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Sample records for accurate diagnostic tool

  1. Optimizing odor identification testing as quick and accurate diagnostic tool for Parkinson's disease

    PubMed Central

    Mahlknecht, Philipp; Pechlaner, Raimund; Boesveldt, Sanne; Volc, Dieter; Pinter, Bernardette; Reiter, Eva; Müller, Christoph; Krismer, Florian; Berendse, Henk W.; van Hilten, Jacobus J.; Wuschitz, Albert; Schimetta, Wolfgang; Högl, Birgit; Djamshidian, Atbin; Nocker, Michael; Göbel, Georg; Gasperi, Arno; Kiechl, Stefan; Willeit, Johann; Poewe, Werner

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Introduction The aim of this study was to evaluate odor identification testing as a quick, cheap, and reliable tool to identify PD. Methods Odor identification with the 16‐item Sniffin' Sticks test (SS‐16) was assessed in a total of 646 PD patients and 606 controls from three European centers (A, B, and C), as well as 75 patients with atypical parkinsonism or essential tremor and in a prospective cohort of 24 patients with idiopathic rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder (center A). Reduced odor sets most discriminative for PD were determined in a discovery cohort derived from a random split of PD patients and controls from center A using L1‐regularized logistic regression. Diagnostic accuracy was assessed in the rest of the patients/controls as validation cohorts. Results Olfactory performance was lower in PD patients compared with controls and non‐PD patients in all cohorts (each P < 0.001). Both the full SS‐16 and a subscore of the top eight discriminating odors (SS‐8) were associated with an excellent discrimination of PD from controls (areas under the curve ≥0.90; sensitivities ≥83.3%; specificities ≥82.0%) and from non‐PD patients (areas under the curve ≥0.91; sensitivities ≥84.1%; specificities ≥84.0%) in all cohorts. This remained unchanged when patients with >3 years of disease duration were excluded from analysis. All 8 incident PD cases among patients with idiopathic rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder were predicted with the SS‐16 and the SS‐8 (sensitivity, 100%; positive predictive value, 61.5%). Conclusions Odor identification testing provides excellent diagnostic accuracy in the distinction of PD patients from controls and diagnostic mimics. A reduced set of eight odors could be used as a quick tool in the workup of patients presenting with parkinsonism and for PD risk indication. © 2016 The Authors. Movement Disorders published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of International Parkinson and

  2. Raman Spectroscopy Provides a Powerful Diagnostic Tool for Accurate Determination of Albumin Glycation

    PubMed Central

    Dingari, Narahara Chari; Horowitz, Gary L.; Kang, Jeon Woong; Dasari, Ramachandra R.; Barman, Ishan

    2012-01-01

    We present the first demonstration of glycated albumin detection and quantification using Raman spectroscopy without the addition of reagents. Glycated albumin is an important marker for monitoring the long-term glycemic history of diabetics, especially as its concentrations, in contrast to glycated hemoglobin levels, are unaffected by changes in erythrocyte life times. Clinically, glycated albumin concentrations show a strong correlation with the development of serious diabetes complications including nephropathy and retinopathy. In this article, we propose and evaluate the efficacy of Raman spectroscopy for determination of this important analyte. By utilizing the pre-concentration obtained through drop-coating deposition, we show that glycation of albumin leads to subtle, but consistent, changes in vibrational features, which with the help of multivariate classification techniques can be used to discriminate glycated albumin from the unglycated variant with 100% accuracy. Moreover, we demonstrate that the calibration model developed on the glycated albumin spectral dataset shows high predictive power, even at substantially lower concentrations than those typically encountered in clinical practice. In fact, the limit of detection for glycated albumin measurements is calculated to be approximately four times lower than its minimum physiological concentration. Importantly, in relation to the existing detection methods for glycated albumin, the proposed method is also completely reagent-free, requires barely any sample preparation and has the potential for simultaneous determination of glycated hemoglobin levels as well. Given these key advantages, we believe that the proposed approach can provide a uniquely powerful tool for quantification of glycation status of proteins in biopharmaceutical development as well as for glycemic marker determination in routine clinical diagnostics in the future. PMID:22393405

  3. RT-PCR is a more accurate diagnostic tool for detection of BCR-ABL rearrangement

    SciTech Connect

    Zehnbauer, B.A.; Allen, A.P.; McGrath, S.D.

    1994-09-01

    Detection of the Philadelphia chromosome (Ph1) or genomic Southern hybridization for clonal gene rearrangement (GSH-R) has provided very specific identification of BCR-ABL gene rearrangement. Reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) is diagnostic for patterns of BCR-ABL expression which are undetected by GSH-R and/or Ph1 and provides increased sensitivity both at diagnosis and in detection of minimal residual leukemia. Fifty-three specimens (of 150 tested from 119 consecutive leukemia patients) were RT-PCR positive for BCR-ABL gene expression confirmed by hybridization of PCR products with b{sub 3}a{sub 2}, b{sub 2}a{sub 2}, or e{sub 1}a{sub 2} junction-specific oligonucleotides. In 6 cases of CML with GSH-R{sup {minus}}at diagnosis, RT-PCR provided specific BCR-ABL identification. Deletion of BCR regions, low mitotic index, or e{sub 1}a{sub 2} expression caused failure to detect GSH-R or Ph1 translocation.

  4. Validation of Three Early Ejaculation Diagnostic Tools: A Composite Measure Is Accurate and More Adequate for Diagnosis by Updated Diagnostic Criteria

    PubMed Central

    Jern, Patrick; Piha, Juhana; Santtila, Pekka

    2013-01-01

    Purpose To validate three early ejaculation diagnostic tools, and propose a new tool for diagnosis in line with proposed changes to diagnostic criteria. Significant changes to diagnostic criteria are expected in the near future. Available screening tools do not necessarily reflect proposed changes. Materials and Methods Data from 148 diagnosed early ejaculation patients (Mage = 42.8) and 892 controls (Mage = 33.1 years) from a population-based sample were used. Participants responded to three different questionnaires (Premature Ejaculation Profile; Premature Ejaculation Diagnostic Tool; Multiple Indicators of Premature Ejaculation). Stopwatch measured ejaculation latency times were collected from a subsample of early ejaculation patients. We used two types of responses to the questionnaires depending on the treatment status of the patients 1) responses regarding the situation before starting pharmacological treatment and 2) responses regarding current situation. Logistic regressions and Receiver Operating Characteristics were used to assess ability of both the instruments and individual items to differentiate between patients and controls. Results All instruments had very good precision (Areas under the Curve ranging from .93-.98). A new five-item instrument (named CHecklist for Early Ejaculation Symptoms – CHEES) consisting of high-performance variables selected from the three instruments had validity (Nagelkerke R2 range .51-.79 for backwards/forwards logistic regression) equal to or slightly better than any individual instrument (i.e., had slightly higher validity statistics, but these differences did not achieve statistical significance). Importantly, however, this instrument was more in line with proposed changes to diagnostic criteria. Conclusions All three screening tools had good validity. A new 5-item diagnostic tool (CHEES) based on the three instruments had equal or somewhat more favorable validity statistics compared to the other three tools, but is

  5. New diagnostic tools in schistosomiasis.

    PubMed

    Utzinger, J; Becker, S L; van Lieshout, L; van Dam, G J; Knopp, S

    2015-06-01

    Schistosomiasis is a water-based parasitic disease that affects over 250 million people. Control efforts have long been in vain, which is one reason why schistosomiasis is considered a neglected tropical disease. However, since the new millennium, interventions against schistosomiasis are escalating. The initial impetus stems from a 2001 World Health Assembly resolution, urging member states to scale-up deworming of school-aged children with the anthelminthic drug praziquantel. Because praziquantel is safe, efficacious and inexpensive when delivered through the school platform, diagnosis before drug intervention was deemed unnecessary and not cost-effective. Hence, there was little interest in research and development of novel diagnostic tools. With the recent publication of the World Health Organization (WHO) Roadmap to overcome the impact of neglected tropical diseases in 2020, we have entered a new era. Elimination of schistosomiasis has become the buzzword and this has important ramifications for diagnostic tools. Indeed, measuring progress towards the WHO Roadmap and whether local elimination has been achieved requires highly accurate diagnostic assays. Here, we introduce target product profiles for diagnostic tools that are required for different stages of a schistosomiasis control programme. We provide an update of the latest developments in schistosomiasis diagnosis, including microscopic techniques, rapid diagnostic tests for antigen detection, polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assays and proxy markers for morbidity assessments. Particular emphasis is placed on challenges and solutions for new technologies to enter clinical practice.

  6. Rig Diagnostic Tools

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Soileau, Kerry M.; Baicy, John W.

    2008-01-01

    Rig Diagnostic Tools is a suite of applications designed to allow an operator to monitor the status and health of complex networked systems using a unique interface between Java applications and UNIX scripts. The suite consists of Java applications, C scripts, Vx- Works applications, UNIX utilities, C programs, and configuration files. The UNIX scripts retrieve data from the system and write them to a certain set of files. The Java side monitors these files and presents the data in user-friendly formats for operators to use in making troubleshooting decisions. This design allows for rapid prototyping and expansion of higher-level displays without affecting the basic data-gathering applications. The suite is designed to be extensible, with the ability to add new system components in building block fashion without affecting existing system applications. This allows for monitoring of complex systems for which unplanned shutdown time comes at a prohibitive cost.

  7. Diagnostic limitations to accurate diagnosis of cholera.

    PubMed

    Alam, Munirul; Hasan, Nur A; Sultana, Marzia; Nair, G Balakrish; Sadique, A; Faruque, A S G; Endtz, Hubert P; Sack, R B; Huq, A; Colwell, R R; Izumiya, Hidemasa; Morita, Masatomo; Watanabe, Haruo; Cravioto, Alejandro

    2010-11-01

    The treatment regimen for diarrhea depends greatly on correct diagnosis of its etiology. Recent diarrhea outbreaks in Bangladesh showed Vibrio cholerae to be the predominant cause, although more than 40% of the suspected cases failed to show cholera etiology by conventional culture methods (CMs). In the present study, suspected cholera stools collected from every 50th patient during an acute diarrheal outbreak were analyzed extensively using different microbiological and molecular tools to determine their etiology. Of 135 stools tested, 86 (64%) produced V. cholerae O1 by CMs, while 119 (88%) tested positive for V. cholerae O1 by rapid cholera dipstick (DS) assay; all but three samples positive for V. cholerae O1 by CMs were also positive for V. cholerae O1 by DS assay. Of 49 stools that lacked CM-based cholera etiology despite most being positive for V. cholerae O1 by DS assay, 25 (51%) had coccoid V. cholerae O1 cells as confirmed by direct fluorescent antibody (DFA) assay, 36 (73%) amplified primers for the genes wbe O1 and ctxA by multiplex-PCR (M-PCR), and 31 (63%) showed El Tor-specific lytic phage on plaque assay (PA). Each of these methods allowed the cholera etiology to be confirmed for 97% of the stool samples. The results suggest that suspected cholera stools that fail to show etiology by CMs during acute diarrhea outbreaks may be due to the inactivation of V. cholerae by in vivo vibriolytic action of the phage and/or nonculturability induced as a host response.

  8. Magnetic ranging tool accurately guides replacement well

    SciTech Connect

    Lane, J.B.; Wesson, J.P. )

    1992-12-21

    This paper reports on magnetic ranging surveys and directional drilling technology which accurately guided a replacement well bore to intersect a leaking gas storage well with casing damage. The second well bore was then used to pump cement into the original leaking casing shoe. The repair well bore kicked off from the surface hole, bypassed casing damage in the middle of the well, and intersected the damaged well near the casing shoe. The repair well was subsequently completed in the gas storage zone near the original well bore, salvaging the valuable bottom hole location in the reservoir. This method would prevent the loss of storage gas, and it would prevent a potential underground blowout that could permanently damage the integrity of the storage field.

  9. Tube dimpling tool assures accurate dip-brazed joints

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beuyukian, C. S.; Heisman, R. M.

    1968-01-01

    Portable, hand-held dimpling tool assures accurate brazed joints between tubes of different diameters. Prior to brazing, the tool performs precise dimpling and nipple forming and also provides control and accurate measuring of the height of nipples and depth of dimples so formed.

  10. Merits and Pitfalls of Currently Used Diagnostic Tools in Mycetoma

    PubMed Central

    van de Sande, Wendy W. J.; Fahal, Ahmed H.; Goodfellow, Michael; Mahgoub, El Sheikh; Welsh, Oliverio; Zijlstra, Ed E.

    2014-01-01

    Treatment of mycetoma depends on the causative organism and since many organisms, both actinomycetes (actinomycetoma) and fungi (eumycetoma), are capable of producing mycetoma, an accurate diagnosis is crucial. Currently, multiple diagnostic tools are used to determine the extent of infections and to identify the causative agents of mycetoma. These include various imaging, cytological, histopathological, serological, and culture techniques; phenotypic characterisation; and molecular diagnostics. In this review, we summarize these techniques and identify their merits and pitfalls in the identification of the causative agents of mycetoma and the extent of the disease. We also emphasize the fact that there is no ideal diagnostic tool available to identify the causative agents and that future research should focus on the development of new and reliable diagnostic tools. PMID:24992636

  11. Diagnostic Tools for Learning Organizations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moilanen, Raili

    2001-01-01

    The Learning Organization Diamond Tool was designed for holistic analysis of 10 learning organization elements at the individual and organizational levels. A test in 25 Finnish organizations established validity. Comparison with existing tools showed that differences derive from their different purposes. (Contains 33 references.) (SK)

  12. Diagnostic CALL Tool for Arabic Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alsabaan, Majed; Ramsay, Allan

    2014-01-01

    Our proposed work is aimed at teaching non-native Arabic speakers how to improve their pronunciation. This paper reports on a diagnostic tool for helping non-native speakers of Arabic improve their pronunciation, particularly of words involving sounds that are not distinguished in their native languages. The tool involves the implementation of…

  13. Diagnostic tools in Rhinology EAACI position paper

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    This EAACI Task Force document aims at providing the readers with a comprehensive and complete overview of the currently available tools for diagnosis of nasal and sino-nasal disease. We have tried to logically order the different important issues related to history taking, clinical examination and additional investigative tools for evaluation of the severity of sinonasal disease into a consensus document. A panel of European experts in the field of Rhinology has contributed to this consensus document on Diagnostic Tools in Rhinology. PMID:22410181

  14. Diagnostic Tools for Onchocerciasis Elimination Programs.

    PubMed

    Vlaminck, Johnny; Fischer, Peter U; Weil, Gary J

    2015-11-01

    Onchocerciasis (river blindness) is a major public health problem in sub-Saharan Africa. Major disease-control programs have greatly reduced both disease and infection prevalence by mass distribution of donated ivermectin. Recent studies have shown that local elimination was achieved in some areas following many years of ivermectin. The global health community has recently decided to build on these successes with a new program that aims to eliminate onchocerciasis. Diagnostic tests that were useful for identifying priority areas for disease prevention may not be adequate tools for elimination programs. This paper reviews available and emerging diagnostic tests for onchocerciasis and considers how they might be best employed during different stages of onchocerciasis elimination programs.

  15. [Diagnostic tools for canine parvovirus infection].

    PubMed

    Proksch, A L; Hartmann, K

    2015-01-01

    Canine parvovirus (CPV) infection is one of the most important and common infectious diseases in dogs, in particular affecting young puppies when maternal antibodies have waned and vaccine-induced antibodies have not yet developed. The mortality rate remains high. Therefore, a rapid and safe diagnostic tool is essential to diagnose the disease to 1) provide intensive care treatment and 2) to identify virus-shedding animals and thus prevent virus spread. Whilst the detection of antibodies against CPV is considered unsuitable to diagnose the disease, there are several different methods to directly detect complete virus, virus antigen or DNA. Additionally, to test in commercial laboratories, rapid in-house tests based on ELISA are available worldwide. The specificity of the ELISA rapid in-house tests is reported to be excellent. However, results on sensitivity vary and high numbers of false-negative results are commonly reported, which potentially leads to misdiagnosis. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) is a very sensitive and specific diagnostic tool. It also provides the opportunity to differentiate vaccine strains from natural infection when sequencing is performed after PCR.

  16. A survey diagnostic tool for senile dementia.

    PubMed

    Pfeffer, R I; Kurosaki, T T; Harrah, C H; Chance, J M; Bates, D; Detels, R; Filos, S; Butzke, C

    1981-10-01

    To validate a senile dementia survey diagnostic tool, 195 individuals aged 61-91 and referred by their physicians as normal or mildly demented were examined. The etiologic diagnosis used as criterion was the consensus of two experienced neurologists, assisted by clinical and laboratory data from referring physicians and by neuropsychologic evaluation of questionably affected persons. Agreement between the neurologists was high, as indicated by a weighted Kappa coefficient of 0.97 (95% confidence interval (Cl) (0.94, 1.00)). Agreement between the instrument and criterion diagnosis was also excellent (kappa w = 0.93; 95% Cl (0.88, 0.98)). Used alone as a screening diagnostic tool, the cognitive function portion of the instrument was much more sensitive (0.929) than previously used brief tests and was acceptably specific (0.800). Because normals complete this cognitive test in 15-20 minutes, it should be a major advance in population-based studies of senile dementia and normal aging.

  17. Molecular diagnostic and surveillance tools for global malaria control.

    PubMed

    Erdman, Laura K; Kain, Kevin C

    2008-01-01

    Malaria is the most devastating parasitic infection in the world, annually causing over 1 million deaths and extensive morbidity. The global burden of malaria has increased over the last several decades, as have rates of imported malaria into non-endemic regions. Rapid and accurate diagnostics are a crucial component of malaria control strategies, and epidemiological surveillance is required to monitor trends in malaria prevalence and antimalarial drug resistance. Conventional malaria diagnostic and surveillance tools can be cumbersome and slow with limitations in both sensitivity and specificity. New molecular techniques have been developed in an attempt to overcome these restrictions. These molecular techniques are discussed with regard to their technical advantages and disadvantages, with an emphasis on the practicality of implementation in malaria-endemic and non-endemic regions.

  18. Fast, accurate, robust and Open Source Brain Extraction Tool (OSBET)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Namias, R.; Donnelly Kehoe, P.; D'Amato, J. P.; Nagel, J.

    2015-12-01

    The removal of non-brain regions in neuroimaging is a critical task to perform a favorable preprocessing. The skull-stripping depends on different factors including the noise level in the image, the anatomy of the subject being scanned and the acquisition sequence. For these and other reasons, an ideal brain extraction method should be fast, accurate, user friendly, open-source and knowledge based (to allow for the interaction with the algorithm in case the expected outcome is not being obtained), producing stable results and making it possible to automate the process for large datasets. There are already a large number of validated tools to perform this task but none of them meets the desired characteristics. In this paper we introduced an open source brain extraction tool (OSBET), composed of four steps using simple well-known operations such as: optimal thresholding, binary morphology, labeling and geometrical analysis that aims to assemble all the desired features. We present an experiment comparing OSBET with other six state-of-the-art techniques against a publicly available dataset consisting of 40 T1-weighted 3D scans and their corresponding manually segmented images. OSBET gave both: a short duration with an excellent accuracy, getting the best Dice Coefficient metric. Further validation should be performed, for instance, in unhealthy population, to generalize its usage for clinical purposes.

  19. Diagnostics Tools Identify Faults Prior to Failure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2013-01-01

    Through the SBIR program, Rochester, New York-based Impact Technologies LLC collaborated with Ames Research Center to commercialize the Center s Hybrid Diagnostic Engine, or HyDE, software. The fault detecting program is now incorporated into a software suite that identifies potential faults early in the design phase of systems ranging from printers to vehicles and robots, saving time and money.

  20. The FLUKA Code: An Accurate Simulation Tool for Particle Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Battistoni, Giuseppe; Bauer, Julia; Boehlen, Till T.; Cerutti, Francesco; Chin, Mary P. W.; Dos Santos Augusto, Ricardo; Ferrari, Alfredo; Ortega, Pablo G.; Kozłowska, Wioletta; Magro, Giuseppe; Mairani, Andrea; Parodi, Katia; Sala, Paola R.; Schoofs, Philippe; Tessonnier, Thomas; Vlachoudis, Vasilis

    2016-01-01

    Monte Carlo (MC) codes are increasingly spreading in the hadrontherapy community due to their detailed description of radiation transport and interaction with matter. The suitability of a MC code for application to hadrontherapy demands accurate and reliable physical models capable of handling all components of the expected radiation field. This becomes extremely important for correctly performing not only physical but also biologically based dose calculations, especially in cases where ions heavier than protons are involved. In addition, accurate prediction of emerging secondary radiation is of utmost importance in innovative areas of research aiming at in vivo treatment verification. This contribution will address the recent developments of the FLUKA MC code and its practical applications in this field. Refinements of the FLUKA nuclear models in the therapeutic energy interval lead to an improved description of the mixed radiation field as shown in the presented benchmarks against experimental data with both 4He and 12C ion beams. Accurate description of ionization energy losses and of particle scattering and interactions lead to the excellent agreement of calculated depth–dose profiles with those measured at leading European hadron therapy centers, both with proton and ion beams. In order to support the application of FLUKA in hospital-based environments, Flair, the FLUKA graphical interface, has been enhanced with the capability of translating CT DICOM images into voxel-based computational phantoms in a fast and well-structured way. The interface is capable of importing also radiotherapy treatment data described in DICOM RT standard. In addition, the interface is equipped with an intuitive PET scanner geometry generator and automatic recording of coincidence events. Clinically, similar cases will be presented both in terms of absorbed dose and biological dose calculations describing the various available features. PMID:27242956

  1. The FLUKA Code: An Accurate Simulation Tool for Particle Therapy.

    PubMed

    Battistoni, Giuseppe; Bauer, Julia; Boehlen, Till T; Cerutti, Francesco; Chin, Mary P W; Dos Santos Augusto, Ricardo; Ferrari, Alfredo; Ortega, Pablo G; Kozłowska, Wioletta; Magro, Giuseppe; Mairani, Andrea; Parodi, Katia; Sala, Paola R; Schoofs, Philippe; Tessonnier, Thomas; Vlachoudis, Vasilis

    2016-01-01

    Monte Carlo (MC) codes are increasingly spreading in the hadrontherapy community due to their detailed description of radiation transport and interaction with matter. The suitability of a MC code for application to hadrontherapy demands accurate and reliable physical models capable of handling all components of the expected radiation field. This becomes extremely important for correctly performing not only physical but also biologically based dose calculations, especially in cases where ions heavier than protons are involved. In addition, accurate prediction of emerging secondary radiation is of utmost importance in innovative areas of research aiming at in vivo treatment verification. This contribution will address the recent developments of the FLUKA MC code and its practical applications in this field. Refinements of the FLUKA nuclear models in the therapeutic energy interval lead to an improved description of the mixed radiation field as shown in the presented benchmarks against experimental data with both (4)He and (12)C ion beams. Accurate description of ionization energy losses and of particle scattering and interactions lead to the excellent agreement of calculated depth-dose profiles with those measured at leading European hadron therapy centers, both with proton and ion beams. In order to support the application of FLUKA in hospital-based environments, Flair, the FLUKA graphical interface, has been enhanced with the capability of translating CT DICOM images into voxel-based computational phantoms in a fast and well-structured way. The interface is capable of importing also radiotherapy treatment data described in DICOM RT standard. In addition, the interface is equipped with an intuitive PET scanner geometry generator and automatic recording of coincidence events. Clinically, similar cases will be presented both in terms of absorbed dose and biological dose calculations describing the various available features.

  2. An overview of the diagnostic tools.

    PubMed

    Coste, J

    2013-09-01

    Prions are unconventional infectious agents that cause fatal neurological illnesses such as Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD), bovine spongiform encephalopathy, and scrapie. Variant CJD can occur via blood transfusions. However, as no screening assay is available, uncertainties remain over the prevalence of vCJD in asymptomatic blood donors. Development of a diagnostic assay is therefore a primary objective. Little is known about the nature, distribution and level of infectivity in human blood and we have to rely on assumptions made from animal models. Ideally, two types of assays are required: a rapid high-throughput assay to routinely screen all blood donations and a confirmatory assay to ensure that all positive results from initial screening are true positives. Key event in prion disease is thought to be the conversion of normal cellular prion protein PrPc to a misfolded aggregated form termed PrP(TSE). This specific characteristic has been exploited to develop some tests.

  3. Diagnostic tools for glaucoma detection and management.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Pooja; Sample, Pamela A; Zangwill, Linda M; Schuman, Joel S

    2008-11-01

    Early diagnosis of glaucoma is critical to prevent permanent structural damage and irreversible vision loss. Detection of glaucoma typically relies on examination of structural damage to the optic nerve combined with measurements of visual function. To aid the clinician in evaluation of visual function and structure, computer-based devices such as confocal scanning laser ophthalmoscopy, scanning laser polarimetry, and optical coherence tomography provide quantitative assessments of structural damage, and visual function testing includes standard automated perimetry as well as selective techniques, including short-wavelength automated perimetry and frequency-doubling technology perimetry are available. This article will review current literature on diagnostic modalities available for glaucoma with emphasis on the best evidence available in the literature to support their use in clinical practice.

  4. PICADAR: a diagnostic predictive tool for primary ciliary dyskinesia

    PubMed Central

    Behan, Laura; Dimitrov, Borislav D.; Kuehni, Claudia E.; Hogg, Claire; Carroll, Mary; Evans, Hazel J.; Goutaki, Myrofora; Harris, Amanda; Packham, Samantha; Walker, Woolf T.

    2016-01-01

    Symptoms of primary ciliary dyskinesia (PCD) are nonspecific and guidance on whom to refer for testing is limited. Diagnostic tests for PCD are highly specialised, requiring expensive equipment and experienced PCD scientists. This study aims to develop a practical clinical diagnostic tool to identify patients requiring testing. Patients consecutively referred for testing were studied. Information readily obtained from patient history was correlated with diagnostic outcome. Using logistic regression, the predictive performance of the best model was tested by receiver operating characteristic curve analyses. The model was simplified into a practical tool (PICADAR) and externally validated in a second diagnostic centre. Of 641 referrals with a definitive diagnostic outcome, 75 (12%) were positive. PICADAR applies to patients with persistent wet cough and has seven predictive parameters: full-term gestation, neonatal chest symptoms, neonatal intensive care admittance, chronic rhinitis, ear symptoms, situs inversus and congenital cardiac defect. Sensitivity and specificity of the tool were 0.90 and 0.75 for a cut-off score of 5 points. Area under the curve for the internally and externally validated tool was 0.91 and 0.87, respectively. PICADAR represents a simple diagnostic clinical prediction rule with good accuracy and validity, ready for testing in respiratory centres referring to PCD centres. PMID:26917608

  5. Using Automated Diagnostic Tools to Provide Energy Services

    SciTech Connect

    Brambley, Michael R.; Pratt, Robert G.

    2000-06-01

    Recently, a small number of automated diagnostic tools for building systems have become commercially available. These tools distinguish themselves from analytic software and trouble-shooting tools by automating the actual process of reaching conclusions from empirical data. Their distinction is that they produce easily-used information from (raw) data. These tools can be contrasted with tools that provide assistance in diagnosis, for example, by plotting data in various ways so performance problems can be detected and diagnosed by a knowledgeable expert. The availability of such expertise is limited and applying it manually takes considerable time. Automation reduces the time required for performance-problem detection and the associated costs.

  6. Kinesiophobia – Introducing a New Diagnostic Tool

    PubMed Central

    Knapik, Andrzej; Saulicz, Edward; Gnat, Rafał

    2011-01-01

    Technical development of human civilisation brings about a decrease of adaptation potential of an individual, which is directly linked to deficient motor activity. Only precise identification of factors leading to hypokinesia would make prophylactic and therapeutic actions possible. In this article, authors would like to introduce a new, original tool aiming at diagnosing limitations of motor activity in adults. They propose a synthetic diagnosis of hypokinesia in two domains: biological and psycho-social, which is based on the contemporary model of health. PMID:23487514

  7. High accurate interpolation of NURBS tool path for CNC machine tools

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Qiang; Liu, Huan; Yuan, Songmei

    2016-09-01

    Feedrate fluctuation caused by approximation errors of interpolation methods has great effects on machining quality in NURBS interpolation, but few methods can efficiently eliminate or reduce it to a satisfying level without sacrificing the computing efficiency at present. In order to solve this problem, a high accurate interpolation method for NURBS tool path is proposed. The proposed method can efficiently reduce the feedrate fluctuation by forming a quartic equation with respect to the curve parameter increment, which can be efficiently solved by analytic methods in real-time. Theoretically, the proposed method can totally eliminate the feedrate fluctuation for any 2nd degree NURBS curves and can interpolate 3rd degree NURBS curves with minimal feedrate fluctuation. Moreover, a smooth feedrate planning algorithm is also proposed to generate smooth tool motion with considering multiple constraints and scheduling errors by an efficient planning strategy. Experiments are conducted to verify the feasibility and applicability of the proposed method. This research presents a novel NURBS interpolation method with not only high accuracy but also satisfying computing efficiency.

  8. CombiROC: an interactive web tool for selecting accurate marker combinations of omics data.

    PubMed

    Mazzara, Saveria; Rossi, Riccardo L; Grifantini, Renata; Donizetti, Simone; Abrignani, Sergio; Bombaci, Mauro

    2017-03-30

    Diagnostic accuracy can be improved considerably by combining multiple markers, whose performance in identifying diseased subjects is usually assessed via receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves. The selection of multimarker signatures is a complicated process that requires integration of data signatures with sophisticated statistical methods. We developed a user-friendly tool, called CombiROC, to help researchers accurately determine optimal markers combinations from diverse omics methods. With CombiROC data from different domains, such as proteomics and transcriptomics, can be analyzed using sensitivity/specificity filters: the number of candidate marker panels rising from combinatorial analysis is easily optimized bypassing limitations imposed by the nature of different experimental approaches. Leaving to the user full control on initial selection stringency, CombiROC computes sensitivity and specificity for all markers combinations, performances of best combinations and ROC curves for automatic comparisons, all visualized in a graphic interface. CombiROC was designed without hard-coded thresholds, allowing a custom fit to each specific data: this dramatically reduces the computational burden and lowers the false negative rates given by fixed thresholds. The application was validated with published data, confirming the marker combination already originally described or even finding new ones. CombiROC is a novel tool for the scientific community freely available at http://CombiROC.eu.

  9. CombiROC: an interactive web tool for selecting accurate marker combinations of omics data

    PubMed Central

    Mazzara, Saveria; Rossi, Riccardo L.; Grifantini, Renata; Donizetti, Simone; Abrignani, Sergio; Bombaci, Mauro

    2017-01-01

    Diagnostic accuracy can be improved considerably by combining multiple markers, whose performance in identifying diseased subjects is usually assessed via receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves. The selection of multimarker signatures is a complicated process that requires integration of data signatures with sophisticated statistical methods. We developed a user-friendly tool, called CombiROC, to help researchers accurately determine optimal markers combinations from diverse omics methods. With CombiROC data from different domains, such as proteomics and transcriptomics, can be analyzed using sensitivity/specificity filters: the number of candidate marker panels rising from combinatorial analysis is easily optimized bypassing limitations imposed by the nature of different experimental approaches. Leaving to the user full control on initial selection stringency, CombiROC computes sensitivity and specificity for all markers combinations, performances of best combinations and ROC curves for automatic comparisons, all visualized in a graphic interface. CombiROC was designed without hard-coded thresholds, allowing a custom fit to each specific data: this dramatically reduces the computational burden and lowers the false negative rates given by fixed thresholds. The application was validated with published data, confirming the marker combination already originally described or even finding new ones. CombiROC is a novel tool for the scientific community freely available at http://CombiROC.eu. PMID:28358118

  10. Diagnostic methodology is critical for accurately determining the prevalence of ichthyophonus infections in wild fish populations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kocan, R.; Dolan, H.; Hershberger, P.

    2011-01-01

    Several different techniques have been employed to detect and identify Ichthyophonus spp. in infected fish hosts; these include macroscopic observation, microscopic examination of tissue squashes, histological evaluation, in vitro culture, and molecular techniques. Examination of the peer-reviewed literature revealed that when more than 1 diagnostic method is used, they often result in significantly different results; for example, when in vitro culture was used to identify infected trout in an experimentally exposed population, 98.7% of infected trout were detected, but when standard histology was used to confirm known infected tissues from wild salmon, it detected ~50% of low-intensity infections and ~85% of high-intensity infections. Other studies on different species reported similar differences. When we examined a possible mechanism to explain the disparity between different diagnostic techniques, we observed non-random distribution of the parasite in 3-dimensionally visualized tissue sections from infected hosts, thus providing a possible explanation for the different sensitivities of commonly used diagnostic techniques. Based on experimental evidence and a review of the peer-reviewed literature, we have concluded that in vitro culture is currently the most accurate diagnostic technique for determining infection prevalence of Ichthyophonus, particularly when the exposure history of the population is not known.

  11. A Tool for Helping Veterinary Students Learn Diagnostic Problem Solving.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Danielson, Jared A.; Bender, Holly S.; Mills, Eric M.; Vermeer, Pamela J.; Lockee, Barbara B.

    2003-01-01

    Describes the result of implementing the Problem List Generator, a computer-based tool designed to help clinical pathology veterinary students learn diagnostic problem solving. Findings suggest that student problem solving ability improved, because students identified all relevant data before providing a solution. (MES)

  12. Hair: A Diagnostic Tool to Complement Blood Serum and Urine.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maugh, Thomas H., II

    1978-01-01

    Trace elements and some drugs can be identified in hair and it seems likely that other organic chemicals will be identifiable in the future. Since hair is so easily collected, stored, and analyzed it promises to be an ideal complement to serum and urine analysis as a diagnostic tool. (BB)

  13. 4D laser camera for accurate patient positioning, collision avoidance, image fusion and adaptive approaches during diagnostic and therapeutic procedures.

    PubMed

    Brahme, Anders; Nyman, Peter; Skatt, Björn

    2008-05-01

    A four-dimensional (4D) laser camera (LC) has been developed for accurate patient imaging in diagnostic and therapeutic radiology. A complementary metal-oxide semiconductor camera images the intersection of a scanned fan shaped laser beam with the surface of the patient and allows real time recording of movements in a three-dimensional (3D) or four-dimensional (4D) format (3D +time). The LC system was first designed as an accurate patient setup tool during diagnostic and therapeutic applications but was found to be of much wider applicability as a general 4D photon "tag" for the surface of the patient in different clinical procedures. It is presently used as a 3D or 4D optical benchmark or tag for accurate delineation of the patient surface as demonstrated for patient auto setup, breathing and heart motion detection. Furthermore, its future potential applications in gating, adaptive therapy, 3D or 4D image fusion between most imaging modalities and image processing are discussed. It is shown that the LC system has a geometrical resolution of about 0, 1 mm and that the rigid body repositioning accuracy is about 0, 5 mm below 20 mm displacements, 1 mm below 40 mm and better than 2 mm at 70 mm. This indicates a slight need for repeated repositioning when the initial error is larger than about 50 mm. The positioning accuracy with standard patient setup procedures for prostate cancer at Karolinska was found to be about 5-6 mm when independently measured using the LC system. The system was found valuable for positron emission tomography-computed tomography (PET-CT) in vivo tumor and dose delivery imaging where it potentially may allow effective correction for breathing artifacts in 4D PET-CT and image fusion with lymph node atlases for accurate target volume definition in oncology. With a LC system in all imaging and radiation therapy rooms, auto setup during repeated diagnostic and therapeutic procedures may save around 5 min per session, increase accuracy and allow

  14. Using Copula Distributions to Support More Accurate Imaging-Based Diagnostic Classifiers for Neuropsychiatric Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Bansal, Ravi; Hao, Xuejun; Liu, Jun; Peterson, Bradley S.

    2014-01-01

    Many investigators have tried to apply machine learning techniques to magnetic resonance images (MRIs) of the brain in order to diagnose neuropsychiatric disorders. Usually the number of brain imaging measures (such as measures of cortical thickness and measures of local surface morphology) derived from the MRIs (i.e., their dimensionality) has been large (e.g. >10) relative to the number of participants who provide the MRI data (<100). Sparse data in a high dimensional space increases the variability of the classification rules that machine learning algorithms generate, thereby limiting the validity, reproducibility, and generalizability of those classifiers. The accuracy and stability of the classifiers can improve significantly if the multivariate distributions of the imaging measures can be estimated accurately. To accurately estimate the multivariate distributions using sparse data, we propose to estimate first the univariate distributions of imaging data and then combine them using a Copula to generate more accurate estimates of their multivariate distributions. We then sample the estimated Copula distributions to generate dense sets of imaging measures and use those measures to train classifiers. We hypothesize that the dense sets of brain imaging measures will generate classifiers that are stable to variations in brain imaging measures, thereby improving the reproducibility, validity, and generalizability of diagnostic classification algorithms in imaging datasets from clinical populations. In our experiments, we used both computer-generated and real-world brain imaging datasets to assess the accuracy of multivariate Copula distributions in estimating the corresponding multivariate distributions of real-world imaging data. Our experiments showed that diagnostic classifiers generated using imaging measures sampled from the Copula were significantly more accurate and more reproducible than were the classifiers generated using either the real-world imaging

  15. Diagnostic yield of blood clot culture in the accurate diagnosis of enteric fever and human brucellosis.

    PubMed

    Mantur, Basappa G; Bidari, Laxman H; Akki, Aravind S; Mulimani, Mallanna S; Tikare, Nitin V

    2007-01-01

    Culture of blood is the most frequent, accurate means of diagnosing bacteremia in enteric fever and brucellosis. However, conventional blood culturing is slow in isolating bacteria causing these diseases. In this work, we evaluated the performance of blood clot culture and conventional whole blood cultures in the accurate diagnosis of enteric fever (253 cases) and human brucellosis (71cases). The blood clot culture was found to be much more sensitive for both Salmonella (more by 34.4%, P< 0.001) and Brucella (more by 22.6%, P<0.001) than whole blood culture. Bacterial growth was significantly faster in cultures of blood clot compared to whole blood (1.1 versus 2.6 days for Salmonella, 3.1 versus 8.2 days for Brucella melitensis, respectively). The rapid confirmation of the etiological agent would facilitate an early institution of appropriate antimicrobial therapy, thereby reducing clinical morbidity especially in an endemic population. It is worthwile practicing blood clot culture for the accurate diagnosis of enteric fever and brucellosis in developing countries where diagnostic facilities by advanced technologies like automated culture systems and PCR are not available.

  16. Polymerase chain reaction: A molecular diagnostic tool in periodontology.

    PubMed

    Maheaswari, Rajendran; Kshirsagar, Jaishree Tukaram; Lavanya, Nallasivam

    2016-01-01

    This review discusses the principles of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and its application as a diagnostic tool in periodontology. The relevant MEDLINE and PubMed indexed journals were searched manually and electronically by typing PCR, applications of PCR, PCR in periodontics, polymorphism studies in periodontitis, and molecular techniques in periodontology. The searches were limited to articles in English language and the articles describing PCR process and its relation to periodontology were collected and used to prepare a concise review. PCR has now become a standard diagnostic and research tool in periodontology. Various studies reveal that its sensitivity and specificity allow it as a rapid, efficient method of detecting, identifying, and quantifying organism. Different immune and inflammatory markers can be identified at the mRNA expression level, and also the determination of genetic polymorphisms, thus providing the deeper insight into the mechanisms underlying the periodontal disease.

  17. Polymerase chain reaction: A molecular diagnostic tool in periodontology

    PubMed Central

    Maheaswari, Rajendran; Kshirsagar, Jaishree Tukaram; Lavanya, Nallasivam

    2016-01-01

    This review discusses the principles of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and its application as a diagnostic tool in periodontology. The relevant MEDLINE and PubMed indexed journals were searched manually and electronically by typing PCR, applications of PCR, PCR in periodontics, polymorphism studies in periodontitis, and molecular techniques in periodontology. The searches were limited to articles in English language and the articles describing PCR process and its relation to periodontology were collected and used to prepare a concise review. PCR has now become a standard diagnostic and research tool in periodontology. Various studies reveal that its sensitivity and specificity allow it as a rapid, efficient method of detecting, identifying, and quantifying organism. Different immune and inflammatory markers can be identified at the mRNA expression level, and also the determination of genetic polymorphisms, thus providing the deeper insight into the mechanisms underlying the periodontal disease. PMID:27143822

  18. Diagnosis demystified: CT as diagnostic tool in endodontics.

    PubMed

    Shruthi, Nagaraja; Murthy, B V Sreenivasa; Sundaresh, K J; Mallikarjuna, Rachappa

    2013-06-27

    Diagnosis in endodontics is usually based on clinical and radiographical presentations, which are only empirical methods. The role of healing profession is to apply knowledge and skills towards maintaining and restoring the patient's health. Recent advances in imaging technologies have added to correct interpretation and diagnosis. CT is proving to be an effective tool in solving endodontic mysteries through its three-dimensional visualisation. CT imaging offers many diagnostic advantages to produce reconstructed images in selected projection and low-contrast resolution far superior to that of all other X-ray imaging modalities. This case report is an endeavour towards effective treatment planning of cases with root fracture, root resorption using spiral CT as an adjuvant diagnostic tool.

  19. A defect-driven diagnostic method for machine tool spindles.

    PubMed

    Vogl, Gregory W; Donmez, M Alkan

    2015-01-01

    Simple vibration-based metrics are, in many cases, insufficient to diagnose machine tool spindle condition. These metrics couple defect-based motion with spindle dynamics; diagnostics should be defect-driven. A new method and spindle condition estimation device (SCED) were developed to acquire data and to separate system dynamics from defect geometry. Based on this method, a spindle condition metric relying only on defect geometry is proposed. Application of the SCED on various milling and turning spindles shows that the new approach is robust for diagnosing the machine tool spindle condition.

  20. A defect-driven diagnostic method for machine tool spindles

    PubMed Central

    Vogl, Gregory W.; Donmez, M. Alkan

    2016-01-01

    Simple vibration-based metrics are, in many cases, insufficient to diagnose machine tool spindle condition. These metrics couple defect-based motion with spindle dynamics; diagnostics should be defect-driven. A new method and spindle condition estimation device (SCED) were developed to acquire data and to separate system dynamics from defect geometry. Based on this method, a spindle condition metric relying only on defect geometry is proposed. Application of the SCED on various milling and turning spindles shows that the new approach is robust for diagnosing the machine tool spindle condition. PMID:28065985

  1. Evaluation of a pan-serotype point-of-care rapid diagnostic assay for accurate detection of acute dengue infection.

    PubMed

    Vivek, Rosario; Ahamed, Syed Fazil; Kotabagi, Shalini; Chandele, Anmol; Khanna, Ira; Khanna, Navin; Nayak, Kaustuv; Dias, Mary; Kaja, Murali-Krishna; Shet, Anita

    2017-03-01

    The catastrophic rise in dengue infections in India and globally has created a need for an accurate, validated low-cost rapid diagnostic test (RDT) for dengue. We prospectively evaluated the diagnostic performance of NS1/IgM RDT (dengue day 1) using 211 samples from a pediatric dengue cohort representing all 4 serotypes in southern India. The dengue-positive panel consisted of 179 dengue real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) positive samples from symptomatic children. The dengue-negative panel consisted of 32 samples from dengue-negative febrile children and asymptomatic individuals that were negative for dengue RT-PCR/NS1 enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay/IgM/IgG. NS1/IgM RDT sensitivity was 89.4% and specificity was 93.8%. The NS1/IgM RDT showed high sensitivity throughout the acute phase of illness, in primary and secondary infections, in different severity groups, and detected all 4 dengue serotypes, including coinfections. This NS1/IgM RDT is a useful point-of-care assay for rapid and reliable diagnosis of acute dengue and an excellent surveillance tool in our battle against dengue.

  2. Saliva-Based Biosensors: Noninvasive Monitoring Tool for Clinical Diagnostics

    PubMed Central

    Malon, Radha S. P.; Balakrishnan, Malarvili; Córcoles, Emma P.

    2014-01-01

    Saliva is increasingly recognised as an attractive diagnostic fluid. The presence of various disease signalling salivary biomarkers that accurately reflect normal and disease states in humans and the sampling benefits compared to blood sampling are some of the reasons for this recognition. This explains the burgeoning research field in assay developments and technological advancements for the detection of various salivary biomarkers to improve clinical diagnosis, management, and treatment. This paper reviews the significance of salivary biomarkers for clinical diagnosis and therapeutic applications, with focus on the technologies and biosensing platforms that have been reported for screening these biomarkers. PMID:25276835

  3. Graphical arterial blood gas visualization tool supports rapid and accurate data interpretation.

    PubMed

    Doig, Alexa K; Albert, Robert W; Syroid, Noah D; Moon, Shaun; Agutter, Jim A

    2011-04-01

    A visualization tool that integrates numeric information from an arterial blood gas report with novel graphics was designed for the purpose of promoting rapid and accurate interpretation of acid-base data. A study compared data interpretation performance when arterial blood gas results were presented in a traditional numerical list versus the graphical visualization tool. Critical-care nurses (n = 15) and nursing students (n = 15) were significantly more accurate identifying acid-base states and assessing trends in acid-base data when using the graphical visualization tool. Critical-care nurses and nursing students using traditional numerical data had an average accuracy of 69% and 74%, respectively. Using the visualization tool, average accuracy improved to 83% for critical-care nurses and 93% for nursing students. Analysis of response times demonstrated that the visualization tool might help nurses overcome the "speed/accuracy trade-off" during high-stress situations when rapid decisions must be rendered. Perceived mental workload was significantly reduced for nursing students when they used the graphical visualization tool. In this study, the effects of implementing the graphical visualization were greater for nursing students than for critical-care nurses, which may indicate that the experienced nurses needed more training and use of the new technology prior to testing to show similar gains. Results of the objective and subjective evaluations support the integration of this graphical visualization tool into clinical environments that require accurate and timely interpretation of arterial blood gas data.

  4. MicroRNA-200 Family Profile: A Promising Ancillary Tool for Accurate Cancer Diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiaodong; Zhang, Jianhua; Xie, Botao; Li, Hao; Shen, Jihong; Chen, Jianheng

    2016-01-01

    Cancer is one of the most threatening diseases in the world and great interests have been paid to discover accurate and noninvasive methods for cancer diagnosis. The value of microRNA-200 (miRNA-200, miR-200) family has been revealed in many studies. However, the results from various studies were inconsistent, and thus a meta-analysis was designed and performed to assess the overall value of miRNA200 in cancer diagnosis. Relevant studies were searched electronically from the following databases: PubMed, Embase, Web of Science, the Cochrane Library, and Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure. Keyword combined with "miR-200," "cancer," and "diagnosis" in any fields was used for searching relevant studies. Then, the pooled sensitivity, specificity, area under the curve (AUC), and partial AUC were calculated using the random-effects model. Heterogeneity among individual studies was also explored by subgroup analyses. A total of 28 studies from 18 articles with an overall sample size of 3676 subjects (2097 patients and 1579 controls) were included in this meta-analysis. The overall sensitivity and specificity with 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) are 0.709 (95% CI: 0.657-0.755) and 0.667 (95% CI: 0.617-0.713), respectively. Additionally, AUC and partial AUC for the pooled data is 0.735 and 0.627, respectively. Subgroup analyses revealed that using miRNA-200 family for cancer diagnosis is more effective in white than in Asian ethnic groups. In addition, cancer diagnosis by miRNA using circulating specimen is more effective than that using noncirculating specimen. Finally, miRNA is more accurate in diagnosing endometrial cancer than other types of cancer, and some miRNA family members (miR-200b and miR-429) have superior diagnostic accuracy than other miR-200 family members. In conclusion, the profiling of miRNA-200 family is likely to be a valuable tool in cancer detection and diagnosis.

  5. Tomography as a promising diagnostic tool for plasma turbulence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujisawa, A.; Nagashima, Y.; Inagaki, S.; Onchi, T.; Ohshima, S.; Shimizu, A.

    2016-02-01

    A system for plasma turbulence tomography has been developed in a linear cylindrical plasma as a prototype with aiming at future application on toroidal plasma of higher temperature. This paper describes the diagnostic system in both aspects of the soft- and hardware, and reports the first results of tomographic reconstruction that can successfully produce local emission and its fluctuations. In the reconstruction process, two dimensional view of plasma is obtained for approximately 0.6 ms in every sampling time of 1 μs using parallel processing of 120 cores with 10 personal computers. The results include the steady state analysis of local fluctuation power spectra using fast Fourier transform, analysis of temporal behavior of fluctuation power spectra with wavelet transform, and analyses of the structural deformation or pattern of local plasma emission, demonstrating that the success of tomography as a promising diagnostic tool for plasma turbulence.

  6. Procrustes rotation as a diagnostic tool for projection pursuit analysis.

    PubMed

    Wentzell, Peter D; Hou, Siyuan; Silva, Carolina Santos; Wicks, Chelsi C; Pimentel, Maria Fernanda

    2015-06-02

    Projection pursuit (PP) is an effective exploratory data analysis tool because it optimizes the projection of high dimensional data using distributional characteristics rather than variance or distance metrics. The recent development of fast and simple PP algorithms based on minimization of kurtosis for clustering data has made this powerful tool more accessible, but under conditions where the sample-to-variable ratio is small, PP fails due to opportunistic overfitting of random correlations to limiting distributional targets. Therefore, some kind of variable compression or data regularization is required in these cases. However, this introduces an additional parameter whose optimization is manually time consuming and subject to bias. The present work describes the use of Procrustes analysis as diagnostic tool that can be used to evaluate the results of PP analysis in an efficient manner. Through Procrustes rotation, the similarity of different PP projections can be examined in an automated fashion with "Procrustes maps" to establish regions of stable projections as a function of the parameter to be optimized. The application of this diagnostic is demonstrated using principal components analysis to compress FTIR spectra from ink samples of ten different brands of pen, and also in conjunction with regularized PP for soybean disease classification.

  7. A community diagnostic tool for Chemistry Climate Model Validation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gettelman, A.; Eyring, V.; Fischer, C.; Shiona, H.; Cionni, I.; Neish, M.; Morgenstern, O.; Wood, S. W.; Li, Z.

    2012-05-01

    This technical note presents an overview of the Chemistry-Climate Model Validation Diagnostic (CCMVal-Diag) tool for model evaluation. The CCMVal-Diag tool is a flexible and extensible open source package that facilitates the complex evaluation of global models. Models can be compared to other models, ensemble members (simulations with the same model), and/or many types of observations. The tool can also compute quantitative performance metrics. The initial construction and application is to coupled Chemistry-Climate Models (CCMs) participating in CCMVal, but the evaluation of climate models that submitted output to the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP) is also possible. The package has been used to assist with analysis of simulations for the 2010 WMO/UNEP Scientific Ozone Assessment and the SPARC Report on the Evaluation of CCMs. The CCMVal-Diag tool is described and examples of how it functions are presented, along with links to detailed descriptions, instructions and source code. The CCMVal-Diag tool is supporting model development as well as quantifying model improvements, both for different versions of individual models and for different generations of community-wide collections of models used in international assessments. The code allows further extensions by different users for different applications and types, e.g. to other components of the Earth System. User modifications are encouraged and easy to perform with a minimum of coding.

  8. Development of Doppler Global Velocimetry as a Flow Diagnostics Tool

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meyers, James F.

    1995-01-01

    The development of Doppler global velocimetry is described from its inception to its use as a flow diagnostics tool. Its evolution is traced from an elementary one-component laboratory prototype, to a full three-component configuration operating in a wind tunnel at focal distances exceeding 15 m. As part of the developmental process, several wind tunnel flow field investigations were conducted. These included supersonic flow measurements about an oblique shock, subsonic and supersonic measurements of the vortex flow above a delta wing, and three-component measurements of a high-speed jet.

  9. New V and V Tools for Diagnostic Modeling Environment (DME)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pecheur, Charles; Nelson, Stacy; Merriam, Marshall (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to provide correctness and reliability criteria for verification and validation (V&V) of Second Generation Reusable Launch Vehicle (RLV) Diagnostic Modeling Environment, describe current NASA Ames Research Center tools for V&V of Model Based Reasoning systems, and discuss the applicability of Advanced V&V to DME. This report is divided into the following three sections: (1) correctness and reliability criteria; (2) tools for V&V of Model Based Reasoning; and (3) advanced V&V applicable to DME. The Executive Summary includes an overview of the main points from each section. Supporting details, diagrams, figures, and other information are included in subsequent sections. A glossary, acronym list, appendices, and references are included at the end of this report.

  10. Clinical Significance of Molecular Diagnostic Tools for Bacterial Bloodstream Infections: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Nyirahabimana, Therese

    2016-01-01

    Bacterial bloodstream infection (bBSI) represents any form of invasiveness of the blood circulatory system caused by bacteria and can lead to death among critically ill patients. Thus, there is a need for rapid and accurate diagnosis and treatment of patients with septicemia. So far, different molecular diagnostic tools have been developed. The majority of these tools focus on amplification based techniques such as polymerase chain reaction (PCR) which allows the detection of nucleic acids (both DNA and small RNAs) that are specific to bacterial species and sequencing or nucleic acid hybridization that allows the detection of bacteria in order to reduce delay of appropriate antibiotic therapy. However, there is still a need to improve sensitivity of most molecular techniques to enhance their accuracy and allow exact and on time antibiotic therapy treatment. In this regard, we conducted a systematic review of the existing studies conducted in molecular diagnosis of bBSIs, with the main aim of reporting on clinical significance and benefits of molecular diagnosis to patients. We searched both Google Scholar and PubMed. In total, eighteen reviewed papers indicate that shift from conventional diagnostic methods to molecular tools is needed and would lead to accurate diagnosis and treatment of bBSI. PMID:27974890

  11. Raman spectroscopy and imaging: promising optical diagnostic tools in pediatrics.

    PubMed

    Beleites, C; Bonifacio, A; Codrich, D; Krafft, C; Sergo, V

    2013-01-01

    This review focuses on the use of Raman spectroscopy, an analytical technique based on the inelastic scattering of harmless laser light with biological tissues, as an innovative diagnostic tool in pediatrics. After a brief introduction to explain the fundamental concepts behind Raman spectroscopy and imaging, a short summary is given of the most important and common issues arising when handling spectral data with multivariate statistics. Then, the most relevant papers in which Raman spectroscopy or imaging has been applied with diagnostic purposes to pediatric patients are reviewed, and grouped according to the type of pathology: neoplastic, inflammatory, allergic, malformative as well as other kinds. Raman spectroscopy has been used both in vivo, mostly using optical fibers for tissue illumination, as well as on ex vivo tissue sections in a microscopic imaging approach defined as "spectral histopathology". According to the results reported so far, this technique showed a huge potential for mini- or non-invasive real-time, bedside and intra-operatory diagnosis, as well as for an ex vivo imaging tool in support to pathologists. Despite many studies are limited by the small sample size, this technique is extremely promising in terms of sensitivity and specificity.

  12. Diagnostic tools for mixing models of stream water chemistry

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hooper, R.P.

    2003-01-01

    Mixing models provide a useful null hypothesis against which to evaluate processes controlling stream water chemical data. Because conservative mixing of end-members with constant concentration is a linear process, a number of simple mathematical and multivariate statistical methods can be applied to this problem. Although mixing models have been most typically used in the context of mixing soil and groundwater end-members, an extension of the mathematics of mixing models is presented that assesses the "fit" of a multivariate data set to a lower dimensional mixing subspace without the need for explicitly identified end-members. Diagnostic tools are developed to determine the approximate rank of the data set and to assess lack of fit of the data. This permits identification of processes that violate the assumptions of the mixing model and can suggest the dominant processes controlling stream water chemical variation. These same diagnostic tools can be used to assess the fit of the chemistry of one site into the mixing subspace of a different site, thereby permitting an assessment of the consistency of controlling end-members across sites. This technique is applied to a number of sites at the Panola Mountain Research Watershed located near Atlanta, Georgia.

  13. A community diagnostic tool for chemistry climate model validation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gettelman, A.; Eyring, V.; Fischer, C.; Shiona, H.; Cionni, I.; Neish, M.; Morgenstern, O.; Wood, S. W.; Li, Z.

    2012-09-01

    This technical note presents an overview of the Chemistry-Climate Model Validation Diagnostic (CCMVal-Diag) tool for model evaluation. The CCMVal-Diag tool is a flexible and extensible open source package that facilitates the complex evaluation of global models. Models can be compared to other models, ensemble members (simulations with the same model), and/or many types of observations. The initial construction and application is to coupled chemistry-climate models (CCMs) participating in CCMVal, but the evaluation of climate models that submitted output to the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP) is also possible. The package has been used to assist with analysis of simulations for the 2010 WMO/UNEP Scientific Ozone Assessment and the SPARC Report on the Evaluation of CCMs. The CCMVal-Diag tool is described and examples of how it functions are presented, along with links to detailed descriptions, instructions and source code. The CCMVal-Diag tool supports model development as well as quantifies model changes, both for different versions of individual models and for different generations of community-wide collections of models used in international assessments. The code allows further extensions by different users for different applications and types, e.g. to other components of the Earth system. User modifications are encouraged and easy to perform with minimum coding.

  14. Prediction of liver cirrhosis, using diagnostic imaging tools

    PubMed Central

    Yeom, Suk Keu; Lee, Chang Hee; Cha, Sang Hoon; Park, Cheol Min

    2015-01-01

    Early diagnosis of liver cirrhosis is important. Ultrasound-guided liver biopsy is the gold standard for diagnosis of liver cirrhosis. However, its invasiveness and sampling bias limit the applicability of the method. Basic imaging for the diagnosis of liver cirrhosis has developed over the last few decades, enabling early detection of morphological changes of the liver by ultrasonography (US), computed tomography, and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). They are also accurate diagnostic methods for advanced liver cirrhosis, for which early diagnosis is difficult. There are a number of ways to compensate for this difficulty, including texture analysis to more closely identify the homogeneity of hepatic parenchyma, elastography to measure the stiffness and elasticity of the liver, and perfusion studies to determine the blood flow volume, transit time, and velocity. Amongst these methods, elastography using US and MRI was found to be slightly easier, faster, and able to provide an accurate diagnosis. Early diagnosis of liver cirrhosis using MRI or US elastography is therefore a realistic alternative, but further research is still needed. PMID:26301049

  15. CgWind: A high-order accurate simulation tool for wind turbines and wind farms

    SciTech Connect

    Chand, K K; Henshaw, W D; Lundquist, K A; Singer, M A

    2010-02-22

    CgWind is a high-fidelity large eddy simulation (LES) tool designed to meet the modeling needs of wind turbine and wind park engineers. This tool combines several advanced computational technologies in order to model accurately the complex and dynamic nature of wind energy applications. The composite grid approach provides high-quality structured grids for the efficient implementation of high-order accurate discretizations of the incompressible Navier-Stokes equations. Composite grids also provide a natural mechanism for modeling bodies in relative motion and complex geometry. Advanced algorithms such as matrix-free multigrid, compact discretizations and approximate factorization will allow CgWind to perform highly resolved calculations efficiently on a wide class of computing resources. Also in development are nonlinear LES subgrid-scale models required to simulate the many interacting scales present in large wind turbine applications. This paper outlines our approach, the current status of CgWind and future development plans.

  16. Tools for Accurate and Efficient Analysis of Complex Evolutionary Mechanisms in Microbial Genomes. Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Nakhleh, Luay

    2014-03-12

    I proposed to develop computationally efficient tools for accurate detection and reconstruction of microbes' complex evolutionary mechanisms, thus enabling rapid and accurate annotation, analysis and understanding of their genomes. To achieve this goal, I proposed to address three aspects. (1) Mathematical modeling. A major challenge facing the accurate detection of HGT is that of distinguishing between these two events on the one hand and other events that have similar "effects." I proposed to develop a novel mathematical approach for distinguishing among these events. Further, I proposed to develop a set of novel optimization criteria for the evolutionary analysis of microbial genomes in the presence of these complex evolutionary events. (2) Algorithm design. In this aspect of the project, I proposed to develop an array of e cient and accurate algorithms for analyzing microbial genomes based on the formulated optimization criteria. Further, I proposed to test the viability of the criteria and the accuracy of the algorithms in an experimental setting using both synthetic as well as biological data. (3) Software development. I proposed the nal outcome to be a suite of software tools which implements the mathematical models as well as the algorithms developed.

  17. An Early Diagnostic Tool for Diabetic Peripheral Neuropathy in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Kambiz, Shoista; van Neck, Johan W.; Cosgun, Saniye G.; van Velzen, Marit H. N.; Janssen, Joop A. M. J. L.; Avazverdi, Naim; Hovius, Steven E. R.; Walbeehm, Erik T.

    2015-01-01

    The skin’s rewarming rate of diabetic patients is used as a diagnostic tool for early diagnosis of diabetic neuropathy. At present, the relationship between microvascular changes in the skin and diabetic neuropathy is unclear in streptozotocin (STZ) diabetic rats. The aim of this study was to investigate whether the skin rewarming rate in diabetic rats is related to microvascular changes and whether this is accompanied by changes observed in classical diagnostic methods for diabetic peripheral neuropathy. Computer-assisted infrared thermography was used to assess the rewarming rate after cold exposure on the plantar skin of STZ diabetic rats’ hind paws. Peripheral neuropathy was determined by the density of intra-epidermal nerve fibers (IENFs), mechanical sensitivity, and electrophysiological recordings. Data were obtained in diabetic rats at four, six, and eight weeks after the induction of diabetes and in controls. Four weeks after the induction of diabetes, a delayed rewarming rate, decreased skin blood flow and decreased density of IENFs were observed. However, the mechanical hyposensitivity and decreased motor nerve conduction velocity (MNCV) developed 6 and 8 weeks after the induction of diabetes. Our study shows that the skin rewarming rate is related to microvascular changes in diabetic rats. Moreover, the skin rewarming rate is a non-invasive method that provides more information for an earlier diagnosis of peripheral neuropathy than the classical monofilament test and MNCV in STZ induced diabetic rats. PMID:25984949

  18. DNA technological progress toward advanced diagnostic tools to support human hookworm control.

    PubMed

    Gasser, R B; Cantacessi, C; Loukas, A

    2008-01-01

    Blood-feeding hookworms are parasitic nematodes of major human health importance. Currently, it is estimated that 740 million people are infected worldwide, and more than 80 million of them are severely affected clinically by hookworm disease. In spite of the health problems caused and the advances toward the development of vaccines against some hookworms, limited attention has been paid to the need for improved, practical methods of diagnosis. Accurate diagnosis and genetic characterization of hookworms is central to their effective control. While traditional diagnostic methods have considerable limitations, there has been some progress toward the development of molecular-diagnostic tools. The present article provides a brief background on hookworm disease of humans, reviews the main methods that have been used for diagnosis and describes progress in establishing polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based methods for the specific diagnosis of hookworm infection and the genetic characterisation of the causative agents. This progress provides a foundation for the rapid development of practical, highly sensitive and specific diagnostic and analytical tools to be used in improved hookworm prevention and control programmes.

  19. Use of Monocrystalline Silicon as Tool Material for Highly Accurate Blanking of Thin Metal Foils

    SciTech Connect

    Hildering, Sven; Engel, Ulf; Merklein, Marion

    2011-05-04

    The trend towards miniaturisation of metallic mass production components combined with increased component functionality is still unbroken. Manufacturing these components by forming and blanking offers economical and ecological advantages combined with the needed accuracy. The complexity of producing tools with geometries below 50 {mu}m by conventional manufacturing methods becomes disproportional higher. Expensive serial finishing operations are required to achieve an adequate surface roughness combined with accurate geometry details. A novel approach for producing such tools is the use of advanced etching technologies for monocrystalline silicon that are well-established in the microsystems technology. High-precision vertical geometries with a width down to 5 {mu}m are possible. The present study shows a novel concept using this potential for the blanking of thin copper foils with monocrystallline silicon as a tool material. A self-contained machine-tool with compact outer dimensions was designed to avoid tensile stresses in the brittle silicon punch by an accurate, careful alignment of the punch, die and metal foil. A microscopic analysis of the monocrystalline silicon punch shows appropriate properties regarding flank angle, edge geometry and surface quality for the blanking process. Using a monocrystalline silicon punch with a width of 70 {mu}m blanking experiments on as-rolled copper foils with a thickness of 20 {mu}m demonstrate the general applicability of this material for micro production processes.

  20. New advanced radio diagnostics tools for Space Weather Program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krankowski, A.; Rothkaehl, H.; Atamaniuk, B.; Morawski, M.; Zakharenkova, I.; Cherniak, I.; Otmianowska-Mazur, K.

    2013-12-01

    To give a more detailed and complete understanding of physical plasma processes that govern the solar-terrestrial space, and to develop qualitative and quantitative models of the magnetosphere-ionosphere-thermosphere coupling, it is necessary to design and build the next generation of instruments for space diagnostics and monitoring. Novel ground- based wide-area sensor networks, such as the LOFAR (Low Frequency Array) radar facility, comprising wide band, and vector-sensing radio receivers and multi-spacecraft plasma diagnostics should help solve outstanding problems of space physics and describe long-term environmental changes. The LOw Frequency ARray - LOFAR - is a new fully digital radio telescope designed for frequencies between 30 MHz and 240 MHz located in Europe. The three new LOFAR stations will be installed until summer 2015 in Poland. The LOFAR facilities in Poland will be distributed among three sites: Lazy (East of Krakow), Borowiec near Poznan and Baldy near Olsztyn. All they will be connected via PIONIER dedicated links to Poznan. Each site will host one LOFAR station (96 high-band+96 low-band antennas). They will most time work as a part of European network, however, when less charged, they can operate as a national network The new digital radio frequency analyzer (RFA) on board the low-orbiting RELEC satellite was designed to monitor and investigate the ionospheric plasma properties. This two-point ground-based and topside ionosphere-located space plasma diagnostic can be a useful new tool for monitoring and diagnosing turbulent plasma properties. The RFA on board the RELEC satellite is the first in a series of experiments which is planned to be launched into the near-Earth environment. In order to improve and validate the large scales and small scales ionospheric structures we will used the GPS observations collected at IGS/EPN network employed to reconstruct diurnal variations of TEC using all satellite passes over individual GPS stations and the

  1. Evaluation of free non-diagnostic DICOM software tools

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liao, Wei; Deserno, Thomas M.; Spitzer, Klaus

    2008-03-01

    A variety of software exists to interpret files or directories compliant to the Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine (DICOM) standard and display them as individual images or volume rendered objects. Some of them offer further processing and analysis features. The surveys that have been published so far are partly not up-to-date anymore, and neither a detailed description of the software functions nor a comprehensive comparison is given. This paper aims at evaluation and comparison of freely available, non-diagnostic DICOM software with respect to the following aspects: (i) data import; (ii) data export; (iii) header viewing; (iv) 2D image viewing; (v) 3D volume viewing; (vi) support; (vii) portability; (viii) workability; and (ix) usability. In total, 21 tools were included: 3D Slicer, AMIDE, BioImage Suite, DicomWorks, EViewBox, ezDICOM, FPImage, ImageJ, JiveX, Julius, MedImaView, MedINRIA, MicroView, MIPAV, MRIcron, Osiris, PMSDView, Syngo FastView, TomoVision, UniViewer, and XMedCon. Our results in table form can ease the selection of appropriate DICOM software tools. In particular, we discuss use cases for the inexperienced user, data conversion, and volume rendering, and suggest Syngo FastView or PMSDView, DicomWorks or XMedCon, and ImageJ or UniViewer, respectively.

  2. Social network diagnostics: a tool for monitoring group interventions

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Many behavioral interventions designed to improve health outcomes are delivered in group settings. To date, however, group interventions have not been evaluated to determine if the groups generate interaction among members and how changes in group interaction may affect program outcomes at the individual or group level. Methods This article presents a model and practical tool for monitoring how social ties and social structure are changing within the group during program implementation. The approach is based on social network analysis and has two phases: collecting network measurements at strategic intervention points to determine if group dynamics are evolving in ways anticipated by the intervention, and providing the results back to the group leader to guide implementation next steps. This process aims to initially increase network connectivity and ultimately accelerate the diffusion of desirable behaviors through the new network. This article presents the Social Network Diagnostic Tool and, as proof of concept, pilot data collected during the formative phase of a childhood obesity intervention. Results The number of reported advice partners and discussion partners increased during program implementation. Density, the number of ties among people in the network expressed as a percentage of all possible ties, increased from 0.082 to 0.182 (p < 0.05) in the advice network, and from 0.027 to 0.055 (p > 0.05) in the discussion network. Conclusions The observed two-fold increase in network density represents a significant shift in advice partners over the intervention period. Using the Social Network Tool to empirically guide program activities of an obesity intervention was feasible. PMID:24083343

  3. Addiction screening and diagnostic tools: 'Refuting' and 'unmasking' claims to legitimacy.

    PubMed

    Dwyer, Robyn; Fraser, Suzanne

    2015-12-01

    Human practices of all kinds - substance use, gambling, sex, even eating - are increasingly being reframed through the language of addiction. This 'addicting' of contemporary society is achieved, in part, through the screening and diagnostic tools intended to identify and measure addiction. These tools are a key element in the expert knowledge-making through which realities of addiction emerge. Promoted as objective and accurate, the tools are given legitimacy through application of scientific validation techniques. In this article, we critically examine the operations of these validation techniques as applied to substance addiction tools. Framed by feminist and other scholarship that decentres the epistemological guarantees of objectivity and validity, we structure our analysis using Ian Hacking's (1999) concepts of 'refuting' (showing a thesis to be false) and 'unmasking' (undermining a thesis). Under 'refuting', we consider the methodological validation processes on their own terms, identifying contradictory claims, weak findings and inconsistent application of methodological standards. Under 'unmasking', we critically analyse validation as a concept in itself. Here we identify two fundamental problems: symptom learning and feedback effects; and circularity and assumptions of independence and objectivity. Our analysis also highlights the extra-theoretical functions and effects of the tools. Both on their own terms and when subjected to more searching analysis, then, the validity claims the tools make fail to hold up to scrutiny. In concluding, we consider some of the effects of the processes we identify. Not only do these tools make certainty where there is none, we contend, they actively participate in the creation of social objects and social groups, and in shaping affected individuals and their opportunities. In unpacking in detail the legitimacy of the tools, our aim is to open up for further scrutiny the processes by which they go about making (rather than

  4. Real time PCR in childhood tuberculosis: a valuable diagnostic tool.

    PubMed

    Dayal, Rajeshwar; Kashyap, Haripal; Pounikar, Gajanand; Kamal, Raj; Yadav, Neeraj Kumar; Singh, Manoj Kumar; Chauhan, Devendra Singh; Goyal, Ankur

    2015-02-01

    The present study was conducted to detect and quantitate Mycobacterium tuberculosis from various body fluid specimens of cases of tuberculosis by real time PCR technique and compare results with conventional PCR technique and culture. One hundred fifteen children (<18 y) with tuberculosis (diagnosed as per IAP guidelines) and 32 disease matched controls from the Department of Pediatrics, S.N. Medical College, Agra, were included in the study. Different body fluids (CSF, gastric aspirate, pleural fluid, ascitic fluid and lymph node aspirate) were subjected to culture, conventional PCR targeting insertion sequence 1S6110 and Real time PCR targeting 16srRNA of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Real time PCR showed significantly better results than culture in all body fluids (p < 0.05). It was superior to conventional PCR in CSF (p < 0.05) but showed comparable results in gastric aspirate, pleural fluid, ascitic fluid and lymph node aspirate (p > 0.05). Hence, real time PCR is a promising diagnostic tool for childhood tuberculosis, particularly tubercular meningitis.

  5. GPCR-targeting nanobodies: attractive research tools, diagnostics, and therapeutics.

    PubMed

    Mujić-Delić, Azra; de Wit, Raymond H; Verkaar, Folkert; Smit, Martine J

    2014-05-01

    G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) represent a major therapeutic target class. A large proportion of marketed drugs exert their effect through modulation of GPCR function, and GPCRs have been successfully targeted with small molecules. Yet, the number of small new molecular entities targeting GPCRs that has been approved as therapeutics in the past decade has been limited. With new and improved immunization-related technologies and advances in GPCR purification and expression techniques, antibody-based targeting of GPCRs has gained attention. The serendipitous discovery of a unique class of heavy chain antibodies (hcAbs) in the sera of camelids may provide novel GPCR-directed therapies. Antigen-binding fragments of hcAbs, also referred to as nanobodies, combine the advantages of both small molecules (e.g., molecular cavity binding, low production costs) and monoclonal antibodies (e.g., high affinity and specificity). Nanobodies are gaining ground as therapeutics and are also starting to find application as diagnostics and as high-quality tools in GPCR research. Herein, we review recent advances in the use of nanobodies in GPCR research.

  6. IVUSAngio tool: a publicly available software for fast and accurate 3D reconstruction of coronary arteries.

    PubMed

    Doulaverakis, Charalampos; Tsampoulatidis, Ioannis; Antoniadis, Antonios P; Chatzizisis, Yiannis S; Giannopoulos, Andreas; Kompatsiaris, Ioannis; Giannoglou, George D

    2013-11-01

    There is an ongoing research and clinical interest in the development of reliable and easily accessible software for the 3D reconstruction of coronary arteries. In this work, we present the architecture and validation of IVUSAngio Tool, an application which performs fast and accurate 3D reconstruction of the coronary arteries by using intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) and biplane angiography data. The 3D reconstruction is based on the fusion of the detected arterial boundaries in IVUS images with the 3D IVUS catheter path derived from the biplane angiography. The IVUSAngio Tool suite integrates all the intermediate processing and computational steps and provides a user-friendly interface. It also offers additional functionality, such as automatic selection of the end-diastolic IVUS images, semi-automatic and automatic IVUS segmentation, vascular morphometric measurements, graphical visualization of the 3D model and export in a format compatible with other computer-aided design applications. Our software was applied and validated in 31 human coronary arteries yielding quite promising results. Collectively, the use of IVUSAngio Tool significantly reduces the total processing time for 3D coronary reconstruction. IVUSAngio Tool is distributed as free software, publicly available to download and use.

  7. Intrapartum sonographic signs: new diagnostic tools in malposition and malrotation.

    PubMed

    Malvasi, Antonio; Giacci, Francesco; Gustapane, Sarah; Sparic, Radmila; Barbera, Antonio; Tinelli, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    In the past years, numerous studies have been published on the use of ultrasound during labor, showing this is an effective, accurate and objective tool for the assessment of the fetal head position and station. Literature affirmed that traditional transvaginal digital examination is highly subjective and dependent on the operator's experience. On the contrary, the use of intrapartum suprapubic transabdominal ultrasound can improve accuracy in determination of fetal head position and the precise knowledge of the location of specific fetal head landmarks in relationship to maternal pelvis. Intrapartum ultrasound will assist obstetricians in the diagnosis of normal labor progression, suggesting when medical and or operative intervention should be taken in case of complications. During each fetal head movement, there is a very specific relationship between fetal head landmarks and well-identified maternal structures, so the ultrasound diagnosis is performed step by step. In this review, we summarized the clinical situation of the fetal head in the pelvis and the relative ultrasonographic signs. Moreover, we collected all the ultrasonographic measures to diagnose the fetal head progression and rotations in the birth canal.

  8. A Quantitative Tool for Producing DNA-Based Diagnostic Arrays

    SciTech Connect

    Tom J. Whitaker

    2008-07-11

    The purpose of this project was to develop a precise, quantitative method to analyze oligodeoxynucleotides (ODNs) on an array to enable a systematic approach to quality control issues affecting DNA microarrays. Two types of ODN's were tested; ODN's formed by photolithography and ODN's printed onto microarrays. Initial work in Phase I, performed in conjunction with Affymetrix, Inc. who has a patent on a photolithographic in situ technique for creating DNA arrays, was very promising but did seem to indicate that the atomization process was not complete. Soon after Phase II work was under way, Affymetrix had further developed fluorescent methods and indicated they were no longer interested in our resonance ionization technique. This was communicated to the program manager and it was decided that the project would continue and be focused on printed ODNs. The method being tested is called SIRIS, Sputter-Initiated Resonance Ionization Spectroscopy. SIRIS has been shown to be a highly sensitive, selective, and quantitative tool for atomic species. This project was aimed at determining if an ODN could be labeled in such a way that SIRIS could be used to measure the label and thus provide quantitative measurements of the ODN on an array. One of the largest problems in this study has been developing a method that allows us to know the amount of an ODN on a surface independent of the SIRIS measurement. Even though we could accurately determine the amount of ODN deposited on a surface, the amount that actually attached to the surface is very difficult to measure (hence the need for a quantitative tool). A double-labeling procedure was developed in which 33P and Pt were both used to label ODNs. The radioactive 33P could be measured by a proportional counter that maps the counts in one dimension. This gave a good measurement of the amount of ODN remaining on a surface after immobilization and washing. A second label, Pt, was attached to guanine nucleotides in the ODN. Studies

  9. Positron emission tomography as a diagnostic tool in oncology.

    PubMed

    Schiepers, C; Hoh, C K

    1998-01-01

    Early diagnosis in oncology is important for treatment by surgical intervention, which generally has the highest curative potential. For higher stages of disease involvement, initiation of rapid treatment is indicated to provide the patient with the optimal therapy regimen. Although this may not improve the prognosis, it will maintain the quality of life. Anatomic imaging modalities, such as CT, MR imaging, and US, are clinically important high-resolution imaging techniques that are well suited to reveal structural abnormalities. However, the differentiation of lesions as being benign or malignant is still problematic. Metabolic imaging modalities in nuclear medicine (NM), i.e., single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) and positron emission tomography (PET), can reveal biochemical parameters of the lesions such as glucose, oxygen, or amino acid metabolism, or measure the receptor density status. These parameters may allow a completely new clinical perspective in the management and understanding of diseases such as cancer. Although PET has been around since the early 1960s, it has only recently emerged as a powerful diagnostic tool in oncology. Society has great difficulty accepting this clinical imaging modality because of its high cost and complexity. Current applications of PET in oncology have been in characterizing lesions, differentiating recurrent disease from treatment effects, staging tumors, evaluating the extent of disease, and therapy monitoring. Here, the role of PET in diagnosis, staging, and restaging of cancer is reviewed and compared with the other tumor imaging modalities. We cover articles published in the past 3 years. We utilize the typical radiology format, in which the contribution in each body area is reviewed (topographic orientation), instead of the more organ-based approach used in internal medicine.

  10. Smartphone-Based Accurate Analysis of Retinal Vasculature towards Point-of-Care Diagnostics

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Xiayu; Ding, Wenxiang; Wang, Xuemin; Cao, Ruofan; Zhang, Maiye; Lv, Peilin; Xu, Feng

    2016-01-01

    Retinal vasculature analysis is important for the early diagnostics of various eye and systemic diseases, making it a potentially useful biomarker, especially for resource-limited regions and countries. Here we developed a smartphone-based retinal image analysis system for point-of-care diagnostics that is able to load a fundus image, segment retinal vessels, analyze individual vessel width, and store or uplink results. The proposed system was not only evaluated on widely used public databases and compared with the state-of-the-art methods, but also validated on clinical images directly acquired with a smartphone. An Android app is also developed to facilitate on-site application of the proposed methods. Both visual assessment and quantitative assessment showed that the proposed methods achieved comparable results to the state-of-the-art methods that require high-standard workstations. The proposed system holds great potential for the early diagnostics of various diseases, such as diabetic retinopathy, for resource-limited regions and countries. PMID:27698369

  11. Development and Validation of a Multidisciplinary Tool for Accurate and Efficient Rotorcraft Noise Prediction (MUTE)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liu, Yi; Anusonti-Inthra, Phuriwat; Diskin, Boris

    2011-01-01

    A physics-based, systematically coupled, multidisciplinary prediction tool (MUTE) for rotorcraft noise was developed and validated with a wide range of flight configurations and conditions. MUTE is an aggregation of multidisciplinary computational tools that accurately and efficiently model the physics of the source of rotorcraft noise, and predict the noise at far-field observer locations. It uses systematic coupling approaches among multiple disciplines including Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD), Computational Structural Dynamics (CSD), and high fidelity acoustics. Within MUTE, advanced high-order CFD tools are used around the rotor blade to predict the transonic flow (shock wave) effects, which generate the high-speed impulsive noise. Predictions of the blade-vortex interaction noise in low speed flight are also improved by using the Particle Vortex Transport Method (PVTM), which preserves the wake flow details required for blade/wake and fuselage/wake interactions. The accuracy of the source noise prediction is further improved by utilizing a coupling approach between CFD and CSD, so that the effects of key structural dynamics, elastic blade deformations, and trim solutions are correctly represented in the analysis. The blade loading information and/or the flow field parameters around the rotor blade predicted by the CFD/CSD coupling approach are used to predict the acoustic signatures at far-field observer locations with a high-fidelity noise propagation code (WOPWOP3). The predicted results from the MUTE tool for rotor blade aerodynamic loading and far-field acoustic signatures are compared and validated with a variation of experimental data sets, such as UH60-A data, DNW test data and HART II test data.

  12. MetaBAT, an efficient tool for accurately reconstructing single genomes from complex microbial communities

    SciTech Connect

    Kang, Dongwan D.; Froula, Jeff; Egan, Rob; Wang, Zhong

    2015-01-01

    Grouping large genomic fragments assembled from shotgun metagenomic sequences to deconvolute complex microbial communities, or metagenome binning, enables the study of individual organisms and their interactions. Because of the complex nature of these communities, existing metagenome binning methods often miss a large number of microbial species. In addition, most of the tools are not scalable to large datasets. Here we introduce automated software called MetaBAT that integrates empirical probabilistic distances of genome abundance and tetranucleotide frequency for accurate metagenome binning. MetaBAT outperforms alternative methods in accuracy and computational efficiency on both synthetic and real metagenome datasets. Lastly, it automatically forms hundreds of high quality genome bins on a very large assembly consisting millions of contigs in a matter of hours on a single node. MetaBAT is open source software and available at https://bitbucket.org/berkeleylab/metabat.

  13. MetaBAT, an efficient tool for accurately reconstructing single genomes from complex microbial communities

    DOE PAGES

    Kang, Dongwan D.; Froula, Jeff; Egan, Rob; ...

    2015-01-01

    Grouping large genomic fragments assembled from shotgun metagenomic sequences to deconvolute complex microbial communities, or metagenome binning, enables the study of individual organisms and their interactions. Because of the complex nature of these communities, existing metagenome binning methods often miss a large number of microbial species. In addition, most of the tools are not scalable to large datasets. Here we introduce automated software called MetaBAT that integrates empirical probabilistic distances of genome abundance and tetranucleotide frequency for accurate metagenome binning. MetaBAT outperforms alternative methods in accuracy and computational efficiency on both synthetic and real metagenome datasets. Lastly, it automatically formsmore » hundreds of high quality genome bins on a very large assembly consisting millions of contigs in a matter of hours on a single node. MetaBAT is open source software and available at https://bitbucket.org/berkeleylab/metabat.« less

  14. Accurate real-time depth control for CP-SSOCT distal sensor based handheld microsurgery tools

    PubMed Central

    Cheon, Gyeong Woo; Huang, Yong; Cha, Jaepyeng; Gehlbach, Peter L.; Kang, Jin U.

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a novel intuitive targeting and tracking scheme that utilizes a common-path swept source optical coherence tomography (CP-SSOCT) distal sensor integrated handheld microsurgical tool. To achieve micron-order precision control, a reliable and accurate OCT distal sensing method is required; simultaneously, a prediction algorithm is necessary to compensate for the system delay associated with the computational, mechanical and electronic latencies. Due to the multi-layered structure of retina, it is necessary to develop effective surface detection methods rather than simple peak detection. To achieve this, a shifted cross-correlation method is applied for surface detection in order to increase robustness and accuracy in distal sensing. A predictor based on Kalman filter was implemented for more precise motion compensation. The performance was first evaluated using an established dry phantom consisting of stacked cellophane tape. This was followed by evaluation in an ex-vivo bovine retina model to assess system accuracy and precision. The results demonstrate highly accurate depth targeting with less than 5 μm RMSE depth locking. PMID:26137393

  15. Accurate Point-of-Care Detection of Ruptured Fetal Membranes: Improved Diagnostic Performance Characteristics with a Monoclonal/Polyclonal Immunoassay

    PubMed Central

    Rogers, Linda C.; Scott, Laurie; Block, Jon E.

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Accurate and timely diagnosis of rupture of membranes (ROM) is imperative to allow for gestational age-specific interventions. This study compared the diagnostic performance characteristics between two methods used for the detection of ROM as measured in the same patient. METHODS Vaginal secretions were evaluated using the conventional fern test as well as a point-of-care monoclonal/polyclonal immunoassay test (ROM Plus®) in 75 pregnant patients who presented to labor and delivery with complaints of leaking amniotic fluid. Both tests were compared to analytical confirmation of ROM using three external laboratory tests. Diagnostic performance characteristics were calculated including sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV), negative predictive value (NPV), and accuracy. RESULTS Diagnostic performance characteristics uniformly favored ROM detection using the immunoassay test compared to the fern test: sensitivity (100% vs. 77.8%), specificity (94.8% vs. 79.3%), PPV (75% vs. 36.8%), NPV (100% vs. 95.8%), and accuracy (95.5% vs. 79.1%). CONCLUSIONS The point-of-care immunoassay test provides improved diagnostic accuracy for the detection of ROM compared to fern testing. It has the potential of improving patient management decisions, thereby minimizing serious complications and perinatal morbidity. PMID:27199579

  16. Spectroscopy as a diagnostic tool for urban soil contaminants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brook, Anna; Kopel, Daniella

    2014-05-01

    Urbanization has become one of the major forces of change around the globe. Land use transformation, especially urbanization has the most profound influences of human activities because it affects so many of the planet's physical and biological systems. Land use changes directly impact the ability of the earth to continue to provide ecological services to human society and the other occupants of the ecosystems. The urban process gradually degrades and transforms agricultural and natural ecosystems into built environments. The urban environment includes cities, suburbs, peri-urban areas and towns. Urban ecosystems are highly heterogeneous due to the variety of land covers and land purposes. Thus, the choices on managing the extent and arranging the land cover patches (e.g., lawns) assist to shape the emergent structure and function of the urban ecosystems. As a result of ecological conditions and current management status the urban soils show substantial spatial heterogeneity. Whereas, adverse effects of pollutants on ecosystems have been demonstrated, one important need for environmental impact assessment have been defined as maintenance of long-term monitoring systems, which can enable to improve monitoring, modelling and assessment of various stressors in agriculture environment. Diffuse reflectance spectroscopy and diffuse reflectance Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy across visible-near- short- mid- and long- wave infrared (0.4-14μm) has the potential to meet this demand. Relationships between spectral reflectance and soil properties, such as grain size distribution, moisture, iron oxides, carbonate content, and organic matter, have already been established in many studies (Krishnan et al. 1980, Ben-Dor and Banin 1995, Jarmer et al. 2008, Richter et al. 2009). The aims of this study are to develop diagnostic tool for heavy metals, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, asbestos and other anthropogenic contaminants in urban soil using spectroscopy

  17. A GPU tool for efficient, accurate, and realistic simulation of cone beam CT projections

    PubMed Central

    Jia, Xun; Yan, Hao; Cerviño, Laura; Folkerts, Michael; Jiang, Steve B.

    2012-01-01

    conducted to calibrate gDRR against a real CBCT scanner. The calculated projections are accurate and realistic, such that beam-hardening artifacts and scatter artifacts can be reproduced using the simulated projections. The noise amplitudes in the CBCT images reconstructed from the simulated projections also agree with those in the measured images at corresponding mAs levels. Conclusions: A GPU computational tool, gDRR, has been developed for the accurate and efficient simulations of x-ray projections of CBCT with realistic configurations. PMID:23231286

  18. Poisonous or non-poisonous plants? DNA-based tools and applications for accurate identification.

    PubMed

    Mezzasalma, Valerio; Ganopoulos, Ioannis; Galimberti, Andrea; Cornara, Laura; Ferri, Emanuele; Labra, Massimo

    2017-01-01

    Plant exposures are among the most frequently reported cases to poison control centres worldwide. This is a growing condition due to recent societal trends oriented towards the consumption of wild plants as food, cosmetics, or medicine. At least three general causes of plant poisoning can be identified: plant misidentification, introduction of new plant-based supplements and medicines with no controls about their safety, and the lack of regulation for the trading of herbal and phytochemical products. Moreover, an efficient screening for the occurrence of plants poisonous to humans is also desirable at the different stages of the food supply chain: from the raw material to the final transformed product. A rapid diagnosis of intoxication cases is necessary in order to provide the most reliable treatment. However, a precise taxonomic characterization of the ingested species is often challenging. In this review, we provide an overview of the emerging DNA-based tools and technologies to address the issue of poisonous plant identification. Specifically, classic DNA barcoding and its applications using High Resolution Melting (Bar-HRM) ensure high universality and rapid response respectively, whereas High Throughput Sequencing techniques (HTS) provide a complete characterization of plant residues in complex matrices. The pros and cons of each approach have been evaluated with the final aim of proposing a general user's guide to molecular identification directed to different stakeholder categories interested in the diagnostics of poisonous plants.

  19. Companion diagnostics-a tool to improve pharmacotherapy.

    PubMed

    Jørgensen, Jan Trøst; Hersom, Maria

    2016-12-01

    The variability of pharmacotherapy can be of a significant magnitude, and the main reason for this is often diseases heterogeneity. Patients who have similar diagnoses very often respond differently to the same pharmacological intervention, with great variability in both efficacy and safety outcome. Despite having discussed personalized medicine for more than a decade, we still see that most drug prescriptions for severe chronic diseases are largely based on 'trial and error' and not on solid biomarker data. However, with the advance of molecular diagnostics and a subsequent increased understanding of disease mechanisms, things are slowly changing. Within the last few years, we have seen an increasing number of predictive biomarker assays being developed to guide the use of targeted cancer drugs. This type of assay is called companion diagnostics and is developed in parallel to the drug using the drug-diagnostic co-development model. The development of companion diagnostics is a relatively new discipline and in this review, different aspects will be discussed including clinical and regulatory issues. Furthermore, examples of drugs, such as the ALK and PD-1/PD-L1 inhibitors, that have been approved recently together with a companion or complimentary diagnostic will be given.

  20. Nucleic acid hybridization-an alternative tool in diagnostic microbiology.

    PubMed

    Pettersson, U; Hyypiä, T

    1985-09-01

    The use of radioimmunoossays (RIAs) and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) has revolutionized diagnostic microbiology. Their high specificity and sensitivity make them versatile, they are simple to carry out either for direct detection of microorganisms in specimens or for serological diagnosis, and they can easily and reliably be standardized. Monoclonal antibodies have further improved these immunoassays. However, the development of simple and highly sensitive detection methods for nucleic acids has nevertheless promoted an interest also in diagnostic methods based on nucleic acid hybridization. Here Ulf Pettersson and Timo Hyypiä discuss methods which are likely to become a useful complement to the immunoassays in the near future.

  1. UP-TORR: online tool for accurate and Up-to-Date annotation of RNAi Reagents.

    PubMed

    Hu, Yanhui; Roesel, Charles; Flockhart, Ian; Perkins, Lizabeth; Perrimon, Norbert; Mohr, Stephanie E

    2013-09-01

    RNA interference (RNAi) is a widely adopted tool for loss-of-function studies but RNAi results only have biological relevance if the reagents are appropriately mapped to genes. Several groups have designed and generated RNAi reagent libraries for studies in cells or in vivo for Drosophila and other species. At first glance, matching RNAi reagents to genes appears to be a simple problem, as each reagent is typically designed to target a single gene. In practice, however, the reagent-gene relationship is complex. Although the sequences of oligonucleotides used to generate most types of RNAi reagents are static, the reference genome and gene annotations are regularly updated. Thus, at the time a researcher chooses an RNAi reagent or analyzes RNAi data, the most current interpretation of the RNAi reagent-gene relationship, as well as related information regarding specificity (e.g., predicted off-target effects), can be different from the original interpretation. Here, we describe a set of strategies and an accompanying online tool, UP-TORR (for Updated Targets of RNAi Reagents; www.flyrnai.org/up-torr), useful for accurate and up-to-date annotation of cell-based and in vivo RNAi reagents. Importantly, UP-TORR automatically synchronizes with gene annotations daily, retrieving the most current information available, and for Drosophila, also synchronizes with the major reagent collections. Thus, UP-TORR allows users to choose the most appropriate RNAi reagents at the onset of a study, as well as to perform the most appropriate analyses of results of RNAi-based studies.

  2. Characteristics of a Cognitive Tool That Helps Students Learn Diagnostic Problem Solving

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Danielson, Jared A.; Mills, Eric M.; Vermeer, Pamela J.; Preast, Vanessa A.; Young, Karen M.; Christopher, Mary M.; George, Jeanne W.; Wood, R. Darren; Bender, Holly S.

    2007-01-01

    Three related studies replicated and extended previous work (J.A. Danielson et al. (2003), "Educational Technology Research and Development," 51(3), 63-81) involving the Diagnostic Pathfinder (dP) (previously Problem List Generator [PLG]), a cognitive tool for learning diagnostic problem solving. In studies 1 and 2, groups of 126 and 113…

  3. Infrared Imaging Tools for Diagnostic Applications in Dermatology.

    PubMed

    Gurjarpadhye, Abhijit Achyut; Parekh, Mansi Bharat; Dubnika, Arita; Rajadas, Jayakumar; Inayathullah, Mohammed

    Infrared (IR) imaging is a collection of non-invasive imaging techniques that utilize the IR domain of the electromagnetic spectrum for tissue assessment. A subset of these techniques construct images using back-reflected light, while other techniques rely on detection of IR radiation emitted by the tissue as a result of its temperature. Modern IR detectors sense thermal emissions and produce a heat map of surface temperature distribution in tissues. Thus, the IR spectrum offers a variety of imaging applications particularly useful in clinical diagnostic area, ranging from high-resolution, depth-resolved visualization of tissue to temperature variation assessment. These techniques have been helpful in the diagnosis of many medical conditions including skin/breast cancer, arthritis, allergy, burns, and others. In this review, we discuss current roles of IR-imaging techniques for diagnostic applications in dermatology with an emphasis on skin cancer, allergies, blisters, burns and wounds.

  4. Infrared Imaging Tools for Diagnostic Applications in Dermatology

    PubMed Central

    Gurjarpadhye, Abhijit Achyut; Parekh, Mansi Bharat; Dubnika, Arita; Rajadas, Jayakumar; Inayathullah, Mohammed

    2015-01-01

    Infrared (IR) imaging is a collection of non-invasive imaging techniques that utilize the IR domain of the electromagnetic spectrum for tissue assessment. A subset of these techniques construct images using back-reflected light, while other techniques rely on detection of IR radiation emitted by the tissue as a result of its temperature. Modern IR detectors sense thermal emissions and produce a heat map of surface temperature distribution in tissues. Thus, the IR spectrum offers a variety of imaging applications particularly useful in clinical diagnostic area, ranging from high-resolution, depth-resolved visualization of tissue to temperature variation assessment. These techniques have been helpful in the diagnosis of many medical conditions including skin/breast cancer, arthritis, allergy, burns, and others. In this review, we discuss current roles of IR-imaging techniques for diagnostic applications in dermatology with an emphasis on skin cancer, allergies, blisters, burns and wounds. PMID:26691203

  5. BRACAnalysis CDx as a companion diagnostic tool for Lynparza.

    PubMed

    Gunderson, Camille C; Moore, Kathleen N

    2015-01-01

    Lynparza and its companion diagnostic test, BRACAnalysis were approved by the US FDA in December 2014 for recurrent ovarian cancer in women with a germline BRCA mutation. Women with a deleterious BRCA mutation are predisposed to ovarian cancer due to deficient homologous recombination repair. Inhibition of the PARP enzyme forces use of an alternate error-prone pathway for repair; PARP trapping is another mechanism utilized that blocks cellular replication by trapping inactivated PARP onto single-stranded DNA breaks. Although many companion diagnostic kits are already in use in oncology, BRACAnaylsis is unique in several ways including comprehensive BRCA gene germline profiling, availability to all women with ovarian cancer and implications for family members.

  6. Spectral Line Shapes as a Diagnostic Tool in Magnetic Fusion

    SciTech Connect

    Stamm, R; Capes, H; Demura, A; Godbert-Mouret, L; Koubiti, M; Marandet, Y; Mattioli, M; Rosato, J; Rosmej, F; Fournier, K B

    2006-07-22

    Spectral line shapes and intensities are used for obtaining information on the various regions of magnetic fusion devices. Emission from low principal quantum numbers of hydrogen isotopes is analyzed for understanding the complex recycling mechanism. Lines emitted from high principal quantum numbers of hydrogen and helium are dominated by Stark effect, allowing an electronic density diagnostic in the divertor. Intensities of lines emitted by impurities are fitted for a better knowledge of ion transport in the confined plasma.

  7. A tool for model based diagnostics of the AGS Booster

    SciTech Connect

    Luccio, A.

    1993-12-31

    A model-based algorithmic tool was developed to search for lattice errors by a systematic analysis of orbit data in the AGS Booster synchrotron. The algorithm employs transfer matrices calculated with MAD between points in the ring. Iterative model fitting of the data allows one to find and eventually correct magnet displacements and angles or field errors. The tool, implemented on a HP-Apollo workstation system, has proved very general and of immediate physical interpretation.

  8. An accurate tool for the fast generation of dark matter halo catalogues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monaco, P.; Sefusatti, E.; Borgani, S.; Crocce, M.; Fosalba, P.; Sheth, R. K.; Theuns, T.

    2013-08-01

    We present a new parallel implementation of the PINpointing Orbit Crossing-Collapsed HIerarchical Objects (PINOCCHIO) algorithm, a quick tool, based on Lagrangian Perturbation Theory, for the hierarchical build-up of dark matter (DM) haloes in cosmological volumes. To assess its ability to predict halo correlations on large scales, we compare its results with those of an N-body simulation of a 3 h-1 Gpc box sampled with 20483 particles taken from the MICE suite, matching the same seeds for the initial conditions. Thanks to the Fastest Fourier Transforms in the West (FFTW) libraries and to the relatively simple design, the code shows very good scaling properties. The CPU time required by PINOCCHIO is a tiny fraction (˜1/2000) of that required by the MICE simulation. Varying some of PINOCCHIO numerical parameters allows one to produce a universal mass function that lies in the range allowed by published fits, although it underestimates the MICE mass function of Friends-of-Friends (FoF) haloes in the high-mass tail. We compare the matter-halo and the halo-halo power spectra with those of the MICE simulation and find that these two-point statistics are well recovered on large scales. In particular, when catalogues are matched in number density, agreement within 10 per cent is achieved for the halo power spectrum. At scales k > 0.1 h Mpc-1, the inaccuracy of the Zel'dovich approximation in locating halo positions causes an underestimate of the power spectrum that can be modelled as a Gaussian factor with a damping scale of d = 3 h-1 Mpc at z = 0, decreasing at higher redshift. Finally, a remarkable match is obtained for the reduced halo bispectrum, showing a good description of non-linear halo bias. Our results demonstrate the potential of PINOCCHIO as an accurate and flexible tool for generating large ensembles of mock galaxy surveys, with interesting applications for the analysis of large galaxy redshift surveys.

  9. High resolution DEM from Tandem-X interferometry: an accurate tool to characterize volcanic activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Albino, Fabien; Kervyn, Francois

    2013-04-01

    Tandem-X mission was launched by the German agency (DLR) in June 2010. It is a new generation high resolution SAR sensor mainly dedicated to topographic applications. For the purpose of our researches focused on the study of the volcano-tectonic activity in the Kivu Rift area, a set of Tandem-X bistatic radar images were used to produce a high resolution InSAR DEM of the Virunga Volcanic Province (VVP). The VVP is part of the Western branch of the African rift, situated at the boundary between D.R. Congo, Rwanda and Uganda. It has two highly active volcanoes, Nyiragongo and Nyamulagira. A first task concerns the quantitative assessment of the vertical accuracy that can be achieved with these new data. The new DEMs are compared to other space borne datasets (SRTM, ASTER) but also to field measurements given by differential GPS. Multi-temporal radar acquisitions allow us to produce several DEM of the same area. This appeared to be very useful in the context of an active volcanic context where new geomorphological features (faults, fissures, volcanic cones and lava flows) appear continuously through time. For example, since the year 2000, time of the SRTM acquisition, we had one eruption at Nyiragongo (2002) and six eruptions at Nyamulagira (2001, 2002, 2004, 2006, 2010 and 2011) which all induce large changes in the landscape with the emplacement of new lava fields and scoria cones. From our repetitive Tandem-X DEM production, we have a tool to identify and also quantify in term of size and volume all the topographic changes relative to this past volcanic activity. These parameters are high value information to improve the understanding of the Virunga volcanoes; the accurate estimation of erupted volume and knowledge of structural features associated to past eruptions are key parameters to understand the volcanic system, to ameliorate the hazard assessment, and finally contribute to risk mitigation in a densely populated area.

  10. Diagnostic tools for studying divertor detachment: bolometry, spectroscopy, and thermography for surface heat-flux

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Terry, J. L.; Reinke, M. L.

    2017-04-01

    Some of the key aspects of divertor detachment that are addressed by bolometry, impurity spectroscopy, hydrogen spectroscopy, and measurements of divertor target heat-flux are reviewed. Measurement requirements for these diagnostic areas are defined, and brief descriptions of the techniques used for these diagnostics are given. Examples from the literature of measurements using these tools applied to detachment are presented. Feedback control of detachment using some of these diagnostics as the ‘sensors’ is reviewed. Challenges and some future directions for these diagnostics in the context of studying divertor detachment are described.

  11. Clusters as a diagnostics tool for gas flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ganeva, M.; Kashtanov, P. V.; Kosarim, A. V.; Smirnov, B. M.; Hippler, R.

    2015-06-01

    The example of a gas flowing through an orifice into the surrounding rarefied space is used to demonstrate the possibility of using clusters for diagnosing gas flows. For the conditions studied (it takes a cluster velocity about the same time to relax to the gas velocity as it does to reach the orifice), information on the flow parameters inside the chamber is obtained from the measurement of the cluster drift velocity after the passage through an orifice for various gas consumptions. Other possible uses of clusters in gas flow diagnostics are discussed as well.

  12. Guided MHD waves as a coronal diagnostic tool

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roberts, B.

    1986-01-01

    A description is provided of how fast magnetoacoustic waves are ducted along regions of low Alfven velocity (high density) in the corona, exhibiting a distinctive wave signature which may be used as a diagnostic probe of in situ coronal conditions (magnetic field strength, density inhomogeneity, etc.). Some observational knowledge of the start time of the impulsive wave source, possibly a flare, the start and end times of the generated wave event, and the frequency of the pulsations in that event permits a seismological deduction of the physical properties of the coronal medium in which the wave propagated. With good observations the theory offers a new means of probing the coronal atmosphere.

  13. Pulse oximetry as a diagnostic tool in dental medicine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kosturkov, D.; Uzunov, Ts.; Uzunova, P.

    2016-01-01

    One of the most widespread optical methods used in biophotonics is the pulse oximetry, which is based on the measurement of light-modulated pulse wave of blood. This is a non-invasive, objective method for evaluation of the blood supply. Recently it has become very popular in dental medicine for the measurement of the condition of pulp microcirculation. The aim of our research is to evaluate the possibilities of pulse oximetry for estimation the pulp microcirculation in intact teeth among young patients. Results obtained clearly show that this method can be applied to assess the pulp condition and could be used in clinical practice in combination with other diagnostic methods.

  14. Accurate, fast and cost-effective diagnostic test for monosomy 1p36 using real-time quantitative PCR.

    PubMed

    Cunha, Pricila da Silva; Pena, Heloisa B; D'Angelo, Carla Sustek; Koiffmann, Celia P; Rosenfeld, Jill A; Shaffer, Lisa G; Stofanko, Martin; Gonçalves-Dornelas, Higgor; Pena, Sérgio Danilo Junho

    2014-01-01

    Monosomy 1p36 is considered the most common subtelomeric deletion syndrome in humans and it accounts for 0.5-0.7% of all the cases of idiopathic intellectual disability. The molecular diagnosis is often made by microarray-based comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH), which has the drawback of being a high-cost technique. However, patients with classic monosomy 1p36 share some typical clinical characteristics that, together with its common prevalence, justify the development of a less expensive, targeted diagnostic method. In this study, we developed a simple, rapid, and inexpensive real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR) assay for targeted diagnosis of monosomy 1p36, easily accessible for low-budget laboratories in developing countries. For this, we have chosen two target genes which are deleted in the majority of patients with monosomy 1p36: PRKCZ and SKI. In total, 39 patients previously diagnosed with monosomy 1p36 by aCGH, fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH), and/or multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA) all tested positive on our qPCR assay. By simultaneously using these two genes we have been able to detect 1p36 deletions with 100% sensitivity and 100% specificity. We conclude that qPCR of PRKCZ and SKI is a fast and accurate diagnostic test for monosomy 1p36, costing less than 10 US dollars in reagent costs.

  15. Accurate, Fast and Cost-Effective Diagnostic Test for Monosomy 1p36 Using Real-Time Quantitative PCR

    PubMed Central

    Cunha, Pricila da Silva; Pena, Heloisa B.; D'Angelo, Carla Sustek; Koiffmann, Celia P.; Rosenfeld, Jill A.; Shaffer, Lisa G.; Stofanko, Martin; Gonçalves-Dornelas, Higgor; Pena, Sérgio Danilo Junho

    2014-01-01

    Monosomy 1p36 is considered the most common subtelomeric deletion syndrome in humans and it accounts for 0.5–0.7% of all the cases of idiopathic intellectual disability. The molecular diagnosis is often made by microarray-based comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH), which has the drawback of being a high-cost technique. However, patients with classic monosomy 1p36 share some typical clinical characteristics that, together with its common prevalence, justify the development of a less expensive, targeted diagnostic method. In this study, we developed a simple, rapid, and inexpensive real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR) assay for targeted diagnosis of monosomy 1p36, easily accessible for low-budget laboratories in developing countries. For this, we have chosen two target genes which are deleted in the majority of patients with monosomy 1p36: PRKCZ and SKI. In total, 39 patients previously diagnosed with monosomy 1p36 by aCGH, fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH), and/or multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA) all tested positive on our qPCR assay. By simultaneously using these two genes we have been able to detect 1p36 deletions with 100% sensitivity and 100% specificity. We conclude that qPCR of PRKCZ and SKI is a fast and accurate diagnostic test for monosomy 1p36, costing less than 10 US dollars in reagent costs. PMID:24839341

  16. A diagnostic tool for malaria based on computer software.

    PubMed

    Kotepui, Manas; Uthaisar, Kwuntida; Phunphuech, Bhukdee; Phiwklam, Nuoil

    2015-11-12

    Nowadays, the gold standard method for malaria diagnosis is a staining of thick and thin blood film examined by expert laboratorists. It requires well-trained laboratorists, which is a time consuming task, and is un-automated protocol. For this study, Maladiag Software was developed to predict malaria infection in suspected malaria patients. The demographic data of patients, examination for malaria parasites, and complete blood count (CBC) profiles were analyzed. Binary logistic regression was used to create the equation for the malaria diagnosis. The diagnostic parameters of the equation were tested on 4,985 samples (703 infected and 4,282 control samples). The equation indicated 81.2% sensitivity and 80.3% specificity for predicting infection of malaria. The positive likelihood and negative likelihood ratio were 4.12 (95% CI = 4.01-4.23) and 0.23 (95% CI = 0.22-0.25), respectively. This parameter also had odds ratios (P value < 0.0001, OR = 17.6, 95% CI = 16.0-19.3). The equation can predict malaria infection after adjust for age, gender, nationality, monocyte (%), platelet count, neutrophil (%), lymphocyte (%), and the RBC count of patients. The diagnostic accuracy was 0.877 (Area under curve, AUC) (95% CI = 0.871-0.883). The system, when used in combination with other clinical and microscopy methods, might improve malaria diagnoses and enhance prompt treatment.

  17. Repeated tourniquet testing as a diagnostic tool in dengue infection.

    PubMed

    Norlijah, O; Khamisah, A Nor; Kamarul, A; Paeds, M; Mangalam, S

    2006-03-01

    Prospective evaluation of repeated standard tourniquet testing as a diagnostic indicator of dengue infection was done. Included were patients admitted to a children's hospital in Kuala Lumpur on a clinical suspicion of dengue infection based on the World Health Organization (WHO) criteria. A standard method of tourniquet was performed on 79 patients on a daily basis following admission. subjects and negative in the remaining 14 subjects. Fifty-eight subjects were serologically confirmed cases, 4 indeterminate and the remaining 17 subjects had negative serology. For diagnostic classification, 13 had dengue fever, 49 with dengue haemmorhagic fever (DHF) while 17 had non-dengue infection. The sensitivity and specificity of the tourniquet test was 82.8% and 23.5% respectively. The positive predictive value (PPV) was 78.7% while the negative predictive value (NPV) was 28.6%. In addition, the tourniquet test aided in the diagnosis of one-fifth of patients with DHF, who presented with a positive tourniquet test as the only bleeding manifestation. It seems that in a hospital setting, the tourniquet test adds little to the diagnosis of dengue infection/DHF. A positive tourniquet test, repeatedly performed, was found clinically useful as a preliminary screening test in dengue infection as recommended by WHO. However, it was not very specific and had a high false positive rate.

  18. Laser-scan cytometry: a new tool for clinical diagnostics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maerz, Holger K.; Baumgartner, Adolf; Hambsch, Joerg; Hennig, Bert; Nuesse, Michael; Schmid, Thomas; Schneider, Peter; Zotz, Rainer; Tarnok, Attila

    1999-04-01

    The common usage of flow cytometry (FCM) in research and clinical diagnostic is limited by the lack visualizing the fluorescence labelled cells. The Laser Scanning Cytometer (LSC) enables multicolor cytometric measurements on a slide featuring relocation of single cells for further investigation via brightfield and fluorescence microscopy. Additionally, it is possible to capture these images for documentation. In a FISH application, the LSC was successfully used for automated scoring techniqeus for evaluating the frequency of aneuploid sperm in humans and mice. In just 30 minutes, we were able to acquire more than 15,000 sperms, a task which normally takes more than a day. After relocation, genetic defects were identified and confirmed via fluorescence microscopy. In an on going study, we investigate via the LSC the remain of a new radiopaque material for high resolution echocardiography in the blood circulation. At first the result exhibited that the radiopaque material is endocysed by leukocytes just after application but is still detectable via echocardiography for up to 40 minutes. In conclusion, with the additional data acquisition by the LSC, it is possible to perform further detailed information from very small samples. Therefore, we are working up to now on developing new methods to introduce the LSC in our clinical diagnostic of neonates undergoing cardiac surgery.

  19. Beyond the Rubric: Think-Alouds as a Diagnostic Assessment Tool for High School Writing Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beck, Sarah W.; Llosa, Lorena; Black, Kristin; Trzeszkowski-Giese, Alyssa

    2015-01-01

    In order to teach writing effectively, teachers need assessment tools that work for diagnostic purposes--tools that can help them identify students' specific strengths and challenges with writing, as well as generate new ideas for instruction. This study explored what 5 high school teachers (3 ELA and 2 ESL) learned about their students' strengths…

  20. Development of a High-Temperature Diagnostics-While-Drilling Tool

    SciTech Connect

    Blankenship, Douglas; Chavira, David; Henfling, Joseph; Hetmaniak, Chris; Huey, David; Jacobson, Ron; King, Dennis; Knudsen, Steve; Mansure, A. J.; Polsky, Yarom

    2009-01-01

    This report documents work performed in the second phase of the Diagnostics While-Drilling (DWD) project in which a high-temperature (HT) version of the phase 1 low-temperature (LT) proof-of-concept (POC) DWD tool was built and tested. Descriptions of the design, fabrication and field testing of the HT tool are provided.

  1. The Development of a Literacy Diagnostic Tool for Maltese Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Xuereb, Rachael; Grech, Helen; Dodd, Barbara

    2011-01-01

    This article focuses on the development of a Literacy Assessment Battery for the diagnosis of Maltese children with specific learning difficulties. It forms part of a wider research study involving testing of 549 children in Malta as well as standardisation of the tool. Results of the children's performance and psychometric validation go beyond…

  2. Retrospective screening of relevant pesticide metabolites in food using liquid chromatography high resolution mass spectrometry and accurate-mass databases of parent molecules and diagnostic fragment ions.

    PubMed

    Polgár, László; García-Reyes, Juan F; Fodor, Péter; Gyepes, Attila; Dernovics, Mihály; Abrankó, László; Gilbert-López, Bienvenida; Molina-Díaz, Antonio

    2012-08-03

    In recent years, the detection and characterization of relevant pesticide metabolites in food is an important task in order to evaluate their formation, kinetics, stability, and toxicity. In this article, a methodology for the systematic screening of pesticides and their main metabolites in fruit and vegetable samples is described, using LC-HRMS and accurate-mass database search of parent compounds and their diagnostic fragment ions. The approach is based on (i) search for parent pesticide molecules; (ii) search for their metabolites in the positive samples, assuming common fragmentation pathways between the metabolites and parent pesticide molecules; and (iii) search for pesticide conjugates using the data from both parent species and diagnostic fragment ions. An accurate-mass database was constructed consisting of 1396 compounds (850 parent compounds, 447 fragment ions and 99 metabolites). The screening process was performed by the software in an automated fashion. The proposed methodology was evaluated with 29 incurred samples and the output obtained was compared to standard pesticide testing methods (targeted LC-MS/MS). Examples on the application of the proposed approach are shown, including the detection of several pesticide glycosides derivatives, which were found with significantly relevant intensities. Glucose-conjugated forms of parent compounds (e.g., fenhexamid-O-glucoside) and those of metabolites (e.g., despropyl-iprodione-N-glycoside) were detected. Facing the lack of standards for glycosylated pesticides, the study was completed with the synthesis of fenhexamid-O-glucoside for quantification purposes. In some cases the pesticide derivatives were found in a relatively high ratio, drawing the attention to these kinds of metabolites and showing that they should not be neglected in multi-residue methods. The global coverage obtained on the 29 analyzed samples showed the usefulness and benefits of the proposed approach and highlights the practical

  3. Fluorophotometry as a diagnostic tool for the evaluation of dry eye disease

    PubMed Central

    Fahim, Magid M; Haji, Shamim; Koonapareddy, Chakravarthy V; Fan, Vincent C; Asbell, Penny A

    2006-01-01

    Background Dry eye disease is a common debilitating ocular disease. Current diagnostic tests used in dry eye disease are often neither sensitive nor reproducible, making it difficult to accurately diagnose and determine end points for clinical trials, or evaluate the usefulness of different medications in the treatment of dry eye disease. The recently developed fluorophotometer can objectively detect changes in the corneal epithelium by quantitatively measuring its barrier function or permeability. The purpose of the study is to investigate the use of corneal fluorescein penetration measured by the fluorophotometer as a diagnostic tool in the evaluation of dry eye patients. Methods Dry eye patients (16 eyes), who presented with a chief complaint of ocular irritation corresponding with dry eye, low Schirmer's one test (<10 mm after 5 minutes) and corneal fluorescein staining score of more than two, were included in the study. Normal subjects (16 eyes), who came for refraction error evaluation, served as controls. Institutional Review Board (IRB) approved consent was obtained before enrolling the subjects in the study and all questions were answered while explaining the risks, benefits and alternatives. All Fluorophotometry of the central corneal epithelium was done utilizing the Fluorotron Master (TradeMark). Each eye had a baseline fluorescein scan performed, after which 50 l of 1% sodium fluorescein dye was instilled. Three minutes later, the fluorescein was washed with 50 ml of normal saline. Fluorescein scans were then started immediately after washing and were recorded at 10, 20, 40, and 60 minutes thereafter. The corneal peak values of fluorescein concentration were recorded within the central cornea in both dry eyes and in controls. Results Ten minutes after fluorescein installition, patients with dry eye disease averaged a five-fold increase in corneal tissue fluorescein concentration (mean = 375.26 ± 202.67 ng/ml) compared with that of normal subjects

  4. Aptamer–nanoparticle complexes as powerful diagnostic and therapeutic tools

    PubMed Central

    Jo, Hunho; Ban, Changill

    2016-01-01

    Correct diagnosis and successful therapy are extremely important to enjoy a healthy life when suffering from a disease. To achieve these aims, various cutting-edge technologies have been designed and fabricated to diagnose and treat specific diseases. Among these technologies, aptamer–nanomaterial hybrids have received considerable attention from scientists and doctors because they have numerous advantages over other methods, such as good biocompatibility, low immunogenicity and controllable selectivity. In particular, aptamers, oligonucleic acids or peptides that bind to a specific target molecule, are regarded as outstanding biomolecules. In this review, several screening techniques for aptamers, also called systematic evolution of ligands by exponential enrichment (SELEX) methods, are introduced, and diagnostic and therapeutic aptamer applications are also presented. Furthermore, we describe diverse aptamer–nanomaterial conjugate designs and their applications for diagnosis and therapy. PMID:27151454

  5. DNA Methylation Biomarkers for Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma: Diagnostic and Prognostic Tools.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Wei; Cai, Rui; Chen, Qiu-Qiu

    2015-01-01

    Nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) is a common tumor in southern China and south-eastern Asia. Effective strategies for the prevention or screening of NPC are limited. Exploring effective biomarkers for the early diagnosis and prognosis of NPC continues to be a rigorous challenge. Evidence is accumulating that DNA methylation alterations are involved in the initiation and progression of NPC. Over the past few decades, aberrant DNA methylation in single or multiple tumor suppressor genes (TSGs) in various biologic samples have been described in NPC, which potentially represents useful biomarkers. Recently, large-scale DNA methylation analysis by genome-wide methylation platform provides a new way to identify candidate DNA methylated markers of NPC. This review summarizes the published research on the diagnostic and prognostic potential biomarkers of DNA methylation for NPC and discusses the current knowledge on DNA methylation as a biomarker for the early detection and monitoring of progression of NPC.

  6. Nucleic Acid Aptamers: Research Tools in Disease Diagnostics and Therapeutics

    PubMed Central

    Yadava, Pramod K.

    2014-01-01

    Aptamers are short sequences of nucleic acid (DNA or RNA) or peptide molecules which adopt a conformation and bind cognate ligands with high affinity and specificity in a manner akin to antibody-antigen interactions. It has been globally acknowledged that aptamers promise a plethora of diagnostic and therapeutic applications. Although use of nucleic acid aptamers as targeted therapeutics or mediators of targeted drug delivery is a relatively new avenue of research, one aptamer-based drug “Macugen” is FDA approved and a series of aptamer-based drugs are in clinical pipelines. The present review discusses the aspects of design, unique properties, applications, and development of different aptamers to aid in cancer diagnosis, prevention, and/or treatment under defined conditions. PMID:25050359

  7. Nucleic acid aptamers: research tools in disease diagnostics and therapeutics.

    PubMed

    Santosh, Baby; Yadava, Pramod K

    2014-01-01

    Aptamers are short sequences of nucleic acid (DNA or RNA) or peptide molecules which adopt a conformation and bind cognate ligands with high affinity and specificity in a manner akin to antibody-antigen interactions. It has been globally acknowledged that aptamers promise a plethora of diagnostic and therapeutic applications. Although use of nucleic acid aptamers as targeted therapeutics or mediators of targeted drug delivery is a relatively new avenue of research, one aptamer-based drug "Macugen" is FDA approved and a series of aptamer-based drugs are in clinical pipelines. The present review discusses the aspects of design, unique properties, applications, and development of different aptamers to aid in cancer diagnosis, prevention, and/or treatment under defined conditions.

  8. Facebook: can it be a diagnostic tool for neurologists?

    PubMed

    Mittal, Manoj K; Sloan, Jeff A; Rabinstein, Alejandro A

    2012-08-21

    A 56-year-old woman presented with acute ischaemic stroke with NIHSS 13. She had right eye ptosis and miosis. She and her husband were not sure if her facial features were different than usual. With her consent, we compared her face with her pictures on Facebook. In the absence of any ptosis or miosis in her pictures, she was diagnosed with acute Horner syndrome. Facebook may be a useful tool for the neurologists to define the timing of facial neurological signs.

  9. Continued Development of Expert System Tools for NPSS Engine Diagnostics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lewandowski, Henry

    1996-01-01

    The objectives of this grant were to work with previously developed NPSS (Numerical Propulsion System Simulation) tools and enhance their functionality; explore similar AI systems; and work with the High Performance Computing Communication (HPCC) K-12 program. Activities for this reporting period are briefly summarized and a paper addressing the implementation, monitoring and zooming in a distributed jet engine simulation is included as an attachment.

  10. How to make DNA count: DNA-based diagnostic tools in veterinary parasitology.

    PubMed

    Hunt, P W; Lello, J

    2012-05-04

    Traditional methods for the diagnosis of parasitic helminth infections of livestock have a number of limitations, such as the inability to distinguish mixed-species infections, a heavy reliance on technical experience and also sub-sampling errors. Some of these limitations may be overcome through the development of rapid and accurate DNA-based tests. For example, DNA-based tests can specifically detect individual species in a mixed infection at either the larval or egg stages, in the absence of morphological differences among species. Even so, some diagnostic problems remain the same, irrespective of whether a DNA-based or traditional method is used. For example, sub-sampling errors from an aggregated distribution are likely to persist. It is proposed, however, that DNA-based diagnostic technologies offer an opportunity to expand diagnostic capabilities, and are discussed in the current review. The future introduction of DNA-based diagnostic technologies into routine diagnostic settings will also be discussed.

  11. Diagnostic tool for early detection of ovarian cancers using Raman spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lieber, Chad A.; Molpus, Kelly; Brader, Kevin; Mahadevan-Jansen, Anita

    2000-05-01

    With an overall survival rate of about 35 percent, ovarian cancer claims more than 13,000 women in the US each year. It is estimated that roughly 1 in 70 women will develop ovarian cancer. Current screening techniques are challenged due to cost-effectiveness, variable false-positive results, and the asymptomatic nature of the early stages of ovarian cancer. The predominant screening method for ovarian cancers is transvaginal sonography (TVS). TVS is fairly accomplished at ovarian cancer detection, however it is inefficient in distinguishing between benign and malignant masses. Accurate diagnosis of the ovarian tumor relies on exploratory laparotomy, thus increasing the cost and hazard of false- positive screening methods. Raman spectroscopy has been sued successfully as a diagnostic tool in several organ systems in vitro. These studies have shown that Raman spectroscopy can be used to provide diagnosis of subtle changes in tissue pathology with high accuracy. Based on this success, we have developed a Raman spectroscopic system for application in the ovary. Using this system, the Raman signatures of normal and various types of non-normal human ovarian tissues were characterized in vitro. Raman spectra are being analyzed, and empirical as well as multivariate discriminatory algorithms developed. Based on the result of this study, a strategy for in vivo trials will be planned.

  12. Shrinking the lymphatic filariasis map: update on diagnostic tools for mapping and transmission monitoring.

    PubMed

    Rebollo, Maria P; Bockarie, Moses John

    2014-12-01

    Lymphatic filariasis (LF), which is highly endemic in 73 countries worldwide, is targeted for elimination by 2020. The strategy for achieving this goal is based on 4 sequential programmatic steps: mapping, Mass drug administration (MDA) implementation, post-MDA surveillance and verification of LF elimination. All 4 stages of the implementation process are dependent on the availability of user friendly and highly sensitive rapid diagnostic tools. By the end of 2012, 59 countries had completed mapping for LF and Eritrea was the only country yet to start the process. Rolling out new diagnostic tools to facilitate the mapping process will enable an accelerated shrinking of the LF map to zero endemic countries by 2020. When the Global Programme to Eliminate Lymphatic Filariasis was launched in 2000, diagnostic tools for LF were limited to clinical examination, detection of microfilaria (MF) by microscopy in night blood samples and detection of antibodies to native-antigen preparations. There has been a significant improvement in the traditional LF diagnostic methods in recent years and some new tools are now available. This paper provides an update on the human diagnostic tests available for LF and their current applications as tools in mapping and transmission monitoring. The values of entomological indicators and parasite detection and speciation methods applied to vector populations are also discussed.

  13. Giardia/giardiasis - a perspective on diagnostic and analytical tools.

    PubMed

    Koehler, Anson V; Jex, Aaron R; Haydon, Shane R; Stevens, Melita A; Gasser, Robin B

    2014-01-01

    Giardiasis is a gastrointestinal disease of humans and other animals caused by species of parasitic protists of the genus Giardia. This disease is transmitted mainly via the faecal-oral route (e.g., in water or food) and is of socioeconomic importance worldwide. The accurate detection and genetic characterisation of the different species and population variants (usually referred to as assemblages and/or sub-assemblages) of Giardia are central to understanding their transmission patterns and host spectra. The present article provides a background on Giardia and giardiasis, and reviews some key techniques employed for the identification and genetic characterisation of Giardia in biological samples, the diagnosis of infection and the analysis of genetic variation within and among species of Giardia. Advances in molecular techniques provide a solid basis for investigating the systematics, population genetics, ecology and epidemiology of Giardia species and genotypes as well as the prevention and control of giardiasis.

  14. Lung ultrasound in critically ill patients: a new diagnostic tool.

    PubMed

    Dexheimer Neto, Felippe Leopoldo; Dalcin, Paulo de Tarso Roth; Teixeira, Cassiano; Beltrami, Flávia Gabe

    2012-01-01

    The evaluation of critically ill patients using lung ultrasound, even if performed by nonspecialists, has recently garnered greater interest. Because lung ultrasound is based on the fact that every acute illness reduces lung aeration, it can provide information that complements the physical examination and clinical impression, the main advantage being that it is a bedside tool. The objective of this review was to evaluate the clinical applications of lung ultrasound by searching the PubMed and the Brazilian Virtual Library of Health databases. We used the following search terms (in Portuguese and English): ultrasound; lung; and critical care. In addition to the most relevant articles, we also reviewed specialized textbooks. The data show that lung ultrasound is useful in the differential diagnosis of pulmonary infiltrates, having good accuracy in identifying consolidations and interstitial syndrome. In addition, lung ultrasound has been widely used in the evaluation and treatment of pleural effusions, as well as in the identification of pneumothorax. This technique can also be useful in the immediate evaluation of patients with dyspnea or acute respiratory failure. Other described applications include monitoring treatment response and increasing the safety of invasive procedures. Although specific criteria regarding training and certification are still lacking, lung ultrasound is a fast, inexpensive, and widely available tool. This technique should progressively come to be more widely incorporated into the care of critically ill patients.

  15. Accurate identification and compensation of geometric errors of 5-axis CNC machine tools using double ball bar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lasemi, Ali; Xue, Deyi; Gu, Peihua

    2016-05-01

    Five-axis CNC machine tools are widely used in manufacturing of parts with free-form surfaces. Geometric errors of machine tools have significant effects on the quality of manufactured parts. This research focuses on development of a new method to accurately identify geometric errors of 5-axis CNC machines, especially the errors due to rotary axes, using the magnetic double ball bar. A theoretical model for identification of geometric errors is provided. In this model, both position-independent errors and position-dependent errors are considered as the error sources. This model is simplified by identification and removal of the correlated and insignificant error sources of the machine. Insignificant error sources are identified using the sensitivity analysis technique. Simulation results reveal that the simplified error identification model can result in more accurate estimations of the error parameters. Experiments on a 5-axis CNC machine tool also demonstrate significant reduction in the volumetric error after error compensation.

  16. QUADAS-2: a revised tool for the quality assessment of diagnostic accuracy studies.

    PubMed

    Whiting, Penny F; Rutjes, Anne W S; Westwood, Marie E; Mallett, Susan; Deeks, Jonathan J; Reitsma, Johannes B; Leeflang, Mariska M G; Sterne, Jonathan A C; Bossuyt, Patrick M M

    2011-10-18

    In 2003, the QUADAS tool for systematic reviews of diagnostic accuracy studies was developed. Experience, anecdotal reports, and feedback suggested areas for improvement; therefore, QUADAS-2 was developed. This tool comprises 4 domains: patient selection, index test, reference standard, and flow and timing. Each domain is assessed in terms of risk of bias, and the first 3 domains are also assessed in terms of concerns regarding applicability. Signalling questions are included to help judge risk of bias. The QUADAS-2 tool is applied in 4 phases: summarize the review question, tailor the tool and produce review-specific guidance, construct a flow diagram for the primary study, and judge bias and applicability. This tool will allow for more transparent rating of bias and applicability of primary diagnostic accuracy studies.

  17. A new diagnostic tool for masked hypertension: impaired sleep quality

    PubMed Central

    Erdem, Fatma; Cakır, Ugur; Yıldırım, Osman; Alcelik, Aytekin; Donmez, Ibrahim; Tuman, Taha Can; Caglar, Sabri Onur; Yazıcı, Mehmet

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between masked hypertension and impaired sleep quality. Additionally, we evaluated the diagnostic role and prevalence of poor sleep quality among patients with newly diagnosed masked hypertension. Material and methods A total of 112 individuals, 72 patients with newly diagnosed masked hypertension and 40 normotensive healthy volunteers, were included in this study. All patients underwent evaluation comprising 12-lead electrocardiography, transthoracic echocardiography, 24-hour Holter ECG, and basic laboratory tests. Additionally, all participants completed questionnaires, including the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI). Results The total PSQI score was significantly higher in the masked hypertension group than in the normotensive healthy volunteers (4.13 ±2.43 vs. 2.33 ±1.67, p < 0.001). A PSQI score > 5 was found in 45.8% (n = 33) of patients in the masked hypertension group and 15% (n = 6) of patients in the normotensive group (p < 0.001). The non-dipper pattern was found in 17.5% of the healthy volunteer group and 59.94% (n = 41) of the masked hypertension group (p < 0.001). When we compared the dipping pattern of the masked hypertension groups, there was a significant difference in PSQI score between the dipper and non-dipper groups (4.87 ±3.21 vs. 3.58 ±2.33, p < 0.001). Multiple logistic regression analyses showed that masked hypertension, LV mass, and LV mass index score were independent predictors of poor PSQI. Conclusions This study demonstrates impaired sleep quality in subjects with masked hypertension, particularly those with a non-dipper pattern. Additionally, this study indicates that impaired sleep quality may help diagnose masked hypertension, particularly in the non-dipper group. PMID:27904509

  18. Dogs as a diagnostic tool for ill health in humans.

    PubMed

    Wells, Deborah L

    2012-01-01

    Researchers have long reported that dogs and cats improve the physical and psychological health of their human caregivers, and while it is still inconclusive, a substantial amount of research now lends support for the commonly held view that pets are good for us. Recently, studies have directed attention toward exploring the use of animals, most notably dogs, in the detection of disease and other types of health problems in people. This article reviews the evidence for dogs' ability to detect ill health in humans, focusing specifically on the detection of cancer, epileptic seizures, and hypoglycemia. The author describes the research carried out in this area and evaluates it in an effort to determine whether dogs have a role to play in modern health care as an alert tool or screening system for ill health. Where necessary, the author has highlighted weaknesses in the work and proposed directions for future studies.

  19. Fitting cognitive diagnostic assessment to the Concept Assessment Tool for Statics (CATS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santiago Roman, Aidsa Ivette

    A concept inventory (CI) is a multiple-choice instrument designed to evaluate whether a person has an accurate, working knowledge of a specific set of concepts. An important role of CI's is to provide instructors with clues about the pre-conceptions (or misconceptions) their students hold which may be actively interfering with learning. Only a few engineering CI's have been able to be applied successfully in instructional settings, due in part to statistical analysis techniques that are typically applied to the instrument. These techniques include psychometric interpretative techniques such as Classical Test Theory (CTT) and Item Response Theory (IRT), which measure the item performance data of the CI's. However, these strategies do not measure students' cognitive abilities (misconceptions). To begin filing this gap, the objective of this study was to determine the applicability of a new statistical method called the Fusion Model to the Concept Assessment Tool for Statics (CATS) among engineering students from various US universities. Specifically, the research question that guided this study was: Can the Fusion Model be appropriately used with the Cognitive Assessment Tool for Statics (CATS) to diagnostically measure students' cognitive understanding of Statics concepts? In this study, the Fusion Model was applied to CATS through a four-phase procedure. Each phase had a specific objective that was tied to the primary research question. The analysis performed resulted in the generation of a Q-matrix that relates a set of cognitive attributes to specific questions. These attributes were determined using the expertise of the author of this study and most importantly the developer of CATS. Results of the study indicated that CATS has high capability to be used as diagnostic assessment, and also identified items (questions) that needed to be revised because they were not able to discriminate between examinees who were masters and non-masters of the specified attributes

  20. A Novel Screening and Diagnostic Tool for Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Disorders for Telepsychiatry

    PubMed Central

    Malhotra, Savita; Chakrabarti, Subho; Shah, Ruchita; Mehta, Anurati; Gupta, Aarzoo; Sharma, Minali

    2015-01-01

    Background: A diagnostic tool designed as part of a telepsychiatry application for diagnosis and management of child and adolescent psychiatric disorders in India was developed considering the paucity of trained child psychiatrists and mental health professionals in India. Materials and Methods: The diagnostic tool consisted of screening and 10th revision of the International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems (ICD-10) criteria-based diagnostic algorithms for 18 psychiatric disorders seen in childhood and adolescence. Accuracy of diagnoses and feasibility of use of the tool was examined by comparing it with detailed semi-structured clinical evaluations by a qualified psychiatrist with 50 psychiatric patients (children and adolescents). Statistical Analysis: Descriptive analyses and paired t-tests were conducted to compare the mean number of diagnosis generated by the two interviews. Sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values were computed for the screening and the diagnostic sub-modules of the tool, compared to the clinical diagnoses. Kappa coefficients were computed to assess agreement between the diagnoses generated by the diagnostic sub-module and the clinical diagnoses. Results: The screening sub-module had high sensitivity, high specificity and negative predictive values for all disorders. For the diagnostic sub-module, there was moderate (kappa-0.4–0.6) to substantial agreement (kappa > 0.6) for all the disorders, (except psychosis) and high sensitivity (barring a few disorders) and specificity for almost all the disorders. Positive predictive values were found to be acceptable to high for most disorders, with consistently high negative predictive values. Conclusion: The new tool was found to be comprehensive, reasonably short and feasible. Results showed acceptable level of accuracy in diagnosis generated by the tool. PMID:26424901

  1. Watershed modeling tools and data for prognostic and diagnostic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chambel-Leitao, P.; Brito, D.; Neves, R.

    2009-04-01

    When eutrophication is considered an important process to control it can be accomplished reducing nitrogen and phosphorus losses from both point and nonpoint sources and helping to assess the effectiveness of the pollution reduction strategy. HARP-NUT guidelines (Guidelines on Harmonized Quantification and Reporting Procedures for Nutrients) (Borgvang & Selvik, 2000) are presented by OSPAR as the best common quantification and reporting procedures for calculating the reduction of nutrient inputs. In 2000, OSPAR HARP-NUT guidelines on a trial basis. They were intended to serve as a tool for OSPAR Contracting Parties to report, in a harmonized manner, their different commitments, present or future, with regard to nutrients under the OSPAR Convention, in particular the "Strategy to Combat Eutrophication". HARP-NUT Guidelines (Borgvang and Selvik, 2000; Schoumans, 2003) were developed to quantify and report on the individual sources of nitrogen and phosphorus discharges/losses to surface waters (Source Orientated Approach). These results can be compared to nitrogen and phosphorus figures with the total riverine loads measured at downstream monitoring points (Load Orientated Approach), as load reconciliation. Nitrogen and phosphorus retention in river systems represents the connecting link between the "Source Orientated Approach" and the "Load Orientated Approach". Both approaches are necessary for verification purposes and both may be needed for providing the information required for the various commitments. Guidelines 2,3,4,5 are mainly concerned with the sources estimation. They present a set of simple calculations that allow the estimation of the origin of loads. Guideline 6 is a particular case where the application of a model is advised, in order to estimate the sources of nutrients from diffuse sources associated with land use/land cover. The model chosen for this was SWAT (Arnold & Fohrer, 2005) model because it is suggested in the guideline 6 and because it

  2. Thoracic ultrasound: A complementary diagnostic tool in cardiology

    PubMed Central

    Trovato, Guglielmo M

    2016-01-01

    Clinical assessment and workup of patients referred to cardiologists may need an extension to chest disease. This requires more in-depth examination of respiratory co-morbidities due to uncertainty or severity of the clinical presentation. The filter and integration of ecg and echocardiographic information, addressing to the clues of right ventricular impairment, pulmonary embolism and pulmonary hypertension, and other less frequent conditions, such as congenital, inherited and systemic disease, usually allow more timely diagnosis and therapeutic choice. The concurrent use of thoracic ultrasound (TUS) is important, because, despite the evidence of the strict links between cardiac and respiratory medicine, heart and chest US imaging approaches are still separated. Actually, available expertise, knowledge, skills and training and equipment’s suitability are not equally fitting for heart or lung examination and not always already accessible in the same room or facility. Echocardiography is useful for study and monitoring of several respiratory conditions and even detection, so that this is nowadays an established functional complementary tool in pulmonary fibrosis and diffuse interstitial disease diagnosis and monitoring. Extending the approach of the cardiologist to lung and pleura will allow the achievement of information on pleural effusion, even minimal, lung consolidation and pneumothorax. Electrocardiography, pulse oximetry and US equipment are the friendly extension of the physical examination, if their use relies on adequate knowledge and training and on appropriate setting of efficient and working machines. Lacking these premises, overshadowing or misleading artefacts may impair the usefulness of TUS as an imaging procedure. PMID:27847557

  3. New methodology to baseline and match AME polysilicon etcher using advanced diagnostic tools

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poppe, James; Shipman, John; Reinhardt, Barbara E.; Roussel, Myriam; Hedgecock, Raymond; Fonda, Arturo

    1999-09-01

    As process controls tighten in the semiconductor industry, the need to understand the variables that determine system performance become more important. For plasma etch systems, process success depends on the control of key parameters such as: vacuum integrity, pressure, gas flows, and RF power. It is imperative to baseline, monitor, and control these variables. This paper presents an overview of the methods and tools used by Motorola BMC fabrication facility to characterize an Applied Materials polysilicon etcher. Tool performance data obtained from our traditional measurement techniques are limited in their scope and do not provide a complete picture of the ultimate tool performance. Presently the BMC traditional characterization tools provide a snapshot of the static operation of the equipment under test (EUT); however, complete evaluation of the dynamic performance cannot be monitored without the aid of specialized diagnostic equipment. To provide us with a complete system baseline evaluation of the polysilicon etcher, three diagnostic tools were utilized: Lucas Labs Vacuum Diagnostic System, Residual Gas Analyzer, and the ENI Voltage/Impedance Probe. The diagnostic methodology used to baseline and match key parameters of qualified production equipment has had an immense impact on other equipment characterization in the facility. It has resulted in reduced cycle time for new equipment introduction as well.

  4. Diagnostic Tools for Bluetongue and Epizootic Hemorrhagic Disease Viruses Applicable to North American Veterinary Diagnosticians.

    PubMed

    Wilson, William C; Daniels, Peter; Ostlund, Eileen N; Johnson, Donna E; Oberst, Richard D; Hairgrove, Thomas B; Mediger, Jessica; McIntosh, Michael T

    2015-06-01

    This review provides an overview of current and potential new diagnostic tests for bluetongue (BT) and epizootic hemorrhagic disease (EHD) viruses compiled from international participants of the Orbivirus Gap Analysis Workshop, Diagnostic Group. The emphasis of this review is on diagnostic tools available to North American veterinary diagnosticians. Standard diagnostic tests are readily available for BT/EHD viruses, and there are described tests that are published in the World Organization for Animal Health (OIE) Terrestrial Manual. There is however considerable variation in the diagnostic approach to these viruses. Serological assays are well established, and many laboratories are experienced in running these assays. Numerous nucleic acid amplification assays are also available for BT virus (BTV) and EHD virus (EHDV). Although there is considerable experience with BTV reverse-transcriptase PCR (RT-PCR), there are no standards or comparisons of the protocols used by various state and federal veterinary diagnostic laboratories. Methods for genotyping BTV and EHDV isolates are available and are valuable tools for monitoring and analyzing circulating viruses. These methods include RT-PCR panels or arrays, RT-PCR and sequencing of specific genome segments, or the use of next-generation sequencing. In addition to enabling virus characterization, use of advanced molecular detection methods, including DNA microarrays and next-generation sequencing, significantly enhance the ability to detect unique virus strains that may arise through genetic drift, recombination, or viral genome segment reassortment, as well as incursions of new virus strains from other geographical areas.

  5. Spectroscopy as a diagnostic tool for urban soil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brook, Anna; Kopel, Daniella; Wittenberg, Lea

    2015-04-01

    Anthropogenic urban soil are the foundation of the urban green infrastructure, the green net quality is as good as each of its patches. In early days of pedology urban soil has been recognized with respect to contamination and the risks for human health but in study performed since the 70s, the importance of urban soil for the urban ecology became increasingly significant (Gómez-Baggethun and Barton 2013). Urban soils are highly disturbed land that was created by the process of urbanization. The dominant agent in the creation of urban soils is human activity which modifies the natural soil through mixing, filling or by contamination of land surfaces so as to create a layer of urban soil which can be more than 50 cm thick (Pavao-Zuckerman 2008). The objective of this study is to determine the extent to which field spectroscopy methods can be used to extend the knowledge of urban soils features and components. The majority of the studies on urban soils concentrate on identifying and mapping of pollution mostly heavy metals. In this study a top-down analysis is developed - a simple and intuitive spectral feature for detecting the presence of minerals, organic matter and pollutants in mixed soil samples. The developed method uses spectral activity (SA) detection in a structured hierarchical approach to quickly and, more importantly, correctly identify dominant spectral features. The developed method is adopted by multiple in-production tools including continuum removal normalization, guided by polynomial generalization, and spectral-likelihood algorithms: orthogonal subspace projection (OSP) and iterative spectral mixture analysis (ISMA) were compared to feature likelihood methods (Li et al. 2014). Results of the proposed top-down unmixing method suggest that the analysis is made very fast due to the simplified hierarchy which avoids the high-learning curve associated with unmixing algorithms showed that the most abundant components were coarse organic matter 12

  6. A support vector machine model provides an accurate transcript-level-based diagnostic for major depressive disorder

    PubMed Central

    Yu, J S; Xue, A Y; Redei, E E; Bagheri, N

    2016-01-01

    Major depressive disorder (MDD) is a critical cause of morbidity and disability with an economic cost of hundreds of billions of dollars each year, necessitating more effective treatment strategies and novel approaches to translational research. A notable barrier in addressing this public health threat involves reliable identification of the disorder, as many affected individuals remain undiagnosed or misdiagnosed. An objective blood-based diagnostic test using transcript levels of a panel of markers would provide an invaluable tool for MDD as the infrastructure—including equipment, trained personnel, billing, and governmental approval—for similar tests is well established in clinics worldwide. Here we present a supervised classification model utilizing support vector machines (SVMs) for the analysis of transcriptomic data readily obtained from a peripheral blood specimen. The model was trained on data from subjects with MDD (n=32) and age- and gender-matched controls (n=32). This SVM model provides a cross-validated sensitivity and specificity of 90.6% for the diagnosis of MDD using a panel of 10 transcripts. We applied a logistic equation on the SVM model and quantified a likelihood of depression score. This score gives the probability of a MDD diagnosis and allows the tuning of specificity and sensitivity for individual patients to bring personalized medicine closer in psychiatry. PMID:27779627

  7. 77 FR 42504 - Prospective Grant of Exclusive License: Development of a Diagnostic Tool for Diagnosing Benign...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-19

    ... limited to the use of Licensed Patent Rights for the diagnosis and prognosis of thyroid cancer. DATES... common forms of thyroid cancer such as follicular carcinoma. These results provide a molecular... Diagnostic Tool for Diagnosing Benign Versus Malignant Thyroid Lesions AGENCY: National Institutes of...

  8. [Infectious complications of long term intravenous devices: incidence, risk factors, diagnostic tools].

    PubMed

    Douard, M C; Ardoin, C; Payri, L; Tarot, J P

    1999-03-01

    Implantable venous ports and Hickman central venous catheters are widely used in patients with cancer, blood disorders, or HIV infection, both for in-hospital care and at home. Infectious complications are among the common causes for readmission in these patients. The present review discusses the incidence, risk factors, and diagnostic tools for infectious complications associated with long-term venous access devices.

  9. Laser-induced accurate frontal cortex damage: a new tool for brain study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flores, Gonzalo; Khotiaintsev, Sergei N.; Sanchez-Huerta, Maria L.; Ibanes, Osvaldo; Hernandez, Adan; Silva, Adriana B.; Calderon, Rafael; Ayala, Griselda; Marroquin, Javier; Svirid, Vladimir; Khotiaintsev, Yuri V.

    1999-01-01

    New laser-based technique for anatomical-functional study of the medial prefrontal cortex (MPFC) of the brain of experimental animals (rats) is presented. The technique is based on making accurate well-controlled lesions to small MPFC and subsequent observing behavioral alterations in the lesioned animals relative to control ones. Laser produces smaller and more accurate lesions in comparison to those obtained by traditional methods, such as: mechanical action, chemical means, and electrical currents. For producing the brain lesions, a 10 W CO2 CW laser is employed for reasons of its sufficiently high power, which is combined with relatively low cost-per-Watt ratio. In our experience, such power rating is sufficient for making MPFC lesions. The laser radiation is applied in a form of pulse series via hollow circular metallic waveguide made of stainless steel. The waveguide is of inner diameter 1.3 mm and 95 mm long. The anesthetized animals are placed in stereotaxic instrument. Via perforations made in the skull bone, the MPFC is exposed to the laser radiation. Several weeks later (after animal recuperation), standard behavioral tests are performed. They reveal behavioral changes, which point to a damage of some small regions of the MPFC. These results correlate with the histological data, which reveal the existence of small and accurate MPFC lesions. The present technique has good prospects for use in anatomical- functional studies of brain by areas. In addition, this technique appears to have considerable promise as a treatment method for some pathologies, e.g. the Parkinson's disease.

  10. Automated innovative diagnostic, data management and communication tool, for improving malaria vector control in endemic settings.

    PubMed

    Vontas, John; Mitsakakis, Konstantinos; Zengerle, Roland; Yewhalaw, Delenasaw; Sikaala, Chadwick Haadezu; Etang, Josiane; Fallani, Matteo; Carman, Bill; Müller, Pie; Chouaïbou, Mouhamadou; Coleman, Marlize; Coleman, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Malaria is a life-threatening disease that caused more than 400,000 deaths in sub-Saharan Africa in 2015. Mass prevention of the disease is best achieved by vector control which heavily relies on the use of insecticides. Monitoring mosquito vector populations is an integral component of control programs and a prerequisite for effective interventions. Several individual methods are used for this task; however, there are obstacles to their uptake, as well as challenges in organizing, interpreting and communicating vector population data. The Horizon 2020 project "DMC-MALVEC" consortium will develop a fully integrated and automated multiplex vector-diagnostic platform (LabDisk) for characterizing mosquito populations in terms of species composition, Plasmodium infections and biochemical insecticide resistance markers. The LabDisk will be interfaced with a Disease Data Management System (DDMS), a custom made data management software which will collate and manage data from routine entomological monitoring activities providing information in a timely fashion based on user needs and in a standardized way. The ResistanceSim, a serious game, a modern ICT platform that uses interactive ways of communicating guidelines and exemplifying good practices of optimal use of interventions in the health sector will also be a key element. The use of the tool will teach operational end users the value of quality data (relevant, timely and accurate) to make informed decisions. The integrated system (LabDisk, DDMS & ResistanceSim) will be evaluated in four malaria endemic countries, representative of the vector control challenges in sub-Saharan Africa, (Cameroon, Ivory Coast, Ethiopia and Zambia), highly representative of malaria settings with different levels of endemicity and vector control challenges, to support informed decision-making in vector control and disease management.

  11. Development of a non-contact diagnostic tool for high power lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simmons, Jed A.; Guttman, Jeffrey L.; McCauley, John

    2016-03-01

    High power lasers in excess of 1 kW generate enough Rayleigh scatter, even in the NIR, to be detected by silicon based sensor arrays. A lens and camera system in an off-axis position can therefore be used as a non-contact diagnostic tool for high power lasers. Despite the simplicity of the concept, technical challenges have been encountered in the development of an instrument referred to as BeamWatch. These technical challenges include reducing background radiation, achieving high signal to noise ratio, reducing saturation events caused by particulates crossing the beam, correcting images to achieve accurate beam width measurements, creating algorithms for the removal of non-uniformities, and creating two simultaneous views of the beam from orthogonal directions. Background radiation in the image was reduced by the proper positioning of the back plane and the placement of absorbing materials on the internal surfaces of BeamWatch. Maximizing signal to noise ratio, important to the real-time monitoring of focus position, was aided by increasing lens throughput. The number of particulates crossing the beam path was reduced by creating a positive pressure inside BeamWatch. Algorithms in the software removed non-uniformities in the data prior to generating waist width, divergence, BPP, and M2 results. A dual axis version of BeamWatch was developed by the use of mirrors. By its nature BeamWatch produced results similar to scanning slit measurements. Scanning slit data was therefore taken and compared favorably with BeamWatch results.

  12. Cancer-associated fibroblasts as target and tool in cancer therapeutics and diagnostics.

    PubMed

    De Vlieghere, Elly; Verset, Laurine; Demetter, Pieter; Bracke, Marc; De Wever, Olivier

    2015-10-01

    Cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs) are drivers of tumour progression and are considered as a target and a tool in cancer diagnostic and therapeutic applications. An increased abundance of CAFs or CAF signatures are recognized as a bad prognostic marker in several cancer types. Tumour-environment biomimetics strongly improve our understanding of the communication between CAFs, cancer cells and other host cells. Several experimental drugs targeting CAFs are in clinical trials for multiple tumour entities; alternatively, CAFs can be exploited as a tool to characterize the functionality of circulating tumour cells or to capture them as a tool to prevent metastasis. The continuous interaction between tissue engineers, biomaterial experts and cancer researchers creates the possibility to biomimic the tumour-environment and provides new opportunities in cancer diagnostics and management.

  13. High-performance computing and networking as tools for accurate emission computed tomography reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Passeri, A; Formiconi, A R; De Cristofaro, M T; Pupi, A; Meldolesi, U

    1997-04-01

    It is well known that the quantitative potential of emission computed tomography (ECT) relies on the ability to compensate for resolution, attenuation and scatter effects. Reconstruction algorithms which are able to take these effects into account are highly demanding in terms of computing resources. The reported work aimed to investigate the use of a parallel high-performance computing platform for ECT reconstruction taking into account an accurate model of the acquisition of single-photon emission tomographic (SPET) data. An iterative algorithm with an accurate model of the variable system response was ported on the MIMD (Multiple Instruction Multiple Data) parallel architecture of a 64-node Cray T3D massively parallel computer. The system was organized to make it easily accessible even from low-cost PC-based workstations through standard TCP/IP networking. A complete brain study of 30 (64x64) slices could be reconstructed from a set of 90 (64x64) projections with ten iterations of the conjugate gradients algorithm in 9 s, corresponding to an actual speed-up factor of 135. This work demonstrated the possibility of exploiting remote high-performance computing and networking resources from hospital sites by means of low-cost workstations using standard communication protocols without particular problems for routine use. The achievable speed-up factors allow the assessment of the clinical benefit of advanced reconstruction techniques which require a heavy computational burden for the compensation effects such as variable spatial resolution, scatter and attenuation. The possibility of using the same software on the same hardware platform with data acquired in different laboratories with various kinds of SPET instrumentation is appealing for software quality control and for the evaluation of the clinical impact of the reconstruction methods.

  14. Quality Assessment of Comparative Diagnostic Accuracy Studies: Our Experience Using a Modified Version of the QUADAS-2 Tool

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wade, Ros; Corbett, Mark; Eastwood, Alison

    2013-01-01

    Assessing the quality of included studies is a vital step in undertaking a systematic review. The recently revised Quality Assessment of Diagnostic Accuracy Studies (QUADAS) tool (QUADAS-2), which is the only validated quality assessment tool for diagnostic accuracy studies, does not include specific criteria for assessing comparative studies. As…

  15. The Diagnostic Accuracy of Screening Tools to Detect Eating Disorders in Female Athletes.

    PubMed

    Wagner, Alyssa J; Erickson, Casey D; Tierney, Dayna K; Houston, Megan N; Bacon, Cailee E Welch

    2016-12-01

    Clinical Scenario: Eating disorders in female athletes are a commonly underdiagnosed condition. Better screening tools for eating disorders in athletic females could help increase diagnosis and help athletes get the treatment they need. Focused Clinical Question: Should screening tools be used to detect eating disorders in female athletes? Summary of Key Findings: The literature was searched for studies that included information regarding the sensitivity and specificity of screening tools for eating disorders in female athletes. The search returned 5 possible articles related to the clinical question; 3 studies met the inclusion criteria (2 cross-sectional studies, 1 cohort study) and were included. All 3 studies reported sensitivity and specificity for the Athletic Milieu Direct Questionnaire version 2, the Brief Eating Disorder in Athletes Questionnaire version 2, and the Physiologic Screening Test to Detect Eating Disorders Among Female Athletes. All 3 studies found that the respective screening tool was able to accurately identify female athletes with eating disorders; however, the screening tools varied in sensitivity and specificity values. Clinical Bottom Line: There is strong evidence to support the use of screening tools to detect eating disorders in female athletes. Screening tools with higher sensitivity and specificity have demonstrated a successful outcome of determining athletes with eating disorders or at risk for developing an eating disorder. Strength of Recommendation: There is grade A evidence available to demonstrate that screening tools accurately detect female athletes at risk for eating disorders.

  16. Facilitating the selection and creation of accurate interatomic potentials with robust tools and characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trautt, Zachary T.; Tavazza, Francesca; Becker, Chandler A.

    2015-10-01

    The Materials Genome Initiative seeks to significantly decrease the cost and time of development and integration of new materials. Within the domain of atomistic simulations, several roadblocks stand in the way of reaching this goal. While the NIST Interatomic Potentials Repository hosts numerous interatomic potentials (force fields), researchers cannot immediately determine the best choice(s) for their use case. Researchers developing new potentials, specifically those in restricted environments, lack a comprehensive portfolio of efficient tools capable of calculating and archiving the properties of their potentials. This paper elucidates one solution to these problems, which uses Python-based scripts that are suitable for rapid property evaluation and human knowledge transfer. Calculation results are visible on the repository website, which reduces the time required to select an interatomic potential for a specific use case. Furthermore, property evaluation scripts are being integrated with modern platforms to improve discoverability and access of materials property data. To demonstrate these scripts and features, we will discuss the automation of stacking fault energy calculations and their application to additional elements. While the calculation methodology was developed previously, we are using it here as a case study in simulation automation and property calculations. We demonstrate how the use of Python scripts allows for rapid calculation in a more easily managed way where the calculations can be modified, and the results presented in user-friendly and concise ways. Additionally, the methods can be incorporated into other efforts, such as openKIM.

  17. Satellite identification: object oriented tools for accurate maintenance of the catalog

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamensky, S.

    2001-10-01

    Satellite identification procedures are based on joint analysis of orbital and non-coordinate data available in the Data Processing Center. The work presents the system of software tools used for this analysis. The first section of the paper presents general composition of the model of the space situation used by the Data Processing Center, indicating and describing the basic entities, objects, classes, attributes and techniques (with the required databases and archives) used for statistical and logical inference. The place of satellite identification tasks in this system is outlined. Then a set of classifiers, used for statistical inference on satellite type (spacecraft, rocket-body, fragment; specific type (series) of a spacecraft or rocket-body) is described. These classifiers use orbital and non-orbital (estimations of sizes, rotation, ballistic characteristics) data and evaluation of the evolution of these parameters if needed. However, the actual satellite identification techniques normally involve the data on all the objects of the launch (for analysis of new satellites) and consider the structure of satellite groups and constellations - regarding the place of the analyzed satellites in them and their evolution. The examples of enhanced efficiency of the system compared to the simple cluster-based analysis are presented as well as the illustrations of the structural advantages and "richer" inference capabilities.

  18. ULTRASONOGRAPHY, AN EFFECTIVE TOOL IN DIAGNOSING PLANTAR FASCIITIS: A SYSTEMATIC REVIEW OF DIAGNOSTIC TRIALS

    PubMed Central

    Wyland, Matthew; Applequist, Lee; Bolowsky, Erin; Klingensmith, Heather; Virag, Isaac

    2016-01-01

    Background Plantar fasciitis (PF) is the most common cause of heel pain that affects 10% of the general population, whether living an athletic or sedentary lifestyle. The most frequent mechanism of injury is an inflammatory response that is caused by repetitive micro trauma. Many techniques are available to diagnose PF, including the use of ultrasonography (US). Purpose The purpose of this study is to systematically review and appraise previously published articles published between the years 2000 and 2015 that evaluated the effectiveness of using US in the process of diagnosing PF, as compared to alternative diagnostic methods. Methods A total of eight databases were searched to systematically review scholarly (peer reviewed) diagnostic and intervention articles pertaining to the ability of US to diagnose PF. Results Using specific key words the preliminary search yielded 264 articles, 10 of which were deemed relevant for inclusion in the study. Two raters independently scored each article using the 15 point modified QUADAS scale. Discussion Six studies compared the diagnostic efficacy of US to another diagnostic technique to diagnose PF, and four studies focused on comparing baseline assessment of plantar fascia before subsequent intervention. The most notable US outcomes measured were plantar fascia thickness, enthesopathy, and hypoechogenicity. Conclusion US was found to be accurate and reliable compared to alternative reference standards like MRI in the diagnosis of PF. The general advantages of US (e.g. cost efficient, ease of administration, non-invasive, limited contraindications) make it a superior diagnostic modality in the diagnosis of PF. US should be considered in rehabilitation clinics to effectively diagnose PF and to accurately monitor improvement in the disease process following rehabilitation interventions. Level of Evidence 1A PMID:27757279

  19. Feasibility of streamlining an interactive Bayesian-based diagnostic support tool designed for clinical practice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Po-Hao; Botzolakis, Emmanuel; Mohan, Suyash; Bryan, R. N.; Cook, Tessa

    2016-03-01

    In radiology, diagnostic errors occur either through the failure of detection or incorrect interpretation. Errors are estimated to occur in 30-35% of all exams and contribute to 40-54% of medical malpractice litigations. In this work, we focus on reducing incorrect interpretation of known imaging features. Existing literature categorizes cognitive bias leading a radiologist to an incorrect diagnosis despite having correctly recognized the abnormal imaging features: anchoring bias, framing effect, availability bias, and premature closure. Computational methods make a unique contribution, as they do not exhibit the same cognitive biases as a human. Bayesian networks formalize the diagnostic process. They modify pre-test diagnostic probabilities using clinical and imaging features, arriving at a post-test probability for each possible diagnosis. To translate Bayesian networks to clinical practice, we implemented an entirely web-based open-source software tool. In this tool, the radiologist first selects a network of choice (e.g. basal ganglia). Then, large, clearly labeled buttons displaying salient imaging features are displayed on the screen serving both as a checklist and for input. As the radiologist inputs the value of an extracted imaging feature, the conditional probabilities of each possible diagnosis are updated. The software presents its level of diagnostic discrimination using a Pareto distribution chart, updated with each additional imaging feature. Active collaboration with the clinical radiologist is a feasible approach to software design and leads to design decisions closely coupling the complex mathematics of conditional probability in Bayesian networks with practice.

  20. A Structural Health Monitoring Software Tool for Optimization, Diagnostics and Prognostics

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-01-01

    A Structural Health Monitoring Software Tool for Optimization, Diagnostics and Prognostics Seth S . Kessler1, Eric B. Flynn2, Christopher T...technology more accessible, and commercially practical. 1. INTRODUCTION Currently successful laboratory non- destructive testing and monitoring...PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR( S ) 5d. PROJECT NUMBER 5e. TASK NUMBER 5f. WORK UNIT NUMBER 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME( S ) AND ADDRESS(ES

  1. Population Synthesis at Short Wavelengths and Spectrophotometric Diagnostic Tools for Galaxy Evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buzzoni, A.; Bertone, E.; Chávez, M.; Rodríguez-Merino, L. H.

    2009-03-01

    Taking advantage of recent important advances in the calculation of high-resolution spectral grids of stellar atmospheres at short wavelengths, and their implementation for population synthesis models, we briefly review here some special properties of ultraviolet emission in SSPs, and discuss their potential applications for identifying and tuning up effective diagnostic tools to probe distinctive evolutionary properties of early-type galaxies and other evolved stellar systems.

  2. Acute cardiac arrhythmias following surgery for congenital heart disease: mechanisms, diagnostic tools, and management.

    PubMed

    Payne, Linda; Zeigler, Vicki L; Gillette, Paul C

    2011-06-01

    This article focuses on the management of those cardiac arrhythmias most commonly seen in the immediate postoperative period. They include ventricular tachycardia, ventricular fibrillation, atrial flutter, junctional ectopic tachycardia, bradycardia, and atrioventricular block. The mechanisms of cardiac arrhythmias are reviewed followed by a brief overview of the predominant acute arrhythmias, tools used for the diagnostic evaluation of these arrhythmias, management strategies, and, finally, nursing considerations.

  3. Application of Diagnostic Analysis Tools to the Ares I Thrust Vector Control System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maul, William A.; Melcher, Kevin J.; Chicatelli, Amy K.; Johnson, Stephen B.

    2010-01-01

    The NASA Ares I Crew Launch Vehicle is being designed to support missions to the International Space Station (ISS), to the Moon, and beyond. The Ares I is undergoing design and development utilizing commercial-off-the-shelf tools and hardware when applicable, along with cutting edge launch technologies and state-of-the-art design and development. In support of the vehicle s design and development, the Ares Functional Fault Analysis group was tasked to develop an Ares Vehicle Diagnostic Model (AVDM) and to demonstrate the capability of that model to support failure-related analyses and design integration. One important component of the AVDM is the Upper Stage (US) Thrust Vector Control (TVC) diagnostic model-a representation of the failure space of the US TVC subsystem. This paper first presents an overview of the AVDM, its development approach, and the software used to implement the model and conduct diagnostic analysis. It then uses the US TVC diagnostic model to illustrate details of the development, implementation, analysis, and verification processes. Finally, the paper describes how the AVDM model can impact both design and ground operations, and how some of these impacts are being realized during discussions of US TVC diagnostic analyses with US TVC designers.

  4. Doing diagnosis: whether and how clinicians use a diagnostic tool of uncertain clinical utility.

    PubMed

    Armstrong, Natalie; Hilton, Paul

    2014-11-01

    Diagnosis is fundamental to the practice of medicine and mastery of it is central to the process of both becoming and practicing as a doctor. We focus on diagnosis as a process, in particular from the perspective of clinicians performing it. We explore how UK clinicians exercise discretion about whether and how to use a diagnostic tool (invasive urodynamic tests - IUT) for which there is, currently, no clear, high-quality evidence. Interviews were conducted with a purposive sample of 18 clinicians who had previously completed a survey on their use of IUT. Analysis was based on the constant comparative method. Participants tended to be polarised in their view of IUT. While many regarded it as a valuable diagnostic tool that they used frequently and thought was important, others reported using it only infrequently, and some were sceptical of its value in the diagnostic process even if they commonly used it. In addition to the anticipated clinical functions (e.g. adding to understanding of the condition, helping determine best treatment) there were additional, more social, functions that IUT could serve, including fitting in with local practice and helping to defend against possible future litigation. We discern two distinct approaches to the practice of diagnosis: one approach means 'leaving no stone unturned' and seeking all available evidence, proven or otherwise; while a second means using clinical judgement to say 'enough is enough' and thereby avoid exposing patients to possibly unnecessary tests and potentially wasting scarce healthcare resources.

  5. Novel Objective Biomarkers of Alcohol Use: Potential Diagnostic and Treatment Management Tools in Dual Diagnosis Care

    PubMed Central

    Kalapatapu, Raj K.; Chambers, R.

    2010-01-01

    Alcohol use disorders are highly prevalent conditions that generate a large fraction of the total public health burden. These disorders are concentrated in mentally ill populations, in which reliability of self-reporting of alcohol consumption may be especially compromised. The application of objective biomarkers for alcohol use may therefore play an important role in these patients. This article provides a description and comparative overview of traditional versus novel biomarkers of alcohol consumption. Greater professional familiarity with and use of novel biomarkers as diagnostic and treatment management tools may enhance clinical standards and research on alcohol use in patients with a dual diagnosis. PMID:20582236

  6. Ocular static and dynamic light scattering: a noninvasive diagnostic tool for eye research and clinical practice

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ansari, Rafat R.

    2004-01-01

    The noninvasive techniques of static and dynamic light scattering are emerging as valuable diagnostic tools for the early detection of ocular and systemic diseases. These include corneal abnormalities, pigmentary dispersion syndrome, glaucoma, cataract, diabetic vitreopathy, and possibly macular degeneration. Systemic conditions such as diabetes and possibly Alzheimer's disease can potentially be detected early via ocular tissues. The current state of development of these techniques for application to ophthalmic research and ultimately clinical practice is reviewed. (c) 2004 Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers.

  7. Utility of Discography as a Preoperative Diagnostic Tool for Intradural Lumbar Disc Herniation

    PubMed Central

    Toyoda, Hiromitsu; Terai, Hidetomi; Dohzono, Sho; Hori, Yusuke; Nakamura, Hiroaki

    2016-01-01

    Preoperative definitive diagnosis of intradural lumbar disc herniation (ILDH) is difficult despite the availability of various neuroradiological investigative tools. We present a case of ILDH diagnosed preoperatively by discography and computed tomography-discography (disco-CT).The patient was a 63-year-old man with acute excruciating right leg pain. Discography and disco-CT demonstrated leakage of the contrast medium into the intradural space. Based on these findings, a right L5 nerve root disturbance caused by ILDH was diagnosed. A right L5 hemi-laminectomy and a dorsal durotomy were performed. The herniated disc was carefully dissected and then completely removed. Three months after surgery, the patient had fully recovered. This report highlights the importance of making a definitive diagnosis of ILDH preoperatively for better surgical planning and improved clinical outcomes. Furthermore, discography and disco-CT are both useful preoperative diagnostic tools for the diagnosis of ILDH. PMID:27559461

  8. Panel-based Genetic Diagnostic Testing for Inherited Eye Diseases is Highly Accurate and Reproducible and More Sensitive for Variant Detection Than Exome Sequencing

    PubMed Central

    Bujakowska, Kinga M.; Sousa, Maria E.; Fonseca-Kelly, Zoë D.; Taub, Daniel G.; Janessian, Maria; Wang, Dan Yi; Au, Elizabeth D.; Sims, Katherine B.; Sweetser, David A.; Fulton, Anne B.; Liu, Qin; Wiggs, Janey L.; Gai, Xiaowu; Pierce, Eric A.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Next-generation sequencing (NGS) based methods are being adopted broadly for genetic diagnostic testing, but the performance characteristics of these techniques have not been fully defined with regard to test accuracy and reproducibility. Methods We developed a targeted enrichment and NGS approach for genetic diagnostic testing of patients with inherited eye disorders, including inherited retinal degenerations, optic atrophy and glaucoma. In preparation for providing this Genetic Eye Disease (GEDi) test on a CLIA-certified basis, we performed experiments to measure the sensitivity, specificity, reproducibility as well as the clinical sensitivity of the test. Results The GEDi test is highly reproducible and accurate, with sensitivity and specificity for single nucleotide variant detection of 97.9% and 100%, respectively. The sensitivity for variant detection was notably better than the 88.3% achieved by whole exome sequencing (WES) using the same metrics, due to better coverage of targeted genes in the GEDi test compared to commercially available exome capture sets. Prospective testing of 192 patients with IRDs indicated that the clinical sensitivity of the GEDi test is high, with a diagnostic rate of 51%. Conclusion The data suggest that based on quantified performance metrics, selective targeted enrichment is preferable to WES for genetic diagnostic testing. PMID:25412400

  9. Use of Aptamers as Diagnostics Tools and Antiviral Agents for Human Viruses

    PubMed Central

    González, Víctor M.; Martín, M. Elena; Fernández, Gerónimo; García-Sacristán, Ana

    2016-01-01

    Appropriate diagnosis is the key factor for treatment of viral diseases. Time is the most important factor in rapidly developing and epidemiologically dangerous diseases, such as influenza, Ebola and SARS. Chronic viral diseases such as HIV-1 or HCV are asymptomatic or oligosymptomatic and the therapeutic success mainly depends on early detection of the infective agent. Over the last years, aptamer technology has been used in a wide range of diagnostic and therapeutic applications and, concretely, several strategies are currently being explored using aptamers against virus proteins. From a diagnostics point of view, aptamers are being designed as a bio-recognition element in diagnostic systems to detect viral proteins either in the blood (serum or plasma) or into infected cells. Another potential use of aptamers is for therapeutics of viral infections, interfering in the interaction between the virus and the host using aptamers targeting host-cell matrix receptors, or attacking the virus intracellularly, targeting proteins implicated in the viral replication cycle. In this paper, we review how aptamers working against viral proteins are discovered, with a focus on recent advances that improve the aptamers’ properties as a real tool for viral infection detection and treatment. PMID:27999271

  10. Established and Adapted Diagnostic Tools for Investigation of a Special Twin-Wire Arc Spraying Process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    König, Johannes; Lahres, Michael; Zimmermann, Stephan; Schein, Jochen

    2016-10-01

    In the LDS® ( Lichtbogendrahtspritzen) process, a twin-wire arc spraying (TWAS) process developed by Daimler AG, the gas injection and feed to the arc play a crucial role in separating the molten particles from the wire ends. This paper describes an investigation of the gas and particle behavior according to individual LDS® process parameters. Coating problems are not considered. The measurements are separated into two different parts: "cold" (without arc and particles) and "hot" (with arc and particles). The results provide the first detailed understanding of the effect of different LDS® process parameters. A correlation between the gas parameter settings and the particle beam properties was found. Using established and adapted diagnostic tools, as also applied for conventional TWAS processes, this special LDS® process was investigated and the results (gas and particle behavior) validated, thereby allowing explanation and comparison of the diagnostic methods, which is the main focus of this paper. Based on error analysis, individual instabilities, limits, and deviations during the gas determinations and particle measurements are explained in more detail. The paper concludes with presentation of the first particle-shadow diagnostic results and main statements regarding these investigations.

  11. Monocyte-targeting supramolecular micellar assemblies: a molecular diagnostic tool for atherosclerosis.

    PubMed

    Chung, Eun Ji; Mlinar, Laurie B; Nord, Kathryn; Sugimoto, Matthew J; Wonder, Emily; Alenghat, Francis J; Fang, Yun; Tirrell, Matthew

    2015-02-18

    Atherosclerosis is a multifactorial inflammatory disease that can progress silently for decades and result in myocardial infarction, stroke, and death. Diagnostic imaging technologies have made great strides to define the degree of atherosclerotic plaque burden through the severity of arterial stenosis. However, current technologies cannot differentiate more lethal "vulnerable plaques," and are not sensitive enough for preventive medicine. Imaging early molecular markers and quantifying the extent of disease progression continues to be a major challenge in the field. To this end, monocyte-targeting, peptide amphiphile micelles (PAMs) are engineered through the incorporation of the chemokine receptor CCR2-binding motif of monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) and MCP-1 PAMs are evaluated preclinically as diagnostic tools for atherosclerosis. Monocyte-targeting is desirable as the influx of monocytes is a marker of early lesions, accumulation of monocytes is linked to atherosclerosis progression, and rupture-prone plaques have higher numbers of monocytes. MCP-1 PAMs bind to monocytes in vitro, and MCP-1 PAMs detect and discriminate between early- and late-stage atherosclerotic aortas. Moreover, MCP-1 PAMs are found to be eliminated via renal clearance and the mononuclear phagocyte system (MPS) without adverse side effects. Thus, MCP-1 PAMs are a promising new class of diagnostic agents capable of monitoring the progression of atherosclerosis.

  12. Super-Resolution Microscopy of Cerebrospinal Fluid Biomarkers as a Tool for Alzheimer's Disease Diagnostics.

    PubMed

    Zhang, William I; Antonios, Gregory; Rabano, Alberto; Bayer, Thomas A; Schneider, Anja; Rizzoli, Silvio O

    2015-01-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is neuropathologically characterized by aggregates of amyloid-β peptides (Aβ) and tau proteins. The consensus in the AD field is that Aβ and tau should serve as diagnostic biomarkers for AD. However, their aggregates have been difficult to investigate by conventional fluorescence microscopy, since their size is below the diffraction limit (∼200 nm). To solve this, we turned to a super-resolution imaging technique, stimulated emission depletion (STED) microscopy, which has a high enough precision to allow the discrimination of low- and high-molecular weight aggregates prepared in vitro. We used STED to analyze the structural organization of Aβ and tau in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) from 36 AD patients, 11 patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI), and 21 controls. We measured the numbers of aggregates in the CSF samples, and the aggregate sizes and intensities. These parameters enabled us to distinguish AD patients from controls with a specificity of ∼87% and a sensitivity of ∼79% . In addition, the aggregate parameters determined with STED microscopy correlated with the severity of cognitive impairment in AD patients. Finally, these parameters may be useful as predictive tools for MCI cases. The STED parameters of two MCI patients who developed AD during the course of the study, as well as of MCI patients whose Aβ ELISA values fall within the accepted range for AD, placed them close to the AD averages. We suggest that super-resolution imaging is a promising tool for AD diagnostics.

  13. COMPREHENSIVE DIAGNOSTIC AND IMPROVEMENT TOOLS FOR HVAC-SYSTEM INSTALLATIONS IN LIGHT COMMERCIAL BUILDINGS

    SciTech Connect

    Abram Conant; Mark Modera; Joe Pira; John Proctor; Mike Gebbie

    2004-10-31

    Proctor Engineering Group, Ltd. (PEG) and Carrier-Aeroseal LLP performed an investigation of opportunities for improving air conditioning and heating system performance in existing light commercial buildings. Comprehensive diagnostic and improvement tools were created to address equipment performance parameters (including airflow, refrigerant charge, and economizer operation), duct-system performance (including duct leakage, zonal flows and thermal-energy delivery), and combustion appliance safety within these buildings. This investigation, sponsored by the National Energy Technology Laboratory, a division of the U.S. Department of Energy, involved collaboration between PEG and Aeroseal in order to refine three technologies previously developed for the residential market: (1) an aerosol-based duct sealing technology that allows the ducts to be sealed remotely (i.e., without removing the ceiling tiles), (2) a computer-driven diagnostic and improvement-tracking tool for residential duct installations, and (3) an integrated diagnosis verification and customer satisfaction system utilizing a combined computer/human expert system for HVAC performance. Prior to this work the aerosol-sealing technology was virtually untested in the light commercial sector--mostly because the savings potential and practicality of this or any other type of duct sealing had not been documented. Based upon the field experiences of PEG and Aeroseal, the overall product was tailored to suit the skill sets of typical HVAC-contractor personnel.

  14. CNC machine tool's wear diagnostic and prognostic by using dynamic Bayesian networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tobon-Mejia, D. A.; Medjaher, K.; Zerhouni, N.

    2012-04-01

    The failure of critical components in industrial systems may have negative consequences on the availability, the productivity, the security and the environment. To avoid such situations, the health condition of the physical system, and particularly of its critical components, can be constantly assessed by using the monitoring data to perform on-line system diagnostics and prognostics. The present paper is a contribution on the assessment of the health condition of a computer numerical control (CNC) tool machine and the estimation of its remaining useful life (RUL). The proposed method relies on two main phases: an off-line phase and an on-line phase. During the first phase, the raw data provided by the sensors are processed to extract reliable features. These latter are used as inputs of learning algorithms in order to generate the models that represent the wear's behavior of the cutting tool. Then, in the second phase, which is an assessment one, the constructed models are exploited to identify the tool's current health state, predict its RUL and the associated confidence bounds. The proposed method is applied on a benchmark of condition monitoring data gathered during several cuts of a CNC tool. Simulation results are obtained and discussed at the end of the paper.

  15. Design of a Web-tool for diagnostic clinical trials handling medical imaging research.

    PubMed

    Baltasar Sánchez, Alicia; González-Sistal, Angel

    2011-04-01

    New clinical studies in medicine are based on patients and controls using different imaging diagnostic modalities. Medical information systems are not designed for clinical trials employing clinical imaging. Although commercial software and communication systems focus on storage of image data, they are not suitable for storage and mining of new types of quantitative data. We sought to design a Web-tool to support diagnostic clinical trials involving different experts and hospitals or research centres. The image analysis of this project is based on skeletal X-ray imaging. It involves a computerised image method using quantitative analysis of regions of interest in healthy bone and skeletal metastases. The database is implemented with ASP.NET 3.5 and C# technologies for our Web-based application. For data storage, we chose MySQL v.5.0, one of the most popular open source databases. User logins were necessary, and access to patient data was logged for auditing. For security, all data transmissions were carried over encrypted connections. This Web-tool is available to users scattered at different locations; it allows an efficient organisation and storage of data (case report form) and images and allows each user to know precisely what his task is. The advantages of our Web-tool are as follows: (1) sustainability is guaranteed; (2) network locations for collection of data are secured; (3) all clinical information is stored together with the original images and the results derived from processed images and statistical analysis that enable us to perform retrospective studies; (4) changes are easily incorporated because of the modular architecture; and (5) assessment of trial data collected at different sites is centralised to reduce statistical variance.

  16. Current immunological and molecular tools for leptospirosis: diagnostics, vaccine design, and biomarkers for predicting severity.

    PubMed

    Rajapakse, Senaka; Rodrigo, Chaturaka; Handunnetti, Shiroma M; Fernando, Sumadhya Deepika

    2015-01-16

    Leptospirosis is a zoonotic spirochaetal illness that is endemic in many tropical countries. The research base on leptospirosis is not as strong as other tropical infections such as malaria. However, it is a lethal infection that can attack many vital organs in its severe form, leading to multi-organ dysfunction syndrome and death. There are many gaps in knowledge regarding the pathophysiology of leptospirosis and the role of host immunity in causing symptoms. This hinders essential steps in combating disease, such as developing a potential vaccine. Another major problem with leptospirosis is the lack of an easy to perform, accurate diagnostic tests. Many clinicians in resource limited settings resort to clinical judgment in diagnosing leptospirosis. This is unfortunate, as many other diseases such as dengue, hanta virus, rickettsial infections, and even severe bacterial sepsis, can mimic leptospirosis. Another interesting problem is the prediction of disease severity at the onset of the illness. The majority of patients recover from leptospirosis with only a mild febrile illness, while a few others have severe illness with multi-organ failure. Clinical features are poor predictors of potential severity of infection, and therefore the search is on for potential biomarkers that can serve as early warnings for severe disease. This review concentrates on these three important aspects of this neglected tropical disease: diagnostics, developing a vaccine, and potential biomarkers to predict disease severity.

  17. Newcastle disease: progress and gaps in the development of vaccines and diagnostic tools.

    PubMed

    Afonso, C L; Miller, P J

    2013-01-01

    Newcastle disease (ND) is a contagious disease of birds that can have severe economic consequences for poultry producers, including a serious impact on the international trade of poultry and eggs. Newcastle disease virus (NDV) isolates are also called avian paramyxovirus serotype-1 isolates, but only infection with virulent NDV (vNDV) causes the disease. Virulent Newcastle disease virus (vNDV) isolates are distributed worldwide and have a high capacity to mutate, allowing the development of multiple vNDV genotypes evolving simultaneously at different locations. Large gaps in existing knowledge in the areas of epidemiology and evolution limit the possibilities to control the disease. Recurrent infection of poultry and wild birds allows the maintenance of a reservoir for the viruses; however, the role of wild birds and poultry in vNDV evolution is largely unknown. In the area of diagnostics, the performance of fast and accurate diagnostics methods is often affected by the evolution of viral genomes. Therefore, there is a need for the validation of multiple recently developed experimental tests and a need to develop additional fast and inexpensive diagnostic tests to be used in the field. In the area of vaccination, the development of inexpensive thermostable NDV vaccines and the development of vaccines capable of preventing viral replication are the highest priorities for endemic countries. In countries considered free of vNDV the development of low- cost vaccines that produce minimal vaccine reactions to prevent decreased productivity are higher priorities. Worldwide, better strategies that replace the culling of infected birds are needed to control outbreaks.

  18. Space Laboratory on a Table Top: A Next Generative ECLSS design and diagnostic tool

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ramachandran, N.

    2005-01-01

    This paper describes the development plan for a comprehensive research and diagnostic tool for aspects of advanced life support systems in space-based laboratories. Specifically it aims to build a high fidelity tabletop model that can be used for the purpose of risk mitigation, failure mode analysis, contamination tracking, and testing reliability. We envision a comprehensive approach involving experimental work coupled with numerical simulation to develop this diagnostic tool. It envisions a 10% scale transparent model of a space platform such as the International Space Station that operates with water or a specific matched index of refraction liquid as the working fluid. This allows the scaling of a 10 ft x 10 ft x 10 ft room with air flow to 1 ft x 1 ft x 1 ft tabletop model with water/liquid flow. Dynamic similitude for this length scale dictates model velocities to be 67% of full-scale and thereby the time scale of the model to represent 15% of the full- scale system; meaning identical processes in the model are completed in 15% of the full- scale-time. The use of an index matching fluid (fluid that matches the refractive index of cast acrylic, the model material) allows making the entire model (with complex internal geometry) transparent and hence conducive to non-intrusive optical diagnostics. So using such a system one can test environment control parameters such as core flows (axial flows), cross flows (from registers and diffusers), potential problem areas such as flow short circuits, inadequate oxygen content, build up of other gases beyond desirable levels, test mixing processes within the system at local nodes or compartments and assess the overall system performance. The system allows quantitative measurements of contaminants introduced in the system and allows testing and optimizing the tracking process and removal of contaminants. The envisaged system will be modular and hence flexible for quick configuration change and subsequent testing. The data

  19. The role of ultrasound-guided triamcinolone injection in the treatment of de Quervain's disease: treatment and a diagnostic tool?

    PubMed

    Hajder, E; de Jonge, M C; van der Horst, C M A M; Obdeijn, M C

    2013-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe the technique and usefulness of ultrasound-guided intrasheath injection of triamcinolone in the treatment of de Quervain's disease (dQD). Our study was retrospective in design. Seventy-one wrists of 62 patients who were treated with an ultrasound-guided triamcinolone injection for dQD were included. A literature search was performed to compare our results. In the literature we found supportive evidence that accurate injection of triamcinolone in the first dorsal compartment of the wrist is important for a good outcome. In this retrospective study we found that treatment with ultrasound-guided injections of triamcinolone is both safe and effective. After two injections, 91% of the patients had good long-term results, which is a higher cure rate than found in most other studies. Furthermore, we found that Finkelstein's test can give a false positive result. Therefore, ultrasound should not only be considered to improve the treatment outcome, but can also be useful as a diagnostic tool in the management of de Quervain's disease.

  20. The Role of Epigenomics in the Study of Cancer Biomarkers and in the Development of Diagnostic Tools.

    PubMed

    Verma, Mukesh

    2015-01-01

    Epigenetics plays a key role in cancer development. Genetics alone cannot explain sporadic cancer and cancer development in individuals with no family history or a weak family history of cancer. Epigenetics provides a mechanism to explain the development of cancer in such situations. Alterations in epigenetic profiling may provide important insights into the etiology and natural history of cancer. Because several epigenetic changes occur before histopathological changes, they can serve as biomarkers for cancer diagnosis and risk assessment. Many cancers may remain asymptomatic until relatively late stages; in managing the disease, efforts should be focused on early detection, accurate prediction of disease progression, and frequent monitoring. This chapter describes epigenetic biomarkers as they are expressed during cancer development and their potential use in cancer diagnosis and prognosis. Based on epigenomic information, biomarkers have been identified that may serve as diagnostic tools; some such biomarkers also may be useful in identifying individuals who will respond to therapy and survive longer. The importance of analytical and clinical validation of biomarkers is discussed, along with challenges and opportunities in this field.

  1. Manganese-Enhanced Magnetic Resonance Imaging as a Diagnostic and Dispositional Tool after Mild-Moderate Blast Traumatic Brain Injury.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez, Olga; Schaefer, Michele L; Wester, Brock; Lee, Yi-Chien; Boggs, Nathan; Conner, Howard A; Merkle, Andrew C; Fricke, Stanley T; Albanese, Chris; Koliatsos, Vassilis E

    2016-04-01

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) caused by explosive munitions, known as blast TBI, is the signature injury in recent military conflicts in Iraq and Afghanistan. Diagnostic evaluation of TBI, including blast TBI, is based on clinical history, symptoms, and neuropsychological testing, all of which can result in misdiagnosis or underdiagnosis of this condition, particularly in the case of TBI of mild-to-moderate severity. Prognosis is currently determined by TBI severity, recurrence, and type of pathology, and also may be influenced by promptness of clinical intervention when more effective treatments become available. An important task is prevention of repetitive TBI, particularly when the patient is still symptomatic. For these reasons, the establishment of quantitative biological markers can serve to improve diagnosis and preventative or therapeutic management. In this study, we used a shock-tube model of blast TBI to determine whether manganese-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MEMRI) can serve as a tool to accurately and quantitatively diagnose mild-to-moderate blast TBI. Mice were subjected to a 30 psig blast and administered a single dose of MnCl2 intraperitoneally. Longitudinal T1-magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) performed at 6, 24, 48, and 72 h and at 14 and 28 days revealed a marked signal enhancement in the brain of mice exposed to blast, compared with sham controls, at nearly all time-points. Interestingly, when mice were protected with a polycarbonate body shield during blast exposure, the marked increase in contrast was prevented. We conclude that manganese uptake can serve as a quantitative biomarker for TBI and that MEMRI is a minimally-invasive quantitative approach that can aid in the accurate diagnosis and management of blast TBI. In addition, the prevention of the increased uptake of manganese by body protection strongly suggests that the exposure of an individual to blast risk could benefit from the design of improved body armor.

  2. Manganese-Enhanced Magnetic Resonance Imaging as a Diagnostic and Dispositional Tool after Mild-Moderate Blast Traumatic Brain Injury

    PubMed Central

    Schaefer, Michele L.; Wester, Brock; Lee, Yi-Chien; Boggs, Nathan; Conner, Howard A.; Merkle, Andrew C.; Fricke, Stanley T.; Albanese, Chris; Koliatsos, Vassilis E.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Traumatic brain injury (TBI) caused by explosive munitions, known as blast TBI, is the signature injury in recent military conflicts in Iraq and Afghanistan. Diagnostic evaluation of TBI, including blast TBI, is based on clinical history, symptoms, and neuropsychological testing, all of which can result in misdiagnosis or underdiagnosis of this condition, particularly in the case of TBI of mild-to-moderate severity. Prognosis is currently determined by TBI severity, recurrence, and type of pathology, and also may be influenced by promptness of clinical intervention when more effective treatments become available. An important task is prevention of repetitive TBI, particularly when the patient is still symptomatic. For these reasons, the establishment of quantitative biological markers can serve to improve diagnosis and preventative or therapeutic management. In this study, we used a shock-tube model of blast TBI to determine whether manganese-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MEMRI) can serve as a tool to accurately and quantitatively diagnose mild-to-moderate blast TBI. Mice were subjected to a 30 psig blast and administered a single dose of MnCl2 intraperitoneally. Longitudinal T1-magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) performed at 6, 24, 48, and 72 h and at 14 and 28 days revealed a marked signal enhancement in the brain of mice exposed to blast, compared with sham controls, at nearly all time-points. Interestingly, when mice were protected with a polycarbonate body shield during blast exposure, the marked increase in contrast was prevented. We conclude that manganese uptake can serve as a quantitative biomarker for TBI and that MEMRI is a minimally-invasive quantitative approach that can aid in the accurate diagnosis and management of blast TBI. In addition, the prevention of the increased uptake of manganese by body protection strongly suggests that the exposure of an individual to blast risk could benefit from the design of improved body armor. PMID

  3. Virtual Guidance Ultrasound: A Tool to Obtain Diagnostic Ultrasound for Remote Environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Caine,Timothy L.; Martin David S.; Matz, Timothy; Lee, Stuart M. C.; Stenger, Michael B.; Platts, Steven H.

    2012-01-01

    Astronauts currently acquire ultrasound images on the International Space Station with the assistance of real-time remote guidance from an ultrasound expert in Mission Control. Remote guidance will not be feasible when significant communication delays exist during exploration missions beyond low-Earth orbit. For example, there may be as much as a 20- minute delay in communications between the Earth and Mars. Virtual-guidance, a pre-recorded audio-visual tutorial viewed in real-time, is a viable modality for minimally trained scanners to obtain diagnostically-adequate images of clinically relevant anatomical structures in an autonomous manner. METHODS: Inexperienced ultrasound operators were recruited to perform carotid artery (n = 10) and ophthalmic (n = 9) ultrasound examinations using virtual guidance as their only instructional tool. In the carotid group, each each untrained operator acquired two-dimensional, pulsed, and color Doppler of the carotid artery. In the ophthalmic group, operators acquired representative images of the anterior chamber of the eye, retina, optic nerve, and nerve sheath. Ultrasound image quality was evaluated by independent imaging experts. RESULTS: Eight of the 10 carotid studies were judged to be diagnostically adequate. With one exception the quality of all the ophthalmic images were adequate to excellent. CONCLUSION: Diagnostically-adequate carotid and ophthalmic ultrasound examinations can be obtained by untrained operators with instruction only from an audio/video tutorial viewed in real time while scanning. This form of quick-response-guidance, can be developed for other ultrasound examinations, represents an opportunity to acquire important medical and scientific information for NASA flight surgeons and researchers when trained medical personnel are not present. Further, virtual guidance will allow untrained personnel to autonomously obtain important medical information in remote locations on Earth where communication is

  4. Image-matching as a medical diagnostic support tool (DST) for brain diseases in children.

    PubMed

    Huang, H K; Nielsen, J F; Nelson, Marvin D; Liu, Lifeng

    2005-01-01

    Imaging-matching is an important research area in imaging informatics. We have developed and evaluated a novel diagnostic support tool (DST) based on medical image matching using MR brain images. The approach consists of two steps, database generation and image matching. The database contains pre-diagnosed MR brain images. As the images are added to the database, they are registered to the 3D Talairach coordinate system. In addition, regions of interests (ROI) are generated, and image-processing techniques are used to extract relevant image parameters related to the brain and diseases from the ROIs and from the entire MR image. The second step is to retrieve relevant information from the database by performing image matching. In this step, the physician first submits a query image. The DST computes the similarity between the query image and each of the images in the database, and then presents the most similar images to the user. Since the database contains pre-diagnosed images, the retrieved cases tend to contain relevant diagnostic information. To evaluate the usefulness of the DST in a clinical setting, pediatric brain diseases were used. The database contains 2500 pediatric patients between ages 0 and 18 with brain Magnetic Resonance (MR) images of known brain lesions. A testbed was established at the Children's Hospital Los Angeles (CHLA) for acquiring MR images from the PACS server of patients with known lesions. These images were matched against those in the DST pediatric brain MR database. An expert pediatric neuroradiologist evaluated the matched results. We found that in most cases, the image-matching method was able to quickly retrieve images with relevant diagnostic content. The evaluation method and results are given.

  5. Development of class model based on blood biochemical parameters as a diagnostic tool of PSE meat.

    PubMed

    Qu, Daofeng; Zhou, Xu; Yang, Feng; Tian, Shiyi; Zhang, Xiaojun; Ma, Lin; Han, Jianzhong

    2017-06-01

    A fast, sensitive and effective method based on the blood biochemical parameters for the detection of PSE meat was developed in this study. A total of 200 pigs were slaughtered in the same slaughterhouse. Meat quality was evaluated by measuring pH, electrical conductivity and color at 45min, 2h and 24h after slaughtering in M. longissimus thoracis et lumborum (LD). Blood biochemical parameters were determined in blood samples collected during carcass bleeding. Principal component analysis (PCA) biplot showed that high levels of exsanguination Creatine Kinase, Lactate Dehydrogenase, Aspertate aminotransferase, blood glucose and lactate were associated with the PSE meat, and the five biochemical parameters were found to be good indicators of PSE meat Discriminant function analysis (DFA) was able to clearly identify PSE meat using the five biochemical parameters as input data, and the class model is an effective diagnostic tool in pigs which can be used to detect the PSE meat and reduce economic loss for the company.

  6. [Plasma cholesterol determination in birds--a diagnostic tool for detection of organophosphate and carbamate intoxication].

    PubMed

    Kiesau, B; Kummerfeld, N

    1998-07-01

    An investigation was done on the clinical usefulness of the dry chemistry analyzer Vitros DT 60 II for determination of avian plasma cholinesterase. The analytical reliability of the method, evaluated by precision and accuracy, proved to be high for plasma of numerous pet and wild birds. Values of normal plasma-cholinesterase activity were established for different psittacine and European wild birds. Significant differences in physiologic plasma-cholinesterase activity were noted between closely related species as well as between juvenile and adult birds. These findings emphasize the necessity to use control values of the same species and age group for comparison. Dry chemistry plasma-cholinesterase determination can be used as a diagnostic tool for detection of organophosphate and carbamate poisonings in the majority of investigated birds.

  7. Major Pelvic Bleeding Following a Stapled Transanal Rectal Resection: Use of Laparoscopy as a Diagnostic Tool

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Abdul Qayyum; Keane, Sean

    2016-01-01

    Stapled transanal rectal resection (STARR) and stapled hemorrhoidopexy (SH) are well-established techniques for treating rectal prolapse and obstructed defecation syndrome (ODS). Occasionally, they can be associated with severe complications. We describe the case of a 59-year-old woman who underwent STARR for ODS and developed a postoperative pelvic hemorrhage. A computed tomography (CT) scan revealed a vast pelvic, retroperitoneal hematoma and free gas in the abdomen. Laparoscopy ruled out any bowel lesions, but identified a hematoma of the pelvis. Flexible sigmoidoscopy showed a small leakage of the rectal suture. The patient was treated conservatively and recovered completely. Surgeons performing STARR and SH must be aware of the risk of this rare, but severe, complication. If the patient is not progressing after a STARR or SH, a CT scan can be indicated to rule out intra-abdominal and pelvic hemorrhage. Laparoscopy is a diagnostic tool and should be associated with intraluminal exploration with flexible sigmoidoscopy. PMID:27847791

  8. Mobile Phones Democratize and Cultivate Next-Generation Imaging, Diagnostics and Measurement Tools

    PubMed Central

    Ozcan, Aydogan

    2014-01-01

    In this article, I discuss some of the emerging applications and the future opportunities and challenges created by the use of mobile phones and their embedded components for the development of next-generation imaging, sensing, diagnostics and measurement tools. The massive volume of mobile phone users, which has now reached ~7 billion, drives the rapid improvements of the hardware, software and high-end imaging and sensing technologies embedded in our phones, transforming the mobile phone into a cost-effective and yet extremely powerful platform to run e.g., biomedical tests and perform scientific measurements that would normally require advanced laboratory instruments. This rapidly evolving and continuing trend will help us transform how medicine, engineering and sciences are practiced and taught globally. PMID:24647550

  9. Aptamers: novel diagnostic and therapeutic tools for diabetes mellitus and metabolic diseases.

    PubMed

    Hu, Jingping; Ye, Mao; Zhou, Zhiguang

    2017-03-01

    Diabetes mellitus is one of the most common chronic diseases that threatens human health in worldwide populations. Despite enormous efforts invested in the study of diabetes mellitus, the development of precise diagnoses and treatments for this disease remains difficult due to the limitations of current techniques. Therefore, new methods are currently being developed. Aptamers are oligonucleotides that bind to specific target molecules and have been widely applied as diagnostic and therapeutic tools. In recent years, aptamers have been utilized in the study of diabetes mellitus and metabolic diseases. In this review, we highlight recent developments and new perspectives on aptamers in the field of diabetes mellitus and other metabolic diseases. Aptamers could potentially provide the means for efficient diagnoses and therapies against diabetes mellitus.

  10. Physical capacity in LVAD patients: hemodynamic principles, diagnostic tools and training control.

    PubMed

    Reiss, Nils; Schmidt, Thomas; Workowski, Anke; Willemsen, Detlev; Schmitto, Jan D; Haverich, Axel; Bjarnason-Wehrens, Birna

    2016-11-11

    Over time left ventricular assist devices (LVAD) have become an alternative to heart transplantation because of enormous technical development and miniaturization. Most patients present a significant improvement in clinical conditions and exercise capacity. Nevertheless, exercise tolerance remains markedly limited even after LVAD implantation compared to a control group. The complex physiological and hemodynamic changes in LVAD patients, both at rest and during exercise, are not yet understood, or at least not completely.It is the aim of the present paper to describe the current state of scientific knowledge. Furthermore, the spectrum of diagnostic tools, including the noninvasive inert gas rebreathing method for measurement of cardiac output and associate parameters, are discussed. Options for training control in this special patient group are presented.

  11. Nonlinear imaging techniques as non-destructive, high-resolution diagnostic tools for cultural heritage studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Filippidis, G.; Tserevelakis, G. J.; Selimis, A.; Fotakis, C.

    2015-02-01

    Here, we present a review of the implementation of nonlinear imaging microscopy techniques such as second and third harmonic generation (SHG-THG) and multi-photon excitation fluorescence (MPEF), as high-resolution, non-invasive diagnostic tools for cultural heritage studies. Specifically, the above nonlinear modalities are employed for the precise three-dimensional (3D) delineation of the protective layers bulk in model multilayer painting artworks. The high axial resolution thickness determination of protective layers through the use of THG imaging and the identification of the chemical composition of the artefacts via MPEF measurements are depicted. Furthermore, we reveal the potential of MPEF imaging measurements for the identification of the corrosion layers in silver-based artefacts. Finally, nonlinear modalities are employed for the assessment of the affected region and the obtainment of depth information during laser cleaning of polymeric coatings.

  12. Evaluation of FTIR spectroscopy as diagnostic tool for colorectal cancer using spectral analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, Liu; Sun, Xuejun; Chao, Zhang; Zhang, Shiyun; Zheng, Jianbao; Gurung, Rajendra; Du, Junkai; Shi, Jingsen; Xu, Yizhuang; Zhang, Yuanfu; Wu, Jinguang

    2014-03-01

    The aim of this study is to confirm FTIR spectroscopy as a diagnostic tool for colorectal cancer. 180 freshly removed colorectal samples were collected from 90 patients for spectrum analysis. The ratios of spectral intensity and relative intensity (/I1460) were calculated. Principal component analysis (PCA) and Fisher's discriminant analysis (FDA) were applied to distinguish the malignant from normal. The FTIR parameters of colorectal cancer and normal tissues were distinguished due to the contents or configurations of nucleic acids, proteins, lipids and carbohydrates. Related to nitrogen containing, water, protein and nucleic acid were increased significantly in the malignant group. Six parameters were selected as independent factors to perform discriminant functions. The sensitivity for FTIR in diagnosing colorectal cancer was 96.6% by discriminant analysis. Our study demonstrates that FTIR can be a useful technique for detection of colorectal cancer and may be applied in clinical colorectal cancer diagnosis.

  13. Supramaximal Stimulus Intensity as a Diagnostic Tool in Chronic Demyelinating Neuropathy

    PubMed Central

    Parker, Vivien; Warman Chardon, Jodi; Mills, Julie; Goldsmith, Claire; Bourque, Pierre R.

    2016-01-01

    Objective. The ability to correctly identify chronic demyelinating neuropathy can have important therapeutic and prognostic significance. The stimulus intensity value required to obtain a supramaximal compound muscle action potential amplitude is a commonly acquired data point that has not been formally assessed as a diagnostic tool in routine nerve conduction studies to identify chronic neuropathies. We postulated that this value was significantly elevated in chronic demyelinating neuropathy. Methods. We retrospectively reviewed electrophysiology laboratory records to compare the stimulus intensity values recorded during median and ulnar motor nerve conduction studies. The groups studied included normal controls (n = 42) and the following diagnostic categories: chronic inflammatory demyelinating neuropathy (CIDP) (n = 20), acquired inflammatory demyelinating neuropathy (AIDP) (n = 13), Charcot Marie Tooth (CMT) type 1 or 4C (n = 15), carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) (n = 11), and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) (n = 18). Results. Supramaximal intensities were significantly higher in patients with CMT (median nerve: 43.4 mA) and CIDP (median nerve: 38.9 mA), whereas values similar to normal controls (median nerve: 25.3 mA) were obtained in ALS, CTS, and AIDP. Conclusions. Supramaximal stimulus intensity may be used as an additional criterion to identify the pathophysiology of neuropathy. We postulate that endoneurial hypertrophic changes may increase electrical impedance and thus the threshold of excitation at nodes of Ranvier. PMID:27413732

  14. Choroidal abnormalities in café-au-lait syndromes: a new differential diagnostic tool?

    PubMed

    Cassiman, C; Casteels, I; Jacob, J; Plasschaert, E; Brems, H; Dubron, K; Keer, K V; Legius, E

    2017-04-01

    The best known café-au-lait syndrome is neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1). Legius syndrome (LS) is another, rarer syndrome with café-au-lait macules (CALMs). In young patients their clinical picture is often indistinguishable. We investigated the presence of choroidal abnormalities in syndromes with CALMs as a candidate tool for a more efficient diagnosis. Thirty-four patients with NF1 (14 with a truncating mutation, 14 with a non-truncating mutation and 6 with unknown mutation) and 11 patients with LS. All patients underwent an ophthalmological examination. Infrared images were performed. Choroidal nodules were diagnosed in 65% of the NF1 group. About 71% of NF1 patients with a truncating mutation and 50% of patients with a non-truncating mutation were found to have nodules. Choroidal nodules were seen in 18% of the LS patients, never more than one nodule/eye was detected in this group. Choroidal nodules are more abundantly present in NF1 genotypes with truncating mutations. In contrast, the number of choroidal nodules in LS is comparable with their presence in healthy individuals. Especially at an early age, when the clinical picture is incomplete, the detection of choroidal nodules is of diagnostic value, and helps in an appropriate genetic counselling and follow-up. These results support the suggestion to include choroidal nodules to the diagnostic criteria for NF1.

  15. Role of Fine Needle Aspiration Cytology as a Diagnostic Tool in Orbital and Adnexal Lesions

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Lubna; Malukani, Kamal; Malaiya, Siddharth; Yeshwante, Prashant; Ishrat, Saba; Nandedkar, Shirish S.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the role of fine needle aspiration (FNAC) as a diagnostic tool in cases of orbital and ocular adnexal masses. Cytological findings were correlated with histopathological diagnosis wherever possible. Methods: FNAC was performed in 29 patients of different age groups presenting with orbital and ocular adnexal masses. Patients were evaluated clinically and investigated by non-invasive techniques before fine needle aspiration of the masses. Smears were analyzed by a cytologist in all cases. Further, results of cytology were compared with the histopathological diagnosis. Results: The age of patients ranged from 1 to 68 years (mean: 29.79±19.29). There were 14 males and 15 females with a male to female ratio of 0.93:1. Out of 29 cases, 26 aspirates were cellular. Cellularity was insufficient in three (10.34%) aspirates. Out of 26 cellular aspirates, 11 were non-neoplastic while 15 were neoplastic on cytology. Subsequent histopathologic examination was done in 21/26 cases. Concordance rate of FNAC in orbital and ocular adnexal mass lesions with respect to the precise histologic diagnosis was 90%. Conclusion: When properly used in well-indicated patients (in cases where a diagnosis cannot be made by clinical and imaging findings alone), FNAC of orbital and periorbital lesions is an invaluable and suitable adjunct diagnostic technique that necessitates close cooperation between the ophthalmologist and cytologist. However, nondiagnostic aspirates may sometimes be obtained, and an inconclusive FNAC should not always be ignored. PMID:27621787

  16. Whole-exome sequencing as a diagnostic tool in a family with episodic ataxia type 1

    PubMed Central

    Tacik, Pawel; Guthrie, Kimberly J.; Strongosky, Audrey J.; Broderick, Daniel F.; Riegert-Johnson, Douglas L.; Tang, Sha; El-Khechen, Dima; Parker, Alexander S.; Ross, Owen A.; Wszolek, Zbigniew K.

    2015-01-01

    Complex neurological phenotypes are inherently difficult to diagnose. Whole-exome sequencing (WES) is a new tool in the neurologist's diagnostic armamentarium. WES can be applied to investigate the “diagnostic odyssey” cases. These cases involve patients with rare diseases of likely genetic etiology who have failed to obtain a diagnosis by clinical evaluation and targeted gene testing. The 22-year-old adopted proband presented with episodes of jerking ataxic movements that affected his whole body and mild intellectual developmental disability. He underwent numerous multidisciplinary and multicentric evaluations throughout his life that failed to establish a clear diagnosis. Following his visit to the Mayo Clinic, WES was applied for genetic determination of the unknown disorder in the proband, his biological parents and sister. Besides, four other paternal relatives were reported to have similar complaints. Additional clinical evaluation, and magnetic resonance neuroimaging (MRI), electromyography (EMG) and electroencephalography (EEG) of the proband were performed to verify the phenotype after the WES results were available. Eleven months after the proband's initial visit, WES identified the c.1210G>A (p.V404I) mutation in the potassium voltage-gated channel, shaker-related subfamily, member 1 gene in the proband, his father, and his sister, and thus the diagnosis of episodic ataxia type 1 was established. The proband's MRI demonstrated mild vermian hypoplasia, EMG myokymic discharges, and EEG generalized background slowing. Acetazolamide therapy was beneficial for him at the daily dose of 500 mg. PMID:25659636

  17. Near Infrared Imaging as a Diagnostic Tool for Detecting Enamel Demineralization: An in vivo Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lucas, Seth Adam

    Background and Objectives: For decades there has been an effort to develop alternative optical methods of imaging dental decay utilizing non-ionizing radiation methods. The purpose of this in-vivo study was to demonstrate whether NIR can be used as a diagnostic tool to evaluate dental caries and to compare the sensitivity and specificity of this method with that of conventional methods, including bitewing x-rays and visual inspection. Materials and Methods: 31 test subjects (n=31) from the UCSF orthodontic clinic undergoing orthodontic treatment with planned premolar extractions were recruited. Calibrated examiners performed caries detection examinations using conventional methods: bitewing radiographs and visual inspection. These findings were compared with the results from NIR examinations: transillumination and reflectance. To confirm the results found in the two different detection methods, a gold standard was used. After teeth were extracted, polarized light microscopy and transverse microradiography were performed. Results: A total of 87 premolars were used in the study. NIR identified the occlusal lesions with a sensitivity of 71% and a specificity of 77%, whereas, the visual examination had a sensitivity of only 40% and a specifity of 39%. For interproximal lesions halfway to DEJ, specificity remained constant, but sensitivity improved to 100% for NIR and 75% for x-rays. Conclusions: The results of this preliminary study demonstrate that NIR is just as effective at detecting enamel interproximal lesions as standard dental x-rays. NIR was more effective at detecting occlusal lesions than visual examination alone. NIR shows promise as an alternative diagnostic tool to the conventional methods of x-rays and visual examination and provides a non-ionizing radiation technique.

  18. Re-appraisal of old and new diagnostic tools in the current management of chronic hepatitis B.

    PubMed

    Bessone, Fernando

    2014-08-01

    Hepatitis B virus (HBV) is a very complex and intricate DNA structure associated with a particular genomic organization and replication cycle. However, many years of investigations allowed clarification of the real HBV natural history, through a deeper knowledge of the behavior of HBV antigens and viral structures. Several of the old diagnostic tools, such as HBV surface antigen (HBsAg) and HBV e antigen (HBeAg) determinations, gained prominence now, since the variation of both HBsAg and HBeAg plasma levels was shown to predict treatment response. In addition, the availability of more sensitive methods, such as HBV DNA detection by real-time PCR, has improved the current knowledge of the relationships between HBV replication levels and the natural history of the disease. It is now well established that some HBV genotypes are associated with a better response to treatment with pegylated interferon. Despite the widely accepted value of liver biopsy as a staging tool, transient elastography is being increasingly acknowledged as a non-invasive method to assess liver stiffness, chiefly for detection of advanced fibrosis. Current international guidelines for the management of chronic hepatitis B have provided several accurate biochemical and serological criteria for selecting patients for treatment, allowing a higher number of cases to be enrolled into antiviral therapy. This review describes the different serological markers used for the study of HBV and their clinical significance. It also deals with methods used for detection of genotypes and HBV DNA, emphasizing the effectiveness of such determinations for both patient selection and chronic hepatitis B therapy/monitoring.

  19. Power spectra as a diagnostic tool in probing statistical/nonstatistical behavior in unimolecular reactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Xiaoyen Y.; Sewell, Thomas D.; Raff, Lionel M.; Thompson, Donald L.

    1992-11-01

    The possibility of utilizing different types of power spectra obtained from classical trajectories as a diagnostic tool to identify the presence of nonstatistical dynamics is explored by using the unimolecular bond-fission reactions of 1,2-difluoroethane and the 2-chloroethyl radical as test cases. In previous studies, the reaction rates for these systems were calculated by using a variational transition-state theory and classical trajectory methods. A comparison of the results showed that 1,2-difluoroethane is a nonstatistical system, while the 2-chloroethyl radical behaves statistically. Power spectra for these two systems have been generated under various conditions. The characteristics of these spectra are as follows: (1) The spectra for the 2-chloroethyl radical are always broader and more coupled to other modes than is the case for 1,2-difluoroethane. This is true even at very low levels of excitation. (2) When an internal energy near or above the dissociation threshold is initially partitioned into a local C-H stretching mode, the power spectra for 1,2-difluoroethane broaden somewhat, but discrete and somewhat isolated bands are still clearly evident. In contrast, the analogous power spectra for the 2-chloroethyl radical exhibit a near complete absence of isolated bands. The general appearance of the spectrum suggests a very high level of mode-to-mode coupling, large intramolecular vibrational energy redistribution (IVR) rates, and global statistical behavior. (3) The appearance of the power spectrum for the 2-chloroethyl radical is unaltered regardless of whether the initial C-H excitation is in the CH2 or the CH2Cl group. This result also suggests statistical behavior. These results are interpreted to mean that power spectra may be used as a diagnostic tool to assess the statistical character of a system. The presence of a diffuse spectrum exhibiting a nearly complete loss of isolated structures indicates that the dissociation dynamics of the molecule will

  20. Web-based tools for quality assurance and radiation protection in diagnostic radiology.

    PubMed

    Moores, B M; Charnock, P; Ward, M

    2010-01-01

    Practical and philosophical aspects of radiation protection in diagnostic radiology have changed very little over the past 50 y even though patient doses have continued to rise significantly in this period. This rise has been driven by technological developments, such as multi-slice computed tomography, that have been able to improve diagnostic accuracy but not necessarily provide the same level of risk-benefit to all patients or groups of patients given the dose levels involved. Can practical radiation protection strategies hope to keep abreast of these ongoing developments? A project was started in 1992 in Liverpool that aimed to develop IT driven quality assurance (QA)/radiation protection software tools based upon a modular quality assurance dose data system. One of the modules involved the assessment of the patient entrance surface air kerma (ESAK) for an X-ray examination that was based upon the use of calibrated X-ray tube exposure factors to calculate ESAK as well as collecting appropriate patient details (age, sex, weight, thickness etc). The package also contained modules for logging all necessary equipment performance QA data. This paper will outline the experience gained with this system through its transition from a local application on a stand alone PC within the department to the current web-based approach. Advantages of a web-based approach to delivering such an application as well as centrally storing data originating on many hospital sites will be discussed together with the scientific support processes that can be developed with such a system. This will include local, national and international considerations. The advantages of importing radiographic examination details directly from other electronic storage systems such as a hospital's radiology information system will be presented together with practical outcomes already achieved. This will include the application of statistical techniques to the very large data sets generated. The development

  1. The Development of an Open-Ended Drawing Tool: An Alternative Diagnostic Tool for Assessing Students' Understanding of the Particulate Nature of Matter

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nyachwaya, James M.; Mohamed, Abdi-Rizak; Roehrig, Gillian H.; Wood, Nathan B.; Kern, Anne L.; Schneider, Jamie L.

    2011-01-01

    Many studies in the chemical education literature report students' alternative conceptions in chemistry and the difficulty they present for future learning. In this paper, we review existing diagnostic tools used to uncover students' alternative conceptions in chemistry and suggest that there are two fundamental issues with such instruments,…

  2. Toward an Attention-Based Diagnostic Tool for Patients With Locked-in Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Lesenfants, Damien; Habbal, Dina; Chatelle, Camille; Soddu, Andrea; Laureys, Steven; Noirhomme, Quentin

    2016-11-07

    Electroencephalography (EEG) has been proposed as a supplemental tool for reducing clinical misdiagnosis in severely brain-injured populations helping to distinguish conscious from unconscious patients. We studied the use of spectral entropy as a measure of focal attention in order to develop a motor-independent, portable, and objective diagnostic tool for patients with locked-in syndrome (LIS), answering the issues of accuracy and training requirement. Data from 20 healthy volunteers, 6 LIS patients, and 10 patients with a vegetative state/unresponsive wakefulness syndrome (VS/UWS) were included. Spectral entropy was computed during a gaze-independent 2-class (attention vs rest) paradigm, and compared with EEG rhythms (delta, theta, alpha, and beta) classification. Spectral entropy classification during the attention-rest paradigm showed 93% and 91% accuracy in healthy volunteers and LIS patients respectively. VS/UWS patients were at chance level. EEG rhythms classification reached a lower accuracy than spectral entropy. Resting-state EEG spectral entropy could not distinguish individual VS/UWS patients from LIS patients. The present study provides evidence that an EEG-based measure of attention could detect command-following in patients with severe motor disabilities. The entropy system could detect a response to command in all healthy subjects and LIS patients, while none of the VS/UWS patients showed a response to command using this system.

  3. ADHD and Present Hedonism: time perspective as a potential diagnostic and therapeutic tool

    PubMed Central

    Weissenberger, S; Klicperova-Baker, M; Zimbardo, P; Schonova, K; Akotia, D; Kostal, J; Goetz, M; Raboch, J; Ptacek, R

    2016-01-01

    The article draws primarily from the behavioral findings (mainly psychiatric and psychological observations) and points out the important relationships between attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms and time orientation. Specifically, the authors argue that there is a significant overlap between the symptoms of ADHD and Present Hedonism. Present Hedonism is defined by Zimbardo’s time perspective theory and assessed by Zimbardo Time Perspective Inventory. Developmental data on Present Hedonism of males and females in the Czech population sample (N=2201) are also presented. The hypothesis of relationship between ADHD and Present Hedonism is mainly derived from the prevalence of addictive behavior (mainly excessive Internet use, alcohol abuse, craving for sweets, fatty foods, and fast foods), deficits in social learning, and increased aggressiveness both in ADHD and in the population scoring high on Present Hedonism in the Zimbardo Time Perspective Inventory. We conclude that Zimbardo’s time perspective offers both: 1) a potential diagnostic tool – the Zimbardo Time Perspective Inventory, particularly its Present Hedonism scale, and 2) a promising preventive and/or therapeutic approach by the Time Perspective Therapy. Time Perspective Therapy has so far been used mainly to treat past negative trauma (most notably, posttraumatic stress disorder); however, it also has value as a potential therapeutic tool for possible behavioral compensation of ADHD. PMID:27895485

  4. ADHD and Present Hedonism: time perspective as a potential diagnostic and therapeutic tool.

    PubMed

    Weissenberger, S; Klicperova-Baker, M; Zimbardo, P; Schonova, K; Akotia, D; Kostal, J; Goetz, M; Raboch, J; Ptacek, R

    2016-01-01

    The article draws primarily from the behavioral findings (mainly psychiatric and psychological observations) and points out the important relationships between attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms and time orientation. Specifically, the authors argue that there is a significant overlap between the symptoms of ADHD and Present Hedonism. Present Hedonism is defined by Zimbardo's time perspective theory and assessed by Zimbardo Time Perspective Inventory. Developmental data on Present Hedonism of males and females in the Czech population sample (N=2201) are also presented. The hypothesis of relationship between ADHD and Present Hedonism is mainly derived from the prevalence of addictive behavior (mainly excessive Internet use, alcohol abuse, craving for sweets, fatty foods, and fast foods), deficits in social learning, and increased aggressiveness both in ADHD and in the population scoring high on Present Hedonism in the Zimbardo Time Perspective Inventory. We conclude that Zimbardo's time perspective offers both: 1) a potential diagnostic tool - the Zimbardo Time Perspective Inventory, particularly its Present Hedonism scale, and 2) a promising preventive and/or therapeutic approach by the Time Perspective Therapy. Time Perspective Therapy has so far been used mainly to treat past negative trauma (most notably, posttraumatic stress disorder); however, it also has value as a potential therapeutic tool for possible behavioral compensation of ADHD.

  5. Diagnostic tools in maxillofacial fractures: Is there really a need of three-dimensional computed tomography?

    PubMed Central

    Shah, Sheerin; Uppal, Sanjeev K.; Mittal, Rajinder K.; Garg, Ramneesh; Saggar, Kavita; Dhawan, Rishi

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Because of its functional and cosmetic importance, facial injuries, especially bony fractures are clinically very significant. Missed and maltreated fractures might result in malocclusion and disfigurement of the face, thus making accurate diagnosis of the fracture very essential. In earlier times, conventional radiography along with clinical examination played a major role in diagnosis of maxillofacial fractures. However, it was noted that the overlapping nature of bones and the inability to visualise soft tissue swelling and fracture displacement, especially in face, makes radiography less reliable and useful. Computed tomography (CT), also called as X-ray computed radiography, has helped in solving this problem. This clinical study is to compare three-dimensional (3D) CT reconstruction with conventional radiography in evaluating the maxillofacial fractures preoperatively and effecting the surgical management, accordingly. Materials and Methods: Fifty patients, with suspected maxillofacial fractures on clinical examination, were subjected to conventional radiography and CT face with 3D reconstruction. The number and site of fractures in zygoma, maxilla, mandible and nose, detected by both the methods, were enumerated and compared. The final bearing of these additional fractures, on the management protocol, was analysed. Results: CT proved superior to conventional radiography in diagnosing additional number of fractures in zygoma, maxilla, mandible (subcondylar) and nasal bone. Coronal and axial images were found to be significantly more diagnostic in fracture sites such as zygomaticomaxillary complex, orbital floor, arch, lateral maxillary wall and anterior maxillary wall. Conclusion: 3D images gave an inside out picture of the actual sites of fractures. It acted as mind's eye for pre-operative planning and intra-operative execution of surgery. Better surgical treatment could be given to 33% of the cases because of better diagnostic ability of CT

  6. Compact, accurate description of diagnostic neutral beam propagation and attenuation in a high temperature plasma for charge exchange recombination spectroscopy analysis.

    PubMed

    Bespamyatnov, Igor O; Rowan, William L; Granetz, Robert S

    2008-10-01

    Charge exchange recombination spectroscopy on Alcator C-Mod relies on the use of the diagnostic neutral beam injector as a source of neutral particles which penetrate deep into the plasma. It employs the emission resulting from the interaction of the beam atoms with fully ionized impurity ions. To interpret the emission from a given point in the plasma as the density of emitting impurity ions, the density of beam atoms must be known. Here, an analysis of beam propagation is described which yields the beam density profile throughout the beam trajectory from the neutral beam injector to the core of the plasma. The analysis includes the effects of beam formation, attenuation in the neutral gas surrounding the plasma, and attenuation in the plasma. In the course of this work, a numerical simulation and an analytical approximation for beam divergence are developed. The description is made sufficiently compact to yield accurate results in a time consistent with between-shot analysis.

  7. A fully automatic tool to perform accurate flood mapping by merging remote sensing imagery and ancillary data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D'Addabbo, Annarita; Refice, Alberto; Lovergine, Francesco; Pasquariello, Guido

    2016-04-01

    Flooding is one of the most frequent and expansive natural hazard. High-resolution flood mapping is an essential step in the monitoring and prevention of inundation hazard, both to gain insight into the processes involved in the generation of flooding events, and from the practical point of view of the precise assessment of inundated areas. Remote sensing data are recognized to be useful in this respect, thanks to the high resolution and regular revisit schedules of state-of-the-art satellites, moreover offering a synoptic overview of the extent of flooding. In particular, Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) data present several favorable characteristics for flood mapping, such as their relative insensitivity to the meteorological conditions during acquisitions, as well as the possibility of acquiring independently of solar illumination, thanks to the active nature of the radar sensors [1]. However, flood scenarios are typical examples of complex situations in which different factors have to be considered to provide accurate and robust interpretation of the situation on the ground: the presence of many land cover types, each one with a particular signature in presence of flood, requires modelling the behavior of different objects in the scene in order to associate them to flood or no flood conditions [2]. Generally, the fusion of multi-temporal, multi-sensor, multi-resolution and/or multi-platform Earth observation image data, together with other ancillary information, seems to have a key role in the pursuit of a consistent interpretation of complex scenes. In the case of flooding, distance from the river, terrain elevation, hydrologic information or some combination thereof can add useful information to remote sensing data. Suitable methods, able to manage and merge different kind of data, are so particularly needed. In this work, a fully automatic tool, based on Bayesian Networks (BNs) [3] and able to perform data fusion, is presented. It supplies flood maps

  8. Development of an accurate EPID-based output measurement and dosimetric verification tool for electron beam therapy

    PubMed Central

    Ding, Aiping; Xing, Lei; Han, Bin

    2015-01-01

    chamber measurements. The average discrepancy between EPID and ion chamber/film measurements was 0.81% ± 0.60% (SD) and 1.34% ± 0.75%, respectively. For the three clinical cases, the difference in output between the EPID- and ion chamber array measured values was found to be 1.13% ± 0.11%, 0.54% ± 0.10%, and 0.74% ± 0.11%, respectively. Furthermore, the γ-index analysis showed an excellent agreement between the EPID- and ion chamber array measured dose distributions: 100% of the pixels passed the criteria of 3%/3 mm. When the γ-index was set to be 2%/2 mm, the pass rate was found to be 99.0% ± 0.07%, 98.2% ± 0.14%, and 100% for the three cases. Conclusions: The EPID dosimetry system developed in this work provides an accurate and reliable tool for routine output measurement and dosimetric verification of electron beam therapy. Coupled with its portability and ease of use, the proposed system promises to replace the current film-based approach for fast and reliable assessment of small and irregular electron field dosimetry. PMID:26133618

  9. Realising the Potential of Urine and Saliva as Diagnostic Tools in Sport and Exercise Medicine.

    PubMed

    Lindsay, Angus; Costello, Joseph T

    2017-01-01

    Accurate monitoring of homeostatic perturbations following various psychophysiological stressors is essential in sports and exercise medicine. Various biomarkers are routinely used as monitoring tools in both clinical and elite sport settings. Blood collection and muscle biopsies, both invasive in nature, are considered the gold standard for the analysis of these biomarkers in exercise science. Exploring non-invasive methods of collecting and analysing biomarkers that are capable of providing accurate information regarding exercise-induced physiological and psychological stress is of obvious practical importance. This review describes the potential benefits, and the limitations, of using saliva and urine to ascertain biomarkers capable of identifying important stressors that are routinely encountered before, during, or after intense or unaccustomed exercise, competition, over-training, and inappropriate recovery. In particular, we focus on urinary and saliva biomarkers that have previously been used to monitor muscle damage, inflammation, cardiovascular stress, oxidative stress, hydration status, and brain distress. Evidence is provided from a range of empirical studies suggesting that urine and saliva are both capable of identifying various stressors. Although additional research regarding the efficacy of using urine and/or saliva to indicate the severity of exercise-induced psychophysiological stress is required, it is likely that these non-invasive biomarkers will represent "the future" in sports and exercise medicine.

  10. ESMValTool (v1.0) - a community diagnostic and performance metrics tool for routine evaluation of Earth System Models in CMIP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eyring, V.; Righi, M.; Evaldsson, M.; Lauer, A.; Wenzel, S.; Jones, C.; Anav, A.; Andrews, O.; Cionni, I.; Davin, E. L.; Deser, C.; Ehbrecht, C.; Friedlingstein, P.; Gleckler, P.; Gottschaldt, K.-D.; Hagemann, S.; Juckes, M.; Kindermann, S.; Krasting, J.; Kunert, D.; Levine, R.; Loew, A.; Mäkelä, J.; Martin, G.; Mason, E.; Phillips, A.; Read, S.; Rio, C.; Roehrig, R.; Senftleben, D.; Sterl, A.; van Ulft, L. H.; Walton, J.; Wang, S.; Williams, K. D.

    2015-09-01

    A community diagnostics and performance metrics tool for the evaluation of Earth System Models (ESMs) has been developed that allows for routine comparison of single or multiple models, either against predecessor versions or against observations. The priority of the effort so far has been to target specific scientific themes focusing on selected Essential Climate Variables (ECVs), a range of known systematic biases common to ESMs, such as coupled tropical climate variability, monsoons, Southern Ocean processes, continental dry biases and soil hydrology-climate interactions, as well as atmospheric CO2 budgets, tropospheric and stratospheric ozone, and tropospheric aerosols. The tool is being developed in such a way that additional analyses can easily be added. A set of standard namelists for each scientific topic reproduces specific sets of diagnostics or performance metrics that have demonstrated their importance in ESM evaluation in the peer-reviewed literature. The Earth System Model Evaluation Tool (ESMValTool) is a community effort open to both users and developers encouraging open exchange of diagnostic source code and evaluation results from the CMIP ensemble. This will facilitate and improve ESM evaluation beyond the state-of-the-art and aims at supporting such activities within the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP) and at individual modelling centres. Ultimately, we envisage running the ESMValTool alongside the Earth System Grid Federation (ESGF) as part of a more routine evaluation of CMIP model simulations while utilizing observations available in standard formats (obs4MIPs) or provided by the user.

  11. ESMValTool (v1.0) - a community diagnostic and performance metrics tool for routine evaluation of Earth system models in CMIP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eyring, Veronika; Righi, Mattia; Lauer, Axel; Evaldsson, Martin; Wenzel, Sabrina; Jones, Colin; Anav, Alessandro; Andrews, Oliver; Cionni, Irene; Davin, Edouard L.; Deser, Clara; Ehbrecht, Carsten; Friedlingstein, Pierre; Gleckler, Peter; Gottschaldt, Klaus-Dirk; Hagemann, Stefan; Juckes, Martin; Kindermann, Stephan; Krasting, John; Kunert, Dominik; Levine, Richard; Loew, Alexander; Mäkelä, Jarmo; Martin, Gill; Mason, Erik; Phillips, Adam S.; Read, Simon; Rio, Catherine; Roehrig, Romain; Senftleben, Daniel; Sterl, Andreas; van Ulft, Lambertus H.; Walton, Jeremy; Wang, Shiyu; Williams, Keith D.

    2016-05-01

    A community diagnostics and performance metrics tool for the evaluation of Earth system models (ESMs) has been developed that allows for routine comparison of single or multiple models, either against predecessor versions or against observations. The priority of the effort so far has been to target specific scientific themes focusing on selected essential climate variables (ECVs), a range of known systematic biases common to ESMs, such as coupled tropical climate variability, monsoons, Southern Ocean processes, continental dry biases, and soil hydrology-climate interactions, as well as atmospheric CO2 budgets, tropospheric and stratospheric ozone, and tropospheric aerosols. The tool is being developed in such a way that additional analyses can easily be added. A set of standard namelists for each scientific topic reproduces specific sets of diagnostics or performance metrics that have demonstrated their importance in ESM evaluation in the peer-reviewed literature. The Earth System Model Evaluation Tool (ESMValTool) is a community effort open to both users and developers encouraging open exchange of diagnostic source code and evaluation results from the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP) ensemble. This will facilitate and improve ESM evaluation beyond the state-of-the-art and aims at supporting such activities within CMIP and at individual modelling centres. Ultimately, we envisage running the ESMValTool alongside the Earth System Grid Federation (ESGF) as part of a more routine evaluation of CMIP model simulations while utilizing observations available in standard formats (obs4MIPs) or provided by the user.

  12. Metabolic and Genetic Screening of Electromagnetic Hypersensitive Subjects as a Feasible Tool for Diagnostics and Intervention

    PubMed Central

    De Luca, Chiara; Chung Sheun Thai, Jeffrey; Raskovic, Desanka; Cesareo, Eleonora; Caccamo, Daniela; Trukhanov, Arseny

    2014-01-01

    Growing numbers of “electromagnetic hypersensitive” (EHS) people worldwide self-report severely disabling, multiorgan, non-specific symptoms when exposed to low-dose electromagnetic radiations, often associated with symptoms of multiple chemical sensitivity (MCS) and/or other environmental “sensitivity-related illnesses” (SRI). This cluster of chronic inflammatory disorders still lacks validated pathogenetic mechanism, diagnostic biomarkers, and management guidelines. We hypothesized that SRI, not being merely psychogenic, may share organic determinants of impaired detoxification of common physic-chemical stressors. Based on our previous MCS studies, we tested a panel of 12 metabolic blood redox-related parameters and of selected drug-metabolizing-enzyme gene polymorphisms, on 153 EHS, 147 MCS, and 132 control Italians, confirming MCS altered (P < 0.05–0.0001) glutathione-(GSH), GSH-peroxidase/S-transferase, and catalase erythrocyte activities. We first described comparable—though milder—metabolic pro-oxidant/proinflammatory alterations in EHS with distinctively increased plasma coenzyme-Q10 oxidation ratio. Severe depletion of erythrocyte membrane polyunsaturated fatty acids with increased ω6/ω3 ratio was confirmed in MCS, but not in EHS. We also identified significantly (P = 0.003) altered distribution-versus-control of the CYP2C19∗1/∗2 SNP variants in EHS, and a 9.7-fold increased risk (OR: 95% C.I. = 1.3–74.5) of developing EHS for the haplotype (null)GSTT1 + (null)GSTM1 variants. Altogether, results on MCS and EHS strengthen our proposal to adopt this blood metabolic/genetic biomarkers' panel as suitable diagnostic tool for SRI. PMID:24812443

  13. Sialometry and sialochemistry: diagnostic tools for Sjögren's syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Kalk, W; Vissink, A; Spijkervet, F; Bootsma, H; Kallenberg, C; Amerongen, A

    2001-01-01

    BACKGROUND—The common occurrence of xerostomia in Sjögren's syndrome (SS) as well as the easy accessibility of saliva supports the use of sialometry and sialochemistry in the diagnosis of SS. Collection and analysis of whole saliva (oral fluid) is currently the routine technique for sialometry, despite the fact that it is rather inaccurate and impure.
OBJECTIVE—To assess the value of glandular sialometry and sialochemistry as diagnostic instruments in SS.
METHODS—In a group of 100 consecutive patients referred for diagnosis of SS, glandular secretory flow rates and a spectrum of salivary components (sodium, potassium, chloride, calcium, phosphate, urea, amylase, total protein) were assessed. The patients were classified as positive or negative for SS according to the revised European classification criteria.
RESULTS—Patients with SS differed clearly from those who tested negative for SS, showing lower submandibular/sublingual (SM/SL) flow rates and an appreciably changed salivary composition of parotid and SM/SL saliva. Besides changes in salivary flow rate and composition, distinct sialometric profiles were observed, characteristic of either early or late salivary manifestation of SS, or of the xerogenic side effects of medication.
CONCLUSIONS—Glandular sialometry and sialochemistry are not only useful tools for differentiating SS from other salivary gland disease in clinical practice, but they also have great potential as diagnostic criteria for SS, showing distinct sialometric and sialochemical changes as well as profiles. Being simple, safe (non-invasive), and sensitive (early disease detection), they have three major advantages over other oral tests for SS.

 PMID:11709452

  14. Geochemical study of black crusts as a diagnostic tool in cultural heritage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    La Russa, Mauro F.; Belfiore, Cristina M.; Comite, Valeria; Barca, Donatella; Bonazza, Alessandra; Ruffolo, Silvestro A.; Crisci, Gino M.; Pezzino, Antonino

    2013-12-01

    This contribution focuses on spectrometric analyses carried out on crust samples covering the stone surface of the boundary walls of the Tower of London. The main goal of this research is to investigate the degradation processes related to the environmental impact on cultural heritage. Specifically, the chemical contamination of stone substrate in the Tower of London due to the crust formation was examined through laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS). This technique allowed us to achieve a complete characterization of the damage layers in terms of trace elements. In addition, optical microscopy (OM), scanning electron microscopy coupled with energy-dispersive X-ray spectrometry (SEM-EDS) and infrared spectroscopic techniques (FT-IR) were also used for an exhaustive characterization of the examined samples. Results obtained demonstrated that such a geochemical approach represents a powerful diagnostic tool in the study of black crusts, since it represents a reliable indicator of the environmental pollution. The higher concentrations of most heavy metals in black crusts with respect to the underlying stone suggest that crusts were greatly influenced by atmospheric inputs in their formation, mainly represented by mobile combustion sources. In addition, the possibility of analyzing in some samples the portion of altered substrate allowed us to hypothesize that some specific heavy metals tend to migrate from the crust to the unaltered substrate over time, becoming catalysts for the formation of new crust. Therefore, this research focuses on the role of diagnostics in order to plan suitable cleaning and consolidation intervention aimed at a better protection of the monument.

  15. Development of an Internet-Enabled Tool for NSTX-U Thomson Diagnostic Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wallace, William; Diallo, Ahmed

    2016-10-01

    MultiPoint Thomson Scattering (MPTS) is an established, accurate method of finding the temperature, density, and pressure of a magnetically confined plasma. Two Nd:YAG (1064 nm) lasers are fired into the plasma with a effective frequency of 60 Hz, and the light is Doppler shifted by Thomson scattering. Polychromators on the NSTX-U midplane collect the scattered photons at various radii/scattering angles, and the avalanche photodiode voltages are saved to an MDSplus tree for later analysis. IDL code is then used to determine plasma temperature, pressure, and density from the captured polychromator measurements via Selden formulas.[1] OMFIT, from the General Atomics Fusion Theory Team, is a rich data workflow package used on DIII-D, NSTX-U, and other experiments to rapidly investigate and draw conclusions from collated data sets and simulations. OMFIT can also be used as a data access source into other toolkits and fusion analysis software. This project, written in Python and taking advantage of late-generation Internet software technologies, uses OMFIT to rapidly find and visualize Thomson diagnostic plasma characteristics enabling scientists to gain a quick understanding of shot behavior and timeframes.

  16. Diagnostics and Prognostics Tools for Assessing Remaining Useful Life of Nuclear Power Plant Materials

    SciTech Connect

    Ramuhalli, Pradeep; Griffin, Jeffrey W.; Fricke, Jacob M.; Henager, Charles H.; Dixit, Mukul; Bond, Leonard J.

    2011-12-01

    In recent years, there has been renewed interest in expanding the use of nuclear power to provide sustainable, carbon-free energy. As part of these activities in the USA, there are major initiatives focused on "life extension" for existing light-water nuclear power reactors (LWR) from 60 to 80 (or 100) years. To enable longer term operation, a range of advanced diagnostics and prognostics methods that are suitable for on-line, continuous, in-plant monitoring over extended time periods (months to years) are necessary. A central issue in life extension for the current fleet of LWRs is the early detection and monitoring of materials degradation. Material aging and degradation due to stresses and irradiation is a critical element in assessing potential for the failure of components in legacy nuclear power plants. A related issue is the ability to estimate remaining useful life (RUL) of components and systems based on condition assessment or degradation information. Detection of early stage damage in materials and assessment of remaining life is important in proactive or prognostic-based life management of legacy nuclear power plants. These approaches go beyond what is currently included in "condition-based maintenance," this strategy can potentially improve safety and reduce costs by detecting damage and scheduling appropriate maintenance/mitigation strategies early in the component lifecycle. For early detection of degradation, novel nondestructive (i.e., without destroying the utility of the specimen) tests that are suitable for continuous monitoring over extended time periods are needed, as are new techniques for data integration. The challenge of predicting remaining life starting from earlier phases of degradation is also largely unsolved and will require new prognostics tools. This paper will discuss the development and application of advanced diagnostics and prognostics tools to the life extension problem. The focus of these activities will be on ferritic and

  17. A Quasi-Universal Nonword Repetition Task as a Diagnostic Tool for Bilingual Children Learning Dutch as a Second Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boerma, Tessel; Chiat, Shula; Leseman, Paul; Timmermeister, Mona; Wijnen, Frank; Blom, Elma

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: This study evaluated a newly developed quasi-universal nonword repetition task (Q-U NWRT) as a diagnostic tool for bilingual children with language impairment (LI) who have Dutch as a 2nd language. The Q-U NWRT was designed to be minimally influenced by knowledge of 1 specific language in contrast to a language-specific NWRT with which it…

  18. Development and Assessment of a Diagnostic Tool to Identify Organic Chemistry Students' Alternative Conceptions Related to Acid Strength

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McClary, LaKeisha M.; Bretz, Stacey Lowery

    2012-01-01

    The central goal of this study was to create a new diagnostic tool to identify organic chemistry students' alternative conceptions related to acid strength. Twenty years of research on secondary and college students' conceptions about acids and bases has shown that these important concepts are difficult for students to apply to qualitative problem…

  19. Creating an automated chiller fault detection and diagnostics tool using a data fault library.

    PubMed

    Bailey, Margaret B; Kreider, Jan F

    2003-07-01

    Reliable, automated detection and diagnosis of abnormal behavior within vapor compression refrigeration cycle (VCRC) equipment is extremely desirable for equipment owners and operators. The specific type of VCRC equipment studied in this paper is a 70-ton helical rotary, air-cooled chiller. The fault detection and diagnostic (FDD) tool developed as part of this research analyzes chiller operating data and detects faults through recognizing trends or patterns existing within the data. The FDD method incorporates a neural network (NN) classifier to infer the current state given a vector of observables. Therefore the FDD method relies upon the availability of normal and fault empirical data for training purposes and therefore a fault library of empirical data is assembled. This paper presents procedures for conducting sophisticated fault experiments on chillers that simulate air-cooled condenser, refrigerant, and oil related faults. The experimental processes described here are not well documented in literature and therefore will provide the interested reader with a useful guide. In addition, the authors provide evidence, based on both thermodynamics and empirical data analysis, that chiller performance is significantly degraded during fault operation. The chiller's performance degradation is successfully detected and classified by the NN FDD classifier as discussed in the paper's final section.

  20. Diagnostic and quality-assurance tools for low-contrast images obtained from array detectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hatfield, D. B.; Sandel, Bill R.

    1993-01-01

    We investigate methods of estimating a background image frame for subtraction from a data frame for use when a more suitable measured background frame is not available. We define background as any signal component that is not attributable to the phenomenon currently under investigation. We describe a technique that is based on pixel-by-pixel least-squares regression of images for computing a background frame from available data. We argue that the same technique can be a useful quality-assurance tool for evaluating instrument performance. For example, it can help to separate image structure resulting from the reading process from structure resulting from the characteristics of the detector itself. We demonstrate that background estimation can be nontrivial by comparing the results of different background estimation procedures by using data obtained from a CCD array detector. We investigate the temperature-dependent contributions of the detector and readout electronics to the total signal as a demonstration of the diagnostic capabilities of least-squares image regression.

  1. Simulated color: a diagnostic tool for skin lesions like port-wine stain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Randeberg, Lise L.; Svaasand, Lars O.

    2001-05-01

    A device independent method for skin color visualization has been developed. Colors reconstructed from a reflectance spectrum are presented on a computer screen by sRGB (standard Red Green Blue) color coordinates. The colors are presented as adjacent patches surrounded by a medium grey border. CIELAB color coordinates and CIE (International Commission on Illumination) color difference (Delta) E are computed. The change in skin color due to a change in average blood content or scattering properties in dermis is investigated. This is done by analytical simulations based on the diffusion approximation. It is found that an 11% change in average blood content and a 15% change in scattering properties will give a visible color change. A supposed visibility limit for (Delta) E is given. This value is based on experimental testing and the known properties of the human visual system. This limit value can be used as a tool to determine when to terminate laser treatment of port- wine stain due to low treatment response, i.e. low (Delta) E between treatments. The visualization method presented seems promising for medical applications as port-wine stain diagnostics. The method gives good possibilities for electronic transfer of data between clinics because it is device independent.

  2. Dynamic 3-D computer graphics for designing a diagnostic tool for patients with schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Farkas, Attila; Papathomas, Thomas V; Silverstein, Steven M; Kourtev, Hristiyan; Papayanopoulos, John F

    2016-11-01

    We introduce a novel procedure that uses dynamic 3-D computer graphics as a diagnostic tool for assessing disease severity in schizophrenia patients, based on their reduced influence of top-down cognitive processes in interpreting bottom-up sensory input. Our procedure uses the hollow-mask illusion, in which the concave side of the mask is misperceived as convex, because familiarity with convex faces dominates sensory cues signaling a concave mask. It is known that schizophrenia patients resist this illusion and their resistance increases with illness severity. Our method uses virtual masks rendered with two competing textures: (a) realistic features that enhance the illusion; (b) random-dot visual noise that reduces the illusion. We control the relative weights of the two textures to obtain psychometric functions for controls and patients and assess illness severity. The primary novelty is the use of a rotating mask that is easy to implement on a wide variety of portable devices and avoids the use of elaborate stereoscopic devices that have been used in the past. Thus our method, which can also be used to assess the efficacy of treatments, provides clinicians the advantage to bring the test to the patient's own environment, instead of having to bring patients to the clinic.

  3. EEG Synchronization Evaluation: A New Diagnostic Tool for Predicting the Progression of Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Yi, Ran; Zhan, Xiao-Rong; Tang, Jing; Zhang, Li-Ming; Liu, Xiao-Min; Dong, Qi

    2015-04-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is known as a leading cause of dementia in elderly persons. It is a chronic neurodegenerative disorder characterized by progressive cognitive dysfunction. AD can disrupt functional connectivity in distributed cortical networks. The S-estimator, which is a measure of multivariate intraregional synchronization, was analyzed in this study. Twenty patients with AD and 20 age-matched controls were tested at baseline and after 1 year to evaluate the potential of synchronization to be a possible marker of AD progression. All the subjects had clinical evaluations and electroencephalography (EEG) at baseline and post 1 year. Hyposynchronization had an important effect in the medial temporal and frontal regions, while there were no significant effects for hypersynchronization. Hypersynchronized clusters changed more slowly with time (P = .067), whereas hyposynchronized clusters changed more quickly (P = .032). Hyposynchronized cluster-averaged S-estimator correlated negatively with progression of AD (r = -0.98769, P = .0103). In conclusion, the present study provides a whole-brain, AD-specific phenotype of temporal coordination in distributed cortical networks, which is an early diagnostic tool for progression of AD.

  4. A novel diagnostic tool reveals mitochondrial pathology in human diseases and aging.

    PubMed

    Scheibye-Knudsen, Morten; Scheibye-Alsing, Karsten; Canugovi, Chandrika; Croteau, Deborah L; Bohr, Vilhelm A

    2013-03-01

    The inherent complex and pleiotropic phenotype of mitochondrial diseases poses a significant diagnostic challenge for clinicians as well as an analytical barrier for scientists. To overcome these obstacles we compiled a novel database, www.mitodb.com, containing the clinical features of primary mitochondrial diseases. Based on this we developed a number of qualitative and quantitative measures, enabling us to determine whether a disorder can be characterized as mitochondrial. These included a clustering algorithm, a disease network, a mitochondrial barcode and two scoring algorithms. Using these tools we detected mitochondrial involvement in a number of diseases not previously recorded as mitochondrial. As a proof of principle Cockayne syndrome, ataxia with oculomotor apraxia 1 (AOA1), spinocerebellar ataxia with axonal neuropathy 1 (SCAN1) and ataxia-telangiectasia have recently been shown to have mitochondrial dysfunction and those diseases showed strong association with mitochondrial disorders. We next evaluated mitochondrial involvement in aging and detected two distinct categories of accelerated aging disorders, one of them being associated with mitochondrial dysfunction. Normal aging seemed to associate stronger with the mitochondrial diseases than the non-mitochondrial partially supporting a mitochondrial theory of aging.

  5. Surface tension in human pathophysiology and its application as a medical diagnostic tool

    PubMed Central

    Fathi-Azarbayjani, Anahita; Jouyban, Abolghasem

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Pathological features of disease appear to be quite different. Despite this diversity, the common feature of various disorders underlies physicochemical and biochemical factors such as surface tension. Human biological fluids comprise various proteins and phospholipids which are capable of adsorption at fluid interfaces and play a vital role in the physiological function of human organs. Surface tension of body fluids correlates directly to the development of pathological states. Methods: In this review, the variety of human diseases mediated by the surface tension changes of biological phenomena and the failure of biological fluids to remain in their native state are discussed. Results: Dynamic surface tension measurements of human biological fluids depend on various parameters such as sex, age and changes during pregnancy or certain disease. It is expected that studies of surface tension behavior of human biological fluids will provide additional information and might become useful in medical practice. Theoretical background on surface tension measurement and surface tension values of reference fluids obtained from healthy and sick patients are depicted. Conclusion: It is well accepted that no single biomarker will be effective in clinical diagnosis. The surface tension measurement combined with routine lab tests may be a novel non-invasive method which can not only facilitate the discovery of diagnostic models for various diseases and its severity, but also be a useful tool for monitoring treatment efficacy. We therefore expect that studies of surface tension behavior of human biological fluids will provide additional useful information in medical practice. PMID:25901295

  6. Large biases in regression-based constituent flux estimates: causes and diagnostic tools

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hirsch, Robert M.

    2014-01-01

    It has been documented in the literature that, in some cases, widely used regression-based models can produce severely biased estimates of long-term mean river fluxes of various constituents. These models, estimated using sample values of concentration, discharge, and date, are used to compute estimated fluxes for a multiyear period at a daily time step. This study compares results of the LOADEST seven-parameter model, LOADEST five-parameter model, and the Weighted Regressions on Time, Discharge, and Season (WRTDS) model using subsampling of six very large datasets to better understand this bias problem. This analysis considers sample datasets for dissolved nitrate and total phosphorus. The results show that LOADEST-7 and LOADEST-5, although they often produce very nearly unbiased results, can produce highly biased results. This study identifies three conditions that can give rise to these severe biases: (1) lack of fit of the log of concentration vs. log discharge relationship, (2) substantial differences in the shape of this relationship across seasons, and (3) severely heteroscedastic residuals. The WRTDS model is more resistant to the bias problem than the LOADEST models but is not immune to them. Understanding the causes of the bias problem is crucial to selecting an appropriate method for flux computations. Diagnostic tools for identifying the potential for bias problems are introduced, and strategies for resolving bias problems are described.

  7. Developing a diagnostic tool for measuring maximum effective temperature within high pressure electrodeless discharges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whiting, Michael; Preston, Barry; Mucklejohn, Stuart; Santos, Monica; Lister, Graeme

    2016-09-01

    Here we present an investigation into the feasibility of creating a diagnostic tool for obtaining maximum arc temperature measurements within a high pressure electrodeless discharge; utilizing integrating sphere measurements of optically thin lines emitted from mercury atoms within commercially available high pressure mercury lamp arc tubes. The optically thin lines chosen were 577 nm and 1014 nm from a 250 W high pressure mercury lamp operated at various powers. The effective temperature could be calculated by considering the relative intensities of the two optically thin lines and comparison with the theoretical ratio of the temperature dependent power emitted from the lines derived from the atomic spectral data provided by NIST. The calculations gave effective arc temperatures of 5755, 5804 and 5820 K at 200, 225, 250 W respectively. This method was subsequently used as a basis for determining maximum effective arc temperature within microwave-driven electrodeless discharge capsules, with varying mercury content of 6.07, 9.4 and 12.95 mg within 1 × 10-6 m3 giving maximum effective temperatures of 5163, 4768 and 4715 K respectively at 240 W.

  8. Laplacian spectra as a diagnostic tool for network structure and dynamics.

    PubMed

    McGraw, Patrick N; Menzinger, Michael

    2008-03-01

    We examine numerically the three-way relationships among structure, Laplacian spectra, and frequency synchronization dynamics on complex networks. We study the effects of clustering, degree distribution, and a particular type of coupling asymmetry (input normalization), all of which are known to have effects on the synchronizability of oscillator networks. We find that these topological factors produce marked signatures in the Laplacian eigenvalue distribution and in the localization properties of individual eigenvectors. Using a set of coordinates based on the Laplacian eigenvectors as a diagnostic tool for synchronization dynamics, we find that the process of frequency synchronization can be visualized as a series of quasi-independent transitions involving different normal modes. Particular features of the partially synchronized state can be understood in terms of the behavior of particular modes or groups of modes. For example, there are important partially synchronized states in which a set of low-lying modes remain unlocked while those in the main spectral peak are locked. We find therefore that spectra are correlated with dynamics in ways that go beyond results relating a single threshold to a single extremal eigenvalue.

  9. Development of a high-temperature diagnostics-while-drilling tool.

    SciTech Connect

    Chavira, David J.; Huey, David; Hetmaniak, Chris; Polsky, Yarom; King, Dennis K.; Jacobson, Ronald David; Blankenship, Douglas Alan; Knudsen, Steven Dell; Henfling, Joseph Anthony; Mansure, Arthur James

    2009-01-01

    The envisioned benefits of Diagnostics-While-Drilling (DWD) are based on the principle that high-speed, real-time information from the downhole environment will promote better control of the drilling process. Although in practice a DWD system could provide information related to any aspect of exploration and production of subsurface resources, the current DWD system provides data on drilling dynamics. This particular set of new tools provided by DWD will allow quicker detection of problems, reduce drilling flat-time and facilitate more efficient drilling (drilling optimization) with the overarching result of decreased drilling costs. In addition to providing the driller with an improved, real-time picture of the drilling conditions downhole, data generated from DWD systems provides researchers with valuable, high fidelity data sets necessary for developing and validating enhanced understanding of the drilling process. Toward this end, the availability of DWD creates a synergy with other Sandia Geothermal programs, such as the hard-rock bit program, where the introduction of alternative rock-reduction technologies are contingent on the reduction or elimination of damaging dynamic effects. More detailed descriptions of the rationale for the program and early development efforts are described in more detail by others [SAND2003-2069 and SAND2000-0239]. A first-generation low-temperature (LT) DWD system was fielded in a series of proof-of-concept tests (POC) to validate functionality. Using the LT system, DWD was subsequently used to support a single-laboratory/multiple-partner CRADA (Cooperative Research and Development Agreement) entitled Advanced Drag Bits for Hard-Rock Drilling. The drag-bit CRADA was established between Sandia and four bit companies, and involved testing of a PDC bit from each company [Wise, et al., 2003, 2004] in the same lithologic interval at the Gas Technology Institute (GTI) test facility near Catoosa, OK. In addition, the LT DWD system has

  10. A diagnostic tool for basic daily quality assurance of a Tomotherapy Hi*Art machine.

    PubMed

    Van de Vondel, Iwein; Tournel, Koen; Verellen, Dirk; Duchateau, Michael; Lelie, Steven; Storme, Guy

    2009-10-15

    To investigate and evaluate the use of an in-house developed diagnostic software tool using the imaging detector data for a quick daily quality assurance check of the output (dose) and lateral profile (cone) of a tomotherapy Hi*Art system. The Hi*Art treatment system is a radiation therapy machine for delivering intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) in a helical fashion with an integrated CT scanner used for improved patient positioning before treatment. Since the system was developed specifically for IMRT, flat fields can be obtained by modulating the beam and therefore the flattening filter could be omitted. Because of this, the field has a cone-like profile in both lateral and transversal directions. Patients are treated in a helical fashion with a tight pitch and a constant gantry rotation speed, while modulation is performed by a binary MLC. Consequently dose output per time-unit (dose rate) as well as the shape of the cone-profile are very important for correct patient treatment and should be closely monitored. However, using the company-provided initial tools and conventional dosimetry, this can be a time consuming daily procedure. The aim of this work is to develop a fast, automated method of quality assurance based on the detector signal. A software tool called "tomocheck" running on the operation station has been developed to evaluate the output (dose rate) and the lateral cone profile (energy) of the Hi*Art system, comparing actual output and cone profile with a reference (previously approved against ionization chamber measurements). This is done by using the data of the 640 on-board detector array that are directly retrieved and processed after a specific QA procedure. The detector file consists of the CT detector data and the three monitoring dose chamber readings over a time period of 200 sec. To evaluate the method, the system was benchmarked against ionization chamber measurements and classical IMRT QA methods. Action levels (final status

  11. Overview of erosion-deposition diagnostic tools for the ITER-Like Wall in the JET tokamak

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rubel, M.; Coad, J. P.; Widdowson, A.; Matthews, G. F.; Esser, H. G.; Hirai, T.; Likonen, J.; Linke, J.; Lungu, C. P.; Mayer, M.; Pedrick, L.; Ruset, C.; JET-EFDA Contributors

    2013-07-01

    This paper presents scientific and technical issues related to the development of erosion-deposition diagnostic tools for JET operated with the ITER-Like Wall: beryllium and tungsten marker tiles and several types of wall probes installed in the main chamber and in the divertor. Markers tiles are the standard limiter and divertor components additionally coated first with a thin sandwich of Ni-Be and Mo-W for, beryllium and tungsten markers, respectively. Both types of markers are embedded in regular arrays of limiter and divertor tiles. Coated W-Be probes are also inserted in the Be-covered Inconel cladding tiles on the central column. Other types of erosion-deposition diagnostic tools are: rotating collectors, deposition traps, louver clips, quartz microbalance and mirrors for the First Mirror Test at JET for ITER. The specific role of these tools is discussed in detail.

  12. Development of diagnostic tools for the analysis of 5p deletions using interphase FISH.

    PubMed

    Gersh, M; Grady, D; Rojas, K; Lovett, M; Moyzis, R; Overhauser, J

    1997-01-01

    Cri-du-chat syndrome is associated with a deletion of the short arm of chromosome 5. Through the phenotypic and molecular analyses of individuals with a subset of the features associated with the syndrome, the genes involved in the syndrome have been mapped to two distinct critical regions. Deletion of a critical region in 5p15.2 results in the distinct facial features associated with the syndrome as well as the severe mental and developmental delay, while a deletion of 5p15.3 is associated only with the characteristic cat-like cry, the key diagnostic feature of the syndrome. Therefore, subtle differences in the extent of the 5p deletion can have a profound affect on the prognosis of the patient. In order to more easily differentiate between deletions that lead to the cri-du-chat syndrome phenotype and deletions that lead only to the isolated cat-like cry, we have constructed YAC contigs that span both critical regions. The YAC clones have been used to isolate cosmids mapping to each critical region and cosmids that lie just within the two critical region boundaries have been identified. We report here on the use of these cosmids as probes for fluorescent in situ hybridization experiments on interphase nuclei as a means of more accurately differentiating between small 5p deletions that coincide with a complete cri-du-chat syndrome phenotype and the severe mental and developmental delay that is associated with it and deletions that only delete the distal critical region that coincide with the isolated cat-like cry and a much improved prognosis.

  13. Quality assessment of comparative diagnostic accuracy studies: our experience using a modified version of the QUADAS-2 tool.

    PubMed

    Wade, Ros; Corbett, Mark; Eastwood, Alison

    2013-09-01

    Assessing the quality of included studies is a vital step in undertaking a systematic review. The recently revised Quality Assessment of Diagnostic Accuracy Studies (QUADAS) tool (QUADAS-2), which is the only validated quality assessment tool for diagnostic accuracy studies, does not include specific criteria for assessing comparative studies. As part of an assessment that included comparative diagnostic accuracy studies, we used a modified version of QUADAS-2 to assess study quality. We modified QUADAS-2 by duplicating questions relating to the index test, to assess the relevant potential sources of bias for both the index test and comparator test. We also added review-specific questions. We have presented our modified version of QUADAS-2 and outlined some key issues for consideration when assessing the quality of comparative diagnostic accuracy studies, to help guide other systematic reviewers conducting comparative diagnostic reviews. Until QUADAS is updated to incorporate assessment of comparative studies, QUADAS-2 can be used, although modification and careful thought is required. It is important to reflect upon whether aspects of study design and methodology favour one of the tests over another.

  14. Composite PET and MRI for accurate localization and metabolic modeling: a very useful tool for research and clinic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bidaut, Luc M.

    1991-06-01

    In order to help in analyzing PET data and really take advantage of their metabolic content, a system was designed and implemented to align and process data from various medical imaging modalities, particularly (but not only) for brain studies. Although this system is for now mostly used for anatomical localization, multi-modality ROIs and pharmaco-kinetic modeling, more multi-modality protocols will be implemented in the future, not only to help in PET reconstruction data correction and semi-automated ROI definition, but also for helping in improving diagnostic accuracy along with surgery and therapy planning.

  15. BioBloom tools: fast, accurate and memory-efficient host species sequence screening using bloom filters

    PubMed Central

    Chu, Justin; Sadeghi, Sara; Raymond, Anthony; Jackman, Shaun D.; Nip, Ka Ming; Mar, Richard; Mohamadi, Hamid; Butterfield, Yaron S.; Robertson, A. Gordon; Birol, Inanç

    2014-01-01

    Large datasets can be screened for sequences from a specific organism, quickly and with low memory requirements, by a data structure that supports time- and memory-efficient set membership queries. Bloom filters offer such queries but require that false positives be controlled. We present BioBloom Tools, a Bloom filter-based sequence-screening tool that is faster than BWA, Bowtie 2 (popular alignment algorithms) and FACS (a membership query algorithm). It delivers accuracies comparable with these tools, controls false positives and has low memory requirements. Availability and implementaion: www.bcgsc.ca/platform/bioinfo/software/biobloomtools Contact: cjustin@bcgsc.ca or ibirol@bcgsc.ca Supplementary information: Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. PMID:25143290

  16. How Special Are Dark Gamma-Ray Burst: A Diagnostic Tool

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rod, Evert; Wiers, Ralph A. M. J.; Kouveliotou, Chryssa; Kaper, Lex; Kaneko, Yuki; Kaper, Lex

    2005-01-01

    We present here a comprehensive study of the optical/near-infrared (IR) upper limits for gamma-ray bursts that have an X-ray afterglow. We have extrapolated the X-ray afterglows to optical wavelengths based on the physics of the fireball blast wave model and compared these results with optical upper limits for a large sample of bursts. We find a small set of only three bursts out of a sample of 20 for which the upper limits are not compatible with their X-ray afterglow properties within the context of any blast wave model. This sparse sample does not allow us to conclusively determine the cause of this optical/near-IR deficit. Extinction in the host galaxy is a likely cause, but high redshifts and different afterglow mechanisms might also explain the deficit in some cases. We note that the three bursts appear to have higher than average gamma-my peak fluxes. In a magnitude versus time diagram the bursts are separated from the majority of bursts with a detected optical/near-IR afterglow. However, two gamma- ray bursts with an optical afterglow (one of which is highly reddened) also fall in this region with dark bursts, making it likely that dark bursts are at the faint end of the set of optically detected bursts, and therefore the dark bursts likely form a continuum with the bursts with a detected optical afterglow. Our work provides a useful diagnostic tool for follow-up observations for potentially dark bursts; applied to the events detected with the Swift satellite, it will significantly increase our sample of truly dark bursts and shed light upon their nature. Subject headings: dust, extinction - gamma rays: bursts Online material: machine-readable tables

  17. Bedside tomographic scintigraphy: a diagnostic tool in intensive care and the emergency room

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bone, Dianna; Persson, Mikael; Ribbe, Tommy; Dale, Susanne

    2001-09-01

    Scintigraphic tomography (SPECT) with a gamma camera is an established tool for the diagnosis of disturbances in perfusion of the myocardium. The technique has been shown to be useful in the management of patients with acute myocardial infarction. However, SPECT is not widely used for seriously ill patients due to the need to transport the patient to the gamma camera system. In order to make tomography available by the bedside, a form of limited view angle tomography, Ectomography, has been implemented on a mobile gamma camera system. Projection data are acquired by rotating a slant hole collimator in front of the stationary detector and therefore, the head gantry is simple and easily transported. The mobile system is completely self-contained providing acquisition, reconstruction and bedside display. System sensitivity can be increased by using a segmented collimator, making it possible to present reconstructed sections for diagnosis less than 10 min after the start of acquisition. At present, reconstruction is performed with 2D filtered back projection. A comparative study of patients with suspected coronary artery disease has shown that Ectomography and SPECT yield similar diagnostic information. In an experimental study, in which a coronary artery was occluded, it has been possible to use Ectomography to define myocardial area at risk and final infarct size. Myocardial imaging has been performed in the intensive care unit and a pilot study has demonstrated that brain scans can also be performed. Bedside tomographic scintigraphy has been shown to be feasible and studies can be performed without moving the patient. The method should provide, therefore, an alternative to SPECT in intensive care and the emergency room.

  18. Nasal and oral snoring endoscopy: novel and promising diagnostic tools in OSAS patients.

    PubMed

    Lovato, Andrea; Kotecha, Bhik; Vianello, Andrea; Giacomelli, Luciano; Staffieri, Alberto; Marchese-Ragona, Rosario

    2015-07-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate if any of the three awake procedures [fiberoptic nasopharyngoscopy with modified Müller Maneuver (FNMM), nasal snoring endoscopy (NSE), or oral snoring endoscopy (OSE)] could efficiently predict the grade or pattern of upper airway (UA) collapse found with drug-induced sleep endoscopy (DISE), which is considered by many authors as the current gold standard in optimizing obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) patient selection for UA surgery. Twenty consecutive patients (simple snorers and OSAS patients) were studied with FNMM, NSE, OSE, and DISE. The inter-test agreement was evaluated with Cohen's kappa coefficient (κ). In the current series, we found that NSE and OSE were better than FNMM in predicting the pattern of collapse found with DISE. A significant pattern agreement between NSE and DISE was present in all sub-sites, and the agreement was measured with a scale proposed by Landis and Koch as: moderate in velo- and oropharynx (κ = 0.52, p = 0.001, and κ = 0.47, p = 0.003, respectively), and substantial in hypopharynx (κ = 0.63, p < 0.00001). Comparing OSE with DISE, the pattern agreement was almost perfect at oropharyngeal level (κ = 0.82, p < 0.00001), and moderate at hypopharyngeal level (κ = 0.55, p = 0.0002); while a trend towards significance was found at velopharyngeal level (κ = 0.20, p = 0.07). FNMM showed a fair pattern agreement with DISE only at oropharyngeal level (κ = 0.31, p = 0.009); while in the other sub-sites, no significant agreement was found. NSE and OSE are new promising diagnostic tools in OSAS patients. Further investigations are needed to see if they could predict the effectiveness of UA surgery.

  19. Sleep structure: a new diagnostic tool for stage determination in sleeping sickness.

    PubMed

    Buguet, Alain; Bisser, Sylvie; Josenando, Théophile; Chapotot, Florian; Cespuglio, Raymond

    2005-01-01

    Human African trypanosomiasis (HAT), due to the transmission of Trypanosoma brucei (T. b.) gambiense and T. b. rhodesiense by tsetse flies, is re-emerging in inter-tropical Africa. It evolves from the hemolymphatic Stage I to the meningo-encephalitic Stage II. The latter is generally treated with melarsoprol, an arseniate provoking often a deadly encephalopathy. A precise determination of the HAT evolution stage is therefore crucial. Stage II patients show: (i) a deregulation of the 24-h distribution of the sleep-wake alternation; (ii) an alteration of the sleep structure, with frequent sleep onset rapid eye movement (REM) periods (SOREMPs). Gambian HAT was diagnosed in eight patients (four, Stage II; three, Stage I; one, "intermediate" case) at the trypanosomiasis clinic at Viana (Angola). Continuous 48-h polysomnography was recorded on Oxford Medilog 9000-II portable systems before and after treatment with melarsoprol (Stage II) or pentamidine (Stage I and "intermediate" stage). Sleep traces were visually analyzed in 20-s epochs using the PRANA software. Stage II patients showed the complete sleep-wake syndrome, partly reversed by melarsoprol 1 month later. Two Stage I patients did not experience any of these alterations. However, the "intermediate" and one Stage I patients exhibited sleep disruptions and/or SOREMPs, persistent after pentamidine treatment. Polysomnography may represent a diagnostic tool to distinguish the two stages of HAT. Especially, SOREMPs appear shortly after the central nervous system invasion by trypanosomes. The reversibility of the sleep-wake cycle and sleep structure alterations after appropriate treatment constitutes the basis of an evaluation of the healing process.

  20. Accurate 3d Textured Models of Vessels for the Improvement of the Educational Tools of a Museum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soile, S.; Adam, K.; Ioannidis, C.; Georgopoulos, A.

    2013-02-01

    Besides the demonstration of the findings, modern museums organize educational programs which aim to experience and knowledge sharing combined with entertainment rather than to pure learning. Toward that effort, 2D and 3D digital representations are gradually replacing the traditional recording of the findings through photos or drawings. The present paper refers to a project that aims to create 3D textured models of two lekythoi that are exhibited in the National Archaeological Museum of Athens in Greece; on the surfaces of these lekythoi scenes of the adventures of Odysseus are depicted. The project is expected to support the production of an educational movie and some other relevant interactive educational programs for the museum. The creation of accurate developments of the paintings and of accurate 3D models is the basis for the visualization of the adventures of the mythical hero. The data collection was made by using a structured light scanner consisting of two machine vision cameras that are used for the determination of geometry of the object, a high resolution camera for the recording of the texture, and a DLP projector. The creation of the final accurate 3D textured model is a complicated and tiring procedure which includes the collection of geometric data, the creation of the surface, the noise filtering, the merging of individual surfaces, the creation of a c-mesh, the creation of the UV map, the provision of the texture and, finally, the general processing of the 3D textured object. For a better result a combination of commercial and in-house software made for the automation of various steps of the procedure was used. The results derived from the above procedure were especially satisfactory in terms of accuracy and quality of the model. However, the procedure was proved to be time consuming while the use of various software packages presumes the services of a specialist.

  1. Validation of a Rapid Rabies Diagnostic Tool for Field Surveillance in Developing Countries

    PubMed Central

    Léchenne, Monique; Naïssengar, Kemdongarti; Lepelletier, Anthony; Alfaroukh, Idriss Oumar; Bourhy, Hervé; Zinsstag, Jakob; Dacheux, Laurent

    2016-01-01

    Background One root cause of the neglect of rabies is the lack of adequate diagnostic tests in the context of low income countries. A rapid, performance friendly and low cost method to detect rabies virus (RABV) in brain samples will contribute positively to surveillance and consequently to accurate data reporting, which is presently missing in the majority of rabies endemic countries. Methodology/Principal findings We evaluated a rapid immunodiagnostic test (RIDT) in comparison with the standard fluorescent antibody test (FAT) and confirmed the detection of the viral RNA by real time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR). Our analysis is a multicentre approach to validate the performance of the RIDT in both a field laboratory (N’Djamena, Chad) and an international reference laboratory (Institut Pasteur, Paris, France). In the field laboratory, 48 samples from dogs were tested and in the reference laboratory setting, a total of 73 samples was tested, representing a wide diversity of RABV in terms of animal species tested (13 different species), geographical origin of isolates with special emphasis on Africa, and different phylogenetic clades. Under reference laboratory conditions, specificity was 93.3% and sensitivity was 95.3% compared to the gold standard FAT test. Under field laboratory conditions, the RIDT yielded a higher reliability than the FAT test particularly on fresh and decomposed samples. Viral RNA was later extracted directly from the test filter paper and further used successfully for sequencing and genotyping. Conclusion/Significance The RIDT shows excellent performance qualities both in regard to user friendliness and reliability of the result. In addition, the test cassettes can be used as a vehicle to ship viral RNA to reference laboratories for further laboratory confirmation of the diagnosis and for epidemiological investigations using nucleotide sequencing. The potential for satisfactory use in remote locations is

  2. A 3D assessment tool for accurate volume measurement for monitoring the evolution of cutaneous leishmaniasis wounds.

    PubMed

    Zvietcovich, Fernando; Castañeda, Benjamin; Valencia, Braulio; Llanos-Cuentas, Alejandro

    2012-01-01

    Clinical assessment and outcome metrics are serious weaknesses identified on the systematic reviews of cutaneous Leishmaniasis wounds. Methods with high accuracy and low-variability are required to standarize study outcomes in clinical trials. This work presents a precise, complete and noncontact 3D assessment tool for monitoring the evolution of cutaneous Leishmaniasis (CL) wounds based on a 3D laser scanner and computer vision algorithms. A 3D mesh of the wound is obtained by a commercial 3D laser scanner. Then, a semi-automatic segmentation using active contours is performed to separate the ulcer from the healthy skin. Finally, metrics of volume, area, perimeter and depth are obtained from the mesh. Traditional manual 3D and 3D measurements are obtained as a gold standard. Experiments applied to phantoms and real CL wounds suggest that the proposed 3D assessment tool provides higher accuracy (error <2%) and precision rates (error <4%) than conventional manual methods (precision error < 35%). This 3D assessment tool provides high accuracy metrics which deserve more formal prospective study.

  3. Development of “-omics” research in Schistosoma spp. and -omics-based new diagnostic tools for schistosomiasis

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Shuqi; Hu, Wei

    2014-01-01

    Schistosomiasis, caused by dioecious flatworms in the genus Schistosoma, is torturing people from many developing countries nowadays and frequently leads to severe morbidity and mortality of the patients. Praziquantel based chemotherapy and morbidity control for this disease adopted currently necessitate viable and efficient diagnostic technologies. Fortunately, those “-omics” researches, which rely on high-throughput experimental technologies to produce massive amounts of informative data, have substantially contributed to the exploitation and innovation of diagnostic tools of schistosomiasis. In its first section, this review provides a concise conclusion on the progresses pertaining to schistosomal “-omics” researches to date, followed by a comprehensive section on the diagnostic methods of schistosomiasis, especially those innovative ones based on the detection of antibodies, antigens, nucleic acids, and metabolites with a focus on those achievements inspired by “-omics” researches. Finally, suggestions about the design of future diagnostic tools of schistosomiasis are proposed, in order to better harness those data produced by “-omics” studies. PMID:25018752

  4. Evaluation of a new paleosecular variation activity index as a diagnostic tool for geomagnetic field variations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panovska, Sanja; Constable, Catherine

    2015-04-01

    Geomagnetic indices like Dst, K and A, have been used since the early twentieth century to characterize activity in the external part of the modern geomagnetic field and as a diagnostic for space weather. These indices reflect regional and global activity and serve as a proxy for associated physical processes. However, no such tools are yet available for the internal geomagnetic field driven by the geodynamo in Earth's liquid outer core. To some extent this reflects limited spatial and temporal sampling for longer timescales associated with paleomagnetic secular variation, but recent efforts in both paleomagnetic data gathering and modeling activity suggest that longer term characterization of the internal geomagnetic weather/climate and its variability would be useful. Specifically, we propose an index for activity in paleosecular variation, useful as both a local and global measure of field stability during so-called normal secular variation and as a means of identifying more extreme behavior associated with geomagnetic excursions and reversals. To date, geomagnetic excursions have been identified by virtual geomagnetic poles (VGPs) deviating more than some conventional limit from the geographic pole (often 45 degrees), and/or by periods of significant intensity drops below some critical value, for example 50% of the present-day field. We seek to establish a quantitative definition of excursions in paleomagnetic records by searching for synchronous directional deviations and lows in relative paleointensity. We combine paleointensity variations with deviations from the expected geocentric axial dipole (GAD) inclination in a single parameter, which we call the paleosecular variation (PSV) activity index. This new diagnostic can be used on any geomagnetic time series (individual data records, model predictions, spherical harmonic coefficients, etc.) to characterize the level of paleosecular variation activity, find excursions, or even study incipient reversals

  5. Infrared thermography as a diagnostic tool to indicate sick-house-syndrome: a case-study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ljungberg, Sven-Ake

    1996-03-01

    function, manload and demand of air flow. Field control inspections were performed partly from the inside and partly from the outside of the building. Microbial activities were investigated by traditional measurements of the emissions and contamination of indoor air, and by ocular inspections and laboratory tests of building materials. Despite the fact that the building studied has a complicated composition of surface materials, including glass, wood, steel and concrete panels, it was possible to indirectly indicate surface anomalies, related to microbial deterioration of organic materials, through mold and rot activities, due to in-exfiltration of humid air, causing moisture problems within the construction. The result from this case-study shows that thermography can become an important diagnostic tool in order to detect and map sick-house-syndromes. The project is to be continued.

  6. New tools for rapid clinical and bioagent diagnostics: microwaves and plasmonic nanostructures.

    PubMed

    Aslan, Kadir; Geddes, Chris D

    2008-11-01

    In this timely review, we summarize recent work on ultra-fast and sensitive bioassays based on microwave heating, and provide our current interpretation of the role of the combined use of microwave energy and plasmonic nanostructures for applications in rapid clinical and bioagent diagnostics. The incorporation of microwave heating into plasmonic nanostructure-based bioassays brings new advancements to diagnostic tests. A temperature gradient, created by the selective heating of water in the presence of plasmonic nanostructures, results in an increased mass transfer of target biomolecules towards the biorecognition partners placed on the plasmonic nanostructures, enabling diagnostic tests to be completed in less than a minute, and in some cases only a few seconds, by further microwave heating. The diagnostic tests can also be run in complex biological samples, such as human serum and whole blood.

  7. A scalable and accurate targeted gene assembly tool (SAT-Assembler) for next-generation sequencing data.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yuan; Sun, Yanni; Cole, James R

    2014-08-01

    Gene assembly, which recovers gene segments from short reads, is an important step in functional analysis of next-generation sequencing data. Lacking quality reference genomes, de novo assembly is commonly used for RNA-Seq data of non-model organisms and metagenomic data. However, heterogeneous sequence coverage caused by heterogeneous expression or species abundance, similarity between isoforms or homologous genes, and large data size all pose challenges to de novo assembly. As a result, existing assembly tools tend to output fragmented contigs or chimeric contigs, or have high memory footprint. In this work, we introduce a targeted gene assembly program SAT-Assembler, which aims to recover gene families of particular interest to biologists. It addresses the above challenges by conducting family-specific homology search, homology-guided overlap graph construction, and careful graph traversal. It can be applied to both RNA-Seq and metagenomic data. Our experimental results on an Arabidopsis RNA-Seq data set and two metagenomic data sets show that SAT-Assembler has smaller memory usage, comparable or better gene coverage, and lower chimera rate for assembling a set of genes from one or multiple pathways compared with other assembly tools. Moreover, the family-specific design and rapid homology search allow SAT-Assembler to be naturally compatible with parallel computing platforms. The source code of SAT-Assembler is available at https://sourceforge.net/projects/sat-assembler/. The data sets and experimental settings can be found in supplementary material.

  8. A construction of standardized near infrared hyper-spectral teeth database: a first step in the development of reliable diagnostic tool for quantification and early detection of caries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bürmen, Miran; Usenik, Peter; Fidler, Aleš; Pernuš, Franjo; Likar, Boštjan

    2011-03-01

    Dental caries is a disease characterized by demineralization of enamel crystals leading to the penetration of bacteria into the dentin and pulp. If left untreated, the disease can lead to pain, infection and tooth loss. Early detection of enamel demineralization resulting in increased enamel porosity, commonly known as white spots, is a difficult diagnostic task. Several papers reported on near infrared (NIR) spectroscopy to be a potentially useful noninvasive spectroscopic technique for early detection of caries lesions. However, the conducted studies were mostly qualitative and did not include the critical assessment of the spectral variability of the sound and carious dental tissues and influence of the water content. Such assessment is essential for development and validation of reliable qualitative and especially quantitative diagnostic tools based on NIR spectroscopy. In order to characterize the described spectral variability, a standardized diffuse reflectance hyper-spectral database was constructed by imaging 12 extracted human teeth with natural lesions of various degrees in the spectral range from 900 to 1700 nm with spectral resolution of 10 nm. Additionally, all the teeth were imaged by digital color camera. The influence of water content on the acquired spectra was characterized by monitoring the teeth during the drying process. The images were assessed by an expert, thereby obtaining the gold standard. By analyzing the acquired spectra we were able to accurately model the spectral variability of the sound dental tissues and identify the advantages and limitations of NIR hyper-spectral imaging.

  9. A diagnostic one-step real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction method for accurate detection of influenza virus type A

    PubMed Central

    Behzadi, Mohammad Amin; Alborzi, Abdolvahab

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Influenza A is known as a public health concern worldwide. In this study, a novel one-step real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (rtRT-PCR) assay was designed and optimized for the detection of influenza A viruses. Material and methods The primers and probe were designed based on the analysis of 90 matrix nucleotide sequence data of influenza type A subtypes from the GenBank database of the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI). The influenza virus A/Tehran/5652/2010 (H1N1 pdm09) was used as a reference. The rtRT-PCR assay was optimized, compared with that of the World Health Organization (WHO), and its analytical sensitivity, specificity and reproducibility were evaluated. In total, 64 nasopharyngeal swabs from patients with influenza-like illness (ILI) and 41 samples without ILI symptoms were tested for the virus, using conventional cell culture, direct immunofluorescence antibody (DFA) methods, and one-step rtRT-PCR with the designed primer set and probe and the WHO’s. Results The optimized assay results were similar to the WHO’s. The optimized assay results were similar to WHO’s, with non-significant differences for 10–103 copies of viral RNA/reaction (p > 0.05). It detected 10 copies of viral RNA/reaction with high reproducibility and no cross reactivity with other respiratory viruses. A specific cytopathic effect was observed in 6/64 (9.37%) of the ILI group using conventional culture and DFA staining methods; however, it was not seen in non-ILI. Also, the results of our assay and the WHO’s were similar to those of viral isolation and DFA staining. Conclusions Given the high specificity, sensitivity and reproducibility of this novel assay, it can serve as a reliable diagnostic tool for the detection of influenza A viruses in clinical specimens and lab experiments. PMID:27904520

  10. Histopathological periodic acid-schiff stains of nail clippings as a second-line diagnostic tool in onychomycosis.

    PubMed

    Mayer, Eliza; Izhak, Ofer Ben; Bergman, Reuven

    2012-05-01

    The diagnosis of onychomycosis, using direct microscopy and fungal cultures, is often negative despite the presence of disease. Periodic acid-Schiff (PAS) staining of nail clippings, using histopathological processing, may be positive in these cases. It is not always clear, however, whether the fungal elements detected by PAS staining are pathogenic fungi or some are saprophytes. We aimed to study the efficacy of histopathological PAS staining of nail clippings as a second-line diagnostic tool in onychomycosis. The study included 100 consecutive cases in which direct microscopy and fungal cultures from suspected onychomycosis were negative on one occasion or more. The obtained nail clippings were processed for routine histology, stained with hematoxylin and eosin and PAS, and examined microscopically. Of the 100 cases, 38 (38%) showed positive fungal elements. As a result, 9 patients had sought and received oral antifungal therapy and all achieved complete clinical cure. The histological examination also revealed parakeratosis and globules of plasma, which were statistically significantly more common in the fungal infected nail samples. This may indicate an ongoing inflammatory process associated with onychomycosis. Neutrophils and bacteria were not statistically and significantly more common in the fungal infected nails. We conclude that as a second-line diagnostic tool, PAS stain of nail clippings increases markedly the diagnostic yield of onychomycosis and, consequently, the outcome of therapy.

  11. Improved tympanic thermometer based on a fiber optic infrared radiometer and an otoscope and its use as a new diagnostic tool for acute otitis media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fishman, Gadi; DeRowe, Ari; Ophir, Eyal; Scharf, Vered; Shabtai, Abraham; Ophir, Dov; Katzir, Abraham

    1999-06-01

    Clinical diagnosis of acute otitis media (AOM) in children is not easy. It was assumed that there is a difference ΔT between the Tympanic Membrane (TM) temperatures in the two ears in unilateral AOM and that an accurate measurement of ΔT may improve the diagnosis accuracy. An IR transmitting fiber, made of AgClBr, was coupled into a hand held otoscope and was used for the non-contact (radiometric) measurements of TT, the TM temperature. Experiments were carried out, first, on a laboratory model that simulated the human ear, including an artificial tympanic membrane and an artificial ear canal. Measurements carried out using commercially available tympanic thermometers shown that the temperature Tc of the ear canal affected the results. Tc did not affect the fiberoptic radiometer, and this device accurately measured the true temperature, TT of the tympanic membrane. A prospective blinded sampling of the TM temperature was then performed on 48 children with suspected AOM. The mean temperature difference between the ears, for children with unilateral AOM was ΔT = (0.68 +/- 0.27)°C. For children with bilateral AOM it was ΔT = (0.14+/-0.10)°C (p<0.001). It was demonstrated that afor unilateral AOM the difference ΔT was proportional to the systemic temperature. In conclusion, the fiberoptic interferometric measurements of the TM can be a useful non-invasive diagnostic tool for AOM, when combined with other data.

  12. Technical tips: verification of accurate placement and labeling of 10-10 scalp electrodes and intracranial grid/strip electrodes using documentation tools.

    PubMed

    Feravich, Susan M; Keller, Crystal M

    2012-06-01

    In some instances, evaluation of seizure activity may require the addition of 10-10 scalp electrodes or the placement of intracranial grids and strips. At any given time, different technologists may be responsible for placement, addition, and the care of electrodes for the same patient. The presence of extra surface electrodes or extensive coverage of brain with intracranial electrodes increases the risk of incorrect placement and labeling which can cause treatment errors based on inaccurate reading of EEG recordings. Procedures should be put into place with documentation tools to correctly place, label, and hook-up extra 10-10 scalp and intracranial electrodes without errors. By using written processes and documentation tools, staff are more capable of acquiring safe and accurate patient data which increase good patient outcomes. The processes for placement and hook up of 10-10 scalp electrodes and intracranial grid and strip electrodes are different and require separate procedures and documentation tools to ensure accuracy. For 10-10 scalp electrode placement, the use of a 10-10 map, labeled tape, and non-duplicating adjacent electrode colors reduces risk of error Documentation of intracranial grid/strip electrodes includes placement map, list of electrode locations in amplifier and a table of cables and corresponding grid/strips with colors. Accurate hook-up is verified by the technologist and the epileptologist and is documented on recording. With the use of documentation tools and verification procedures, the quality of patient outcomes increases while the potential for recording errors is reduced.

  13. The Career Assessment Diagnostic Inventory: A New Career Indecision Assessment Tool.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vidal-Brown, Sherry A.; Thompson, Bruce

    2001-01-01

    The Career Assessment Diagnostic Inventory evaluates six career indecision factors: family conflict, emotional independence, decision-making anxiety, identity development, career information, and career self-efficacy. Factor analysis and convergent validity results of scores of 539 students supported the instrument's validity. (SK)

  14. "Light-tagged" bacteriophage as a diagnostic tool for the detection of phytopathogens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Detection of the phytopathogen Pseudomonas cannabina pv. alisalensis, the causeal agent of bacterial blight of crucifers is essential for managing this disease. A phage-based diagnostic assay was developed that detected and identify P. cannabina pv. alisalensis from cultures and diseased plant spec...

  15. A new molecular diagnostic tool for quantitatively detecting and genotyping “Candidatus Liberibacter species”

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A new molecular diagnostic method was developed for quantitative detection of “Candidatus Liberibacter” species associated with citrus Huanglongbing (“Ca. Liberibacter asiaticus”, “Ca. Liberibacter africanus” and “Ca. Liberibacter americanus”) and potato zebra chip disorder (“Ca. Liberibacter solana...

  16. Ultrafast Laser Diagnostics for Energetic-Material Ignition Mechanisms: Tools for Physics-Based Model Development.

    SciTech Connect

    Kearney, Sean Patrick; Jilek, Brook Anton; Kohl, Ian Thomas; Farrow, Darcie; Urayama, Junji

    2014-11-01

    We present the results of an LDRD project to develop diagnostics to perform fundamental measurements of material properties during shock compression of condensed phase materials at micron spatial scales and picosecond time scales. The report is structured into three main chapters, which each focus on a different diagnostic devel opment effort. Direct picosecond laser drive is used to introduce shock waves into thin films of energetic and inert materials. The resulting laser - driven shock properties are probed via Ultrafast Time Domain Interferometry (UTDI), which can additionally be used to generate shock Hugoniot data in tabletop experiments. Stimulated Raman scattering (SRS) is developed as a temperature diagnostic. A transient absorption spectroscopy setup has been developed to probe shock - induced changes during shock compressio n. UTDI results are presented under dynamic, direct - laser - drive conditions and shock Hugoniots are estimated for inert polystyrene samples and for the explosive hexanitroazobenzene, with results from both Sandia and Lawrence Livermore presented here. SRS a nd transient absorption diagnostics are demonstrated on static thin - film samples, and paths forward to dynamic experiments are presented.

  17. Ambulance smartphone tool for field triage of ruptured aortic aneurysms (FILTR): study protocol for a prospective observational validation of diagnostic accuracy

    PubMed Central

    Lewis, Thomas L; Fothergill, Rachael T; Karthikesalingam, Alan

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Rupture of an abdominal aortic aneurysm (rAAA) carries a considerable mortality rate and is often fatal. rAAA can be treated through open or endovascular surgical intervention and it is possible that more rapid access to definitive intervention might be a key aspect of improving mortality for rAAA. Diagnosis is not always straightforward with up to 42% of rAAA initially misdiagnosed, introducing potentially harmful delay. There is a need for an effective clinical decision support tool for accurate prehospital diagnosis and triage to enable transfer to an appropriate centre. Methods and analysis Prospective multicentre observational study assessing the diagnostic accuracy of a prehospital smartphone triage tool for detection of rAAA. The study will be conducted across London in conjunction with London Ambulance Service (LAS). A logistic score predicting the risk of rAAA by assessing ten key parameters was developed and retrospectively validated through logistic regression analysis of ambulance records and Hospital Episode Statistics data for 2200 patients from 2005 to 2010. The triage tool is integrated into a secure mobile app for major smartphone platforms. Key parameters collected from the app will be retrospectively matched with final hospital discharge diagnosis for each patient encounter. The primary outcome is to assess the sensitivity, specificity and positive predictive value of the rAAA triage tool logistic score in prospective use as a mob app for prehospital ambulance clinicians. Data collection started in November 2014 and the study will recruit a minimum of 1150 non-consecutive patients over a time period of 2 years. Ethics and dissemination Full ethical approval has been gained for this study. The results of this study will be disseminated in peer-reviewed publications, and international/national presentations. Trial registration number CPMS 16459; pre-results. PMID:27797986

  18. The diagnostic-therapeutic process. Workflow analysis and risk management with IT tools.

    PubMed

    Iadanza, E; Gaudio, F; Marini, F

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this work is to study the impact of an Information Technology (IT) tool on clinical risk management and Adverse Drug Events prevention in patient care. In this study we propose the workflow analysis and the application of Failure Modes Effects and Criticality Analysis (FMECA) as potential tools to assess the effectiveness of a specific IT tool in mitigating clinical risk. The study is made up of two different parts: the first one shows the decomposition and representation of the workflow of hospital departments using standardized tools from Project Management. The next phase shows the application of FMECA to the workflow, in order to identify critical issues and evaluate the risk reduction obtained using a specific IT tool, compared to the use of current resources.

  19. Pediatric Sleep Questionnaires as Diagnostic or Epidemiological Tools: A Review of Currently Available Instruments

    PubMed Central

    Spruyt, Karen; Gozal, David

    2010-01-01

    An extensive list of published and unpublished instruments used to investigate or evaluate sleep issues in children was collected and assessed based on the fundamental operational principles of instrument development (11 steps). Of all the available tools identified, only a few were validated and standardized using appropriate psychometric criteria. In fact, only 2 fulfill all desirable criteria and approximately 11 instruments seem to adhere to most of the psychometric tool development requirements, and were therefore assessed in greater detail. Notwithstanding, in the rapidly developing scientific world of pediatric sleep, there are too many tools being used that have not undergone careful and methodical psychometric evaluation, and as such may be fraught with biased or invalid findings. It is hoped that this initial effort in categorizing and assessing available tools for pediatric sleep will serve as recognition of the relatively early developmental stage of our field, and provide the necessary impetus for future tool development using multicentered approaches and adequate methodologies. PMID:20934896

  20. Pediatric sleep questionnaires as diagnostic or epidemiological tools: a review of currently available instruments.

    PubMed

    Spruyt, Karen; Gozal, David

    2011-02-01

    An extensive list of published and unpublished instruments used to investigate or evaluate sleep issues in children was collected and assessed based on the fundamental operational principles of instrument development (11 steps). Of all the available tools identified, only a few were validated and standardized using appropriate psychometric criteria. In fact, only 2 fulfill all desirable criteria and approximately 11 instruments seem to adhere to most of the psychometric tool development requirements, and were therefore assessed in greater detail. Notwithstanding, in the rapidly developing scientific world of pediatric sleep, there are too many tools being used that have not undergone careful and methodical psychometric evaluation, and as such may be fraught with biased or invalid findings. It is hoped that this initial effort in categorizing and assessing available tools for pediatric sleep will serve as recognition of the relatively early developmental stage of our field, and provide the necessary impetus for future tool development using multicentered approaches and adequate methodologies.

  1. Methods Developed by the Tools for Engine Diagnostics Task to Monitor and Predict Rotor Damage in Real Time

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baaklini, George Y.; Smith, Kevin; Raulerson, David; Gyekenyesi, Andrew L.; Sawicki, Jerzy T.; Brasche, Lisa

    2003-01-01

    Tools for Engine Diagnostics is a major task in the Propulsion System Health Management area of the Single Aircraft Accident Prevention project under NASA s Aviation Safety Program. The major goal of the Aviation Safety Program is to reduce fatal aircraft accidents by 80 percent within 10 years and by 90 percent within 25 years. The goal of the Propulsion System Health Management area is to eliminate propulsion system malfunctions as a primary or contributing factor to the cause of aircraft accidents. The purpose of Tools for Engine Diagnostics, a 2-yr-old task, is to establish and improve tools for engine diagnostics and prognostics that measure the deformation and damage of rotating engine components at the ground level and that perform intermittent or continuous monitoring on the engine wing. In this work, nondestructive-evaluation- (NDE-) based technology is combined with model-dependent disk spin experimental simulation systems, like finite element modeling (FEM) and modal norms, to monitor and predict rotor damage in real time. Fracture mechanics time-dependent fatigue crack growth and damage-mechanics-based life estimation are being developed, and their potential use investigated. In addition, wireless eddy current and advanced acoustics are being developed for on-wing and just-in-time NDE engine inspection to provide deeper access and higher sensitivity to extend on-wing capabilities and improve inspection readiness. In the long run, these methods could establish a base for prognostic sensing while an engine is running, without any overt actions, like inspections. This damage-detection strategy includes experimentally acquired vibration-, eddy-current- and capacitance-based displacement measurements and analytically computed FEM-, modal norms-, and conventional rotordynamics-based models of well-defined damages and critical mass imbalances in rotating disks and rotors.

  2. A Malaria Diagnostic Tool Based on Computer Vision Screening and Visualization of Plasmodium falciparum Candidate Areas in Digitized Blood Smears

    PubMed Central

    Walliander, Margarita; Mårtensson, Andreas; Diwan, Vinod; Rahtu, Esa; Pietikäinen, Matti; Lundin, Mikael; Lundin, Johan

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Microscopy is the gold standard for diagnosis of malaria, however, manual evaluation of blood films is highly dependent on skilled personnel in a time-consuming, error-prone and repetitive process. In this study we propose a method using computer vision detection and visualization of only the diagnostically most relevant sample regions in digitized blood smears. Methods Giemsa-stained thin blood films with P. falciparum ring-stage trophozoites (n = 27) and uninfected controls (n = 20) were digitally scanned with an oil immersion objective (0.1 µm/pixel) to capture approximately 50,000 erythrocytes per sample. Parasite candidate regions were identified based on color and object size, followed by extraction of image features (local binary patterns, local contrast and Scale-invariant feature transform descriptors) used as input to a support vector machine classifier. The classifier was trained on digital slides from ten patients and validated on six samples. Results The diagnostic accuracy was tested on 31 samples (19 infected and 12 controls). From each digitized area of a blood smear, a panel with the 128 most probable parasite candidate regions was generated. Two expert microscopists were asked to visually inspect the panel on a tablet computer and to judge whether the patient was infected with P. falciparum. The method achieved a diagnostic sensitivity and specificity of 95% and 100% as well as 90% and 100% for the two readers respectively using the diagnostic tool. Parasitemia was separately calculated by the automated system and the correlation coefficient between manual and automated parasitemia counts was 0.97. Conclusion We developed a decision support system for detecting malaria parasites using a computer vision algorithm combined with visualization of sample areas with the highest probability of malaria infection. The system provides a novel method for blood smear screening with a significantly reduced need for visual examination and

  3. Decision peptide-driven: a free software tool for accurate protein quantification using gel electrophoresis and matrix assisted laser desorption ionization time of flight mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Santos, Hugo M; Reboiro-Jato, Miguel; Glez-Peña, Daniel; Nunes-Miranda, J D; Fdez-Riverola, Florentino; Carvallo, R; Capelo, J L

    2010-09-15

    The decision peptide-driven tool implements a software application for assisting the user in a protocol for accurate protein quantification based on the following steps: (1) protein separation through gel electrophoresis; (2) in-gel protein digestion; (3) direct and inverse (18)O-labeling and (4) matrix assisted laser desorption ionization time of flight mass spectrometry, MALDI analysis. The DPD software compares the MALDI results of the direct and inverse (18)O-labeling experiments and quickly identifies those peptides with paralleled loses in different sets of a typical proteomic workflow. Those peptides are used for subsequent accurate protein quantification. The interpretation of the MALDI data from direct and inverse labeling experiments is time-consuming requiring a significant amount of time to do all comparisons manually. The DPD software shortens and simplifies the searching of the peptides that must be used for quantification from a week to just some minutes. To do so, it takes as input several MALDI spectra and aids the researcher in an automatic mode (i) to compare data from direct and inverse (18)O-labeling experiments, calculating the corresponding ratios to determine those peptides with paralleled losses throughout different sets of experiments; and (ii) allow to use those peptides as internal standards for subsequent accurate protein quantification using (18)O-labeling. In this work the DPD software is presented and explained with the quantification of protein carbonic anhydrase.

  4. Light reflection spectra as a diagnostic tool for the structural and biophysical parameters of skin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivanov, A. P.; Barun, V. V.

    2008-02-01

    The calculation scheme and the diagnostic algorithm for diagnosing the structural and biophysical parameters of skin from the spectrum of reflected radiation are constructed. The sought parameters are determined from the solution of the spectroscopic problem under conditions of multiple scattering. The method presented is based on the previously proposed model of the spectral properties of a tissue and on the engineering approaches to the solution of the transfer equation. The sought parameters are the volume concentrations of melanin and capillaries, the thickness of epidermis, the average diameter of capillaries, and the degree of blood oxygenation. In order to optimize the algorithm with respect to wavelength and to elaborate the experimental diagnostic scheme, the sensitivity of the reflection spectrum to the sought parameters is studied. The procedure of their successive restoration is proposed.

  5. Community Detection Algorithms as a Diagnostic Tool for SDSS Dataset Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burleson, John Taylor

    2015-01-01

    We explore methods for identifying similar groups of objects in large astronomical datasets, where those similarities are not trivial to determine using standard methods to identify groups or trends. We focus on the use of graph theory to identify network communities of objects, drawing on its wide usage in the biological and social sciences, specifically the k-clique and cluster modularity diagnostics. As a test case, we apply these diagnostics to the SDSS BOSS QSO catalogue, which we categorize based on their MgII and CIV equivalent widths. We find approximately 12 communities, which are moderately robust against choice of algorithm and do not appear to be consistent with a random distribution. We briefly discuss some implications of these results.

  6. Sonography: the leading diagnostic tool for diseases of the salivary glands.

    PubMed

    Zengel, P; Schrötzlmair, F; Reichel, C; Paprottka, P; Clevert, D A

    2013-06-01

    Ultrasound examination is the imaging procedure with the best predictive diagnostic capability for the salivary glands. Due to the salivary glands' relatively superficial anatomical location, clear boundary from surrounding tissue and comparatively typical echogenicity, therefore sonography is ideal for diagnosis. In addition, the technical advances in recent years, including higher resolution, color Doppler sonography, contrast-enhanced ultrasound, elastography, and tissue harmonic have lead to an improvement in diagnostic accuracy of sonography further resulting in an expansion of the range of indications. Sonography allows detection of obstructive salivary gland diseases such as stenosis or sialolithiasis, as well as sialadenosis such as Sjögren syndrome. Ultrasound examination alone is sufficient to diagnose benign tumors. However, in the case of malignant tumors, computer tomography or MRI may be also required, especially to determine the question of infiltration of the skull base.

  7. [Dogs as a diagnostic tool--utopian dream or unexploited possibility?].

    PubMed

    Klockars, Tuomas

    2016-01-01

    The dog's sense of smell has been estimated to be as much as 100 000 times more sensitive than that of man. While the dog's sense of smell is utilized by various authorities, medical exploitation of dogs is scarce. A disorder causes in the body metabolic changes, which could possibly be detected by using trained dogs. Promising studies have been published in recent years about the use of diagnostic dogs in identifying cancers or antibiotic-associated diarrhea, for example.

  8. DEVELOPMENT OF SIGNAL PROCESSING TOOLS AND HARDWARE FOR PIEZOELECTRIC SENSOR DIAGNOSTIC PROCESSES

    SciTech Connect

    OVERLY, TIMOTHY G.; PARK, GYUHAE; FARRAR, CHARLES R.

    2007-02-09

    This paper presents a piezoelectric sensor diagnostic and validation procedure that performs in -situ monitoring of the operational status of piezoelectric (PZT) sensor/actuator arrays used in structural health monitoring (SHM) applications. The validation of the proper function of a sensor/actuator array during operation, is a critical component to a complete and robust SHM system, especially with the large number of active sensors typically involved. The method of this technique used to obtain the health of the PZT transducers is to track their capacitive value, this value manifests in the imaginary part of measured electrical admittance. Degradation of the mechanical/electric properties of a PZT sensor/actuator as well as bonding defects between a PZT patch and a host structure can be identified with the proposed procedure. However, it was found that temperature variations and changes in sensor boundary conditions manifest themselves in similar ways in the measured electrical admittances. Therefore, they examined the effects of temperature variation and sensor boundary conditions on the sensor diagnostic process. The objective of this study is to quantify and classify several key characteristics of temperature change and to develop efficient signal processing techniques to account for those variations in the sensor diagnostis process. In addition, they developed hardware capable of making the necessary measurements to perform the sensor diagnostics and to make impedance-based SHM measurements. The paper concludes with experimental results to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed technique.

  9. Exhaled breath metabolomics as a noninvasive diagnostic tool for acute respiratory distress syndrome.

    PubMed

    Bos, Lieuwe D J; Weda, Hans; Wang, Yuanyue; Knobel, Hugo H; Nijsen, Tamara M E; Vink, Teunis J; Zwinderman, Aeilko H; Sterk, Peter J; Schultz, Marcus J

    2014-07-01

    There is a need for biological markers of the acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). Exhaled breath contains hundreds of metabolites in the gas phase, some of which reflect (patho)physiological processes. We aimed to determine the diagnostic accuracy of metabolites in exhaled breath as biomarkers of ARDS. Breath from ventilated intensive care unit patients (n=101) was analysed using gas chromatography and mass spectrometry during the first day of admission. ARDS was defined by the Berlin definition. Training and temporal validation cohorts were used. 23 patients in the training cohort (n=53) had ARDS. Three breath metabolites, octane, acetaldehyde and 3-methylheptane, could discriminate between ARDS and controls with an area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) of 0.80. Temporal external validation (19 ARDS cases in a cohort of 48) resulted in an AUC of 0.78. Discrimination was insensitive to adjustment for severity of disease, a direct or indirect cause of ARDS, comorbidities, or ventilator settings. Combination with the lung injury prediction score increased the AUC to 0.91 and improved net reclassification by 1.17. Exhaled breath analysis showed good diagnostic accuracy for ARDS, which was externally validated. These data suggest that exhaled breath analysis could be used for the diagnostic assessment of ARDS.

  10. SDA-based diagnostic and analysis tools for Collider Run II

    SciTech Connect

    Bolshakov, T.B.; Lebrun, P.; Panacek, S.; Papadimitriou, V.; Slaughter, J.; Xiao, A.; /Fermilab

    2005-05-01

    Operating and improving the understanding of the Fermilab Accelerator Complex for the colliding beam experiments requires advanced software methods and tools. The Shot Data Analysis (SDA) has been developed to fulfill this need. Data from the Fermilab Accelerator Complex is stored in a relational database, and is served to programs and users via Web-based tools. Summary tables are systematically generated during and after a store. These tables (the Supertable, the Recomputed Emittances, the Recomputed Intensities and other tables) are discussed here.

  11. Non-Coding RNAs in Lung Cancer: Contribution of Bioinformatics Analysis to the Development of Non-Invasive Diagnostic Tools.

    PubMed

    Kunz, Meik; Wolf, Beat; Schulze, Harald; Atlan, David; Walles, Thorsten; Walles, Heike; Dandekar, Thomas

    2016-12-26

    Lung cancer is currently the leading cause of cancer related mortality due to late diagnosis and limited treatment intervention. Non-coding RNAs are not translated into proteins and have emerged as fundamental regulators of gene expression. Recent studies reported that microRNAs and long non-coding RNAs are involved in lung cancer development and progression. Moreover, they appear as new promising non-invasive biomarkers for early lung cancer diagnosis. Here, we highlight their potential as biomarker in lung cancer and present how bioinformatics can contribute to the development of non-invasive diagnostic tools. For this, we discuss several bioinformatics algorithms and software tools for a comprehensive understanding and functional characterization of microRNAs and long non-coding RNAs.

  12. Non-Coding RNAs in Lung Cancer: Contribution of Bioinformatics Analysis to the Development of Non-Invasive Diagnostic Tools

    PubMed Central

    Kunz, Meik; Wolf, Beat; Schulze, Harald; Atlan, David; Walles, Thorsten; Walles, Heike; Dandekar, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Lung cancer is currently the leading cause of cancer related mortality due to late diagnosis and limited treatment intervention. Non-coding RNAs are not translated into proteins and have emerged as fundamental regulators of gene expression. Recent studies reported that microRNAs and long non-coding RNAs are involved in lung cancer development and progression. Moreover, they appear as new promising non-invasive biomarkers for early lung cancer diagnosis. Here, we highlight their potential as biomarker in lung cancer and present how bioinformatics can contribute to the development of non-invasive diagnostic tools. For this, we discuss several bioinformatics algorithms and software tools for a comprehensive understanding and functional characterization of microRNAs and long non-coding RNAs. PMID:28035947

  13. A New Accurate 3D Measurement Tool to Assess the Range of Motion of the Tongue in Oral Cancer Patients: A Standardized Model.

    PubMed

    van Dijk, Simone; van Alphen, Maarten J A; Jacobi, Irene; Smeele, Ludwig E; van der Heijden, Ferdinand; Balm, Alfons J M

    2016-02-01

    In oral cancer treatment, function loss such as speech and swallowing deterioration can be severe, mostly due to reduced lingual mobility. Until now, there is no standardized measurement tool for tongue mobility and pre-operative prediction of function loss is based on expert opinion instead of evidence based insight. The purpose of this study was to assess the reliability of a triple-camera setup for the measurement of tongue range of motion (ROM) in healthy adults and its feasibility in patients with partial glossectomy. A triple-camera setup was used, and 3D coordinates of the tongue in five standardized tongue positions were achieved in 15 healthy volunteers. Maximum distances between the tip of the tongue and the maxillary midline were calculated. Each participant was recorded twice, and each movie was analysed three times by two separate raters. Intrarater, interrater and test-retest reliability were the main outcome measures. Secondly, feasibility of the method was tested in ten patients treated for oral tongue carcinoma. Intrarater, interrater and test-retest reliability all showed high correlation coefficients of >0.9 in both study groups. All healthy subjects showed perfect symmetrical tongue ROM. In patients, significant differences in lateral tongue movements were found, due to restricted tongue mobility after surgery. This triple-camera setup is a reliable measurement tool to assess three-dimensional information of tongue ROM. It constitutes an accurate tool for objective grading of reduced tongue mobility after partial glossectomy.

  14. KlebSeq, a Diagnostic Tool for Surveillance, Detection, and Monitoring of Klebsiella pneumoniae

    PubMed Central

    Lemmer, Darrin; Sahl, Jason W.; Pearson, Talima; Driebe, Elizabeth M.; Wojack, Bette; Saubolle, Michael A.; Engelthaler, David M.; Keim, Paul

    2016-01-01

    Health care-acquired infections (HAIs) kill tens of thousands of people each year and add significantly to health care costs. Multidrug-resistant and epidemic strains are a large proportion of HAI agents, and multidrug-resistant strains of Klebsiella pneumoniae, a leading HAI agent, have caused an urgent public health crisis. In the health care environment, patient colonization by K. pneumoniae precedes infection, and transmission via colonization leads to outbreaks. Periodic patient screening for K. pneumoniae colonization has the potential to curb the number of HAIs. In this report, we describe the design and validation of KlebSeq, a highly informative screening tool that detects Klebsiella species and identifies clinically important strains and characteristics by using highly multiplexed amplicon sequencing without a live-culturing step. We demonstrate the utility of this tool on several complex specimen types, including urine, wound swabs and tissue, and several types of respiratory and fecal specimens, showing K. pneumoniae species and clonal group identification and antimicrobial resistance and virulence profiling, including capsule typing. Use of this amplicon sequencing tool to screen patients for Klebsiella carriage could inform health care staff of the risk of infection and outbreak potential. KlebSeq also serves as a model for next-generation molecular tools for public health and health care, as expansion of this tool can be used for several other HAI agents or applications. PMID:27510832

  15. Evaluation of real-time PCR for Strongyloides stercoralis and hookworm as diagnostic tool in asymptomatic schoolchildren in Cambodia.

    PubMed

    Schär, Fabian; Odermatt, Peter; Khieu, Virak; Panning, Marcus; Duong, Socheat; Muth, Sinuon; Marti, Hanspeter; Kramme, Stefanie

    2013-05-01

    Diagnosis of soil-transmitted helminths such as Strongyloides stercoralis and hookworms (Ancylostoma duodenale and Necator americanus) is challenging due to irregular larval and egg output in infected individuals and insensitive conventional diagnostic procedures. Sensitive novel real-time PCR assays have been developed. Our study aimed to evaluate the real-time PCR assays as a diagnostic tool for detection of Strongyloides spp. and hookworms in a random stool sample of 218 asymptomatic schoolchildren in Cambodia. Overall prevalence of 17.4% (38/218) and 34.9% (76/218) were determined by real-time PCR for S. stercoralis and hookworms, respectively. Sensitivity and specificity of S. stercoralis specific real-time PCR as compared to the combination of Baermann/Koga Agar as gold standard were 88.9% and 92.7%, respectively. For hookworm specific real-time PCR a sensitivity of 78.9% and specificity of 78.9% were calculated. Co-infections were detectable by PCR in 12.8% (28/218) of individuals. S. stercoralis real-time PCR applied in asymptomatic cases showed a lower sensitivity compared to studies undertaken with symptomatic patients with the same molecular tool, yet it proved to be a valid supplement in the diagnosis of STH infection in Cambodia.

  16. Use of Molecular Diagnostic Tools for the Identification of Species Responsible for Snakebite in Nepal: A Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Sanjib Kumar; Kuch, Ulrich; Höde, Patrick; Bruhse, Laura; Pandey, Deb P.; Ghimire, Anup; Chappuis, François; Alirol, Emilie

    2016-01-01

    Snakebite is an important medical emergency in rural Nepal. Correct identification of the biting species is crucial for clinicians to choose appropriate treatment and anticipate complications. This is particularly important for neurotoxic envenoming which, depending on the snake species involved, may not respond to available antivenoms. Adequate species identification tools are lacking. This study used a combination of morphological and molecular approaches (PCR-aided DNA sequencing from swabs of bite sites) to determine the contribution of venomous and non-venomous species to the snakebite burden in southern Nepal. Out of 749 patients admitted with a history of snakebite to one of three study centres, the biting species could be identified in 194 (25.9%). Out of these, 87 had been bitten by a venomous snake, most commonly the Indian spectacled cobra (Naja naja; n = 42) and the common krait (Bungarus caeruleus; n = 22). When both morphological identification and PCR/sequencing results were available, a 100% agreement was noted. The probability of a positive PCR result was significantly lower among patients who had used inadequate “first aid” measures (e.g. tourniquets or local application of remedies). This study is the first to report the use of forensic genetics methods for snake species identification in a prospective clinical study. If high diagnostic accuracy is confirmed in larger cohorts, this method will be a very useful reference diagnostic tool for epidemiological investigations and clinical studies. PMID:27105074

  17. Bacterial clonal diagnostics as a tool for evidence-based empiric antibiotic selection.

    PubMed

    Tchesnokova, Veronika; Avagyan, Hovhannes; Rechkina, Elena; Chan, Diana; Muradova, Mariya; Haile, Helen Ghirmai; Radey, Matthew; Weissman, Scott; Riddell, Kim; Scholes, Delia; Johnson, James R; Sokurenko, Evgeni V

    2017-01-01

    Despite the known clonal distribution of antibiotic resistance in many bacteria, empiric (pre-culture) antibiotic selection still relies heavily on species-level cumulative antibiograms, resulting in overuse of broad-spectrum agents and excessive antibiotic/pathogen mismatch. Urinary tract infections (UTIs), which account for a large share of antibiotic use, are caused predominantly by Escherichia coli, a highly clonal pathogen. In an observational clinical cohort study of urgent care patients with suspected UTI, we assessed the potential for E. coli clonal-level antibiograms to improve empiric antibiotic selection. A novel PCR-based clonotyping assay was applied to fresh urine samples to rapidly detect E. coli and the urine strain's clonotype. Based on a database of clonotype-specific antibiograms, the acceptability of various antibiotics for empiric therapy was inferred using a 20%, 10%, and 30% allowed resistance threshold. The test's performance characteristics and possible effects on prescribing were assessed. The rapid test identified E. coli clonotypes directly in patients' urine within 25-35 minutes, with high specificity and sensitivity compared to culture. Antibiotic selection based on a clonotype-specific antibiogram could reduce the relative likelihood of antibiotic/pathogen mismatch by ≥ 60%. Compared to observed prescribing patterns, clonal diagnostics-guided antibiotic selection could safely double the use of trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole and minimize fluoroquinolone use. In summary, a rapid clonotyping test showed promise for improving empiric antibiotic prescribing for E. coli UTI, including reversing preferential use of fluoroquinolones over trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole. The clonal diagnostics approach merges epidemiologic surveillance, antimicrobial stewardship, and molecular diagnostics to bring evidence-based medicine directly to the point of care.

  18. Bacterial clonal diagnostics as a tool for evidence-based empiric antibiotic selection

    PubMed Central

    Tchesnokova, Veronika; Avagyan, Hovhannes; Rechkina, Elena; Chan, Diana; Muradova, Mariya; Haile, Helen Ghirmai; Radey, Matthew; Weissman, Scott; Riddell, Kim; Scholes, Delia; Johnson, James R.

    2017-01-01

    Despite the known clonal distribution of antibiotic resistance in many bacteria, empiric (pre-culture) antibiotic selection still relies heavily on species-level cumulative antibiograms, resulting in overuse of broad-spectrum agents and excessive antibiotic/pathogen mismatch. Urinary tract infections (UTIs), which account for a large share of antibiotic use, are caused predominantly by Escherichia coli, a highly clonal pathogen. In an observational clinical cohort study of urgent care patients with suspected UTI, we assessed the potential for E. coli clonal-level antibiograms to improve empiric antibiotic selection. A novel PCR-based clonotyping assay was applied to fresh urine samples to rapidly detect E. coli and the urine strain's clonotype. Based on a database of clonotype-specific antibiograms, the acceptability of various antibiotics for empiric therapy was inferred using a 20%, 10%, and 30% allowed resistance threshold. The test's performance characteristics and possible effects on prescribing were assessed. The rapid test identified E. coli clonotypes directly in patients’ urine within 25–35 minutes, with high specificity and sensitivity compared to culture. Antibiotic selection based on a clonotype-specific antibiogram could reduce the relative likelihood of antibiotic/pathogen mismatch by ≥ 60%. Compared to observed prescribing patterns, clonal diagnostics-guided antibiotic selection could safely double the use of trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole and minimize fluoroquinolone use. In summary, a rapid clonotyping test showed promise for improving empiric antibiotic prescribing for E. coli UTI, including reversing preferential use of fluoroquinolones over trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole. The clonal diagnostics approach merges epidemiologic surveillance, antimicrobial stewardship, and molecular diagnostics to bring evidence-based medicine directly to the point of care. PMID:28350870

  19. L-Shell Spectroscopy of Au as a Temperature Diagnostic Tool

    SciTech Connect

    Trabert, E; Hansen, S B; Beiersdorfer, P; Brown, G V; Widmann, K; Chung, H K

    2008-03-27

    In order to develop plasma diagnostic for reduced-size hot hohlraums under laser irradiation, they have studied the L-shell emission from highly charged gold ions in the SuperEBIT electron beam ion trap. The resolving power necessary to identify emission features from individual charge states in a picket fence pattern has been estimated, and the observed radiation features have been compared with atomic structure calculations. They find that the strong 3d{sub 5/2} {yields} 2p{sub 3/2} emission features are particularly useful in determining the charge state distribution and average ion charge , which are strongly sensitive to the electron temperature.

  20. Phase-contrast enhanced mammography: A new diagnostic tool for breast imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Zhentian; Thuering, Thomas; David, Christian; Roessl, Ewald; Trippel, Mafalda; Kubik-Huch, Rahel A.; Singer, Gad; Hohl, Michael K.; Hauser, Nik; Stampanoni, Marco

    2012-07-01

    Phase contrast and scattering-based X-ray imaging can potentially revolutionize the radiological approach to breast imaging by providing additional and complementary information to conventional, absorption-based methods. We investigated native, non-fixed whole breast samples using a grating interferometer with an X-ray tube-based configuration. Our approach simultaneously recorded absorption, differential phase contrast and small-angle scattering signals. The results show that this novel technique - combined with a dedicated image fusion algorithm - has the potential to deliver enhanced breast imaging with complementary information for an improved diagnostic process.

  1. Phase-contrast enhanced mammography: A new diagnostic tool for breast imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Wang Zhentian; Thuering, Thomas; David, Christian; Roessl, Ewald; Trippel, Mafalda; Kubik-Huch, Rahel A.; Singer, Gad; Hohl, Michael K.; Hauser, Nik; Stampanoni, Marco

    2012-07-31

    Phase contrast and scattering-based X-ray imaging can potentially revolutionize the radiological approach to breast imaging by providing additional and complementary information to conventional, absorption-based methods. We investigated native, non-fixed whole breast samples using a grating interferometer with an X-ray tube-based configuration. Our approach simultaneously recorded absorption, differential phase contrast and small-angle scattering signals. The results show that this novel technique - combined with a dedicated image fusion algorithm - has the potential to deliver enhanced breast imaging with complementary information for an improved diagnostic process.

  2. Quantum Cascade Laser Absorption Spectroscopy as a Plasma Diagnostic Tool: An Overview

    PubMed Central

    Welzel, Stefan; Hempel, Frank; Hübner, Marko; Lang, Norbert; Davies, Paul B.; Röpcke, Jürgen

    2010-01-01

    The recent availability of thermoelectrically cooled pulsed and continuous wave quantum and inter-band cascade lasers in the mid-infrared spectral region has led to significant improvements and new developments in chemical sensing techniques using in-situ laser absorption spectroscopy for plasma diagnostic purposes. The aim of this article is therefore two-fold: (i) to summarize the challenges which arise in the application of quantum cascade lasers in such environments, and, (ii) to provide an overview of recent spectroscopic results (encompassing cavity enhanced methods) obtained in different kinds of plasma used in both research and industry. PMID:22163581

  3. The porphyrias: clinic, diagnostics, novel investigative tools and evolving molecular therapeutic strategies.

    PubMed

    van Serooskerken, A-M van Tuyll; Poblete-Gutiérrez, P; Frank, J

    2010-01-01

    The porphyrias are clinically and genetically heterogeneous metabolic disorders resulting from a predominantly hereditary dysfunction of specific enzymes involved in heme biosynthesis. Today, the clinical, biochemical, and genetic characteristics of this fascinating group of diseases are well established. Recently, different in vitro and animal models have facilitated the investigation of etiopathologic mechanisms in the different types of porphyria and the development of causal treatment strategies such as pathway interference, enzyme replacement, and gene therapy. The continuous progress in basic science has made an invaluable contribution to the rapid translation of discoveries made in the laboratory into new diagnostics and therapeutics in the near future.

  4. SU-E-J-17: A Study of Accelerator-Induced Cerenkov Radiation as a Beam Diagnostic and Dosimetry Tool

    SciTech Connect

    Bateman, F; Tosh, R

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: To investigate accelerator-induced Cerenkov radiation imaging as a possible beam diagnostic and medical dosimetry tool. Methods: Cerenkov emission produced by clinical accelerator beams in a water phantom was imaged using a camera system comprised of a high-sensitivity thermoelectrically-cooled CCD camera coupled to a large aperture (f/0.75) objective lens with 16:1 magnification. This large format lens allows a significant amount of the available Cerenkov light to be collected and focused onto the CCD camera to form the image. Preliminary images, obtained with 6 MV photon beams, used an unshielded camera mounted horizontally with the beam normal to the water surface, and confirmed the detection of Cerenkov radiation. Several improvements were subsequently made including the addition of radiation shielding around the camera, and altering of the beam and camera angles to give a more favorable geometry for Cerenkov light collection. A detailed study was then undertaken over a range of electron and photon beam energies and dose rates to investigate the possibility of using this technique for beam diagnostics and dosimetry. Results: A series of images were obtained at a fixed dose rate over a range of electron energies from 6 to 20 MeV. The location of maximum intensity was found to vary linearly with the energy of the beam. A linear relationship was also found between the light observed from a fixed point on the central axis and the dose rate for both photon and electron beams. Conclusion: We have found that the analysis of images of beam-induced Cerenkov light in a water phantom has potential for use as a beam diagnostic and medical dosimetry tool. Our future goals include the calibration of the light output in terms of radiation dose and development of a tomographic system for 3D Cerenkov imaging in water phantoms and other media.

  5. Quantified light-induced fluorescence, review of a diagnostic tool in prevention of oral disease

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Josselin de Jong, Elbert; Higham, Susan M.; Smith, Philip W.; van Daelen, Catherina J.; van der Veen, Monique H.

    2009-05-01

    Diagnostic methods for the use in preventive dentistry are being developed continuously. Few of these find their way into general practice. Although the general trend in medicine is to focus on disease prevention and early diagnostics, in dentistry this is still not the case. Nevertheless, in dental research some of these methods seem to be promising for near future use by the general dental professional. In this paper an overview is given of a method called quantitative light-induced fluorescence or (QLF) in which visible and harmless light excites the teeth in the patient's mouth to produce fluorescent images, which can be stored on disk and computer analyzed. White spots (early dental caries) are detected and quantified as well as bacterial metabolites on and in the teeth. An overview of research to validate the technique and modeling to further the understanding of the technique by Monte Carlo simulation is given and it is shown that the fluorescence phenomena can be described by the simulation model in a qualitative way. A model describing the visibility of red fluorescence from within the dental tissue is added, as this was still lacking in current literature. An overview is given of the clinical images made with the system and of the extensive research which has been done. The QLF™ technology has been shown to be of importance when used in clinical trials with respect to the testing of toothpastes and preventive treatments. It is expected that the QLF™ technology will soon find its way into the general dental practice.

  6. Central Nervous System Involvement in Adult Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia: Diagnostic Tools, Prophylaxis, and Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Del Principe, Maria Ilaria; Maurillo, Luca; Buccisano, Francesco; Sconocchia, Giuseppe; Cefalo, Mariagiovanna; De Santis, Giovanna; Di Veroli, Ambra; Ditto, Concetta; Nasso, Daniela; Postorino, Massimiliano; Refrigeri, Marco; Attrotto, Cristina; Del Poeta, Giovanni; Lo-Coco, Francesco; Amadori, Sergio; Venditti, Adriano

    2014-01-01

    In adult patients with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL), Central Nervous System (CNS) involvement is associated with a very poor prognosis. The diagnostic assessment of this condition relies on the use of neuroradiology, conventional cytology (CC) and flow cytometry (FCM). Among these approaches, which is the gold standard it is still a matter of debate. Neuroradiology and CC have a limited sensitivity with a higher rate of false negative results. FCM demonstrated a superior sensitivity over CC, particularly when low levels of CNS infiltrating cells are present. Although prospective studies of a large series of patients are still awaited, a positive finding by FCM appears to anticipate an adverse outcome even if CC shows no infiltration. Current strategies for adult ALL CNS-directed prophylaxis or therapy involve systemic and intrathecal chemotherapy and radiation therapy. An early and frequent intrathecal injection of cytostatic combined with systemic chemotherapy is the most effective strategy to reduce the frequency of CNS involvement. In patients with CNS overt ALL, at diagnosis or upon relapse, allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation might be considered. This review discusses risk factors, diagnostic techniques for identification of CNS infiltration and modalities of prophylaxis and therapy to manage it. PMID:25408861

  7. Diagnostic and Prognostic Tools for Residual Life Estimation in Aging Nuclear Power Plant Components

    SciTech Connect

    Ramuhalli, Pradeep; Bond, Leonard J.; Griffin, Jeffrey W.; Henager, Charles H.; Dixit, Mukul

    2011-06-23

    A central issue in life extension for the current fleet of light water nuclear power reactors (LWR) is the early detection and monitoring of significant materials degradation. To meet this need, nondestructive methods that are suitable for continuous monitoring over extended time periods (months to years) are needed. A related issue is the ability to estimate remaining useful life (RUL) of components and systems based on condition assessment or degradation information. Monitoring for early detection of materials degradation requires novel sensors and enhanced data integration techniques. A range of acoustic and electromagnetic measurement methods may be suitable, including acoustic microscopy, eddy current and magnetic Barkhausen emission. Prognostic methods that predict rate of degradation and remaining life based on phenomena that can be described by linear elastic fracture mechanics have been reported by several researchers. However, the challenge of predicting remaining life starting from earlier phases of degradation is largely unsolved. This paper discusses an assessment of selected diagnostic techniques, and the application of Bayesian prognostic algorithms to detection of early degradation and rate of degradation/life prediction. Such measurement and modeling methods are expected to form the basis for a new range of advanced diagnostic and prognostic approaches for assessing and monitoring life extension of ageing light water reactors.

  8. Oncogene status as a diagnostic tool in ocular and cutaneous melanoma.

    PubMed

    Griewank, Klaus G; Schilling, Bastian; Scholz, Simone L; Metz, Claudia H; Livingstone, Elisabeth; Sucker, Antje; Möller, Inga; Reis, Henning; Franklin, Cindy; Cosgarea, Ioana; Hillen, Uwe; Steuhl, Klaus-Peter; Schadendorf, Dirk; Westekemper, Henrike; Zimmer, Lisa

    2016-04-01

    The majority of human tumours can be easily and correctly diagnosed based on clinical information and pathological assessment. In some cases however, correct diagnosis can prove difficult. In such cases, molecular approaches can be of significant diagnostic value. In recent years, the understanding of genetic alterations has greatly increased. In cutaneous melanoma, it is now well recognised, that 70-80% of tumours harbour BRAF and NRAS mutations. These mutations never occur in uveal melanoma. On the other hand activating GNAQ and GNA11 mutations are found in ∼90% of uveal melanomas, and are exceptionally rare in other melanomas (<1%). Here, we demonstrate a number of melanoma cases, where distinguishing if a tumour was of cutaneous or ocular origin was not possible based on clinical and pathological assessment. In these cases there was either atypical clinical presentation or metastasis of unclear primary. Histological distinction between uveal and cutaneous melanomas, especially at the stage of metastasis, is not reliable as they can be morphologically very similar. In all cases we present, a simple genetic assessment of oncogene mutation status was able to clearly define the melanoma type. This type of genetic assessment is of great diagnostic value and due to its simplicity could be performed in routine clinical practice even in smaller institutions.

  9. Diagnostic and Prognostic Tools for Residual Life Estimation in Aging Nuclear Power Plant Components

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramuhalli, P.; Bond, L. J.; Griffin, J.; Henager, C.; Dixit, M.

    2011-06-01

    A central issue in life extension for the current fleet of light water nuclear power reactors (LWR) is the early detection and monitoring of significant materials degradation. To meet this need, nondestructive methods that are suitable for continuous monitoring over extended time periods (months to years) are needed. A related issue is the ability to estimate remaining useful life (RUL) of components and systems based on condition assessment or degradation information. Monitoring for early detection of materials degradation requires novel sensors and enhanced data integration techniques. A range of acoustic and electromagnetic measurement methods may be suitable, including acoustic microscopy, eddy current and magnetic Barkhausen emission. Prognostic methods that predict rate of degradation and remaining life based on phenomena that can be described by linear elastic fracture mechanics have been reported by several researchers. However, the challenge of predicting remaining life starting from earlier phases of degradation is largely unsolved. This paper discusses an assessment of selected diagnostic techniques, and the application of Bayesian prognostic algorithms to detection of early degradation and rate of degradation/life prediction. Such measurement and modeling methods are expected to form the basis for a new range of advanced diagnostic and prognostic approaches for assessing and monitoring life extension of ageing light water reactors.

  10. An Integrated Tool to Study MHC Region: Accurate SNV Detection and HLA Genes Typing in Human MHC Region Using Targeted High-Throughput Sequencing

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Xiao; Xu, Yinyin; Liang, Dequan; Gao, Peng; Sun, Yepeng; Gifford, Benjamin; D’Ascenzo, Mark; Liu, Xiaomin; Tellier, Laurent C. A. M.; Yang, Fang; Tong, Xin; Chen, Dan; Zheng, Jing; Li, Weiyang; Richmond, Todd; Xu, Xun; Wang, Jun; Li, Yingrui

    2013-01-01

    The major histocompatibility complex (MHC) is one of the most variable and gene-dense regions of the human genome. Most studies of the MHC, and associated regions, focus on minor variants and HLA typing, many of which have been demonstrated to be associated with human disease susceptibility and metabolic pathways. However, the detection of variants in the MHC region, and diagnostic HLA typing, still lacks a coherent, standardized, cost effective and high coverage protocol of clinical quality and reliability. In this paper, we presented such a method for the accurate detection of minor variants and HLA types in the human MHC region, using high-throughput, high-coverage sequencing of target regions. A probe set was designed to template upon the 8 annotated human MHC haplotypes, and to encompass the 5 megabases (Mb) of the extended MHC region. We deployed our probes upon three, genetically diverse human samples for probe set evaluation, and sequencing data show that ∼97% of the MHC region, and over 99% of the genes in MHC region, are covered with sufficient depth and good evenness. 98% of genotypes called by this capture sequencing prove consistent with established HapMap genotypes. We have concurrently developed a one-step pipeline for calling any HLA type referenced in the IMGT/HLA database from this target capture sequencing data, which shows over 96% typing accuracy when deployed at 4 digital resolution. This cost-effective and highly accurate approach for variant detection and HLA typing in the MHC region may lend further insight into immune-mediated diseases studies, and may find clinical utility in transplantation medicine research. This one-step pipeline is released for general evaluation and use by the scientific community. PMID:23894464

  11. The role of radiology in diagnosis and management of drug mules: an update with new challenges and new diagnostic tools.

    PubMed

    Bulakci, Mesut; Cengel, Ferhat

    2016-01-01

    Emergency physicians and radiologists have been increasingly encountering internal concealment of illegal drugs. The packages commonly contain powdered solid drugs such as cocaine, heroin, methamphetamine and hashish, but they may also contain cocaine in the liquid form. The second type of package has recently been more commonly encountered, and poses a greater diagnostic challenge. As clinical evaluation and laboratory tests frequently fail to make the correct diagnosis, imaging examination is typically required. Imaging methods assume a vital role in the diagnosis, follow-up and management. Abdominal X-ray, ultrasonography, CT and MRI are used for the imaging purposes. Among the aforementioned methods, low-dose CT is state-of-the-art in these cases. It is of paramount importance that radiologists have a full knowledge of the imaging characteristics of these packages and accurately guide physicians and security officials.

  12. The role of radiology in diagnosis and management of drug mules: an update with new challenges and new diagnostic tools

    PubMed Central

    Cengel, Ferhat

    2016-01-01

    Emergency physicians and radiologists have been increasingly encountering internal concealment of illegal drugs. The packages commonly contain powdered solid drugs such as cocaine, heroin, methamphetamine and hashish, but they may also contain cocaine in the liquid form. The second type of package has recently been more commonly encountered, and poses a greater diagnostic challenge. As clinical evaluation and laboratory tests frequently fail to make the correct diagnosis, imaging examination is typically required. Imaging methods assume a vital role in the diagnosis, follow-up and management. Abdominal X-ray, ultrasonography, CT and MRI are used for the imaging purposes. Among the aforementioned methods, low-dose CT is state-of-the-art in these cases. It is of paramount importance that radiologists have a full knowledge of the imaging characteristics of these packages and accurately guide physicians and security officials. PMID:26867003

  13. Diagnostic hematology of reptiles.

    PubMed

    Stacy, Nicole I; Alleman, A Rick; Sayler, Katherine A

    2011-03-01

    The hematologic evaluation of reptiles is an indispensable diagnostic tool in exotic veterinary practice. The diversity of reptile species, their characteristic physiologic features, and effects of intrinsic and extrinsic factors present unique challenges for accurate interpretation of the hemogram. Combining the clinical presentation with hematologic findings provides valuable information in the diagnosis and monitoring of disease and helps guide the clinician toward therapy and further diagnostic testing. This article outlines the normal and pathologic morphology of blood cells of reptile species. The specific comparative aspects of reptiles are emphasized, and structural and functional abnormalities in the reptilian hemogram are described.

  14. A circumvaginal muscle nomogram: a new diagnostic tool for evaluation of female sexual dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Graber, B; Kline-Graber, G; Golden, C J

    1981-04-01

    Female orgasmic capacity was previously shown to vary significantly with the condition of the pubococcygeus muscle as evaluated by an extensive digital examination and readings from a perineometer, a pressure sensitive device inserted into the vagina. Subsequently, a discriminant analysis was applied to 6 types of perineometer readings to determine if an optimal combination of readings could alone serve as an accurate evaluation of muscle condition. Initial strength resting and initial strength contracting predicted "good" versus "bad" muscle with 73.4% accuracy. A nomogram is presented for clinical use.

  15. Touch imprint cytology: a rapid diagnostic tool for oral squamous cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Geetha, L; Astekar, M; Ashok, K N; Sowmya, G V

    2015-07-01

    Techniques for intraoperative pathologic examination of oral squamous cell carcinoma are rare in the literature. We evaluated the advantages and limitations of touch imprint cytology for intraoperative diagnosis of oral squamous cell carcinoma. We used 30 incisional biopsies of clinically diagnosed oral squamous cell carcinoma and compared touch imprint cytology to histopathological sections. Touch imprint cytology showed 24 specimens positive for malignancy, two suspicious for malignancy and four inadequate specimens. The accuracy of the test was 93.2%. Touch imprint cytology is an accurate, simple, rapid and cost-effective method that aids diagnosis of oral squamous cell carcinoma during operation, but it does not replace incisional biopsy.

  16. [Multi-parametric Flow Cytometry for Neuroblastoma, a new and possible diagnostic tool: case report].

    PubMed

    Manrique, Belén; López Marti, Jessica; Cacciavillano, Walter; Rossi, Jorge

    2016-04-01

    Neuroblastoma is the most frequent extracranial solid tumor in childhood, representing 5.6% according to the "Registro Oncopediatrico Hospitalario Argentino". For its diagnosis, several complementary methods (radiological, biological and biochemical) are required, and Multi-parametric Flow Cytometry (MFC) arises as a potential diagnostic method, despite not having been so far extensively explored. MFC is a method that allows to obtain several information about size, internal complexity and antigenic expression by the use of a laser and fluorescent monoclonal antibodies. There are an increasing number of reports in the literature, which reveal the importance of using MFC for diagnosis and monitoring of solid tumors. The aim in this presentation is to highlight the fundamental role that MFC had in the case of a patient affected by neuroblastoma, in which an early diagnosis using this methodology allowed prompt administration of adequate treatment.

  17. The Biplot as a diagnostic tool of local dependence in latent class models. A medical application.

    PubMed

    Sepúlveda, R; Vicente-Villardón, J L; Galindo, M P

    2008-05-20

    Latent class models (LCMs) can be used to assess diagnostic test performance when no reference test (a gold standard) is available, considering two latent classes representing disease or non-disease status. One of the basic assumptions in such models is that of local or conditional independence: all indicator variables (tests) are statistically independent within each latent class. However, in practice this assumption is often violated; hence, the two-LCM fits the data poorly. In this paper, we propose the use of Biplot methods to identify the conditional dependence between pairs of manifest variables within each latent class. Additionally, we propose incorporating such dependence in the corresponding latent class using the log-linear formulation of the model.

  18. Diffuse Reflectance Spectroscopy and Colorimetry as a Diagnostic Tool for Acanthosis Nigricans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pattamadilok, Bensachee; Devpura, Suneetha; Syed, Zain U.; Vemulapalli, Pranita; Henderson, Marsha; Rehse, Steven J.; Hamzavi, Iltefat; Mahmoud, Bassel H.; Lim, Henry W.; Naik, Ratna

    2011-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to quantify skin color changes due to Acanthosis Nigricans, a disorder common among prediabetic and obese individuals. The non-invasive optical technique diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS) was used to determine skin melanin, oxyhemoglobin and deoxyhemoglobin content through the measured absorption spectrum. Colorimetery was used to measure skin color based on the standard Tristimulus values (L*, a*, and b*). Data was obtained from eight patients, spanning eight months of treatment. Measurements were obtained from lesion tissue on the neck and healthy skin was used as a control. L*, a* and b* values showed significant differences between lesion and normal controls, whereas melanin was the only parameter which showed statistical significant differences in DRS measurements. Future work will use more sensitive chemometric methods to increase diagnostic accuracy based on the raw spectra of the DRS.

  19. Integrated Diagnostic and Prognostic Tools for Residual Life Estimation in Aging Nuclear Power Plant Components

    SciTech Connect

    Ramuhalli, Pradeep; Meyer, Ryan M.; Bond, Leonard J.; Griffin, Jeffrey W.; Henager, Charles H.

    2011-06-01

    Recent events in Japan have focused renewed attention on the safe operation of light water reactor (LWR) nuclear power plants (NPPs). A central issue in safe, long-term operations of existing and planned NPPs is the early detection and monitoring of significant materials degradation. Materials aging and degradation in passive components is expected to be the key factor in determining the operational life of an NPP and may limit long-term operations in the current LWR fleet. Methods for detecting and assessing the degradation state in NPP structural materials, followed by approaches to estimate the remaining useful life (RUL) of the component, are therefore necessary for safe, long-term operations. This paper explores advanced diagnostic and prognostic approaches to detecting material degradation, and then determining RUL given the current material state.

  20. C-Arm Cone-Beam CT-Guided Transthoracic Lung Core Needle Biopsy as a Standard Diagnostic Tool

    PubMed Central

    Jaconi, Marta; Pagni, Fabio; Vacirca, Francesco; Leni, Davide; Corso, Rocco; Cortinovis, Diego; Bidoli, Paolo; Bono, Francesca; Cuttin, Maria S.; Valente, Maria G.; Pesci, Alberto; Bedini, Vittorio A.; Leone, Biagio E.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract C-arm cone-beam computed tomography (CT)-guided transthoracic lung core needle biopsy (CNB) is a safe and accurate procedure for the evaluation of patients with pulmonary nodules. This article will focus on the clinical features related to CNB in terms of diagnostic performance and complication rate. Moreover, the concept of categorizing pathological diagnosis into 4 categories, which could be used for clinical management, follow-up, and quality assurance is also introduced. We retrospectively collected data regarding 375 C-arm cone-beam CT-guided CNBs from January 2010 and June 2014. Clinical and radiological variables were evaluated in terms of success or failure rate. Pathological reports were inserted in 4 homogenous groups (nondiagnostic-L1, benign-L2, malignant not otherwise specified-L3, and malignant with specific histotype-L4), defining for each category a hierarchy of suggested actions. The sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive value and accuracy for patients subjected to CNBs were of 96.8%, 100%, 100%, 100%, and 97.2%, respectively. Roughly 75% of our samples were diagnosed as malignant, with 60% lung adenocarcinoma diagnoses. Molecular analyses were performed on 85 malignant samples to verify applicability of targeted therapy. The rate of “nondiagnostic” samples was 12%. C-arm cone-beam CT-guided transthoracic lung CNB can represent the gold standard for the diagnostic evaluation of pulmonary nodules. A clinical and pathological multidisciplinary evaluation of CNBs was needed in terms of integration of radiological, histological, and oncological data. This approach provided exceptional performances in terms of specificity, positive and negative predictive values; sensitivity in our series was lower compared with other large studies, probably due to the application of strong criteria of adequacy for CNBs (L1 class rate). The satisfactory rate of collected material was evaluated not only in terms of merely diagnostic

  1. State of the art on nailfold capillaroscopy: a reliable diagnostic tool and putative biomarker in rheumatology?

    PubMed

    Cutolo, Maurizio; Smith, Vanessa

    2013-11-01

    Capillaroscopy is a non-invasive and safe tool to morphologically study the microcirculation. In rheumatology it has a dual use. First, it has a role in differential diagnosis of patients with RP. Second, it may have a role in the prediction of clinical complications in CTDs. In SSc, pilot studies have shown predictive associations with peripheral vascular and lung involvement hinting at a role of capillaroscopy as putative biomarker. Also and logically, in SSc, microangiopathy, as assessed by capillaroscopy, has been associated with markers of the disease such as angiogenic/static factors and SSc-specific antibodies. Moreover, morphological assessments of the microcirculation (capillaroscopy) seem to correlate with functional assessments (such as laser Doppler). Because of its clinical and research role, eyes are geared in Europe to expand the knowledge of this tool. Both the European League Against Rheumatism (EULAR) and the ACR are stepping forward to this need.

  2. Modeling of low-temperature plasmas generated using laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy: the ChemCam diagnostic tool on the Mars Science Laboratory Rover

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colgan, James

    2016-05-01

    We report on efforts to model the low-temperature plasmas generated using laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS). LIBS is a minimally invasive technique that can quickly and efficiently determine the elemental composition of a target and is employed in an extremely wide range of applications due to its ease of use and fast turnaround. In particular, LIBS is the diagnostic tool used by the ChemCam instrument on the Mars Science Laboratory rover Curiosity. In this talk, we report on the use of the Los Alamos plasma modeling code ATOMIC to simulate LIBS plasmas, which are typically at temperatures of order 1 eV and electron densities of order 10 16 - 17 cm-3. At such conditions, these plasmas are usually in local-thermodynamic equilibrium (LTE) and normally contain neutral and singly ionized species only, which then requires that modeling must use accurate atomic structure data for the element under investigation. Since LIBS devices are often employed in a very wide range of applications, it is therefore desirable to have accurate data for most of the elements in the periodic table, ideally including actinides. Here, we discuss some recent applications of our modeling using ATOMIC that have explored the plasma physics aspects of LIBS generated plasmas, and in particular discuss the modeling of a plasma formed from a basalt sample used as a ChemCam standard1. We also highlight some of the more general atomic physics challenges that are encountered when attempting to model low-temperature plasmas. The Los Alamos National Laboratory is operated by Los Alamos National Security, LLC for the National Nuclear Security Administration of the U.S. