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Sample records for accurate diagnosis depends

  1. Diagnostic limitations to accurate diagnosis of cholera.

    PubMed

    Alam, Munirul; Hasan, Nur A; Sultana, Marzia; Nair, G Balakrish; Sadique, A; Faruque, A S G; Endtz, Hubert P; Sack, R B; Huq, A; Colwell, R R; Izumiya, Hidemasa; Morita, Masatomo; Watanabe, Haruo; Cravioto, Alejandro

    2010-11-01

    The treatment regimen for diarrhea depends greatly on correct diagnosis of its etiology. Recent diarrhea outbreaks in Bangladesh showed Vibrio cholerae to be the predominant cause, although more than 40% of the suspected cases failed to show cholera etiology by conventional culture methods (CMs). In the present study, suspected cholera stools collected from every 50th patient during an acute diarrheal outbreak were analyzed extensively using different microbiological and molecular tools to determine their etiology. Of 135 stools tested, 86 (64%) produced V. cholerae O1 by CMs, while 119 (88%) tested positive for V. cholerae O1 by rapid cholera dipstick (DS) assay; all but three samples positive for V. cholerae O1 by CMs were also positive for V. cholerae O1 by DS assay. Of 49 stools that lacked CM-based cholera etiology despite most being positive for V. cholerae O1 by DS assay, 25 (51%) had coccoid V. cholerae O1 cells as confirmed by direct fluorescent antibody (DFA) assay, 36 (73%) amplified primers for the genes wbe O1 and ctxA by multiplex-PCR (M-PCR), and 31 (63%) showed El Tor-specific lytic phage on plaque assay (PA). Each of these methods allowed the cholera etiology to be confirmed for 97% of the stool samples. The results suggest that suspected cholera stools that fail to show etiology by CMs during acute diarrhea outbreaks may be due to the inactivation of V. cholerae by in vivo vibriolytic action of the phage and/or nonculturability induced as a host response.

  2. Imaging tests for accurate diagnosis of acute biliary pancreatitis.

    PubMed

    Şurlin, Valeriu; Săftoiu, Adrian; Dumitrescu, Daniela

    2014-11-28

    Gallstones represent the most frequent aetiology of acute pancreatitis in many statistics all over the world, estimated between 40%-60%. Accurate diagnosis of acute biliary pancreatitis (ABP) is of outmost importance because clearance of lithiasis [gallbladder and common bile duct (CBD)] rules out recurrences. Confirmation of biliary lithiasis is done by imaging. The sensitivity of the ultrasonography (US) in the detection of gallstones is over 95% in uncomplicated cases, but in ABP, sensitivity for gallstone detection is lower, being less than 80% due to the ileus and bowel distension. Sensitivity of transabdominal ultrasonography (TUS) for choledocolithiasis varies between 50%-80%, but the specificity is high, reaching 95%. Diameter of the bile duct may be orientative for diagnosis. Endoscopic ultrasonography (EUS) seems to be a more effective tool to diagnose ABP rather than endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP), which should be performed only for therapeutic purposes. As the sensitivity and specificity of computerized tomography are lower as compared to state-of-the-art magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography (MRCP) or EUS, especially for small stones and small diameter of CBD, the later techniques are nowadays preferred for the evaluation of ABP patients. ERCP has the highest accuracy for the diagnosis of choledocholithiasis and is used as a reference standard in many studies, especially after sphincterotomy and balloon extraction of CBD stones. Laparoscopic ultrasonography is a useful tool for the intraoperative diagnosis of choledocholithiasis. Routine exploration of the CBD in cases of patients scheduled for cholecystectomy after an attack of ABP was not proven useful. A significant rate of the so-called idiopathic pancreatitis is actually caused by microlithiasis and/or biliary sludge. In conclusion, the general algorithm for CBD stone detection starts with anamnesis, serum biochemistry and then TUS, followed by EUS or MRCP. In the end

  3. Histoplasmosis and skin lesions in HIV: a safe and accurate diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Moreno-Coutiño, Gabriela; Hernández-Castro, Rigoberto; Toussaint-Caire, Sonia; Montiel-Robles, Melisa; Sánchez-Pérez, Fiama Selene; Xicohtencatl-Cortés, Juan

    2015-07-01

    Human histoplasmosis is caused by the dimorphic fungus Histoplasma capsulatum. This infection can run asymptomatic or be life-threatening, depending fundamentally on the host's immune status. Immunocompromised patients can present disseminated disease to the skin, making the biopsy an accessible approach. The current diagnosis gold standard is fungal culture which takes several days or weeks to grow and must be handled in a biosafe laboratory which is avoided if we use the technique here described. We propose the use of molecular biology for diagnosis confirmation, considering it can shorten diagnosis lapse, has good specificity and sensitivity and reduces the risk of infection for the medical and laboratory personnel. Seven paraffin-embedded skin biopsy samples were included from patients with confirmed HIV and histoplasmosis diagnosis. Total DNA was isolated and molecular typing of H. capsulatum var. capsulatum. All samples were positive. This is a safe and accurate method for skin histoplasmosis diagnosis.

  4. Accurate stone analysis: the impact on disease diagnosis and treatment.

    PubMed

    Mandel, Neil S; Mandel, Ian C; Kolbach-Mandel, Ann M

    2017-02-01

    This manuscript reviews the requirements for acceptable compositional analysis of kidney stones using various biophysical methods. High-resolution X-ray powder diffraction crystallography and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) are the only acceptable methods in our labs for kidney stone analysis. The use of well-constructed spectral reference libraries is the basis for accurate and complete stone analysis. The literature included in this manuscript identify errors in most commercial laboratories and in some academic centers. We provide personal comments on why such errors are occurring at such high rates, and although the work load is rather large, it is very worthwhile in providing accurate stone compositions. We also provide the results of our almost 90,000 stone analyses and a breakdown of the number of components we have observed in the various stones. We also offer advice on determining the method used by the various FTIR equipment manufacturers who also provide a stone analysis library so that the FTIR users can feel comfortable in the accuracy of their reported results. Such an analysis on the accuracy of the individual reference libraries could positively influence the reduction in their respective error rates.

  5. Accurate telemonitoring of Parkinson's disease diagnosis using robust inference system.

    PubMed

    Mandal, Indrajit; Sairam, N

    2013-05-01

    This work presents more precise computational methods for improving the diagnosis of Parkinson's disease based on the detection of dysphonia. New methods are presented for enhanced evaluation and recognize Parkinson's disease affected patients at early stage. Analysis is performed with significant level of error tolerance rate and established our results with corrected T-test. Here new ensembles and other machine learning methods consisting of multinomial logistic regression classifier with Haar wavelets transformation as projection filter that outperform logistic regression is used. Finally a novel and reliable inference system is presented for early recognition of people affected by this disease and presents a new measure of the severity of the disease. Feature selection method is based on Support Vector Machines and ranker search method. Performance analysis of each model is compared to the existing methods and examines the main advancements and concludes with propitious results. Reliable methods are proposed for treating Parkinson's disease that includes sparse multinomial logistic regression, Bayesian network, Support Vector Machines, Artificial Neural Networks, Boosting methods and their ensembles. The study aim at improving the quality of Parkinson's disease treatment by tracking them and reinforce the viability of cost effective, regular and precise telemonitoring application.

  6. The KFM, A Homemade Yet Accurate and Dependable Fallout Meter

    SciTech Connect

    Kearny, C.H.

    2001-11-20

    The KFM is a homemade fallout meter that can be made using only materials, tools, and skills found in millions of American homes. It is an accurate and dependable electroscope-capacitor. The KFM, in conjunction with its attached table and a watch, is designed for use as a rate meter. Its attached table relates observed differences in the separations of its two leaves (before and after exposures at the listed time intervals) to the dose rates during exposures of these time intervals. In this manner dose rates from 30 mR/hr up to 43 R/hr can be determined with an accuracy of {+-}25%. A KFM can be charged with any one of the three expedient electrostatic charging devices described. Due to the use of anhydrite (made by heating gypsum from wallboard) inside a KFM and the expedient ''dry-bucket'' in which it can be charged when the air is very humid, this instrument always can be charged and used to obtain accurate measurements of gamma radiation no matter how high the relative humidity. The heart of this report is the step-by-step illustrated instructions for making and using a KFM. These instructions have been improved after each successive field test. The majority of the untrained test families, adequately motivated by cash bonuses offered for success and guided only by these written instructions, have succeeded in making and using a KFM. NOTE: ''The KFM, A Homemade Yet Accurate and Dependable Fallout Meter'', was published by Oak Ridge National Laboratory report in1979. Some of the materials originally suggested for suspending the leaves of the Kearny Fallout Meter (KFM) are no longer available. Because of changes in the manufacturing process, other materials (e.g., sewing thread, unwaxed dental floss) may not have the insulating capability to work properly. Oak Ridge National Laboratory has not tested any of the suggestions provided in the preface of the report, but they have been used by other groups. When using these instructions, the builder can verify the

  7. Odontoma-associated tooth impaction: accurate diagnosis with simple methods? Case report and literature review.

    PubMed

    Troeltzsch, Matthias; Liedtke, Jan; Troeltzsch, Volker; Frankenberger, Roland; Steiner, Timm; Troeltzsch, Markus

    2012-10-01

    Odontomas account for the largest fraction of odontogenic tumors and are frequent causes of tooth impaction. A case of a 13-year-old female patient with an odontoma-associated impaction of a mandibular molar is presented with a review of the literature. Preoperative planning involved simple and convenient methods such as clinical examination and panoramic radiography, which led to a diagnosis of complex odontoma and warranted surgical removal. The clinical diagnosis was confirmed histologically. Multidisciplinary consultation may enable the clinician to find the accurate diagnosis and appropriate therapy based on the clinical and radiographic appearance. Modern radiologic methods such as cone-beam computed tomography or computed tomography should be applied only for special cases, to decrease radiation.

  8. Diagnostic yield of blood clot culture in the accurate diagnosis of enteric fever and human brucellosis.

    PubMed

    Mantur, Basappa G; Bidari, Laxman H; Akki, Aravind S; Mulimani, Mallanna S; Tikare, Nitin V

    2007-01-01

    Culture of blood is the most frequent, accurate means of diagnosing bacteremia in enteric fever and brucellosis. However, conventional blood culturing is slow in isolating bacteria causing these diseases. In this work, we evaluated the performance of blood clot culture and conventional whole blood cultures in the accurate diagnosis of enteric fever (253 cases) and human brucellosis (71cases). The blood clot culture was found to be much more sensitive for both Salmonella (more by 34.4%, P< 0.001) and Brucella (more by 22.6%, P<0.001) than whole blood culture. Bacterial growth was significantly faster in cultures of blood clot compared to whole blood (1.1 versus 2.6 days for Salmonella, 3.1 versus 8.2 days for Brucella melitensis, respectively). The rapid confirmation of the etiological agent would facilitate an early institution of appropriate antimicrobial therapy, thereby reducing clinical morbidity especially in an endemic population. It is worthwile practicing blood clot culture for the accurate diagnosis of enteric fever and brucellosis in developing countries where diagnostic facilities by advanced technologies like automated culture systems and PCR are not available.

  9. Open lung biopsy: a safe, reliable and accurate method for diagnosis in diffuse lung disease.

    PubMed

    Shah, S S; Tsang, V; Goldstraw, P

    1992-01-01

    The ideal method for obtaining lung tissue for diagnosis should provide high diagnostic yield with low morbidity and mortality. We reviewed all 432 patients (mean age 55 years) who underwent an open lung biopsy at this hospital over a 10-year period. Twenty-four patients (5.5%) were immunocompromised. One hundred and twenty-five patients were on steroid therapy at the time of operation. Open lung biopsy provided a firm diagnosis in 410 cases overall (94.9%) and in 20 out of 24 patients in the immunocompromised group (83.3%). The commonest diagnosis was cryptogenic fibrosing alveolitis (173 patients). Twenty-two patients (5.1%) suffered complications following the procedure: wound infection 11 patients, pneumothorax 9 patients and haemothorax 1 patient. Thirteen patients (3.0%) died following open lung biopsy, but in only 1 patient was the death attributable to the procedure itself. We conclude that open lung biopsy is an accurate and safe method for establishing a diagnosis in diffuse lung disease with a high yield and minimal risk.

  10. MicroRNA-200 Family Profile: A Promising Ancillary Tool for Accurate Cancer Diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiaodong; Zhang, Jianhua; Xie, Botao; Li, Hao; Shen, Jihong; Chen, Jianheng

    2016-01-01

    Cancer is one of the most threatening diseases in the world and great interests have been paid to discover accurate and noninvasive methods for cancer diagnosis. The value of microRNA-200 (miRNA-200, miR-200) family has been revealed in many studies. However, the results from various studies were inconsistent, and thus a meta-analysis was designed and performed to assess the overall value of miRNA200 in cancer diagnosis. Relevant studies were searched electronically from the following databases: PubMed, Embase, Web of Science, the Cochrane Library, and Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure. Keyword combined with "miR-200," "cancer," and "diagnosis" in any fields was used for searching relevant studies. Then, the pooled sensitivity, specificity, area under the curve (AUC), and partial AUC were calculated using the random-effects model. Heterogeneity among individual studies was also explored by subgroup analyses. A total of 28 studies from 18 articles with an overall sample size of 3676 subjects (2097 patients and 1579 controls) were included in this meta-analysis. The overall sensitivity and specificity with 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) are 0.709 (95% CI: 0.657-0.755) and 0.667 (95% CI: 0.617-0.713), respectively. Additionally, AUC and partial AUC for the pooled data is 0.735 and 0.627, respectively. Subgroup analyses revealed that using miRNA-200 family for cancer diagnosis is more effective in white than in Asian ethnic groups. In addition, cancer diagnosis by miRNA using circulating specimen is more effective than that using noncirculating specimen. Finally, miRNA is more accurate in diagnosing endometrial cancer than other types of cancer, and some miRNA family members (miR-200b and miR-429) have superior diagnostic accuracy than other miR-200 family members. In conclusion, the profiling of miRNA-200 family is likely to be a valuable tool in cancer detection and diagnosis.

  11. Detailed behavioral assessment promotes accurate diagnosis in patients with disorders of consciousness

    PubMed Central

    Gilutz, Yael; Lazary, Avraham; Karpin, Hana; Vatine, Jean-Jacques; Misha, Tamar; Fortinsky, Hadassah; Sharon, Haggai

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Assessing the awareness level in patients with disorders of consciousness (DOC) is made on the basis of exhibited behaviors. However, since motor signs of awareness (i.e., non-reflex motor responses) can be very subtle, differentiating the vegetative from minimally conscious states (which is in itself not clear-cut) is often challenging. Even the careful clinician relying on standardized scales may arrive at a wrong diagnosis. Aim: To report our experience in tackling this problem by using two in-house use assessment procedures developed at Reuth Rehabilitation Hospital, and demonstrate their clinical significance by reviewing two cases. Methods: (1) Reuth DOC Response Assessment (RDOC-RA) –administered in addition to the standardized tools, and emphasizes the importance of assessing a wide range of motor responses. In our experience, in some patients the only evidence for awareness may be a private specific movement that is not assessed by standard assessment tools. (2) Reuth DOC Periodic Intervention Model (RDOC-PIM) – current literature regarding assessment and diagnosis in DOC refers mostly to the acute phase of up to 1 year post injury. However, we have found major changes in responsiveness occurring 1 year or more post-injury in many patients. Therefore, we conduct periodic assessments at predetermined times points to ensure patients are not misdiagnosed or neurological changes overlooked. Results: In the first case the RDOC-RA promoted a more accurate diagnosis than that based on standardized scales alone. The second case shows how the RDOC-PIM allowed us to recognize late recovery and promoted reinstatement of treatment with good results. Conclusion: Adding a detailed periodic assessment of DOC patients to existing scales can yield critical information, promoting better diagnosis, treatment, and clinical outcomes. We discuss the implications of this observation for the future development and validation of assessment tools in DOC patients

  12. Simple, rapid and accurate molecular diagnosis of acute promyelocytic leukemia by loop mediated amplification technology.

    PubMed

    Spinelli, Orietta; Rambaldi, Alessandro; Rigo, Francesca; Zanghì, Pamela; D'Agostini, Elena; Amicarelli, Giulia; Colotta, Francesco; Divona, Mariadomenica; Ciardi, Claudia; Coco, Francesco Lo; Minnucci, Giulia

    2015-01-01

    The diagnostic work-up of acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) includes the cytogenetic demonstration of the t(15;17) translocation and/or the PML-RARA chimeric transcript by RQ-PCR or RT-PCR. This latter assays provide suitable results in 3-6 hours. We describe here two new, rapid and specific assays that detect PML-RARA transcripts, based on the RT-QLAMP (Reverse Transcription-Quenching Loop-mediated Isothermal Amplification) technology in which RNA retrotranscription and cDNA amplification are carried out in a single tube with one enzyme at one temperature, in fluorescence and real time format. A single tube triplex assay detects bcr1 and bcr3 PML-RARA transcripts along with GUS housekeeping gene. A single tube duplex assay detects bcr2 and GUSB. In 73 APL cases, these assays detected in 16 minutes bcr1, bcr2 and bcr3 transcripts. All 81 non-APL samples were negative by RT-QLAMP for chimeric transcripts whereas GUSB was detectable. In 11 APL patients in which RT-PCR yielded equivocal breakpoint type results, RT-QLAMP assays unequivocally and accurately defined the breakpoint type (as confirmed by sequencing). Furthermore, RT-QLAMP could amplify two bcr2 transcripts with particularly extended PML exon 6 deletions not amplified by RQ-PCR. RT-QLAMP reproducible sensitivity is 10(-3) for bcr1 and bcr3 and 10(-)2 for bcr2 thus making this assay particularly attractive at diagnosis and leaving RQ-PCR for the molecular monitoring of minimal residual disease during the follow up. In conclusion, PML-RARA RT-QLAMP compared to RT-PCR or RQ-PCR is a valid improvement to perform rapid, simple and accurate molecular diagnosis of APL.

  13. Simple, rapid and accurate molecular diagnosis of acute promyelocytic leukemia by loop mediated amplification technology

    PubMed Central

    Spinelli, Orietta; Rambaldi, Alessandro; Rigo, Francesca; Zanghì, Pamela; D'Agostini, Elena; Amicarelli, Giulia; Colotta, Francesco; Divona, Mariadomenica; Ciardi, Claudia; Coco, Francesco Lo; Minnucci, Giulia

    2015-01-01

    The diagnostic work-up of acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) includes the cytogenetic demonstration of the t(15;17) translocation and/or the PML-RARA chimeric transcript by RQ-PCR or RT-PCR. This latter assays provide suitable results in 3-6 hours. We describe here two new, rapid and specific assays that detect PML-RARA transcripts, based on the RT-QLAMP (Reverse Transcription-Quenching Loop-mediated Isothermal Amplification) technology in which RNA retrotranscription and cDNA amplification are carried out in a single tube with one enzyme at one temperature, in fluorescence and real time format. A single tube triplex assay detects bcr1 and bcr3 PML-RARA transcripts along with GUS housekeeping gene. A single tube duplex assay detects bcr2 and GUSB. In 73 APL cases, these assays detected in 16 minutes bcr1, bcr2 and bcr3 transcripts. All 81 non-APL samples were negative by RT-QLAMP for chimeric transcripts whereas GUSB was detectable. In 11 APL patients in which RT-PCR yielded equivocal breakpoint type results, RT-QLAMP assays unequivocally and accurately defined the breakpoint type (as confirmed by sequencing). Furthermore, RT-QLAMP could amplify two bcr2 transcripts with particularly extended PML exon 6 deletions not amplified by RQ-PCR. RT-QLAMP reproducible sensitivity is 10−3 for bcr1 and bcr3 and 10−2 for bcr2 thus making this assay particularly attractive at diagnosis and leaving RQ-PCR for the molecular monitoring of minimal residual disease during the follow up. In conclusion, PML-RARA RT-QLAMP compared to RT-PCR or RQ-PCR is a valid improvement to perform rapid, simple and accurate molecular diagnosis of APL. PMID:25815362

  14. Ultrasound-guided core needle biopsy of the breast: does frozen section give an accurate diagnosis?

    PubMed

    Mueller-Holzner, Elisabeth; Frede, Thomas; Daniaux, Martin; Ban, Michael; Taucher, Susanne; Schneitter, Alois; Zeimet, Alain G; Marth, Christian

    2007-12-01

    Reducing the period of uncertainty between the discovery of a breast tumor and histological diagnosis alleviates the psychological impact of breast cancer to an important degree. We aimed to verify whether histological results obtained with frozen sections of core needle biopsies (CNBs) offer an accurate and reliable tool for minimising this period. In 2619 cases we compared histological diagnosis on frozen sections with those on paraffin sections of CNB and finally with the results of open biopsies. Of the cases 49% were proved malignant and 51% benign. In 99.3% of the malignant lesions preceding CNB was correctly classified as B5 (n = 1185, 92.9%) or at least B4 (n = 82, 6.4%) in frozen and in paraffin sections. There were seven false-negative cases in frozen (false-negative rate = 0.5%) and five false-negative cases (false-negative rate = 0.4%) in paraffin sections of CNB. On frozen sections complete sensitivity was 99.5% and the positive predictive value of B5 was 99.9%. There was one false-positive case in frozen sections and one in paraffin sections. False-positive rate = 0.08%, negative predictive value for B2 = 99.4% for frozen and 99.6% for paraffin sections; full specificity was 85.9 for frozen and 85.8 for paraffin sections of CNBs. Immediate investigation of CNB in frozen sections is an accurate diagnostic method and an important step in reducing psychological strain on patients with breast tumors and may be offered by specialised Breast Assessment Units.

  15. Rapid and Accurate Diagnosis of Human Intestinal Spirochetosis by Fluorescence In Situ Hybridization▿

    PubMed Central

    Schmiedel, Dinah; Epple, Hans-Jörg; Loddenkemper, Christoph; Ignatius, Ralf; Wagner, Jutta; Hammer, Bettina; Petrich, Annett; Stein, Harald; Göbel, Ulf B.; Schneider, Thomas; Moter, Annette

    2009-01-01

    Human intestinal spirochetosis (HIS) is associated with overgrowth of the large intestine by spirochetes of the genus Brachyspira. The microbiological diagnosis of HIS is hampered by the fastidious nature and slow growth of Brachyspira spp. In clinical practice, HIS is diagnosed histopathologically, and a significant portion of cases may be missed. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) is a molecular method that allows the visualization and identification of single bacteria within tissue sections. In this study, we analyzed intestinal biopsy samples from five patients with possible HIS. All specimens yielded positive results by histopathological techniques. PCR amplification and sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene were performed. Sequences of two isolates clustered in the group of Brachyspira aalborgi, whereas in three cases, the sequences were highly similar to that of Brachyspira pilosicoli. Three phylotypes showed mismatches at distinct nucleotide positions with Brachyspira sp. sequences published previously. In addition, culture for Brachyspira was successful in three cases. On the basis of these data, we designed and evaluated a Brachyspira genus-specific 16S rRNA-directed FISH probe that detects all of the Brachyspira spp. published to date. FISH of biopsy samples resulted in strong, unequivocal signals of brush-like formations at the crypt surfaces. This technique allowed simultaneous visualization of single spirochetes and their identification as Brachyspira spp. In conclusion, FISH provides a fast and accurate technique for the visualization and identification of intestinal spirochetes in tissue sections. It therefore represents a valuable tool for routine diagnosis of HIS. PMID:19279178

  16. ACE-I Angioedema: Accurate Clinical Diagnosis May Prevent Epinephrine-Induced Harm

    PubMed Central

    Curtis, R. Mason; Felder, Sarah; Borici-Mazi, Rozita; Ball, Ian

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Upper airway angioedema is a life-threatening emergency department (ED) presentation with increasing incidence. Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor induced angioedema (AAE) is a non-mast cell mediated etiology of angioedema. Accurate diagnosis by clinical examination can optimize patient management and reduce morbidity from inappropriate treatment with epinephrine. The aim of this study is to describe the incidence of angioedema subtypes and the management of AAE. We evaluate the appropriateness of treatments and highlight preventable iatrogenic morbidity. Methods We conducted a retrospective chart review of consecutive angioedema patients presenting to two tertiary care EDs between July 2007 and March 2012. Results Of 1,702 medical records screened, 527 were included. The cause of angioedema was identified in 48.8% (n=257) of cases. The most common identifiable etiology was AAE (33.1%, n=85), with a 60.0% male predominance. The most common AAE management strategies included diphenhydramine (63.5%, n=54), corticosteroids (50.6%, n=43) and ranitidine (31.8%, n=27). Epinephrine was administered in 21.2% (n=18) of AAE patients, five of whom received repeated doses. Four AAE patients required admission (4.7%) and one required endotracheal intubation. Epinephrine induced morbidity in two patients, causing myocardial ischemia or dysrhythmia shortly after administration. Conclusion AAE is the most common identifiable etiology of angioedema and can be accurately diagnosed by physical examination. It is easily confused with anaphylaxis and mismanaged with antihistamines, corticosteroids and epinephrine. There is little physiologic rationale for epinephrine use in AAE and much risk. Improved clinical differentiation of mast cell and non-mast cell mediated angioedema can optimize patient management. PMID:27330660

  17. Development and Validation of a Highly Accurate Quantitative Real-Time PCR Assay for Diagnosis of Bacterial Vaginosis

    PubMed Central

    Smith, William L.; Chadwick, Sean G.; Toner, Geoffrey; Mordechai, Eli; Adelson, Martin E.; Aguin, Tina J.; Sobel, Jack D.

    2016-01-01

    Bacterial vaginosis (BV) is the most common gynecological infection in the United States. Diagnosis based on Amsel's criteria can be challenging and can be aided by laboratory-based testing. A standard method for diagnosis in research studies is enumeration of bacterial morphotypes of a Gram-stained vaginal smear (i.e., Nugent scoring). However, this technique is subjective, requires specialized training, and is not widely available. Therefore, a highly accurate molecular assay for the diagnosis of BV would be of great utility. We analyzed 385 vaginal specimens collected prospectively from subjects who were evaluated for BV by clinical signs and Nugent scoring. We analyzed quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) assays on DNA extracted from these specimens to quantify nine organisms associated with vaginal health or disease: Gardnerella vaginalis, Atopobium vaginae, BV-associated bacteria 2 (BVAB2, an uncultured member of the order Clostridiales), Megasphaera phylotype 1 or 2, Lactobacillus iners, Lactobacillus crispatus, Lactobacillus gasseri, and Lactobacillus jensenii. We generated a logistic regression model that identified G. vaginalis, A. vaginae, and Megasphaera phylotypes 1 and 2 as the organisms for which quantification provided the most accurate diagnosis of symptomatic BV, as defined by Amsel's criteria and Nugent scoring, with 92% sensitivity, 95% specificity, 94% positive predictive value, and 94% negative predictive value. The inclusion of Lactobacillus spp. did not contribute sufficiently to the quantitative model for symptomatic BV detection. This molecular assay is a highly accurate laboratory tool to assist in the diagnosis of symptomatic BV. PMID:26818677

  18. Race and Socioeconomic Status as Confounding Variables in the Accurate Diagnosis of Alcoholism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luepnitz, Roy R.; And Others

    1982-01-01

    Studied the incidence of bias related to race and socioeconomic status which could confound the diagnosis of alcoholism. Graduate psychology students made a diagnosis based on videotapes. Results indicated lower socioeconomic class individuals were more often diagnosed correctly for alcoholism, and Blacks were diagnosed alcoholic more often than…

  19. Accurate Prediction of Ligand Affinities for a Proton-Dependent Oligopeptide Transporter

    PubMed Central

    Samsudin, Firdaus; Parker, Joanne L.; Sansom, Mark S.P.; Newstead, Simon; Fowler, Philip W.

    2016-01-01

    Summary Membrane transporters are critical modulators of drug pharmacokinetics, efficacy, and safety. One example is the proton-dependent oligopeptide transporter PepT1, also known as SLC15A1, which is responsible for the uptake of the β-lactam antibiotics and various peptide-based prodrugs. In this study, we modeled the binding of various peptides to a bacterial homolog, PepTSt, and evaluated a range of computational methods for predicting the free energy of binding. Our results show that a hybrid approach (endpoint methods to classify peptides into good and poor binders and a theoretically exact method for refinement) is able to accurately predict affinities, which we validated using proteoliposome transport assays. Applying the method to a homology model of PepT1 suggests that the approach requires a high-quality structure to be accurate. Our study provides a blueprint for extending these computational methodologies to other pharmaceutically important transporter families. PMID:27028887

  20. Directed Sample Interrogation Utilizing an Accurate Mass Exclusion-Based Data-Dependent Acquisition Strategy (AMEx)

    PubMed Central

    Rudomin, Emily L.; Carr, Steven A.; Jaffe, Jacob D.

    2009-01-01

    The ability to perform thorough sampling is of critical importance when using mass spectrometry to characterize complex proteomic mixtures. A common approach is to re-interrogate a sample multiple times by LC-MS/MS. However, the conventional data-dependent acquisition methods that are typically used in proteomics studies will often redundantly sample high-intensity precursor ions while failing to sample low-intensity precursors entirely. We describe a method wherein the masses of successfully identified peptides are used to generate an accurate mass exclusion list such that those precursors are not selected for sequencing during subsequent analyses. We performed multiple concatenated analytical runs to sample a complex cell lysate, using either accurate mass exclusion-based data-dependent acquisition (AMEx) or standard data-dependent acquisition, and found that utilization of AMEx on an ESI-Orbitrap instrument significantly increases the total number of validated peptide identifications relative to a standard DDA approach. The additional identified peptides represent precursor ions that exhibit low signal intensity in the sample. Increasing the total number of peptide identifications augmented the number of proteins identified, as well as improved the sequence coverage of those proteins. Together, these data indicate that using AMEx is an effective strategy to improve the characterization of complex proteomic mixtures. PMID:19344186

  1. Directed sample interrogation utilizing an accurate mass exclusion-based data-dependent acquisition strategy (AMEx).

    PubMed

    Rudomin, Emily L; Carr, Steven A; Jaffe, Jacob D

    2009-06-01

    The ability to perform thorough sampling is of critical importance when using mass spectrometry to characterize complex proteomic mixtures. A common approach is to reinterrogate a sample multiple times by LC-MS/MS. However, the conventional data-dependent acquisition methods that are typically used in proteomics studies will often redundantly sample high-intensity precursor ions while failing to sample low-intensity precursors entirely. We describe a method wherein the masses of successfully identified peptides are used to generate an accurate mass exclusion list such that those precursors are not selected for sequencing during subsequent analyses. We performed multiple concatenated analytical runs to sample a complex cell lysate, using either accurate mass exclusion-based data-dependent acquisition (AMEx) or standard data-dependent acquisition, and found that utilization of AMEx on an ESI-Orbitrap instrument significantly increases the total number of validated peptide identifications relative to a standard DDA approach. The additional identified peptides represent precursor ions that exhibit low signal intensity in the sample. Increasing the total number of peptide identifications augmented the number of proteins identified, as well as improved the sequence coverage of those proteins. Together, these data indicate that using AMEx is an effective strategy to improve the characterization of complex proteomic mixtures.

  2. Development and Validation of a Highly Accurate Quantitative Real-Time PCR Assay for Diagnosis of Bacterial Vaginosis.

    PubMed

    Hilbert, David W; Smith, William L; Chadwick, Sean G; Toner, Geoffrey; Mordechai, Eli; Adelson, Martin E; Aguin, Tina J; Sobel, Jack D; Gygax, Scott E

    2016-04-01

    Bacterial vaginosis (BV) is the most common gynecological infection in the United States. Diagnosis based on Amsel's criteria can be challenging and can be aided by laboratory-based testing. A standard method for diagnosis in research studies is enumeration of bacterial morphotypes of a Gram-stained vaginal smear (i.e., Nugent scoring). However, this technique is subjective, requires specialized training, and is not widely available. Therefore, a highly accurate molecular assay for the diagnosis of BV would be of great utility. We analyzed 385 vaginal specimens collected prospectively from subjects who were evaluated for BV by clinical signs and Nugent scoring. We analyzed quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) assays on DNA extracted from these specimens to quantify nine organisms associated with vaginal health or disease:Gardnerella vaginalis,Atopobium vaginae, BV-associated bacteria 2 (BVAB2, an uncultured member of the orderClostridiales),Megasphaeraphylotype 1 or 2,Lactobacillus iners,Lactobacillus crispatus,Lactobacillus gasseri, andLactobacillus jensenii We generated a logistic regression model that identifiedG. vaginalis,A. vaginae, andMegasphaeraphylotypes 1 and 2 as the organisms for which quantification provided the most accurate diagnosis of symptomatic BV, as defined by Amsel's criteria and Nugent scoring, with 92% sensitivity, 95% specificity, 94% positive predictive value, and 94% negative predictive value. The inclusion ofLactobacillusspp. did not contribute sufficiently to the quantitative model for symptomatic BV detection. This molecular assay is a highly accurate laboratory tool to assist in the diagnosis of symptomatic BV.

  3. Accurate Diagnosis of Severe Hypospadias Using 2D and 3D Ultrasounds

    PubMed Central

    López Ramón y Cajal, Carlos; Marín Ortiz, Elena; Sarmiento Carrera, Nerea

    2016-01-01

    The hypospadias is the most common urogenital anomaly of male neonates but the prenatal diagnosis of this is often missed before birth. We present the prenatal diagnosis of a severe penoscrotal hypospadias using 2D and 3D ultrasounds. 3D sonography allowed us the best evaluation of the genitals and their anatomical relations. This ample detailed study allowed us to show the findings to the parents and the pediatric surgeon and to configure the best information about the prognosis and surgical treatment. PMID:27774326

  4. A novel, integrated PET-guided MRS technique resulting in more accurate initial diagnosis of high-grade glioma.

    PubMed

    Kim, Ellen S; Satter, Martin; Reed, Marilyn; Fadell, Ronald; Kardan, Arash

    2016-06-01

    Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is the most common and lethal malignant glioma in adults. Currently, the modality of choice for diagnosing brain tumor is high-resolution magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with contrast, which provides anatomic detail and localization. Studies have demonstrated, however, that MRI may have limited utility in delineating the full tumor extent precisely. Studies suggest that MR spectroscopy (MRS) can also be used to distinguish high-grade from low-grade gliomas. However, due to operator dependent variables and the heterogeneous nature of gliomas, the potential for error in diagnostic accuracy with MRS is a concern. Positron emission tomography (PET) imaging with (11)C-methionine (MET) and (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) has been shown to add additional information with respect to tumor grade, extent, and prognosis based on the premise of biochemical changes preceding anatomic changes. Combined PET/MRS is a technique that integrates information from PET in guiding the location for the most accurate metabolic characterization of a lesion via MRS. We describe a case of glioblastoma multiforme in which MRS was initially non-diagnostic for malignancy, but when MRS was repeated with PET guidance, demonstrated elevated choline/N-acetylaspartate (Cho/NAA) ratio in the right parietal mass consistent with a high-grade malignancy. Stereotactic biopsy, followed by PET image-guided resection, confirmed the diagnosis of grade IV GBM. To our knowledge, this is the first reported case of an integrated PET/MRS technique for the voxel placement of MRS. Our findings suggest that integrated PET/MRS may potentially improve diagnostic accuracy in high-grade gliomas.

  5. Rapid and Accurate Calculation of a Speed Dependent Spectral Line Shape

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beverstock, D. Reed; Weaver, Kendra Letchworth; Benner, D. Chris

    2014-06-01

    Use of the Voigt profile with the Lorentz width allowed to vary with the speed of collision has been hampered by the lack of fast accurate algorithms. Such an algorithm has been written assuming a quadratic dependence of the Lorentz width upon the speed of collision that is accurate to one part in 10 000 and is generally only a factor of four or so slower than the equivalent Voigt calculation with the Letchworth and Benner algorithm. The only exception to the accuracy is far from line center near the Doppler limit when the speed dependent parameter is quite large. At this point the spectral line has fallen by at least 17 orders of magnitude from the line center and is generally insignificant. Gauss-Hermite quadrature of third to seventeenth order, Taylor series expansion about precomputed points and spline interpolation are used in the computation of both the real and imaginary parts for various regions. Kendra L. Letchworth and D. Chris Benner, JQSRT 107 (2007) 173-192. This work was funded by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory and National Science Foundation.

  6. Accurate calculation of the intensity dependence of the refractive index using polarized basis sets.

    PubMed

    Baranowska-Łączkowska, Angelika; Łączkowski, Krzysztof Z; Fernández, Berta

    2012-01-14

    Using the single and double excitation coupled cluster level of theory (CCSD) and the density functional theory/Becke 3-parameter Lee-Yang and Parr (DFT/B3LYP) methods, we test the performance of the Pol, ZPol, and LPol-n (n = ds, dl, fs, fl) basis sets in the accurate description of the intensity dependence of the refractive index in the Ne atom, and the N(2) and the CO molecules. Additionally, we test the aug-pc-n (n = 1, 2) basis sets of Jensen, and the SVPD, TZVPD, and QZVPD bases by Rappoport and Furche. Tests involve calculations of dynamic polarizabilities and frequency dependent second hyperpolarizabilities. The results are interpreted in terms of the medium constants entering the expressions for optically induced birefringences. In all achiral systems, the performance of the LPol-n sets is very good. Also the aug-pc-2 set yields promising results. Accurate CCSD results available in the literature allow us to select the best basis sets in order to carry out DFT/B3LYP calculations of medium constants in larger molecules. As applications, we show results for (R)-fluoro-oxirane and (R)-methyloxirane.

  7. An accurate analytic representation of the temperature dependence of nonresonant nuclear reaction rate coefficients

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shizgal, Bernie D.

    2016-12-01

    There has been intense interest for several decades by different research groups to accurately model the temperature dependence of a large number of nuclear reaction rate coefficients for both light and heavy nuclides. The rate coefficient, k(T) , is given by the Maxwellian average of the reactive cross section expressed in terms of the astrophysical factor, S(E) , which for nonresonant reactions is generally written as a power series in the relative energy E. A computationally efficient algorithm for the temperature dependence of nuclear reaction rate coefficients is required for fusion reactor research and for models of nucleosynthesis and stellar evolution. In this paper, an accurate analytical expression for the temperature dependence of nuclear reaction rate coefficients is provided in terms of τ = 3(b / 2) 2/3 or equivalently, T - 1/3 , where b = B /√{kB T }, B is the Gamow factor and kB is the Boltzmann constant. The methodology is appropriate for all nonresonant nuclear reactions for which S(E) can be represented as a power series in E. The explicit expression for the rate coefficient versus temperature is derived with the asymptotic expansions of the moments of w(E) = exp(- E /kB T - B /√{ E }) in terms of τ. The zeroth order moment is the familiar Gaussian approximation to the rate coefficient. Results are reported for the representative reactions D(d, p)T, D(d, n)3He and 7Li(p, α) α and compared with several different fitting procedures reported in the literature.

  8. How accurate are leukocyte indices and C-reactive protein for diagnosis of neonatal sepsis?

    PubMed Central

    da Silva, Orlando; Ohlsson, Arne

    1998-01-01

    Early diagnosis of neonatal sepsis is often difficult to make. Treatment on the basis of clinical suspicion and risk factors may result in overtreatment. A previous review of the usefulness of C-reactive protein and leukocyte indices concluded that these test results should be interpreted with caution. The present paper reviews and, when appropriate, revises, in light of new information, the conclusions reached in the previous systematic review of the topic. PMID:20401235

  9. Accurate diagnosis of thyroid follicular lesions from nuclear morphology using supervised learning

    PubMed Central

    Ozolek, John A.; Tosun, Akif Burak; Wang, Wei; Chen, Cheng; Kolouri, Soheil; Basu, Saurav; Huang, Hu; Rohde, Gustavo K.

    2014-01-01

    Follicular lesions of the thyroid remain significant diagnostic challenges in surgical pathology and cytology. The diagnosis often requires considerable resources and ancillary tests including immunohistochemistry, molecular studies, and expert consultation. Visual analyses of nuclear morphological features, generally speaking, have not been helpful in distinguishing this group of lesions. Here we describe a method for distinguishing between follicular lesions of the thyroid based on nuclear morphology. The method utilizes an optimal transport-based linear embedding for segmented nuclei, together with an adaptation of existing classification methods. We show the method outputs assignments (classification results) which are near perfectly correlated with the clinical diagnosis of several lesion types' lesions utilizing a database of 94 patients in total. Experimental comparisons also show the new method can significantly outperform standard numerical feature-type methods in terms of agreement with the clinical diagnosis gold standard. In addition, the new method could potentially be used to derive insights into biologically meaningful nuclear morphology differences in these lesions. Our methods could be incorporated into a tool for pathologists to aid in distinguishing between follicular lesions of the thyroid. In addition, these results could potentially provide nuclear morphological correlates of biological behavior and reduce health care costs by decreasing histotechnician and pathologist time and obviating the need for ancillary testing. PMID:24835183

  10. Application of a cell microarray chip system for accurate, highly sensitive, and rapid diagnosis for malaria in Uganda

    PubMed Central

    Yatsushiro, Shouki; Yamamoto, Takeki; Yamamura, Shohei; Abe, Kaori; Obana, Eriko; Nogami, Takahiro; Hayashi, Takuya; Sesei, Takashi; Oka, Hiroaki; Okello-Onen, Joseph; Odongo-Aginya, Emmanuel I.; Alai, Mary Auma; Olia, Alex; Anywar, Dennis; Sakurai, Miki; Palacpac, Nirianne MQ; Mita, Toshihiro; Horii, Toshihiro; Baba, Yoshinobu; Kataoka, Masatoshi

    2016-01-01

    Accurate, sensitive, rapid, and easy operative diagnosis is necessary to prevent the spread of malaria. A cell microarray chip system including a push column for the recovery of erythrocytes and a fluorescence detector was employed for malaria diagnosis in Uganda. The chip with 20,944 microchambers (105 μm width and 50 μm depth) was made of polystyrene. For the analysis, 6 μl of whole blood was employed, and leukocytes were practically removed by filtration through SiO2-nano-fibers in a column. Regular formation of an erythrocyte monolayer in each microchamber was observed following dispersion of an erythrocyte suspension in a nuclear staining dye, SYTO 21, onto the chip surface and washing. About 500,000 erythrocytes were analyzed in a total of 4675 microchambers, and malaria parasite-infected erythrocytes could be detected in 5 min by using the fluorescence detector. The percentage of infected erythrocytes in each of 41 patients was determined. Accurate and quantitative detection of the parasites could be performed. A good correlation between examinations via optical microscopy and by our chip system was demonstrated over the parasitemia range of 0.0039–2.3438% by linear regression analysis (R2 = 0.9945). Thus, we showed the potential of this chip system for the diagnosis of malaria. PMID:27445125

  11. Fiber diffraction of skin and nails provides an accurate diagnosis of malignancies

    SciTech Connect

    James, Veronica J.

    2009-10-21

    An early diagnosis of malignancies correlates directly with a better prognosis. Yet for many malignancies there are no readily available, noninvasive, cost-effective diagnostic tests with patients often presenting too late for effective treatment. This article describes for the first time the use of fiber diffraction patterns of skin or fingernails, using X-ray sources, as a biometric diagnostic method for detecting neoplastic disorders including but not limited to melanoma, breast, colon and prostate cancers. With suitable further development, an early low-cost, totally noninvasive yet reliable diagnostic test could be conducted on a regular basis in local radiology facilities, as a confirmatory test for other diagnostic procedures or as a mass screening test using suitable small angle X-ray beam-lines at synchrotrons.

  12. D-dimer testing and acute venous thromboembolism. A shortcut to accurate diagnosis?

    PubMed

    Becker, D M; Philbrick, J T; Bachhuber, T L; Humphries, J E

    1996-05-13

    D-dimer fragments can be measured easily in plasma and whole blood, and the presence or absence of D-dimer could be useful in the diagnostic evaluation of venous thromboembolism. We systematically reviewed the English literature for articles that compared D-dimer results with those of other tests for deep venous thrombosis or pulmonary embolism. Twenty-nine studies were selected for detailed review, and we noted wide variability in assay performance, heterogeneity among subjects, and failure to define absence or presence of venous thromboembolism by a comprehensive criterion standard for diagnosis. These methodologic problems limit the generalizability of the published estimates of D-dimer accuracy for deep venous thrombosis or pulmonary embolism, and the clinical utility of this potentially important test remains unproved.

  13. Accurate diagnosis of renal transplant rejection by indium-111 platelet imaging despite postoperative cyclosporin therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Collier, B.D.; Adams, M.B.; Kauffman, H.M.; Trembath, L.; Hoffmann, R.G.; Tisdale, P.L.; Rao, S.A.; Hellman, R.S.; Isitman, A.T.

    1988-08-01

    Previous reports indicate that In-111 platelet scintigraphy (IPS) is a reliable test for the early diagnosis of acute post-operative renal transplant rejection (TR). However, the recent introduction of cyclosporin for post-transplantation immunosuppression requires that the diagnostic efficacy of IPS once again be established. Therefore, a prospective IPS study of 73 post-operative renal transplant recipients was conducted. Fourty-nine patients received cyclosporin and 24 patients did not receive this drug. Between these two patient groups, there were no significant differences in the diagnostic sensitivities (0.86 vs 0.80) and specificities (0.93 vs 0.84) with which TR was identified. We conclude that during the first two weeks following renal transplantation the cyclosporin treatment regimen used at our institution does not limit the reliability of IPS as a test for TR.

  14. Iofetamine I 123 single photon emission computed tomography is accurate in the diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, K.A.; Holman, B.L.; Rosen, T.J.; Nagel, J.S.; English, R.J.; Growdon, J.H. )

    1990-04-01

    To determine the diagnostic accuracy of iofetamine hydrochloride I 123 (IMP) with single photon emission computed tomography in Alzheimer's disease, we studied 58 patients with AD and 15 age-matched healthy control subjects. We used a qualitative method to assess regional IMP uptake in the entire brain and to rate image data sets as normal or abnormal without knowledge of subjects'clinical classification. The sensitivity and specificity of IMP with single photon emission computed tomography in AD were 88% and 87%, respectively. In 15 patients with mild cognitive deficits (Blessed Dementia Scale score, less than or equal to 10), sensitivity was 80%. With the use of a semiquantitative measure of regional cortical IMP uptake, the parietal lobes were the most functionally impaired in AD and the most strongly associated with the patients' Blessed Dementia Scale scores. These results indicated that IMP with single photon emission computed tomography may be a useful adjunct in the clinical diagnosis of AD in early, mild disease.

  15. Comparison of PCR, culturing and Pap smear microscopy for accurate diagnosis of genital Actinomyces.

    PubMed

    Kaya, Dilek; Demirezen, Şayeste; Hasçelik, Gülşen; Gülmez Kivanç, Dolunay; Beksaç, Mehmet Sinan

    2013-05-01

    Members of the genus Actinomyces, Gram-positive, non-spore-forming anaerobic bacteria, are normal inhabitants of the mucosal surfaces of the oral, gastrointestinal and genital tracts. Identification of these bacteria using conventional methods is generally difficult because of their complex transport and growth requirements and their fastidious and slow-growing nature. However, in recent years, the advancement of molecular techniques has provided much improved identification and differentiation of closely related Actinomyces species. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the efficacy of the PCR technique in the diagnosis of genital Actinomyces in comparison with culturing and Papanicolaou (Pap) smear microscopy. Multiple sampling was conducted from 200 women using smear microscopy, culturing and PCR. Cyto-brushes were smeared on glass slides and stained using the routine Pap technique. Culturing was performed from a sterile swab, and Actinomyces were determined using the BBL Crystal ANR ID kit. PCR was performed from a second swab, and the Actinomyces type was determined using type-specific primers designed in our laboratory. Only one vaginal fluid sample (0.5%) revealed Actinomyces-like organisms on Pap smear examination. Actinomyces were detected in nine samples (4.5%) using the BBL Crystal ANR ID kit. Using PCR, eight samples (4%) were found positive for Actinomyces. No specimens that gave positive results by Pap smear microscopy and culturing could be confirmed by PCR. Pap smear microscopy and culturing were both found to have zero sensitivity for Actinomyces. PCR appears to be a sensitive and reliable diagnostic method for the detection of Actinomyces, which are difficult to cultivate from genital samples. PCR can be used for diagnostic confirmation in cases diagnosed by conventional methods, to prevent false-positive results.

  16. The International Classification of Headache Disorders: accurate diagnosis of orofacial pain?

    PubMed

    Benoliel, R; Birman, N; Eliav, E; Sharav, Y

    2008-07-01

    The aim was to apply diagnostic criteria, as published by the International Headache Society (IHS), to the diagnosis of orofacial pain. A total of 328 consecutive patients with orofacial pain were collected over a period of 2 years. The orofacial pain clinic routinely employs criteria published by the IHS, the American Academy of Orofacial Pain (AAOP) and the Research Diagnostic Criteria for Temporomandibular Disorders (RDCTMD). Employing IHS criteria, 184 patients were successfully diagnosed (56%), including 34 with persistent idiopathic facial pain. In the remaining 144 we applied AAOP/RDCTMD criteria and diagnosed 120 as masticatory myofascial pain (MMP) resulting in a diagnostic efficiency of 92.7% (304/328) when applying the three classifications (IHS, AAOP, RDCTMD). Employing further published criteria, 23 patients were diagnosed as neurovascular orofacial pain (NVOP, facial migraine) and one as a neuropathy secondary to connective tissue disease. All the patients were therefore allocated to predefined diagnoses. MMP is clearly defined by AAOP and the RDCTMD. However, NVOP is not defined by any of the above classification systems. The features of MMP and NVOP are presented and analysed with calculations for positive (PPV) and negative predictive values (NPV). In MMP the combination of facial pain aggravated by jaw movement, and the presence of three or more tender muscles resulted in a PPV = 0.82 and a NPV = 0.86. For NVOP the combination of facial pain, throbbing quality, autonomic and/or systemic features and attack duration of > 60 min gave a PPV = 0.71 and a NPV = 0.95. Expansion of the IHS system is needed so as to integrate more orofacial pain syndromes.

  17. Microstructure-Dependent Gas Adsorption: Accurate Predictions of Methane Uptake in Nanoporous Carbons

    SciTech Connect

    Ihm, Yungok; Cooper, Valentino R; Gallego, Nidia C; Contescu, Cristian I; Morris, James R

    2014-01-01

    We demonstrate a successful, efficient framework for predicting gas adsorption properties in real materials based on first-principles calculations, with a specific comparison of experiment and theory for methane adsorption in activated carbons. These carbon materials have different pore size distributions, leading to a variety of uptake characteristics. Utilizing these distributions, we accurately predict experimental uptakes and heats of adsorption without empirical potentials or lengthy simulations. We demonstrate that materials with smaller pores have higher heats of adsorption, leading to a higher gas density in these pores. This pore-size dependence must be accounted for, in order to predict and understand the adsorption behavior. The theoretical approach combines: (1) ab initio calculations with a van der Waals density functional to determine adsorbent-adsorbate interactions, and (2) a thermodynamic method that predicts equilibrium adsorption densities by directly incorporating the calculated potential energy surface in a slit pore model. The predicted uptake at P=20 bar and T=298 K is in excellent agreement for all five activated carbon materials used. This approach uses only the pore-size distribution as an input, with no fitting parameters or empirical adsorbent-adsorbate interactions, and thus can be easily applied to other adsorbent-adsorbate combinations.

  18. [Biochemical investigation for clinical diagnosis of drug dependence].

    PubMed

    Maeda, Hitoshi; Ishikawa, Takaki; Michiue, Tomomi

    2010-08-01

    Specific biochemical marker is not available for clinical diagnosis of drug dependence at present. However, drug abuse is accompanied by a decrease in serotonin and the derivative in cerebrospinal fluid, suggesting central serotonergic dysfunction, that is associated with cognitive deficits, alterations in sleep architecture and neuroendocrine function, and increased impulsivity as well as an increase in the risk for aggressive behavior toward the self involving suicide. For central stimulant abusers, elevated plasma catecholamine levels are associated with psychotic episodes and cardiovascular complications involving tachycardia and arrhythmias. Biochemical investigation is useful for predicting drug-induced mental disorders, complications and the prognosis, and also for differentiation from other mental disorders, e.g., secondary to metabolic and infectious diseases, or management of acute intoxication.

  19. Collagen, type XI, alpha 1: an accurate marker for differential diagnosis of breast carcinoma invasiveness in core needle biopsies.

    PubMed

    Freire, Javier; Domínguez-Hormaetxe, Saioa; Pereda, Saray; De Juan, Ana; Vega, Alfonso; Simón, Laureano; Gómez-Román, Javier

    2014-12-01

    Accurate diagnosis of invasive breast lesions, when analyzed by Core Needle Biopsy, may suppose a major challenge for the pathologist. Various markers of invasiveness such as laminin, S-100 protein, P63 or calponin have been described; however, none of them is completely reliable. The use of a specific marker of the infiltrating tumor microenvironment seems vital to support the diagnosis of invasive against in situ lesions. At this point, Collagen, type XI, alpha 1 (COL11A1), might be helpful since it has been described to be associated to cancer associated fibroblasts in other tumors such as lung, pancreas or colorectal. This paper aims to analyze the role of COL11A1 as a marker of invasiveness in breast tumor lesions. Two hundred and one breast Core Needle Biopsy samples were analyzed by immunohistochemistry against pro-COL11A1. The results show a significant difference (p < 0.0001) when comparing the expression in infiltrative tumors (93%) versus immunostaining of non-invasive lesions (4%). Forty cases of underestimated DCIS were also stained for COL11A1, presenting a sensitivity of 90% when compared with p63 and calponin which not tagged invasion. In conclusion, pro-COL11A1 expression is a promising marker of invasive breast lesions, and may be included in immunohistochemical panels aiming at identifying infiltration in problematic breast lesions.

  20. System to measure accurate temperature dependence of electric conductivity down to 20 K in ultrahigh vacuum.

    PubMed

    Sakai, C; Takeda, S N; Daimon, H

    2013-07-01

    We have developed the new in situ electrical-conductivity measurement system which can be operated in ultrahigh vacuum (UHV) with accurate temperature measurement down to 20 K. This system is mainly composed of a new sample-holder fixing mechanism, a new movable conductivity-measurement mechanism, a cryostat, and two receptors for sample- and four-probe holders. Sample-holder is pushed strongly against the receptor, which is connected to a cryostat, by using this new sample-holder fixing mechanism to obtain high thermal conductivity. Test pieces on the sample-holders have been cooled down to about 20 K using this fixing mechanism, although they were cooled down to only about 60 K without this mechanism. Four probes are able to be touched to a sample surface using this new movable conductivity-measurement mechanism for measuring electrical conductivity after making film on substrates or obtaining clean surfaces by cleavage, flashing, and so on. Accurate temperature measurement is possible since the sample can be transferred with a thermocouple and∕or diode being attached directly to the sample. A single crystal of Bi-based copper oxide high-Tc superconductor (HTSC) was cleaved in UHV to obtain clean surface, and its superconducting critical temperature has been successfully measured in situ. The importance of in situ measurement of resistance in UHV was demonstrated for this HTSC before and after cesium (Cs) adsorption on its surface. The Tc onset increase and the Tc offset decrease by Cs adsorption were observed.

  1. Accurate determination of frequency dependent three element equivalent circuit for symmetric step microstrip discontinuity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Webster, M. J.; Easter, B.; Hornsby, J. S.

    1990-02-01

    A three element frequency dependent equivalent circuit which characterizes a symmetric step microstrip discontinuity is determined using the method of lines. This method was applied so as to exploit to the full the processing capabilities of the available Cyber 205 computer, and to obtain results with the highest possible accuracy at frequencies in the range 4-16 GHz. Numerical values of scattering parameters are given for three geometries.

  2. Direct and accurate measurement of size dependent wetting behaviors for sessile water droplets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Jimin; Han, Hyung-Seop; Kim, Yu-Chan; Ahn, Jae-Pyeong; Ok, Myoung-Ryul; Lee, Kyung Eun; Lee, Jee-Wook; Cha, Pil-Ryung; Seok, Hyun-Kwang; Jeon, Hojeong

    2015-12-01

    The size-dependent wettability of sessile water droplets is an important matter in wetting science. Although extensive studies have explored this problem, it has been difficult to obtain empirical data for microscale sessile droplets at a wide range of diameters because of the flaws resulting from evaporation and insufficient imaging resolution. Herein, we present the size-dependent quantitative change of wettability by directly visualizing the three phase interfaces of droplets using a cryogenic-focused ion beam milling and SEM-imaging technique. With the fundamental understanding of the formation pathway, evaporation, freezing, and contact angle hysteresis for sessile droplets, microdroplets with diameters spanning more than three orders of magnitude on various metal substrates were examined. Wetting nature can gradually change from hydrophobic at the hundreds-of-microns scale to super-hydrophobic at the sub-μm scale, and a nonlinear relationship between the cosine of the contact angle and contact line curvature in microscale water droplets was demonstrated. We also showed that the wettability could be further tuned in a size-dependent manner by introducing regular heterogeneities to the substrate.

  3. Direct and accurate measurement of size dependent wetting behaviors for sessile water droplets

    PubMed Central

    Park, Jimin; Han, Hyung-Seop; Kim, Yu-Chan; Ahn, Jae-Pyeong; Ok, Myoung-Ryul; Lee, Kyung Eun; Lee, Jee-Wook; Cha, Pil-Ryung; Seok, Hyun-Kwang; Jeon, Hojeong

    2015-01-01

    The size-dependent wettability of sessile water droplets is an important matter in wetting science. Although extensive studies have explored this problem, it has been difficult to obtain empirical data for microscale sessile droplets at a wide range of diameters because of the flaws resulting from evaporation and insufficient imaging resolution. Herein, we present the size-dependent quantitative change of wettability by directly visualizing the three phase interfaces of droplets using a cryogenic-focused ion beam milling and SEM-imaging technique. With the fundamental understanding of the formation pathway, evaporation, freezing, and contact angle hysteresis for sessile droplets, microdroplets with diameters spanning more than three orders of magnitude on various metal substrates were examined. Wetting nature can gradually change from hydrophobic at the hundreds-of-microns scale to super-hydrophobic at the sub-μm scale, and a nonlinear relationship between the cosine of the contact angle and contact line curvature in microscale water droplets was demonstrated. We also showed that the wettability could be further tuned in a size-dependent manner by introducing regular heterogeneities to the substrate. PMID:26657208

  4. Local Dependence in an Operational CAT: Diagnosis and Implications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pommerich, Mary; Segall, Daniel O.

    2008-01-01

    The accuracy of CAT scores can be negatively affected by local dependence if the CAT utilizes parameters that are misspecified due to the presence of local dependence and/or fails to control for local dependence in responses during the administration stage. This article evaluates the existence and effect of local dependence in a test of…

  5. Infrequently transcribed long genes depend on the Set2/Rpd3S pathway for accurate transcription

    PubMed Central

    Li, Bing; Gogol, Madelaine; Carey, Mike; Pattenden, Samantha G.; Seidel, Chris; Workman, Jerry L.

    2007-01-01

    The presence of Set2-mediated methylation of H3K36 (K36me) correlates with transcription frequency throughout the yeast genome. K36me targets the Rpd3S complex to deacetylate transcribed regions and suppress cryptic transcription initiation at certain genes. Here, using a genome-wide approach, we report that the Set2–Rpd3S pathway is generally required for controlling acetylation at coding regions. When using acetylation as a functional readout for this pathway, we discovered that longer genes and, surprisingly, genes transcribed at lower frequency exhibit a stronger dependency. Moreover, a systematic screen using high-resolution tiling microarrays allowed us to identify a group of genes that rely on Set2–Rpd3S to suppress spurious transcripts. Interestingly, most of these genes are within the group that depend on the same pathway to maintain a hypoacetylated state at coding regions. These data highlight the importance of using the functional readout of histone codes to define the roles of specific pathways. PMID:17545470

  6. Accurate treatment of total photoabsorption cross sections by an ab initio time-dependent method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daud, Mohammad Noh

    2014-09-01

    A detailed discussion of parallel and perpendicular transitions required for the photoabsorption of a molecule is presented within a time-dependent view. Total photoabsorption cross sections for the first two ultraviolet absorption bands of the N2O molecule corresponding to transitions from the X1 A' state to the 21 A' and 11 A'' states are calculated to test the reliability of the method. By fully considering the property of the electric field polarization vector of the incident light, the method treats the coupling of angular momentum and the parity differently for two kinds of transitions depending on the direction of the vector whether it is: (a) situated parallel in a molecular plane for an electronic transition between states with the same symmetry; (b) situated perpendicular to a molecular plane for an electronic transition between states with different symmetry. Through this, for those transitions, we are able to offer an insightful picture of the dynamics involved and to characterize some new aspects in the photoabsorption process of N2O. Our calculations predicted that the parallel transition to the 21 A' state is the major dissociation pathway which is in qualitative agreement with the experimental observations. Most importantly, a significant improvement in the absolute value of the total cross section over previous theoretical results [R. Schinke, J. Chem. Phys. 134, 064313 (2011), M.N. Daud, G.G. Balint-Kurti, A. Brown, J. Chem. Phys. 122, 054305 (2005), S. Nanbu, M.S. Johnson, J. Phys. Chem. A 108, 8905 (2004)] was obtained.

  7. Accurate treatment of total photoabsorption cross sections by an ab initio time-dependent method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noh Daud, Mohammad

    2014-09-01

    A detailed discussion of parallel and perpendicular transitions required for the photoabsorption of a molecule is presented within a time-dependent view. Total photoabsorption cross sections for the first two ultraviolet absorption bands of the N2O molecule corresponding to transitions from the X1A' state to the 21A' and 11A'' states are calculated to test the reliability of the method. By fully considering the property of the electric field polarization vector of the incident light, the method treats the coupling of angular momentum and the parity differently for two kinds of transitions depending on the direction of the vector whether it is: (a) situated parallel in a molecular plane for an electronic transition between states with the same symmetry; (b) situated perpendicular to a molecular plane for an electronic transition between states with different symmetry. Through this, for those transitions, we are able to offer an insightful picture of the dynamics involved and to characterize some new aspects in the photoabsorption process of N2O. Our calculations predicted that the parallel transition to the 21A' state is the major dissociation pathway which is in qualitative agreement with the experimental observations. Most importantly, a significant improvement in the absolute value of the total cross section over previous theoretical results [R. Schinke, J. Chem. Phys. 134, 064313 (2011), M.N. Daud, G.G. Balint-Kurti, A. Brown, J. Chem. Phys. 122, 054305 (2005), S. Nanbu, M.S. Johnson, J. Phys. Chem. A 108, 8905 (2004)] was obtained.

  8. The diagnosis of Marburg disease is course-dependent.

    PubMed

    Walid, M Sami; Sanoufa, Mazen

    2010-03-02

    Marburg Disease, the fulminant form of multiple sclerosis, is a rare disease that typically kills within a year. We had a 38-year-old African American male who presented with right footdrop and was pathologically diagnosed with Marburg Disease. The patient recovered clinically after surgery and stayed stable for more than a year. The diagnosis of Marburg Disease was thus degraded.

  9. A novel 33-Gene targeted resequencing panel provides accurate, clinical-grade diagnosis and improves patient management for rare inherited anaemias.

    PubMed

    Roy, Noémi B A; Wilson, Edward A; Henderson, Shirley; Wray, Katherine; Babbs, Christian; Okoli, Steven; Atoyebi, Wale; Mixon, Avery; Cahill, Mary R; Carey, Peter; Cullis, Jonathan; Curtin, Julie; Dreau, Helene; Ferguson, David J P; Gibson, Brenda; Hall, Georgina; Mason, Joanne; Morgan, Mary; Proven, Melanie; Qureshi, Amrana; Sanchez Garcia, Joaquin; Sirachainan, Nongnuch; Teo, Juliana; Tedgård, Ulf; Higgs, Doug; Roberts, David; Roberts, Irene; Schuh, Anna

    2016-10-01

    Accurate diagnosis of rare inherited anaemias is challenging, requiring a series of complex and expensive laboratory tests. Targeted next-generation-sequencing (NGS) has been used to investigate these disorders, but the selection of genes on individual panels has been narrow and the validation strategies used have fallen short of the standards required for clinical use. Clinical-grade validation of negative results requires the test to distinguish between lack of adequate sequencing reads at the locations of known mutations and a real absence of mutations. To achieve a clinically-reliable diagnostic test and minimize false-negative results we developed an open-source tool (CoverMi) to accurately determine base-coverage and the 'discoverability' of known mutations for every sample. We validated our 33-gene panel using Sanger sequencing and microarray. Our panel demonstrated 100% specificity and 99·7% sensitivity. We then analysed 57 clinical samples: molecular diagnoses were made in 22/57 (38·6%), corresponding to 32 mutations of which 16 were new. In all cases, accurate molecular diagnosis had a positive impact on clinical management. Using a validated NGS-based platform for routine molecular diagnosis of previously undiagnosed congenital anaemias is feasible in a clinical diagnostic setting, improves precise diagnosis and enhances management and counselling of the patient and their family.

  10. Cardiac troponins I and T: molecular markers for early diagnosis, prognosis, and accurate triaging of patients with acute myocardial infarction.

    PubMed

    Tiwari, Ram P; Jain, Anubhav; Khan, Zakir; Kohli, Veena; Bharmal, R N; Kartikeyan, S; Bisen, Prakash S

    2012-12-01

    Acute myocardial infarction (AMI) is the leading cause of death worldwide, with early diagnosis still being difficult. Promising new cardiac biomarkers such as troponins and creatine kinase (CK) isoforms are being studied and integrated into clinical practice for early diagnosis of AMI. The cardiac-specific troponins I and T (cTnI and cTnT) have good sensitivity and specificity as indicators of myocardial necrosis and are superior to CK and its MB isoenzyme (CK-MB) in this regard. Besides being potential biologic markers, cardiac troponins also provide significant prognostic information. The introduction of novel high-sensitivity troponin assays has enabled more sensitive and timely diagnosis or exclusion of acute coronary syndromes. This review summarizes the available information on the potential of troponins and other cardiac markers in early diagnosis and prognosis of AMI, and provides perspectives on future diagnostic approaches to AMI.

