) and the IR technology proved to be a possible solution for the development of a detection sensor necessary to reach the scope of this study. PMID:27775658

  15. Important Nearby Galaxies without Accurate Distances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McQuinn, Kristen

    2014-10-01

    The Spitzer Infrared Nearby Galaxies Survey (SINGS) and its offspring programs (e.g., THINGS, HERACLES, KINGFISH) have resulted in a fundamental change in our view of star formation and the ISM in galaxies, and together they represent the most complete multi-wavelength data set yet assembled for a large sample of nearby galaxies. These great investments of observing time have been dedicated to the goal of understanding the interstellar medium, the star formation process, and, more generally, galactic evolution at the present epoch. Nearby galaxies provide the basis for which we interpret the distant universe, and the SINGS sample represents the best studied nearby galaxies.Accurate distances are fundamental to interpreting observations of galaxies. Surprisingly, many of the SINGS spiral galaxies have numerous distance estimates resulting in confusion. We can rectify this situation for 8 of the SINGS spiral galaxies within 10 Mpc at a very low cost through measurements of the tip of the red giant branch. The proposed observations will provide an accuracy of better than 0.1 in distance modulus. Our sample includes such well known galaxies as M51 (the Whirlpool), M63 (the Sunflower), M104 (the Sombrero), and M74 (the archetypal grand design spiral).We are also proposing coordinated parallel WFC3 UV observations of the central regions of the galaxies, rich with high-mass UV-bright stars. As a secondary science goal we will compare the resolved UV stellar populations with integrated UV emission measurements used in calibrating star formation rates. Our observations will complement the growing HST UV atlas of high resolution images of nearby galaxies.

  16. An fMRI approach to particularize the frontoparietal network for visuomotor action monitoring: Detection of incongruence between test subjects' actions and resulting perceptions.

    PubMed

    Schnell, Knut; Heekeren, Karsten; Schnitker, Ralf; Daumann, Jörg; Weber, Jochen; Hesselmann, Volker; Möller-Hartmann, Walter; Thron, Armin; Gouzoulis-Mayfrank, Euphrosyne

    2007-01-01

    Contemporary theories of motor control assume that motor actions underlie a supervisory control system which utilizes reafferent sensory feedbacks of actions for comparison with the original motor programs. The functional network of visuomotor action monitoring is considered to include inferior parietal, lateral and medial prefrontal cortices. To study both sustained monitoring for visuomotor incongruence and the actual detection of incongruence, we used a hybrid fMRI epoch-/event-related design. The basic experimental task was a continuous motor task, comprising a simple racing game. Within certain blocks of this task, incongruence was artificially generated by intermittent takeover of control over the car by the computer. Fifteen male subjects were instructed to monitor for incongruence between their own and the observed actions in order to abstain from their own action whenever the computer took over control. As a result of both sustained monitoring and actual detection of visuomotor incongruence, the rostral inferior parietal lobule displayed a BOLD signal increase. In contrast, the prefrontal cortex (PFC) exhibited two different activation patterns. Dorsolateral (BA 9/46) and medial/cingulate (BA 8, BA 32) areas of the PFC displayed a greater increase of activation in sustained monitoring, while ventrolateral PFC showed greater event-related activation for the actual detection of visuomotor incongruence. Our results suggest that the rostral inferior parietal lobule is specifically involved in the reafferent comparison of the test subjects' own actions and visually perceived actions. Different activation patterns of the PFC may reflect different frontoparietal networks for sustained action monitoring and actual detection of reafferent incongruence.

  17. Simple, rapid and accurate molecular diagnosis of acute promyelocytic leukemia by loop mediated amplification technology.

    PubMed

    Spinelli, Orietta; Rambaldi, Alessandro; Rigo, Francesca; Zanghì, Pamela; D'Agostini, Elena; Amicarelli, Giulia; Colotta, Francesco; Divona, Mariadomenica; Ciardi, Claudia; Coco, Francesco Lo; Minnucci, Giulia

    2015-01-01

    The diagnostic work-up of acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) includes the cytogenetic demonstration of the t(15;17) translocation and/or the PML-RARA chimeric transcript by RQ-PCR or RT-PCR. This latter assays provide suitable results in 3-6 hours. We describe here two new, rapid and specific assays that detect PML-RARA transcripts, based on the RT-QLAMP (Reverse Transcription-Quenching Loop-mediated Isothermal Amplification) technology in which RNA retrotranscription and cDNA amplification are carried out in a single tube with one enzyme at one temperature, in fluorescence and real time format. A single tube triplex assay detects bcr1 and bcr3 PML-RARA transcripts along with GUS housekeeping gene. A single tube duplex assay detects bcr2 and GUSB. In 73 APL cases, these assays detected in 16 minutes bcr1, bcr2 and bcr3 transcripts. All 81 non-APL samples were negative by RT-QLAMP for chimeric transcripts whereas GUSB was detectable. In 11 APL patients in which RT-PCR yielded equivocal breakpoint type results, RT-QLAMP assays unequivocally and accurately defined the breakpoint type (as confirmed by sequencing). Furthermore, RT-QLAMP could amplify two bcr2 transcripts with particularly extended PML exon 6 deletions not amplified by RQ-PCR. RT-QLAMP reproducible sensitivity is 10(-3) for bcr1 and bcr3 and 10(-)2 for bcr2 thus making this assay particularly attractive at diagnosis and leaving RQ-PCR for the molecular monitoring of minimal residual disease during the follow up. In conclusion, PML-RARA RT-QLAMP compared to RT-PCR or RQ-PCR is a valid improvement to perform rapid, simple and accurate molecular diagnosis of APL.

  18. Simple, rapid and accurate molecular diagnosis of acute promyelocytic leukemia by loop mediated amplification technology

    PubMed Central

    Spinelli, Orietta; Rambaldi, Alessandro; Rigo, Francesca; Zanghì, Pamela; D'Agostini, Elena; Amicarelli, Giulia; Colotta, Francesco; Divona, Mariadomenica; Ciardi, Claudia; Coco, Francesco Lo; Minnucci, Giulia

    2015-01-01

    The diagnostic work-up of acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) includes the cytogenetic demonstration of the t(15;17) translocation and/or the PML-RARA chimeric transcript by RQ-PCR or RT-PCR. This latter assays provide suitable results in 3-6 hours. We describe here two new, rapid and specific assays that detect PML-RARA transcripts, based on the RT-QLAMP (Reverse Transcription-Quenching Loop-mediated Isothermal Amplification) technology in which RNA retrotranscription and cDNA amplification are carried out in a single tube with one enzyme at one temperature, in fluorescence and real time format. A single tube triplex assay detects bcr1 and bcr3 PML-RARA transcripts along with GUS housekeeping gene. A single tube duplex assay detects bcr2 and GUSB. In 73 APL cases, these assays detected in 16 minutes bcr1, bcr2 and bcr3 transcripts. All 81 non-APL samples were negative by RT-QLAMP for chimeric transcripts whereas GUSB was detectable. In 11 APL patients in which RT-PCR yielded equivocal breakpoint type results, RT-QLAMP assays unequivocally and accurately defined the breakpoint type (as confirmed by sequencing). Furthermore, RT-QLAMP could amplify two bcr2 transcripts with particularly extended PML exon 6 deletions not amplified by RQ-PCR. RT-QLAMP reproducible sensitivity is 10−3 for bcr1 and bcr3 and 10−2 for bcr2 thus making this assay particularly attractive at diagnosis and leaving RQ-PCR for the molecular monitoring of minimal residual disease during the follow up. In conclusion, PML-RARA RT-QLAMP compared to RT-PCR or RQ-PCR is a valid improvement to perform rapid, simple and accurate molecular diagnosis of APL. PMID:25815362

  19. Accurate real-time depth control for CP-SSOCT distal sensor based handheld microsurgery tools

    PubMed Central

    Cheon, Gyeong Woo; Huang, Yong; Cha, Jaepyeng; Gehlbach, Peter L.; Kang, Jin U.

