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Sample records for accurate diagnostic information

  1. SOPROLIFE System: An Accurate Diagnostic Enhancer

    PubMed Central

    Zeitouny, Mona; Feghali, Mireille; Nasr, Assaad; Abou-Samra, Philippe; Saleh, Nadine; Bourgeois, Denis; Farge, Pierre

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. The aim of this study was to evaluate a light-emitting diode fluorescence tool, the SOPROLIFE light-induced fluorescence evaluator, and compare it to the international caries detection and assessment system-II (ICDAS-II) in the detection of occlusal caries. Methods. A total of 219 permanent posterior teeth in 21 subjects, with age ranging from 15 to 65 years, were examined. An intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) was computed to assess the reliability between the two diagnostic methods. Results. The results showed a high reliability between the two methods (ICC = 0.92; IC = 0.901–0.940; P < 0.001). The SOPROLIFE blue fluorescence mode had a high sensitivity (87%) and a high specificity (99%) when compared to ICDAS-II. Conclusion. Compared to the most used visual method in the diagnosis of occlusal caries lesions, the finding from this study suggests that SOPROLIFE can be used as a reproducible and reliable assessment tool. At a cut-off point, categorizing noncarious lesions and visual change in enamel, SOPROLIFE shows a high sensitivity and specificity. We can conclude that financially ICDAS is better than SOPROLIFE. However SOPROLIFE is easier for clinicians since it is a simple evaluation of images. Finally in terms of efficiency SOPROLIFE is not superior to ICDAS but tends to be equivalent with the same advantages. PMID:25401161

  2. Graphical presentation of diagnostic information

    PubMed Central

    Whiting, Penny F; Sterne, Jonathan AC; Westwood, Marie E; Bachmann, Lucas M; Harbord, Roger; Egger, Matthias; Deeks, Jonathan J

    2008-01-01

    Background Graphical displays of results allow researchers to summarise and communicate the key findings of their study. Diagnostic information should be presented in an easily interpretable way, which conveys both test characteristics (diagnostic accuracy) and the potential for use in clinical practice (predictive value). Methods We discuss the types of graphical display commonly encountered in primary diagnostic accuracy studies and systematic reviews of such studies, and systematically review the use of graphical displays in recent diagnostic primary studies and systematic reviews. Results We identified 57 primary studies and 49 systematic reviews. Fifty-six percent of primary studies and 53% of systematic reviews used graphical displays to present results. Dot-plot or box-and- whisker plots were the most commonly used graph in primary studies and were included in 22 (39%) studies. ROC plots were the most common type of plot included in systematic reviews and were included in 22 (45%) reviews. One primary study and five systematic reviews included a probability-modifying plot. Conclusion Graphical displays are currently underused in primary diagnostic accuracy studies and systematic reviews of such studies. Diagnostic accuracy studies need to include multiple types of graphic in order to provide both a detailed overview of the results (diagnostic accuracy) and to communicate information that can be used to inform clinical practice (predictive value). Work is required to improve graphical displays, to better communicate the utility of a test in clinical practice and the implications of test results for individual patients. PMID:18405357

  3. Approaching system equilibrium with accurate or not accurate feedback information in a two-route system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Xiao-mei; Xie, Dong-fan; Li, Qi

    2015-02-01

    With the development of intelligent transport system, advanced information feedback strategies have been developed to reduce traffic congestion and enhance the capacity. However, previous strategies provide accurate information to travelers and our simulation results show that accurate information brings negative effects, especially in delay case. Because travelers prefer to the best condition route with accurate information, and delayed information cannot reflect current traffic condition but past. Then travelers make wrong routing decisions, causing the decrease of the capacity and the increase of oscillations and the system deviating from the equilibrium. To avoid the negative effect, bounded rationality is taken into account by introducing a boundedly rational threshold BR. When difference between two routes is less than the BR, routes have equal probability to be chosen. The bounded rationality is helpful to improve the efficiency in terms of capacity, oscillation and the gap deviating from the system equilibrium.

  4. 78 FR 34604 - Submitting Complete and Accurate Information

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-10

    ... COMMISSION 10 CFR Part 50 Submitting Complete and Accurate Information AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory Commission... accurate information as would a licensee or an applicant for a license.'' DATES: Submit comments by August... may submit comments by any of the following methods (unless this document describes a different...

  5. Diagnostic methodology is critical for accurately determining the prevalence of ichthyophonus infections in wild fish populations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kocan, R.; Dolan, H.; Hershberger, P.

    2011-01-01

    Several different techniques have been employed to detect and identify Ichthyophonus spp. in infected fish hosts; these include macroscopic observation, microscopic examination of tissue squashes, histological evaluation, in vitro culture, and molecular techniques. Examination of the peer-reviewed literature revealed that when more than 1 diagnostic method is used, they often result in significantly different results; for example, when in vitro culture was used to identify infected trout in an experimentally exposed population, 98.7% of infected trout were detected, but when standard histology was used to confirm known infected tissues from wild salmon, it detected ~50% of low-intensity infections and ~85% of high-intensity infections. Other studies on different species reported similar differences. When we examined a possible mechanism to explain the disparity between different diagnostic techniques, we observed non-random distribution of the parasite in 3-dimensionally visualized tissue sections from infected hosts, thus providing a possible explanation for the different sensitivities of commonly used diagnostic techniques. Based on experimental evidence and a review of the peer-reviewed literature, we have concluded that in vitro culture is currently the most accurate diagnostic technique for determining infection prevalence of Ichthyophonus, particularly when the exposure history of the population is not known.

  6. How accurate was GMENAC?--A retrospective review of supply projections for diagnostic radiologists.

    PubMed

    Sunshine, J H; Evens, R G; Chan, W C

    1992-02-01

    In 1982, the Graduate Medical Education National Advisory Committee (GMENAC), a prominent national panel, predicted there would be 25,650 full-time equivalent (FTE) diagnostic radiologists, a 34% oversupply, by 1990. The radiologists involved in GMENAC, however, using models developed by the American College of Radiology, projected 19,800 FTE diagnostic radiologists in 1990, which was similar to the GMENAC estimate of need. The disagreement arose principally from different assumptions about residents entering the specialty. Recent data show there actually were approximately 21,900 FTE diagnostic radiologists in 1990. The radiologists' projection was 10% below this figure; the GMENAC projection was 17% above it. GMENAC erred principally in assuming diagnostic radiology residencies would not replace general radiology residencies, but rather be an addition to them. The radiologists erred principally in their assumption about the effects of the financial problems of hospitals on the number of residency positions. Accurate long-term projection of physician supply in individual specialties may well not be feasible.

  7. Using Copula Distributions to Support More Accurate Imaging-Based Diagnostic Classifiers for Neuropsychiatric Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Bansal, Ravi; Hao, Xuejun; Liu, Jun; Peterson, Bradley S.

    2014-01-01

    Many investigators have tried to apply machine learning techniques to magnetic resonance images (MRIs) of the brain in order to diagnose neuropsychiatric disorders. Usually the number of brain imaging measures (such as measures of cortical thickness and measures of local surface morphology) derived from the MRIs (i.e., their dimensionality) has been large (e.g. >10) relative to the number of participants who provide the MRI data (<100). Sparse data in a high dimensional space increases the variability of the classification rules that machine learning algorithms generate, thereby limiting the validity, reproducibility, and generalizability of those classifiers. The accuracy and stability of the classifiers can improve significantly if the multivariate distributions of the imaging measures can be estimated accurately. To accurately estimate the multivariate distributions using sparse data, we propose to estimate first the univariate distributions of imaging data and then combine them using a Copula to generate more accurate estimates of their multivariate distributions. We then sample the estimated Copula distributions to generate dense sets of imaging measures and use those measures to train classifiers. We hypothesize that the dense sets of brain imaging measures will generate classifiers that are stable to variations in brain imaging measures, thereby improving the reproducibility, validity, and generalizability of diagnostic classification algorithms in imaging datasets from clinical populations. In our experiments, we used both computer-generated and real-world brain imaging datasets to assess the accuracy of multivariate Copula distributions in estimating the corresponding multivariate distributions of real-world imaging data. Our experiments showed that diagnostic classifiers generated using imaging measures sampled from the Copula were significantly more accurate and more reproducible than were the classifiers generated using either the real-world imaging

  8. Ultra-accurate collaborative information filtering via directed user similarity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Q.; Song, W.-J.; Liu, J.-G.

    2014-07-01

    A key challenge of the collaborative filtering (CF) information filtering is how to obtain the reliable and accurate results with the help of peers' recommendation. Since the similarities from small-degree users to large-degree users would be larger than the ones in opposite direction, the large-degree users' selections are recommended extensively by the traditional second-order CF algorithms. By considering the users' similarity direction and the second-order correlations to depress the influence of mainstream preferences, we present the directed second-order CF (HDCF) algorithm specifically to address the challenge of accuracy and diversity of the CF algorithm. The numerical results for two benchmark data sets, MovieLens and Netflix, show that the accuracy of the new algorithm outperforms the state-of-the-art CF algorithms. Comparing with the CF algorithm based on random walks proposed by Liu et al. (Int. J. Mod. Phys. C, 20 (2009) 285) the average ranking score could reach 0.0767 and 0.0402, which is enhanced by 27.3% and 19.1% for MovieLens and Netflix, respectively. In addition, the diversity, precision and recall are also enhanced greatly. Without relying on any context-specific information, tuning the similarity direction of CF algorithms could obtain accurate and diverse recommendations. This work suggests that the user similarity direction is an important factor to improve the personalized recommendation performance.

  9. Automatic and Accurate Shadow Detection Using Near-Infrared Information.

    PubMed

    Rüfenacht, Dominic; Fredembach, Clément; Süsstrunk, Sabine

    2014-08-01

    We present a method to automatically detect shadows in a fast and accurate manner by taking advantage of the inherent sensitivity of digital camera sensors to the near-infrared (NIR) part of the spectrum. Dark objects, which confound many shadow detection algorithms, often have much higher reflectance in the NIR. We can thus build an accurate shadow candidate map based on image pixels that are dark both in the visible and NIR representations. We further refine the shadow map by incorporating ratios of the visible to the NIR image, based on the observation that commonly encountered light sources have very distinct spectra in the NIR band. The results are validated on a new database, which contains visible/NIR images for a large variety of real-world shadow creating illuminant conditions, as well as manually labeled shadow ground truth. Both quantitative and qualitative evaluations show that our method outperforms current state-of-the-art shadow detection algorithms in terms of accuracy and computational efficiency.

  10. A new accurate pill recognition system using imprint information

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Zhiyuan; Kamata, Sei-ichiro

    2013-12-01

    Great achievements in modern medicine benefit human beings. Also, it has brought about an explosive growth of pharmaceuticals that current in the market. In daily life, pharmaceuticals sometimes confuse people when they are found unlabeled. In this paper, we propose an automatic pill recognition technique to solve this problem. It functions mainly based on the imprint feature of the pills, which is extracted by proposed MSWT (modified stroke width transform) and described by WSC (weighted shape context). Experiments show that our proposed pill recognition method can reach an accurate rate up to 92.03% within top 5 ranks when trying to classify more than 10 thousand query pill images into around 2000 categories.

  11. 16 CFR 1101.32 - Reasonable steps to assure information is accurate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Reasonable steps to assure information is... Reasonable Steps Commission Will Take To Assure Information It Discloses Is Accurate, and That Disclosure Is... Administers § 1101.32 Reasonable steps to assure information is accurate. (a) The Commission considers...

  12. 16 CFR 1101.32 - Reasonable steps to assure information is accurate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Reasonable steps to assure information is... Reasonable Steps Commission Will Take To Assure Information It Discloses Is Accurate, and That Disclosure Is... Administers § 1101.32 Reasonable steps to assure information is accurate. (a) The Commission considers...

  13. Smartphone-Based Accurate Analysis of Retinal Vasculature towards Point-of-Care Diagnostics

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Xiayu; Ding, Wenxiang; Wang, Xuemin; Cao, Ruofan; Zhang, Maiye; Lv, Peilin; Xu, Feng

    2016-01-01

    Retinal vasculature analysis is important for the early diagnostics of various eye and systemic diseases, making it a potentially useful biomarker, especially for resource-limited regions and countries. Here we developed a smartphone-based retinal image analysis system for point-of-care diagnostics that is able to load a fundus image, segment retinal vessels, analyze individual vessel width, and store or uplink results. The proposed system was not only evaluated on widely used public databases and compared with the state-of-the-art methods, but also validated on clinical images directly acquired with a smartphone. An Android app is also developed to facilitate on-site application of the proposed methods. Both visual assessment and quantitative assessment showed that the proposed methods achieved comparable results to the state-of-the-art methods that require high-standard workstations. The proposed system holds great potential for the early diagnostics of various diseases, such as diabetic retinopathy, for resource-limited regions and countries. PMID:27698369

  14. Laboratory Information Systems in Molecular Diagnostics: Why Molecular Diagnostics Data are Different.

    PubMed

    Lee, Roy E; Henricks, Walter H; Sirintrapun, Sahussapont J

    2016-03-01

    Molecular diagnostic testing presents new challenges to information management that are yet to be sufficiently addressed by currently available information systems for the molecular laboratory. These challenges relate to unique aspects of molecular genetic testing: molecular test ordering, informed consent issues, diverse specimen types that encompass the full breadth of specimens handled by traditional anatomic and clinical pathology information systems, data structures and data elements specific to molecular testing, varied testing workflows and protocols, diverse instrument outputs, unique needs and requirements of molecular test reporting, and nuances related to the dissemination of molecular pathology test reports. By satisfactorily addressing these needs in molecular test data management, a laboratory information system designed for the unique needs of molecular diagnostics presents a compelling reason to migrate away from the current paper and spreadsheet information management that many molecular laboratories currently use. This paper reviews the issues and challenges of information management in the molecular diagnostics laboratory.

  15. Bayes' theorem application in the measure information diagnostic value assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orzechowski, Piotr D.; Makal, Jaroslaw; Nazarkiewicz, Andrzej

    2006-03-01

    The paper presents Bayesian method application in the measure information diagnostic value assessment that is used in the computer-aided diagnosis system. The computer system described here has been created basing on the Bayesian Network and is used in Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia (BPH) diagnosis. The graphic diagnostic model enables to juxtapose experts' knowledge with data.

  16. Accurate Point-of-Care Detection of Ruptured Fetal Membranes: Improved Diagnostic Performance Characteristics with a Monoclonal/Polyclonal Immunoassay

    PubMed Central

    Rogers, Linda C.; Scott, Laurie; Block, Jon E.

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Accurate and timely diagnosis of rupture of membranes (ROM) is imperative to allow for gestational age-specific interventions. This study compared the diagnostic performance characteristics between two methods used for the detection of ROM as measured in the same patient. METHODS Vaginal secretions were evaluated using the conventional fern test as well as a point-of-care monoclonal/polyclonal immunoassay test (ROM Plus®) in 75 pregnant patients who presented to labor and delivery with complaints of leaking amniotic fluid. Both tests were compared to analytical confirmation of ROM using three external laboratory tests. Diagnostic performance characteristics were calculated including sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV), negative predictive value (NPV), and accuracy. RESULTS Diagnostic performance characteristics uniformly favored ROM detection using the immunoassay test compared to the fern test: sensitivity (100% vs. 77.8%), specificity (94.8% vs. 79.3%), PPV (75% vs. 36.8%), NPV (100% vs. 95.8%), and accuracy (95.5% vs. 79.1%). CONCLUSIONS The point-of-care immunoassay test provides improved diagnostic accuracy for the detection of ROM compared to fern testing. It has the potential of improving patient management decisions, thereby minimizing serious complications and perinatal morbidity. PMID:27199579

  17. Optimizing odor identification testing as quick and accurate diagnostic tool for Parkinson's disease

    PubMed Central

    Mahlknecht, Philipp; Pechlaner, Raimund; Boesveldt, Sanne; Volc, Dieter; Pinter, Bernardette; Reiter, Eva; Müller, Christoph; Krismer, Florian; Berendse, Henk W.; van Hilten, Jacobus J.; Wuschitz, Albert; Schimetta, Wolfgang; Högl, Birgit; Djamshidian, Atbin; Nocker, Michael; Göbel, Georg; Gasperi, Arno; Kiechl, Stefan; Willeit, Johann; Poewe, Werner

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Introduction The aim of this study was to evaluate odor identification testing as a quick, cheap, and reliable tool to identify PD. Methods Odor identification with the 16‐item Sniffin' Sticks test (SS‐16) was assessed in a total of 646 PD patients and 606 controls from three European centers (A, B, and C), as well as 75 patients with atypical parkinsonism or essential tremor and in a prospective cohort of 24 patients with idiopathic rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder (center A). Reduced odor sets most discriminative for PD were determined in a discovery cohort derived from a random split of PD patients and controls from center A using L1‐regularized logistic regression. Diagnostic accuracy was assessed in the rest of the patients/controls as validation cohorts. Results Olfactory performance was lower in PD patients compared with controls and non‐PD patients in all cohorts (each P < 0.001). Both the full SS‐16 and a subscore of the top eight discriminating odors (SS‐8) were associated with an excellent discrimination of PD from controls (areas under the curve ≥0.90; sensitivities ≥83.3%; specificities ≥82.0%) and from non‐PD patients (areas under the curve ≥0.91; sensitivities ≥84.1%; specificities ≥84.0%) in all cohorts. This remained unchanged when patients with >3 years of disease duration were excluded from analysis. All 8 incident PD cases among patients with idiopathic rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder were predicted with the SS‐16 and the SS‐8 (sensitivity, 100%; positive predictive value, 61.5%). Conclusions Odor identification testing provides excellent diagnostic accuracy in the distinction of PD patients from controls and diagnostic mimics. A reduced set of eight odors could be used as a quick tool in the workup of patients presenting with parkinsonism and for PD risk indication. © 2016 The Authors. Movement Disorders published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of International Parkinson and

  18. Raman Spectroscopy Provides a Powerful Diagnostic Tool for Accurate Determination of Albumin Glycation

    PubMed Central

    Dingari, Narahara Chari; Horowitz, Gary L.; Kang, Jeon Woong; Dasari, Ramachandra R.; Barman, Ishan

    2012-01-01

    We present the first demonstration of glycated albumin detection and quantification using Raman spectroscopy without the addition of reagents. Glycated albumin is an important marker for monitoring the long-term glycemic history of diabetics, especially as its concentrations, in contrast to glycated hemoglobin levels, are unaffected by changes in erythrocyte life times. Clinically, glycated albumin concentrations show a strong correlation with the development of serious diabetes complications including nephropathy and retinopathy. In this article, we propose and evaluate the efficacy of Raman spectroscopy for determination of this important analyte. By utilizing the pre-concentration obtained through drop-coating deposition, we show that glycation of albumin leads to subtle, but consistent, changes in vibrational features, which with the help of multivariate classification techniques can be used to discriminate glycated albumin from the unglycated variant with 100% accuracy. Moreover, we demonstrate that the calibration model developed on the glycated albumin spectral dataset shows high predictive power, even at substantially lower concentrations than those typically encountered in clinical practice. In fact, the limit of detection for glycated albumin measurements is calculated to be approximately four times lower than its minimum physiological concentration. Importantly, in relation to the existing detection methods for glycated albumin, the proposed method is also completely reagent-free, requires barely any sample preparation and has the potential for simultaneous determination of glycated hemoglobin levels as well. Given these key advantages, we believe that the proposed approach can provide a uniquely powerful tool for quantification of glycation status of proteins in biopharmaceutical development as well as for glycemic marker determination in routine clinical diagnostics in the future. PMID:22393405

  19. Diagnostic medicine: A comprehensive ABCDE algorithm for accurate interpretation of radiology and pathology images and data.

    PubMed

    Zioga, Christina A; Destouni, Chariklia T

    2015-01-01

    A pathway to the procedure of interpreting radiology images or pathology slides is presented. This simplified mnemonic can be used as a memory aid determining the order in which diagnosis should be approached. First, before we place the radiology image in front of the lightbox or the slide under the microscope we have to be sure that it is adequately labelled and prepared (Correct). It is also necessary to have or gather all available information concerning the patient and if possible his full medical history (A, Available Information). Once we come across the image, two fundamental questions should be answered: which part of the body does the image concern and-where applicable-if the image is adequate (B, Body). Next, we proceed to answer if we have a neoplastic tissue or not (C, Cancer). We then either form a differential diagnosis list or we reach to a final diagnosis (D, Diagnosis), which is followed by the writing of the report (E, Exhibit). These series of steps followed as an ad hoc procedure by most specialists, are important in order to achieve a complete and clear diagnosis and report, which is intended to support optimal clinical practice. This ABCDE concept is a generic standard approach which is not limited to specific specimens and can lead to faster diagnosis with less mistakes. PMID:26665217

  20. Accurate, fast and cost-effective diagnostic test for monosomy 1p36 using real-time quantitative PCR.

    PubMed

    Cunha, Pricila da Silva; Pena, Heloisa B; D'Angelo, Carla Sustek; Koiffmann, Celia P; Rosenfeld, Jill A; Shaffer, Lisa G; Stofanko, Martin; Gonçalves-Dornelas, Higgor; Pena, Sérgio Danilo Junho

    2014-01-01

    Monosomy 1p36 is considered the most common subtelomeric deletion syndrome in humans and it accounts for 0.5-0.7% of all the cases of idiopathic intellectual disability. The molecular diagnosis is often made by microarray-based comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH), which has the drawback of being a high-cost technique. However, patients with classic monosomy 1p36 share some typical clinical characteristics that, together with its common prevalence, justify the development of a less expensive, targeted diagnostic method. In this study, we developed a simple, rapid, and inexpensive real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR) assay for targeted diagnosis of monosomy 1p36, easily accessible for low-budget laboratories in developing countries. For this, we have chosen two target genes which are deleted in the majority of patients with monosomy 1p36: PRKCZ and SKI. In total, 39 patients previously diagnosed with monosomy 1p36 by aCGH, fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH), and/or multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA) all tested positive on our qPCR assay. By simultaneously using these two genes we have been able to detect 1p36 deletions with 100% sensitivity and 100% specificity. We conclude that qPCR of PRKCZ and SKI is a fast and accurate diagnostic test for monosomy 1p36, costing less than 10 US dollars in reagent costs.

  1. Accurate, Fast and Cost-Effective Diagnostic Test for Monosomy 1p36 Using Real-Time Quantitative PCR

    PubMed Central

    Cunha, Pricila da Silva; Pena, Heloisa B.; D'Angelo, Carla Sustek; Koiffmann, Celia P.; Rosenfeld, Jill A.; Shaffer, Lisa G.; Stofanko, Martin; Gonçalves-Dornelas, Higgor; Pena, Sérgio Danilo Junho

    2014-01-01

    Monosomy 1p36 is considered the most common subtelomeric deletion syndrome in humans and it accounts for 0.5–0.7% of all the cases of idiopathic intellectual disability. The molecular diagnosis is often made by microarray-based comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH), which has the drawback of being a high-cost technique. However, patients with classic monosomy 1p36 share some typical clinical characteristics that, together with its common prevalence, justify the development of a less expensive, targeted diagnostic method. In this study, we developed a simple, rapid, and inexpensive real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR) assay for targeted diagnosis of monosomy 1p36, easily accessible for low-budget laboratories in developing countries. For this, we have chosen two target genes which are deleted in the majority of patients with monosomy 1p36: PRKCZ and SKI. In total, 39 patients previously diagnosed with monosomy 1p36 by aCGH, fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH), and/or multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA) all tested positive on our qPCR assay. By simultaneously using these two genes we have been able to detect 1p36 deletions with 100% sensitivity and 100% specificity. We conclude that qPCR of PRKCZ and SKI is a fast and accurate diagnostic test for monosomy 1p36, costing less than 10 US dollars in reagent costs. PMID:24839341

  2. How well do health professionals interpret diagnostic information? A systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Whiting, Penny F; Davenport, Clare; Jameson, Catherine; Burke, Margaret; Sterne, Jonathan A C; Hyde, Chris; Ben-Shlomo, Yoav

    2015-01-01

    Objective To evaluate whether clinicians differ in how they evaluate and interpret diagnostic test information. Design Systematic review. Data sources MEDLINE, EMBASE and PsycINFO from inception to September 2013; bibliographies of retrieved studies, experts and citation search of key included studies. Eligibility criteria for selecting studies Primary studies that provided information on the accuracy of any diagnostic test (eg, sensitivity, specificity, likelihood ratios) to health professionals and that reported outcomes relating to their understanding of information on or implications of test accuracy. Results We included 24 studies. 6 assessed ability to define accuracy metrics: health professionals were less likely to identify the correct definition of likelihood ratios than of sensitivity and specificity. –25 studies assessed Bayesian reasoning. Most assessed the influence of a positive test result on the probability of disease: they generally found health professionals’ estimation of post-test probability to be poor, with a tendency to overestimation. 3 studies found that approaches based on likelihood ratios resulted in more accurate estimates of post-test probability than approaches based on estimates of sensitivity and specificity alone, while 3 found less accurate estimates. 5 studies found that presenting natural frequencies rather than probabilities improved post-test probability estimation and speed of calculations. Conclusions Commonly used measures of test accuracy are poorly understood by health professionals. Reporting test accuracy using natural frequencies and visual aids may facilitate improved understanding and better estimation of the post-test probability of disease. PMID:26220870

  3. Diagnostic Reasoning using Prognostic Information for Unmanned Aerial Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schumann, Johann; Roychoudhury, Indranil; Kulkarni, Chetan

    2015-01-01

    With increasing popularity of unmanned aircraft, continuous monitoring of their systems, software, and health status is becoming more and more important to ensure safe, correct, and efficient operation and fulfillment of missions. The paper presents integration of prognosis models and prognostic information with the R2U2 (REALIZABLE, RESPONSIVE, and UNOBTRUSIVE Unit) monitoring and diagnosis framework. This integration makes available statistically reliable health information predictions of the future at a much earlier time to enable autonomous decision making. The prognostic information can be used in the R2U2 model to improve diagnostic accuracy and enable decisions to be made at the present time to deal with events in the future. This will be an advancement over the current state of the art, where temporal logic observers can only do such valuation at the end of the time interval. Usefulness and effectiveness of this integrated diagnostics and prognostics framework was demonstrated using simulation experiments with the NASA Dragon Eye electric unmanned aircraft.

  4. Differential contribution of visual and auditory information to accurately predict the direction and rotational motion of a visual stimulus.

    PubMed

    Park, Seoung Hoon; Kim, Seonjin; Kwon, MinHyuk; Christou, Evangelos A

    2016-03-01

    Vision and auditory information are critical for perception and to enhance the ability of an individual to respond accurately to a stimulus. However, it is unknown whether visual and auditory information contribute differentially to identify the direction and rotational motion of the stimulus. The purpose of this study was to determine the ability of an individual to accurately predict the direction and rotational motion of the stimulus based on visual and auditory information. In this study, we recruited 9 expert table-tennis players and used table-tennis service as our experimental model. Participants watched recorded services with different levels of visual and auditory information. The goal was to anticipate the direction of the service (left or right) and the rotational motion of service (topspin, sidespin, or cut). We recorded their responses and quantified the following outcomes: (i) directional accuracy and (ii) rotational motion accuracy. The response accuracy was the accurate predictions relative to the total number of trials. The ability of the participants to predict the direction of the service accurately increased with additional visual information but not with auditory information. In contrast, the ability of the participants to predict the rotational motion of the service accurately increased with the addition of auditory information to visual information but not with additional visual information alone. In conclusion, this finding demonstrates that visual information enhances the ability of an individual to accurately predict the direction of the stimulus, whereas additional auditory information enhances the ability of an individual to accurately predict the rotational motion of stimulus.

  5. The utility of accurate mass and LC elution time information in the analysis of complex proteomes

    SciTech Connect

    Norbeck, Angela D.; Monroe, Matthew E.; Adkins, Joshua N.; Anderson, Kevin K.; Daly, Don S.; Smith, Richard D.

    2005-08-01

    Theoretical tryptic digests of all predicted proteins from the genomes of three organisms of varying complexity were evaluated for specificity and possible utility of combined peptide accurate mass and predicted LC normalized elution time (NET) information. The uniqueness of each peptide was evaluated using its combined mass (+/- 5 ppm and 1 ppm) and NET value (no constraint, +/- 0.05 and 0.01 on a 0-1 NET scale). The set of peptides both underestimates actual biological complexity due to the lack of specific modifications, and overestimates the expected complexity since many proteins will not be present in the sample or observable on the mass spectrometer because of dynamic range limitations. Once a peptide is identified from an LCMS/MS experiment, its mass and elution time is representative of a unique fingerprint for that peptide. The uniqueness of that fingerprint in comparison to that for the other peptides present is indicative of the ability to confidently identify that peptide based on accurate mass and NET measurements. These measurements can be made using HPLC coupled with high resolution MS in a high-throughput manner. Results show that for organisms with comparatively small proteomes, such as Deinococcus radiodurans, modest mass and elution time accuracies are generally adequate for peptide identifications. For more complex proteomes, increasingly accurate easurements are required. However, the majority of proteins should be uniquely identifiable by using LC-MS with mass accuracies within +/- 1 ppm and elution time easurements within +/- 0.01 NET.

  6. Diagnostically relevant facial gestalt information from ordinary photos.

    PubMed

    Ferry, Quentin; Steinberg, Julia; Webber, Caleb; FitzPatrick, David R; Ponting, Chris P; Zisserman, Andrew; Nellåker, Christoffer

    2014-06-24

    Craniofacial characteristics are highly informative for clinical geneticists when diagnosing genetic diseases. As a first step towards the high-throughput diagnosis of ultra-rare developmental diseases we introduce an automatic approach that implements recent developments in computer vision. This algorithm extracts phenotypic information from ordinary non-clinical photographs and, using machine learning, models human facial dysmorphisms in a multidimensional 'Clinical Face Phenotype Space'. The space locates patients in the context of known syndromes and thereby facilitates the generation of diagnostic hypotheses. Consequently, the approach will aid clinicians by greatly narrowing (by 27.6-fold) the search space of potential diagnoses for patients with suspected developmental disorders. Furthermore, this Clinical Face Phenotype Space allows the clustering of patients by phenotype even when no known syndrome diagnosis exists, thereby aiding disease identification. We demonstrate that this approach provides a novel method for inferring causative genetic variants from clinical sequencing data through functional genetic pathway comparisons.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.02020.001.

  7. Diagnostically relevant facial gestalt information from ordinary photos

    PubMed Central

    Ferry, Quentin; Steinberg, Julia; Webber, Caleb; FitzPatrick, David R; Ponting, Chris P; Zisserman, Andrew; Nellåker, Christoffer

    2014-01-01

    Craniofacial characteristics are highly informative for clinical geneticists when diagnosing genetic diseases. As a first step towards the high-throughput diagnosis of ultra-rare developmental diseases we introduce an automatic approach that implements recent developments in computer vision. This algorithm extracts phenotypic information from ordinary non-clinical photographs and, using machine learning, models human facial dysmorphisms in a multidimensional 'Clinical Face Phenotype Space'. The space locates patients in the context of known syndromes and thereby facilitates the generation of diagnostic hypotheses. Consequently, the approach will aid clinicians by greatly narrowing (by 27.6-fold) the search space of potential diagnoses for patients with suspected developmental disorders. Furthermore, this Clinical Face Phenotype Space allows the clustering of patients by phenotype even when no known syndrome diagnosis exists, thereby aiding disease identification. We demonstrate that this approach provides a novel method for inferring causative genetic variants from clinical sequencing data through functional genetic pathway comparisons. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.02020.001 PMID:24963138

  8. Panel-based Genetic Diagnostic Testing for Inherited Eye Diseases is Highly Accurate and Reproducible and More Sensitive for Variant Detection Than Exome Sequencing

    PubMed Central

    Bujakowska, Kinga M.; Sousa, Maria E.; Fonseca-Kelly, Zoë D.; Taub, Daniel G.; Janessian, Maria; Wang, Dan Yi; Au, Elizabeth D.; Sims, Katherine B.; Sweetser, David A.; Fulton, Anne B.; Liu, Qin; Wiggs, Janey L.; Gai, Xiaowu; Pierce, Eric A.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Next-generation sequencing (NGS) based methods are being adopted broadly for genetic diagnostic testing, but the performance characteristics of these techniques have not been fully defined with regard to test accuracy and reproducibility. Methods We developed a targeted enrichment and NGS approach for genetic diagnostic testing of patients with inherited eye disorders, including inherited retinal degenerations, optic atrophy and glaucoma. In preparation for providing this Genetic Eye Disease (GEDi) test on a CLIA-certified basis, we performed experiments to measure the sensitivity, specificity, reproducibility as well as the clinical sensitivity of the test. Results The GEDi test is highly reproducible and accurate, with sensitivity and specificity for single nucleotide variant detection of 97.9% and 100%, respectively. The sensitivity for variant detection was notably better than the 88.3% achieved by whole exome sequencing (WES) using the same metrics, due to better coverage of targeted genes in the GEDi test compared to commercially available exome capture sets. Prospective testing of 192 patients with IRDs indicated that the clinical sensitivity of the GEDi test is high, with a diagnostic rate of 51%. Conclusion The data suggest that based on quantified performance metrics, selective targeted enrichment is preferable to WES for genetic diagnostic testing. PMID:25412400

  9. Capturing Accurate and Useful Information on Medication-Related Telenursing Triage Calls.

    PubMed

    Lake, R; Li, L; Baysari, M; Byrne, M; Robinson, M; Westbrook, J I

    2016-01-01

    Registered nurses providing telenursing triage and advice services record information on the medication related calls they handle. However the quality and consistency of these data were rarely examined. Our aim was to examine medication related calls made to the healthdirect advice service in November 2014, to assess their basic characteristics and how the data entry format influenced information collected and data consistency. Registered nurses selected the patient question type from a range of categories, and entered the medications involved in a free text field. Medication names were manually extracted from the free text fields. We also compared the selected patient question type with the free text description of the call, in order to gauge data consistency. Results showed that nurses provided patients with advice on medication-related queries in a timely matter (the median call duration of 9 minutes). From 1835 calls, we were able to identify and classify 2156 medications into 384 generic names. However, in 204 cases (11.2% of calls) no medication name was entered. A further 308 (15.0%) of the medication names entered were not identifiable. When we compared the selected patient question with the free text description of calls, we found that these were consistent in 63.27% of cases. Telenursing and triage advice services provide a valuable resource to the public with quick and easily accessible advice. To support nurses provide quality services and record accurate information about the queries, appropriate data entry format and design would be beneficial. PMID:27440292

  10. Applications of Information Theory for Ecohydrology Model Diagnostics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruddell, B. L.; Drewry, D.

    2013-12-01

    Earth System Models are becoming more complicated and complex as detailed formulations of physical and biological processes operating at multiple scales are integrated together to simulate the connections and feedbacks of the whole system. A prime example of this increase in process fidelity is the terrestrial land surface, where meteorological and hydrological processes drive and interact with the biological functioning of vegetation, together controlling carbon, water, and energy fluxes with the atmosphere. Ecohydrological models that capture these couplings and feedbacks may intentionally or unintentionally create self-organizing or "emergent" dynamics that do not exist when a single model component is used in isolation. It is therefore critical that model diagnostics begin to directly inspect model output for its fidelity to emergent system-scale patterns including observed couplings, feedbacks, thresholds, and controls. Information Theory provides a general class of methods that are able to directly measure coupling, control, and feedback. We apply these methods to compare observations and model results in the context of the Midwest US agro-ecosystem. We utilize a state-of-the-art ecohydrological model, MLCan, which has been extensively validated against eddy covariance observations of carbon, water and energy exchange collected at the Bondville, Illinois FLUXNET site. Using a dynamical process network approach in which system couplings are resolved as directional information flows, we show that MLCan does well at reproducing observed system-scale couplings, feedbacks, thresholds, and controls. We identify important exceptions that point to necessary model improvements. By applying these methods in addition to the standard residual error analysis, it is possible to move beyond asking whether an Earth System Model gets the "right answers", and to instead examine whether the model captures the emergent system-scale structures necessary to be correct for the

  11. Conditional mutual inclusive information enables accurate quantification of associations in gene regulatory networks.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiujun; Zhao, Juan; Hao, Jin-Kao; Zhao, Xing-Ming; Chen, Luonan

    2015-03-11

    Mutual information (MI), a quantity describing the nonlinear dependence between two random variables, has been widely used to construct gene regulatory networks (GRNs). Despite its good performance, MI cannot separate the direct regulations from indirect ones among genes. Although the conditional mutual information (CMI) is able to identify the direct regulations, it generally underestimates the regulation strength, i.e. it may result in false negatives when inferring gene regulations. In this work, to overcome the problems, we propose a novel concept, namely conditional mutual inclusive information (CMI2), to describe the regulations between genes. Furthermore, with CMI2, we develop a new approach, namely CMI2NI (CMI2-based network inference), for reverse-engineering GRNs. In CMI2NI, CMI2 is used to quantify the mutual information between two genes given a third one through calculating the Kullback-Leibler divergence between the postulated distributions of including and excluding the edge between the two genes. The benchmark results on the GRNs from DREAM challenge as well as the SOS DNA repair network in Escherichia coli demonstrate the superior performance of CMI2NI. Specifically, even for gene expression data with small sample size, CMI2NI can not only infer the correct topology of the regulation networks but also accurately quantify the regulation strength between genes. As a case study, CMI2NI was also used to reconstruct cancer-specific GRNs using gene expression data from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA). CMI2NI is freely accessible at http://www.comp-sysbio.org/cmi2ni.

  12. Tzanck smear as an accurate and rapid diagnostic tool for cutaneous alternariosis in a renal transplant recipient.

    PubMed

    Karataş Toğral, A; Güleç, A T

    2016-10-01

    Alternaria species are becoming increasingly important opportunistic pathogens in recipients of solid organ transplant, as it has been shown that dissemination with systemic involvement is not as rare as previously reported. Therefore, rapid and accurate diagnosis is necessary for appropriate patient management. We report a patient with renal transplant who developed recurrent cutaneous alternariosis. Tzanck smear successfully and very rapidly revealed hyphae and spores in both the primary and subsequent lesions. Furthermore, Tzanck smear provided guidance for histopathological examination of the second lesion, which failed to disclose the fungal elements until additional deeper serial sections were performed. The present case emphasizes that the Tzanck smear is a useful clinical tool leading to the immediate correct diagnosis even in deep fungal infections. PMID:27663148

  13. A new automatic blood pressure kit auscultates for accurate reading with a smartphone: A diagnostic accuracy study.

    PubMed

    Wu, Hongjun; Wang, Bingjian; Zhu, Xinpu; Chu, Guang; Zhang, Zhi

    2016-08-01

    The widely used oscillometric automated blood pressure (BP) monitor was continuously questioned on its accuracy. A novel BP kit named Accutension which adopted Korotkoff auscultation method was then devised. Accutension worked with a miniature microphone, a pressure sensor, and a smartphone. The BP values were automatically displayed on the smartphone screen through the installed App. Data recorded in the phone could be played back and reconfirmed after measurement. They could also be uploaded and saved to the iCloud. The accuracy and consistency of this novel electronic auscultatory sphygmomanometer was preliminarily verified here. Thirty-two subjects were included and 82 qualified readings were obtained. The mean differences ± SD for systolic and diastolic BP readings between Accutension and mercury sphygmomanometer were 0.87 ± 2.86 and -0.94 ± 2.93 mm Hg. Agreements between Accutension and mercury sphygmomanometer were highly significant for systolic (ICC = 0.993, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.989-0.995) and diastolic (ICC = 0.987, 95% CI: 0.979-0.991). In conclusion, Accutension worked accurately based on our pilot study data. The difference was acceptable. ICC and Bland-Altman plot charts showed good agreements with manual measurements. Systolic readings of Accutension were slightly higher than those of manual measurement, while diastolic readings were slightly lower. One possible reason was that Accutension captured the first and the last korotkoff sound more sensitively than human ear during manual measurement and avoided sound missing, so that it might be more accurate than traditional mercury sphygmomanometer. By documenting and analyzing of variant tendency of BP values, Accutension helps management of hypertension and therefore contributes to the mobile heath service. PMID:27512876

  14. Information-Gathering Patterns Associated with Higher Rates of Diagnostic Error

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Delzell, John E., Jr.; Chumley, Heidi; Webb, Russell; Chakrabarti, Swapan; Relan, Anju

    2009-01-01

    Diagnostic errors are an important source of medical errors. Problematic information-gathering is a common cause of diagnostic errors among physicians and medical students. The objectives of this study were to (1) determine if medical students' information-gathering patterns formed clusters of similar strategies, and if so (2) to calculate the…

  15. Using Meta-Analysis to Inform the Design of Subsequent Studies of Diagnostic Test Accuracy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hinchliffe, Sally R.; Crowther, Michael J.; Phillips, Robert S.; Sutton, Alex J.

    2013-01-01

    An individual diagnostic accuracy study rarely provides enough information to make conclusive recommendations about the accuracy of a diagnostic test; particularly when the study is small. Meta-analysis methods provide a way of combining information from multiple studies, reducing uncertainty in the result and hopefully providing substantial…

  16. Reducing Diagnostic Errors through Effective Communication: Harnessing the Power of Information Technology

    PubMed Central

    Naik, Aanand Dinkar; Rao, Raghuram; Petersen, Laura Ann

    2008-01-01

    Diagnostic errors are poorly understood despite being a frequent cause of medical errors. Recent efforts have aimed to advance the "basic science" of diagnostic error prevention by tracing errors to their most basic origins. Although a refined theory of diagnostic error prevention will take years to formulate, we focus on communication breakdown, a major contributor to diagnostic errors and an increasingly recognized preventable factor in medical mishaps. We describe a comprehensive framework that integrates the potential sources of communication breakdowns within the diagnostic process and identifies vulnerable steps in the diagnostic process where various types of communication breakdowns can precipitate error. We then discuss potential information technology-based interventions that may have efficacy in preventing one or more forms of these breakdowns. These possible intervention strategies include using new technologies to enhance communication between health providers and health systems, improve patient involvement, and facilitate management of information in the medical record. PMID:18373151

  17. Highly Accurate Prediction of Protein-Protein Interactions via Incorporating Evolutionary Information and Physicochemical Characteristics

    PubMed Central

    Li, Zheng-Wei; You, Zhu-Hong; Chen, Xing; Gui, Jie; Nie, Ru

    2016-01-01

    Protein-protein interactions (PPIs) occur at almost all levels of cell functions and play crucial roles in various cellular processes. Thus, identification of PPIs is critical for deciphering the molecular mechanisms and further providing insight into biological processes. Although a variety of high-throughput experimental techniques have been developed to identify PPIs, existing PPI pairs by experimental approaches only cover a small fraction of the whole PPI networks, and further, those approaches hold inherent disadvantages, such as being time-consuming, expensive, and having high false positive rate. Therefore, it is urgent and imperative to develop automatic in silico approaches to predict PPIs efficiently and accurately. In this article, we propose a novel mixture of physicochemical and evolutionary-based feature extraction method for predicting PPIs using our newly developed discriminative vector machine (DVM) classifier. The improvements of the proposed method mainly consist in introducing an effective feature extraction method that can capture discriminative features from the evolutionary-based information and physicochemical characteristics, and then a powerful and robust DVM classifier is employed. To the best of our knowledge, it is the first time that DVM model is applied to the field of bioinformatics. When applying the proposed method to the Yeast and Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) datasets, we obtain excellent prediction accuracies of 94.35% and 90.61%, respectively. The computational results indicate that our method is effective and robust for predicting PPIs, and can be taken as a useful supplementary tool to the traditional experimental methods for future proteomics research. PMID:27571061

  18. Highly Accurate Prediction of Protein-Protein Interactions via Incorporating Evolutionary Information and Physicochemical Characteristics.

    PubMed

    Li, Zheng-Wei; You, Zhu-Hong; Chen, Xing; Gui, Jie; Nie, Ru

    2016-01-01

    Protein-protein interactions (PPIs) occur at almost all levels of cell functions and play crucial roles in various cellular processes. Thus, identification of PPIs is critical for deciphering the molecular mechanisms and further providing insight into biological processes. Although a variety of high-throughput experimental techniques have been developed to identify PPIs, existing PPI pairs by experimental approaches only cover a small fraction of the whole PPI networks, and further, those approaches hold inherent disadvantages, such as being time-consuming, expensive, and having high false positive rate. Therefore, it is urgent and imperative to develop automatic in silico approaches to predict PPIs efficiently and accurately. In this article, we propose a novel mixture of physicochemical and evolutionary-based feature extraction method for predicting PPIs using our newly developed discriminative vector machine (DVM) classifier. The improvements of the proposed method mainly consist in introducing an effective feature extraction method that can capture discriminative features from the evolutionary-based information and physicochemical characteristics, and then a powerful and robust DVM classifier is employed. To the best of our knowledge, it is the first time that DVM model is applied to the field of bioinformatics. When applying the proposed method to the Yeast and Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) datasets, we obtain excellent prediction accuracies of 94.35% and 90.61%, respectively. The computational results indicate that our method is effective and robust for predicting PPIs, and can be taken as a useful supplementary tool to the traditional experimental methods for future proteomics research. PMID:27571061

  19. Highly Accurate Prediction of Protein-Protein Interactions via Incorporating Evolutionary Information and Physicochemical Characteristics.

    PubMed

    Li, Zheng-Wei; You, Zhu-Hong; Chen, Xing; Gui, Jie; Nie, Ru

    2016-01-01

    Protein-protein interactions (PPIs) occur at almost all levels of cell functions and play crucial roles in various cellular processes. Thus, identification of PPIs is critical for deciphering the molecular mechanisms and further providing insight into biological processes. Although a variety of high-throughput experimental techniques have been developed to identify PPIs, existing PPI pairs by experimental approaches only cover a small fraction of the whole PPI networks, and further, those approaches hold inherent disadvantages, such as being time-consuming, expensive, and having high false positive rate. Therefore, it is urgent and imperative to develop automatic in silico approaches to predict PPIs efficiently and accurately. In this article, we propose a novel mixture of physicochemical and evolutionary-based feature extraction method for predicting PPIs using our newly developed discriminative vector machine (DVM) classifier. The improvements of the proposed method mainly consist in introducing an effective feature extraction method that can capture discriminative features from the evolutionary-based information and physicochemical characteristics, and then a powerful and robust DVM classifier is employed. To the best of our knowledge, it is the first time that DVM model is applied to the field of bioinformatics. When applying the proposed method to the Yeast and Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) datasets, we obtain excellent prediction accuracies of 94.35% and 90.61%, respectively. The computational results indicate that our method is effective and robust for predicting PPIs, and can be taken as a useful supplementary tool to the traditional experimental methods for future proteomics research.

  20. Retrospective screening of relevant pesticide metabolites in food using liquid chromatography high resolution mass spectrometry and accurate-mass databases of parent molecules and diagnostic fragment ions.

    PubMed

    Polgár, László; García-Reyes, Juan F; Fodor, Péter; Gyepes, Attila; Dernovics, Mihály; Abrankó, László; Gilbert-López, Bienvenida; Molina-Díaz, Antonio

    2012-08-01

    In recent years, the detection and characterization of relevant pesticide metabolites in food is an important task in order to evaluate their formation, kinetics, stability, and toxicity. In this article, a methodology for the systematic screening of pesticides and their main metabolites in fruit and vegetable samples is described, using LC-HRMS and accurate-mass database search of parent compounds and their diagnostic fragment ions. The approach is based on (i) search for parent pesticide molecules; (ii) search for their metabolites in the positive samples, assuming common fragmentation pathways between the metabolites and parent pesticide molecules; and (iii) search for pesticide conjugates using the data from both parent species and diagnostic fragment ions. An accurate-mass database was constructed consisting of 1396 compounds (850 parent compounds, 447 fragment ions and 99 metabolites). The screening process was performed by the software in an automated fashion. The proposed methodology was evaluated with 29 incurred samples and the output obtained was compared to standard pesticide testing methods (targeted LC-MS/MS). Examples on the application of the proposed approach are shown, including the detection of several pesticide glycosides derivatives, which were found with significantly relevant intensities. Glucose-conjugated forms of parent compounds (e.g., fenhexamid-O-glucoside) and those of metabolites (e.g., despropyl-iprodione-N-glycoside) were detected. Facing the lack of standards for glycosylated pesticides, the study was completed with the synthesis of fenhexamid-O-glucoside for quantification purposes. In some cases the pesticide derivatives were found in a relatively high ratio, drawing the attention to these kinds of metabolites and showing that they should not be neglected in multi-residue methods. The global coverage obtained on the 29 analyzed samples showed the usefulness and benefits of the proposed approach and highlights the practical

  1. A Framework for Determining the Value of Diagnostic Information for Instructional Decision-Making

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Armstrong, David G.

    1976-01-01

    A procedure designed to help instructional decision-makers evaluate individual sources of diagnostic information in terms of their functional utility may add a desirable measure of precision to their instructional prescriptions for learners. (Author)

  2. Medial prefrontal dissociations during processing of trait diagnostic and nondiagnostic person information.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, Jason P; Cloutier, Jasmin; Banaji, Mahzarin R; Macrae, C Neil

    2006-06-01

    Previous research has suggested that perceivers spontaneously extract trait-specific information from the behaviour of others. However, little is known about whether perceivers spontaneously engage in the same depth of social-cognitive processing for all person information or reserve such processing specifically for information that conveys diagnostic clues about another person's dispositions. Moreover, a question remains as to whether the processing of such nondiagnostic information can be affected by perceivers' explicit goal to consider another's dispositions or not. To examine processing of diagnostic and nondiagnostic social information as a function of perceivers' explicit social-cognitive goals, participants underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) scanning while performing social (impression formation) or non-social orienting tasks using statements that conveyed either diagnostic or nondiagnostic information about the target's personality traits. Replicating two earlier studies, results identified a region of dorsal medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) that was preferentially activated by impression formation. Interestingly, no difference between trait-diagnostic and nondiagnostic information was observed when participants had the explicit goal of forming an impression, but a substantial effect of diagnosticity emerged when task instructions oriented them away from considering the target as a social agent. These results suggest that trait-nondiagnostic information is not subject to spontaneous social-cognitive processing, but that such processing may nevertheless occur when perceivers have the explicit goal to use that information to form an impression of a target. PMID:18985100

  3. Medial prefrontal dissociations during processing of trait diagnostic and nondiagnostic person information.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, Jason P; Cloutier, Jasmin; Banaji, Mahzarin R; Macrae, C Neil

    2006-06-01

    Previous research has suggested that perceivers spontaneously extract trait-specific information from the behaviour of others. However, little is known about whether perceivers spontaneously engage in the same depth of social-cognitive processing for all person information or reserve such processing specifically for information that conveys diagnostic clues about another person's dispositions. Moreover, a question remains as to whether the processing of such nondiagnostic information can be affected by perceivers' explicit goal to consider another's dispositions or not. To examine processing of diagnostic and nondiagnostic social information as a function of perceivers' explicit social-cognitive goals, participants underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) scanning while performing social (impression formation) or non-social orienting tasks using statements that conveyed either diagnostic or nondiagnostic information about the target's personality traits. Replicating two earlier studies, results identified a region of dorsal medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) that was preferentially activated by impression formation. Interestingly, no difference between trait-diagnostic and nondiagnostic information was observed when participants had the explicit goal of forming an impression, but a substantial effect of diagnosticity emerged when task instructions oriented them away from considering the target as a social agent. These results suggest that trait-nondiagnostic information is not subject to spontaneous social-cognitive processing, but that such processing may nevertheless occur when perceivers have the explicit goal to use that information to form an impression of a target.

  4. TIDE: an intelligent home-based healthcare information & diagnostic environment.

    PubMed

    Abidi, S S

    1999-01-01

    The 21st century promises to usher in an era of Internet based healthcare services--Tele-Healthcare. Such services augur well with the on-going paradigm shift in healthcare delivery patterns, i.e. patient centred services as opposed to provider centred services and wellness maintenance as opposed to illness management. This paper presents a Tele-Healthcare info-structure TIDE--an 'intelligent' wellness-oriented healthcare delivery environment. TIDE incorporates two WWW-based healthcare systems: (1) AIMS (Automated Health Monitoring System) for wellness maintenance and (2) IDEAS (Illness Diagnostic & Advisory System) for illness management. Our proposal comes from an attempt to rethink the sources of possible leverage in improving healthcare; vis-à-vis the provision of a continuum of personalised home-based healthcare services that emphasise the role of the individual in self health maintenance.

  5. Accurate refinement of docked protein complexes using evolutionary information and deep learning.

    PubMed

    Akbal-Delibas, Bahar; Farhoodi, Roshanak; Pomplun, Marc; Haspel, Nurit

    2016-06-01

    One of the major challenges for protein docking methods is to accurately discriminate native-like structures from false positives. Docking methods are often inaccurate and the results have to be refined and re-ranked to obtain native-like complexes and remove outliers. In a previous work, we introduced AccuRefiner, a machine learning based tool for refining protein-protein complexes. Given a docked complex, the refinement tool produces a small set of refined versions of the input complex, with lower root-mean-square-deviation (RMSD) of atomic positions with respect to the native structure. The method employs a unique ranking tool that accurately predicts the RMSD of docked complexes with respect to the native structure. In this work, we use a deep learning network with a similar set of features and five layers. We show that a properly trained deep learning network can accurately predict the RMSD of a docked complex with 1.40 Å error margin on average, by approximating the complex relationship between a wide set of scoring function terms and the RMSD of a docked structure. The network was trained on 35000 unbound docking complexes generated by RosettaDock. We tested our method on 25 different putative docked complexes produced also by RosettaDock for five proteins that were not included in the training data. The results demonstrate that the high accuracy of the ranking tool enables AccuRefiner to consistently choose the refinement candidates with lower RMSD values compared to the coarsely docked input structures. PMID:26846813

  6. Accurate refinement of docked protein complexes using evolutionary information and deep learning.

    PubMed

    Akbal-Delibas, Bahar; Farhoodi, Roshanak; Pomplun, Marc; Haspel, Nurit

    2016-06-01

    One of the major challenges for protein docking methods is to accurately discriminate native-like structures from false positives. Docking methods are often inaccurate and the results have to be refined and re-ranked to obtain native-like complexes and remove outliers. In a previous work, we introduced AccuRefiner, a machine learning based tool for refining protein-protein complexes. Given a docked complex, the refinement tool produces a small set of refined versions of the input complex, with lower root-mean-square-deviation (RMSD) of atomic positions with respect to the native structure. The method employs a unique ranking tool that accurately predicts the RMSD of docked complexes with respect to the native structure. In this work, we use a deep learning network with a similar set of features and five layers. We show that a properly trained deep learning network can accurately predict the RMSD of a docked complex with 1.40 Å error margin on average, by approximating the complex relationship between a wide set of scoring function terms and the RMSD of a docked structure. The network was trained on 35000 unbound docking complexes generated by RosettaDock. We tested our method on 25 different putative docked complexes produced also by RosettaDock for five proteins that were not included in the training data. The results demonstrate that the high accuracy of the ranking tool enables AccuRefiner to consistently choose the refinement candidates with lower RMSD values compared to the coarsely docked input structures.

  7. Can Raters with Reduced Job Descriptive Information Provide Accurate Position Analysis Questionnaire (PAQ) Ratings?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Friedman, Lee; Harvey, Robert J.

    1986-01-01

    Job-naive raters provided with job descriptive information made Position Analysis Questionnaire (PAQ) ratings which were validated against ratings of job analysts who were also job content experts. None of the reduced job descriptive information conditions enabled job-naive raters to obtain either acceptable levels of convergent validity with…

  8. 16 CFR 1101.32 - Reasonable steps to assure information is accurate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... to release to the public: (1) The Commission staff or a qualified person or entity outside the... will review the information in light of the comments. The degree of review by the Commission and...

  9. An examination of information quality as a moderator of accurate personality judgment.

    PubMed

    Letzring, Tera D; Human, Lauren J

    2014-10-01

    Information quality is an important moderator of the accuracy of personality judgment, and this article describes research focusing on how specific kinds of information are related to accuracy. In this study, 228 participants (159 female, 69 male; mean age = 23.43; 86.4% Caucasian) in unacquainted dyads were assigned to discuss thoughts and feelings, discuss behaviors, or engage in behaviors. Interactions lasted 25-30 min, and participants provided ratings of their partners and themselves following the interaction on the Big Five traits, ego-control, and ego-resiliency. Next, the amount of different types of information made available by each participant was objectively coded. The accuracy criterion, composed of self- and acquaintance ratings, was used to assess distinctive and normative accuracy using the Social Accuracy Model. Participants in the discussion conditions achieved higher distinctive accuracy than participants who engaged in behaviors, but normative accuracy did not differ across conditions. Information about specific behaviors and general behaviors were among the most consistent predictors of higher distinctive accuracy. Normative accuracy was more likely to decrease than increase when higher-quality information was available. Verbal information about behaviors is the most useful for learning about how people are unique.

  10. Diagnostic Classification Decisions As a Function of Referral Information.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ysseldyke, James E.; Algozzine, Bob

    Educational decision makers (N=224) participated in a computer simulated decision making experience to ascertain the extent to which referral information on a child with a suspected handicapping condition biased classification decisions. Ss were randomly assigned to 16 conditions varying on the basis of the child's sex, socioeconomic status,…

  11. Polyallelic structural variants can provide accurate, highly informative genetic markers focused on diagnosis and therapeutic targets: Accuracy vs. Precision.

    PubMed

    Roses, A D

    2016-02-01

    Structural variants (SVs) include all insertions, deletions, and rearrangements in the genome, with several common types of nucleotide repeats including single sequence repeats, short tandem repeats, and insertion-deletion length variants. Polyallelic SVs provide highly informative markers for association studies with well-phenotyped cohorts. SVs can influence gene regulation by affecting epigenetics, transcription, splicing, and/or translation. Accurate assays of polyallelic SV loci are required to define the range and allele frequency of variable length alleles. PMID:26517180

  12. Magnetic Resonance Imaging and GeneXpert: A Rapid and Accurate Diagnostic Tool for the Management of Tuberculosis of the Spine

    PubMed Central

    Chhabra, Harvinder Singh; Mahajan, Rajat; Chabra, Tarun; Batra, Sahil

    2016-01-01

    Study Design Retrospective study. Purpose The aim of this study was to analyze various diagnostic tools, including GeneXpert, for the management of tuberculosis of the spine. Overview of Literature Traditional diagnostic methods of microscopy, histology, and culture have low sensitivity and specificity for the management of tuberculosis of the spine. Methods Of the 262 treated cases of spinal tuberculosis, data on 1 year follow-up was available for 217 cases. Of these, only 145 cases with a confirmed diagnosis were selected for retrospective analysis. Results In 145 of the 217 patients (66.80%), diagnosis was confirmed on the basis of a culture. Of the 145 patients with a confirmed diagnosis, 98 (66.20%) patients were diagnosed on the basis of clinical presentation, whereas 123 (84.8%) exhibited a typical magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) picture. In 99 surgically treated patients, the diagnosis was confirmed on the basis of an intraoperative tissue biopsy. Among the 46 patients treated conservatively, 35 underwent a transpedicular biopsy, 4 patients underwent computed tomography-guided biopsy, 6 patients were diagnosed on the basis of material obtained from a cold abscess, and 1 patient underwent an open biopsy. The sensitivity of the culture for the detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis was 66.80% (145/217) in our patients. Among the cases in which GeneXpert was used, the sensitivity for the detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis was 93.4% (43/46). Moreover, the sensitivity of GeneXpert to detect rifampicin resistance was 100% (7/7) in our study. Conclusions Majority of the patients with tuberculosis of the spine can be diagnosed on the basis of a typical radiological presentation via MRI. In our study, 84.8% cases exhibited typical MRI findings. For patients presenting with atypical MRI features, a rapid and accurate diagnosis is possible by combining GeneXpert with MRI. The combined use of MRI and GeneXpert is a rapid and highly sensitive tool to diagnose

  13. Exploratory Movement Generates Higher-Order Information That Is Sufficient for Accurate Perception of Scaled Egocentric Distance

    PubMed Central

    Mantel, Bruno; Stoffregen, Thomas A.; Campbell, Alain; Bardy, Benoît G.

    2015-01-01

    Body movement influences the structure of multiple forms of ambient energy, including optics and gravito-inertial force. Some researchers have argued that egocentric distance is derived from inferential integration of visual and non-visual stimulation. We suggest that accurate information about egocentric distance exists in perceptual stimulation as higher-order patterns that extend across optics and inertia. We formalize a pattern that specifies the egocentric distance of a stationary object across higher-order relations between optics and inertia. This higher-order parameter is created by self-generated movement of the perceiver in inertial space relative to the illuminated environment. For this reason, we placed minimal restrictions on the exploratory movements of our participants. We asked whether humans can detect and use the information available in this higher-order pattern. Participants judged whether a virtual object was within reach. We manipulated relations between body movement and the ambient structure of optics and inertia. Judgments were precise and accurate when the higher-order optical-inertial parameter was available. When only optic flow was available, judgments were poor. Our results reveal that participants perceived egocentric distance from the higher-order, optical-inertial consequences of their own exploratory activity. Analysis of participants’ movement trajectories revealed that self-selected movements were complex, and tended to optimize availability of the optical-inertial pattern that specifies egocentric distance. We argue that accurate information about egocentric distance exists in higher-order patterns of ambient energy, that self-generated movement can generate these higher-order patterns, and that these patterns can be detected and used to support perception of egocentric distance that is precise and accurate. PMID:25856410

  14. Combining Evolutionary Information and an Iterative Sampling Strategy for Accurate Protein Structure Prediction.

    PubMed

    Braun, Tatjana; Koehler Leman, Julia; Lange, Oliver F

    2015-12-01

    Recent work has shown that the accuracy of ab initio structure prediction can be significantly improved by integrating evolutionary information in form of intra-protein residue-residue contacts. Following this seminal result, much effort is put into the improvement of contact predictions. However, there is also a substantial need to develop structure prediction protocols tailored to the type of restraints gained by contact predictions. Here, we present a structure prediction protocol that combines evolutionary information with the resolution-adapted structural recombination approach of Rosetta, called RASREC. Compared to the classic Rosetta ab initio protocol, RASREC achieves improved sampling, better convergence and higher robustness against incorrect distance restraints, making it the ideal sampling strategy for the stated problem. To demonstrate the accuracy of our protocol, we tested the approach on a diverse set of 28 globular proteins. Our method is able to converge for 26 out of the 28 targets and improves the average TM-score of the entire benchmark set from 0.55 to 0.72 when compared to the top ranked models obtained by the EVFold web server using identical contact predictions. Using a smaller benchmark, we furthermore show that the prediction accuracy of our method is only slightly reduced when the contact prediction accuracy is comparatively low. This observation is of special interest for protein sequences that only have a limited number of homologs.

  15. Honey bees can perform accurately directed waggle dances based solely on information from a homeward trip.

    PubMed

    Edrich, Wolfgang

    2015-10-01

    Honey bees were displaced several 100 m from their hive to an unfamiliar site and provisioned with honey. After feeding, almost two-thirds of the bees flew home to their hive within a 50 min observation time. About half of these returning, bees signalled the direction of the release site in waggle dances thus demonstrating that the dance can be guided entirely by information gathered on a single homeward trip. The likely reason for the bees' enthusiastic dancing on their initial return from this new site was the highly rewarding honeycomb that they were given there. The attractive nature of the site is confirmed by many of these bees revisiting the site and continuing to forage there.

  16. Accurately decoding visual information from fMRI data obtained in a realistic virtual environment

    PubMed Central

    Floren, Andrew; Naylor, Bruce; Miikkulainen, Risto; Ress, David

    2015-01-01

    Three-dimensional interactive virtual environments (VEs) are a powerful tool for brain-imaging based cognitive neuroscience that are presently under-utilized. This paper presents machine-learning based methods for identifying brain states induced by realistic VEs with improved accuracy as well as the capability for mapping their spatial topography on the neocortex. VEs provide the ability to study the brain under conditions closer to the environment in which humans evolved, and thus to probe deeper into the complexities of human cognition. As a test case, we designed a stimulus to reflect a military combat situation in the Middle East, motivated by the potential of using real-time functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) in the treatment of post-traumatic stress disorder. Each subject experienced moving through the virtual town where they encountered 1–6 animated combatants at different locations, while fMRI data was collected. To analyze the data from what is, compared to most studies, more complex and less controlled stimuli, we employed statistical machine learning in the form of Multi-Voxel Pattern Analysis (MVPA) with special attention given to artificial Neural Networks (NN). Extensions to NN that exploit the block structure of the stimulus were developed to improve the accuracy of the classification, achieving performances from 58 to 93% (chance was 16.7%) with six subjects. This demonstrates that MVPA can decode a complex cognitive state, viewing a number of characters, in a dynamic virtual environment. To better understand the source of this information in the brain, a novel form of sensitivity analysis was developed to use NN to quantify the degree to which each voxel contributed to classification. Compared with maps produced by general linear models and the searchlight approach, these sensitivity maps revealed a more diverse pattern of information relevant to the classification of cognitive state. PMID:26106315

  17. Accurate prediction of interfacial residues in two-domain proteins using evolutionary information: implications for three-dimensional modeling.