  11. On deriving the accurate aerosol extinction profiles in the troposphere and lower stratosphere using the range dependent scattering ratio

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Satyanarayana, M. V.; Radhakrishnan, S. R.; Mahadevanpillai, V. P.; Krishnakumar, V.

    2008-12-01

    Lidar has proven to be an effective instrument for obtaining high resolution profiles of atmospheric aerosols. Deriving the optical properties of aerosols from the experimentally obtained lidar data is one of the most interesting and challenging task for the atmospheric scientists. A few methods had been developed so far, to obtain the quantitative profiles of extinction and backscattering coefficient of aerosols from the pulsed backscattering lidar measurements. Most of the existing inversion methods assume a range independent value for the scattering ratio for inverting the lidar signal even though it is known that the scattering ratio depends on the nature of aerosols and as such range dependent. We used a modified Klett's method for the inversion of lidar signal that uses range dependent scattering ratio (s) for the characterization of atmospheric aerosols. This method provides the constants k and s for all the altitude regions of the atmosphere and leads to derive the aerosol extinction profile for the lidar data. In this paper we made a study on the errors involved in the extinction profiles derived using the range dependent scattering ratio and discuss the approach in this regard to obtain the accurate extinction profiles.

  12. Summary Report on the Graded Prognostic Assessment: An Accurate and Facile Diagnosis-Specific Tool to Estimate Survival for Patients With Brain Metastases

    PubMed Central

    Sperduto, Paul W.; Kased, Norbert; Roberge, David; Xu, Zhiyuan; Shanley, Ryan; Luo, Xianghua; Sneed, Penny K.; Chao, Samuel T.; Weil, Robert J.; Suh, John; Bhatt, Amit; Jensen, Ashley W.; Brown, Paul D.; Shih, Helen A.; Kirkpatrick, John; Gaspar, Laurie E.; Fiveash, John B.; Chiang, Veronica; Knisely, Jonathan P.S.; Sperduto, Christina Maria; Lin, Nancy; Mehta, Minesh

    2012-01-01

    Purpose Our group has previously published the Graded Prognostic Assessment (GPA), a prognostic index for patients with brain metastases. Updates have been published with refinements to create diagnosis-specific Graded Prognostic Assessment indices. The purpose of this report is to present the updated diagnosis-specific GPA indices in a single, unified, user-friendly report to allow ease of access and use by treating physicians. Methods A multi-institutional retrospective (1985 to 2007) database of 3,940 patients with newly diagnosed brain metastases underwent univariate and multivariate analyses of prognostic factors associated with outcomes by primary site and treatment. Significant prognostic factors were used to define the diagnosis-specific GPA prognostic indices. A GPA of 4.0 correlates with the best prognosis, whereas a GPA of 0.0 corresponds with the worst prognosis. Results Significant prognostic factors varied by diagnosis. For lung cancer, prognostic factors were Karnofsky performance score, age, presence of extracranial metastases, and number of brain metastases, confirming the original Lung-GPA. For melanoma and renal cell cancer, prognostic factors were Karnofsky performance score and the number of brain metastases. For breast cancer, prognostic factors were tumor subtype, Karnofsky performance score, and age. For GI cancer, the only prognostic factor was the Karnofsky performance score. The median survival times by GPA score and diagnosis were determined. Conclusion Prognostic factors for patients with brain metastases vary by diagnosis, and for each diagnosis, a robust separation into different GPA scores was discerned, implying considerable heterogeneity in outcome, even within a single tumor type. In summary, these indices and related worksheet provide an accurate and facile diagnosis-specific tool to estimate survival, potentially select appropriate treatment, and stratify clinical trials for patients with brain metastases. PMID:22203767

  13. Polyallelic structural variants can provide accurate, highly informative genetic markers focused on diagnosis and therapeutic targets: Accuracy vs. Precision.

    PubMed

    Roses, A D

    2016-02-01

    Structural variants (SVs) include all insertions, deletions, and rearrangements in the genome, with several common types of nucleotide repeats including single sequence repeats, short tandem repeats, and insertion-deletion length variants. Polyallelic SVs provide highly informative markers for association studies with well-phenotyped cohorts. SVs can influence gene regulation by affecting epigenetics, transcription, splicing, and/or translation. Accurate assays of polyallelic SV loci are required to define the range and allele frequency of variable length alleles.

  14. Accurate Time-Dependent Wave Packet Calculations for the O(+) + H2 → OH(+) + H Ion-Molecule Reaction.

    PubMed

    Bulut, N; Castillo, J F; Jambrina, P G; Kłos, J; Roncero, O; Aoiz, F J; Bañares, L

    2015-12-17

    Accurate quantum reactive scattering time-dependent wave packet close-coupling calculations have been carried out to determine total reaction probabilities and integral cross sections for the O(+) + H2 → OH(+) + H reaction in a range of collision energies from 10(-3) eV up to 1.0 eV for the H2 rovibrational states (v = 0; j = 0, 1, 2) and (v = 1; j = 0) using the potential energy surface (PES) by Martı́nez et al. As expected for a barrierless reaction, the reaction cross section decays rapidly with collision energy, Ec, following a behavior that nearly corresponds to that predicted by the Langevin model. Rotational excitation of H2 into j = 1, 2 has a very moderate effect on reactivity, similarly to what happens with vibrational excitation below Ec ≈ 0.3 eV. However, at higher collision energies the cross section increases notably when H2 is promoted to v = 1. This effect is explained by resorting to the effective potentials in the entrance channel. The integral cross sections have been used to calculate rate constants in the temperature range 200-1000 K. A good overall agreement has been found with the available experimental data on integral cross sections and rate constants. In addition, time-independent quantum mechanical and quasi-classical trajectory (QCT) calculations have been performed on the same PES aimed to compare the various methodologies and to discern the detailed mechanism of the title reaction. In particular, the analysis of individual trajectories has made it possible to explain, in terms of the coupling between reagent relative velocity and the topography of the PES, the presence of a series of alternating maxima and minima in the collision energy dependence of the QCT reaction probabilities for the reactions with H2(v=0,1,j=0), which are absent in the quantum mechanical calculations.

  15. Linear-In-The-Parameters Oblique Least Squares (LOLS) Provides More Accurate Estimates of Density-Dependent Survival

    PubMed Central

    Vieira, Vasco M. N. C. S.; Engelen, Aschwin H.; Huanel, Oscar R.; Guillemin, Marie-Laure

    2016-01-01

    Survival is a fundamental demographic component and the importance of its accurate estimation goes beyond the traditional estimation of life expectancy. The evolutionary stability of isomorphic biphasic life-cycles and the occurrence of its different ploidy phases at uneven abundances are hypothesized to be driven by differences in survival rates between haploids and diploids. We monitored Gracilaria chilensis, a commercially exploited red alga with an isomorphic biphasic life-cycle, having found density-dependent survival with competition and Allee effects. While estimating the linear-in-the-parameters survival function, all model I regression methods (i.e, vertical least squares) provided biased line-fits rendering them inappropriate for studies about ecology, evolution or population management. Hence, we developed an iterative two-step non-linear model II regression (i.e, oblique least squares), which provided improved line-fits and estimates of survival function parameters, while robust to the data aspects that usually turn the regression methods numerically unstable. PMID:27936048

  16. Accurate time-dependent wave packet study of the Li + H₂⁺ reaction and its isotopic variants.

    PubMed

    Aslan, E; Bulut, N; Castillo, J F; Bañares, L; Roncero, O; Aoiz, F J

    2012-01-12

    The dynamics and kinetics of the Li + H₂⁺ reaction and its isotopic variants (D₂⁺ and T₂⁺) have been studied by using a time-dependent wave packet (TDWP) coupled-channel (CC) method on the ab initio potential energy surface (PES) of Martinazzo et al. [J. Chem. Phys. 2003, 119, 21]. Total initial v = 0, j = 0 state-selected reaction probabilities for the Li + H₂⁺ reaction and its isotopic variants have been calculated from the threshold up to 1 eV for total angular momenta J from 0 to 90. Integral cross sections have been evaluated from the reaction probabilities at collision energies from threshold (≈0.2 eV) up to 1.0 eV collision. The calculated rate constants as a function of temperature show an Arrhenius type behavior in the 200 ≤ T ≤ 1000 K temperature interval. It has been found to be a considerable large intermolecular kinetic isotope effect. The TDWP-CC results are in overall good agreement with those obtained applying the TDWP Centrifugal-Sudden (CS) approximation, showing that the CS approximation is rather accurate for the title reaction.

  17. Lateral Flow Rapid Test for Accurate and Early Diagnosis of Scrub Typhus: A Febrile Illness of Historically Military Importance in the Pacific Rim.

    PubMed

    Chao, Chien-Chung; Zhangm, Zhiwen; Weissenberger, Giulia; Chen, Hua-Wei; Ching, Wei-Mei

    2017-03-01

    Scrub typhus (ST) is an infection caused by Orientia tsutsugamushi. Historically, ST was ranked as the second most important arthropod-borne medical problem only behind malaria during World War II and the Vietnam War. The disease occurs mainly in Southeast Asia and has been shown to emerge and reemerge in new areas, implying the increased risk for U.S. military and civilian personnel deployed to these regions. ST can effectively be treated by doxycycline provided the diagnosis is made early, before the development of severe complications. Scrub Typhus Detect is a lateral flow rapid test based on a mixture of recombinant 56-kDa antigens with broad reactivity. The performance of this prototype product was evaluated against indirect immunofluorescence assay, the serological gold standard. Using 249 prospectively collected samples from Thailand, the sensitivity and specificity for IgM was found to be 100% and 92%, respectively, suggesting a high potential of this product for clinical use. This product will provide a user friendly, rapid, and accurate diagnosis of ST for clinicians to provide timely and accurate treatments of deployed personnel.

  18. Accurate diagnosis of myalgic encephalomyelitis and chronic fatigue syndrome based upon objective test methods for characteristic symptoms

    PubMed Central

    Twisk, Frank NM

    2015-01-01

    Although myalgic encephalomyelitis (ME) and chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) are considered to be synonymous, the definitional criteria for ME and CFS define two distinct, partially overlapping, clinical entities. ME, whether defined by the original criteria or by the recently proposed criteria, is not equivalent to CFS, let alone a severe variant of incapacitating chronic fatigue. Distinctive features of ME are: muscle weakness and easy muscle fatigability, cognitive impairment, circulatory deficits, a marked variability of the symptoms in presence and severity, but above all, post-exertional “malaise”: a (delayed) prolonged aggravation of symptoms after a minor exertion. In contrast, CFS is primarily defined by (unexplained) chronic fatigue, which should be accompanied by four out of a list of 8 symptoms, e.g., headaches. Due to the subjective nature of several symptoms of ME and CFS, researchers and clinicians have questioned the physiological origin of these symptoms and qualified ME and CFS as functional somatic syndromes. However, various characteristic symptoms, e.g., post-exertional “malaise” and muscle weakness, can be assessed objectively using well-accepted methods, e.g., cardiopulmonary exercise tests and cognitive tests. The objective measures acquired by these methods should be used to accurately diagnose patients, to evaluate the severity and impact of the illness objectively and to assess the positive and negative effects of proposed therapies impartially. PMID:26140274

  19. A new method of accurate broken rotor bar diagnosis based on modulation signal bispectrum analysis of motor current signals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gu, F.; Wang, T.; Alwodai, A.; Tian, X.; Shao, Y.; Ball, A. D.

    2015-01-01

    Motor current signature analysis (MCSA) has been an effective way of monitoring electrical machines for many years. However, inadequate accuracy in diagnosing incipient broken rotor bars (BRB) has motivated many studies into improving this method. In this paper a modulation signal bispectrum (MSB) analysis is applied to motor currents from different broken bar cases and a new MSB based sideband estimator (MSB-SE) and sideband amplitude estimator are introduced for obtaining the amplitude at (1 ± 2 s)fs (s is the rotor slip and fs is the fundamental supply frequency) with high accuracy. As the MSB-SE has a good performance of noise suppression, the new estimator produces more accurate results in predicting the number of BRB, compared with conventional power spectrum analysis. Moreover, the paper has also developed an improved model for motor current signals under rotor fault conditions and an effective method to decouple the BRB current which interferes with that of speed oscillations associated with BRB. These provide theoretical supports for the new estimators and clarify the issues in using conventional bispectrum analysis.

  20. Accurate diagnosis of myalgic encephalomyelitis and chronic fatigue syndrome based upon objective test methods for characteristic symptoms.

    PubMed

    Twisk, Frank Nm

    2015-06-26

    Although myalgic encephalomyelitis (ME) and chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) are considered to be synonymous, the definitional criteria for ME and CFS define two distinct, partially overlapping, clinical entities. ME, whether defined by the original criteria or by the recently proposed criteria, is not equivalent to CFS, let alone a severe variant of incapacitating chronic fatigue. Distinctive features of ME are: muscle weakness and easy muscle fatigability, cognitive impairment, circulatory deficits, a marked variability of the symptoms in presence and severity, but above all, post-exertional "malaise": a (delayed) prolonged aggravation of symptoms after a minor exertion. In contrast, CFS is primarily defined by (unexplained) chronic fatigue, which should be accompanied by four out of a list of 8 symptoms, e.g., headaches. Due to the subjective nature of several symptoms of ME and CFS, researchers and clinicians have questioned the physiological origin of these symptoms and qualified ME and CFS as functional somatic syndromes. However, various characteristic symptoms, e.g., post-exertional "malaise" and muscle weakness, can be assessed objectively using well-accepted methods, e.g., cardiopulmonary exercise tests and cognitive tests. The objective measures acquired by these methods should be used to accurately diagnose patients, to evaluate the severity and impact of the illness objectively and to assess the positive and negative effects of proposed therapies impartially.

  1. Accurate Time-Dependent Traveling-Wave Tube Model Developed for Computational Bit-Error-Rate Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kory, Carol L.

    2001-01-01

    The phenomenal growth of the satellite communications industry has created a large demand for traveling-wave tubes (TWT's) operating with unprecedented specifications requiring the design and production of many novel devices in record time. To achieve this, the TWT industry heavily relies on computational modeling. However, the TWT industry's computational modeling capabilities need to be improved because there are often discrepancies between measured TWT data and that predicted by conventional two-dimensional helical TWT interaction codes. This limits the analysis and design of novel devices or TWT's with parameters differing from what is conventionally manufactured. In addition, the inaccuracy of current computational tools limits achievable TWT performance because optimized designs require highly accurate models. To address these concerns, a fully three-dimensional, time-dependent, helical TWT interaction model was developed using the electromagnetic particle-in-cell code MAFIA (Solution of MAxwell's equations by the Finite-Integration-Algorithm). The model includes a short section of helical slow-wave circuit with excitation fed by radiofrequency input/output couplers, and an electron beam contained by periodic permanent magnet focusing. A cutaway view of several turns of the three-dimensional helical slow-wave circuit with input/output couplers is shown. This has been shown to be more accurate than conventionally used two-dimensional models. The growth of the communications industry has also imposed a demand for increased data rates for the transmission of large volumes of data. To achieve increased data rates, complex modulation and multiple access techniques are employed requiring minimum distortion of the signal as it is passed through the TWT. Thus, intersymbol interference (ISI) becomes a major consideration, as well as suspected causes such as reflections within the TWT. To experimentally investigate effects of the physical TWT on ISI would be

  2. [RDBH-method and big DyeTM terminator technology in accurate diagnosis of β-thalassemia and the allelic polymorphism of β-globin cluster].

    PubMed

    Akperova, G A

    2014-11-01

    IThe purpose of this study was to evaluate of the efficiency of RDBH-method and Big DyeTM Terminator technology in an accurate diagnosis of β-thalassemia and the allelic polymorphism of β-globin cluster. It was done a complete hematology analysis (HB, MCH, MCV, MCHC, RBC, Hct, HbA2, HbF, Serum iron, Serum ferritin at four children (males, 6-10 years old) and their parents. Molecular analysis included Reverse Dot-Blot Hybridization StripAssay (RDBH) and DNA sequencing on ABI PRISM Big DyeTM Terminator. Hematologic and molecular parameters were contradictory. The homozygosity for β0-thalassemia (β0IVS2.1[G>A] and β0codon 8[-AA]) at three boys with the mild clinical manifestation and heterozygosity of their parents for mutations, and the absence of β-globin mutations at parents and a boy who holds monthly transfusion was established by RDBH-analysis. DNA sequencing by technology Big DyeTM Terminator showed polymorphism at positions -551 and -521 of Cap5'-region (-650-250) - (AT)7(T)7 and (AT)8(T)5. Application of the integrated clinical-molecular approach is an ideal method for an accurate diagnosis, identification of asymptomatic carriers and a reduce of the risk of complications from β-thalassemia, moreover screening of γG-gene and the level of fetal hemoglobin in early childhood will help manage of β-thalassemia clinic and prevent heavy consequences of the disease.

  3. Identification of Bile Duct Paucity in Alagille Syndrome: Using CK7 and EMA Immunohistochemistry as a Reliable Panel for Accurate Diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Herman, Haley K; Abramowsky, Carlos R; Caltharp, Shelley; Metry, Diana; Cundiff, Caitlin A; Romero, Rene; Gillespie, Scott E; Shehata, Bahig M

    2016-01-01

    Bile duct paucity is the absence or marked reduction in the number of interlobular bile ducts (ILBD) within portal tracts. Its syndromic variant, Alagille syndrome (ALGS), is a multisystem disorder with effects on the liver, cardiovascular system, skeleton, face, and eyes. It is inherited as an autosomal dominant trait due to defects in NOTCH signaling pathway. ALGS is characterized by vanishing ILBD with subsequent chronic obstructive cholestasis in approximately 89% of cases. Cholestasis stimulates formation of new bile ductules through a process of neoductular reaction, making it difficult to evaluate the presence or absence of ILBD. Therefore, finding a method to differentiate clearly between ILBD and the ductular proliferation is essential for accurate diagnosis. A database search identified 28 patients with confirmed diagnosis of ALGS between 1992 and 2014. Additionally, 7 controls were used. A panel of two immunostains, cytokeratin 7 (CK7) and epithelial membrane antigen (EMA), was performed. CK7 highlighted the bile duct epithelium of ILBD and ductular proliferation, while EMA stained only the brush border of ILBD. In our ALGS group, the ratio of EMA-positive ILBD to identified portal tracts was 12.6% (range, 0%-41%). However, this same ratio was 95.0% (range, 90%-100%) among control cases (P < 0.001). We propose a panel of two immunostains, CK7 and EMA, to differentiate ILBD from ductular proliferation in patients with cholestasis. With this panel, identification of bile duct paucity can be achieved. Additional studies, including molecular confirmation and clinical correlation, would provide a definitive diagnosis of ALGS.

  4. Intestinal Intraepithelial Lymphocyte Cytometric Pattern Is More Accurate than Subepithelial Deposits of Anti-Tissue Transglutaminase IgA for the Diagnosis of Celiac Disease in Lymphocytic Enteritis

    PubMed Central

    García-Puig, Roger; Rosinach, Mercè; González, Clarisa; Alsina, Montserrat; Loras, Carme; Salas, Antonio; Viver, Josep M.; Esteve, Maria

    2014-01-01

    Background & Aims An increase in CD3+TCRγδ+ and a decrease in CD3− intraepithelial lymphocytes (IEL) is a characteristic flow cytometric pattern of celiac disease (CD) with atrophy. The aim was to evaluate the usefulness of both CD IEL cytometric pattern and anti-TG2 IgA subepithelial deposit analysis (CD IF pattern) for diagnosing lymphocytic enteritis due to CD. Methods Two-hundred and five patients (144 females) who underwent duodenal biopsy for clinical suspicion of CD and positive celiac genetics were prospectively included. Fifty had villous atrophy, 70 lymphocytic enteritis, and 85 normal histology. Eight patients with non-celiac atrophy and 15 with lymphocytic enteritis secondary to Helicobacter pylori acted as control group. Duodenal biopsies were obtained to assess both CD IEL flow cytometric (complete or incomplete) and IF patterns. Results Sensitivity of IF, and complete and incomplete cytometric patterns for CD diagnosis in patients with positive serology (Marsh 1+3) was 92%, 85 and 97% respectively, but only the complete cytometric pattern had 100% specificity. Twelve seropositive and 8 seronegative Marsh 1 patients had a CD diagnosis at inclusion or after gluten free-diet, respectively. CD cytometric pattern showed a better diagnostic performance than both IF pattern and serology for CD diagnosis in lymphocytic enteritis at baseline (95% vs 60% vs 60%, p = 0.039). Conclusions Analysis of the IEL flow cytometric pattern is a fast, accurate method for identifying CD in the initial diagnostic biopsy of patients presenting with lymphocytic enteritis, even in seronegative patients, and seems to be better than anti-TG2 intestinal deposits. PMID:25010214

  5. Dependable and Efficient Clinical Molecular Diagnosis of Chinese RP Patient with Targeted Exon Sequencing

    PubMed Central

    Yin, Xiaobei; Dou, Hongliang; Zhao, Lin; Chen, Ningning; Zhang, Jinlu; Zhang, Huirong; Li, Genlin; Ma, Zhizhong

    2015-01-01

    Retinitis pigmentosa (RP) is the most common inherited retinal disease. It is a clinically and genetically heterogeneous disorder, which is why it is particularly challenging to diagnose. The aim of this study was to establish a targeted next-generation sequencing (NGS) approach for the comprehensive, rapid, and cost-effective clinical molecular diagnosis of RP. A specific hereditary eye disease enrichment panel (HEDEP) based on exome capture technology was used to collect the protein coding regions of 371 targeted hereditary eye disease genes, followed by high-throughput sequencing on the Illumina HiSeq2000 platform. From a cohort of 34 Chinese RP families, 13 families were successfully diagnosed; thus, the method achieves a diagnostic rate of approximately 40%. Of 16 pathogenic mutations identified, 11 were novel. Our study demonstrates that targeted capture sequencing offers a rapid and effective method for the molecular diagnosis of RP, which helps to provide a more accurate clinical diagnosis and paves the way for genetic counseling, family planning, and future gene-targeted treatment. PMID:26496393

  6. Dependable and Efficient Clinical Molecular Diagnosis of Chinese RP Patient with Targeted Exon Sequencing.

    PubMed

    Yang, Liping; Cui, Hui; Yin, Xiaobei; Dou, Hongliang; Zhao, Lin; Chen, Ningning; Zhang, Jinlu; Zhang, Huirong; Li, Genlin; Ma, Zhizhong

    2015-01-01

    Retinitis pigmentosa (RP) is the most common inherited retinal disease. It is a clinically and genetically heterogeneous disorder, which is why it is particularly challenging to diagnose. The aim of this study was to establish a targeted next-generation sequencing (NGS) approach for the comprehensive, rapid, and cost-effective clinical molecular diagnosis of RP. A specific hereditary eye disease enrichment panel (HEDEP) based on exome capture technology was used to collect the protein coding regions of 371 targeted hereditary eye disease genes, followed by high-throughput sequencing on the Illumina HiSeq2000 platform. From a cohort of 34 Chinese RP families, 13 families were successfully diagnosed; thus, the method achieves a diagnostic rate of approximately 40%. Of 16 pathogenic mutations identified, 11 were novel. Our study demonstrates that targeted capture sequencing offers a rapid and effective method for the molecular diagnosis of RP, which helps to provide a more accurate clinical diagnosis and paves the way for genetic counseling, family planning, and future gene-targeted treatment.

  7. Height at diagnosis of insulin dependent diabetes in patients and their non-diabetic family members.

    PubMed Central

    Songer, T J; LaPorte, R E; Tajima, N; Orchard, T J; Rabin, B S; Eberhardt, M S; Dorman, J S; Cruickshanks, K J; Cavender, D E; Becker, D J

    1986-01-01

    Height at the onset of insulin dependent diabetes mellitus was evaluated in 200 newly diagnosed children, 187 non-diabetic siblings, and 169 parents. Diabetic children 5-9 years of age at diagnosis were consistently taller than the national average. Non-diabetic siblings of the same age were also tall. Diabetic children aged 14 or over at diagnosis were short, while their siblings and parents were of normal height. Diabetic children positive for islet cell antibodies were taller than those without islet cell antibodies. No association between height and HLA antigens was found. Non-diabetic siblings at high risk for the disease were closer in height to the diabetic children than were the lower risk, non-diabetic siblings. Siblings, particularly those under 10, were also significantly more obese than the general population. Deviations in growth in patients with insulin dependent diabetes mellitus appear to be related to age at diagnosis and a factor(s) not related to parental height. PMID:3087454

  8. Time-accurate anisotropic mesh adaptation for three-dimensional time-dependent problems with body-fitted moving geometries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barral, N.; Olivier, G.; Alauzet, F.

    2017-02-01

    Anisotropic metric-based mesh adaptation has proved its efficiency to reduce the CPU time of steady and unsteady simulations while improving their accuracy. However, its extension to time-dependent problems with body-fitted moving geometries is far from straightforward. This paper establishes a well-founded framework for multiscale mesh adaptation of unsteady problems with moving boundaries. This framework is based on a novel space-time analysis of the interpolation error, within the continuous mesh theory. An optimal metric field, called ALE metric field, is derived, which takes into account the movement of the mesh during the adaptation. Based on this analysis, the global fixed-point adaptation algorithm for time-dependent simulations is extended to moving boundary problems, within the range of body-fitted moving meshes and ALE simulations. Finally, three dimensional adaptive simulations with moving boundaries are presented to validate the proposed approach.

  9. Optimally accurate thermal-wave cavity photopyroelectric measurements of pressure-dependent thermophysical properties of air: theory and experiments.

    PubMed

    Kwan, Chi-Hang; Matvienko, Anna; Mandelis, Andreas

    2007-10-01

    An experimental technique for the measurement of thermal properties of air at low pressures using a photopyroelectric (PPE) thermal-wave cavity (TWC) was developed. In addition, two theoretical approaches, a conventional one-dimensional thermal-wave model and a three-dimensional theory based on the Hankel integral, were applied to interpret the thermal-wave field in the thermal-wave cavity. The importance of radiation heat transfer mechanisms in a TWC was also investigated. Radiation components were added to the purely conductive model by linearizing the radiation heat transfer component at the cavity boundary. The experimental results indicate that the three-dimensional model is necessary to describe the PPE signal, especially at low frequencies where thermal diffusion length is large and sideways propagation of the thermal-wave field becomes significant. Radiation is found to be the dominant contributor of the PPE signal at high frequencies and large cavity lengths, where heat conduction across the TWC length is relatively weak. The three-dimensional theory and the Downhill Simplex algorithm were used to fit the experimental data and extract the thermal diffusivity of air and the heat transfer coefficient in a wide range of pressures from 760 to 2.6 Torr. It was shown that judicious adjustments of cavity length and computational best fits to frequency-scanned data using three-dimensional photopyroelectric theory lead to optimally accurate value measurements of thermal diffusivity and heat transfer coefficient at various pressures.

  10. The status of and future research into Myalgic Encephalomyelitis and Chronic Fatigue Syndrome: the need of accurate diagnosis, objective assessment, and acknowledging biological and clinical subgroups

    PubMed Central

    Twisk, Frank N. M.

    2014-01-01

    Although Myalgic Encephalomyelitis (ME) and Chronic Fatigue Syndrome (CFS) are used interchangeably, the diagnostic criteria define two distinct clinical entities. Cognitive impairment, (muscle) weakness, circulatory disturbances, marked variability of symptoms, and, above all, post-exertional malaise: a long-lasting increase of symptoms after a minor exertion, are distinctive symptoms of ME. This latter phenomenon separates ME, a neuro-immune illness, from chronic fatigue (syndrome), other disorders and deconditioning. The introduction of the label, but more importantly the diagnostic criteria for CFS have generated much confusion, mostly because chronic fatigue is a subjective and ambiguous notion. CFS was redefined in 1994 into unexplained (persistent or relapsing) chronic fatigue, accompanied by at least four out of eight symptoms, e.g., headaches and unrefreshing sleep. Most of the research into ME and/or CFS in the last decades was based upon the multivalent CFS criteria, which define a heterogeneous patient group. Due to the fact that fatigue and other symptoms are non-discriminative, subjective experiences, research has been hampered. Various authors have questioned the physiological nature of the symptoms and qualified ME/CFS as somatization. However, various typical symptoms can be assessed objectively using standardized methods. Despite subjective and unclear criteria and measures, research has observed specific abnormalities in ME/CFS repetitively, e.g., immunological abnormalities, oxidative and nitrosative stress, neurological anomalies, circulatory deficits and mitochondrial dysfunction. However, to improve future research standards and patient care, it is crucial that patients with post-exertional malaise (ME) and patients without this odd phenomenon are acknowledged as separate clinical entities that the diagnosis of ME and CFS in research and clinical practice is based upon accurate criteria and an objective assessment of characteristic symptoms

  11. Simulation of Accurate Vibrationally Resolved Electronic Spectra: the Integrated Time-Dependent and Time-Independent Framework

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baiardi, Alberto; Barone, Vincenzo; Biczysko, Malgorzata; Bloino, Julien

    2014-06-01

    Two parallel theories including Franck-Condon, Herzberg-Teller and Duschinsky (i.e., mode mixing) effects, allowing different approximations for the description of excited state PES have been developed in order to simulate realistic, asymmetric, electronic spectra line-shapes taking into account the vibrational structure: the so-called sum-over-states or time-independent (TI) method and the alternative time-dependent (TD) approach, which exploits the properties of the Fourier transform. The integrated TI-TD procedure included within a general purpose QM code [1,2], allows to compute one photon absorption, fluorescence, phosphorescence, electronic circular dichroism, circularly polarized luminescence and resonance Raman spectra. Combining both approaches, which use a single set of starting data, permits to profit from their respective advantages and minimize their respective limits: the time-dependent route automatically includes all vibrational states and, possibly, temperature effects, while the time-independent route allows to identify and assign single vibronic transitions. Interpretation, analysis and assignment of experimental spectra based on integrated TI-TD vibronic computations will be illustrated for challenging cases of medium-sized open-shell systems in the gas and condensed phases with inclusion of leading anharmonic effects. 1. V. Barone, A. Baiardi, M. Biczysko, J. Bloino, C. Cappelli, F. Lipparini Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys, 14, 12404, (2012) 2. A. Baiardi, V. Barone, J. Bloino J. Chem. Theory Comput., 9, 4097-4115 (2013)

  12. Towards Efficient and Accurate Description of Many-Electron Problems: Developments of Static and Time-Dependent Electronic Structure Methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ding, Feizhi

    Understanding electronic behavior in molecular and nano-scale systems is fundamental to the development and design of novel technologies and materials for application in a variety of scientific contexts from fundamental research to energy conversion. This dissertation aims to provide insights into this goal by developing novel methods and applications of first-principle electronic structure theory. Specifically, we will present new methods and applications of excited state multi-electron dynamics based on the real-time (RT) time-dependent Hartree-Fock (TDHF) and time-dependent density functional theory (TDDFT) formalism, and new development of the multi-configuration self-consist field theory (MCSCF) for modeling ground-state electronic structure. The RT-TDHF/TDDFT based developments and applications can be categorized into three broad and coherently integrated research areas: (1) modeling of the interaction between moleculars and external electromagnetic perturbations. In this part we will first prove both analytically and numerically the gauge invariance of the TDHF/TDDFT formalisms, then we will present a novel, efficient method for calculating molecular nonlinear optical properties, and last we will study quantum coherent plasmon in metal namowires using RT-TDDFT; (2) modeling of excited-state charge transfer in molecules. In this part, we will investigate the mechanisms of bridge-mediated electron transfer, and then we will introduce a newly developed non-equilibrium quantum/continuum embedding method for studying charge transfer dynamics in solution; (3) developments of first-principles spin-dependent many-electron dynamics. In this part, we will present an ab initio non-relativistic spin dynamics method based on the two-component generalized Hartree-Fock approach, and then we will generalized it to the two-component TDDFT framework and combine it with the Ehrenfest molecular dynamics approach for modeling the interaction between electron spins and nuclear

  13. Locked-in syndrome: a critical and time-dependent diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Barbic, David; Levine, Zachary; Tampieri, Donatella; Teitelbau, Jeanne

    2012-09-01

    Locked-in syndrome (LIS) is the combination of quadriplegia and anarthria (inability to speak), with the preservation of consciousness. The majority of cases are caused by basilar artery occlusion leading to brainstem infarction in the ventral pons, yet numerous other etiologies have been described. The diagnosis of LIS is completely dependent on the physician's ability to know that these manifestations originate in the brainstem and the posterior circulation that supplies it. This knowledge hinges on the ability of the examining physician to conduct a rapid, yet appropriately thorough neurologic examination. With recent advances in interventional neuroradiology leading to improved patient outcomes, LIS has evolved into a critical, time-dependent diagnosis. Herein, we present the case of a male patient who initially presented to the emergency department of a community hospital with coma of unknown cause. By presenting this case and focusing on the importance of the occulomotor exam, we hope to help in the rapid identification and treatment of patients with LIS in the emergency room and avoid outcomes similar to that of our patient.

  14. Accurate Ground-State Energies of Solids and Molecules from Time-Dependent Density-Functional Theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olsen, Thomas; Thygesen, Kristian S.

    2014-05-01

    We demonstrate that ground-state energies approaching chemical accuracy can be obtained by combining the adiabatic-connection fluctuation-dissipation theorem with time-dependent density-functional theory. The key ingredient is a renormalization scheme, which eliminates the divergence of the correlation hole characteristic of any local kernel. This new class of renormalized kernels gives a significantly better description of the short-range correlations in covalent bonds compared to the random phase approximation (RPA) and yields a fourfold improvement of RPA binding energies in both molecules and solids. We also consider examples of barrier heights in chemical reactions, molecular adsorption, and graphene interacting with metal surfaces, which are three examples where the RPA has been successful. In these cases, the renormalized kernel provides results that are of equal quality or even slightly better than the RPA, with a similar computational cost.

  15. Exact expressions and accurate approximations for the dependences of radius and index of refraction of solutions of inorganic solutes on relative humidity

    SciTech Connect

    Lewis, E.R.; Schwartz, S.

    2010-03-15

    Light scattering by aerosols plays an important role in Earth’s radiative balance, and quantification of this phenomenon is important in understanding and accounting for anthropogenic influences on Earth’s climate. Light scattering by an aerosol particle is determined by its radius and index of refraction, and for aerosol particles that are hygroscopic, both of these quantities vary with relative humidity RH. Here exact expressions are derived for the dependences of the radius ratio (relative to the volume-equivalent dry radius) and index of refraction on RH for aqueous solutions of single solutes. Both of these quantities depend on the apparent molal volume of the solute in solution and on the practical osmotic coefficient of the solution, which in turn depend on concentration and thus implicitly on RH. Simple but accurate approximations are also presented for the RH dependences of both radius ratio and index of refraction for several atmospherically important inorganic solutes over the entire range of RH values for which these substances can exist as solution drops. For all substances considered, the radius ratio is accurate to within a few percent, and the index of refraction to within ~0.02, over this range of RH. Such parameterizations will be useful in radiation transfer models and climate models.

  16. ACCURATE TIME-DEPENDENT WAVE PACKET STUDY OF THE H{sup +}+LiH REACTION AT EARLY UNIVERSE CONDITIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Aslan, E.; Bulut, N.; Castillo, J. F.; Banares, L.; Aoiz, F. J.; Roncero, O.

    2012-11-01

    The dynamics and kinetics of the H{sup +} + LiH reaction have been studied using a quantum reactive time-dependent wave packet (TDWP) coupled-channel quantum mechanical method on an ab initio potential energy surface at conditions of the early universe. The total reaction probabilities for the H{sup +} + LiH(v = 0, j = 0) {yields} H{sup +} {sub 2} + Li process have been calculated from 5 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -3} eV up to 1 eV for total angular momenta J from 0 to 110. Using a Langevin model, integral cross sections have been calculated in that range of collision energies and extrapolated for energies below 5 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -3} eV. The calculated rate constants are found to be nearly independent of temperature in the 10-1000 K interval with a value of Almost-Equal-To 10{sup -9} cm{sup 3} s{sup -1}, which is in good agreement with estimates used in evolutionary models of the early universe lithium chemistry.

  17. An efficient and accurate approximation to time-dependent density functional theory for systems of weakly coupled monomers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Jie; Herbert, John M.

    2015-07-01

    A novel formulation of time-dependent density functional theory (TDDFT) is derived, based on non-orthogonal, absolutely-localized molecular orbitals (ALMOs). We call this approach TDDFT(MI), in reference to ALMO-based methods for describing molecular interactions (MI) that have been developed for ground-state applications. TDDFT(MI) is intended for efficient excited-state calculations in systems composed of multiple, weakly interacting chromophores. The efficiency is based upon (1) a local excitation approximation; (2) monomer-based, singly-excited basis states; (3) an efficient localization procedure; and (4) a one-step Davidson method to solve the TDDFT(MI) working equation. We apply this methodology to study molecular dimers, water clusters, solvated chromophores, and aggregates of naphthalene diimide that form the building blocks of self-assembling organic nanotubes. Absolute errors of 0.1-0.3 eV with respect to supersystem methods are achievable for these systems, especially for cases involving an excited chromophore that is weakly coupled to several explicit solvent molecules. Excited-state calculations in an aggregate of nine naphthalene diimide monomers are ˜40 times faster than traditional TDDFT calculations.

  18. An efficient and accurate approximation to time-dependent density functional theory for systems of weakly coupled monomers.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jie; Herbert, John M

    2015-07-21

    A novel formulation of time-dependent density functional theory (TDDFT) is derived, based on non-orthogonal, absolutely-localized molecular orbitals (ALMOs). We call this approach TDDFT(MI), in reference to ALMO-based methods for describing molecular interactions (MI) that have been developed for ground-state applications. TDDFT(MI) is intended for efficient excited-state calculations in systems composed of multiple, weakly interacting chromophores. The efficiency is based upon (1) a local excitation approximation; (2) monomer-based, singly-excited basis states; (3) an efficient localization procedure; and (4) a one-step Davidson method to solve the TDDFT(MI) working equation. We apply this methodology to study molecular dimers, water clusters, solvated chromophores, and aggregates of naphthalene diimide that form the building blocks of self-assembling organic nanotubes. Absolute errors of 0.1-0.3 eV with respect to supersystem methods are achievable for these systems, especially for cases involving an excited chromophore that is weakly coupled to several explicit solvent molecules. Excited-state calculations in an aggregate of nine naphthalene diimide monomers are ∼40 times faster than traditional TDDFT calculations.

  19. Subpopulations of Older Foster Youths With Differential Risk of Diagnosis for Alcohol Abuse or Dependence*

    PubMed Central

    Keller, Thomas E.; Blakeslee, Jennifer E.; Lemon, Stephenie C.; Courtney, Mark E.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Distinctive combinations of factors are likely to be associated with serious alcohol problems among adolescents about to emancipate from the foster care system and face the difficult transition to independent adulthood. This study identifies particular subpopulations of older foster youths that differ markedly in the probability of a lifetime diagnosis for alcohol abuse or dependence. Method: Classification and regression tree (CART) analysis was applied to a large, representative sample (N = 732) of individuals, 17 years of age or older, placed in the child welfare system for more than 1 year. CART evaluated two exploratory sets of variables for optimal splits into groups distinguished from each other on the criterion of lifetime alcohol-use disorder diagnosis. Results: Each classification tree yielded four terminal groups with different rates of lifetime alcohol-use disorder diagnosis. Notable groups in the first tree included one characterized by high levels of both delinquency and violence exposure (53% diagnosed) and another that featured lower delinquency but an independent-living placement (21% diagnosed). Notable groups in the second tree included African American adolescents (only 8% diagnosed), White adolescents not close to caregivers (40% diagnosed), and White adolescents closer to caregivers but with a history of psychological abuse (36% diagnosed). Conclusions: Analyses incorporating variables that could be comorbid with or symptomatic of alcohol problems, such as delinquency, yielded classifications potentially useful for assessment and service planning. Analyses without such variables identified other factors, such as quality of caregiving relationships and maltreatment, associated with serious alcohol problems, suggesting opportunities for prevention or intervention. PMID:20946738

  20. Multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification: a novel approach for genetic diagnosis of Porphyria.

    PubMed

    Di Pierro, Elena; Brancaleoni, Valentina; Besana, Valeria; Cappellini, Maria Domenica

    2009-08-01

    Porphyrias are disorders caused by the genetic defects of enzymes of the heme pathway and are characterized by such a wide genetic heterogeneity that even the molecular analysis is not always decisive for a correct diagnosis. In the past few years, deletion with a size range of few kilobase pairs have been reported. These peculiar mutations, missed by both sequencing and cytogenetic techniques, have been identified by time consuming and technically demanding methods. To provide a rapid and sensitive method for the detection of deletions responsible for porphyria, we successfully designed and tested seven chemically synthesized probe sets specific for each heme gene and their flanking regions, to be used in multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification technique.

  1. Validation of Three Early Ejaculation Diagnostic Tools: A Composite Measure Is Accurate and More Adequate for Diagnosis by Updated Diagnostic Criteria

    PubMed Central

    Jern, Patrick; Piha, Juhana; Santtila, Pekka

    2013-01-01

    Purpose To validate three early ejaculation diagnostic tools, and propose a new tool for diagnosis in line with proposed changes to diagnostic criteria. Significant changes to diagnostic criteria are expected in the near future. Available screening tools do not necessarily reflect proposed changes. Materials and Methods Data from 148 diagnosed early ejaculation patients (Mage = 42.8) and 892 controls (Mage = 33.1 years) from a population-based sample were used. Participants responded to three different questionnaires (Premature Ejaculation Profile; Premature Ejaculation Diagnostic Tool; Multiple Indicators of Premature Ejaculation). Stopwatch measured ejaculation latency times were collected from a subsample of early ejaculation patients. We used two types of responses to the questionnaires depending on the treatment status of the patients 1) responses regarding the situation before starting pharmacological treatment and 2) responses regarding current situation. Logistic regressions and Receiver Operating Characteristics were used to assess ability of both the instruments and individual items to differentiate between patients and controls. Results All instruments had very good precision (Areas under the Curve ranging from .93-.98). A new five-item instrument (named CHecklist for Early Ejaculation Symptoms – CHEES) consisting of high-performance variables selected from the three instruments had validity (Nagelkerke R2 range .51-.79 for backwards/forwards logistic regression) equal to or slightly better than any individual instrument (i.e., had slightly higher validity statistics, but these differences did not achieve statistical significance). Importantly, however, this instrument was more in line with proposed changes to diagnostic criteria. Conclusions All three screening tools had good validity. A new 5-item diagnostic tool (CHEES) based on the three instruments had equal or somewhat more favorable validity statistics compared to the other three tools, but is

  2. Brain substrates of social decision-making in dual diagnosis: cocaine dependence and personality disorders.

    PubMed

    Verdejo-Garcia, Antonio; Verdejo-Román, Juan; Albein-Urios, Natalia; Martínez-González, José M; Soriano-Mas, Carles

    2017-03-01

    Cocaine dependence frequently co-occurs with personality disorders, leading to increased interpersonal problems and greater burden of disease. Personality disorders are characterised by patterns of thinking and feeling that divert from social expectations. However, the comorbidity between cocaine dependence and personality disorders has not been substantiated by measures of brain activation during social decision-making. We applied functional magnetic resonance imaging to compare brain activations evoked by a social decision-making task-the Ultimatum Game-in 24 cocaine dependents with personality disorders (CDPD), 19 cocaine dependents without comorbidities and 19 healthy controls. In the Ultimatum Game participants had to accept or reject bids made by another player to split monetary stakes. Offers varied in fairness (in fair offers the proposer shares ~50 percent of the money; in unfair offers the proposer shares <30 percent of the money), and participants were told that if they accept both players get the money, and if they reject both players lose it. We contrasted brain activations during unfair versus fair offers and accept versus reject choices. During evaluation of unfair offers CDPD displayed lower activation in the insula and the anterior cingulate cortex and higher activation in the lateral orbitofrontal cortex and superior frontal and temporal gyri. Frontal activations negatively correlated with emotion recognition. During rejection of offers CDPD displayed lower activation in the anterior cingulate cortex, striatum and midbrain. Dual diagnosis is linked to hypo-activation of the insula and anterior cingulate cortex and hyper-activation of frontal-temporal regions during social decision-making, which associates with poorer emotion recognition.

  3. Fractionation and reconstitution of factors required for accurate transcription of mammalian ribosomal RNA genes: identification of a species-dependent initiation factor.

    PubMed Central

    Mishima, Y; Financsek, I; Kominami, R; Muramatsu, M

    1982-01-01

    Mouse and human cell extracts (S100) can support an accurate and efficient transcription initiation on homologous ribosomal RNA gene (rDNA) templates. The cell extracts were fractionated with the aid of a phosphocellulose column into four fractions (termed A, B, C and D), including one containing a major part of the RNA polymerase I activity. Various reconstitution experiments indicate that fraction D is an absolute requirement for the correct and efficient transcription initiation by RNA polymerase I on both mouse and human genes. Fraction B effectively suppresses random initiation on these templates. Fraction A appears to further enhance the transcription which takes place with fractions C and D. Although fractions A, B and C are interchangeable between mouse and human extracts, fraction D is not; i.e. initiation of transcription required the presence of a homologous fraction D for both templates. The factor(s) in fraction D, however, is not literally species-specific, since mouse D fraction is capable of supporting accurate transcription initiation on a rat rDNA template in the presence of all the other fractions from human cell extract under the conditions where human D fraction is unable to support it. We conclude from these experiments that a species-dependent factor in fraction D plays an important role in the initiation of rDNA transcription in each animal species. Images PMID:7177852

  4. Cytokines in sera from insulin-dependent diabetic patients at diagnosis.

    PubMed Central

    Cavallo, M G; Pozzilli, P; Bird, C; Wadhwa, M; Meager, A; Visalli, N; Gearing, A J; Andreani, D; Thorpe, R

    1991-01-01

    Cytokines are known to play an important role in autoimmunity and have been suggested to be involved in the pathogenesis of insulin-dependent diabetes (IDDM). In the present study we have measured IL-1, IL-2, IL-4, IL-6, interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) and tumour necrosis factor (TNF) (using both immunoassays and bioassays) in sera from 50 patients affected by IDDM at the time of clinical diagnosis and 51 age and sex matched controls. Detectable levels of IL-1, IL-2, IL-6 and IFN-gamma were found in the serum of a small percentage of subjects and were not significantly different between patients and controls. IL-4 was detectable in a higher number of both patients and controls and circulating TNF-alpha (greater than 1 U/ml) was found in a percentage of patients (24%) significantly higher than controls (P less than 0.01). Raised levels of TNF-alpha were detectable using an immunoenzymatic assay whereas TNF bioactivity in these samples was negligible. We conclude that the presence of immunoreactive TNF-alpha in the patient's sera may reflect an increased localized production of this cytokine at pancreatic level. However, the measurement in serum of other cytokines does not add information on the role that they may play in the pathogenesis of IDDM. PMID:1934594

  5. Type 1 Diabetes Prevention: A Goal Dependent on Accepting a Diagnosis of an Asymptomatic Disease.

    PubMed

    Ziegler, Anette-G; Bonifacio, Ezio; Powers, Alvin C; Todd, John A; Harrison, Leonard C; Atkinson, Mark A

    2016-11-01

    Type 1 diabetes, a disease defined by absolute insulin deficiency, is considered a chronic autoimmune disorder resulting from the destruction of insulin-producing pancreatic β-cells. The incidence of childhood-onset type 1 diabetes has been increasing at a rate of 3%-5% per year globally. Despite the introduction of an impressive array of therapies aimed at improving disease management, no means for a practical "cure" exist. This said, hope remains high that any of a number of emerging technologies (e.g., continuous glucose monitoring, insulin pumps, smart algorithms), alongside advances in stem cell biology, cell encapsulation methodologies, and immunotherapy, will eventually impact the lives of those with recently diagnosed or established type 1 diabetes. However, efforts aimed at reversing insulin dependence do not address the obvious benefits of disease prevention. Hence, key "stretch goals" for type 1 diabetes research include identifying improved and increasingly practical means for diagnosing the disease at earlier stages in its natural history (i.e., early, presymptomatic diagnosis), undertaking such efforts in the population at large to optimally identify those with presymptomatic type 1 diabetes, and introducing safe and effective therapeutic options for prevention.

  6. First imported Plasmodium ovale malaria in Central America: case report of a Guatemalan soldier and a call to improve its accurate diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Castellanos, María Eugenia; Díaz, Sheilee; Parsons, Emily; Peruski, Leonard F; Enríquez, Fabiola; Ramírez, Juan Luis; Padilla, Norma

    2015-01-01

    The Mesoamerican Ministers of Health have set 2020 as the target for malaria elimination to be achieved in the region. Imported malaria cases are a potential threat to countries attempting elimination or working to prevent resurgence. We report the first imported Plasmodium ovale infection with molecular confirmation in Central America, which occurred in a Guatemalan soldier that had been deployed in Africa. The obstacles for its diagnosis using the standard microscopy technique and the need to improve its detection are discussed.

  7. Challenges and controversies in diagnosis and management of gonadotropin dependent precocious puberty: An Indian perspective.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Manoj; Mukhopadhyay, Satinath; Dutta, Deep

    2015-01-01

    Managing precocious puberty (PP) has been a challenge due to lack of standardized definition, gonadotrophins assay, gonadotrophin stimulation, timings for blood sampling, and parameters for assessing outcomes. This review evaluated available literature to simplify the algorithm for managing gonadotrophin dependent/central PP (CPP), with an Indian perspective. CPP is one of the commonest forms of PP and mimics the normal course of puberty, at an age <8 and 9 years for girls and boys respectively. Basal and post gonadotrophin hormone releasing hormone analog (GnRHa) luteinizing hormone (LH) ≥0.3-0.6 IU/L and ≥4-5 IU/L (30-60 min after GnRH/GnRHa administration) respectively, using modern ultrasensitive automated chemiluminescence assays, can be considered positive for central puberty initiation. Uterine length of >3.5 cm and uterine volume of >1.8 ml are two most specific indicators for true CPP. Therapy is indicated in children with CPP with accelerated bone age, height advancement, or psychosocial stress. Treatment goal is to halt puberty progression to a socially acceptable age, allowing the child to attain optimal height potential. GnRHa is the treatment of choice, with best height outcomes when initiated <6 years age. Treatment is recommended till 11 years age. LH suppression to <3 U/L may be a reasonable target in patients on GnRHa therapy. Medroxyprogesterone acetate holds an important place in managing PP in India, cause of high costs associated with GnRHa therapy. There is an urgent need for clinical trials from India, for establishing Indian cut-off for diagnosis, treatment and follow-up of children with PP.

  8. Accurate measurements and temperature dependence of the water vapor self-continuum absorption in the 2.1 μm atmospheric window.

    PubMed

    Ventrillard, I; Romanini, D; Mondelain, D; Campargue, A

    2015-10-07

    In spite of its importance for the evaluation of the Earth radiative budget, thus for climate change, very few measurements of the water vapor continuum are available in the near infrared atmospheric windows especially at temperature conditions relevant for our atmosphere. In addition, as a result of the difficulty to measure weak broadband absorption signals, the few available measurements show large disagreements. We report here accurate measurements of the water vapor self-continuum absorption in the 2.1 μm window by Optical Feedback Cavity Enhanced Absorption Spectroscopy (OF-CEAS) for two spectral points located at the low energy edge and at the center of the 2.1 μm transparency window, at 4302 and 4723 cm(-1), respectively. Self-continuum cross sections, CS, were retrieved with a few % relative uncertainty, from the quadratic dependence of the spectrum base line level measured as a function of water vapor pressure, between 0 and 16 Torr. At 296 K, the CS value at 4302 cm(-1) is found 40% higher than predicted by the MT_CKD V2.5 model, while at 4723 cm(-1), our value is 5 times larger than the MT_CKD value. On the other hand, these OF-CEAS CS values are significantly smaller than recent measurements by Fourier transform spectroscopy at room temperature. The temperature dependence of the self-continuum cross sections was also investigated for temperatures between 296 K and 323 K (23-50 °C). The derived temperature variation is found to be similar to that derived from previous Fourier transform spectrometer (FTS) measurements performed at higher temperatures, between 350 K and 472 K. The whole set of measurements spanning the 296-472 K temperature range follows a simple exponential law in 1/T with a slope close to the dissociation energy of the water dimer, D0 ≈ 1100 cm(-1).

  9. β-human chorionic gonadotropin assay in vaginal washing fluid for the accurate diagnosis of premature rupture of membranes during late pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Temel, Orhan; Çöğendez, Ebru; Selçuk, Selçuk; Asoğlu, Mehmet Reşit; Kaya, Erdal

    2013-01-01

    Objective To determine whether the measurement of beta-human chorionic gonadotropin (β-hCG) levels in vaginal fluid is useful for the diagnosis of premature rupture of membranes (PROM). Material and Methods A total of 92 pregnant women between 24 and 40 weeks gestation participated in this study. The patients with fluid leaking from the vagina were designated Group 1, the patients with no fluid leaking from the vagina were Group 2, and those with a suspicion of fluid leaking from the vagina were classified as Group 3. Irrigating the posterior vaginal fornix with 5 mL sterile saline was used to measure β-hCG levels of the patients. Receiver operator curve (ROC) analysis was used to determine the cut-off value for a positive diagnosis. Results The β-hCG levels of vaginal fluid were measured as 20.5±25.0 mIU/mL, 254.6±346.8 mIU/mL, and 74.3±100.8 mIU/mL in Group 1, Group 2, and Group 3, respectively. Vaginal β-hCG level was higher statistically significantly in Group 2 than Group 1 and 3 (p<0.001). 100 mIU/mL was accepted as a cut-off value by using the receiver operating characteristic curve. According to 100 mIU/mL, sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive and negative predictive values were calculated as 71.2, 100, 100, and 65.1%, respectively. Conclusion The study showed that the measurement of β-hCG level in vaginal washing fluid is an efficient and easy diagnostic test for predicting the amount of fluid leaking from the vagina. However, due to the low negative predictive value of the test, it would not be convenient in daily practice. PMID:24592106

  10. Recent advances of in vitro tests for the diagnosis of food-dependent exercise-induced anaphylaxis.

    PubMed

    Morita, Eishin; Chinuki, Yuko; Takahashi, Hitoshi

    2013-09-01

    Food-dependent exercise-induced anaphylaxis (FDEIA) is a special form of IgE-mediated food allergy and exhibits allergic symptoms in combination of causative food-intake and triggers such as exercise. As the causative foods and the condition of triggers vary among patients, diagnosis of FDEIA is not always easy. Serum food-specific IgE tests, which are widely used in the diagnosis of FDEIA, have rather low sensitivity, because the tests mostly utilize crude extracts of foods. Concept of using defined allergen molecules has been proposed as the term "component-resolved diagnostics" for diagnosis of IgE-mediated allergy. Use of purified allergens such as recombinant omega-5 gliadin turned out to highly improve its sensitivity and specificity of the tests in the diagnosis of wheat-dependent exercise-induced anaphylaxis (WDEIA). Recently, CD203c expression-based basophil activation test (BAT) is reported to be useful in identifying adult patients with WDEIA and predicting causative allergens in WDEIA, when combined with appropriate allergens. Detection of serum allergen levels possibly gives useful information whether food challenge tests have been performed with sufficient strength.

  11. Investigation of mass dependence effects for the accurate determination of molybdenum isotope amount ratios by MC-ICP-MS using synthetic isotope mixtures.

    PubMed

    Malinovsky, Dmitry; Dunn, Philip J H; Petrov, Panayot; Goenaga-Infante, Heidi

    2015-01-01

    Methodology for absolute Mo isotope amount ratio measurements by multicollector inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (MC-ICP-MS) using calibration with synthetic isotope mixtures (SIMs) is presented. For the first time, synthetic isotope mixtures prepared from seven commercially available isotopically enriched molybdenum metal powders ((92)Mo, (94)Mo, (95)Mo, (96)Mo, (97)Mo, (98)Mo, and (100)Mo) are used to investigate whether instrumental mass discrimination of Mo isotopes in MC-ICP-MS is consistent with mass-dependent isotope distribution. The parent materials were dissolved and mixed as solutions to obtain mixtures with accurately known isotope amount ratios. The level of elemental impurities in the isotopically enriched molybdenum metal powders was quantified by ICP-MS by using both high-resolution and reaction cell instruments to completely resolve spectral interferences. The Mo isotope amount ratio values with expanded uncertainty (k = 2), determined by MC-ICP-MS for a high-purity Mo rod from Johnson Matthey, were as follows: (92)Mo/(95)Mo = 0.9235(9), (94)Mo/(95)Mo = 0.5785(8), (96)Mo/(95)Mo = 1.0503(9), (97)Mo/(95)Mo = 0.6033(6), (98)Mo/(95)Mo = 1.5291(20), and (100)Mo/(95)Mo = 0.6130(7). A full uncertainty budget for the measurements is presented which shows that the largest contribution to the uncertainty budget comes from correction for elemental impurities (∼51%), followed by the contribution from weighing operations (∼26 %). The atomic weight of molybdenum was calculated to be 95.947(2); the uncertainty in parentheses is expanded uncertainty with the coverage factor of 2. A particular advantage of the developed method is that calibration factors for all six Mo isotope amount ratios, involving the (95)Mo isotope, were experimentally determined. This allows avoiding any assumption on mass-dependent isotope fractions in MC-ICP-MS, inherent to the method of double spike previously used for Mo isotope amount ratio

  12. SNP-array based whole genome homozygosity mapping: a quick and powerful tool to achieve an accurate diagnosis in LGMD2 patients.

    PubMed

    Papić, Lea; Fischer, Dirk; Trajanoski, Slave; Höftberger, Romana; Fischer, Carina; Ströbel, Thomas; Schmidt, Wolfgang M; Bittner, Reginald E; Schabhüttl, Maria; Gruber, Karin; Pieber, Thomas R; Janecke, Andreas R; Auer-Grumbach, Michaela

    2011-01-01

    A large number of novel disease genes have been identified by homozygosity mapping and the positional candidate approach. In this study we used single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) array-based, whole genome homozygosity mapping as the first step to a molecular diagnosis in the highly heterogeneous muscle disease, limb girdle muscular dystrophy (LGMD). In a consanguineous family, both affected siblings showed homozygous blocks on chromosome 15 corresponding to the LGMD2A locus. Direct sequencing of CAPN3, encoding calpain-3, identified a homozygous deletion c.483delG (p.Ile162SerfsX17). In a sporadic LGMD patient complete absence of caveolin-3 on Western blot was observed. However, a mutation in CAV3 could not be detected. Homozygosity mapping revealed a large homozygous block at the LGMD2I locus, and direct sequencing of FKRP encoding fukutin-related-protein detected the common homozygous c.826 C>A (p.Leu276Ile) mutation. Subsequent re-examination of this patient's muscle biopsy showed aberrant α-dystroglycan glycosylation. In summary, we show that whole-genome homozygosity mapping using low cost SNP arrays provides a fast and non-invasive method to identify disease-causing mutations in sporadic patients or sibs from consanguineous families in LGMD2. Furthermore, this is the first study describing that in addition to PTRF, encoding polymerase I and transcript release factor, FKRP mutations may cause secondary caveolin-3 deficiency.

  13. Accurate measurements and temperature dependence of the water vapor self-continuum absorption in the 2.1 μm atmospheric window

    SciTech Connect

    Ventrillard, I.; Romanini, D.; Mondelain, D.; Campargue, A.

    2015-10-07

    In spite of its importance for the evaluation of the Earth radiative budget, thus for climate change, very few measurements of the water vapor continuum are available in the near infrared atmospheric windows especially at temperature conditions relevant for our atmosphere. In addition, as a result of the difficulty to measure weak broadband absorption signals, the few available measurements show large disagreements. We report here accurate measurements of the water vapor self-continuum absorption in the 2.1 μm window by Optical Feedback Cavity Enhanced Absorption Spectroscopy (OF-CEAS) for two spectral points located at the low energy edge and at the center of the 2.1 μm transparency window, at 4302 and 4723 cm{sup −1}, respectively. Self-continuum cross sections, C{sub S}, were retrieved with a few % relative uncertainty, from the quadratic dependence of the spectrum base line level measured as a function of water vapor pressure, between 0 and 16 Torr. At 296 K, the C{sub S} value at 4302 cm{sup −1} is found 40% higher than predicted by the MT-CKD V2.5 model, while at 4723 cm{sup −1}, our value is 5 times larger than the MT-CKD value. On the other hand, these OF-CEAS C{sub S} values are significantly smaller than recent measurements by Fourier transform spectroscopy at room temperature. The temperature dependence of the self-continuum cross sections was also investigated for temperatures between 296 K and 323 K (23-50 °C). The derived temperature variation is found to be similar to that derived from previous Fourier transform spectrometer (FTS) measurements performed at higher temperatures, between 350 K and 472 K. The whole set of measurements spanning the 296-472 K temperature range follows a simple exponential law in 1/T with a slope close to the dissociation energy of the water dimer, D{sub 0} ≈ 1100 cm{sup −1}.

  14. Simple X-ray versus ultrasonography examination in blunt chest trauma: effective tools of accurate diagnosis and considerations for rib fractures

    PubMed Central

    Hwang, Eun Gu; Lee, Yunjung

    2016-01-01

    Simple radiography is the best diagnostic tool for rib fractures caused by chest trauma, but it has some limitations. Thus, other tools are also being used. The aims of this study were to investigate the effectiveness of ultrasonography (US) for identifying rib fractures and to identify influencing factors of its effectiveness. Between October 2003 and August 2007, 201 patients with blunt chest trauma were available to undergo chest radiographic and US examinations for diagnosis of rib fractures. The two modalities were compared in terms of effectiveness based on simple radiographic readings and US examination results. We also investigated the factors that influenced the effectiveness of US examination. Rib fractures were detected on radiography in 69 patients (34.3%) but not in 132 patients. Rib fractures were diagnosed by using US examination in 160 patients (84.6%). Of the 132 patients who showed no rib fractures on radiography, 92 showed rib fractures on US. Among the 69 patients of rib fracture detected on radiography, 33 had additional rib fractures detected on US. Of the patients, 76 (37.8%) had identical radiographic and US results, and 125 (62.2%) had fractures detected on US that were previously undetected on radiography or additional fractures detected on US. Age, duration until US examination, and fracture location were not significant influencing factors. However, in the group without detected fractures on radiography, US showed a more significant effectiveness than in the group with detected fractures on radiography (P=0.003). US examination could detect unnoticed rib fractures on simple radiography. US examination is especially more effective in the group without detected fractures on radiography. More attention should be paid to patients with chest trauma who have no detected fractures on radiography. PMID:28119889

  15. A Highly Sensitive Porous Silicon (P-Si)-Based Human Kallikrein 2 (hK2) Immunoassay Platform toward Accurate Diagnosis of Prostate Cancer.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sang Wook; Hosokawa, Kazuo; Kim, Soyoun; Jeong, Ok Chan; Lilja, Hans; Laurell, Thomas; Maeda, Mizuo

    2015-05-22

    Levels of total human kallikrein 2 (hK2), a protein involved the pathology of prostate cancer (PCa), could be used as a biomarker to aid in the diagnosis of this disease. In this study, we report on a porous silicon antibody immunoassay platform for the detection of serum levels of total hK2. The surface of porous silicon has a 3-dimensional macro- and nanoporous structure, which offers a large binding capacity for capturing probe molecules. The tailored pore size of the porous silicon also allows efficient immobilization of antibodies by surface adsorption, and does not require chemical immobilization. Monoclonal hK2 capture antibody (6B7) was dispensed onto P-Si chip using a piezoelectric dispenser. In total 13 × 13 arrays (169 spots) were spotted on the chip with its single spot volume of 300 pL. For an optimization of capture antibody condition, we firstly performed an immunoassay of the P-Si microarray under a titration series of hK2 in pure buffer (PBS) at three different antibody densities (75, 100 and 145 µg/mL). The best performance of the microarray platform was seen at 100 µg/mL of the capture antibody concentration (LOD was 100 fg/mL). The platform then was subsequently evaluated for a titration series of serum-spiked hK2 samples. The developed platform utilizes only 15 µL of serum per test and the total assay time is about 3 h, including immobilization of the capture antibody. The detection limit of the hK2 assay was 100 fg/mL in PBS buffer and 1 pg/mL in serum with a dynamic range of 106 (10(-4) to 10(2) ng/mL).

  16. A Highly Sensitive Porous Silicon (P-Si)-Based Human Kallikrein 2 (hK2) Immunoassay Platform toward Accurate Diagnosis of Prostate Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Sang Wook; Hosokawa, Kazuo; Kim, Soyoun; Jeong, Ok Chan; Lilja, Hans; Laurell, Thomas; Maeda, Mizuo

    2015-01-01

    Levels of total human kallikrein 2 (hK2), a protein involved the pathology of prostate cancer (PCa), could be used as a biomarker to aid in the diagnosis of this disease. In this study, we report on a porous silicon antibody immunoassay platform for the detection of serum levels of total hK2. The surface of porous silicon has a 3-dimensional macro- and nanoporous structure, which offers a large binding capacity for capturing probe molecules. The tailored pore size of the porous silicon also allows efficient immobilization of antibodies by surface adsorption, and does not require chemical immobilization. Monoclonal hK2 capture antibody (6B7) was dispensed onto P-Si chip using a piezoelectric dispenser. In total 13 × 13 arrays (169 spots) were spotted on the chip with its single spot volume of 300 pL. For an optimization of capture antibody condition, we firstly performed an immunoassay of the P-Si microarray under a titration series of hK2 in pure buffer (PBS) at three different antibody densities (75, 100 and 145 µg/mL). The best performance of the microarray platform was seen at 100 µg/mL of the capture antibody concentration (LOD was 100 fg/mL). The platform then was subsequently evaluated for a titration series of serum-spiked hK2 samples. The developed platform utilizes only 15 µL of serum per test and the total assay time is about 3 h, including immobilization of the capture antibody. The detection limit of the hK2 assay was 100 fg/mL in PBS buffer and 1 pg/mL in serum with a dynamic range of 106 (10−4 to 102 ng/mL). PMID:26007739

  17. Subphenotype-Dependent Disease Markers for Diagnosis and Personalized Treatment of Autism Spectrum Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Valerie W.