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a novel intuitive targeting and tracking scheme that utilizes a common-path swept source optical coherence tomography (CP-SSOCT) distal sensor integrated handheld microsurgical tool. To achieve micron-order precision control, a reliable and accurate OCT distal sensing method is required; simultaneously, a prediction algorithm is necessary to compensate for the system delay associated with the computational, mechanical and electronic latencies. Due to the multi-layered structure of retina, it is necessary to develop effective surface detection methods rather than simple peak detection. To achieve this, a shifted cross-correlation method is applied for surface detection in order to increase robustness and accuracy in distal sensing. A predictor based on Kalman filter was implemented for more precise motion compensation. The performance was first evaluated using an established dry phantom consisting of stacked cellophane tape. This was followed by evaluation in an ex-vivo bovine retina model to assess system accuracy and precision. The results demonstrate highly accurate depth targeting with less than 5 μm RMSE depth locking. PMID:26137393

  20. The development of rapid and accurate screening test for RET hotspot somatic and germline mutations in MEN2 syndromes.

    PubMed

    Zupan, Andrej; Glavač, Damjan

    2015-12-01

    Medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC) is a rare endocrine malignancy with distinctive features separating it from other thyroid cancers. Cancer may be sporadic or occur as a consequence of the hereditary syndrome called multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2 (MEN2) with three distinct phenotypes in MEN2A, MEN2B and FMTC. Each variant of MEN2 results from different RET gene mutations, with a good genotype-phenotype correlation. The goal of the study was to develop a fast and accurate screening method for a reliable detection of hot-spot RET germline and sporadic tumor mutations. From a cohort of 191 patients with MTC and their relatives, 38 tested positive and 31 tested negative for a germline or somatic tumor RET mutation were selected. A positive HRM mutation pattern was detected in all mutation-positive patients and altogether the method was able to clearly differentiate between twenty different genotypes. A novel germline variant p.Ala639Thr was detected in MTC patient, which was determined to be likely benign. Analytical specificity was determined to be 98.6% and a sensitivity threshold was determined to be 30%. The fast and accurate HRM method reduces the turnaround time providing fast and important information, especially when targeted anti-tyrosine kinase therapy on tumor samples is considered. Overall, we developed a high-throughput, accurate and cost-effective approach for the detection of RET germline and sporadic tumor mutations.

  1. Library preparation for highly accurate population sequencing of RNA viruses

    PubMed Central

    Acevedo, Ashley; Andino, Raul

    2015-01-01

    Circular resequencing (CirSeq) is a novel technique for efficient and highly accurate next-generation sequencing (NGS) of RNA virus populations. The foundation of this approach is the circularization of fragmented viral RNAs, which are then redundantly encoded into tandem repeats by ‘rolling-circle’ reverse transcription. When sequenced, the redundant copies within each read are aligned to derive a consensus sequence of their initial RNA template. This process yields sequencing data with error rates far below the variant frequencies observed for RNA viruses, facilitating ultra-rare variant detection and accurate measurement of low-frequency variants. Although library preparation takes ~5 d, the high-quality data generated by CirSeq simplifies downstream data analysis, making this approach substantially more tractable for experimentalists. PMID:24967624

  2. Bicluster Sampled Coherence Metric (BSCM) provides an accurate environmental context for phenotype predictions

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Background Biclustering is a popular method for identifying under which experimental conditions biological signatures are co-expressed. However, the general biclustering problem is NP-hard, offering room to focus algorithms on specific biological tasks. We hypothesize that conditional co-regulation of genes is a key factor in determining cell phenotype and that accurately segregating conditions in biclusters will improve such predictions. Thus, we developed a bicluster sampled coherence metric (BSCM) for determining which conditions and signals should be included in a bicluster. Results Our BSCM calculates condition and cluster size specific p-values, and we incorporated these into the popular integrated biclustering algorithm cMonkey. We demonstrate that incorporation of our new algorithm significantly improves bicluster co-regulation scores (p-value = 0.009) and GO annotation scores (p-value = 0.004). Additionally, we used a bicluster based signal to predict whether a given experimental condition will result in yeast peroxisome induction. Using the new algorithm, the classifier accuracy improves from 41.9% to 76.1% correct. Conclusions We demonstrate that the proposed BSCM helps determine which signals ought to be co-clustered, resulting in more accurately assigned bicluster membership. Furthermore, we show that BSCM can be extended to more accurately detect under which experimental conditions the genes are co-clustered. Features derived from this more accurate analysis of conditional regulation results in a dramatic improvement in the ability to predict a cellular phenotype in yeast. The latest cMonkey is available for download at https://github.com/baliga-lab/cmonkey2. The experimental data and source code featured in this paper is available http://AitchisonLab.com/BSCM. BSCM has been incorporated in the official cMonkey release. PMID:25881257

  3. Accurate orbit propagation with planetary close encounters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baù, Giulio; Milani Comparetti, Andrea; Guerra, Francesca

    2015-08-01

    We tackle the problem of accurately propagating the motion of those small bodies that undergo close approaches with a planet. The literature is lacking on this topic and the reliability of the numerical results is not sufficiently discussed. The high-frequency components of the perturbation generated by a close encounter makes the propagation particularly challenging both from the point of view of the dynamical stability of the formulation and the numerical stability of the integrator. In our approach a fixed step-size and order multistep integrator is combined with a regularized formulation of the perturbed two-body problem. When the propagated object enters the region of influence of a celestial body, the latter becomes the new primary body of attraction. Moreover, the formulation and the step-size will also be changed if necessary. We present: 1) the restarter procedure applied to the multistep integrator whenever the primary body is changed; 2) new analytical formulae for setting the step-size (given the order of the multistep, formulation and initial osculating orbit) in order to control the accumulation of the local truncation error and guarantee the numerical stability during the propagation; 3) a new definition of the region of influence in the phase space. We test the propagator with some real asteroids subject to the gravitational attraction of the planets, the Yarkovsky and relativistic perturbations. Our goal is to show that the proposed approach improves the performance of both the propagator implemented in the OrbFit software package (which is currently used by the NEODyS service) and of the propagator represented by a variable step-size and order multistep method combined with Cowell's formulation (i.e. direct integration of position and velocity in either the physical or a fictitious time).

  4. A Novel PCR-Based Approach for Accurate Identification of Vibrio parahaemolyticus

    PubMed Central

    Li, Ruichao; Chiou, Jiachi; Chan, Edward Wai-Chi; Chen, Sheng

    2016-01-01

    A PCR-based assay was developed for more accurate identification of Vibrio parahaemolyticus through targeting the blaCARB-17 like element, an intrinsic β-lactamase gene that may also be regarded as a novel species-specific genetic marker of this organism. Homologous analysis showed that blaCARB-17 like genes were more conservative than the tlh, toxR and atpA genes, the genetic markers commonly used as detection targets in identification of V. parahaemolyticus. Our data showed that this blaCARB-17-specific PCR-based detection approach consistently achieved 100% specificity, whereas PCR targeting the tlh and atpA genes occasionally produced false positive results. Furthermore, a positive result of this test is consistently associated with an intrinsic ampicillin resistance phenotype of the test organism, presumably conferred by the products of blaCARB-17 like genes. We envision that combined analysis of the unique genetic and phenotypic characteristics conferred by blaCARB-17 shall further enhance the detection specificity of this novel yet easy-to-use detection approach to a level superior to the conventional methods used in V. parahaemolyticus detection and identification. PMID:26858713

  5. Detection of Potential Transit Signals in 17 Quarters of Kepler Data: Results of the Final Kepler Mission Transiting Planet Search (DR25)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Twicken, Joseph D.; Jenkins, Jon M.; Seader, Shawn E.; Tenenbaum, Peter; Smith, Jeffrey C.; Brownston, Lee S.; Burke, Christopher J.; Catanzarite, Joseph H.; Clarke, Bruce D.; Cote, Miles T.; Girouard, Forrest R.; Klaus, Todd C.; Li, Jie; McCauliff, Sean D.; Morris, Robert L.; Wohler, Bill; Campbell, Jennifer R.; Kamal Uddin, Akm; Zamudio, Khadeejah A.; Sabale, Anima; Bryson, Steven T.; Caldwell, Douglas A.; Christiansen, Jessie L.; Coughlin, Jeffrey L.; Haas, Michael R.; Henze, Christopher E.; Sanderfer, Dwight T.; Thompson, Susan E.