    PubMed

    Bhaskara, Ramachandra M; Padhi, Amrita; Srinivasan, Narayanaswamy

    2014-07-01

    With the preponderance of multidomain proteins in eukaryotic genomes, it is essential to recognize the constituent domains and their functions. Often function involves communications across the domain interfaces, and the knowledge of the interacting sites is essential to our understanding of the structure-function relationship. Using evolutionary information extracted from homologous domains in at least two diverse domain architectures (single and multidomain), we predict the interface residues corresponding to domains from the two-domain proteins. We also use information from the three-dimensional structures of individual domains of two-domain proteins to train naïve Bayes classifier model to predict the interfacial residues. Our predictions are highly accurate (∼85%) and specific (∼95%) to the domain-domain interfaces. This method is specific to multidomain proteins which contain domains in at least more than one protein architectural context. Using predicted residues to constrain domain-domain interaction, rigid-body docking was able to provide us with accurate full-length protein structures with correct orientation of domains. We believe that these results can be of considerable interest toward rational protein and interaction design, apart from providing us with valuable information on the nature of interactions.

  18. Adaptive image workstation based on explicit models of diagnostic information requirements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wendler, Thomas; Grewer, R.; Moennich, K. J.; Schmidt, J.; Svensson, H.

    1992-05-01

    A medical image workstation has been conceived and prototyped which is designed to act as a cooperative dialogue partner in a number of routinely performed tasks in diagnostic radiology. The system can automatically select relevant information (e.g., current and previous examinations, images, image sequences) and generate a meaningful and appropriate image arrangement on the display screen. This is shown to be an effective feature to simplify and speed up radiological image access and presentation. For many cases in diagnostic image reading, the users' interaction may be as simple as switching from one patient to the next. Furthermore, the installed mechanisms offer a solution for the automatic pre-fetching of images to avoid transmission delays in the course of diagnostic work sessions. The cooperative system response is based on explicit (formalized and computer-accessible) models of diagnostic information requirements. These models are context-dependent and take into account that diagnostic information needs vary with radiological work procedures, workstation users, and patient cases. Initial information requirement models have been acquired from expert radiologists in two European hospitals and were integrated in a cooperative workstation prototype. For the representation of models, rule-based and object-oriented techniques were applied. The rule base was designed with a distinct modular structure, separating between rule sets for general, task- and user-dependent information requirements. The paper reviews the objectives for the design of cooperative workstation user interfaces and describes the acquisition, structuring, formalization, and representation of context-dependent information requirement models. The rule-base is explained by examples. A layered workstation architecture consisting of model-, object-, and realtime-layer is presented. Difficulties in the implementation of cooperative workstations are discussed which point to future research topics and

  19. Development of an Information Fusion System for Engine Diagnostics and Health Management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Volponi, Allan J.; Brotherton, Tom; Luppold, Robert; Simon, Donald L.

    2004-01-01

    Aircraft gas-turbine engine data are available from a variety of sources including on-board sensor measurements, maintenance histories, and component models. An ultimate goal of Propulsion Health Management (PHM) is to maximize the amount of meaningful information that can be extracted from disparate data sources to obtain comprehensive diagnostic and prognostic knowledge regarding the health of the engine. Data Fusion is the integration of data or information from multiple sources, to achieve improved accuracy and more specific inferences than can be obtained from the use of a single sensor alone. The basic tenet underlying the data/information fusion concept is to leverage all available information to enhance diagnostic visibility, increase diagnostic reliability and reduce the number of diagnostic false alarms. This paper describes a basic PHM Data Fusion architecture being developed in alignment with the NASA C17 Propulsion Health Management (PHM) Flight Test program. The challenge of how to maximize the meaningful information extracted from disparate data sources to obtain enhanced diagnostic and prognostic information regarding the health and condition of the engine is the primary goal of this endeavor. To address this challenge, NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC), NASA Dryden Flight Research Center (DFRC) and Pratt & Whitney (P&W) have formed a team with several small innovative technology companies to plan and conduct a research project in the area of data fusion as applied to PHM. Methodologies being developed and evaluated have been drawn from a wide range of areas including artificial intelligence, pattern recognition, statistical estimation, and fuzzy logic. This paper will provide a broad overview of this work, discuss some of the methodologies employed and give some illustrative examples.

  20. Providing Subscale Scores for Diagnostic Information: A Case Study when the Test Is Essentially Unidimensional

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stone, Clement A.; Ye, Feifei; Zhu, Xiaowen; Lane, Suzanne

    2010-01-01

    Although reliability of subscale scores may be suspect, subscale scores are the most common type of diagnostic information included in student score reports. This research compared methods for augmenting the reliability of subscale scores for an 8th-grade mathematics assessment. Yen's Objective Performance Index, Wainer et al.'s augmented scores,…

  1. North Carolina Minimum Skills Diagnostic Testing Program. Administrative Information, 1992-93.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    North Carolina State Dept. of Public Instruction, Raleigh. Div. of Accountability Services/Research.

    Information is presented regarding the administration of the North Carolina Minimum Skills Diagnostic Testing Program. This testing program, mandated by the state's basic education program under the Secondary School Reform Act of 1984, checks the necessity for remediation by determining a student's mastery of specific objectives and diagnoses…

  2. The Use of Information Based Evaluation in Evaluating the Diagnostic Teaching Center.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poteet, James A.

    Information Based Evaluation (IBE) is identified as a design procedure for assessing a variety of projects, programs, and educational changes. IBE was used to evaluate a Comprehensive Diagnostic Teaching Center (DTC) which, in addition to providing teacher training and services to handicapped pupils, would bring together and focus all of the…

  3. An Informal Reading Readiness Inventory: A Diagnostic Method of Predicting First Grade Reading Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Carolyn C.; Koenke, Karl

    A study was undertaken to create and validate a diagnostic, task-based Informal Reading Readiness Inventory (IRRI). IRRI subtests were created to reflect four areas found to be important in reading readiness: awareness of self and media, language experience, reasoning, and phonics. Prereading curriculum components formed the basis for test item…

  4. "Finding Useful Questions: On Bayesian Diagnosticity, Probability, Impact, and Information Gain": Correction to Nelson (2005)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelson, Jonathan D.

    2007-01-01

    Reports an error in "Finding Useful Questions: On Bayesian Diagnosticity, Probability, Impact, and Information Gain" by Jonathan D. Nelson (Psychological Review, 2005[Oct], Vol 112[4], 979-999). In Table 13, the data should indicate that 7% of females had short hair and 93% of females had long hair. The calculations and discussion in the article…

  5. A new way of quantifying diagnostic information from multilead electrocardiogram for cardiac disease classification

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, L.N.; Dandapat, S.

    2014-01-01

    A new measure for quantifying diagnostic information from a multilead electrocardiogram (MECG) is proposed. This diagnostic measure is based on principal component (PC) multivariate multiscale sample entropy (PMMSE). The PC analysis is used to reduce the dimension of the MECG data matrix. The multivariate multiscale sample entropy is evaluated over the PC matrix. The PMMSE values along each scale are used as a diagnostic feature vector. The performance of the proposed measure is evaluated using a least square support vector machine classifier for detection and classification of normal (healthy control) and different cardiovascular diseases such as cardiomyopathy, cardiac dysrhythmia, hypertrophy and myocardial infarction. The results show that the cardiac diseases are successfully detected and classified with an average accuracy of 90.34%. Comparison with some of the recently published methods shows improved performance of the proposed measure of cardiac disease classification. PMID:26609392

  6. Preferential access to genetic information from endogenous hominin ancient DNA and accurate quantitative SNP-typing via SPEX

    PubMed Central

    Brotherton, Paul; Sanchez, Juan J.; Cooper, Alan; Endicott, Phillip

    2010-01-01

    The analysis of targeted genetic loci from ancient, forensic and clinical samples is usually built upon polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-generated sequence data. However, many studies have shown that PCR amplification from poor-quality DNA templates can create sequence artefacts at significant levels. With hominin (human and other hominid) samples, the pervasive presence of highly PCR-amplifiable human DNA contaminants in the vast majority of samples can lead to the creation of recombinant hybrids and other non-authentic artefacts. The resulting PCR-generated sequences can then be difficult, if not impossible, to authenticate. In contrast, single primer extension (SPEX)-based approaches can genotype single nucleotide polymorphisms from ancient fragments of DNA as accurately as modern DNA. A single SPEX-type assay can amplify just one of the duplex DNA strands at target loci and generate a multi-fold depth-of-coverage, with non-authentic recombinant hybrids reduced to undetectable levels. Crucially, SPEX-type approaches can preferentially access genetic information from damaged and degraded endogenous ancient DNA templates over modern human DNA contaminants. The development of SPEX-type assays offers the potential for highly accurate, quantitative genotyping from ancient hominin samples. PMID:19864251

  7. Aging and social expertise: the impact of trait-diagnostic information on impressions of others.

    PubMed

    Hess, T M; Auman, C

    2001-09-01

    Two studies were conducted to examine the bases for age differences in the construction of social inferences. In each study, adults aged from 20 to 80 years were presented with an impression formation task in which they first read brief behavioral descriptions of fictitious people and then made a trait inference and likability judgment about each person. Results were generally consistent with previous findings in showing that aging was associated with an increase in the weighting of trait-diagnostic information in making trait attributions. In addition, the pattern of age effects was only minimally affected by situational factors that have been known to influence the use of trait-diagnostic information. The findings are interpreted as demonstrating an aging-related increase in social expertise in which knowledge regarding the underlying bases for the behaviors of others has been translated in specific procedural knowledge. PMID:11554526

  8. Non-Gaussian Information-Theoretical Analytics for Diagnostic and Inference of Hydroclimatic Extremes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pires, Carlos A. L.; Perdigão, Rui A. P.

    2016-04-01

    Hydroclimatic spatiotemporal distributions exhibit significant non-Gaussianity with particular emphasis to overweight extremes, rendering their diagnostic and inference suboptimal with traditional statistical techniques. In order to overcome that limitation, we introduce and discuss a set of information-theoretic methodologies for statistical diagnostic and inference issued from exploratory variables of the general atmospheric and oceanic circulation in the cases of non-Gaussian joint probability distributions. Moreover, the nonlinear information among various large-scale ocean-atmospheric processes is explored, bringing out added predictability to elusive weather and hydrologic extremes relative to the current state of the art in nonlinear geophysics. The methodologies are illustrated with the analysis and prediction of resonant ocean-atmospheric thermodynamic anomaly spells underneath high-profile floods and droughts.

  9. Repeated Diagnostic Imaging Studies in Ontario and the Impact of Health Information Exchange Systems.

    PubMed

    Welk, Blayne; Liu, Kuan; Al-Jaishi, Ahmed; McArthur, Eric; Jain, Arsh K; Ordon, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Health information exchange systems can link the results of diagnostic imaging tests across hospitals and geographic areas. One of the potential benefits of these systems is a reduction in imaging studies ordered by physicians who do not know about or have access to the previous imaging results. We used administrative data from Ontario, Canada (from the year 2013), to measure how frequently the same cross-sectional imaging study is repeated in a patient. Overall, 12.8% of the specified imaging tests were repeated within 90 days. An area of Southwestern Ontario with a health information exchange system for diagnostic imaging tests had a 13% lower rate of repeat cross-sectional imaging compared with the rest of the province (11.2 vs 12.8%, p < 0.01). The use of linked radiology systems may be able to reduce the number of repeated imaging tests and improve patient safety and hospital efficiency. PMID:27133604

  10. Aging and social expertise: the impact of trait-diagnostic information on impressions of others.

    PubMed

    Hess, T M; Auman, C

    2001-09-01

    Two studies were conducted to examine the bases for age differences in the construction of social inferences. In each study, adults aged from 20 to 80 years were presented with an impression formation task in which they first read brief behavioral descriptions of fictitious people and then made a trait inference and likability judgment about each person. Results were generally consistent with previous findings in showing that aging was associated with an increase in the weighting of trait-diagnostic information in making trait attributions. In addition, the pattern of age effects was only minimally affected by situational factors that have been known to influence the use of trait-diagnostic information. The findings are interpreted as demonstrating an aging-related increase in social expertise in which knowledge regarding the underlying bases for the behaviors of others has been translated in specific procedural knowledge.

  11. Information Theory and Undersampling Diagnostics for Monte Carlo Simulation of Nuclear Criticality

    SciTech Connect

    Ueki, Taro

    2005-11-15

    The criterion of information-theoretic stationarity diagnostics for the Monte Carlo simulation of nuclear criticality has been extended to undersampling diagnostics. Here, undersampling diagnostics means the posterior checking of the number of neutron histories per cycle. A statistically sound criterion using Shannon and relative entropies is defined based on the inequality with a penalty term for the minimum descriptive length of instantaneously decodable encoding. An alternative criterion based on a large sample property of particle population is defined within the information-theoretic framework of the asymptotic equipartition property and the method of types. An auxiliary criterion is proposed using the concave property of Shannon entropy. Numerical results are presented for the 'k-effective of the world' problem by Whitesides. The results indicate that the estimation bias of the neutron effective multiplication factor will be reduced to a practically negligible level if these criteria are satisfied. It can be concluded that equilibrium is a stronger condition than stationarity concerning the source distribution in the Monte Carlo simulation.

  12. Using complex networks towards information retrieval and diagnostics in multidimensional imaging

    PubMed Central

    Banerjee, Soumya Jyoti; Azharuddin, Mohammad; Sen, Debanjan; Savale, Smruti; Datta, Himadri; Dasgupta, Anjan Kr; Roy, Soumen

    2015-01-01

    We present a fresh and broad yet simple approach towards information retrieval in general and diagnostics in particular by applying the theory of complex networks on multidimensional, dynamic images. We demonstrate a successful use of our method with the time series generated from high content thermal imaging videos of patients suffering from the aqueous deficient dry eye (ADDE) disease. Remarkably, network analyses of thermal imaging time series of contact lens users and patients upon whom Laser-Assisted in situ Keratomileusis (Lasik) surgery has been conducted, exhibit pronounced similarity with results obtained from ADDE patients. We also propose a general framework for the transformation of multidimensional images to networks for futuristic biometry. Our approach is general and scalable to other fluctuation-based devices where network parameters derived from fluctuations, act as effective discriminators and diagnostic markers. PMID:26626047

  13. Using complex networks towards information retrieval and diagnostics in multidimensional imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banerjee, Soumya Jyoti; Azharuddin, Mohammad; Sen, Debanjan; Savale, Smruti; Datta, Himadri; Dasgupta, Anjan Kr; Roy, Soumen

    2015-12-01

    We present a fresh and broad yet simple approach towards information retrieval in general and diagnostics in particular by applying the theory of complex networks on multidimensional, dynamic images. We demonstrate a successful use of our method with the time series generated from high content thermal imaging videos of patients suffering from the aqueous deficient dry eye (ADDE) disease. Remarkably, network analyses of thermal imaging time series of contact lens users and patients upon whom Laser-Assisted in situ Keratomileusis (Lasik) surgery has been conducted, exhibit pronounced similarity with results obtained from ADDE patients. We also propose a general framework for the transformation of multidimensional images to networks for futuristic biometry. Our approach is general and scalable to other fluctuation-based devices where network parameters derived from fluctuations, act as effective discriminators and diagnostic markers.

  14. Using complex networks towards information retrieval and diagnostics in multidimensional imaging.

    PubMed

    Banerjee, Soumya Jyoti; Azharuddin, Mohammad; Sen, Debanjan; Savale, Smruti; Datta, Himadri; Dasgupta, Anjan Kr; Roy, Soumen

    2015-01-01

    We present a fresh and broad yet simple approach towards information retrieval in general and diagnostics in particular by applying the theory of complex networks on multidimensional, dynamic images. We demonstrate a successful use of our method with the time series generated from high content thermal imaging videos of patients suffering from the aqueous deficient dry eye (ADDE) disease. Remarkably, network analyses of thermal imaging time series of contact lens users and patients upon whom Laser-Assisted in situ Keratomileusis (Lasik) surgery has been conducted, exhibit pronounced similarity with results obtained from ADDE patients. We also propose a general framework for the transformation of multidimensional images to networks for futuristic biometry. Our approach is general and scalable to other fluctuation-based devices where network parameters derived from fluctuations, act as effective discriminators and diagnostic markers.

  15. Triggering radiation alarm at security checks. Patients should be informed even after diagnostic nuclear medicine procedures.

    PubMed

    Palumbo, Barbara; Neumann, Irmgard; Havlik, Ernst; Palumbo, Renato; Sinzinger, Helmut

    2009-01-01

    During the last few years an increasing number of nuclear medicine patients in various countries evoked a radiation alarm after therapeutic or diagnostic procedures, and even after passive exposure. A prospective calculation of activity retention in the patient's body is difficult due to extremely high variation of uptake and kinetics. Furthermore, different sensitivities and distances of the detectors make a prospective calculation even more difficult. In this article a number of cases are being reported, related problems are discussed and the surprisingly very limited literature reviewed. In order to minimize problems after eventually triggering alarms, we strongly recommend that each patient receives a certificate providing personal data, tracer, dose, half-life of the radionuclide, type and date of procedure applied as well as the nuclear medicine unit to contact for further information. Furthermore, a closer cooperation and exchange of information between the authorities and local nuclear medicine societies, would be welcome. PMID:19330183

  16. Diagnostic hematology of reptiles.

    PubMed

    Stacy, Nicole I; Alleman, A Rick; Sayler, Katherine A

    2011-03-01

    The hematologic evaluation of reptiles is an indispensable diagnostic tool in exotic veterinary practice. The diversity of reptile species, their characteristic physiologic features, and effects of intrinsic and extrinsic factors present unique challenges for accurate interpretation of the hemogram. Combining the clinical presentation with hematologic findings provides valuable information in the diagnosis and monitoring of disease and helps guide the clinician toward therapy and further diagnostic testing. This article outlines the normal and pathologic morphology of blood cells of reptile species. The specific comparative aspects of reptiles are emphasized, and structural and functional abnormalities in the reptilian hemogram are described.

  17. Pediatric Brain Tumors: Innovative Genomic Information Is Transforming the Diagnostic and Clinical Landscape.

    PubMed

    Gajjar, Amar; Bowers, Daniel C; Karajannis, Matthias A; Leary, Sarah; Witt, Hendrik; Gottardo, Nicholas G

    2015-09-20

    Pediatric neuro-oncology has undergone an exciting and dramatic transformation during the past 5 years. This article summarizes data from collaborative group and institutional trials that have advanced the science of pediatric brain tumors and survival of patients with these tumors. Advanced genomic analysis of the entire spectrum of pediatric brain tumors has heralded an era in which stakeholders in the pediatric neuro-oncology community are being challenged to reconsider their current research and diagnostic and treatment strategies. The incorporation of this new information into the next-generation treatment protocols will unleash new challenges. This review succinctly summarizes the key advances in our understanding of the common pediatric brain tumors (ie, medulloblastoma, low- and high-grade gliomas, diffuse intrinsic pontine glioma, and ependymoma) and some selected rare tumors (ie, atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumor and CNS primitive neuroectodermal tumor). The potential impact of this new information on future clinical protocols also is discussed. Cutting-edge genomics technologies and the information gained from such studies are facilitating the identification of molecularly defined subgroups within patients with particular pediatric brain tumors. The number of evaluable patients in each subgroup is small, particularly in the subgroups of rare diseases. Therefore, international collaboration will be crucial to draw meaningful conclusions about novel approaches to treating pediatric brain tumors.

  18. Pediatric Brain Tumors: Innovative Genomic Information Is Transforming the Diagnostic and Clinical Landscape.

    PubMed

    Gajjar, Amar; Bowers, Daniel C; Karajannis, Matthias A; Leary, Sarah; Witt, Hendrik; Gottardo, Nicholas G

    2015-09-20

    Pediatric neuro-oncology has undergone an exciting and dramatic transformation during the past 5 years. This article summarizes data from collaborative group and institutional trials that have advanced the science of pediatric brain tumors and survival of patients with these tumors. Advanced genomic analysis of the entire spectrum of pediatric brain tumors has heralded an era in which stakeholders in the pediatric neuro-oncology community are being challenged to reconsider their current research and diagnostic and treatment strategies. The incorporation of this new information into the next-generation treatment protocols will unleash new challenges. This review succinctly summarizes the key advances in our understanding of the common pediatric brain tumors (ie, medulloblastoma, low- and high-grade gliomas, diffuse intrinsic pontine glioma, and ependymoma) and some selected rare tumors (ie, atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumor and CNS primitive neuroectodermal tumor). The potential impact of this new information on future clinical protocols also is discussed. Cutting-edge genomics technologies and the information gained from such studies are facilitating the identification of molecularly defined subgroups within patients with particular pediatric brain tumors. The number of evaluable patients in each subgroup is small, particularly in the subgroups of rare diseases. Therefore, international collaboration will be crucial to draw meaningful conclusions about novel approaches to treating pediatric brain tumors. PMID:26304884

  19. Molecular Diagnostics

    PubMed Central

    Choe, Hyonmin; Deirmengian, Carl A.; Hickok, Noreen J.; Morrison, Tiffany N.; Tuan, Rocky S.

    2015-01-01

    Orthopaedic infections are complex conditions that require immediate diagnosis and accurate identification of the causative organisms to facilitate appropriate management. Conventional methodologies for diagnosis of these infections sometimes lack accuracy or sufficient rapidity. Current molecular diagnostics are an emerging area of bench-to-bedside research in orthopaedic infections. Examples of promising molecular diagnostics include measurement of a specific biomarker in the synovial fluid, polymerase chain reaction–based detection of bacterial genes, and metabolomic determination of responses to orthopaedic infection. PMID:25808967

  20. Effects of Diagnostic Label and Disease Information on Emotions, Beliefs, and Willingness to Help Older Parents with Osteoarthritis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Kali S.; McIlvane, Jessica M.; Haley, William E.

    2012-01-01

    We studied the impact of the diagnostic label of osteoarthritis and educational information on family members' attributions, perceptions, and willingness to help older parents with pain. Undergraduate students (N = 636) were randomly assigned to one of three conditions where they read vignettes about an older mother with chronic pain, which varied…

  1. Integrating Research-Informed Teaching within an Undergraduate Level 4 (Year 1) Diagnostic Radiography Curriculum: A Pilot Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Higgins, Robert; Hogg, Peter; Robinson, Leslie

    2013-01-01

    This article discusses the piloting and evaluation of the Research-informed Teaching experience (RiTe) project. The aim of RiTe was to link teaching and learning with research within an undergraduate diagnostic radiography curriculum. A preliminary pilot study of RiTe was undertaken with a group of level 4 (year 1) volunteer BSc (Hons) diagnostic…

  2. The role of cognitive switching in head-up displays. [to determine pilot ability to accurately extract information from either of two sources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fischer, E.

    1979-01-01

    The pilot's ability to accurately extract information from either one or both of two superimposed sources of information was determined. Static, aerial, color 35 mm slides of external runway environments and slides of corresponding static head-up display (HUD) symbology were used as the sources. A three channel tachistoscope was utilized to show either the HUD alone, the scene alone, or the two slides superimposed. Cognitive performance of the pilots was assessed by determining the percentage of correct answers given to two HUD related questions, two scene related questions, or one HUD and one scene related question.

  3. Investigating the relationship between nanomaterial hazard and physicochemical properties: Informing the exploitation of nanomaterials within therapeutic and diagnostic applications.

    PubMed

    Johnston, Helinor; Brown, David; Kermanizadeh, Ali; Gubbins, Eva; Stone, Vicki

    2012-12-28

    determined by the route of entry and physico-chemical properties of the NM. This information can be exploited within the intelligent design of NMs in the future (e.g. to control protein adsorption and the subsequent cellular response), and be used to improve the design of toxicology investigations (e.g. to inform how NMs should be dispersed within in vitro experiments to more accurately reflect in vivo conditions).

  4. Assignment of Calibration Information to Deeper Phylogenetic Nodes is More Effective in Obtaining Precise and Accurate Divergence Time Estimates.

    PubMed

    Mello, Beatriz; Schrago, Carlos G

    2014-01-01

    Divergence time estimation has become an essential tool for understanding macroevolutionary events. Molecular dating aims to obtain reliable inferences, which, within a statistical framework, means jointly increasing the accuracy and precision of estimates. Bayesian dating methods exhibit the propriety of a linear relationship between uncertainty and estimated divergence dates. This relationship occurs even if the number of sites approaches infinity and places a limit on the maximum precision of node ages. However, how the placement of calibration information may affect the precision of divergence time estimates remains an open question. In this study, relying on simulated and empirical data, we investigated how the location of calibration within a phylogeny affects the accuracy and precision of time estimates. We found that calibration priors set at median and deep phylogenetic nodes were associated with higher precision values compared to analyses involving calibration at the shallowest node. The results were independent of the tree symmetry. An empirical mammalian dataset produced results that were consistent with those generated by the simulated sequences. Assigning time information to the deeper nodes of a tree is crucial to guarantee the accuracy and precision of divergence times. This finding highlights the importance of the appropriate choice of outgroups in molecular dating. PMID:24855333

  5. Performance assessment and adoption processes of an information monitoring and diagnostic system prototype

    SciTech Connect

    Piette, Mary Ann

    1999-10-01

    This report addresses the problem that buildings do not perform as well as anticipated during design. We partnered with an innovative building operator to evaluate a prototype Information Monitoring and Diagnostic System (IMDS). The IMDS consists of high-quality measurements archived each minute, a data visualization tool, and a web-based capability. The operators recommend similar technology be adopted in other buildings. The IMDS has been used to identify and correct a series of control problems. It has also allowed the operators to make more effective use of the building control system, freeing up time to take care of other tenant needs. They believe they have significantly improved building comfort, potentially improving tenant health, and productivity. The reduction in hours to operate the building are worth about $20,000 per year, which could pay for the IMDS in about five years. A control system retrofit based on findings from the IMDS is expected to reduce energy use by 20 percent over the next year, worth over $30,000 per year. The main conclusion of the model-based chiller fault detection work is that steady-state models can be used as reference models to monitor chiller operation and detect faults. The ability of the IMDS to measure cooling load and chiller power to one-percent accuracy with a one-minute sampling interval permits detection of additional faults. Evolutionary programming techniques were also evaluated, showing promise in the detection of patterns in building data. We also evaluated two technology adoption processes, radical and routine. In routine adoption, managers enhance features of existing products that are already well understood. In radical adoption, innovative building managers introduce novel technology into their organizations without using the rigorous payback criteria used in routine innovations.

  6. Reflecting on Earlier Experiences with Unsolicited Findings: Points to Consider for Next-Generation Sequencing and Informed Consent in Diagnostics

    PubMed Central

    Rigter, Tessel; Henneman, Lidewij; Kristoffersson, Ulf; Hall, Alison; Yntema, Helger G; Borry, Pascal; Tönnies, Holger; Waisfisz, Quinten; Elting, Mariet W; Dondorp, Wybo J; Cornel, Martina C

    2013-01-01

    High-throughput nucleotide sequencing (often referred to as next-generation sequencing; NGS) is increasingly being chosen as a diagnostic tool for cases of expected but unresolved genetic origin. When exploring a higher number of genetic variants, there is a higher chance of detecting unsolicited findings. The consequential increased need for decisions on disclosure of these unsolicited findings poses a challenge for the informed consent procedure. This article discusses the ethical and practical dilemmas encountered when contemplating informed consent for NGS in diagnostics from a multidisciplinary point of view. By exploring recent similar experiences with unsolicited findings in other settings, an attempt is made to describe what can be learned so far for implementing NGS in standard genetic diagnostics. The article concludes with a set of points to consider in order to guide decision-making on the extent of return of results in relation to the mode of informed consent. We hereby aim to provide a sound basis for developing guidelines for optimizing the informed consent procedure. PMID:23784691

  7. Reflecting on earlier experiences with unsolicited findings: points to consider for next-generation sequencing and informed consent in diagnostics.

    PubMed

    Rigter, Tessel; Henneman, Lidewij; Kristoffersson, Ulf; Hall, Alison; Yntema, Helger G; Borry, Pascal; Tönnies, Holger; Waisfisz, Quinten; Elting, Mariet W; Dondorp, Wybo J; Cornel, Martina C

    2013-10-01

    High-throughput nucleotide sequencing (often referred to as next-generation sequencing; NGS) is increasingly being chosen as a diagnostic tool for cases of expected but unresolved genetic origin. When exploring a higher number of genetic variants, there is a higher chance of detecting unsolicited findings. The consequential increased need for decisions on disclosure of these unsolicited findings poses a challenge for the informed consent procedure. This article discusses the ethical and practical dilemmas encountered when contemplating informed consent for NGS in diagnostics from a multidisciplinary point of view. By exploring recent similar experiences with unsolicited findings in other settings, an attempt is made to describe what can be learned so far for implementing NGS in standard genetic diagnostics. The article concludes with a set of points to consider in order to guide decision-making on the extent of return of results in relation to the mode of informed consent. We hereby aim to provide a sound basis for developing guidelines for optimizing the informed consent procedure.

  8. The Lunar Laser Ranging Experiment: Accurate ranges have given a large improvement in the lunar orbit and new selenophysical information.

    PubMed

    Bender, P L; Currie, D G; Poultney, S K; Alley, C O; Dicke, R H; Wilkinson, D T; Eckhardt, D H; Faller, J E; Kaula, W M; Mulholland, J D; Plotkin, H H; Silverberg, E C; Williams, J G

    1973-10-19

    The lunar ranging measurements now being made at the McDonald Observatory have an accuracy of 1 nsec in round-trip travel time. This corresponds to 15 cm in the one-way distance. The use of lasers with pulse-lengths of less than 1 nsec is expected to give an accuracy of 2 to 3 cm in the next few years. A new station is under construction in Hawaii, and additional stations in other countries are either in operation or under development. It is hoped that these stations will form the basis for a worldwide network to determine polar motion and earth rotation on a regular basis, and will assist in providing information about movement of the tectonic plates making up the earth's surface. Several mobile lunar ranging stations with telescopes having diameters of 1.0 m or less could, in the future, greatly extend the information obtainable about motions within and between the tectonic plates. The data obtained so far by the McDonald Observatory have been used to generate a new lunar ephemeris based on direct numerical integration of the equations of motion for the moon and planets. With this ephemeris, the range to the three Apollo retro-reflectors can be fit to an accuracy of 5 m by adjusting the differences in moments of inertia of the moon about its principal axes, the selenocentric coordinates of the reflectors, and the McDonald longitude. The accuracy of fitting the results is limited currently by errors of the order of an arc second in the angular orientation of the moon, as derived from the best available theory of how the moon rotates in response to the torques acting on it. Both a new calculation of the moon's orientation as a function of time based on direct numerical integration of the torque equations and a new analytic theory of the moon's orientation are expected to be available soon, and to improve considerably the accuracy of fitting the data. The accuracy already achieved routinely in lunar laser ranging represents a hundredfold improvement over any

  9. The Lunar Laser Ranging Experiment: Accurate ranges have given a large improvement in the lunar orbit and new selenophysical information.

    PubMed

    Bender, P L; Currie, D G; Poultney, S K; Alley, C O; Dicke, R H; Wilkinson, D T; Eckhardt, D H; Faller, J E; Kaula, W M; Mulholland, J D; Plotkin, H H; Silverberg, E C; Williams, J G

    1973-10-19

    The lunar ranging measurements now being made at the McDonald Observatory have an accuracy of 1 nsec in round-trip travel time. This corresponds to 15 cm in the one-way distance. The use of lasers with pulse-lengths of less than 1 nsec is expected to give an accuracy of 2 to 3 cm in the next few years. A new station is under construction in Hawaii, and additional stations in other countries are either in operation or under development. It is hoped that these stations will form the basis for a worldwide network to determine polar motion and earth rotation on a regular basis, and will assist in providing information about movement of the tectonic plates making up the earth's surface. Several mobile lunar ranging stations with telescopes having diameters of 1.0 m or less could, in the future, greatly extend the information obtainable about motions within and between the tectonic plates. The data obtained so far by the McDonald Observatory have been used to generate a new lunar ephemeris based on direct numerical integration of the equations of motion for the moon and planets. With this ephemeris, the range to the three Apollo retro-reflectors can be fit to an accuracy of 5 m by adjusting the differences in moments of inertia of the moon about its principal axes, the selenocentric coordinates of the reflectors, and the McDonald longitude. The accuracy of fitting the results is limited currently by errors of the order of an arc second in the angular orientation of the moon, as derived from the best available theory of how the moon rotates in response to the torques acting on it. Both a new calculation of the moon's orientation as a function of time based on direct numerical integration of the torque equations and a new analytic theory of the moon's orientation are expected to be available soon, and to improve considerably the accuracy of fitting the data. The accuracy already achieved routinely in lunar laser ranging represents a hundredfold improvement over any

  10. Subjective sense of memory strength and the objective amount of information accurately remembered are related to distinct neural correlates at encoding.

    PubMed

    Qin, Shaozheng; van Marle, Hein J F; Hermans, Erno J; Fernández, Guillén

    2011-06-15

    Although commonly used, the term memory strength is not well defined in humans. Besides durability, it has been conceptualized by retrieval characteristics, such as subjective confidence associated with retrieval, or objectively, by the amount of information accurately retrieved. Behaviorally, these measures are not necessarily correlated, indicating that distinct neural processes may underlie them. Thus, we aimed at disentangling neural activity at encoding associated with either a subsequent subjective sense of memory strength or with a subsequent objective amount of information remembered. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), participants were scanned while incidentally encoding a series of photographs of complex scenes. The next day, they underwent two memory tests, quantifying memory strength either subjectively (confidence on remembering the gist of a scene) or objectively (the number of details accurately remembered within a scene). Correlations between these measurements were mutually partialed out in subsequent memory analyses of fMRI data. Results revealed that activation in left ventral lateral prefrontal cortex and temporoparietal junction predicted subsequent confidence ratings. In contrast, parahippocampal and hippocampal activity predicted the number of details remembered. Our findings suggest that memory strength may reflect a functionally heterogeneous set of (at least two) phenomena. One phenomenon appears related to prefrontal and temporoparietal top-down modulations, resulting in the subjective sense of memory strength that is potentially based on gist memory. The other phenomenon is likely related to medial-temporal binding processes, determining the amount of information accurately encoded into memory. Thus, our study dissociated two distinct phenomena that are usually described as memory strength.

  11. Development and implementation of an expert information system (BRITE) used in technical support of medical diagnostics customers.

    PubMed

    Hopkins, T; Advani, R; Gudmunson, G

    1995-09-01

    We developed BRITE (Bringing Resources and Information to Employees), an expert information retrieval system, for problem solving and retrieving technical product information. Specialists in our Technical Assistance Center (TAC) use the BRITE system on a Pentium workstation to access information in < 3 s. Manuals, technical bulletins, parts lists, and administrative tools such as word processing and network fax are available electronically. The system allows consistent troubleshooting and definition of customers' problems by TAC specialists. BRITE seamlessly integrates expert system, document retrieval, and relational database technologies; the system runs on a token ring local area network, which is part of a Ciba Corning Diagnostics wide area network. Information received over the wide area network is used to develop and update BRITE daily. BRITE is kept current by input or troubleshooting and new applications from TAC specialists.

  12. Intelligent Information Retrieval: Diagnosing Information Need. Part II. Uncertainty Expansion in a Prototype of a Diagnostic IR Tool.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cole, Charles; Cantero, Pablo; Sauve, Diane

    1998-01-01

    Outlines a prototype of an intelligent information-retrieval tool to facilitate information access for an undergraduate seeking information for a term paper. Topics include diagnosing the information need, Kuhlthau's information-search-process model, Shannon's mathematical theory of communication, and principles of uncertainty expansion and…

  13. Mutual Information Item Selection Method in Cognitive Diagnostic Computerized Adaptive Testing with Short Test Length

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Chun

    2013-01-01

    Cognitive diagnostic computerized adaptive testing (CD-CAT) purports to combine the strengths of both CAT and cognitive diagnosis. Cognitive diagnosis models aim at classifying examinees into the correct mastery profile group so as to pinpoint the strengths and weakness of each examinee whereas CAT algorithms choose items to determine those…

  14. 76 FR 77834 - Scientific Information Request on Intravascular Diagnostic and Imaging Medical Devices

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-14

    ... versus Angiography Alone, which is currently being conducted by the Evidence-based Practice Centers for... procedures and imaging techniques versus angiography alone. The EHC Program is dedicated to identifying as... compared to angiography alone--on the diagnostic thinking and therapeutic decision making,...

  15. 76 FR 2144 - Quest Diagnostics, Inc. Information Technology Help Desk Services Including On-Site Leased...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-12

    ... Including On-Site Leased Workers From Modis, West Norriton, PA; Amended Certification Regarding Eligibility... certification for workers of the subject firm. The company reports that workers leased from Modis were employed... leased from Modis working on-site at the West Norriton, Pennsylvania location of Quest Diagnostics,...

  16. Vision-based building energy diagnostics and retrofit analysis using 3D thermography and building information modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ham, Youngjib

    The emerging energy crisis in the building sector and the legislative measures on improving energy efficiency are steering the construction industry towards adopting new energy efficient design concepts and construction methods that decrease the overall energy loads. However, the problems of energy efficiency are not only limited to the design and construction of new buildings. Today, a significant amount of input energy in existing buildings is still being wasted during the operational phase. One primary source of the energy waste is attributed to unnecessary heat flows through building envelopes during hot and cold seasons. This inefficiency increases the operational frequency of heating and cooling systems to keep the desired thermal comfort of building occupants, and ultimately results in excessive energy use. Improving thermal performance of building envelopes can reduce the energy consumption required for space conditioning and in turn provide building occupants with an optimal thermal comfort at a lower energy cost. In this sense, energy diagnostics and retrofit analysis for existing building envelopes are key enablers for improving energy efficiency. Since proper retrofit decisions of existing buildings directly translate into energy cost saving in the future, building practitioners are increasingly interested in methods for reliable identification of potential performance problems so that they can take timely corrective actions. However, sensing what and where energy problems are emerging or are likely to emerge and then analyzing how the problems influence the energy consumption are not trivial tasks. The overarching goal of this dissertation focuses on understanding the gaps in knowledge in methods for building energy diagnostics and retrofit analysis, and filling these gaps by devising a new method for multi-modal visual sensing and analytics using thermography and Building Information Modeling (BIM). First, to address the challenges in scaling and

  17. Argon Cluster Sputtering Source for ToF-SIMS Depth Profiling of Insulating Materials: High Sputter Rate and Accurate Interfacial Information.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhaoying; Liu, Bingwen; Zhao, Evan W; Jin, Ke; Du, Yingge; Neeway, James J; Ryan, Joseph V; Hu, Dehong; Zhang, Kelvin H L; Hong, Mina; Le Guernic, Solenne; Thevuthasan, Suntharampilai; Wang, Fuyi; Zhu, Zihua

    2015-08-01

    The use of an argon cluster ion sputtering source has been demonstrated to perform superiorly relative to traditional oxygen and cesium ion sputtering sources for ToF-SIMS depth profiling of insulating materials. The superior performance has been attributed to effective alleviation of surface charging. A simulated nuclear waste glass (SON68) and layered hole-perovskite oxide thin films were selected as model systems because of their fundamental and practical significance. Our results show that high sputter rates and accurate interfacial information can be achieved simultaneously for argon cluster sputtering, whereas this is not the case for cesium and oxygen sputtering. Therefore, the implementation of an argon cluster sputtering source can significantly improve the analysis efficiency of insulating materials and, thus, can expand its applications to the study of glass corrosion, perovskite oxide thin film characterization, and many other systems of interest.

  18. Evaluating a counselling strategy for diagnostic WES in paediatric neurology: an exploration of parents' information and communication needs.

    PubMed

    Krabbenborg, L; Schieving, J; Kleefstra, T; Vissers, L E L M; Willemsen, M A; Veltman, J A; van der Burg, S

    2016-02-01

    As whole exome sequencing (WES) is just starting to be used as a diagnostic tool in paediatric neurology for children with a neurological disorder, and patient experiences and preferences with regard to counselling are relatively underexplored. This article explores experiences and preferences of parents with pre-test and post-test counselling in a trial that uses WES for diagnostics. Second, it maps information and communication needs which exceed the counselling protocol, in order to acquire insight into how it can be improved. Data were gathered through in-depth interviews with parents of 15 children who were included in the trial. Information and communication needs of parents differed from the protocol with respect to (i) the type and amount of information provided about WES research, (ii) incidental findings, (iii) communication about progress of the study, and (iv) the communication of the results. Furthermore, parents preferred to have more of a communicative exchange with health care providers about their daily struggles and concerns related to their life with a diseased child and wanted to know how a diagnosis could offer help. There are different ways to meet parental needs, but we suggest that assigning a case manager might be a helpful option that deserves further exploration.

  19. [Development and optimization of diagnostically informative boichemical and coagulative correlators in various atherosclerotic lesions of carotid arteries].

    PubMed

    Akhvlediani, M; Vorobiova, E; Emukhvari, M; Gachechiladze, D

    2014-12-01

    Diagnostically informative biochemical and coagulative correlators in various atherosclerotic lesions of carotid arteries are developed. It has been established positive correlation of the degree of stenosis and intima-media thickness of carotid arteries with the following biochemical parameters: total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, Apo-B, Lp(a), triglycerides, hs-C-reactive protein(CRP), interleukines (IL-1ß and IL-6), fibrinogen, D-dimers. Negative correlation was stated with respect to HDL cholesterol, Apo-A-1, protein C. The established correlators of carotid intima-medial layer and the studied laboratory indices favour their inclusion into carotid atherosclerosis monitoring.

  20. Rapid infectious diseases diagnostics using Smartphones

    PubMed Central

    Bates, Matthew

    2015-01-01

    The “Smartphone” is an almost universal possession in high-income populations, and is rapidly becoming so in lower-income regions, particularly among urban populations, and serves social networking and a quest for information and knowledge. The field of infectious disease diagnostics is at a potential watershed moment, with the essential building blocks for the development of diagnostic assays being ever more available and affordable, which is leading to creative innovative approaches to developing much-needed accurate and simple point-of-care (POC) diagnostic tools for high disease burden, low-income settings. We review the importance and implications of a paper published in Science Translational Medicine on the development of a smartphone-powered and -controlled multiplex immunological assay that tests for HIV and syphilis simultaneously. This is reviewed in the context of other prototype smartphone-enabled/assisted diagnostic devices, and how such developments might shape the future of the POC diagnostics field. PMID:26488011

  1. Assessing the diagnostic information in the response patterns of a temperature-modulated tin oxide gas sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hosseini-Golgoo, S. M.; Hossein-Babaei, F.

    2011-03-01

    The transient response patterns of a tin oxide chemoresistive gas sensor, temperature-modulated by the application of staircase voltage waveforms to its microheater, to five different volatile organic compounds were compared with respect to their target gas discriminating features. These patterns were divided into a number of segments, each corresponding to a temperature transition at the surface of the tin oxide pallet. The effectiveness of the gas discriminating information content of each segment was quantitatively assessed utilizing Fisher's discriminant ratio calculations in a 3D feature space. It was established that the amount of the useful information in a response segment depended on the corresponding temperature transition; larger pallet temperature transitions rendered more diagnostic information. Similar assessments were carried out for the different combinations of these segments. The results facilitated, for the first time, a comparative analysis of the levels of the correlated (redundant) and uncorrelated information in the different response segments. It was shown that the response segments occurring at or near the nominal operating temperature of the sensor contained most of the effective information, while those at low temperatures contained mostly the redundant or indiscriminative information. The results help minimize the temperature modulation duration required for gas recognition.

  2. IrisPlex: a sensitive DNA tool for accurate prediction of blue and brown eye colour in the absence of ancestry information.

    PubMed

    Walsh, Susan; Liu, Fan; Ballantyne, Kaye N; van Oven, Mannis; Lao, Oscar; Kayser, Manfred

    2011-06-01

    A new era of 'DNA intelligence' is arriving in forensic biology, due to the impending ability to predict externally visible characteristics (EVCs) from biological material such as those found at crime scenes. EVC prediction from forensic samples, or from body parts, is expected to help concentrate police investigations towards finding unknown individuals, at times when conventional DNA profiling fails to provide informative leads. Here we present a robust and sensitive tool, termed IrisPlex, for the accurate prediction of blue and brown eye colour from DNA in future forensic applications. We used the six currently most eye colour-informative single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) that previously revealed prevalence-adjusted prediction accuracies of over 90% for blue and brown eye colour in 6168 Dutch Europeans. The single multiplex assay, based on SNaPshot chemistry and capillary electrophoresis, both widely used in forensic laboratories, displays high levels of genotyping sensitivity with complete profiles generated from as little as 31pg of DNA, approximately six human diploid cell equivalents. We also present a prediction model to correctly classify an individual's eye colour, via probability estimation solely based on DNA data, and illustrate the accuracy of the developed prediction test on 40 individuals from various geographic origins. Moreover, we obtained insights into the worldwide allele distribution of these six SNPs using the HGDP-CEPH samples of 51 populations. Eye colour prediction analyses from HGDP-CEPH samples provide evidence that the test and model presented here perform reliably without prior ancestry information, although future worldwide genotype and phenotype data shall confirm this notion. As our IrisPlex eye colour prediction test is capable of immediate implementation in forensic casework, it represents one of the first steps forward in the creation of a fully individualised EVC prediction system for future use in forensic DNA intelligence.

  3. Mean platelet volume provides beneficial diagnostic and prognostic information for patients with resectable gastric cancer

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Xiao-Ming; Xia, You-You; Lian, Lian; Zhou, Chong; Li, Xiang-Li; Han, Shu-Guang; Zheng, Yan; Gong, Fei-Ran; Tao, Min; Mao, Zhong-Qi; Li, Wei

    2016-01-01

    Gastric cancer is the fourth most frequent cancer and the second cause of cancer-related mortalities worldwide. Platelets play an important and multifaceted role in cancer progression. Elevated mean platelet volume (MPV) detected in peripheral blood has been identified in various types of cancer. In the present study, we investigated the application value of MPV in early diagnostic and prognostic prediction in patients with resectable gastric cancer. In total, 168 patients with resectable gastric cancer were included and separated into the gastric cancer and healthy control groups according to median pre-operatic MPV value (MPV low, <10.51 or MPV high, ≥10.51). The results showed that the pre-operatic MPV level was significantly higher in gastric cancer patients compared with the healthy subjects. Low pre-operatic MPV level correlated with improved clinicopathological features, including decreased depth of invasion, less lymphonodus metastasis and early tumor stage. The Kaplan-Meier plots showed that the patients with higher pre-operatic MPV had decreased overall survival (OS) and disease-free survival (DFS). Surgical tumor resection resulted in a significant decrease in the MPV level. The patients whose MPV level decreased following surgery had an improved OS. Multivariate Cox regression analysis revealed that the depth of invasion, lymphonodus metastasis, American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC) stage, and changes in MPV following surgery were prognostic factors affecting OS, and the AJCC stage and pre-operatic MPV were prognostic factors affecting DFS. In conclusion, MPV measurement can provide important diagnostic and prognostic results in patients with resectable gastric cancer. PMID:27703523

  4. Implicit and explicit prior information in near-infrared spectral imaging: accuracy, quantification and diagnostic value

    PubMed Central

    Pogue, Brian W.; Davis, Scott C.; Leblond, Frederic; Mastanduno, Michael A.; Dehghani, Hamid; Paulsen, Keith D.

    2011-01-01

    Near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) of tissue provides quantification of absorbers, scattering and luminescent agents in bulk tissue through the use of measurement data and assumptions. Prior knowledge can be critical about things such as (i) the tissue shape and/or structure, (ii) spectral constituents, (iii) limits on parameters, (iv) demographic or biomarker data, and (v) biophysical models of the temporal signal shapes. A general framework of NIRS imaging with prior information is presented, showing that prior information datasets could be incorporated at any step in the NIRS process, with the general workflow being: (i) data acquisition, (ii) pre-processing, (iii) forward model, (iv) inversion/reconstruction, (v) post-processing, and (vi) interpretation/diagnosis. Most of the development in NIRS has used ad hoc or empirical implementations of prior information such as pre-measured absorber or fluorophore spectra, or tissue shapes as estimated by additional imaging tools. A comprehensive analysis would examine what prior information maximizes the accuracy in recovery and value for medical diagnosis, when implemented at separate stages of the NIRS sequence. Individual applications of prior information can show increases in accuracy or improved ability to estimate biochemical features of tissue, while other approaches may not. Most beneficial inclusion of prior information has been in the inversion/reconstruction process, because it solves the mathematical intractability. However, it is not clear that this is always the most beneficial stage. PMID:22006905

  5. Effective extraction of diagnostic ECG waveform information using orthonormal basis functions derived from body surface potential maps.

    PubMed

    Kornreich, F; Rautaharju, P M; Warren, J W; Horacek, B M; Dramaix, M

    1985-10-01

    A common basis of orthogonal waveform functions was derived from 128 lead body surface potential maps of 405 subjects. Twelve such orthogonal functions or frames were adequate for reconstruction of original ECGs from the beginning of QRS to the end of T. A larger number of frames (18) was required when basis functions were derived separately for QRS (10) and ST-T segments (8). Diagnostic information content of the coefficients of the orthogonal basis functions was evaluated in comparison with Minnesota Code criteria for myocardial infarction and with a more advanced multivariate ECG analysis program (Pipberger Program). This was done by deriving a linear discriminant function for separating normals from ECGs of patients with myocardial infarction and testing the discriminant in a different test population of infarcts and normals. The diagnostic accuracy of orthogonal basis functions was as good as that of Pipberger's program and considerably better than that of the Minnesota Code. The classification method described is insensitive to noise and errors in detecting QRS and T wave onsets and offsets or in selecting proper baseline for amplitude measurements. The robustness and enhanced classification stability with respect to noise and minor wave detection errors is a potential advantage particularly in serial ECG comparison.

  6. Diagnostics in Japan's microgravity experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kadota, Toshikazu

    1995-01-01

    The achievement of the combustion research under microgravity depends substantially on the availability of diagnostic systems. The non-intrusive diagnostic systems are potentially applicable for providing the accurate, realistic and detailed information on momentum, mass and energy transport, complex gas phase chemistry, and phase change in the combustion field under microgravity. The non-intrusive nature of optical instruments is essential to the measurement of combustion process under microgravity which is very nervous to any perturbation. However, the implementation of the non-intrusive combustion diagnostic systems under microgravity is accompanied by several constraints. Usually, a very limited space is only available for constructing a highly sophisticated system which is so sensitive that it is easily affected by the magnitude of the gravitational force, vibration and heterogeneous field of temperature and density of the environments. The system should be properly adjusted prior to the experiment. Generally, it is quite difficult to tune the instruments during measurements. The programmed sequence of operation should also be provided. Extensive effort has been toward the development of non-intrusive diagnostic systems available for the combustion experiments under microgravity. This paper aims to describe the current art and the future strategy on the non-intrusive diagnostic systems potentially applicable to the combustion experiments under microgravity in Japan.

  7. Assessment of coyote-wolf-dog admixture using ancestry-informative diagnostic SNPs.

    PubMed

    Monzón, J; Kays, R; Dykhuizen, D E

    2014-01-01

    The evolutionary importance of hybridization as a source of new adaptive genetic variation is rapidly gaining recognition. Hybridization between coyotes and wolves may have introduced adaptive alleles into the coyote gene pool that facilitated an expansion in their geographic range and dietary niche. Furthermore, hybridization between coyotes and domestic dogs may facilitate adaptation to human-dominated environments. We genotyped 63 ancestry-informative single-nucleotide polymorphisms in 427 canids to examine the prevalence, spatial distribution and the ecology of admixture in eastern coyotes. Using multivariate methods and Bayesian clustering analyses, we estimated the relative contributions of western coyotes, western and eastern wolves, and domestic dogs to the admixed ancestry of Ohio and eastern coyotes. We found that eastern coyotes form an extensive hybrid swarm, with all our samples having varying levels of admixture. Ohio coyotes, previously thought to be free of admixture, are also highly admixed with wolves and dogs. Coyotes in areas of high deer density are genetically more wolf-like, suggesting that natural selection for wolf-like traits may result in local adaptation at a fine geographic scale. Our results, in light of other previously published studies of admixture in Canis, revealed a pattern of sex-biased hybridization, presumably generated by male wolves and dogs mating with female coyotes. This study is the most comprehensive genetic survey of admixture in eastern coyotes and demonstrates that the frequency and scope of hybridization can be quantified with relatively few ancestry-informative markers. PMID:24148003

  8. Assessment of coyote-wolf-dog admixture using ancestry-informative diagnostic SNPs

    PubMed Central

    Monzón, J.; Kays, R.; Dykhuizen, D. E.

    2014-01-01

    The evolutionary importance of hybridization as a source of new adaptive genetic variation is rapidly gaining recognition. Hybridization between coyotes and wolves may have introduced adaptive alleles into the coyote gene pool that facilitated an expansion in their geographic range and dietary niche. Furthermore, hybridization between coyotes and domestic dogs may facilitate adaptation to human-dominated environments. We genotyped 63 ancestry-informative single nucleotide polymorphisms in 427 canids in order to examine the prevalence, spatial distribution, and ecology of admixture in eastern coyotes. Using multivariate methods and Bayesian clustering analyses, we estimated the relative contributions of western coyotes, western and eastern wolves, and domestic dogs to the admixed ancestry of Ohio and eastern coyotes. We found that eastern coyotes form an extensive hybrid swarm, with all our samples having varying levels of admixture. Ohio coyotes, previously thought to be free of admixture, are also highly admixed with wolves and dogs. Coyotes in areas of high deer density are genetically more wolf-like, suggesting that natural selection for wolf-like traits may result in local adaptation at a fine geographic scale. Our results, in light of other previously published studies of admixture in Canis, reveal a pattern of sex-biased hybridization, presumably generated by male wolves and dogs mating with female coyotes. This study is the most comprehensive genetic survey of admixture in eastern coyotes and demonstrates that the frequency and scope of hybridization can be quantified with relatively few ancestry-informative markers. PMID:24148003

  9. Assessment of coyote-wolf-dog admixture using ancestry-informative diagnostic SNPs.

    PubMed

    Monzón, J; Kays, R; Dykhuizen, D E

    2014-01-01

    The evolutionary importance of hybridization as a source of new adaptive genetic variation is rapidly gaining recognition. Hybridization between coyotes and wolves may have introduced adaptive alleles into the coyote gene pool that facilitated an expansion in their geographic range and dietary niche. Furthermore, hybridization between coyotes and domestic dogs may facilitate adaptation to human-dominated environments. We genotyped 63 ancestry-informative single-nucleotide polymorphisms in 427 canids to examine the prevalence, spatial distribution and the ecology of admixture in eastern coyotes. Using multivariate methods and Bayesian clustering analyses, we estimated the relative contributions of western coyotes, western and eastern wolves, and domestic dogs to the admixed ancestry of Ohio and eastern coyotes. We found that eastern coyotes form an extensive hybrid swarm, with all our samples having varying levels of admixture. Ohio coyotes, previously thought to be free of admixture, are also highly admixed with wolves and dogs. Coyotes in areas of high deer density are genetically more wolf-like, suggesting that natural selection for wolf-like traits may result in local adaptation at a fine geographic scale. Our results, in light of other previously published studies of admixture in Canis, revealed a pattern of sex-biased hybridization, presumably generated by male wolves and dogs mating with female coyotes. This study is the most comprehensive genetic survey of admixture in eastern coyotes and demonstrates that the frequency and scope of hybridization can be quantified with relatively few ancestry-informative markers.

  10. Point-of-care platforms for salivary diagnostics.

    PubMed

    Wei, Fang; Wong, David T W

    2012-01-01

    Saliva reflects the physiologic state of the body, including emotional, endocrinal, nutritional and metabolic variations, and so can be used to monitor both oral and systemic health. In the past decade, salivary diagnostic approaches have been developed to monitor oral and systemic diseases. Along with these exciting scientific advancements, there is an emerging need to move salivary diagnostics out of the lab and into clinical practice. Point-of-care (POC) technologies specifically developed for salivary diagnostics can provide rapid, simple, low-cost and accurate measurements directly from saliva. To further transform salivary diagnostics into clinical reality, an integrated platform-based POC application is necessary, which includes sample processing, detection, a user-friendly interface and medical information technology. This review presents the requirements for POC platforms in salivary diagnostics and describes current applications of POC platforms for monitoring medical conditions using saliva. By advancing POC platforms for salivary diagnostics, dentists are anticipated to engage in chairside screening of medical conditions.

  11. Presentation of Diagnostic Information to Doctors May Change Their Interpretation and Clinical Management: A Web-Based Randomised Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Ben-Shlomo, Yoav; Collin, Simon M.; Quekett, James; Sterne, Jonathan A. C.; Whiting, Penny

    2015-01-01

    Background There is little evidence on how best to present diagnostic information to doctors and whether this makes any difference to clinical management. We undertook a randomised controlled trial to see if different data presentations altered clinicians’ decision to further investigate or treat a patient with a fictitious disorder (“Green syndrome”) and their ability to determine post-test probability. Methods We recruited doctors registered with the United Kingdom’s largest online network for medical doctors between 10 July and 6” November 2012. Participants were randomised to one of four arms: (a) text summary of sensitivity and specificity, (b) Fagan’s nomogram, (c) probability-modifying plot (PMP), (d) natural frequency tree (NFT). The main outcome measure was the decision whether to treat, not treat or undertake a brain biopsy on the hypothetical patient and the correct post-test probability. Secondary outcome measures included knowledge of diagnostic tests. Results 917 participants attempted the survey and complete data were available from 874 (95.3%). Doctors randomized to the PMP and NFT arms were more likely to treat the patient than those randomized to the text-only arm. (ORs 1.49, 95% CI 1.02, 2.16) and 1.43, 95% CI 0.98, 2.08 respectively). More patients randomized to the PMP (87/218–39.9%) and NFT (73/207–35.3%) arms than the nomogram (50/194–25.8%) or text only (30/255–11.8%) arms reported the correct post-test probability (p <0.001). Younger age, postgraduate training and higher self-rated confidence all predicted better knowledge performance. Doctors with better knowledge were more likely to view an optional learning tutorial (OR per correct answer 1.18, 95% CI 1.06, 1.31). Conclusions Presenting diagnostic data using a probability-modifying plot or natural frequency tree influences the threshold for treatment and improves interpretation of tests results compared to text summary of sensitivity and specificity or Fagan

  12. On-line integration of computer controlled diagnostic devices and medical information systems in undergraduate medical physics education for physicians.

    PubMed

    Hanus, Josef; Nosek, Tomas; Zahora, Jiri; Bezrouk, Ales; Masin, Vladimir

    2013-01-01

    We designed and evaluated an innovative computer-aided-learning environment based on the on-line integration of computer controlled medical diagnostic devices and a medical information system for use in the preclinical medical physics education of medical students. Our learning system simulates the actual clinical environment in a hospital or primary care unit. It uses a commercial medical information system for on-line storage and processing of clinical type data acquired during physics laboratory classes. Every student adopts two roles, the role of 'patient' and the role of 'physician'. As a 'physician' the student operates the medical devices to clinically assess 'patient' colleagues and records all results in an electronic 'patient' record. We also introduced an innovative approach to the use of supportive education materials, based on the methods of adaptive e-learning. A survey of student feedback is included and statistically evaluated. The results from the student feedback confirm the positive response of the latter to this novel implementation of medical physics and informatics in preclinical education. This approach not only significantly improves learning of medical physics and informatics skills but has the added advantage that it facilitates students' transition from preclinical to clinical subjects.

  13. On-line integration of computer controlled diagnostic devices and medical information systems in undergraduate medical physics education for physicians.

    PubMed

    Hanus, Josef; Nosek, Tomas; Zahora, Jiri; Bezrouk, Ales; Masin, Vladimir

    2013-01-01

    We designed and evaluated an innovative computer-aided-learning environment based on the on-line integration of computer controlled medical diagnostic devices and a medical information system for use in the preclinical medical physics education of medical students. Our learning system simulates the actual clinical environment in a hospital or primary care unit. It uses a commercial medical information system for on-line storage and processing of clinical type data acquired during physics laboratory classes. Every student adopts two roles, the role of 'patient' and the role of 'physician'. As a 'physician' the student operates the medical devices to clinically assess 'patient' colleagues and records all results in an electronic 'patient' record. We also introduced an innovative approach to the use of supportive education materials, based on the methods of adaptive e-learning. A survey of student feedback is included and statistically evaluated. The results from the student feedback confirm the positive response of the latter to this novel implementation of medical physics and informatics in preclinical education. This approach not only significantly improves learning of medical physics and informatics skills but has the added advantage that it facilitates students' transition from preclinical to clinical subjects. PMID:22200603

  14. Can Doppler or contrast-enhanced ultrasound analysis add diagnostically important information about the nature of breast lesions?

    PubMed Central

    Stanzani, Daniela; Chala, Luciano F.; de Barros, Nestor; Cerri, Giovanni G.; Chammas, Maria Cristina

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Despite evidence suggesting that Doppler ultrasonography can help to differentiate between benign and malignant breast lesions, it is rarely applied in clinical practice. The aim of this study was to determine whether certain vascular features of breast masses observed by duplex Doppler and color Doppler ultrasonography (before and/or after microbubble contrast injection) add information to the gray-scale analysis and support the Breast Imaging-Reporting and Data System (BI-RADS) classification. METHODS: Seventy solid lesions were prospectively evaluated with gray-scale ultrasonography, color Doppler ultrasonography, and contrast-enhanced ultrasonography. The morphological analysis and lesion vascularity were correlated with the histological results. RESULTS: Percutaneous core biopsies revealed that 25/70 (17.5%) lesions were malignant, while 45 were benign. Hypervascular lesions with tortuous and central vessels, a resistive index (RI)≥0.73 before contrast injection, and an RI≥0.75 after contrast injection were significantly predictive of malignancy (p<0.001). CONCLUSION: The combination of gray-scale ultrasonography data with unenhanced or enhanced duplex Doppler and color Doppler US data can provide diagnostically useful information. These techniques can be easily implemented because Doppler devices are already present in most health centers. PMID:24519198

  15. Functional imaging as an indicator of diagnostic information in cardiac magnetic-resonance images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klingler, Joseph W.; Andrews, Lee T.; Begeman, Michael S.; Zeiss, Jacob; Leighton, Richard F.

    1990-08-01

    Magnetic Resonance (MR) images of the human heart provide three dimensional geometric information about the location of cardiac structures throughout the cardiac cycle. Analysis of this four dimensional data set allows detection of abnormal cardiac function related to the presence of coronary artery disease. To assist in this analysis, quantitative measurements of cardiac performance are made from the MR data including ejection fractions, regional wall motion and myocardial wall thickening. Analysis of cardiac performance provided by quantitative analysis of MR data can be aided by computer graphics presentation techniques. Two and three dimensional functional images are computed to indicate regions of abnormality based on the previous methods. The two dimensional images are created using color graphics overlays on the original MR image to represent performance. Polygon surface modeling techniques are used to represent data which is three dimensional, such as blood pool volumes. The surface of these images are color encoded by regional ejection fraction, wall motion or wall thickening. A functional image sequence is constructed at each phase of the cardiac cycle and displayed as a movie loop for review by the physician. Selection of a region on the functional image allows visual interpretation of the original MR images, graphical plots of cardiac function and tabular results. Color encoding is based on absolute measurements and comparison to standard normal templates of cardiac performance.

  16. Vision-based building energy diagnostics and retrofit analysis using 3D thermography and building information modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ham, Youngjib

    The emerging energy crisis in the building sector and the legislative measures on improving energy efficiency are steering the construction industry towards adopting new energy efficient design concepts and construction methods that decrease the overall energy loads. However, the problems of energy efficiency are not only limited to the design and construction of new buildings. Today, a significant amount of input energy in existing buildings is still being wasted during the operational phase. One primary source of the energy waste is attributed to unnecessary heat flows through building envelopes during hot and cold seasons. This inefficiency increases the operational frequency of heating and cooling systems to keep the desired thermal comfort of building occupants, and ultimately results in excessive energy use. Improving thermal performance of building envelopes can reduce the energy consumption required for space conditioning and in turn provide building occupants with an optimal thermal comfort at a lower energy cost. In this sense, energy diagnostics and retrofit analysis for existing building envelopes are key enablers for improving energy efficiency. Since proper retrofit decisions of existing buildings directly translate into energy cost saving in the future, building practitioners are increasingly interested in methods for reliable identification of potential performance problems so that they can take timely corrective actions. However, sensing what and where energy problems are emerging or are likely to emerge and then analyzing how the problems influence the energy consumption are not trivial tasks. The overarching goal of this dissertation focuses on understanding the gaps in knowledge in methods for building energy diagnostics and retrofit analysis, and filling these gaps by devising a new method for multi-modal visual sensing and analytics using thermography and Building Information Modeling (BIM). First, to address the challenges in scaling and

  17. Diagnostics for pulmonary tuberculosis

    PubMed Central

    Cudahy, Patrick

    2016-01-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) remains a leading cause of human suffering and mortality despite decades of effective treatment being available. Accurate and timely diagnosis remains an unmet goal. The HIV epidemic has also led to new challenges in the diagnosis of TB. Several new developments in TB diagnostics have the potential to positively influence the global campaign against TB. We aim to review the performance of both established as well as new diagnostics for pulmonary TB in adults, and discuss the ongoing challenges. PMID:27005271

  18. Rotorcraft Diagnostics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haste, Deepak; Azam, Mohammad; Ghoshal, Sudipto; Monte, James

    2012-01-01

    Health management (HM) in any engineering systems requires adequate understanding about the system s functioning; a sufficient amount of monitored data; the capability to extract, analyze, and collate information; and the capability to combine understanding and information for HM-related estimation and decision-making. Rotorcraft systems are, in general, highly complex. Obtaining adequate understanding about functioning of such systems is quite difficult, because of the proprietary (restricted access) nature of their designs and dynamic models. Development of an EIM (exact inverse map) solution for rotorcraft requires a process that can overcome the abovementioned difficulties and maximally utilize monitored information for HM facilitation via employing advanced analytic techniques. The goal was to develop a versatile HM solution for rotorcraft for facilitation of the Condition Based Maintenance Plus (CBM+) capabilities. The effort was geared towards developing analytic and reasoning techniques, and proving the ability to embed the required capabilities on a rotorcraft platform, paving the way for implementing the solution on an aircraft-level system for consolidation and reporting. The solution for rotorcraft can he used offboard or embedded directly onto a rotorcraft system. The envisioned solution utilizes available monitored and archived data for real-time fault detection and identification, failure precursor identification, and offline fault detection and diagnostics, health condition forecasting, optimal guided troubleshooting, and maintenance decision support. A variant of the onboard version is a self-contained hardware and software (HW+SW) package that can be embedded on rotorcraft systems. The HM solution comprises components that gather/ingest data and information, perform information/feature extraction, analyze information in conjunction with the dependency/diagnostic model of the target system, facilitate optimal guided troubleshooting, and offer

  19. Effect of diagnostic labeling and causal explanations on medical students' views about treatments for psychosis and the need to share information with service users.