    2012-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are a collection of neurodevelopmental disorders that are currently diagnosed solely on the basis of abnormal reciprocal language and social development as well as stereotyped behaviors. Without genetic or molecular markers for screening, individuals with ASD are typically not diagnosed before the age of 2, with milder cases diagnosed much later. Because early diagnosis is tantamount to early behavioral intervention which has been shown to improve individual outcomes, an objective biomarker test that can diagnose at-risk children perinatally is a medical imperative. The rapidly increasing prevalence of ASD in the United States (now estimated at 1 in 88 individuals) also makes early diagnosis and intervention a public health imperative. This article reviews recent genome-wide (genomic) approaches to the identification of disease markers that may be used not only for diagnosis of ASD, but also for the informed development of novel drugs that target specific core symptoms of ASD. Because of the heterogeneity of clinical manifestations associated with the ASD population, this review also addresses the importance of dividing individuals with ASD into clinically relevant subphenotypes in the quest to identify appropriate biomarkers. PMID:22960334

  18. Dependence of malaria detection and species diagnosis by microscopy on parasite density.

    PubMed

    McKenzie, F Ellis; Sirichaisinthop, Jeeraphat; Miller, R Scott; Gasser, Robert A; Wongsrichanalai, Chansuda

    2003-10-01

    Giemsa-stained blood smears from each of 2,190 patients from Thai government-operated clinics on the Thailand-Myanmar border were independently examined by the on-duty microscopists at the clinics and by 2-3 research microscopists, each blinded to the clinics' and each other's reports. Using a strictly defined protocol, a consensus reference-standard blood smear interpretation for each sample was produced by the research microscopists. This result was compared with the clinic's diagnostic interpretation for the corresponding sample with respect to detection of parasitemia and diagnosis of infecting species. Reference-standard results reported parasitemia in 13.2% of the samples reported negative by the clinic. Reference-standard results were negative in 24.3% of the samples reported parasite-positive by the clinic. For samples in which both the reference-standard result and the clinic result reported parasitemia, species identification differed for 13.7% of the samples. The likelihood of parasite detection and correct diagnosis at the clinic varied in accordance with the reference-standard estimates of parasite density.

  19. DEPENDENCE OF MALARIA DETECTION AND SPECIES DIAGNOSIS BY MICROSCOPY ON PARASITE DENSITY

    PubMed Central

    McKENZIE, F. ELLIS; SIRICHAISINTHOP, JEERAPHAT; MILLER, R. SCOTT; GASSER, ROBERT A.; WONGSRICHANALAI, CHANSUDA

    2008-01-01

    Giemsa-stained blood smears from each of 2,190 patients from Thai government-operated clinics on the Thailand-Myanmar border were independently examined by the on-duty microscopists at the clinics and by 2–3 research microscopists, each blinded to the clinics’ and each other’s reports. Using a strictly defined protocol, a consensus reference-standard blood smear interpretation for each sample was produced by the research microscopists. This result was compared with the clinic’s diagnostic interpretation for the corresponding sample with respect to detection of parasitemia and diagnosis of infecting species. Reference-standard results reported parasitemia in 13.2% of the samples reported negative by the clinic. Reference-standard results were negative in 24.3% of the samples reported parasite-positive by the clinic. For samples in which both the reference-standard result and the clinic result reported parasitemia, species identification differed for 13.7% of the samples. The likelihood of parasite detection and correct diagnosis at the clinic varied in accordance with the reference-standard estimates of parasite density. PMID:14640495

  20. Indirect-Drive Time Dependent Symmetry Diagnosis at NIF-Scale

    SciTech Connect

    Landen, O.L; Bradley, D.K.; Pollaine, S.M.; Amendt, P.A.; Glendinning, S.G.; Suter, L.J.; Turner, R.E.; Wallace, R.J.; Hammel, B.A.; Delameter, N.D.; Wallace, J.; Magelssen, G.; Gobby, P.

    1999-10-27

    The scaling to NIF of current techniques used to infer the time-dependent flux asymmetries for indirectly-driven capsules is reviewed. We calculate that the projected accuracy for detecting the lowest mode asymmetries by a variety of techniques now meet the requirements for symmetry tuning for ignition. The scaling to NIF has also motivated the implementation of new, more efficient and hence less perturbative backlighting techniques which have recently provided high quality symmetry data during validation tests at the Omega facility.

  1. [Frequency, diagnosis and dependance of duodenitis upon the morphological status of the gastric mucosa (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Konstantinidis, T; Wagner, P K

    1978-08-01

    In a attempt to prove the dependence of duodenitis upon the morphological status of the gastric mucosa, a biopsy of the corpus, antrum, and duodenal canal had been made of 354 patients. In 56 cases, a superficial duodenitis was histologically verified; however, this infection had not contaminated the Brunner' glands. A duodenitis was found to be more often associated with surface gastritis of the corpus and antrum than it was with atropic gastritis. A duodenitis was discovered by a biopsy in 16 patients possessing a normal antrum mucosa and in 25 patients having a normal corpus mucosa, thus proving the possibility of isolated duodenitis.

  2. Evaluation of phosphatidylserine-dependent antiprothrombin antibody testing for the diagnosis of antiphospholipid syndrome: results of an international multicentre study.

    PubMed

    Amengual, O; Forastiero, R; Sugiura-Ogasawara, M; Otomo, K; Oku, K; Favas, C; Delgado Alves, J; Žigon, P; Ambrožič, A; Tomšič, M; Ruiz-Arruza, I; Ruiz-Irastorza, G; Bertolaccini, M L; Norman, G L; Shums, Z; Arai, J; Murashima, A; Tebo, A E; Gerosa, M; Meroni, P L; Rodriguez-Pintó, I; Cervera, R; Swadzba, J; Musial, J; Atsumi, T

    2017-03-01

    Objective A task force of scientists at the International Congress on Antiphospholipid Antibodies recognized that phosphatidylserine-dependent antiprothrombin antibodies (aPS/PT) might contribute to a better identification of antiphospholipid syndrome (APS). Accordingly, initial and replication retrospective, cross-sectional multicentre studies were conducted to ascertain the value of aPS/PT for APS diagnosis. Methods In the initial study (eight centres, seven countries), clinical/laboratory data were retrospectively collected. Serum/plasma samples were tested for IgG aPS/PT at Inova Diagnostics (Inova) using two ELISA kits. A replication study (five centres, five countries) was carried out afterwards. Results In the initial study ( n = 247), a moderate agreement between the IgG aPS/PT Inova and MBL ELISA kits was observed ( k = 0.598). IgG aPS/PT were more prevalent in APS patients (51%) than in those without (9%), OR 10.8, 95% CI (4.0-29.3), p < 0.0001. Sensitivity, specificity, positive (LR+) and negative (LR-) likelihood ratio of IgG aPS/PT for APS diagnosis were 51%, 91%, 5.9 and 0.5, respectively. In the replication study ( n = 214), a moderate/substantial agreement between the IgG aPS/PT results obtained with both ELISA kits was observed ( k = 0.630). IgG aPS/PT were more prevalent in APS patients (47%) than in those without (12%), OR 6.4, 95% CI (2.6-16), p < 0.0001. Sensitivity, specificity, LR + and LR- for APS diagnosis were 47%, 88%, 3.9 and 0.6, respectively. Conclusions IgG aPS/PT detection is an easily performed laboratory parameter that might contribute to a better and more complete identification of patients with APS.

  3. Novel, In-House, SYBR Green Based One-Step rRT-PCR: Rapid and Accurate Diagnosis of Crimean-Congo Hemorrhagic Fever Virus in Suspected Patients From Iran

    PubMed Central

    Zahraei, Bentolhoda; Hashemzadeh, Mohammad Sadegh; Najarasl, Mohammad; Zahiriyeganeh, Samaneh; Tat, Mahdi; Metanat, Maliheh; Sepehri Rad, Nahid; Khansari-nejad, Behzad; Zafari, Ehsan; Sharti, Mojtaba; Dorostkar, Ruhollah

    2016-01-01

    Background The Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever (CCHF) virus causes severe disease in humans, with a high mortality rate. Since, there is no approved vaccine or specific treatment for CCHF, an early and accurate diagnosis, as well as reliable surveillance, is essential for case management and patient improvement. Objectives For this research, our aim was to evaluate the application of a novel SYBR Green based one-step real-time reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (rRT-PCR) assay for the in-house diagnosis of the CCHF virus. Patients and Methods In this experimental study, the highly conserved S-region sequence of the CCHF viral genome was first adapted from GenBank, and the specific primers targeting this region were designed. Then, the viral RNA was extracted from 75 serum samples from different patients in eastern Iran. The sensitivity and specificity of the primers were also evaluated in positive serum samples previously confirmed to have the CCHF virus, by this one-step rRT-PCR assay, as well as a DNA sequencing analysis. Results From a total of 75 suspected serum samples, 42 were confirmed to be positive for CCHF virus, with no false-positives detected by the sequencing results. After 40 amplification cycles, the melting curve analysis revealed a mean melting temperature (Tm) of 86.5 ± 0.6°C (quite different from those of the primer-dimers), and the positive samples showed only a small variation in the parameters. In all of the positive samples, the predicted length of 420 bp was confirmed by electrophoresis. Moreover, the sensitivity test showed that this assay can detect less than 20 copies of viral RNA per reaction. Conclusions This study showed that this novel one-step rRT-PCR assay is a rapid, reliable, repeatable, specific, sensitive, and simple tool for the detection of the CCHF virus. PMID:27099688

  4. [Gamma-hydroxybutyric acid (GHB) dependence and the GHB withdrawal syndrome: diagnosis and treatment].

    PubMed

    van Noorden, Martijn S; Kamal, Rama; de Jong, Cor A J; Vergouwen, A C M Ton; Zitman, Frans G

    2010-01-01

    Gamma-hydroxybutyric acid (GHB) is a neurotransmitter that occurs naturally in the brain and is increasingly being used as a 'party drug' because of its relaxing and euphoria-inducing effects. GHB has a limited medical use in the treatment of narcolepsy. GHB-intoxications occur often in non-medical use, and generally result in a coma of short duration. GHB use several times a day can lead to tolerance and dependence. After sudden cessation or reduction of intensive GHB use, a severe withdrawal syndrome may occur with symptoms varying from tremor, anxiety and agitation to autonomic instability, hallucinations and delirium. Treatment of the GHB withdrawal syndrome consists of supportive care and benzodiazepines, often in high doses. The controlled detoxification of GHB using pharmaceutical GHB in an adjusted dose is currently being investigated in the Netherlands. There is no literature concerning the treatment of patients following GHB intoxication or after detoxification.

  5. Multiplex ligation dependent probe amplification (MLPA) for rapid distinction between unique sequence positive and negative marker chromosomes in prenatal diagnosis

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Small supernumerary marker chromosomes (sSMC) are extra structurally abnormal chromosomes that cannot be unambiguously identified with conventional chromosome banding techniques. These marker chromosomes may cause an abnormal phenotype or be harmless depending on different factors such as genetic content, chromosomal origin and level of mosaicism. When a sSMC is found during prenatal diagnosis, the main question is whether the sSMC contains euchromatin since in most cases this will lead to phenotypic abnormalities. We present the use of Multiplex Ligation Dependent probe Amplification (MLPA) for rapid distinction between non-euchromatic and euchromatic sSMC. Results 29 well-defined sSMC found during prenatal diagnosis were retrospectively investigated with MLPA with the SALSA MLPA centromere kits P181 and P182 as well as with the SALSA MLPA telomere kits P036B and P070 (MRC Holland BV, Amsterdam, The Netherlands). All unique-sequence positive sSMC were correctly identified with MLPA, whereas the unique-sequence negative sSMC had normal MLPA results. Conclusions Although different techniques exist for identification of sSMC, we show that MLPA is a valuable adjunctive tool for rapidly distinguishing between unique-sequence positive and negative sSMC. In case of positive MLPA results, genetic microarray analysis or, if not available, targeted FISH can be applied for further identification and determination of the exact breakpoints, which is important for prediction of the fetal phenotype. In case of a negative MLPA result, which means that the sSMC most probably does not contain genes, the parents can already be reassured and parental karyotyping can be initiated to assess the heritability. In the mean time, FISH techniques are needed for determination of the chromosomal origin. PMID:21235775

  6. Screening and diagnosis when within-individual observations are Markov-dependent.

    PubMed

    Wilson, P D; Hebel, J R; Sherwin, R

    1981-09-01

    The statistical model currently used for determining the amount of regression to the mean that will occur in a screening study includes an assumption that repeat observations within the same subject are mutually independent. This assumption has been used in the determination of the number of repeat observations within an individual that is required to reduce the amount of regression to the mean or the probability of misclassification to a given value. In this paper the model is extended to the case in which repeat observations within an individual are Markov-dependent. New expressions are given for the regression to the mean, based on the time delay between screening and re-examination, and on the use of an average of several measurements for both screening and re-examination. The extended model is used to describe the conditional distribution of the long-term mean of an individual, given several measurements, and this distribution is suggested as a diagnostic tool. A method is presented for estimation of the autocorrelation coefficient in very short time series observed in several individuals. The autocorrelation in diastolic blood pressure is estimated from a set of repeat observations, one day apart, on a group of subjects.

  7. Accurate Chromosome Segregation at First Meiotic Division Requires AGO4, a Protein Involved in RNA-Dependent DNA Methylation in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Oliver, Cecilia; Santos, Juan Luis; Pradillo, Mónica

    2016-10-01

    The RNA-directed DNA methylation (RdDM) pathway is important for the transcriptional repression of transposable elements and for heterochromatin formation. Small RNAs are key players in this process by regulating both DNA and histone methylation. Taking into account that methylation underlies gene silencing and that there are genes with meiosis-specific expression profiles, we have wondered whether genes involved in RdDM could play a role during this specialized cell division. To address this issue, we have characterized meiosis progression in pollen mother cells from Arabidopsis thaliana mutant plants defective for several proteins related to RdDM. The most relevant results were obtained for ago4-1 In this mutant, meiocytes display a slight reduction in chiasma frequency, alterations in chromatin conformation around centromeric regions, lagging chromosomes at anaphase I, and defects in spindle organization. These abnormalities lead to the formation of polyads instead of tetrads at the end of meiosis, and might be responsible for the fertility defects observed in this mutant. Findings reported here highlight an involvement of AGO4 during meiosis by ensuring accurate chromosome segregation at anaphase I.

  8. A High Resolution/Accurate Mass (HRAM) Data-Dependent MS3 Neutral Loss Screening, Classification, and Relative Quantitation Methodology for Carbonyl Compounds in Saliva

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dator, Romel; Carrà, Andrea; Maertens, Laura; Guidolin, Valeria; Villalta, Peter W.; Balbo, Silvia

    2016-10-01

    Reactive carbonyl compounds (RCCs) are ubiquitous in the environment and are generated endogenously as a result of various physiological and pathological processes. These compounds can react with biological molecules inducing deleterious processes believed to be at the basis of their toxic effects. Several of these compounds are implicated in neurotoxic processes, aging disorders, and cancer. Therefore, a method characterizing exposures to these chemicals will provide insights into how they may influence overall health and contribute to disease pathogenesis. Here, we have developed a high resolution accurate mass (HRAM) screening strategy allowing simultaneous identification and relative quantitation of DNPH-derivatized carbonyls in human biological fluids. The screening strategy involves the diagnostic neutral loss of hydroxyl radical triggering MS3 fragmentation, which is only observed in positive ionization mode of DNPH-derivatized carbonyls. Unique fragmentation pathways were used to develop a classification scheme for characterizing known and unanticipated/unknown carbonyl compounds present in saliva. Furthermore, a relative quantitation strategy was implemented to assess variations in the levels of carbonyl compounds before and after exposure using deuterated d 3 -DNPH. This relative quantitation method was tested on human samples before and after exposure to specific amounts of alcohol. The nano-electrospray ionization (nano-ESI) in positive mode afforded excellent sensitivity with detection limits on-column in the high-attomole levels. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of a method using HRAM neutral loss screening of carbonyl compounds. In addition, the method allows simultaneous characterization and relative quantitation of DNPH-derivatized compounds using nano-ESI in positive mode.

  9. Addition of thymidine to culture media for accurate examination of thymidine-dependent small-colony variants of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Horiuchi, Kazuki; Matsumoto, Takehisa; Ota, Yusuke; Kasuga, Eriko; Negishi, Tatsuya; Yaguchi, Tomomi; Sugano, Mitsutoshi; Honda, Takayuki

    2015-03-01

    Small-colony variants (SCVs) are slow-growing subpopulations of various auxotrophic bacterial strains. Thymidine-dependent SCVs (TD-SCVs) are unable to synthesize thymidine; hence, these variants fail to grow in a medium without thymidine. In this study, we used 10 TD-SCVs of Staphylococcus aureus, of which four strains possessed mecA. We compared the efficacy of a newly modified medium containing thymidine for the detection of TD-SCVs of methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) to the efficacy of routinely used laboratory media. We observed that none of the 10 TD-SCVs of S. aureus grew in Mueller-Hinton agar, and four TD-SCVs of MRSA failed to grow on all MRSA screening media, except for the ChromID™ MRSA medium. Laboratory tests conducted using medium with thymidine incorporated showed that thymidine did not affect the minimum inhibitory concentrations of oxacillin and cefoxitin for clinical isolates of S. aureus, and was able to detect MRSA, including TD-SCVs. These findings showed that thymidine-incorporated media are able to detect TD-SCVs of MRSA without altering the properties of other clinically isolated MRSA strains.

  10. Use of dose-dependent absorption into target tissues to more accurately predict cancer risk at low oral doses of hexavalent chromium.

    PubMed

    Haney, J

    2015-02-01

    The mouse dose at the lowest water concentration used in the National Toxicology Program hexavalent chromium (CrVI) drinking water study (NTP, 2008) is about 74,500 times higher than the approximate human dose corresponding to the 35-city geometric mean reported in EWG (2010) and over 1000 times higher than that based on the highest reported tap water concentration. With experimental and environmental doses differing greatly, it is a regulatory challenge to extrapolate high-dose results to environmental doses orders of magnitude lower in a meaningful and toxicologically predictive manner. This seems particularly true for the low-dose extrapolation of results for oral CrVI-induced carcinogenesis since dose-dependent differences in the dose fraction absorbed by mouse target tissues are apparent (Kirman et al., 2012). These data can be used for a straightforward adjustment of the USEPA (2010) draft oral slope factor (SFo) to be more predictive of risk at environmentally-relevant doses. More specifically, the evaluation of observed and modeled differences in the fraction of dose absorbed by target tissues at the point-of-departure for the draft SFo calculation versus lower doses suggests that the draft SFo be divided by a dose-specific adjustment factor of at least an order of magnitude to be less over-predictive of risk at more environmentally-relevant doses.

  11. Pyridoxine-dependent epilepsy: normal outcome in a patient with late diagnosis after prolonged status epilepticus causing cortical blindness.

    PubMed

    Kluger, G; Blank, R; Paul, K; Paschke, E; Jansen, E; Jakobs, C; Wörle, H; Plecko, B

    2008-10-01

    We report on a male proband with pyridoxine-dependent epilepsy (PDE) and neonatal seizure onset. At the age of 31 months, a prolonged status epilepticus led to severe neurological regression with cortical blindness, loss of speech and muscular hypotonia with slow recovery over the following 3 months. At 33 months of age pyridoxine therapy was initiated with excellent response and the boy remained seizure-free on pyridoxine monotherapy, except for two occasions with seizure recurrence 10 days after accidental pyridoxine withdrawal. alpha-aminoadipic semialdehyde dehydrogenase (antiquitin) deficiency was indicated by elevated pipecolic acid concentrations in plasma and alpha-aminoadipic semialdehyde excretion in urine. Molecular analysis of the antiquitin gene revealed a novel missense mutation c.57insA, while the mutation of the other allele remained unidentified so far. Despite the delay in diagnosis and prolonged status epilepticus, neuropsychological evaluations at the ages of 11 and 18 years demonstrated full-scale IQ of 93 and 92, respectively, with better verbal IQ (103 and 101) than performance IQ (85 and 82).

  12. Toward Understanding the Size Dependence of Shape Features for Predicting Spiculation in Lung Nodules for Computer-Aided Diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Niehaus, Ron; Raicu, Daniela Stan; Furst, Jacob; Armato, Samuel

    2015-12-01

    We analyze the importance of shape features for predicting spiculation ratings assigned by radiologists to lung nodules in computed tomography (CT) scans. Using the Lung Image Database Consortium (LIDC) data and classification models based on decision trees, we demonstrate that the importance of several shape features increases disproportionately relative to other image features with increasing size of the nodule. Our shaped-based classification results show an area under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve of 0.65 when classifying spiculation for small nodules and an area of 0.91 for large nodules, resulting in a 26% difference in classification performance using shape features. An analysis of the results illustrates that this change in performance is driven by features that measure boundary complexity, which perform well for large nodules but perform relatively poorly and do no better than other features for small nodules. For large nodules, the roughness of the segmented boundary maps well to the semantic concept of spiculation. For small nodules, measuring directly the complexity of hard segmentations does not yield good results for predicting spiculation due to limits imposed by spatial resolution and the uncertainty in boundary location. Therefore, a wider range of features, including shape, texture, and intensity features, are needed to predict spiculation ratings for small nodules. A further implication is that the efficacy of shape features for a particular classifier used to create computer-aided diagnosis systems depends on the distribution of nodule sizes in the training and testing sets, which may not be consistent across different research studies.

  13. Integration of PCR-Sequencing Analysis with Multiplex Ligation-Dependent Probe Amplification for Diagnosis of Hereditary Fructose Intolerance.

    PubMed

    Ferri, Lorenzo; Caciotti, Anna; Cavicchi, Catia; Rigoldi, Miriam; Parini, Rossella; Caserta, Marina; Chibbaro, Guido; Gasperini, Serena; Procopio, Elena; Donati, Maria Alice; Guerrini, Renzo; Morrone, Amelia

    2012-01-01

    Mutations in the ALDOB gene impair the activity of the hepatic aldolase B enzyme, causing hereditary fructose intolerance (HFI), an inherited autosomic recessive disease of carbohydrate metabolism, that can result in hypoglycemia, liver and kidney failure, coma, and death. Noninvasive diagnosis is possible by identifying mutant ALDOB alleles in suspected patients. We report the genetic characterization of a cohort of 18 HFI Caucasian patients, based on PCR-sequencing and Multiplex Ligation-dependent Probe Amplification (MLPA), with the identification of two novel genetic lesions: a small duplication c.940_941dupT (p.Trp314fsX22) and a large deletion encompassing the promoter region and exon 1. MLPA and long range-PCR (LR-PCR) also identified the recently reported g.7840_14288del6448 allele with a surprisingly high frequency (11%) within our patients' cohort. The most common p.Ala150Pro (44%), p.Ala175Asp (19%), p.Asn335Lys (8%), and/or the known c.360-363del4 (5%), p.Tyr204X (2.8%), IVS6 -2A>G (2.8%) mutant alleles were identified in 14 patients at a homozygous or compound-heterozygous level. The integration of PCR-sequencing analysis with exon-dosage tools [MLPA and quantitative fluorescent multiplex-PCR (QFM-PCR)] led to the full genotyping of patients within our cohort and to the identification of the new deletion encompassing the promoter region and exon 1.

  14. A versatile phenomenological model for the S-shaped temperature dependence of photoluminescence energy for an accurate determination of the exciton localization energy in bulk and quantum well structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dixit, V. K.; Porwal, S.; Singh, S. D.; Sharma, T. K.; Ghosh, Sandip; Oak, S. M.

    2014-02-01

    Temperature dependence of the photoluminescence (PL) peak energy of bulk and quantum well (QW) structures is studied by using a new phenomenological model for including the effect of localized states. In general an anomalous S-shaped temperature dependence of the PL peak energy is observed for many materials which is usually associated with the localization of excitons in band-tail states that are formed due to potential fluctuations. Under such conditions, the conventional models of Varshni, Viña and Passler fail to replicate the S-shaped temperature dependence of the PL peak energy and provide inconsistent and unrealistic values of the fitting parameters. The proposed formalism persuasively reproduces the S-shaped temperature dependence of the PL peak energy and provides an accurate determination of the exciton localization energy in bulk and QW structures along with the appropriate values of material parameters. An example of a strained InAs0.38P0.62/InP QW is presented by performing detailed temperature and excitation intensity dependent PL measurements and subsequent in-depth analysis using the proposed model. Versatility of the new formalism is tested on a few other semiconductor materials, e.g. GaN, nanotextured GaN, AlGaN and InGaN, which are known to have a significant contribution from the localized states. A quantitative evaluation of the fractional contribution of the localized states is essential for understanding the temperature dependence of the PL peak energy of bulk and QW well structures having a large contribution of the band-tail states.

  15. Accurate spectral color measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hiltunen, Jouni; Jaeaeskelaeinen, Timo; Parkkinen, Jussi P. S.

    1999-08-01

    Surface color measurement is of importance in a very wide range of industrial applications including paint, paper, printing, photography, textiles, plastics and so on. For a demanding color measurements spectral approach is often needed. One can measure a color spectrum with a spectrophotometer using calibrated standard samples as a reference. Because it is impossible to define absolute color values of a sample, we always work with approximations. The human eye can perceive color difference as small as 0.5 CIELAB units and thus distinguish millions of colors. This 0.5 unit difference should be a goal for the precise color measurements. This limit is not a problem if we only want to measure the color difference of two samples, but if we want to know in a same time exact color coordinate values accuracy problems arise. The values of two instruments can be astonishingly different. The accuracy of the instrument used in color measurement may depend on various errors such as photometric non-linearity, wavelength error, integrating sphere dark level error, integrating sphere error in both specular included and specular excluded modes. Thus the correction formulas should be used to get more accurate results. Another question is how many channels i.e. wavelengths we are using to measure a spectrum. It is obvious that the sampling interval should be short to get more precise results. Furthermore, the result we get is always compromise of measuring time, conditions and cost. Sometimes we have to use portable syste or the shape and the size of samples makes it impossible to use sensitive equipment. In this study a small set of calibrated color tiles measured with the Perkin Elmer Lamda 18 and the Minolta CM-2002 spectrophotometers are compared. In the paper we explain the typical error sources of spectral color measurements, and show which are the accuracy demands a good colorimeter should have.

  16. Laboratory Diagnosis of Pertussis.

    PubMed

    van der Zee, Anneke; Schellekens, Joop F P; Mooi, Frits R

    2015-10-01

    The introduction of vaccination in the 1950s significantly reduced the morbidity and mortality of pertussis. However, since the 1990s, a resurgence of pertussis has been observed in vaccinated populations, and a number of causes have been proposed for this phenomenon, including improved diagnostics, increased awareness, waning immunity, and pathogen adaptation. The resurgence of pertussis highlights the importance of standardized, sensitive, and specific laboratory diagnoses, the lack of which is responsible for the large differences in pertussis notifications between countries. Accurate laboratory diagnosis is also important for distinguishing between the several etiologic agents of pertussis-like diseases, which involve both viruses and bacteria. If pertussis is diagnosed in a timely manner, antibiotic treatment of the patient can mitigate the symptoms and prevent transmission. During an outbreak, timely diagnosis of pertussis allows prophylactic treatment of infants too young to be (fully) vaccinated, for whom pertussis is a severe, sometimes fatal disease. Finally, reliable diagnosis of pertussis is required to reveal trends in the (age-specific) disease incidence, which may point to changes in vaccine efficacy, waning immunity, and the emergence of vaccine-adapted strains. Here we review current approaches to the diagnosis of pertussis and discuss their limitations and strengths. In particular, we emphasize that the optimal diagnostic procedure depends on the stage of the disease, the age of the patient, and the vaccination status of the patient.

  17. Laboratory Diagnosis of Pertussis

    PubMed Central

    Schellekens, Joop F. P.; Mooi, Frits R.

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY The introduction of vaccination in the 1950s significantly reduced the morbidity and mortality of pertussis. However, since the 1990s, a resurgence of pertussis has been observed in vaccinated populations, and a number of causes have been proposed for this phenomenon, including improved diagnostics, increased awareness, waning immunity, and pathogen adaptation. The resurgence of pertussis highlights the importance of standardized, sensitive, and specific laboratory diagnoses, the lack of which is responsible for the large differences in pertussis notifications between countries. Accurate laboratory diagnosis is also important for distinguishing between the several etiologic agents of pertussis-like diseases, which involve both viruses and bacteria. If pertussis is diagnosed in a timely manner, antibiotic treatment of the patient can mitigate the symptoms and prevent transmission. During an outbreak, timely diagnosis of pertussis allows prophylactic treatment of infants too young to be (fully) vaccinated, for whom pertussis is a severe, sometimes fatal disease. Finally, reliable diagnosis of pertussis is required to reveal trends in the (age-specific) disease incidence, which may point to changes in vaccine efficacy, waning immunity, and the emergence of vaccine-adapted strains. Here we review current approaches to the diagnosis of pertussis and discuss their limitations and strengths. In particular, we emphasize that the optimal diagnostic procedure depends on the stage of the disease, the age of the patient, and the vaccination status of the patient. PMID:26354823

  18. Accurate Classification of Germinal Center B-Cell-Like/Activated B-Cell-Like Diffuse Large B-Cell Lymphoma Using a Simple and Rapid Reverse Transcriptase-Multiplex Ligation-Dependent Probe Amplification Assay: A CALYM Study.

    PubMed

    Mareschal, Sylvain; Ruminy, Philippe; Bagacean, Cristina; Marchand, Vinciane; Cornic, Marie; Jais, Jean-Philippe; Figeac, Martin; Picquenot, Jean-Michel; Molina, Thierry Jo; Fest, Thierry; Salles, Gilles; Haioun, Corinne; Leroy, Karen; Tilly, Hervé; Jardin, Fabrice

    2015-04-09

    Diffuse large B-cell lymphoma, the most common non-Hodgkin lymphoma, is subdivided into germinal center B-cell-like and activated B-cell-like subtypes. Unfortunately, these lymphomas are difficult to differentiate in routine diagnosis, impeding the development of treatments. Patients with these lymphomas can benefit from specific therapies. We therefore developed a simple and rapid classifier based on a reverse transcriptase multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification assay and 14 gene signatures. Compared with the Affymetrix U133+2 gold standard, all 46 samples (95% CI, 92%-100%) of a validation cohort classified by both techniques were attributed to the expected subtype. Similarly, 93% of the 55 samples (95% CI, 82%-98%) of a second independent series characterized with a mid-throughput gene expression profiling method were classified correctly. Unclassifiable sample proportions reached 13.2% and 13.8% in these cohorts, comparable with the frequency originally reported. The developed assay was also sensitive enough to obtain reliable results from formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded samples and flexible enough to include prognostic factors such as MYC/BCL2 co-expression. Finally, in a series of 135 patients, both overall (P = 0.01) and progression-free (P = 0.004) survival differences between the two subtypes were confirmed. Because the multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification method is already in use and requires only common instruments and reagents, it could easily be applied to clinical trial patient stratification to help in treatment decisions.

  19. Influence of Age at Diagnosis and Time-Dependent Risk Factors on the Development of Diabetic Retinopathy in Patients with Type 1 Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Forga, Luis; Goñi, María José; Cambra, Koldo; García-Mouriz, Marta; Iriarte, Ana

    2016-01-01

    Aim. To determine the influence of age at onset of type 1 diabetes and of traditional vascular risk factors on the development of diabetic retinopathy, in a cohort of patients who have been followed up after onset. Methods. Observational, retrospective study. The cohort consists of 989 patients who were followed up after diagnosis for a mean of 10.1 (SD: 6.8) years. The influence of age at diagnosis, glycemic control, duration of diabetes, sex, blood pressure, lipids, BMI, and smoking is analyzed using Cox univariate and multivariate models with fixed and time-dependent variables. Results. 135 patients (13.7%) developed diabetic retinopathy. The cumulative incidence was 0.7, 5.9, and 21.8% at 5-, 10-, and 15-year follow-up, respectively. Compared to the group with onset at age <10 years, the risk of retinopathy increased 2.5-, 3-, 3.3-, and 3.7-fold in the groups with onset at 10–14, 15–29, 30–44, and >44 years, respectively. During follow-up we also observed an association between diabetic retinopathy and HbA1c levels, HDL-cholesterol, and diastolic blood pressure. Conclusion. The rate of diabetic retinopathy is higher in patients who were older at type 1 diabetes diagnosis. In addition, we confirmed the influence of glycemic control, HDL-cholesterol, and diastolic blood pressure on the occurrence of retinopathy. PMID:27213158

  20. Ketoacidosis at the diagnosis of type 1 (insulin dependent) diabetes mellitus is related to poor residual beta cell function. Childhood Diabetes in Finland Study Group.

    PubMed Central

    Komulainen, J; Lounamaa, R; Knip, M; Kaprio, E A; Akerblom, H K

    1996-01-01

    The determinants of the degree of metabolic decompensation at the diagnosis of type 1 (insulin dependent) diabetes mellitus (IDDM) and the possible role of diabetic ketoacidosis in the preservation and recovery of residual beta cell function were examined in 745 Finnish children and adolescents. Children younger than 2 years or older than 10 years of age were found to be more susceptible to diabetic ketoacidosis than children between 2 and 10 years of age (< 2 years: 53.3%; 2-10 years: 16.9%; > 10 years: 33.3%). Children from families with poor parental educational level had ketoacidosis more often than those from families with high parental educational level (24.4% v 16.9%). A serum C peptide concentration of 0.10 nmol/l or more was associated with a favourable metabolic situation. Low serum C peptide concentrations, high requirement of exogenous insulin, low prevalence of remission, and high glycated haemoglobin concentrations were observed during the follow up in the group of probands having diabetic ketoacidosis at the diagnosis of IDDM. Thus diabetic ketoacidosis at diagnosis is related to a decreased capacity for beta cell recovery after the clinical manifestation of IDDM in children. PMID:8957954

  1. What You Find Depends on How You Measure It: Reactivity of Response Scales Measuring Predecisional Information Distortion in Medical Diagnosis

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    “Predecisional information distortion” occurs when decision makers evaluate new information in a way that is biased towards their leading option. The phenomenon is well established, as is the method typically used to measure it, termed “stepwise evolution of preference” (SEP). An inadequacy of this method has recently come to the fore: it measures distortion as the total advantage afforded a leading option over its competitor, and therefore it cannot differentiate between distortion to strengthen a leading option (“proleader” distortion) and distortion to weaken a trailing option (“antitrailer” distortion). To address this, recent research introduced new response scales to SEP. We explore whether and how these new response scales might influence the very proleader and antitrailer processes that they were designed to capture (“reactivity”). We used the SEP method with concurrent verbal reporting: fifty family physicians verbalized their thoughts as they evaluated patient symptoms and signs (“cues”) in relation to two competing diagnostic hypotheses. Twenty-five physicians evaluated each cue using the response scale traditional to SEP (a single response scale, returning a single measure of distortion); the other twenty-five did so using the response scales introduced in recent studies (two separate response scales, returning two separate measures of distortion: proleader and antitrailer). We measured proleader and antitrailer processes in verbalizations, and compared verbalizations in the single-scale and separate-scales groups. Response scales did not appear to affect proleader processes: the two groups of physicians were equally likely to bolster their leading diagnosis verbally. Response scales did, however, appear to affect antitrailer processes: the two groups denigrated their trailing diagnosis verbally to differing degrees. Our findings suggest that the response scales used to measure information distortion might influence its

  2. Beyond the Evidence of the New Hypertension Guidelines. Blood pressure measurement - is it good enough for accurate diagnosis of hypertension? Time might be in, for a paradigm shift (I).

    PubMed

    Pater, Cornel

    2005-04-06

    Despite widespread availability of a large body of evidence in the area of hypertension, the translation of that evidence into viable recommendations aimed at improving the quality of health care is very difficult, sometimes to the point of questionable acceptability and overall credibility of the guidelines advocating those recommendations.The scientific community world-wide and especially professionals interested in the topic of hypertension are witnessing currently an unprecedented debate over the issue of appropriateness of using different drugs/drug classes for the treatment of hypertension. An endless supply of recent and less recent "drug-news", some in support of, others against the current guidelines, justifying the use of selected types of drug treatment or criticising other, are coming out in the scientific literature on an almost weekly basis. The latest of such debate (at the time of writing this paper) pertains the safety profile of ARBs vs ACE inhibitors.To great extent, the factual situation has been fuelled by the new hypertension guidelines (different for USA, Europe, New Zeeland and UK) through, apparently small inconsistencies and conflicting messages, that might have generated substantial and perpetuating confusion among both prescribing physicians and their patients, regardless of their country of origin.The overwhelming message conveyed by most guidelines and opinion leaders is the widespread use of diuretics as first-line agents in all patients with blood pressure above a certain cut-off level and the increasingly aggressive approach towards diagnosis and treatment of hypertension. This, apparently well-justified, logical and easily comprehensible message is unfortunately miss-obeyed by most physicians, on both parts of the Atlantic.Amazingly, the message assumes a universal simplicity of both diagnosis and treatment of hypertension, while ignoring several hypertension-specific variables, commonly known to have high level of complexity, such

  3. Beyond the Evidence of the New Hypertension Guidelines. Blood pressure measurement – is it good enough for accurate diagnosis of hypertension? Time might be in, for a paradigm shift (I)

    PubMed Central

    Pater, Cornel

    2005-01-01

    Despite widespread availability of a large body of evidence in the area of hypertension, the translation of that evidence into viable recommendations aimed at improving the quality of health care is very difficult, sometimes to the point of questionable acceptability and overall credibility of the guidelines advocating those recommendations. The scientific community world-wide and especially professionals interested in the topic of hypertension are witnessing currently an unprecedented debate over the issue of appropriateness of using different drugs/drug classes for the treatment of hypertension. An endless supply of recent and less recent "drug-news", some in support of, others against the current guidelines, justifying the use of selected types of drug treatment or criticising other, are coming out in the scientific literature on an almost weekly basis. The latest of such debate (at the time of writing this paper) pertains the safety profile of ARBs vs ACE inhibitors. To great extent, the factual situation has been fuelled by the new hypertension guidelines (different for USA, Europe, New Zeeland and UK) through, apparently small inconsistencies and conflicting messages, that might have generated substantial and perpetuating confusion among both prescribing physicians and their patients, regardless of their country of origin. The overwhelming message conveyed by most guidelines and opinion leaders is the widespread use of diuretics as first-line agents in all patients with blood pressure above a certain cut-off level and the increasingly aggressive approach towards diagnosis and treatment of hypertension. This, apparently well-justified, logical and easily comprehensible message is unfortunately miss-obeyed by most physicians, on both parts of the Atlantic. Amazingly, the message assumes a universal simplicity of both diagnosis and treatment of hypertension, while ignoring several hypertension-specific variables, commonly known to have high level of complexity

  4. Accurate Finite Difference Algorithms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goodrich, John W.

    1996-01-01

    Two families of finite difference algorithms for computational aeroacoustics are presented and compared. All of the algorithms are single step explicit methods, they have the same order of accuracy in both space and time, with examples up to eleventh order, and they have multidimensional extensions. One of the algorithm families has spectral like high resolution. Propagation with high order and high resolution algorithms can produce accurate results after O(10(exp 6)) periods of propagation with eight grid points per wavelength.

  5. Accurate monotone cubic interpolation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huynh, Hung T.

    1991-01-01

    Monotone piecewise cubic interpolants are simple and effective. They are generally third-order accurate, except near strict local extrema where accuracy degenerates to second-order due to the monotonicity constraint. Algorithms for piecewise cubic interpolants, which preserve monotonicity as well as uniform third and fourth-order accuracy are presented. The gain of accuracy is obtained by relaxing the monotonicity constraint in a geometric framework in which the median function plays a crucial role.

  6. Accurate quantum chemical calculations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bauschlicher, Charles W., Jr.; Langhoff, Stephen R.; Taylor, Peter R.

    1989-01-01

    An important goal of quantum chemical calculations is to provide an understanding of chemical bonding and molecular electronic structure. A second goal, the prediction of energy differences to chemical accuracy, has been much harder to attain. First, the computational resources required to achieve such accuracy are very large, and second, it is not straightforward to demonstrate that an apparently accurate result, in terms of agreement with experiment, does not result from a cancellation of errors. Recent advances in electronic structure methodology, coupled with the power of vector supercomputers, have made it possible to solve a number of electronic structure problems exactly using the full configuration interaction (FCI) method within a subspace of the complete Hilbert space. These exact results can be used to benchmark approximate techniques that are applicable to a wider range of chemical and physical problems. The methodology of many-electron quantum chemistry is reviewed. Methods are considered in detail for performing FCI calculations. The application of FCI methods to several three-electron problems in molecular physics are discussed. A number of benchmark applications of FCI wave functions are described. Atomic basis sets and the development of improved methods for handling very large basis sets are discussed: these are then applied to a number of chemical and spectroscopic problems; to transition metals; and to problems involving potential energy surfaces. Although the experiences described give considerable grounds for optimism about the general ability to perform accurate calculations, there are several problems that have proved less tractable, at least with current computer resources, and these and possible solutions are discussed.

  7. BIOACCESSIBILITY TESTS ACCURATELY ESTIMATE ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Hazards of soil-borne Pb to wild birds may be more accurately quantified if the bioavailability of that Pb is known. To better understand the bioavailability of Pb to birds, we measured blood Pb concentrations in Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica) fed diets containing Pb-contaminated soils. Relative bioavailabilities were expressed by comparison with blood Pb concentrations in quail fed a Pb acetate reference diet. Diets containing soil from five Pb-contaminated Superfund sites had relative bioavailabilities from 33%-63%, with a mean of about 50%. Treatment of two of the soils with P significantly reduced the bioavailability of Pb. The bioaccessibility of the Pb in the test soils was then measured in six in vitro tests and regressed on bioavailability. They were: the “Relative Bioavailability Leaching Procedure” (RBALP) at pH 1.5, the same test conducted at pH 2.5, the “Ohio State University In vitro Gastrointestinal” method (OSU IVG), the “Urban Soil Bioaccessible Lead Test”, the modified “Physiologically Based Extraction Test” and the “Waterfowl Physiologically Based Extraction Test.” All regressions had positive slopes. Based on criteria of slope and coefficient of determination, the RBALP pH 2.5 and OSU IVG tests performed very well. Speciation by X-ray absorption spectroscopy demonstrated that, on average, most of the Pb in the sampled soils was sorbed to minerals (30%), bound to organic matter 24%, or present as Pb sulfate 18%. Ad

  8. DIAGNOSIS OF HISTOPLASMOSIS

    PubMed Central

    Guimarães, Allan Jefferson; Nosanchuk, Joshua D.; Zancopé-Oliveira, Rosely Maria

    2010-01-01

    Endemic mycoses can be challenging to diagnose and accurate interpretation of laboratory data is important to ensure the most appropriate treatment for the patients. Although the definitive diagnosis of histoplasmosis (HP), one of the most frequent endemic mycoses in the world, is achieved by direct diagnosis performed by micro and/or macroscopic observation of Histoplasma capsulatum (H. capsulatum), serologic evidence of this fungal infection is important since the isolation of the etiologic agents is time-consuming and insensitive. A variety of immunoassays have been used to detect specific antibodies to H. capsulatum. The most applied technique for antibody detection is immunodiffusion with sensitivity between 70 to 100 % and specificity of 100%, depending on the clinical form. The complement fixation (CF) test, a methodology extensively used on the past, is less specific (60 to 90%). Detecting fungal antigens by immunoassays is valuable in immunocompromised individuals where such assays achieve positive predictive values of 96–98%. Most current tests in diagnostic laboratories still utilize unpurified antigenic complexes from either whole fungal cells or their culture filtrates. Emphasis has shifted, however, to clinical immunoassays using highly purified and well-characterized antigens including recombinant antigens. In this paper, we review the current conventional diagnostic tools, such as complement fixation and immunodiffusion, outline the development of novel diagnostic reagents and methods, and discuss their relative merits and disadvantages to the immunodiagnostic of this mycosis. PMID:20445761

  9. Accurate diagnosis of Giardia spp and proper fecal examination procedures.

    PubMed

    Dryden, M W; Payne, P A; Smith, V

    2006-01-01

    A series of investigations evaluated the ability of different testing methods - a swing-head centrifugation technique using two flotation solutions (1.18-specific gravity zinc sulfate and 1.27-specific gravity Sheather's sugar solution), a passive commercial flotation technique, and the SNAP Giardia Test Kit from IDEXX Laboratories - to identify Giardia-positive dogs and recover the eggs of other intestinal parasites. It was determined that the SNAP Giardia test can improve a practice's ability to identify Giardia-infected dogs. Because of its higher specific gravity, the sugar solution was better for recovering heavy parasite eggs, such as Taenia spp, and thus is the flotation solution of choice when conducting routine centrifugation fecal examinations.

  10. [Diagnosis: synovial fluid analysis].

    PubMed

    Gallo Vallejo, Francisco Javier; Giner Ruiz, Vicente

    2014-01-01

    Synovial fluid analysis in rheumatological diseases allows a more accurate diagnosis in some entities, mainly infectious and microcrystalline arthritis. Examination of synovial fluid in patients with osteoarthritis is useful if a differential diagnosis will be performed with other processes and to distinguish between inflammatory and non-inflammatory forms. Joint aspiration is a diagnostic and sometimes therapeutic procedure that is available to primary care physicians.

  11. ACCURATE MEASUREMENT OF THE ENERGY DEPENDENCE OF THE PROCESS e+ + e- → e± + e∓, IN THE s-RANGE 1.44-9.0 GeV2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bernardini, M.; Bollini, D.; Brunini, P. L.; Fiorentino, E.; Massam, T.; Monari, L.; Palmonari, F.; Rimondi, F.; Zichichi, A.

    The analysis of 12 827 e+ + e- → e± + e∓ events observed in the s-range 1.44-9.0 GeV2 allows measurement of the energy dependence of the cross-section for the most typical QED process, with ±2% accuracy. Within this limit the data follow QED, with first-order radiative corrections included.

  12. Communication and support from health-care professionals to families, with dependent children, following the diagnosis of parental life-limiting illness: A systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Fearnley, Rachel; Boland, Jason W.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Communication between parents and their children about parental life-limiting illness is stressful. Parents want support from health-care professionals; however, the extent of this support is not known. Awareness of family’s needs would help ensure appropriate support. Aim: To find the current literature exploring (1) how parents with a life-limiting illness, who have dependent children, perceive health-care professionals’ communication with them about the illness, diagnosis and treatments, including how social, practical and emotional support is offered to them and (2) how this contributes to the parents’ feelings of supporting their children. Design: A systematic literature review and narrative synthesis. Data sources: Embase, MEDLINE, PsycINFO, CINAHL and ASSIA ProQuest were searched in November 2015 for studies assessing communication between health-care professionals and parents about how to talk with their children about the parent’s illness. Results: There were 1342 records identified, five qualitative studies met the inclusion criteria (55 ill parents, 11 spouses/carers, 26 children and 16 health-care professionals). Parents wanted information from health-care professionals about how to talk to their children about the illness; this was not routinely offered. Children also want to talk with a health-care professional about their parents’ illness. Health-care professionals are concerned that conversations with parents and their children will be too difficult and time-consuming. Conclusion: Parents with a life-limiting illness want support from their health-care professionals about how to communicate with their children about the illness. Their children look to health-care professionals for information about their parent’s illness. Health-care professionals, have an important role but appear reluctant to address these concerns because of fears of insufficient time and expertise. PMID:27383635

  13. Molecular diagnosis of onychomycosis.

    PubMed

    Petinataud, D; Berger, S; Contet-Audonneau, N; Machouart, M

    2014-12-01

    Onychomycosis is a frequent cause of nail infections due to dermatophytes. Molds and yeast may also be responsible of these pathologies. Antifungal treatments are frequently given without a mycological diagnosis, partly because of the requisite time for obtaining the biological results. The mycological diagnosis requires a direct microscopic examination and a culture in order to accurately identify the fungal genus and species. Nevertheless, this conventional diagnosis is often time consuming due to the delay of fungal cultures and presents disadvantages that make it not sufficient enough to give a precise and confident response to the clinicians. Therefore additional tests have been developed to help distinguish onychomycosis from other nail disorders. Among them, molecular biology techniques offer modern and rapid tools to improve traditional microbiological diagnosis. In this review, we first present the conventional diagnosis methods for onychomycosis and then we describe the main molecular biology tools and the currently available commercial kits that allow a rapid detection of the pathology.

  14. Molecular diagnosis of Prader-Willi syndrome: Parent-of-origin dependent methylation sites and non-isotopic detection of (CA){sub n} dinucleotide repeat polymorphisms

    SciTech Connect

    Lerer, I.; Meiner, V.; Pashut-Lavon, I.; Abeliovich, D.

    1994-08-01

    We describe our experience in the molecular diagnosis of 22 patients suspected of Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS) using a DNA probe PW71 (D15S63) which detects a parent-of-origin specific methylated site in the PWS critical region. The cause of the syndrome was determined as deletion or uniparental disomy according to the segregation of (CA){sub n} dinucleotide repeat polymorphisms of the PWS/AS region and more distal markers of chromosome 15. In 10 patients the clinical diagnosis was confirmed by the segregation of (CA){sub n}, probably due to paternal microdeletion in the PWs critical region which did not include the loci D15S97, D15S113, GABRB3, and GABRA5. This case demonstrates the advantage of the DNA probe PW71 in the diagnosis of PWS. 31 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs.

  15. Accurate Evaluation of Quantum Integrals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Galant, D. C.; Goorvitch, D.; Witteborn, Fred C. (Technical Monitor)

    1995-01-01

    Combining an appropriate finite difference method with Richardson's extrapolation results in a simple, highly accurate numerical method for solving a Schrodinger's equation. Important results are that error estimates are provided, and that one can extrapolate expectation values rather than the wavefunctions to obtain highly accurate expectation values. We discuss the eigenvalues, the error growth in repeated Richardson's extrapolation, and show that the expectation values calculated on a crude mesh can be extrapolated to obtain expectation values of high accuracy.

  16. Laparoscopic diagnosis of ascites in Lesotho.

    PubMed Central

    Menzies, R I; Fitzgerald, J M; Mulpeter, K

    1985-01-01

    In a prospective study of 98 consecutive patients with undiagnosed ascites examined by laparoscopy a correct immediate diagnosis was made in 76 (78%) and a final diagnosis in 92 (94%) of those who underwent laparoscopy. Visual diagnosis was highly accurate in patients with tuberculous peritonitis but only moderately accurate in those with carcinomatosis and liver disease. When the laparoscopic findings were compared with histological and microbiological results visual diagnosis was found to be the most accurate diagnostic method. Laparoscopy may readily be used in rural hospitals for diagnosing ascites. PMID:3160432

  17. Digital system accurately controls velocity of electromechanical drive

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nichols, G. B.

    1965-01-01

    Digital circuit accurately regulates electromechanical drive mechanism velocity. The gain and phase characteristics of digital circuits are relatively unimportant. Control accuracy depends only on the stability of the input signal frequency.

  18. Carrier Diagnosis

    MedlinePlus

    ... and Women with Hemophilia Inheritance of Hemophilia Definitions & Terminology Bleeding Symptoms Carrier Diagnosis When to Test for ... and Women with Hemophilia Inheritance of Hemophilia Definitions & Terminology Bleeding Symptoms Carrier Diagnosis When to Test for ...

  19. Accurate Analysis of Array References

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-09-22

    This thesis addresses the problem of data dependence analysis, the base step in detecting loop level parallelism in scientific programs. Traditional...data dependence analysis research has concentrated on the simpler problem of affine memory disambiguation. Many algorithms have been developed that...can devise an experiment to test the effectiveness of affine memory disambiguation at approximating the full dependence problem. We discover that the

  20. Diagnosis of visceral leishmaniasis

    PubMed Central

    Srivastava, Pankaj; Dayama, Anand; Mehrotra, Sanjana; Sundar, Shyam

    2010-01-01

    Leishmaniasis is a vector-borne disease with up to 350 million people at risk of infection worldwide. Among its different clinical manifestations, visceral is the most severe form. Since clinical features of visceral leishmaniasis (VL) mimic several other common diseases, accurate diagnosis of VL is crucial as the treatment is associated with significant toxicity. Invasive and risky techniques involving demonstration of the parasites in stained preparations from splenic and bone marrow aspirate is still the gold standard for VL diagnosis. Serological tests using rk39 in ELISA or rapid immunochromatographic format, Direct Agglutination Test (DAT), immunoblotting have issues related to a significant proportion of asymptomatic individuals being positive with these tests and their inability to diagnose relapses as these remain positive for several months to years after cure. PCR is the most common molecular technique successfully used for diagnosis and differentiation of species. Through this review we focus extensively on the comparative utilities of the various diagnostic tools currently available for VL, describing in depth their advantages and disadvantages, addressing the recent advances attained in the field. A simple, rapid, non invasive, accurate and cost effective marker of active VL, which can be used in field conditions, is necessary to improve diagnosis of VL. PMID:21074233

  1. Kinetic isotope effect of the {sup 16}O + {sup 36}O{sub 2} and {sup 18}O + {sup 32}O{sub 2} isotope exchange reactions: Dominant role of reactive resonances revealed by an accurate time-dependent quantum wavepacket study

    SciTech Connect

    Sun, Zhigang Yu, Dequan; Xie, Wenbo; Hou, Jiayi; Dawes, Richard; Guo, Hua

    2015-05-07

    The O + O{sub 2} isotope exchange reactions play an important role in determining the oxygen isotopic composition of a number of trace gases in the atmosphere, and their temperature dependence and kinetic isotope effects (KIEs) provide important constraints on our understanding of the origin and mechanism of these and other unusual oxygen KIEs important in the atmosphere. This work reports a quantum dynamics study of the title reactions on the newly constructed Dawes-Lolur-Li-Jiang-Guo (DLLJG) potential energy surface (PES). The thermal reaction rate coefficients of both the {sup 18}O + {sup 32}O{sub 2} and {sup 16}O + {sup 36}O{sub 2} reactions obtained using the DLLJG PES exhibit a clear negative temperature dependence, in sharp contrast with the positive temperature dependence obtained using the earlier modified Siebert-Schinke-Bittererova (mSSB) PES. In addition, the calculated KIE shows an improved agreement with the experiment. These results strongly support the absence of the “reef” structure in the entrance/exit channels of the DLLJG PES, which is present in the mSSB PES. The quantum dynamics results on both PESs attribute the marked KIE to strong near-threshold reactive resonances, presumably stemming from the mass differences and/or zero point energy difference between the diatomic reactant and product. The accurate characterization of the reactivity for these near-thermoneutral reactions immediately above the reaction threshold is important for correct characterization of the thermal reaction rate coefficients.

  2. The risk of revision due to dislocation after total hip arthroplasty depends on surgical approach, femoral head size, sex, and primary diagnosis

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background and purpose The effects of patient-related and technical factors on the risk of revision due to dislocation after primary total hip arthroplasty (THA) are only partly understood. We hypothesized that increasing the femoral head size can reduce this risk, that the lateral surgical approach is associated with a lower risk than the posterior and minimally invasive approaches, and that gender and diagnosis influence the risk of revision due to dislocation. Patients and methods Data on 78,098 THAs in 61,743 patients performed between 2005 and 2010 were extracted from the Swedish Hip Arthroplasty Register. Inclusion criteria were a head size of 22, 28, 32, or 36 mm, or the use of a dual-mobility cup. The covariates age, sex, primary diagnosis, type of surgical approach, and head size were entered into Cox proportional hazards models in order to calculate the adjusted relative risk (RR) of revision due to dislocation, with 95% confidence intervals (CI). Results After a mean follow-up of 2.7 (0–6) years, 399 hips (0.5%) had been revised due to dislocation. The use of 22-mm femoral heads resulted in a higher risk of revision than the use of 28-mm heads (RR = 2.0, CI: 1.2–3.3). Only 1 of 287 dual-mobility cups had been revised due to dislocation. Compared with the direct lateral approach, minimally invasive approaches were associated with a higher risk of revision due to dislocation (RR = 4.2, CI: 2.3–7.7), as were posterior approaches (RR = 1.3, CI: 1.1–1.7). An increased risk of revision due to dislocation was found for the diagnoses femoral neck fracture (RR = 3.9, CI: 3.1–5.0) and osteonecrosis of the femoral head (RR = 3.7, CI: 2.5–5.5), whereas women were at lower risk than men (RR = 0.8, CI: 0.7–1.0). Restriction of the analysis to the first 6 months after the index procedure gave similar risk estimates. Interpretation Patients with femoral neck fracture or osteonecrosis of the femoral head are at higher risk of dislocation. Use of the

  3. Algorithms Could Automate Cancer Diagnosis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baky, A. A.; Winkler, D. G.

    1982-01-01

    Five new algorithms are a complete statistical procedure for quantifying cell abnormalities from digitized images. Procedure could be basis for automated detection and diagnosis of cancer. Objective of procedure is to assign each cell an atypia status index (ASI), which quantifies level of abnormality. It is possible that ASI values will be accurate and economical enough to allow diagnoses to be made quickly and accurately by computer processing of laboratory specimens extracted from patients.

  4. Serum and urine N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosaminidase in diabetics on diagnosis and subsequent treatment, and stable insulin dependent diabetics.

    PubMed

    Whiting, P H; Ross, I S; Borthwick, L

    1979-03-15

    N-Acetyl-beta-D-glucosaminidase (NAG) activity has been measured in the serum and urine of diabetics. Results have shown significantly higher levels of serum NAG in newly diagnosed diabetics (945 +/- 372 units/ml) compared to non-diabetic controll (668 +/- 225, p less than 0.005) and the levels were reduced by treatment (778 +/- 218, p less than 0.05). Changes occurred in the same direction when urinary NAG was measured falling from a mean of 572 +/- 298 units/mg urinary creatinine, on diagnosis to 291 +/- 176 after treatment (p less than 0.005), as compared with 177 +/- 86 in non-diabetic controls. Established insulin-treated diabetics had a urinary NAG activity of 461 +/- 440 and a serum NAG activity of 790 +/- 245. No correlation was found between urine NAG activity and urine glucose (r = 0.315), or serum NAG and serum glucose (r = 0.273). An assessment of this enzyme is made in relation to early microangiopathy.

  5. On numerically accurate finite element

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nagtegaal, J. C.; Parks, D. M.; Rice, J. R.

    1974-01-01

    A general criterion for testing a mesh with topologically similar repeat units is given, and the analysis shows that only a few conventional element types and arrangements are, or can be made suitable for computations in the fully plastic range. Further, a new variational principle, which can easily and simply be incorporated into an existing finite element program, is presented. This allows accurate computations to be made even for element designs that would not normally be suitable. Numerical results are given for three plane strain problems, namely pure bending of a beam, a thick-walled tube under pressure, and a deep double edge cracked tensile specimen. The effects of various element designs and of the new variational procedure are illustrated. Elastic-plastic computation at finite strain are discussed.

  6. Accurate, reproducible measurement of blood pressure.

    PubMed Central

    Campbell, N R; Chockalingam, A; Fodor, J G; McKay, D W

    1990-01-01

    The diagnosis of mild hypertension and the treatment of hypertension require accurate measurement of blood pressure. Blood pressure readings are altered by various factors that influence the patient, the techniques used and the accuracy of the sphygmomanometer. The variability of readings can be reduced if informed patients prepare in advance by emptying their bladder and bowel, by avoiding over-the-counter vasoactive drugs the day of measurement and by avoiding exposure to cold, caffeine consumption, smoking and physical exertion within half an hour before measurement. The use of standardized techniques to measure blood pressure will help to avoid large systematic errors. Poor technique can account for differences in readings of more than 15 mm Hg and ultimately misdiagnosis. Most of the recommended procedures are simple and, when routinely incorporated into clinical practice, require little additional time. The equipment must be appropriate and in good condition. Physicians should have a suitable selection of cuff sizes readily available; the use of the correct cuff size is essential to minimize systematic errors in blood pressure measurement. Semiannual calibration of aneroid sphygmomanometers and annual inspection of mercury sphygmomanometers and blood pressure cuffs are recommended. We review the methods recommended for measuring blood pressure and discuss the factors known to produce large differences in blood pressure readings. PMID:2192791

  7. Accurate taxonomic assignment of short pyrosequencing reads.

    PubMed

    Clemente, José C; Jansson, Jesper; Valiente, Gabriel

    2010-01-01

    Ambiguities in the taxonomy dependent assignment of pyrosequencing reads are usually resolved by mapping each read to the lowest common ancestor in a reference taxonomy of all those sequences that match the read. This conservative approach has the drawback of mapping a read to a possibly large clade that may also contain many sequences not matching the read. A more accurate taxonomic assignment of short reads can be made by mapping each read to the node in the reference taxonomy that provides the best precision and recall. We show that given a suffix array for the sequences in the reference taxonomy, a short read can be mapped to the node of the reference taxonomy with the best combined value of precision and recall in time linear in the size of the taxonomy subtree rooted at the lowest common ancestor of the matching sequences. An accurate taxonomic assignment of short reads can thus be made with about the same efficiency as when mapping each read to the lowest common ancestor of all matching sequences in a reference taxonomy. We demonstrate the effectiveness of our approach on several metagenomic datasets of marine and gut microbiota.

  8. Accurate ab Initio Spin Densities.

    PubMed

    Boguslawski, Katharina; Marti, Konrad H; Legeza, Ors; Reiher, Markus

    2012-06-12

    We present an approach for the calculation of spin density distributions for molecules that require very large active spaces for a qualitatively correct description of their electronic structure. Our approach is based on the density-matrix renormalization group (DMRG) algorithm to calculate the spin density matrix elements as a basic quantity for the spatially resolved spin density distribution. The spin density matrix elements are directly determined from the second-quantized elementary operators optimized by the DMRG algorithm. As an analytic convergence criterion for the spin density distribution, we employ our recently developed sampling-reconstruction scheme [J. Chem. Phys.2011, 134, 224101] to build an accurate complete-active-space configuration-interaction (CASCI) wave function from the optimized matrix product states. The spin density matrix elements can then also be determined as an expectation value employing the reconstructed wave function expansion. Furthermore, the explicit reconstruction of a CASCI-type wave function provides insight into chemically interesting features of the molecule under study such as the distribution of α and β electrons in terms of Slater determinants, CI coefficients, and natural orbitals. The methodology is applied to an iron nitrosyl complex which we have identified as a challenging system for standard approaches [J. Chem. Theory Comput.2011, 7, 2740].

  9. Determining accurate distances to nearby galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonanos, Alceste Zoe

    2005-11-01

    Determining accurate distances to nearby or distant galaxies is a very simple conceptually, yet complicated in practice, task. Presently, distances to nearby galaxies are only known to an accuracy of 10-15%. The current anchor galaxy of the extragalactic distance scale is the Large Magellanic Cloud, which has large (10-15%) systematic uncertainties associated with it, because of its morphology, its non-uniform reddening and the unknown metallicity dependence of the Cepheid period-luminosity relation. This work aims to determine accurate distances to some nearby galaxies, and subsequently help reduce the error in the extragalactic distance scale and the Hubble constant H 0 . In particular, this work presents the first distance determination of the DIRECT Project to M33 with detached eclipsing binaries. DIRECT aims to obtain a new anchor galaxy for the extragalactic distance scale by measuring direct, accurate (to 5%) distances to two Local Group galaxies, M31 and M33, with detached eclipsing binaries. It involves a massive variability survey of these galaxies and subsequent photometric and spectroscopic follow-up of the detached binaries discovered. In this work, I also present a catalog of variable stars discovered in one of the DIRECT fields, M31Y, which includes 41 eclipsing binaries. Additionally, we derive the distance to the Draco Dwarf Spheroidal galaxy, with ~100 RR Lyrae found in our first CCD variability study of this galaxy. A "hybrid" method of discovering Cepheids with ground-based telescopes is described next. It involves applying the image subtraction technique on the images obtained from ground-based telescopes and then following them up with the Hubble Space Telescope to derive Cepheid period-luminosity distances. By re-analyzing ESO Very Large Telescope data on M83 (NGC 5236), we demonstrate that this method is much more powerful for detecting variability, especially in crowded fields. I finally present photometry for the Wolf-Rayet binary WR 20a

  10. Dual Diagnosis

    MedlinePlus

    ... diagnosis has both a mental disorder and an alcohol or drug problem. These conditions occur together frequently. In particular, alcohol and drug problems tend to occur with Depression Anxiety disorders ...

  11. Diagnosis and treatment of dementia: 2. Diagnosis

    PubMed Central

    Feldman, Howard H.; Jacova, Claudia; Robillard, Alain; Garcia, Angeles; Chow, Tiffany; Borrie, Michael; Schipper, Hyman M.; Blair, Mervin; Kertesz, Andrew; Chertkow, Howard

    2008-01-01

    Background Dementia can now be accurately diagnosed through clinical evaluation, cognitive screening, basic laboratory evaluation and structural imaging. A large number of ancillary techniques are also available to aid in diagnosis, but their role in the armamentarium of family physicians remains controversial. In this article, we provide physicians with practical guidance on the diagnosis of dementia based on recommendations from the Third Canadian Consensus Conference on the Diagnosis and Treatment of Dementia, held in March 2006. Methods We developed evidence-based guidelines using systematic literature searches, with specific criteria for study selection and quality assessment, and a clear and transparent decision-making process. We selected studies published from January 1996 to December 2005 that pertained to key diagnostic issues in dementia. We graded the strength of evidence using the criteria of the Canadian Task Force on Preventive Health Care. Results Of the 1591 articles we identified on all aspects of dementia diagnosis, 1095 met our inclusion criteria; 620 were deemed to be of good or fair quality. From a synthesis of the evidence in these studies, we made 32 recommendations related to the diagnosis of dementia. There are clinical criteria for diagnosing most forms of dementia. A standard diagnostic evaluation can be performd by family physicians over multiple visits. It involves a clinical history (from patient and caregiver), a physical examination and brief cognitive testing. A list of core laboratory tests is recommended. Structural imaging with computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging is recommended in selected cases to rule out treatable causes of dementia or to rule in cerebrovascular disease. There is insufficient evidence to recommend routine functional imaging, measurement of biomarkers or neuropsychologic testing. Interpretation The diagnosis of dementia remains clinically integrative based on history, physical examination and

  12. Optical diagnosis of acute scrotum in children

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shadgan, Babak; Macnab, Andrew; Stothers, Lynn; Nigro, Mark; Afshar, Kourosh; Kajbafzadeh, A. M.