    2016-12-01

    We present results of the final Kepler Data Processing Pipeline search for transiting planet signals in the full 17-quarter primary mission data set. The search includes a total of 198,709 stellar targets, of which 112,046 were observed in all 17 quarters and 86,663 in fewer than 17 quarters. We report on 17,230 targets for which at least one transit signature is identified that meets the specified detection criteria: periodicity, minimum of three observed transit events, detection statistic (i.e., signal-to-noise ratio) in excess of the search threshold, and passing grade on three statistical transit consistency tests. Light curves for which a transit signal is identified are iteratively searched for additional signatures after a limb-darkened transiting planet model is fitted to the data and transit events are removed. The search for additional planets adds 16,802 transit signals for a total of 34,032; this far exceeds the number of transit signatures identified in prior pipeline runs. There was a strategic emphasis on completeness over reliability for the final Kepler transit search. A comparison of the transit signals against a set of 3402 well-established, high-quality Kepler Objects of Interest yields a recovery rate of 99.8%. The high recovery rate must be weighed against a large number of false-alarm detections. We examine characteristics of the planet population implied by the transiting planet model fits with an emphasis on detections that would represent small planets orbiting in the habitable zone of their host stars.

  6. CHANG'E-3 Active Particle-induced X-ray Spectrometer: first detection near the landing site and preliminary analysis result

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, Wenxi; Cui, XingZhu; Wang, Huanyu; Guo, Dongya

    Active Particle-induced X-ray Spectrometer (APXS) onboard CHANG'E-3 Yutu rover was the first high energy resolution instrument of X-ray spectrometry sent to the lunar surface. The scientific objective of APXS is to investigate the elemental compositions along the route of the lunar rover on the Moon.Here, the first lunar soil detection near the landing site made by APXS is presented. The initial analysis indicate that the lunar regolith in this area is rich in both TiO2 and FeO, which is consistent with the remote sensing results.

  7. Label-free porous silicon immunosensor for broad detection of opiates in a blind clinical study and results comparison to commercial analytical chemistry techniques.

    PubMed

    Bonanno, Lisa M; Kwong, Tai C; DeLouise, Lisa A

    2010-12-01

    In this work, we evaluate for the first time the performance of a label-free porous silicon (PSi) immunosensor assay in a blind clinical study designed to screen authentic patient urine specimens for a broad range of opiates. The PSi opiate immunosensor achieved 96% concordance with liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry/tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) results on samples that underwent standard opiate testing (n = 50). In addition, successful detection of a commonly abused opiate, oxycodone, resulted in 100% qualitative agreement between the PSi opiate sensor and LC-MS/MS. In contrast, a commercial broad opiate immunoassay technique (CEDIA) achieved 65% qualitative concordance with LC-MS/MS. Evaluation of important performance attributes including precision, accuracy, and recovery was completed on blank urine specimens spiked with test analytes. Variability of morphine detection as a model opiate target was <9% both within-run and between-day at and above the cutoff limit of 300 ng mL(-1). This study validates the analytical screening capability of label-free PSi opiate immunosensors in authentic patient samples and is the first semiquantitative demonstration of the technology's successful clinical use. These results motivate future development of label-free PSi technology to reduce complexity and cost of diagnostic testing particularly in a point-of-care setting.

  8. A Label-Free Porous Silicon Immunosensor for Broad Detection of Opiates in a Blind Clinical Study and Result Comparison to Commercial Analytical Chemistry Techniques

    PubMed Central

    Bonanno, Lisa M.; Kwong, Tai C.; DeLouise, Lisa A.

    2010-01-01

    In this work we evaluate for the first time the performance of a label-free porous silicon (PSi) immunosensor assay in a blind clinical study designed to screen authentic patient urine specimens for a broad range of opiates. The PSi opiate immunosensor achieved 96% concordance with liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry/tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) results on samples that underwent standard opiate testing (n=50). In addition, successful detection of a commonly abused opiate, oxycodone, resulted in 100% qualitative agreement between the PSi opiate sensor and LC-MS/MS. In contrast, a commercial broad opiate immunoassay technique (CEDIA®) achieved 65% qualitative concordance with LC-MS/MS. Evaluation of important performance attributes including precision, accuracy, and recovery was completed on blank urine specimens spiked with test analytes. Variability of morphine detection as a model opiate target was < 9% both within-run and between-day at and above the cutoff limit of 300 ng ml−1. This study validates the analytical screening capability of label-free PSi opiate immunosensors in authentic patient samples and is the first semi-quantitative demonstration of the technology’s successful clinical use. These results motivate future development of PSi technology to reduce complexity and cost of diagnostic testing particularly in a point-of-care setting. PMID:21062030

  9. Effects of blood contamination of cerebrospinal fluid on results of indirect fluorescent antibody tests for detection of antibodies against Sarcocystis neurona and Neospora hughesi.

    PubMed

    Finno, Carrie J; Packham, Andrea E; David Wilson, W; Gardner, Ian A; Conrad, Patricia A; Pusterla, Nicola

    2007-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of blood contamination of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) on the results of indirect fluorescent antibody tests (IFATs) for Sarcocystis neurona and Neospora hughesi. The in vitro study used antibody-negative CSF collected from non-neurologic horses immediately after euthanasia and blood samples from 40 healthy horses that had a range of IFAT antibody titers against S. neurona and N. hughesi. Serial dilutions of whole blood were made in seronegative CSF to generate blood-contaminated CSF with red blood cell (RBC) concentrations ranging from 10 to 100,000 RBCs/microl. The blood-contaminated CSF samples were then tested for antibodies against both pathogens using IFAT. Blood contamination of CSF had no detectable effect on IFAT results for S. neurona or N. hughesi at any serologic titer when the RBC concentration in CSF was <10,000 RBCs/microl. At concentrations of 10,000-100,000 RBCs/microl of CSF, positive CSF results (IFAT titer >or=5) for S. neurona and N. hughesi were detected only when the corresponding serum titers were >or=160 and >or=80, respectively. The IFAT performed on CSF is reliable for testing horses for equine protozoal myeloencephalitis caused by S. neurona or N. hughesi, even when blood contamination causes the RBC concentration in CSF to be up to 10,000 RBCs/microl.

  10. Accurate identification of periodic oscillations buried in white or colored noise using fast orthogonal search.

    PubMed

    Chon, K H

    2001-06-01

    We use a previously introduced fast orthogonal search algorithm to detect sinusoidal frequency components buried in either white or colored noise. We show that the method outperforms the correlogram, modified covariance autoregressive (MODCOVAR) and multiple-signal classification (MUSIC) methods. Fast orthogonal search method achieves accurate detection of sinusoids even with signal-to-noise ratios as low as -10 dB, and is superior at detecting sinusoids buried in 1/f noise. Since the utilized method accurately detects sinusoids even under colored noise, it can be used to extract a 1/f noise process observed in physiological signals such as heart rate and renal blood pressure and flow data.

  11. Can the conventional sextant prostate biopsy accurately predict unilateral prostate cancer in low-risk, localized, prostate cancer?

    PubMed

    Mayes, Janice M; Mouraviev, Vladimir; Sun, Leon; Tsivian, Matvey; Madden, John F; Polascik, Thomas J

    2011-01-01

    We evaluate the reliability of routine sextant prostate biopsy to detect unilateral lesions. A total of 365 men with complete records including all clinical and pathologic variables who underwent a preoperative sextant biopsy and subsequent radical prostatectomy (RP) for clinically localized prostate cancer at our medical center between January 1996 and December 2006 were identified. When the sextant biopsy detects unilateral disease, according to RP results, the NPV is high (91%) with a low false negative rate (9%). However, the sextant biopsy has a PPV of 28% with a high false positive rate (72%). Therefore, a routine sextant prostate biopsy cannot provide reliable, accurate information about the unilaterality of tumor lesion(s).