    PubMed

    Magliano, Lorenza; Read, John; Sagliocchi, Alessandra; Patalano, Melania; Oliviero, Nicoletta

    2013-12-15

    This study examines whether medical students' views of treatments for 'schizophrenia' and of patients' rights to be informed about their condition and their medication were influenced by diagnostic labeling and causal explanations and whether they differed over medical training. Three hundred and eighty-one Italian students attending their first or fifth/sixth year of medical studies read a vignette portraying someone who met diagnostic criteria for 'schizophrenia' and completed a self-report questionnaire. The study found that labeling the case as 'schizophrenia' and naming heredity among its causes were associated with confidence in psychiatrists and psychiatric drugs. Naming psychological traumas among the causes was associated with confidence in psychologists and greater acknowledgment of users' right to be informed about drugs. Compared to first year students, those at their fifth/sixth-year of studies more strongly endorsed drugs, had less confidence in psychologists and family support, and were less keen to share information on drugs with patients. These findings highlight that students' beliefs vary during training and are significantly related to diagnostic labeling and belief in a biogenetic causal model. Psychiatric curricula for medical students should include greater integration of psychological and medical aspects in clinical management of 'schizophrenia'; more information on the psychosocial causes of mental health problems.

  20. ICPES analyses using full image spectra and astronomical data fitting algorithms to provide diagnostic and result information

    SciTech Connect

    Spencer, W.A.; Goode, S.R.

    1997-10-01

    ICP emission analyses are prone to errors due to changes in power level, nebulization rate, plasma temperature, and sample matrix. As a result, accurate analyses of complex samples often require frequent bracketing with matrix matched standards. Information needed to track and correct the matrix errors is contained in the emission spectrum. But most commercial software packages use only the analyte line emission to determine concentrations. Changes in plasma temperature and the nebulization rate are reflected by changes in the hydrogen line widths, the oxygen emission, and neutral ion line ratios. Argon and off-line emissions provide a measure to correct the power level and the background scattering occurring in the polychromator. The authors` studies indicated that changes in the intensity of the Ar 404.4 nm line readily flag most matrix and plasma condition modifications. Carbon lines can be used to monitor the impact of organics on the analyses and calcium and argon lines can be used to correct for spectral drift and alignment. Spectra of contaminated groundwater and simulated defense waste glasses were obtained using a Thermo Jarrell Ash ICP that has an echelle CID detector system covering the 190-850 nm range. The echelle images were translated to the FITS data format, which astronomers recommend for data storage. Data reduction packages such as those in the ESO-MIDAS/ECHELLE and DAOPHOT programs were tried with limited success. The radial point spread function was evaluated as a possible improved peak intensity measurement instead of the common pixel averaging approach used in the commercial ICP software. Several algorithms were evaluated to align and automatically scale the background and reference spectra. A new data reduction approach that utilizes standard reference images, successive subtractions, and residual analyses has been evaluated to correct for matrix effects.

  1. Student Information Systems Demystified: The Increasing Demand for Accurate, Timely Data Means Schools and Districts Are Relying Heavily on SIS Technologies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McIntire, Todd

    2004-01-01

    Student information systems, one of the first applications of computer technology in education, are undergoing a significant transition yet again. The first major shift in SIS technologies occurred about 15 years ago when they evolved from mainframe programs to client-server solutions. Now, vendors across the board are offering centralized…

  2. Intelligent diagnostics systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcquiston, Barbara M.; Dehoff, Ronald L.

    1992-01-01

    Intelligent systems have been applied to today's problems and could also be applied to space operations integrity. One of these systems is the XMAN tool designed for 'troubleshooting' jet engines. XMAN is the eXpert MAiNtenance tool developed to be an expert information analysis tool which stores trending and diagnostic data on Air Force engines. XMAN operates with a 'network topology' which follows a flow chart containing engine management information reports required by the governments technical order procedures. With XMAN technology, the user is able to identify engine problems by presenting the assertions of the fault isolation logic and attempting to satisfy individual assertions by referring to the databases created by an engine monitoring system. The troubleshooting process requires interaction between the technician and the computer to acquire new evidence form auxiliary maintenance tests corroboration of analytical results to accurately diagnose equipment malfunctions. This same technology will be required for systems which are functioning in space either with an onboard crew, or with an unmanned system. The technology and lessons learned developing this technology while suggesting definite applications for its use with developing space systems are addressed.

  3. Profitable capitation requires accurate costing.

    PubMed

    West, D A; Hicks, L L; Balas, E A; West, T D

    1996-01-01

    In the name of costing accuracy, nurses are asked to track inventory use on per treatment basis when more significant costs, such as general overhead and nursing salaries, are usually allocated to patients or treatments on an average cost basis. Accurate treatment costing and financial viability require analysis of all resources actually consumed in treatment delivery, including nursing services and inventory. More precise costing information enables more profitable decisions as is demonstrated by comparing the ratio-of-cost-to-treatment method (aggregate costing) with alternative activity-based costing methods (ABC). Nurses must participate in this costing process to assure that capitation bids are based upon accurate costs rather than simple averages. PMID:8788799

  4. Accurate monotone cubic interpolation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huynh, Hung T.

    1991-01-01

    Monotone piecewise cubic interpolants are simple and effective. They are generally third-order accurate, except near strict local extrema where accuracy degenerates to second-order due to the monotonicity constraint. Algorithms for piecewise cubic interpolants, which preserve monotonicity as well as uniform third and fourth-order accuracy are presented. The gain of accuracy is obtained by relaxing the monotonicity constraint in a geometric framework in which the median function plays a crucial role.

  5. Accurate Finite Difference Algorithms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goodrich, John W.

    1996-01-01

    Two families of finite difference algorithms for computational aeroacoustics are presented and compared. All of the algorithms are single step explicit methods, they have the same order of accuracy in both space and time, with examples up to eleventh order, and they have multidimensional extensions. One of the algorithm families has spectral like high resolution. Propagation with high order and high resolution algorithms can produce accurate results after O(10(exp 6)) periods of propagation with eight grid points per wavelength.

  6. Rayleigh Scattering Diagnostics Workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Seasholtz, Richard (Compiler)

    1996-01-01

    The Rayleigh Scattering Diagnostics Workshop was held July 25-26, 1995 at the NASA Lewis Research Center in Cleveland, Ohio. The purpose of the workshop was to foster timely exchange of information and expertise acquired by researchers and users of laser based Rayleigh scattering diagnostics for aerospace flow facilities and other applications. This Conference Publication includes the 12 technical presentations and transcriptions of the two panel discussions. The first panel was made up of 'users' of optical diagnostics, mainly in aerospace test facilities, and its purpose was to assess areas of potential applications of Rayleigh scattering diagnostics. The second panel was made up of active researchers in Rayleigh scattering diagnostics, and its purpose was to discuss the direction of future work.

  7. Visual aids improve diagnostic inferences and metacognitive judgment calibration

    PubMed Central

    Garcia-Retamero, Rocio; Cokely, Edward T.; Hoffrage, Ulrich

    2015-01-01

    Visual aids can improve comprehension of risks associated with medical treatments, screenings, and lifestyles. Do visual aids also help decision makers accurately assess their risk comprehension? That is, do visual aids help them become well calibrated? To address these questions, we investigated the benefits of visual aids displaying numerical information and measured accuracy of self-assessment of diagnostic inferences (i.e., metacognitive judgment calibration) controlling for individual differences in numeracy. Participants included 108 patients who made diagnostic inferences about three medical tests on the basis of information about the sensitivity and false-positive rate of the tests and disease prevalence. Half of the patients received the information in numbers without a visual aid, while the other half received numbers along with a grid representing the numerical information. In the numerical condition, many patients–especially those with low numeracy–misinterpreted the predictive value of the tests and profoundly overestimated the accuracy of their inferences. Metacognitive judgment calibration mediated the relationship between numeracy and accuracy of diagnostic inferences. In contrast, in the visual aid condition, patients at all levels of numeracy showed high-levels of inferential accuracy and metacognitive judgment calibration. Results indicate that accurate metacognitive assessment may explain the beneficial effects of visual aids and numeracy–a result that accords with theory suggesting that metacognition is an essential part of risk literacy. We conclude that well-designed risk communications can inform patients about healthrelevant numerical information while helping them assess the quality of their own risk comprehension. PMID:26236247

  8. Chromatic-aberration diagnostic based on a spectrally resolved lateral-shearing interferometer

    DOE PAGES

    Bahk, Seung -Whan; Dorrer, Christopher; Roides, Rick G.; Bromage, Jake

    2016-03-18

    Here, a simple diagnostic characterizing one-dimensional chromatic aberrations in a broadband beam is introduced. A Ronchi grating placed in front of a spectrometer entrance slit provides spectrally coupled spatial phase information. The radial-group delay of a refractive system and the pulse-front delay of a wedged glass plate have been characterized accurately in a demonstration experiment.

  9. LEDA and APT beam diagnostics instrumentation

    SciTech Connect

    Gilpatrick, J.D.; Johnson, K.F.; Hodapp, T.R.

    1997-10-01

    A 20-MeV 100-mA-cw proton-accelerator, Low Energy Demonstration Accelerator (LEDA), is presently being developed, fabricated, and tested at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The beam diagnostic instrumentation for LEDA and the final 1700-GeV Accelerator Production of Tritium (APT) are classified into two categories: operation and characterization instrumentation. The operational instrumentation does not intercept or minimally-intercepts the beam and are sufficiently prompt and robust to provide accurate information to the operators and commissioners during full-current cw beam operation. The characterization instrumentation, primarily utilized during commissioning project-phases, operates under more traditional 100-mA-peak and approximately 0.1-mA-average beam-current conditions. This paper will review some of the LEDA and APT operational beam diagnostic instrumentation.

  10. Diagnostics For Recirculating And Energy Recovered Linacs

    SciTech Connect

    Geoffrey A. Krafft; Jean-Claude Denard

    2002-12-18

    In this paper, the electron beam diagnostics developed for recirculating electron accelerators will be reviewed. The main novelties in dealing with such accelerators are: to have sufficient information and control possibilities for the longitudinal phase space, to have means to accurately set the recirculation path length, and to have a means to distinguish the beam passes on measurements of position in the linac proper. The solutions to these problems obtained at Jefferson Laboratory and elsewhere will be discussed. In addition, more standard instrumentation (profiling and emittance measurements) will be reviewed in the context of recirculating linacs. Finally, and looking forward, electron beam diagnostics for applications to high current energy recovered linacs will be discussed.

  11. Diagnostic Flow Metering using Ultrasound Tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chun, Sejong; Yoon, Byung-Ro; Lee, Kwang-Bock; Paik, Jong-Seung

    2010-06-01

    Flow meters, which are used for transferring water or crude oil through pipelines, require well-defined flow conditions for accurate flow rate monitoring. Even though all the installation conditions for the flow meters are satisfied, there could be unexpected flow disturbances, such as abrupt increase of upstream pressure, affecting on the performance of flow meters. To investigate any differences between measured and actual flow rates, flow velocity profiles inside the pipeline must be known. Ultrasound tomography is a means of reconstructing flow profiles from line-averaged velocities by Radon transformation. Diagnostic parameters are then extracted from the reconstructed flow profiles to give information whether the flow conditions are appropriate for accurate flow metering. In the present study, flow profiles downstream of a mass flow meter and a butterfly valve are reconstructed. Flow diagnostic parameters are defined using statistical moments such as mean value, standard deviation, skewness and kurtosis. The measured diagnostic parameters in the above-mentioned flow conditions are compared with those of fully-developed laminar and turbulent flow profiles to validate their usefulness.

  12. Manual of diagnostic imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Gaylord, G.; Baker, S.; Davis, L.

    1988-01-01

    This book is on ordering and understanding the results of radiologic studies. Main sections are (I) Diagnostic Radiology serves as a basic introduction; (II) Diagnostic Modalities dedicates a chapter to each imaging modality in a clinical context, with a brief technical description and patient preparation guidelines; and (III) Organ System Imaging contains a chapter on each major organ system, covering the abilities and limitations of each modality to image a specific organ system and the significance of anatomic, physiologic, and general pathologic information.

  13. Accurate quantum chemical calculations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bauschlicher, Charles W., Jr.; Langhoff, Stephen R.; Taylor, Peter R.

    1989-01-01

    An important goal of quantum chemical calculations is to provide an understanding of chemical bonding and molecular electronic structure. A second goal, the prediction of energy differences to chemical accuracy, has been much harder to attain. First, the computational resources required to achieve such accuracy are very large, and second, it is not straightforward to demonstrate that an apparently accurate result, in terms of agreement with experiment, does not result from a cancellation of errors. Recent advances in electronic structure methodology, coupled with the power of vector supercomputers, have made it possible to solve a number of electronic structure problems exactly using the full configuration interaction (FCI) method within a subspace of the complete Hilbert space. These exact results can be used to benchmark approximate techniques that are applicable to a wider range of chemical and physical problems. The methodology of many-electron quantum chemistry is reviewed. Methods are considered in detail for performing FCI calculations. The application of FCI methods to several three-electron problems in molecular physics are discussed. A number of benchmark applications of FCI wave functions are described. Atomic basis sets and the development of improved methods for handling very large basis sets are discussed: these are then applied to a number of chemical and spectroscopic problems; to transition metals; and to problems involving potential energy surfaces. Although the experiences described give considerable grounds for optimism about the general ability to perform accurate calculations, there are several problems that have proved less tractable, at least with current computer resources, and these and possible solutions are discussed.

  14. Beamlet laser diagnostics

    SciTech Connect

    Burkhart, S.C.; Behrendt, W.C.; Smith, I.

    1996-06-01

    Beamlet is instrumented extensively to monitor the performance of the overall laser system and many of its subsystems. Beam diagnostics, installed in key locations, are used to fully characterize the beam during its propagation through the multipass cavity and the laser`s output section. This article describes the diagnostics stations located on Beamlet and discusses the design, calibration, and performance of the Beamlet calorimeters. The authors used Nova`s diagnostics packages to develop the Beamlet design to determine beam energy, spatial profile, temporal profile, and other beam parameters. Technologic improvements within the last several years in controls, charge-coupled device (CCD) cameras, and fast oscilloscopes have allowed the authors to obtain more accurate measurements on the Beamlet laser system. They briefly cover some of these techniques, including a description of their LabVIEW based data acquisition system.

  15. Highly charged ions in magnetic fusion plasmas: research opportunities and diagnostic necessities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beiersdorfer, P.

    2015-07-01

    Highly charged ions play a crucial role in magnetic fusion plasmas. These plasmas are excellent sources for producing highly charged ions and copious amounts of radiation for studying their atomic properties. These studies include calibration of density diagnostics, x-ray production by charge exchange, line identifications and accurate wavelength measurements, and benchmark data for ionization balance calculations. Studies of magnetic fusion plasmas also consume a large amount of atomic data, especially in order to develop new spectral diagnostics. Examples we give are the need for highly accurate wavelengths as references for measurements of bulk plasma motion, the need for accurate line excitation rates that encompass both electron-impact excitation and indirect line formation processes, for accurate position and resonance strength information of dielectronic recombination satellite lines that may broaden or shift diagnostic lines or that may provide electron temperature information, and the need for accurate ionization balance calculations. We show that the highly charged ions of several elements are of special current interest to magnetic fusion, notably highly charged ions of argon, iron, krypton, xenon, and foremost of tungsten. The electron temperatures thought to be achievable in the near future may produce W70+ ions and possibly ions with even higher charge states. This means that all but a few of the most highly charged ions are of potential interest as plasma diagnostics or are available for basic research.

  16. SU-E-P-01: An Informative Review On the Role of Diagnostic Medical Physicist in the Academic and Private Medical Centers

    SciTech Connect

    Weir, V; Zhang, J

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: The role of physicist in the academic and private hospital environment continues to evolve and expand. This becomes more obvious with the newly revised requirements of the Joint Commission (JC) on imaging modalities and the continued updated requirements of ACR accreditation for medical physics (i.e., starting in June 2014, a physicists test will be needed before US accreditation). We provide an informative review on the role of diagnostic medical physicist and hope that our experience will expedite junior physicists in understanding their role in medical centers, and be ready to more opportunities. Methods: Based on our experience, diagnostic medical physicists in both academic and private medical centers perform several clinical functions. These include providing clinical service and physics support, ensuring that all ionizing radiation devices are tested and operated in compliance with the State and Federal laws, regulations and guidelines. We also discuss the training and education required to ensure that the radiation exposure to patients and staff is as low as reasonably achievable. We review the overlapping roles of medical and health physicist in some institutions. Results: A detailed scheme on the new requirements (effective 7/1/2014) of the JC is provided. In 2015, new standards for fluoroscopy, cone beam CT and the qualifications of staff will be phased in. A summary of new ACR requirements for different modalities is presented. Medical physicist have other duties such as sitting on CT and fluoroscopy committees for protocols design, training of non-radiologists to meet the new fluoroscopy rules, as well as helping with special therapies such as Yittrium 90 cases. Conclusion: Medical physicists in both academic and private hospitals are positioned to be more involved and prominent. Diagnostic physicists need to be more proactive to involve themselves in the day to day activities of the radiology department.

  17. Integrated diagnostics: proceedings from the 9th biennial symposium of the International Society for Strategic Studies in Radiology.

    PubMed

    Krestin, G P; Grenier, P A; Hricak, H; Jackson, V P; Khong, P L; Miller, J C; Muellner, A; Schwaiger, M; Thrall, J H

    2012-11-01

    The International Society for Strategic Studies in Radiology held its 9th biennial meeting in August 2011. The focus of the programme was integrated diagnostics and massive computing. Participants discussed the opportunities, challenges, and consequences for the discipline of radiology that will likely arise from the integration of diagnostic technologies. Diagnostic technologies are increasing in scope, including advanced imaging techniques, new molecular imaging agents, and sophisticated point-of-use devices. Advanced information technology (IT), which is increasingly influencing the practice of medicine, will aid clinical communication and the development of "population images" that represent the phenotype of particular diseases, which will aid the development of diagnostic algorithms. Integrated diagnostics offer increased operational efficiency and benefits to patients through quicker and more accurate diagnoses. As physicians with the most expertise in IT, radiologists are well placed to take the lead in introducing IT solutions and cloud computing to promote integrated diagnostics. To achieve this, radiologists must adapt to include quantitative data on biomarkers in their reports. Radiologists must also increase their role as participating physicians, collaborating with other medical specialties, not only to avoid being sidelined by other specialties but also to better prepare as leaders in the selection and sequence of diagnostic procedures. Key Points • New diagnostic technologies are yielding unprecedented amounts of diagnostic information.• Advanced IT/cloud computing will aid integration and analysis of diagnostic data.• Better diagnostic algorithms will lead to faster diagnosis and more rapid treatment. PMID:22699871

  18. The development of a diagnostic instrument to measure social information processing in children with mild to borderline intellectual disabilities.

    PubMed

    van Nieuwenhuijzen, M; Vriens, A; Scheepmaker, M; Smit, M; Porton, E

    2011-01-01

    A growing interest exists in the measuring of social adaptive functioning in children with mild to borderline intellectual disabilities (MBID), but valid instruments to measure this construct are lacking. The aim of the present study was to develop such an instrument and to examine it on its discriminate validity. In 141 children aged 8-12 years a new test battery was examined in four groups either with MBID, behaviour problems or both, and typically developing peers. The results show that children with either MBID or behaviour problems or both show more hostile intent attributions, set more internal revenge goals, generate more aggressive and fewer assertive responses, feel more confident in inadequate responses en select fewer assertive responses, than their typically developing peers. Children with MBID are characterized by relying on earlier experiences in encoding information, a small response repertoire, positive evaluation of submissive but not assertive responses, and the selection of aggressive responses. In addition, they have more problems with perspective taking, problem recognition, interpretation in general, inhibition, working memory, and emotion recognition, than their typically developing peers. Further, children with MBID and behaviour problems have more difficulties in social information processing when the information in social situations is more complex. It is concluded that the tasks of the test battery can discriminate between groups, and after further development of the material, can be used to obtain information on the competencies and disabilities in social information processing and social cognitive skills, in order to be able to offer adequate treatment to these children. PMID:21075595

  19. PCR-based diagnostics for anaerobic infections.

    PubMed

    Song, Yuli

    2005-01-01

    Conventional methods to identify anaerobic bacteria have often relied on unique clinical findings, isolation of organisms, and laboratory identification by morphology and biochemical tests (phenotypic tests). Although these methods are still fundamental, there is an increasing move toward molecular diagnostics of anaerobes. In this review, some of the molecular approaches to anaerobic diagnostics based on the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) are discussed. This includes several technological advances in PCR-based methods for the detection, identification, and quantitation of anaerobes including real-time PCR which has been successfully used to provide rapid, quantitative data on anaerobic species on clinical samples. Since its introduction in the mid-1980s, PCR has provided many molecular diagnostic tools, some of which are discussed within this review. With the advances in micro-array technology and real-time PCR methods, the future is bright for the development of accurate, quantitative diagnostic tools that can provide information not only on individual anaerobic species but also on whole communities.

  20. Fungal molecular diagnostics: a mini review.

    PubMed

    Atkins, Simon D; Clark, Ian M

    2004-01-01

    Conventional methods to identify fungi have often relied on identification of disease symptoms, isolation and culturing of environmental organisms, and laboratory identification by morphology and biochemical tests. Although these methods are still fundamental there is an increasing move towards molecular diagnostics of fungi in all fields. In this review, some of the molecular approaches to fungal diagnostics based on polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and DNA/RNA probe technology are discussed. This includes several technological advances in PCR-based methods for the detection, identification and quantification of fungi including real-time PCR which has been successfully used to provide rapid, quantitative data on fungal species from environmental samples. PCR and probe based methods have provided new tools for the enumeration of fungal species, but it is still necessary to combine the new technology with more conventional methods to gain a fuller understanding of interactions occurring in the environment. Since its introduction in the mid 1980's PCR has provided many molecular diagnostic tools, some of which are discussed within this review, and with the advances in micro-array technology and real-time PCR methods the future is bright for the development of accurate, quantitative diagnostic tools that can provide information not only on individual fungal species but also on whole communities.

  1. Accurate and Accidental Empathy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chandler, Michael

    The author offers two controversial criticisms of what are rapidly becoming standard assessment procedures for the measurement of empathic skill. First, he asserts that assessment procedures which attend exclusively to the accuracy with which subjects are able to characterize other people's feelings provide little or no useful information about…

  2. Diagnostic Instability of "DSM-IV" ADHD Subtypes: Effects of Informant Source, Instrumentation, and Methods for Combining Symptom Reports

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Valo, Shana; Tannock, Rosemary

    2010-01-01

    Using data from 123 children (aged 6-12 years) referred consecutively to a pediatric neuropsychiatry clinic by community physicians for assessment of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and related problems, we investigated the effects of informant (parent, teacher), tool (interview, rating scale), and method for combining symptom…

  3. Limited-Information Goodness-of-Fit Testing of Diagnostic Classification Item Response Theory Models. CRESST Report 840

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hansen, Mark; Cai, Li; Monroe, Scott; Li, Zhen

    2014-01-01

    It is a well-known problem in testing the fit of models to multinomial data that the full underlying contingency table will inevitably be sparse for tests of reasonable length and for realistic sample sizes. Under such conditions, full-information test statistics such as Pearson's X[superscript 2]?? and the likelihood ratio statistic…

  4. Accurate Optical Reference Catalogs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zacharias, N.

    2006-08-01

    Current and near future all-sky astrometric catalogs on the ICRF are reviewed with the emphasis on reference star data at optical wavelengths for user applications. The standard error of a Hipparcos Catalogue star position is now about 15 mas per coordinate. For the Tycho-2 data it is typically 20 to 100 mas, depending on magnitude. The USNO CCD Astrograph Catalog (UCAC) observing program was completed in 2004 and reductions toward the final UCAC3 release are in progress. This all-sky reference catalogue will have positional errors of 15 to 70 mas for stars in the 10 to 16 mag range, with a high degree of completeness. Proper motions for the about 60 million UCAC stars will be derived by combining UCAC astrometry with available early epoch data, including yet unpublished scans of the complete set of AGK2, Hamburg Zone astrograph and USNO Black Birch programs. Accurate positional and proper motion data are combined in the Naval Observatory Merged Astrometric Dataset (NOMAD) which includes Hipparcos, Tycho-2, UCAC2, USNO-B1, NPM+SPM plate scan data for astrometry, and is supplemented by multi-band optical photometry as well as 2MASS near infrared photometry. The Milli-Arcsecond Pathfinder Survey (MAPS) mission is currently being planned at USNO. This is a micro-satellite to obtain 1 mas positions, parallaxes, and 1 mas/yr proper motions for all bright stars down to about 15th magnitude. This program will be supplemented by a ground-based program to reach 18th magnitude on the 5 mas level.

  5. [Critical reading of articles about diagnostic tests (part II): Analyzing results].

    PubMed

    Moratalla Rodríguez, G

    2015-01-01

    A new diagnostic test needs to be validated through comparison with a reference standard in an appropriate spectrum of patients. Diagnostic tests are not perfectly accurate; on the contrary, there can be false-positive and false-negative findings. A good diagnostic test is that which provides an acceptable proportion of positive results when a determinate condition is present in patients and an acceptable proportion of negative results when it is absent. The best measure of the usefulness of a diagnostic test is the likelihood ratio, which informs us to what degree a particular result is more likely in a person in whom a condition is present than in a person in whom the condition is absent. The present article discusses the fundamental statistical concepts necessary to interpret the results section of an article about a diagnostic test; however, the approach is clearly oriented toward clinical practice, with emphasis on concepts rather than mathematics.

  6. Cable Diagnostic Focused Initiative

    SciTech Connect

    Hartlein, R.A.; Hampton, R.N.

    2010-12-30

    This report summarizes an extensive effort made to understand how to effectively use the various diagnostic technologies to establish the condition of medium voltage underground cable circuits. These circuits make up an extensive portion of the electric delivery infrastructure in the United States. Much of this infrastructure is old and experiencing unacceptable failure rates. By deploying efficient diagnostic testing programs, electric utilities can replace or repair circuits that are about to fail, providing an optimal approach to improving electric system reliability. This is an intrinsically complex topic. Underground cable systems are not homogeneous. Cable circuits often contain multiple branches with different cable designs and a range of insulation materials. In addition, each insulation material ages differently as a function of time, temperature and operating environment. To complicate matters further, there are a wide variety of diagnostic technologies available for assessing the condition of cable circuits with a diversity of claims about the effectiveness of each approach. As a result, the benefits of deploying cable diagnostic testing programs have been difficult to establish, leading many utilities to avoid the their use altogether. This project was designed to help address these issues. The information provided is the result of a collaborative effort between Georgia Tech NEETRAC staff, Georgia Tech academic faculty, electric utility industry participants, as well as cable system diagnostic testing service providers and test equipment providers. Report topics include: •How cable systems age and fail, •The various technologies available for detecting potential failure sites, •The advantages and disadvantages of different diagnostic technologies, •Different approaches for utilities to employ cable system diagnostics. The primary deliverables of this project are this report, a Cable Diagnostic Handbook (a subset of this report) and an online

  7. Viral diagnostics: will new technology save the day?

    PubMed

    Spackman, Erica

    2012-01-01

    Technology for infectious agent detection continues to evolve, particularly molecular methods that first emerged in the mid-1970s. The goals of new technology in diagnostics, whether in humans or in animals, including poultry, are to achieve the highest sensitivity and specificity possible to accurately identify the infection status of an individual or flock in the shortest time possible. Ease of use, low cost and increased information from a single test (e.g. multiplexing) are also critical areas frequently targeted for improvement. New tests and modifications of current tests are reported often, and diagnostic tests are now commonly developed by commercial companies. As one would expect, most advances in diagnostic technology are applied first to human health, and then may be adapted to animal health if practical. In the present review the trends and novel innovative technologies in primarily viral diagnostics are reviewed and the practicality of these methods and application for poultry health are discussed briefly. Also, influenza will seem to be over-represented in viral diagnostics since it is frequently used as a proof-of-concept target for novel technology due to its importance for animal and public health. Finally, the review is intended to be a brief survey of some of the innovative diagnostic technologies reported in recent years. It is not entirely comprehensive of all technology and the author makes no claims or endorsements of any of the technology or products mentioned.

  8. ROM Plus(®): accurate point-of-care detection of ruptured fetal membranes.

    PubMed

    McQuivey, Ross W; Block, Jon E

    2016-01-01

    Accurate and timely diagnosis of rupture of fetal membranes is imperative to inform and guide gestational age-specific interventions to optimize perinatal outcomes and reduce the risk of serious complications, including preterm delivery and infections. The ROM Plus is a rapid, point-of-care, qualitative immunochromatographic diagnostic test that uses a unique monoclonal/polyclonal antibody approach to detect two different proteins found in amniotic fluid at high concentrations: alpha-fetoprotein and insulin-like growth factor binding protein-1. Clinical study results have uniformly demonstrated high diagnostic accuracy and performance characteristics with this point-of-care test that exceeds conventional clinical testing with external laboratory evaluation. The description, indications for use, procedural steps, and laboratory and clinical characterization of this assay are presented in this article. PMID:27274316

  9. Fungal Diagnostics

    PubMed Central

    Kozel, Thomas R.; Wickes, Brian

    2014-01-01

    Early diagnosis of fungal infection is critical to effective treatment. There are many impediments to diagnosis such as a diminishing number of clinical mycologists, cost, time to result, and requirements for sensitivity and specificity. In addition, fungal diagnostics must meet the contrasting needs presented by the increasing diversity of fungi found in association with the use of immunosuppressive agents in countries with high levels of medical care and the need for diagnostics in resource-limited countries where large numbers of opportunistic infections occur in patients with AIDS. Traditional approaches to diagnosis include direct microscopic examination of clinical samples, histopathology, culture, and serology. Emerging technologies include molecular diagnostics and antigen detection in clinical samples. Innovative new technologies that use molecular and immunoassay platforms have the potential to meet the needs of both resource-rich and resource-limited clinical environments. PMID:24692193

  10. 75 FR 32519 - Miracor Diagnostics, Inc., Monaco Finance, Inc., MPEL Holdings Corp. (f/k/a Computer Transceiver...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-08

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION Miracor Diagnostics, Inc., Monaco Finance, Inc., MPEL Holdings Corp. (f/k/a Computer Transceiver... that there is a lack of current and accurate information concerning the securities of Monaco...

  11. DIAGNOSTICS OF BNL ERL

    SciTech Connect

    POZDEYEV,E.; BEN-ZVI, I.; CAMERON, P.; GASSNER, D.; KAYRAN, D.; ET AL.

    2007-06-25

    The ERL Prototype project is currently under development at the Brookhaven National Laboratory. The ERL is expected to demonstrate energy recovery of high-intensity beams with a current of up to a few hundred milliamps, while preserving the emittance of bunches with a charge of a few nanocoulombs produced by a high-current SRF gun. To successfully accomplish this task the machine will include beam diagnostics that will be used for accurate characterization of the three dimensional beam phase space at the injection and recirculation energies, transverse and longitudinal beam matching, orbit alignment, beam current measurement, and machine protection. This paper outlines requirements on the ERL diagnostics and describes its setup and modes of operation.

  12. Diagnostic imaging.

    PubMed

    Morris, Peter; Perkins, Alan

    2012-04-21

    Physical techniques have always had a key role in medicine, and the second half of the 20th century in particular saw a revolution in medical diagnostic techniques with the development of key imaging instruments: x-ray imaging and emission tomography (nuclear imaging and PET), MRI, and ultrasound. These techniques use the full width of the electromagnetic spectrum, from gamma rays to radio waves, and sound. In most cases, the development of a medical imaging device was opportunistic; many scientists in physics laboratories were experimenting with simple x-ray images within the first year of the discovery of such rays, the development of the cyclotron and later nuclear reactors created the opportunity for nuclear medicine, and one of the co-inventors of MRI was initially attempting to develop an alternative to x-ray diffraction for the analysis of crystal structures. What all these techniques have in common is the brilliant insight of a few pioneering physical scientists and engineers who had the tenacity to develop their inventions, followed by a series of technical innovations that enabled the full diagnostic potential of these instruments to be realised. In this report, we focus on the key part played by these scientists and engineers and the new imaging instruments and diagnostic procedures that they developed. By bringing the key developments and applications together we hope to show the true legacy of physics and engineering in diagnostic medicine. PMID:22516558

  13. Diagnostic Imaging

    MedlinePlus

    Diagnostic imaging lets doctors look inside your body for clues about a medical condition. A variety of machines and techniques can create pictures of the structures and activities inside your body. The type of imaging your doctor uses depends on your symptoms and ...

  14. An evaluation of the diagnostic accuracy of Pathfinder.

    PubMed

    Heckerman, D E; Nathwani, B N

    1992-02-01

    We present an evaluation of the diagnostic accuracy of Pathfinder, an expert system that assists pathologists with the diagnosis of lymph node diseases. We evaluate two versions of the system using both informal and decision-theoretic metrics of performance. In one version of Pathfinder, we assume incorrectly that all observations are conditionally independent. In the other version, we use a belief network to represent accurately the probabilistic dependencies among the observations. In both versions, we make the assumption--reasonable for this domain--that diseases are mutually exclusive and exhaustive. The results of the study show that (1) it is cost effective to represent probabilistic dependencies among observations in the lymph node domain, and (2) the diagnostic accuracy of the more complex version of Pathfinder is at least as good as that of the Pathfinder expert. In addition, the study illustrates how informal and decision-theoretic metrics for performance complement one another.

  15. Accountability, Diagnostics, and Information Technology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doyle, Denis P.

    2004-01-01

    This article argues that while accountability is the watchword of overseers, too often it is the bane of the overseen. At its best, it reflects a prudent concern for good stewardship and responsible management of necessarily scarce resources; at its worst, it becomes a form of mindless hector-ing, in which careful oversight gives way to invective…

  16. FEL-accelerator related diagnostics

    SciTech Connect

    Kevin Jordan; David Douglas; Stephen V. Benson; Pavel Evtuschenko

    2007-08-02

    Free Electron Lasers (FEL) present a unique set of beam parameters to the diagnostics suite. The FEL requires characterization of the full six dimensional phase space of the electron beam at the wiggler and accurate alignment of the electron beam to the optical mode of the laser. In addition to the FEL requirements on the diagnostics suite, the Jefferson Lab FEL is operated as an Energy Recovered Linac (ERL) which imposes additional requirements on the diagnostics. The ERL aspect of the Jefferson Lab FEL requires that diagnostics operate over a unique dynamic range and operate with simultaneous transport of the accelerated and energy recovered beams. This talk will present how these challenges are addressed at the Jefferson Lab FEL.

  17. Rapid diagnostic tests for malaria.

    PubMed

    Visser, Theodoor; Daily, Jennifer; Hotte, Nora; Dolkart, Caitlin; Cunningham, Jane; Yadav, Prashant

    2015-12-01

    Maintaining quality, competitiveness and innovation in global health technology is a constant challenge for manufacturers, while affordability, access and equity are challenges for governments and international agencies. In this paper we discuss these issues with reference to rapid diagnostic tests for malaria. Strategies to control and eliminate malaria depend on early and accurate diagnosis. Rapid diagnostic tests for malaria require little training and equipment and can be performed by non-specialists in remote settings. Use of these tests has expanded significantly over the last few years, following recommendations to test all suspected malaria cases before treatment and the implementation of an evaluation programme to assess the performance of the malaria rapid diagnostic tests. Despite these gains, challenges exist that, if not addressed, could jeopardize the progress made to date. We discuss recent developments in rapid diagnostic tests for malaria, highlight some of the challenges and provide suggestions to address them.

  18. Rapid diagnostic tests for malaria

    PubMed Central

    Daily, Jennifer; Hotte, Nora; Dolkart, Caitlin; Cunningham, Jane; Yadav, Prashant

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Maintaining quality, competitiveness and innovation in global health technology is a constant challenge for manufacturers, while affordability, access and equity are challenges for governments and international agencies. In this paper we discuss these issues with reference to rapid diagnostic tests for malaria. Strategies to control and eliminate malaria depend on early and accurate diagnosis. Rapid diagnostic tests for malaria require little training and equipment and can be performed by non-specialists in remote settings. Use of these tests has expanded significantly over the last few years, following recommendations to test all suspected malaria cases before treatment and the implementation of an evaluation programme to assess the performance of the malaria rapid diagnostic tests. Despite these gains, challenges exist that, if not addressed, could jeopardize the progress made to date. We discuss recent developments in rapid diagnostic tests for malaria, highlight some of the challenges and provide suggestions to address them. PMID:26668438

  19. Advanced Diagnostics for High Pressure Spray Combustion.

    SciTech Connect

    Skeen, Scott A.; Manin, Julien Luc; Pickett, Lyle M.

    2014-06-01

    The development of accurate predictive engine simulations requires experimental data to both inform and validate the models, but very limited information is presently available about the chemical structure of high pressure spray flames under engine- relevant conditions. Probing such flames for chemical information using non- intrusive optical methods or intrusive sampling techniques, however, is challenging because of the physical and optical harshness of the environment. This work details two new diagnostics that have been developed and deployed to obtain quantitative species concentrations and soot volume fractions from a high-pressure combusting spray. A high-speed, high-pressure sampling system was developed to extract gaseous species (including soot precursor species) from within the flame for offline analysis by time-of-flight mass spectrometry. A high-speed multi-wavelength optical extinction diagnostic was also developed to quantify transient and quasi-steady soot processes. High-pressure sampling and offline characterization of gas-phase species formed following the pre-burn event was accomplished as well as characterization of gas-phase species present in the lift-off region of a high-pressure n-dodecane spray flame. For the initial samples discussed in this work several species were identified, including polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH); however, quantitative mole fractions were not determined. Nevertheless, the diagnostic developed here does have this capability. Quantitative, time-resolved measurements of soot extinction were also accomplished and the novel use of multiple incident wavelengths proved valuable toward characterizing changes in soot optical properties within different regions of the spray flame.

  20. Astigmatism and diagnostic procedures.

    PubMed

    Visnjić, Mirna Belovari; Zrinsćak, Ognjen; Barisić, Freja; Iveković, Renata; Laus, Katia Novak; Mandić, Zdravko

    2012-06-01

    Astigmatism represents an inability of the cornea and lens to provide a sharp image onto the retina. Correcting astigmatic errors, whether congenital, contact lens induced or surgically induced, is now an integral part of modern cataract and refractive procedures. Development of modern technology has enabled accurate diagnosis and perfect opportunities for correction; however, while cataract and keratorefractive surgery have come a long way in the last decade, the treatment and diagnosis of astigmatism continue to challenge ophthalmologists. There are several diagnostic procedures and tools available today, some standard and some contemporary that include keratometry, corneal topography, apparatus using wavefront or Scheimpflug analysis like Orbscan, Pentacam, Wavescan, etc. With the introduction of several new diagnostic tools, measurements of astigmatism have become less of an issue, but in some cases it is still difficult to obtain consistent results. What remains still unanswered is the question of the best diagnostic tool on the market. Further research is needed to evaluate both tools as well as their clinical application for optimal use. PMID:23115957

  1. NNLOPS accurate associated HW production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Astill, William; Bizon, Wojciech; Re, Emanuele; Zanderighi, Giulia

    2016-06-01

    We present a next-to-next-to-leading order accurate description of associated HW production consistently matched to a parton shower. The method is based on reweighting events obtained with the HW plus one jet NLO accurate calculation implemented in POWHEG, extended with the MiNLO procedure, to reproduce NNLO accurate Born distributions. Since the Born kinematics is more complex than the cases treated before, we use a parametrization of the Collins-Soper angles to reduce the number of variables required for the reweighting. We present phenomenological results at 13 TeV, with cuts suggested by the Higgs Cross section Working Group.

  2. Performance assessment and beamline diagnostics based on evaluation of temporal information from infrared spectral datasets by means of R Environment for statistical analysis.

    PubMed

    Banas, Krzysztof; Banas, Agnieszka; Gajda, Mariusz; Kwiatek, Wojciech M; Pawlicki, Bohdan; Breese, Mark B H

    2014-07-15

    Assessment of the performance and up-to-date diagnostics of scientific equipment is one of the key components in contemporary laboratories. Most reliable checks are performed by real test experiments while varying the experimental conditions (typically, in the case of infrared spectroscopic measurements, the size of the beam aperture, the duration of the experiment, the spectral range, the scanner velocity, etc.). On the other hand, the stability of the instrument response in time is another key element of the great value. Source stability (or easy predictable temporal changes, similar to those observed in the case of synchrotron radiation-based sources working in non top-up mode), detector stability (especially in the case of liquid nitrogen- or liquid helium-cooled detectors) should be monitored. In these cases, recorded datasets (spectra) include additional variables such as time stamp when a particular spectrum was recorded (in the case of time trial experiments). A favorable approach in evaluating these data is building hyperspectral object that consist of all spectra and all additional parameters at which these spectra were recorded. Taking into account that these datasets could be considerably large in size, there is a need for the tools for semiautomatic data evaluation and information extraction. A comprehensive R archive network--the open-source R Environment--with its flexibility and growing potential, fits these requirements nicely. In this paper, examples of practical implementation of methods available in R for real-life Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopic data problems are presented. However, this approach could easily be adopted to many various laboratory scenarios with other spectroscopic techniques.

  3. Accurate mask model for advanced nodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zine El Abidine, Nacer; Sundermann, Frank; Yesilada, Emek; Ndiaye, El Hadji Omar; Mishra, Kushlendra; Paninjath, Sankaranarayanan; Bork, Ingo; Buck, Peter; Toublan, Olivier; Schanen, Isabelle

    2014-07-01

    Standard OPC models consist of a physical optical model and an empirical resist model. The resist model compensates the optical model imprecision on top of modeling resist development. The optical model imprecision may result from mask topography effects and real mask information including mask ebeam writing and mask process contributions. For advanced technology nodes, significant progress has been made to model mask topography to improve optical model accuracy. However, mask information is difficult to decorrelate from standard OPC model. Our goal is to establish an accurate mask model through a dedicated calibration exercise. In this paper, we present a flow to calibrate an accurate mask enabling its implementation. The study covers the different effects that should be embedded in the mask model as well as the experiment required to model them.

  4. Molecular diagnostics for fungal plant pathogens.

    PubMed

    McCartney, H Alastair; Foster, Simon J; Fraaije, Bart A; Ward, Elaine

    2003-02-01

    Accurate identification of fungal phytopathogens is essential for virtually all aspects of plant pathology, from fundamental research on the biology of pathogens to the control of the diseases they cause. Although molecular methods, such as polymerase chain reaction (PCR), are routinely used in the diagnosis of human diseases, they are not yet widely used to detect and identify plant pathogens. Here we review some of the diagnostic tools currently used for fungal plant pathogens and describe some novel applications. Technological advances in PCR-based methods, such as real-time PCR, allow fast, accurate detection and quantification of plant pathogens and are now being applied to practical problems. Molecular methods have been used to detect several pathogens simultaneously in wheat, and to study the development of fungicide resistance in wheat pathogens. Information resulting from such work could be used to improve disease control by allowing more rational decisions to be made about the choice and use of fungicides and resistant cultivars. Molecular methods have also been applied to the study of variation in plant pathogen populations, for example detection of different mating types or virulence types. PCR-based methods can provide new tools to monitor the exposure of a crop to pathogen inoculum that are more reliable and faster than conventional methods. This information can be used to improve disease control decision making. The development and application of molecular diagnostic methods in the future is discussed and we expect that new developments will increase the adoption of these new technologies for the diagnosis and study of plant disease.

  5. The high cost of accurate knowledge.

    PubMed

    Sutcliffe, Kathleen M; Weber, Klaus

    2003-05-01

    Many business thinkers believe it's the role of senior managers to scan the external environment to monitor contingencies and constraints, and to use that precise knowledge to modify the company's strategy and design. As these thinkers see it, managers need accurate and abundant information to carry out that role. According to that logic, it makes sense to invest heavily in systems for collecting and organizing competitive information. Another school of pundits contends that, since today's complex information often isn't precise anyway, it's not worth going overboard with such investments. In other words, it's not the accuracy and abundance of information that should matter most to top executives--rather, it's how that information is interpreted. After all, the role of senior managers isn't just to make decisions; it's to set direction and motivate others in the face of ambiguities and conflicting demands. Top executives must interpret information and communicate those interpretations--they must manage meaning more than they must manage information. So which of these competing views is the right one? Research conducted by academics Sutcliffe and Weber found that how accurate senior executives are about their competitive environments is indeed less important for strategy and corresponding organizational changes than the way in which they interpret information about their environments. Investments in shaping those interpretations, therefore, may create a more durable competitive advantage than investments in obtaining and organizing more information. And what kinds of interpretations are most closely linked with high performance? Their research suggests that high performers respond positively to opportunities, yet they aren't overconfident in their abilities to take advantage of those opportunities.

  6. High Frequency QRS ECG Accurately Detects Cardiomyopathy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schlegel, Todd T.; Arenare, Brian; Poulin, Gregory; Moser, Daniel R.; Delgado, Reynolds

    2005-01-01

    High frequency (HF, 150-250 Hz) analysis over the entire QRS interval of the ECG is more sensitive than conventional ECG for detecting myocardial ischemia. However, the accuracy of HF QRS ECG for detecting cardiomyopathy is unknown. We obtained simultaneous resting conventional and HF QRS 12-lead ECGs in 66 patients with cardiomyopathy (EF = 23.2 plus or minus 6.l%, mean plus or minus SD) and in 66 age- and gender-matched healthy controls using PC-based ECG software recently developed at NASA. The single most accurate ECG parameter for detecting cardiomyopathy was an HF QRS morphological score that takes into consideration the total number and severity of reduced amplitude zones (RAZs) present plus the clustering of RAZs together in contiguous leads. This RAZ score had an area under the receiver operator curve (ROC) of 0.91, and was 88% sensitive, 82% specific and 85% accurate for identifying cardiomyopathy at optimum score cut-off of 140 points. Although conventional ECG parameters such as the QRS and QTc intervals were also significantly longer in patients than controls (P less than 0.001, BBBs excluded), these conventional parameters were less accurate (area under the ROC = 0.77 and 0.77, respectively) than HF QRS morphological parameters for identifying underlying cardiomyopathy. The total amplitude of the HF QRS complexes, as measured by summed root mean square voltages (RMSVs), also differed between patients and controls (33.8 plus or minus 11.5 vs. 41.5 plus or minus 13.6 mV, respectively, P less than 0.003), but this parameter was even less accurate in distinguishing the two groups (area under ROC = 0.67) than the HF QRS morphologic and conventional ECG parameters. Diagnostic accuracy was optimal (86%) when the RAZ score from the HF QRS ECG and the QTc interval from the conventional ECG were used simultaneously with cut-offs of greater than or equal to 40 points and greater than or equal to 445 ms, respectively. In conclusion 12-lead HF QRS ECG employing

  7. Application of Functional Genomics for Bovine Respiratory Disease Diagnostics

    PubMed Central

    Rai, Aswathy N.; Epperson, William B.; Nanduri, Bindu

    2015-01-01

    Bovine respiratory disease (BRD) is the most common economically important disease affecting cattle. For developing accurate diagnostics that can predict disease susceptibility/resistance and stratification, it is necessary to identify the molecular mechanisms that underlie BRD. To study the complex interactions among the bovine host and the multitude of viral and bacterial pathogens, as well as the environmental factors associated with BRD etiology, genome-scale high-throughput functional genomics methods such as microarrays, RNA-seq, and proteomics are helpful. In this review, we summarize the progress made in our understanding of BRD using functional genomics approaches. We also discuss some of the available bioinformatics resources for analyzing high-throughput data, in the context of biological pathways and molecular interactions. Although resources for studying host response to infection are avail-able, the corresponding information is lacking for majority of BRD pathogens, impeding progress in identifying diagnostic signatures for BRD using functional genomics approaches. PMID:26526746

  8. Diagnostics for slapper detonator systems

    SciTech Connect

    Boberg, R.E.; Lee, R.E.; Lee, R.S.; Von Holle, W.

    1989-03-28

    This report discusses diagnostics which have been used to evaluate CDU characteristics and performance, slapper characteristics and performance and the response of a HE detonator output pellet to a slapper stimulus. Many of the diagnostics discussed are appropriate for development and production testing. These include CVR current measurements, voltage probe measurements, time-of-flight measurements, threshold measurements, function time measurements, use of steel witness plates and determination of design margin. Some of the more-sophisticated, expensive diagnostics discussed have yielded very useful information, but are not required for development and production testing. 8 refs., 9 figs., 1 tab.

  9. Knowledge based jet engine diagnostics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jellison, Timothy G.; Dehoff, Ronald L.

    1987-01-01

    A fielded expert system automates equipment fault isolation and recommends corrective maintenance action for Air Force jet engines. The knowledge based diagnostics tool was developed as an expert system interface to the Comprehensive Engine Management System, Increment IV (CEMS IV), the standard Air Force base level maintenance decision support system. XMAM (trademark), the Expert Maintenance Tool, automates procedures for troubleshooting equipment faults, provides a facility for interactive user training, and fits within a diagnostics information feedback loop to improve the troubleshooting and equipment maintenance processes. The application of expert diagnostics to the Air Force A-10A aircraft TF-34 engine equipped with the Turbine Engine Monitoring System (TEMS) is presented.

  10. Accurate phase-shift velocimetry in rock.

    PubMed

    Shukla, Matsyendra Nath; Vallatos, Antoine; Phoenix, Vernon R; Holmes, William M

    2016-06-01

    Spatially resolved Pulsed Field Gradient (PFG) velocimetry techniques can provide precious information concerning flow through opaque systems, including rocks. This velocimetry data is used to enhance flow models in a wide range of systems, from oil behaviour in reservoir rocks to contaminant transport in aquifers. Phase-shift velocimetry is the fastest way to produce velocity maps but critical issues have been reported when studying flow through rocks and porous media, leading to inaccurate results. Combining PFG measurements for flow through Bentheimer sandstone with simulations, we demonstrate that asymmetries in the molecular displacement distributions within each voxel are the main source of phase-shift velocimetry errors. We show that when flow-related average molecular displacements are negligible compared to self-diffusion ones, symmetric displacement distributions can be obtained while phase measurement noise is minimised. We elaborate a complete method for the production of accurate phase-shift velocimetry maps in rocks and low porosity media and demonstrate its validity for a range of flow rates. This development of accurate phase-shift velocimetry now enables more rapid and accurate velocity analysis, potentially helping to inform both industrial applications and theoretical models. PMID:27111139

  11. Accurate phase-shift velocimetry in rock

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shukla, Matsyendra Nath; Vallatos, Antoine; Phoenix, Vernon R.; Holmes, William M.

    2016-06-01

    Spatially resolved Pulsed Field Gradient (PFG) velocimetry techniques can provide precious information concerning flow through opaque systems, including rocks. This velocimetry data is used to enhance flow models in a wide range of systems, from oil behaviour in reservoir rocks to contaminant transport in aquifers. Phase-shift velocimetry is the fastest way to produce velocity maps but critical issues have been reported when studying flow through rocks and porous media, leading to inaccurate results. Combining PFG measurements for flow through Bentheimer sandstone with simulations, we demonstrate that asymmetries in the molecular displacement distributions within each voxel are the main source of phase-shift velocimetry errors. We show that when flow-related average molecular displacements are negligible compared to self-diffusion ones, symmetric displacement distributions can be obtained while phase measurement noise is minimised. We elaborate a complete method for the production of accurate phase-shift velocimetry maps in rocks and low porosity media and demonstrate its validity for a range of flow rates. This development of accurate phase-shift velocimetry now enables more rapid and accurate velocity analysis, potentially helping to inform both industrial applications and theoretical models.

  12. Accurate phase-shift velocimetry in rock.

    PubMed

    Shukla, Matsyendra Nath; Vallatos, Antoine; Phoenix, Vernon R; Holmes, William M

    2016-06-01

    Spatially resolved Pulsed Field Gradient (PFG) velocimetry techniques can provide precious information concerning flow through opaque systems, including rocks. This velocimetry data is used to enhance flow models in a wide range of systems, from oil behaviour in reservoir rocks to contaminant transport in aquifers. Phase-shift velocimetry is the fastest way to produce velocity maps but critical issues have been reported when studying flow through rocks and porous media, leading to inaccurate results. Combining PFG measurements for flow through Bentheimer sandstone with simulations, we demonstrate that asymmetries in the molecular displacement distributions within each voxel are the main source of phase-shift velocimetry errors. We show that when flow-related average molecular displacements are negligible compared to self-diffusion ones, symmetric displacement distributions can be obtained while phase measurement noise is minimised. We elaborate a complete method for the production of accurate phase-shift velocimetry maps in rocks and low porosity media and demonstrate its validity for a range of flow rates. This development of accurate phase-shift velocimetry now enables more rapid and accurate velocity analysis, potentially helping to inform both industrial applications and theoretical models.

  13. Instrumentation and diagnostics

    SciTech Connect

    Nakaishi, C.V.; Bedick, R.C.

    1990-12-01

    This Technology Status Report describes research and accomplishments for the Instrumentation and Diagnostics (I D) Projects within the Advanced Research and Technology Development (AR TD) Program of the United States Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Fossil Energy (FE). Process understanding and control can be improved through the development of advanced instrumentation and diagnostics. The thrust of the I D Projects is to further develop existing measurement and control techniques for application to advanced coal-based technologies. Project highlights are: an inductively coupled plasma (ICP) instrument has been developed to analyze trace elements in gasification and combustion process streams. An in situ two-color Mie scattering technique with LSS can simultaneously measure the size, velocity, and elemental composition of coal particles during combustion. A high-temperature, fluorescence thermometry technique has accurately measured gas temperatures during field testing in combustion and gasification environments. Expert systems have been developed to improve the control of advanced coal-based processes. Capacitance flowmeters were developed to determine the mass flowrate, solid volume fraction, and particle velocities of coal slurries. 32 refs., 9 figs.

  14. [Technical novelties, latest diagnostic options in the MRI and CT diagnostics of colorectal cancer].

    PubMed

    Jederán, Éva; Gõdény, Mária

    2015-09-01

    Diagnostic and therapeutic options of colorectal cancer (CRC) have changed over the past decade. Imaging plays a major role, thus the use of scanning methods is recommended by guidelines. Accurate staging, evaluation of treatment efficacy and identification of residual and recurrent tumors are required for the modern management of colorectal cancer. If adequate technical background is provided, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) gives the information upon which therapeutic options may be determined. High-resolution MRI scans can be interpreted as maps providing functional and molecular information. Diffusion-weighted MRI (DW-MRI) has shown promising results regarding the determination of tumor volume and evaluation of treatment efficacy. Perfusion dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI (P-DCE-MRI) is the subject of research in the early assessment of treatment efficacy. Magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging (MRSI) is a procedure utilizing biochemical analysis. Its application in CRC is under investigation. Clinical effectiveness of PET-MRI (hardware-based combination of MRI and positron emission tomography) is also being studied. Diagnostic value of computed tomographic colonography (CTC) has been proven in the detection of CRC as well as of polyps. PMID:26339907

  15. [Technical novelties, latest diagnostic options in the MRI and CT diagnostics of colorectal cancer].

    PubMed

    Jederán, Éva; Gõdény, Mária

    2015-09-01

    Diagnostic and therapeutic options of colorectal cancer (CRC) have changed over the past decade. Imaging plays a major role, thus the use of scanning methods is recommended by guidelines. Accurate staging, evaluation of treatment efficacy and identification of residual and recurrent tumors are required for the modern management of colorectal cancer. If adequate technical background is provided, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) gives the information upon which therapeutic options may be determined. High-resolution MRI scans can be interpreted as maps providing functional and molecular information. Diffusion-weighted MRI (DW-MRI) has shown promising results regarding the determination of tumor volume and evaluation of treatment efficacy. Perfusion dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI (P-DCE-MRI) is the subject of research in the early assessment of treatment efficacy. Magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging (MRSI) is a procedure utilizing biochemical analysis. Its application in CRC is under investigation. Clinical effectiveness of PET-MRI (hardware-based combination of MRI and positron emission tomography) is also being studied. Diagnostic value of computed tomographic colonography (CTC) has been proven in the detection of CRC as well as of polyps.

  16. New diagnostic tools in schistosomiasis.

    PubMed

    Utzinger, J; Becker, S L; van Lieshout, L; van Dam, G J; Knopp, S

    2015-06-01

    Schistosomiasis is a water-based parasitic disease that affects over 250 million people. Control efforts have long been in vain, which is one reason why schistosomiasis is considered a neglected tropical disease. However, since the new millennium, interventions against schistosomiasis are escalating. The initial impetus stems from a 2001 World Health Assembly resolution, urging member states to scale-up deworming of school-aged children with the anthelminthic drug praziquantel. Because praziquantel is safe, efficacious and inexpensive when delivered through the school platform, diagnosis before drug intervention was deemed unnecessary and not cost-effective. Hence, there was little interest in research and development of novel diagnostic tools. With the recent publication of the World Health Organization (WHO) Roadmap to overcome the impact of neglected tropical diseases in 2020, we have entered a new era. Elimination of schistosomiasis has become the buzzword and this has important ramifications for diagnostic tools. Indeed, measuring progress towards the WHO Roadmap and whether local elimination has been achieved requires highly accurate diagnostic assays. Here, we introduce target product profiles for diagnostic tools that are required for different stages of a schistosomiasis control programme. We provide an update of the latest developments in schistosomiasis diagnosis, including microscopic techniques, rapid diagnostic tests for antigen detection, polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assays and proxy markers for morbidity assessments. Particular emphasis is placed on challenges and solutions for new technologies to enter clinical practice.

  17. Upgrading Diagnostic Diagrams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Proxauf, B.; Kimeswenger, S.; Öttl, S.

    2014-04-01

    Diagnostic diagrams of forbidden lines have been a useful tool for observers in astrophysics for many decades now. They are used to obtain information on the basic physical properties of thin gaseous nebulae. Moreover they are also the initial tool to derive thermodynamic properties of the plasma from observations to get ionization correction factors and thus to obtain proper abundances of the nebulae. Some diagnostic diagrams are in wavelengths domains which were difficult to take either due to missing wavelength coverage or low resolution of older spectrographs. Thus they were hardly used in the past. An upgrade of this useful tool is necessary because most of the diagrams were calculated using only the species involved as a single atom gas, although several are affected by well-known fluorescence mechanisms as well. Additionally the atomic data have improved up to the present time. The new diagnostic diagrams are calculated by using large grids of parameter space in the photoionization code CLOUDY. For a given basic parameter the input radiation field is varied to find the solutions with cooling-heating-equilibrium. Empirical numerical functions are fitted to provide formulas usable in e.g. data reduction pipelines. The resulting diagrams differ significantly from those used up to now and will improve the thermodynamic calculations.

  18. New law requires 'medically accurate' lesson plans.

    PubMed

    1999-09-17

    The California Legislature has passed a bill requiring all textbooks and materials used to teach about AIDS be medically accurate and objective. Statements made within the curriculum must be supported by research conducted in compliance with scientific methods, and published in peer-reviewed journals. Some of the current lesson plans were found to contain scientifically unsupported and biased information. In addition, the bill requires material to be "free of racial, ethnic, or gender biases." The legislation is supported by a wide range of interests, but opposed by the California Right to Life Education Fund, because they believe it discredits abstinence-only material.

  19. New law requires 'medically accurate' lesson plans.

    PubMed

    1999-09-17

    The California Legislature has passed a bill requiring all textbooks and materials used to teach about AIDS be medically accurate and objective. Statements made within the curriculum must be supported by research conducted in compliance with scientific methods, and published in peer-reviewed journals. Some of the current lesson plans were found to contain scientifically unsupported and biased information. In addition, the bill requires material to be "free of racial, ethnic, or gender biases." The legislation is supported by a wide range of interests, but opposed by the California Right to Life Education Fund, because they believe it discredits abstinence-only material. PMID:11366835

  20. Behavioral diagnostics.

    PubMed

    Bailey, J S; Pyles, D A

    1989-01-01

    The contemporary behavior analyst, to operate ethically and effectively, must be aware of many more factors affecting behavior than simple consequences. Although the literature demonstrating the effectiveness of active behavior management is impressive, a compelling argument can be made that a great number of behavior problem seen in individuals with developmental disabilities may be attributable to factors other than consequences. Our experience has been more often than not that physiological, organic, medication, or situational variables are the actual culprits in maladaptive behavior. Individuals with severe or profound retardation may respond to aversive features of their environment by displaying noncompliance, tantrums, aggression, or self-injurious behavior. These antecedents can affect their behavior just as powerfully as can the consequences of their behavior. Behavior analysts must become sensitive to these potential factors and be prepared to employ behavioral diagnostic strategies in the search for the causes of maladaptive behavior. Finally, they must be prepared to design rather unconventional passive behavior management treatment programs involving the manipulation of the antecedent environment. In the case of Carrie, from the example at the beginning of this paper, the analysis yielded the hypothesis that her face scratching was a reaction to sinus blockage caused by seasonal allergies. Her treatment involved daily dosages of antihistamines administered by our nurses and subsequent elimination of the scratching. Tom was found to be suffering from "wheelchair fatigue." When he was allowed to recline on other surfaces (e.g., bean bag chair, mat, bolster) on a regular basis, he did not attempt any form of self-injury. Melissa was found to have a severe case of Pre Menstrual Syndrome as well as seizure disorder, and was treated with the appropriate medications. Her headbanging was reduced to a few minor incidents per month. Walter's tantrums on closer

  1. Bubble diagnostics

    DOEpatents

    Visuri, Steven R.; Mammini, Beth M.; Da Silva, Luiz B.; Celliers, Peter M.

    2003-01-01

    The present invention is intended as a means of diagnosing the presence of a gas bubble and incorporating the information into a feedback system for opto-acoustic thrombolysis. In opto-acoustic thrombolysis, pulsed laser radiation at ultrasonic frequencies is delivered intraluminally down an optical fiber and directed toward a thrombus or otherwise occluded vessel. Dissolution of the occlusion is therefore mediated through ultrasonic action of propagating pressure or shock waves. A vapor bubble in the fluid surrounding the occlusion may form as a result of laser irradiation. This vapor bubble may be used to directly disrupt the occlusion or as a means of producing a pressure wave. It is desirable to detect the formation and follow the lifetime of the vapor bubble. Knowledge of the bubble formation and lifetime yields critical information as to the maximum size of the bubble, density of the absorbed radiation, and properties of the absorbing material. This information can then be used in a feedback system to alter the irradiation conditions.

  2. Accurate documentation and wound measurement.

    PubMed

    Hampton, Sylvie

    This article, part 4 in a series on wound management, addresses the sometimes routine yet crucial task of documentation. Clear and accurate records of a wound enable its progress to be determined so the appropriate treatment can be applied. Thorough records mean any practitioner picking up a patient's notes will know when the wound was last checked, how it looked and what dressing and/or treatment was applied, ensuring continuity of care. Documenting every assessment also has legal implications, demonstrating due consideration and care of the patient and the rationale for any treatment carried out. Part 5 in the series discusses wound dressing characteristics and selection.

  3. Accurate calculation of the absolute free energy of binding for drug molecules† †Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c5sc02678d Click here for additional data file.

    PubMed Central

    Aldeghi, Matteo; Heifetz, Alexander; Bodkin, Michael J.; Knapp, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    Accurate prediction of binding affinities has been a central goal of computational chemistry for decades, yet remains elusive. Despite good progress, the required accuracy for use in a drug-discovery context has not been consistently achieved for drug-like molecules. Here, we perform absolute free energy calculations based on a thermodynamic cycle for a set of diverse inhibitors binding to bromodomain-containing protein 4 (BRD4) and demonstrate that a mean absolute error of 0.6 kcal mol–1 can be achieved. We also show a similar level of accuracy (1.0 kcal mol–1) can be achieved in pseudo prospective approach. Bromodomains are epigenetic mark readers that recognize acetylation motifs and regulate gene transcription, and are currently being investigated as therapeutic targets for cancer and inflammation. The unprecedented accuracy offers the exciting prospect that the binding free energy of drug-like compounds can be predicted for pharmacologically relevant targets. PMID:26798447

  4. Mining balance disorders' data for the development of diagnostic decision support systems.

    PubMed

    Exarchos, T P; Rigas, G; Bibas, A; Kikidis, D; Nikitas, C; Wuyts, F L; Ihtijarevic, B; Maes, L; Cenciarini, M; Maurer, C; Macdonald, N; Bamiou, D-E; Luxon, L; Prasinos, M; Spanoudakis, G; Koutsouris, D D; Fotiadis, D I

    2016-10-01

    In this work we present the methodology for the development of the EMBalance diagnostic Decision Support System (DSS) for balance disorders. Medical data from patients with balance disorders have been analysed using data mining techniques for the development of the diagnostic DSS. The proposed methodology uses various data, ranging from demographic characteristics to clinical examination, auditory and vestibular tests, in order to provide an accurate diagnosis. The system aims to provide decision support for general practitioners (GPs) and experts in the diagnosis of balance disorders as well as to provide recommendations for the appropriate information and data to be requested at each step of the diagnostic process. Detailed results are provided for the diagnosis of 12 balance disorders, both for GPs and experts. Overall, the reported accuracy ranges from 59.3 to 89.8% for GPs and from 74.3 to 92.1% for experts.