    2015-03-01

    Acute scrotum is a urologic condition defined by scrotal pain, swelling, and redness of acute onset. Prompt diagnosis and treatment are necessary to preserve testicular viability. The history and clinical symptoms reported are key to diagnosis and proper treatment, but are not always readily obtained in children, in whom common causes of acute scrotum include testicular torsion, torsion of the appendix testis, and epididymitis. These acute conditions have different causal pathology that mandate specific treatment, hence the importance of early and accurate diagnosis.

  13. Fault diagnosis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abbott, Kathy

    1990-01-01

    The objective of the research in this area of fault management is to develop and implement a decision aiding concept for diagnosing faults, especially faults which are difficult for pilots to identify, and to develop methods for presenting the diagnosis information to the flight crew in a timely and comprehensible manner. The requirements for the diagnosis concept were identified by interviewing pilots, analyzing actual incident and accident cases, and examining psychology literature on how humans perform diagnosis. The diagnosis decision aiding concept developed based on those requirements takes abnormal sensor readings as input, as identified by a fault monitor. Based on these abnormal sensor readings, the diagnosis concept identifies the cause or source of the fault and all components affected by the fault. This concept was implemented for diagnosis of aircraft propulsion and hydraulic subsystems in a computer program called Draphys (Diagnostic Reasoning About Physical Systems). Draphys is unique in two important ways. First, it uses models of both functional and physical relationships in the subsystems. Using both models enables the diagnostic reasoning to identify the fault propagation as the faulted system continues to operate, and to diagnose physical damage. Draphys also reasons about behavior of the faulted system over time, to eliminate possibilities as more information becomes available, and to update the system status as more components are affected by the fault. The crew interface research is examining display issues associated with presenting diagnosis information to the flight crew. One study examined issues for presenting system status information. One lesson learned from that study was that pilots found fault situations to be more complex if they involved multiple subsystems. Another was pilots could identify the faulted systems more quickly if the system status was presented in pictorial or text format. Another study is currently under way to

  14. 38 CFR 4.46 - Accurate measurement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Accurate measurement. 4... RATING DISABILITIES Disability Ratings The Musculoskeletal System § 4.46 Accurate measurement. Accurate measurement of the length of stumps, excursion of joints, dimensions and location of scars with respect...

  15. 38 CFR 4.46 - Accurate measurement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Accurate measurement. 4... RATING DISABILITIES Disability Ratings The Musculoskeletal System § 4.46 Accurate measurement. Accurate measurement of the length of stumps, excursion of joints, dimensions and location of scars with respect...

  16. 38 CFR 4.46 - Accurate measurement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Accurate measurement. 4... RATING DISABILITIES Disability Ratings The Musculoskeletal System § 4.46 Accurate measurement. Accurate measurement of the length of stumps, excursion of joints, dimensions and location of scars with respect...

  17. 38 CFR 4.46 - Accurate measurement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Accurate measurement. 4... RATING DISABILITIES Disability Ratings The Musculoskeletal System § 4.46 Accurate measurement. Accurate measurement of the length of stumps, excursion of joints, dimensions and location of scars with respect...

  18. 38 CFR 4.46 - Accurate measurement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Accurate measurement. 4... RATING DISABILITIES Disability Ratings The Musculoskeletal System § 4.46 Accurate measurement. Accurate measurement of the length of stumps, excursion of joints, dimensions and location of scars with respect...

  19. Spinal tuberculosis: diagnosis and management.

    PubMed

    Rasouli, Mohammad R; Mirkoohi, Maryam; Vaccaro, Alexander R; Yarandi, Kourosh Karimi; Rahimi-Movaghar, Vafa

    2012-12-01

    The spinal column is involved in less than 1% of all cases of tuberculosis (TB). Spinal TB is a very dangerous type of skeletal TB as it can be associated with neurologic deficit due to compression of adjacent neural structures and significant spinal deformity. Therefore, early diagnosis and management of spinal TB has special importance in preventing these serious complications. In order to extract current trends in diagnosis and medical or surgical treatment of spinal TB we performed a narrative review with analysis of all the articles available for us which were published between 1990 and 2011. Althoug h the development of more accurate imaging modalities such as magnetic resonance imaging and advanced surgical techniques have made the early diagnosis and management of spinal TB much easier, these are still very challenging topics. In this review we aim to discuss the diagnosis and management of spinal TB based on studies with acceptable design, clearly explained results and justifiable conclusions.

  20. Polymyositis: Diagnosis

    MedlinePlus

    ... themselves being invaded by cells of the immune system. Looking for more information, support or ways to get involved? Contact Us Get Our Emails About Polymyositis (PM) Signs and Symptoms Diagnosis Causes/Inheritance Medical Management Research Find your MDA Care Center Meet Warner ...

  1. Differential diagnosis of hyponatraemia.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Chris; Berl, Tomas; Tejedor, Alberto; Johannsson, Gudmundur

    2012-03-01

    The appropriate management of hyponatraemia is reliant on the accurate identification of the underlying cause of the hyponatraemia. In the light of evidence which has shown that the use of a clinical algorithm appears to improve accuracy in the differential diagnosis of hyponatraemia, the European Hyponatraemia Network considered the use of two algorithms. One was developed from a nephrologist's view of hyponatraemia, while the other reflected the approach of an endocrinologist. Both of these algorithms concurred on the importance of assessing effective blood volume status and the measurement of urine sodium concentration in the diagnostic process. To demonstrate the importance of accurate diagnosis to the correct treatment of hyponatraemia, special consideration was given to hyponatraemia in neurosurgical patients. The differentiation between the syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion (SIADH), acute adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) deficiency, fluid overload and cerebral salt-wasting syndrome was discussed. In patients with SIADH, fluid restriction has been the mainstay of treatment despite the absence of an evidence base for its use. An approach to using fluid restriction to raise serum tonicity in patients with SIADH and to identify patients who are likely to be recalcitrant to fluid restriction was also suggested.

  2. A new intelligent hierarchical fault diagnosis system

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, Y.C.; Huang, C.L.; Yang, H.T.

    1997-02-01

    As a part of a substation-level decision support system, a new intelligent Hierarchical Fault Diagnosis System for on-line fault diagnosis is presented in this paper. The proposed diagnosis system divides the fault diagnosis process into two phases. Using time-stamped information of relays and breakers, phase 1 identifies the possible fault sections through the Group Method of Data Handling (GMDH) networks, and phase 2 recognizes the types and detailed situations of the faults identified in phase 1 by using a fast bit-operation logical inference mechanism. The diagnosis system has been practically verified by testing on a typical Taiwan power secondary transmission system. Test results show that rapid and accurate diagnosis can be obtained with flexibility and portability for fault diagnosis purpose of diverse substations.

  3. Accurate glucose detection in a small etalon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martini, Joerg; Kuebler, Sebastian; Recht, Michael; Torres, Francisco; Roe, Jeffrey; Kiesel, Peter; Bruce, Richard

    2010-02-01

    We are developing a continuous glucose monitor for subcutaneous long-term implantation. This detector contains a double chamber Fabry-Perot-etalon that measures the differential refractive index (RI) between a reference and a measurement chamber at 850 nm. The etalon chambers have wavelength dependent transmission maxima which dependent linearly on the RI of their contents. An RI difference of ▵n=1.5.10-6 changes the spectral position of a transmission maximum by 1pm in our measurement. By sweeping the wavelength of a single-mode Vertical-Cavity-Surface-Emitting-Laser (VCSEL) linearly in time and detecting the maximum transmission peaks of the etalon we are able to measure the RI of a liquid. We have demonstrated accuracy of ▵n=+/-3.5.10-6 over a ▵n-range of 0 to 1.75.10-4 and an accuracy of 2% over a ▵nrange of 1.75.10-4 to 9.8.10-4. The accuracy is primarily limited by the reference measurement. The RI difference between the etalon chambers is made specific to glucose by the competitive, reversible release of Concanavalin A (ConA) from an immobilized dextran matrix. The matrix and ConA bound to it, is positioned outside the optical detection path. ConA is released from the matrix by reacting with glucose and diffuses into the optical path to change the RI in the etalon. Factors such as temperature affect the RI in measurement and detection chamber equally but do not affect the differential measurement. A typical standard deviation in RI is +/-1.4.10-6 over the range 32°C to 42°C. The detector enables an accurate glucose specific concentration measurement.

  4. How flatbed scanners upset accurate film dosimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Battum, L. J.; Huizenga, H.; Verdaasdonk, R. M.; Heukelom, S.

    2016-01-01

    Film is an excellent dosimeter for verification of dose distributions due to its high spatial resolution. Irradiated film can be digitized with low-cost, transmission, flatbed scanners. However, a disadvantage is their lateral scan effect (LSE): a scanner readout change over its lateral scan axis. Although anisotropic light scattering was presented as the origin of the LSE, this paper presents an alternative cause. Hereto, LSE for two flatbed scanners (Epson 1680 Expression Pro and Epson 10000XL), and Gafchromic film (EBT, EBT2, EBT3) was investigated, focused on three effects: cross talk, optical path length and polarization. Cross talk was examined using triangular sheets of various optical densities. The optical path length effect was studied using absorptive and reflective neutral density filters with well-defined optical characteristics (OD range 0.2-2.0). Linear polarizer sheets were used to investigate light polarization on the CCD signal in absence and presence of (un)irradiated Gafchromic film. Film dose values ranged between 0.2 to 9 Gy, i.e. an optical density range between 0.25 to 1.1. Measurements were performed in the scanner’s transmission mode, with red-green-blue channels. LSE was found to depend on scanner construction and film type. Its magnitude depends on dose: for 9 Gy increasing up to 14% at maximum lateral position. Cross talk was only significant in high contrast regions, up to 2% for very small fields. The optical path length effect introduced by film on the scanner causes 3% for pixels in the extreme lateral position. Light polarization due to film and the scanner’s optical mirror system is the main contributor, different in magnitude for the red, green and blue channel. We concluded that any Gafchromic EBT type film scanned with a flatbed scanner will face these optical effects. Accurate dosimetry requires correction of LSE, therefore, determination of the LSE per color channel and dose delivered to the film.

  5. Accurate equilibrium structures for piperidine and cyclohexane.

    PubMed

    Demaison, Jean; Craig, Norman C; Groner, Peter; Écija, Patricia; Cocinero, Emilio J; Lesarri, Alberto; Rudolph, Heinz Dieter

    2015-03-05

    Extended and improved microwave (MW) measurements are reported for the isotopologues of piperidine. New ground state (GS) rotational constants are fitted to MW transitions with quartic centrifugal distortion constants taken from ab initio calculations. Predicate values for the geometric parameters of piperidine and cyclohexane are found from a high level of ab initio theory including adjustments for basis set dependence and for correlation of the core electrons. Equilibrium rotational constants are obtained from GS rotational constants corrected for vibration-rotation interactions and electronic contributions. Equilibrium structures for piperidine and cyclohexane are fitted by the mixed estimation method. In this method, structural parameters are fitted concurrently to predicate parameters (with appropriate uncertainties) and moments of inertia (with uncertainties). The new structures are regarded as being accurate to 0.001 Å and 0.2°. Comparisons are made between bond parameters in equatorial piperidine and cyclohexane. Another interesting result of this study is that a structure determination is an effective way to check the accuracy of the ground state experimental rotational constants.

  6. Accurate Fission Data for Nuclear Safety

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Solders, A.; Gorelov, D.; Jokinen, A.; Kolhinen, V. S.; Lantz, M.; Mattera, A.; Penttilä, H.; Pomp, S.; Rakopoulos, V.; Rinta-Antila, S.

    2014-05-01

    The Accurate fission data for nuclear safety (AlFONS) project aims at high precision measurements of fission yields, using the renewed IGISOL mass separator facility in combination with a new high current light ion cyclotron at the University of Jyväskylä. The 30 MeV proton beam will be used to create fast and thermal neutron spectra for the study of neutron induced fission yields. Thanks to a series of mass separating elements, culminating with the JYFLTRAP Penning trap, it is possible to achieve a mass resolving power in the order of a few hundred thousands. In this paper we present the experimental setup and the design of a neutron converter target for IGISOL. The goal is to have a flexible design. For studies of exotic nuclei far from stability a high neutron flux (1012 neutrons/s) at energies 1 - 30 MeV is desired while for reactor applications neutron spectra that resembles those of thermal and fast nuclear reactors are preferred. It is also desirable to be able to produce (semi-)monoenergetic neutrons for benchmarking and to study the energy dependence of fission yields. The scientific program is extensive and is planed to start in 2013 with a measurement of isomeric yield ratios of proton induced fission in uranium. This will be followed by studies of independent yields of thermal and fast neutron induced fission of various actinides.

  7. Laboratory diagnosis of SARS.

    PubMed Central

    Bermingham, A; Heinen, P; Iturriza-Gómara, M; Gray, J; Appleton, H; Zambon, M C

    2004-01-01

    The emergence of new viral infections of man requires the development of robust diagnostic tests that can be applied in the differential diagnosis of acute illness, or to determine past exposure, so as to establish the true burden of disease. Since the recognition in April 2003 of the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV) as the causative agent of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS), enormous efforts have been applied to develop molecular and serological tests for SARS which can assist rapid detection of cases, accurate diagnosis of illness and the application of control measures. International progress in the laboratory diagnosis of SARS-CoV infection during acute illness has led to internationally agreed World Health Organization criteria for the confirmation of SARS. Developments in the dissection of the human immune response to SARS indicate that serological tests on convalescent sera are essential to confirm SARS infection, given the sub-optimal predictive value of molecular detection tests performed during acute SARS illness. PMID:15306394

  8. Optic Neuritis: Another Dickensian Diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Petzold, Axel

    2013-01-01

    The clinical diagnosis and natural history of optic neuritis was established in the late 1880s by the ophthalmologists von Graefe and Nettleship. The earlier, accurate and insightful description of transient, bilateral visual loss of Esther, the main character in the Charles Dickens novel Bleak House (1852--1853), suggests optic neuritis as a Dickensian diagnosis. Remarkably, Dickens' observations, also preceding the earliest clinical description of multiple sclerosis by Charcot in 1868, described many clinical features such as a prodromal phase; a nadir; gradual recovery over weeks; glare disability; reduced contrast sensitivity; possibly Uhthoff's phenomenon; and visual fading. All this with an accuracy that, to quote Russell Brain, "would credit a trained physician."

  9. Melanoma Diagnosis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horsch, Alexander

    The chapter deals with the diagnosis of the malignant melanoma of the skin. This aggressive type of cancer with steadily growing incidence in white populations can hundred percent be cured if it is detected in an early stage. Imaging techniques, in particular dermoscopy, have contributed significantly to improvement of diagnostic accuracy in clinical settings, achieving sensitivities for melanoma experts of beyond 95% at specificities of 90% and more. Automatic computer analysis of dermoscopy images has, in preliminary studies, achieved classification rates comparable to those of experts. However, the diagnosis of melanoma requires a lot of training and experience, and at the time being, average numbers of lesions excised per histology-proven melanoma are around 30, a number which clearly is too high. Further improvements in computer dermoscopy systems and their competent use in clinical settings certainly have the potential to support efforts of improving this situation. In the chapter, medical basics, current state of melanoma diagnosis, image analysis methods, commercial dermoscopy systems, evaluation of systems, and methods and future directions are presented.

  10. Prenatal diagnosis of Chinese families with phenylketonuria.

    PubMed

    Liu, N; Kong, X D; Zhao, D H; Wu, Q H; Li, X L; Guo, H F; Cui, L X; Jiang, M; Shi, H R

    2015-11-19

    The aim of this study is to investigate the ability to prenatally diagnose phenylketonuria (PKU) by using phenylalanine hydroxylase (PAH) gene mutation analysis combined with short tandem repeat (STR) linkage analysis in 118 fetuses from 112 Chinese families. Genomic DNA was extracted from the peripheral blood from members of 112 families and the exons and exon-intron boundaries of the PAH gene were amplified by PCR. PCR products were analyzed by bi-directional Sanger sequencing and multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA). The three variable number of tandem repeat (VNTR) markers PAH-1, PAH-26, PAH-32 were used in the prenatal diagnosis for the PKU families. We identified a spectrum of 63 different mutations, including 61 point mutations and indels, two large exon deletion mutations, and five novel mutations. A substantial proportion of mutant alleles were accounted for by p.R243Q (15.62%), EX6-96AG (9.82%), p.V399V (7.59%), p.Y356X (6.70%), and p.R413P (5.36%). The same mutations were identified in 31 prenatally genotyped fetuses. We identified 58 fetuses that carried only one mutant allele and 29 fetuses that carried no mutations of PAH and were presumed normal. PAH gene mutation analysis combined with STR linkage analysis can provide rapid and accurate prenatal diagnosis for PKU families.

  11. Eosinophilic gastroenteritis: Approach to diagnosis and management

    PubMed Central

    Abou Rached, Antoine; El Hajj, Weam

    2016-01-01

    Eosinophilic gastroenteritis (EGE) is a rare and benign inflammatory disorder that predominantly affects the stomach and the small intestine. The disease is divided into three subtypes (mucosal, muscular and serosal) according to klein’s classification, and its manifestations are protean, depending on the involved intestinal segments and layers. Hence, accurate diagnosis of EGE poses a significant challenge to clinicians, with evidence of the following three criteria required: Suspicious clinical symptoms, histologic evidence of eosinophilic infiltration in the bowel and exclusion of other pathologies with similar findings. In this review, we designed and applied an algorithm to clarify the steps to follow for diagnosis of EGE in clinical practice. The management of EGE represents another area of debate. Prednisone remains the mainstay of treatment; however the disease is recognized as a chronic disorder and one that most frequently follows a relapsing course that requires maintenance therapy. Since prolonged steroid treatment carries of risk of serious adverse effects, other options with better safety profiles have been proposed; these include budesonide, dietary restrictions and steroid-sparing agents, such as leukotriene inhibitors, azathioprine, anti-histamines and mast-cell stabilizers. Single cases or small case series have been reported in the literature for all of these options, and we provide in this review a summary of these various therapeutic modalities, placing them within the context of our novel algorithm for EGE management according to disease severity upon presentation. PMID:27867684

  12. Serological diagnosis of allergic bronchopulmonary mycosis: Progress and challenges.

    PubMed

    Fukutomi, Yuma; Tanimoto, Hidenori; Yasueda, Hiroshi; Taniguchi, Masami

    2016-01-01

    Prompt diagnosis of allergic bronchopulmonary mycosis (ABPM) is an important clinical issue in preventing irreversible lung damage. Therefore, a good serological marker for the diagnosis of ABPM is desired in clinical practice. The measurement of IgE antibody to crude Aspergillus fumigatus allergen is considered the first step in screening asthmatic patients for allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (ABPA). However, presence of IgE to A. fumigatus does not always indicate genuine sensitization to A. fumigatus because of cross-reactivity between crude extracts from different fungal sources. The application of molecular-based allergy diagnosis can solve this problem. The specificity of testing can be greatly improved by measuring the IgE antibody to Asp f 1 and f 2, specific allergen components for genuine A. fumigatus allergy. The problem of cross-reactivity between crude fungal extracts is also true for the identification of genuine causal fungi in each ABPM patient. Some patients with ABPM induced by fungi other than Aspergillus may be consistent with ABPA diagnostic criteria because current criteria depend on IgE/IgG reactivity to crude extracts. Accurate identification of genuine causal fungi for ABPM is of clinical importance, considering that clinical presentation, anti-fungal treatment strategies and disease prognosis can be influenced by different causal fungi. The diagnosis of causal fungi can be robustly validated by the confirmation of genuine sensitization to fungi after measuring IgE to specific allergen components, as well as repeated microbiological isolation of the fungi from their airway.

  13. Memory conformity affects inaccurate memories more than accurate memories.

    PubMed

    Wright, Daniel B; Villalba, Daniella K

    2012-01-01

    After controlling for initial confidence, inaccurate memories were shown to be more easily distorted than accurate memories. In two experiments groups of participants viewed 50 stimuli and were then presented with these stimuli plus 50 fillers. During this test phase participants reported their confidence that each stimulus was originally shown. This was followed by computer-generated responses from a bogus participant. After being exposed to this response participants again rated the confidence of their memory. The computer-generated responses systematically distorted participants' responses. Memory distortion depended on initial memory confidence, with uncertain memories being more malleable than confident memories. This effect was moderated by whether the participant's memory was initially accurate or inaccurate. Inaccurate memories were more malleable than accurate memories. The data were consistent with a model describing two types of memory (i.e., recollective and non-recollective memories), which differ in how susceptible these memories are to memory distortion.

  14. State of the art in the diagnosis and management of interstitial lung disease.

    PubMed

    Buzan, Maria T A; Pop, Carmen Monica

    2015-01-01

    The interstitial lung diseases (ILDs) are a diverse group of disorders characterized by a varying combination of inflammation and fibrosis of the pulmonary parenchyma. Treatment and prognosis of ILD typically depend on the underlying ILD subtype, highlighting the importance of accurate classification and diagnosis. Besides a thorough history and clinical examination, the protocol should include a 6-minute walk test, chest radiography, high-resolution computed tomography, biochemical analysis, pulmonary function tests, blood gas analysis, bronchoalveolar lavage, and, when necessary, a lung biopsy. The final diagnosis of ILD entities requires dynamic interaction between clinicians, radiologists and pathologists to reach a clinico-radiologic-pathologic diagnosis, the gold standard no longer being the histology but rather a multidisciplinary approach.

  15. Accurate paleointensities - the multi-method approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Groot, Lennart

    2016-04-01

    The accuracy of models describing rapid changes in the geomagnetic field over the past millennia critically depends on the availability of reliable paleointensity estimates. Over the past decade methods to derive paleointensities from lavas (the only recorder of the geomagnetic field that is available all over the globe and through geologic times) have seen significant improvements and various alternative techniques were proposed. The 'classical' Thellier-style approach was optimized and selection criteria were defined in the 'Standard Paleointensity Definitions' (Paterson et al, 2014). The Multispecimen approach was validated and the importance of additional tests and criteria to assess Multispecimen results must be emphasized. Recently, a non-heating, relative paleointensity technique was proposed -the pseudo-Thellier protocol- which shows great potential in both accuracy and efficiency, but currently lacks a solid theoretical underpinning. Here I present work using all three of the aforementioned paleointensity methods on suites of young lavas taken from the volcanic islands of Hawaii, La Palma, Gran Canaria, Tenerife, and Terceira. Many of the sampled cooling units are <100 years old, the actual field strength at the time of cooling is therefore reasonably well known. Rather intuitively, flows that produce coherent results from two or more different paleointensity methods yield the most accurate estimates of the paleofield. Furthermore, the results for some flows pass the selection criteria for one method, but fail in other techniques. Scrutinizing and combing all acceptable results yielded reliable paleointensity estimates for 60-70% of all sampled cooling units - an exceptionally high success rate. This 'multi-method paleointensity approach' therefore has high potential to provide the much-needed paleointensities to improve geomagnetic field models for the Holocene.

  16. Non-transfusion-dependent thalassemias

    PubMed Central

    Musallam, Khaled M.; Rivella, Stefano; Vichinsky, Elliott; Rachmilewitz, Eliezer A.

    2013-01-01

    Non-transfusion-dependent thalassemias include a variety of phenotypes that, unlike patients with beta (β)-thalassemia major, do not require regular transfusion therapy for survival. The most commonly investigated forms are β-thalassemia intermedia, hemoglobin E/β-thalassemia, and α-thalassemia intermedia (hemoglobin H disease). However, transfusion-independence in such patients is not without side effects. Ineffective erythropoiesis and peripheral hemolysis, the hallmarks of disease process, lead to a variety of subsequent pathophysiologies including iron overload and hypercoagulability that ultimately lead to a number of serious clinical morbidities. Thus, prompt and accurate diagnosis of non-transfusion-dependent thalassemia is essential to ensure early intervention. Although several management options are currently available, the need to develop more novel therapeutics is justified by recent advances in our understanding of the mechanisms of disease. Such efforts require wide international collaboration, especially since non-transfusion-dependent thalassemias are no longer bound to low- and middle-income countries but have spread to large multiethnic cities in Europe and the Americas due to continued migration. PMID:23729725

  17. [Molecular diagnosis of autoimmune dermatoses].

    PubMed

    Hoffmann, K; Hertl, M; Sitaru, C

    2016-01-01

    Bullous autoimmune diseases are organ-specific disorders characterized by an autoantibody-mediated blistering of skin and mucous membranes. The detection of tissue-bound and serum autoantibodies is prerequisite for the diagnosis of autoimmune blistering diseases. The individual entities of this group may be difficult to differentiate on clinical grounds alone. An accurate diagnosis is however important for prognosis and therapy. A preliminary diagnostic step includes direct and indirect immunofluorescence microscopy, which provide information about the binding pattern and isotype of autoantibodies and allow the diagnosis of the autoimmune blistering disease. Subsequent characterization of the molecular specificity of autoantibodies is necessary for the exact classification of autoimmune bullous dermatoses. The quantitative measurement of autoantibodies against structural proteins of the skin may be often used to assess disease severity at follow-up.

  18. Utility of squash smear cytology in intraoperative diagnosis of central nervous system tumors

    PubMed Central

    Patil, Savita S; Kudrimoti, Jyoti K; Agarwal, Rachana D; Jadhav, Meenal V; Chuge, Ashish

    2016-01-01

    Background: Central nervous system (CNS) squash cytology (CSC) has established itself as a technically simple, rapid, inexpensive, fairly accurate, and dependable intraoperative diagnostic tool. It helps neurosurgeons immensely when management is dependent on it. Aims: This study aimed at finding out the utility of CSC as an intraoperative diagnostic tool from a neurosurgeon's perspective. Materials and Methods: Fifty prospectively registered patients with clinical diagnosis of CNS tumors were enrolled in the study. All the patients were subjected to magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Intraoperative CSC was performed and smears were stained with Leishman and rapid Hematoxylin and Eosin (H and E) stain. The diagnosis of CSC was compared with MRI diagnosis and histopathological diagnosis. The CNS tumors were categorized based on clinical and therapeutic implications. Diagnostic accuracy, sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive value of MRI and CSC were calculated by using appropriate formulae. Results and Conclusions: The age range of the CNS tumors included in the study was 2 to 68 years. There was a slight female preponderance. Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value of preoperative MRI were 90.47%, 82.76%, 79.17%, and 92.31% respectively. These values of utility parameters for CSC were 100% for each of the clinical and therapeutic implications. It helped neurosurgeons in optimizing surgical procedure in 12 cases of meningioma. It influenced surgical management in 1 case of infratentorial pilocytic astrocytoma, and helped in the diagnosis and management of 9 unexpected tumors missed on MRI. PMID:28028335

  19. Mill profiler machines soft materials accurately

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rauschl, J. A.

    1966-01-01

    Mill profiler machines bevels, slots, and grooves in soft materials, such as styrofoam phenolic-filled cores, to any desired thickness. A single operator can accurately control cutting depths in contour or straight line work.

  20. Laboratory diagnosis of thalassemia.

    PubMed

    Brancaleoni, V; Di Pierro, E; Motta, I; Cappellini, M D

    2016-05-01

    The thalassemias can be defined as α- or β-thalassemias depending on the defective globin chain and on the underlying molecular defects. The recognition of carriers is possible by hematological tests. Both α- and β-thalassemia carriers (heterozygotes) present with microcytic hypochromic parameters with or without mild anemia. Red cell indices and morphology followed by separation and measurement of Hb fractions are the basis for identification of carriers. In addition, iron status should be ascertained by ferritin or zinc protoporphyrin measurements and the iron/total iron-binding capacity/saturation index. Mean corpuscular volume and mean corpuscular hemoglobin are markedly reduced (mean corpuscular volume: 60-70 fl; MCH: 19-23 pg) in β-thalassemia carriers, whereas a slight to relevant reduction is usually observed in α-carriers. HbA2 determination is the most decisive test for β-carrier detection although it can be disturbed by the presence of δ-thalassemia defects. In α-thalassemia, HbA2 can be lower than normal and it assumes significant value when iron deficiency is excluded. Several algorithms have been introduced to discriminate from thalassemia carriers and subjects with iron-deficient anemia; because the only discriminating parameter is the red cell counts, these formulas must be used consciously. Molecular analysis is not required to confirm the diagnosis of β-carrier, but it is necessary to confirm the α-thalassemia carrier status. The molecular diagnosis is essential to predict severe transfusion-dependent and intermediate-to-mild non-transfusion-dependent cases. DNA analysis on chorionic villi is the approach for prenatal diagnosis and the methods are the same used for mutations detection, according to the laboratory facilities and expertise.

  1. Extracting Time-Accurate Acceleration Vectors From Nontrivial Accelerometer Arrangements.

    PubMed

    Franck, Jennifer A; Blume, Janet; Crisco, Joseph J; Franck, Christian

    2015-09-01

    Sports-related concussions are of significant concern in many impact sports, and their detection relies on accurate measurements of the head kinematics during impact. Among the most prevalent recording technologies are videography, and more recently, the use of single-axis accelerometers mounted in a helmet, such as the HIT system. Successful extraction of the linear and angular impact accelerations depends on an accurate analysis methodology governed by the equations of motion. Current algorithms are able to estimate the magnitude of acceleration and hit location, but make assumptions about the hit orientation and are often limited in the position and/or orientation of the accelerometers. The newly formulated algorithm presented in this manuscript accurately extracts the full linear and rotational acceleration vectors from a broad arrangement of six single-axis accelerometers directly from the governing set of kinematic equations. The new formulation linearizes the nonlinear centripetal acceleration term with a finite-difference approximation and provides a fast and accurate solution for all six components of acceleration over long time periods (>250 ms). The approximation of the nonlinear centripetal acceleration term provides an accurate computation of the rotational velocity as a function of time and allows for reconstruction of a multiple-impact signal. Furthermore, the algorithm determines the impact location and orientation and can distinguish between glancing, high rotational velocity impacts, or direct impacts through the center of mass. Results are shown for ten simulated impact locations on a headform geometry computed with three different accelerometer configurations in varying degrees of signal noise. Since the algorithm does not require simplifications of the actual impacted geometry, the impact vector, or a specific arrangement of accelerometer orientations, it can be easily applied to many impact investigations in which accurate kinematics need to

  2. Using an Educational Electronic Documentation System to Help Nursing Students Accurately Identify Nursing Diagnoses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pobocik, Tamara J.

    2013-01-01

    The use of technology and electronic medical records in healthcare has exponentially increased. This quantitative research project used a pretest/posttest design, and reviewed how an educational electronic documentation system helped nursing students to identify the accurate related to statement of the nursing diagnosis for the patient in the case…

  3. Diagnosis and treatment of myofacial pain-dysfunction (MPD) syndrome.

    PubMed

    Laskin, D M; Block, S

    1986-07-01

    The successful management of patients with MPD syndrome is dependent on establishing an accurate diagnosis and using proper therapy based on an understanding of the etiology of the disorder. Establishing an accurate diagnosis is accomplished by taking a careful history, doing a thorough examination, and having a knowledge of the various other conditions that can produce signs and symptoms similar to those of MPD syndrome. Using proper therapy is related to recognition that MPD syndrome is a stress-induced psychophysiologic disease originating in the muscles of mastication and not an organic disease arising in the temporomandibular joint. Thus, therapy should be directed at reducing stress, relaxing tense jaw muscles, and creating an awareness by the patient of the causes of the problem, rather than at analyzing occlusion, measuring joint spaces, and producing irreversible structural changes in the dentition and the articulation. Because good results can be achieved with these uncomplicated, reversible forms of therapy, it is important that the clinician does not succumb to an unproven fad or use of an irreversible procedure that will not achieve better results.

  4. A dynamic integrated fault diagnosis method for power transformers.

    PubMed

    Gao, Wensheng; Bai, Cuifen; Liu, Tong

    2015-01-01

    In order to diagnose transformer fault efficiently and accurately, a dynamic integrated fault diagnosis method based on Bayesian network is proposed in this paper. First, an integrated fault diagnosis model is established based on the causal relationship among abnormal working conditions, failure modes, and failure symptoms of transformers, aimed at obtaining the most possible failure mode. And then considering the evidence input into the diagnosis model is gradually acquired and the fault diagnosis process in reality is multistep, a dynamic fault diagnosis mechanism is proposed based on the integrated fault diagnosis model. Different from the existing one-step diagnosis mechanism, it includes a multistep evidence-selection process, which gives the most effective diagnostic test to be performed in next step. Therefore, it can reduce unnecessary diagnostic tests and improve the accuracy and efficiency of diagnosis. Finally, the dynamic integrated fault diagnosis method is applied to actual cases, and the validity of this method is verified.

  5. A Dynamic Integrated Fault Diagnosis Method for Power Transformers

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Wensheng; Liu, Tong

    2015-01-01

    In order to diagnose transformer fault efficiently and accurately, a dynamic integrated fault diagnosis method based on Bayesian network is proposed in this paper. First, an integrated fault diagnosis model is established based on the causal relationship among abnormal working conditions, failure modes, and failure symptoms of transformers, aimed at obtaining the most possible failure mode. And then considering the evidence input into the diagnosis model is gradually acquired and the fault diagnosis process in reality is multistep, a dynamic fault diagnosis mechanism is proposed based on the integrated fault diagnosis model. Different from the existing one-step diagnosis mechanism, it includes a multistep evidence-selection process, which gives the most effective diagnostic test to be performed in next step. Therefore, it can reduce unnecessary diagnostic tests and improve the accuracy and efficiency of diagnosis. Finally, the dynamic integrated fault diagnosis method is applied to actual cases, and the validity of this method is verified. PMID:25685841

  6. Accurate and Robust Genomic Prediction of Celiac Disease Using Statistical Learning

    PubMed Central

    Abraham, Gad; Tye-Din, Jason A.; Bhalala, Oneil G.; Kowalczyk, Adam; Zobel, Justin; Inouye, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Practical application of genomic-based risk stratification to clinical diagnosis is appealing yet performance varies widely depending on the disease and genomic risk score (GRS) method. Celiac disease (CD), a common immune-mediated illness, is strongly genetically determined and requires specific HLA haplotypes. HLA testing can exclude diagnosis but has low specificity, providing little information suitable for clinical risk stratification. Using six European cohorts, we provide a proof-of-concept that statistical learning approaches which simultaneously model all SNPs can generate robust and highly accurate predictive models of CD based on genome-wide SNP profiles. The high predictive capacity replicated both in cross-validation within each cohort (AUC of 0.87–0.89) and in independent replication across cohorts (AUC of 0.86–0.9), despite differences in ethnicity. The models explained 30–35% of disease variance and up to ∼43% of heritability. The GRS's utility was assessed in different clinically relevant settings. Comparable to HLA typing, the GRS can be used to identify individuals without CD with ≥99.6% negative predictive value however, unlike HLA typing, fine-scale stratification of individuals into categories of higher-risk for CD can identify those that would benefit from more invasive and costly definitive testing. The GRS is flexible and its performance can be adapted to the clinical situation by adjusting the threshold cut-off. Despite explaining a minority of disease heritability, our findings indicate a genomic risk score provides clinically relevant information to improve upon current diagnostic pathways for CD and support further studies evaluating the clinical utility of this approach in CD and other complex diseases. PMID:24550740

  7. Differential diagnosis of delayed awakening from general anesthesia: a review.

    PubMed

    Frost, Elizabeth A M

    2014-10-01

    With the general use of fast acting anesthetic agents, patients usually awaken quickly in the post operative period. However, sometimes recovery is protracted and the list of possible causes in long. Accurate diagnosis is key to institution of appropriate therapy.

  8. Differential diagnosis of facial pain and guidelines for management.

    PubMed

    Zakrzewska, J M

    2013-07-01

    The diagnosis and management of facial pain below the eye can be very different dependant on whether the patient visits a dentist or medical practitioner. A structure for accurate diagnosis is proposed beginning with a very careful history. The commonest acute causes of pain are dental and these are well managed by dentists. Chronic facial pain can be unilateral or bilateral and continuous or episodic. The commonest non-dental pains are temporomandibular disorders (TMDs), especially musculoskeletal involving the muscles of mastication either unilaterally or bilaterally; they may be associated with other chronic pains. A very wide range of treatments are used but early diagnosis, reassurance and some simple physiotherapy is often effective in those with good coping strategies. Dentists will often make splints to wear at night. Neuropathic pain is usually unilateral and of the episodic type; the most easily recognized is trigeminal neuralgia. This severe electric shock like pain, provoked by light touch, responds best to carbamazepine, and neurosurgery in poorly controlled patients. Trauma, either major or because of dental procedures, results in neuropathic pain and these are then managed as for any other neuropathic pain. Red flags include giant cell arteritis which much be distinguished from temporomandibular disorders (TMD), especially in >50 yr olds, and cancer which can present as a progressive neuropathic pain. Burning mouth syndrome is rarely recognized as a neuropathic pain as it occurs principally in peri-menopausal women and is thought to be psychological. Chronic facial pain patients are best managed by a multidisciplinary team.

  9. Hirsutism: diagnosis and treatment.

    PubMed

    Hohl, Alexandre; Ronsoni, Marcelo Fernando; Oliveira, Mônica de

    2014-03-01

    Hirsutism is defined as excessive terminal hair growth in androgen-dependent areas of the body in women, which grows in a typical male distribution pattern. Hirsutism is a common clinical problem in women, and the treatment depends on the cause. The condition is often associated with a loss of self-esteem. Hirsutism reflects the interaction between circulating androgen concentrations, local androgen concentrations, and the sensitivity of the hair follicle to androgens. Polycystic ovary syndrome and idiopathic hirsutism are the most common causes of the condition. A woman's history and, physical examination are particularly important in evaluating excess hair growth. The vast majority of women with hirsutism have the idiopathic variety, and the diagnosis is made by exclusion. Serum testosterone level>200 ng/dL is highly suggestive of adrenal or ovarian tumor. Treatment of hirsutism should be based on the degree of excess hair growth presented by the patient and in the pathophysiology of the disorder. Treatment includes lifestyle therapies, androgen suppression, peripheral androgen blockage, and cosmetic treatments. The current review discusses definition, pathogenesis, physiopathology, differential diagnosis, diagnostic strategies, and treatment.

  10. Accurate determination of the sedimentation flux of concentrated suspensions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, J.; Rakotomalala, N.; Salin, D.

    1995-10-01

    Flow rate jumps are used to generate propagating concentration variations in a counterflow stabilized suspension (a liquid fluidized bed). An acoustic technique is used to measure accurately the resulting concentration profiles through the bed. Depending on the experimental conditions, we have observed self-sharpening, or/and self-spreading concentration fronts. Our data are analyzed in the framework of Kynch's theory, providing an accurate determination of the sedimentation flux [CU(C); U(C) is the hindered sedimentation velocity of the suspension] and its derivatives in the concentration range 30%-60%. In the vicinity of the packing concentration, controlling the flow rate has allowed us to increase the maximum packing up to 60%.

  11. A more accurate nonequilibrium air radiation code - NEQAIR second generation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moreau, Stephane; Laux, Christophe O.; Chapman, Dean R.; Maccormack, Robert W.

    1992-01-01

    Two experiments, one an equilibrium flow in a plasma torch at Stanford, the other a nonequilibrium flow in a SDIO/IST Bow-Shock-Ultra-Violet missile flight, have provided the basis for modifying, enhancing, and testing the well-known radiation code, NEQAIR. The original code, herein termed NEQAIR1, lacked computational efficiency, accurate data for some species and the flexibility to handle a variety of species. The modified code, herein termed NEQAIR2, incorporates recent findings in the spectroscopic and radiation models. It can handle any number of species and radiative bands in a gas whose thermodynamic state can be described by up to four temperatures. It provides a new capability of computing very fine spectra in a reasonable CPU time, while including transport phenomena along the line of sight and the characteristics of instruments that were used in the measurements. Such a new tool should allow more accurate testing and diagnosis of the different physical models used in numerical simulations of radiating, low density, high energy flows.

  12. Accurate pointing of tungsten welding electrodes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ziegelmeier, P.

    1971-01-01

    Thoriated-tungsten is pointed accurately and quickly by using sodium nitrite. Point produced is smooth and no effort is necessary to hold the tungsten rod concentric. The chemically produced point can be used several times longer than ground points. This method reduces time and cost of preparing tungsten electrodes.

  13. Multiclass cancer diagnosis using tumor gene expression signatures

    DOE PAGES

    Ramaswamy, S.; Tamayo, P.; Rifkin, R.; ...

    2001-12-11

    The optimal treatment of patients with cancer depends on establishing accurate diagnoses by using a complex combination of clinical and histopathological data. In some instances, this task is difficult or impossible because of atypical clinical presentation or histopathology. To determine whether the diagnosis of multiple common adult malignancies could be achieved purely by molecular classification, we subjected 218 tumor samples, spanning 14 common tumor types, and 90 normal tissue samples to oligonucleotide microarray gene expression analysis. The expression levels of 16,063 genes and expressed sequence tags were used to evaluate the accuracy of a multiclass classifier based on a supportmore » vector machine algorithm. Overall classification accuracy was 78%, far exceeding the accuracy of random classification (9%). Poorly differentiated cancers resulted in low-confidence predictions and could not be accurately classified according to their tissue of origin, indicating that they are molecularly distinct entities with dramatically different gene expression patterns compared with their well differentiated counterparts. Taken together, these results demonstrate the feasibility of accurate, multiclass molecular cancer classification and suggest a strategy for future clinical implementation of molecular cancer diagnostics.« less

  14. Multiclass cancer diagnosis using tumor gene expression signatures

    SciTech Connect

    Ramaswamy, S.; Tamayo, P.; Rifkin, R.; Mukherjee, S.; Yeang, C. -H.; Angelo, M.; Ladd, C.; Reich, M.; Latulippe, E.; Mesirov, J. P.; Poggio, T.; Gerald, W.; Loda, M.; Lander, E. S.; Golub, T. R.

    2001-12-11

    The optimal treatment of patients with cancer depends on establishing accurate diagnoses by using a complex combination of clinical and histopathological data. In some instances, this task is difficult or impossible because of atypical clinical presentation or histopathology. To determine whether the diagnosis of multiple common adult malignancies could be achieved purely by molecular classification, we subjected 218 tumor samples, spanning 14 common tumor types, and 90 normal tissue samples to oligonucleotide microarray gene expression analysis. The expression levels of 16,063 genes and expressed sequence tags were used to evaluate the accuracy of a multiclass classifier based on a support vector machine algorithm. Overall classification accuracy was 78%, far exceeding the accuracy of random classification (9%). Poorly differentiated cancers resulted in low-confidence predictions and could not be accurately classified according to their tissue of origin, indicating that they are molecularly distinct entities with dramatically different gene expression patterns compared with their well differentiated counterparts. Taken together, these results demonstrate the feasibility of accurate, multiclass molecular cancer classification and suggest a strategy for future clinical implementation of molecular cancer diagnostics.

  15. Accurate, fast and cost-effective diagnostic test for monosomy 1p36 using real-time quantitative PCR.

    PubMed

    Cunha, Pricila da Silva; Pena, Heloisa B; D'Angelo, Carla Sustek; Koiffmann, Celia P; Rosenfeld, Jill A; Shaffer, Lisa G; Stofanko, Martin; Gonçalves-Dornelas, Higgor; Pena, Sérgio Danilo Junho

    2014-01-01

    Monosomy 1p36 is considered the most common subtelomeric deletion syndrome in humans and it accounts for 0.5-0.7% of all the cases of idiopathic intellectual disability. The molecular diagnosis is often made by microarray-based comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH), which has the drawback of being a high-cost technique. However, patients with classic monosomy 1p36 share some typical clinical characteristics that, together with its common prevalence, justify the development of a less expensive, targeted diagnostic method. In this study, we developed a simple, rapid, and inexpensive real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR) assay for targeted diagnosis of monosomy 1p36, easily accessible for low-budget laboratories in developing countries. For this, we have chosen two target genes which are deleted in the majority of patients with monosomy 1p36: PRKCZ and SKI. In total, 39 patients previously diagnosed with monosomy 1p36 by aCGH, fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH), and/or multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA) all tested positive on our qPCR assay. By simultaneously using these two genes we have been able to detect 1p36 deletions with 100% sensitivity and 100% specificity. We conclude that qPCR of PRKCZ and SKI is a fast and accurate diagnostic test for monosomy 1p36, costing less than 10 US dollars in reagent costs.

  16. Accurate, Fast and Cost-Effective Diagnostic Test for Monosomy 1p36 Using Real-Time Quantitative PCR

    PubMed Central

    Cunha, Pricila da Silva; Pena, Heloisa B.; D'Angelo, Carla Sustek; Koiffmann, Celia P.; Rosenfeld, Jill A.; Shaffer, Lisa G.; Stofanko, Martin; Gonçalves-Dornelas, Higgor; Pena, Sérgio Danilo Junho

    2014-01-01

    Monosomy 1p36 is considered the most common subtelomeric deletion syndrome in humans and it accounts for 0.5–0.7% of all the cases of idiopathic intellectual disability. The molecular diagnosis is often made by microarray-based comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH), which has the drawback of being a high-cost technique. However, patients with classic monosomy 1p36 share some typical clinical characteristics that, together with its common prevalence, justify the development of a less expensive, targeted diagnostic method. In this study, we developed a simple, rapid, and inexpensive real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR) assay for targeted diagnosis of monosomy 1p36, easily accessible for low-budget laboratories in developing countries. For this, we have chosen two target genes which are deleted in the majority of patients with monosomy 1p36: PRKCZ and SKI. In total, 39 patients previously diagnosed with monosomy 1p36 by aCGH, fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH), and/or multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA) all tested positive on our qPCR assay. By simultaneously using these two genes we have been able to detect 1p36 deletions with 100% sensitivity and 100% specificity. We conclude that qPCR of PRKCZ and SKI is a fast and accurate diagnostic test for monosomy 1p36, costing less than 10 US dollars in reagent costs. PMID:24839341

  17. Preoperative diagnosis of a pulmonary artery sarcoma.

    PubMed Central

    Velebit, V.; Christenson, J. T.; Simonet, F.; Maurice, J.; Schmuziger, M.; Hauser, H.; Didier, D.

    1995-01-01

    A pulmonary artery sarcoma was diagnosed preoperatively by magnetic resonance imaging enhanced with gadolinium and confirmed by percutaneous computed tomographic guided needle biopsy. Accurate preoperative diagnosis allowed planned curative surgery with removal of the right ventricular outflow tract and reconstructive surgery using a cryopreserved homograft. Images PMID:8539663

  18. Testing Physical Diagnosis Skills with Videotape

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stillman, Paula L.; And Others

    1977-01-01

    An inexpensive videotape testing system has been developed at the Department of Pediatrics and Department of Medical TV-Cinematography at the University of Arizona College of Medicine. The development and validation of a test using this system to assess observational skills important for accurate physical diagnosis are described. (LBH)

  19. Efficient Model-Based Diagnosis Engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fijany, Amir; Vatan, Farrokh; Barrett, Anthony; James, Mark; Mackey, Ryan; Williams, Colin

    2009-01-01

    An efficient diagnosis engine - a combination of mathematical models and algorithms - has been developed for identifying faulty components in a possibly complex engineering system. This model-based diagnosis engine embodies a twofold approach to reducing, relative to prior model-based diagnosis engines, the amount of computation needed to perform a thorough, accurate diagnosis. The first part of the approach involves a reconstruction of the general diagnostic engine to reduce the complexity of the mathematical-model calculations and of the software needed to perform them. The second part of the approach involves algorithms for computing a minimal diagnosis (the term "minimal diagnosis" is defined below). A somewhat lengthy background discussion is prerequisite to a meaningful summary of the innovative aspects of the present efficient model-based diagnosis engine. In model-based diagnosis, the function of each component and the relationships among all the components of the engineering system to be diagnosed are represented as a logical system denoted the system description (SD). Hence, the expected normal behavior of the engineering system is the set of logical consequences of the SD. Faulty components lead to inconsistencies between the observed behaviors of the system and the SD (see figure). Diagnosis - the task of finding faulty components - is reduced to finding those components, the abnormalities of which could explain all the inconsistencies. The solution of the diagnosis problem should be a minimal diagnosis, which is a minimal set of faulty components. A minimal diagnosis stands in contradistinction to the trivial solution, in which all components are deemed to be faulty, and which, therefore, always explains all inconsistencies.

  20. Feedback about More Accurate versus Less Accurate Trials: Differential Effects on Self-Confidence and Activation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Badami, Rokhsareh; VaezMousavi, Mohammad; Wulf, Gabriele; Namazizadeh, Mahdi

    2012-01-01

    One purpose of the present study was to examine whether self-confidence or anxiety would be differentially affected by feedback from more accurate rather than less accurate trials. The second purpose was to determine whether arousal variations (activation) would predict performance. On Day 1, participants performed a golf putting task under one of…

  1. Use of shear waves for diagnosis and ablation monitoring of prostate cancer: a feasibility study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gomez, A.; Rus, G.; Saffari, N.

    2016-01-01

    Prostate cancer remains as a major healthcare issue. Limitations in current diagnosis and treatment monitoring techniques imply that there is still a need for improvements. The efficacy of prostate cancer diagnosis is still low, generating under and over diagnoses. High intensity focused ultrasound ablation is an emerging treatment modality, which enables the noninvasive ablation of pathogenic tissue. Clinical trials are being carried out to evaluate its longterm efficacy as a focal treatment for prostate cancer. Successful treatment of prostate cancer using non-invasive modalities is critically dependent on accurate diagnostic means and is greatly benefited by a real-time monitoring system. While magnetic resonance imaging remains the gold standard for prostate imaging, its wider implementation for prostate cancer diagnosis remains prohibitively expensive. Conventional ultrasound is currently limited to guiding biopsy. Elastography techniques are emerging as a promising real-time imaging method, as cancer nodules are usually stiffer than adjacent healthy prostatic tissue. In this paper, a new transurethral approach is proposed, using shear waves for diagnosis and ablation monitoring of prostate cancer. A finite-difference time domain model is developed for studying the feasibility of the method, and an inverse problem technique based on genetic algorithms is proposed for reconstructing the location, size and stiffness parameters of the tumour. Preliminary results indicate that the use of shear waves for diagnosis and monitoring ablation of prostate cancer is feasible.

  2. Optic Neuritis: Another Dickensian Diagnosis

    PubMed Central

    Petzold, Axel

    2013-01-01

    Abstract The clinical diagnosis and natural history of optic neuritis was established in the late 1880s by the ophthalmologists von Graefe and Nettleship. The earlier, accurate and insightful description of transient, bilateral visual loss of Esther, the main character in the Charles Dickens novel Bleak House (1852--1853), suggests optic neuritis as a Dickensian diagnosis. Remarkably, Dickens’ observations, also preceding the earliest clinical description of multiple sclerosis by Charcot in 1868, described many clinical features such as a prodromal phase; a nadir; gradual recovery over weeks; glare disability; reduced contrast sensitivity; possibly Uhthoff’s phenomenon; and visual fading. All this with an accuracy that, to quote Russell Brain, “would credit a trained physician.” PMID:28167994

  3. Diagnosis and Treatment in Neurosarcoidosis

    PubMed Central

    GÖZÜBATIK-ÇELİK, Gökçen; UYGUNOĞLU, Uğur; ULUDÜZ, Derya; ATAHAN, Ersan; MÜSELLİM, Benan; SAİP, Sabahattin; SİVA, Aksel

    2015-01-01

    Sarcoidosis is an inflammatory multisystem disorder, affecting many systems such as lung, lymph nodes, skin and eye involvement. Nervous system involvement is often seen in 5–15% of patients with systemic sarcoidosis in the first two years. Preceding to systemic involvement the initial symptom as neurological complaints has been rarely reported. Lacking of any specific, clinical and / or radiological findings for neurosarcoidosis in these cases, it could be difficult to make an accurate diagnosis and histopathological evaluation may be required. Due to rarity and complexity diagnosis of the neurosarcoidosis, in this study, clinical, radiological and / or histopathological features, treatment modalities of the 7 neurosarcoidosis patients to be presented with detailed investigations of different neurological symptoms were evaluated. PMID:28360686

  4. The early diagnosis of lung cancer

    PubMed Central

    Deeley, T. J.

    1972-01-01

    Earlier diagnosis of malignant disease in the lung may bring about improvements in the treatment. This article discusses the effects of early diagnosis on the prognosis. Cancer of the lung may be associated with other lung pathology, thus increasing the problems of diagnosis. Diagnosis depends on radiological examination, cytology of the sputum, radio-isotope lung scanning and mediastinoscopy: an account is given of how these may be used to diagnose the condition whilst it is still at an early stage and suitable for radical treatment. PMID:4552427

  5. Diagnosis of tuberculous aetiology in pericardial effusions

    PubMed Central

    Cherian, G

    2004-01-01

    The diagnosis of tuberculous aetiology in pericardial effusions is important since the prognosis is excellent with specific treatment. The clinical features may not be distinctive and the diagnosis could be missed particularly with tamponade. With the spread of HIV infection the incidence has increased. The diagnosis largely depends on histopathology of the pericardial tissue or culture of Mycobacterium tuberculosis from this tissue or fluid, but patients without haemodynamic compromise do not require pericardiocentesis. Histopathology may, however, show non-specific findings in a significant number. This review is an update on the diagnostic difficulties, current research, and criteria for diagnosis. PMID:15138314

  6. Accurate Guitar Tuning by Cochlear Implant Musicians

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Thomas; Huang, Juan; Zeng, Fan-Gang

    2014-01-01

    Modern cochlear implant (CI) users understand speech but find difficulty in music appreciation due to poor pitch perception. Still, some deaf musicians continue to perform with their CI. Here we show unexpected results that CI musicians can reliably tune a guitar by CI alone and, under controlled conditions, match simultaneously presented tones to <0.5 Hz. One subject had normal contralateral hearing and produced more accurate tuning with CI than his normal ear. To understand these counterintuitive findings, we presented tones sequentially and found that tuning error was larger at ∼30 Hz for both subjects. A third subject, a non-musician CI user with normal contralateral hearing, showed similar trends in performance between CI and normal hearing ears but with less precision. This difference, along with electric analysis, showed that accurate tuning was achieved by listening to beats rather than discriminating pitch, effectively turning a spectral task into a temporal discrimination task. PMID:24651081

  7. New model accurately predicts reformate composition

    SciTech Connect

    Ancheyta-Juarez, J.; Aguilar-Rodriguez, E. )

    1994-01-31

    Although naphtha reforming is a well-known process, the evolution of catalyst formulation, as well as new trends in gasoline specifications, have led to rapid evolution of the process, including: reactor design, regeneration mode, and operating conditions. Mathematical modeling of the reforming process is an increasingly important tool. It is fundamental to the proper design of new reactors and revamp of existing ones. Modeling can be used to optimize operating conditions, analyze the effects of process variables, and enhance unit performance. Instituto Mexicano del Petroleo has developed a model of the catalytic reforming process that accurately predicts reformate composition at the higher-severity conditions at which new reformers are being designed. The new AA model is more accurate than previous proposals because it takes into account the effects of temperature and pressure on the rate constants of each chemical reaction.

  8. Accurate colorimetric feedback for RGB LED clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Man, Kwong; Ashdown, Ian

    2006-08-01

    We present an empirical model of LED emission spectra that is applicable to both InGaN and AlInGaP high-flux LEDs, and which accurately predicts their relative spectral power distributions over a wide range of LED junction temperatures. We further demonstrate with laboratory measurements that changes in LED spectral power distribution with temperature can be accurately predicted with first- or second-order equations. This provides the basis for a real-time colorimetric feedback system for RGB LED clusters that can maintain the chromaticity of white light at constant intensity to within +/-0.003 Δuv over a range of 45 degrees Celsius, and to within 0.01 Δuv when dimmed over an intensity range of 10:1.

  9. Accurate guitar tuning by cochlear implant musicians.

    PubMed

    Lu, Thomas; Huang, Juan; Zeng, Fan-Gang

    2014-01-01

    Modern cochlear implant (CI) users understand speech but find difficulty in music appreciation due to poor pitch perception. Still, some deaf musicians continue to perform with their CI. Here we show unexpected results that CI musicians can reliably tune a guitar by CI alone and, under controlled conditions, match simultaneously presented tones to <0.5 Hz. One subject had normal contralateral hearing and produced more accurate tuning with CI than his normal ear. To understand these counterintuitive findings, we presented tones sequentially and found that tuning error was larger at ∼ 30 Hz for both subjects. A third subject, a non-musician CI user with normal contralateral hearing, showed similar trends in performance between CI and normal hearing ears but with less precision. This difference, along with electric analysis, showed that accurate tuning was achieved by listening to beats rather than discriminating pitch, effectively turning a spectral task into a temporal discrimination task.

  10. An Accurate, Simplified Model Intrabeam Scattering

    SciTech Connect

    Bane, Karl LF

    2002-05-23

    Beginning with the general Bjorken-Mtingwa solution for intrabeam scattering (IBS) we derive an accurate, greatly simplified model of IBS, valid for high energy beams in normal storage ring lattices. In addition, we show that, under the same conditions, a modified version of Piwinski's IBS formulation (where {eta}{sub x,y}{sup 2}/{beta}{sub x,y} has been replaced by {Eta}{sub x,y}) asymptotically approaches the result of Bjorken-Mtingwa.

  11. An accurate registration technique for distorted images

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Delapena, Michele; Shaw, Richard A.; Linde, Peter; Dravins, Dainis

    1990-01-01

    Accurate registration of International Ultraviolet Explorer (IUE) images is crucial because the variability of the geometrical distortions that are introduced by the SEC-Vidicon cameras ensures that raw science images are never perfectly aligned with the Intensity Transfer Functions (ITFs) (i.e., graded floodlamp exposures that are used to linearize and normalize the camera response). A technique for precisely registering IUE images which uses a cross correlation of the fixed pattern that exists in all raw IUE images is described.

  12. On accurate determination of contact angle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Concus, P.; Finn, R.

    1992-01-01

    Methods are proposed that exploit a microgravity environment to obtain highly accurate measurement of contact angle. These methods, which are based on our earlier mathematical results, do not require detailed measurement of a liquid free-surface, as they incorporate discontinuous or nearly-discontinuous behavior of the liquid bulk in certain container geometries. Physical testing is planned in the forthcoming IML-2 space flight and in related preparatory ground-based experiments.

  13. On the Accurate Prediction of CME Arrival At the Earth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Jie; Hess, Phillip

    2016-07-01

    We will discuss relevant issues regarding the accurate prediction of CME arrival at the Earth, from both observational and theoretical points of view. In particular, we clarify the importance of separating the study of CME ejecta from the ejecta-driven shock in interplanetary CMEs (ICMEs). For a number of CME-ICME events well observed by SOHO/LASCO, STEREO-A and STEREO-B, we carry out the 3-D measurements by superimposing geometries onto both the ejecta and sheath separately. These measurements are then used to constrain a Drag-Based Model, which is improved through a modification of including height dependence of the drag coefficient into the model. Combining all these factors allows us to create predictions for both fronts at 1 AU and compare with actual in-situ observations. We show an ability to predict the sheath arrival with an average error of under 4 hours, with an RMS error of about 1.5 hours. For the CME ejecta, the error is less than two hours with an RMS error within an hour. Through using the best observations of CMEs, we show the power of our method in accurately predicting CME arrival times. The limitation and implications of our accurate prediction method will be discussed.

  14. High Frequency QRS ECG Accurately Detects Cardiomyopathy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schlegel, Todd T.; Arenare, Brian; Poulin, Gregory; Moser, Daniel R.; Delgado, Reynolds

    2005-01-01

    High frequency (HF, 150-250 Hz) analysis over the entire QRS interval of the ECG is more sensitive than conventional ECG for detecting myocardial ischemia. However, the accuracy of HF QRS ECG for detecting cardiomyopathy is unknown. We obtained simultaneous resting conventional and HF QRS 12-lead ECGs in 66 patients with cardiomyopathy (EF = 23.2 plus or minus 6.l%, mean plus or minus SD) and in 66 age- and gender-matched healthy controls using PC-based ECG software recently developed at NASA. The single most accurate ECG parameter for detecting cardiomyopathy was an HF QRS morphological score that takes into consideration the total number and severity of reduced amplitude zones (RAZs) present plus the clustering of RAZs together in contiguous leads. This RAZ score had an area under the receiver operator curve (ROC) of 0.91, and was 88% sensitive, 82% specific and 85% accurate for identifying cardiomyopathy at optimum score cut-off of 140 points. Although conventional ECG parameters such as the QRS and QTc intervals were also significantly longer in patients than controls (P less than 0.001, BBBs excluded), these conventional parameters were less accurate (area under the ROC = 0.77 and 0.77, respectively) than HF QRS morphological parameters for identifying underlying cardiomyopathy. The total amplitude of the HF QRS complexes, as measured by summed root mean square voltages (RMSVs), also differed between patients and controls (33.8 plus or minus 11.5 vs. 41.5 plus or minus 13.6 mV, respectively, P less than 0.003), but this parameter was even less accurate in distinguishing the two groups (area under ROC = 0.67) than the HF QRS morphologic and conventional ECG parameters. Diagnostic accuracy was optimal (86%) when the RAZ score from the HF QRS ECG and the QTc interval from the conventional ECG were used simultaneously with cut-offs of greater than or equal to 40 points and greater than or equal to 445 ms, respectively. In conclusion 12-lead HF QRS ECG employing

  15. Down Syndrome and Dementia: Is Depression a Confounder for Accurate Diagnosis and Treatment?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wark, Stuart; Hussain, Rafat; Parmenter, Trevor

    2014-01-01

    The past century has seen a dramatic improvement in the life expectancy of people with Down syndrome. However, research has shown that individuals with Down syndrome now have an increased likelihood of early onset dementia. They are more likely than their mainstream peers to experience other significant co-morbidities including mental health…

  16. [Antiphospholipid syndrome diagnosis: an update].

    PubMed

    Visseaux, Benoit; Masliah-Planchon, Julien; Fischer, Anne-Marie; Darnige, Luc

    2011-01-01

    The antiphospholipid syndrome (APS) is characterized by arterial and/or venous thrombosis and pregnancy morbidity in association with the persistent presence of autoantibodies called antiphospholipid antibodies (APAs). APAs are a heterogeneous group of circulating autoantibodies that can be detected either by phospholipid-dependent coagulation test for lupus anticoagulant (LA) or ELISA test for anticardiolipin and anti-β2GPI antibodies. In 2006, the revised criteria for the diagnosis of APS introduce the anti-β2GPI antibodies as a new biological criterion and highlight the necessity to increase the interval between two positive APA test from 6 to 12 weeks. However, despite these updated criteria, the diagnosis of APS remains challenging and we proposed here to make an overview of the latest evolution in the diagnosis of this syndrome.

  17. Avian toxicologic diagnosis

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sigurdson, C.J.; Franson, J.C.; Fudge, A.M.

    2000-01-01

    This chapter describes the sources and pathophysiology of some potential poisons that affect birds and summarizes useful laboratory tests. The diagnosis of poisoning in birds, as in mammals, requires a complete and accurate history, careful observation of clinical signs, and a thorough necropsy evaluation. Appropriate sample handling and analysis, based on consultation with the diagnostic toxicologist, are critical (Table 19--1). Veterinary toxicology laboratories are becoming increasingly specialized, with only certain laboratories capable of analyzing for drug residues or anticoagulants, for example. Although a local laboratory may not be able to fulfill a specific test request, they may recommend an alternative laboratory or may be willing to forward the sample. As a general rule in suspect poisoning cases, large tissue samples of liver, kidney, brain, and subcutaneous fat and of crop, proventriculus, and ventriculus contents should be collected at necropsy and frozen. Appropriate samples should be submitted frozen, with the remainder held in the freezer for possible later testing. A second set of tissues should be placed in 10% formalin for histopathologic examination.

  18. Diagnosis of autoimmune pancreatitis.

    PubMed

    Matsubayashi, Hiroyuki; Kakushima, Naomi; Takizawa, Kohei; Tanaka, Masaki; Imai, Kenichiro; Hotta, Kinichi; Ono, Hiroyuki

    2014-11-28

    Autoimmune pancreatitis (AIP) is a distinct form of chronic pancreatitis that is increasingly being reported. The presentation and clinical image findings of AIP sometimes resemble those of several pancreatic malignancies, but the therapeutic strategy differs appreciably. Therefore, accurate diagnosis is necessary for cases of AIP. To date, AIP is classified into two distinct subtypes from the viewpoints of etiology, serum markers, histology, other organ involvements, and frequency of relapse: type 1 is related to IgG4 (lymphoplasmacytic sclerosing pancreatitis) and type 2 is related to a granulocytic epithelial lesion (idiopathic duct-centric chronic pancreatitis). Both types of AIP are characterized by focal or diffuse pancreatic enlargement accompanied with a narrowing of the main pancreatic duct, and both show dramatic responses to corticosteroid. Unlike type 2, type 1 is characteristically associated with increasing levels of serum IgG4 and positive serum autoantibodies, abundant infiltration of IgG4-positive plasmacytes, frequent extrapancreatic lesions, and relapse. These findings have led several countries to propose diagnostic criteria for AIP, which consist of essentially similar diagnostic items; however, several differences exist for each country, mainly due to differences in the definition of AIP and the modalities used to diagnose this disease. An attempt to unite the diagnostic criteria worldwide was made with the publication in 2011 of the international consensus diagnostic criteria for AIP, established at the 2010 Congress of the International Association of Pancreatology (IAP).

  19. Repeatability of Pulse Diagnosis and Body Constitution Diagnosis in Traditional Indian Ayurveda Medicine.

    PubMed

    Kurande, Vrinda; Waagepetersen, Rasmus; Toft, Egon; Prasad, Ramjee; Raturi, Lokesh

    2012-11-01

    In Ayurveda, pulse diagnosis and body constitution diagnosis have a long historical use; still, there is lack of quantitative measure of the reliability of these diagnostic methods. Reliability means consistency of information. Consistent diagnosis leads to consistent treatment and is important for clinical practice, education, and research. The objective of this study is to study the methodology to evaluate the test-retest reliability (repeatability) of pulse diagnosis and body constitution diagnosis. A double-blinded, controlled, clinical trial was conducted in Copenhagen. The same doctor, an expert in Ayurvedic pulse diagnosis, examined the pulse and body constitution of 17 healthy participants twice, in random order without seeing them. A metric on pulse and body constitution variables was developed. Cohen's weighted kappa statistic was used as a measure of intra-rater reliability. Permutation tests were used to test the hypothesis of homogeneous diagnosis (ie, the doctor's diagnosis does not depend on the subject). The hypothesis of homogeneous classification was rejected on the 5% significance level (P values of .02 and .001, respectively, for pulse and body constitution diagnosis). According to the Landis and Koch scale, values of the weighted kappa for pulse diagnosis (P = .42) and body constitution diagnosis (P = .65) correspond to "moderate" and "substantial" agreement, respectively. There was a reasonable level of consistency between 2 pulse and body constitution diagnoses. Further studies are required to quantify inter-subject and intra-subject agreement for greater understanding of reliability of pulse and body constitution diagnosis.

  20. [Molecular diagnosis of ADPKD].

    PubMed

    Scolari, Francesco; Savoldi, Gianfranco; Mazza, Cinzia; Izzi, Claudia

    2016-01-01

    Most patients with ADPKD do not need molecular genetic testing. When indicated, Sanger sequencing is the most commonly used technique. When a pathogenic mutation is not identified by Sanger, multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification analysis (MLPA) should be performed to detect gene rearrangement (insertion or deletion). The next generation sequencing (NGS) techniques can provide high-throughput and comprehensive diagnostic screening at lower cost. Finally, in the future, targeted (TS) or whole exome sequencing (WES) will likely play a role in the molecular diagnostics of ADPKD. Molecular genetic testing is indicated in several conditions: no family history; equivocal/atypical renal imaging; marked discordant disease within family; early and severe PKD; reproductive counseling and pre-implantation genetic diagnosis; related living donor transplantation.

  1. Hyperthyroidism: Diagnosis and Treatment.

    PubMed

    Kravets, Igor

    2016-03-01

    Hyperthyroidism is an excessive concentration of thyroid hormones in tissues caused by increased synthesis of thyroid hormones, excessive release of preformed thyroid hormones, or an endogenous or exogenous extrathyroidal source. The most common causes of an excessive production of thyroid hormones are Graves disease, toxic multinodular goiter, and toxic adenoma. The most common cause of an excessive passive release of thyroid hormones is painless (silent) thyroiditis, although its clinical presentation is the same as with other causes. Hyperthyroidism caused by overproduction of thyroid hormones can be treated with antithyroid medications (methimazole and propylthiouracil), radioactive iodine ablation of the thyroid gland, or surgical thyroidectomy. Radioactive iodine ablation is the most widely used treatment in the United States. The choice of treatment depends on the underlying diagnosis, the presence of contraindications to a particular treatment modality, the severity of hyperthyroidism, and the patient's preference.

  2. Diagnosis, treatment, and rehabilitation of stress fractures in the lower extremity in runners

    PubMed Central

    Kahanov, Leamor; Eberman, Lindsey E; Games, Kenneth E; Wasik, Mitch

    2015-01-01

    Stress fractures account for between 1% and 20% of athletic injuries, with 80% of stress fractures in the lower extremity. Stress fractures of the lower extremity are common injuries among individuals who participate in endurance, high load-bearing activities such as running, military and aerobic exercise and therefore require practitioner expertise in diagnosis and management. Accurate diagnosis for stress fractures is dependent on the anatomical area. Anatomical regions such as the pelvis, sacrum, and metatarsals offer challenges due to difficulty differentiating pathologies with common symptoms. Special tests and treatment regimes, however, are similar among most stress fractures with resolution between 4 weeks to a year. The most difficult aspect of stress fracture treatment entails mitigating internal and external risk factors. Practitioners should address ongoing risk factors to minimize recurrence. PMID:25848327

  3. Accurate upwind methods for the Euler equations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huynh, Hung T.

    1993-01-01

    A new class of piecewise linear methods for the numerical solution of the one-dimensional Euler equations of gas dynamics is presented. These methods are uniformly second-order accurate, and can be considered as extensions of Godunov's scheme. With an appropriate definition of monotonicity preservation for the case of linear convection, it can be shown that they preserve monotonicity. Similar to Van Leer's MUSCL scheme, they consist of two key steps: a reconstruction step followed by an upwind step. For the reconstruction step, a monotonicity constraint that preserves uniform second-order accuracy is introduced. Computational efficiency is enhanced by devising a criterion that detects the 'smooth' part of the data where the constraint is redundant. The concept and coding of the constraint are simplified by the use of the median function. A slope steepening technique, which has no effect at smooth regions and can resolve a contact discontinuity in four cells, is described. As for the upwind step, existing and new methods are applied in a manner slightly different from those in the literature. These methods are derived by approximating the Euler equations via linearization and diagonalization. At a 'smooth' interface, Harten, Lax, and Van Leer's one intermediate state model is employed. A modification for this model that can resolve contact discontinuities is presented. Near a discontinuity, either this modified model or a more accurate one, namely, Roe's flux-difference splitting. is used. The current presentation of Roe's method, via the conceptually simple flux-vector splitting, not only establishes a connection between the two splittings, but also leads to an admissibility correction with no conditional statement, and an efficient approximation to Osher's approximate Riemann solver. These reconstruction and upwind steps result in schemes that are uniformly second-order accurate and economical at smooth regions, and yield high resolution at discontinuities.

  4. Accurate measurement of unsteady state fluid temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaremkiewicz, Magdalena

    2017-03-01

    In this paper, two accurate methods for determining the transient fluid temperature were presented. Measurements were conducted for boiling water since its temperature is known. At the beginning the thermometers are at the ambient temperature and next they are immediately immersed into saturated water. The measurements were carried out with two thermometers of different construction but with the same housing outer diameter equal to 15 mm. One of them is a K-type industrial thermometer widely available commercially. The temperature indicated by the thermometer was corrected considering the thermometers as the first or second order inertia devices. The new design of a thermometer was proposed and also used to measure the temperature of boiling water. Its characteristic feature is a cylinder-shaped housing with the sheath thermocouple located in its center. The temperature of the fluid was determined based on measurements taken in the axis of the solid cylindrical element (housing) using the inverse space marching method. Measurements of the transient temperature of the air flowing through the wind tunnel using the same thermometers were also carried out. The proposed measurement technique provides more accurate results compared with measurements using industrial thermometers in conjunction with simple temperature correction using the inertial thermometer model of the first or second order. By comparing the results, it was demonstrated that the new thermometer allows obtaining the fluid temperature much faster and with higher accuracy in comparison to the industrial thermometer. Accurate measurements of the fast changing fluid temperature are possible due to the low inertia thermometer and fast space marching method applied for solving the inverse heat conduction problem.

  5. The first accurate description of an aurora

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schröder, Wilfried

    2006-12-01

    As technology has advanced, the scientific study of auroral phenomena has increased by leaps and bounds. A look back at the earliest descriptions of aurorae offers an interesting look into how medieval scholars viewed the subjects that we study.Although there are earlier fragmentary references in the literature, the first accurate description of the aurora borealis appears to be that published by the German Catholic scholar Konrad von Megenberg (1309-1374) in his book Das Buch der Natur (The Book of Nature). The book was written between 1349 and 1350.

  6. New law requires 'medically accurate' lesson plans.

    PubMed

    1999-09-17

    The California Legislature has passed a bill requiring all textbooks and materials used to teach about AIDS be medically accurate and objective. Statements made within the curriculum must be supported by research conducted in compliance with scientific methods, and published in peer-reviewed journals. Some of the current lesson plans were found to contain scientifically unsupported and biased information. In addition, the bill requires material to be "free of racial, ethnic, or gender biases." The legislation is supported by a wide range of interests, but opposed by the California Right to Life Education Fund, because they believe it discredits abstinence-only material.

  7. Diagnosis and management of facial pigmented macules.

    PubMed

    Lallas, Aimilios; Argenziano, Giuseppe; Moscarella, Elvira; Longo, Caterina; Simonetti, Vito; Zalaudek, Iris

    2014-01-01

    The differential diagnosis of pigmented macules on the mottled chronic sun-damaged skin of the face is challenging and includes lentigo maligna (LM), pigmented actinic (solar) keratosis, solar lentigo, and lichen-planus-like keratosis. Although dermatoscopy improves the diagnostic accuracy of the unaided eye, the accurate diagnosis and management of pigmented facial macules remains one of the most challenging scenarios in daily practice. This is related to the fact that pigmented actinic (solar) keratosis, lichen-planus-like keratosis, and LM may reveal overlapping criteria, making their differential diagnosis clinically difficult. For this reason, practical rules have been introduced, which should help to minimize the risk for inappropriate diagnosis and management of LM.

  8. Determinants of delayed diagnosis in Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Breen, David P; Evans, Jonathan R; Farrell, Krista; Brayne, Carol; Barker, Roger A

    2013-08-01

    The early and accurate diagnosis of Parkinson's disease (PD) is the first step towards optimal patient management. The aim of this study was to investigate the major determinants of delayed diagnosis in PD. We recruited a population-representative cohort of 239 newly-diagnosed PD patients who underwent clinical and neuropsychological evaluation. Non-parametric methods were used to define the factors associated with diagnostic delay. The median time from motor symptom onset to primary care physician (PCP) presentation was considerably longer than the time from PCP presentation to PD diagnosis (11 vs. 1 months). Male sex and presenting motor phenotype were independently associated with delayed PCP presentation on Cox regression analysis. Patients presenting with gait disturbance experienced the longest delay, whilst those presenting with tremor had the shortest. In summary, male sex and presenting motor phenotype are key determinants of delayed diagnosis in PD.

  9. Digital diagnosis of medical images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heinonen, Tomi; Kuismin, Raimo; Jormalainen, Raimo; Dastidar, Prasun; Frey, Harry; Eskola, Hannu

    2001-08-01

    The popularity of digital imaging devices and PACS installations has increased during the last years. Still, images are analyzed and diagnosed using conventional techniques. Our research group begun to study the requirements for digital image diagnostic methods to be applied together with PACS systems. The research was focused on various image analysis procedures (e.g., segmentation, volumetry, 3D visualization, image fusion, anatomic atlas, etc.) that could be useful in medical diagnosis. We have developed Image Analysis software (www.medimag.net) to enable several image-processing applications in medical diagnosis, such as volumetry, multimodal visualization, and 3D visualizations. We have also developed a commercial scalable image archive system (ActaServer, supports DICOM) based on component technology (www.acta.fi), and several telemedicine applications. All the software and systems operate in NT environment and are in clinical use in several hospitals. The analysis software have been applied in clinical work and utilized in numerous patient cases (500 patients). This method has been used in the diagnosis, therapy and follow-up in various diseases of the central nervous system (CNS), respiratory system (RS) and human reproductive system (HRS). In many of these diseases e.g. Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (CNS), nasal airways diseases (RS) and ovarian tumors (HRS), these methods have been used for the first time in clinical work. According to our results, digital diagnosis improves diagnostic capabilities, and together with PACS installations it will become standard tool during the next decade by enabling more accurate diagnosis and patient follow-up.

  10. Review of the pathogenesis, diagnosis, and management of type I gastric carcinoid tumor.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Linda; Ozao, Junko; Warner, Richard; Divino, Celia

    2011-08-01

    Gastric carcinoid tumors comprise 7% of all gastrointestinal carcinoids and have significantly increased in incidence over the past few decades. Seventy to 80% of gastric carcinoids are type I, which usually are clinically asymptomatic and found incidentally at endoscopic evaluation for abdominal pain or anemia. In this review, advances in understanding the pathophysiology of type I gastric carcinoid are highlighted. In addition, various current diagnostic and treatment options are discussed. Although type I carcinoids generally hold a benign course, rigorous investigation is needed to ensure accurate diagnosis and optimal treatment. This includes appropriate diagnostic procedures and imaging and accurate staging of tumor. Tumor size, depth of invasion, presence of metastasis, and the tumor's gastrin dependency dictate treatment options. Appropriate treatments can consist of endoscopic resection, antrectomy, medical management, or frequent follow-up. This article provides a systematic method of evaluating and treating type I gastric carcinoid.

  11. Accurate shear measurement with faint sources

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Jun; Foucaud, Sebastien; Luo, Wentao E-mail: walt@shao.ac.cn

    2015-01-01

    For cosmic shear to become an accurate cosmological probe, systematic errors in the shear measurement method must be unambiguously identified and corrected for. Previous work of this series has demonstrated that cosmic shears can be measured accurately in Fourier space in the presence of background noise and finite pixel size, without assumptions on the morphologies of galaxy and PSF. The remaining major source of error is source Poisson noise, due to the finiteness of source photon number. This problem is particularly important for faint galaxies in space-based weak lensing measurements, and for ground-based images of short exposure times. In this work, we propose a simple and rigorous way of removing the shear bias from the source Poisson noise. Our noise treatment can be generalized for images made of multiple exposures through MultiDrizzle. This is demonstrated with the SDSS and COSMOS/ACS data. With a large ensemble of mock galaxy images of unrestricted morphologies, we show that our shear measurement method can achieve sub-percent level accuracy even for images of signal-to-noise ratio less than 5 in general, making it the most promising technique for cosmic shear measurement in the ongoing and upcoming large scale galaxy surveys.

  12. Accurate pose estimation for forensic identification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Merckx, Gert; Hermans, Jeroen; Vandermeulen, Dirk

    2010-04-01

    In forensic authentication, one aims to identify the perpetrator among a series of suspects or distractors. A fundamental problem in any recognition system that aims for identification of subjects in a natural scene is the lack of constrains on viewing and imaging conditions. In forensic applications, identification proves even more challenging, since most surveillance footage is of abysmal quality. In this context, robust methods for pose estimation are paramount. In this paper we will therefore present a new pose estimation strategy for very low quality footage. Our approach uses 3D-2D registration of a textured 3D face model with the surveillance image to obtain accurate far field pose alignment. Starting from an inaccurate initial estimate, the technique uses novel similarity measures based on the monogenic signal to guide a pose optimization process. We will illustrate the descriptive strength of the introduced similarity measures by using them directly as a recognition metric. Through validation, using both real and synthetic surveillance footage, our pose estimation method is shown to be accurate, and robust to lighting changes and image degradation.

  13. Sparse and accurate high resolution SAR imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vu, Duc; Zhao, Kexin; Rowe, William; Li, Jian

    2012-05-01

    We investigate the usage of an adaptive method, the Iterative Adaptive Approach (IAA), in combination with a maximum a posteriori (MAP) estimate to reconstruct high resolution SAR images that are both sparse and accurate. IAA is a nonparametric weighted least squares algorithm that is robust and user parameter-free. IAA has been shown to reconstruct SAR images with excellent side lobes suppression and high resolution enhancement. We first reconstruct the SAR images using IAA, and then we enforce sparsity by using MAP with a sparsity inducing prior. By coupling these two methods, we can produce a sparse and accurate high resolution image that are conducive for feature extractions and target classification applications. In addition, we show how IAA can be made computationally efficient without sacrificing accuracies, a desirable property for SAR applications where the size of the problems is quite large. We demonstrate the success of our approach using the Air Force Research Lab's "Gotcha Volumetric SAR Data Set Version 1.0" challenge dataset. Via the widely used FFT, individual vehicles contained in the scene are barely recognizable due to the poor resolution and high side lobe nature of FFT. However with our approach clear edges, boundaries, and textures of the vehicles are obtained.

  14. Accurate basis set truncation for wavefunction embedding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barnes, Taylor A.; Goodpaster, Jason D.; Manby, Frederick R.; Miller, Thomas F.

    2013-07-01

    Density functional theory (DFT) provides a formally exact framework for performing embedded subsystem electronic structure calculations, including DFT-in-DFT and wavefunction theory-in-DFT descriptions. In the interest of efficiency, it is desirable to truncate the atomic orbital basis set in which the subsystem calculation is performed, thus avoiding high-order scaling with respect to the size of the MO virtual space. In this study, we extend a recently introduced projection-based embedding method [F. R. Manby, M. Stella, J. D. Goodpaster, and T. F. Miller III, J. Chem. Theory Comput. 8, 2564 (2012)], 10.1021/ct300544e to allow for the systematic and accurate truncation of the embedded subsystem basis set. The approach is applied to both covalently and non-covalently bound test cases, including water clusters and polypeptide chains, and it is demonstrated that errors associated with basis set truncation are controllable to well within chemical accuracy. Furthermore, we show that this approach allows for switching between accurate projection-based embedding and DFT embedding with approximate kinetic energy (KE) functionals; in this sense, the approach provides a means of systematically improving upon the use of approximate KE functionals in DFT embedding.

  15. Diagnosis and differential diagnosis of MSA: boundary issues.

    PubMed

    Kim, Han-Joon; Jeon, Beom S; Jellinger, Kurt A

    2015-08-01

    Because the progression of multiple system atrophy (MSA) is usually rapid and there still is no effective cause-related therapy, early and accurate diagnosis is important for the proper management of patients as well as the development of neuroprotective agents. However, despite the progression in the field of MSA research in the past few years, the diagnosis of MSA in clinical practice still relies largely on clinical features and there are limitations in terms of sensitivity and specificity, especially in the early course of the disease. Furthermore, recent pathological, clinical, and neuroimaging studies have shown that (1) MSA can present with a wider range of clinical and pathological features than previously thought, including features considered atypical for MSA; thus, MSA can be misdiagnosed as other diseases, and conversely, disorders with other etiologies and pathologies can be clinically misdiagnosed as MSA; and (2) several investigations may help to improve the diagnosis of MSA in clinical practice. These aspects should be taken into consideration when revising the current diagnostic criteria. This is especially true given that disease-modifying treatments for MSA are under investigation.

  16. Porphyria: Pathophysiology, diagnosis, and treatment.

    PubMed

    Gasson, Tracy; Klein, Kathleen

    2015-08-15

    Porphyrias are inherited metabolic disorders that involve alterations in enzymes utilized in the heme biosynthetic pathway. Most of these conditions are inherited; however, some are believed to be acquired through environmental exposures. Patients with porhyrias often present with a wide range of clinical symptoms, making it difficult to diagnose. Treatments vary depending on clinical presentation. A thorough and detailed history is essential and key to discovering a porphyria diagnosis.

  17. Extrapulmonary tuberculosis: are statistical reports accurate?

    PubMed

    Kulchavenya, Ekaterina

    2014-04-01

    Before discussing the epidemiology of extrapulmonary tuberculosis (EPTB) and particularly urogenital tuberculosis (UGTB), unification of the terminology is necessary. The term 'urogenital tuberculosis' is preferable to 'genitourinary tuberculosis', as renal and urinary tract tuberculosis is more common than genital tuberculosis. Some understand the term 'extrapulmonary tuberculosis' as a specific tuberculosis (TB) lesion of all organs excluding the bronchus, lungs, pleura and intrathoracic bronchopulmonary lymph nodes, but others consider pleural TB as one form of EPTB - and it is a reason for very different proportions in the spectrum of EPTB. Enigmatic tendencies have also been revealed in patients' distribution - in neighbouring regions the incidence rate may differ significantly. Although there is no clear explanation for these tendencies, careful study of the epidemiology of EPTB in different conditions will improve early diagnosis.

  18. Accurately Diagnosing and Treating Borderline Personality Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Gentile, Julie P.; Correll, Terry L.

    2010-01-01

    The high prevalence of comorbid bipolar and borderline personality disorders and some diagnostic criteria similar to both conditions present both diagnostic and therapeutic challenges. This article delineates certain symptoms which, by careful history taking, may be attributed more closely to one of these two disorders. Making the correct primary diagnosis along with comorbid psychiatric conditions and choosing the appropriate type of psychotherapy and pharmacotherapy are critical steps to a patient's recovery. In this article, we will use a case example to illustrate some of the challenges the psychiatrist may face in diagnosing and treating borderline personality disorder. In addition, we will explore treatment strategies, including various types of therapy modalities and medication classes, which may prove effective in stabilizing or reducing a broad range of symptomotology associated with borderline personality disorder. PMID:20508805

  19. Accuracy of clinical diagnosis in knee arthroscopy.

    PubMed Central

    Brooks, Stuart; Morgan, Mamdouh

    2002-01-01

    A prospective study of 238 patients was performed in a district general hospital to assess current diagnostic accuracy rates and to ascertain the use and the effectiveness of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scanning in reducing the number of negative arthroscopies. The pre-operative diagnosis of patients listed for knee arthroscopy was medial meniscus tear 94 (40%) and osteoarthritis 59 (25%). MRI scans were requested in 57 patients (24%) with medial meniscus tear representing 65% (37 patients). The correlation study was done between pre-operative diagnosis, MRI and arthroscopic diagnosis. Clinical diagnosis was as accurate as the MRI with 79% agreement between the preoperative diagnosis and arthroscopy compared to 77% agreement between MRI scan and arthroscopy. There was no evidence, in this study, that MRI scan can reduce the number of negative arthroscopies. Four normal MRI scans had positive arthroscopic diagnosis (two torn medial meniscus, one torn lateral meniscus and one chondromalacia patella). Out of 240 arthroscopies, there were only 10 normal knees (negative arthroscopy) representing 4% of the total number of knee arthroscopies; one patient of those 10 cases had MRI scan with ACL rupture diagnosis. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 PMID:12215031

  20. Apparatus for accurately measuring high temperatures

    DOEpatents

    Smith, D.D.

    The present invention is a thermometer used for measuring furnace temperatures in the range of about 1800/sup 0/ to 2700/sup 0/C. The thermometer comprises a broadband multicolor thermal radiation sensor positioned to be in optical alignment with the end of a blackbody sight tube extending into the furnace. A valve-shutter arrangement is positioned between the radiation sensor and the sight tube and a chamber for containing a charge of high pressure gas is positioned between the valve-shutter arrangement and the radiation sensor. A momentary opening of the valve shutter arrangement allows a pulse of the high gas to purge the sight tube of air-borne thermal radiation contaminants which permits the radiation sensor to accurately measure the thermal radiation emanating from the end of the sight tube.

  1. Apparatus for accurately measuring high temperatures

    DOEpatents

    Smith, Douglas D.

    1985-01-01

    The present invention is a thermometer used for measuring furnace temperaes in the range of about 1800.degree. to 2700.degree. C. The thermometer comprises a broadband multicolor thermal radiation sensor positioned to be in optical alignment with the end of a blackbody sight tube extending into the furnace. A valve-shutter arrangement is positioned between the radiation sensor and the sight tube and a chamber for containing a charge of high pressure gas is positioned between the valve-shutter arrangement and the radiation sensor. A momentary opening of the valve shutter arrangement allows a pulse of the high gas to purge the sight tube of air-borne thermal radiation contaminants which permits the radiation sensor to accurately measure the thermal radiation emanating from the end of the sight tube.

  2. LSM: perceptually accurate line segment merging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamid, Naila; Khan, Nazar

    2016-11-01

    Existing line segment detectors tend to break up perceptually distinct line segments into multiple segments. We propose an algorithm for merging such broken segments to recover the original perceptually accurate line segments. The algorithm proceeds by grouping line segments on the basis of angular and spatial proximity. Then those line segment pairs within each group that satisfy unique, adaptive mergeability criteria are successively merged to form a single line segment. This process is repeated until no more line segments can be merged. We also propose a method for quantitative comparison of line segment detection algorithms. Results on the York Urban dataset show that our merged line segments are closer to human-marked ground-truth line segments compared to state-of-the-art line segment detection algorithms.

  3. Highly accurate articulated coordinate measuring machine

    DOEpatents

    Bieg, Lothar F.; Jokiel, Jr., Bernhard; Ensz, Mark T.; Watson, Robert D.

    2003-12-30

    Disclosed is a highly accurate articulated coordinate measuring machine, comprising a revolute joint, comprising a circular encoder wheel, having an axis of rotation; a plurality of marks disposed around at least a portion of the circumference of the encoder wheel; bearing means for supporting the encoder wheel, while permitting free rotation of the encoder wheel about the wheel's axis of rotation; and a sensor, rigidly attached to the bearing means, for detecting the motion of at least some of the marks as the encoder wheel rotates; a probe arm, having a proximal end rigidly attached to the encoder wheel, and having a distal end with a probe tip attached thereto; and coordinate processing means, operatively connected to the sensor, for converting the output of the sensor into a set of cylindrical coordinates representing the position of the probe tip relative to a reference cylindrical coordinate system.

  4. Practical aspects of spatially high accurate methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Godfrey, Andrew G.; Mitchell, Curtis R.; Walters, Robert W.

    1992-01-01

    The computational qualities of high order spatially accurate methods for the finite volume solution of the Euler equations are presented. Two dimensional essentially non-oscillatory (ENO), k-exact, and 'dimension by dimension' ENO reconstruction operators are discussed and compared in terms of reconstruction and solution accuracy, computational cost and oscillatory behavior in supersonic flows with shocks. Inherent steady state convergence difficulties are demonstrated for adaptive stencil algorithms. An exact solution to the heat equation is used to determine reconstruction error, and the computational intensity is reflected in operation counts. Standard MUSCL differencing is included for comparison. Numerical experiments presented include the Ringleb flow for numerical accuracy and a shock reflection problem. A vortex-shock interaction demonstrates the ability of the ENO scheme to excel in simulating unsteady high-frequency flow physics.

  5. Toward Accurate and Quantitative Comparative Metagenomics

    PubMed Central

    Nayfach, Stephen; Pollard, Katherine S.

    2016-01-01

    Shotgun metagenomics and computational analysis are used to compare the taxonomic and functional profiles of microbial communities. Leveraging this approach to understand roles of microbes in human biology and other environments requires quantitative data summaries whose values are comparable across samples and studies. Comparability is currently hampered by the use of abundance statistics that do not estimate a meaningful parameter of the microbial community and biases introduced by experimental protocols and data-cleaning approaches. Addressing these challenges, along with improving study design, data access, metadata standardization, and analysis tools, will enable accurate comparative metagenomics. We envision a future in which microbiome studies are replicable and new metagenomes are easily and rapidly integrated with existing data. Only then can the potential of metagenomics for predictive ecological modeling, well-powered association studies, and effective microbiome medicine be fully realized. PMID:27565341

  6. Obtaining accurate translations from expressed sequence tags.

    PubMed

    Wasmuth, James; Blaxter, Mark

    2009-01-01

    The genomes of an increasing number of species are being investigated through the generation of expressed sequence tags (ESTs). However, ESTs are prone to sequencing errors and typically define incomplete transcripts, making downstream annotation difficult. Annotation would be greatly improved with robust polypeptide translations. Many current solutions for EST translation require a large number of full-length gene sequences for training purposes, a resource that is not available for the majority of EST projects. As part of our ongoing EST programs investigating these "neglected" genomes, we have developed a polypeptide prediction pipeline, prot4EST. It incorporates freely available software to produce final translations that are more accurate than those derived from any single method. We describe how this integrated approach goes a long way to overcoming the deficit in training data.

  7. Micron Accurate Absolute Ranging System: Range Extension

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smalley, Larry L.; Smith, Kely L.

    1999-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to investigate Fresnel diffraction as a means of obtaining absolute distance measurements with micron or greater accuracy. It is believed that such a system would prove useful to the Next Generation Space Telescope (NGST) as a non-intrusive, non-contact measuring system for use with secondary concentrator station-keeping systems. The present research attempts to validate past experiments and develop ways to apply the phenomena of Fresnel diffraction to micron accurate measurement. This report discusses past research on the phenomena, and the basis of the use Fresnel diffraction distance metrology. The apparatus used in the recent investigations, experimental procedures used, preliminary results are discussed in detail. Continued research and equipment requirements on the extension of the effective range of the Fresnel diffraction systems is also described.

  8. Accurate radio positions with the Tidbinbilla interferometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Batty, M. J.; Gulkis, S.; Jauncey, D. L.; Rayner, P. T.

    1979-01-01

    The Tidbinbilla interferometer (Batty et al., 1977) is designed specifically to provide accurate radio position measurements of compact radio sources in the Southern Hemisphere with high sensitivity. The interferometer uses the 26-m and 64-m antennas of the Deep Space Network at Tidbinbilla, near Canberra. The two antennas are separated by 200 m on a north-south baseline. By utilizing the existing antennas and the low-noise traveling-wave masers at 2.29 GHz, it has been possible to produce a high-sensitivity instrument with a minimum of capital expenditure. The north-south baseline ensures that a good range of UV coverage is obtained, so that sources lying in the declination range between about -80 and +30 deg may be observed with nearly orthogonal projected baselines of no less than about 1000 lambda. The instrument also provides high-accuracy flux density measurements for compact radio sources.

  9. Magnetic ranging tool accurately guides replacement well

    SciTech Connect

    Lane, J.B.; Wesson, J.P. )

    1992-12-21

    This paper reports on magnetic ranging surveys and directional drilling technology which accurately guided a replacement well bore to intersect a leaking gas storage well with casing damage. The second well bore was then used to pump cement into the original leaking casing shoe. The repair well bore kicked off from the surface hole, bypassed casing damage in the middle of the well, and intersected the damaged well near the casing shoe. The repair well was subsequently completed in the gas storage zone near the original well bore, salvaging the valuable bottom hole location in the reservoir. This method would prevent the loss of storage gas, and it would prevent a potential underground blowout that could permanently damage the integrity of the storage field.

  10. Onychomycosis: Pathogenesis, Diagnosis, and Management

    PubMed Central

    Elewski, Boni E.

    1998-01-01

    Although not life-threatening, onychomycosis (a fungal infection of the nail, usually caused by a dermatophyte) constitutes an important public health problem because of its high prevalence (about 10% of the U.S. population) and associated morbidity. The disease can have certain negative consequences for patients, such as pain, and can potentially undermine work and social lives. This review discusses the etiology, classification, diagnosis, and treatment of onychomycosis. Four types of onychomycosis are recognized based on the site and pattern of fungal invasion. Dermatophyte fungi are the predominant pathogens, but yeasts (especially Candida albicans) and nondermatophyte molds may also be implicated. Accurate diagnosis requires direct microscopy and fungal culture. The differential diagnosis includes psoriasis, lichen planus, onychogryphosis, and nail trauma. Onychomycosis is more difficult to treat than most dermatophytoses because of the inherent slow growth of the nail. Older antifungal agents (ketoconazole and griseofulvin) are unsuitable for onychomycosis because of their relatively poor efficacy and potential adverse effects. Three recently developed antimycotic agents (fluconazole, itraconazole, and terbinafine) offer high cure rates and good safety profiles. In addition, the short treatment times (<3 months) and intermittent dosing schedules are likely to enhance compliance and reduce the costs of therapy. PMID:9665975

  11. The high cost of accurate knowledge.

    PubMed

    Sutcliffe, Kathleen M; Weber, Klaus

    2003-05-01

    Many business thinkers believe it's the role of senior managers to scan the external environment to monitor contingencies and constraints, and to use that precise knowledge to modify the company's strategy and design. As these thinkers see it, managers need accurate and abundant information to carry out that role. According to that logic, it makes sense to invest heavily in systems for collecting and organizing competitive information. Another school of pundits contends that, since today's complex information often isn't precise anyway, it's not worth going overboard with such investments. In other words, it's not the accuracy and abundance of information that should matter most to top executives--rather, it's how that information is interpreted. After all, the role of senior managers isn't just to make decisions; it's to set direction and motivate others in the face of ambiguities and conflicting demands. Top executives must interpret information and communicate those interpretations--they must manage meaning more than they must manage information. So which of these competing views is the right one? Research conducted by academics Sutcliffe and Weber found that how accurate senior executives are about their competitive environments is indeed less important for strategy and corresponding organizational changes than the way in which they interpret information about their environments. Investments in shaping those interpretations, therefore, may create a more durable competitive advantage than investments in obtaining and organizing more information. And what kinds of interpretations are most closely linked with high performance? Their research suggests that high performers respond positively to opportunities, yet they aren't overconfident in their abilities to take advantage of those opportunities.

  12. Accurate inference of local phased ancestry of modern admixed populations.

    PubMed

    Ma, Yamin; Zhao, Jian; Wong, Jian-Syuan; Ma, Li; Li, Wenzhi; Fu, Guoxing; Xu, Wei; Zhang, Kui; Kittles, Rick A; Li, Yun; Song, Qing

    2014-07-23

    Population stratification is a growing concern in genetic-association studies. Averaged ancestry at the genome level (global ancestry) is insufficient for detecting the population substructures and correcting population stratifications in association studies. Local and phase stratification are needed for human genetic studies, but current technologies cannot be applied on the entire genome data due to various technical caveats. Here we developed a novel approach (aMAP, ancestry of Modern Admixed Populations) for inferring local phased ancestry. It took about 3 seconds on a desktop computer to finish a local ancestry analysis for each human genome with 1.4-million SNPs. This method also exhibits the scalability to larger datasets with respect to the number of SNPs, the number of samples, and the size of reference panels. It can detect the lack of the proxy of reference panels. The accuracy was 99.4%. The aMAP software has a capacity for analyzing 6-way admixed individuals. As the biomedical community continues to expand its efforts to increase the representation of diverse populations, and as the number of large whole-genome sequence datasets continues to grow rapidly, there is an increasing demand on rapid and accurate local ancestry analysis in genetics, pharmacogenomics, population genetics, and clinical diagnosis.

  13. Considerations in the diagnosis of orofacial pain and headache.

    PubMed

    Esposito, C J

    2001-10-01

    Orofacial pain disorders involve conditions which are associated with painful anatomical structures of the hard and soft tissues of the head, face, neck and all of the intraoral structures. Accurate diagnosis of orofacial pain in a health care practice or facility is mandatory for effective and successful treatment. Diagnosis of orofacial pain, however, can be difficult and confusing due to the myriad of structures involved, pain referral patterns, and the lack of objectifyable diagnostic tools as an aid in diagnosis. The intent of this paper is to provide a very generalized guideline to assist the practitioner in the diagnosis of orofacial pain involving the head and neck.

  14. Head Lice: Diagnosis

    MedlinePlus

    ... Treatment FAQs Malathion FAQs Epidemiology & Risk Factors Disease Biology Diagnosis Treatment Prevention & Control Resources for Health Professionals ... Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs) Epidemiology & Risk Factors Disease Biology Diagnosis Treatment Prevention & Control Resources for Health Professionals ...

  15. [Endoscopic diagnosis of enterobiasis].

    PubMed

    Johansen, N; Petersen, H D

    2000-02-28

    This article describes two cases of worm-infestation with symptomatology, diagnosis and treatment. The cases are discussed in respect to the other cases in the literature emphasizing symptomatology and diagnosis by endoscopy.

  16. Body Lice Diagnosis

    MedlinePlus

    ... Treatment FAQs Malathion FAQs Epidemiology & Risk Factors Disease Biology Diagnosis Treatment Prevention & Control Resources for Health Professionals ... Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs) Epidemiology & Risk Factors Disease Biology Diagnosis Treatment Prevention & Control Resources for Health Professionals ...

  17. Prenatal diagnosis of achondrogenesis.

    PubMed

    Golbus, M S; Hall, B D; Filly, R A; Poskanzer, L B

    1977-09-01

    Severe rhizomelic and mesomelic dwarfism was demonstrated in a 20-week gestation fetus by amniography. A systematic progressive approach to prenatal diagnosis in the absence of a definitive diagnosis and the use of contrast radiography is discussed.

  18. Approaching system equilibrium with accurate or not accurate feedback information in a two-route system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Xiao-mei; Xie, Dong-fan; Li, Qi

    2015-02-01

    With the development of intelligent transport system, advanced information feedback strategies have been developed to reduce traffic congestion and enhance the capacity. However, previous strategies provide accurate information to travelers and our simulation results show that accurate information brings negative effects, especially in delay case. Because travelers prefer to the best condition route with accurate information, and delayed information cannot reflect current traffic condition but past. Then travelers make wrong routing decisions, causing the decrease of the capacity and the increase of oscillations and the system deviating from the equilibrium. To avoid the negative effect, bounded rationality is taken into account by introducing a boundedly rational threshold BR. When difference between two routes is less than the BR, routes have equal probability to be chosen. The bounded rationality is helpful to improve the efficiency in terms of capacity, oscillation and the gap deviating from the system equilibrium.

  19. [The diagnosis artifice].

    PubMed

    Lifshitz, Alberto

    2016-01-01

    The clinical diagnosis is considered the cornerstone in the decisions making process, since it has various functions, including the executive. However, the diagnosis is not only a goal by itself, but a mean to help patients. It is not enough to identify how the disease which ails the patient is called; the diagnosis must be individualized as much as possible in each case, for the mere mention of the diagnosis can mean a wide variety of problems.

  20. Higher order accurate partial implicitization: An unconditionally stable fourth-order-accurate explicit numerical technique

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Graves, R. A., Jr.

    1975-01-01

    The previously obtained second-order-accurate partial implicitization numerical technique used in the solution of fluid dynamic problems was modified with little complication to achieve fourth-order accuracy. The Von Neumann stability analysis demonstrated the unconditional linear stability of the technique. The order of the truncation error was deduced from the Taylor series expansions of the linearized difference equations and was verified by numerical solutions to Burger's equation. For comparison, results were also obtained for Burger's equation using a second-order-accurate partial-implicitization scheme, as well as the fourth-order scheme of Kreiss.

  1. A Highly Accurate Face Recognition System Using Filtering Correlation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watanabe, Eriko; Ishikawa, Sayuri; Kodate, Kashiko

    2007-09-01

    The authors previously constructed a highly accurate fast face recognition optical correlator (FARCO) [E. Watanabe and K. Kodate: Opt. Rev. 12 (2005) 460], and subsequently developed an improved, super high-speed FARCO (S-FARCO), which is able to process several hundred thousand frames per second. The principal advantage of our new system is its wide applicability to any correlation scheme. Three different configurations were proposed, each depending on correlation speed. This paper describes and evaluates a software correlation filter. The face recognition function proved highly accurate, seeing that a low-resolution facial image size (64 × 64 pixels) has been successfully implemented. An operation speed of less than 10 ms was achieved using a personal computer with a central processing unit (CPU) of 3 GHz and 2 GB memory. When we applied the software correlation filter to a high-security cellular phone face recognition system, experiments on 30 female students over a period of three months yielded low error rates: 0% false acceptance rate and 2% false rejection rate. Therefore, the filtering correlation works effectively when applied to low resolution images such as web-based images or faces captured by a monitoring camera.

  2. Accurate determination of membrane dynamics with line-scan FCS.

    PubMed

    Ries, Jonas; Chiantia, Salvatore; Schwille, Petra

    2009-03-04

    Here we present an efficient implementation of line-scan fluorescence correlation spectroscopy (i.e., one-dimensional spatio-temporal image correlation spectroscopy) using a commercial laser scanning microscope, which allows the accurate measurement of diffusion coefficients and concentrations in biological lipid membranes within seconds. Line-scan fluorescence correlation spectroscopy is a calibration-free technique. Therefore, it is insensitive to optical artifacts, saturation, or incorrect positioning of the laser focus. In addition, it is virtually unaffected by photobleaching. Correction schemes for residual inhomogeneities and depletion of fluorophores due to photobleaching extend the applicability of line-scan fluorescence correlation spectroscopy to more demanding systems. This technique enabled us to measure accurate diffusion coefficients and partition coefficients of fluorescent lipids in phase-separating supported bilayers of three commonly used raft-mimicking compositions. Furthermore, we probed the temperature dependence of the diffusion coefficient in several model membranes, and in human embryonic kidney cell membranes not affected by temperature-induced optical aberrations.

  3. [PCR-based diagnosis of mucormycosis in tissue samples].

    PubMed

    Bialek, R; Zelck, U E

    2013-11-01

    Mucormycosis is characterized by a rapid, often fatal progression. Early diagnosis of invasive mucormycosis is the key for timely therapeutic intervention and improved survival. Contrary to the more prevalent aspergillosis, effective antifungal therapy of mucormycosis is mainly limited to amphotericin B. Given the importance to guide the timely initiation of amphotericin B and possible surgical intervention, rapid and specific identification of fungal hyphae is essential. Conventional histopathology depends on abundance and morphology of the fungi as well as on the skills of the personnel, and usually shows an accuracy of 80 %. PCR assays targeting fungal ribosomal genes to identify Mucorales at least at genus level increase sensitivity, allow a rapid identification as well as detection of double mold infections. Thus, PCR assays are beneficial to complement existing approaches. They are recommended to rapidly specify tissue diagnosis and accurate identification of fungi. This will help to guide effective therapy and thereby, survival will increase. Retrospective analyses of mucormycosis by PCR help to evaluate therapeutic interventions and will optimize treatment options.

  4. [Diagnosis and treatment of heparin-induced thrombocytopenia (HIT) based on its atypical immunological features].

    PubMed

    Miyata, Shigeki; Maeda, Takuma

    2016-03-01

    Heparin-induced thrombocytopenia (HIT) is a prothrombotic side effect of heparin therapy caused by HIT antibodies, i.e., anti-platelet factor 4 (PF4)/heparin IgG with platelet-activating properties. For serological diagnosis, antigen immunoassays are commonly used worldwide. However, such assays do not indicate their platelet-activating properties, leading to low specificity for the HIT diagnosis. Therefore, over-diagnosis is currently the most serious problem associated with HIT. The detection of platelet-activating antibodies using a washed platelet activation assay is crucial for appropriate HIT diagnosis. Recent advances in our understanding of the pathogenesis of HIT include it having several clinical features atypical for an immune-mediated disease. Heparin-naïve patients can develop IgG antibodies as early as day 4, as in a secondary immune response. Evidence for an anamnestic response on heparin re-exposure is lacking. In addition, HIT antibodies are relatively short-lived, unlike those in a secondary immune response. These lines of evidence suggest that the mechanisms underlying HIT antibody formation may be compatible with a non-T cell-dependent immune reaction. These atypical clinical and serological features should be carefully considered while endeavoring to accurately diagnose HIT, which leads to appropriate therapies such as immediate administration of an alternative anticoagulant to prevent thromboembolic events and re-administration of heparin during surgery involving cardiopulmonary bypass when HIT antibodies are no longer detectable.

  5. How accurate are Scottish cancer registration data?

    PubMed Central

    Brewster, D.; Crichton, J.; Muir, C.

    1994-01-01

    In order to assess the accuracy of Scottish cancer registration data, a random sample of 2,200 registrations, attributed to the year 1990, was generated. Relevant medical records were available for review in 2,021 (92%) cases. Registration details were reabstracted from available records and compared with data in the registry. Discrepancies in identifying items of data (surname, forename, sex and date of birth) were found in 3.5% of cases. Most were trivial and would not disturb record linkage. Discrepancy rates of 7.1% in post code of residence at the time of diagnosis (excluding differences arising through boundary changes), 11.0% in anniversary date (excluding differences of 6 weeks or less), 7.7% in histological verification status, 5.4% in ICD-9 site codes (the first three digits) and 14.5% in ICD-O morphology codes (excluding 'inferred' morphology codes) were recorded. Overall, serious discrepancies were judged to have occurred in 2.8% of cases. In many respects, therefore, Scottish cancer registration data show a high level of accuracy that compares favourably to the reported accuracy of the few other cancer registries undertaking such analyses. PMID:7947104

  6. Accurate sperm morphology assessment predicts sperm function.

    PubMed

    Abu Hassan Abu, D; Franken, D R; Hoffman, B; Henkel, R

    2012-05-01

    Sperm morphology has been associated with in vitro as well as in vivo fertilisation. The study aimed to evaluate the possible relation between the percentage of spermatozoa with normal morphology and the following sperm functional assays: (i) zona-induced acrosome reaction (ZIAR); (ii) DNA integrity; (iii) chromatin condensation; (iv) sperm apoptosis; and (v) fertilisation rates. Regression analysis was employed to calculate the association between morphology and different functional tests. Normal sperm morphology correlated significantly with the percentages of live acrosome-reacted spermatozoa in the ZIAR (r = 0.518; P < 0.0001; n = 92), DNA integrity (r = -0.515; P = 0.0018; n = 34), CMA(3) -positive spermatozoa (r = -0.745; P < 0.0001; n = 92), sperm apoptosis (r = -0.395; P = 0.0206; n = 34) and necrosis (r = -0.545; P = 0.0009; n = 34). Negative correlations existed between for the acrosome reaction, and DNA integrity, while negative associations were recorded with the percentages of CMA(3) -positive spermatozoa, apoptotic and necrotic spermatozoa. Sperm morphology is related to sperm dysfunction such as poor chromatin condensation, acrosome reaction and DNA integrity. Negative and significant correlations existed between normal sperm morphology and chromatin condensation, the percentage of spermatozoa with abnormal DNA and spermatozoa with apoptotic activity. The authors do not regard sperm morphology as the only test for the diagnosis of male fertility, but sperm morphology can serve as a valuable indicator of underlying dysfunction.

  7. Phase rainbow refractometry for accurate droplet variation characterization.

    PubMed

    Wu, Yingchun; Promvongsa, Jantarat; Saengkaew, Sawitree; Wu, Xuecheng; Chen, Jia; Gréhan, Gérard

    2016-10-15

    We developed a one-dimensional phase rainbow refractometer for the accurate trans-dimensional measurements of droplet size on the micrometer scale as well as the tiny droplet diameter variations at the nanoscale. The dependence of the phase shift of the rainbow ripple structures on the droplet variations is revealed. The phase-shifting rainbow image is recorded by a telecentric one-dimensional rainbow imaging system. Experiments on the evaporating monodispersed droplet stream show that the phase rainbow refractometer can measure the tiny droplet diameter changes down to tens of nanometers. This one-dimensional phase rainbow refractometer is capable of measuring the droplet refractive index and diameter, as well as variations.

  8. Acquisition of accurate data from intramolecular quenched fluorescence protease assays.

    PubMed

    Arachea, Buenafe T; Wiener, Michael C

    2017-04-01

    The Intramolecular Quenched Fluorescence (IQF) protease assay utilizes peptide substrates containing donor-quencher pairs that flank the scissile bond. Following protease cleavage, the dequenched donor emission of the product is subsequently measured. Inspection of the IQF literature indicates that rigorous treatment of systematic errors in observed fluorescence arising from inner-filter absorbance (IF) and non-specific intermolecular quenching (NSQ) is incompletely performed. As substrate and product concentrations vary during the time-course of enzyme activity, iterative solution of the kinetic rate equations is, generally, required to obtain the proper time-dependent correction to the initial velocity fluorescence data. Here, we demonstrate that, if the IQF assay is performed under conditions where IF and NSQ are approximately constant during the measurement of initial velocity for a given initial substrate concentration, then a simple correction as a function of initial substrate concentration can be derived and utilized to obtain accurate initial velocity data for analysis.

  9. Accurate superimposition of perimetry data onto fundus photographs.

    PubMed

    Bek, T; Lund-Andersen, H

    1990-02-01

    A technique for accurate superimposition of computerized perimetry data onto the corresponding retinal locations seen on fundus photographs was developed. The technique was designed to take into account: 1) that the photographic field of view of the fundus camera varies with ametropia-dependent camera focusing 2) possible distortion by the fundus camera, and 3) that corrective lenses employed during perimetry magnify or minify the visual field. The technique allowed an overlay of perimetry data of the central 60 degrees of the visual field onto fundus photographs with an accuracy of 0.5 degree. The correlation of localized retinal morphology to localized retinal function was therefore limited by the spatial resolution of the computerized perimetry, which was 2.5 degrees in the Dicon AP-2500 perimeter employed for this study. The theoretical assumptions of the technique were confirmed by comparing visual field records to fundus photographs from patients with morphologically well-defined non-functioning lesions in the retina.

  10. Pediatrics: diagnosis of neuroblastoma.

    PubMed

    Sharp, Susan E; Gelfand, Michael J; Shulkin, Barry L

    2011-09-01

    Neuroblastoma is the most common pediatric extracranial soft-tissue tumor, accounting for approximately 8% of childhood malignancies. Its prognosis is widely variable, ranging from spontaneous regression to fatal disease despite multimodality therapy. Multiple imaging and clinical tests are needed to accurately assess patient risk with risk groups based on disease stage, patient age, and biological tumor factors. Approximately 60% of patients with neuroblastoma have metastatic disease, most commonly involving bone marrow or cortical bone. Metaiodobenzylguanidine (mIBG) scintigraphy plays an important role in the assessment of neuroblastoma, allowing whole-body disease assessment. mIBG is used to define extent of disease at diagnosis, assess disease response during therapy, and detect residual and recurrent disease during follow-up. mIBG is highly sensitive and specific for neuroblastoma, concentrating in >90% of tumors. mIBG was initially labeled with (131)I, but (123)I-mIBG yields higher quality images at a lower patient radiation dose. (123)I-mIBG (AdreView; GE Healthcare, Arlington Heights, IL) was approved for clinical use in children by the Food and Drug Administration in 2008 and is now commercially available throughout the United States. The use of single-photon emission computed tomography and single-photon emission computed tomography/computed tomography in (123)I-mIBG imaging has improved certainty of lesion detection and localization. Fluorodeoxyglucose positron-emission tomography has recently been compared with mIBG and found to be most useful in neuroblastomas which fail to or weakly accumulate mIBG.

  11. Deep neural networks: A promising tool for fault characteristic mining and intelligent diagnosis of rotating machinery with massive data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jia, Feng; Lei, Yaguo; Lin, Jing; Zhou, Xin; Lu, Na

    2016-05-01

    Aiming to promptly process the massive fault data and automatically provide accurate diagnosis results, numerous studies have been conducted on intelligent fault diagnosis of rotating machinery. Among these studies, the methods based on artificial neural networks (ANNs) are commonly used, which employ signal processing techniques for extracting features and further input the features to ANNs for classifying faults. Though these methods did work in intelligent fault diagnosis of rotating machinery, they still have two deficiencies. (1) The features are manually extracted depending on much prior knowledge about signal processing techniques and diagnostic expertise. In addition, these manual features are extracted according to a specific diagnosis issue and probably unsuitable for other issues. (2) The ANNs adopted in these methods have shallow architectures, which limits the capacity of ANNs to learn the complex non-linear relationships in fault diagnosis issues. As a breakthrough in artificial intelligence, deep learning holds the potential to overcome the aforementioned deficiencies. Through deep learning, deep neural networks (DNNs) with deep architectures, instead of shallow ones, could be established to mine the useful information from raw data and approximate complex non-linear functions. Based on DNNs, a novel intelligent method is proposed in this paper to overcome the deficiencies of the aforementioned intelligent diagnosis methods. The effectiveness of the proposed method is validated using datasets from rolling element bearings and planetary gearboxes. These datasets contain massive measured signals involving different health conditions under various operating conditions. The diagnosis results show that the proposed method is able to not only adaptively mine available fault characteristics from the measured signals, but also obtain superior diagnosis accuracy compared with the existing methods.

  12. In Utero Diagnosis of Long QT Syndrome by Magnetocardiography

    PubMed Central

    Cuneo, Bettina F.; Strasburger, Janette F.; Yu, Suhong; Horigome, Hitoshi; Hosono, Takayoshi; Kandori, Akihiko; Wakai, Ronald T.

    2013-01-01

    Background The electrophysiology of long QT syndrome (LQTS) in utero is virtually unstudied. Our goal here was to evaluate the efficacy of fetal magnetocardiography (fMCG) for diagnosis and prognosis of fetuses at risk of LQTS. Methods and Results We reviewed the pre/postnatal medical records of 30 fetuses referred for fMCG due to a family history of LQTS (n=17); neonatal/childhood sudden cardiac death (n=3) and/or presentation of prenatal LQTS rhythms (n=12): 2° AVB, ventricular tachycardia, heart rate < 3rd percentile. We evaluated heart rate and reactivity, cardiac time intervals, T-wave characteristics, and initiation/termination of Torsade de Pointes (TdP), and compared these with neonatal ECG findings. After birth, subjects were tested for LQTS mutations. Based on accepted clinical criteria, 21 subjects (70%; 9 KCNQ1, 5 KCNH2, 2 SCN5A, 2 other, 3 untested) had LQTS. Using a threshold of QTc= 490 ms, fMCG accurately identified LQTS fetuses with 89% (24/27) sensitivity and 89% (8/9) specificity in 36 sessions. Four fetuses (2 KCNH2 and 2 SCN5A), all with QTc ≥ 620 ms, had frequent episodes of TdP, which were present 22–79% of the time. While some episodes initiated with a long-short sequence, most initiations showed QRS aberrancy and a notable lack of pause dependency. T-wave alternans was strongly associated with severe LQTS phenotype. Conclusions QTc prolongation (≥490 ms) assessed by fMCG accurately identified LQTS in utero; extreme QTc prolongation (≥620 ms) predicted TdP. FMCG can play a critical role in the diagnosis and management of fetuses at risk of LQTS. PMID:24218437

  13. How accurately can 21cm tomography constrain cosmology?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mao, Yi; Tegmark, Max; McQuinn, Matthew; Zaldarriaga, Matias; Zahn, Oliver

    2008-07-01

    There is growing interest in using 3-dimensional neutral hydrogen mapping with the redshifted 21 cm line as a cosmological probe. However, its utility depends on many assumptions. To aid experimental planning and design, we quantify how the precision with which cosmological parameters can be measured depends on a broad range of assumptions, focusing on the 21 cm signal from 6accurate yet robust method for measuring cosmological parameters that exploits the fact that the ionization power spectra are rather smooth functions that can be accurately fit by 7 phenomenological parameters. We find that for future experiments, marginalizing over these nuisance parameters may provide constraints almost as tight on the cosmology as if 21 cm tomography measured the matter power spectrum directly. A future square kilometer array optimized for 21 cm tomography could improve the sensitivity to spatial curvature and neutrino masses by up to 2 orders of magnitude, to ΔΩk≈0.0002 and Δmν≈0.007eV, and give a 4σ detection of the spectral index running predicted by the simplest inflation models.

  14. Accurate Variational Description of Adiabatic Quantum Optimization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carleo, Giuseppe; Bauer, Bela; Troyer, Matthias

    Adiabatic quantum optimization (AQO) is a quantum computing protocol where a system is driven by a time-dependent Hamiltonian. The initial Hamiltonian has an easily prepared ground-state and the final Hamiltonian encodes some desired optimization problem. An adiabatic time evolution then yields a solution to the optimization problem. Several challenges emerge in the theoretical description of this protocol: on one hand, the exact simulation of quantum dynamics is exponentially complex in the size of the optimization problem. On the other hand, approximate approaches such as tensor network states (TNS) are limited to small instances by the amount of entanglement that can be encoded. I will present here an extension of the time-dependent Variational Monte Carlo approach to problems in AQO. This approach is based on a general class of (Jastrow-Feenberg) entangled states, whose parameters are evolved in time according to a stochastic variational principle. We demonstrate this approach for optimization problems of the Ising spin-glass type. A very good accuracy is achieved when compared to exact time-dependent TNS on small instances. We then apply this approach to larger problems, and discuss the efficiency of the quantum annealing scheme in comparison with its classical counterpart.

  15. Does a pneumotach accurately characterize voice function?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walters, Gage; Krane, Michael

    2016-11-01

    A study is presented which addresses how a pneumotach might adversely affect clinical measurements of voice function. A pneumotach is a device, typically a mask, worn over the mouth, in order to measure time-varying glottal volume flow. By measuring the time-varying difference in pressure across a known aerodynamic resistance element in the mask, the glottal volume flow waveform is estimated. Because it adds aerodynamic resistance to the vocal system, there is some concern that using a pneumotach may not accurately portray the behavior of the voice. To test this hypothesis, experiments were performed in a simplified airway model with the principal dimensions of an adult human upper airway. A compliant constriction, fabricated from silicone rubber, modeled the vocal folds. Variations of transglottal pressure, time-averaged volume flow, model vocal fold vibration amplitude, and radiated sound with subglottal pressure were performed, with and without the pneumotach in place, and differences noted. Acknowledge support of NIH Grant 2R01DC005642-10A1.

  16. Accurate thermoplasmonic simulation of metallic nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Da-Miao; Liu, Yan-Nan; Tian, Fa-Lin; Pan, Xiao-Min; Sheng, Xin-Qing

    2017-01-01

    Thermoplasmonics leads to enhanced heat generation due to the localized surface plasmon resonances. The measurement of heat generation is fundamentally a complicated task, which necessitates the development of theoretical simulation techniques. In this paper, an efficient and accurate numerical scheme is proposed for applications with complex metallic nanostructures. Light absorption and temperature increase are, respectively, obtained by solving the volume integral equation (VIE) and the steady-state heat diffusion equation through the method of moments (MoM). Previously, methods based on surface integral equations (SIEs) were utilized to obtain light absorption. However, computing light absorption from the equivalent current is as expensive as O(NsNv), where Ns and Nv, respectively, denote the number of surface and volumetric unknowns. Our approach reduces the cost to O(Nv) by using VIE. The accuracy, efficiency and capability of the proposed scheme are validated by multiple simulations. The simulations show that our proposed method is more efficient than the approach based on SIEs under comparable accuracy, especially for the case where many incidents are of interest. The simulations also indicate that the temperature profile can be tuned by several factors, such as the geometry configuration of array, beam direction, and light wavelength.

  17. Accurate method for computing correlated color temperature.

    PubMed

    Li, Changjun; Cui, Guihua; Melgosa, Manuel; Ruan, Xiukai; Zhang, Yaoju; Ma, Long; Xiao, Kaida; Luo, M Ronnier

    2016-06-27

    For the correlated color temperature (CCT) of a light source to be estimated, a nonlinear optimization problem must be solved. In all previous methods available to compute CCT, the objective function has only been approximated, and their predictions have achieved limited accuracy. For example, different unacceptable CCT values have been predicted for light sources located on the same isotemperature line. In this paper, we propose to compute CCT using the Newton method, which requires the first and second derivatives of the objective function. Following the current recommendation by the International Commission on Illumination (CIE) for the computation of tristimulus values (summations at 1 nm steps from 360 nm to 830 nm), the objective function and its first and second derivatives are explicitly given and used in our computations. Comprehensive tests demonstrate that the proposed method, together with an initial estimation of CCT using Robertson's method [J. Opt. Soc. Am. 58, 1528-1535 (1968)], gives highly accurate predictions below 0.0012 K for light sources with CCTs ranging from 500 K to 106 K.

  18. Accurate Theoretical Thermochemistry for Fluoroethyl Radicals.

    PubMed

    Ganyecz, Ádám; Kállay, Mihály; Csontos, József

    2017-02-09

    An accurate coupled-cluster (CC) based model chemistry was applied to calculate reliable thermochemical quantities for hydrofluorocarbon derivatives including radicals 1-fluoroethyl (CH3-CHF), 1,1-difluoroethyl (CH3-CF2), 2-fluoroethyl (CH2F-CH2), 1,2-difluoroethyl (CH2F-CHF), 2,2-difluoroethyl (CHF2-CH2), 2,2,2-trifluoroethyl (CF3-CH2), 1,2,2,2-tetrafluoroethyl (CF3-CHF), and pentafluoroethyl (CF3-CF2). The model chemistry used contains iterative triple and perturbative quadruple excitations in CC theory, as well as scalar relativistic and diagonal Born-Oppenheimer corrections. To obtain heat of formation values with better than chemical accuracy perturbative quadruple excitations and scalar relativistic corrections were inevitable. Their contributions to the heats of formation steadily increase with the number of fluorine atoms in the radical reaching 10 kJ/mol for CF3-CF2. When discrepancies were found between the experimental and our values it was always possible to resolve the issue by recalculating the experimental result with currently recommended auxiliary data. For each radical studied here this study delivers the best heat of formation as well as entropy data.

  19. Accurate, reliable prototype earth horizon sensor head

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schwarz, F.; Cohen, H.

    1973-01-01

    The design and performance is described of an accurate and reliable prototype earth sensor head (ARPESH). The ARPESH employs a detection logic 'locator' concept and horizon sensor mechanization which should lead to high accuracy horizon sensing that is minimally degraded by spatial or temporal variations in sensing attitude from a satellite in orbit around the earth at altitudes in the 500 km environ 1,2. An accuracy of horizon location to within 0.7 km has been predicted, independent of meteorological conditions. This corresponds to an error of 0.015 deg-at 500 km altitude. Laboratory evaluation of the sensor indicates that this accuracy is achieved. First, the basic operating principles of ARPESH are described; next, detailed design and construction data is presented and then performance of the sensor under laboratory conditions in which the sensor is installed in a simulator that permits it to scan over a blackbody source against background representing the earth space interface for various equivalent plant temperatures.

  20. Accurate methods for large molecular systems.

    PubMed

    Gordon, Mark S; Mullin, Jonathan M; Pruitt, Spencer R; Roskop, Luke B; Slipchenko, Lyudmila V; Boatz, Jerry A

    2009-07-23

    Three exciting new methods that address the accurate prediction of processes and properties of large molecular systems are discussed. The systematic fragmentation method (SFM) and the fragment molecular orbital (FMO) method both decompose a large molecular system (e.g., protein, liquid, zeolite) into small subunits (fragments) in very different ways that are designed to both retain the high accuracy of the chosen quantum mechanical level of theory while greatly reducing the demands on computational time and resources. Each of these methods is inherently scalable and is therefore eminently capable of taking advantage of massively parallel computer hardware while retaining the accuracy of the corresponding electronic structure method from which it is derived. The effective fragment potential (EFP) method is a sophisticated approach for the prediction of nonbonded and intermolecular interactions. Therefore, the EFP method provides a way to further reduce the computational effort while retaining accuracy by treating the far-field interactions in place of the full electronic structure method. The performance of the methods is demonstrated using applications to several systems, including benzene dimer, small organic species, pieces of the alpha helix, water, and ionic liquids.

  1. Accurate lineshape spectroscopy and the Boltzmann constant

    PubMed Central

    Truong, G.-W.; Anstie, J. D.; May, E. F.; Stace, T. M.; Luiten, A. N.

    2015-01-01

    Spectroscopy has an illustrious history delivering serendipitous discoveries and providing a stringent testbed for new physical predictions, including applications from trace materials detection, to understanding the atmospheres of stars and planets, and even constraining cosmological models. Reaching fundamental-noise limits permits optimal extraction of spectroscopic information from an absorption measurement. Here, we demonstrate a quantum-limited spectrometer that delivers high-precision measurements of the absorption lineshape. These measurements yield a very accurate measurement of the excited-state (6P1/2) hyperfine splitting in Cs, and reveals a breakdown in the well-known Voigt spectral profile. We develop a theoretical model that accounts for this breakdown, explaining the observations to within the shot-noise limit. Our model enables us to infer the thermal velocity dispersion of the Cs vapour with an uncertainty of 35 p.p.m. within an hour. This allows us to determine a value for Boltzmann's constant with a precision of 6 p.p.m., and an uncertainty of 71 p.p.m. PMID:26465085

  2. Accurate upper body rehabilitation system using kinect.

    PubMed

    Sinha, Sanjana; Bhowmick, Brojeshwar; Chakravarty, Kingshuk; Sinha, Aniruddha; Das, Abhijit

    2016-08-01

    The growing importance of Kinect as a tool for clinical assessment and rehabilitation is due to its portability, low cost and markerless system for human motion capture. However, the accuracy of Kinect in measuring three-dimensional body joint center locations often fails to meet clinical standards of accuracy when compared to marker-based motion capture systems such as Vicon. The length of the body segment connecting any two joints, measured as the distance between three-dimensional Kinect skeleton joint coordinates, has been observed to vary with time. The orientation of the line connecting adjoining Kinect skeletal coordinates has also been seen to differ from the actual orientation of the physical body segment. Hence we have proposed an optimization method that utilizes Kinect Depth and RGB information to search for the joint center location that satisfies constraints on body segment length and as well as orientation. An experimental study have been carried out on ten healthy participants performing upper body range of motion exercises. The results report 72% reduction in body segment length variance and 2° improvement in Range of Motion (ROM) angle hence enabling to more accurate measurements for upper limb exercises.

  3. Noninvasive hemoglobin monitoring: how accurate is enough?

    PubMed

    Rice, Mark J; Gravenstein, Nikolaus; Morey, Timothy E

    2013-10-01

    Evaluating the accuracy of medical devices has traditionally been a blend of statistical analyses, at times without contextualizing the clinical application. There have been a number of recent publications on the accuracy of a continuous noninvasive hemoglobin measurement device, the Masimo Radical-7 Pulse Co-oximeter, focusing on the traditional statistical metrics of bias and precision. In this review, which contains material presented at the Innovations and Applications of Monitoring Perfusion, Oxygenation, and Ventilation (IAMPOV) Symposium at Yale University in 2012, we critically investigated these metrics as applied to the new technology, exploring what is required of a noninvasive hemoglobin monitor and whether the conventional statistics adequately answer our questions about clinical accuracy. We discuss the glucose error grid, well known in the glucose monitoring literature, and describe an analogous version for hemoglobin monitoring. This hemoglobin error grid can be used to evaluate the required clinical accuracy (±g/dL) of a hemoglobin measurement device to provide more conclusive evidence on whether to transfuse an individual patient. The important decision to transfuse a patient usually requires both an accurate hemoglobin measurement and a physiologic reason to elect transfusion. It is our opinion that the published accuracy data of the Masimo Radical-7 is not good enough to make the transfusion decision.