  12. Accurate pointing of tungsten welding electrodes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ziegelmeier, P.

    1971-01-01

    Thoriated-tungsten is pointed accurately and quickly by using sodium nitrite. Point produced is smooth and no effort is necessary to hold the tungsten rod concentric. The chemically produced point can be used several times longer than ground points. This method reduces time and cost of preparing tungsten electrodes.

  13. Nonexposure Accurate Location K-Anonymity Algorithm in LBS

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    This paper tackles location privacy protection in current location-based services (LBS) where mobile users have to report their exact location information to an LBS provider in order to obtain their desired services. Location cloaking has been proposed and well studied to protect user privacy. It blurs the user's accurate coordinate and replaces it with a well-shaped cloaked region. However, to obtain such an anonymous spatial region (ASR), nearly all existent cloaking algorithms require knowing the accurate locations of all users. Therefore, location cloaking without exposing the user's accurate location to any party is urgently needed. In this paper, we present such two nonexposure accurate location cloaking algorithms. They are designed for K-anonymity, and cloaking is performed based on the identifications (IDs) of the grid areas which were reported by all the users, instead of directly on their accurate coordinates. Experimental results show that our algorithms are more secure than the existent cloaking algorithms, need not have all the users reporting their locations all the time, and can generate smaller ASR. PMID:24605060

  14. Nonexposure accurate location K-anonymity algorithm in LBS.

    PubMed

    Jia, Jinying; Zhang, Fengli

    2014-01-01

    This paper tackles location privacy protection in current location-based services (LBS) where mobile users have to report their exact location information to an LBS provider in order to obtain their desired services. Location cloaking has been proposed and well studied to protect user privacy. It blurs the user's accurate coordinate and replaces it with a well-shaped cloaked region. However, to obtain such an anonymous spatial region (ASR), nearly all existent cloaking algorithms require knowing the accurate locations of all users. Therefore, location cloaking without exposing the user's accurate location to any party is urgently needed. In this paper, we present such two nonexposure accurate location cloaking algorithms. They are designed for K-anonymity, and cloaking is performed based on the identifications (IDs) of the grid areas which were reported by all the users, instead of directly on their accurate coordinates. Experimental results show that our algorithms are more secure than the existent cloaking algorithms, need not have all the users reporting their locations all the time, and can generate smaller ASR.

  15. Accurate Serodetection of Asymptomatic Leishmania donovani Infection by Use of Defined Antigens.

    PubMed

    Vallur, Aarthy C; Reinhart, Caroline; Mohamath, Raodoh; Goto, Yasuyuki; Ghosh, Prakash; Mondal, Dinesh; Duthie, Malcolm S; Reed, Steven G

    2016-04-01

    Infection with Leishmania donovaniis typically asymptomatic, but a significant number of individuals may progress to visceral leishmaniasis (VL), a deadly disease that threatens 200 million people in areas where it is endemic. While diagnosis of acute VL has been simplified by the use of cost-effective confirmatory serological tests, similar standardized tools are not widely available for detecting asymptomatic infection, which can be 4 to 20 times more prevalent than active disease. A simple and accurate serological test that is capable of detecting asymptomaticL. donovaniinfection will be useful for surveillance programs targeting VL control and elimination. To address this unmet need, we evaluated recombinant antigens for their ability to detect serum antibodies in 104 asymptomaticL. donovani-infected individuals (qualified as positive forL. donovani-specific antibodies by direct agglutination test [DAT]) from the Mymensingh district of Bangladesh where VL is hyperendemic. The novel proteins rKR95 and rTR18 possessed the greatest potential and detected 69% of DAT-positive individuals, with rKR95 being more robust in reactivity. Agreement in results for individuals with high DAT responses, who are more likely to progress to VL disease, was 74%. When considered along with rK39, a gold standard antigen that is used to confirm clinical diagnosis of VL but that is now becoming widely used for surveillance, rKR95 and rTR18 conferred a sensitivity of 84% based on a theoretical combined estimate. Our data indicate that incorporating rKR95 and rTR18 with rK39 in serological tests amenable to rapid or high-throughput screening may enable simple and accurate detection of asymptomatic infection. Such tests will be important tools to measureL. donovaniinfection rates, a primary goal in surveillance and a critical measurement with which to assess elimination programs.

  16. Accurate torque-speed performance prediction for brushless dc motors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gipper, Patrick D.

    Desirable characteristics of the brushless dc motor (BLDCM) have resulted in their application for electrohydrostatic (EH) and electromechanical (EM) actuation systems. But to effectively apply the BLDCM requires accurate prediction of performance. The minimum necessary performance characteristics are motor torque versus speed, peak and average supply current and efficiency. BLDCM nonlinear simulation software specifically adapted for torque-speed prediction is presented. The capability of the software to quickly and accurately predict performance has been verified on fractional to integral HP motor sizes, and is presented. Additionally, the capability of torque-speed prediction with commutation angle advance is demonstrated.

  17. Accurate upwind-monotone (nonoscillatory) methods for conservation laws

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huynh, Hung T.

    1992-01-01

    The well known MUSCL scheme of Van Leer is constructed using a piecewise linear approximation. The MUSCL scheme is second order accurate at the smooth part of the solution except at extrema where the accuracy degenerates to first order due to the monotonicity constraint. To construct accurate schemes which are free from oscillations, the author introduces the concept of upwind monotonicity. Several classes of schemes, which are upwind monotone and of uniform second or third order accuracy are then presented. Results for advection with constant speed are shown. It is also shown that the new scheme compares favorably with state of the art methods.

  18. Time-Accurate Numerical Simulations of Synthetic Jet Quiescent Air

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rupesh, K-A. B.; Ravi, B. R.; Mittal, R.; Raju, R.; Gallas, Q.; Cattafesta, L.

    2007-01-01

    The unsteady evolution of three-dimensional synthetic jet into quiescent air is studied by time-accurate numerical simulations using a second-order accurate mixed explicit-implicit fractional step scheme on Cartesian grids. Both two-dimensional and three-dimensional calculations of synthetic jet are carried out at a Reynolds number (based on average velocity during the discharge phase of the cycle V(sub j), and jet width d) of 750 and Stokes number of 17.02. The results obtained are assessed against PIV and hotwire measurements provided for the NASA LaRC workshop on CFD validation of synthetic jets.

  19. Detection of ruminant meat and bone meals in animal feed by real-time polymerase chain reaction: result of an interlaboratory study.

    PubMed

    Prado, Marta; Berben, Gilbert; Fumière, Olivier; van Duijn, Gert; Mensinga-Kruize, Jonne; Reaney, Scott; Boix, Ana; von Holst, Christoph

    2007-09-05

    The commercialization of animal feeds infected by prions proved to be the main cause of transmission of bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE). Therefore, feed bans were enforced, initially for ruminant feeds, and later for all feeds for farmed animals. The development and validation of analytical methods for the species-specific detection of animal proteins in animal feed has been indicated in the TSE (Transmissible Spongiform Encephalopathies) Roadmap (European Commission. The TSE (Transmissible Spongiform Encephalopathy) roadmap. URL: http://europa.eu.int/comm/food/food/biosafety/bse/roadmap_en.pdf, 2005) as the main condition for lifting the extended feed ban. Methods based on polymerase chain reaction (PCR) seem to be a promising solution for this aim. The main objective of this study was to determine the applicability of four different real-time PCR methods, developed by three National expert laboratories from the European Union (EU), for the detection and identification of cattle or ruminant species in typical compound feeds, fortified with meat and bone meals (MBM) from different animal species at different concentration levels. The MBM samples utilized in this study have been treated using the sterilization condition mandatory within the European Union (steam pressure sterilization at 133 degrees C, 3 bar, and 20 min), which is an additional challenge to the PCR methods evaluated in this study. The results indicate that the three labs applying their PCR methods were able to detect 0.1% of cattle MBM, either alone or in mixtures with different materials such as fishmeal, which demonstrates the improvement made by this technique, especially when compared with results from former interlaboratory studies.

  20. Differential equation based method for accurate approximations in optimization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pritchard, Jocelyn I.; Adelman, Howard M.