  5. Mining balance disorders' data for the development of diagnostic decision support systems.

    PubMed

    Exarchos, T P; Rigas, G; Bibas, A; Kikidis, D; Nikitas, C; Wuyts, F L; Ihtijarevic, B; Maes, L; Cenciarini, M; Maurer, C; Macdonald, N; Bamiou, D-E; Luxon, L; Prasinos, M; Spanoudakis, G; Koutsouris, D D; Fotiadis, D I

    2016-10-01

    In this work we present the methodology for the development of the EMBalance diagnostic Decision Support System (DSS) for balance disorders. Medical data from patients with balance disorders have been analysed using data mining techniques for the development of the diagnostic DSS. The proposed methodology uses various data, ranging from demographic characteristics to clinical examination, auditory and vestibular tests, in order to provide an accurate diagnosis. The system aims to provide decision support for general practitioners (GPs) and experts in the diagnosis of balance disorders as well as to provide recommendations for the appropriate information and data to be requested at each step of the diagnostic process. Detailed results are provided for the diagnosis of 12 balance disorders, both for GPs and experts. Overall, the reported accuracy ranges from 59.3 to 89.8% for GPs and from 74.3 to 92.1% for experts. PMID:27619194

  6. Chronic Meningitis: Simplifying a Diagnostic Challenge.

    PubMed

    Baldwin, Kelly; Whiting, Chris

    2016-03-01

    Chronic meningitis can be a diagnostic dilemma for even the most experienced clinician. Many times, the differential diagnosis is broad and encompasses autoimmune, neoplastic, and infectious etiologies. This review will focus on a general approach to chronic meningitis to simplify the diagnostic challenges many clinicians face. The article will also review the most common etiologies of chronic meningitis in some detail including clinical presentation, diagnostic testing, treatment, and outcomes. By using a case-based approach, we will focus on the key elements of clinical presentation and laboratory analysis that will yield the most rapid and accurate diagnosis in these complicated cases.

  7. Medical Image Watermarking Technique for Accurate Tamper Detection in ROI and Exact Recovery of ROI.

    PubMed

    Eswaraiah, R; Sreenivasa Reddy, E

    2014-01-01

    In telemedicine while transferring medical images tampers may be introduced. Before making any diagnostic decisions, the integrity of region of interest (ROI) of the received medical image must be verified to avoid misdiagnosis. In this paper, we propose a novel fragile block based medical image watermarking technique to avoid embedding distortion inside ROI, verify integrity of ROI, detect accurately the tampered blocks inside ROI, and recover the original ROI with zero loss. In this proposed method, the medical image is segmented into three sets of pixels: ROI pixels, region of noninterest (RONI) pixels, and border pixels. Then, authentication data and information of ROI are embedded in border pixels. Recovery data of ROI is embedded into RONI. Results of experiments conducted on a number of medical images reveal that the proposed method produces high quality watermarked medical images, identifies the presence of tampers inside ROI with 100% accuracy, and recovers the original ROI without any loss.

  8. Medical Image Watermarking Technique for Accurate Tamper Detection in ROI and Exact Recovery of ROI

    PubMed Central

    Eswaraiah, R.; Sreenivasa Reddy, E.

    2014-01-01

    In telemedicine while transferring medical images tampers may be introduced. Before making any diagnostic decisions, the integrity of region of interest (ROI) of the received medical image must be verified to avoid misdiagnosis. In this paper, we propose a novel fragile block based medical image watermarking technique to avoid embedding distortion inside ROI, verify integrity of ROI, detect accurately the tampered blocks inside ROI, and recover the original ROI with zero loss. In this proposed method, the medical image is segmented into three sets of pixels: ROI pixels, region of noninterest (RONI) pixels, and border pixels. Then, authentication data and information of ROI are embedded in border pixels. Recovery data of ROI is embedded into RONI. Results of experiments conducted on a number of medical images reveal that the proposed method produces high quality watermarked medical images, identifies the presence of tampers inside ROI with 100% accuracy, and recovers the original ROI without any loss. PMID:25328515

  9. The Development of a Diagnostic-Prescriptive Tool for Undergraduates Seeking Information for a Social Science/Humanities Assignment. III. Enabling Devices.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cole, Charles; Cantero, Pablo; Ungar, Andras

    2000-01-01

    This article focuses on a study of undergraduates writing an essay for a remedial writing course that tested two devices, an uncertainty expansion device and an uncertainty reduction device. Highlights include Kuhlthau's information search process model, and enabling technology devices for the information needs of information retrieval system…

  10. Beam diagnostics

    SciTech Connect

    Bogaty, J.; Clifft, B.E.; Zinkann, G.P.; Pardo, R.C.

    1995-08-01

    The ECR-PII injector beam line is operated at a fixed ion velocity. The platform high voltage is chosen so that all ions have a velocity of 0.0085c at the PII entrance. If a previous tune configuration for the linac is to be used, the beam arrival time must be matched to the previous tune as well. A nondestructive beam-phase pickup detector was developed and installed at the entrance to the PII linac. This device provides continuous phase and beam current information and allows quick optimization of the beam injected into PII. Bunches traverse a short tubular electrode thereby inducing displacement currents. These currents are brought outside the vacuum interface where a lumped inductance resonates electrode capacitance at one of the bunching harmonic frequencies. This configuration yields a basic sensitivity of a few hundred millivolts signal per microampere of beam current. Beam-induced radiofrequency signals are summed against an offset frequency generated by our master oscillator. The resulting kilohertz difference frequency conveys beam intensity and bunch phase information which is sent to separate processing channels. One channel utilizes a phase locked loop which stabilizes phase readings if beam is unstable. The other channel uses a linear full wave active rectifier circuit which converts kilohertz sine wave signal amplitude to a D.C. voltage representing beam current. A prototype set of electronics is now in use with the detector and we began to use the system in operation to set the arrival beam phase. A permanent version of the electronics system for the phase detector is now under construction. Additional nondestructive beam intensity and phase monitors at the {open_quotes}Booster{close_quotes} and {open_quotes}ATLAS{close_quotes} linac sections are planned as well as on some of the high-energy beam lines. Such a monitor will be particularly useful for FMA experiments where the primary beam hits one of the electric deflector plates.

  11. SPLASH: Accurate OH maser positions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walsh, Andrew; Gomez, Jose F.; Jones, Paul; Cunningham, Maria; Green, James; Dawson, Joanne; Ellingsen, Simon; Breen, Shari; Imai, Hiroshi; Lowe, Vicki; Jones, Courtney

    2013-10-01

    The hydroxyl (OH) 18 cm lines are powerful and versatile probes of diffuse molecular gas, that may trace a largely unstudied component of the Galactic ISM. SPLASH (the Southern Parkes Large Area Survey in Hydroxyl) is a large, unbiased and fully-sampled survey of OH emission, absorption and masers in the Galactic Plane that will achieve sensitivities an order of magnitude better than previous work. In this proposal, we request ATCA time to follow up OH maser candidates. This will give us accurate (~10") positions of the masers, which can be compared to other maser positions from HOPS, MMB and MALT-45 and will provide full polarisation measurements towards a sample of OH masers that have not been observed in MAGMO.

  12. Accurate thickness measurement of graphene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shearer, Cameron J.; Slattery, Ashley D.; Stapleton, Andrew J.; Shapter, Joseph G.; Gibson, Christopher T.

    2016-03-01

    Graphene has emerged as a material with a vast variety of applications. The electronic, optical and mechanical properties of graphene are strongly influenced by the number of layers present in a sample. As a result, the dimensional characterization of graphene films is crucial, especially with the continued development of new synthesis methods and applications. A number of techniques exist to determine the thickness of graphene films including optical contrast, Raman scattering and scanning probe microscopy techniques. Atomic force microscopy (AFM), in particular, is used extensively since it provides three-dimensional images that enable the measurement of the lateral dimensions of graphene films as well as the thickness, and by extension the number of layers present. However, in the literature AFM has proven to be inaccurate with a wide range of measured values for single layer graphene thickness reported (between 0.4 and 1.7 nm). This discrepancy has been attributed to tip-surface interactions, image feedback settings and surface chemistry. In this work, we use standard and carbon nanotube modified AFM probes and a relatively new AFM imaging mode known as PeakForce tapping mode to establish a protocol that will allow users to accurately determine the thickness of graphene films. In particular, the error in measuring the first layer is reduced from 0.1-1.3 nm to 0.1-0.3 nm. Furthermore, in the process we establish that the graphene-substrate adsorbate layer and imaging force, in particular the pressure the tip exerts on the surface, are crucial components in the accurate measurement of graphene using AFM. These findings can be applied to other 2D materials.

  13. Accurate thickness measurement of graphene.

    PubMed

    Shearer, Cameron J; Slattery, Ashley D; Stapleton, Andrew J; Shapter, Joseph G; Gibson, Christopher T

    2016-03-29

    Graphene has emerged as a material with a vast variety of applications. The electronic, optical and mechanical properties of graphene are strongly influenced by the number of layers present in a sample. As a result, the dimensional characterization of graphene films is crucial, especially with the continued development of new synthesis methods and applications. A number of techniques exist to determine the thickness of graphene films including optical contrast, Raman scattering and scanning probe microscopy techniques. Atomic force microscopy (AFM), in particular, is used extensively since it provides three-dimensional images that enable the measurement of the lateral dimensions of graphene films as well as the thickness, and by extension the number of layers present. However, in the literature AFM has proven to be inaccurate with a wide range of measured values for single layer graphene thickness reported (between 0.4 and 1.7 nm). This discrepancy has been attributed to tip-surface interactions, image feedback settings and surface chemistry. In this work, we use standard and carbon nanotube modified AFM probes and a relatively new AFM imaging mode known as PeakForce tapping mode to establish a protocol that will allow users to accurately determine the thickness of graphene films. In particular, the error in measuring the first layer is reduced from 0.1-1.3 nm to 0.1-0.3 nm. Furthermore, in the process we establish that the graphene-substrate adsorbate layer and imaging force, in particular the pressure the tip exerts on the surface, are crucial components in the accurate measurement of graphene using AFM. These findings can be applied to other 2D materials.

  14. Spatial calibration of a tokamak neutral beam diagnostic using in situ neutral beam emission

    SciTech Connect

    Chrystal, C.; Burrell, K. H.; Pace, D. C.; Grierson, B. A.

    2015-10-15

    Neutral beam injection is used in tokamaks to heat, apply torque, drive non-inductive current, and diagnose plasmas. Neutral beam diagnostics need accurate spatial calibrations to benefit from the measurement localization provided by the neutral beam. A new technique has been developed that uses in situ measurements of neutral beam emission to determine the spatial location of the beam and the associated diagnostic views. This technique was developed to improve the charge exchange recombination (CER) diagnostic at the DIII-D tokamak and uses measurements of the Doppler shift and Stark splitting of neutral beam emission made by that diagnostic. These measurements contain information about the geometric relation between the diagnostic views and the neutral beams when they are injecting power. This information is combined with standard spatial calibration measurements to create an integrated spatial calibration that provides a more complete description of the neutral beam-CER system. The integrated spatial calibration results are very similar to the standard calibration results and derived quantities from CER measurements are unchanged within their measurement errors. The methods developed to perform the integrated spatial calibration could be useful for tokamaks with limited physical access.

  15. Spatial calibration of a tokamak neutral beam diagnostic using in situ neutral beam emission.

    PubMed

    Chrystal, C; Burrell, K H; Grierson, B A; Pace, D C

    2015-10-01

    Neutral beam injection is used in tokamaks to heat, apply torque, drive non-inductive current, and diagnose plasmas. Neutral beam diagnostics need accurate spatial calibrations to benefit from the measurement localization provided by the neutral beam. A new technique has been developed that uses in situ measurements of neutral beam emission to determine the spatial location of the beam and the associated diagnostic views. This technique was developed to improve the charge exchange recombination (CER) diagnostic at the DIII-D tokamak and uses measurements of the Doppler shift and Stark splitting of neutral beam emission made by that diagnostic. These measurements contain information about the geometric relation between the diagnostic views and the neutral beams when they are injecting power. This information is combined with standard spatial calibration measurements to create an integrated spatial calibration that provides a more complete description of the neutral beam-CER system. The integrated spatial calibration results are very similar to the standard calibration results and derived quantities from CER measurements are unchanged within their measurement errors. The methods developed to perform the integrated spatial calibration could be useful for tokamaks with limited physical access.

  16. Integrating clinical indexes into four-diagnostic information contributes to the Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) syndrome diagnosis of chronic hepatitis B.

    PubMed

    Kang, Hong; Zhao, Yu; Li, Chao; Chen, Yujia; Tang, Kailin; Yang, Linlin; Ma, Chao; Peng, Jinghua; Zhu, Ruixin; Liu, Qi; Hu, Yiyang; Cao, Zhiwei

    2015-03-23

    Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) treatment has been commonly used to treat Chronic Hepatitis B (CHB) in Asian countries based on TCM syndrome diagnosis, also called "ZHENG". The syndrome is identified through the four-diagnostic methods, with certain degree of subjectivity and ambiguity from individual doctors. Normally those CHB patients also receive series of parameters from modern clinical examination, while they are routinely believed to be unrelated with the TCM syndrome diagnosis. In this study, we investigated whether these biomedical indexes in modern medicine could be beneficial to TCM syndrome diagnostics in an integrative way. Based on 634 patient samples from health controls and three subtypes of CHB syndromes, a two-view based hierarchical classification model was tested for TCM syndromes prediction based on totally 222 parameters integrated from both TCM practice and modern clinical tests. The results indicated that the performance of syndrome classification based on a proper integration of TCM and modern clinical indexes was significantly higher than those based on one view of parameters only. Furthermore, those indexes correlated with CHB syndrome diagnosis were successfully identified for CM indexes and biochemical indexes respectively, where potential associations between them were hinted to the MAPK signaling pathway.

  17. Diagnostic Teaching, Writing and Mathematics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fennel, Francis

    1991-01-01

    Provides ethnographic information about preservice teachers and their formative relationships to diagnostic teaching and letter writing within the school mathematics curriculum. Also, indicates that elementary school students benefit from letter writing as it relates to mathematics attitudes and achievement levels. (nine references) (JJK)

  18. Immunosensors in Clinical Laboratory Diagnostics.

    PubMed

    Justino, Celine I L; Duarte, Armando C; Rocha-Santos, Teresa A P

    2016-01-01

    The application of simple, cost-effective, rapid, and accurate diagnostic technologies for detection and identification of cardiac and cancer biomarkers has been a central point in the clinical area. Biosensors have been recognized as efficient alternatives for the diagnostics of various diseases due to their specificity and potential for application on real samples. The role of nanotechnology in the construction of immunological biosensors, that is, immunosensors, has contributed to the improvement of sensitivity, since they are based in the affinity between antibody and antigen. Other analytes than biomarkers such as hormones, pathogenic bacteria, and virus have also been detected by immunosensors for clinical point-of-care applications. In this chapter, we first introduced the various types of immunosensors and discussed their applications in clinical diagnostics over the recent 6 years, mainly as point-of-care technologies for the determination of cardiac and cancer biomarkers, hormones, pathogenic bacteria, and virus. The future perspectives of these devices in the field of clinical diagnostics are also evaluated. PMID:26975970

  19. Huntington Disease: Molecular Diagnostics Approach.

    PubMed

    Bastepe, Murat; Xin, Winnie

    2015-10-06

    Huntington disease (HD) is caused by expansion of a CAG trinucleotide repeat in the first exon of the Huntingtin (HTT) gene. Molecular testing of Huntington disease for diagnostic confirmation and disease prediction requires detection of the CAG repeat expansion. There are three main types of HD genetic testing: (1) diagnostic testing to confirm or rule out disease, (2) presymptomatic testing to determine whether an at-risk individual inherited the expanded allele, and (3) prenatal testing to determine whether the fetus has inherited the expanded allele. This unit includes protocols that describe the complementary use of polymerase chain reactions (PCR) and Southern blot hybridization to accurately measure the CAG trinucleotide repeat size and interpret the test results. In addition, an indirect linkage analysis that does not reveal the unwanted parental HD status in a prenatal testing will also be discussed.

  20. Developing Score Reports for Cognitive Diagnostic Assessments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts, Mary Roduta; Gierl, Mark J.

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a framework to provide a structured approach for developing score reports for cognitive diagnostic assessments ("CDAs"). Guidelines for reporting and presenting diagnostic scores are based on a review of current educational test score reporting practices and literature from the area of information design. A sample diagnostic…

  1. Evidence-based medicine for diagnostic questions.

    PubMed

    Evers, Johannes L H; Land, Jolande A; Mol, Ben W

    2003-02-01

    When searching the medical care literature for evidence on a diagnostic test, three questions should be addressed each time a study is found: (1) Is this evidence about a diagnostic test valid? (2) Does the test accurately discriminate between patients who do and patients who do not have a specific disorder? (3) Can the test be applied to this patient who is right now sitting in front of me? We will discuss hysterosalpingography (HSG) as an example of a valid and accurate diagnostic test to be applied in a general population of subfertile couples to assess tubal patency (specificity 0.83). HSG is an unreliable test for diagnosing tubal occlusion however (sensitivity 0.65). If HSG were normal, other investigations could be pursued and diagnostic laparoscopy (LS) only performed if conception had not occurred by a later date. If HSG were abnormal, LS would be needed to confirm or exclude tubal occlusion. Patients with risk factors for pelvic or tubal disease, including an abnormal Chlamydia antibody test (CAT) and those showing abnormalities at pelvic examination, should proceed directly to LS because they are significantly more likely to have pelvic pathology. A completely different issue would be HSG as a prognostic test for the occurrence of pregnancy. In theory, the occurrence of pregnancy may be considered a gold standard; however, in reproductive medicine, with so many causes of subfertility other than tubal pathology, a diagnostic test for one single disorder, if normal, will never be able to accurately predict the eventual occurrence of pregnancy.

  2. First Wall and Operational Diagnostics

    SciTech Connect

    Lasnier, C; Allen, S; Boedo, J; Groth, M; Brooks, N; McLean, A; LaBombard, B; Sharpe, J; Skinner, C; Whyte, D; Rudakov, D; West, W; Wong, C

    2006-06-19

    In this chapter we review numerous diagnostics capable of measurements at or near the first wall, many of which contribute information useful for safe operation of a tokamak. There are sections discussing infrared cameras, visible and VUV cameras, pressure gauges and RGAs, Langmuir probes, thermocouples, and erosion and deposition measurements by insertable probes and quartz microbalance. Also discussed are dust measurements by electrostatic detectors, laser scattering, visible and IR cameras, and manual collection of samples after machine opening. In each case the diagnostic is discussed with a view toward application to a burning plasma machine such as ITER.

  3. [The diagnostic possibilities of saliva].

    PubMed

    Kochurova, E V; Kozlov, S V

    2014-01-01

    Saliva is a clinically informative biological fluid which contains multitude of bio-markers. This characteristic makes it possible to carry out numerous analyzes for developing mode to test patient in situ, express-tests included. The diagnostic by saliva is a new area of more simple application both markers and analyzers that can be useful in diagnostic of diseases of oral cavity, oncological diseases included. The using of saliva expands perspectives for making clinical diagnosis and establishment of dynamics and monitoring of disease.

  4. Diagnostic Potential of Pulsed Arterial Spin Labeling in Alzheimer's Disease

    PubMed Central

    Trebeschi, Stefano; Riederer, Isabelle; Preibisch, Christine; Bohn, Karl P.; Förster, Stefan; Alexopoulos, Panagiotis; Zimmer, Claus; Kirschke, Jan S.; Valentinitsch, Alexander

    2016-01-01

    Alzheimers disease (AD) is the most common cause of dementia. Although the underlying pathology is still not completely understood, several diagnostic methods are available. Frequently, the most accurate methods are also the most invasive. The present work investigates the diagnostic potential of Pulsed Arterial Spin Labeling (PASL) for AD: a non-invasive, MRI-based technique for the quantification of regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF). In particular, we propose a pilot computer aided diagnostic (CAD) procedure able to discriminate between healthy and diseased subjects, and at the same time, providing visual informative results. This method encompasses the creation of a healthy model, the computation of a voxel-wise likelihood function as comparison between the healthy model and the subject under examination, and the correction of the likelihood function via prior distributions. The discriminant analysis is carried out to maximize the accuracy of the classification. The algorithm has been trained on a dataset of 81 subjects and achieved a sensitivity of 0.750 and a specificity of 0.875. Moreover, in accordance with the current pathological knowledge, the parietal lobe, and limbic system are shown to be the main discriminant factors. PMID:27147946

  5. Gonorrhoea diagnostics: An update.

    PubMed

    Verma, R; Sood, S

    2016-01-01

    Diagnosis of gonorrhoea is an ongoing challenge. The organism is fastidious requiring meticulous collection and transport for successful cultivation. Asymptomatic infections are common which go undetected by conventional methods thereby leading to continued transmission and the risk of complications. The nucleic acid amplification tests, now increasingly used in developed countries, offer improved sensitivity compared to bacterial culture. However, these continue to suffer sequence related problems leading to false positive and false negative results. Further, these cannot be used for generation of data on antibiotic susceptibility because genetic markers of antibiotic resistance to recommended therapies have not been fully characterised. They are unaffordable in a setting like ours where reliance is placed on syndromic approach for sexually transmitted infection (STI) management. The use of syndromic approach has resulted in a considerable decline in the number of Neisseria gonorrhoeae isolates that have been cultured for diagnostic purposes. Many laboratories formerly doing so are no longer performing culture for gonococci, and the basic skills have been lost. There is a need to not only revive this skill but also adopt newer technologies that can aid in accurate diagnosis in a cost-effective manner. There is room for innovation that can facilitate the development of a point-of-care test for this bacterial STI. PMID:27080763

  6. Diagnostic Procedures of Itch.

    PubMed

    Reich, Adam; Szepietowski, Jacek C

    2016-01-01

    A complex and multifactorial pathogenesis of itch makes the proper diagnosis of underlying disease a difficult and challenging clinical problem. The examination of every patient with itch should be started by gathering an accurate history. During the anamnesis it is important to obtain data about the beginning of the appearance of symptoms, its location, diurnal variation, and the factors influencing itch perception. After careful anamnesis the patient should undergo a detailed physical examination, with particular attention to the skin in order to look for any signs of skin lesions. Special attention should be paid to distinguish the primary lesion from the changes resulting from scratching. In patients in whom the etiology of the itch cannot be identified on the basis of the medical examination, a panel of primary screen laboratory examination may be required, and if necessary, depending on the results of basic laboratory results and data from medical history, additional diagnostic tests should be considered. In patients in whom an organic cause of itching has not been established, itch is most likely of undetermined origin; however, psychogenic causes should also be suspected and ruled out. In conclusion, it could be stated that itch is a common symptom of many skin diseases, systemic of neurological diseases. Despite the complex etiology of the disease, an exact cause of itch should be searched for in each patient, as successful therapy is largely dependent on the determination of the cause of the itching. PMID:27578067

  7. [Diagnostic protocol and special tests].

    PubMed

    Bellia, M; Pennarola, R

    2008-01-01

    Diagnostic protocol and special tests to ionizing radiations have a preventive function in the medical surveillance of the exposed worker. This protocol must be provided with laboratory and special test assessing fitness for working at the risk of ionizing radiations. The health of workers must be compatible with working conditions and radiation risk. This healthiness of workers is evalued in the time to give an assessment fitness for working at ionizing radiations. For this purpose the basic diagnostic protocol must guarantee minimum information about state of organs and apparatus in addition to the normality of the metabolisms. The diagnostic protocol of the exposed worker to ionizing radiations must be adapted to the specific clinical situation so as to finally make a costs-benefits balance sheet. PMID:19288808

  8. R&D ERL: Diagnostics

    SciTech Connect

    Gassner, D.

    2010-01-01

    The Energy Recovery Linac (ERL) prototype project is currently under development at the Brookhaven National Laboratory. The ERL is expected to demonstrate energy recovery of high intensity beams with a current of up to a few hundred milliamps, while preserving the emittance of bunches with a charge of a few nanocoulombs produced by a high current SRF gun. To successfully accomplish this task the machine will include beam diagnostics that will be used for accurate characterization of the three dimensional beam phase space at the injection and recirculation energies, transverse and longitudinal beam matching, orbit alignment, beam current measurement, and machine protection. This report outlines requirements on the ERL diagnostics and describes its setup and modes of operation. The BNL Prototype ERL is an R&D effort aimed at reducing risks and costs associated with the proposed RHIC II electron cooler and eRHIC collider. The ERL will serve as a test bed for developing and testing instrumentation and studying physics and technological issues relevant to very high current ERL's. The prototype ERL, mated to a high current SRF gun, is expected to demonstrate production and energy recovery of high intensity, low emittance beams with a current of up to a few hundred milliamps. To successfully accomplish this task the ERL will include beam diagnostics required to characterize and tune beam parameters, as well as for machine protection. A preliminary diagnostics plan was presented in earlier publications. In this report, we describe the diagnostics presently planned to provide the data needed to meet these goals.

  9. Malaria rapid diagnostic kits: quality of packaging, design and labelling of boxes and components and readability and accuracy of information inserts

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The present study assessed malaria RDT kits for adequate and correct packaging, design and labelling of boxes and components. Information inserts were studied for readability and accuracy of information. Methods Criteria for packaging, design, labelling and information were compiled from Directive 98/79 of the European Community (EC), relevant World Health Organization (WHO) documents and studies on end-users' performance of RDTs. Typography and readability level (Flesch-Kincaid grade level) were assessed. Results Forty-two RDT kits from 22 manufacturers were assessed, 35 of which had evidence of good manufacturing practice according to available information (i.e. CE-label affixed or inclusion in the WHO list of ISO13485:2003 certified manufacturers). Shortcomings in devices were (i) insufficient place for writing sample identification (n = 40) and (ii) ambiguous labelling of the reading window (n = 6). Buffer vial labels were lacking essential information (n = 24) or were of poor quality (n = 16). Information inserts had elevated readability levels (median Flesch Kincaid grade 8.9, range 7.1 - 12.9) and user-unfriendly typography (median font size 8, range 5 - 10). Inadequacies included (i) no referral to biosafety (n = 18), (ii) critical differences between depicted and real devices (n = 8), (iii) figures with unrealistic colours (n = 4), (iv) incomplete information about RDT line interpretations (n = 31) and no data on test characteristics (n = 8). Other problems included (i) kit names that referred to Plasmodium vivax although targeting a pan-species Plasmodium antigen (n = 4), (ii) not stating the identity of the pan-species antigen (n = 2) and (iii) slight but numerous differences in names displayed on boxes, device packages and information inserts. Three CE labelled RDT kits produced outside the EC had no authorized representative affixed and the shape and relative dimensions of the CE symbol affixed did not comply with the Directive 98/79/EC

  10. Non-targeted analysis of electronics waste by comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography combined with high-resolution mass spectrometry: Using accurate mass information and mass defect analysis to explore the data.

    PubMed

    Ubukata, Masaaki; Jobst, Karl J; Reiner, Eric J; Reichenbach, Stephen E; Tao, Qingping; Hang, Jiliang; Wu, Zhanpin; Dane, A John; Cody, Robert B

    2015-05-22

    Comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography (GC×GC) and high-resolution mass spectrometry (HRMS) offer the best possible separation of their respective techniques. Recent commercialization of combined GC×GC-HRMS systems offers new possibilities for the analysis of complex mixtures. However, such experiments yield enormous data sets that require new informatics tools to facilitate the interpretation of the rich information content. This study reports on the analysis of dust obtained from an electronics recycling facility by using GC×GC in combination with a new high-resolution time-of-flight (TOF) mass spectrometer. New software tools for (non-traditional) Kendrick mass defect analysis were developed in this research and greatly aided in the identification of compounds containing chlorine and bromine, elements that feature in most persistent organic pollutants (POPs). In essence, the mass defect plot serves as a visual aid from which halogenated compounds are recognizable on the basis of their mass defect and isotope patterns. Mass chromatograms were generated based on specific ions identified in the plots as well as region of the plot predominantly occupied by halogenated contaminants. Tentative identification was aided by database searches, complementary electron-capture negative ionization experiments and elemental composition determinations from the exact mass data. These included known and emerging flame retardants, such as polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), hexabromobenzene, tetrabromo bisphenol A and tris (1-chloro-2-propyl) phosphate (TCPP), as well as other legacy contaminants such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polychlorinated terphenyls (PCTs).

  11. Diagnostic and forensic toxicology.

    PubMed

    Galey, F D

    1995-12-01

    In most competent veterinary diagnostic laboratories, analytical findings are interpreted by the veterinary toxicologist to determine the significance of the finding in view of historic, clinical, and pathologic findings. A veterinary toxicologist also will provide consultation about possible toxic rule-outs for a case, treatment of affected animals, and prevention of additional cases. Once all of the information is available, a complete summary of the findings can be provided to the client. When the procedures outlined are followed, including a systematic approach to collecting all the evidence (historic, clinical, pathologic, and analytic), proper sampling techniques, and good communication between the clinician and the client and laboratory, the usefulness of the toxicology investigation will be maximized.

  12. Tomographic diagnostics of nonthermal plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Denisova, Natalia

    2009-10-01

    In the previous work [1], we discussed a ``technology'' of tomographic method and relations between the tomographic diagnostics in thermal (equilibrium) and nonthermal (nonequilibrium) plasma sources. The conclusion has been made that tomographic reconstruction in thermal plasma sources is the standard procedure at present, which can provide much useful information on the plasma structure and its evolution in time, while the tomographic reconstruction of nonthermal plasma has a great potential at making a contribution to understanding the fundamental problem of substance behavior in strongly nonequilibrium conditions. Using medical terminology, one could say, that tomographic diagnostics of the equilibrium plasma sources studies their ``anatomic'' structure, while reconstruction of the nonequilibrium plasma is similar to the ``physiological'' examination: it is directed to study the physical mechanisms and processes. The present work is focused on nonthermal plasma research. The tomographic diagnostics is directed to study spatial structures formed in the gas discharge plasmas under the influence of electrical and gravitational fields. The ways of plasma ``self-organization'' in changing and extreme conditions are analyzed. The analysis has been made using some examples from our practical tomographic diagnostics of nonthermal plasma sources, such as low-pressure capacitive and inductive discharges. [0pt] [1] Denisova N. Plasma diagnostics using computed tomography method // IEEE Trans. Plasma Sci. 2009 37 4 502.

  13. Diagnostic Evaluation of Chronic Thromboembolic Pulmonary Hypertension.

    PubMed

    Gopalan, Deepa; Blanchard, Daniel; Auger, William R

    2016-07-01

    Pulmonary hypertension is defined by a mean pulmonary artery pressure greater than 25 mm Hg. Chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH) is defined as pulmonary hypertension in the presence of an organized thrombus within the pulmonary vascular bed that persists at least 3 months after the onset of anticoagulant therapy. Because CTEPH is potentially curable by surgical endarterectomy, correct identification of patients with this form of pulmonary hypertension and an accurate assessment of surgical candidacy are essential to provide optimal care. Patients most commonly present with symptoms of exertional dyspnea and otherwise unexplained decline in exercise capacity. Atypical chest pain, a nonproductive cough, and episodic hemoptysis are observed less frequently. With more advanced disease, patients often develop symptoms suggestive of right ventricular compromise. Physical examination findings are minimal early in the course of this disease, but as pulmonary hypertension progresses, may include nonspecific finding of right ventricular failure, such as a tricuspid regurgitation murmur, pedal edema, and jugular venous distention. Chest radiographs may suggest pulmonary hypertension, but are neither sensitive nor specific for the diagnosis. Radioisotopic ventilation-perfusion scanning is sensitive for detecting CTEPH, making it a valuable screening study. Conventional catheter-based pulmonary angiography retains an important role in establishing the presence and extent of chronic thromboembolic disease. However, computed tomographic and magnetic resonance imaging are playing a growing diagnostic role. Innovative technologies such as dual-energy computed tomography, dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging, and optical coherence tomography show promise for contributing diagnostic information and assisting in the preoperative characterization of patients with CTEPH. PMID:27571004

  14. Diagnostics for ITER

    SciTech Connect

    Donne, A. J. H.; Hellermann, M. G. von; Barnsley, R.

    2008-10-22

    After an introduction into the specific challenges in the field of diagnostics for ITER (specifically high level of nuclear radiation, long pulses, high fluxes of particles to plasma facing components, need for reliability and robustness), an overview will be given of the spectroscopic diagnostics foreseen for ITER. The paper will describe both active neutral-beam based diagnostics as well as passive spectroscopic diagnostics operating in the visible, ultra-violet and x-ray spectral regions.

  15. Additive manufacture (3d printing) of plasma diagnostic components and assemblies for fusion experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sieck, Paul; Woodruff, Simon; Stuber, James; Romero-Talamas, Carlos; Rivera, William; You, Setthivoine; Card, Alexander

    2015-11-01

    Additive manufacturing (or 3D printing) is now becoming sufficiently accurate with a large range of materials for use in printing sensors needed universally in fusion energy research. Decreasing production cost and significantly lowering design time of energy subsystems would realize significant cost reduction for standard diagnostics commonly obtained through research grants. There is now a well-established set of plasma diagnostics, but these expensive since they are often highly complex and require customization, sometimes pace the project. Additive manufacturing (3D printing) is developing rapidly, including open source designs. Basic components can be printed for (in some cases) less than 1/100th costs of conventional manufacturing. We have examined the impact that AM can have on plasma diagnostic cost by taking 15 separate diagnostics through an engineering design using Conventional Manufacturing (CM) techniques to determine costs of components and labor costs associated with getting the diagnostic to work as intended. With that information in hand, we set about optimizing the design to exploit the benefits of AM. Work performed under DOE Contract DE-SC0011858.

  16. 38 CFR 4.46 - Accurate measurement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Accurate measurement. 4... RATING DISABILITIES Disability Ratings The Musculoskeletal System § 4.46 Accurate measurement. Accurate measurement of the length of stumps, excursion of joints, dimensions and location of scars with respect...

  17. 38 CFR 4.46 - Accurate measurement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Accurate measurement. 4... RATING DISABILITIES Disability Ratings The Musculoskeletal System § 4.46 Accurate measurement. Accurate measurement of the length of stumps, excursion of joints, dimensions and location of scars with respect...

  18. 38 CFR 4.46 - Accurate measurement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Accurate measurement. 4... RATING DISABILITIES Disability Ratings The Musculoskeletal System § 4.46 Accurate measurement. Accurate measurement of the length of stumps, excursion of joints, dimensions and location of scars with respect...

  19. 38 CFR 4.46 - Accurate measurement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Accurate measurement. 4... RATING DISABILITIES Disability Ratings The Musculoskeletal System § 4.46 Accurate measurement. Accurate measurement of the length of stumps, excursion of joints, dimensions and location of scars with respect...

  20. 38 CFR 4.46 - Accurate measurement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Accurate measurement. 4... RATING DISABILITIES Disability Ratings The Musculoskeletal System § 4.46 Accurate measurement. Accurate measurement of the length of stumps, excursion of joints, dimensions and location of scars with respect...

  1. ISHM-oriented adaptive fault diagnostics for avionics based on a distributed intelligent agent system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Jiuping; Zhong, Zhengqiang; Xu, Lei

    2015-10-01

    In this paper, an integrated system health management-oriented adaptive fault diagnostics and model for avionics is proposed. With avionics becoming increasingly complicated, precise and comprehensive avionics fault diagnostics has become an extremely complicated task. For the proposed fault diagnostic system, specific approaches, such as the artificial immune system, the intelligent agents system and the Dempster-Shafer evidence theory, are used to conduct deep fault avionics diagnostics. Through this proposed fault diagnostic system, efficient and accurate diagnostics can be achieved. A numerical example is conducted to apply the proposed hybrid diagnostics to a set of radar transmitters on an avionics system and to illustrate that the proposed system and model have the ability to achieve efficient and accurate fault diagnostics. By analyzing the diagnostic system's feasibility and pragmatics, the advantages of this system are demonstrated.

  2. Target Diagnostics Supports NIF's Path to Ignition

    SciTech Connect

    Shelton, R

    2011-12-07

    The physics requirements derived from the National Ignition Facility (NIF) experimental campaigns are leading to a wide variety of target diagnostics. Software development for the control and analysis of these diagnostics is included in the NIF Integrated Computer Control System, Diagnostic Control System and Data Visualization. These projects implement the configuration, controls, data analysis and visual representation of most of these diagnostics. To date, over 40 target diagnostics have been developed to support NIF experiments. In 2011 diagnostics were developed or enhanced to measure Ignition performance in a high neutron yield environment. Performance is optimized around four key variables: Adiabat (a) which is the strength and timing of four shocks delivered to the target, Velocity (V) of the imploding target, Mix (M) is the uniformity of the burn, and the Shape (S) of the imploding Deuterium Tritium (DT) hot spot. The diagnostics used to measure each of these parameters is shown in figure 1. Adiabat is measured using the Velocity Interferometer System for Any Reflector (VISAR) diagnostic consisting of three streak cameras. To provide for more accurate adiabat measurements the VISAR streak cameras were enhanced in FY11 with a ten comb fiducial signal controller to allow for post shot correction of the streak camera sweep non-linearity. Mix is measured by the Neutron Time of Flight (NTOF) and Radiochemical Analysis of Gaseous Samples (RAGS) diagnostics. To accommodate high neutron yield shots, NTOF diagnostic controls are being modified to use Mach Zehnder interferometer signals to allow the digitizers to be moved from near the target chamber to the neutron shielded diagnostic mezzanine. In December 2011 the first phase of RAGS diagnostic commissioning will be completed. This diagnostic will analyze the tracers that are added to NIF target capsules that undergo nuclear reactions during the shot. These gases are collected and purified for nuclear counting by

  3. Diagnostics for Fast Ignition Science

    SciTech Connect

    MacPhee, A; Akli, K; Beg, F; Chen, C; Chen, H; Clarke, R; Hey, D; Freeman, R; Kemp, A; Key, M; King, J; LePape, S; Link, A; Ma, T; Nakamura, N; Offermann, D; Ovchinnikov, V; Patel, P; Phillips, T; Stephens, R; Town, R; Wei, M; VanWoerkom, L; Mackinnon, A

    2008-05-06

    The concept for Electron Fast Ignition Inertial Confinement Fusion demands sufficient laser energy be transferred from the ignitor pulse to the assembled fuel core via {approx}MeV electrons. We have assembled a suite of diagnostics to characterize such transfer. Recent experiments have simultaneously fielded absolutely calibrated extreme ultraviolet multilayer imagers at 68 and 256eV; spherically bent crystal imagers at 4 and 8keV; multi-keV crystal spectrometers; MeV x-ray bremmstrahlung and electron and proton spectrometers (along the same line of sight); nuclear activation samples and a picosecond optical probe based interferometer. These diagnostics allow careful measurement of energy transport and deposition during and following laser-plasma interactions at extremely high intensities in both planar and conical targets. Augmented with accurate on-shot laser focal spot and pre-pulse characterization, these measurements are yielding new insight into energy coupling and are providing critical data for validating numerical PIC and hybrid PIC simulation codes in an area that is crucial for many applications, particularly fast ignition. Novel aspects of these diagnostics and how they are combined to extract quantitative data on ultra high intensity laser plasma interactions are discussed, together with implications for full-scale fast ignition experiments.

  4. High Energy Laser Diagnostic Sensors

    SciTech Connect

    Luke, James R.; Goddard, Douglas N.; Thomas, David; Lewis, Jay

    2010-10-08

    Recent advancements in high energy laser (HEL) sources have outpaced diagnostic tools capable of accurately quantifying system performance. Diagnostic tools are needed that allow system developers to measure the parameters that define HEL effectiveness. The two critical parameters for quantifying HEL effectiveness are the irradiance on target and resultant rise in target temperature. Off-board sensing has its limitations, including unpredictable changes in the reflectivity of the target, smoke and outgassing, and atmospheric distortion. On-board sensors overcome the limitations of off-board techniques but must survive high irradiance levels and extreme temperatures.We have developed sensors for on-target diagnostics of high energy laser beams and for the measurement of the thermal response of the target. The conformal sensors consist of an array of quantum dot photodetectors and resistive temperature detectors. The sensor arrays are lithographically fabricated on flexible substrates and can be attached to a variety of laser targets. We have developed a nanoparticle adhesive process that provides good thermal contact with the target and that ensures the sensor remains attached to the target for as long as the target survives. We have calibrated the temperature and irradiance sensors and demonstrated them in a HEL environment.

  5. Accurate On-Line Intervention Practices for Efficient Improvement of Reading Skills in Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marshall, Minda B.

    2016-01-01

    Lifelong learning is the only way to sustain proficient learning in a rapidly changing world. Knowledge and information are exploding across the globe. We need accurate ways to facilitate the process of drawing external factual information into an internal perceptive advantage from which to interpret and argue new information. Accurate and…

  6. Reducing Diagnostic Error with Computer-Based Clinical Decision Support

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenes, Robert A.

    2009-01-01

    Information technology approaches to delivering diagnostic clinical decision support (CDS) are the subject of the papers to follow in the proceedings. These will address the history of CDS and present day approaches (Miller), evaluation of diagnostic CDS methods (Friedman), and the role of clinical documentation in supporting diagnostic decision…

  7. The importance of accurate atmospheric modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Payne, Dylan; Schroeder, John; Liang, Pang

    2014-11-01

    This paper will focus on the effect of atmospheric conditions on EO sensor performance using computer models. We have shown the importance of accurately modeling atmospheric effects for predicting the performance of an EO sensor. A simple example will demonstrated how real conditions for several sites in China will significantly impact on image correction, hyperspectral imaging, and remote sensing. The current state-of-the-art model for computing atmospheric transmission and radiance is, MODTRAN® 5, developed by the US Air Force Research Laboratory and Spectral Science, Inc. Research by the US Air Force, Navy and Army resulted in the public release of LOWTRAN 2 in the early 1970's. Subsequent releases of LOWTRAN and MODTRAN® have continued until the present. Please verify that (1) all pages are present, (2) all figures are correct, (3) all fonts and special characters are correct, and (4) all text and figures fit within the red margin lines shown on this review document. Complete formatting information is available at http://SPIE.org/manuscripts Return to the Manage Active Submissions page at http://spie.org/submissions/tasks.aspx and approve or disapprove this submission. Your manuscript will not be published without this approval. Please contact author_help@spie.org with any questions or concerns. The paper will demonstrate the importance of using validated models and local measured meteorological, atmospheric and aerosol conditions to accurately simulate the atmospheric transmission and radiance. Frequently default conditions are used which can produce errors of as much as 75% in these values. This can have significant impact on remote sensing applications.

  8. Accurate Mass Measurements in Proteomics

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Tao; Belov, Mikhail E.; Jaitly, Navdeep; Qian, Weijun; Smith, Richard D.

    2007-08-01

    To understand different aspects of life at the molecular level, one would think that ideally all components of specific processes should be individually isolated and studied in details. Reductionist approaches, i.e., studying one biological event at a one-gene or one-protein-at-a-time basis, indeed have made significant contributions to our understanding of many basic facts of biology. However, these individual “building blocks” can not be visualized as a comprehensive “model” of the life of cells, tissues, and organisms, without using more integrative approaches.1,2 For example, the emerging field of “systems biology” aims to quantify all of the components of a biological system to assess their interactions and to integrate diverse types of information obtainable from this system into models that could explain and predict behaviors.3-6 Recent breakthroughs in genomics, proteomics, and bioinformatics are making this daunting task a reality.7-14 Proteomics, the systematic study of the entire complement of proteins expressed by an organism, tissue, or cell under a specific set of conditions at a specific time (i.e., the proteome), has become an essential enabling component of systems biology. While the genome of an organism may be considered static over short timescales, the expression of that genome as the actual gene products (i.e., mRNAs and proteins) is a dynamic event that is constantly changing due to the influence of environmental and physiological conditions. Exclusive monitoring of the transcriptomes can be carried out using high-throughput cDNA microarray analysis,15-17 however the measured mRNA levels do not necessarily correlate strongly with the corresponding abundances of proteins,18-20 The actual amount of functional proteins can be altered significantly and become independent of mRNA levels as a result of post-translational modifications (PTMs),21 alternative splicing,22,23 and protein turnover.24,25 Moreover, the functions of expressed

  9. Laser scattering for temporal and spatial diagnostic of low temperature plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palomares Linares, Jose Maria

    2012-10-01

    Many recent industrial and technological applications like surface etching, inorganic films deposition, polymerization of surfaces or sterilization are developed within the field of low temperature plasmas. To study, monitor and model plasma processes is of great importance to have diagnostic tools that can provide reliable information on different plasma parameters. In general, laser scattering techniques provide a direct and accurate method for plasma diagnostic with spatial and temporal resolution. Laser Thomson scattering is used for the diagnostic of electron density and temperature, two of the most important parameters in low temperature discharges. With a similar setup Rayleigh and Raman scattering techniques are used for the diagnostic of gas density and temperature. In this contribution we deal with the different technical and theoretical aspects that are required for the application of these laser scattering techniques. Of special importance are the detection limit, laser stray light rejection and laser perturbations of the plasma. The present study is performed on different low temperature microwave discharges, both at low and atmospheric pressure. The laser scattering techniques provide information on the spatial distribution of the mentioned plasma parameters over different discharge conditions, including small micro-plasmas. Similarly, the temporal evolution of pulsed plasmas is studied, unraveling the features of the switching on and off phases of the discharges.

  10. Optical Diagnostics in Medicine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iftimia, Nicusor

    2003-03-01

    Light has a unique potential for non-invasive tissue diagnosis. The relatively short wavelength of light allows imaging of tissue at the resolution of histopathology. While strong multiple scattering of light in tissue makes attainment of this resolution difficult for thick tissues, most pathology emanates from epithelial surfaces. Therefore, high-resolution diagnosis of many important diseases may be achieved by transmitting light to the surface of interest. The recent fiber-optic implementation of technologies that reject multiple scattering, such as confocal microscopy and optical low coherence interferometry, have brought us one step closer to realizing non-invasive imaging of architectural and cellular features of tissue. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) can produce high-resolution cross-sectional images of biological structures. Clinical OCT studies conducted in the gastrointestinal tract and cardiovascular system have shown that OCT is capable of providing images of the architectural (> 20 µm) microanatomy of a variety of epithelial tissues, including the layered structure of squamous epithelium and arterial vessels. Fine Needle Aspiration- Low Coherence Interferometry (FNA-LCI) is another optical diagnostics technique, which is a suitable solution to increase the effectiveness of the FNA procedures. LCI is capable of measuring depth resolved (axial, z) tissue structure, birefringence, flow (Doppler shift), and spectra at a resolution of several microns. Since LCI systems are fiber-optic based, LCI probes may easily fit within the bore of a fine gauge needle, allowing diagnostic information to be obtained directly from the FNA biopsy site. Fiber optic spectrally encoded confocal microscopy (SECM) is a new confocal microscopy method, which eliminates the need for rapid beam scanning within the optical probe. This advance enables confocal microscopy to be performed through small diameter probes and will allow assessment of internal human tissues in vivo at

  11. HIN4/397: Designing the Web- and Fax-based Consultancy and Information Service "EcgConsult" for Clinicians Dealing with ECG Diagnostics and Rhythmologic Problems

    PubMed Central

    Elsner, C; Hindricks, G; Kottkamp, H

    1999-01-01

    Introduction Modern strategies for the diagnosis and treatment of cardiac arhythmias include besides non-invasive methods an increasing variety of invasive and curative therapeutic strategies. In order to define proper rhythmologic diagnosis and to develop an optimal treatment strategy for individual patients, a high degree of rhythmologic expertise is necessary. Adequate platforms for information exchange, where physicians can meet rhythmologic experts to allow proper handling of individual rhythmologic problems are desirable. Thus, the Heart Center Leipzig develops the Web- and Fax-based consultancy and information service "EcgConsult". Methods The service utilizes the network capabilities of the Internet and of the common telecommunication network. This way information input can be achieved either by using a browser/email-client or by using a fax machine. All input from both networks is collected on a centralised mail-server (SSL-POP3 protocol). User interaction on the Web site is achieved with dynamic HTML and a moderated List-Server. The List-Server and an additional discussion area on the Web site are moderated by the Consultants at the Heart Center Leipzig, adequate processing of the site-content and technical management of the site have been outsourced to the university Internet workgroup Elchsoft/Medkonsult. Results A prototype of the site and the communication architecture for fax/email have been established and successfully beta-tested. Any consulting physician can easily send ECGs and additional material to the server with any fax-machine, where they are automatically TIFF-file converted. A password-protected site is already in use with selected clinicians (http://www.ecgconsult.de). For mobile site management, a web-based Control-Center has been designed. Outlines of contract models for members, guidelines for security purposes of the web-based communication, a business/cost plan and models for the logistic request management as well as for member

  12. Upgrade of absolute extreme ultraviolet diagnostic on J-TEXT

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, X. L.; Cheng, Z. F. Hou, S. Y.; Zhuang, G.; Luo, J.

    2014-11-15

    The absolute extreme ultraviolet (AXUV) diagnostic system is used for radiation observation on J-TEXT tokamak [J. Zhang, G. Zhuang, Z. J. Wang, Y. H. Ding, X. Q. Zhang, and Y. J. Tang, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 81, 073509 (2010)]. The upgrade of the AXUV system is aimed to improve the spatial resolution and provide a three-dimensional image on J-TEXT. The new system consists of 12 AXUV arrays (4 AXUV16ELG arrays, 8 AXUV20ELG arrays). The spatial resolution in the cross-section is 21 mm for the AXUV16ELG arrays and 17 mm for the AXUV20ELG arrays. The pre-amplifier is also upgraded for a higher signal to noise ratio. By upgrading the AXUV imaging system, a more accurate observation on the radiation information is obtained.

  13. Raman-shifting an ArF excimer laser to generate new lines for obtaining optical diagnostic based information in flow fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koker, Edmond B.

    1994-12-01

    The application of tunable excimer lasers in combustion and flow diagnostics is almost routine nowadays. The properties of this laser system that enable density and temperature measurements in supersonic and hypersonic flow fields to be conducted are its high power, high repetition rate, and high spectral brightness. The limitation imposed by this system on these measurements is the paucity of lines in the wavelength region, the vacuum-ultraviolet, where species of interest, such as OH, N2, O2, H2, H2O, CO, NO, etc., are susceptible to electronic excitation to high-lying states. To circumvent this problem one normally resorts to nonlinear optical techniques such as frequency conversion via stimulated Raman scattering (SRS), more commonly known as Raman shifting or Raman mixing, to extend these nonintrusive and nonperturbing techniques to the shorter wavelengths in the VUV region and, for that matter, to longer wavelengths in the infrared region, if the need arises. The theoretical basis of SRS and its application are well documented in the literature. In essence, the Raman shift is a consequence of the inelastic scattering of the incident radiation by the sample. Most of the scattered radiation from the molecules of the sample is unchanged in frequency. However, a small fraction of the incident radiation is changed in frequency. This shift is a result of the fact that some of the incident photons on colliding with the molecules of the sample give up some of their energy and emerge with a lower energy resulting in the lower-frequency Stokes radiation. Other incident photons may increase their energy by colliding with the vibrationally excited molecules of the medium and emerge as higher-frequency antistokes radiation. The generation of the latter is the main objective of this project. The process, however, depends on several factors, including the beam quality of the pump laser, the cross-section of the gaseous medium, the gas pressure, and the ambient temperature

  14. Raman-shifting an ArF excimer laser to generate new lines for obtaining optical diagnostic based information in flow fields

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koker, Edmond B.

    1994-01-01

    The application of tunable excimer lasers in combustion and flow diagnostics is almost routine nowadays. The properties of this laser system that enable density and temperature measurements in supersonic and hypersonic flow fields to be conducted are its high power, high repetition rate, and high spectral brightness. The limitation imposed by this system on these measurements is the paucity of lines in the wavelength region, the vacuum-ultraviolet, where species of interest, such as OH, N2, O2, H2, H2O, CO, NO, etc., are susceptible to electronic excitation to high-lying states. To circumvent this problem one normally resorts to nonlinear optical techniques such as frequency conversion via stimulated Raman scattering (SRS), more commonly known as Raman shifting or Raman mixing, to extend these nonintrusive and nonperturbing techniques to the shorter wavelengths in the VUV region and, for that matter, to longer wavelengths in the infrared region, if the need arises. The theoretical basis of SRS and its application are well documented in the literature. In essence, the Raman shift is a consequence of the inelastic scattering of the incident radiation by the sample. Most of the scattered radiation from the molecules of the sample is unchanged in frequency. However, a small fraction of the incident radiation is changed in frequency. This shift is a result of the fact that some of the incident photons on colliding with the molecules of the sample give up some of their energy and emerge with a lower energy resulting in the lower-frequency Stokes radiation. Other incident photons may increase their energy by colliding with the vibrationally excited molecules of the medium and emerge as higher-frequency antistokes radiation. The generation of the latter is the main objective of this project. The process, however, depends on several factors, including the beam quality of the pump laser, the cross-section of the gaseous medium, the gas pressure, and the ambient temperature

  15. Measuring Fisher information accurately in correlated neural populations.

    PubMed

    Kanitscheider, Ingmar; Coen-Cagli, Ruben; Kohn, Adam; Pouget, Alexandre

    2015-06-01

    Neural responses are known to be variable. In order to understand how this neural variability constrains behavioral performance, we need to be able to measure the reliability with which a sensory stimulus is encoded in a given population. However, such measures are challenging for two reasons: First, they must take into account noise correlations which can have a large influence on reliability. Second, they need to be as efficient as possible, since the number of trials available in a set of neural recording is usually limited by experimental constraints. Traditionally, cross-validated decoding has been used as a reliability measure, but it only provides a lower bound on reliability and underestimates reliability substantially in small datasets. We show that, if the number of trials per condition is larger than the number of neurons, there is an alternative, direct estimate of reliability which consistently leads to smaller errors and is much faster to compute. The superior performance of the direct estimator is evident both for simulated data and for neuronal population recordings from macaque primary visual cortex. Furthermore we propose generalizations of the direct estimator which measure changes in stimulus encoding across conditions and the impact of correlations on encoding and decoding, typically denoted by Ishuffle and Idiag respectively.

  16. Pattern classification approach to rocket engine diagnostics

    SciTech Connect

    Tulpule, S.

    1989-01-01

    This paper presents a systems level approach to integrate state-of-the-art rocket engine technology with advanced computational techniques to develop an integrated diagnostic system (IDS) for future rocket propulsion systems. The key feature of this IDS is the use of advanced diagnostic algorithms for failure detection as opposed to the current practice of redline-based failure detection methods. The paper presents a top-down analysis of rocket engine diagnostic requirements, rocket engine operation, applicable diagnostic algorithms, and algorithm design techniques, which serve as a basis for the IDS. The concepts of hierarchical, model-based information processing are described, together with the use uf signal processing, pattern recognition, and artificial intelligence techniques which are an integral part of this diagnostic system. 27 refs.

  17. LASER BIOLOGY AND MEDICINE: Combined application of optical methods to increase the information content of optical coherent tomography in diagnostics of neoplastic processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuranov, R. V.; Sapozhnikova, V. V.; Shakhova, N. M.; Gelikonov, V. M.; Zagainova, E. V.; Petrova, S. A.

    2002-11-01

    A combined application of optical methods [optical coherent tomography (OCT), cross-polarisation optical coherent tomography, and fluorescence spectroscopy] is proposed for obtaining information on morphological and biochemical changes occurring in tissues in norm and pathology. It is shown that neoplastic and scar changes in esophagus can be distinguished using a combination of polarisation and standard OCT due to the difference between the depolarising properties of the tissues caused by the structural properties of collagenic fibres in stroma. It is shown that OCT combined with fluorescence spectroscopy with the use of 5-aminolevulinic acid is promising for determining the boundaries of carcinoma of the uterine cervix and vulva. It is found that the tumour boundary detected by optical methods coincides with the morphological boundary and extends beyond colposcopically determined boundary by about 2 mm.

  18. Accurate assessment and identification of naturally occurring cellular cobalamins

    PubMed Central

    Hannibal, Luciana; Axhemi, Armend; Glushchenko, Alla V.; Moreira, Edward S.; Brasch, Nicola E.; Jacobsen, Donald W.

    2009-01-01

    Background Accurate assessment of cobalamin profiles in human serum, cells, and tissues may have clinical diagnostic value. However, non-alkyl forms of cobalamin undergo β-axial ligand exchange reactions during extraction, which leads to inaccurate profiles having little or no diagnostic value. Methods Experiments were designed to: 1) assess β-axial ligand exchange chemistry during the extraction and isolation of cobalamins from cultured bovine aortic endothelial cells, human foreskin fibroblasts, and human hepatoma HepG2 cells, and 2) to establish extraction conditions that would provide a more accurate assessment of endogenous forms containing both exchangeable and non-exchangeable β-axial ligands. Results The cobalamin profile of cells grown in the presence of [57Co]-cyanocobalamin as a source of vitamin B12 shows that the following derivatives are present: [57Co]-aquacobalamin, [57Co]-glutathionylcobalamin, [57Co]-sulfitocobalamin, [57Co]-cyanocobalamin, [57Co]-adenosylcobalamin, [57Co]-methylcobalamin, as well as other yet unidentified corrinoids. When the extraction is performed in the presence of excess cold aquacobalamin acting as a scavenger cobalamin (i.e., “cold trapping”), the recovery of both [57Co]-glutathionylcobalamin and [57Co]-sulfitocobalamin decreases to low but consistent levels. In contrast, the [57Co]-nitrocobalamin observed in extracts prepared without excess aquacobalamin is undetectable in extracts prepared with cold trapping. Conclusions This demonstrates that β-ligand exchange occurs with non-covalently bound β-ligands. The exception to this observation is cyanocobalamin with a non-covalent but non-exchangeable− CNT group. It is now possible to obtain accurate profiles of cellular cobalamins. PMID:18973458

  19. Accurate lineshape spectroscopy and the Boltzmann constant

    PubMed Central

    Truong, G.-W.; Anstie, J. D.; May, E. F.; Stace, T. M.; Luiten, A. N.

    2015-01-01

    Spectroscopy has an illustrious history delivering serendipitous discoveries and providing a stringent testbed for new physical predictions, including applications from trace materials detection, to understanding the atmospheres of stars and planets, and even constraining cosmological models. Reaching fundamental-noise limits permits optimal extraction of spectroscopic information from an absorption measurement. Here, we demonstrate a quantum-limited spectrometer that delivers high-precision measurements of the absorption lineshape. These measurements yield a very accurate measurement of the excited-state (6P1/2) hyperfine splitting in Cs, and reveals a breakdown in the well-known Voigt spectral profile. We develop a theoretical model that accounts for this breakdown, explaining the observations to within the shot-noise limit. Our model enables us to infer the thermal velocity dispersion of the Cs vapour with an uncertainty of 35 p.p.m. within an hour. This allows us to determine a value for Boltzmann's constant with a precision of 6 p.p.m., and an uncertainty of 71 p.p.m. PMID:26465085

  20. Accurate SHAPE-directed RNA structure determination

    PubMed Central

    Deigan, Katherine E.; Li, Tian W.; Mathews, David H.; Weeks, Kevin M.

    2009-01-01

    Almost all RNAs can fold to form extensive base-paired secondary structures. Many of these structures then modulate numerous fundamental elements of gene expression. Deducing these structure–function relationships requires that it be possible to predict RNA secondary structures accurately. However, RNA secondary structure prediction for large RNAs, such that a single predicted structure for a single sequence reliably represents the correct structure, has remained an unsolved problem. Here, we demonstrate that quantitative, nucleotide-resolution information from a SHAPE experiment can be interpreted as a pseudo-free energy change term and used to determine RNA secondary structure with high accuracy. Free energy minimization, by using SHAPE pseudo-free energies, in conjunction with nearest neighbor parameters, predicts the secondary structure of deproteinized Escherichia coli 16S rRNA (>1,300 nt) and a set of smaller RNAs (75–155 nt) with accuracies of up to 96–100%, which are comparable to the best accuracies achievable by comparative sequence analysis. PMID:19109441

  1. DIAGNOSTIC METHODS IN AYURVEDA

    PubMed Central

    Thakar, V. J.

    1982-01-01

    This is an analytical study of the Diagnostic methods Prescribes in Ayurveda. As in the case of disease and treatments the concept of diagnosis also is unique in Ayurveda. It goes to the Nidana of Doshicimbalance by studying the physical, physiological, psychic and behavoural aspects of the patient. The paper gives an insight into the various diagnostic methods enunciated in Sastras which turns out to be a fore-runner of any of modern diagnostic methods. PMID:22556480

  2. Plasma diagnostics for FED

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, W.D.

    1981-01-01

    An overview of the plasma diagnostic instruments recommended for the Fusion Engineering Device (FED) is described. First the role and need for plasma diagnostics is discussed. This is followed by an identification of particles and radiation eminating from the plasma. Next some design considerations are presented for the overall set of diagnostic instruments. Finally, instruments used for control and for plasma performance measurements are included in separate lists.

  3. Diagnostic Development on NSTX

    SciTech Connect

    A.L. Roquemore; D. Johnson; R. Kaita; et al

    1999-12-16

    Diagnostics are described which are currently installed or under active development for the newly commissioned NSTX device. The low aspect ratio (R/a less than or equal to 1.3) and low toroidal field (0.1-0.3T) used in this device dictate adaptations in many standard diagnostic techniques. Technical summaries of each diagnostic are given, and adaptations, where significant, are highlighted.

  4. TFTR diagnostic vacuum controller

    SciTech Connect

    Olsen, D.; Persons, R.

    1981-01-01

    The TFTR diagnostic vacuum controller (DVC) provides in conjunction with the Central Instrumentation Control and Data Acquisition System (CICADA), control and monitoring for the pumps, valves and gauges associated with each individual diagnostic vacuum system. There will be approximately 50 systems on TFTR. Two standard versions of the controller (A and B) wil be provided in order to meet the requirements of two diagnostic manifold arrangements. All pump and valve sequencing, as well as protection features, will be implemented by the controller.

  5. [Diagnostic Errors in Medicine].

    PubMed

    Buser, Claudia; Bankova, Andriyana

    2015-12-01

    The recognition of diagnostic errors in everyday practice can help improve patient safety. The most common diagnostic errors are the cognitive errors, followed by system-related errors and no fault errors. The cognitive errors often result from mental shortcuts, known as heuristics. The rate of cognitive errors can be reduced by a better understanding of heuristics and the use of checklists. The autopsy as a retrospective quality assessment of clinical diagnosis has a crucial role in learning from diagnostic errors. Diagnostic errors occur more often in primary care in comparison to hospital settings. On the other hand, the inpatient errors are more severe than the outpatient errors.

  6. [Diagnostic Errors in Medicine].

    PubMed

    Buser, Claudia; Bankova, Andriyana

    2015-12-01

    The recognition of diagnostic errors in everyday practice can help improve patient safety. The most common diagnostic errors are the cognitive errors, followed by system-related errors and no fault errors. The cognitive errors often result from mental shortcuts, known as heuristics. The rate of cognitive errors can be reduced by a better understanding of heuristics and the use of checklists. The autopsy as a retrospective quality assessment of clinical diagnosis has a crucial role in learning from diagnostic errors. Diagnostic errors occur more often in primary care in comparison to hospital settings. On the other hand, the inpatient errors are more severe than the outpatient errors. PMID:26649954

  7. Accurate, noninvasive detection of Helicobacter pylori DNA from stool samples: potential usefulness for monitoring treatment.

    PubMed

    Shuber, Anthony P; Ascaño, Jennifer J; Boynton, Kevin A; Mitchell, Anastasia; Frierson, Henry F; El-Rifai, Wa'el; Powell, Steven M

    2002-01-01

    A novel DNA assay demonstrating sensitive and accurate detection of Helicobacter pylori from stool samples is reported. Moreover, in three individuals tested for therapeutic response, the assay showed the disappearance of H. pylori DNA during treatment. Thus, this noninvasive molecular biology-based assay has the potential to be a powerful diagnostic tool given its ability to specifically identify H. pylori DNA.

  8. Nucleic acid probes in diagnostic medicine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oberry, Phillip A.

    1991-01-01

    The need for improved diagnostic procedures is outlined and variations in probe technology are briefly reviewed. A discussion of the application of probe technology to the diagnosis of disease in animals and humans is presented. A comparison of probe versus nonprobe diagnostics and isotopic versus nonisotopic probes is made and the current state of sequence amplification is described. The current market status of nucleic acid probes is reviewed with respect to their diagnostic application in human and veterinary medicine. Representative product examples are described and information on probes being developed that offer promise as future products is discussed.

  9. A recommender system for medical imaging diagnostic.

    PubMed

    Monteiro, Eriksson; Valente, Frederico; Costa, Carlos; Oliveira, José Luís

    2015-01-01

    The large volume of data captured daily in healthcare institutions is opening new and great perspectives about the best ways to use it towards improving clinical practice. In this paper we present a context-based recommender system to support medical imaging diagnostic. The system relies on data mining and context-based retrieval techniques to automatically lookup for relevant information that may help physicians in the diagnostic decision.