  4. Fast and accurate exhaled breath ammonia measurement.

    PubMed

    Solga, Steven F; Mudalel, Matthew L; Spacek, Lisa A; Risby, Terence H

    2014-06-11

    This exhaled breath ammonia method uses a fast and highly sensitive spectroscopic method known as quartz enhanced photoacoustic spectroscopy (QEPAS) that uses a quantum cascade based laser. The monitor is coupled to a sampler that measures mouth pressure and carbon dioxide. The system is temperature controlled and specifically designed to address the reactivity of this compound. The sampler provides immediate feedback to the subject and the technician on the quality of the breath effort. Together with the quick response time of the monitor, this system is capable of accurately measuring exhaled breath ammonia representative of deep lung systemic levels. Because the system is easy to use and produces real time results, it has enabled experiments to identify factors that influence measurements. For example, mouth rinse and oral pH reproducibly and significantly affect results and therefore must be controlled. Temperature and mode of breathing are other examples. As our understanding of these factors evolves, error is reduced, and clinical studies become more meaningful. This system is very reliable and individual measurements are inexpensive. The sampler is relatively inexpensive and quite portable, but the monitor is neither. This limits options for some clinical studies and provides rational for future innovations.

  5. [Is systemic diagnosis possible?].

    PubMed

    Siewierska, Anna; Sliwczyńska, Jadwiga; Namysłowska, Irena

    2008-01-01

    The authors discuss the concept of systemic diagnosis and its logical and scientific validity. A diagnosis is the result of the "diagnostic process", with the presence of the acting object (the person making the diagnosis) and the subject (the individual or group patient, such as family), between whom there is a skew relation. They also wonder, to which part of this diagnostic process is the term "systemic" applied--to the clinician or to the subject of the diagnosis, their relation or the effect of the process. The authors also stress the crucial effect of the constructivism and social constructionism on the process of the systemic diagnosis.

  6. Diagnosis and assessment of pulmonary arterial hypertension.

    PubMed

    Badesch, David B; Champion, Hunter C; Sanchez, Miguel Angel Gomez; Hoeper, Marius M; Loyd, James E; Manes, Alessandra; McGoon, Michael; Naeije, Robert; Olschewski, Horst; Oudiz, Ronald J; Torbicki, Adam

    2009-06-30

    The diagnosis and assessment of pulmonary arterial hypertension is a rapidly evolving area, with changes occurring in the definition of the disease, screening and diagnostic techniques, and staging and follow-up assessment. The definition of pulmonary hypertension has been simplified, and is now based on currently available evidence. There has been substantial progress in advancing the imaging techniques and biomarkers used to screen patients for the disease and to follow up their response to therapy. The importance of accurate assessment of right ventricular function in following up the clinical course and response to therapy is more fully appreciated. As new therapies are developed for pulmonary arterial hypertension, screening, prompt diagnosis, and accurate assessment of disease severity become increasingly important. A clear definition of pulmonary hypertension and the development of a rational approach to diagnostic assessment and follow-up using both conventional and new tools will be essential to deriving maximal benefit from our expanding therapeutic armamentarium.

  7. Using Scaling for accurate stochastic macroweather forecasts (including the "pause")

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lovejoy, Shaun; del Rio Amador, Lenin

    2015-04-01

    At scales corresponding to the lifetimes of structures of planetary extent (about 5 - 10 days), atmospheric processes undergo a drastic "dimensional transition" from high frequency weather to lower frequency macroweather processes. While conventional GCM's generally well reproduce both the transition and the corresponding (scaling) statistics, due to their sensitive dependence on initial conditions, the role of the weather scale processes is to provide random perturbations to the macroweather processes. The main problem with GCM's is thus that their long term (control run, unforced) statistics converge to the GCM climate and this is somewhat different from the real climate. This is the motivation for using a stochastic model and exploiting the empirical scaling properties and past data to make a stochastic model. It turns out that macroweather intermittency is typically low (the multifractal corrections are small) so that they can be approximated by fractional Gaussian Noise (fGN) processes whose memory can be enormous. For example for annual forecasts, and using the observed global temperature exponent, even 50 years of global temperature data would only allow us to exploit 90% of the available memory (for ocean regions, the figure increases to 600 years). The only complication is that anthropogenic effects dominate the global statistics at time scales beyond about 20 years. However, these are easy to remove using the CO2 forcing as a linear surrogate for all the anthropogenic effects. Using this theoretical framework, we show how to make accurate stochastic macroweather forecasts. We illustrate this on monthly and annual scale series of global and northern hemisphere surface temperatures (including nearly perfect hindcasts of the "pause" in the warming since 1998). We obtain forecast skill nearly as high as the theoretical (scaling) predictability limits allow. These scaling hindcasts - using a single effective climate sensitivity and single scaling exponent are

  8. Dengue NS1 and prM antibodies increase the sensitivity of acute dengue diagnosis test and differentiate from Japanese encephalitis infection.

    PubMed

    Gowri Sankar, S; Balaji, T; Venkatasubramani, K; Thenmozhi, V; Dhananjeyan, K J; Paramasivan, R; Tyagi, B K; John Vennison, S

    2014-05-01

    Accurate and early diagnosis of dengue infection is essential for dengue case management. In outbreak conditions, it is essential to include two different tests to diagnose dengue and the choice depends on the number of days after the onset of illness in which the sample is collected. During the laboratory diagnosis of dengue in late acute and convalescent phase by MAC-ELISA, it is necessary to rule out possible cross reactions of closely related flavivirus, such as Japanese encephalitis virus which is commonly co-circulating. In the present investigation, the usefulness of dengue virus NS1 and prM antibodies in diagnosing and differentiating dengue from Japanese encephalitis infection was assessed using samples collected during out-breaks. It was shown here that, detection of antibodies against dengue NS1 and prM proteins increases the sensitivity of dengue diagnosis until 15days. Moreover, detection of antibodies against both proteins was able to differentiate dengue from Japanese encephalitis infection.

  9. Venous malformations: clinical diagnosis and treatment

    PubMed Central

    Behravesh, Sasan; Yakes, Wayne; Gupta, Nikhil; Naidu, Sailendra; Chong, Brian W.; Khademhosseini, Ali

    2016-01-01

    Venous malformation (VM) is the most common type of congenital vascular malformation (CVM). They are present at birth and are often symptomatic, causing morbidity and pain. VMs can be challenging to diagnose and are often confused with hemangioma in terminology as well as with imaging. An accurate clinical history and cross-sectional imaging are critical for diagnosis and for devising management. This manuscript will review imaging approaches to diagnosing VMs and current treatment strategies. PMID:28123976

  10. Accurate orbit propagation with planetary close encounters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baù, Giulio; Milani Comparetti, Andrea; Guerra, Francesca

    2015-08-01

    We tackle the problem of accurately propagating the motion of those small bodies that undergo close approaches with a planet. The literature is lacking on this topic and the reliability of the numerical results is not sufficiently discussed. The high-frequency components of the perturbation generated by a close encounter makes the propagation particularly challenging both from the point of view of the dynamical stability of the formulation and the numerical stability of the integrator. In our approach a fixed step-size and order multistep integrator is combined with a regularized formulation of the perturbed two-body problem. When the propagated object enters the region of influence of a celestial body, the latter becomes the new primary body of attraction. Moreover, the formulation and the step-size will also be changed if necessary. We present: 1) the restarter procedure applied to the multistep integrator whenever the primary body is changed; 2) new analytical formulae for setting the step-size (given the order of the multistep, formulation and initial osculating orbit) in order to control the accumulation of the local truncation error and guarantee the numerical stability during the propagation; 3) a new definition of the region of influence in the phase space. We test the propagator with some real asteroids subject to the gravitational attraction of the planets, the Yarkovsky and relativistic perturbations. Our goal is to show that the proposed approach improves the performance of both the propagator implemented in the OrbFit software package (which is currently used by the NEODyS service) and of the propagator represented by a variable step-size and order multistep method combined with Cowell's formulation (i.e. direct integration of position and velocity in either the physical or a fictitious time).

  11. Important Nearby Galaxies without Accurate Distances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McQuinn, Kristen

    2014-10-01

    The Spitzer Infrared Nearby Galaxies Survey (SINGS) and its offspring programs (e.g., THINGS, HERACLES, KINGFISH) have resulted in a fundamental change in our view of star formation and the ISM in galaxies, and together they represent the most complete multi-wavelength data set yet assembled for a large sample of nearby galaxies. These great investments of observing time have been dedicated to the goal of understanding the interstellar medium, the star formation process, and, more generally, galactic evolution at the present epoch. Nearby galaxies provide the basis for which we interpret the distant universe, and the SINGS sample represents the best studied nearby galaxies.Accurate distances are fundamental to interpreting observations of galaxies. Surprisingly, many of the SINGS spiral galaxies have numerous distance estimates resulting in confusion. We can rectify this situation for 8 of the SINGS spiral galaxies within 10 Mpc at a very low cost through measurements of the tip of the red giant branch. The proposed observations will provide an accuracy of better than 0.1 in distance modulus. Our sample includes such well known galaxies as M51 (the Whirlpool), M63 (the Sunflower), M104 (the Sombrero), and M74 (the archetypal grand design spiral).We are also proposing coordinated parallel WFC3 UV observations of the central regions of the galaxies, rich with high-mass UV-bright stars. As a secondary science goal we will compare the resolved UV stellar populations with integrated UV emission measurements used in calibrating star formation rates. Our observations will complement the growing HST UV atlas of high resolution images of nearby galaxies.

  12. Accurate Biomass Estimation via Bayesian Adaptive Sampling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wheeler, K.; Knuth, K.; Castle, P.

    2005-12-01

    and IKONOS imagery and the 3-D volume estimates. The combination of these then allow for a rapid and hopefully very accurate estimation of biomass.

  13. Towards Accurate Application Characterization for Exascale (APEX)

    SciTech Connect

    Hammond, Simon David

    2015-09-01

    Sandia National Laboratories has been engaged in hardware and software codesign activities for a number of years, indeed, it might be argued that prototyping of clusters as far back as the CPLANT machines and many large capability resources including ASCI Red and RedStorm were examples of codesigned solutions. As the research supporting our codesign activities has moved closer to investigating on-node runtime behavior a nature hunger has grown for detailed analysis of both hardware and algorithm performance from the perspective of low-level operations. The Application Characterization for Exascale (APEX) LDRD was a project concieved of addressing some of these concerns. Primarily the research was to intended to focus on generating accurate and reproducible low-level performance metrics using tools that could scale to production-class code bases. Along side this research was an advocacy and analysis role associated with evaluating tools for production use, working with leading industry vendors to develop and refine solutions required by our code teams and to directly engage with production code developers to form a context for the application analysis and a bridge to the research community within Sandia. On each of these accounts significant progress has been made, particularly, as this report will cover, in the low-level analysis of operations for important classes of algorithms. This report summarizes the development of a collection of tools under the APEX research program and leaves to other SAND and L2 milestone reports the description of codesign progress with Sandia’s production users/developers.

  14. Impact of Diagnosis Disclosure on Adolescents with Borderline Personality Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Courtney, Darren B.; Makinen, Judy

    2016-01-01

    Objective Establishing a diagnosis of Borderline Personality Disorder (BPD) in adolescents is often met with controversy, in part, due to potential stigmatizing effects. We wished to explore the adolescent patient experience of being diagnosed with BPD. Method The Impact of Diagnosis Scale (IODS) is a self-report measure we developed with questions targeting patients’ subjective experience of receiving a diagnosis of BPD. The IODS was administered to 23 adolescents approximately one month after a diagnosis of BPD had been disclosed to them. Results Twenty-one participants had analyzable data. The internal consistency of the measure demonstrated Cronbach’s alpha of 0.66. We found wide variability in responses. Patients tended to view the diagnosis as an accurate representation of their symptoms. Conclusion The IODS represents a novel means by which clinicians might better appreciate how disclosing the diagnosis of BPD may impact a patient’s understanding of one’s difficulties. PMID:27924148

  15. The development and role of international biological reference materials in the diagnosis of anaemia.

    PubMed

    Thorpe, Susan J

    2010-07-01

    Anaemia is a major global health problem. Although the main cause is iron deficiency, anaemia also results from other nutritional deficiencies (folate and vitamin B12), haemolytic disorders including haemoglobinopathies, and bone marrow disorders. Accurate diagnosis of anaemia is dependent on reliable diagnostic tests and reference ranges, which in turn are dependent on effective standardisation. Standardisation is achieved through the availability of reference materials and reference measurement procedures. International biological reference materials have therefore been developed to standardise and control diagnostic tests for anaemia for a diverse range of analytes including total haemoglobin and haemoglobin types, ferritin, the serum transferrin receptor, serum vitamin B12 and folate, whole blood folate, and alloantibodies which mediate immune haemolytic anaemia.

  16. [Guidelines of diagnosis for peptic ulcer disease].

    PubMed

    Kim, Sang Gyun; Kim, Jae Gyu; Shin, Sung Kwan; Kim, Hyun Soo; Seol, Sang Young

    2009-11-01

    Peptic ulcer is one of the most prevalent diseases in gastrointestinal field. Recently, evolution was made for pathophysiology of peptic ulcer from "no acid, no ulcer" to Helicobacter pylori and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. The prevalence of peptic ulcer disease is estimated about 10% in Korea, and has declined due to Helicobacter pylori eradication therapy. Peptic ulcer has the cycle of exacerbation and improvement in the clinical course, and has not occasionally any clinical symptom. Helicobacter pylori eradication has made the marked reduction of relapse of peptic ulcer disease. Although nationwide endoscopic screening has enabled accurate diagnosis of peptic ulcer disease, general guideline for diagnosis of peptic ulcer has not made in Korea. Herein, we propose a guideline for the diagnosis of peptic ulcer according to domestic, international clinical studies, and experts opinions with level of evidence and grade of recommendation.

  17. Accurate transition rates for intercombination lines of singly ionized nitrogen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tayal, S. S.

    2011-01-01

    The transition energies and rates for the 2s22p2 3P1,2-2s2p3 5S2o and 2s22p3s-2s22p3p intercombination transitions have been calculated using term-dependent nonorthogonal orbitals in the multiconfiguration Hartree-Fock approach. Several sets of spectroscopic and correlation nonorthogonal functions have been chosen to describe adequately term dependence of wave functions and various correlation corrections. Special attention has been focused on the accurate representation of strong interactions between the 2s2p3 1,3P1o and 2s22p3s 1,3P1olevels. The relativistic corrections are included through the one-body mass correction, Darwin, and spin-orbit operators and two-body spin-other-orbit and spin-spin operators in the Breit-Pauli Hamiltonian. The importance of core-valence correlation effects has been examined. The accuracy of present transition rates is evaluated by the agreement between the length and velocity formulations combined with the agreement between the calculated and measured transition energies. The present results for transition probabilities, branching fraction, and lifetimes have been compared with previous calculations and experiments.

  18. Accurate transition rates for intercombination lines of singly ionized nitrogen

    SciTech Connect

    Tayal, S. S.

    2011-01-15

    The transition energies and rates for the 2s{sup 2}2p{sup 2} {sup 3}P{sub 1,2}-2s2p{sup 3} {sup 5}S{sub 2}{sup o} and 2s{sup 2}2p3s-2s{sup 2}2p3p intercombination transitions have been calculated using term-dependent nonorthogonal orbitals in the multiconfiguration Hartree-Fock approach. Several sets of spectroscopic and correlation nonorthogonal functions have been chosen to describe adequately term dependence of wave functions and various correlation corrections. Special attention has been focused on the accurate representation of strong interactions between the 2s2p{sup 3} {sup 1,3}P{sub 1}{sup o} and 2s{sup 2}2p3s {sup 1,3}P{sub 1}{sup o}levels. The relativistic corrections are included through the one-body mass correction, Darwin, and spin-orbit operators and two-body spin-other-orbit and spin-spin operators in the Breit-Pauli Hamiltonian. The importance of core-valence correlation effects has been examined. The accuracy of present transition rates is evaluated by the agreement between the length and velocity formulations combined with the agreement between the calculated and measured transition energies. The present results for transition probabilities, branching fraction, and lifetimes have been compared with previous calculations and experiments.

  19. [Brain death diagnosis].

    PubMed

    Escudero, Dolores

    2009-05-01

    Brain death has been recognized by the scientific community as the person's death, and accepted in the legislation of different countries. Brain death is defined as the irreversible ending of the functions of all the intracranial neurological structure in both the brain and brain stem. This clinical situation appears when intracranial pressure exceeds the patient's systolic blood pressure, leading to brain circulatory arrest. The most frequent are cerebral hemorrhage and cranioencephalic trauma. Clinical diagnostic must be done by doctors with expertise in neurocritical patient treatment. This diagnosis is based on a systematic, complete and extremely rigorous clinical examination that confirms a non-reactive coma, absence of brain stem reflex, and absence of spontaneous breathing. Instrumental tests may be obligatory in some cases, this depending on each country. Electroencephalogram and evoked potentials are the electrophysiological tests used. In patients treated with sedative drugs, cerebral blood flow evaluation tests, such as cerebral angiography, transcranial Doppler or 99Tc-HMPAO scintigraphy, will be used. More than 92% of the transplants performed in Spain are performed with brain death donor organs. Brain death confirmation is a high responsibility act, with medical, ethical and legal significance since it requires removal of all artificial support, or organs extraction for transplant. Extensive knowledge on its diagnostic and correct decision making avoid unnecessary use of resources and improves management of organs for transplant.

  20. [Early diagnosis of skin cancer].

    PubMed

    Kolm, Isabell; Hofbauer, Günther; Braun, Ralph P

    2010-09-01

    The skin is the most affected organ by cancer. The incidence rates of skin cancer are steadily increasing, both for melanoma and non-melanoma skin cancers (squamous cell carcinoma, basal cell carcinoma). Over 90 % of the death cases from skin cancers attribute to melanoma. Survival from melanoma is strongly related to tumour thickness. Therefore early detection is the most important step to improve prognosis. In the last years a number of new non invasive techniques for the early diagnosis of melanoma have been developed which are superior to the naked eye examination. In this overview article we present some non-invasive diagnostic techniques like total body photography, digital dermoscopy and confocal microscopy which in addition to dermoscopy assist the dermatologist in differentiating nevi from early melanomas.Non-melanoma skin cancer can be prevented by accurate sun protection. Early squamous cell carcinomas and basal cell carcinomas can be treated either invasively or non-invasively with excellent prognosis.

  1. Diagnosis support using Fuzzy Cognitive Maps combined with Genetic Algorithms.

    PubMed

    Georgopoulos, Voula C; Stylios, Chrysotomos D

    2009-01-01

    A new hybrid modeling methodology to support medical diagnosis decisions is developed here. It extends previous work on Competitive Fuzzy Cognitive Maps for Medical Diagnosis Support Systems by complementing them with Genetic Algorithms Methods for concept interaction. The synergy of these methodologies is accomplished by a new proposed algorithm that leads to more dependable Advanced Medical Diagnosis Support Systems that are suitable to handle situations where the decisions are not clearly distinct. The technique developed here is applied successfully to model and test a differential diagnosis problem from the speech pathology area for the diagnosis of language impairments.

  2. [Genetic diagnosis and prenatal genetic diagnosis of fragile X syndrome].

    PubMed

    Wu, Ling-Qian; Pan, Qian; Long, Zhi-Gao; Zhu, Jun-Zhen; Dai, He-Ping; Zheng, Duo; Xia, Kun; Huang, Xing-Qing; Xia, Jia-Hui

    2003-03-01

    In order to obtain a simple,fast,accurate and low-cost diagnosis method of fragile X syndrome, cytogenetic tests and molecular genetic tests were carried out with direct amplification of (CGG)(n) repeat sequence in 5' terminal of FMR1 gene by PCR and the cDNA sequence of FMR1 by RT-PCR from six mental retardation pedigrees. The proband of pedigree A with high expression of fragile X chromosome(35/273) was detected to be a full mutation patient of fragile X syndrome by the molecular genetic test. There is no expression of fragile X chromosome in the proband and his mother of pedigree B, which was further confirmed as a non-fragile X pedigree by the molecular genetic test. A male foetus of the pedigree C has fragile X chromosome(5/93), but the proband and his mother has no fragile X chromosome. By further detection using molecular genetic test, the male foetus is a full mutation patient of fragile X syndrome, his mother is a permutated carrier, and his brother is a mosaic patient. The proband of pedigree D has high expression of fragile X chromosome (17%), his sister also has expression of fragile X chromosome (5%). By further detection with molecular genetic test, the proband is a full mutation patient of fragile X syndrome,and his sister is a mosaic patient. The probands of pedigrees E and F of the mother were found with suspicions fragile X chromosome, being confirmed as the non-fragile X pedigrees by the molecular genetic test. The conclusion is that the analysis test with direct amplification of 5'j(CGG)n repeat sequence and cDNA sequence in FMR1 gene is simple,fast,low-cost and can be applied in screening, diagnosis and prenatal diagnosis of fragile X syndrome.

  3. Enterobiasis (Pinworm Infection): Diagnosis

    MedlinePlus

    ... About CDC.gov . Pinworm Infection General Information Pinworm Infection FAQs Epidemiology & Risk Factors Biology Disease Diagnosis Treatment Prevention & Control Resources for Health Professionals Publications Get Email Updates ...

  4. Distal hereditary motor neuropathy with vocal cord paresis: from difficulty in choral singing to a molecular genetic diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Ingram, Gillian; Barwick, Katy E S; Hartley, Louise; McEntagart, Meriel; Crosby, Andrew H; Llewelyn, Gareth; Morris, Huw R

    2016-06-01

    Patients presenting with distal weakness can be a diagnostic challenge; the eventual diagnosis often depends upon accurate clinical phenotyping. We present a mother and daughter with a rare form of distal hereditary motor neuropathy type 7 in whom the diagnosis became apparent by initial difficulty in singing, from early vocal cord dysfunction. This rare neuropathy has now been identified in two apparently unrelated families in Wales. This family's clinical presentation is typical of distal hereditary motor neuropathy type 7, and they have the common truncating mutation in the SLC5A7 gene. Advances in genetic analysis of these rare conditions broaden our understanding of their potential molecular mechanisms and may allow more directed therapy.

  5. A new approach to compute accurate velocity of meteors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Egal, Auriane; Gural, Peter; Vaubaillon, Jeremie; Colas, Francois; Thuillot, William

    2016-10-01

    The CABERNET project was designed to push the limits of meteoroid orbit measurements by improving the determination of the meteors' velocities. Indeed, despite of the development of the cameras networks dedicated to the observation of meteors, there is still an important discrepancy between the measured orbits of meteoroids computed and the theoretical results. The gap between the observed and theoretic semi-major axis of the orbits is especially significant; an accurate determination of the orbits of meteoroids therefore largely depends on the computation of the pre-atmospheric velocities. It is then imperative to dig out how to increase the precision of the measurements of the velocity.In this work, we perform an analysis of different methods currently used to compute the velocities and trajectories of the meteors. They are based on the intersecting planes method developed by Ceplecha (1987), the least squares method of Borovicka (1990), and the multi-parameter fitting (MPF) method published by Gural (2012).In order to objectively compare the performances of these techniques, we have simulated realistic meteors ('fakeors') reproducing the different error measurements of many cameras networks. Some fakeors are built following the propagation models studied by Gural (2012), and others created by numerical integrations using the Borovicka et al. 2007 model. Different optimization techniques have also been investigated in order to pick the most suitable one to solve the MPF, and the influence of the geometry of the trajectory on the result is also presented.We will present here the results of an improved implementation of the multi-parameter fitting that allow an accurate orbit computation of meteors with CABERNET. The comparison of different velocities computation seems to show that if the MPF is by far the best method to solve the trajectory and the velocity of a meteor, the ill-conditioning of the costs functions used can lead to large estimate errors for noisy

  6. Accurate simulation of optical properties in dyes.

    PubMed

    Jacquemin, Denis; Perpète, Eric A; Ciofini, Ilaria; Adamo, Carlo

    2009-02-17

    Since Antiquity, humans have produced and commercialized dyes. To this day, extraction of natural dyes often requires lengthy and costly procedures. In the 19th century, global markets and new industrial products drove a significant effort to synthesize artificial dyes, characterized by low production costs, huge quantities, and new optical properties (colors). Dyes that encompass classes of molecules absorbing in the UV-visible part of the electromagnetic spectrum now have a wider range of applications, including coloring (textiles, food, paintings), energy production (photovoltaic cells, OLEDs), or pharmaceuticals (diagnostics, drugs). Parallel to the growth in dye applications, researchers have increased their efforts to design and synthesize new dyes to customize absorption and emission properties. In particular, dyes containing one or more metallic centers allow for the construction of fairly sophisticated systems capable of selectively reacting to light of a given wavelength and behaving as molecular devices (photochemical molecular devices, PMDs).Theoretical tools able to predict and interpret the excited-state properties of organic and inorganic dyes allow for an efficient screening of photochemical centers. In this Account, we report recent developments defining a quantitative ab initio protocol (based on time-dependent density functional theory) for modeling dye spectral properties. In particular, we discuss the importance of several parameters, such as the methods used for electronic structure calculations, solvent effects, and statistical treatments. In addition, we illustrate the performance of such simulation tools through case studies. We also comment on current weak points of these methods and ways to improve them.

  7. Prenatal diagnosis in multiple pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Taylor, M J; Fisk, N M

    2000-08-01

    Fetal abnormality is more common in multiple than in singleton pregnancies. This, together with the requirement to consider the risks with at least two babies to sample correctly each fetus and to undertake accurately-targeted selective termination, amounts to a major challenge for obstetricians involved in prenatal diagnosis. Early determination of chorionicity should be routine, since this influences not only the genetic risks but also the invasive procedure chosen for karyotyping or genotyping. Assessment of nuchal translucency identifies individual fetuses at risk of trisomy. Contrary to expectation, invasive procedures in twins appear to have procedure-related miscarriage rates that are similar to those in singletons. Instead, contamination remains a concern at chorionic villus sampling. Elective late karyotyping of fetuses may have a role in some countries. Whereas management options for discordant fetal abnormality are relatively straightforward in dichorionic pregnancies, monochorionic pregnancies are at risk of co-twin sequelae after any single intrauterine death. Techniques have now been developed to occlude completely the cord vasculature by laser and/or ultrasound guided bipolar diathermy. Given the complexities associated with prenatal diagnosis, all invasive procedures in multiple pregnancies should be performed in tertiary referral centres.

  8. Diagnosis of Carpal Tunnel Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Keith, Michael Warren; Masear, Victoria; Chung, Kevin; Maupin, Kent; Andary, Michael; Amadio, Peter C.; Barth, Richard W.; Watters, William C.; Goldberg, Michael J.; Haralson, Robert H.; Turkelson, Charles M.; Wies, Janet L.

    2016-01-01

    This clinical practice guideline was created to improve patient care by outlining the appropriate information-gathering and decision-making processes involved in managing the diagnosis of carpal tunnel syndrome. The methods used to develop this clinical practice guideline were designed to combat bias, enhance transparency, and promote reproducibility. The guideline’s recommendations are as follows: The physician should obtain an accurate patient history. The physician should perform a physical examination of the patient that may include personal characteristics as well as performing a sensory examination, manual muscle testing of the upper extremity, and provocative and/or discriminatory tests for alternative diagnoses. The physician may obtain electrodiagnostic tests to differentiate among diagnoses. This may be done in the presence of thenar atrophy and/or persistent numbness. The physician should obtain electrodiagnostic tests when clinical and/or provocative tests are positive and surgical management is being considered. If the physician orders electrodiagnostic tests, the testing protocol should follow the American Academy of Neurology/American Association of Neuromuscular and Electrodiagnostic Medicine/American Academy of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation guidelines for diagnosis of carpal tunnel syndrome. In addition, the physician should not routinely evaluate patients suspected of having carpal tunnel syndrome with new technology, such as magnetic resonance imaging, computed tomography, and pressure-specified sensorimotor devices in the wrist and hand. This decision was based on an additional nonsystematic literature review following the face-to-face meeting of the work group. PMID:19474448

  9. CBCT Use in Endodontic Diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Beach, David A

    2016-02-01

    Endodontic diagnosis and treatment planning has taken a giant leap forward due to introduction of CBCT in dentistry. While conventional 2-D radiographs remain the most cost-effective and routine method to evaluate a patient’s dentition, their diagnostic potential is limited. The 3-D manipulation of images that CBCT offers provides better insight into diagnostic dilemmas and complicate treatment decisions. Despite the advantages of CBCT imaging, it should be used complimentary to 2-D radiography, not as a replacement. The principle of ALARA (in which patients should be exposed to radiation “as low as reasonably achievable”), still applies to this technology. CBCT should not be used routinely in the absence of clinical signs or symptoms that necessitate a more in-depth view of a tooth and surrounding structures. In other words, if a conventional 2-D radiograph will suffice, then a CBCT pretreatment scan is not necessary. However, if more information is needed to make an accurate diagnosis, a 3-D CBCT image is justified and highly beneficial as shown through several case examples share in this article.

  10. 77 FR 3800 - Accurate NDE & Inspection, LLC; Confirmatory Order

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-25

    ... COMMISSION Accurate NDE & Inspection, LLC; Confirmatory Order In the Matter of Accurate NDE & Docket: 150... request ADR with the NRC in an attempt to resolve issues associated with this matter. In response, on August 9, 2011, Accurate NDE requested ADR to resolve this matter with the NRC. On September 28,...

  11. Fault diagnosis of nonlinear and large-scale processes using novel modified kernel Fisher discriminant analysis approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Huaitao; Liu, Jianchang; Wu, Yuhou; Zhang, Ke; Zhang, Lixiu; Xue, Peng

    2016-04-01

    It is pretty significant for fault diagnosis timely and accurately to improve the dependability of industrial processes. In this study, fault diagnosis of nonlinear and large-scale processes by variable-weighted kernel Fisher discriminant analysis (KFDA) based on improved biogeography-based optimisation (IBBO) is proposed, referred to as IBBO-KFDA, where IBBO is used to determine the parameters of variable-weighted KFDA, and variable-weighted KFDA is used to solve the multi-classification overlapping problem. The main contributions of this work are four-fold to further improve the performance of KFDA for fault diagnosis. First, a nonlinear fault diagnosis approach with variable-weighted KFDA is developed for maximising separation between the overlapping fault samples. Second, kernel parameters and features selection of variable-weighted KFDA are simultaneously optimised using IBBO. Finally, a single fitness function that combines erroneous diagnosis rate with feature cost is created, a novel mixed kernel function is introduced to improve the classification capability in the feature space and diagnosis accuracy of the IBBO-KFDA, and serves as the target function in the optimisation problem. Moreover, an IBBO approach is developed to obtain the better quality of solution and faster convergence speed. On the one hand, the proposed IBBO-KFDA method is first used on Tennessee Eastman process benchmark data sets to validate the feasibility and efficiency. On the other hand, IBBO-KFDA is applied to diagnose faults of automation gauge control system. Simulation results demonstrate that IBBO-KFDA can obtain better kernel parameters and feature vectors with a lower computing cost, higher diagnosis accuracy and a better real-time capacity.

  12. 43 CFR 3275.15 - How accurately must I measure my production and utilization?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... production and utilization? 3275.15 Section 3275.15 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public...) GEOTHERMAL RESOURCE LEASING Conducting Utilization Operations § 3275.15 How accurately must I measure my production and utilization? It depends on whether you use a meter to calculate Federal production or...

  13. 43 CFR 3275.15 - How accurately must I measure my production and utilization?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... production and utilization? 3275.15 Section 3275.15 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public...) GEOTHERMAL RESOURCE LEASING Conducting Utilization Operations § 3275.15 How accurately must I measure my production and utilization? It depends on whether you use a meter to calculate Federal production or...

  14. 43 CFR 3275.15 - How accurately must I measure my production and utilization?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... production and utilization? 3275.15 Section 3275.15 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public...) GEOTHERMAL RESOURCE LEASING Conducting Utilization Operations § 3275.15 How accurately must I measure my production and utilization? It depends on whether you use a meter to calculate Federal production or...

  15. Sample Size Requirements for Accurate Estimation of Squared Semi-Partial Correlation Coefficients.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Algina, James; Moulder, Bradley C.; Moser, Barry K.

    2002-01-01

    Studied the sample size requirements for accurate estimation of squared semi-partial correlation coefficients through simulation studies. Results show that the sample size necessary for adequate accuracy depends on: (1) the population squared multiple correlation coefficient (p squared); (2) the population increase in p squared; and (3) the…

  16. Short-term retention of relational memory in amnesia revisited: accurate performance depends on hippocampal integrity

    PubMed Central

    Yee, Lydia T. S.; Hannula, Deborah E.; Tranel, Daniel; Cohen, Neal J.

    2014-01-01

    Traditionally, it has been proposed that the hippocampus and adjacent medial temporal lobe cortical structures are selectively critical for long-term declarative memory, which entails memory for inter-item and item-context relationships. Whether the hippocampus might also contribute to short-term retention of relational memory representations has remained controversial. In two experiments, we revisit this question by testing memory for relationships among items embedded in scenes using a standard working memory trial structure in which a sample stimulus is followed by a brief delay and the corresponding test stimulus. In each experimental block, eight trials using different exemplars of the same scene were presented. The exemplars contained the same items but with different spatial relationships among them. By repeating the pictures across trials, any potential contributions of item or scene memory to performance were minimized, and relational memory could be assessed more directly than has been done previously. When test displays were presented, participants indicated whether any of the item-location relationships had changed. Then, regardless of their responses (and whether any item did change its location), participants indicated on a forced-choice test, which item might have moved, guessing if necessary. Amnesic patients were impaired on the change detection test, and were frequently unable to specify the change after having reported correctly that a change had taken place. Comparison participants, by contrast, frequently identified the change even when they failed to report the mismatch, an outcome that speaks to the sensitivity of the change specification measure. These results confirm past reports of hippocampal contributions to short-term retention of relational memory representations, and suggest that the role of the hippocampus in memory has more to do with relational memory requirements than the length of a retention interval. PMID:24478681

  17. Short-term retention of relational memory in amnesia revisited: accurate performance depends on hippocampal integrity.

    PubMed

    Yee, Lydia T S; Hannula, Deborah E; Tranel, Daniel; Cohen, Neal J

    2014-01-01

    Traditionally, it has been proposed that the hippocampus and adjacent medial temporal lobe cortical structures are selectively critical for long-term declarative memory, which entails memory for inter-item and item-context relationships. Whether the hippocampus might also contribute to short-term retention of relational memory representations has remained controversial. In two experiments, we revisit this question by testing memory for relationships among items embedded in scenes using a standard working memory trial structure in which a sample stimulus is followed by a brief delay and the corresponding test stimulus. In each experimental block, eight trials using different exemplars of the same scene were presented. The exemplars contained the same items but with different spatial relationships among them. By repeating the pictures across trials, any potential contributions of item or scene memory to performance were minimized, and relational memory could be assessed more directly than has been done previously. When test displays were presented, participants indicated whether any of the item-location relationships had changed. Then, regardless of their responses (and whether any item did change its location), participants indicated on a forced-choice test, which item might have moved, guessing if necessary. Amnesic patients were impaired on the change detection test, and were frequently unable to specify the change after having reported correctly that a change had taken place. Comparison participants, by contrast, frequently identified the change even when they failed to report the mismatch, an outcome that speaks to the sensitivity of the change specification measure. These results confirm past reports of hippocampal contributions to short-term retention of relational memory representations, and suggest that the role of the hippocampus in memory has more to do with relational memory requirements than the length of a retention interval.

  18. [Cluster headache differential diagnosis].

    PubMed

    Guégan-Massardier, Evelyne; Laubier, Cécile

    2015-11-01

    Cluster headache is characterized by disabling stereotyped headache. Early diagnosis allows appropriate treatment, unfortunately diagnostic errors are frequent. The main differential diagnoses are other primary or essential headaches. Migraine, more frequent and whose diagnosis is carried by excess, trigeminal neuralgia or other trigemino-autonomic cephalgia. Vascular or tumoral underlying condition can mimic cluster headache, neck and brain imaging is recommended, ideally MRI.

  19. Recent tuberculosis diagnosis toward the end TB strategy.

    PubMed

    Cheon, Seon Ah; Cho, Hyun Hee; Kim, Jeonghyo; Lee, Jaebeom; Kim, Hwa-Jung; Park, Tae Jung

    2016-04-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) is an infectious bacterial disease caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Despite global TB eradication efforts, it is still a global public health concern, especially in low- and middle-income countries. Most of the active TB infections are curable with early diagnosis and appropriate treatment, but drug-resistant TB is difficult and expensive to treat in immunocompetent as well as immunocompromised individuals. Thus, rapid, economic, and accurate point-of care tools for TB diagnosis are required urgently. This review describes the history of M. tuberculosis detection methods up to date and the recent advances using nanotechnology for point-of-care testing of TB diagnosis.

  20. [Pay attention to the imaging diagnosis of complex anal fistula].

    PubMed

    Zhou, Zhiyang

    2015-12-01

    The diagnosis and treatment of complex anal fistula has been a significant challenge. Unwise incision and excessive exploration will lead to the secondary branch, sinus and perforation. A simple fistula may become a surgical problem and result in disastrous consequences. Preoperative accurate diagnosis of anal fistula, including in the internal opening, primary track and location of the fistula, extensions and abscess, is important for anal fistula treatment. In the diagnosis of anal fistula, imaging examination, especially MRI plays a crucial role. Localization and demarcation of anal fistula and the relationship with sphincter are important. MRI has been an indispensable confirmatory imaging examination.

  1. Diagnosis and treatment of septic arthritis.

    PubMed

    Morton, Alison J

    2005-12-01

    Septic arthritis (SA) is a common orthopedic condition encountered in horses that are presented to equine veterinarians. Successful out-come is dependent on prompt and thorough evaluation and treatment. This article briefly reviews the pathophysiology, outlines diagnostics, describes treatment options and prognostics, and discusses current research in diagnosis and treatment of SA.

  2. AN ACCURATE FLUX DENSITY SCALE FROM 1 TO 50 GHz

    SciTech Connect

    Perley, R. A.; Butler, B. J. E-mail: BButler@nrao.edu

    2013-02-15

    We develop an absolute flux density scale for centimeter-wavelength astronomy by combining accurate flux density ratios determined by the Very Large Array between the planet Mars and a set of potential calibrators with the Rudy thermophysical emission model of Mars, adjusted to the absolute scale established by the Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe. The radio sources 3C123, 3C196, 3C286, and 3C295 are found to be varying at a level of less than {approx}5% per century at all frequencies between 1 and 50 GHz, and hence are suitable as flux density standards. We present polynomial expressions for their spectral flux densities, valid from 1 to 50 GHz, with absolute accuracy estimated at 1%-3% depending on frequency. Of the four sources, 3C286 is the most compact and has the flattest spectral index, making it the most suitable object on which to establish the spectral flux density scale. The sources 3C48, 3C138, 3C147, NGC 7027, NGC 6542, and MWC 349 show significant variability on various timescales. Polynomial coefficients for the spectral flux density are developed for 3C48, 3C138, and 3C147 for each of the 17 observation dates, spanning 1983-2012. The planets Venus, Uranus, and Neptune are included in our observations, and we derive their brightness temperatures over the same frequency range.

  3. Raman Spectroscopy as an Accurate Probe of Defects in Graphene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodriguez-Nieva, Joaquin; Barros, Eduardo; Saito, Riichiro; Dresselhaus, Mildred

    2014-03-01

    Raman Spectroscopy has proved to be an invaluable non-destructive technique that allows us to obtain intrinsic information about graphene. Furthermore, defect-induced Raman features, namely the D and D' bands, have previously been used to assess the purity of graphitic samples. However, quantitative studies of the signatures of the different types of defects on the Raman spectra is still an open problem. Experimental results already suggest that the Raman intensity ratio ID /ID' may allow us to identify the nature of the defects. We study from a theoretical point of view the power and limitations of Raman spectroscopy in the study of defects in graphene. We derive an analytic model that describes the Double Resonance Raman process of disordered graphene samples, and which explicitly shows the role played by both the defect-dependent parameters as well as the experimentally-controlled variables. We compare our model with previous Raman experiments, and use it to guide new ways in which defects in graphene can be accurately probed with Raman spectroscopy. We acknowledge support from NSF grant DMR1004147.

  4. Rapid Accurate Identification of Bacterial and Viral Pathogens

    SciTech Connect

    Dunn, John

    2007-03-09

    The goals of this program were to develop two assays for rapid, accurate identification of pathogenic organisms at the strain level. The first assay "Quantitative Genome Profiling or QGP" is a real time PCR assay with a restriction enzyme-based component. Its underlying concept is that certain enzymes should cleave genomic DNA at many sites and that in some cases these cuts will interrupt the connection on the genomic DNA between flanking PCR primer pairs thereby eliminating selected PCR amplifications. When this occurs the appearance of the real-time PCR threshold (Ct) signal during DNA amplification is totally eliminated or, if cutting is incomplete, greatly delayed compared to an uncut control. This temporal difference in appearance of the Ct signal relative to undigested control DNA provides a rapid, high-throughput approach for DNA-based identification of different but closely related pathogens depending upon the nucleotide sequence of the target region. The second assay we developed uses the nucleotide sequence of pairs of shmi identifier tags (-21 bp) to identify DNA molecules. Subtle differences in linked tag pair combinations can also be used to distinguish between closely related isolates..

  5. Fast, accurate, robust and Open Source Brain Extraction Tool (OSBET)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Namias, R.; Donnelly Kehoe, P.; D'Amato, J. P.; Nagel, J.

    2015-12-01

    The removal of non-brain regions in neuroimaging is a critical task to perform a favorable preprocessing. The skull-stripping depends on different factors including the noise level in the image, the anatomy of the subject being scanned and the acquisition sequence. For these and other reasons, an ideal brain extraction method should be fast, accurate, user friendly, open-source and knowledge based (to allow for the interaction with the algorithm in case the expected outcome is not being obtained), producing stable results and making it possible to automate the process for large datasets. There are already a large number of validated tools to perform this task but none of them meets the desired characteristics. In this paper we introduced an open source brain extraction tool (OSBET), composed of four steps using simple well-known operations such as: optimal thresholding, binary morphology, labeling and geometrical analysis that aims to assemble all the desired features. We present an experiment comparing OSBET with other six state-of-the-art techniques against a publicly available dataset consisting of 40 T1-weighted 3D scans and their corresponding manually segmented images. OSBET gave both: a short duration with an excellent accuracy, getting the best Dice Coefficient metric. Further validation should be performed, for instance, in unhealthy population, to generalize its usage for clinical purposes.

  6. An accurate moving boundary formulation in cut-cell methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schneiders, Lennart; Hartmann, Daniel; Meinke, Matthias; Schröder, Wolfgang

    2013-02-01

    A cut-cell method for Cartesian meshes to simulate viscous compressible flows with moving boundaries is presented. We focus on eliminating unphysical oscillations occurring in Cartesian grid methods extended to moving-boundary problems. In these methods, cells either lie completely in the fluid or solid region or are intersected by the boundary. For the latter cells, the time dependent volume fraction lying in the fluid region can be so small that explicit time-integration schemes become unstable and a special treatment of these cells is necessary. When the boundary moves, a fluid cell may become a cut cell or a solid cell may become a small cell at the next time level. This causes an abrupt change in the discretization operator and a suddenly modified truncation error of the numerical scheme. This temporally discontinuous alteration is shown to act like an unphysical source term, which deteriorates the numerical solution, i.e., it generates unphysical oscillations in the hydrodynamic forces exerted on the moving boundary. We develop an accurate moving boundary formulation based on the varying discretization operators yielding a cut-cell method which avoids these discontinuities. Results for canonical two- and three-dimensional test cases evidence the accuracy and robustness of the newly developed scheme.

  7. Revisit to three-dimensional percolation theory: Accurate analysis for highly stretchable conductive composite materials

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Sangwoo; Choi, Seongdae; Oh, Eunho; Byun, Junghwan; Kim, Hyunjong; Lee, Byeongmoon; Lee, Seunghwan; Hong, Yongtaek

    2016-01-01

    A percolation theory based on variation of conductive filler fraction has been widely used to explain the behavior of conductive composite materials under both small and large deformation conditions. However, it typically fails in properly analyzing the materials under the large deformation since the assumption may not be valid in such a case. Therefore, we proposed a new three-dimensional percolation theory by considering three key factors: nonlinear elasticity, precisely measured strain-dependent Poisson’s ratio, and strain-dependent percolation threshold. Digital image correlation (DIC) method was used to determine actual Poisson’s ratios at various strain levels, which were used to accurately estimate variation of conductive filler volume fraction under deformation. We also adopted strain-dependent percolation threshold caused by the filler re-location with deformation. When three key factors were considered, electrical performance change was accurately analyzed for composite materials with both isotropic and anisotropic mechanical properties. PMID:27694856

  8. Revisit to three-dimensional percolation theory: Accurate analysis for highly stretchable conductive composite materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Sangwoo; Choi, Seongdae; Oh, Eunho; Byun, Junghwan; Kim, Hyunjong; Lee, Byeongmoon; Lee, Seunghwan; Hong, Yongtaek

    2016-10-01

    A percolation theory based on variation of conductive filler fraction has been widely used to explain the behavior of conductive composite materials under both small and large deformation conditions. However, it typically fails in properly analyzing the materials under the large deformation since the assumption may not be valid in such a case. Therefore, we proposed a new three-dimensional percolation theory by considering three key factors: nonlinear elasticity, precisely measured strain-dependent Poisson’s ratio, and strain-dependent percolation threshold. Digital image correlation (DIC) method was used to determine actual Poisson’s ratios at various strain levels, which were used to accurately estimate variation of conductive filler volume fraction under deformation. We also adopted strain-dependent percolation threshold caused by the filler re-location with deformation. When three key factors were considered, electrical performance change was accurately analyzed for composite materials with both isotropic and anisotropic mechanical properties.

  9. Diffuse lung disease of infancy: a pattern-based, algorithmic approach to histological diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Armes, Jane E; Mifsud, William; Ashworth, Michael

    2015-02-01

    Diffuse lung disease (DLD) of infancy has multiple aetiologies and the spectrum of disease is substantially different from that seen in older children and adults. In many cases, a specific diagnosis renders a dire prognosis for the infant, with profound management implications. Two recently published series of DLD of infancy, collated from the archives of specialist centres, indicate that the majority of their cases were referred, implying that the majority of biopsies taken for DLD of infancy are first received by less experienced pathologists. The current literature describing DLD of infancy takes a predominantly aetiological approach to classification. We present an algorithmic, histological, pattern-based approach to diagnosis of DLD of infancy, which, with the aid of appropriate multidisciplinary input, including clinical and radiological expertise and ancillary diagnostic studies, may lead to an accurate and useful interim report, with timely exclusion of inappropriate diagnoses. Subsequent referral to a specialist centre for confirmatory diagnosis will be dependent on the individual case and the decision of the multidisciplinary team.

  10. Highly automated computer-aided diagnosis of neurological disorders using functional brain imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spetsieris, P. G.; Ma, Y.; Dhawan, V.; Moeller, J. R.; Eidelberg, D.

    2006-03-01

    We have implemented a highly automated analytical method for computer aided diagnosis (CAD) of neurological disorders using functional brain imaging that is based on the Scaled Subprofile Model (SSM). Accurate diagnosis of functional brain disorders such as Parkinson's disease is often difficult clinically, particularly in early stages. Using principal component analysis (PCA) in conjunction with SSM on brain images of patients and normals, we can identify characteristic abnormal network covariance patterns which provide a subject dependent scalar score that not only discriminates a particular disease but also correlates with independent measures of disease severity. These patterns represent disease-specific brain networks that have been shown to be highly reproducible in distinct groups of patients. Topographic Profile Rating (TPR) is a reverse SSM computational algorithm that can be used to determine subject scores for new patients on a prospective basis. In our implementation, reference values for a full range of patients and controls are automatically accessed for comparison. We also implemented an automated recalibration step to produce reference scores for images generated in a different imaging environment from that used in the initial network derivation. New subjects under the same setting can then be evaluated individually and a simple report is generated indicating the subject's classification. For scores near the normal limits, additional criteria are used to make a definitive diagnosis. With further refinement, automated TPR can be used to efficiently assess disease severity, monitor disease progression and evaluate treatment efficacy.

  11. [Clinical and radiological diagnosis of community-acquired pneumonia in adults].

    PubMed

    Gil D, Rodrigo; Fernández V, Patricia; Sabbagh P, Eduardo

    2005-01-01

    Community acquired pneumonia in adults is an acute disease characterized by worsening in general conditions, fever, chills, cough, mucopurulent sputum and dyspnea; associated with tachycardia, tachypnea, fever and focal signs in pulmonary examination. The probability of pneumonia in a patient with acute respiratory symptoms depends on the disease prevalence in the environment where it is acquired and on clinical features. It is estimated that pneumonia prevalence is 3-5% in patients with respiratory disease seen in outpatient facilities. Clinical diagnosis of pneumonia without radiological confirmation lacks specificity because clinical presentation (history and physical examination) does not allow to differentiate pneumonia from other acute respiratory diseases (upper respiratory infections, bronchitis, influenza). Diagnosis must be based in clinical-radiological findings: clinical history and physical examination suggest the presence of pulmonary infection but accurate diagnosis is established when chest X ray confirms the existence of pulmonary infiltrates. Clinical findings and chest X ray do not permit to predict with certainty the etiology of pulmonary infection. Radiology is useful to confirm clinical suspicion, it establishes pneumonia location, its extension and severity; furthermore, it allows differentiation between pneumonia and other diseases, to detect possible complications, and may be useful in follow up of high risk patients. The resolution of radiological infiltrates often ensues several weeks or months after clinical recovery, especially in the elderly and in multilobar pneumonia cared for in intensive care units.

  12. Diagnosis of congenital fibrinogen disorders.

    PubMed

    Lebreton, Aurélien; Casini, Alessandro

    2016-08-01

    Congenital fibrinogen disorders comprise quantitative disorders defined by a complete absence (afibrinogenemia) or by a decreased level (hypofibrinogenemia) of circulating fibrinogen and qualitative disorders characterized by a discrepancy between the activity and the antigenic levels of fibrinogen (dysfibrinogenemia and hypodysfibrinogenemia). The biological diagnosis is based on a standard haemostasis assessment. All the coagulation tests that depend on the formation of fibrin as the end point are affected; although in dysfibrinogenemia the specificity and sensitivity of routine test depend on reagent and techniques. A genetic exploration permits to confirm the diagnosis and may enhance the prediction of the patient's phenotype. Homozygous or composite heterozygous null mutations are most often responsible for afibrinogenemia while hypofibrinogenemic patients are mainly heterozygous carrier of an afibrinogenemic allele. Heterozygous missense mutations are prevalent in dysfibrinogenemia, with two hot spot localized in exon 2 of the FGA and in the exon 8 of the FGG. The correlation between phenotype and genotype has been identified in some fibrinogen variants, including six mutations clustered in exons 8 and 9 of the FGG leading to hypofibrinogenemia with hepatic inclusions of abnormal fibrinogen aggregates as well as a few mutations associated with an increase risk of thrombotic events. A familial screening and additional functional assays should be carried out when possible.

  13. Neurofibromatoses: part 1 - diagnosis and differential diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, Luiz Oswaldo Carneiro; Batista, Pollyanna Barros; Goloni-Bertollo, Eny Maria; de Souza-Costa, Danielle; Eliam, Lucas; Eliam, Miguel; Cunha, Karin Soares Gonçalves; Darrigo-Junior, Luiz Guilherme; Ferraz-Filho, José Roberto Lopes; Geller, Mauro; Gianordoli-Nascimento, Ingrid F; Madeira, Luciana Gonçalves; Malloy-Diniz, Leandro Fernandes; Mendes, Hérika Martins; de Miranda, Débora Marques; Pavarino, Erika Cristina; Baptista-Pereira, Luciana; Rezende, Nilton A; Rodrigues, Luíza de Oliveira; da Silva, Carla Menezes; de Souza, Juliana Ferreira; de Souza, Márcio Leandro Ribeiro; Stangherlin, Aline; Valadares, Eugênia Ribeiro; Vidigal, Paula Vieira Teixeira

    2014-03-01

    Neurofibromatoses (NF) are a group of genetic multiple tumor growing predisposition diseases: neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1), neurofibromatosis type 2 (NF2) and schwannomatosis (SCH), which have in common the neural origin of tumors and cutaneous signs. They affect nearly 80 thousand of Brazilians. In recent years, the increased scientific knowledge on NF has allowed better clinical management and reduced complication morbidity, resulting in higher quality of life for NF patients. In most cases, neurology, psychiatry, dermatology, clinical geneticists, oncology and internal medicine specialists are able to make the differential diagnosis between NF and other diseases and to identify major NF complications. Nevertheless, due to its great variability in phenotype expression, progressive course, multiple organs involvement and unpredictable natural evolution, NF often requires the support of neurofibromatoses specialists for proper treatment and genetic counseling. This Part 1 offers step-by-step guidelines for NF differential diagnosis. Part 2 will present the NF clinical management.

  14. Life and death diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Chadwick, David; Jelen, Paddy; Almond, Solomon

    2010-06-01

    The differential diagnosis of episodes of transient loss of consciousness can be straightforward but can also present some of the greatest diagnostic difficulties. In most circumstances, when there is uncertainty, usually when there have been only one or a few poorly observed events, it may be reasonable to admit to that uncertainty and await any further events to clarify the diagnosis. We have reason to know from bitter experience that this is not always the case and that more rigorous consideration of investigation may be justified rather than allowing the passage of time to clarify the diagnosis.

  15. Improving molecular diagnosis of aniridia and WAGR syndrome using customized targeted array-based CGH

    PubMed Central

    Vallespín, Elena; Villaverde, Cristina; Martín-Arenas, Rubén; Vélez-Monsalve, Camilo; Lorda-Sánchez, Isabel; Nevado, Julián; Trujillo-Tiebas, María José; Lapunzina, Pablo; Ayuso, Carmen; Corton, Marta

    2017-01-01

    Chromosomal deletions at 11p13 are a frequent cause of congenital Aniridia, a rare pan-ocular genetic disease, and of WAGR syndrome, accounting up to 30% of cases. First-tier genetic testing for newborn with aniridia, to detect 11p13 rearrangements, includes Multiplex Ligation-dependent Probe Amplification (MLPA) and karyotyping. However, neither of these approaches allow obtaining a complete picture of the high complexity of chromosomal deletions and breakpoints in aniridia. Here, we report the development and validation of a customized targeted array-based comparative genomic hybridization, so called WAGR-array, for comprehensive high-resolution analysis of CNV in the WAGR locus. Our approach increased the detection rate in a Spanish cohort of 38 patients with aniridia, WAGR syndrome and other related ocular malformations, allowing to characterize four undiagnosed aniridia cases, and to confirm MLPA findings in four additional patients. For all patients, breakpoints were accurately established and a contiguous deletion syndrome, involving a large number of genes, was identified in three patients. Moreover, we identified novel microdeletions affecting 3' PAX6 regulatory regions in three families with isolated aniridia. This tool represents a good strategy for the genetic diagnosis of aniridia and associated syndromes, allowing for a more accurate CNVs detection, as well as a better delineation of breakpoints. Our results underline the clinical importance of performing exhaustive and accurate analysis of chromosomal rearrangements for patients with aniridia, especially newborns and those without defects in PAX6 after diagnostic screening. PMID:28231309

  16. About Vulvodynia: Diagnosis

    MedlinePlus

    ... Menu Search Join Now Sign In Search YouTube Facebook Donate Now What is Vulvodynia? Vulvar Anatomy What Causes Vulvodynia? Diagnosis Vulvodynia Treatments About Us History Staff Medical Advisory Board Contact Us For Patients ...

  17. Plague Diagnosis and Treatment

    MedlinePlus

    ... Search Form Controls Cancel Submit Search The CDC Plague Note: Javascript is disabled or is not supported ... message, please visit this page: About CDC.gov . Plague Home Ecology & Transmission Symptoms Diagnosis & Treatment Maps & Statistics ...

  18. Diagnosis of Leishmaniasis

    MedlinePlus

    ... the parasite can be helpful for cases of visceral leishmaniasis; tests to look for the parasite itself usually also are done. More on: Resources for Health Professionals: Diagnosis Get Email Updates To receive email updates about ...

  19. [Rapid diagnosis in serology].

    PubMed

    García-Bermejo, Isabel; de Ory, Fernando

    2017-02-06

    Serological diagnosis of acute phase infections implies the detection of IgM specific response, an effective marker of primary infection, but with less clinical significance in reactivations or reinfections. The aim of this article is to provide an updated view of the rapid diagnosis in serology by detecting the IgM isotype and reviewing its applications and limitations. Point-of-care (PoC) tests are analyzed. PoC tests are used in geographical areas where traditional tests are not available, as well as in other circumstances where their use brings the diagnosis directly to the target population. Likewise, their use reduces the response time between taking the sample and the diagnosis, making it easier to make clinical decisions. PoC assays have proven cost-effective, especially in preventing vertical transmission of syphilis and HIV infection.

  20. Pubic "Crab" Lice Diagnosis

    MedlinePlus

    ... please visit this page: About CDC.gov . Lice Head Lice General Information Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs) Treatment FAQs Malathion FAQs Epidemiology & Risk Factors Disease Biology Diagnosis Treatment Prevention & Control ...

  1. Salmonella Diagnosis and Treatment

    MedlinePlus

    ... the diagnosis is confirmed, or in laboratory-terms, “culture confirmed.” Clinical diagnostic laboratories report the test results ... or viruses, which share distinctive surface chemical structures Culture: Growing bacteria, viruses, and other living matter in ...

  2. Atrial Fibrillation: Diagnosis

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page please turn JavaScript on. Feature: Atrial Fibrillation Atrial Fibrillation: Diagnosis Past Issues / Winter 2015 Table of Contents ... your body's cells and organs. Read More "Atrial Fibrillation" Articles Atrial Fibrillation / Who Is at Risk for ...

  3. Diagnosis of hepatitis B

    PubMed Central

    Song, Jeong Eun

    2016-01-01

    Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is a major global health problems leading to severe liver disease such as cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). HBV is a circular, partly double-stranded DNA virus with various serological markers: hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) and anti-HBs, anti-HBc IgM and IgG, and hepatitis B e antigen (HBeAg) and anti-HBe. It is transmitted by sexual, parenteral and vertical route. One significant method to diminish the burden of this disease is timely diagnosis of acute, chronic and occult cases of HBV. First step of HBV diagnosis is achieved by using serological markers for detecting antigens and antibodies. In order to verify first step of diagnosis, to quantify viral load and to identify genotypes, quantitative or qualitative molecular tests are used. In this article, the serological and molecular tests for diagnosis of HBV infection will be reviewed. PMID:27761442

  4. Diagnosis of Osteoporosis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wahner, H. W.

    1987-01-01

    Early recognition of osteoporosis is difficult because symptoms are lacking and there are no distinct, readily accessible diagnostic features. This article reviews the standard approach, radiographic and laboratory diagnosis, bone mass measurement techniques, and interpretation of bone mineral data. (MT)

  5. PTSD: Symptoms, Diagnosis, Treatment

    MedlinePlus

    ... Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Feature PTSD Symptoms, Diagnosis , Treatment Past Issues / Winter 2009 Table of Contents ... version of this page please turn Javascript on. Symptoms As with mild traumatic brain injury (TBI), PTSD ...

  6. Dementia: Diagnosis and Tests

    MedlinePlus

    ... our e-newsletter! Aging & Health A to Z Dementia Diagnosis & Tests If you or someone you care ... To determine whether an older adult might have dementia, a healthcare professional will: Ask about the person’s ...

  7. Automatic classification and accurate size measurement of blank mask defects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhamidipati, Samir; Paninjath, Sankaranarayanan; Pereira, Mark; Buck, Peter

    2015-07-01

    A blank mask and its preparation stages, such as cleaning or resist coating, play an important role in the eventual yield obtained by using it. Blank mask defects' impact analysis directly depends on the amount of available information such as the number of defects observed, their accurate locations and sizes. Mask usability qualification at the start of the preparation process, is crudely based on number of defects. Similarly, defect information such as size is sought to estimate eventual defect printability on the wafer. Tracking of defect characteristics, specifically size and shape, across multiple stages, can further be indicative of process related information such as cleaning or coating process efficiencies. At the first level, inspection machines address the requirement of defect characterization by detecting and reporting relevant defect information. The analysis of this information though is still largely a manual process. With advancing technology nodes and reducing half-pitch sizes, a large number of defects are observed; and the detailed knowledge associated, make manual defect review process an arduous task, in addition to adding sensitivity to human errors. Cases where defect information reported by inspection machine is not sufficient, mask shops rely on other tools. Use of CDSEM tools is one such option. However, these additional steps translate into increased costs. Calibre NxDAT based MDPAutoClassify tool provides an automated software alternative to the manual defect review process. Working on defect images generated by inspection machines, the tool extracts and reports additional information such as defect location, useful for defect avoidance[4][5]; defect size, useful in estimating defect printability; and, defect nature e.g. particle, scratch, resist void, etc., useful for process monitoring. The tool makes use of smart and elaborate post-processing algorithms to achieve this. Their elaborateness is a consequence of the variety and

  8. Rules for clinical diagnosis in babies with ambiguous genitalia.

    PubMed

    Low, Y; Hutson, J M

    2003-08-01

    Intersex disorders are rare and complex; yet, in each case of genital ambiguity, accurate and expeditious management is required of the clinician. This article reviews the embryology of sexual differentiation, from which some 'rules' of diagnosis are derived. A simplified approach to the interpretation of clinical signs in ambiguous genitalia is presented and discussed.

  9. If You Listen, the Patient Will Tell You the Diagnosis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holmes, Frederick

    2007-01-01

    Since the time of Hippocrates, professors in medical schools have been telling their students to listen to patients. Medical students and young doctors all come to realize that the medical history, the patient's account of his or her own illness, is the best source of information with which to make an accurate diagnosis. The physical examination,…

  10. Role of imaging modalities in diagnosis and management of pyomyositis

    SciTech Connect

    Yousefzadeh, D.K.; Mulligan, G.M.; Young, C.S.; Schumann, E.M.; Bosworth, D.E.; Pringle, K.C.

    1982-08-01

    A case of tropical pyomyositis in a temperate climate is reported and 29 more cases are reviewed from the literature. Because of its rarity and deceiving clinical presentation, the disorder may go unrecognized for weeks in nontropical regions. The role of various imaging modalities in timely and accurate diagnosis and nonsurgical management of this disorder is discussed.

  11. Diagnosis of parietaria pollinosis.

    PubMed

    García-Ortega, P; Cadahía, A; Kurdi, F I; Rodrigo, M J

    1984-10-01

    A prospective study of 54 patients showed that pollinosis due to parietaria is prevalent in Spain and frequently causes asthma and rhinitis. Because of its atypical clinical features, patients are often erroneously thought to have intrinsic asthma. False negative skin tests may occur, probably related to the type of extract used. This may contribute to a faulty diagnosis. The RAST is most useful for diagnosis.

  12. Somnambulism: Diagnosis and treatment.

    PubMed

    Bharadwaj, Rahul; Kumar, Suresh

    2007-04-01

    Somnambulism is an arousal disorder that is usually benign, self-limited and only infrequently requires treatment. Chronic sleepwalking in children has been shown to be associated with behavioral problems and poor emotional regulation. Most cases can be diagnosed with careful noting of case history and epilepsy is an important differential diagnosis. Management with pharmacological and behavioural measures is usually safe and effective. We present two cases of somnambulism that highlight the importance of the diagnosis and treatment of this condition.

  13. Molecular diagnosis of genodermatoses.

    PubMed

    Wessagowit, Vesarat

    2013-01-01

    The progress of molecular genetics helps clinicians to prove or exclude a suspected diagnosis for a vast and yet increasing number of genodermatoses. This leads to precise genetic counselling, prenatal diagnosis and preimplantation genetic haplotyping for many inherited skin conditions. It is also helpful in such occasions as phenocopy, late onset and incomplete penetrance, uniparental disomy, mitochondrial inheritance and pigmentary mosaicism. Molecular methods of two genodermatoses are explained in detail, i.e. genodermatoses with skin fragility and neurofibromatosis type 1.

  14. Predicting the diagnosis of autism spectrum disorder using gene pathway analysis

    PubMed Central

    Skafidas, E; Testa, R; Zantomio, D; Chana, G; Everall, I P; Pantelis, C

    2014-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) depends on a clinical interview with no biomarkers to aid diagnosis. The current investigation interrogated single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of individuals with ASD from the Autism Genetic Resource Exchange (AGRE) database. SNPs were mapped to Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG)-derived pathways to identify affected cellular processes and develop a diagnostic test. This test was then applied to two independent samples from the Simons Foundation Autism Research Initiative (SFARI) and Wellcome Trust 1958 normal birth cohort (WTBC) for validation. Using AGRE SNP data from a Central European (CEU) cohort, we created a genetic diagnostic classifier consisting of 237 SNPs in 146 genes that correctly predicted ASD diagnosis in 85.6% of CEU cases. This classifier also predicted 84.3% of cases in an ethnically related Tuscan cohort; however, prediction was less accurate (56.4%) in a genetically dissimilar Han Chinese cohort (HAN). Eight SNPs in three genes (KCNMB4, GNAO1, GRM5) had the largest effect in the classifier with some acting as vulnerability SNPs, whereas others were protective. Prediction accuracy diminished as the number of SNPs analyzed in the model was decreased. Our diagnostic classifier correctly predicted ASD diagnosis with an accuracy of 71.7% in CEU individuals from the SFARI (ASD) and WTBC (controls) validation data sets. In conclusion, we have developed an accurate diagnostic test for a genetically homogeneous group to aid in early detection of ASD. While SNPs differ across ethnic groups, our pathway approach identified cellular processes common to ASD across ethnicities. Our results have wide implications for detection, intervention and prevention of ASD. PMID:22965006

  15. Generalized Categorial Grammar for Unbounded Dependencies Recovery

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nguyen, Luan Viet

    2014-01-01

    Accurate recovery of predicate-argument dependencies is vital for interpretation tasks like information extraction and question answering, and unbounded dependencies may account for a significant portion of the dependencies in any given text. This thesis describes a Generalized Categorial Grammar (GCG) which, like other categorial grammars,…

  16. Diagnosis of prostatic neuroendocrine carcinoma: Two cases report and literature review

    PubMed Central

    He, Hai-Qing; Fan, Shu-Feng; Xu, Qiong; Chen, Zhen-Jing; Li, Zheng

    2015-01-01

    Two cases of prostatic neuroendocrine carcinoma (PNEC) imaged by computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and literature review are presented. Early enhanced CT, MRI, especially diffusion-weighted image were emphasized, the complementary roles of ultrasound, CT, MRI, clinical and laboratory characteristic’s features in achieving accurate diagnosis were valued in the preoperative diagnosis of PNEC. PMID:26029353

  17. [Desmoplastic fibroma. Differential diagnosis of a periapical lesion from endodontic failure].

    PubMed

    Zabalegui, B; Gil, J; Zabalegui, I

    1989-01-01

    Treatment of endodontically involved teeth requires accurate diagnosis of the clinical pulpal condition to determine the primary cause of pathosis. The case presented shows the differential diagnosis between a desmoplastic fibroma and a failure of a misdiagnosed endodontic treatment. The initial direction of treatment should had never been the endodontic therapy but local surgical curettage of the lesion.

  18. Research Areas: Diagnosis

    Cancer.gov

    Accurate information derived from diagnostic tools is crucial for making decisions at all stages of cancer care. NCI supports research on the development of tests and imaging technologies that can provide specific information about an individual’s cancer.

  19. Amyopathic dermatomyositis: definitions, diagnosis, and management.

    PubMed

    Bailey, Elizabeth E; Fiorentino, David F

    2014-12-01

    Amyopathic dermatomyositis can be a challenging diagnosis because patients lack traditional muscle findings. "Clinically amyopathic" dermatomyositis (CADM) accounts for the presence of subclinical muscle disease in some of these patients. These patients represent a substantial minority of dermatomyositis cases and have similar co-morbidities to "classic" dermatomyositis patients, including interstitial lung disease and malignancy. Clinically amyopathic dermatomyositis patients should not be considered as a distinct clinical entity from "classic" dermatomyositis, as they share antibody sub-types and associated co-morbidities, likely representing clinical spectrum of a common disease. It is essential for the clinician to be familiar with the clinical presentation of clinically amyopathic dermatomyositis, in order to facilitate early, accurate diagnosis and appropriate clinical management.

  20. Hepatobiliary Tumors: Update on Diagnosis and Management

    PubMed Central

    Kabbach, Ghassan; Assi, Hussein A; Bolotin, George; Schuster, Michael; Lee, Hwa Jeong; Tadros, Micheal

    2015-01-01

    Tumors of the liver and biliary tree, mainly hepatocellular carcinoma and cholangiocarcinoma, are the second leading cause of cancer related death worldwide and the sixth leading cause of cancer related death among men in developed countries. Recent developments in biomarkers and imaging modalities have enhanced early detection and accurate diagnosis of these highly fatal malignancies. These advances include serological testing, micro-ribonucleic acids, fluorescence in situ hybridization, contrast-enhanced ultrasound, and hepatobiliary-phase magnetic resonance imaging. In addition, there have been major developments in the surgical and nonsurgical management of these tumors, including expansion of the liver transplantation criteria, new locoregional treatments, and molecularly targeted therapies. In this article, we review various types of hepatobiliary tumors and discuss new developments in their diagnosis and management. PMID:26623263

  1. [Diagnosis of occupational chronic pulmonary diseases].

    PubMed

    Maestrelli, P; Guarnieri, G

    2010-01-01

    Occupational risk factors may induce chronic nonmalignant respiratory diseases such as pneumoconiosis, hypersensitivity pneumonitis, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), asthma or bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome. Diagnosis is well codified by international guidelines for most of these occupational diseases except for COPD. The study of occupational COPD is complicated by several issues. In fact, COPD is a multifactorial disease and has a long latency between exposure to causative agents and the occurrence of disease. The main confounding factor is smoking. The quantitative estimation of cigarette smoked is easier and more accurate than that of occupational exposure. The diagnosis of COPD is based on the presence of chronic airflow limitation at spirometry; moreover, an accelerated decline in respiratory function may be observed in the longitudinal evaluation of workers. The retrospective assignment of occupational aetiology of COPD remains difficult in individual cases, especially with a significant history of smoking.

  2. Review article: The diagnosis of coeliac disease.

    PubMed

    Abdulkarim, A S; Murray, J A

    2003-04-01

    Coeliac disease is a chronic inflammatory condition associated with small intestinal injury that results in the malabsorption of different nutrients. The damaging factor is gluten present in wheat, barley and rye. The diagnosis relies on the clinical picture of the patient, serological markers for coeliac disease, characteristic findings of small intestinal biopsy and, eventually, clinical improvement on a gluten-free diet. Our strategies for the diagnosis of coeliac disease have changed dramatically within the last 10 years. The advent of serological markers with high sensitivity and specificity is changing our understanding of the disease and its prevalence. Treatment includes a life-long gluten-free diet to prevent the recurrence of symptoms and other potential consequences. Most coeliac disease remains under-diagnosed; the utilization of more accurate serological tests and a greater awareness of its many presentations will aid its identification.

  3. [Crisis of computer diagnosis and ways of its overcoming].

    PubMed

    Neretin, V Ia; Iakushin, M A

    2003-01-01

    Despite a widespread application of computer technologies in medicine, there is currently a lack of diagnostic computer programs, meeting neurological needs. Most of the existing programs depend on some subjective factors. The authors propose their own computer program named "indicated diagnosis", and demonstrate its potential for diagnosis of peripheral monoparesis. Indicated diagnosis included testing and structuring of clinical and anatomical traits, along with the data of instrumental examination of the patients, ranging from patients complaints to establishing topic and nosologic diagnosis. Indicated diagnostics algorithm may be used for measuring of the lesions of nerves, plexuses, terminals and spinal cord segments involved in limb innervation.

  4. Antipsychotic Treatment of Adolescent Dual Diagnosis Patients

    PubMed Central

    Price, Scott A.; Brahm, Nancy C.

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND A diagnosis of schizophrenia requires development of a pharmacotherapy regimen that balances many factors in the therapeutic decision-making process. Patient age and the presence or absence of comorbid chemical dependency represent two factors. Comorbid chemical dependency can have a profound impact on the successful treatment of schizophrenia, making patients with dual diagnoses of schizophrenia and chemical dependence a uniquely challenging population. There is little information regarding treatment of schizophrenia and chemical dependence in the pediatric population. Existing data from pediatric and adult populations may facilitate a well-guided and knowledgeable approach to treating pediatric dual diagnosis patients. METHODS A review of the literature for medication trials evaluating antipsychotic medication used to treat schizophrenia in childhood and adolescence as well as antipsychotic use in the treatment of the dual diagnoses of schizophrenia and chemical dependence was done. Databases for Ovid MEDLINE, PubMed, and PsycInfo were searched using the terms “addiction,” “adolescence,” “childhood,” “dual diagnosis,” “schizophrenia,” and “substance abuse.” Results were limited to English-language articles. RESULTS Seven articles were identified related to psychotic disorders and substance abuse in pediatric populations. Psychosis measurement instruments included the Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale, Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale, and Clinical Global Impression. Mean improvements were insignificant in most cases. Medication trials included clozapine, olanzapine, risperidone, and molindone. Trial safety concerns included metabolic effects, increased prolactin levels, and akathisia. One study with random assignment to olanzapine was discontinued early because of substantial weight gain without evidence of superior efficacy. Clozapine treatment was associated with more adverse drug events. CONCLUSION There is a great need for

  5. A predictable and accurate technique with elastomeric impression materials.

    PubMed

    Barghi, N; Ontiveros, J C

    1999-08-01

    A method for obtaining more predictable and accurate final impressions with polyvinylsiloxane impression materials in conjunction with stock trays is proposed and tested. Heavy impression material is used in advance for construction of a modified custom tray, while extra-light material is used for obtaining a more accurate final impression.

  6. Tube dimpling tool assures accurate dip-brazed joints

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beuyukian, C. S.; Heisman, R. M.

    1968-01-01

    Portable, hand-held dimpling tool assures accurate brazed joints between tubes of different diameters. Prior to brazing, the tool performs precise dimpling and nipple forming and also provides control and accurate measuring of the height of nipples and depth of dimples so formed.

  7. [Affective dependency].

    PubMed

    Scantamburlo, G; Pitchot, W; Ansseau, M

    2013-01-01

    Affective dependency is characterized by emotional distress (insecure attachment) and dependency to another person with a low self-esteem and reassurance need. The paper proposes a reflection on the definition of emotional dependency and the confusion caused by various denominations. Overprotective and authoritarian parenting, cultural and socio-environmental factors may contribute to the development of dependent personality. Psychological epigenetic factors, such as early socio-emotional trauma could on neuronal circuits in prefronto-limbic regions that are essential for emotional behaviour.We also focus on the interrelations between dependent personality, domestic violence and addictions. The objective for the clinician is to propose a restoration of self-esteem and therapeutic strategies focused on autonomy.

  8. Clinical presentation, diagnosis, and prognosis of chronic laminitis in North America.

    PubMed

    Hunt, Robert J; Wharton, Robin E

    2010-04-01

    Chronic laminitis involves laminar morphologic changes resulting in digital collapse and can vary greatly in its clinical manifestation depending on duration, severity of lameness, and stability of the distal phalanx/hoof wall interface. Accurate assessment of the whole patient is mandatory and consideration must be given to signalment, occupation, and owner expectations, as well as history and etiology, which often predict the broad course of the disease. Diagnosis is made via physical examination with adjunctive serial radiographic evaluation and possibly venography. Eventual functionality of the foot is determined by structural integrity, which is dictated by the degree of morphologic damage of the soft tissue and bone architecture of the foot. Structures involved include the digital vasculature, the laminar/hoof wall interface, and the distal phalanx. Patient outcome is largely determined by the degree of instability between the distal phalanx and hoof wall, and the ultimate prognosis is further influenced by owner expectation.

  9. Subclavian Artery Disease: Diagnosis and Therapy.

    PubMed

    Saha, Tisa; Naqvi, Syed Yaseen; Ayah, Omar Abine; McCormick, Daniel; Goldberg, Sheldon

    2017-04-01

    The diagnosis of brachiocephalic disease is often overlooked. Symptoms include arm claudication and vertebrobasilar insufficiency. In patients who have had the use of the internal mammary artery for coronary bypass surgery, the development of symptoms of myocardial ischemia should alert the clinician to the possibility of subclavian artery stenosis. Also, in patients who have had axillofemoral bypass, lower-extremity claudication may occur. Recognition involves physical examination and accurate noninvasive testing. Endovascular therapy has proven to be effective in alleviating symptoms in properly selected patients.

  10. Quantum Monte Carlo: Faster, More Reliable, And More Accurate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, Amos Gerald

    2010-06-01

    The Schrodinger Equation has been available for about 83 years, but today, we still strain to apply it accurately to molecules of interest. The difficulty is not theoretical in nature, but practical, since we're held back by lack of sufficient computing power. Consequently, effort is applied to find acceptable approximations to facilitate real time solutions. In the meantime, computer technology has begun rapidly advancing and changing the way we think about efficient algorithms. For those who can reorganize their formulas to take advantage of these changes and thereby lift some approximations, incredible new opportunities await. Over the last decade, we've seen the emergence of a new kind of computer processor, the graphics card. Designed to accelerate computer games by optimizing quantity instead of quality in processor, they have become of sufficient quality to be useful to some scientists. In this thesis, we explore the first known use of a graphics card to computational chemistry by rewriting our Quantum Monte Carlo software into the requisite "data parallel" formalism. We find that notwithstanding precision considerations, we are able to speed up our software by about a factor of 6. The success of a Quantum Monte Carlo calculation depends on more than just processing power. It also requires the scientist to carefully design the trial wavefunction used to guide simulated electrons. We have studied the use of Generalized Valence Bond wavefunctions to simply, and yet effectively, captured the essential static correlation in atoms and molecules. Furthermore, we have developed significantly improved two particle correlation functions, designed with both flexibility and simplicity considerations, representing an effective and reliable way to add the necessary dynamic correlation. Lastly, we present our method for stabilizing the statistical nature of the calculation, by manipulating configuration weights, thus facilitating efficient and robust calculations. Our

  11. Highly accurate spectral retardance characterization of a liquid crystal retarder including Fabry-Perot interference effects

    SciTech Connect

    Vargas, Asticio; Mar Sánchez-López, María del; García-Martínez, Pascuala; Arias, Julia; Moreno, Ignacio

    2014-01-21

    Multiple-beam Fabry-Perot (FP) interferences occur in liquid crystal retarders (LCR) devoid of an antireflective coating. In this work, a highly accurate method to obtain the spectral retardance of such devices is presented. On the basis of a simple model of the LCR that includes FP effects and by using a voltage transfer function, we show how the FP features in the transmission spectrum can be used to accurately retrieve the ordinary and extraordinary spectral phase delays, and the voltage dependence of the latter. As a consequence, the modulation characteristics of the device are fully determined with high accuracy by means of a few off-state physical parameters which are wavelength-dependent, and a single voltage transfer function that is valid within the spectral range of characterization.

  12. Deep Learning and Insomnia: Assisting Clinicians with their Diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Shahin, Mostafa; Ahmed, Beena; Tmar-Ben Hamida, Sana; Mulaffer, Fathima; Glos, Martin; Penzel, Thomas

    2017-01-09

    Effective sleep analysis is hampered by the lack of automated tools catering for disordered sleep patterns and cumbersome monitoring hardware. In this paper, we apply deep learning on a set of 57 EEG features extracted from a maximum of two EEG channels to accurately differentiate between patients with insomnia or controls with no sleep complaints. We investigated two different approaches to achieve this. The first approach used EEG data from the whole sleep recording irrespective of the sleep stage (stage-independent classification), while the second used only EEG data from insomnia-impacted specific sleep stages (stage-dependent classification). We trained and tested our system using both healthy and disordered sleep collected from 41 controls and 42 primary insomnia patients. When compared with manual assessments, a NREM+REM based classifier had an overall discrimination accuracy of 92% and 86% between two groups using both two and one EEG channels respectively. These results demonstrate that deep learning can be used to assist in the diagnosis of sleep disorders such as insomnia.

  13. Adaptive diagnosis of the bilinear mechanical systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gelman, L.; Gorpinich, S.; Thompson, C.

    2009-07-01

    A generic adaptive approach is proposed for diagnosis of the bilinear mechanical systems. The approach adapts the free oscillation method for bilinearity diagnosis of mechanical systems. The expediency of the adaptation is proved for a recognition feature, the decrement of the free oscillations. The developed adaptation consists of variation of the adaptive likelihood ratio of the decrement with variation of the resonance frequency of the bilinear system. It is shown that in the cases of the frequency-independent and the frequency-dependent internal damping, the adaptation is expedient. To investigate effectiveness of the adaptation in these cases, a numerical simulation was carried out. The simulation results show that use of the adaptation increases the total probability of the correct diagnosis of system bilinearity.

  14. Diagnosis of hepatocellular carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Di Bisceglie, Adrian M.

    2005-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is responsible for a large proportion of cancer deaths worldwide. HCC is frequently diagnosed after the development of clinical deterioration at which time survival is measured in months. Long-term survival requires detection of small tumors, often present in asymptomatic individuals, which may be more amenable to invasive therapeutic options. Surveillance of high-risk individuals for HCC is commonly performed using the serum marker alfa-fetoprotein (AFP) often in combination with ultrasonography. Various other serologic markers are currently being tested to help improve surveillance accuracy. Diagnosis of HCC often requires more sophisticated imaging modalities such as CT scan and MRI, which have multiphasic contrast enhancement capabilities. Serum AFP used alone can be helpful if levels are markedly elevated, which occurs in fewer than half of cases at time of diagnosis. Confirmation by liver biopsy can be performed under circumstances when the diagnosis of HCC remains unclear. PMID:18333158

  15. [Polar body diagnosis].

    PubMed

    Montag, M; van der Ven, K; van der Ven, H

    2009-01-01

    Polar body diagnosis (PBD) is a diagnostic method for the indirect genetic analysis of oocytes. Polar bodies are by-products of the meiotic cell cycle which have no influence on further embryo development. The biopsy of polar bodies can be accomplished either by zona drilling or laser drilling within a very short time period. The paternal contribution to the genetic constitution of the developing embryo cannot be diagnosed by PBD. The major application of PBD is the detection of maternally derived chromosomal aneuploidies and translocations in oocytes. For these indications, PBD may offer a viable alternative to blastomere biopsy as the embryo's integrity remains unaffected in contrast to preimplantation genetic diagnosis by blastomere biopsy. The fast development in the field of molecular diagnostics will also influence PBD and probably allow a more general diagnosis in the future.

  16. Remote diagnosis server

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deb, Somnath (Inventor); Ghoshal, Sudipto (Inventor); Malepati, Venkata N. (Inventor); Kleinman, David L. (Inventor); Cavanaugh, Kevin F. (Inventor)

    2004-01-01

    A network-based diagnosis server for monitoring and diagnosing a system, the server being remote from the system it is observing, comprises a sensor for generating signals indicative of a characteristic of a component of the system, a network-interfaced sensor agent coupled to the sensor for receiving signals therefrom, a broker module coupled to the network for sending signals to and receiving signals from the sensor agent, a handler application connected to the broker module for transmitting signals to and receiving signals therefrom, a reasoner application in communication with the handler application for processing, and responding to signals received from the handler application, wherein the sensor agent, broker module, handler application, and reasoner applications operate simultaneously relative to each other, such that the present invention diagnosis server performs continuous monitoring and diagnosing of said components of the system in real time. The diagnosis server is readily adaptable to various different systems.

  17. Human prenatal diagnosis

    SciTech Connect

    Filkins, K.; Russo, R.J.

    1985-01-01

    The multiauthor text is written as a ''guide to rationalize and clarify certain aspects of diagnosis, general counseling and intervention'' for ''health professionals who provide care to pregnant women.'' The text is not aimed at the ultrasonographer but rather at the physicians who are clinically responsible for patient management. Chapters of relevance to radiologists include an overview of prenatal screening and counseling, diagnosis of neural tube defects, ultrasonographic (US) scanning of fetal disorders in the first and second trimesters of pregnancy, US scanning in the third trimester, multiple gestation and selective termination, fetal echo and Doppler studies, and fetal therapy. Also included are overviews of virtually all currently utilized prenatal diagnostic techniques including amniocentesis, fetal blood sampling, fetoscopy, recombinant DNA detection of hemoglobinopathies, chorionic villus sampling, embryoscopy, legal issues, and diagnosis of Mendelian disorders by DNA analysis.

  18. Case for diagnosis*

    PubMed Central

    Maquiné, Gustavo Ávila; Maroja, Maria de Fátima; Mesquita, Cristina Rabello; de Sousa, Petra Pereira; de Morais, Patrícia Motta; Talhari, Carolina

    2014-01-01

    We report the case of a 81-year-old female patient who had a two-year history of violet-colored erythematous tumors on both legs. Histopathological and immunohistochemical examinations confirmed the diagnosis of primary cutaneous large B-cell lymphoma, leg type. This rare, cutaneous lymphoma affects predominantly elderly females. Clinically, patients present with tumoral lesions on one or both legs (worst prognosis). Diagnosis is based on clinical, histopathological and immunohistochemical findings. The strong expression of BCL2, BCL6, MUM-1 and CD20, and the positivity for Ki67 antigen confirm the diagnosis. R-CHOP chemotherapy regimen (rituximab, cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine and prednisone) is the most widely accepted treatment. PMID:25054764

  19. Headaches: Treatment Depends on Your Diagnosis and Symptoms

    MedlinePlus

    ... Policy Notice of Privacy Practices Notice of Nondiscrimination Advertising Mayo Clinic is a not-for-profit organization and proceeds from Web advertising help support our mission. Mayo Clinic does not ...

  20. Accurate modeling of high-repetition rate ultrashort pulse amplification in optical fibers

    PubMed Central

    Lindberg, Robert; Zeil, Peter; Malmström, Mikael; Laurell, Fredrik; Pasiskevicius, Valdas

    2016-01-01

    A numerical model for amplification of ultrashort pulses with high repetition rates in fiber amplifiers is presented. The pulse propagation is modeled by jointly solving the steady-state rate equations and the generalized nonlinear Schrödinger equation, which allows accurate treatment of nonlinear and dispersive effects whilst considering arbitrary spatial and spectral gain dependencies. Comparison of data acquired by using the developed model and experimental results prove to be in good agreement. PMID:27713496

  1. Impact of physical measures of image quality on diagnosis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saunders, Robert Samuel, Jr.

    Physical processes determine the information content of medical images. The purpose of this work was to explore the physical processes behind medical imaging and to substantiate the link between these processes and the utility of medical images for diagnosis. By accomplishing this, researchers can better understand how to design medical imaging systems for optimum clinical use. The first phase of this research created tools to assess the physical performance of x-ray detectors and digital displays. These assessment tools were then applied to characterize a prototype x-ray detector and multiple digital medical displays. The prototype x-ray detector exhibited good resolution and signal to noise performance, but showed notable exposure dependencies and structured noise. The display characterization showed liquid crystal displays (LCD) offered high resolution and high levels of structured noise, while cathode ray tube (CRT) devices exhibited lower resolution with lower levels of noise. The assessment results were used to create simulation routines that modified the resolution and noise of images to accurately emulate the properties of arbitrary detectors and displays. A simulation routine was also created to model the x-ray scattering processes in x-ray imaging using Monte Carlo techniques. The Monte Carlo model demonstrated that scatter lowers image contrast, leads to a loss of high-frequency information, and causes considerable low-frequency noise. The next phase analyzed how images formed under different physical processes affect clinical diagnosis. This phase created a tool that accurately simulated the radiographic appearance of breast masses and microcalcifications. This lesion simulation tool and an established lung nodule simulation tool were used to evaluate lesion detection by experienced radiologists. The results of this rating show that most chest imaging detectors have similar performance in detecting lung nodules (p > 0.1 for 2 mm and 3.5 mm nodules, p

  2. Virological diagnosis of Ebolavirus infection

    PubMed Central

    Smith, D. W.; Rawlinson, W. D.; Kok, J.; Dwyer, D. E.; Catton, M.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Ebolaviruses, and the other viral causes of haemorrhagic fevers (VHF) have always posed special problems for diagnostic laboratories. These arise from the rarity of human infections, minimal documented experience with test delivery and interpretation, the paucity of established commercial or in-house assays, the lack of clinical material for test development and validation, the high level containment required for handling live virus, the ongoing evolution of the viruses, and the high personal and public health requirements for accurate diagnosis. This article addresses the current situation and the ongoing challenges associated with delivering timely, high quality and safe testing within Australia for people exposed as part of the current major outbreak of Ebolavirus disease (EVD) in Western Africa. The members of the Public Health Laboratory Network have developed deliverable and reliable nucleic acid detection tests, and also have the laboratory capacity to handle the live viruses if necessary. However delivering and maintaining these services necessitates high levels of experience in developing and applying tests for exotic and emerging infections, strong national and international links and collaborations, ongoing monitoring and reassessment of test design and performance, innovative approaches to generation of positive control material, and a regular quality assurance program. PMID:26126050

  3. Virological diagnosis of Ebolavirus infection.

    PubMed

    Smith, D W; Rawlinson, W D; Kok, J; Dwyer, D E; Catton, M

    2015-08-01

    Ebolaviruses, and the other viral causes of haemorrhagic fevers (VHF) have always posed special problems for diagnostic laboratories. These arise from the rarity of human infections, minimal documented experience with test delivery and interpretation, the paucity of established commercial or in-house assays, the lack of clinical material for test development and validation, the high level containment required for handling live virus, the ongoing evolution of the viruses, and the high personal and public health requirements for accurate diagnosis. This article addresses the current situation and the ongoing challenges associated with delivering timely, high quality and safe testing within Australia for people exposed as part of the current major outbreak of Ebolavirus disease (EVD) in Western Africa. The members of the Public Health Laboratory Network have developed deliverable and reliable nucleic acid detection tests, and also have the laboratory capacity to handle the live viruses if necessary. However delivering and maintaining these services necessitates high levels of experience in developing and applying tests for exotic and emerging infections, strong national and international links and collaborations, ongoing monitoring and reassessment of test design and performance, innovative approaches to generation of positive control material, and a regular quality assurance program.

  4. Pulmonary Hypertension: Diagnosis and Management

    PubMed Central

    McGoon, Michael D.; Kane, Garvan C.

    2009-01-01

    Pulmonary arterial hypertension is a progressive, symptomatic, and ultimately fatal disorder for which substantial advances in treatment have been made during the past decade. Effective management requires timely recognition and accurate diagnosis of the disorder and appropriate selection among therapeutic alternatives. Despite progress in treatment, obstacles remain that impede the achievement of optimal outcomes. The current article provides an overview of the pathobiologic mechanisms of pulmonary arterial hypertension, including genetic substrates and molecular and cellular mechanisms, and describes the clinical manifestations and classification of pulmonary arterial hypertension. The article also reviews established approaches to evaluation and treatment, with emphasis on the appropriate application of calcium channel blockers, prostacyclin analogues, endothelin receptor antagonists, and phosphodiesterase 5 inhibitors. In addition, the authors discuss unresolved issues that may complicate patient management, such as the clinical importance of mild or exercise-related pulmonary arterial hypertension, and they identify avenues by which treatment may advance in the future through the use of combination treatment, outcomes assessment, and exploration of alternative pharmacologic strategies. PMID:19181654

  5. Lasers In Dental Diagnosis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Everse, K. E.; Sinor, T. W.; Menzel, E. R.

    1987-01-01

    We have investigated the potential of lasers for real time in situ dental diagnosis via transillumination of teeth and gums and via fluorescence. Not surprisingly, absorption and/or scattering of light by teeth was found to be insensitive to light color. However, monochromatic transillumination revealed detail better than white light. Transillumination of gums was best performed with orange-red light because of tissue absorption. Illumination of oral structures by 488 nm Ar-laser light was effective in revealing diagnosis detail by fluorescence. Incipient caries and fine tooth fracture lines that are generally not revealed by radiography were observable by laser.

  6. Nonlinear Fault Diagnosis,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-05-01

    Systems, New York, Marcel Dekker, (to appear). 3. Desoer , C.A. and S.E. Kuh, Basic Circuit Theory, McGraw-Hill, New York, 1969, pp. 423-425. 130 NONLINEAR...DIAGNOSIS A 7*ssior For 1 MU3 CRA&T IY’IC TAB Ju-st i.cat IC- P.U A: CONTENTS Fault Diagnosis in Electronic Circuits , R. Saeks and R.-w. Liu...Vincentelli and R. Saeks .............. 61 Multitest Diagnosibility of Nonlinear Circuits and Systems, A. Sangiovanni-Vincentelli and R. Saeks

  7. Problems in publishing accurate color in IEEE journals.

    PubMed

    Vrhel, Michael J; Trussell, H J

    2002-01-01

    To demonstrate the performance of color image processing algorithms, it is desirable to be able to accurately display color images in archival publications. In poster presentations, the authors have substantial control of the printing process, although little control of the illumination. For journal publication, the authors must rely on professional intermediaries (printers) to accurately reproduce their results. Our previous work describes requirements for accurately rendering images using your own equipment. This paper discusses the problems of dealing with intermediaries and offers suggestions for improved communication and rendering.

  8. Fabricating an Accurate Implant Master Cast: A Technique Report.

    PubMed

    Balshi, Thomas J; Wolfinger, Glenn J; Alfano, Stephen G; Cacovean, Jeannine N; Balshi, Stephen F

    2015-12-01

    The technique for fabricating an accurate implant master cast following the 12-week healing period after Teeth in a Day® dental implant surgery is detailed. The clinical, functional, and esthetic details captured during the final master impression are vital to creating an accurate master cast. This technique uses the properties of the all-acrylic resin interim prosthesis to capture these details. This impression captures the relationship between the remodeled soft tissue and the interim prosthesis. This provides the laboratory technician with an accurate orientation of the implant replicas in the master cast with which a passive fitting restoration can be fabricated.

  9. [Imaging diagnosis of arachnoid cysts].

    PubMed

    Gelabert-González, Miguel; Santín-Amo, José María; Aran-Echabe, Eduardo; García-Allut, Alfredo

    2015-01-01

    Arachnoid cysts are malformed lesions that contain a fluid similar to the cerebrospinal fluid, and are usually located within the arachnoidal membrane. They represent 1% of all intracranial lesions, and in recent years, with the development of radiological techniques, the clinical detectability of arachnoid cysts seems to have increased. Although the majority of diagnosed arachnoid cysts are located in the cranial cavity and especially in the Sylvian fissure, a small number are located at spinal level and they can occur extra- or intra-spinally. An analysis is carried out, detailing the various tests used for the diagnosis of both intracranial and spinal arachnoids cysts, analysing the indications of each one depending on the location of the cysts and patient age.

  10. Polyhydramnios: Causes, Diagnosis and Therapy.

    PubMed

    Hamza, A; Herr, D; Solomayer, E F; Meyberg-Solomayer, G

    2013-12-01

    Polyhydramnios is defined as a pathological increase of amniotic fluid volume in pregnancy and is associated with increased perinatal morbidity and mortality. Common causes of polyhydramnios include gestational diabetes, fetal anomalies with disturbed fetal swallowing of amniotic fluid, fetal infections and other, rarer causes. The diagnosis is obtained by ultrasound. The prognosis of polyhydramnios depends on its cause and severity. Typical symptoms of polyhydramnios include maternal dyspnea, preterm labor, premature rupture of membranes (PPROM), abnormal fetal presentation, cord prolapse and postpartum hemorrhage. Due to its common etiology with gestational diabetes, polyhydramnios is often associated with fetal macrosomia. To prevent the above complications, there are two methods of prenatal treatment: amnioreduction and pharmacological treatment with non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). However, prenatal administration of NSAIDs to reduce amniotic fluid volumes has not been approved in Germany. In addition to conventional management, experimental therapies which would alter fetal diuresis are being considered.

  11. Diagnosis and Treatment of Hypopituitarism

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Hypopituitarism is a chronic endocrine illness that caused by varied etiologies. Clinical manifestations of hypopituitarism are variable, often insidious in onset and dependent on the degree and severity of hormone deficiency. However, it is associated with increased mortality and morbidity. Therefore, early diagnosis and prompt treatment is necessary. Hypopituitarism can be easily diagnosed by measuring basal pituitary and target hormone levels except growth hormone (GH) and adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) deficiency. Dynamic stimulation tests are indicated in equivocal basal hormone levels and GH/ACTH deficiency. Knowledge of the use and limitations of these stimulation tests is mandatory for proper interpretation. It is necessary for physicians to inform their patients that they may require lifetime treatment. Hormone replacement therapy should be individualized according to the specific needs of each patient, taking into account possible interactions. Long-term endocrinological follow-up of hypopituitary patients is important to monitor hormonal replacement regimes and avoid under- or overtreatment. PMID:26790380

  12. Fault diagnosis for the Space Shuttle main engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Duyar, Ahmet; Merrill, Walter

    1992-01-01

    A conceptual design of a model-based fault detection and diagnosis system is developed for the Space Shuttle main engine. The design approach consists of process modeling, residual generation, and fault detection and diagnosis. The engine is modeled using a discrete time, quasilinear state-space representation. Model parameters are determined by identification. Residuals generated from the model are used by a neural network to detect and diagnose engine component faults. Fault diagnosis is accomplished by training the neural network to recognize the pattern of the respective fault signatures. Preliminary results for a failed valve, generated using a full, nonlinear simulation of the engine, are presented. These results indicate that the developed approach can be used for fault detection and diagnosis. The results also show that the developed model is an accurate and reliable predictor of the highly nonlinear and very complex engine.

  13. The application of monoclonal antibodies in cancer diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xuemei; Soori, Gamini; Dobleman, Thomas J; Xiao, Gary G

    2014-01-01

    Cancer becomes the second leading cause of death in the world. An effective strategy for early diagnosis of the disease is key to reduce the mortality and morbidity. Development of effective monoclonal antibody (mAb)-based assays or diagnostic imaging techniques for detection of antigens and small molecules that are released from cancerous cells will enhance modern diagnostic medicine of cancer significantly. Although mAb technology is still under development, recent advances in preparation of recombinant antigen and antibody engineering techniques have dramatically enhanced the applications of this technology in cancer diagnosis. Compared with other methods, mAb-based assays may provide spatial, temporal, accurate and quantitative measurement for diagnosis of the disease. This review summarizes the progress of the mAb-based assays in the field of molecular diagnosis of cancer.

  14. Clinical and microbiological diagnosis of oral candidiasis

    PubMed Central

    Jiménez-Soriano, Yolanda

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Candidiasis or oral candidiasis is the most frequent mucocutaneous mycosis of the oral cavity. It is produced by the genus Candida, which is found in the oral cavity of 53% of the general population as a common commensal organism. One hundred and fifty species have been isolated in the oral cavity, and 80% of the isolates correspond to Candida albicans, which can colonize the oral cavity alone or in combination with other species. Transformation from commensal organism to pathogen depends on the intervention of different predisposing factors that modify the microenvironment of the oral cavity and favor the appearance of opportunistic infection. The present study offers a literature review on the diagnosis of oral candidiasis, with the purpose of establishing when complementary microbiological techniques for the diagnosis of oral candidiasis should be used, and which techniques are most commonly employed in routine clinical practice in order to establish a definitive diagnosis. Materials and methods: A Medline-PubMed, Scopus and Cochrane search was made covering the last 10 years. Results: The diagnosis of oral candidiasis is fundamentally clinical. Microbiological techniques are used when the clinical diagnosis needs to be confirmed, for establishing a differential diagnosis with other diseases, and in cases characterized by resistance to antifungal drugs. Biopsies in turn are indicated in patients with hyperplastic candidiasis. Staining (10% KOH) and culture (Sabouraud dextrose agar) are the methods most commonly used for diagnosing primary candidiasis. Identification of the individual species of Candida is usually carried out with CHROMagar Candida®. For the diagnosis of invasive candidiasis, and in cases requiring differentiation between C. albicans and C. dubliniensis, use is made of immunological and genetic techniques such as ELISA and PCR. Key words:Clinical, oral candidiasis, microbiology. PMID:24455095

  15. Contrast-enhanced ultrasound improves accurate identification of appendiceal mucinous adenocarcinoma in an old patient

    PubMed Central

    Shang, Jing; Ruan, Li-tao; Dang, Ying; Wang, Yun-yue; Song, Yan; Lian, Jie

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background: Adenocarcinoma of appendiceal origin is far rarer than other colorectal carcinomas and its preoperative diagnosis is challenging. To our knowledge, utility of contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) to diagnose it is much less. Method: A 61-year-old man presented with abdominal pain in the right lower quadrant for 20 days. In order to fulfill an accurately preoperative diagnosis, he received laboratory and imaging tests such as carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA), computer tomography (CT), CEUS and endoscope. Diagnosis and Intervention: He was initially suspected of suffering appendicitis, while his white blood cell count was normal and carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) in serum was remarkably increased. Both routine ultrasound and computer tomography (CT) examinations supported suppurative appendicitis. The overall data, however, failed to excluded neoplastic pathology thoroughly. Therefore, CEUS was carried out and showed an inhomogeneous enhancement intra the lesion located in the body of the appendix, which made our consideration of neoplasm. The result of the follow-up biopsy guided by endoscope was consistent with appendiceal tumor. The patient received laparoscopic right hemicolectomy. Histopathology confirmed as well differentiated mucinous adenocarcinoma of appendix origin. His postoperative course was uneventful, and he had a regular diet again without any complaint. Result: Serum CEA was remarkably increased (12.00 ng/mL). Both routine ultrasound and CT examinations supported suppurative appendicitis. However, CEUS examination showed an inhomogeneous enhancement intra the lesion located in the body of the appendix, which made our consideration of neoplasm. The follow-up biopsy guided by endoscope and surgical specimens confirmed as well differentiated mucinous adenocarcinoma of appendix origin. Conclusion: Most mucinous adenocarcinoma mimicking appendicitis results in difficult diagnosis preoperatively. Clinician and radiologist should be

  16. Controlling Hay Fever Symptoms with Accurate Pollen Counts

    MedlinePlus

    ... Library ▸ Hay fever and pollen counts Share | Controlling Hay Fever Symptoms with Accurate Pollen Counts This article has ... Pongdee, MD, FAAAAI Seasonal allergic rhinitis known as hay fever is caused by pollen carried in the air ...

  17. Opioid dependence

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Introduction Dependence on opioids is a multifactorial condition involving genetic and psychosocial factors. There are three approaches to treating opioid dependence. Stabilisation is usually by opioid substitution treatments, and aims to ensure that the drug use becomes independent of mental state (such as craving and mood) and independent of circumstances (such as finance and physical location). The next stage is to withdraw (detox) from opioids. The final aim is relapse prevention. Methods and outcomes We conducted a systematic review and aimed to answer the following clinical questions: What are the effects of drug treatments for stabilisation (maintenance) in people with opioid dependence? What are the effects of drug treatments for withdrawal in people with opioid dependence? What are the effects of drug treatments for relapse prevention in people with opioid dependence? We searched: Medline, Embase, The Cochrane Library, and other important databases up to May 2008 (Clinical Evidence reviews are updated periodically; please check our website for the most up-to-date version of this review). We included harms alerts from relevant organisations such as the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the UK Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency (MHRA). Results We found 23 systematic reviews, RCTs, or observational studies that met our inclusion criteria. We performed a GRADE evaluation of the quality of evidence for interventions. Conclusions In this systematic review, we present information relating to the effectiveness and safety of the following interventions: buprenorphine; clonidine; lofexidine; methadone; naltrexone; and ultra-rapid withdrawal regimes. PMID:21696648

  18. Accurate tracking of high dynamic vehicles with translated GPS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blankshain, Kenneth M.

    The GPS concept and the translator processing system (TPS) which were developed for accurate and cost-effective tracking of various types of high dynamic expendable vehicles are described. A technique used by the translator processing system (TPS) to accomplish very accurate high dynamic tracking is presented. Automatic frequency control and fast Fourier transform processes are combined to track 100 g acceleration and 100 g/s jerk with 1-sigma velocity measurement error less than 1 ft/sec.

  19. Accurate Alignment of Plasma Channels Based on Laser Centroid Oscillations

    SciTech Connect

    Gonsalves, Anthony; Nakamura, Kei; Lin, Chen; Osterhoff, Jens; Shiraishi, Satomi; Schroeder, Carl; Geddes, Cameron; Toth, Csaba; Esarey, Eric; Leemans, Wim

    2011-03-23

    A technique has been developed to accurately align a laser beam through a plasma channel by minimizing the shift in laser centroid and angle at the channel outptut. If only the shift in centroid or angle is measured, then accurate alignment is provided by minimizing laser centroid motion at the channel exit as the channel properties are scanned. The improvement in alignment accuracy provided by this technique is important for minimizing electron beam pointing errors in laser plasma accelerators.

  20. [Differential diagnosis of anemias].

    PubMed

    Szerafin, László; Jakó, János

    2005-02-13

    The authors describe the factors influencing of normal hemoglobin level, pathogenetic and morphological classification of anemias and the possibilities to distinguish their different types. They highlight features of iron deficiency anemia and anemia of chronic diseases. They summarise in tables the basis of laboratory diagnosis and possibility of identification of different types of anemias.

  1. Prenatal diagnosis: whose right?

    PubMed Central

    Heyd, D

    1995-01-01

    The question who is the subject of the right to prenatal diagnosis may be answered in four ways: the parents, the child, society, or no one. This article investigates the philosophical issues involved in each of these answers, which touch upon the conditions of personal identity, the principle of privacy, the scope of social responsibility, and the debate about impersonalism in ethics. PMID:8558544

  2. Diagnosis of Hearing Loss.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    World Federation of the Deaf, Rome (Italy).

    Seven conference papers from the U.S.S.R., India, Poland, Czechoslovakia, and Yugoslavia consider the diagnosis of hearing loss. They are "Examination of Hearing of Children, Aged from 2 to 5, by Means of Playing Audiometry" by A. P. Kossacheva, "A Study of the Etiology and Pattern of Deafness in a School for the Deaf in Madras,…

  3. Application of Strength Diagnosis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newton, Robert U.; Dugan, Eric

    2002-01-01

    Discusses the various strength qualities (maximum strength, high- and low-load speed strength, reactive strength, rate of force development, and skill performance), noting why a training program design based on strength diagnosis can lead to greater efficacy and better performance gains for the athlete. Examples of tests used to assess strength…

  4. [Urticaria: diagnosis and treatment].

    PubMed

    Soria, A; Francès, C

    2014-09-01

    Urticaria is a common inflammatory skin disease. It is clinically defined as the occurrence of transient papular skin and/or mucosal lesions or subcutaneous lesions called angioedema. Chronic urticaria is defined as a clinical course over more than 6weeks. Different clinical forms of urticaria can coexist in the same patient. Urticaria results of mast cell activation. The diagnosis of urticaria is based on clinical examination. An allergic etiology for acute urticaria, although rare, is always to find and remove. Chronic urticaria is not allergic. Diagnosis is based on questioning and a careful clinical examination to rule out differential diagnoses. Few diagnostic tests are necessary for diagnosis and management, and are especially useful in case of doubtful diagnosis. The treatment of urticaria is symptomatic and based on anti-H1 second generation antihistamines as first-line therapy. In some chronic urticarial, antihistamines up dosing may be necessary. In the majority of patients, this treatment is sufficient to control chronic urticaria. In case of antihistamines failure, other treatment particularly immunomodulatory treatments can be offered in specialized departments.

  5. Diagnosis of Mood Disorders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seligman, Linda; Moore, Bonita Marcus

    1995-01-01

    Provides an overview of mood disorders according to Diagnostic and Statistical Manual (fourth edition) criteria and other relevant information. Differential diagnosis is facilitated through discussion of differences and similarities among mental disorders, age and gender-related patterns of mood disorders, and useful diagnostic tools. (Author)

  6. [The diagnosis of death].

    PubMed

    Echeverría, Carlos; Goic, Alejandro; Lavados, Manuel; Quintana, Carlos; Rojas, Alberto; Serani, Alejandro; Vacarezza, Ricardo

    2004-01-01

    This paper undertakes an analysis of the scientific criteria used in the diagnosis of death and underscores the importance of intellectual rigor in the definition of medical concepts, particularly regarding such a critical issue as the diagnosis of death. Under the cardiorespiratory criterion, death is defined as "the irreversible cessation of the functioning of an organism as a whole", and the tests used to confirm this criterion (negative life-signs) are sensitive and specific. In this case, cadaverous phenomena appear immediately following the diagnosis of death. On the other hand, doubts have arisen concerning the theoretical and the inner consistency of the criterion of brain death, since it does not satisfy the definition of "the irreversible cessation of the functioning of an organism as a whole", nor the requirement of "total and irreversible cessation of all functions of the entire brain, including the brain stem". There is evidence to the effect that the tests used to confirm this criterion are not specific enough. It is clear that brain death marks the beginning of a process that eventually ends in death, though death does not occur at that moment. From an ethical point of view, the conflict arises between the need to provide an unequivocal diagnosis of death and the possibility of saving a life through organ transplantation. The sensitive issue of brain death calls for a more thorough and in-depth discussion among physicians and the community at large.

  7. Assessment, Diagnosis, and Treatment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mullis, Thomas

    The purpose of this paper is to provide an overview of assessment, diagnosis, and treatment planning for individuals with substance abuse problems. The intent is to provide information to professional counselors in school, rehabilitation, school psychology, social work, public mental health, and private treatment settings. Information to be…

  8. Multi-Disciplinary Diagnosis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schiffman, Gilbert B.

    The diagnosis of severely retarded pupils as an interdisciplinary concern is discussed. Descriptions of the severe reading disability syndrome given by various disciplines are presented under the following headings: Neurological Factors--minimal brain damage, lateral dominance; Physical Factors--endocrine and metabolic disorders, optical and…

  9. How utilities can achieve more accurate decommissioning cost estimates

    SciTech Connect

    Knight, R.

    1999-07-01

    The number of commercial nuclear power plants that are undergoing decommissioning coupled with the economic pressure of deregulation has increased the focus on adequate funding for decommissioning. The introduction of spent-fuel storage and disposal of low-level radioactive waste into the cost analysis places even greater concern as to the accuracy of the fund calculation basis. The size and adequacy of the decommissioning fund have also played a major part in the negotiations for transfer of plant ownership. For all of these reasons, it is important that the operating plant owner reduce the margin of error in the preparation of decommissioning cost estimates. To data, all of these estimates have been prepared via the building block method. That is, numerous individual calculations defining the planning, engineering, removal, and disposal of plant systems and structures are performed. These activity costs are supplemented by the period-dependent costs reflecting the administration, control, licensing, and permitting of the program. This method will continue to be used in the foreseeable future until adequate performance data are available. The accuracy of the activity cost calculation is directly related to the accuracy of the inventory of plant system component, piping and equipment, and plant structural composition. Typically, it is left up to the cost-estimating contractor to develop this plant inventory. The data are generated by searching and analyzing property asset records, plant databases, piping and instrumentation drawings, piping system isometric drawings, and component assembly drawings. However, experience has shown that these sources may not be up to date, discrepancies may exist, there may be missing data, and the level of detail may not be sufficient. Again, typically, the time constraints associated with the development of the cost estimate preclude perfect resolution of the inventory questions. Another problem area in achieving accurate cost

  10. Diagnosis and management of xerostomia and hyposalivation

    PubMed Central

    Villa, Alessandro; Connell, Christopher L; Abati, Silvio

    2015-01-01

    Xerostomia, the subjective complaint of dry mouth, and hyposalivation remain a significant burden for many individuals. Diagnosis of xerostomia and salivary gland hypofunction is dependent upon a careful and detailed history and thorough oral examination. There exist many options for treatment and symptom management: salivary stimulants, topical agents, saliva substitutes, and systemic sialogogues. The aim of this review is to investigate the current state of knowledge on management and treatment of patients affected by xerostomia and/or hyposalivation. PMID:25653532

  11. Improving diagnosis for congenital cataract by introducing NGS genetic testing

    PubMed Central

    Musleh, Mohammud; Ashworth, Jane; Black, Graeme; Hall, Georgina

    2016-01-01

    Childhood cataract (CC) has an incidence of 3.5 per 10,000 by age 15 years. Diagnosis of any underlying cause is important to ensure effective and prompt management of multisystem complications, to facilitate accurate genetic counselling and to streamline multidisciplinary care. Next generation sequencing (NGS) has been shown to be effective in providing an underlying diagnosis in 70% of patients with CC in a research setting. This project aimed to integrate NGS testing in CC within six months of presentation and increase the rate of diagnosis. A retrospective case note review was undertaken to define the baseline efficacy of current care in providing a precise diagnosis. Quality improvement methods were used to integrate and optimize NGS testing in clinical care and measure the improvements made. The percentage of children receiving an NGS result within six months increased from 26% to 71% during the project period. The mean time to NGS testing and receiving a report decreased and there was a reduction in variation over the study period. Several patients and families had a change in management or genetic counselling as a direct result of the diagnosis given by the NGS test. The current recommended investigation of patients with bilateral CC is ineffective in identifying a diagnosis. Quality Improvement methods have facilitated successful integration of NGS testing into clinical care, improving time to diagnosis and leading to development of a new care pathway. PMID:27933154

  12. Delayed diagnosis of cluster headache in African-American women.

    PubMed Central

    Wheeler, S. D.; Carrazana, E. J.

    2001-01-01

    The male-to-female ratio has fallen in cluster headache over the last several decades and is now 2.1:1. Unfortunately, women still are not diagnosed accurately. This lack of appropriate diagnosis appears related to the misconception that cluster headache rarely occurs in women. Compounding this misconception, there seems to be an ethnic bias. We report cluster headache in five African-American women in whom diagnosis was delayed due to gender, ethnicity, and, most importantly, an inability to make a correct diagnosis of cluster headache. Cluster headache diagnostic criteria are no different in men or women and have no ethnic boundaries. Clinical features such as disordered chronobiology and abnormal behavior often suggest the diagnosis. Migrainous features occur commonly in cluster headache and, when present, should not exclude the diagnosis. Likewise, neither race nor sex should exclude the diagnosis. The diagnosis of cluster headache is easily made by considering unilateral orbital, supraorbital or temporal location; short duration (15-180 minutes, untreated), and ipsilateral autonomic dysfunction involving the eye or nose. PMID:12653378

  13. Dual diagnosis among physicians: a clinical perspective.

    PubMed

    Braquehais, María Dolores; Lusilla, Pilar; Bel, Miquel Jordi; Navarro, María Cecilia; Nasillo, Viviana; Díaz, Albert; Valero, Sergi; Padrós, Jaume; Bruguera, Eugeni; Casas, Miquel

    2014-01-01

    Co-occurrence of mental disorders and substance use disorders (dual diagnosis) among doctors is a cause of serious concern due to its negative personal, professional, and social consequences. This work provides an overview of the prevalence of dual diagnosis among physicians, suggests a clinical etiological model to explain the development of dual diagnosis in doctors, and recommends some treatment strategies specifically for doctors. The most common presentation of dual diagnosis among doctors is the combination of alcohol use disorders and affective disorders. There are also high rates of self-medication with benzodiazepines, legal opiates, and amphetamines compared to the general population, and cannabis use disorders are increasing, mainly in young doctors. The prevalence of nicotine dependence varies from one country to another depending on the nature of public health policies. Emergency medicine physicians, psychiatrists, and anaesthesiologists are at higher risk for developing a substance use disorder compared with other doctors, perhaps because of their knowledge of and access to certain legal drugs. Two main pathways may lead doctors toward dual diagnosis: (a) the use of substances (often alcohol or self-prescribed drugs) as an unhealthy strategy to cope with their emotional or mental distress and (b) the use of substances for recreational or other purposes. In both cases, doctors tend to delay seeking help once a problem has been established, often for many years. Denial, minimization, and rationalization are common defense mechanisms, maybe because of the social stigma associated with mental or substance use disorders, the risk of losing employment/medical license, and a professional culture of perfectionism and denial of emotional needs or failures. Personal vulnerability interacts with these factors to increase the risk of a dual diagnosis developing in some individuals. When doctors with substance use disorders accept treatment in programs

  14. Opioid dependence

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Introduction Dependence on opioids is a multifactorial condition involving genetic and psychosocial factors. There are three stages to treating opioid dependence. Stabilisation is usually by opioid substitution treatments, and aims to ensure that the drug use becomes independent of mental state (such as craving and mood) and independent of circumstances (such as finance and physical location). The next stage is to withdraw (detox) from opioids. The final stage is relapse prevention. This treatment process contributes to recovery of the individual, which also includes improved overall health and wellbeing, as well as engagement in society. Methods and outcomes We conducted a systematic review and aimed to answer the following clinical questions: What are the effects of drug treatments for stabilisation (maintenance) in people with opioid dependence? What are the effects of drug treatments for withdrawal in people with opioid dependence? What are the effects of drug treatments for relapse prevention in people with opioid dependence? We searched: Medline, Embase, The Cochrane Library, and other important databases up to March 2011 (Clinical Evidence reviews are updated periodically; please check our website for the most up-to-date version of this review). We included harms alerts from relevant organisations such as the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the UK Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency (MHRA). Results We found 26 systematic reviews, RCTs, or observational studies that met our inclusion criteria. We performed a GRADE evaluation of the quality of evidence for interventions. Conclusions In this systematic review, we present information relating to the effectiveness and safety of the following interventions: buprenorphine; clonidine; lofexidine; methadone; naltrexone; and ultra-rapid withdrawal regimens. PMID:21929827

  15. [RARE DISEASES DTC: DIAGNOSIS, TREATMENT AND CARE].

    PubMed

    Mendlovic, Joseph; Barash, Hila; Yardeni, Hadar; Banet-Levi, Yonit; Yonath, Hagith; Raas-Rothschild, Annick

    2016-04-01

    Rare diseases are chronic, progressive genetic disorders, which affect around 6-8% of the general population, mainly children. Therefore, in Israel approximately 500,000 people are probably affected by a rare disease. In this article, we review some of the issues pertaining to rare diseases, such as the need for accurate diagnosis which is necessary not only for specific care and treatment but also for informed family planning. In addition, we review the impact of the activities of patients' organizations on the awareness of rare diseases and their involvement in the creation of the Orphan Drug Act, which was the leading point on the way to drug development worldwide. During the last few years networks for reaching leading specialists' opinions on the way to proper diagnosis were created. Thereafter, the next generation genetic technologies, such as exome sequencing, have been a revolution in terms of options and hope for patients with rare undiagnosed diseases. Patients with rare diseases and their families are a challenge to the health care system, not only in terms of diagnosis and therapy, but also in terms of special needs. In addition, deciphering molecular pathways of rare diseases might be the key for understanding molecular events involved in common disorders. We emphasize the duty to ensure appropriate capacity and equal access to follow-up and clinical management of patients with rare diseases in Israel.

  16. Utility-aware anonymization of diagnosis codes.

    PubMed

    Loukides, G; Gkoulalas-Divanis, A

    2013-01-01

    The growing need for performing large-scale and low-cost biomedical studies has led organizations to promote the reuse of patient data. For instance, the National Institutes of Health in the US requires patient-specific data collected and analyzed in the context of Genome-Wide Association Studies (GWAS) to be deposited into a biorepository and broadly disseminated. While essential to comply with regulations, disseminating such data risks privacy breaches, because patients genomic sequences can be linked to their identities through diagnosis codes. This work proposes a novel approach that prevents this type of data linkage by modifying diagnosis codes to limit the probability of associating a patients identity to their genomic sequence. Our approach employs an effective algorithm that uses generalization and suppression of diagnosis codes to preserve privacy and takes into account the intended uses of the disseminated data to guarantee utility. We also present extensive experiments using several datasets derived from the Electronic Medical Record (EMR) system of the Vanderbilt University Medical Center, as well as a large-scale case-study using the EMRs of 79K patients, which are linked to DNA contained in the Vanderbilt University biobank. Our results verify that our approach generates anonymized data that permit accurate biomedical analysis in tasks including case count studies and GWAS.

  17. [Pylephlebitis in the child: a challenging diagnosis].

    PubMed

    Gatibelza, M-E; Gaudin, J; Mcheik, J; Levard, G

    2010-09-01

    Pylephlebitis or septic thrombophlebitis of the portomesenteric veins is a complication of intra-abdominal infections. The disease is rare in children and the diagnosis is often delayed. The morbidity of pylephlebitis is relatively low, although there is a risk of residual thrombosis. We report on 2 cases of pylephlebitis in a 12-year-old girl and a 13-year-old boy, following undiagnosed appendicitis. In the 1st case, the young girl had been misdiagnosed with Salmonella infection and was given antibiotics; in the 2nd case, the boy had retrocecal appendicitis that was clinically subacute. An accurate diagnosis was finally made in both cases by CT scan. Both children evolved satisfactorily following appendectomy, long-term antibiotics, and anticoagulation. Clinically, the severe sepsis associated with pylephlebitis is at the forefront. Physical examination is often normal and therefore of little help; the knowledge of a preceding abdominal infection leads to further radiological investigations. Biologically, there are pronounced signs of infection. CT is the preferred exam for diagnosing pylephlebitis, as it can also show the underlying cause of the intra-abdominal sepsis or possible complications. Doppler sonography is recommended more for follow-up of the portal vein thrombosis. Treatment of pylephlebitis associated with appendicitis always includes long-term antibiotics. An appendectomy is always performed either at the time of diagnosis or later. The need for anticoagulation therapy in children is controversial. However, most pediatricians recommend its use, beginning as soon as possible, to be continued until normalization of portal vein flow.

  18. Molecular diagnosis of von Willebrand disease.

    PubMed

    Baronciani, L; Goodeve, A; Peyvandi, F

    2017-03-01

    The role of molecular characterization in the diagnosis of von Willebrand disease (VWD) is not essential if the patients have been extensively investigated using phenotypic analysis. On the other hand, if some of these phenotype assays are not available, the identification of the mutation causing the disease could be crucial for an accurate diagnosis. Nevertheless, there are several reasons for performing molecular analysis in patients phenotypically well characterized, e.g. to identify the mutation causing VWD can be useful for patients and their family members when prenatal diagnosis is required (type 3 or severe type 2). In this manuscript, we report the techniques used for the molecular characterization of suspected VWD patients. We describe the use of online von Willebrand factor database and online single nucleotide variation databases, the former to verify whether a candidate mutation has been previously identified in other VWD patients and the latter to ascertain whether a putative mutation has been reported earlier in healthy individuals. We listed the available in silico analysis tools, to determine the predicted pathogenicity of a sequence variant and to establish its possible negative effect on the normal splicing process. We also report the strategy that can be used to identify VWD type 2 patients' mutations in subjects who have been fully characterized using the phenotype assays.

  19. Biomarkers for the diagnosis of thyroid cancer.

    PubMed

    Sethi, Kruttibas; Sarkar, Siddik; Das, Subhasis; Mohanty, Biswanarayan; Mandal, Mahitosh

    2010-01-01

    Thyroid tumor contributes 1% of the total tumor but 90% of the endocrine related tumors. Majority of the thyroid cancers are being diagnosed by Fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) and histology. Although histology is considered as gold standard, it has some limitations, like variants of papillary and follicular cancer creates confusion among pathologists, where the morphological features are indistinguishable. Conventional histology and FNAC fails to provide any prognostic and therapeutic information. To address this problem, several immunohistochemical markers are proposed and their efficiency in thyroid cancer diagnosis, treatment and prognosis are being evaluated. Among the discussed immunohistochemical markers, few have potential in accurate diagnosis and prognosis of thyroid carcinoma. Hector battifora mesothelial antigen-1 (HBME-1) and Galectin-3 (GAL-3) shows highest specificity and sensitivity in the diagnosis of thyroid cancer respectively. Overexpression of EGFR in thyroid cancer is in proportionate with the severity of the advanced thyroid carcinoma, which required further evaluation and validation. Surgery and radio-iodine therapy is the main treatment modality, however; combined targeted therapeutic approach against different thyroid cancer receptor and biomarkers can reduce the side effect, and improve therapeutic efficiency. This review is oriented towards the finding of the potent thyroid cancer receptor having enhanced sensitivity and specificity, with diagnostic, prognostic and therapeutic efficiency.

  20. Gingival enlargements: Differential diagnosis and review of literature

    PubMed Central

    Agrawal, Amit Arvind

    2015-01-01

    Gingival enlargement is one of the frequent features of gingival diseases. However due to their varied presentations, the diagnosis of these entities becomes challenging for the clinician. They can be categorized based on their etiopathogenesis, location, size, extent, etc. Based on the existing knowledge and clinical experience, a differential diagnosis can be formulated. Subsequently, after detailed investigation, clinician makes a final diagnosis or diagnosis of exclusion. A perfect diagnosis is critically important, since the management of these lesions and prevention of their recurrence is completely dependent on it. Furthermore, in some cases where gingival enlargement could be the primary sign of potentially lethal systemic diseases, a correct diagnosis of these enlargements could prove life saving for the patient or at least initiate early treatment and improve the quality of life. The purpose of this review article is to highlight significant findings of different types of gingival enlargement which would help clinician to differentiate between them. A detailed decision tree is also designed for the practitioners, which will help them arrive at a diagnosis in a systematic manner. There still could be some lesions which may present in an unusual manner and make the diagnosis challenging. By knowing the existence of common and rare presentations of gingival enlargement, one can keep a broad view when formulating a differential diagnosis of localized (isolated, discrete, regional) or generalized gingival enlargement. PMID:26380825

  1. Prediction of Accurate Thermochemistry of Medium and Large Sized Radicals Using Connectivity-Based Hierarchy (CBH).

    PubMed

    Sengupta, Arkajyoti; Raghavachari, Krishnan

    2014-10-14

    Accurate modeling of the chemical reactions in many diverse areas such as combustion, photochemistry, or atmospheric chemistry strongly depends on the availability of thermochemical information of the radicals involved. However, accurate thermochemical investigations of radical systems using state of the art composite methods have mostly been restricted to the study of hydrocarbon radicals of modest size. In an alternative approach, systematic error-canceling thermochemical hierarchy of reaction schemes can be applied to yield accurate results for such systems. In this work, we have extended our connectivity-based hierarchy (CBH) method to the investigation of radical systems. We have calibrated our method using a test set of 30 medium sized radicals to evaluate their heats of formation. The CBH-rad30 test set contains radicals containing diverse functional groups as well as cyclic systems. We demonstrate that the sophisticated error-canceling isoatomic scheme (CBH-2) with modest levels of theory is adequate to provide heats of formation accurate to ∼1.5 kcal/mol. Finally, we predict heats of formation of 19 other large and medium sized radicals for which the accuracy of available heats of formation are less well-known.

  2. Research on the rapid and accurate positioning and orientation approach for land missile-launching vehicle.

    PubMed

    Li, Kui; Wang, Lei; Lv, Yanhong; Gao, Pengyu; Song, Tianxiao

    2015-10-20

    Getting a land vehicle's accurate position, azimuth and attitude rapidly is significant for vehicle based weapons' combat effectiveness. In this paper, a new approach to acquire vehicle's accurate position and orientation is proposed. It uses biaxial optical detection platform (BODP) to aim at and lock in no less than three pre-set cooperative targets, whose accurate positions are measured beforehand. Then, it calculates the vehicle's accurate position, azimuth and attitudes by the rough position and orientation provided by vehicle based navigation systems and no less than three couples of azimuth and pitch angles measured by BODP. The proposed approach does not depend on Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS), thus it is autonomous and difficult to interfere. Meanwhile, it only needs a rough position and orientation as algorithm's iterative initial value, consequently, it does not have high performance requirement for Inertial Navigation System (INS), odometer and other vehicle based navigation systems, even in high precise applications. This paper described the system's working procedure, presented theoretical deviation of the algorithm, and then verified its effectiveness through simulation and vehicle experiments. The simulation and experimental results indicate that the proposed approach can achieve positioning and orientation accuracy of 0.2 m and 20″ respectively in less than 3 min.

  3. Sonographic diagnosis of an acute Stener lesion: a case report.

    PubMed

    Mattox, Ross; Welk, Aaron B; Battaglia, Patrick J; Scali, Frank; Nunez, Mero; Kettner, Norman W

    2016-01-01

    This case report describes the use of diagnostic ultrasound to diagnose a Stener lesion in a patient who presented for conservative care of thumb pain following a fall on an outstretched hand. Conventional radiographic images demonstrated an avulsion fracture at the ulnar aspect of the base of the first proximal phalanx. Diagnostic ultrasound revealed a torn ulnar collateral ligament of the thumb that was displaced proximal to the adductor aponeurosis, consistent with a Stener lesion. Dynamic imaging with ultrasound confirmed displacement of the fully torn ligament. Surgical repair followed the diagnosis. Diagnostic ultrasound in this case provided an accurate diagnosis obviating further imaging. This allowed an optimal outcome due to early intervention.

  4. Early pregnancy in adolescents: diagnosis, assessment, options counseling, and referral.

    PubMed

    Aruda, Mary M; Waddicor, Kathleen; Frese, Liesl; Cole, Joanna C M; Burke, Pamela

    2010-01-01

    Health care providers are faced with many challenges when working with adolescents. Vague symptoms, unreliable menstrual history, and adolescent reluctance to disclose sexual activity present challenges to early diagnosis. When pregnancy is suspected, clinicians need skills for accurate diagnosis, conducting comprehensive assessments, and providing options counseling. Complexities of providing confidential care while balancing the needs of the adolescent and family may deter some clinicians. A clinical case scenario illustrates important elements of care. Through sharing lessons learned from 10 years of working in a Pregnancy Follow-up Clinic, the authors hope to empower other clinicians as they care for adolescents during this critical time.

  5. Tools for the diagnosis of equine respiratory disorders.

    PubMed

    Roy, Marie-France; Lavoie, Jean-Pierre

    2003-04-01

    Respiratory disorders are among the most common problems leading horse owners to seek veterinary attention. Accurate diagnosis of these conditions allows for proper treatment to be instituted, much to the benefit of the patient and satisfaction of the client. As an introduction to this issue on equine respiratory disorders, we review some of the tools that are available to equine veterinarians for the diagnosis of respiratory disorders. Physical and endoscopic examination, radiology, diagnostic ultrasound, techniques for sampling the respiratory tract, hematology, blood gas analysis, respiratory mechanics, and some modern diagnostic tools are briefly covered.

  6. Prenatal diagnosis of bilateral pulmonary agenesis: a case report.

    PubMed

    Lee, Kyung A; Cho, Jeong Yeon; Lee, Seung Mi; Jun, Jong Kwan; Kang, Jieun; Seo, Jeong-Wook

    2010-01-01

    We report a case of bilateral pulmonary agenesis (BPA), which was suspected during a prenatal US examination and diagnosed by fetal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). BPA is an extremely rare congenital anomaly and, although many fetal structural defects can be detected with a high degree of confidence after introducing high-resolution US, the prenatal diagnosis of BPA remains problematic. Other thoracic abnormalities, such as a congenital diaphragmatic hernia, congenital cystic adenomatoid malformation, and pulmonary sequestration, should be excluded from the list of possible diagnoses before coming to the conclusion of BPA, because BPA is absolutely incompatible with extrauterine life, and an accurate internal diagnosis can prevent a futile intervention from being performed.

  7. Accurately measuring dynamic coefficient of friction in ultraform finishing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Briggs, Dennis; Echaves, Samantha; Pidgeon, Brendan; Travis, Nathan; Ellis, Jonathan D.

    2013-09-01

    UltraForm Finishing (UFF) is a deterministic sub-aperture computer numerically controlled grinding and polishing platform designed by OptiPro Systems. UFF is used to grind and polish a variety of optics from simple spherical to fully freeform, and numerous materials from glasses to optical ceramics. The UFF system consists of an abrasive belt around a compliant wheel that rotates and contacts the part to remove material. This work aims to accurately measure the dynamic coefficient of friction (μ), how it changes as a function of belt wear, and how this ultimately affects material removal rates. The coefficient of friction has been examined in terms of contact mechanics and Preston's equation to determine accurate material removal rates. By accurately predicting changes in μ, polishing iterations can be more accurately predicted, reducing the total number of iterations required to meet specifications. We have established an experimental apparatus that can accurately measure μ by measuring triaxial forces during translating loading conditions or while manufacturing the removal spots used to calculate material removal rates. Using this system, we will demonstrate μ measurements for UFF belts during different states of their lifecycle and assess the material removal function from spot diagrams as a function of wear. Ultimately, we will use this system for qualifying belt-wheel-material combinations to develop a spot-morphing model to better predict instantaneous material removal functions.

  8. Nonexposure Accurate Location K-Anonymity Algorithm in LBS

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    This paper tackles location privacy protection in current location-based services (LBS) where mobile users have to report their exact location information to an LBS provider in order to obtain their desired services. Location cloaking has been proposed and well studied to protect user privacy. It blurs the user's accurate coordinate and replaces it with a well-shaped cloaked region. However, to obtain such an anonymous spatial region (ASR), nearly all existent cloaking algorithms require knowing the accurate locations of all users. Therefore, location cloaking without exposing the user's accurate location to any party is urgently needed. In this paper, we present such two nonexposure accurate location cloaking algorithms. They are designed for K-anonymity, and cloaking is performed based on the identifications (IDs) of the grid areas which were reported by all the users, instead of directly on their accurate coordinates. Experimental results show that our algorithms are more secure than the existent cloaking algorithms, need not have all the users reporting their locations all the time, and can generate smaller ASR. PMID:24605060

  9. Nonexposure accurate location K-anonymity algorithm in LBS.

    PubMed

    Jia, Jinying; Zhang, Fengli

    2014-01-01

    This paper tackles location privacy protection in current location-based services (LBS) where mobile users have to report their exact location information to an LBS provider in order to obtain their desired services. Location cloaking has been proposed and well studied to protect user privacy. It blurs the user's accurate coordinate and replaces it with a well-shaped cloaked region. However, to obtain such an anonymous spatial region (ASR), nearly all existent cloaking algorithms require knowing the accurate locations of all users. Therefore, location cloaking without exposing the user's accurate location to any party is urgently needed. In this paper, we present such two nonexposure accurate location cloaking algorithms. They are designed for K-anonymity, and cloaking is performed based on the identifications (IDs) of the grid areas which were reported by all the users, instead of directly on their accurate coordinates. Experimental results show that our algorithms are more secure than the existent cloaking algorithms, need not have all the users reporting their locations all the time, and can generate smaller ASR.

  10. Complementary role of SPECT in the diagnosis of cavernous hemangioma of the liver

    SciTech Connect

    Tumeh, S.S.; English, R.J.; Holman, B.L.

    1985-12-01

    Cavernous hemangiomas are the most common benign tumors of the liver. Although their clinical course is usually uncomplicated, an accurate diagnosis may be important to exclude conditions that need treatment, (or to avoid an unnecessarily risky percutaneous biopsy). Although blood pool scintigraphy using planar gamma camera imaging is a reliable examination for the diagnosis of liver hemangiomas, it may fail to depict small, deeply seated lesions, and hence miss the diagnosis. Two cases are reported in which SPECT demonstrated delayed pooling in small, deep, space-occupying lesions, which were poorly seen on planar images, and therefore made a cavernous hemangioma the most likely diagnosis.

  11. Psychological diagnosis in sexology.

    PubMed

    Giommi, R

    2003-01-01

    The author presents a model based on verbal and non-verbal instruments in order to elaborate a psychological diagnosis in troubles of sexual behavior. The instruments usually employed are the following: the map aimed at verifying harmony or conflict with significant people; family drawing, another means to check harmony or conflict in the nuclear family; genogram, in order to reconstruct family myths; body drawing aimed at discovering the body parts that give pleasure, uneasiness, annoyance-tickle and the problems connected with genitals; questionnaire on the couple aimed at finding out areas of mutual dissatisfaction; the drawing of the shared space in the couple, represented by the WE area, in order to identify the relational/emotional deficiencies. Using this model we can simplify the anamnesis, focus on the problematic areas, quickly check the unconscious contents and define a diagnosis with the subsequent hypothesis of intervention.

  12. Human prenatal diagnosis

    SciTech Connect

    Filkins, K.; Russo, J.F.

    1985-01-01

    Advances in the field of prenatal diagnosis have been rapid during the past decade. Moreover, liberal use of birth control methods and restriction of family size have placed greater emphasis on optimum outcome of each pregnancy. There are many prenatal diagnostic techniques of proven value; the risks, including false negatives and false positives, are known. With the rapid proliferation of new and experimental techniques, many disorders are potential diagnosable or even treatable; however, risk factors are unknown and issues relating to quality control have not been resolved. These problems are readily appreciated in the dramatic new techniques involving recombinant DNA, chorion villus sampling, and fetal surgery. Unfortunately, clinicians may not appreciate the difficulties that may also be encountered in the more mundane prenatal diagnostic tests such as ultrasonography or enzymatic testing. The aim of this volume is to clarify and rationalize certain aspects of diagnosis, genetic counseling, and intervention. New and experimental techniques are presented in the light of current knowledge.

  13. [Ultrasonic diagnosis of ureterocele].

    PubMed

    Urenkov, S B; Roslov, A L

    1989-01-01

    Diagnostic ultrasonic investigation has found many applications in routine urologic practices. The use of ultrasound for the investigation of 19 patients with ureterocele is reported. High diagnostic value, simplicity and noninvasiveness of echographic diagnosis of this congenital malformation of distal ureteral portions and related complications are pointed out. Its advantages over conventional means of ureterocele diagnosis, such as excretory urography and cystoscopy, are demonstrated, while their shortcomings are avoided. Echography is particularly effective in cases of impaired renal activity, doubled upper urinary tract and segmentary ureterohydronephrosis. Ultrasound makes it possible to choose the type of surgical intervention, and exclude angiography from the diagnostic complex in some cases. Follow-up echographic examination after surgery for ureterocele provides adequate information on treatment results.

  14. Otomycosis: Diagnosis and treatment.

    PubMed

    Vennewald, Irina; Klemm, Eckart

    2010-03-04

    Aspergillus and Candida spp are the most frequently isolated fungi in patients with otomycosis. The diagnosis of otitis externa relies on the patient's history, otoscopic examination under microscopic control, and imaging studies. Direct preparation of the specimens, particularly with optical brighteners, mycologic culture, and histologic examination, is very important and strongly recommended for the correct diagnosis. Patients with noninvasive fungal otitis externa should be treated with intense débridement and cleansing, and topical antifungals. Topical antifungals, such as clotrimazole, miconazole, bifonazole, ciclopiroxolamine, and tolnaftate, are potentially safe choices for the treatment of otomycosis, especially in patients with a perforated eardrum. The oral triazole drugs, itraconazole, voriconazole, and posaconazole are effective against Candida and Aspergillus, with good penetration of bone and the central nervous system. These drugs are essential in the treatment of patients with malignant fungal otitis externa complicated by mastoiditis and meningitis.

  15. Celiac Disease Diagnosis: Endoscopic Biopsy

    MedlinePlus

    Diagnosis If antibody tests and symptoms suggest celiac disease, the physician needs to establish the diagnosis by obtaining tiny pieces of tissue from the upper small intestine to check for damage ...

  16. ROM Plus®: accurate point-of-care detection of ruptured fetal membranes

    PubMed Central

    McQuivey, Ross W; Block, Jon E

    2016-01-01

    Accurate and timely diagnosis of rupture of fetal membranes is imperative to inform and guide gestational age-specific interventions to optimize perinatal outcomes and reduce the risk of serious complications, including preterm delivery and infections. The ROM Plus is a rapid, point-of-care, qualitative immunochromatographic diagnostic test that uses a unique monoclonal/polyclonal antibody approach to detect two different proteins found in amniotic fluid at high concentrations: alpha-fetoprotein and insulin-like growth factor binding protein-1. Clinical study results have uniformly demonstrated high diagnostic accuracy and performance characteristics with this point-of-care test that exceeds conventional clinical testing with external laboratory evaluation. The description, indications for use, procedural steps, and laboratory and clinical characterization of this assay are presented in this article. PMID:27274316

  17. ROM Plus(®): accurate point-of-care detection of ruptured fetal membranes.

    PubMed

    McQuivey, Ross W; Block, Jon E

    2016-01-01

    Accurate and timely diagnosis of rupture of fetal membranes is imperative to inform and guide gestational age-specific interventions to optimize perinatal outcomes and reduce the risk of serious complications, including preterm delivery and infections. The ROM Plus is a rapid, point-of-care, qualitative immunochromatographic diagnostic test that uses a unique monoclonal/polyclonal antibody approach to detect two different proteins found in amniotic fluid at high concentrations: alpha-fetoprotein and insulin-like growth factor binding protein-1. Clinical study results have uniformly demonstrated high diagnostic accuracy and performance characteristics with this point-of-care test that exceeds conventional clinical testing with external laboratory evaluation. The description, indications for use, procedural steps, and laboratory and clinical characterization of this assay are presented in this article.

  18. Optical Coherence Tomography as a Rapid, Accurate, Noncontact Method of Visualizing the Palisades of Vogt

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Divya; Kagemann, Larry; Schuman, Joel S.; SundarRaj, Nirmala

    2012-01-01

    Purpose. This study explored the efficacy of optical coherence tomography (OCT) as a high-resolution, noncontact method for imaging the palisades of Vogt by correlating OCT and confocal microscopy images. Methods. Human limbal rims were acquired and imaged with OCT and confocal microscopy. The area of the epithelial basement membrane in each of these sets was digitally reconstructed, and the models were compared. Results. OCT identified the palisades within the limbus and exhibited excellent structural correlation with immunostained tissue imaged by confocal microscopy. Conclusions. OCT successfully identified the limbal palisades of Vogt that constitute the corneal epithelial stem cell niche. These findings offer the exciting potential to characterize the architecture of the palisades in vivo, to harvest stem cells for transplantation more accurately, to track palisade structure for better diagnosis, follow-up and staging of treatment, and to assess and intervene in the progression of stem cell depletion by monitoring changes in the structure of the palisades. PMID:22266521

  19. Case for diagnosis*

    PubMed Central

    Mesquita, Ludmila de Sousa Ursino; Sherlock, Jonnia; Portugal, Fedro Menezes; Mota, Lívia de Souza; Fakhouri, Ricardo; da Silva, Samuel Freire

    2014-01-01

    Ostraceous psoriasis is a rare form of psoriasis, characterized by lesions with firmly adhered thick scales, in various colors, with surfaces resembling oysters shells. The protracted course of clinical presentation allied with peculiar lesions and histopathological examination permit the diagnosis. Lesions are usually resistant to topical medications, requiring systemic treatment. It is important that dermatologists are able to diagnose the unusual forms of psoriasis to avoid iatrogeny. We report the case of a patient with ostraceous psoriasis treated with methotrexate. PMID:25184935

  20. [Diagnosis of hereditary angioedema].

    PubMed

    Bouillet, Laurence

    2015-01-01

    Hereditary angioedema is a rare disease, potentially life-threatening. It requires a specific treatment. Angioedema without wheals associated with abdominal attacks are very specific of this disease. Antigenemy and functional C1Inhibitor assays are necessary for the diagnosis. The hereditary angioedema with normal C1Inh (type III) is a diagnostic challenge. Bradykinin, secondary to kallikrein-kinin system activation is the key mediator of hereditary angioedema. Female are more symptomatic. Attacks can be induced by menstruations, pregnancies or contraceptive pills.

  1. Fault diagnosis of rolling element bearing based on S transform and gray level co-occurrence matrix

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Minghang; Tang, Baoping; Tan, Qian

    2015-08-01

    Time-frequency analysis is an effective tool to extract machinery health information contained in non-stationary vibration signals. Various time-frequency analysis methods have been proposed and successfully applied to machinery fault diagnosis. However, little research has been done on bearing fault diagnosis using texture features extracted from time-frequency representations (TFRs), although they may contain plenty of sensitive information highly related to fault pattern. Therefore, to make full use of the textural information contained in the TFRs, this paper proposes a novel fault diagnosis method based on S transform, gray level co-occurrence matrix (GLCM) and multi-class support vector machine (Multi-SVM). Firstly, S transform is chosen to generate the TFRs due to its advantages of providing frequency-dependent resolution while keeping a direct relationship with the Fourier spectrum. Secondly, the famous GLCM-based texture features are extracted for capturing fault pattern information. Finally, as a classifier which has good discrimination and generalization abilities, Multi-SVM is used for the classification. Experimental results indicate that the GLCM-based texture features extracted from TFRs can identify bearing fault patterns accurately, and provide higher accuracies than the traditional time-domain and frequency-domain features, wavelet packet node energy or two-direction 2D linear discriminant analysis based features of the same TFRs in most cases.

  2. Composing Disability: Diagnosis, Interrupted.

    PubMed

    Wilkerson, Abby; Fisher, Joseph; Fletcher, Wade

    2016-12-01

    Writing is central both to the medical diagnostic codification of disability and to disabled people's efforts to interrupt, complicate, or disrupt dominant medical narratives. This Symposium, like the George Washington University conference from which it takes its name, creates space for diverse modes and genres of claiming authority regarding diagnosis and its cultural and material effects. "Queer" and "crip" interrogations of diagnosis illuminate its status as a cultural phenomenon, embracing culturally disavowed embodiments and embodied experiences as tools for diagnosing inegalitarian social relations and opportunities for cultural interventions. This Symposium traces the workings of diagnostic normativity manifested in experiences such as "disruptive deafness," unstable bodily materialities, pathologized grief and other forms of affective distress, and "surgical assemblages." It presents a diverse array of compositions, articulated on each writer's own terms, addressing a range of embodied experiences through multiple genres and voices, ranging from conversation transcript to scholarly essay, poetry, graphic memoir, and personal essay. Here, laypersons interrupt monologic medical diagnosis, claiming space to compose themselves. Together, the authors trace instances of corporeal "correction" back to the noxious agents, both environmental and political, that consistently breach the boundaries of corporeality.

  3. Reprogenetics: Preimplantational genetics diagnosis

    PubMed Central

    Coco, Roberto

    2014-01-01

    Preimplantational Genetics Diagnosis (PGD) is requested by geneticists and reproductive specialists. Usually geneticists ask for PGD because one or both members of the couple have an increased genetic risk for having an affected offspring. On the other hand, reproductive specialists ask for embryo aneuploidy screening (PGS) to assures an euploid embryo transfer, with the purpose to achieve an ongoing pregnancy, although the couple have normal karyotypes. As embryonic aneuploidies are responsible for pre and post implantation abortions, it is logical to considerer that the screening of the embryonic aneuploidies prior to embryo transfer could improve the efficiency of the in vitro fertilization procedures. Nevertheless, it is still premature to affirm this until well-designed clinical trials were done, especially in women of advanced age where the rate of embryos with aneuploidies is much greater. Although the indications of PGD are similar to conventional prenatal diagnosis (PND), PGD has less ethical objections than the PND. As with the PGD/PGS results only unaffected embryos are transferred, both methods can avoid the decision to interrupt the pregnancy due to a genetic problem; this makes an important difference when compared to conventional prenatal diagnosis. PMID:24764761

  4. Reprogenetics: Preimplantational genetics diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Coco, Roberto

    2014-03-01

    Preimplantational Genetics Diagnosis (PGD) is requested by geneticists and reproductive specialists. Usually geneticists ask for PGD because one or both members of the couple have an increased genetic risk for having an affected offspring. On the other hand, reproductive specialists ask for embryo aneuploidy screening (PGS) to assures an euploid embryo transfer, with the purpose to achieve an ongoing pregnancy, although the couple have normal karyotypes. As embryonic aneuploidies are responsible for pre and post implantation abortions, it is logical to considerer that the screening of the embryonic aneuploidies prior to embryo transfer could improve the efficiency of the in vitro fertilization procedures. Nevertheless, it is still premature to affirm this until well-designed clinical trials were done, especially in women of advanced age where the rate of embryos with aneuploidies is much greater. Although the indications of PGD are similar to conventional prenatal diagnosis (PND), PGD has less ethical objections than the PND. As with the PGD/PGS results only unaffected embryos are transferred, both methods can avoid the decision to interrupt the pregnancy due to a genetic problem; this makes an important difference when compared to conventional prenatal diagnosis.

  5. Culture and psychiatric diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Lewis-Fernández, Roberto; Aggarwal, Neil Krishan

    2013-01-01

    Since the publication of DSM-IV in 1994, neurobiologists and anthropologists have criticized the rigidity of its diagnostic criteria that appear to exclude whole classes of alternate illness presentations, as well as the lack of attention in contemporary psychiatric nosology to the role of contextual factors in the emergence and characteristics of psychopathology. Experts in culture and mental health have responded to these criticisms by revising the very process of diagnosis for DSM-5. Specifically, the DSM-5 Cultural Issues Subgroup has recommended that concepts of culture be included more prominently in several areas: an introductory chapter on Cultural Aspects of Psychiatric Diagnosis - composed of a conceptual introduction, a revised Outline for Cultural Formulation, a Cultural Formulation Interview that operationalizes this Outline, and a glossary on cultural concepts of distress - as well as material directly related to culture that is incorporated into the description of each disorder. This chapter surveys these recommendations to demonstrate how culture and context interact with psychiatric diagnosis at multiple levels. A greater appreciation of the interplay between culture, context, and biology can help clinicians improve diagnostic and treatment planning.

  6. Accurate Serodetection of Asymptomatic Leishmania donovani Infection by Use of Defined Antigens.

    PubMed

    Vallur, Aarthy C; Reinhart, Caroline; Mohamath, Raodoh; Goto, Yasuyuki; Ghosh, Prakash; Mondal, Dinesh; Duthie, Malcolm S; Reed, Steven G

    2016-04-01

    Infection with Leishmania donovaniis typically asymptomatic, but a significant number of individuals may progress to visceral leishmaniasis (VL), a deadly disease that threatens 200 million people in areas where it is endemic. While diagnosis of acute VL has been simplified by the use of cost-effective confirmatory serological tests, similar standardized tools are not widely available for detecting asymptomatic infection, which can be 4 to 20 times more prevalent than active disease. A simple and accurate serological test that is capable of detecting asymptomaticL. donovaniinfection will be useful for surveillance programs targeting VL control and elimination. To address this unmet need, we evaluated recombinant antigens for their ability to detect serum antibodies in 104 asymptomaticL. donovani-infected individuals (qualified as positive forL. donovani-specific antibodies by direct agglutination test [DAT]) from the Mymensingh district of Bangladesh where VL is hyperendemic. The novel proteins rKR95 and rTR18 possessed the greatest potential and detected 69% of DAT-positive individuals, with rKR95 being more robust in reactivity. Agreement in results for individuals with high DAT responses, who are more likely to progress to VL disease, was 74%. When considered along with rK39, a gold standard antigen that is used to confirm clinical diagnosis of VL but that is now becoming widely used for surveillance, rKR95 and rTR18 conferred a sensitivity of 84% based on a theoretical combined estimate. Our data indicate that incorporating rKR95 and rTR18 with rK39 in serological tests amenable to rapid or high-throughput screening may enable simple and accurate detection of asymptomatic infection. Such tests will be important tools to measureL. donovaniinfection rates, a primary goal in surveillance and a critical measurement with which to assess elimination programs.

  7. Accurate Fiber Length Measurement Using Time-of-Flight Technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Terra, Osama; Hussein, Hatem

    2016-06-01

    Fiber artifacts of very well-measured length are required for the calibration of optical time domain reflectometers (OTDR). In this paper accurate length measurement of different fiber lengths using the time-of-flight technique is performed. A setup is proposed to measure accurately lengths from 1 to 40 km at 1,550 and 1,310 nm using high-speed electro-optic modulator and photodetector. This setup offers traceability to the SI unit of time, the second (and hence to meter by definition), by locking the time interval counter to the Global Positioning System (GPS)-disciplined quartz oscillator. Additionally, the length of a recirculating loop artifact is measured and compared with the measurement made for the same fiber by the National Physical Laboratory of United Kingdom (NPL). Finally, a method is proposed to relatively correct the fiber refractive index to allow accurate fiber length measurement.

  8. Differential equation based method for accurate approximations in optimization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pritchard, Jocelyn I.; Adelman, Howard M.

    1990-01-01

    A method to efficiently and accurately approximate the effect of design changes on structural response is described. The key to this method is to interpret sensitivity equations as differential equations that may be solved explicitly for closed form approximations, hence, the method is denoted the Differential Equation Based (DEB) method. Approximations were developed for vibration frequencies, mode shapes and static displacements. The DEB approximation method was applied to a cantilever beam and results compared with the commonly-used linear Taylor series approximations and exact solutions. The test calculations involved perturbing the height, width, cross-sectional area, tip mass, and bending inertia of the beam. The DEB method proved to be very accurate, and in most cases, was more accurate than the linear Taylor series approximation. The method is applicable to simultaneous perturbation of several design variables. Also, the approximations may be used to calculate other system response quantities. For example, the approximations for displacements are used to approximate bending stresses.

  9. MR imaging of soft-tissue vascular malformations: diagnosis, classification, and therapy follow-up.

    PubMed

    Flors, Lucía; Leiva-Salinas, Carlos; Maged, Ismaeel M; Norton, Patrick T; Matsumoto, Alan H; Angle, John F; Hugo Bonatti, Md; Park, Auh Whan; Ahmad, Ehab Ali; Bozlar, Ugur; Housseini, Ahmed M; Huerta, Thomas E; Hagspiel, Klaus D

    2011-01-01

    Vascular malformations and tumors comprise a wide, heterogeneous spectrum of lesions that often represent a diagnostic and therapeutic challenge. Frequent use of an inaccurate nomenclature has led to considerable confusion. Since the treatment strategy depends on the type of vascular anomaly, correct diagnosis and classification are crucial. Magnetic resonance (MR) imaging is the most valuable modality for classification of vascular anomalies because it accurately demonstrates their extension and their anatomic relationship to adjacent structures. A comprehensive assessment of vascular anomalies requires functional analysis of the involved vessels. Dynamic time-resolved contrast material-enhanced MR angiography provides information about the hemodynamics of vascular anomalies and allows differentiation of high-flow and low-flow vascular malformations. Furthermore, MR imaging is useful in assessment of treatment success and establishment of a long-term management strategy. Radiologists should be familiar with the clinical and MR imaging features that aid in diagnosis of vascular anomalies and their proper classification. Furthermore, they should be familiar with MR imaging protocols optimized for evaluation of vascular anomalies and with their posttreatment appearances. Supplemental material available at http://radiographics.rsna.org/lookup/suppl/doi:10.1148/rg.315105213/-/DC1.

  10. Antenatal diagnosis of Down syndrome: how good is state of the art.

    PubMed

    Mittal, Riju; Varghese, Raji Mathew; Puliyel, Jacob M

    2009-01-01

    A newborn with Down syndrome can be expected once in a thousand deliveries. Amniocentesis for karyotyping of foetal cells or detection of foetal cell in the maternal circulation ie, fluorescent in-situ hybridisation (FISH) and karyotyping, are definitive methods of making the diagnosis antenatally. The cost of doing this routinely in all pregnancies is prohibitive. This has led to dependence on screening tests, to select women more likely to be carrying a Down foetus, to offer karyotyping in a more cost efficient manner. Unfortunately, these screening criteria, namely maternal age, biochemical markers and ultrasound pointers, are rather insensitive and miss a large number of cases of Down syndrome. At the same time they are very non-specific, picking up a large number of false positive cases, resulting in undue anxiety and unnecessary alarm in a large number of mothers. Till a non-invasive, definitive test, like FISH can be routinely used in all pregnancies at affordable costs, accurate antenatal diagnosis on a community basis will be a hit and miss affair.

  11. X chromosome dosage by quantitative fluorescent PCR and rapid prenatal diagnosis of sex chromosome aneuploidies.

    PubMed

    Cirigliano, Vincenzo; Ejarque, Maijo; Fuster, Carme; Adinolfi, Matteo

    2002-11-01

    During the past few years, rapid prenatal diagnosis of chromosome aneuploidies has been successfully achieved by quantitative fluorescent PCR (QF-PCR) amplification of chromosome-specific small tandem repeats (STR). This approach has proven to be very useful in clinical settings, since it allows the detection of major numerical disorders in a few hours after sampling. For the detection of Turner's syndrome (45,X), several highly polymorphic STR on the X chromosome are needed in order to reduce the likelihood that a normal female might be homozygous for all sequences and, consequently, that the test could fail to discriminate between samples retrieved from a Turner's and a normal female fetus. Here we report a new method for rapid and accurate detection of X chromosome copy number in prenatal samples that does not depend on STR heterozygosity. The test is based on QF-PCR amplification of the X-linked HPRT together with the autosomal D21S1411 used as internal control for quantification. In the course of this study, this assay allowed the prenatal diagnosis of a rare case of a normal female homozygous for four selected highly polymorphic X chromosome STR, as well as the assessment of the normal chromosome complement of a fetus homozygous for five chromosome 21 markers.

  12. Convenient diagnosis of spinal and bulbar muscular atrophy using a microchip electrophoresis system.

    PubMed

    Maruyama, Hirofumi; Morino, Hiroyuki; Izumi, Yuishin; Noda, Kouichi; Kawakami, Hideshi

    2013-01-01

    Spinal and bulbar muscular atrophy (SBMA) is a slowly progressive motor neuron disease. Lower and primary sensory neuronopathy is one of the major neuropathological changes that occurs in SBMA. However, many sings are common to SBMA and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), and SBMA patients are sometimes diagnosed with ALS. Leuprorelin may be used to treat SBMA, but an accurate diagnosis is necessary for treatment and care. Genetic diagnosis can be performed to detect the expansion of a CAG repeat in the androgen receptor gene in SBMA patients. To screen for this expansion, we used a microchip electrophoresis system. The discrepancy between the actual repeat length and that found by the microchip electrophoresis system was roughly dependent on the repeat length. The mean difference was -6.8 base pairs (bp) in SBMA patients, -0.30 bp in controls. The microchip electrophoresis results were approximately 2 CAG repeats shorter than the actual repeat length in SBMA patients. Using this method, we screened our ALS samples (31 were familial, 271 were sporadic): 4 subjects were diagnosed with SBMA; 2 had familial ALS, and 2 had sporadic ALS (0.7%). The microchip electrophoresis system is semi-quantitative, convenient and useful for screening a large number of samples.

  13. Differential diagnosis of regional cerebral hyperfixation of TC-99m HMPAO on SPECT imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Shirazi, P.; Konopka, L.; Crayton, J.W.

    1994-05-01

    Accurate diagnostic evaluation of patients with neurologic and neuropsychiatric disease is important because early treatment may halt disease progression and prevent impairment or disability. Cerebral hyperfixation of HMPAO has been ascribed to luxury perfusion following ischemic infarction. The present study sought to identify other conditions that also display radiotracer hyperfixation in order to develop a differential diagnosis of this finding on SPECT imaging. Two hundred fifty (n=250) successive cerebral SPECT images were reviewed for evidence of HMPAO hyperfixation. Hyperfixation was defined as enhanced focal perfusion surrounded by a zone of diminished or normal cerebral perfusion. All patients were scanned after intravenous injection of 25 mCi Tc-99m HMPAO. Volume-rendered and oblique images were obtained with a Trionix triple-head SPECT system using ultra high resolution fan beam collimators. Thirteen (13/250; 5%) of the patients exhibited regions of HMPAO hyperfixation. CT or MRI abnormalities were detected in 6/13 cases. Clinical diagnoses in these patients included intractable psychosis, post-traumatic stress disorder, alcohol and narcotic dependence, major depression, acute closed-head trauma, hypothyroidism, as well as subacute ischemic infarction. A wide variety of conditions may be associated with cerebral hyperfixation of HMPAO. These conditions include neurologic and psychiatric diagnoses, and extend the consideration of hyperfixation beyond ischemic infarction. Consequently, a differential diagnosis of HMPAO hyperfixation may be broader than originally considered, and this may suggest a fundamental role for local cerebral hyperperfusion. Elucidation of the fundamental mechanism(s) for cerebral hyperperfusion requires further investigation.

  14. Exome sequencing results in successful diagnosis and treatment of a severe congenital anemia

    PubMed Central

    Lacy, Jessica N.; Ulirsch, Jacob C.; Grace, Rachael F.; Towne, Meghan C.; Hale, John; Mohandas, Narla; Lux, Samuel E.; Agrawal, Pankaj B.; Sankaran, Vijay G.

    2016-01-01

    Whole-exome sequencing is increasingly used for diagnosis and identification of appropriate therapies in patients. Here, we present the case of a 3-yr-old male with a lifelong and severe transfusion-dependent anemia of unclear etiology, despite an extensive clinical workup. Given the difficulty of making the diagnosis and the potential side effects from performing interventions in patients with a congenital anemia of unknown etiology, we opted to perform whole-exome sequencing on the patient and his parents. This resulted in the identification of homozygous loss-of-function mutations in the EPB41 gene, encoding erythrocyte protein band 4.1, which therefore causes a rare and severe form of hereditary elliptocytosis in the patient. Based on prior clinical experience in similar patients, a surgical splenectomy was performed that resulted in subsequent transfusion independence in the patient. This case illustrates how whole-exome sequencing can lead to accurate diagnoses (and exclusion of diagnoses where interventions, such as splenectomy, would be contraindicated), thereby resulting in appropriate and successful therapeutic intervention—a major goal of precision medicine. PMID:27551681

  15. Radio Astronomers Set New Standard for Accurate Cosmic Distance Measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1999-06-01

    the distance to NGC 4258 as either 27 or 29 million light-years, depending on assumptions about the characteristics of this type of star in that galaxy. Other Cepheid-based galaxy distances were used to calculate the expansion rate of the universe, called the Hubble Constant, announced by a team of HST observers last week. "This difference could mean that there may be more uncertainty in Cepheid-determined distances than people have realized," said Moran. "Providing this directly-determined distance to one galaxy -- a distance that can serve as a milestone -- should be helpful in determining distances to other galaxies, and thus the Hubble Constant and the size and age of the universe" The VLBA is a system of ten radio-telescope antennas, each 25 meters (82 feet) in diameter, stretching some 5,000 miles from Mauna Kea in Hawaii to St. Croix in the U.S. Virgin Islands. Operated from NRAO's Array Operations Center in Socorro, NM, the VLBA offers astronomers the greatest resolving power of any telescope anywhere. The NRAO is a facility of the National Science Foundation, operated under cooperative agreement by Associated Universities, Inc. Background information: Determining Cosmic Distances Determining cosmic distances obviously is vital to understanding the size of the universe. In turn, knowing the size of the universe is an important step in determining its age. "The size puts a limit on how much expansion could have occurred since the Big Bang, and thus tells us something about the age," said Moran. However, determining cosmic distances has proven to be a particularly thorny problem for astronomers. In the third century, B.C., the Greek astronomer Aristarchus devised a method of using trigonometry to determine the relative distances of the Moon and Sun, but in practice his method was difficult to use. Though a great first step, he missed the mark by a factor of 20. It wasn't until 1761 that trigonometric methods produced a relatively accurate distance to Venus, thus

  16. Intracochlear schwannoma: diagnosis and management.

    PubMed

    Bittencourt, Aline Gomes; Alves, Ricardo Dourado; Ikari, Liliane Satomi; Burke, Patrick Rademaker; Gebrim, Eloisa Maria Santiago; Bento, Ricardo Ferreira

    2014-07-01

    Introduction Schwannomas of the eighth cranial nerve are benign tumors that usually occur in the internal auditory canal or the cerebellopontine angle cistern. Rarely, these tumors may originate from the neural elements within the vestibule, cochlea, or semicircular canals and are called intralabyrinthine schwannomas. Intracochlear schwannomas (ICSs) represent a small percentage of these tumors, and their diagnosis is based on high-resolution magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Objectives To report the clinical and radiologic features and audiometric testing results of an ICS in a 48-year-old man after a 22-month follow-up period. Resumed Report A patient with an 8-year history of persistent tinnitus in his right ear, combined with ipsilateral progressive hearing loss and aural fullness. Audiometry revealed normal hearing in the left ear and a moderate to severe sensorineural hearing loss in the right ear, with decreased speech reception threshold and word recognition score, compared with the exam performed 5 years previously. MRI showed a small intracochlear nodular lesion in the modiolus, isointense on T1 with a high contrast enhancement on T1 postgadolinium images. During the follow-up period, there were no radiologic changes on imaging studies. Thus, a wait-and-scan policy was chosen as the lesion remained stable with no considerable growth and the patient still presents with residual hearing. Conclusions Once diagnosed, not all ICS patients require surgery. Treatment options for ICS include stereotactic radiotherapy and rescanning policy, depending on the tumor's size, evidence of the tumor's growth, degree of hearing loss, intractable vestibular symptoms, concern about the pathologic diagnosis, and the patient's other medical conditions.

  17. Accurate stress resultants equations for laminated composite deep thick shells

    SciTech Connect

    Qatu, M.S.

    1995-11-01

    This paper derives accurate equations for the normal and shear force as well as bending and twisting moment resultants for laminated composite deep, thick shells. The stress resultant equations for laminated composite thick shells are shown to be different from those of plates. This is due to the fact the stresses over the thickness of the shell have to be integrated on a trapezoidal-like shell element to obtain the stress resultants. Numerical results are obtained and showed that accurate stress resultants are needed for laminated composite deep thick shells, especially if the curvature is not spherical.

  18. Must Kohn-Sham oscillator strengths be accurate at threshold?

    SciTech Connect

    Yang Zenghui; Burke, Kieron; Faassen, Meta van

    2009-09-21

    The exact ground-state Kohn-Sham (KS) potential for the helium atom is known from accurate wave function calculations of the ground-state density. The threshold for photoabsorption from this potential matches the physical system exactly. By carefully studying its absorption spectrum, we show the answer to the title question is no. To address this problem in detail, we generate a highly accurate simple fit of a two-electron spectrum near the threshold, and apply the method to both the experimental spectrum and that of the exact ground-state Kohn-Sham potential.

  19. Accurate torque-speed performance prediction for brushless dc motors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gipper, Patrick D.

    Desirable characteristics of the brushless dc motor (BLDCM) have resulted in their application for electrohydrostatic (EH) and electromechanical (EM) actuation systems. But to effectively apply the BLDCM requires accurate prediction of performance. The minimum necessary performance characteristics are motor torque versus speed, peak and average supply current and efficiency. BLDCM nonlinear simulation software specifically adapted for torque-speed prediction is presented. The capability of the software to quickly and accurately predict performance has been verified on fractional to integral HP motor sizes, and is presented. Additionally, the capability of torque-speed prediction with commutation angle advance is demonstrated.

  20. Accurate upwind-monotone (nonoscillatory) methods for conservation laws

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huynh, Hung T.

    1992-01-01

    The well known MUSCL scheme of Van Leer is constructed using a piecewise linear approximation. The MUSCL scheme is second order accurate at the smooth part of the solution except at extrema where the accuracy degenerates to first order due to the monotonicity constraint. To construct accurate schemes which are free from oscillations, the author introduces the concept of upwind monotonicity. Several classes of schemes, which are upwind monotone and of uniform second or third order accuracy are then presented. Results for advection with constant speed are shown. It is also shown that the new scheme compares favorably with state of the art methods.

  1. In-line sensor for accurate rf power measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gahan, D.; Hopkins, M. B.

    2005-10-01

    An in-line sensor has been constructed with 50Ω characteristic impedance to accurately measure rf power dissipated in a matched or unmatched load with a view to being implemented as a rf discharge diagnostic. The physical construction and calibration technique are presented. The design is a wide band, hybrid directional coupler/current-voltage sensor suitable for fundamental and harmonic power measurements. A comparison with a standard wattmeter using dummy load impedances shows that this in-line sensor is significantly more accurate in mismatched conditions.

  2. In-line sensor for accurate rf power measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Gahan, D.; Hopkins, M.B.

    2005-10-15

    An in-line sensor has been constructed with 50 {omega} characteristic impedance to accurately measure rf power dissipated in a matched or unmatched load with a view to being implemented as a rf discharge diagnostic. The physical construction and calibration technique are presented. The design is a wide band, hybrid directional coupler/current-voltage sensor suitable for fundamental and harmonic power measurements. A comparison with a standard wattmeter using dummy load impedances shows that this in-line sensor is significantly more accurate in mismatched conditions.

  3. Time-Accurate Numerical Simulations of Synthetic Jet Quiescent Air

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rupesh, K-A. B.; Ravi, B. R.; Mittal, R.; Raju, R.; Gallas, Q.; Cattafesta, L.

    2007-01-01

    The unsteady evolution of three-dimensional synthetic jet into quiescent air is studied by time-accurate numerical simulations using a second-order accurate mixed explicit-implicit fractional step scheme on Cartesian grids. Both two-dimensional and three-dimensional calculations of synthetic jet are carried out at a Reynolds number (based on average velocity during the discharge phase of the cycle V(sub j), and jet width d) of 750 and Stokes number of 17.02. The results obtained are assessed against PIV and hotwire measurements provided for the NASA LaRC workshop on CFD validation of synthetic jets.

  4. Development of an XYZ Digital Camera with Embedded Color Calibration System for Accurate Color Acquisition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kretkowski, Maciej; Jablonski, Ryszard; Shimodaira, Yoshifumi

    Acquisition of accurate colors is important in the modern era of widespread exchange of electronic multimedia. The variety of device-dependent color spaces causes troubles with accurate color reproduction. In this paper we present the outlines of accomplished digital camera system with device-independent output formed from tristimulus XYZ values. The outstanding accuracy and fidelity of acquired color is achieved in our system by employing an embedded color calibration system based on emissive device generating reference calibration colors with user-defined spectral distribution and chromaticity coordinates. The system was tested by calibrating the camera using 24 reference colors spectrally reproduced from 24 color patches of the Macbeth Chart. The average color difference (CIEDE2000) has been found to be ΔE =0.83, which is an outstanding result compared to commercially available digital cameras.

  5. Accurate Prediction of One-Dimensional Protein Structure Features Using SPINE-X.

    PubMed

    Faraggi, Eshel; Kloczkowski, Andrzej

    2017-01-01

    Accurate prediction of protein secondary structure and other one-dimensional structure features is essential for accurate sequence alignment, three-dimensional structure modeling, and function prediction. SPINE-X is a software package to predict secondary structure as well as accessible surface area and dihedral angles ϕ and ψ. For secondary structure SPINE-X achieves an accuracy of between 81 and 84 % depending on the dataset and choice of tests. The Pearson correlation coefficient for accessible surface area prediction is 0.75 and the mean absolute error from the ϕ and ψ dihedral angles are 20(∘) and 33(∘), respectively. The source code and a Linux executables for SPINE-X are available from Research and Information Systems at http://mamiris.com .

  6. Application of the accurate mass and time tag approach in studies of the human blood lipidome

    PubMed Central

    Ding, Jie; Sorensen, Christina M.; Jaitly, Navdeep; Jiang, Hongliang; Orton, Daniel J.; Monroe, Matthew E.; Moore, Ronald J.; Smith, Richard D.; Metz, Thomas O.

    2008-01-01

    We report a preliminary demonstration of the accurate mass and time (AMT) tag approach for lipidomics. Initial data-dependent LC-MS/MS analyses of human plasma, erythrocyte, and lymphocyte lipids were performed in order to identify lipid molecular species in conjunction with complementary accurate mass and isotopic distribution information. Identified lipids were used to populate initial lipid AMT tag databases containing 250 and 45 entries for those species detected in positive and negative electrospray ionization (ESI) modes, respectively. The positive ESI database was then utilized to identify human plasma, erythrocyte, and lymphocyte lipids in high-throughput LC-MS analyses based on the AMT tag approach. We were able to define the lipid profiles of human plasma, erythrocytes, and lymphocytes based on qualitative and quantitative differences in lipid abundance. PMID:18502191

  7. Accurate airway segmentation based on intensity structure analysis and graph-cut

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meng, Qier; Kitsaka, Takayuki; Nimura, Yukitaka; Oda, Masahiro; Mori, Kensaku

    2016-03-01

    This paper presents a novel airway segmentation method based on intensity structure analysis and graph-cut. Airway segmentation is an important step in analyzing chest CT volumes for computerized lung cancer detection, emphysema diagnosis, asthma diagnosis, and pre- and intra-operative bronchoscope navigation. However, obtaining a complete 3-D airway tree structure from a CT volume is quite challenging. Several researchers have proposed automated algorithms basically based on region growing and machine learning techniques. However these methods failed to detect the peripheral bronchi branches. They caused a large amount of leakage. This paper presents a novel approach that permits more accurate extraction of complex bronchial airway region. Our method are composed of three steps. First, the Hessian analysis is utilized for enhancing the line-like structure in CT volumes, then a multiscale cavity-enhancement filter is employed to detect the cavity-like structure from the previous enhanced result. In the second step, we utilize the support vector machine (SVM) to construct a classifier for removing the FP regions generated. Finally, the graph-cut algorithm is utilized to connect all of the candidate voxels to form an integrated airway tree. We applied this method to sixteen cases of 3D chest CT volumes. The results showed that the branch detection rate of this method can reach about 77.7% without leaking into the lung parenchyma areas.

  8. The Utility of Blood and Bone Marrow Films and Trephine Biopsy Sections in the Diagnosis of Parasitic Infections

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Clare E.; Bain, Barbara J.

    2015-01-01

    The laboratory haematologist has a role in the diagnosis of parasitic infections. Peripheral blood examination is critical in the diagnosis of malaria, babesiosis, filariasis and trypanosomiasis. Bone marrow examination is important in the diagnosis of leishmaniasis and occasionally leads to the diagnosis of other parasitic infections. The detection of eosinophilia or iron deficiency anaemia can alert the laboratory haematologist or physician to the possibility of parasitic infection. In addition to morphological skills, an adequate clinical history is important for speedy and accurate diagnosis, particularly in non-endemic areas. PMID:26075046

  9. Robust and Accurate Anomaly Detection in ECG Artifacts Using Time Series Motif Discovery

    PubMed Central

    Sivaraks, Haemwaan

    2015-01-01

    Electrocardiogram (ECG) anomaly detection is an important technique for detecting dissimilar heartbeats which helps identify abnormal ECGs before the diagnosis process. Currently available ECG anomaly detection methods, ranging from academic research to commercial ECG machines, still suffer from a high false alarm rate because these methods are not able to differentiate ECG artifacts from real ECG signal, especially, in ECG artifacts that are similar to ECG signals in terms of shape and/or frequency. The problem leads to high vigilance for physicians and misinterpretation risk for nonspecialists. Therefore, this work proposes a novel anomaly detection technique that is highly robust and accurate in the presence of ECG artifacts which can effectively reduce the false alarm rate. Expert knowledge from cardiologists and motif discovery technique is utilized in our design. In addition, every step of the algorithm conforms to the interpretation of cardiologists. Our method can be utilized to both single-lead ECGs and multilead ECGs. Our experiment results on real ECG datasets are interpreted and evaluated by cardiologists. Our proposed algorithm can mostly achieve 100% of accuracy on detection (AoD), sensitivity, specificity, and positive predictive value with 0% false alarm rate. The results demonstrate that our proposed method is highly accurate and robust to artifacts, compared with competitive anomaly detection methods. PMID:25688284

  10. Robust and accurate anomaly detection in ECG artifacts using time series motif discovery.

    PubMed

    Sivaraks, Haemwaan; Ratanamahatana, Chotirat Ann

    2015-01-01

    Electrocardiogram (ECG) anomaly detection is an important technique for detecting dissimilar heartbeats which helps identify abnormal ECGs before the diagnosis process. Currently available ECG anomaly detection methods, ranging from academic research to commercial ECG machines, still suffer from a high false alarm rate because these methods are not able to differentiate ECG artifacts from real ECG signal, especially, in ECG artifacts that are similar to ECG signals in terms of shape and/or frequency. The problem leads to high vigilance for physicians and misinterpretation risk for nonspecialists. Therefore, this work proposes a novel anomaly detection technique that is highly robust and accurate in the presence of ECG artifacts which can effectively reduce the false alarm rate. Expert knowledge from cardiologists and motif discovery technique is utilized in our design. In addition, every step of the algorithm conforms to the interpretation of cardiologists. Our method can be utilized to both single-lead ECGs and multilead ECGs. Our experiment results on real ECG datasets are interpreted and evaluated by cardiologists. Our proposed algorithm can mostly achieve 100% of accuracy on detection (AoD), sensitivity, specificity, and positive predictive value with 0% false alarm rate. The results demonstrate that our proposed method is highly accurate and robust to artifacts, compared with competitive anomaly detection methods.

  11. Continuous digital ECG analysis over accurate R-peak detection using adaptive wavelet technique.

    PubMed

    Gopalakrishnan Nair, T R; Geetha, A P; Asharani, M

    2013-10-01

    Worldwide, health care segment is under a severe challenge to achieve more accurate and intelligent biomedical systems in order to assist healthcare professionals with more accurate and consistent data as well as reliability. The role of ECG in healthcare is one of the paramount importances and it has got a multitude of abnormal relations and anomalies which characterizes intricate cardiovascular performance image. Until the recent past, ECG instruments and analysis played the role of providing the PQRST signal as raw observational output either on paper or on a console or in a file having many diagnostic clues embedded in the signal left to the expert cardiologist to look out for characteristic intervals and to detect the cardiovascular abnormality. Methods and practises are required more and more, to automate this process of cardiac expertise using knowledge engineering and an intelligent systems approach. This paper presents one of the challenging R-peak detections to classify diagnosis and estimate cardio disorders in a fully automated signal processing sequence. This study used an adaptive wavelet approach to generate an appropriate wavelet for R-signal identification under noise, baseband wandering and temporal variations of R-positions. This study designed an adaptive wavelet and successfully detected R- peak variations under various ECG signal conditions. The result and analysis of this method and the ways to use it for further purposes are presented here.

  12. Accurate Quantification of Disease Markers in Human Serum Using Iron Oxide Nanoparticle-linked Immunosorbent Assay

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Linlin; Tong, Sheng; Zhou, Jun; Bao, Gang

    2016-01-01

    Accurate and reliable quantification of biomarkers in the blood is essential in disease screening and diagnosis. Here we describe an iron oxide nanoparticle (IONP)-linked immunosorbent assay (ILISA) for detecting biomolecules in human serum. Sandwich ILISA was optimized for the detection of four important serological markers, IgA, IgG, IgM, and C-reactive protein (CRP), and assessed with normal sera, simulated disease-state sera and the serum samples from patients infected with West Nile virus (WNV) or human herpes virus (HHV). Our study shows that using the detection assay formulated with 18.8 nm wüstite nanocrystals, ILISA can achieve sub-picomolar detection sensitivity, and all four markers can be accurately quantified over a large dynamic range. In addition, ILISA is not susceptible to variations in operating procedures and shows better linearity and higher stability compared with ELISA, which facilitates its integration into detection methods suitable for point of care. Our results demonstrate that ILISA is a simple and versatile nanoplatform for highly sensitive and reliable detection of serological biomarkers in biomedical research and clinical applications. PMID:27375784

  13. BIOACCESSIBILITY TESTS ACCURATELY ESTIMATE BIOAVAILABILITY OF LEAD TO QUAIL

    EPA Science Inventory

    Hazards of soil-borne Pb to wild birds may be more accurately quantified if the bioavailability of that Pb is known. To better understand the bioavailability of Pb to birds, we measured blood Pb concentrations in Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica) fed diets containing Pb-contami...

  14. Device accurately measures and records low gas-flow rates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Branum, L. W.

    1966-01-01

    Free-floating piston in a vertical column accurately measures and records low gas-flow rates. The system may be calibrated, using an adjustable flow-rate gas supply, a low pressure gage, and a sequence recorder. From the calibration rates, a nomograph may be made for easy reduction. Temperature correction may be added for further accuracy.

  15. Ultrasonic system for accurate distance measurement in the air.

    PubMed

    Licznerski, Tomasz J; Jaroński, Jarosław; Kosz, Dariusz

    2011-12-01

    This paper presents a system that accurately measures the distance travelled by ultrasound waves through the air. The simple design of the system and its obtained accuracy provide a tool for non-contact distance measurements required in the laser's optical system that investigates the surface of the eyeball.

  16. A Self-Instructional Device for Conditioning Accurate Prosody.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buiten, Roger; Lane, Harlan

    1965-01-01

    A self-instructional device for conditioning accurate prosody in second-language learning is described in this article. The Speech Auto-Instructional Device (SAID) is electro-mechanical and performs three functions: SAID (1) presents to the student tape-recorded pattern sentences that are considered standards in prosodic performance; (2) processes…

  17. Monitoring circuit accurately measures movement of solenoid valve

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gillett, J. D.

    1966-01-01

    Solenoid operated valve in a control system powered by direct current issued to accurately measure the valve travel. This system is currently in operation with a 28-vdc power system used for control of fluids in liquid rocket motor test facilities.

  18. Instrument accurately measures small temperature changes on test surface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harvey, W. D.; Miller, H. B.

    1966-01-01

    Calorimeter apparatus accurately measures very small temperature rises on a test surface subjected to aerodynamic heating. A continuous thin sheet of a sensing material is attached to a base support plate through which a series of holes of known diameter have been drilled for attaching thermocouples to the material.

  19. A Simple and Accurate Method for Measuring Enzyme Activity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yip, Din-Yan

    1997-01-01

    Presents methods commonly used for investigating enzyme activity using catalase and presents a new method for measuring catalase activity that is more reliable and accurate. Provides results that are readily reproduced and quantified. Can also be used for investigations of enzyme properties such as the effects of temperature, pH, inhibitors,…

  20. Bioaccessibility tests accurately estimate bioavailability of lead to quail

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Hazards of soil-borne Pb to wild birds may be more accurately quantified if the bioavailability of that Pb is known. To better understand the bioavailability of Pb, we incorporated Pb-contaminated soils or Pb acetate into diets for Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica), fed the quail for 15 days, and ...

  1. Ellipsoidal-mirror reflectometer accurately measures infrared reflectance of materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dunn, S. T.; Richmond, J. C.

    1967-01-01

    Reflectometer accurately measures the reflectance of specimens in the infrared beyond 2.5 microns and under geometric conditions approximating normal irradiation and hemispherical viewing. It includes an ellipsoidal mirror, a specially coated averaging sphere associated with a detector for minimizing spatial and angular sensitivity, and an incident flux chopper.

  2. Second-order accurate nonoscillatory schemes for scalar conservation laws

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huynh, Hung T.

    1989-01-01

    Explicit finite difference schemes for the computation of weak solutions of nonlinear scalar conservation laws is presented and analyzed. These schemes are uniformly second-order accurate and nonoscillatory in the sense that the number of extrema of the discrete solution is not increasing in time.

  3. Foresight begins with FMEA. Delivering accurate risk assessments.

    PubMed

    Passey, R D

    1999-03-01

    If sufficient factors are taken into account and two- or three-stage analysis is employed, failure mode and effect analysis represents an excellent technique for delivering accurate risk assessments for products and processes, and for relating them to legal liability. This article describes a format that facilitates easy interpretation.

  4. How Accurate Are Judgments of Intelligence by Strangers?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Borkenau, Peter

    Whether judgments made by complete strangers as to the intelligence of subjects are accurate or merely illusory was studied in Germany. Target subjects were 50 female and 50 male adults recruited through a newspaper article. Eighteen judges, who did not know the subjects, were recruited from a university community. Videorecordings of the subjects,…

  5. Quantifying Accurate Calorie Estimation Using the "Think Aloud" Method

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holmstrup, Michael E.; Stearns-Bruening, Kay; Rozelle, Jeffrey

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Clients often have limited time in a nutrition education setting. An improved understanding of the strategies used to accurately estimate calories may help to identify areas of focused instruction to improve nutrition knowledge. Methods: A "Think Aloud" exercise was recorded during the estimation of calories in a standard dinner meal…

  6. Preparing Rapid, Accurate Construction Cost Estimates with a Personal Computer.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gerstel, Sanford M.

    1986-01-01

    An inexpensive and rapid method for preparing accurate cost estimates of construction projects in a university setting, using a personal computer, purchased software, and one estimator, is described. The case against defined estimates, the rapid estimating system, and adjusting standard unit costs are discussed. (MLW)

  7. Accurately Detecting Students' Lies regarding Relational Aggression by Correctional Instructions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dickhauser, Oliver; Reinhard, Marc-Andre; Marksteiner, Tamara

    2012-01-01

    This study investigates the effect of correctional instructions when detecting lies about relational aggression. Based on models from the field of social psychology, we predict that correctional instruction will lead to a less pronounced lie bias and to more accurate lie detection. Seventy-five teachers received videotapes of students' true denial…

  8. The Neural Network Method of Corrosion Diagnosis for Grounding Grid

    SciTech Connect

    Hou Zaien; Duan Fujian; Zhang Kecun

    2008-11-06

    Safety of persons, protection of equipment and continuity of power supply are the main objectives of the grounding system of a large electrical installation. For its accurate working status, it is essential to determine every branch resistance in the system. In this paper, we present a neural network method of corrosion diagnosis for the grounding grid based on the neural network theory. The feasibility of this method is discussed by means of its application to a simulant grounding grid.

  9. Progress on the diagnosis and evaluation of brain tumors

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Huile

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Brain tumors are one of the most challenging disorders encountered, and early and accurate diagnosis is essential for the management and treatment of these tumors. In this article, diagnostic modalities including single-photon emission computed tomography, positron emission tomography, magnetic resonance imaging, and optical imaging are reviewed. We mainly focus on the newly emerging, specific imaging probes, and their potential use in animal models and clinical settings. PMID:24334439

  10. Nonallergic Rhinitis: Diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Greiwe, Justin; Bernstein, Jonathan A

    2016-05-01

    Nonallergic rhinitis (NAR) is one of the most common conditions in medicine, affecting the quality of life of millions of patients throughout the United States. Despite its ubiquitous nature, NAR remains a poorly managed and often difficult to treat condition. NAR is often suboptimally managed by clinicians with poor clinical outcomes. Establishing the correct diagnosis requires a keen understanding of the unique underlying mechanisms involved in NAR, which is still evolving. Ultimately epidemiologic studies that better define NAR prevalence and its economic burden on society are needed to convince funding agencies of the need for research to elucidate mechanisms and specific treatment approaches for this condition.

  11. Meniere's disease: Still a mystery disease with difficult differential diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Vassiliou, A; Vlastarakos, P V; Maragoudakis, P; Candiloros, D; Nikolopoulos, T P

    2011-01-01

    One hundred and forty-six years after its first description, the differential diagnosis of Meniere's disease remains very challenging. The aim of the present study is to review the current knowledge on the advantages and disadvantages of the new diagnostic methods for Meniere's disease. The importance of accurate diagnosis for primary healthcare systems is also discussed. An extensive search of the literature was performed in Medline and other available database sources. Information from electronic links and related books were also included. Controlled clinical studies, prospective cohort studies, retrospective cohort studies, cross-sectional studies, case reports, written guidelines, systematic reviews, and books were selected. The typical clinical triad of symptoms from the vestibular and cochlear systems (recurrent vertigo, fluctuating sensorineural hearing loss and tinnitus) is usually the key for clinical diagnosis. Glycerol dehydration test and electrocochleography are the main diagnostic tests in current practice, while vestibular evoked myogenic potentials may be used in disease staging. Imagine techniques are not specific enough to set alone the diagnosis of Meniere's disease, although they may be necessary to exclude other pathologies. Recently developed 3D MRI protocols can delineate the perilymphatic/endolymphatic spaces of the inner ear and aid diagnosis. Meniere's disease is a continuous problem for the patients and affects their quality of life. Taking into account the frequent nature of the disease in certain countries, efforts for reliable diagnosis, prompt referral, and successful management are undoubtedly cost-effective for healthcare systems.

  12. Early Pregnancy Diagnosis in Bovines: Current Status and Future Directions

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Meenakshi; Singh, Surender; Mohanty, Ashok K.; Singh, Inderjeet

    2013-01-01

    An early and accurate diagnosis of reproductive dysfunctions or aberrations is crucial to better reproductive management in livestock. High reproductive efficiency is a prerequisite for high life-time production in dairy animals. Early pregnancy diagnosis is key to shorten the calving interval through early identification of open animals and their timely treatment and rebreeding so as to maintain a postpartum barren interval close to 60 days. A buffalo, the most important dairy animal in the Indian subcontinent, is known for problems related to high calving interval, late puberty, and high incidence of anestrus. Lack of reliable cow-side early pregnancy diagnosis methods further aggravates the situation. Several methods of pregnancy diagnosis are being practiced in bovine species, yet none qualifies as the ideal pregnancy diagnosis method due to the inherent limitations of sensitivity, accuracy, specificity, speed, and ease of performing the test. The advancement of molecular techniques like proteomics and their applications in animal research has given a new hope to look for pregnancy biomarker molecules in these animals. This review attempts to examine common pregnancy diagnosis methods available for dairy animals, while assessing the usefulness of the modern technologies in detecting novel pregnancy markers and designing future strategies for research in this area. PMID:24382949

  13. Isolated CNS Hodgkin's lymphoma: implications for tissue diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Martinez, Derek L; Gujrati, Meena; Geoffroy, Francois; Tsung, Andrew J

    2014-11-01

    CNS involvement in the setting of lymphoid neoplasia is a clinical situation that requires specific diagnosis due to the disparate treatment regimens recommended for neoplasms of specific lymphoid cell types. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) sampling may provide sufficient information to determine the presence of abnormal lymphoid cells but may not be able to further specify the malignant cellular population. In cases where abnormal clinical or radiographic features are present, accurate tissue diagnosis is essential. In this report, we define a rare case of primary CNS intramedullary Hodgkin's lymphoma without leptomeningeal dissemination diagnosed via resectional biopsy of a conus medullaris lesion. The patient received post-resection radiation therapy and subsequently demonstrated radiographic and clinical improvement. Lymphoid neoplasia within the CNS comprises a diverse group with varying response and survival rates. Treatment hinges upon accurate diagnosis as chemotherapy varies widely among Hodgkin's and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. While CSF sampling may yield a positive result with sufficiency to diagnose an abnormal lymphoid cell population, tissue is necessary for further defining cellular pathology. In this report, we define a rare case of primary CNS intramedullary Hodgkin's lymphoma without leptomeningeal dissemination via resectional biopsy of a conus medullaris lesion. In cases where abnormal enhancement is found in eloquent CNS regions and lymphoid neoplasia is suspected, management often entails either stereotactic biopsy or CSF sampling. While CSF analysis may differentiate malignancy at a low rate, tissue diagnosis via paraffin block immunohistochemistry is necessary to further classify malignancy as primary or peripheral, Hodgkin's or non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, or other such as metastatic leptomeningeal dissemination and glioma. Within the subtypes of lymphoid neoplasms, treatment regimens vastly differ and thus accurate tissue diagnosis is paramount. We

  14. Phenibut dependence.

    PubMed

    Samokhvalov, Andriy V; Paton-Gay, C Lindsay; Balchand, Kam; Rehm, Jürgen

    2013-02-06

    Phenibut is a γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) agonist designed and used as an anxiolytic in Russia. In Western countries, phenibut is not a registered medication but is available through online stores as a supplement. We present a case of a patient who used phenibut to self-medicate anxiety, insomnia and cravings for alcohol. While phenibut was helpful initially, the patient developed dependence including tolerance, significant withdrawal symptoms within 3-4 h of last use and failure to fulfil his roles at work and at home. He finally sought medical assistance in our addictions clinic. We have gradually, over the course of 9 weeks, substituted phenibut with baclofen, which has similar pharmacological properties, and then successfully tapered the patient off baclofen. This required approximately 10 mg of baclofen for each gram of phenibut.

  15. Phenibut dependence

    PubMed Central

    Samokhvalov, Andriy V; Paton-Gay, C Lindsay; Balchand, Kam; Rehm, Jürgen

    2013-01-01

    Phenibut is a γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) agonist designed and used as an anxiolytic in Russia. In Western countries, phenibut is not a registered medication but is available through online stores as a supplement. We present a case of a patient who used phenibut to self-medicate anxiety, insomnia and cravings for alcohol. While phenibut was helpful initially, the patient developed dependence including tolerance, significant withdrawal symptoms within 3–4 h of last use and failure to fulfil his roles at work and at home. He finally sought medical assistance in our addictions clinic. We have gradually, over the course of 9 weeks, substituted phenibut with baclofen, which has similar pharmacological properties, and then successfully tapered the patient off baclofen. This required approximately 10 mg of baclofen for each gram of phenibut. PMID:23391959

  16. Physically-based modeling of speed sensors for fault diagnosis and fault tolerant control in wind turbines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weber, Wolfgang; Jungjohann, Jonas; Schulte, Horst

    2014-12-01

    In this paper, a generic physically-based modeling framework for encoder type speed sensors is derived. The consideration takes into account the nominal fault-free and two most relevant fault cases. The advantage of this approach is a reconstruction of the output waveforms in dependence of the internal physical parameter changes which enables a more accurate diagnosis and identification of faulty incremental encoders i.a. in wind turbines. The objectives are to describe the effect of the tilt and eccentric of the encoder disk on the digital output signals and the influence of the accuracy of the speed measurement in wind turbines. Simulation results show the applicability and effectiveness of the proposed approach.

  17. Missed Diagnosis of Syrinx

    PubMed Central

    Oh, Chang Hyun; Kim, Chan Gyu; Lee, Jae-Hwan; Park, Hyeong-Chun; Park, Chong Oon

    2012-01-01

    Study Design Prospective, randomized, controlled human study. Purpose We checked the proportion of missed syrinx diagnoses among the examinees of the Korean military conscription. Overview of Literature A syrinx is a fluid-filled cavity within the spinal cord or brain stem and causes various neurological symptoms. A syrinx could easily be diagnosed by magnetic resonance image (MRI), but missed diagnoses seldom occur. Methods In this study, we reviewed 103 cases using cervical images, cervical MRI, or whole spine sagittal MRI, and syrinxes was observed in 18 of these cases. A review of medical certificates or interviews was conducted, and the proportion of syrinx diagnoses was calculated. Results The proportion of syrinx diagnoses was about 66.7% (12 cases among 18). Missed diagnoses were not the result of the length of the syrinx, but due to the type of image used for the initial diagnosis. Conclusions The missed diagnosis proportion of the syrinx is relatively high, therefore, a more careful imaging review is recommended. PMID:22439081

  18. [Diagnosis of bacterial vaginosis].

    PubMed

    Djukić, Slobodanka; Ćirković, Ivana; Arsić, Biljana; Garalejić, Eliana

    2013-01-01

    Bacterial vaginosis is a common, complex clinical syndrome characterized by alterations in the normal vaginal flora. When symptomatic, it is associated with a malodorous vaginal discharge and on occasion vaginal burning or itching. Under normal conditions, lactobacilli constitute 95% of the bacteria in the vagina. Bacterial vaginosis is associated with severe reduction or absence of the normal H2O2-producing lactobacilli and overgrowth of anaerobic bacteria and Gardnerella vaginalis, Atopobium vaginae, Mycoplasma hominis and Mobiluncus species. Most types of infectious disease are diagnosed by culture, by isolating an antigen or RNA/DNA from the microbe, or by serodiagnosis to determine the presence of antibodies to the microbe. Therefore, demonstration of the presence of an infectious agent is often a necessary criterion for the diagnosis of the disease. This is not the case for bacterial vaginosis, since the ultimate cause of the disease is not yet known. There are a variety of methods for the diagnosis of bacterial vaginosis but no method can at present be regarded as the best. Diagnosing bacterial vaginosis has long been based on the clinical criteria of Amsel, whereby three of four defined criteria must be satisfied. Nugent's scoring system has been further developed and includes validation of the categories of observable bacteria structures. Up-to-date molecular tests are introduced, and better understanding of vaginal microbiome, a clear definition for bacterial vaginosis, and short-term and long-term fluctuations in vaginal microflora will help to better define molecular tests within the broader clinical context.

  19. Early Diagnosis of Leptospirosis

    PubMed Central

    Babic-Erceg, Andrea; Karlovic-Martinkovic, Diana; Santini, Marija; Persic, Zdenka; Vilibic-Cavlek, Tatjana

    2014-01-01

    A 25-years old man from Zagreb, Croatia, was admitted to the University Hospital for Infectious Diseases four days after the onset of symptoms such as fever, intense pain in the calves and anuria. The patient owned a rabbit and, before the onset of the disease, repaired some rubber pipes damaged by rodents. At admission, he had a severe clinical picture with fever, hypotension, jaundice, immobility, and pain in leg muscles. Treatment with ceftriaxone was initiated in combination with volume restitution. Renal failure soon ensued. Consequently continuous venovenous hemodiaphiltration therapy was performed. Due to acute respiratory distress syndrome, the patient was mechanically ventilated. The patient’s condition gradually improved and he recovered fully from multi-organ failure. Diagnosis was confirmed by a microscopic agglutination test (MAT) covering 15 leptospira serovars and real-time polymerase-chain reaction (PCR). The first serum sample taken on day 6 tested negative for leptospira, while PCR showed positive results for leptospiral DNA. The second serum sample taken on day 13 tested positive for serovar Canicola serogroup Canicola, serovar Patoc, serovar Grippotyphosa serogroup Grippotyphosa and serovar Tarassovi serogroup Tarassovi (titre 4000, 4000, 1000 and 2000, respectively), while PCR was negative. This report highlights the benefits of combining MAT and PCR methods in early diagnosis of leptospirosis. PMID:25002958

  20. On the errors in molecular dipole moments derived from accurate diffraction data.

    PubMed

    Coppens; Volkov; Abramov; Koritsanszky

    1999-09-01

    The error in the molecular dipole moment as derived from accurate X-ray diffraction data is shown to be origin dependent in the general case. It is independent of the choice of origin if an electroneutrality constraint is introduced, even when additional constraints are applied to the monopole populations. If a constraint is not applied to individual moieties, as is appropriate for multicomponent crystals or crystals containing molecular ions, the geometric center of the entity considered is a suitable choice of origin for the error treatment.