    1990-01-01

    A method to efficiently and accurately approximate the effect of design changes on structural response is described. The key to this method is to interpret sensitivity equations as differential equations that may be solved explicitly for closed form approximations, hence, the method is denoted the Differential Equation Based (DEB) method. Approximations were developed for vibration frequencies, mode shapes and static displacements. The DEB approximation method was applied to a cantilever beam and results compared with the commonly-used linear Taylor series approximations and exact solutions. The test calculations involved perturbing the height, width, cross-sectional area, tip mass, and bending inertia of the beam. The DEB method proved to be very accurate, and in most cases, was more accurate than the linear Taylor series approximation. The method is applicable to simultaneous perturbation of several design variables. Also, the approximations may be used to calculate other system response quantities. For example, the approximations for displacements are used to approximate bending stresses.

  1. A Simple and Accurate Method for Measuring Enzyme Activity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yip, Din-Yan

    1997-01-01

    Presents methods commonly used for investigating enzyme activity using catalase and presents a new method for measuring catalase activity that is more reliable and accurate. Provides results that are readily reproduced and quantified. Can also be used for investigations of enzyme properties such as the effects of temperature, pH, inhibitors,…

  2. Accurate Event-Driven Motion Compensation in High-Resolution PET Incorporating Scattered and Random Events

    PubMed Central

    Dinelle, Katie; Cheng, Ju-Chieh; Shilov, Mikhail A.; Segars, William P.; Lidstone, Sarah C.; Blinder, Stephan; Rousset, Olivier G.; Vajihollahi, Hamid; Tsui, Benjamin M. W.; Wong, Dean F.; Sossi, Vesna

    2010-01-01

    With continuing improvements in spatial resolution of positron emission tomography (PET) scanners, small patient movements during PET imaging become a significant source of resolution degradation. This work develops and investigates a comprehensive formalism for accurate motion-compensated reconstruction which at the same time is very feasible in the context of high-resolution PET. In particular, this paper proposes an effective method to incorporate presence of scattered and random coincidences in the context of motion (which is similarly applicable to various other motion correction schemes). The overall reconstruction framework takes into consideration missing projection data which are not detected due to motion, and additionally, incorporates information from all detected events, including those which fall outside the field-of-view following motion correction. The proposed approach has been extensively validated using phantom experiments as well as realistic simulations of a new mathematical brain phantom developed in this work, and the results for a dynamic patient study are also presented. PMID:18672420

  3. Robust, accurate and fast automatic segmentation of the spinal cord.

    PubMed

    De Leener, Benjamin; Kadoury, Samuel; Cohen-Adad, Julien

    2014-09-01

    Spinal cord segmentation provides measures of atrophy and facilitates group analysis via inter-subject correspondence. Automatizing this procedure enables studies with large throughput and minimizes user bias. Although several automatic segmentation methods exist, they are often restricted in terms of image contrast and field-of-view. This paper presents a new automatic segmentation method (PropSeg) optimized for robustness, accuracy and speed. The algorithm is based on the propagation of a deformable model and is divided into three parts: firstly, an initialization step detects the spinal cord position and orientation using a circular Hough transform on multiple axial slices rostral and caudal to the starting plane and builds an initial elliptical tubular mesh. Secondly, a low-resolution deformable model is propagated along the spinal cord. To deal with highly variable contrast levels between the spinal cord and the cerebrospinal fluid, the deformation is coupled with a local contrast-to-noise adaptation at each iteration. Thirdly, a refinement process and a global deformation are applied on the propagated mesh to provide an accurate segmentation of the spinal cord. Validation was performed in 15 healthy subjects and two patients with spinal cord injury, using T1- and T2-weighted images of the entire spinal cord and on multiecho T2*-weighted images. Our method was compared against manual segmentation and against an active surface method. Results show high precision for all the MR sequences. Dice coefficients were 0.9 for the T1- and T2-weighted cohorts and 0.86 for the T2*-weighted images. The proposed method runs in less than 1min on a normal computer and can be used to quantify morphological features such as cross-sectional area along the whole spinal cord.

  4. Using a 3% Proton Density Fat Fraction as a Cut-off Value Increases Sensitivity of Detection of Hepatic Steatosis, Based on Results from Histopathology Analysis.

    PubMed

    Nasr, Patrik; Forsgren, Mikael F; Ignatova, Simone; Dahlström, Nils; Cedersund, Gunnar; Leinhard, Olof Dahlqvist; Norén, Bengt; Ekstedt, Mattias; Lundberg, Peter; Kechagias, Stergios

    2017-03-09

    It is possible to estimate hepatic triglyceride content by calculating the proton density fat fraction (PDFF), using proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy ((1)H-MRS), instead of collecting and analyzing liver biopsies to detect steatosis. However, the current PDFF cut-off value (5%) used to define steatosis by magnetic resonance was derived from studies that did not use histopathology as the reference standard. We performed a prospective study to determine the accuracy of (1)H-MRS PDFF in measurement of steatosis using histopathology analysis as the standard. We collected clinical, serologic, (1)H-MRS PDFF, and liver biopsy data from 94 adult patients with increased levels of liver enzymes (6 months or more) referred to the Department of Gastroenterology and Hepatology at Linköping University Hospital in Sweden from 2007 through 2014. Steatosis was graded using the conventional histopathology method and fat content was quantified in biopsy samples using stereological point counts (SPCs). We correlated (1)H-MRS PDFF findings with SPCs (r = 0.92; P <.001). (1)H-MRS PDFF results correlated with histopathology results (ρ = 0.87; P <.001), and SPCs correlated with histopathology results (ρ = 0.88; P <.001). All 25 subjects with PDFF values of 5.0% or more had steatosis based on histopathology findings (100% specificity for PDFF). However, of 69 subjects with PDFF values below 5.0% (negative result), 22 were determined to have steatosis based on histopathology findings (53% sensitivity for PDFF). Reducing the PDFF cut-off value to 3.0% identified patients with steatosis with 100% specificity and 79% sensitivity; a PDFF cut-off value of 2.0% identified patients with steatosis with 94% specificity and 87% sensitivity. These findings might be used to improve non-invasive detection of steatosis.

  5. Feedback about More Accurate versus Less Accurate Trials: Differential Effects on Self-Confidence and Activation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Badami, Rokhsareh; VaezMousavi, Mohammad; Wulf, Gabriele; Namazizadeh, Mahdi

    2012-01-01

    One purpose of the present study was to examine whether self-confidence or anxiety would be differentially affected by feedback from more accurate rather than less accurate trials. The second purpose was to determine whether arousal variations (activation) would predict performance. On Day 1, participants performed a golf putting task under one of…

  6. A novel eyelash detection method for iris recognition.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Weiqi; He, Wei

    2005-01-01

    Iris is often affected by the eyelash noise, when captured under unfavorable condition. Not only the iris localization of inner and outer boundaries, but also iris feature extraction can be affected by eyelash. Therefore, in an iris recognition system, eyelash detection is of great importance for accurate iris recognition. Eyelash can be classified into two classes: (1) separable eyelashes (2) multiple eyelashes. The former are detected by local intensity minimum algorithm, and the latter are detected according to the template mean and standard deviation. Experimental results show that the proposed method can detect eyelash accurately.

  7. New model accurately predicts reformate composition

    SciTech Connect

    Ancheyta-Juarez, J.; Aguilar-Rodriguez, E. )

    1994-01-31

    Although naphtha reforming is a well-known process, the evolution of catalyst formulation, as well as new trends in gasoline specifications, have led to rapid evolution of the process, including: reactor design, regeneration mode, and operating conditions. Mathematical modeling of the reforming process is an increasingly important tool. It is fundamental to the proper design of new reactors and revamp of existing ones. Modeling can be used to optimize operating conditions, analyze the effects of process variables, and enhance unit performance. Instituto Mexicano del Petroleo has developed a model of the catalytic reforming process that accurately predicts reformate composition at the higher-severity conditions at which new reformers are being designed. The new AA model is more accurate than previous proposals because it takes into account the effects of temperature and pressure on the rate constants of each chemical reaction.

  8. Accurate colorimetric feedback for RGB LED clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Man, Kwong; Ashdown, Ian

    2006-08-01

    We present an empirical model of LED emission spectra that is applicable to both InGaN and AlInGaP high-flux LEDs, and which accurately predicts their relative spectral power distributions over a wide range of LED junction temperatures. We further demonstrate with laboratory measurements that changes in LED spectral power distribution with temperature can be accurately predicted with first- or second-order equations. This provides the basis for a real-time colorimetric feedback system for RGB LED clusters that can maintain the chromaticity of white light at constant intensity to within +/-0.003 Δuv over a range of 45 degrees Celsius, and to within 0.01 Δuv when dimmed over an intensity range of 10:1.

  9. Evaluation of ground-penetrating radar to detect free-phase hydrocarbons in fractured rocks - Results of numerical modeling and physical experiments

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lane, J.W.; Buursink, M.L.; Haeni, F.P.; Versteeg, R.J.

    2000-01-01

    The suitability of common-offset ground-penetrating radar (GPR) to detect free-phase hydrocarbons in bedrock fractures was evaluated using numerical modeling and physical experiments. The results of one- and two-dimensional numerical modeling at 100 megahertz indicate that GPR reflection amplitudes are relatively insensitive to fracture apertures ranging from 1 to 4 mm. The numerical modeling and physical experiments indicate that differences in the fluids that fill fractures significantly affect the amplitude and the polarity of electromagnetic waves reflected by subhorizontal fractures. Air-filled and hydrocarbon-filled fractures generate low-amplitude reflections that are in-phase with the transmitted pulse. Water-filled fractures create reflections with greater amplitude and opposite polarity than those reflections created by air-filled or hydrocarbon-filled fractures. The results from the numerical modeling and physical experiments demonstrate it is possible to distinguish water-filled fracture reflections from air- or hydrocarbon-filled fracture reflections, nevertheless subsurface heterogeneity, antenna coupling changes, and other sources of noise will likely make it difficult to observe these changes in GPR field data. This indicates that the routine application of common-offset GPR reflection methods for detection of hydrocarbon-filled fractures will be problematic. Ideal cases will require appropriately processed, high-quality GPR data, ground-truth information, and detailed knowledge of subsurface physical properties. Conversely, the sensitivity of GPR methods to changes in subsurface physical properties as demonstrated by the numerical and experimental results suggests the potential of using GPR methods as a monitoring tool. GPR methods may be suited for monitoring pumping and tracer tests, changes in site hydrologic conditions, and remediation activities.The suitability of common-offset ground-penetrating radar (GPR) to detect free-phase hydrocarbons

  10. The reliable assurance of detecting somatic mutations in cancer-related genes by next-generation sequencing: the results of external quality assessment in China.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Rui; Ding, Jiansheng; Han, Yanxi; Yi, Lang; Xie, Jiehong; Yang, Xin; Fan, Gaowei; Wang, Guojing; Hao, Mingju; Zhang, Dong; Zhang, Kuo; Lin, Guigao; Li, Jinming

    2016-09-06

    To evaluate the proficiencies of laboratories utilizing next-generation sequencing (NGS) to detect somatic mutations in cancer-related genes, an external quality assessment (EQA) was implemented by the National Center for Clinical Laboratories of China in 2015. We prepared a panel of samples that comprised eight samples made by mixing synthetic mutated DNA fragments with normal human genomic DNA and one reference sample containing only genomic DNA. We validated our sample panel, and then distributed it to laboratories across China. We received complete results from 64 laboratories. The performances of 51.6 % (33/64) respondent labs were acceptable and 26.6 % (17/64) of the labs returned perfect results. In total, 449 mistakes were reported, including 201 false-negatives (201/449, 44.8 %) and 222 false-positives (222/449, 49.4 %) and 26 slightly discordant results (26/449, 5.8 %). We believe these unsatisfactory results and varied performances are mainly due to the enrichment methods used, the diverse sequencing chemistries of the different NGS platforms, and other errors within the sequencing process. The results indicate that our sample panel is suitable for use in EQA studies, and that further laboratory training in targeted NGS testing is urgently required. To address this, we propose a targeted NGS workflow with details on quality assurance procedures according to the current guidelines.

  11. The reliable assurance of detecting somatic mutations in cancer-related genes by next-generation sequencing: the results of external quality assessment in China

    PubMed Central

    Han, Yanxi; Yi, Lang; Xie, Jiehong; Yang, Xin; Fan, Gaowei; Wang, Guojing; Hao, Mingju; Zhang, Dong; Zhang, Kuo; Lin, Guigao; Li, Jinming

    2016-01-01

    To evaluate the proficiencies of laboratories utilizing next-generation sequencing (NGS) to detect somatic mutations in cancer-related genes, an external quality assessment (EQA) was implemented by the National Center for Clinical Laboratories of China in 2015. We prepared a panel of samples that comprised eight samples made by mixing synthetic mutated DNA fragments with normal human genomic DNA and one reference sample containing only genomic DNA. We validated our sample panel, and then distributed it to laboratories across China. We received complete results from 64 laboratories. The performances of 51.6 % (33/64) respondent labs were acceptable and 26.6 % (17/64) of the labs returned perfect results. In total, 449 mistakes were reported, including 201 false-negatives (201/449, 44.8 %) and 222 false-positives (222/449, 49.4 %) and 26 slightly discordant results (26/449, 5.8 %). We believe these unsatisfactory results and varied performances are mainly due to the enrichment methods used, the diverse sequencing chemistries of the different NGS platforms, and other errors within the sequencing process. The results indicate that our sample panel is suitable for use in EQA studies, and that further laboratory training in targeted NGS testing is urgently required. To address this, we propose a targeted NGS workflow with details on quality assurance procedures according to the current guidelines. PMID:27542269

  12. An accurate registration technique for distorted images

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Delapena, Michele; Shaw, Richard A.; Linde, Peter; Dravins, Dainis

    1990-01-01

    Accurate registration of International Ultraviolet Explorer (IUE) images is crucial because the variability of the geometrical distortions that are introduced by the SEC-Vidicon cameras ensures that raw science images are never perfectly aligned with the Intensity Transfer Functions (ITFs) (i.e., graded floodlamp exposures that are used to linearize and normalize the camera response). A technique for precisely registering IUE images which uses a cross correlation of the fixed pattern that exists in all raw IUE images is described.

  13. CsI-detector-based dual-exposure dual energy in chest radiography for lung nodule detection: results of an international multicenter trial.

    PubMed

    Rühl, Ricarda; Wozniak, Magdalena M; Werk, Michael; Laurent, François; Mager, Georg; Montaudon, Michel; Pattermann, Andreas; Scherrer, Antoine; Tasu, Jean-Pierre; Pech, Maciej; Ricke, Jens

    2008-09-01

    To assess both sensitivity and specificity of digital chest radiography alone and in conjunction with dual-exposure dual-energy chest radiography for the detection and classification of pulmonary nodules. One hundred patients with a total of 149 lung nodules (3-45 mm; median, 11 mm) confirmed by CT were included in this study. Dual-exposure dual-energy chest radiographies of each patient were obtained using a CsI detector system. Experienced board-certified chest radiologists from four different medical centers in Europe reviewed standard chest radiographs alone and in conjunction with dual-energy images blinded and in random order. The reviewers rated the probability of presence, calcification and malignancy of all lung nodules on a five-point rating scale. Lesions detected were identified by applying a specific coordinate system to enable precise verification by the study leader. A receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) analysis was performed. In addition to the 149 true-positive CT proven lesions, 236 false-positive lung nodules were described in digital chest radiographies in conjunction with dual-energy chest radiographies. The cumulative sensitivity of chest radiography in conjunction with dual energy was 43%, specificity was 55%. For digital radiography alone, sensitivity was 35% and specifity was 83%. For the dual energy system, positive predictive value was 58%, and negative predictive value was 66% compared to the digital radiography with a positive predictive value of 59% and a negative predictive value of 65%. Areas under the curve in a ROC analysis resulted in 0.631 (95% confidence interval =0.61 to 0.65) for radiography with dual energy and 0.602 (95% confidence interval =0.58 to 0.63) for digital radiography alone. This difference was not statistically significant. For the detection of lesion calcification or the determination of malignancy, ROC analysis also failed to show significant differences. CsI-based flat-panel dual-exposure dual

  14. Reliability of nucleic acid amplification methods for detection of Chlamydia trachomatis in urine: results of the first international collaborative quality control study among 96 laboratories.

    PubMed

    Verkooyen, Roel P; Noordhoek, Gerda T; Klapper, Paul E; Reid, Jim; Schirm, Jurjen; Cleator, Graham M; Ieven, Margareta; Hoddevik, Gunnar

    2003-07-01

    The first European Quality Control Concerted Action study was organized to assess the ability of laboratories to detect Chlamydia trachomatis in a panel of urine samples by nucleic acid amplification tests (NATs). The panel consisted of lyophilized urine samples, including three negative, two strongly positive, and five weakly positive samples. Ninety-six laboratories in 22 countries participated with a total of 102 data sets. Of 204 strongly positive samples 199 (97.5%) were correctly reported, and of 506 weakly positive samples 466 (92.1%) were correctly reported. In 74 (72.5%) data sets correct results were reported on all samples, and 17 data sets (16.7%) showed either one false-negative or one false-positive result. In another 11 data sets, two or more incorrect results were reported, and two data sets reported a false-positive result on one negative sample. The Roche COBAS Amplicor test was performed in 44 (43%) data sets, the Abbott LCx assay was performed in 31 (30%) data sets, the Roche Amplicor manual assay was performed in 9 (9%) data sets, an in-house PCR was performed in 9 (9%) data sets, the Becton Dickinson ProbeTec ET assay was performed in 5 (4.9%) data sets, and the GenProbe TMA assay was performed in 4 (3.9%) data sets. The results of the Roche Amplicor manual (95.6% correct), COBAS Amplicor (97.0%), and Abbott LCx (94.8%) tests were comparable (P = 0.48). The results with the in-house PCR, BD ProbeTec ET, and GenProbe TMA tests were reported correctly in 88.6, 98, and 92.5% of the tests, respectively. Freeze-drying of clinical urine specimens proved to be a successful method for generating standardized, stable, and easy-to-transport samples for the detection of C. trachomatis by using NATs. Although the results, especially the specificity, for this proficiency panel were better than most quality control studies, sensitivity problems occurred frequently, underlining the need for good laboratory practice and reference reagents to monitor the

  15. Performance of a Handheld PCR Instrument in the Detection of Bacillus anthracis, Francisella tularensis, and Yersinia pestis: Sensitivity, Specificity, and Effect of Interferents on Assay Results

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-12-01

    1 PERFORMANCE OF A HANDHELD PCR INSTRUMENT IN THE DETECTION OF BACILLUS ANTHRACIS, FRANCISELLA TULARENSIS, AND YERSINIA PESTIS: SENSITIVITY...fluorogenic PCR assay reagents for the detection of three biological threat agents, Bacillus anthracis (BA), Francisella tularensis (FT), and Yersinia...TITLE AND SUBTITLE Performance Of A Handheld Pcr Instrument In The Detection Of Bacillus Anthracis, Francisella Tularensis, And Yersinia Pestis

  16. Accurate airway segmentation based on intensity structure analysis and graph-cut

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meng, Qier; Kitsaka, Takayuki; Nimura, Yukitaka; Oda, Masahiro; Mori, Kensaku

    2016-03-01

    This paper presents a novel airway segmentation method based on intensity structure analysis and graph-cut. Airway segmentation is an important step in analyzing chest CT volumes for computerized lung cancer detection, emphysema diagnosis, asthma diagnosis, and pre- and intra-operative bronchoscope navigation. However, obtaining a complete 3-D airway tree structure from a CT volume is quite challenging. Several researchers have proposed automated algorithms basically based on region growing and machine learning techniques. However these methods failed to detect the peripheral bronchi branches. They caused a large amount of leakage. This paper presents a novel approach that permits more accurate extraction of complex bronchial airway region. Our method are composed of three steps. First, the Hessian analysis is utilized for enhancing the line-like structure in CT volumes, then a multiscale cavity-enhancement filter is employed to detect the cavity-like structure from the previous enhanced result. In the second step, we utilize the support vector machine (SVM) to construct a classifier for removing the FP regions generated. Finally, the graph-cut algorithm is utilized to connect all of the candidate voxels to form an integrated airway tree. We applied this method to sixteen cases of 3D chest CT volumes. The results showed that the branch detection rate of this method can reach about 77.7% without leaking into the lung parenchyma areas.

  17. An early warning system based on syndromic surveillance to detect potential health emergencies among migrants: results of a two-year experience in Italy.

    PubMed

    Napoli, Christian; Riccardo, Flavia; Declich, Silvia; Dente, Maria Grazia; Pompa, Maria Grazia; Rizzo, Caterina; Rota, Maria Cristina; Bella, Antonino

    2014-08-20

    Profound geopolitical changes have impacted the southern and eastern Mediterranean since 2010 and defined a context of instability that is still affecting several countries today. Insecurity combined with the reduction of border controls has led to major population movements in the region and to migration surges from affected countries to southern Europe, especially to Italy. To respond to the humanitarian emergency triggered by this migration surge, Italy implemented a syndromic surveillance system in order to rapidly detect potential public health emergencies in immigrant reception centres. This system was discontinued after two years. This paper presents the results of this experience detailing its strengths and weaknesses in order to document the applicability and usefulness of syndromic surveillance in this specific context.

  18. LAT-1 Based Primary Breast Cancer Detection by [99m]Tc-Labeled DTPA-Bis-Methionine Scintimammography: First Results Using Indigenously Developed Single Vial Kit Preparation

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Sarika; Mishra, Anil K.; Rathod, Deepti; Hazari, Puja Panwar; Chuttani, Krishna; Chopra, Shalini; Singh, Paramvir Mangat; Abrar, M.L.; Mittal, Bhagwant R.; Singh, Gurpreet

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Objective: To evaluate the diagnostic utility of a single vial ready to label with [99m]Tc kit preparation of DTPA-bis-methionine (DTPA-bis-MET) for the detection of primary breast cancer. Methods: The conjugate (DTPA-bis-MET) was synthesized by covalently conjugating two molecules of methionine to DTPA and formulated as a single vial ready to label with [99m]Tc lyophilized kit preparations. Thirty female patients (mean age=47.5±11.8 years; range=21–69 years) with radiological/clinical evidence of having primary breast carcinoma were subjected to [99m]Tc-methionine scintigraphy. The whole body (anterior and posterior) imaging was performed on all the patients at 5 minutes, 10 minutes, 1 hour, 2 hours, and 4 hours following an intravenous administration of 555–740 MBq radioactivity of [99m]Tc-methionine. In addition, scintimammography (static images; 256×256 matrix) at 1, 2, and 4 hours was also performed on all the patients. Results: The resultant radiolabel, that is, [99m]Tc-DTPA-bis-MET, yielded high radiolabeling efficiency (>97.0%), radiochemical purity (166–296 MBq/μmol), and shelf life (>3 months). The radiotracer primarily gets excreted through the kidneys and localizes in the breast cancer lesions with high target-to-nontarget ratios. The mean±SD ratios on the scan-positive lesions acquired at 1, 2, and 4 hours postinjection were 3.6±0.48, 3.10±0.24, and 2.5±0.4, respectively. [99m]Tc-methionine scintimammography demonstrated an excellent sensitivity and positive predictive value of 96.0% each for the detection of primary breast cancer. Conclusion: Ready to label single vial kit formulations of DTPA-bis-MET can be easily synthesized as in-house production and conveniently used for the scintigraphic detection of breast cancer and other methionine-dependent tumors expressing the L-type amino acid transporter-1 receptor. The imaging technique thus could be a potential substitute for the conventional single-photon emission computed

  19. Accurate Quantification of microRNA via Single Strand Displacement Reaction on DNA Origami Motif

    PubMed Central

    Lou, Jingyu; Li, Weidong; Li, Sheng; Zhu, Hongxin; Yang, Lun; Zhang, Aiping; He, Lin; Li, Can

    2013-01-01

    DNA origami is an emerging technology that assembles hundreds of staple strands and one single-strand DNA into certain nanopattern. It has been widely used in various fields including detection of biological molecules such as DNA, RNA and proteins. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) play important roles in post-transcriptional gene repression as well as many other biological processes such as cell growth and differentiation. Alterations of miRNAs' expression contribute to many human diseases. However, it is still a challenge to quantitatively detect miRNAs by origami technology. In this study, we developed a novel approach based on streptavidin and quantum dots binding complex (STV-QDs) labeled single strand displacement reaction on DNA origami to quantitatively detect the concentration of miRNAs. We illustrated a linear relationship between the concentration of an exemplary miRNA as miRNA-133 and the STV-QDs hybridization efficiency; the results demonstrated that it is an accurate nano-scale miRNA quantifier motif. In addition, both symmetrical rectangular motif and asymmetrical China-map motif were tested. With significant linearity in both motifs, our experiments suggested that DNA Origami motif with arbitrary shape can be utilized in this method. Since this DNA origami-based method we developed owns the unique advantages of simple, time-and-material-saving, potentially multi-targets testing in one motif and relatively accurate for certain impurity samples as counted directly by atomic force microscopy rather than fluorescence signal detection, it may be widely used in quantification of miRNAs. PMID:23990889

  20. Detection of silent myocardial ischemia in asymptomatic patients with diabetes: results of a randomized trial and meta-analysis assessing the effectiveness of systematic screening

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Most guidelines recommend a systematic screening of asymptomatic high risk patients with diabetes for silent ischemia, but the clinical benefit of this strategy has not been demonstrated compared with the simple control of cardiovascular risk factors. We sought to determine whether referring asymptomatic diabetic patients for screening of silent ischemia decreases the risk of cardiovascular events compared with usual care. Methods DYNAMIT was a prospective, randomized, open, blinded end-point multicenter trial run between 2000 and 2005, with a 3.5 year mean follow-up in ambulatory care in 45 French hospitals. The study included 631 male and female with diabetes aged 63.9 ± 5.1 years, with no evidence of coronary artery disease and at least 2 additional cardiovascular risk factors, receiving appropriate medical treatment. The patients were randomized centrally to either screening for silent ischemia using a bicycle exercise test or Dipyridamole Single Photon Emission Computed Tomography (N = 316), or follow-up without screening (N = 315). The main study end point was time to death from all causes, non-fatal myocardial infarction, non-fatal stroke, or heart failure requiring hospitalization or emergency service intervention. The results of a meta-analysis of DYNAMIT and DIAD, a similar study, are also presented. Results The study was discontinued prematurely because of difficulties in recruitment and a lower-than expected event rate. Follow-up was complete for 98.9% patients regarding mortality and for 97.5% regarding the main study end point. Silent ischemia detection procedure was positive or uncertain in 68 (21.5%) patients of the screening group. There was no significant difference between the screening and the usual care group for the main outcome (hazard ratio = 1.00 95%CI 0.59 to 1.71). The meta-analysis of these and DIAD results gave similar results, with narrower confidence intervals for each endpoint. Conclusions These results suggest that the

  1. The first accurate description of an aurora

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schröder, Wilfried

    2006-12-01

    As technology has advanced, the scientific study of auroral phenomena has increased by leaps and bounds. A look back at the earliest descriptions of aurorae offers an interesting look into how medieval scholars viewed the subjects that we study.Although there are earlier fragmentary references in the literature, the first accurate description of the aurora borealis appears to be that published by the German Catholic scholar Konrad von Megenberg (1309-1374) in his book Das Buch der Natur (The Book of Nature). The book was written between 1349 and 1350.

  2. New law requires 'medically accurate' lesson plans.

    PubMed

    1999-09-17

    The California Legislature has passed a bill requiring all textbooks and materials used to teach about AIDS be medically accurate and objective. Statements made within the curriculum must be supported by research conducted in compliance with scientific methods, and published in peer-reviewed journals. Some of the current lesson plans were found to contain scientifically unsupported and biased information. In addition, the bill requires material to be "free of racial, ethnic, or gender biases." The legislation is supported by a wide range of interests, but opposed by the California Right to Life Education Fund, because they believe it discredits abstinence-only material.

  3. Detecting changes in reflected Global Navigation Satellite System signals over land using a spaceborne receiver: Results from the TechDemoSat Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chew, C. C.; Mannucci, A. J.; Zuffada, C.; Shah, R.; Hajj, G. A.

    2015-12-01

    Spaceborne GPS and GNSS receivers can be used to retrieve information about changes on the Earth's surface. Both experimental and modeling efforts have shown that these receivers can detect changes in reflected GNSS signals that are indicative of changes in sea state. Numerous studies using GNSS receivers flown on aircraft have also shown that the reflected signals are sensitive to changes in soil moisture and vegetation cover. However, the only analysis of the detection of GNSS reflected signals over land using spaceborne receivers has been limited to the small amount of data recorded nearly 10 years ago by the UK-DMC satellite. Last year's launch of the TechDemoSat (TDS) satellite, carrying an instrument similar to that planned for NASA's CYGNSS mission, represents an enormous opportunity to investigate the potential of using spaceborne GNSS receivers to sense changes in the land surface, including soil moisture and flood-inundated areas. With a revisit time of only a few hours, the observations from the CYGNSS constellation could provide data with a temporal resolution that would be unmatched by traditional remote sensing satellites. Here, we present data collected over land by the receiver onboard TDS and report its sensitivity to changes in surface roughness, vegetation parameters, and open water (lakes and rivers), as well as standing water beneath vegetation (marshes and wetlands). In particular, we investigate how the normalized peak power of the delay-Doppler maps that are recorded by the receiver is affected by changes in the land surface. Preliminary results indicate that the signal is strongly affected by changes in topography. However, once this effect is removed using digital elevation models, the influence of rivers, lakes, and wetlands on the signal is clearly seen. Examples of large signal changes coming from areas of likely-saturated ground lend credence to the idea that these data could also be sensitive to changes in surface soil moisture.

  4. Extended Result Reading Window in Lateral Flow Tests Detecting Exposure to Onchocerca volvulus: A New Technology to Improve Epidemiological Surveillance Tools

    PubMed Central

    Golden, Allison; Steel, Cathy; Yokobe, Lindsay; Jackson, Emily; Barney, Rebecca; Kubofcik, Joseph; Peck, Roger; Unnasch, Thomas R.; Nutman, Thomas B.; de los Santos, Tala; Domingo, Gonzalo J.

    2013-01-01

    Onchocerciasis is a neglected tropical disease caused by infection with the parasite Onchocerca volvulus (Ov). An estimated 180 million people are at risk for Ov infection, and 37 million people are infected, mostly in Africa. A lateral flow-based assay to detect human IgG4 antibodies to the Ov-specific antigen Ov-16 was developed as a rapid tool to detect exposure to Ov. The test, when performed on 449 sera specimens from patients with microfiladermia and Ov-negative patients, has a sensitivity of 89.1% (95% confidence interval: 86.2%–92.0%), and specificity of 97% (95% confidence interval: 95.4%–98.6%). Because the intended use of the test is for surveillance, it is highly desirable to have a stable, long-lasting result. An extended read window is thus desirable for a high-volume, busy workflow and facilitates post-surveillance quality assurance. The main restriction on achieving an extended read window for this assay was the erythrocyte lysis that can alter the signal-to-noise ratio, especially in those with low IgG4 levels (weak positives). We describe a test housing that incorporates a user-independent feature driven by assay fluid and an expanding wick that detaches the blood separation membrane from the nitrocellulose used in the assay, but before hemolysis occurs. We demonstrated material functionality at extreme operational conditions (37°C, 80% relative humidity) and a read window of a minimum of 70 days. The fluid-driven assay device performs equally as well with whole blood as with plasma, as demonstrated with 100 spiked clinical specimens (with a correlation coefficient of 0.96). We show a novel, inexpensive, and simple approach to actuating the detachment of the blood separation membrane from the nitrocellulose test with no impact on the performance characteristics of the test. PMID:23935960

  5. Variation in Breast Cancer-Risk Factor Associations by Method of Detection: Results From a Series of C