  10. Properties of plasma radiation diagnostics

    SciTech Connect

    Idzorek, G.C.; Oona, H.

    1996-06-01

    A number of diagnostics utilizing the radiation emitted from high-temperature plasmas have been developed at Los Alamos. Photoemissive x-ray diodes with photon energy bandpass filters provide time resolved rough spectral data from bout 6 eV to > 10 keV photon energy. Filtered silicon photodiodes can be used down to 1 eV and offer the advantages of nominally flat response and ability to operate in poor vacuum conditions. Both types of diodes will provide a rough time resolved spectrum and both are relatively inexpensive, reliable, and passive (i.e. no synchronization problems). For higher energy resolution bent crystal spectrographs are used in the x-ray region. With the addition of streak cameras or gated microchannel plates these systems provide data with high energy and high time resolution. To measure the total energy output a thin foil bolometer is used that measures the change in foil resistance as it is heated by the plasma radiation. Information on the physical location of the plasma is provided by a suite of visible framing cameras and x-ray pinhole cameras. By combining these diagnostics into a complementary set good diagnostic information can be guaranteed on any plasma experiment.

  11. Bone marrow lesions: A systematic diagnostic approach

    PubMed Central

    Grande, Filippo Del; Farahani, Sahar J; Carrino, John A; Chhabra, Avneesh

    2014-01-01

    Bone marrow lesions on magnetic resonance (MR) imaging are common and may be seen with various pathologies. The authors outline a systematic diagnostic approach with proposed categorization of various etiologies of bone marrow lesions. Utilization of typical imaging features on conventional MR imaging techniques and other problem-solving techniques, such as chemical shift imaging and diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI), to achieve accurate final diagnosis has been highlighted. PMID:25114392

  12. Automotive Diagnostic Technologies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Columbus State Community Coll., OH.

    This document contains materials developed for and about the automotive diagnostic technologies tech prep program of the South-Western City Schools in Ohio. Part 1 begins with a map of the program, which begins with an automotive/diagnostic technologies program in grades 11 and 12 that leads to entry-level employment or a 2-year automotive…

  13. [Costing nuclear medicine diagnostic procedures].

    PubMed

    Markou, Pavlos

    2005-01-01

    To the Editor: Referring to a recent special report about the cost analysis of twenty-nine nuclear medicine procedures, I would like to clarify some basic aspects for determining costs of nuclear medicine procedure with various costing methodologies. Activity Based Costing (ABC) method, is a new approach in imaging services costing that can provide the most accurate cost data, but is difficult to perform in nuclear medicine diagnostic procedures. That is because ABC requires determining and analyzing all direct and indirect costs of each procedure, according all its activities. Traditional costing methods, like those for estimating incomes and expenses per procedure or fixed and variable costs per procedure, which are widely used in break-even point analysis and the method of ratio-of-costs-to-charges per procedure may be easily performed in nuclear medicine departments, to evaluate the variability and differences between costs and reimbursement - charges. PMID:15886748

  14. A novel, integrated PET-guided MRS technique resulting in more accurate initial diagnosis of high-grade glioma.

    PubMed

    Kim, Ellen S; Satter, Martin; Reed, Marilyn; Fadell, Ronald; Kardan, Arash

    2016-06-01

    Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is the most common and lethal malignant glioma in adults. Currently, the modality of choice for diagnosing brain tumor is high-resolution magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with contrast, which provides anatomic detail and localization. Studies have demonstrated, however, that MRI may have limited utility in delineating the full tumor extent precisely. Studies suggest that MR spectroscopy (MRS) can also be used to distinguish high-grade from low-grade gliomas. However, due to operator dependent variables and the heterogeneous nature of gliomas, the potential for error in diagnostic accuracy with MRS is a concern. Positron emission tomography (PET) imaging with (11)C-methionine (MET) and (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) has been shown to add additional information with respect to tumor grade, extent, and prognosis based on the premise of biochemical changes preceding anatomic changes. Combined PET/MRS is a technique that integrates information from PET in guiding the location for the most accurate metabolic characterization of a lesion via MRS. We describe a case of glioblastoma multiforme in which MRS was initially non-diagnostic for malignancy, but when MRS was repeated with PET guidance, demonstrated elevated choline/N-acetylaspartate (Cho/NAA) ratio in the right parietal mass consistent with a high-grade malignancy. Stereotactic biopsy, followed by PET image-guided resection, confirmed the diagnosis of grade IV GBM. To our knowledge, this is the first reported case of an integrated PET/MRS technique for the voxel placement of MRS. Our findings suggest that integrated PET/MRS may potentially improve diagnostic accuracy in high-grade gliomas.

  15. Clinical Laboratories – Production Factories or Specialized Diagnostic Centers

    PubMed Central

    Tóth, Judit

    2016-01-01

    Since a large proportion of medical decisions are based on laboratory results, clinical laboratories should meet the increasing demand of clinicians and their patients. Huge central laboratories may process over 10 million tests annually; they act as production factories, measuring emergency and routine tests with sufficient speed and accuracy. At the same time, they also serve as specialized diagnostic centers where well-trained experts analyze and interpret special test results. It is essential to improve and constantly monitor this complex laboratory service, by several methods. Sample transport by pneumatic tube system, use of an advanced laboratory information system and point-of-care testing may result in decreased total turnaround time. The optimization of test ordering may result in a faster and more cost-effective laboratory service. Autovalidation can save time for laboratory specialists, when the analysis of more complex results requires their attention. Small teams of experts responsible for special diagnostic work, and their interpretative reporting according to predetermined principles, may help to minimize subjectivity of these special reports. Although laboratory investigations have become so diversely developed in the past decades, it is essential that the laboratory can provide accurate results relatively quickly, and that laboratory specialists can support the diagnosis and monitoring of patients by adequate interpretation of esoteric laboratory methods.

  16. Intelligent approach to prognostic enhancements of diagnostic systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vachtsevanos, George; Wang, Peng; Khiripet, Noppadon; Thakker, Ash; Galie, Thomas R.

    2001-07-01

    This paper introduces a novel methodology to prognostics based on a dynamic wavelet neural network construct and notions from the virtual sensor area. This research has been motivated and supported by the U.S. Navy's active interest in integrating advanced diagnostic and prognostic algorithms in existing Naval digital control and monitoring systems. A rudimentary diagnostic platform is assumed to be available providing timely information about incipient or impending failure conditions. We focus on the development of a prognostic algorithm capable of predicting accurately and reliably the remaining useful lifetime of a failing machine or component. The prognostic module consists of a virtual sensor and a dynamic wavelet neural network as the predictor. The virtual sensor employs process data to map real measurements into difficult to monitor fault quantities. The prognosticator uses a dynamic wavelet neural network as a nonlinear predictor. Means to manage uncertainty and performance metrics are suggested for comparison purposes. An interface to an available shipboard Integrated Condition Assessment System is described and applications to shipboard equipment are discussed. Typical results from pump failures are presented to illustrate the effectiveness of the methodology.

  17. Clinical Laboratories – Production Factories or Specialized Diagnostic Centers

    PubMed Central

    Tóth, Judit

    2016-01-01

    Since a large proportion of medical decisions are based on laboratory results, clinical laboratories should meet the increasing demand of clinicians and their patients. Huge central laboratories may process over 10 million tests annually; they act as production factories, measuring emergency and routine tests with sufficient speed and accuracy. At the same time, they also serve as specialized diagnostic centers where well-trained experts analyze and interpret special test results. It is essential to improve and constantly monitor this complex laboratory service, by several methods. Sample transport by pneumatic tube system, use of an advanced laboratory information system and point-of-care testing may result in decreased total turnaround time. The optimization of test ordering may result in a faster and more cost-effective laboratory service. Autovalidation can save time for laboratory specialists, when the analysis of more complex results requires their attention. Small teams of experts responsible for special diagnostic work, and their interpretative reporting according to predetermined principles, may help to minimize subjectivity of these special reports. Although laboratory investigations have become so diversely developed in the past decades, it is essential that the laboratory can provide accurate results relatively quickly, and that laboratory specialists can support the diagnosis and monitoring of patients by adequate interpretation of esoteric laboratory methods. PMID:27683528

  18. Clonality Testing in Veterinary Medicine: A Review With Diagnostic Guidelines.

    PubMed

    Keller, S M; Vernau, W; Moore, P F

    2016-07-01

    The accurate distinction of reactive and neoplastic lymphoid proliferations can present challenges. Given the different prognoses and treatment strategies, a correct diagnosis is crucial. Molecular clonality assays assess rearranged lymphocyte antigen receptor gene diversity and can help differentiate reactive from neoplastic lymphoid proliferations. Molecular clonality assays are commonly used to assess atypical, mixed, or mature lymphoid proliferations; small tissue fragments that lack architecture; and fluid samples. In addition, clonality testing can be utilized to track neoplastic clones over time or across anatomic sites. Molecular clonality assays are not stand-alone tests but useful adjuncts that follow clinical, morphologic, and immunophenotypic assessment. Even though clonality testing provides valuable information in a variety of situations, the complexities and pitfalls of this method, as well as its dependency on the experience of the interpreter, are often understated. In addition, a lack of standardized terminology, laboratory practices, and interpretational guidelines hinders the reproducibility of clonality testing across laboratories in veterinary medicine. The objectives of this review are twofold. First, the review is intended to familiarize the diagnostic pathologist or interested clinician with the concepts, potential pitfalls, and limitations of clonality testing. Second, the review strives to provide a basis for future harmonization of clonality testing in veterinary medicine by providing diagnostic guidelines.

  19. Near-Infrared Mass Loss Diagnostics for Massive Stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sonneborn, George; Bouret, J. C.

    2010-01-01

    Stellar wind mass loss is a key process which modifies surface abundances, luminosities, and other physical properties of hot, massive stars. Furthermore, mass loss has to be understood quantitatively in order to accurately describe and predict massive star evolution. Two urgent problems have been identified that challenge our understanding of line-driven winds, the so-called weak-wind problem and wind clumping. In both cases, mass-loss rates are drastically lower than theoretically expected (up to a factor 1001). Here we study how the expected spectroscopic capabilities of the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST), especially NIRSpec, could be used to significantly improve constraints on wind density structures (clumps) and deep-seated phenomena in stellar winds of massive stars, including OB, Wolf-Rayet and LBV stars. Since the IR continuum of objects with strong winds is formed in the wind, IR lines may sample different depths inside the wind than UV-optical lines and provide new information about the shape of the velocity field and clumping properties. One of the most important applications of IR line diagnostics will be the measurement of mass-loss rates in massive stars with very weak winds by means of the H I Bracket alpha line, which has been identified as one of the most promising diagnostics for this problem.

  20. Interviewing Children versus Tossing Coins: Accurately Assessing the Diagnosticity of Children's Disclosures of Abuse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lyon, Thomas D.; Ahern, Elizabeth C.; Scurich, Nicholas

    2012-01-01

    We describe a Bayesian approach to evaluating children's abuse disclosures and review research demonstrating that children's disclosure of genital touch can be highly probative of sexual abuse, with the probative value depending on disclosure spontaneity and children's age. We discuss how some commentators understate the probative value of…

  1. The incidence of diagnostic error in medicine.

    PubMed

    Graber, Mark L

    2013-10-01

    A wide variety of research studies suggest that breakdowns in the diagnostic process result in a staggering toll of harm and patient deaths. These include autopsy studies, case reviews, surveys of patient and physicians, voluntary reporting systems, using standardised patients, second reviews, diagnostic testing audits and closed claims reviews. Although these different approaches provide important information and unique insights regarding diagnostic errors, each has limitations and none is well suited to establishing the incidence of diagnostic error in actual practice, or the aggregate rate of error and harm. We argue that being able to measure the incidence of diagnostic error is essential to enable research studies on diagnostic error, and to initiate quality improvement projects aimed at reducing the risk of error and harm. Three approaches appear most promising in this regard: (1) using 'trigger tools' to identify from electronic health records cases at high risk for diagnostic error; (2) using standardised patients (secret shoppers) to study the rate of error in practice; (3) encouraging both patients and physicians to voluntarily report errors they encounter, and facilitating this process. PMID:23771902

  2. Mill profiler machines soft materials accurately

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rauschl, J. A.

    1966-01-01

    Mill profiler machines bevels, slots, and grooves in soft materials, such as styrofoam phenolic-filled cores, to any desired thickness. A single operator can accurately control cutting depths in contour or straight line work.

  3. Melioidosis Diagnostic Workshop, 20131

    PubMed Central

    AuCoin, David; Baccam, Prasith; Baggett, Henry C.; Baird, Rob; Bhengsri, Saithip; Blaney, David D.; Brett, Paul J.; Brooks, Timothy J.G.; Brown, Katherine A.; Chantratita, Narisara; Cheng, Allen C.; Dance, David A.B.; Decuypere, Saskia; Defenbaugh, Dawn; Gee, Jay E.; Houghton, Raymond; Jorakate, Possawat; Lertmemongkolchai, Ganjana; Limmathurotsakul, Direk; Merlin, Toby L.; Mukhopadhyay, Chiranjay; Norton, Robert; Peacock, Sharon J.; Rolim, Dionne B.; Simpson, Andrew J.; Steinmetz, Ivo; Stoddard, Robyn A.; Stokes, Martha M.; Sue, David; Tuanyok, Apichai; Whistler, Toni; Wuthiekanun, Vanaporn; Walke, Henry T.

    2015-01-01

    Melioidosis is a severe disease that can be difficult to diagnose because of its diverse clinical manifestations and a lack of adequate diagnostic capabilities for suspected cases. There is broad interest in improving detection and diagnosis of this disease not only in melioidosis-endemic regions but also outside these regions because melioidosis may be underreported and poses a potential bioterrorism challenge for public health authorities. Therefore, a workshop of academic, government, and private sector personnel from around the world was convened to discuss the current state of melioidosis diagnostics, diagnostic needs, and future directions. PMID:25626057

  4. Plasma diagnostic reflectometry

    SciTech Connect

    Cohen, B.I.; Afeyan, B.B.; Garrison, J.C.; Kaiser, T.B.; Luhmann, N.C. Jr.; Domier, C.W.; Chou, A.E.; Baang, S.

    1996-02-26

    Theoretical and experimental studies of plasma diagnostic reflectometry have been undertaken as a collaborative research project between the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) and the University of California Department of Applied Science Plasma Diagnostics Group under the auspices of the Laboratory Directed Research and Development Program at LLNL. Theoretical analyses have explored the basic principles of reflectometry to understand its limitations, to address specific gaps in the understanding of reflectometry measurements in laboratory experiments, and to explore extensions of reflectometry such as ultra-short-pulse reflectometry. The theory has supported basic laboratory reflectometry experiments where reflectometry measurements can be corroborated by independent diagnostic measurements.

  5. Selecting accurate statements from the cognitive interview using confidence ratings.

    PubMed

    Roberts, Wayne T; Higham, Philip A

    2002-03-01

    Participants viewed a videotape of a simulated murder, and their recall (and confidence) was tested 1 week later with the cognitive interview. Results indicated that (a) the subset of statements assigned high confidence was more accurate than the full set of statements; (b) the accuracy benefit was limited to information that forensic experts considered relevant to an investigation, whereas peripheral information showed the opposite pattern; (c) the confidence-accuracy relationship was higher for relevant than for peripheral information; (d) the focused-retrieval phase was associated with a greater proportion of peripheral and a lesser proportion of relevant information than the other phases; and (e) only about 50% of the relevant information was elicited, and most of this was elicited in Phase 1.

  6. Reusable, robust, and accurate laser-generated photonic nanosensor.

    PubMed

    Yetisen, Ali K; Montelongo, Yunuen; da Cruz Vasconcellos, Fernando; Martinez-Hurtado, J L; Neupane, Sankalpa; Butt, Haider; Qasim, Malik M; Blyth, Jeffrey; Burling, Keith; Carmody, J Bryan; Evans, Mark; Wilkinson, Timothy D; Kubota, Lauro T; Monteiro, Michael J; Lowe, Christopher R

    2014-06-11

    Developing noninvasive and accurate diagnostics that are easily manufactured, robust, and reusable will provide monitoring of high-risk individuals in any clinical or point-of-care environment. We have developed a clinically relevant optical glucose nanosensor that can be reused at least 400 times without a compromise in accuracy. The use of a single 6 ns laser (λ = 532 nm, 200 mJ) pulse rapidly produced off-axis Bragg diffraction gratings consisting of ordered silver nanoparticles embedded within a phenylboronic acid-functionalized hydrogel. This sensor exhibited reversible large wavelength shifts and diffracted the spectrum of narrow-band light over the wavelength range λpeak ≈ 510-1100 nm. The experimental sensitivity of the sensor permits diagnosis of glucosuria in the urine samples of diabetic patients with an improved performance compared to commercial high-throughput urinalysis devices. The sensor response was achieved within 5 min, reset to baseline in ∼10 s. It is anticipated that this sensing platform will have implications for the development of reusable, equipment-free colorimetric point-of-care diagnostic devices for diabetes screening. PMID:24844116

  7. Smart Sensors Gather Information for Machine Diagnostics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2014-01-01

    Stennis Space Center was interested in using smart sensors to monitor components on test stands and avert equipment failures. Partnering with St. Paul, Minnesota-based Lion Precision through a Cooperative Agreement, the team developed a smart sensor and the associated communication protocols. The same sensor is now commercially available for manufacturing.

  8. Characterization and Diagnostic Value of Amino Acid Side Chain Neutral Losses Following Electron-Transfer Dissociation

    PubMed Central

    Xia, Qiangwei; Lee, M. Violet; Rose, Christopher M.; Marsh, Alyce J.; Hubler, Shane L.; Wenger, Craig D.; Coon, Joshua J.

    2011-01-01

    Using a large set of high mass accuracy and resolution ETD tandem mass spectra, we characterized ETD-induced neutral losses. From these data we deduced the chemical formula for 20 of these losses. Many of them have been previously observed in electron-capture dissociation (ECD) spectra, such as losses of the side chains of arginine, aspartic acid, glutamic acid, glutamine, asparagine, leucine, histidine, and carbamidomethylated cysteine residues. With this information, we examined the diagnostic value of these amino acid-specific losses. Among 1285 peptide–spectrum matches, 92.5% have agreement between neutral loss-derived peptide amino acid composition and the peptide sequences. Moreover, we show that peptides can be uniquely identified by using only the accurate precursor mass and amino acid composition based on neutral losses; the median number of sequence candidates from an accurate mass query is reduced from 21 to 8 by adding side chain loss information. Besides increasing confidence in peptide identification, our findings suggest the potential use of these diagnostic losses in ETD spectra to improve false discovery rate estimation and to enhance the performance of scoring functions in database search algorithms. PMID:21472585

  9. Characterization and Diagnostic Value of Amino Acid Side Chain Neutral Losses Following Electron-Transfer Dissociation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xia, Qiangwei; Lee, M. Violet; Rose, Christopher M.; Marsh, Alyce J.; Hubler, Shane L.; Wenger, Craig D.; Coon, Joshua J.

    2011-02-01

    Using a large set of high mass accuracy and resolution ETD tandem mass spectra, we characterized ETD-induced neutral losses. From these data we deduced the chemical formula for 20 of these losses. Many of them have been previously observed in electron-capture dissociation (ECD) spectra, such as losses of the side chains of arginine, aspartic acid, glutamic acid, glutamine, asparagine, leucine, histidine, and carbamidomethylated cysteine residues. With this information, we examined the diagnostic value of these amino acid-specific losses. Among 1285 peptide-spectrum matches, 92.5% have agreement between neutral loss-derived peptide amino acid composition and the peptide sequences. Moreover, we show that peptides can be uniquely identified by using only the accurate precursor mass and amino acid composition based on neutral losses; the median number of sequence candidates from an accurate mass query is reduced from 21 to 8 by adding side chain loss information. Besides increasing confidence in peptide identification, our findings suggest the potential use of these diagnostic losses in ETD spectra to improve false discovery rate estimation and to enhance the performance of scoring functions in database search algorithms.

  10. [Implant-associated infections - Diagnostics].

    PubMed

    Renz, N; Müller, M; Perka, C; Trampuz, A

    2016-10-01

    The diagnosis of implant-associated infections is challenging as chronic low-grade infections often only manifest as subtle clinical symptoms. Clinical evaluation, patient history, imaging, histopathological and microbiological examinations build the cornerstones of the diagnostics for implant-associated infections. New onset of pain at rest, local symptoms at the surgical site and early loosening of the prosthesis or pseudarthrosis should raise suspicion for an infection and prompt further evaluation. Percutaneous sinus tracts, purulent wound secretions and skin erosions with exposure of the implant are certain signs of implant-associated infections. Elevated C‑reactive protein levels in blood support the diagnosis of infection but are neither sufficient sensitive nor specific to confirm or exclude infection. Preoperative antibiotic therapy interferes with the diagnostic evaluation and should be avoided. In periprosthetic joint infections, joint aspiration with determination of the leukocyte count and microbiological examination is a crucial first diagnostic step. Through microbiological and histopathological examinations of intraoperative tissue samples, as well as sonication of explanted implants, the causative pathogen can be identified in most cases. In osteosynthesis-associated infections imaging plays a key role to detect non-union, infection callus, sequester, peri-implant osteolysis and extraosseous and intramedullary pathologies. In prosthetic joint infections imaging provides information about the position and stability of the prosthesis. In case of hematogenic infection seeding from a distant focus, blood cultures should be sampled, followed by a meticulous investigation of potential primary focus of infection, depending on the causative agent.

  11. Temporomandibular joint diagnostics using CBCT.

    PubMed

    Larheim, T A; Abrahamsson, A-K; Kristensen, M; Arvidsson, L Z

    2015-01-01

    The present review will give an update on temporomandibular joint (TMJ) imaging using CBCT. It will focus on diagnostic accuracy and the value of CBCT compared with other imaging modalities for the evaluation of TMJs in different categories of patients; osteoarthritis (OA), juvenile OA, rheumatoid arthritis and related joint diseases, juvenile idiopathic arthritis and other intra-articular conditions. Finally, sections on other aspects of CBCT research related to the TMJ, clinical decision-making and concluding remarks are added. CBCT has emerged as a cost- and dose-effective imaging modality for the diagnostic assessment of a variety of TMJ conditions. The imaging modality has been found to be superior to conventional radiographical examinations as well as MRI in assessment of the TMJ. However, it should be emphasized that the diagnostic information obtained is limited to the morphology of the osseous joint components, cortical bone integrity and subcortical bone destruction/production. For evaluation of soft-tissue abnormalities, MRI is mandatory. There is an obvious need for research on the impact of CBCT examinations on patient outcome.

  12. Temporomandibular joint diagnostics using CBCT

    PubMed Central

    Abrahamsson, A-K; Kristensen, M; Arvidsson, L Z

    2015-01-01

    The present review will give an update on temporomandibular joint (TMJ) imaging using CBCT. It will focus on diagnostic accuracy and the value of CBCT compared with other imaging modalities for the evaluation of TMJs in different categories of patients; osteoarthritis (OA), juvenile OA, rheumatoid arthritis and related joint diseases, juvenile idiopathic arthritis and other intra-articular conditions. Finally, sections on other aspects of CBCT research related to the TMJ, clinical decision-making and concluding remarks are added. CBCT has emerged as a cost- and dose-effective imaging modality for the diagnostic assessment of a variety of TMJ conditions. The imaging modality has been found to be superior to conventional radiographical examinations as well as MRI in assessment of the TMJ. However, it should be emphasized that the diagnostic information obtained is limited to the morphology of the osseous joint components, cortical bone integrity and subcortical bone destruction/production. For evaluation of soft-tissue abnormalities, MRI is mandatory. There is an obvious need for research on the impact of CBCT examinations on patient outcome. PMID:25369205

  13. LEDDB: LOFAR Epoch of Reionization Diagnostic Database

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martinez-Rubi, O.; Veligatla, V. K.; de Bruyn, A. G.; Lampropoulos, P.; Offringa, A. R.; Jelic, V.; Yatawatta, S.; Koopmans, L. V. E.; Zaroubi, S.

    2013-10-01

    One of the key science projects of the Low-Frequency Array (LOFAR) is the detection of the cosmological signal coming from the Epoch of Reionization (EoR). Here we present the LOFAR EoR Diagnostic Database (LEDDB) that is used in the storage, management, processing and analysis of the LOFAR EoR observations. It stores referencing information of the observations and diagnostic parameters extracted from their calibration. These stored data are used to ease the pipeline processing, monitor the performance of the telescope, and visualize the diagnostic parameters which facilitates the analysis of the several contamination effects on the signals. It is implemented with PostgreSQL and accessed through the psycopg2 Python module. We have developed a very flexible query engine, which is used by a web user interface to access the database, and a very extensive set of tools for the visualization of the diagnostic parameters through all their multiple dimensions.

  14. [Pedophilia. Prevalence, etiology, and diagnostics].

    PubMed

    Mokros, A; Osterheider, M; Nitschke, J

    2012-03-01

    Pedophilia is a disorder of sexual preference that increases the risk for committing sexual offenses against children. Consequently, pedophilia is not only relevant in psychiatric therapy and prognostics, but also greatly influences the public attitude towards criminality. Public opinion seems to equate pedophilia with child sexual abuse and vice versa which leads to stigmatization of patients and may impede treatment. The present paper provides information on recent studies on the potential origins of the disorder and introduces new diagnostic methods. Moreover, the article presents estimates on the prevalence of pedophilic sexual interest.

  15. Diagnostic Ophthalmic Ultrasound for Radiologists.

    PubMed

    Kendall, Cynthia J; Prager, Thomas C; Cheng, Han; Gombos, Dan; Tang, Rosa A; Schiffman, Jade S

    2015-08-01

    Ophthalmic ultrasound is an invaluable tool that provides quick and noninvasive evaluation of the eye and the orbit. It not only allows the clinicians to view structures that may not be visible with routine ophthalmic equipment or neuroimaging techniques but also provides unique diagnostic information in various ophthalmic conditions. In this article, the basic principles of ophthalmic ultrasound and examination techniques are discussed. Its clinical application is illustrated through a variety of ocular pathologic abnormalities (eg, narrow angles, ciliary body tumor, detached retina, choroidal melanoma, and papilledema).

  16. Radioactive diagnostic agent

    SciTech Connect

    Shigematsu, A.; Aihara, M.; Matsuda, M.; Suzuki, A.; Tsuya, A.

    1984-02-07

    A radioactive diagnostic agent for renal cortex, adrenal cortex, myocardium, brain stem, spinal nerve, etc., which comprises as an essential component monoiodoacetic acid wherein the iodine atom is radioactive.

  17. Leveraging Two Kinect Sensors for Accurate Full-Body Motion Capture.

    PubMed

    Gao, Zhiquan; Yu, Yao; Zhou, Yu; Du, Sidan

    2015-09-22

    Accurate motion capture plays an important role in sports analysis, the medical field and virtual reality. Current methods for motion capture often suffer from occlusions, which limits the accuracy of their pose estimation. In this paper, we propose a complete system to measure the pose parameters of the human body accurately. Different from previous monocular depth camera systems, we leverage two Kinect sensors to acquire more information about human movements, which ensures that we can still get an accurate estimation even when significant occlusion occurs. Because human motion is temporally constant, we adopt a learning analysis to mine the temporal information across the posture variations. Using this information, we estimate human pose parameters accurately, regardless of rapid movement. Our experimental results show that our system can perform an accurate pose estimation of the human body with the constraint of information from the temporal domain.

  18. Leveraging Two Kinect Sensors for Accurate Full-Body Motion Capture

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Zhiquan; Yu, Yao; Zhou, Yu; Du, Sidan

    2015-01-01

    Accurate motion capture plays an important role in sports analysis, the medical field and virtual reality. Current methods for motion capture often suffer from occlusions, which limits the accuracy of their pose estimation. In this paper, we propose a complete system to measure the pose parameters of the human body accurately. Different from previous monocular depth camera systems, we leverage two Kinect sensors to acquire more information about human movements, which ensures that we can still get an accurate estimation even when significant occlusion occurs. Because human motion is temporally constant, we adopt a learning analysis to mine the temporal information across the posture variations. Using this information, we estimate human pose parameters accurately, regardless of rapid movement. Our experimental results show that our system can perform an accurate pose estimation of the human body with the constraint of information from the temporal domain. PMID:26402681

  19. Hemoptysis with diagnostic dilemma.

    PubMed

    Pramanik, Bimalendu

    2013-02-01

    Hemoptysis is a common symptom. Although initial diagnostic workup, including a chest radiograph, often gives a clue to the cause, it provides no diagnostic hints in 3.0-42.2% of episodes of hemoptysis. To describe those cases with no diagnostic hints at initial investigations, experts have used different terms, including unexplained hemoptysis, idiopathic hemoptysis, cryptogenic hemoptysis and hemoptysis with normal chest radiographs. As hemoptysis is a common symptom of bronchogenic carcinoma, there is a concern of having underlying malignancy. Physicians value high-resolution computed tomography and fiberoptic bronchoscopy as the next investigations to establish diagnosis. These investigations however are expensive and nonspecific results are common in those cases of hemoptysis where initial diagnostic workup gives no clues to the cause. As a result, controversies exist with regard to their use. In this article, the author has proposed diagnostic approaches to evaluate those cases of hemoptysis with no diagnostic hints at initial investigation, after extensive review of published articles related to the case scenario. PMID:23362818

  20. Neutron Diagnostics for NIF

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barnes, Cris W.; Berggren, R.; Caldwell, S.; Chrien, R. C.; Cverna, F.; Faulkner, J.; Mack, J. M.; Morgan, G. L.; Murphy, T. J.; Oertel, J. A.; Tegtmeier, J.; Walton, R.; Wilke, M.; Wilson, D. C.; Young, C. S.

    1999-11-01

    The National Ignition Facility (NIF) will be a pre-emminent facility for research on burning plasmas. Los Alamos National Laboratory is developing a focus area of coordinating fusion reaction product diagnostics on NIF and studying fusion burn. We will be developing ``core'' diagnostics for NIF including neutron time-of-flight and single-hit systems for ion temperature and neutron spectra, measurements of ``bang-time'' (time of fusion burn relative to start of laser pulse), and support for activation measurements for high-yield and radiochemical analysis. We are also developing advanced Phase 2 diagnostics including a gas Cerenkov burn history diagnostic and work on apertures and detectors for neutron imaging. This will include tests of these diagnostic systems on the OMEGA laser in the coming years. The measurement requirements and system descriptions of these NIF diagnostics will be described. This work was performed under the auspices of the U. S. Department of Energy by the Los Alamos National Laboratory under contract No. W-7405-Eng-36.

  1. [Diagnostics in osteology].

    PubMed

    Jakob, F; Genest, F; Seefried, L; Tsourdi, E; Lapa, C; Hofbauer, L C

    2016-07-01

    Clinical diagnostics in metabolic bone diseases cover a broad spectrum of conventional and state of the art methods ranging from the medical history and clinical examination to molecular imaging. Patient treatment is carried out in an interdisciplinary team due to the multiple interactions of bone with other organ systems. Diagnosis of osteoporosis is supported by high level national guidelines. A paradigm shift concerning the clinical relevance of bone mineral density measurement renders this now to be a strong risk factor rather than a diagnostic parameter, while strengthening the value of other clinical factors for risk assessment. The impact of parameters for muscle mass, structure and function is steadily increasing in all age groups. In order to identify underlying diseases that influence bone metabolism a panel of general laboratory diagnostic parameters is recommended. Markers for bone formation and resorption and specific parameters for the regulation of calcium and phosphate metabolism should be evaluated by specialists because they require diligence in preanalytics and experience in interpretation. Genetic diagnosis is well established for rare bone diseases while diagnostic panels are not yet available for routine diagnostics in polygenetic diseases such as osteoporosis. Conventional radiology is still very important to identify, e. g. fractures, osteolytic and osteoblastic lesions and extraosseous calcifications; however tomography-based methods which combine, e. g. scintigraphy or positron emission technologies with anatomical imaging are of increasing significance. Clinical diagnostics in osteology require profound knowledge and are subject to a dynamic evolution. PMID:27307159

  2. Modified chemiluminescent NO analyzer accurately measures NOX

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Summers, R. L.

    1978-01-01

    Installation of molybdenum nitric oxide (NO)-to-higher oxides of nitrogen (NOx) converter in chemiluminescent gas analyzer and use of air purge allow accurate measurements of NOx in exhaust gases containing as much as thirty percent carbon monoxide (CO). Measurements using conventional analyzer are highly inaccurate for NOx if as little as five percent CO is present. In modified analyzer, molybdenum has high tolerance to CO, and air purge substantially quenches NOx destruction. In test, modified chemiluminescent analyzer accurately measured NO and NOx concentrations for over 4 months with no denegration in performance.

  3. Accurately Diagnosing and Treating Borderline Personality Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Gentile, Julie P.; Correll, Terry L.

    2010-01-01

    The high prevalence of comorbid bipolar and borderline personality disorders and some diagnostic criteria similar to both conditions present both diagnostic and therapeutic challenges. This article delineates certain symptoms which, by careful history taking, may be attributed more closely to one of these two disorders. Making the correct primary diagnosis along with comorbid psychiatric conditions and choosing the appropriate type of psychotherapy and pharmacotherapy are critical steps to a patient's recovery. In this article, we will use a case example to illustrate some of the challenges the psychiatrist may face in diagnosing and treating borderline personality disorder. In addition, we will explore treatment strategies, including various types of therapy modalities and medication classes, which may prove effective in stabilizing or reducing a broad range of symptomotology associated with borderline personality disorder. PMID:20508805

  4. Neutron diagnostics for mirror hybrids

    SciTech Connect

    Kaellne, Jan; Noack, Klaus; Agren, Olov; Gorini, Giuseppe; Tardocchi, Marco; Grosso, Giovanni

    2012-06-19

    Fusion-fission (FuFi) hybrids will need instrumentation to diagnose the deuteriumtritium plasma, whose 14-MeV neutron emission is the driver of the sub-critical fission core. While the fission neutron yield rate (Y{sub fi} and hence power P{sub fi}) can be monitored with standard instrumentation, fusion plasmas in hybrids require special diagnostics where the determination of Y{sub th} ({proportional_to}P{sub fu}) is a challenge. Information on Y{sub fu} is essential for assessing the fusion plasma performance which together with Y{sub fi} allows for the validation of the neutron multiplication factor (k) of the subcritical fission core. Diagnostics for hybrid plasmas are heuristically discussed with special reference to straight field line mirror (SFLM). Relevant DT plasma experience from JET and plans for ITER in the main line of fusion research were used as input. It is shown that essential SFLM plasma information can potentially be obtained with proposed instrumentation, but the state of the hybrid plasma must be predictably robust as derived from fully diagnosed dedicated experiments without interface restrictions of the hybrid application.

  5. Biosafety principles and practices for the veterinary diagnostic laboratory.

    PubMed

    Kozlovac, Joseph; Schmitt, Beverly

    2015-01-01

    Good biosafety and biocontainment programs and practices are critical components of the successful operation of any veterinary diagnostic laboratory. In this chapter we provide information and guidance on critical biosafety management program elements, facility requirements, protective equipment, and procedures necessary to ensure that the laboratory worker and the environment are adequately protected in the challenging work environment of the veterinary diagnostic laboratory in general and provide specific guidance for those laboratories employing molecular diagnostic techniques. PMID:25399086

  6. Development of Companion Diagnostics.

    PubMed

    Mankoff, David A; Edmonds, Christine E; Farwell, Michael D; Pryma, Daniel A

    2016-01-01

    The goal of individualized and targeted treatment and precision medicine requires the assessment of potential therapeutic targets to direct treatment selection. The biomarkers used to direct precision medicine, often termed companion diagnostics, for highly targeted drugs have thus far been almost entirely based on in vitro assay of biopsy material. Molecular imaging companion diagnostics offer a number of features complementary to those from in vitro assay, including the ability to measure the heterogeneity of each patient's cancer across the entire disease burden and to measure early changes in response to treatment. We discuss the use of molecular imaging methods as companion diagnostics for cancer therapy with the goal of predicting response to targeted therapy and measuring early (pharmacodynamic) response as an indication of whether the treatment has "hit" the target. We also discuss considerations for probe development for molecular imaging companion diagnostics, including both small-molecule probes and larger molecules such as labeled antibodies and related constructs. We then describe two examples where both predictive and pharmacodynamic molecular imaging markers have been tested in humans: endocrine therapy for breast cancer and human epidermal growth factor receptor type 2-targeted therapy. The review closes with a summary of the items needed to move molecular imaging companion diagnostics from early studies into multicenter trials and into the clinic.

  7. MJO Simulation Diagnostics

    SciTech Connect

    Waliser, D; Sperber, K; Hendon, H; Kim, D; Maloney, E; Wheeler, M; Weickmann, K; Zhang, C; Donner, L; Gottschalck, J; Higgins, W; Kang, I; Legler, D; Moncrieff, M; Schubert, S; Stern, W; Vitart, F; Wang, B; Wang, W; Woolnough, S

    2008-06-02

    The Madden-Julian Oscillation (MJO) interacts with, and influences, a wide range of weather and climate phenomena (e.g., monsoons, ENSO, tropical storms, mid-latitude weather), and represents an important, and as yet unexploited, source of predictability at the subseasonal time scale. Despite the important role of the MJO in our climate and weather systems, current global circulation models (GCMs) exhibit considerable shortcomings in representing this phenomenon. These shortcomings have been documented in a number of multi-model comparison studies over the last decade. However, diagnosis of model performance has been challenging, and model progress has been difficult to track, due to the lack of a coherent and standardized set of MJO diagnostics. One of the chief objectives of the US CLIVAR MJO Working Group is the development of observation-based diagnostics for objectively evaluating global model simulations of the MJO in a consistent framework. Motivation for this activity is reviewed, and the intent and justification for a set of diagnostics is provided, along with specification for their calculation, and illustrations of their application. The diagnostics range from relatively simple analyses of variance and correlation, to more sophisticated space-time spectral and empirical orthogonal function analyses. These diagnostic techniques are used to detect MJO signals, to construct composite life-cycles, to identify associations of MJO activity with the mean state, and to describe interannual variability of the MJO.

  8. Development of Companion Diagnostics.

    PubMed

    Mankoff, David A; Edmonds, Christine E; Farwell, Michael D; Pryma, Daniel A

    2016-01-01

    The goal of individualized and targeted treatment and precision medicine requires the assessment of potential therapeutic targets to direct treatment selection. The biomarkers used to direct precision medicine, often termed companion diagnostics, for highly targeted drugs have thus far been almost entirely based on in vitro assay of biopsy material. Molecular imaging companion diagnostics offer a number of features complementary to those from in vitro assay, including the ability to measure the heterogeneity of each patient's cancer across the entire disease burden and to measure early changes in response to treatment. We discuss the use of molecular imaging methods as companion diagnostics for cancer therapy with the goal of predicting response to targeted therapy and measuring early (pharmacodynamic) response as an indication of whether the treatment has "hit" the target. We also discuss considerations for probe development for molecular imaging companion diagnostics, including both small-molecule probes and larger molecules such as labeled antibodies and related constructs. We then describe two examples where both predictive and pharmacodynamic molecular imaging markers have been tested in humans: endocrine therapy for breast cancer and human epidermal growth factor receptor type 2-targeted therapy. The review closes with a summary of the items needed to move molecular imaging companion diagnostics from early studies into multicenter trials and into the clinic. PMID:26687857

  9. Development of Companion Diagnostics

    PubMed Central

    Mankoff, David A.; Edmonds, Christine E.; Farwell, Michael D.; Pryma, Daniel A.

    2016-01-01

    The goal of individualized and targeted treatment and precision medicine requires the assessment of potential therapeutic targets to direct treatment selection. The biomarkers used to direct precision medicine, often termed companion diagnostics, for highly targeted drugs have thus far been almost entirely based on in vitro assay of biopsy material. Molecular imaging companion diagnostics offer a number of features complementary to those from in vitro assay, including the ability to measure the heterogeneity of each patient’s cancer across the entire disease burden and to measure early changes in response to treatment. We discuss the use of molecular imaging methods as companion diagnostics for cancer therapy with the goal of predicting response to targeted therapy and measuring early (pharmacodynamic) response as an indication of whether the treatment has “hit” the target. We also discuss considerations for probe development for molecular imaging companion diagnostics, including both small-molecule probes and larger molecules such as labeled antibodies and related constructs. We then describe two examples where both predictive and pharmacodynamic molecular imaging markers have been tested in humans: endocrine therapy for breast cancer and human epidermal growth factor receptor type 2–targeted therapy. The review closes with a summary of the items needed to move molecular imaging companion diagnostics from early studies into multicenter trials and into the clinic. PMID:26687857

  10. Nuclear diagnostics for inertial confinement fusion implosions

    SciTech Connect

    Murphy, T.J.

    1997-11-01

    This abstract contains viewgraphs on nuclear diagnostic techniques for inertial confinement fusion implosions. The viewgraphs contain information on: reactions of interest in ICF; advantages and disadvantages of these methods; the properties nuclear techniques can measure; and some specifics on the detectors used.

  11. Low-cost laser diagnostic system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramos, T. J.; Lim, D. R.; Lingenfelter, A. C.

    1985-10-01

    The principal feature of a new laser diagnostic system is real-time display of beam energy profile. This ensures on-line verification of beam mode and stability with capability for computer storage of this information for later analysis. This system provides low-cost control and repeatability, essential in precision metalworking operations.

  12. Diagnostic Hypothesis Generation and Human Judgment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Rick P.; Dougherty, Michael R.; Sprenger, Amber M.; Harbison, J. Isaiah

    2008-01-01

    Diagnostic hypothesis-generation processes are ubiquitous in human reasoning. For example, clinicians generate disease hypotheses to explain symptoms and help guide treatment, auditors generate hypotheses for identifying sources of accounting errors, and laypeople generate hypotheses to explain patterns of information (i.e., data) in the…

  13. Development of the Alberta Diagnostic Reading Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horvath, Frank G.; Machura, Shirley

    The development of the Alberta Diagnostic Reading Program (ADRP) was based on a current psycholinguistic theory that describes reading as a process in which the reader uses background information to communicate with the author. To ensure its usefulness and effectiveness, the developers of the ADRP sought the advice and direct involvement of many…

  14. Digital photography enhances diagnostics, communication, and documentation.

    PubMed

    McLaren, Edward A; Schoenbaum, Todd

    2011-01-01

    Digital dental photography is an exceptional tool for communication, diagnosis, and documentation. So much of what is possible today with dental treatment hinges strongly upon dentists' ability to fully capture the necessary diagnostic information and properly educate their patients. With the proper training, techniques, equipment, and implementation, dental photography can significantly enhance the level of treatment provided.

  15. [Diagnostics of cavitary processes in the lungs].

    PubMed

    Iakovlev, V N; Sheĭkh, Zh V; Arablinskiĭ, A V; Alekseev, V G; Sinopal'nikov, A I; Dunaev, A P; DrebushevskiV, N S

    2012-01-01

    The paper concerns CT-semiotics of cavitary processes in the lungs. Their major forms are discussed with reference to underlying pathological changes. The most common manifestations of the diseases associated with the cavitary processes are described. CT is a highly informative method for the visualization of pulmonary cavitation and the surrounding chest structures; this method improves diagnostics of pulmonary pathology.

  16. Can Appraisers Rate Work Performance Accurately?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hedge, Jerry W.; Laue, Frances J.

    The ability of individuals to make accurate judgments about others is examined and literature on this subject is reviewed. A wide variety of situational factors affects the appraisal of performance. It is generally accepted that the purpose of the appraisal influences the accuracy of the appraiser. The instrumentation, or tools, available to the…

  17. Accurate pointing of tungsten welding electrodes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ziegelmeier, P.

    1971-01-01

    Thoriated-tungsten is pointed accurately and quickly by using sodium nitrite. Point produced is smooth and no effort is necessary to hold the tungsten rod concentric. The chemically produced point can be used several times longer than ground points. This method reduces time and cost of preparing tungsten electrodes.

  18. ORION laser target diagnostics.

    PubMed

    Bentley, C D; Edwards, R D; Andrew, J E; James, S F; Gardner, M D; Comley, A J; Vaughan, K; Horsfield, C J; Rubery, M S; Rothman, S D; Daykin, S; Masoero, S J; Palmer, J B; Meadowcroft, A L; Williams, B M; Gumbrell, E T; Fyrth, J D; Brown, C R D; Hill, M P; Oades, K; Wright, M J; Hood, B A; Kemshall, P

    2012-10-01

    The ORION laser facility is one of the UK's premier laser facilities which became operational at AWE in 2010. Its primary mission is one of stockpile stewardship, ORION will extend the UK's experimental plasma physics capability to the high temperature, high density regime relevant to Atomic Weapons Establishment's (AWE) program. The ORION laser combines ten laser beams operating in the ns regime with two sub ps short pulse chirped pulse amplification beams. This gives the UK a unique combined long pulse/short pulse laser capability which is not only available to AWE personnel but also gives access to our international partners and visiting UK academia. The ORION laser facility is equipped with a comprehensive suite of some 45 diagnostics covering optical, particle, and x-ray diagnostics all able to image the laser target interaction point. This paper focuses on a small selection of these diagnostics. PMID:23126904

  19. ORION laser target diagnostics.

    PubMed

    Bentley, C D; Edwards, R D; Andrew, J E; James, S F; Gardner, M D; Comley, A J; Vaughan, K; Horsfield, C J; Rubery, M S; Rothman, S D; Daykin, S; Masoero, S J; Palmer, J B; Meadowcroft, A L; Williams, B M; Gumbrell, E T; Fyrth, J D; Brown, C R D; Hill, M P; Oades, K; Wright, M J; Hood, B A; Kemshall, P

    2012-10-01

    The ORION laser facility is one of the UK's premier laser facilities which became operational at AWE in 2010. Its primary mission is one of stockpile stewardship, ORION will extend the UK's experimental plasma physics capability to the high temperature, high density regime relevant to Atomic Weapons Establishment's (AWE) program. The ORION laser combines ten laser beams operating in the ns regime with two sub ps short pulse chirped pulse amplification beams. This gives the UK a unique combined long pulse/short pulse laser capability which is not only available to AWE personnel but also gives access to our international partners and visiting UK academia. The ORION laser facility is equipped with a comprehensive suite of some 45 diagnostics covering optical, particle, and x-ray diagnostics all able to image the laser target interaction point. This paper focuses on a small selection of these diagnostics.

  20. ORION laser target diagnostics

    SciTech Connect

    Bentley, C. D.; Edwards, R. D.; Andrew, J. E.; James, S. F.; Gardner, M. D.; Comley, A. J.; Vaughan, K.; Horsfield, C. J.; Rubery, M. S.; Rothman, S. D.; Daykin, S.; Masoero, S. J.; Palmer, J. B.; Meadowcroft, A. L.; Williams, B. M.; Gumbrell, E. T.; Fyrth, J. D.; Brown, C. R. D.; Hill, M. P.; Oades, K.; and others

    2012-10-15

    The ORION laser facility is one of the UK's premier laser facilities which became operational at AWE in 2010. Its primary mission is one of stockpile stewardship, ORION will extend the UK's experimental plasma physics capability to the high temperature, high density regime relevant to Atomic Weapons Establishment's (AWE) program. The ORION laser combines ten laser beams operating in the ns regime with two sub ps short pulse chirped pulse amplification beams. This gives the UK a unique combined long pulse/short pulse laser capability which is not only available to AWE personnel but also gives access to our international partners and visiting UK academia. The ORION laser facility is equipped with a comprehensive suite of some 45 diagnostics covering optical, particle, and x-ray diagnostics all able to image the laser target interaction point. This paper focuses on a small selection of these diagnostics.

  1. Reversed field pinch diagnostics

    SciTech Connect

    Weber, P.G.

    1986-01-01

    The Reversed Field Pinch (RFP) is a toroidal, axisymmetric magnetic confinement configuration characterized by a magnetic field configuration in which the toroidal magnetic field is of similar strength to the poloidal field, and is reversed at the edge compared to the center. The RFP routinely operates at high beta, and is a strong candidate for a compact fusion device. Relevant attributes of the configuration will be presented, together with an overview of present and planned experiments and their diagnostics. RFP diagnostics are in many ways similar to those of other magnetic confinement devices (such as tokamaks); these lectures will point out pertinent differences, and will present some diagnostics which provide special insights into unique attributes of the RFP.

  2. PDX diagnostic control system

    SciTech Connect

    Mika, R.

    1981-01-01

    This paper describes a computer-base diagnostic control system operating on the PDX Tokamak. The prime function of the system is to control mechanical positioning devices associated with various diagnostics including Thomson Scattering, X-Ray Pulse Height Analyzer, Rotating Scanning Monochromator, Fast Ion Detection Experiment, Bolometers and Plasma Limiters. The diagnostic control system consists of a PDP-11/34 computer, a CAMAC system partitioned between the PDX control room and the PDX machine area, and special electronic control modules developed at PPL. The special modules include a digital closed loop motor controller and user interface control panel for control and status display. A standard control panel was developed for interfacing each system user with the PDP-11/34 computer, through specially developed CAMAC modules.

  3. [Diagnostic models. 2. Fabrication].

    PubMed

    Lefèvre, M; Vincent, G; L'Official-Vincent, M

    1989-09-01

    After describing in Part I the preparation of diagnostic cast, the authors describe the Wax Up preparation. Most of the definition of centric relation agree that the position of the mandible is slightly behind its position in centric occlusion. The Hinge axis position is used for mounting the cast on articulator. The final restauration must reconstruct both position and the occlusion should be established in front the centric occlusion. After equilibration anterior guidance is studied and restaured if necessary. After creating the different curve of occlusion, the final Wax Up is settled. The use of the diagnostic cast so obtained will be presented in Part III.

  4. Light Field Imaging Based Accurate Image Specular Highlight Removal.

    PubMed

    Wang, Haoqian; Xu, Chenxue; Wang, Xingzheng; Zhang, Yongbing; Peng, Bo

    2016-01-01

    Specular reflection removal is indispensable to many computer vision tasks. However, most existing methods fail or degrade in complex real scenarios for their individual drawbacks. Benefiting from the light field imaging technology, this paper proposes a novel and accurate approach to remove specularity and improve image quality. We first capture images with specularity by the light field camera (Lytro ILLUM). After accurately estimating the image depth, a simple and concise threshold strategy is adopted to cluster the specular pixels into "unsaturated" and "saturated" category. Finally, a color variance analysis of multiple views and a local color refinement are individually conducted on the two categories to recover diffuse color information. Experimental evaluation by comparison with existed methods based on our light field dataset together with Stanford light field archive verifies the effectiveness of our proposed algorithm. PMID:27253083

  5. A catalog of isolated galaxy pairs with accurate radial velocities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chamaraux, P.; Nottale, L.

    2016-07-01

    The present paper is devoted to the construction of a catalog of isolated galaxy pairs from the Uppsala Galaxy Catalog (UGC), using accurate radial velocities. The UGC lists 12 921 galaxies to δ > -2°30' and is complete to an apparent diameter of 1'. The criteria used to define the isolated galaxy pairs are based on velocity, interdistance, reciprocity and isolation information. A peculiar investigation has allowed to gather very accurate radial velocities for pair members, from high quality HI and optical measurements (median uncertainty on velocity differences 10 kms-1). Our final catalog contains 1005 galaxy pairs with ρ > 2.5, of which 509 have ρ > 5 (50% of the pairs, i.e. 8%of the UGC galaxies) and 273 are highly isolated with ρ > 10 (27% of the pairs, i.e. 4% of the UGC galaxies). Some global properties of the pair catalog are given.

  6. Methods for accurate homology modeling by global optimization.

    PubMed

    Joo, Keehyoung; Lee, Jinwoo; Lee, Jooyoung

    2012-01-01

    High accuracy protein modeling from its sequence information is an important step toward revealing the sequence-structure-function relationship of proteins and nowadays it becomes increasingly more useful for practical purposes such as in drug discovery and in protein design. We have developed a protocol for protein structure prediction that can generate highly accurate protein models in terms of backbone structure, side-chain orientation, hydrogen bonding, and binding sites of ligands. To obtain accurate protein models, we have combined a powerful global optimization method with traditional homology modeling procedures such as multiple sequence alignment, chain building, and side-chain remodeling. We have built a series of specific score functions for these steps, and optimized them by utilizing conformational space annealing, which is one of the most successful combinatorial optimization algorithms currently available.

  7. Accurate Development of Thermal Neutron Scattering Cross Section Libraries

    SciTech Connect

    Hawari, Ayman; Dunn, Michael

    2014-06-10

    The objective of this project is to develop a holistic (fundamental and accurate) approach for generating thermal neutron scattering cross section libraries for a collection of important enutron moderators and reflectors. The primary components of this approach are the physcial accuracy and completeness of the generated data libraries. Consequently, for the first time, thermal neutron scattering cross section data libraries will be generated that are based on accurate theoretical models, that are carefully benchmarked against experimental and computational data, and that contain complete covariance information that can be used in propagating the data uncertainties through the various components of the nuclear design and execution process. To achieve this objective, computational and experimental investigations will be performed on a carefully selected subset of materials that play a key role in all stages of the nuclear fuel cycle.

  8. Light Field Imaging Based Accurate Image Specular Highlight Removal

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Haoqian; Xu, Chenxue; Wang, Xingzheng; Zhang, Yongbing; Peng, Bo

    2016-01-01

    Specular reflection removal is indispensable to many computer vision tasks. However, most existing methods fail or degrade in complex real scenarios for their individual drawbacks. Benefiting from the light field imaging technology, this paper proposes a novel and accurate approach to remove specularity and improve image quality. We first capture images with specularity by the light field camera (Lytro ILLUM). After accurately estimating the image depth, a simple and concise threshold strategy is adopted to cluster the specular pixels into “unsaturated” and “saturated” category. Finally, a color variance analysis of multiple views and a local color refinement are individually conducted on the two categories to recover diffuse color information. Experimental evaluation by comparison with existed methods based on our light field dataset together with Stanford light field archive verifies the effectiveness of our proposed algorithm. PMID:27253083

  9. [Diagnostic methods of nasal respiratory function].

    PubMed

    Mlynski, G; Beule, A

    2008-01-01

    Objective assessment of nasal obstruction may help with preoperative planning for rhinosurgery and indicate different aspects of endonasal pathology. To improve quality control, preoperative and postoperative objective assessment is desirable. This review presents objective functional diagnostic tools and explains their appropriate uses, the information obtained, and their limitations. An algorithm is presented for analysing nasal obstruction by means of objective functional assessment. Examples illustrate how to use this information for preoperative planning in rhinosurgery. PMID:18210011

  10. [Radionuclide therapy and diagnostics in urology].

    PubMed

    Fendler, W P; Wenter, V; Stief, C G; Gratzke, C; Bartenstein, P

    2015-07-01

    In recent years there has been methodological improvement in established nuclear medicine procedures, such as renal and skeletal scintigraphy and new very specific probes for treatment and diagnosis of urological diseases have been introduced into the clinical routine. New diagnostic methods, such as positron emission tomography (PET) using prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA) ligands for highly accurate tumor localization in recurrent prostate cancer have become available in many centers. The very high and selective accumulation of these PSMA ligands in tumor tissue has shown promising therapeutic results. Moreover, since 2013 a new radiopharmaceutical agent, radium-223 dichloride, has been approved for treatment of symptomatic bone metastases of prostate cancer. Better knowledge of indications, benefits and limitations of these procedures will help clinicians to adequately introduce them into patient management. This article summarizes the state of the art in established nuclear medicine procedures for urological disorders and also reports on new diagnostic and therapeutic possibilities.

  11. Diagnostic Testing at UK Universities: An E-Mail Survey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gillard, Jonathan; Levi, Margaret; Wilson, Robert

    2010-01-01

    In July 2009, an e-mail survey was sent to various UK universities to gain information regarding current practices concerning mathematics diagnostic testing, and to provide an update from the review "Diagnostic Testing for Mathematics" published by the LTSN MathsTEAM Project in 2003. A total of 38 university departments were contacted and the…

  12. Viral diagnostics: will new technology save the day

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Technology for infectious agent detection continues to evolve, particularly molecular methods which first emerged in the mid-1970’s. The goals of new technology in diagnostics are to achieve the highest sensitivity and specificity possible to accurately identify the infection status of an individua...

  13. Training in Structured Diagnostic Assessment Using DSM-IV Criteria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ponniah, Kathryn; Weissman, Myrna M.; Bledsoe, Sarah E.; Verdeli, Helen; Gameroff, Marc J.; Mufson, Laura; Fitterling, Heidi; Wickramaratne, Priya

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: Determining a patient's psychiatric diagnosis is an important first step for the selection of empirically supported treatments and a critical component of evidence-based practice. Structured diagnostic assessment covers the range of psychiatric diagnoses and is usually more complete and accurate than unstructured assessment. Method: We…

  14. Enhancing ADHD and LD Diagnostic Accuracy Using Career Instruments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dipeolu, Abiola; Hargrave, Stephanie; Storlie, Cassandra A.

    2015-01-01

    Individuals diagnosed with mental health disorders may have work-related difficulties that impact functioning in all life domains. With limited research on the integration of career and mental health counseling, authors used a discriminant function analysis to assess the predictability of accurately identifying diagnostic categories among 258…

  15. CBCT: a revolutionary diagnostic aid for endodontic dilemmas.

    PubMed

    Gurtu, A; Aggarwal, A; Mohan, S; Singhal, A; Bansal, R; Agnihotri, K

    2014-09-01

    Successful management of endodontic problems is reliant on diagnostic imaging techniques to provide critical information about the teeth under investigation, and their surrounding anatomy. Until recently, most of this core information was obtained from conventional radiographs. The introduction of cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) specifically dedicated to imaging the maxillofacial region heralds a true paradigm shift from a two dimensional (2D) to a three dimensional (3D) approach to data acquisition and image reconstruction. CBCT systems provide small field of view images at low dose with sufficient spatial resolution for applications in endodontic diagnosis, treatment guidance, and post treatment evaluation. CBCT has been the subject of unparalleled levels of independent research in dental imaging in the area of endodontics. It gives the edge of 3D imaging at lower radiation level in comparison to conventional CT and has helped to treat endodontic cases with external resoption, root canal variations and apical periodontitis providing the size, site and extent accurately. This paper reviews the fundamentals of CBCT and presents the applications of this imaging system in contemporary endodontic practice. PMID:25308570

  16. Feedback about More Accurate versus Less Accurate Trials: Differential Effects on Self-Confidence and Activation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Badami, Rokhsareh; VaezMousavi, Mohammad; Wulf, Gabriele; Namazizadeh, Mahdi

    2012-01-01

    One purpose of the present study was to examine whether self-confidence or anxiety would be differentially affected by feedback from more accurate rather than less accurate trials. The second purpose was to determine whether arousal variations (activation) would predict performance. On Day 1, participants performed a golf putting task under one of…

  17. Accurate object tracking system by integrating texture and depth cues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Ju-Chin; Lin, Yu-Hang

    2016-03-01

    A robust object tracking system that is invariant to object appearance variations and background clutter is proposed. Multiple instance learning with a boosting algorithm is applied to select discriminant texture information between the object and background data. Additionally, depth information, which is important to distinguish the object from a complicated background, is integrated. We propose two depth-based models that can compensate texture information to cope with both appearance variants and background clutter. Moreover, in order to reduce the risk of drifting problem increased for the textureless depth templates, an update mechanism is proposed to select more precise tracking results to avoid incorrect model updates. In the experiments, the robustness of the proposed system is evaluated and quantitative results are provided for performance analysis. Experimental results show that the proposed system can provide the best success rate and has more accurate tracking results than other well-known algorithms.

  18. Efficient and Accurate Indoor Localization Using Landmark Graphs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gu, F.; Kealy, A.; Khoshelham, K.; Shang, J.

    2016-06-01

    Indoor localization is important for a variety of applications such as location-based services, mobile social networks, and emergency response. Fusing spatial information is an effective way to achieve accurate indoor localization with little or with no need for extra hardware. However, existing indoor localization methods that make use of spatial information are either too computationally expensive or too sensitive to the completeness of landmark detection. In this paper, we solve this problem by using the proposed landmark graph. The landmark graph is a directed graph where nodes are landmarks (e.g., doors, staircases, and turns) and edges are accessible paths with heading information. We compared the proposed method with two common Dead Reckoning (DR)-based methods (namely, Compass + Accelerometer + Landmarks and Gyroscope + Accelerometer + Landmarks) by a series of experiments. Experimental results show that the proposed method can achieve 73% accuracy with a positioning error less than 2.5 meters, which outperforms the other two DR-based methods.

  19. Feedback about more accurate versus less accurate trials: differential effects on self-confidence and activation.

    PubMed

    Badami, Rokhsareh; VaezMousavi, Mohammad; Wulf, Gabriele; Namazizadeh, Mahdi

    2012-06-01

    One purpose of the present study was to examine whether self-confidence or anxiety would be differentially affected byfeedback from more accurate rather than less accurate trials. The second purpose was to determine whether arousal variations (activation) would predict performance. On day 1, participants performed a golf putting task under one of two conditions: one group received feedback on the most accurate trials, whereas another group received feedback on the least accurate trials. On day 2, participants completed an anxiety questionnaire and performed a retention test. Shin conductance level, as a measure of arousal, was determined. The results indicated that feedback about more accurate trials resulted in more effective learning as well as increased self-confidence. Also, activation was a predictor of performance. PMID:22808705

  20. [Basic principles of selection and use of diagnostic tests: analysis of the results of diagnostic studies].

    PubMed

    Carneiro, A V

    2001-11-01

    In clinical practice, in order to design and implement a specific therapeutic plan, as well as communicating an appropriate prognosis, the doctor needs to establish a precise diagnosis of the condition. Sometimes all one needs is a clinical impression. More often, however, the definition of an accurate diagnosis will need the interpretation of specific diagnostic tests as well. The rational use of diagnostic tests in cardiology--whether laboratorial or imagiologic--should be based on three factors: 1) validity of the study results about the test; 2) diagnostic properties of the test and 3) applicability of the test in the clinical setting. The rational use and correct interpretation of diagnostic tests are based on these three factors. In this article we present the basic principles concerning the validity of the results from the study that defined the specific test, and what level of evidence that constitutes. Other articles will address diagnostic properties of tests (sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values, likelihood ratios) as well as the applicability of the test in clinical practice. PMID:11826705

  1. Basic principles on selection and use of diagnostic tests: properties of diagnostic tests.

    PubMed

    Carneiro, A V

    2001-12-01

    In clinical practice, in order to design and implement a specific therapeutic plan, as well as communicating an appropriate prognosis, the doctor needs to establish a precise diagnosis of the condition. Sometimes all one needs is a clinical impression. More often, however, the definition of an accurate diagnosis will mandate the interpretation of specific diagnostic tests as well. The rational use of diagnostic tests in cardiology--whether laboratorial or imaging--should be based on three factors: 1) validity of results of studies on the test; 2) diagnostic properties of the test; and 3) applicability of the test in the clinical setting. The rational use and the correct interpretation of diagnostic tests are based on these three factors. In a previous article we presented the basic principles concerning the validity of the results from the study that defined the specific test, and what level of evidence that constitutes. In this article we present the diagnostic properties of tests (sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values, likelihood ratios, odds). Finally, in a forthcoming paper we will discuss the applicability of the test in clinical cardiological practice. PMID:11865687

  2. LASERS IN MEDICINE: Laser diagnostics of biofractals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ushenko, A. G.

    1999-12-01

    An optical approach to the problem of modelling and diagnostics of the structures of biofractal formations was considered in relation to human bone tissue. A model was proposed for the optical properties of this tissue, including three levels of fractal organisation: microcrystalline, macrocrystalline, and architectural. The studies were based on laser coherent polarimetry ensuring the retrieval of the fullest information about the optical and polarisation properties of bone tissue. A method was developed for contactless noninvasive diagnostics of the orientational and mineralogical structure of bone tissue considered as a biofractal.

  3. Design of the diagnostic encyclopedia workstation (DEW).

    PubMed

    van Ginneken, A M; Smeulders, A W; Jansen, W; Baak, J P; Brooymans, I

    1990-01-01

    The Diagnostic Encyclopedia Workstation (DEW) contains reference knowledge for diagnostic support in pathology. Illustrations are accessible via a video disc device. DEW can hold more knowledge, pictures and case histories than books, and its information is accessible via several entries. Software for data entry has been written in MUMPS with use of the relational database toolkit AIDA, which is particularly suited for manipulation of free text. The graphical mouse-driven user interface is written in C using MetaWindows. The DEW contains 85 diagnoses in ovarian pathology, covering all frequent cases and many rarities, illustrated by approximately 3000 pictures, divided among 158 cases.

  4. Diagnostic Lessons as Assessment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Barbara J.

    Embedded in a sensitive instructional context rather than a stifling testing atmosphere, diagnostic lessons provide assessment that is reliable, practical, valid, and efficient. In this type of assessment, there are several determiners of instructional placement: (1) students' propensity to adapt strategies as a result of specified instruction,…

  5. Sexual Addiction: Diagnostic Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Giugliano, John R.

    2009-01-01

    In recent years clinicians report a great deal of concern about definition, diagnostic assessment, and treatment modalities when dealing with what might be called out-of-control sexual behavior. Many terms have been used to describe the phenomenon of problematic sexual behavior. Many of these concepts overlap, some are no longer popular, and some…

  6. Diagnostic Testing Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McArthur, David L.

    This paper presents an explanation of the program design of the three separate Pascal-language programs which comprise UCLA's Diagnostic Testing Package "DX." The three parts of the DX test package are three closely interrelated programs--Editest, Runtest, and Summary. Editest serves the following functions: (1) the creation of a suitable…

  7. Equivalent Diagnostic Classification Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maris, Gunter; Bechger, Timo

    2009-01-01

    Rupp and Templin (2008) do a good job at describing the ever expanding landscape of Diagnostic Classification Models (DCM). In many ways, their review article clearly points to some of the questions that need to be answered before DCMs can become part of the psychometric practitioners toolkit. Apart from the issues mentioned in this article that…

  8. Heterodyne laser diagnostic system

    DOEpatents

    Globig, Michael A.; Johnson, Michael A.; Wyeth, Richard W.

    1990-01-01

    The heterodyne laser diagnostic system includes, in one embodiment, an average power pulsed laser optical spectrum analyzer for determining the average power of the pulsed laser. In another embodiment, the system includes a pulsed laser instantaneous optical frequency measurement for determining the instantaneous optical frequency of the pulsed laser.

  9. Diagnostics for induction accelerators

    SciTech Connect

    Fessenden, T.J.

    1996-04-01

    The induction accelerator was conceived by N. C. Christofilos and first realized as the Astron accelerator that operated at LLNL from the early 1960`s to the end of 1975. This accelerator generated electron beams at energies near 6 MeV with typical currents of 600 Amperes in 400 ns pulses. The Advanced Test Accelerator (ATA) built at Livermore`s Site 300 produced 10,000 Ampere beams with pulse widths of 70 ns at energies approaching 50 MeV. Several other electron and ion induction accelerators have been fabricated at LLNL and LBNL. This paper reviews the principal diagnostics developed through efforts by scientists at both laboratories for measuring the current, position, energy, and emittance of beams generated by these high current, short pulse accelerators. Many of these diagnostics are closely related to those developed for other accelerators. However, the very fast and intense current pulses often require special diagnostic techniques and considerations. The physics and design of the more unique diagnostics developed for electron induction accelerators are presented and discussed in detail.

  10. Beam Diagnostics for FACET

    SciTech Connect

    Li, S.Z.; Hogan, M.J.; /SLAC

    2011-08-19

    FACET, the Facility for Advanced Accelerator and Experimental Tests, is a new facility being constructed in sector 20 of the SLAC linac primarily to study beam driven plasma wakefield acceleration beginning in summer 2011. The nominal FACET parameters are 23GeV, 3nC electron bunches compressed to about 20 {micro}m long and focussed to about 10 {micro}m wide. Characterization of the beam-plasma interaction requires complete knowledge of the incoming beam parameters on a pulse-to-pulse basis. FACET diagnostics include Beam Position Monitors, Toroidal current monitors, X-ray and Cerenkov based energy spectrometers, optical transition radiation (OTR) profile monitors and coherent transition radiation (CTR) bunch length measurement systems. The compliment of beam diagnostics and their expected performance are reviewed. Beam diagnostic measurements not only provide valuable insights to the running and tuning of the accelerator but also are crucial for the PWFA experiments in particular. Beam diagnostic devices are being set up at FACET and will be ready for beam commissioning in summer 2011.

  11. Two highly accurate methods for pitch calibration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kniel, K.; Härtig, F.; Osawa, S.; Sato, O.

    2009-11-01

    Among profiles, helix and tooth thickness pitch is one of the most important parameters of an involute gear measurement evaluation. In principle, coordinate measuring machines (CMM) and CNC-controlled gear measuring machines as a variant of a CMM are suited for these kinds of gear measurements. Now the Japan National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (NMIJ/AIST) and the German national metrology institute the Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB) have each developed independently highly accurate pitch calibration methods applicable to CMM or gear measuring machines. Both calibration methods are based on the so-called closure technique which allows the separation of the systematic errors of the measurement device and the errors of the gear. For the verification of both calibration methods, NMIJ/AIST and PTB performed measurements on a specially designed pitch artifact. The comparison of the results shows that both methods can be used for highly accurate calibrations of pitch standards.

  12. Accurate guitar tuning by cochlear implant musicians.

    PubMed

    Lu, Thomas; Huang, Juan; Zeng, Fan-Gang

    2014-01-01

    Modern cochlear implant (CI) users understand speech but find difficulty in music appreciation due to poor pitch perception. Still, some deaf musicians continue to perform with their CI. Here we show unexpected results that CI musicians can reliably tune a guitar by CI alone and, under controlled conditions, match simultaneously presented tones to <0.5 Hz. One subject had normal contralateral hearing and produced more accurate tuning with CI than his normal ear. To understand these counterintuitive findings, we presented tones sequentially and found that tuning error was larger at ∼ 30 Hz for both subjects. A third subject, a non-musician CI user with normal contralateral hearing, showed similar trends in performance between CI and normal hearing ears but with less precision. This difference, along with electric analysis, showed that accurate tuning was achieved by listening to beats rather than discriminating pitch, effectively turning a spectral task into a temporal discrimination task. PMID:24651081

  13. Accurate Guitar Tuning by Cochlear Implant Musicians

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Thomas; Huang, Juan; Zeng, Fan-Gang

    2014-01-01

    Modern cochlear implant (CI) users understand speech but find difficulty in music appreciation due to poor pitch perception. Still, some deaf musicians continue to perform with their CI. Here we show unexpected results that CI musicians can reliably tune a guitar by CI alone and, under controlled conditions, match simultaneously presented tones to <0.5 Hz. One subject had normal contralateral hearing and produced more accurate tuning with CI than his normal ear. To understand these counterintuitive findings, we presented tones sequentially and found that tuning error was larger at ∼30 Hz for both subjects. A third subject, a non-musician CI user with normal contralateral hearing, showed similar trends in performance between CI and normal hearing ears but with less precision. This difference, along with electric analysis, showed that accurate tuning was achieved by listening to beats rather than discriminating pitch, effectively turning a spectral task into a temporal discrimination task. PMID:24651081

  14. Preparation and accurate measurement of pure ozone.

    PubMed

    Janssen, Christof; Simone, Daniela; Guinet, Mickaël

    2011-03-01

    Preparation of high purity ozone as well as precise and accurate measurement of its pressure are metrological requirements that are difficult to meet due to ozone decomposition occurring in pressure sensors. The most stable and precise transducer heads are heated and, therefore, prone to accelerated ozone decomposition, limiting measurement accuracy and compromising purity. Here, we describe a vacuum system and a method for ozone production, suitable to accurately determine the pressure of pure ozone by avoiding the problem of decomposition. We use an inert gas in a particularly designed buffer volume and can thus achieve high measurement accuracy and negligible degradation of ozone with purities of 99.8% or better. The high degree of purity is ensured by comprehensive compositional analyses of ozone samples. The method may also be applied to other reactive gases. PMID:21456766

  15. Accurate guitar tuning by cochlear implant musicians.

    PubMed

    Lu, Thomas; Huang, Juan; Zeng, Fan-Gang

    2014-01-01

    Modern cochlear implant (CI) users understand speech but find difficulty in music appreciation due to poor pitch perception. Still, some deaf musicians continue to perform with their CI. Here we show unexpected results that CI musicians can reliably tune a guitar by CI alone and, under controlled conditions, match simultaneously presented tones to <0.5 Hz. One subject had normal contralateral hearing and produced more accurate tuning with CI than his normal ear. To understand these counterintuitive findings, we presented tones sequentially and found that tuning error was larger at ∼ 30 Hz for both subjects. A third subject, a non-musician CI user with normal contralateral hearing, showed similar trends in performance between CI and normal hearing ears but with less precision. This difference, along with electric analysis, showed that accurate tuning was achieved by listening to beats rather than discriminating pitch, effectively turning a spectral task into a temporal discrimination task.

  16. Accurate modeling of parallel scientific computations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nicol, David M.; Townsend, James C.

    1988-01-01

    Scientific codes are usually parallelized by partitioning a grid among processors. To achieve top performance it is necessary to partition the grid so as to balance workload and minimize communication/synchronization costs. This problem is particularly acute when the grid is irregular, changes over the course of the computation, and is not known until load time. Critical mapping and remapping decisions rest on the ability to accurately predict performance, given a description of a grid and its partition. This paper discusses one approach to this problem, and illustrates its use on a one-dimensional fluids code. The models constructed are shown to be accurate, and are used to find optimal remapping schedules.

  17. Line gas sampling system ensures accurate analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-06-01

    Tremendous changes in the natural gas business have resulted in new approaches to the way natural gas is measured. Electronic flow measurement has altered the business forever, with developments in instrumentation and a new sensitivity to the importance of proper natural gas sampling techniques. This paper reports that YZ Industries Inc., Snyder, Texas, combined its 40 years of sampling experience with the latest in microprocessor-based technology to develop the KynaPak 2000 series, the first on-line natural gas sampling system that is both compact and extremely accurate. This means the composition of the sampled gas must be representative of the whole and related to flow. If so, relative measurement and sampling techniques are married, gas volumes are accurately accounted for and adjustments to composition can be made.

  18. Smartphone-Based Fluorescent Diagnostic System for Highly Pathogenic H5N1 Viruses.

    PubMed

    Yeo, Seon-Ju; Choi, Kyunghan; Cuc, Bui Thi; Hong, Nguyen Ngoc; Bao, Duong Tuan; Ngoc, Nguyen Minh; Le, Mai Quynh; Hang, Nguyen Le Khanh; Thach, Nguyen Co; Mallik, Shyam Kumar; Kim, Hak Sung; Chong, Chom-Kyu; Choi, Hak Soo; Sung, Haan Woo; Yu, Kyoungsik; Park, Hyun

    2016-01-01

    Field diagnostic tools for avian influenza (AI) are indispensable for the prevention and controlled management of highly pathogenic AI-related diseases. More accurate, faster and networked on-site monitoring is demanded to detect such AI viruses with high sensitivity as well as to maintain up-to-date information about their geographical transmission. In this work, we assessed the clinical and field-level performance of a smartphone-based fluorescent diagnostic device with an efficient reflective light collection module using a coumarin-derived dendrimer-based fluorescent lateral flow immunoassay. By application of an optimized bioconjugate, a smartphone-based diagnostic device had a two-fold higher detectability as compared to that of the table-top fluorescence strip reader for three different AI subtypes (H5N3, H7N1, and H9N2). Additionally, in a clinical study of H5N1-confirmed patients, the smartphone-based diagnostic device showed a sensitivity of 96.55% (28/29) [95% confidence interval (CI): 82.24 to 99.91] and a specificity of 98.55% (68/69) (95% CI: 92.19 to 99.96). The measurement results from the distributed individual smartphones were wirelessly transmitted via short messaging service and collected by a centralized database system for further information processing and data mining. Smartphone-based diagnosis provided highly sensitive measurement results for H5N1 detection within 15 minutes. Because of its high sensitivity, portability and automatic reporting feature, the proposed device will enable agile identification of patients and efficient control of AI dissemination. PMID:26877781

  19. Smartphone-Based Fluorescent Diagnostic System for Highly Pathogenic H5N1 Viruses

    PubMed Central

    Yeo, Seon-Ju; Choi, Kyunghan; Cuc, Bui Thi; Hong, Nguyen Ngoc; Bao, Duong Tuan; Ngoc, Nguyen Minh; Le, Mai Quynh; Hang, Nguyen Le Khanh; Thach, Nguyen Co; Mallik, Shyam Kumar; Kim, Hak Sung; Chong, Chom-Kyu; Choi, Hak Soo; Sung, Haan Woo; Yu, Kyoungsik; Park, Hyun

    2016-01-01

    Field diagnostic tools for avian influenza (AI) are indispensable for the prevention and controlled management of highly pathogenic AI-related diseases. More accurate, faster and networked on-site monitoring is demanded to detect such AI viruses with high sensitivity as well as to maintain up-to-date information about their geographical transmission. In this work, we assessed the clinical and field-level performance of a smartphone-based fluorescent diagnostic device with an efficient reflective light collection module using a coumarin-derived dendrimer-based fluorescent lateral flow immunoassay. By application of an optimized bioconjugate, a smartphone-based diagnostic device had a two-fold higher detectability as compared to that of the table-top fluorescence strip reader for three different AI subtypes (H5N3, H7N1, and H9N2). Additionally, in a clinical study of H5N1-confirmed patients, the smartphone-based diagnostic device showed a sensitivity of 96.55% (28/29) [95% confidence interval (CI): 82.24 to 99.91] and a specificity of 98.55% (68/69) (95% CI: 92.19 to 99.96). The measurement results from the distributed individual smartphones were wirelessly transmitted via short messaging service and collected by a centralized database system for further information processing and data mining. Smartphone-based diagnosis provided highly sensitive measurement results for H5N1 detection within 15 minutes. Because of its high sensitivity, portability and automatic reporting feature, the proposed device will enable agile identification of patients and efficient control of AI dissemination. PMID:26877781

  20. Smartphone-Based Fluorescent Diagnostic System for Highly Pathogenic H5N1 Viruses.

    PubMed

    Yeo, Seon-Ju; Choi, Kyunghan; Cuc, Bui Thi; Hong, Nguyen Ngoc; Bao, Duong Tuan; Ngoc, Nguyen Minh; Le, Mai Quynh; Hang, Nguyen Le Khanh; Thach, Nguyen Co; Mallik, Shyam Kumar; Kim, Hak Sung; Chong, Chom-Kyu; Choi, Hak Soo; Sung, Haan Woo; Yu, Kyoungsik; Park, Hyun

    2016-01-01

    Field diagnostic tools for avian influenza (AI) are indispensable for the prevention and controlled management of highly pathogenic AI-related diseases. More accurate, faster and networked on-site monitoring is demanded to detect such AI viruses with high sensitivity as well as to maintain up-to-date information about their geographical transmission. In this work, we assessed the clinical and field-level performance of a smartphone-based fluorescent diagnostic device with an efficient reflective light collection module using a coumarin-derived dendrimer-based fluorescent lateral flow immunoassay. By application of an optimized bioconjugate, a smartphone-based diagnostic device had a two-fold higher detectability as compared to that of the table-top fluorescence strip reader for three different AI subtypes (H5N3, H7N1, and H9N2). Additionally, in a clinical study of H5N1-confirmed patients, the smartphone-based diagnostic device showed a sensitivity of 96.55% (28/29) [95% confidence interval (CI): 82.24 to 99.91] and a specificity of 98.55% (68/69) (95% CI: 92.19 to 99.96). The measurement results from the distributed individual smartphones were wirelessly transmitted via short messaging service and collected by a centralized database system for further information processing and data mining. Smartphone-based diagnosis provided highly sensitive measurement results for H5N1 detection within 15 minutes. Because of its high sensitivity, portability and automatic reporting feature, the proposed device will enable agile identification of patients and efficient control of AI dissemination.

  1. Accurate maser positions for MALT-45

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jordan, Christopher; Bains, Indra; Voronkov, Maxim; Lo, Nadia; Jones, Paul; Muller, Erik; Cunningham, Maria; Burton, Michael; Brooks, Kate; Green, James; Fuller, Gary; Barnes, Peter; Ellingsen, Simon; Urquhart, James; Morgan, Larry; Rowell, Gavin; Walsh, Andrew; Loenen, Edo; Baan, Willem; Hill, Tracey; Purcell, Cormac; Breen, Shari; Peretto, Nicolas; Jackson, James; Lowe, Vicki; Longmore, Steven

    2013-10-01

    MALT-45 is an untargeted survey, mapping the Galactic plane in CS (1-0), Class I methanol masers, SiO masers and thermal emission, and high frequency continuum emission. After obtaining images from the survey, a number of masers were detected, but without accurate positions. This project seeks to resolve each maser and its environment, with the ultimate goal of placing the Class I methanol maser into a timeline of high mass star formation.

  2. Accurate maser positions for MALT-45

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jordan, Christopher; Bains, Indra; Voronkov, Maxim; Lo, Nadia; Jones, Paul; Muller, Erik; Cunningham, Maria; Burton, Michael; Brooks, Kate; Green, James; Fuller, Gary; Barnes, Peter; Ellingsen, Simon; Urquhart, James; Morgan, Larry; Rowell, Gavin; Walsh, Andrew; Loenen, Edo; Baan, Willem; Hill, Tracey; Purcell, Cormac; Breen, Shari; Peretto, Nicolas; Jackson, James; Lowe, Vicki; Longmore, Steven

    2013-04-01

    MALT-45 is an untargeted survey, mapping the Galactic plane in CS (1-0), Class I methanol masers, SiO masers and thermal emission, and high frequency continuum emission. After obtaining images from the survey, a number of masers were detected, but without accurate positions. This project seeks to resolve each maser and its environment, with the ultimate goal of placing the Class I methanol maser into a timeline of high mass star formation.

  3. Accurate Molecular Polarizabilities Based on Continuum Electrostatics

    PubMed Central

    Truchon, Jean-François; Nicholls, Anthony; Iftimie, Radu I.; Roux, Benoît; Bayly, Christopher I.

    2013-01-01

    A novel approach for representing the intramolecular polarizability as a continuum dielectric is introduced to account for molecular electronic polarization. It is shown, using a finite-difference solution to the Poisson equation, that the Electronic Polarization from Internal Continuum (EPIC) model yields accurate gas-phase molecular polarizability tensors for a test set of 98 challenging molecules composed of heteroaromatics, alkanes and diatomics. The electronic polarization originates from a high intramolecular dielectric that produces polarizabilities consistent with B3LYP/aug-cc-pVTZ and experimental values when surrounded by vacuum dielectric. In contrast to other approaches to model electronic polarization, this simple model avoids the polarizability catastrophe and accurately calculates molecular anisotropy with the use of very few fitted parameters and without resorting to auxiliary sites or anisotropic atomic centers. On average, the unsigned error in the average polarizability and anisotropy compared to B3LYP are 2% and 5%, respectively. The correlation between the polarizability components from B3LYP and this approach lead to a R2 of 0.990 and a slope of 0.999. Even the F2 anisotropy, shown to be a difficult case for existing polarizability models, can be reproduced within 2% error. In addition to providing new parameters for a rapid method directly applicable to the calculation of polarizabilities, this work extends the widely used Poisson equation to areas where accurate molecular polarizabilities matter. PMID:23646034

  4. Personalized health care beyond oncology: new indications for immunoassay-based companion diagnostics.

    PubMed

    Batrla, Richard; Jordan, Bruce W M

    2015-06-01

    Personalized health care (PHC) is an evolving field of medicine aimed at providing the right therapy to the right patient at the right time. This approach often incorporates the use of companion diagnostics (CDx) assays that provide information essential for the safe and effective use of the corresponding drug. In addition to oncology, many other therapy areas, such as cardiovascular, neurological, and infectious and inflammatory diseases, may benefit from PHC, owing to disease complexity and heterogeneity. Furthermore, although most U.S. Food and Drug Administration-approved CDx are based on molecular-based technologies, immunoassays can provide a significant contribution to the evolution of CDx in patient management. In this review we discuss how the incorporation of biomarker immunoassays into routine diagnostic testing may allow early and definitive detection of Alzheimer's disease and enable population enrichment in clinical trials. In addition, we will describe how biomarker-based CDx immunoassays have potential utility for stratifying patients with asthma based on their potential response to therapy and for selecting treatment according to phenotypic profile. Continued research into the underlying disease pathology and development of accurate and reliable diagnostic assays may ensure that PHC becomes the future standard for many indications. PMID:25866164

  5. Personalized health care beyond oncology: new indications for immunoassay‐based companion diagnostics

    PubMed Central

    Jordan, Bruce W.M.

    2015-01-01

    Personalized health care (PHC) is an evolving field of medicine aimed at providing the right therapy to the right patient at the right time. This approach often incorporates the use of companion diagnostics (CDx) assays that provide information essential for the safe and effective use of the corresponding drug. In addition to oncology, many other therapy areas, such as cardiovascular, neurological, and infectious and inflammatory diseases, may benefit from PHC, owing to disease complexity and heterogeneity. Furthermore, although most U.S. Food and Drug Administration–approved CDx are based on molecular‐based technologies, immunoassays can provide a significant contribution to the evolution of CDx in patient management. In this review we discuss how the incorporation of biomarker immunoassays into routine diagnostic testing may allow early and definitive detection of Alzheimer's disease and enable population enrichment in clinical trials. In addition, we will describe how biomarker‐based CDx immunoassays have potential utility for stratifying patients with asthma based on their potential response to therapy and for selecting treatment according to phenotypic profile. Continued research into the underlying disease pathology and development of accurate and reliable diagnostic assays may ensure that PHC becomes the future standard for many indications. PMID:25866164

  6. Diagnostics and data fusion of robotic sensors

    SciTech Connect

    Dhar, M.; Bardsley, S; Cowper, L.; Hamm, R.; Jammu, V.; Wagner, J.

    1996-12-31

    Robotic systems for remediation of hazardous waste sites must be highly reliable to avoid equipment failures and subsequent possible exposure of personnel to hazardous environments. Safe, efficient cleanup operations also require accurate, complete knowledge of the task space. This paper presents progress made on a 18 month program to meet these needs. To enhance robot reliability, a conceptual design of a monitoring and diagnostic system is being developed to predict the onset of mechanical failure modes, provide maximum lead time to make operational changes or repairs, and minimize the occurrence of on-site breakdowns. To ensure safe operation, a comprehensive software package is being developed that will fuse data from multiple surface mapping sensors and poses so as to reduce the error effects in individual data points and provide accurate 3-D maps of a work space.

  7. Tokamak x ray diagnostic instrumentation

    SciTech Connect

    Hill, K.W.; Beiersdorfer, P.; Bitter, M.; Fredrickson, E.; Von Goeler, S.; Hsuan, H.; Johnson, L.C.; Liew, S.L.; McGuire, K.; Pare, V.

    1987-01-01

    Three classes of x-ray diagnostic instruments enable measurement of a variety of tokamak physics parameters from different features of the x-ray emission spectrum. (1) The soft x-ray (1 to 50 keV) pulse-height-analysis (PHA) diagnostic measures impurity concentrations from characteristic line intensities and the continuum enhancement, and measures the electron temperature from the continuum slope. (2) The Bragg x-ray crystal spectrometer (XCS) measures the ion temperature and neutral-beam-induced toroidal rotation velocity from the Doppler broadening and wavelength shift, respectively, of spectral lines of medium-Z impurity ions. Impurity charge state distributions, precise wavelengths, and inner-shell excitation and recombination rates can also be studied. X rays are diffracted and focused by a bent crystal onto a position-sensitive detector. The spectral resolving power E/..delta..E is greater than 10/sup 4/ and time resolution is 10 ms. (3) The x-ray imaging system (XIS) measures the spatial structure of rapid fluctuations (0.1 to 100 kHZ) providing information on MHD phenomena, impurity transport rates, toroidal rotation velocity, plasma position, and the electron temperature profile. It uses an array of silicon surface-barrier diodes which view different chords of the plasma through a common slot aperture and operate in current (as opposed to counting) mode. The effectiveness of shields to protect detectors from fusion-neutron radiation effects has been studied both theoretically and experimentally.

  8. Myoepithelioma: definitions and diagnostic criteria.

    PubMed

    Dardick, I

    1995-01-01

    Due to their infrequency and multiplicity of histopathology, myoepitheliomas present difficulties in diagnosis and classification. Cellular varieties can be misdiagnosed as malignancies. Improvements in and clarification of diagnostic criteria are, therefore, required. A key to determining diagnostic criteria for myoepitheliomas is to study cellular morphology, cytoplasmic filament expression, and ultrastructural features of the nonluminal, i.e., neoplastic myoepithelial/basal, tumor cells of pleomorphic adenomas, and apply this information to defining myoepitheliomas. Cytologic and growth patterns of nonluminal cells in pleomorphic adenomas, including plasma-cytoid cells, are reflected in myoepitheliomas. Results also indicate that muscle-specific actin and myofilaments are expressed only in a proportion of cases, and generally in not more than 60-70% of nonluminal cells in pleomorphic adenoma; this also applies to benign and malignant myoepitheliomas. The absence of these markers does not exclude a diagnosis of myoepithelioma. Vimentin and glial acidic fibrillary protein, however, are strongly and diffusely expressed in the majority of pleomorphic adenomas and myoepitheliomas and are more reliable markers for these tumors than muscle-specific actin. Like so many other salivary gland tumors, myoepitheliomas present an equally complex histomorphology and variable expression of antigenic markers, only some of which are associated with myoepithelial and basal cells of the acini and ducts of the normal salivary gland.

  9. Current developments in salivary diagnostics

    PubMed Central

    Foley, Joseph D; Bailey, Alison L; Campell, Charles L; Humphries, Roger L; Christodoulides, Nicolaos; Floriano, Pierre N; Simmons, Glennon; Bhagwandin, Bryon; Jacobson, James W; Redding, Spencer W; Ebersole, Jeffrey L; McDevitt, John T

    2010-01-01

    Salivary diagnostics is an emerging field that has progressed through several important developments in the past decade, including the publication of the human salivary proteome and the infusion of federal funds to integrate nanotechnologies and microfluidic engineering concepts into developing compact point-of-care devices for rapid analysis of this secretion. In this article, we discuss some of these developments and their relevance to the prognosis, diagnosis and management of periodontitis, as an oral target, and cardiovascular disease, as a systemic example for the potential of these biodiagnostics. Our findings suggest that several biomarkers are associated with distinct biological stages of these diseases and demonstrate promise as practical biomarkers in identifying and managing periodontal disease, and acute myocardial infarction. The majority of these studies have progressed through biomarker discovery, with the identified molecules requiring more robust clinical studies to enable substantive validation for disease diagnosis. It is predicted that with continued advances in this field the use of a combination of biomarkers in multiplex panels is likely to yield accurate screening tools for these diagnoses in the near future. PMID:20387312

  10. Technical Report: Rayleigh Scattering Combustion Diagnostic

    SciTech Connect

    Adams, Wyatt; Hecht, Ethan

    2015-07-29

    A laser Rayleigh scattering (LRS) temperature diagnostic was developed over 8 weeks with the goal of studying oxy-combustion of pulverized coal char in high temperature reaction environments with high concentrations of carbon dioxide. Algorithms were developed to analyze data collected from the optical diagnostic system and convert the information to temperature measurements. When completed, the diagnostic will allow for the kinetic gasification rates of the oxy-combustion reaction to be obtained, which was previously not possible since the high concentrations of high temperature CO2 consumed thermocouples that were used to measure flame temperatures inside the flow reactor where the combustion and gasification reactions occur. These kinetic rates are important for studying oxycombustion processes suitable for application as sustainable energy solutions.

  11. Automated diagnostics scoping study. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Quadrel, R.W.; Lash, T.A.

    1994-06-01

    The objective of the Automated Diagnostics Scoping Study was to investigate the needs for diagnostics in building operation and to examine some of the current technologies in automated diagnostics that can address these needs. The study was conducted in two parts. In the needs analysis, the authors interviewed facility managers and engineers at five building sites. In the technology survey, they collected published information on automated diagnostic technologies in commercial and military applications as well as on technologies currently under research. The following describe key areas that the authors identify for the research, development, and deployment of automated diagnostic technologies: tools and techniques to aid diagnosis during building commissioning, especially those that address issues arising from integrating building systems and diagnosing multiple simultaneous faults; technologies to aid diagnosis for systems and components that are unmonitored or unalarmed; automated capabilities to assist cause-and-effect exploration during diagnosis; inexpensive, reliable sensors, especially those that expand the current range of sensory input; technologies that aid predictive diagnosis through trend analysis; integration of simulation and optimization tools with building automation systems to optimize control strategies and energy performance; integration of diagnostic, control, and preventive maintenance technologies. By relating existing technologies to perceived and actual needs, the authors reached some conclusions about the opportunities for automated diagnostics in building operation. Some of a building operator`s needs can be satisfied by off-the-shelf hardware and software. Other needs are not so easily satisfied, suggesting directions for future research. Their conclusions and suggestions are offered in the final section of this study.

  12. Accurate thermoelastic tensor and acoustic velocities of NaCl

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marcondes, Michel L.; Shukla, Gaurav; da Silveira, Pedro; Wentzcovitch, Renata M.

    2015-12-01

    Despite the importance of thermoelastic properties of minerals in geology and geophysics, their measurement at high pressures and temperatures are still challenging. Thus, ab initio calculations are an essential tool for predicting these properties at extreme conditions. Owing to the approximate description of the exchange-correlation energy, approximations used in calculations of vibrational effects, and numerical/methodological approximations, these methods produce systematic deviations. Hybrid schemes combining experimental data and theoretical results have emerged as a way to reconcile available information and offer more reliable predictions at experimentally inaccessible thermodynamics conditions. Here we introduce a method to improve the calculated thermoelastic tensor by using highly accurate thermal equation of state (EoS). The corrective scheme is general, applicable to crystalline solids with any symmetry, and can produce accurate results at conditions where experimental data may not exist. We apply it to rock-salt-type NaCl, a material whose structural properties have been challenging to describe accurately by standard ab initio methods and whose acoustic/seismic properties are important for the gas and oil industry.

  13. Can blind persons accurately assess body size from the voice?

    PubMed

    Pisanski, Katarzyna; Oleszkiewicz, Anna; Sorokowska, Agnieszka

    2016-04-01

    Vocal tract resonances provide reliable information about a speaker's body size that human listeners use for biosocial judgements as well as speech recognition. Although humans can accurately assess men's relative body size from the voice alone, how this ability is acquired remains unknown. In this study, we test the prediction that accurate voice-based size estimation is possible without prior audiovisual experience linking low frequencies to large bodies. Ninety-one healthy congenitally or early blind, late blind and sighted adults (aged 20-65) participated in the study. On the basis of vowel sounds alone, participants assessed the relative body sizes of male pairs of varying heights. Accuracy of voice-based body size assessments significantly exceeded chance and did not differ among participants who were sighted, or congenitally blind or who had lost their sight later in life. Accuracy increased significantly with relative differences in physical height between men, suggesting that both blind and sighted participants used reliable vocal cues to size (i.e. vocal tract resonances). Our findings demonstrate that prior visual experience is not necessary for accurate body size estimation. This capacity, integral to both nonverbal communication and speech perception, may be present at birth or may generalize from broader cross-modal correspondences. PMID:27095264

  14. Accurate whole human genome sequencing using reversible terminator chemistry.

    PubMed

    Bentley, David R; Balasubramanian, Shankar; Swerdlow, Harold P; Smith, Geoffrey P; Milton, John; Brown, Clive G; Hall, Kevin P; Evers, Dirk J; Barnes, Colin L; Bignell, Helen R; Boutell, Jonathan M; Bryant, Jason; Carter, Richard J; Keira Cheetham, R; Cox, Anthony J; Ellis, Darren J; Flatbush, Michael R; Gormley, Niall A; Humphray, Sean J; Irving, Leslie J; Karbelashvili, Mirian S; Kirk, Scott M; Li, Heng; Liu, Xiaohai; Maisinger, Klaus S; Murray, Lisa J; Obradovic, Bojan; Ost, Tobias; Parkinson, Michael L; Pratt, Mark R; Rasolonjatovo, Isabelle M J; Reed, Mark T; Rigatti, Roberto; Rodighiero, Chiara; Ross, Mark T; Sabot, Andrea; Sankar, Subramanian V; Scally, Aylwyn; Schroth, Gary P; Smith, Mark E; Smith, Vincent P; Spiridou, Anastassia; Torrance, Peta E; Tzonev, Svilen S; Vermaas, Eric H; Walter, Klaudia; Wu, Xiaolin; Zhang, Lu; Alam, Mohammed D; Anastasi, Carole; Aniebo, Ify C; Bailey, David M D; Bancarz, Iain R; Banerjee, Saibal; Barbour, Selena G; Baybayan, Primo A; Benoit, Vincent A; Benson, Kevin F; Bevis, Claire; Black, Phillip J; Boodhun, Asha; Brennan, Joe S; Bridgham, John A; Brown, Rob C; Brown, Andrew A; Buermann, Dale H; Bundu, Abass A; Burrows, James C; Carter, Nigel P; Castillo, Nestor; Chiara E Catenazzi, Maria; Chang, Simon; Neil Cooley, R; Crake, Natasha R; Dada, Olubunmi O; Diakoumakos, Konstantinos D; Dominguez-Fernandez, Belen; Earnshaw, David J; Egbujor, Ugonna C; Elmore, David W; Etchin, Sergey S; Ewan, Mark R; Fedurco, Milan; Fraser, Louise J; Fuentes Fajardo, Karin V; Scott Furey, W; George, David; Gietzen, Kimberley J; Goddard, Colin P; Golda, George S; Granieri, Philip A; Green, David E; Gustafson, David L; Hansen, Nancy F; Harnish, Kevin; Haudenschild, Christian D; Heyer, Narinder I; Hims, Matthew M; Ho, Johnny T; Horgan, Adrian M; Hoschler, Katya; Hurwitz, Steve; Ivanov, Denis V; Johnson, Maria Q; James, Terena; Huw Jones, T A; Kang, Gyoung-Dong; Kerelska, Tzvetana H; Kersey, Alan D; Khrebtukova, Irina; Kindwall, Alex P; Kingsbury, Zoya; Kokko-Gonzales, Paula I; Kumar, Anil; Laurent, Marc A; Lawley, Cynthia T; Lee, Sarah E; Lee, Xavier; Liao, Arnold K; Loch, Jennifer A; Lok, Mitch; Luo, Shujun; Mammen, Radhika M; Martin, John W; McCauley, Patrick G; McNitt, Paul; Mehta, Parul; Moon, Keith W; Mullens, Joe W; Newington, Taksina; Ning, Zemin; Ling Ng, Bee; Novo, Sonia M; O'Neill, Michael J; Osborne, Mark A; Osnowski, Andrew; Ostadan, Omead; Paraschos, Lambros L; Pickering, Lea; Pike, Andrew C; Pike, Alger C; Chris Pinkard, D; Pliskin, Daniel P; Podhasky, Joe; Quijano, Victor J; Raczy, Come; Rae, Vicki H; Rawlings, Stephen R; Chiva Rodriguez, Ana; Roe, Phyllida M; Rogers, John; Rogert Bacigalupo, Maria C; Romanov, Nikolai; Romieu, Anthony; Roth, Rithy K; Rourke, Natalie J; Ruediger, Silke T; Rusman, Eli; Sanches-Kuiper, Raquel M; Schenker, Martin R; Seoane, Josefina M; Shaw, Richard J; Shiver, Mitch K; Short, Steven W; Sizto, Ning L; Sluis, Johannes P; Smith, Melanie A; Ernest Sohna Sohna, Jean; Spence, Eric J; Stevens, Kim; Sutton, Neil; Szajkowski, Lukasz; Tregidgo, Carolyn L; Turcatti, Gerardo; Vandevondele, Stephanie; Verhovsky, Yuli; Virk, Selene M; Wakelin, Suzanne; Walcott, Gregory C; Wang, Jingwen; Worsley, Graham J; Yan, Juying; Yau, Ling; Zuerlein, Mike; Rogers, Jane; Mullikin, James C; Hurles, Matthew E; McCooke, Nick J; West, John S; Oaks, Frank L; Lundberg, Peter L; Klenerman, David; Durbin, Richard; Smith, Anthony J

    2008-11-01

    DNA sequence information underpins genetic research, enabling discoveries of important biological or medical benefit. Sequencing projects have traditionally used long (400-800 base pair) reads, but the existence of reference sequences for the human and many other genomes makes it possible to develop new, fast approaches to re-sequencing, whereby shorter reads are compared to a reference to identify intraspecies genetic variation. Here we report an approach that generates several billion bases of accurate nucleotide sequence per experiment at low cost. Single molecules of DNA are attached to a flat surface, amplified in situ and used as templates for synthetic sequencing with fluorescent reversible terminator deoxyribonucleotides. Images of the surface are analysed to generate high-quality sequence. We demonstrate application of this approach to human genome sequencing on flow-sorted X chromosomes and then scale the approach to determine the genome sequence of a male Yoruba from Ibadan, Nigeria. We build an accurate consensus sequence from >30x average depth of paired 35-base reads. We characterize four million single-nucleotide polymorphisms and four hundred thousand structural variants, many of which were previously unknown. Our approach is effective for accurate, rapid and economical whole-genome re-sequencing and many other biomedical applications.

  15. Accurate thermoelastic tensor and acoustic velocities of NaCl

    SciTech Connect

    Marcondes, Michel L.; Shukla, Gaurav; Silveira, Pedro da; Wentzcovitch, Renata M.

    2015-12-15

    Despite the importance of thermoelastic properties of minerals in geology and geophysics, their measurement at high pressures and temperatures are still challenging. Thus, ab initio calculations are an essential tool for predicting these properties at extreme conditions. Owing to the approximate description of the exchange-correlation energy, approximations used in calculations of vibrational effects, and numerical/methodological approximations, these methods produce systematic deviations. Hybrid schemes combining experimental data and theoretical results have emerged as a way to reconcile available information and offer more reliable predictions at experimentally inaccessible thermodynamics conditions. Here we introduce a method to improve the calculated thermoelastic tensor by using highly accurate thermal equation of state (EoS). The corrective scheme is general, applicable to crystalline solids with any symmetry, and can produce accurate results at conditions where experimental data may not exist. We apply it to rock-salt-type NaCl, a material whose structural properties have been challenging to describe accurately by standard ab initio methods and whose acoustic/seismic properties are important for the gas and oil industry.

  16. Conducting systematic reviews of diagnostic studies: didactic guidelines

    PubMed Central

    Devillé, Walter L; Buntinx, Frank; Bouter, Lex M; Montori, Victor M; de Vet, Henrica CW; van der Windt, Danielle AWM; Bezemer, P Dick

    2002-01-01

    Background Although guidelines for critical appraisal of diagnostic research and meta-analyses have already been published, these may be difficult to understand for clinical researchers or do not provide enough detailed information. Methods Development of guidelines based on a systematic review of the evidence in reports of systematic searches of the literature for diagnostic research, of methodological criteria to evaluate diagnostic research, of methods for statistical pooling of data on diagnostic accuracy, and of methods for exploring heterogeneity. Results Guidelines for conducting diagnostic systematic reviews are presented in a stepwise fashion and are followed by comments providing further information. Examples are given using the results of two systematic reviews on the accuracy of the urine dipstick in the diagnosis of urinary tract infections, and on the accuracy of the straight-leg-raising test in the diagnosis of intervertebral disc hernia. PMID:12097142

  17. Qualitative model-based diagnostics for rocket systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maul, William; Meyer, Claudia; Jankovsky, Amy; Fulton, Christopher

    1993-01-01

    A diagnostic software package is currently being developed at NASA LeRC that utilizes qualitative model-based reasoning techniques. These techniques can provide diagnostic information about the operational condition of the modeled rocket engine system or subsystem. The diagnostic package combines a qualitative model solver with a constraint suspension algorithm. The constraint suspension algorithm directs the solver's operation to provide valuable fault isolation information about the modeled system. A qualitative model of the Space Shuttle Main Engine's oxidizer supply components was generated. A diagnostic application based on this qualitative model was constructed to process four test cases: three numerical simulations and one actual test firing. The diagnostic tool's fault isolation output compared favorably with the input fault condition.

  18. Barriers to accurate diagnosis and effective management of heart failure in primary care: qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    Fuat, Ahmet; Hungin, A Pali S; Murphy, Jeremy James

    2003-01-01

    Objective To ascertain the beliefs, current practices, and decision making of general practitioners in the diagnosis and management of suspected heart failure in primary care, with a view to identifying barriers to good care. Design A qualitative approach using focus groups with 30 general practitioners from four primary care groups. The sampling strategy was stratified and purposive. The contents of interviews were transcribed and analysed according to the principles of “pragmatic variant” grounded theory. Setting North east England. Results Three categories of difficulties contribute to variations in medical practice and to the reasons why general practitioners experience difficulties in diagnosing and managing heart failure. The first is uncertainty about clinical practice, including lack of confidence in establishing an accurate diagnosis and worries about using angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors, β blockers, and spironolactone in patients who are often elderly and frail, with comorbidity and polypharmacy. The second is a lack of awareness of relevant research evidence in what was perceived to be a complex and rapidly changing therapeutic field. Doubts about the applicability of research findings in primary care, and fear of information overload also emerged. The third category consists of influences of individual preference and local organisational factors. Medical training, negative clinical experiences, and outside agencies influenced the behaviour of general practitioners and professional culture. Local factors included the availability of diagnostic services, resources (such as accessible cardiologists), and interactions between professionals in primary or secondary care, and they seemed to shape the practice and decision making processes in primary care. Conclusions The national service framework for coronary heart disease stresses that the substandard care of patients with heart failure is unacceptable. This study identified barriers to be

  19. Diagnostic Tools of Pleural Effusion

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Pleural effusion is not a rare disease in Korea. The diagnosis of pleural effusion is very difficult, even though the patients often complain of typical symptoms indicating of pleural diseases. Pleural effusion is characterized by the pleural cavity filled with transudative or exudative pleural fluids, and it is developed by various etiologies. The presence of pleural effusion can be confirmed by radiological studies including simple chest radiography, ultrasonography, or computed tomography. Identifying the causes of pleural effusions by pleural fluid analysis is essential for proper treatments. This review article provides information on the diagnostic approaches of pleural effusions and further suggested ways to confirm their various etiologies, by using the most recent journals for references. PMID:24920946

  20. [Support in diagnostics and therapy].

    PubMed

    Kamarási, Viktória; Mogyorósy, Gábor

    2015-09-20

    There is no proven effective treatment for many diseases today that proves to be one of the greatest problems of health care. Therefore, different therapeutic decisions are made in connection with the same disease by hospitals. There is a growing need for reviews which summarize the information collected from professional literature with scientific methods. The aim of the authors was to show the limitations of conventional narrative reviews, and to present the method and importance of systematic reviews to Hungarian professionals. Systematic reviews are transparent studies which are based on a predetermined protocol and collate all empirical evidence to answer a specific research question, and consequently provide more reliable results. They use explicit and systematic methods to minimize bias, and provide evidence for clinicians and policy makers to help them make diagnostic and therapeutic decisions which are essential in several fields of the health care system and health policy, too. PMID:26550698

  1. Transcriptome marker diagnostics using big data.

    PubMed

    Han, Henry; Liu, Ying

    2016-02-01

    The big omics data are challenging translational bioinformatics in an unprecedented way for its complexities and volumes. How to employ big omics data to achieve a rivalling-clinical, reproducible disease diagnosis from a systems approach is an urgent problem to be solved in translational bioinformatics and machine learning. In this study, the authors propose a novel transcriptome marker diagnosis to tackle this problem using big RNA-seq data by viewing whole transcriptome as a profile marker systematically. The systems diagnosis not only avoids the reproducibility issue of the existing gene-/network-marker-based diagnostic methods, but also achieves rivalling-clinical diagnostic results by extracting true signals from big RNA-seq data. Their method demonstrates a better fit for personalised diagnostics by attaining exceptional diagnostic performance via using systems information than its competitive methods and prepares itself as a good candidate for clinical usage. To the best of their knowledge, it is the first study on this topic and will inspire the more investigations in big omics data diagnostics.

  2. Culture-Independent Diagnostics for Health Security.

    PubMed

    Doggett, Norman A; Mukundan, Harshini; Lefkowitz, Elliot J; Slezak, Tom R; Chain, Patrick S; Morse, Stephen; Anderson, Kevin; Hodge, David R; Pillai, Segaran

    2016-01-01

    The past decade has seen considerable development in the diagnostic application of nonculture methods, including nucleic acid amplification-based methods and mass spectrometry, for the diagnosis of infectious diseases. The implications of these new culture-independent diagnostic tests (CIDTs) include bypassing the need to culture organisms, thus potentially affecting public health surveillance systems, which continue to use isolates as the basis of their surveillance programs and to assess phenotypic resistance to antimicrobial agents. CIDTs may also affect the way public health practitioners detect and respond to a bioterrorism event. In response to a request from the Department of Homeland Security, Los Alamos National Laboratory and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention cosponsored a workshop to review the impact of CIDTs on the rapid detection and identification of biothreat agents. Four panel discussions were held that covered nucleic acid amplification-based diagnostics, mass spectrometry, antibody-based diagnostics, and next-generation sequencing. Exploiting the extensive expertise available at this workshop, we identified the key features, benefits, and limitations of the various CIDT methods for providing rapid pathogen identification that are critical to the response and mitigation of a bioterrorism event. After the workshop we conducted a thorough review of the literature, investigating the current state of these 4 culture-independent diagnostic methods. This article combines information from the literature review and the insights obtained at the workshop.

  3. Culture-Independent Diagnostics for Health Security.

    PubMed

    Doggett, Norman A; Mukundan, Harshini; Lefkowitz, Elliot J; Slezak, Tom R; Chain, Patrick S; Morse, Stephen; Anderson, Kevin; Hodge, David R; Pillai, Segaran

    2016-01-01

    The past decade has seen considerable development in the diagnostic application of nonculture methods, including nucleic acid amplification-based methods and mass spectrometry, for the diagnosis of infectious diseases. The implications of these new culture-independent diagnostic tests (CIDTs) include bypassing the need to culture organisms, thus potentially affecting public health surveillance systems, which continue to use isolates as the basis of their surveillance programs and to assess phenotypic resistance to antimicrobial agents. CIDTs may also affect the way public health practitioners detect and respond to a bioterrorism event. In response to a request from the Department of Homeland Security, Los Alamos National Laboratory and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention cosponsored a workshop to review the impact of CIDTs on the rapid detection and identification of biothreat agents. Four panel discussions were held that covered nucleic acid amplification-based diagnostics, mass spectrometry, antibody-based diagnostics, and next-generation sequencing. Exploiting the extensive expertise available at this workshop, we identified the key features, benefits, and limitations of the various CIDT methods for providing rapid pathogen identification that are critical to the response and mitigation of a bioterrorism event. After the workshop we conducted a thorough review of the literature, investigating the current state of these 4 culture-independent diagnostic methods. This article combines information from the literature review and the insights obtained at the workshop. PMID:27314653

  4. Merits and Pitfalls of Currently Used Diagnostic Tools in Mycetoma

    PubMed Central

    van de Sande, Wendy W. J.; Fahal, Ahmed H.; Goodfellow, Michael; Mahgoub, El Sheikh; Welsh, Oliverio; Zijlstra, Ed E.

    2014-01-01

    Treatment of mycetoma depends on the causative organism and since many organisms, both actinomycetes (actinomycetoma) and fungi (eumycetoma), are capable of producing mycetoma, an accurate diagnosis is crucial. Currently, multiple diagnostic tools are used to determine the extent of infections and to identify the causative agents of mycetoma. These include various imaging, cytological, histopathological, serological, and culture techniques; phenotypic characterisation; and molecular diagnostics. In this review, we summarize these techniques and identify their merits and pitfalls in the identification of the causative agents of mycetoma and the extent of the disease. We also emphasize the fact that there is no ideal diagnostic tool available to identify the causative agents and that future research should focus on the development of new and reliable diagnostic tools. PMID:24992636

  5. Accurately Mapping M31's Microlensing Population

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crotts, Arlin

    2004-07-01

    We propose to augment an existing microlensing survey of M31 with source identifications provided by a modest amount of ACS {and WFPC2 parallel} observations to yield an accurate measurement of the masses responsible for microlensing in M31, and presumably much of its dark matter. The main benefit of these data is the determination of the physical {or "einstein"} timescale of each microlensing event, rather than an effective {"FWHM"} timescale, allowing masses to be determined more than twice as accurately as without HST data. The einstein timescale is the ratio of the lensing cross-sectional radius and relative velocities. Velocities are known from kinematics, and the cross-section is directly proportional to the {unknown} lensing mass. We cannot easily measure these quantities without knowing the amplification, hence the baseline magnitude, which requires the resolution of HST to find the source star. This makes a crucial difference because M31 lens m ass determinations can be more accurate than those towards the Magellanic Clouds through our Galaxy's halo {for the same number of microlensing events} due to the better constrained geometry in the M31 microlensing situation. Furthermore, our larger survey, just completed, should yield at least 100 M31 microlensing events, more than any Magellanic survey. A small amount of ACS+WFPC2 imaging will deliver the potential of this large database {about 350 nights}. For the whole survey {and a delta-function mass distribution} the mass error should approach only about 15%, or about 6% error in slope for a power-law distribution. These results will better allow us to pinpoint the lens halo fraction, and the shape of the halo lens spatial distribution, and allow generalization/comparison of the nature of halo dark matter in spiral galaxies. In addition, we will be able to establish the baseline magnitude for about 50, 000 variable stars, as well as measure an unprecedentedly deta iled color-magnitude diagram and luminosity

  6. Accurate upwind methods for the Euler equations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huynh, Hung T.

    1993-01-01

    A new class of piecewise linear methods for the numerical solution of the one-dimensional Euler equations of gas dynamics is presented. These methods are uniformly second-order accurate, and can be considered as extensions of Godunov's scheme. With an appropriate definition of monotonicity preservation for the case of linear convection, it can be shown that they preserve monotonicity. Similar to Van Leer's MUSCL scheme, they consist of two key steps: a reconstruction step followed by an upwind step. For the reconstruction step, a monotonicity constraint that preserves uniform second-order accuracy is introduced. Computational efficiency is enhanced by devising a criterion that detects the 'smooth' part of the data where the constraint is redundant. The concept and coding of the constraint are simplified by the use of the median function. A slope steepening technique, which has no effect at smooth regions and can resolve a contact discontinuity in four cells, is described. As for the upwind step, existing and new methods are applied in a manner slightly different from those in the literature. These methods are derived by approximating the Euler equations via linearization and diagonalization. At a 'smooth' interface, Harten, Lax, and Van Leer's one intermediate state model is employed. A modification for this model that can resolve contact discontinuities is presented. Near a discontinuity, either this modified model or a more accurate one, namely, Roe's flux-difference splitting. is used. The current presentation of Roe's method, via the conceptually simple flux-vector splitting, not only establishes a connection between the two splittings, but also leads to an admissibility correction with no conditional statement, and an efficient approximation to Osher's approximate Riemann solver. These reconstruction and upwind steps result in schemes that are uniformly second-order accurate and economical at smooth regions, and yield high resolution at discontinuities.

  7. Accurate measurement of unsteady state fluid temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaremkiewicz, Magdalena

    2016-07-01

    In this paper, two accurate methods for determining the transient fluid temperature were presented. Measurements were conducted for boiling water since its temperature is known. At the beginning the thermometers are at the ambient temperature and next they are immediately immersed into saturated water. The measurements were carried out with two thermometers of different construction but with the same housing outer diameter equal to 15 mm. One of them is a K-type industrial thermometer widely available commercially. The temperature indicated by the thermometer was corrected considering the thermometers as the first or second order inertia devices. The new design of a thermometer was proposed and also used to measure the temperature of boiling water. Its characteristic feature is a cylinder-shaped housing with the sheath thermocouple located in its center. The temperature of the fluid was determined based on measurements taken in the axis of the solid cylindrical element (housing) using the inverse space marching method. Measurements of the transient temperature of the air flowing through the wind tunnel using the same thermometers were also carried out. The proposed measurement technique provides more accurate results compared with measurements using industrial thermometers in conjunction with simple temperature correction using the inertial thermometer model of the first or second order. By comparing the results, it was demonstrated that the new thermometer allows obtaining the fluid temperature much faster and with higher accuracy in comparison to the industrial thermometer. Accurate measurements of the fast changing fluid temperature are possible due to the low inertia thermometer and fast space marching method applied for solving the inverse heat conduction problem.

  8. The first accurate description of an aurora

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schröder, Wilfried

    2006-12-01

    As technology has advanced, the scientific study of auroral phenomena has increased by leaps and bounds. A look back at the earliest descriptions of aurorae offers an interesting look into how medieval scholars viewed the subjects that we study.Although there are earlier fragmentary references in the literature, the first accurate description of the aurora borealis appears to be that published by the German Catholic scholar Konrad von Megenberg (1309-1374) in his book Das Buch der Natur (The Book of Nature). The book was written between 1349 and 1350.

  9. Accurate density functional thermochemistry for larger molecules.

    SciTech Connect

    Raghavachari, K.; Stefanov, B. B.; Curtiss, L. A.; Lucent Tech.

    1997-06-20

    Density functional methods are combined with isodesmic bond separation reaction energies to yield accurate thermochemistry for larger molecules. Seven different density functionals are assessed for the evaluation of heats of formation, Delta H 0 (298 K), for a test set of 40 molecules composed of H, C, O and N. The use of bond separation energies results in a dramatic improvement in the accuracy of all the density functionals. The B3-LYP functional has the smallest mean absolute deviation from experiment (1.5 kcal mol/f).

  10. Universality: Accurate Checks in Dyson's Hierarchical Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Godina, J. J.; Meurice, Y.; Oktay, M. B.

    2003-06-01

    In this talk we present high-accuracy calculations of the susceptibility near βc for Dyson's hierarchical model in D = 3. Using linear fitting, we estimate the leading (γ) and subleading (Δ) exponents. Independent estimates are obtained by calculating the first two eigenvalues of the linearized renormalization group transformation. We found γ = 1.29914073 ± 10 -8 and, Δ = 0.4259469 ± 10-7 independently of the choice of local integration measure (Ising or Landau-Ginzburg). After a suitable rescaling, the approximate fixed points for a large class of local measure coincide accurately with a fixed point constructed by Koch and Wittwer.

  11. Accurate and comprehensive sequencing of personal genomes.

    PubMed

    Ajay, Subramanian S; Parker, Stephen C J; Abaan, Hatice Ozel; Fajardo, Karin V Fuentes; Margulies, Elliott H

    2011-09-01

    As whole-genome sequencing becomes commoditized and we begin to sequence and analyze personal genomes for clinical and diagnostic purposes, it is necessary to understand what constitutes a complete sequencing experiment for determining genotypes and detecting single-nucleotide variants. Here, we show that the current recommendation of ∼30× coverage is not adequate to produce genotype calls across a large fraction of the genome with acceptably low error rates. Our results are based on analyses of a clinical sample sequenced on two related Illumina platforms, GAII(x) and HiSeq 2000, to a very high depth (126×). We used these data to establish genotype-calling filters that dramatically increase accuracy. We also empirically determined how the callable portion of the genome varies as a function of the amount of sequence data used. These results help provide a "sequencing guide" for future whole-genome sequencing decisions and metrics by which coverage statistics should be reported.

  12. Cardiovascular modeling and diagnostics

    SciTech Connect

    Kangas, L.J.; Keller, P.E.; Hashem, S.; Kouzes, R.T.

    1995-12-31

    In this paper, a novel approach to modeling and diagnosing the cardiovascular system is introduced. A model exhibits a subset of the dynamics of the cardiovascular behavior of an individual by using a recurrent artificial neural network. Potentially, a model will be incorporated into a cardiovascular diagnostic system. This approach is unique in that each cardiovascular model is developed from physiological measurements of an individual. Any differences between the modeled variables and the variables of an individual at a given time are used for diagnosis. This approach also exploits sensor fusion to optimize the utilization of biomedical sensors. The advantage of sensor fusion has been demonstrated in applications including control and diagnostics of mechanical and chemical processes.

  13. Blast wave energy diagnostic.

    PubMed

    Tierney, Thomas E; Tierney, Heidi E; Idzorek, George C; Watt, Robert G; Peterson, Robert R; Peterson, Darrell L; Fryer, Christopher L; Lopez, Mike R; Jones, Michael C; Sinars, Daniel; Rochau, Gregory A; Bailey, James E

    2008-10-01

    The distance radiation waves that supersonically propagate in optically thick, diffusive media are energy sensitive. A blast wave can form in a material when the initially diffusive, supersonic radiation wave becomes transonic. Under specific conditions, the blast wave is visible with radiography as a density perturbation. [Peterson et al., Phys. Plasmas 13, 056901 (2006)] showed that the time-integrated drive energy can be measured using blast wave positions with uncertainties less than 10% at the Z Facility. In some cases, direct measurements of energy loss through diagnostic holes are not possible with bolometric and x-ray radiometric diagnostics. Thus, radiography of high compression blast waves can serve as a complementary technique that provides time-integrated energy loss through apertures. In this paper, we use blast waves to characterize the energy emerging through a 2.4 mm aperture and show experimental results in comparison to simulations. PMID:19044574

  14. Nanodevices in diagnostics

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Ye; Fine, Daniel H.; Tasciotti, Ennio; Bouamrani, Ali; Ferrari, Mauro

    2010-01-01

    The real-time, personalized and highly sensitive early-stage diagnosis of disease remains an important challenge in modern medicine. With the ability to interact with matter at the nanoscale, the development of nanotechnology architectures and materials could potentially extend subcellular and molecular detection beyond the limits of conventional diagnostic modalities. At the very least, nanotechnology should be able to dramatically accelerate biomarker discovery, as well as facilitate disease monitoring, especially of maladies presenting a high degree of molecular and compositional heterogeneity. This article gives an overview of several of the most promising nanodevices and nanomaterials along with their applications in clinical practice. Significant work to adapt nanoscale materials and devices to clinical applications involving large interdisciplinary collaborations is already underway with the potential for nanotechnology to become an important enabling diagnostic technology. PMID:20229595

  15. Accurate Completion of Medical Report on Diagnosing Death.

    PubMed

    Savić, Slobodan; Alempijević, Djordje; Andjelić, Sladjana

    2015-01-01

    Diagnosing death and issuing a Death Diagnosing Form (DDF) represents an activity that carries a great deal of public responsibility for medical professionals of the Emergency Medical Services (EMS) and is perpetually exposed to the control of the general public. Diagnosing death is necessary so as to confirm true, to exclude apparent death and consequentially to avoid burying a person alive, i.e. apparently dead. These expert-methodological guidelines based on the most up-to-date and medically based evidence have the goal of helping the physicians of the EMS in accurately filling out a medical report on diagnosing death. If the outcome of applied cardiopulmonary resuscitation measures is negative or when the person is found dead, the physician is under obligation to diagnose death and correctly fill out the DDF. It is also recommended to perform electrocardiography (EKG) and record asystole in at least two leads. In the process of diagnostics and treatment, it is a moral obligation of each Belgrade EMS physician to apply all available achievements and knowledge of modern medicine acquired from extensive international studies, which have been indeed the major theoretical basis for the creation of these expert-methodological guidelines. Those acting differently do so in accordance with their conscience and risk professional, and even criminal sanctions.

  16. Accurate Detection of Rifampicin-Resistant Mycobacterium Tuberculosis Strains

    PubMed Central

    Song, Keum-Soo; Nimse, Satish Balasaheb; Kim, Hee Jin; Yang, Jeongseong; Kim, Taisun

    2016-01-01

    In 2013 alone, the death rate among the 9.0 million people infected with Mycobacterium tuberculosis (TB) worldwide was around 14%, which is unacceptably high. An empiric treatment of patients infected with TB or drug-resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MDR-TB) strain can also result in the spread of MDR-TB. The diagnostic tools which are rapid, reliable, and have simple experimental protocols can significantly help in decreasing the prevalence rate of MDR-TB strain. We report the evaluation of the 9G technology based 9G DNAChips that allow accurate detection and discrimination of TB and MDR-TB-RIF. One hundred and thirteen known cultured samples were used to evaluate the ability of 9G DNAChip in the detection and discrimination of TB and MDR-TB-RIF strains. Hybridization of immobilized probes with the PCR products of TB and MDR-TB-RIF strains allow their detection and discrimination. The accuracy of 9G DNAChip was determined by comparing its results with sequencing analysis and drug susceptibility testing. Sequencing analysis showed 100% agreement with the results of 9G DNAChip. The 9G DNAChip showed very high sensitivity (95.4%) and specificity (100%). PMID:26999135

  17. Sonographic diagnostics in dermatology.

    PubMed

    Ulrich, Jens; Schwürzer-Voit, Markus; Jenderka, Klaus-Vitold; Voit, Christiane

    2014-12-01

    Ultrasonography non-invasively visualizes changes within the skin, skin appendages, subcutaneous tissue, subcutaneous (regional) lymph nodes and peripheral vessels. Thus it is an established diagnostic tool in dermatology. Compared to X-ray, MRI and PET, ultrasonography has some advantages; however, it is more dependent on the individual experience of the investigator. Therefore a structured education and continuous training are necessary. This review describes the physical and technical basics, the administrative requirements and the main indications in dermatology.

  18. F16 jet engine trending and diagnostics with neural networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Denney, Guy

    1993-09-01

    This paper considers the application of neural networks for jet engine diagnostics. Aircraft engine trending and diagnostics provide engine managers and fleet managers with critical information on the health of their engines and assist in identifying potential failures before they occur. The key to a trending system is its ability to model critical engine parameters accurately and then using the difference between the actual and modeled parameters to predict engine malfunction. A backpropagation neural network provides a powerful tool for modeling these parameters. Flight performance data from the F-16 F-100 engine was gathered over a four month period from 90 engines. Five separate, but identical in architecture, networks were implemented in software to model five key parameters of the engine using data from engines known to be good. The trained network then was tested against engine data unseen during training by the network and known to have corrected component failures during the period covered by the data. Comparing the difference between the network modeled parameter and the actual parameter, a measure of engine health was determined. In one case, for example, this difference averaged 26.8% (of the total range covered by the data) for the eight flights prior to the component replacement. After the component was replaced, the difference averaged 5.4% over the fourteen subsequent flights. This result suggests that neural networks may provide a basis for predictive assessment of engine performance. Extensions of this initial study will involve expanding the training data set, determining more precisely the cause and relationships between performance and repair actions, and exploring alternative architectures.

  19. PML diagnostic criteria

    PubMed Central

    Aksamit, Allen J.; Clifford, David B.; Davis, Larry; Koralnik, Igor J.; Sejvar, James J.; Bartt, Russell; Major, Eugene O.; Nath, Avindra

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To establish criteria for the diagnosis of progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML). Methods: We reviewed available literature to identify various diagnostic criteria employed. Several search strategies employing the terms “progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy” with or without “JC virus” were performed with PubMed, SCOPUS, and EMBASE search engines. The articles were reviewed by a committee of individuals with expertise in the disorder in order to determine the most useful applicable criteria. Results: A consensus statement was developed employing clinical, imaging, pathologic, and virologic evidence in support of the diagnosis of PML. Two separate pathways, histopathologic and clinical, for PML diagnosis are proposed. Diagnostic classification includes certain, probable, possible, and not PML. Conclusion: Definitive diagnosis of PML requires neuropathologic demonstration of the typical histopathologic triad (demyelination, bizarre astrocytes, and enlarged oligodendroglial nuclei) coupled with the techniques to show the presence of JC virus. The presence of clinical and imaging manifestations consistent with the diagnosis and not better explained by other disorders coupled with the demonstration of JC virus by PCR in CSF is also considered diagnostic. Algorithms for establishing the diagnosis have been recommended. PMID:23568998

  20. Diagnostics for Developing Countries.

    PubMed

    McNerney, Ruth

    2015-01-01

    Improving the availability of high quality diagnostic tests for infectious diseases is a global priority. Lack of access by people living in low income countries may deprive them of life saving treatment and reduces opportunities to prevent onward transmission and spread of the disease. Diagnostic laboratories are often poorly resourced in developing countries, and sparsely distributed. Improved access may be achieved by using tests that do not require laboratory support, including rapid tests for use at the point-of-care. Despite increased interest, few new in vitro diagnostic (IVD) products reach the majority populations in low income countries. Barriers to uptake include cost and lack of robustness, with reduced test performances due to environmental pressures such as high ambient temperatures or dust. In addition to environmental factors test developers must consider the local epidemiology. Confounding conditions such as immunosuppression or variations in antigen presentation or genotype can affect test performance. Barriers to product development include access to finance to establish manufacturing capacity and cover the costs of market entry for new devices. Costs and delays may be inflated by current regulatory preregistration processes to ensure product safety and quality, and more harmonized approaches are needed.

  1. ITER Diagnostic First Wal

    SciTech Connect

    G. Douglas Loesser, et. al.

    2012-09-21

    The ITER Diagnostic Division is responsible for designing and procuring the First Wall Blankets that are mounted on the vacuum vessel port plugs at both the upper and equatorial levels This paper will discuss the effects of the diagnostic aperture shape and configuration on the coolant circuit design. The DFW design is driven in large part by the need to conform the coolant arrangement to a wide variety of diagnostic apertures combined with the more severe heating conditions at the surface facing the plasma, the first wall. At the first wall, a radiant heat flux of 35W/cm2 combines with approximate peak volumetric heating rates of 8W/cm3 (equatorial ports) and 5W/cm3 (upper ports). Here at the FW, a fast thermal response is desirable and leads to a thin element between the heat flux and coolant. This requirement is opposed by the wish for a thicker FW element to accommodate surface erosion and other off-normal plasma events.

  2. Dosimetry in diagnostic radiology.

    PubMed

    Meghzifene, Ahmed; Dance, David R; McLean, Donald; Kramer, Hans-Michael

    2010-10-01

    Dosimetry is an area of increasing importance in diagnostic radiology. There is a realisation amongst health professionals that the radiation dose received by patients from modern X-ray examinations and procedures can be at a level of significance for the induction of cancer across a population, and in some unfortunate instances, in the acute damage to particular body organs such as skin and eyes. The formulation and measurement procedures for diagnostic radiology dosimetry have recently been standardised through an international code of practice which describes the methodologies necessary to address the diverging imaging modalities used in diagnostic radiology. Common to all dosimetry methodologies is the measurement of the air kerma from the X-ray device under defined conditions. To ensure the accuracy of the dosimetric determination, such measurements need to be made with appropriate instrumentation that has a calibration that is traceable to a standards laboratory. Dosimetric methods are used in radiology departments for a variety of purposes including the determination of patient dose levels to allow examinations to be optimized and to assist in decisions on the justification of examination choices. Patient dosimetry is important for special cases such as for X-ray examinations of children and pregnant patients. It is also a key component of the quality control of X-ray equipment and procedures. PMID:20655679

  3. [Acromegaly: reducing diagnostic delay].

    PubMed

    Giustina, Andrea

    2016-08-01

    Diagnostic delay of acromegaly is still very relevant (6-8 years on average) without substantial changes in last twenty years. Clinical impact of this diagnostic delay is significant: tumor growth (2/3 of the patients at diagnosis bear a pituitary macroadenoma), development of irreversible complications (arthropathy, sleep apnea) and in all increased mortality. Reasons for this delay are related to the disease itself (facial and acral changes are very slow and subtle) but also to medical unawareness. Simple tools based on a few sufficiently sensitive and specific signs and symptoms which can trigger the diagnostic suspect would be useful in clinical practice. Global evaluation during follow-up (tumor volume, signs and symptoms, complications, circulating levels of growth hormone and its peripheral mediator IGF-I) has become crucial for the therapeutic decision making. In this regard, tools like SAGIT are now under validation and are expected to improve management of acromegaly. In fact, in the last 30 years there has been a relevant growth of the medical options to treat acromegaly and in the near future there will be an expansion of the medical options. This will greatly help the needed personalization of treatment which necessarily should consider patient convenience and preference and control of complications such as diabetes mellitus. PMID:27571562

  4. Microsphere based saliva diagnostics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rissin, David M.; DiCesare, Christopher; Hayman, Ryan B.; Blicharz, Timothy M.; Walt, David R.

    2005-11-01

    Saliva presents a minimally invasive alternative medium to blood for performing diagnostics1. Microsphere sensors for ions, small organic molecules, and proteins are currently being developed and optical microarrays containing thousands of these sensors will be used for simultaneous multi-analyte analysis. The fiber bundle platform in use is 1mm in diameter and contains approximately 50,000 individually addressable 3.1μm fibers, each with an etched well capable of housing a single 3.1μm microsphere sensor. Micron-sized bead-based chemistries are produced in house, followed by deposition onto a fiber-optic bundle platform, allowing for multiplexed analysis. The ultimate goal is to develop a universal diagnostic system using saliva as the diagnostic medium. This platform will permit multiplexed analysis of a sample by integrating microfluidics with the optical arrays loaded with sensors capable of detecting relevant biomarkers associated with a wide range of disease states. Disease states that are currently under investigation include end stage renal disease (ESRD) and Sjoegrens Syndrome (SS).

  5. Diagnostics for Developing Countries.

    PubMed

    McNerney, Ruth

    2015-01-01

    Improving the availability of high quality diagnostic tests for infectious diseases is a global priority. Lack of access by people living in low income countries may deprive them of life saving treatment and reduces opportunities to prevent onward transmission and spread of the disease. Diagnostic laboratories are often poorly resourced in developing countries, and sparsely distributed. Improved access may be achieved by using tests that do not require laboratory support, including rapid tests for use at the point-of-care. Despite increased interest, few new in vitro diagnostic (IVD) products reach the majority populations in low income countries. Barriers to uptake include cost and lack of robustness, with reduced test performances due to environmental pressures such as high ambient temperatures or dust. In addition to environmental factors test developers must consider the local epidemiology. Confounding conditions such as immunosuppression or variations in antigen presentation or genotype can affect test performance. Barriers to product development include access to finance to establish manufacturing capacity and cover the costs of market entry for new devices. Costs and delays may be inflated by current regulatory preregistration processes to ensure product safety and quality, and more harmonized approaches are needed. PMID:26854149

  6. Microgravity Combustion Diagnostics Workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Santoro, Gilbert J. (Editor); Greenberg, Paul S. (Editor); Piltch, Nancy D. (Editor)

    1988-01-01

    Through the Microgravity Science and Applications Division (MSAD) of the Office of Space Science and Applications (OSSA) at NASA Headquarters, a program entitled, Advanced Technology Development (ATD) was promulgated with the objective of providing advanced technologies that will enable the development of future microgravity science and applications experimental flight hardware. Among the ATD projects one, Microgravity Combustion Diagnostics (MCD), has the objective of developing advanced diagnostic techniques and technologies to provide nonperturbing measurements of combustion characteristics and parameters that will enhance the scientific integrity and quality of microgravity combustion experiments. As part of the approach to this project, a workshop was held on July 28 and 29, 1987, at the NASA Lewis Research Center. A small group of laser combustion diagnosticians met with a group of microgravity combustion experimenters to discuss the science requirements, the state-of-the-art of laser diagnostic technology, and plan the direction for near-, intermediate-, and long-term programs. This publication describes the proceedings of that workshop.

  7. Alpha Particle Diagnostic

    SciTech Connect

    Fisher, Ray, K.

    2009-05-13

    The study of burning plasmas is the next frontier in fusion energy research, and will be a major objective of the U.S. fusion program through U.S. collaboration with our international partners on the ITER Project. For DT magnetic fusion to be useful for energy production, it is essential that the energetic alpha particles produced by the fusion reactions be confined long enough to deposit a significant fraction of their initial ~3.5 MeV energy in the plasma before they are lost. Development of diagnostics to study the behavior of energetic confined alpha particles is a very important if not essential part of burning plasma research. Despite the clear need for these measurements, development of diagnostics to study confined the fast confined alphas to date has proven extremely difficult, and the available techniques remain for the most part unproven and with significant uncertainties. Research under this grant had the goal of developing diagnostics of fast confined alphas, primarily based on measurements of the neutron and ion tails resulting from alpha particle knock-on collisions with the plasma deuterium and tritium fuel ions. One of the strengths of this approach is the ability to measure the alphas in the hot plasma core where the interesting ignition physics will occur.

  8. Using Combined Diagnostic Test Results to Hindcast Trends of Infection from Cross-Sectional Data

    PubMed Central

    Rydevik, Gustaf; Innocent, Giles T.; Marion, Glenn; White, Piran C. L.; Billinis, Charalambos; Barrow, Paul; Mertens, Peter P. C.; Gavier-Widén, Dolores; Hutchings, Michael R.

    2016-01-01

    Infectious disease surveillance is key to limiting the consequences from infectious pathogens and maintaining animal and public health. Following the detection of a disease outbreak, a response in proportion to the severity of the outbreak is required. It is thus critical to obtain accurate information concerning the origin of the outbreak and its forward trajectory. However, there is often a lack of situational awareness that may lead to over- or under-reaction. There is a widening range of tests available for detecting pathogens, with typically different temporal characteristics, e.g. in terms of when peak test response occurs relative to time of exposure. We have developed a statistical framework that combines response level data from multiple diagnostic tests and is able to ‘hindcast’ (infer the historical trend of) an infectious disease epidemic. Assuming diagnostic test data from a cross-sectional sample of individuals infected with a pathogen during an outbreak, we use a Bayesian Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) approach to estimate time of exposure, and the overall epidemic trend in the population prior to the time of sampling. We evaluate the performance of this statistical framework on simulated data from epidemic trend curves and show that we can recover the parameter values of those trends. We also apply the framework to epidemic trend curves taken from two historical outbreaks: a bluetongue outbreak in cattle, and a whooping cough outbreak in humans. Together, these results show that hindcasting can estimate the time since infection for individuals and provide accurate estimates of epidemic trends, and can be used to distinguish whether an outbreak is increasing or past its peak. We conclude that if temporal characteristics of diagnostics are known, it is possible to recover epidemic trends of both human and animal pathogens from cross-sectional data collected at a single point in time. PMID:27384712

  9. Using Combined Diagnostic Test Results to Hindcast Trends of Infection from Cross-Sectional Data.

    PubMed

    Rydevik, Gustaf; Innocent, Giles T; Marion, Glenn; Davidson, Ross S; White, Piran C L; Billinis, Charalambos; Barrow, Paul; Mertens, Peter P C; Gavier-Widén, Dolores; Hutchings, Michael R

    2016-07-01

    Infectious disease surveillance is key to limiting the consequences from infectious pathogens and maintaining animal and public health. Following the detection of a disease outbreak, a response in proportion to the severity of the outbreak is required. It is thus critical to obtain accurate information concerning the origin of the outbreak and its forward trajectory. However, there is often a lack of situational awareness that may lead to over- or under-reaction. There is a widening range of tests available for detecting pathogens, with typically different temporal characteristics, e.g. in terms of when peak test response occurs relative to time of exposure. We have developed a statistical framework that combines response level data from multiple diagnostic tests and is able to 'hindcast' (infer the historical trend of) an infectious disease epidemic. Assuming diagnostic test data from a cross-sectional sample of individuals infected with a pathogen during an outbreak, we use a Bayesian Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) approach to estimate time of exposure, and the overall epidemic trend in the population prior to the time of sampling. We evaluate the performance of this statistical framework on simulated data from epidemic trend curves and show that we can recover the parameter values of those trends. We also apply the framework to epidemic trend curves taken from two historical outbreaks: a bluetongue outbreak in cattle, and a whooping cough outbreak in humans. Together, these results show that hindcasting can estimate the time since infection for individuals and provide accurate estimates of epidemic trends, and can be used to distinguish whether an outbreak is increasing or past its peak. We conclude that if temporal characteristics of diagnostics are known, it is possible to recover epidemic trends of both human and animal pathogens from cross-sectional data collected at a single point in time. PMID:27384712

  10. Accurate shear measurement with faint sources

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Jun; Foucaud, Sebastien; Luo, Wentao E-mail: walt@shao.ac.cn

    2015-01-01

    For cosmic shear to become an accurate cosmological probe, systematic errors in the shear measurement method must be unambiguously identified and corrected for. Previous work of this series has demonstrated that cosmic shears can be measured accurately in Fourier space in the presence of background noise and finite pixel size, without assumptions on the morphologies of galaxy and PSF. The remaining major source of error is source Poisson noise, due to the finiteness of source photon number. This problem is particularly important for faint galaxies in space-based weak lensing measurements, and for ground-based images of short exposure times. In this work, we propose a simple and rigorous way of removing the shear bias from the source Poisson noise. Our noise treatment can be generalized for images made of multiple exposures through MultiDrizzle. This is demonstrated with the SDSS and COSMOS/ACS data. With a large ensemble of mock galaxy images of unrestricted morphologies, we show that our shear measurement method can achieve sub-percent level accuracy even for images of signal-to-noise ratio less than 5 in general, making it the most promising technique for cosmic shear measurement in the ongoing and upcoming large scale galaxy surveys.

  11. Accurate basis set truncation for wavefunction embedding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barnes, Taylor A.; Goodpaster, Jason D.; Manby, Frederick R.; Miller, Thomas F.

    2013-07-01

    Density functional theory (DFT) provides a formally exact framework for performing embedded subsystem electronic structure calculations, including DFT-in-DFT and wavefunction theory-in-DFT descriptions. In the interest of efficiency, it is desirable to truncate the atomic orbital basis set in which the subsystem calculation is performed, thus avoiding high-order scaling with respect to the size of the MO virtual space. In this study, we extend a recently introduced projection-based embedding method [F. R. Manby, M. Stella, J. D. Goodpaster, and T. F. Miller III, J. Chem. Theory Comput. 8, 2564 (2012)], 10.1021/ct300544e to allow for the systematic and accurate truncation of the embedded subsystem basis set. The approach is applied to both covalently and non-covalently bound test cases, including water clusters and polypeptide chains, and it is demonstrated that errors associated with basis set truncation are controllable to well within chemical accuracy. Furthermore, we show that this approach allows for switching between accurate projection-based embedding and DFT embedding with approximate kinetic energy (KE) functionals; in this sense, the approach provides a means of systematically improving upon the use of approximate KE functionals in DFT embedding.

  12. Accurate determination of characteristic relative permeability curves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krause, Michael H.; Benson, Sally M.

    2015-09-01

    A recently developed technique to accurately characterize sub-core scale heterogeneity is applied to investigate the factors responsible for flowrate-dependent effective relative permeability curves measured on core samples in the laboratory. The dependency of laboratory measured relative permeability on flowrate has long been both supported and challenged by a number of investigators. Studies have shown that this apparent flowrate dependency is a result of both sub-core scale heterogeneity and outlet boundary effects. However this has only been demonstrated numerically for highly simplified models of porous media. In this paper, flowrate dependency of effective relative permeability is demonstrated using two rock cores, a Berea Sandstone and a heterogeneous sandstone from the Otway Basin Pilot Project in Australia. Numerical simulations of steady-state coreflooding experiments are conducted at a number of injection rates using a single set of input characteristic relative permeability curves. Effective relative permeability is then calculated from the simulation data using standard interpretation methods for calculating relative permeability from steady-state tests. Results show that simplified approaches may be used to determine flowrate-independent characteristic relative permeability provided flow rate is sufficiently high, and the core heterogeneity is relatively low. It is also shown that characteristic relative permeability can be determined at any typical flowrate, and even for geologically complex models, when using accurate three-dimensional models.

  13. How Accurately can we Calculate Thermal Systems?

    SciTech Connect

    Cullen, D; Blomquist, R N; Dean, C; Heinrichs, D; Kalugin, M A; Lee, M; Lee, Y; MacFarlan, R; Nagaya, Y; Trkov, A

    2004-04-20

    I would like to determine how accurately a variety of neutron transport code packages (code and cross section libraries) can calculate simple integral parameters, such as K{sub eff}, for systems that are sensitive to thermal neutron scattering. Since we will only consider theoretical systems, we cannot really determine absolute accuracy compared to any real system. Therefore rather than accuracy, it would be more precise to say that I would like to determine the spread in answers that we obtain from a variety of code packages. This spread should serve as an excellent indicator of how accurately we can really model and calculate such systems today. Hopefully, eventually this will lead to improvements in both our codes and the thermal scattering models that they use in the future. In order to accomplish this I propose a number of extremely simple systems that involve thermal neutron scattering that can be easily modeled and calculated by a variety of neutron transport codes. These are theoretical systems designed to emphasize the effects of thermal scattering, since that is what we are interested in studying. I have attempted to keep these systems very simple, and yet at the same time they include most, if not all, of the important thermal scattering effects encountered in a large, water-moderated, uranium fueled thermal system, i.e., our typical thermal reactors.

  14. Accurate Stellar Parameters for Exoplanet Host Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brewer, John Michael; Fischer, Debra; Basu, Sarbani; Valenti, Jeff A.

    2015-01-01

    A large impedement to our understanding of planet formation is obtaining a clear picture of planet radii and densities. Although determining precise ratios between planet and stellar host are relatively easy, determining accurate stellar parameters is still a difficult and costly undertaking. High resolution spectral analysis has traditionally yielded precise values for some stellar parameters but stars in common between catalogs from different authors or analyzed using different techniques often show offsets far in excess of their uncertainties. Most analyses now use some external constraint, when available, to break observed degeneracies between surface gravity, effective temperature, and metallicity which can otherwise lead to correlated errors in results. However, these external constraints are impossible to obtain for all stars and can require more costly observations than the initial high resolution spectra. We demonstrate that these discrepencies can be mitigated by use of a larger line list that has carefully tuned atomic line data. We use an iterative modeling technique that does not require external constraints. We compare the surface gravity obtained with our spectral synthesis modeling to asteroseismically determined values for 42 Kepler stars. Our analysis agrees well with only a 0.048 dex offset and an rms scatter of 0.05 dex. Such accurate stellar gravities can reduce the primary source of uncertainty in radii by almost an order of magnitude over unconstrained spectral analysis.

  15. Region of interest identification and diagnostic agreement in breast pathology.

    PubMed

    Nagarkar, Dilip B; Mercan, Ezgi; Weaver, Donald L; Brunyé, Tad T; Carney, Patricia A; Rendi, Mara H; Beck, Andrew H; Frederick, Paul D; Shapiro, Linda G; Elmore, Joann G

    2016-09-01

    A pathologist's accurate interpretation relies on identifying relevant histopathological features. Little is known about the precise relationship between feature identification and diagnostic decision making. We hypothesized that greater overlap between a pathologist's selected diagnostic region of interest (ROI) and a consensus derived ROI is associated with higher diagnostic accuracy. We developed breast biopsy test cases that included atypical ductal hyperplasia (n=80); ductal carcinoma in situ (n=78); and invasive breast cancer (n=22). Benign cases were excluded due to the absence of specific abnormalities. Three experienced breast pathologists conducted an independent review of the 180 digital whole slide images, established a reference consensus diagnosis and marked one or more diagnostic ROIs for each case. Forty-four participating pathologists independently diagnosed and marked ROIs on the images. Participant diagnoses and ROI were compared with consensus reference diagnoses and ROI. Regression models tested whether percent overlap between participant ROI and consensus reference ROI predicted diagnostic accuracy. Each of the 44 participants interpreted 39-50 cases for a total of 1972 individual diagnoses. Percent ROI overlap with the expert reference ROI was higher in pathologists who self-reported academic affiliation (69 vs 65%, P=0.002). Percent overlap between participants' ROI and consensus reference ROI was then classified into ordinal categories: 0, 1-33, 34-65, 66-99 and 100% overlap. For each incremental change in the ordinal percent ROI overlap, diagnostic agreement increased by 60% (OR 1.6, 95% CI (1.5-1.7), P<0.001) and the association remained significant even after adjustment for other covariates. The magnitude of the association between ROI overlap and diagnostic agreement increased with increasing diagnostic severity. The findings indicate that pathologists are more likely to converge with an expert reference diagnosis when they identify an

  16. Nuclear Diagnostics of ICF

    SciTech Connect

    Izumi, N; Ierche, R A; Moran, M J; Phillips, T W; Sangster, T C; Schmid, G J; Stoyer, M A; Disdier, L; Bourgade, J L; Rouyer, A; Fisher, R K; Gerggren, R R; Caldwen, S E; Faulkner, J R; Mack, J M; Oertel, J A; Young, C S; Glebov, V Y; Jaanimagi, P A; Meyerhofer, D D; Soures, J M; Stockel, C; Frenje, J A; Li, C K; Petrasso, R D

    2001-10-18

    In inertial confinement fusion (ICF), a high temperature and high density plasma is produced by the spherical implosion of a small capsule. A spherical target capsule is irradiated uniformly by a laser beam (direct irradiation) or x-rays from a high Z enclosure (hohlraum) that is irradiated by laser or ion beams (indirect irradiation). Then high-pressure ablation of the surface causes the fuel to be accelerated inward. Thermonuclear fusion reactions begin in the center region of the capsule as it is heated to sufficient temperature (10 keV) by the converging shocks (hot spot formation). During the stagnation of the imploded shell, the fuel in the shell region is compressed to high density ({approx} 10{sup 3} times solid density in fuel region). When these conditions are established, energy released by the initial nuclear reactions in center ''hot-spot'' region can heat up the cold ''fuel'' region and cause ignition. They are developing advanced nuclear diagnostics for imploding plasmas of the ignition campaign on the National Ignition Facility (NIF). The NIF is a 1.8MJ, 192-beam glass laser system that is under construction at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. One objective of the NIF is to demonstrate ignition and gain in an inertial confinement fusion plasma. Extreme physical conditions characterize the imploded plasmas on the NIF. First, the thickness of the plasma, expressed by areal density (plasma density times radius), is large, up to {approx} 1 g/cm{sup 2}. Highly penetrating probes such as energetic neutrons, hard x-rays, or {gamma} rays are required to see deep inside the plasma. Second, the implosion time is quite short. The implosion process takes {approx} 20 ns and the duration of the fusion reaction is on the order of 100 picoseconds. To observe the time history of the nuclear reactions, time resolution better than 10 ps is required. Third, the size of the imploded plasma is quite small ({approx} 100 {micro}m). To see the shape of burning region

  17. Troubleshooting the diagnostic conundrums

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Because so many different clinical presentations can be associated with infection with BVDV, diagnosis based on history, clinical presentation, and postmortem of affected animals is presumptive at best. Accurate and definitive detection of infection with BVDV depends on laboratory diagnosis. While t...

  18. FIDEX: An expert system for satellite diagnostics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Durkin, John; Tallo, Donald; Petrik, Edward J.

    1991-01-01

    A Fault Isolation and Diagnostic Expert system (FIDEX) was developed for communication satellite diagnostics. It was designed specifically for the 30/20 GHz satellite transponder. The expert system was designed with a generic structure and features that make it applicable to other types of space systems. FIDEX is a frame based system that enjoys many of the inherent frame base features, such as hierarchy that describes the transponder's components, with other hierarchies that provide structural and fault information about the transponder. This architecture provides a flexible diagnostic structure and enhances maintenance of the system. FIDEX also includes an inexact reasoning technique and a primitive learning ability. Inexact reasoning was an important feature for this system due to the sparse number of sensors available to provide information on the transponder's performance. FIDEX can determine the most likely faulted component under the constraint of limited information. FIDEX learns about the most likely faults in the transponder by keeping a record of past established faults. FIDEX also has the ability to detect anomalies in the sensors that provide information on the transponders performance.

  19. Microfluidic diagnostics for low-resource settings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hawkins, Kenneth R.; Weigl, Bernhard H.

    2010-02-01

    Diagnostics for low-resource settings need to be foremost inexpensive, but also accurate, reliable, rugged and suited to the contexts of the developing world. Diagnostics for global health, based on minimally-instrumented, microfluidicsbased platforms employing low-cost disposables, has become a very active research area recently-thanks, in part, to new funding from the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation, the National Institutes of Health, and other sources. This has led to a number of interesting prototype devices that are now in advanced development or clinical validation. These devices include disposables and instruments that perform multiplexed PCR-based assays for enteric, febrile, and vaginal diseases, as well as immunoassays for diseases such as malaria, HIV, and various sexually transmitted diseases. More recently, instrument-free diagnostic disposables based on isothermal nucleic-acid amplification have been developed. Regardless of platform, however, the search for truly low-cost manufacturing methods that would enable affordable systems (at volume, in the appropriate context) remains a significant challenge. Here we give an overview of existing platform development efforts, present some original research in this area at PATH, and reiterate a call to action for more.

  20. Comparison of Diagnostic Performance of Semi-Quantitative Knee Ultrasound and Knee Radiography with MRI: Oulu Knee Osteoarthritis Study

    PubMed Central

    Podlipská, Jana; Guermazi, Ali; Lehenkari, Petri; Niinimäki, Jaakko; Roemer, Frank W.; Arokoski, Jari P.; Kaukinen, Päivi; Liukkonen, Esa; Lammentausta, Eveliina; Nieminen, Miika T.; Tervonen, Osmo; Koski, Juhani M.; Saarakkala, Simo

    2016-01-01

    Osteoarthritis (OA) is a common degenerative musculoskeletal disease highly prevalent in aging societies worldwide. Traditionally, knee OA is diagnosed using conventional radiography. However, structural changes of articular cartilage or menisci cannot be directly evaluated using this method. On the other hand, ultrasound is a promising tool able to provide direct information on soft tissue degeneration. The aim of our study was to systematically determine the site-specific diagnostic performance of semi-quantitative ultrasound grading of knee femoral articular cartilage, osteophytes and meniscal extrusion, and of radiographic assessment of joint space narrowing and osteophytes, using MRI as a reference standard. Eighty asymptomatic and 79 symptomatic subjects with mean age of 57.7 years were included in the study. Ultrasound performed best in the assessment of femoral medial and lateral osteophytes, and medial meniscal extrusion. In comparison to radiography, ultrasound performed better or at least equally well in identification of tibio-femoral osteophytes, medial meniscal extrusion and medial femoral cartilage morphological degeneration. Ultrasound provides relevant additional diagnostic information on tissue-specific morphological changes not depicted by conventional radiography. Consequently, the use of ultrasound as a complementary imaging tool along with radiography may enable more accurate and cost-effective diagnostics of knee osteoarthritis at the primary healthcare level. PMID:26926836

  1. Comparison of Diagnostic Performance of Semi-Quantitative Knee Ultrasound and Knee Radiography with MRI: Oulu Knee Osteoarthritis Study.

    PubMed

    Podlipská, Jana; Guermazi, Ali; Lehenkari, Petri; Niinimäki, Jaakko; Roemer, Frank W; Arokoski, Jari P; Kaukinen, Päivi; Liukkonen, Esa; Lammentausta, Eveliina; Nieminen, Miika T; Tervonen, Osmo; Koski, Juhani M; Saarakkala, Simo

    2016-01-01

    Osteoarthritis (OA) is a common degenerative musculoskeletal disease highly prevalent in aging societies worldwide. Traditionally, knee OA is diagnosed using conventional radiography. However, structural changes of articular cartilage or menisci cannot be directly evaluated using this method. On the other hand, ultrasound is a promising tool able to provide direct information on soft tissue degeneration. The aim of our study was to systematically determine the site-specific diagnostic performance of semi-quantitative ultrasound grading of knee femoral articular cartilage, osteophytes and meniscal extrusion, and of radiographic assessment of joint space narrowing and osteophytes, using MRI as a reference standard. Eighty asymptomatic and 79 symptomatic subjects with mean age of 57.7 years were included in the study. Ultrasound performed best in the assessment of femoral medial and lateral osteophytes, and medial meniscal extrusion. In comparison to radiography, ultrasound performed better or at least equally well in identification of tibio-femoral osteophytes, medial meniscal extrusion and medial femoral cartilage morphological degeneration. Ultrasound provides relevant additional diagnostic information on tissue-specific morphological changes not depicted by conventional radiography. Consequently, the use of ultrasound as a complementary imaging tool along with radiography may enable more accurate and cost-effective diagnostics of knee osteoarthritis at the primary healthcare level. PMID:26926836

  2. Beyond Correctness: Development and Validation of Concept-Based Categorical Scoring Rubrics for Diagnostic Purposes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arieli-Attali, Meirav; Liu, Ying

    2016-01-01

    Diagnostic assessment approaches intend to provide fine-grained reports of what students know and can do, focusing on their areas of strengths and weaknesses. However, current application of such diagnostic approaches is limited by the scoring method for item responses; important diagnostic information, such as type of errors and strategy use is…

  3. The Structure of the Autism Diagnostic Interview-Revised: Diagnostic and Phenotypic Implications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snow, Anne V.; Lecavalier, Luc; Houts, Carrie

    2009-01-01

    Background: Multivariate statistics can assist in refining the nosology and diagnosis of pervasive developmental disorders (PDD) and also contribute important information for genetic studies. The Autism Diagnostic Interview-Revised (ADI-R) is one of the most widely used assessment instruments in the field of PDD. The current study investigated its…

  4. Automatic classification and accurate size measurement of blank mask defects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhamidipati, Samir; Paninjath, Sankaranarayanan; Pereira, Mark; Buck, Peter

    2015-07-01

    A blank mask and its preparation stages, such as cleaning or resist coating, play an important role in the eventual yield obtained by using it. Blank mask defects' impact analysis directly depends on the amount of available information such as the number of defects observed, their accurate locations and sizes. Mask usability qualification at the start of the preparation process, is crudely based on number of defects. Similarly, defect information such as size is sought to estimate eventual defect printability on the wafer. Tracking of defect characteristics, specifically size and shape, across multiple stages, can further be indicative of process related information such as cleaning or coating process efficiencies. At the first level, inspection machines address the requirement of defect characterization by detecting and reporting relevant defect information. The analysis of this information though is still largely a manual process. With advancing technology nodes and reducing half-pitch sizes, a large number of defects are observed; and the detailed knowledge associated, make manual defect review process an arduous task, in addition to adding sensitivity to human errors. Cases where defect information reported by inspection machine is not sufficient, mask shops rely on other tools. Use of CDSEM tools is one such option. However, these additional steps translate into increased costs. Calibre NxDAT based MDPAutoClassify tool provides an automated software alternative to the manual defect review process. Working on defect images generated by inspection machines, the tool extracts and reports additional information such as defect location, useful for defect avoidance[4][5]; defect size, useful in estimating defect printability; and, defect nature e.g. particle, scratch, resist void, etc., useful for process monitoring. The tool makes use of smart and elaborate post-processing algorithms to achieve this. Their elaborateness is a consequence of the variety and

  5. Advancing the research agenda for diagnostic error reduction.

    PubMed

    Zwaan, Laura; Schiff, Gordon D; Singh, Hardeep

    2013-10-01

    Diagnostic errors remain an underemphasised and understudied area of patient safety research. We briefly summarise the methods that have been used to conduct research on epidemiology, contributing factors and interventions related to diagnostic error and outline directions for future research. Research methods that have studied epidemiology of diagnostic error provide some estimate on diagnostic error rates. However, there appears to be a large variability in the reported rates due to the heterogeneity of definitions and study methods used. Thus, future methods should focus on obtaining more precise estimates in different settings of care. This would lay the foundation for measuring error rates over time to evaluate improvements. Research methods have studied contributing factors for diagnostic error in both naturalistic and experimental settings. Both approaches have revealed important and complementary information. Newer conceptual models from outside healthcare are needed to advance the depth and rigour of analysis of systems and cognitive insights of causes of error. While the literature has suggested many potentially fruitful interventions for reducing diagnostic errors, most have not been systematically evaluated and/or widely implemented in practice. Research is needed to study promising intervention areas such as enhanced patient involvement in diagnosis, improving diagnosis through the use of electronic tools and identification and reduction of specific diagnostic process 'pitfalls' (eg, failure to conduct appropriate diagnostic evaluation of a breast lump after a 'normal' mammogram). The last decade of research on diagnostic error has made promising steps and laid a foundation for more rigorous methods to advance the field.

  6. Highly accurate articulated coordinate measuring machine

    DOEpatents

    Bieg, Lothar F.; Jokiel, Jr., Bernhard; Ensz, Mark T.; Watson, Robert D.

    2003-12-30

    Disclosed is a highly accurate articulated coordinate measuring machine, comprising a revolute joint, comprising a circular encoder wheel, having an axis of rotation; a plurality of marks disposed around at least a portion of the circumference of the encoder wheel; bearing means for supporting the encoder wheel, while permitting free rotation of the encoder wheel about the wheel's axis of rotation; and a sensor, rigidly attached to the bearing means, for detecting the motion of at least some of the marks as the encoder wheel rotates; a probe arm, having a proximal end rigidly attached to the encoder wheel, and having a distal end with a probe tip attached thereto; and coordinate processing means, operatively connected to the sensor, for converting the output of the sensor into a set of cylindrical coordinates representing the position of the probe tip relative to a reference cylindrical coordinate system.

  7. Practical aspects of spatially high accurate methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Godfrey, Andrew G.; Mitchell, Curtis R.; Walters, Robert W.

    1992-01-01

    The computational qualities of high order spatially accurate methods for the finite volume solution of the Euler equations are presented. Two dimensional essentially non-oscillatory (ENO), k-exact, and 'dimension by dimension' ENO reconstruction operators are discussed and compared in terms of reconstruction and solution accuracy, computational cost and oscillatory behavior in supersonic flows with shocks. Inherent steady state convergence difficulties are demonstrated for adaptive stencil algorithms. An exact solution to the heat equation is used to determine reconstruction error, and the computational intensity is reflected in operation counts. Standard MUSCL differencing is included for comparison. Numerical experiments presented include the Ringleb flow for numerical accuracy and a shock reflection problem. A vortex-shock interaction demonstrates the ability of the ENO scheme to excel in simulating unsteady high-frequency flow physics.

  8. Toward Accurate and Quantitative Comparative Metagenomics.

    PubMed

    Nayfach, Stephen; Pollard, Katherine S

    2016-08-25

    Shotgun metagenomics and computational analysis are used to compare the taxonomic and functional profiles of microbial communities. Leveraging this approach to understand roles of microbes in human biology and other environments requires quantitative data summaries whose values are comparable across samples and studies. Comparability is currently hampered by the use of abundance statistics that do not estimate a meaningful parameter of the microbial community and biases introduced by experimental protocols and data-cleaning approaches. Addressing these challenges, along with improving study design, data access, metadata standardization, and analysis tools, will enable accurate comparative metagenomics. We envision a future in which microbiome studies are replicable and new metagenomes are easily and rapidly integrated with existing data. Only then can the potential of metagenomics for predictive ecological modeling, well-powered association studies, and effective microbiome medicine be fully realized. PMID:27565341

  9. Apparatus for accurately measuring high temperatures

    DOEpatents

    Smith, Douglas D.

    1985-01-01

    The present invention is a thermometer used for measuring furnace temperaes in the range of about 1800.degree. to 2700.degree. C. The thermometer comprises a broadband multicolor thermal radiation sensor positioned to be in optical alignment with the end of a blackbody sight tube extending into the furnace. A valve-shutter arrangement is positioned between the radiation sensor and the sight tube and a chamber for containing a charge of high pressure gas is positioned between the valve-shutter arrangement and the radiation sensor. A momentary opening of the valve shutter arrangement allows a pulse of the high gas to purge the sight tube of air-borne thermal radiation contaminants which permits the radiation sensor to accurately measure the thermal radiation emanating from the end of the sight tube.

  10. Apparatus for accurately measuring high temperatures

    DOEpatents

    Smith, D.D.

    The present invention is a thermometer used for measuring furnace temperatures in the range of about 1800/sup 0/ to 2700/sup 0/C. The thermometer comprises a broadband multicolor thermal radiation sensor positioned to be in optical alignment with the end of a blackbody sight tube extending into the furnace. A valve-shutter arrangement is positioned between the radiation sensor and the sight tube and a chamber for containing a charge of high pressure gas is positioned between the valve-shutter arrangement and the radiation sensor. A momentary opening of the valve shutter arrangement allows a pulse of the high gas to purge the sight tube of air-borne thermal radiation contaminants which permits the radiation sensor to accurately measure the thermal radiation emanating from the end of the sight tube.

  11. Micron Accurate Absolute Ranging System: Range Extension

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smalley, Larry L.; Smith, Kely L.

    1999-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to investigate Fresnel diffraction as a means of obtaining absolute distance measurements with micron or greater accuracy. It is believed that such a system would prove useful to the Next Generation Space Telescope (NGST) as a non-intrusive, non-contact measuring system for use with secondary concentrator station-keeping systems. The present research attempts to validate past experiments and develop ways to apply the phenomena of Fresnel diffraction to micron accurate measurement. This report discusses past research on the phenomena, and the basis of the use Fresnel diffraction distance metrology. The apparatus used in the recent investigations, experimental procedures used, preliminary results are discussed in detail. Continued research and equipment requirements on the extension of the effective range of the Fresnel diffraction systems is also described.

  12. Accurate metacognition for visual sensory memory representations.

    PubMed

    Vandenbroucke, Annelinde R E; Sligte, Ilja G; Barrett, Adam B; Seth, Anil K; Fahrenfort, Johannes J; Lamme, Victor A F

    2014-04-01

    The capacity to attend to multiple objects in the visual field is limited. However, introspectively, people feel that they see the whole visual world at once. Some scholars suggest that this introspective feeling is based on short-lived sensory memory representations, whereas others argue that the feeling of seeing more than can be attended to is illusory. Here, we investigated this phenomenon by combining objective memory performance with subjective confidence ratings during a change-detection task. This allowed us to compute a measure of metacognition--the degree of knowledge that subjects have about the correctness of their decisions--for different stages of memory. We show that subjects store more objects in sensory memory than they can attend to but, at the same time, have similar metacognition for sensory memory and working memory representations. This suggests that these subjective impressions are not an illusion but accurate reflections of the richness of visual perception.

  13. Accurate Thermal Stresses for Beams: Normal Stress

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Theodore F.; Pilkey, Walter D.

    2003-01-01

    Formulations for a general theory of thermoelasticity to generate accurate thermal stresses for structural members of aeronautical vehicles were developed in 1954 by Boley. The formulation also provides three normal stresses and a shear stress along the entire length of the beam. The Poisson effect of the lateral and transverse normal stresses on a thermally loaded beam is taken into account in this theory by employing an Airy stress function. The Airy stress function enables the reduction of the three-dimensional thermal stress problem to a two-dimensional one. Numerical results from the general theory of thermoelasticity are compared to those obtained from strength of materials. It is concluded that the theory of thermoelasticity for prismatic beams proposed in this paper can be used instead of strength of materials when precise stress results are desired.

  14. Accurate Thermal Stresses for Beams: Normal Stress

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Theodore F.; Pilkey, Walter D.

    2002-01-01

    Formulations for a general theory of thermoelasticity to generate accurate thermal stresses for structural members of aeronautical vehicles were developed in 1954 by Boley. The formulation also provides three normal stresses and a shear stress along the entire length of the beam. The Poisson effect of the lateral and transverse normal stresses on a thermally loaded beam is taken into account in this theory by employing an Airy stress function. The Airy stress function enables the reduction of the three-dimensional thermal stress problem to a two-dimensional one. Numerical results from the general theory of thermoelasticity are compared to those obtained from strength of materials. It is concluded that the theory of thermoelasticity for prismatic beams proposed in this paper can be used instead of strength of materials when precise stress results are desired.

  15. Accurate metacognition for visual sensory memory representations.

    PubMed

    Vandenbroucke, Annelinde R E; Sligte, Ilja G; Barrett, Adam B; Seth, Anil K; Fahrenfort, Johannes J; Lamme, Victor A F

    2014-04-01

    The capacity to attend to multiple objects in the visual field is limited. However, introspectively, people feel that they see the whole visual world at once. Some scholars suggest that this introspective feeling is based on short-lived sensory memory representations, whereas others argue that the feeling of seeing more than can be attended to is illusory. Here, we investigated this phenomenon by combining objective memory performance with subjective confidence ratings during a change-detection task. This allowed us to compute a measure of metacognition--the degree of knowledge that subjects have about the correctness of their decisions--for different stages of memory. We show that subjects store more objects in sensory memory than they can attend to but, at the same time, have similar metacognition for sensory memory and working memory representations. This suggests that these subjective impressions are not an illusion but accurate reflections of the richness of visual perception. PMID:24549293

  16. Accurate Telescope Mount Positioning with MEMS Accelerometers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mészáros, L.; Jaskó, A.; Pál, A.; Csépány, G.

    2014-08-01

    This paper describes the advantages and challenges of applying microelectromechanical accelerometer systems (MEMS accelerometers) in order to attain precise, accurate, and stateless positioning of telescope mounts. This provides a completely independent method from other forms of electronic, optical, mechanical or magnetic feedback or real-time astrometry. Our goal is to reach the subarcminute range which is considerably smaller than the field-of-view of conventional imaging telescope systems. Here we present how this subarcminute accuracy can be achieved with very cheap MEMS sensors and we also detail how our procedures can be extended in order to attain even finer measurements. In addition, our paper discusses how can a complete system design be implemented in order to be a part of a telescope control system.

  17. Toward Accurate and Quantitative Comparative Metagenomics

    PubMed Central

    Nayfach, Stephen; Pollard, Katherine S.

    2016-01-01

    Shotgun metagenomics and computational analysis are used to compare the taxonomic and functional profiles of microbial communities. Leveraging this approach to understand roles of microbes in human biology and other environments requires quantitative data summaries whose values are comparable across samples and studies. Comparability is currently hampered by the use of abundance statistics that do not estimate a meaningful parameter of the microbial community and biases introduced by experimental protocols and data-cleaning approaches. Addressing these challenges, along with improving study design, data access, metadata standardization, and analysis tools, will enable accurate comparative metagenomics. We envision a future in which microbiome studies are replicable and new metagenomes are easily and rapidly integrated with existing data. Only then can the potential of metagenomics for predictive ecological modeling, well-powered association studies, and effective microbiome medicine be fully realized. PMID:27565341

  18. Accurate Weather Forecasting for Radio Astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maddalena, Ronald J.

    2010-01-01

    The NRAO Green Bank Telescope routinely observes at wavelengths from 3 mm to 1 m. As with all mm-wave telescopes, observing conditions depend upon the variable atmospheric water content. The site provides over 100 days/yr when opacities are low enough for good observing at 3 mm, but winds on the open-air structure reduce the time suitable for 3-mm observing where pointing is critical. Thus, to maximum productivity the observing wavelength needs to match weather conditions. For 6 years the telescope has used a dynamic scheduling system (recently upgraded; www.gb.nrao.edu/DSS) that requires accurate multi-day forecasts for winds and opacities. Since opacity forecasts are not provided by the National Weather Services (NWS), I have developed an automated system that takes available forecasts, derives forecasted opacities, and deploys the results on the web in user-friendly graphical overviews (www.gb.nrao.edu/ rmaddale/Weather). The system relies on the "North American Mesoscale" models, which are updated by the NWS every 6 hrs, have a 12 km horizontal resolution, 1 hr temporal resolution, run to 84 hrs, and have 60 vertical layers that extend to 20 km. Each forecast consists of a time series of ground conditions, cloud coverage, etc, and, most importantly, temperature, pressure, humidity as a function of height. I use the Liebe's MWP model (Radio Science, 20, 1069, 1985) to determine the absorption in each layer for each hour for 30 observing wavelengths. Radiative transfer provides, for each hour and wavelength, the total opacity and the radio brightness of the atmosphere, which contributes substantially at some wavelengths to Tsys and the observational noise. Comparisons of measured and forecasted Tsys at 22.2 and 44 GHz imply that the forecasted opacities are good to about 0.01 Nepers, which is sufficient for forecasting and accurate calibration. Reliability is high out to 2 days and degrades slowly for longer-range forecasts.

  19. Length of sick leave – Why not ask the sick-listed? Sick-listed individuals predict their length of sick leave more accurately than professionals

    PubMed Central

    Fleten, Nils; Johnsen, Roar; Førde, Olav Helge

    2004-01-01

    Background The knowledge of factors accurately predicting the long lasting sick leaves is sparse, but information on medical condition is believed to be necessary to identify persons at risk. Based on the current practice, with identifying sick-listed individuals at risk of long-lasting sick leaves, the objectives of this study were to inquire the diagnostic accuracy of length of sick leaves predicted in the Norwegian National Insurance Offices, and to compare their predictions with the self-predictions of the sick-listed. Methods Based on medical certificates, two National Insurance medical consultants and two National Insurance officers predicted, at day 14, the length of sick leave in 993 consecutive cases of sick leave, resulting from musculoskeletal or mental disorders, in this 1-year follow-up study. Two months later they reassessed 322 cases based on extended medical certificates. Self-predictions were obtained in 152 sick-listed subjects when their sick leave passed 14 days. Diagnostic accuracy of the predictions was analysed by ROC area, sensitivity, specificity, likelihood ratio, and positive predictive value was included in the analyses of predictive validity. Results The sick-listed identified sick leave lasting 12 weeks or longer with an ROC area of 80.9% (95% CI 73.7–86.8), while the corresponding estimates for medical consultants and officers had ROC areas of 55.6% (95% CI 45.6–65.6%) and 56.0% (95% CI 46.6–65.4%), respectively. The predictions of sick-listed males were significantly better than those of female subjects, and older subjects predicted somewhat better than younger subjects. Neither formal medical competence, nor additional medical information, noticeably improved the diagnostic accuracy based on medical certificates. Conclusion This study demonstrates that the accuracy of a prognosis based on medical documentation in sickness absence forms, is lower than that of one based on direct communication with the sick-listed themselves

  20. Automated diagnostic kiosk for diagnosing diseases

    DOEpatents

    Regan, John Frederick; Birch, James Michael

    2014-02-11

    An automated and autonomous diagnostic apparatus that is capable of dispensing collection vials and collections kits to users interesting in collecting a biological sample and submitting their collected sample contained within a collection vial into the apparatus for automated diagnostic services. The user communicates with the apparatus through a touch-screen monitor. A user is able to enter personnel information into the apparatus including medical history, insurance information, co-payment, and answer a series of questions regarding their illness, which is used to determine the assay most likely to yield a positive result. Remotely-located physicians can communicate with users of the apparatus using video tele-medicine and request specific assays to be performed. The apparatus archives submitted samples for additional testing. Users may receive their assay results electronically. Users may allow the uploading of their diagnoses into a central databank for disease surveillance purposes.

  1. Cardiac troponin I: a case study in rational antibody design for human diagnostics.

    PubMed

    Conroy, P J; O'Kennedy, R J; Hearty, S

    2012-06-01

    In vitro diagnostic (IVD) platforms provide rapid and accurate determination of disease status. The clinical performance of antibody-based diagnostic platforms is paramount as the information provided often informs the medical intervention taken and, ultimately, the patient's outcome. Breaking down such an immuno-IVD device into its component elements, the biorecognition entity is key to the analytical specificity of the test. Furthermore, tailored optimisation of the antibody is often necessary to impart the desired biophysical properties for the specific application. This tailoring is now widely facilitated by advances in combinatorial approaches to antibody generation, molecular evolution strategies and the availability of truly high-throughput (HT), refined surface plasmon resonance-based screening tools. In this paper, we demonstrate a rational, knowledge-driven approach to the generation of epitope-specific antibodies for the early detection of cardiovascular disease, discuss the merits of the approaches taken and offer a perspective on HT strategies to mining large antibody libraries. These results highlight the expedience of such methodologies for the development of truly superior cardiovascular disease biorecognition elements. PMID:22509048

  2. Tissue resonance interaction accurately detects colon lesions: A double-blind pilot study

    PubMed Central

    Dore, Maria P; Tufano, Marcello O; Pes, Giovanni M; Cuccu, Marianna; Farina, Valentina; Manca, Alessandra; Graham, David Y

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To investigated the performance of the tissue resonance interaction method (TRIM) for the non-invasive detection of colon lesions. METHODS: We performed a prospective single-center blinded pilot study of consecutive adults undergoing colonoscopy at the University Hospital in Sassari, Italy. Before patients underwent colonoscopy, they were examined by the TRIMprobe which detects differences in electromagnetic properties between pathological and normal tissues. All patients had completed the polyethylene glycol-containing bowel prep for the colonoscopy procedure before being screened. During the procedure the subjects remained fully dressed. A hand-held probe was moved over the abdomen and variations in electromagnetic signals were recorded for 3 spectral lines (462-465 MHz, 930 MHz, and 1395 MHz). A single investigator, blind to any clinical information, performed the test using the TRIMprob system. Abnormal signals were identified and recorded as malignant or benign (adenoma or hyperplastic polyps). Findings were compared with those from colonoscopy with histologic confirmation. Statistical analysis was performed by χ2 test. RESULTS: A total of 305 consecutive patients fulfilling the inclusion criteria were enrolled over a period of 12 months. The most frequent indication for colonoscopy was abdominal pain (33%). The TRIMprob was well accepted by all patients; none spontaneously complained about the procedure, and no adverse effects were observed. TRIM proved inaccurate for polyp detection in patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and they were excluded leaving 281 subjects (mean age 59 ± 13 years; 107 males). The TRIM detected and accurately characterized all 12 adenocarcinomas and 135/137 polyps (98.5%) including 64 adenomatous (100%) found. The method identified cancers and polyps with 98.7% sensitivity, 96.2% specificity, and 97.5% diagnostic accuracy, compared to colonoscopy and histology analyses. The positive predictive value was 96.7% and the

  3. Planetary Transmission Diagnostics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lewicki, David G. (Technical Monitor); Samuel, Paul D.; Conroy, Joseph K.; Pines, Darryll J.

    2004-01-01

    This report presents a methodology for detecting and diagnosing gear faults in the planetary stage of a helicopter transmission. This diagnostic technique is based on the constrained adaptive lifting algorithm. The lifting scheme, developed by Wim Sweldens of Bell Labs, is a time domain, prediction-error realization of the wavelet transform that allows for greater flexibility in the construction of wavelet bases. Classic lifting analyzes a given signal using wavelets derived from a single fundamental basis function. A number of researchers have proposed techniques for adding adaptivity to the lifting scheme, allowing the transform to choose from a set of fundamental bases the basis that best fits the signal. This characteristic is desirable for gear diagnostics as it allows the technique to tailor itself to a specific transmission by selecting a set of wavelets that best represent vibration signals obtained while the gearbox is operating under healthy-state conditions. However, constraints on certain basis characteristics are necessary to enhance the detection of local wave-form changes caused by certain types of gear damage. The proposed methodology analyzes individual tooth-mesh waveforms from a healthy-state gearbox vibration signal that was generated using the vibration separation (synchronous signal-averaging) algorithm. Each waveform is separated into analysis domains using zeros of its slope and curvature. The bases selected in each analysis domain are chosen to minimize the prediction error, and constrained to have the same-sign local slope and curvature as the original signal. The resulting set of bases is used to analyze future-state vibration signals and the lifting prediction error is inspected. The constraints allow the transform to effectively adapt to global amplitude changes, yielding small prediction errors. However, local wave-form changes associated with certain types of gear damage are poorly adapted, causing a significant change in the

  4. Evaluating diagnostic accuracy in the face of multiple reference standards.

    PubMed

    Naaktgeboren, Christiana A; de Groot, Joris A H; van Smeden, Maarten; Moons, Karel G M; Reitsma, Johannes B

    2013-08-01

    A universal challenge in studies that quantify the accuracy of diagnostic tests is establishing whether each participant has the disease of interest. Ideally, the same preferred reference standard would be used for all participants; however, for practical or ethical reasons, alternative reference standards that are often less accurate are frequently used instead. The use of different reference standards across participants in a single study is known as differential verification.Differential verification can cause severely biased accuracy estimates of the test or model being studied. Many variations of differential verification exist, but not all introduce the same risk of bias. A risk-of-bias assessment requires detailed information about which participants receive which reference standards and an estimate of the accuracy of the alternative reference standard. This article classifies types of differential verification and explores how they can lead to bias. It also provides guidance on how to report results and assess the risk of bias when differential verification occurs and highlights potential ways to correct for the bias.

  5. FASTBUS Snoop Diagnostic Module

    SciTech Connect

    Walz, H.V.; Downing, R.

    1980-11-01

    Development of the FASTBUS Snoop Module, undertaken as part of the prototype program for the new interlaboratory data bus standard, is described. The Snoop Module resides on a FASTBUS crate segment and provides diagnostic monitoring and testing capability. Communication with a remote host computer is handled independent of FASTBUS through a serial link. The module consists of a high-speed ECL front-end to monitor and single-step FASTBUS cycles, a master-slave interface, and a control microprocessor with serial communication ports. Design details and performance specifications of the prototype module are reported. 9 figures, 1 table.

  6. [Frontal mass: diagnostic challenges].

    PubMed

    Rubino, Gina; Correia, Alexandre; Rodrigues, Fernanda

    2012-01-01

    Capnocytophaga spp. are part of the oral flora of humans and animals, being responsible for skin and soft tissues infections and invasive infections. Microbiological identification can be difficult due to its slow growth. We present a case of infection caused by this bacteria in the form of an extracerebral intracranial abscess, presenting as a frontal mass that posed some diagnostic challenges. A surgical drainage was performed together with antibiotic therapy with favourable outcome. This microorganism was identified in the second week of treatment and then a careful history revealed a dog bite days prior to the initial symptoms. This could have been the site of entry to a posterior focalization. PMID:23069241

  7. Diagnostics for hybrid reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Orsitto, Francesco Paolo

    2012-06-19

    The Hybrid Reactor(HR) can be considered an attractive actinide-burner or a fusion assisted transmutation for destruction of transuranic(TRU) nuclear waste. The hybrid reactor has two important subsystems: the tokamak neutron source and the blanket which includes a fuel zone where the TRU are placed and a tritium breeding zone. The diagnostic system for a HR must be as simple and robust as possible to monitor and control the plasma scenario, guarantee the protection of the machine and monitor the transmutation.

  8. Diagnostics of dairy and beef cattle diarrhea.

    PubMed

    Blanchard, Patricia Carey

    2012-11-01

    Calf diarrhea is a multifactorial disease related to a combination of host and pathogen factors. The most common pathogens found in diarrheic calves are cryptosporidium, rotavirus, coronavirus, Salmonella, attaching and effacing E coli and F5 (K99) Escherichia coli. Increased mortality and morbidity are often due to the presence of more than one pathogen. This article includes a discussion of key information to obtain a clinical history, the pathogens, pathology findings, and diagnostic methods.

  9. Radiochemistry: A versatile diagnostic for the NIF ignition campaign

    SciTech Connect

    Stoyer, M A; Cerjan, C J; Moody, K J; Hoffman, R D; Bernstein, L A; Shaughnessy, D A

    2008-06-17

    The purpose of this paper is to provide quick, clear, concise information about radiochemical diagnostics for the NIF program. Radiochemistry is perhaps the most versatile, flexible and dynamic of all nuclear diagnostics because it provides quantitative data on multiple capsule performance parameters such as mix, asymmetry of implosion, shell and fuel {rho}R, yield, neutron spectral information, high energy neutron information, fill tube jets, charged particle stopping, and the fission yield of the hohlraum by employing a variety of nuclear reactions on materials either present naturally in the capsule or specifically doped into the capsule. The choice and location of the doped material, together with the specific nuclear reaction used to produce a measurable product nuclide or ratio of nuclides, provides significant diagnostic information on the performance of the capsule during the experiment. The nature of the experiment, design of the capsule including fuel(s), and desired diagnostic information would dictate the radiochemical dopants used on any given shot--not all reactions would be possible nor monitored on any given experiment. Some of this diagnostic information is obtainable with other diagnostics, for example, the neutron yield is measured using Cu-activation pucks or nTOF. The unique niche of radiochemistry, for which few other measurements are currently planned, is the quantification of ablator/fuel mix. This diagnostic can supply complementary information on ablator {rho}R, asymmetry and unique information on mix--three of the four important concerns of the ignition campaign. This paper will not discuss the additional nuclear chemistry and physics possible by utilizing radiochemistry collection and similar nuclear reactions.

  10. Predictable diastema reduction with filled resin: diagnostic wax-up.

    PubMed

    Newitter, D A

    1986-03-01

    A method for predictably altering anterior esthetics with composite resins is presented. The diagnostic wax-up is the key element. It is used to make a patient presentation cast and to customize resin forms. The resin forms are used to reproduce the predicted tooth form in the mouth quickly and accurately. The method should alert the dentist to the technical feasibility of the planned treatment and the difficulties that may be encountered. In addition, it should alleviate potential misunderstanding and disappointment of the patient. Finally, diagnostic waxing is time saving and simplifies the chairside procedure.

  11. Diagnostics for studies of novel laser ion acceleration mechanisms

    SciTech Connect

    Senje, Lovisa; Aurand, Bastian; Wahlström, Claes-Göran; Yeung, Mark; Kuschel, Stephan; Rödel, Christian; Wagner, Florian; Roth, Markus; Li, Kun; Neumayer, Paul; Dromey, Brendan; Jung, Daniel; Bagnoud, Vincent; Zepf, Matthew; Kuehl, Thomas

    2014-11-15

    Diagnostic for investigating and distinguishing different laser ion acceleration mechanisms has been developed and successfully tested. An ion separation wide angle spectrometer can simultaneously investigate three important aspects of the laser plasma interaction: (1) acquire angularly resolved energy spectra for two ion species, (2) obtain ion energy spectra for multiple species, separated according to their charge to mass ratio, along selected axes, and (3) collect laser radiation reflected from and transmitted through the target and propagating in the same direction as the ion beam. Thus, the presented diagnostic constitutes a highly adaptable tool for accurately studying novel acceleration mechanisms in terms of their angular energy distribution, conversion efficiency, and plasma density evolution.

  12. Diagnostics for studies of novel laser ion acceleration mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Senje, Lovisa; Yeung, Mark; Aurand, Bastian; Kuschel, Stephan; Rödel, Christian; Wagner, Florian; Li, Kun; Dromey, Brendan; Bagnoud, Vincent; Neumayer, Paul; Roth, Markus; Wahlström, Claes-Göran; Zepf, Matthew; Kuehl, Thomas; Jung, Daniel

    2014-11-01

    Diagnostic for investigating and distinguishing different laser ion acceleration mechanisms has been developed and successfully tested. An ion separation wide angle spectrometer can simultaneously investigate three important aspects of the laser plasma interaction: (1) acquire angularly resolved energy spectra for two ion species, (2) obtain ion energy spectra for multiple species, separated according to their charge to mass ratio, along selected axes, and (3) collect laser radiation reflected from and transmitted through the target and propagating in the same direction as the ion beam. Thus, the presented diagnostic constitutes a highly adaptable tool for accurately studying novel acceleration mechanisms in terms of their angular energy distribution, conversion efficiency, and plasma density evolution.

  13. Image Processing Diagnostics: Emphysema

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McKenzie, Alex

    2009-10-01

    Currently the computerized tomography (CT) scan can detect emphysema sooner than traditional x-rays, but other tests are required to measure more accurately the amount of affected lung. CT scan images show clearly if a patient has emphysema, but is unable by visual scan alone, to quantify the degree of the disease, as it appears merely as subtle, barely distinct, dark spots on the lung. Our goal is to create a software plug-in to interface with existing open source medical imaging software, to automate the process of accurately diagnosing and determining emphysema severity levels in patients. This will be accomplished by performing a number of statistical calculations using data taken from CT scan images of several patients representing a wide range of severity of the disease. These analyses include an examination of the deviation from a normal distribution curve to determine skewness, a commonly used statistical parameter. Our preliminary results show that this method of assessment appears to be more accurate and robust than currently utilized methods which involve looking at percentages of radiodensities in air passages of the lung.

  14. A Refined QSO Selection Method Using Diagnostics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Dae-Won; Protopapas, Pavlos; Trichas, Markos; Rowan-Robinson, Michael; Khardon, Roni; Alcock, Charles; Byun, Yong-Ik

    2012-04-01

    We present 663 QSO candidates in the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC) that were selected using multiple diagnostics. We started with a set of 2,566 QSO candidates selected using the methodology presented in our previous work based on time variability of the MACHO LMC light curves. We then obtained additional information for the candidates by cross-matching them with the Spitzer SAGE, the 2MASS, the Chandra, the XMM, and an LMC UBVI catalogues. Using that information, we specified diagnostic features based on mid-IR colours, photometric redshifts using SED template fitting, and X-ray luminosities, in order to discriminate more high-confidence QSO candidates in the absence of spectral information. We then trained a one-class Support Vector Machine model using those diagnostics features. We applied the trained model to the original candidates, and finally selected 663 high-confidence QSO candidates. We cross-matched those 663 QSO candidates with 152 newly-confirmed QSOs and 275 non-QSOs in the LMC fields, and found that the false positive rate was less than 1%.

  15. Molecular diagnostics in tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Cheng, V C C; Yew, W W; Yuen, K Y

    2005-11-01

    Molecular diagnostics in tuberculosis has enabled rapid detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex in clinical specimens, identification of mycobacterial species, detection of drug resistance, and typing for epidemiological investigation. In the laboratory diagnosis of tuberculosis, the nucleic acid amplification (NAA) test is rapid and specific but not as sensitive as culture of mycobacteria. The primary determinant of successful NAA testing for tuberculosis depends on the shedding of mycobacterial DNA in secretions from caseating granulomas and its dissemination into sterile body fluids or tissue biopsies. In multibacillary diseases with a high mycobacterial load, a positive Ziehl-Neelsen smear with a positive NAA test is diagnostic of active tuberculosis, whereas a positive Ziehl-Neelsen smear with a negative NAA test in the absence of inhibitors would indicate nontuberculous mycobacterial disease. The role of the NAA test is more important in paucibacillary diseases with low mycobacterial loads. The presence of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) inhibitors, however, especially in extrapulmonary specimens, may produce false-negative results. Although this problem can be overcome to some extent by extra extraction steps, the additional processing invariably leads to the loss of mycobacterial DNA. To circumvent this problem, a brief culture augmentation step is carried out before the NAA test is performed, which can enhance the mycobacterial load while concomitantly diluting inhibitors, thereby maintaining the sensitivity of the test without excessively increasing turnaround time.

  16. Radiation hardening of diagnostics

    SciTech Connect

    Siemon, R.E.

    1991-01-01

    The world fusion program has advanced to the stage where it is appropriate to construct a number of devices for the purpose of burning DT fuel. In these next-generation experiments, the expected flux and fluence of 14 MeV neutrons and associated gamma rays will pose a significant challenge to the operation and diagnostics of the fusion device. Radiation effects include structural damage to materials such as vacuum windows and seals, modifications to electrical properties such as electrical conductivity and dielectric strength and impaired optical properties such as reduced transparency and luminescence of windows and fiber optics during irradiation. In preparation for construction and operation of these new facilities, the fusion diagnostics community needs to work with materials scientists to develop a better understanding of radiation effects, and to undertake a testing program aimed at developing workable solutions for this multi-faceted problem. A unique facility to help in this regard is the Los Alamos Spallation Radiation Effects Facility, a neutron source located at the beam stop of the world's most powerful accelerator, the Los Alamos Meson Physics Facility (LAMPF). The LAMPF proton beam generates 10{sup 16} neutrons per second because of spallation'' reactions when the protons collide with the copper nuclei in the beam stop.

  17. Diagnostic Technologies in Practice

    PubMed Central

    Steinberg, Malcolm; Kwag, Michael; Chown, Sarah A.; Doupe, Glenn; Trussler, Terry; Rekart, Michael; Gilbert, Mark

    2015-01-01

    Diagnosing HIV-positive gay men through enhanced testing technologies that detect acute HIV infection (AHI) or recent HIV infection provides opportunities for individual and population health benefits. We recruited 25 men in British Columbia who received an acute (n = 13) or recent (n = 12) HIV diagnosis to engage in a longitudinal multiple-methods study over one year or longer. Our thematic analysis of baseline qualitative interviews revealed insights within men’s accounts of technologically mediated processes of HIV discovery and diagnosis. Our analysis illuminated the dialectic of new HIV technologies in practice by considering the relationship between advances in diagnostics (e.g., nucleic acid amplification tests) and the users of these medical technologies in clinical settings (e.g., clients and practitioners). Technological innovations and testing protocols have shifted experiences of learning of one’s HIV-positive status; these innovations have created new diagnostic categories that require successful interpretation and translation to be rendered meaningful, to alleviate uncertainty, and to support public health objectives. PMID:25201583

  18. NIO1 diagnostics

    SciTech Connect

    Zaniol, B. Barbisan, M.; Pasqualotto, R.; Serianni, G.; Cavenago, M.; De Muri, M.; Mimo, A.

    2015-04-08

    The radio frequency ion source NIO1, jointly developed by Consorzio RFX and INFN-LNL, will generate a 60kV-135mA hydrogen negative ion beam, composed of 9 beamlets over an area of about 40 × 40 mm{sup 2}. This experiment will operate in continuous mode and in conditions similar to those foreseen for the larger ion sources of the Neutral Beam Injectors for ITER. The modular design of NIO1 is convenient to address the several still open important issues related to beam extraction, optics, and performance optimization. To this purpose a set of diagnostics is being implemented. Electric and water cooling plant related measurements will allow monitoring current, pressure, flow, and temperature. The plasma in the source will be characterized by emission spectroscopy, cavity ring-down and laser absorption spectroscopy. The accelerated beam will be analyzed with a fast emittance scanner, its intensity profile and divergence with beam emission spectroscopy and visible tomography. The power distribution of the beam on the calorimeter will be monitored by thermocouples and by an infrared camera. This contribution presents the implementation and initial operation of some of these diagnostics in the commissioning phase of the experiment, in particular the cooling water calorimetry and emission spectroscopy.

  19. Thioaptamer Diagnostic System (TDS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yang, Xianbin

    2015-01-01

    AM Biotechnologies, LLC, in partnership with Sandia National Laboratories, has developed a diagnostic device that quickly detects sampled biomarkers. The TDS quickly quantifies clinically relevant biomarkers using only microliters of a single sample. The system combines ambient-stable, long shelf-life affinity assays with handheld, microfluidic gel electrophoresis affinity assay quantification technology. The TDS is easy to use, operates in microgravity, and permits simultaneous quantification of 32 biomarkers. In Phase I of the project, the partners demonstrated that a thioaptamer assay used in the microfluidic instrument could quantify a specific biomarker in serum in the low nanomolar range. The team also identified novel affinity agents to bone-specific alkaline phosphatase (BAP) and demonstrated their ability to detect BAP with the microfluidic instrument. In Phase II, AM Biotech expanded the number of ambient affinity agents and demonstrated a TDS prototype. In the long term, the clinical version of the TDS will provide a robust, flight-tested diagnostic capability for space exploration missions.

  20. [Hemophagocytic syndrome: diagnostic problems].

    PubMed

    Czogała, Małgorzata; Czogała, Wojciech; Balwierz, Walentyna

    2006-01-01

    Hemophagocytic syndrome (HS) is a rare but life-threatening disease caused by inappropriate activation of T-lymphocytes and histiocytes, hipercytokinemia and hemophagocytosis. The most common symptoms are fever, hepatosplenomegaly, unspecific neurological abnormalities, pancytopenia, coagulopathy, hiperferritinemia and lipid abnormalities. HS is classified into two forms: primary, inherited (Familial Hamophagocytic Lymphohistiocytosis--FHL) and secondary (associated with infection, malignancy, autoimmune disease). In spite of the fact that diagnostic guidelines are available it often remains unrecognised. Prognosis of HS depends on the form of disease and in case of secondary HS on the underlying disease. Development of the treatment protocols (HLH-94, HLH-2004) which combine immunochemiotherapy with hematopoietic stem cell transplantation has strongly improved prognosis in HS especially in the primary form. Three-year overall survival for children with HS is now over 50%. Early diagnosis and appropriate therapy is crucial for effectiveness of the treatment. Popularisation of the knowledge about the syndrome, diagnostic guidelines and treatment protocols can contribute to more frequent appropriate recognition of HS and to improvement of the treatment results. PMID:16892901

  1. Accurate masses for dispersion-supported galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolf, Joe; Martinez, Gregory D.; Bullock, James S.; Kaplinghat, Manoj; Geha, Marla; Muñoz, Ricardo R.; Simon, Joshua D.; Avedo, Frank F.

    2010-08-01

    We derive an accurate mass estimator for dispersion-supported stellar systems and demonstrate its validity by analysing resolved line-of-sight velocity data for globular clusters, dwarf galaxies and elliptical galaxies. Specifically, by manipulating the spherical Jeans equation we show that the mass enclosed within the 3D deprojected half-light radius r1/2 can be determined with only mild assumptions about the spatial variation of the stellar velocity dispersion anisotropy as long as the projected velocity dispersion profile is fairly flat near the half-light radius, as is typically observed. We find M1/2 = 3 G-1< σ2los > r1/2 ~= 4 G-1< σ2los > Re, where < σ2los > is the luminosity-weighted square of the line-of-sight velocity dispersion and Re is the 2D projected half-light radius. While deceptively familiar in form, this formula is not the virial theorem, which cannot be used to determine accurate masses unless the radial profile of the total mass is known a priori. We utilize this finding to show that all of the Milky Way dwarf spheroidal galaxies (MW dSphs) are consistent with having formed within a halo of a mass of approximately 3 × 109 Msolar, assuming a Λ cold dark matter cosmology. The faintest MW dSphs seem to have formed in dark matter haloes that are at least as massive as those of the brightest MW dSphs, despite the almost five orders of magnitude spread in luminosity between them. We expand our analysis to the full range of observed dispersion-supported stellar systems and examine their dynamical I-band mass-to-light ratios ΥI1/2. The ΥI1/2 versus M1/2 relation for dispersion-supported galaxies follows a U shape, with a broad minimum near ΥI1/2 ~= 3 that spans dwarf elliptical galaxies to normal ellipticals, a steep rise to ΥI1/2 ~= 3200 for ultra-faint dSphs and a more shallow rise to ΥI1/2 ~= 800 for galaxy cluster spheroids.

  2. [Reference standards in diagnostic research: problems and solutions].

    PubMed

    de Groot, Joris A H; Reitsma, Johannes B; Moons, Karel G M

    2014-01-01

    The accuracy of diagnostic tests is of utmost importance as biased test results may lead to wrong decisions in clinical practice. In diagnostic accuracy research the results of a diagnostic test, model or strategy are compared to those of the reference standard, i.e. the best available method to determine whether a certain condition or disease is present or absent. Problems with the reference standard lead to biased test results. The umbrella term for this is 'verification bias'. Verification bias arises if the reference standard cannot be applied to all patients, if investigators use different reference standards or simply because there is no reference standard. Correction of these problems is often possible, and, if it is applied in a transparent and reproducible fashion it will deliver useful diagnostic information. Clinicians who use a diagnostic test should take possible verification bias into account.

  3. A highly accurate heuristic algorithm for the haplotype assembly problem

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) are the most common form of genetic variation in human DNA. The sequence of SNPs in each of the two copies of a given chromosome in a diploid organism is referred to as a haplotype. Haplotype information has many applications such as gene disease diagnoses, drug design, etc. The haplotype assembly problem is defined as follows: Given a set of fragments sequenced from the two copies of a chromosome of a single individual, and their locations in the chromosome, which can be pre-determined by aligning the fragments to a reference DNA sequence, the goal here is to reconstruct two haplotypes (h1, h2) from the input fragments. Existing algorithms do not work well when the error rate of fragments is high. Here we design an algorithm that can give accurate solutions, even if the error rate of fragments is high. Results We first give a dynamic programming algorithm that can give exact solutions to the haplotype assembly problem. The time complexity of the algorithm is O(n × 2t × t), where n is the number of SNPs, and t is the maximum coverage of a SNP site. The algorithm is slow when t is large. To solve the problem when t is large, we further propose a heuristic algorithm on the basis of the dynamic programming algorithm. Experiments show that our heuristic algorithm can give very accurate solutions. Conclusions We have tested our algorithm on a set of benchmark datasets. Experiments show that our algorithm can give very accurate solutions. It outperforms most of the existing programs when the error rate of the input fragments is high. PMID:23445458

  4. Accurate free energy calculation along optimized paths.

    PubMed

    Chen, Changjun; Xiao, Yi

    2010-05-01

    The path-based methods of free energy calculation, such as thermodynamic integration and free energy perturbation, are simple in theory, but difficult in practice because in most cases smooth paths do not exist, especially for large molecules. In this article, we present a novel method to build the transition path of a peptide. We use harmonic potentials to restrain its nonhydrogen atom dihedrals in the initial state and set the equilibrium angles of the potentials as those in the final state. Through a series of steps of geometrical optimization, we can construct a smooth and short path from the initial state to the final state. This path can be used to calculate free energy difference. To validate this method, we apply it to a small 10-ALA peptide and find that the calculated free energy changes in helix-helix and helix-hairpin transitions are both self-convergent and cross-convergent. We also calculate the free energy differences between different stable states of beta-hairpin trpzip2, and the results show that this method is more efficient than the conventional molecular dynamics method in accurate free energy calculation.

  5. Accurate adiabatic correction in the hydrogen molecule

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pachucki, Krzysztof; Komasa, Jacek

    2014-12-01

    A new formalism for the accurate treatment of adiabatic effects in the hydrogen molecule is presented, in which the electronic wave function is expanded in the James-Coolidge basis functions. Systematic increase in the size of the basis set permits estimation of the accuracy. Numerical results for the adiabatic correction to the Born-Oppenheimer interaction energy reveal a relative precision of 10-12 at an arbitrary internuclear distance. Such calculations have been performed for 88 internuclear distances in the range of 0 < R ⩽ 12 bohrs to construct the adiabatic correction potential and to solve the nuclear Schrödinger equation. Finally, the adiabatic correction to the dissociation energies of all rovibrational levels in H2, HD, HT, D2, DT, and T2 has been determined. For the ground state of H2 the estimated precision is 3 × 10-7 cm-1, which is almost three orders of magnitude higher than that of the best previous result. The achieved accuracy removes the adiabatic contribution from the overall error budget of the present day theoretical predictions for the rovibrational levels.

  6. Fast and Provably Accurate Bilateral Filtering.

    PubMed

    Chaudhury, Kunal N; Dabhade, Swapnil D

    2016-06-01

    The bilateral filter is a non-linear filter that uses a range filter along with a spatial filter to perform edge-preserving smoothing of images. A direct computation of the bilateral filter requires O(S) operations per pixel, where S is the size of the support of the spatial filter. In this paper, we present a fast and provably accurate algorithm for approximating the bilateral filter when the range kernel is Gaussian. In particular, for box and Gaussian spatial filters, the proposed algorithm can cut down the complexity to O(1) per pixel for any arbitrary S . The algorithm has a simple implementation involving N+1 spatial filterings, where N is the approximation order. We give a detailed analysis of the filtering accuracy that can be achieved by the proposed approximation in relation to the target bilateral filter. This allows us to estimate the order N required to obtain a given accuracy. We also present comprehensive numerical results to demonstrate that the proposed algorithm is competitive with the state-of-the-art methods in terms of speed and accuracy. PMID:27093722

  7. Accurate, reliable prototype earth horizon sensor head

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schwarz, F.; Cohen, H.

    1973-01-01

    The design and performance is described of an accurate and reliable prototype earth sensor head (ARPESH). The ARPESH employs a detection logic 'locator' concept and horizon sensor mechanization which should lead to high accuracy horizon sensing that is minimally degraded by spatial or temporal variations in sensing attitude from a satellite in orbit around the earth at altitudes in the 500 km environ 1,2. An accuracy of horizon location to within 0.7 km has been predicted, independent of meteorological conditions. This corresponds to an error of 0.015 deg-at 500 km altitude. Laboratory evaluation of the sensor indicates that this accuracy is achieved. First, the basic operating principles of ARPESH are described; next, detailed design and construction data is presented and then performance of the sensor under laboratory conditions in which the sensor is installed in a simulator that permits it to scan over a blackbody source against background representing the earth space interface for various equivalent plant temperatures.

  8. Fast and Accurate Exhaled Breath Ammonia Measurement

    PubMed Central

    Solga, Steven F.; Mudalel, Matthew L.; Spacek, Lisa A.; Risby, Terence H.

    2014-01-01

    This exhaled breath ammonia method uses a fast and highly sensitive spectroscopic method known as quartz enhanced photoacoustic spectroscopy (QEPAS) that uses a quantum cascade based laser. The monitor is coupled to a sampler that measures mouth pressure and carbon dioxide. The system is temperature controlled and specifically designed to address the reactivity of this compound. The sampler provides immediate feedback to the subject and the technician on the quality of the breath effort. Together with the quick response time of the monitor, this system is capable of accurately measuring exhaled breath ammonia representative of deep lung systemic levels. Because the system is easy to use and produces real time results, it has enabled experiments to identify factors that influence measurements. For example, mouth rinse and oral pH reproducibly and significantly affect results and therefore must be controlled. Temperature and mode of breathing are other examples. As our understanding of these factors evolves, error is reduced, and clinical studies become more meaningful. This system is very reliable and individual measurements are inexpensive. The sampler is relatively inexpensive and quite portable, but the monitor is neither. This limits options for some clinical studies and provides rational for future innovations. PMID:24962141

  9. Accurate adiabatic correction in the hydrogen molecule

    SciTech Connect

    Pachucki, Krzysztof; Komasa, Jacek

    2014-12-14

    A new formalism for the accurate treatment of adiabatic effects in the hydrogen molecule is presented, in which the electronic wave function is expanded in the James-Coolidge basis functions. Systematic increase in the size of the basis set permits estimation of the accuracy. Numerical results for the adiabatic correction to the Born-Oppenheimer interaction energy reveal a relative precision of 10{sup −12} at an arbitrary internuclear distance. Such calculations have been performed for 88 internuclear distances in the range of 0 < R ⩽ 12 bohrs to construct the adiabatic correction potential and to solve the nuclear Schrödinger equation. Finally, the adiabatic correction to the dissociation energies of all rovibrational levels in H{sub 2}, HD, HT, D{sub 2}, DT, and T{sub 2} has been determined. For the ground state of H{sub 2} the estimated precision is 3 × 10{sup −7} cm{sup −1}, which is almost three orders of magnitude higher than that of the best previous result. The achieved accuracy removes the adiabatic contribution from the overall error budget of the present day theoretical predictions for the rovibrational levels.

  10. Accurate adiabatic correction in the hydrogen molecule.

    PubMed

    Pachucki, Krzysztof; Komasa, Jacek

    2014-12-14

    A new formalism for the accurate treatment of adiabatic effects in the hydrogen molecule is presented, in which the electronic wave function is expanded in the James-Coolidge basis functions. Systematic increase in the size of the basis set permits estimation of the accuracy. Numerical results for the adiabatic correction to the Born-Oppenheimer interaction energy reveal a relative precision of 10(-12) at an arbitrary internuclear distance. Such calculations have been performed for 88 internuclear distances in the range of 0 < R ⩽ 12 bohrs to construct the adiabatic correction potential and to solve the nuclear Schrödinger equation. Finally, the adiabatic correction to the dissociation energies of all rovibrational levels in H2, HD, HT, D2, DT, and T2 has been determined. For the ground state of H2 the estimated precision is 3 × 10(-7) cm(-1), which is almost three orders of magnitude higher than that of the best previous result. The achieved accuracy removes the adiabatic contribution from the overall error budget of the present day theoretical predictions for the rovibrational levels. PMID:25494728

  11. MEMS accelerometers in accurate mount positioning systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mészáros, László; Pál, András.; Jaskó, Attila

    2014-07-01

    In order to attain precise, accurate and stateless positioning of telescope mounts we apply microelectromechanical accelerometer systems (also known as MEMS accelerometers). In common practice, feedback from the mount position is provided by electronic, optical or magneto-mechanical systems or via real-time astrometric solution based on the acquired images. Hence, MEMS-based systems are completely independent from these mechanisms. Our goal is to investigate the advantages and challenges of applying such devices and to reach the sub-arcminute range { that is well smaller than the field-of-view of conventional imaging telescope systems. We present how this sub-arcminute accuracy can be achieved with very cheap MEMS sensors. Basically, these sensors yield raw output within an accuracy of a few degrees. We show what kind of calibration procedures could exploit spherical and cylindrical constraints between accelerometer output channels in order to achieve the previously mentioned accuracy level. We also demonstrate how can our implementation be inserted in a telescope control system. Although this attainable precision is less than both the resolution of telescope mount drive mechanics and the accuracy of astrometric solutions, the independent nature of attitude determination could significantly increase the reliability of autonomous or remotely operated astronomical observations.

  12. Infrared imaging diagnostics for INTF ion beam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sudhir, D.; Bandyopadhyay, M.; Pandey, R.; Joshi, J.; Yadav, A.; Rotti, C.; Bhuyan, M.; Bansal, G.; Soni, J.; Tyagi, H.; Pandya, K.; Chakraborty, A.

    2015-04-01

    In India, testing facility named INTF [1] (Indian test facility) is being built in Institute for Plasma Research to characterize ITER-Diagnostic Neutral Beam (DNB). INTF is expected to deliver 60A negative hydrogen ion beam current of energy 100keV. The beam will be operated with 5Hz modulation having 3s ON/20s OFF duty cycle. To characterize the beam parameters several diagnostics are at different stages of design and development. One of them will be a beam dump, made of carbon fiber composite (CFC) plates placed perpendicular to the beam direction at a distance lm approximately. The beam dump needs to handle ˜ 6MW of beam power with peak power density ˜ 38.5MW/m2. The diagnostic is based on thermal (infra-red - IR) imaging of the footprint of the 1280 beamlets falling on the beam dump using four IR cameras from the rear side of the dump. The beam dump will be able to measure beam uniformity, beamlet divergence. It may give information on relative variation of negative ion stripping losses for different beam pulses. The design of this CFC based beam dump needs to address several physics and engineering issues, including some specific inputs from manufacturers. The manuscript will describe an overview of the diagnostic system and its design methodology highlighting those issues and the present status of its development.

  13. Information processing for aerospace structural health monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lichtenwalner, Peter F.; White, Edward V.; Baumann, Erwin W.

    1998-06-01

    Structural health monitoring (SHM) technology provides a means to significantly reduce life cycle of aerospace vehicles by eliminating unnecessary inspections, minimizing inspection complexity, and providing accurate diagnostics and prognostics to support vehicle life extension. In order to accomplish this, a comprehensive SHM system will need to acquire data from a wide variety of diverse sensors including strain gages, accelerometers, acoustic emission sensors, crack growth gages, corrosion sensors, and piezoelectric transducers. Significant amounts of computer processing will then be required to convert this raw sensor data into meaningful information which indicates both the diagnostics of the current structural integrity as well as the prognostics necessary for planning and managing the future health of the structure in a cost effective manner. This paper provides a description of the key types of information processing technologies required in an effective SHM system. These include artificial intelligence techniques such as neural networks, expert systems, and fuzzy logic for nonlinear modeling, pattern recognition, and complex decision making; signal processing techniques such as Fourier and wavelet transforms for spectral analysis and feature extraction; statistical algorithms for optimal detection, estimation, prediction, and fusion; and a wide variety of other algorithms for data analysis and visualization. The intent of this paper is to provide an overview of the role of information processing for SHM, discuss various technologies which can contribute to accomplishing this role, and present some example applications of information processing for SHM implemented at the Boeing Company.

  14. Mouse models of human AML accurately predict chemotherapy response

    PubMed Central

    Zuber, Johannes; Radtke, Ina; Pardee, Timothy S.; Zhao, Zhen; Rappaport, Amy R.; Luo, Weijun; McCurrach, Mila E.; Yang, Miao-Miao; Dolan, M. Eileen; Kogan, Scott C.; Downing, James R.; Lowe, Scott W.

    2009-01-01

    The genetic heterogeneity of cancer influences the trajectory of tumor progression and may underlie clinical variation in therapy response. To model such heterogeneity, we produced genetically and pathologically accurate mouse models of common forms of human acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and developed methods to mimic standard induction chemotherapy and efficiently monitor therapy response. We see that murine AMLs harboring two common human AML genotypes show remarkably diverse responses to conventional therapy that mirror clinical experience. Specifically, murine leukemias expressing the AML1/ETO fusion oncoprotein, associated with a favorable prognosis in patients, show a dramatic response to induction chemotherapy owing to robust activation of the p53 tumor suppressor network. Conversely, murine leukemias expressing MLL fusion proteins, associated with a dismal prognosis in patients, are drug-resistant due to an attenuated p53 response. Our studies highlight the importance of genetic information in guiding the treatment of human AML, functionally establish the p53 network as a central determinant of chemotherapy response in AML, and demonstrate that genetically engineered mouse models of human cancer can accurately predict therapy response in patients. PMID:19339691

  15. Accurate eye center location through invariant isocentric patterns.

    PubMed

    Valenti, Roberto; Gevers, Theo

    2012-09-01

    Locating the center of the eyes allows for valuable information to be captured and used in a wide range of applications. Accurate eye center location can be determined using commercial eye-gaze trackers, but additional constraints and expensive hardware make these existing solutions unattractive and impossible to use on standard (i.e., visible wavelength), low-resolution images of eyes. Systems based solely on appearance are proposed in the literature, but their accuracy does not allow us to accurately locate and distinguish eye centers movements in these low-resolution settings. Our aim is to bridge this gap by locating the center of the eye within the area of the pupil on low-resolution images taken from a webcam or a similar device. The proposed method makes use of isophote properties to gain invariance to linear lighting changes (contrast and brightness), to achieve in-plane rotational invariance, and to keep low-computational costs. To further gain scale invariance, the approach is applied to a scale space pyramid. In this paper, we extensively test our approach for its robustness to changes in illumination, head pose, scale, occlusion, and eye rotation. We demonstrate that our system can achieve a significant improvement in accuracy over state-of-the-art techniques for eye center location in standard low-resolution imagery. PMID:22813958

  16. Nonintrusive microwave diagnostics of collisional plasmas in Hall thrusters and dielectric barrier discharges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stults, Joshua

    way (solving the inverse problem for the material properties) is the reconstruction provides a stronger empirical constraint on the predictions of high-fidelity predictive simulations than multiple un-reconstructed measurements in isolation. Use of the model for reconstructions informs the choice of numerical discretization technique. The model must be fast, low-storage and accurate to be useful for computing reconstructions. An important part of experimental work is error analysis, or uncertainty quantification. This becomes more difficult as sophistication of the measurement models increase. This research presents an uncertainty quantification technique based on complex-step sensitivity derivatives that is particularly well-suited for error propagation in sophisticated partial differential equation (PDE)-based measurement models, because it requires only trivial changes to the PDE solver to implement.

  17. The Clinical Impact of Accurate Cystine Calculi Characterization Using Dual-Energy Computed Tomography.

    PubMed

    Haley, William E; Ibrahim, El-Sayed H; Qu, Mingliang; Cernigliaro, Joseph G; Goldfarb, David S; McCollough, Cynthia H

    2015-01-01

    Dual-energy computed tomography (DECT) has recently been suggested as the imaging modality of choice for kidney stones due to its ability to provide information on stone composition. Standard postprocessing of the dual-energy images accurately identifies uric acid stones, but not other types. Cystine stones can be identified from DECT images when analyzed with advanced postprocessing. This case report describes clinical implications of accurate diagnosis of cystine stones using DECT.

  18. [Informed consent].

    PubMed

    Rodríguez, C R; González Parra, E; Martínez Castelao, A

    2008-01-01

    - Basic law 41/2002 on patient autonomy regulates the rights and obligations of patients, users and professionals, as well as those of public and private health care centers and services. This regulation refers to patient autonomy, the right to information and essential clinical documentation. - This law establishes the minimum requirements for the information the patient should receive and the decision making in which the patient should take part. Diagnostic tests are performed and therapeutic decisions are taken in the ACKD unit in which patient information is an essential and mandatory requirement according to this law. PMID:19018748

  19. Bayesian evaluation of clinical diagnostic test characteristics of visual observations and remote monitoring to diagnose bovine respiratory disease in beef calves.

    PubMed

    White, Brad J; Goehl, Dan R; Amrine, David E; Booker, Calvin; Wildman, Brian; Perrett, Tye

    2016-04-01

    Accurate diagnosis of bovine respiratory disease (BRD) in beef cattle is a critical facet of therapeutic programs through promotion of prompt treatment of diseased calves in concert with judicious use of antimicrobials. Despite the known inaccuracies, visual observation (VO) of clinical signs is the conventional diagnostic modality for BRD diagnosis. Objective methods of remotely monitoring cattle wellness could improve diagnostic accuracy; however, little information exists describing the accuracy of this method compared to traditional techniques. The objective of this research is to employ Bayesian methodology to elicit diagnostic characteristics of conventional VO compared to remote early disease identification (REDI) to diagnose BRD. Data from previous literature on the accuracy of VO were combined with trial data consisting of direct comparison between VO and REDI for BRD in two populations. No true gold standard diagnostic test exists for BRD; therefore, estimates of diagnostic characteristics of each test were generated using Bayesian latent class analysis. Results indicate a 90.0% probability that the sensitivity of REDI (median 81.3%; 95% probability interval [PI]: 55.5, 95.8) was higher than VO sensitivity (64.5%; PI: 57.9, 70.8). The specificity of REDI (median 92.9%; PI: 88.2, 96.9) was also higher compared to VO (median 69.1%; PI: 66.3, 71.8). The differences in sensitivity and specificity resulted in REDI exhibiting higher positive and negative predictive values in both high (41.3%) and low (2.6%) prevalence situations. This research illustrates the potential of remote cattle monitoring to augment conventional methods of BRD diagnosis resulting in more accurate identification of diseased cattle. PMID:26879058

  20. Rapid Diagnostics of Onboard Sequences

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Starbird, Thomas W.; Morris, John R.; Shams, Khawaja S.; Maimone, Mark W.

    2012-01-01

    Keeping track of sequences onboard a spacecraft is challenging. When reviewing Event Verification Records (EVRs) of sequence executions on the Mars Exploration Rover (MER), operators often found themselves wondering which version of a named sequence the EVR corresponded to. The lack of this information drastically impacts the operators diagnostic capabilities as well as their situational awareness with respect to the commands the spacecraft has executed, since the EVRs do not provide argument values or explanatory comments. Having this information immediately available can be instrumental in diagnosing critical events and can significantly enhance the overall safety of the spacecraft. This software provides auditing capability that can eliminate that uncertainty while diagnosing critical conditions. Furthermore, the Restful interface provides a simple way for sequencing tools to automatically retrieve binary compiled sequence SCMFs (Space Command Message Files) on demand. It also enables developers to change the underlying database, while maintaining the same interface to the existing applications. The logging capabilities are also beneficial to operators when they are trying to recall how they solved a similar problem many days ago: this software enables automatic recovery of SCMF and RML (Robot Markup Language) sequence files directly from the command EVRs, eliminating the need for people to find and validate the corresponding sequences. To address the lack of auditing capability for sequences onboard a spacecraft during earlier missions, extensive logging support was added on the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) sequencing server. This server is responsible for generating all MSL binary SCMFs from RML input sequences. The sequencing server logs every SCMF it generates into a MySQL database, as well as the high-level RML file and dictionary name inputs used to create the SCMF. The SCMF is then indexed by a hash value that is automatically included in all command

  1. Method of azimuthally stable Mueller-matrix diagnostics of blood plasma polycrystalline films in cancer diagnostics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ushenko, Yu. A.; Prysyazhnyuk, V. P.; Gavrylyak, M. S.; Gorsky, M. P.; Bachinskiy, V. T.; Vanchuliak, O. Ya.

    2015-02-01

    A new information optical technique of diagnostics of the structure of polycrystalline films of blood plasma is proposed. The model of Mueller-matrix description of mechanisms of optical anisotropy of such objects as optical activity, birefringence, as well as linear and circular dichroism is suggested. The ensemble of informationally topical azimuthally stable Mueller-matrix invariants is determined. Within the statistical analysis of such parameters distributions the objective criteria of differentiation of films of blood plasma taken from healthy and patients with liver cirrhosis were determined. From the point of view of probative medicine the operational characteristics (sensitivity, specificity and accuracy) of the information-optical method of Mueller-matrix mapping of polycrystalline films of blood plasma were found and its efficiency in diagnostics of liver cirrhosis was demonstrated. Prospects of application of the method in experimental medicine to differentiate postmortem changes of the myocardial tissue was examined.

  2. Accuracy of three diagnostic tests for determining Mycobacterium bovis infection status in live-sampled wild meerkats (Suricata suricatta).

    PubMed

    Drewe, Julian A; Dean, Gillian S; Michel, Anita L; Lyashchenko, Konstantin P; Greenwald, Rena; Pearce, Gareth P

    2009-01-01

    Accurate diagnosis of Mycobacterium bovis infection (bovine tuberculosis [bTB]) in live animals is notoriously problematic. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the diagnostic potential of 2 new serologic tests (multiantigen print immunoassay [MAPIA] and lateral flow immunoassay rapid test [RT]) in comparison with mycobacterial culture of tracheal washes for determining M. bovis infection status in a free-ranging population of wild meerkats (Suricata suricatta). During a longitudinal study lasting 2.5 years, 240 individually identifiable meerkats were each sampled up to 8 times under anesthesia every 3 months. Diagnostic accuracy was determined through Bayesian and maximum likelihood estimations of sensitivity, specificity, and likelihood ratios for each diagnostic test when used independently and in parallel to classify the disease status of individual meerkats in the absence of a gold standard. Culture of tracheal washes was highly specific (0.99; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.77, 1.00) but of low sensitivity (0.36; 95% CI = 0.24, 0.50) for diagnosing M. bovis-infected individuals. The longitudinal nature of the study with repeated sampling of the same individual animals served simultaneously to improve chances of detecting infection and increase confidence in a negative result in individual animals repeatedly testing negative. Although MAPIA and RT were individually of limited diagnostic use, interpreting the results of these 2 tests in parallel produced estimates of sensitivity (0.83; 95% CI = 0.67, 0.93) and specificity (0.73; 95% CI = 0.62, 0.82) high enough to usefully inform decision making when determining exposure to bTB in wild meerkats and potentially other species in which bTB poses a diagnostic challenge.

  3. Accuracy of three diagnostic tests for determining Mycobacterium bovis infection status in live-sampled wild meerkats (Suricata suricatta).

    PubMed

    Drewe, Julian A; Dean, Gillian S; Michel, Anita L; Lyashchenko, Konstantin P; Greenwald, Rena; Pearce, Gareth P

    2009-01-01

    Accurate diagnosis of Mycobacterium bovis infection (bovine tuberculosis [bTB]) in live animals is notoriously problematic. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the diagnostic potential of 2 new serologic tests (multiantigen print immunoassay [MAPIA] and lateral flow immunoassay rapid test [RT]) in comparison with mycobacterial culture of tracheal washes for determining M. bovis infection status in a free-ranging population of wild meerkats (Suricata suricatta). During a longitudinal study lasting 2.5 years, 240 individually identifiable meerkats were each sampled up to 8 times under anesthesia every 3 months. Diagnostic accuracy was determined through Bayesian and maximum likelihood estimations of sensitivity, specificity, and likelihood ratios for each diagnostic test when used independently and in parallel to classify the disease status of individual meerkats in the absence of a gold standard. Culture of tracheal washes was highly specific (0.99; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.77, 1.00) but of low sensitivity (0.36; 95% CI = 0.24, 0.50) for diagnosing M. bovis-infected individuals. The longitudinal nature of the study with repeated sampling of the same individual animals served simultaneously to improve chances of detecting infection and increase confidence in a negative result in individual animals repeatedly testing negative. Although MAPIA and RT were individually of limited diagnostic use, interpreting the results of these 2 tests in parallel produced estimates of sensitivity (0.83; 95% CI = 0.67, 0.93) and specificity (0.73; 95% CI = 0.62, 0.82) high enough to usefully inform decision making when determining exposure to bTB in wild meerkats and potentially other species in which bTB poses a diagnostic challenge. PMID:19139498

  4. Fast and accurate determination of modularity and its effect size

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Treviño, Santiago, III; Nyberg, Amy; Del Genio, Charo I.; Bassler, Kevin E.

    2015-02-01

    We present a fast spectral algorithm for community detection in complex networks. Our method searches for the partition with the maximum value of the modularity via the interplay of several refinement steps that include both agglomeration and division. We validate the accuracy of the algorithm by applying it to several real-world benchmark networks. On all these, our algorithm performs as well or better than any other known polynomial scheme. This allows us to extensively study the modularity distribution in ensembles of Erdős-Rényi networks, producing theoretical predictions for means and variances inclusive of finite-size corrections. Our work provides a way to accurately estimate the effect size of modularity, providing a z-score measure of it and enabling a more informative comparison of networks with different numbers of nodes and links.

  5. Towards Accurate Application Characterization for Exascale (APEX)

    SciTech Connect

    Hammond, Simon David

    2015-09-01

    Sandia National Laboratories has been engaged in hardware and software codesign activities for a number of years, indeed, it might be argued that prototyping of clusters as far back as the CPLANT machines and many large capability resources including ASCI Red and RedStorm were examples of codesigned solutions. As the research supporting our codesign activities has moved closer to investigating on-node runtime behavior a nature hunger has grown for detailed analysis of both hardware and algorithm performance from the perspective of low-level operations. The Application Characterization for Exascale (APEX) LDRD was a project concieved of addressing some of these concerns. Primarily the research was to intended to focus on generating accurate and reproducible low-level performance metrics using tools that could scale to production-class code bases. Along side this research was an advocacy and analysis role associated with evaluating tools for production use, working with leading industry vendors to develop and refine solutions required by our code teams and to directly engage with production code developers to form a context for the application analysis and a bridge to the research community within Sandia. On each of these accounts significant progress has been made, particularly, as this report will cover, in the low-level analysis of operations for important classes of algorithms. This report summarizes the development of a collection of tools under the APEX research program and leaves to other SAND and L2 milestone reports the description of codesign progress with Sandia’s production users/developers.

  6. Accurate paleointensities - the multi-method approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Groot, Lennart

    2016-04-01

    The accuracy of models describing rapid changes in the geomagnetic field over the past millennia critically depends on the availability of reliable paleointensity estimates. Over the past decade methods to derive paleointensities from lavas (the only recorder of the geomagnetic field that is available all over the globe and through geologic times) have seen significant improvements and various alternative techniques were proposed. The 'classical' Thellier-style approach was optimized and selection criteria were defined in the 'Standard Paleointensity Definitions' (Paterson et al, 2014). The Multispecimen approach was validated and the importance of additional tests and criteria to assess Multispecimen results must be emphasized. Recently, a non-heating, relative paleointensity technique was proposed -the pseudo-Thellier protocol- which shows great potential in both accuracy and efficiency, but currently lacks a solid theoretical underpinning. Here I present work using all three of the aforementioned paleointensity methods on suites of young lavas taken from the volcanic islands of Hawaii, La Palma, Gran Canaria, Tenerife, and Terceira. Many of the sampled cooling units are <100 years old, the actual field strength at the time of cooling is therefore reasonably well known. Rather intuitively, flows that produce coherent results from two or more different paleointensity methods yield the most accurate estimates of the paleofield. Furthermore, the results for some flows pass the selection criteria for one method, but fail in other techniques. Scrutinizing and combing all acceptable results yielded reliable paleointensity estimates for 60-70% of all sampled cooling units - an exceptionally high success rate. This 'multi-method paleointensity approach' therefore has high potential to provide the much-needed paleointensities to improve geomagnetic field models for the Holocene.

  7. Important Nearby Galaxies without Accurate Distances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McQuinn, Kristen

    2014-10-01

    The Spitzer Infrared Nearby Galaxies Survey (SINGS) and its offspring programs (e.g., THINGS, HERACLES, KINGFISH) have resulted in a fundamental change in our view of star formation and the ISM in galaxies, and together they represent the most complete multi-wavelength data set yet assembled for a large sample of nearby galaxies. These great investments of observing time have been dedicated to the goal of understanding the interstellar medium, the star formation process, and, more generally, galactic evolution at the present epoch. Nearby galaxies provide the basis for which we interpret the distant universe, and the SINGS sample represents the best studied nearby galaxies.Accurate distances are fundamental to interpreting observations of galaxies. Surprisingly, many of the SINGS spiral galaxies have numerous distance estimates resulting in confusion. We can rectify this situation for 8 of the SINGS spiral galaxies within 10 Mpc at a very low cost through measurements of the tip of the red giant branch. The proposed observations will provide an accuracy of better than 0.1 in distance modulus. Our sample includes such well known galaxies as M51 (the Whirlpool), M63 (the Sunflower), M104 (the Sombrero), and M74 (the archetypal grand design spiral).We are also proposing coordinated parallel WFC3 UV observations of the central regions of the galaxies, rich with high-mass UV-bright stars. As a secondary science goal we will compare the resolved UV stellar populations with integrated UV emission measurements used in calibrating star formation rates. Our observations will complement the growing HST UV atlas of high resolution images of nearby galaxies.

  8. Accurate Thermal Conductivities from First Principles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carbogno, Christian

    2015-03-01

    In spite of significant research efforts, a first-principles determination of the thermal conductivity at high temperatures has remained elusive. On the one hand, Boltzmann transport techniques that include anharmonic effects in the nuclear dynamics only perturbatively become inaccurate or inapplicable under such conditions. On the other hand, non-equilibrium molecular dynamics (MD) methods suffer from enormous finite-size artifacts in the computationally feasible supercells, which prevent an accurate extrapolation to the bulk limit of the thermal conductivity. In this work, we overcome this limitation by performing ab initio MD simulations in thermodynamic equilibrium that account for all orders of anharmonicity. The thermal conductivity is then assessed from the auto-correlation function of the heat flux using the Green-Kubo formalism. Foremost, we discuss the fundamental theory underlying a first-principles definition of the heat flux using the virial theorem. We validate our approach and in particular the techniques developed to overcome finite time and size effects, e.g., by inspecting silicon, the thermal conductivity of which is particularly challenging to converge. Furthermore, we use this framework to investigate the thermal conductivity of ZrO2, which is known for its high degree of anharmonicity. Our calculations shed light on the heat resistance mechanism active in this material, which eventually allows us to discuss how the thermal conductivity can be controlled by doping and co-doping. This work has been performed in collaboration with R. Ramprasad (University of Connecticut), C. G. Levi and C. G. Van de Walle (University of California Santa Barbara).

  9. How flatbed scanners upset accurate film dosimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Battum, L. J.; Huizenga, H.; Verdaasdonk, R. M.; Heukelom, S.

    2016-01-01

    Film is an excellent dosimeter for verification of dose distributions due to its high spatial resolution. Irradiated film can be digitized with low-cost, transmission, flatbed scanners. However, a disadvantage is their lateral scan effect (LSE): a scanner readout change over its lateral scan axis. Although anisotropic light scattering was presented as the origin of the LSE, this paper presents an alternative cause. Hereto, LSE for two flatbed scanners (Epson 1680 Expression Pro and Epson 10000XL), and Gafchromic film (EBT, EBT2, EBT3) was investigated, focused on three effects: cross talk, optical path length and polarization. Cross talk was examined using triangular sheets of various optical densities. The optical path length effect was studied using absorptive and reflective neutral density filters with well-defined optical characteristics (OD range 0.2-2.0). Linear polarizer sheets were used to investigate light polarization on the CCD signal in absence and presence of (un)irradiated Gafchromic film. Film dose values ranged between 0.2 to 9 Gy, i.e. an optical density range between 0.25 to 1.1. Measurements were performed in the scanner’s transmission mode, with red-green-blue channels. LSE was found to depend on scanner construction and film type. Its magnitude depends on dose: for 9 Gy increasing up to 14% at maximum lateral position. Cross talk was only significant in high contrast regions, up to 2% for very small fields. The optical path length effect introduced by film on the scanner causes 3% for pixels in the extreme lateral position. Light polarization due to film and the scanner’s optical mirror system is the main contributor, different in magnitude for the red, green and blue channel. We concluded that any Gafchromic EBT type film scanned with a flatbed scanner will face these optical effects. Accurate dosimetry requires correction of LSE, therefore, determination of the LSE per color channel and dose delivered to the film.

  10. How flatbed scanners upset accurate film dosimetry.

    PubMed

    van Battum, L J; Huizenga, H; Verdaasdonk, R M; Heukelom, S

    2016-01-21

    Film is an excellent dosimeter for verification of dose distributions due to its high spatial resolution. Irradiated film can be digitized with low-cost, transmission, flatbed scanners. However, a disadvantage is their lateral scan effect (LSE): a scanner readout change over its lateral scan axis. Although anisotropic light scattering was presented as the origin of the LSE, this paper presents an alternative cause. Hereto, LSE for two flatbed scanners (Epson 1680 Expression Pro and Epson 10000XL), and Gafchromic film (EBT, EBT2, EBT3) was investigated, focused on three effects: cross talk, optical path length and polarization. Cross talk was examined using triangular sheets of various optical densities. The optical path length effect was studied using absorptive and reflective neutral density filters with well-defined optical characteristics (OD range 0.2-2.0). Linear polarizer sheets were used to investigate light polarization on the CCD signal in absence and presence of (un)irradiated Gafchromic film. Film dose values ranged between 0.2 to 9 Gy, i.e. an optical density range between 0.25 to 1.1. Measurements were performed in the scanner's transmission mode, with red-green-blue channels. LSE was found to depend on scanner construction and film type. Its magnitude depends on dose: for 9 Gy increasing up to 14% at maximum lateral position. Cross talk was only significant in high contrast regions, up to 2% for very small fields. The optical path length effect introduced by film on the scanner causes 3% for pixels in the extreme lateral position. Light polarization due to film and the scanner's optical mirror system is the main contributor, different in magnitude for the red, green and blue channel. We concluded that any Gafchromic EBT type film scanned with a flatbed scanner will face these optical effects. Accurate dosimetry requires correction of LSE, therefore, determination of the LSE per color channel and dose delivered to the film.

  11. Chewing simulation with a physically accurate deformable model.

    PubMed

    Pascale, Andra Maria; Ruge, Sebastian; Hauth, Steffen; Kordaß, Bernd; Linsen, Lars

    2015-01-01

    Nowadays, CAD/CAM software is being used to compute the optimal shape and position of a new tooth model meant for a patient. With this possible future application in mind, we present in this article an independent and stand-alone interactive application that simulates the human chewing process and the deformation it produces in the food substrate. Chewing motion sensors are used to produce an accurate representation of the jaw movement. The substrate is represented by a deformable elastic model based on the finite linear elements method, which preserves physical accuracy. Collision detection based on spatial partitioning is used to calculate the forces that are acting on the deformable model. Based on the calculated information, geometry elements are added to the scene to enhance the information available for the user. The goal of the simulation is to present a complete scene to the dentist, highlighting the points where the teeth came into contact with the substrate and giving information about how much force acted at these points, which therefore makes it possible to indicate whether the tooth is being used incorrectly in the mastication process. Real-time interactivity is desired and achieved within limits, depending on the complexity of the employed geometric models. The presented simulation is a first step towards the overall project goal of interactively optimizing tooth position and shape under the investigation of a virtual chewing process using real patient data (Fig 1). PMID:26389135

  12. Diagnostics and Microelectronics

    SciTech Connect

    Balch, J.W.

    1993-03-01

    This report discusses activities of the Diagnostics and Microelectronics thrust area which conducts activities in semiconductor devices and semiconductor fabrication technology for programs at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. Our multidisciplinary engineering and scientific staff use modern computational tools and semi-conductor microfabrication equipment to develop high-performance devices. Our work concentrates on three broad technologies of semiconductor microdevices: (1) silicon on III-V semiconductor microeletronics, (2) lithium niobate-based and III-V semiconductor-based photonics, and (3) silicon-based micromaching for application to microstructures and microinstruments. In FY-92, we worked on projects in seven areas, described in this report: novel photonic detectors; a wideband phase modulator; an optoelectronic terahertz beam system; the fabrication of microelectrode electrochemical sensors; diamond heatsinks; advanced micromachining technologies; and electrophoresis using silicon microchannels.

  13. Diagnostic evaluation of rhabdomyolysis.

    PubMed

    Nance, Jessica R; Mammen, Andrew L

    2015-06-01

    Rhabdomyolysis is characterized by severe acute muscle injury resulting in muscle pain, weakness, and/or swelling with release of myofiber contents into the bloodstream. Symptoms develop over hours to days after an inciting factor and may be associated with dark pigmentation of the urine. Serum creatine kinase and urine myoglobin levels are markedly elevated. Clinical examination, history, laboratory studies, muscle biopsy, and genetic testing are useful tools for diagnosis of rhabdomyolysis, and they can help differentiate acquired from inherited causes of rhabdomyolysis. Acquired causes include substance abuse, medication or toxic exposures, electrolyte abnormalities, endocrine disturbances, and autoimmune myopathies. Inherited predisposition to rhabdomyolysis can occur with disorders of glycogen metabolism, fatty acid β-oxidation, and mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation. Less common inherited causes of rhabdomyolysis include structural myopathies, channelopathies, and sickle-cell disease. This review focuses on the differentiation of acquired and inherited causes of rhabdomyolysis and proposes a practical diagnostic algorithm. Muscle Nerve 51: 793-810, 2015. PMID:25678154

  14. Rig Diagnostic Tools

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Soileau, Kerry M.; Baicy, John W.

    2008-01-01

    Rig Diagnostic Tools is a suite of applications designed to allow an operator to monitor the status and health of complex networked systems using a unique interface between Java applications and UNIX scripts. The suite consists of Java applications, C scripts, Vx- Works applications, UNIX utilities, C programs, and configuration files. The UNIX scripts retrieve data from the system and write them to a certain set of files. The Java side monitors these files and presents the data in user-friendly formats for operators to use in making troubleshooting decisions. This design allows for rapid prototyping and expansion of higher-level displays without affecting the basic data-gathering applications. The suite is designed to be extensible, with the ability to add new system components in building block fashion without affecting existing system applications. This allows for monitoring of complex systems for which unplanned shutdown time comes at a prohibitive cost.

  15. Peritoneal tuberculosis: diagnostic options.

    PubMed Central

    Lal, N; Soto-Wright, V

    1999-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Extrapulmonary tuberculosis has vague symptoms and few signs. It is essential to recognize and diagnose this curable disease prior to performing definitive surgery. Newer tests such as DNA or RNA amplification allow for early diagnosis but have limitations. CASE: We report a case of peritoneal tuberculosis in an immigrant woman. She had vague symptoms of low-grade fever, mild abdominal pain, obstipation, and bloating. Diagnostic laparoscopy was performed to establish the diagnosis. Tuberculosis was confirmed by DNA extraction from the frozen section specimen with subsequent analysis using polymerase chain reaction. CONCLUSION: Peritoneal tuberculosis is a disease that often simulates malignancies. With the increasing prevalence of human immunodeficiency virus in developed countries, tuberculosis is also on the rise and should be considered in the differential diagnosis of a patient with an abdominal/pelvic mass and ascites. PMID:10524670

  16. Diagnostic Evaluation of Rhabdomyolysis

    PubMed Central

    Nance, Jessica R.; Mammen, Andrew L.

    2015-01-01

    Rhabdomyolysis is characterized by severe acute muscle injury resulting in muscle pain, weakness, and/or swelling with release of myofiber contents into the bloodstream. Symptoms develop over hours to days following an inciting factor and may be associated with dark pigmentation of the urine. Serum creatine kinase and urine myoglobin levels are markedly elevated. The clinical examination, history, laboratory studies, muscle biopsy, and genetic testing are useful tools for diagnosis of rhabdomyolysis, and they can help differentiate acquired from inherited causes of rhabdomyolysis. Acquired causes include substance abuse, medication or toxic exposures, electrolyte abnormalities, endocrine disturbance, and autoimmune myopathies. Inherited predisposition to rhabdomyolysis can occur with disorders of glycogen metabolism, fatty acid beta-oxidation, and mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation. Less common inherited causes of rhabdomyolysis include structural myopathies, channelopathies, and sickle cell disease. This review focuses on the differentiation of acquired and inherited causes of rhabdomyolysis and proposes a practical diagnostic algorithm. PMID:25678154

  17. Balloon gondola diagnostics package

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cantor, K. M.

    1986-01-01

    In order to define a new gondola structural specification and to quantify the balloon termination environment, NASA developed a balloon gondola diagnostics package (GDP). This addition to the balloon flight train is comprised of a large array of electronic sensors employed to define the forces and accelerations imposed on a gondola during the termination event. These sensors include the following: a load cell, a three-axis accelerometer, two three-axis rate gyros, two magnetometers, and a two axis inclinometer. A transceiver couple allows the data to be telemetered across any in-line rotator to the gondola-mounted memory system. The GDP is commanded 'ON' just prior to parachute deployment in order to record the entire event.

  18. Diagnostic and vaccine chapter.

    PubMed

    Wolfram, J H; Kokanov, S K; Verkhovsky, O A

    2010-10-01

    The first report in this chapter describes the development of a killed composite vaccine. This killed vaccine is non-infectious to humans, other animals, and the environment. The vaccine has low reactivity, is non-abortive, and does not induce pathomorphological alterations to the organs of vaccinated animals. The second report of this chapter describes the diagnostic value of a competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for detecting Brucella-specific antibodies and its ability to discriminate vaccinated cattle from infected cattle. The results indicated that the competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay is more sensitive than traditional tests for detecting antibodies to Brucella abortus in naturally and experimentally infected cattle. PMID:20850688

  19. Oral vs. salivary diagnostics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marques, Joana; Corby, Patricia M.; Barber, Cheryl A.; Abrams, William R.; Malamud, Daniel

    2015-05-01

    The field of "salivary diagnostics" includes studies utilizing samples obtained from a variety of sources within the oral cavity. These samples include; whole unstimulated saliva, stimulated whole saliva, duct saliva collected directly from the parotid, submandibular/sublingual glands or minor salivary glands, swabs of the buccal mucosa, tongue or tonsils, and gingival crevicular fluid. Many publications state "we collected saliva from subjects" without fully describing the process or source of the oral fluid. Factors that need to be documented in any study include the time of day of the collection, the method used to stimulate and collect the fluid, and how much fluid is being collected and for how long. The handling of the oral fluid during and post-collection is also critical and may include addition of protease or nuclease inhibitors, centrifugation, and cold or frozen storage prior to assay. In an effort to create a standard protocol for determining a biomarker's origin we carried out a pilot study collecting oral fluid from 5 different sites in the mouth and monitoring the concentrations of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines detected using MesoScaleDiscovery (MSD) electrochemiluminesence assays. Our data suggested that 3 of the cytokines are primarily derived from the submandibular gland, while 7 of the cytokines come from a source other than the major salivary glands such as the minor salivary glands or cells in the oral mucosae. Here we review the literature on monitoring biomarkers in oral samples and stress the need for determining the blood/saliva ratio when a quantitative determination is needed and suggest that the term oral diagnostic be used if the source of an analyte in the oral cavity is unknown.

  20. Photoacoustic computed tomography without accurate ultrasonic transducer responses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheng, Qiwei; Wang, Kun; Xia, Jun; Zhu, Liren; Wang, Lihong V.; Anastasio, Mark A.

    2015-03-01

    Conventional photoacoustic computed tomography (PACT) image reconstruction methods assume that the object and surrounding medium are described by a constant speed-of-sound (SOS) value. In order to accurately recover fine structures, SOS heterogeneities should be quantified and compensated for during PACT reconstruction. To address this problem, several groups have proposed hybrid systems that combine PACT with ultrasound computed tomography (USCT). In such systems, a SOS map is reconstructed first via USCT. Consequently, this SOS map is employed to inform the PACT reconstruction method. Additionally, the SOS map can provide structural information regarding tissue, which is complementary to the functional information from the PACT image. We propose a paradigm shift in the way that images are reconstructed in hybrid PACT-USCT imaging. Inspired by our observation that information about the SOS distribution is encoded in PACT measurements, we propose to jointly reconstruct the absorbed optical energy density and SOS distributions from a combined set of USCT and PACT measurements, thereby reducing the two reconstruction problems into one. This innovative approach has several advantages over conventional approaches in which PACT and USCT images are reconstructed independently: (1) Variations in the SOS will automatically be accounted for, optimizing PACT image quality; (2) The reconstructed PACT and USCT images will possess minimal systematic artifacts because errors in the imaging models will be optimally balanced during the joint reconstruction; (3) Due to the exploitation of information regarding the SOS distribution in the full-view PACT data, our approach will permit high-resolution reconstruction of the SOS distribution from sparse array data.

  1. Chronic pancreatitis: A diagnostic dilemma

    PubMed Central

    Duggan, Sinead N; Ní Chonchubhair, Hazel M; Lawal, Oladapo; O’Connor, Donal B; Conlon, Kevin C

    2016-01-01

    Typical clinical symptoms of chronic pancreatitis are vague and non-specific and therefore diagnostic tests are required, none of which provide absolute diagnostic certainly, especially in the early stages of disease. Recently-published guidelines bring much needed structure to the diagnostic work-up of patients with suspected chronic pancreatitis. In addition, novel diagnostic modalities bring promise for the future. The assessment and diagnosis of pancreatic exocrine insufficiency remains challenging and this review contests the accepted perspective that steatorrhea only occurs with > 90% destruction of the gland. PMID:26900292

  2. Progress on US ITER Diagnostics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, David; Feder, Russ

    2010-11-01

    There have been significant advances in the design concepts for the 8 ITER diagnostic systems being provided by the US. Concepts for integration of the diagnostics into the port plugs have also evolved. A prerequisite for the signoff of the procurement arrangements for these each diagnostic is a Conceptual Design Review organized by the ITER Organization. US experts under contract with the USIPO have been assisting the IO to prepare for these Reviews. In addition, a design team at PPPL has been working with these experts and designers from other ITER parties to package diagnostic front-ends into the 5 US plugs. Modular diagnostic shield modules are now being considered in order to simplify the interfaces between the diagnostics within each plug. Diagnostic first wall elements are envisioned to be integral with these shield modules. This simplifies the remote handling of the diagnostics and provides flexibility for future removal of one diagnostic minimally affecting others. Front-end configurations will be presented, along with lists of issues needing resolution prior to the start of preliminary design.

  3. Diagnostics development plan for ZR.

    SciTech Connect

    Hanson, David Lester

    2003-09-01

    The Z Refurbishment (ZR) Project is a program to upgrade the Z machine at SNL with modern durable pulsed power technology, providing additional shot capacity and improved reliability as well as advanced capabilities for both pulsed x-ray production and high pressure generation. The development of enhanced diagnostic capabilities is an essential requirement for ZR to meet critical mission needs. This report presents a comprehensive plan for diagnostic instrument and infrastructure development for the first few years of ZR operation. The focus of the plan is on: (1) developing diagnostic instruments with high spatial and temporal resolution, capable of low noise operation and survival in the severe EMP, bremsstrahlung, and blast environments of ZR; and (2) providing diagnostic infrastructure improvements, including reduced diagnostic trigger signal jitter, more and flexible diagnostic line-of-sight access, and the capability for efficient exchange of diagnostics with other laboratories. This diagnostic plan is the first step in an extended process to provide enhanced diagnostic capabilities for ZR to meet the diverse programmatic needs of a broad range of defense, energy, and general science programs of an international user community into the next decade.

  4. Measurements and Diagnostics of Diamond Films and Coatings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miyoshi, Kazuhisa; Wu, Richard L. C.

    1999-01-01

    The commercial potential of chemical-vapor-deposited (CVD) diamond films has been established and a number of applications have been identified through university, industry, and government research studies. This paper discusses the methodologies used for property measurement and diagnostic of CVD diamond films and coatings. Measurement and diagnostic techniques studied include scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy, stylus profilometry, x-ray diffraction, electron diffraction, Raman spectroscopy, Rutherford backscattering, elastic recoil spectroscopy, and friction examination. Each measurement and diagnostic technique provides unique information. A combination of techniques can provide the technical information required to understand the quality and properties of CVD diamond films, which are important to their application in specific component systems and environments. In this study the combination of measurement and diagnostic techniques was successfully applied to correlate deposition parameters and resultant diamond film composition, crystallinity, grain size, surface roughness, and coefficient of friction.

  5. Surface Diagnostics in Tribology Technology and Advanced Coatings Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miyoshi, Kazuhisa

    1999-01-01

    This paper discusses the methodologies used for surface property measurement of thin films and coatings, lubricants, and materials in the field of tribology. Surface diagnostic techniques include scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy, stylus profilometry, x-ray diffraction, electron diffraction, Raman spectroscopy, Rutherford backscattering, elastic recoil spectroscopy, and tribology examination. Each diagnostic technique provides specific measurement results in its own unique way. In due course it should be possible to coordinate the different pieces of information provided by these diagnostic techniques into a coherent self-consistent description of the surface properties. Examples are given on the nature and character of thin diamond films.

  6. Diagnostic Competence of Primary School Mathematics Teachers during Classroom Situations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoth, Jessica; Döhrmann, Martina; Kaiser, Gabriele; Busse, Andreas; König, Johannes; Blömeke, Sigrid

    2016-01-01

    One of the main challenges for teachers during teaching in class is the diagnosis of students' learning and thinking processes. For this purpose, teachers must perceive relevant information, they need to interpret this information and finally, they need to respond and select suitable opportunities to learn. In this paper, diagnostic processes in…

  7. Accurate theoretical chemistry with coupled pair models.

    PubMed

    Neese, Frank; Hansen, Andreas; Wennmohs, Frank; Grimme, Stefan

    2009-05-19

    Quantum chemistry has found its way into the everyday work of many experimental chemists. Calculations can predict the outcome of chemical reactions, afford insight into reaction mechanisms, and be used to interpret structure and bonding in molecules. Thus, contemporary theory offers tremendous opportunities in experimental chemical research. However, even with present-day computers and algorithms, we cannot solve the many particle Schrodinger equation exactly; inevitably some error is introduced in approximating the solutions of this equation. Thus, the accuracy of quantum chemical calculations is of critical importance. The affordable accuracy depends on molecular size and particularly on the total number of atoms: for orientation, ethanol has 9 atoms, aspirin 21 atoms, morphine 40 atoms, sildenafil 63 atoms, paclitaxel 113 atoms, insulin nearly 800 atoms, and quaternary hemoglobin almost 12,000 atoms. Currently, molecules with up to approximately 10 atoms can be very accurately studied by coupled cluster (CC) theory, approximately 100 atoms with second-order Møller-Plesset perturbation theory (MP2), approximately 1000 atoms with density functional theory (DFT), and beyond that number with semiempirical quantum chemistry and force-field methods. The overwhelming majority of present-day calculations in the 100-atom range use DFT. Although these methods have been very successful in quantum chemistry, they do not offer a well-defined hierarchy of calculations that allows one to systematically converge to the correct answer. Recently a number of rather spectacular failures of DFT methods have been found-even for seemingly simple systems such as hydrocarbons, fueling renewed interest in wave function-based methods that incorporate the relevant physics of electron correlation in a more systematic way. Thus, it would be highly desirable to fill the gap between 10 and 100 atoms with highly correlated ab initio methods. We have found that one of the earliest (and now

  8. The Clinical and Health Economic Value of Clinical Laboratory Diagnostics

    PubMed Central

    Mitchell, Cheryl; Anderson, Andy; Farkas, Norbert; Batrla, Richard

    2015-01-01

    The ultimate goal of diagnostic testing is to guide disease management in order to improve patient outcomes and patient well-being. Patient populations are rarely homogenous and accurate diagnostic tests can dissect the patient population and identify those patients with similar symptoms but very different underlying pathophysiology that will respond differently to different treatments. This stratification of patients can direct patients to appropriate treatment and is likely to result in clinical benefits for patients and economic benefits for the healthcare system. In this article we look at the clinical and economic benefits afforded by clinical laboratory diagnostics in three disease areas that represent substantial clinical and healthcare burdens to society; heart failure, Alzheimer’s disease and asthma.

  9. The Clinical and Health Economic Value of Clinical Laboratory Diagnostics

    PubMed Central

    Mitchell, Cheryl; Anderson, Andy; Farkas, Norbert; Batrla, Richard

    2015-01-01

    The ultimate goal of diagnostic testing is to guide disease management in order to improve patient outcomes and patient well-being. Patient populations are rarely homogenous and accurate diagnostic tests can dissect the patient population and identify those patients with similar symptoms but very different underlying pathophysiology that will respond differently to different treatments. This stratification of patients can direct patients to appropriate treatment and is likely to result in clinical benefits for patients and economic benefits for the healthcare system. In this article we look at the clinical and economic benefits afforded by clinical laboratory diagnostics in three disease areas that represent substantial clinical and healthcare burdens to society; heart failure, Alzheimer’s disease and asthma. PMID:27683481

  10. Pigmented purpuric dermatosis or mycosis fungoides: A diagnostic dilemma.

    PubMed

    Riyaz, Najeeba; Sasidharanpillai, Sarita; Abdul Latheef, Ettappurath N; Davul, Hena; Ashraf, Febin

    2016-01-01

    Pigmented purpuric dermatoses (PPD), a group of vascular disorders with variable clinical picture is reported in all races and age groups with a male predilection. There are reports of mycosis fungoides manifesting as pigmented purpura as well as progression of PPD to cutaneous T-cell lymphoma. The diagnostic dilemma is compounded by PPD manifesting histological similarity to mycosis fungoides. Currently, it is believed that PPD with monoclonal T-cell population is more likely to progress to malignancy. We report a 31-year-old male patient who presented with the lichenoid clinical variant of PPD lesions that mimicked mycosis fungoides on histopathology. Gene rearrangement studies identified a polyclonal T-cell population. The patient responded to photochemotherapy, which is beneficial in both PPD and mycosis fungoides. Our case signifies the limitations of current diagnostic modalities in accurately distinguishing PPD from cutaneous lymphoma. Data on disease progression in similar cases may enable us to formulate better diagnostic definitions.

  11. Pigmented purpuric dermatosis or mycosis fungoides: A diagnostic dilemma

    PubMed Central

    Riyaz, Najeeba; Sasidharanpillai, Sarita; Abdul Latheef, Ettappurath N.; Davul, Hena; Ashraf, Febin

    2016-01-01

    Pigmented purpuric dermatoses (PPD), a group of vascular disorders with variable clinical picture is reported in all races and age groups with a male predilection. There are reports of mycosis fungoides manifesting as pigmented purpura as well as progression of PPD to cutaneous T-cell lymphoma. The diagnostic dilemma is compounded by PPD manifesting histological similarity to mycosis fungoides. Currently, it is believed that PPD with monoclonal T-cell population is more likely to progress to malignancy. We report a 31-year-old male patient who presented with the lichenoid clinical variant of PPD lesions that mimicked mycosis fungoides on histopathology. Gene rearrangement studies identified a polyclonal T-cell population. The patient responded to photochemotherapy, which is beneficial in both PPD and mycosis fungoides. Our case signifies the limitations of current diagnostic modalities in accurately distinguishing PPD from cutaneous lymphoma. Data on disease progression in similar cases may enable us to formulate better diagnostic definitions. PMID:27294054

  12. Unexplained syncope: diagnostic value of tilt-table testing.

    PubMed

    Futterman, L G; Lemberg, L

    1994-07-01

    Vasovagal syncope is a common syncope in patients who have no structural heart disease and occurs more often in young adults. It typically occurs in the erect posture, either standing or sitting. Upon recognition of the prodrome associated with NCS, subjects may avert syncope by lying down or putting the head between the knees. Use of head-up tilting is a recognized diagnostic tool and widely used for the evaluation of vasovagal syncope. However, cardiac diagnostic tests are not 100% accurate. This fact was recently underscored by what occurred in the recent tragic loss, due to ventricular fibrillation, of basketball star Reggie Lewis of the Boston Celtics. It is alleged that the tilt-table test was positive but that he also had structural heart disease. The most important diagnostic tool is the physician's clinical judgment.

  13. Beam Diagnostics of the Small Isochronous Ring

    SciTech Connect

    Felix Marti; Eduard Pozdeyev

    2004-07-01

    The purpose of this paper is to describe the beam diagnostic systems in the Small Isochronous Ring (SIR) developed and built at the National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory (NSCL) at Michigan State University (MSU). SIR is a small-scale experiment that simulates the dynamics of intense beams in large accelerators. A 20 to 30 keV hydrogen or deuterium ion bunch is injected in the ring, extracted after a variable number of turns and its longitudinal profile is studied. Some of the diagnostic tools available in SIR include an emittance measurement system in the injection line, scanning wires in different sections of the ring, phosphor screens at the injection and extraction points and a fast Faraday cup in the extraction line. The design of these systems and the kind of beam information they provide are discussed in detail.

  14. Optical Diagnostic System for the TLS

    SciTech Connect

    Kuan, C. K.; Tseng, T. C.; Wang, D. J.; Hsiung, G. Y.; Perng, S. Y.; Tsai, Z. D.; Ueng, T. S.; Hsueh, H. P.; Chen, J. R.

    2007-01-19

    The Taiwan light source (TLS) uses a photon beam intensity system (Io monitor) to index the electron beam stability. This index combines the information of the fluctuations of electron beam position and size. For understanding the impact of these fluctuations to the electron beam instability, a set of the optical diagnostic system was installed in the TLS BL10 diagnostics beamline. This system includes the photon beam position monitor (PBPM), the beam size monitor (BSM) and the Io monitor. From the result, we concluded that about one-third impact of beam instability came from the fluctuation of electron beam position and about two-thirds impact of beam instability came from the fluctuation of electron beam size. The hardware configuration is described in this paper.

  15. Epidemiology of and Diagnostic Strategies for Toxoplasmosis

    PubMed Central

    Dardé, Marie-Laure

    2012-01-01

    Summary: The apicomplexan parasite Toxoplasma gondii was discovered a little over 100 years ago, but knowledge of its biological life cycle and its medical importance has grown in the last 40 years. This obligate intracellular parasite was identified early as a pathogen responsible for congenital infection, but its clinical expression and the importance of reactivations of infections in immunocompromised patients were recognized later, in the era of organ transplantation and HIV infection. Recent knowledge of host cell-parasite interactions and of parasite virulence has brought new insights into the comprehension of the pathophysiology of infection. In this review, we focus on epidemiological and diagnostic aspects, putting them in perspective with current knowledge of parasite genotypes. In particular, we provide critical information on diagnostic methods according to the patient's background and discuss the implementation of screening tools for congenital toxoplasmosis according to health policies. PMID:22491772

  16. Advanced clinical monitoring: considerations for real-time hemodynamic diagnostics.

    PubMed

    Goldman, J M; Cordova, M J

    1994-01-01

    In an effort to ease staffing burdens and potentially improve patient outcome in an intensive care unit (ICU) environment, we are developing a real-time system to accurately and efficiently diagnose cardiopulmonary emergencies. The system is being designed to utilize all relevant routinely-monitored physiological data in order to automatically diagnose potentially fatal events. The initial stage of this project involved formulating the overall system design and appropriate methods for real-time data acquisition, data storage, data trending, waveform analysis, and implementing diagnostic rules. Initially, we defined a conceptual analysis of the minimum physiologic data set, and the monitoring time-frames (trends) which would be required to diagnose cardiopulmonary emergencies. Following that analysis, we used a fuzzy logic diagnostic engine to analyze physiological data during a simulated arrhythmic cardiac arrest (ACA) in order to assess the validity of our diagnostic methodology. We used rate, trend, and morphologic data extracted from the following signals: expired CO2 time-concentration curve (capnogram), electrocardiogram, and arterial blood pressure. The system performed well: The fuzzy logic engine effectively diagnosed the likelihood of ACA from the subtle hemodynamic trends which preceded the complete arrest. As the clinical picture worsened, the fuzzy logic-based system accurately indicated the change in patient condition. Termination of the simulated arrest was rapidly detected by the diagnostic engine. In view of the effectiveness of this fuzzy logic implementation, we plan to develop additional fuzzy logic modules to diagnose other cardiopulmonary emergencies.

  17. Dual Processing and Diagnostic Errors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Norman, Geoff

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, I review evidence from two theories in psychology relevant to diagnosis and diagnostic errors. "Dual Process" theories of thinking, frequently mentioned with respect to diagnostic error, propose that categorization decisions can be made with either a fast, unconscious, contextual process called System 1 or a slow, analytical,…

  18. Saliva as a diagnostic fluid.

    PubMed

    Streckfus, C F; Bigler, L R

    2002-03-01

    In the last 10 years, the use of saliva as a diagnostic fluid has become somewhat of a translational research success story. Technologies are now available enabling saliva to be used to diagnose disease and predict disease progression. This review describes some important recent advances in salivary diagnostics and barriers to application and advancement. This review will also stimulate future research activity.

  19. Student Interpretations of Diagnostic Feedback

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doe, Christine

    2015-01-01

    Diagnostic assessment is increasingly being recognized as a potentially beneficial tool for teaching and learning (Jang, 2012). There have been calls in the research literature for students to receive diagnostic feedback and for researchers to investigate how such feedback is used by students. Therefore, this study examined how students…

  20. Rapid diagnostic tests for malaria ---Haiti, 2010.

    PubMed

    2010-10-29

    Plasmodium falciparum malaria is endemic to Haiti and remains a major concern for residents, including displaced persons, and emergency responders in the aftermath of the January 12, 2010 earthquake. Microscopy has been the only test approved in the national policy for the diagnosis and management of malaria in Haiti; however, the use of microscopy often has been limited by lack of equipment or trained personnel. In contrast, malaria rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) require less equipment or training to use. To assist in the timely diagnosis and treatment of malaria in Haiti, the Ministry of Public Health and Population (MSPP), in collaboration with CDC, conducted a field assessment that guided the decision to approve the use of RDTs. This data-driven policy change greatly expands the opportunities for accurate malaria diagnosis across the country, allows for improved clinical management of febrile patients, and will improve the quality of malaria surveillance in Haiti.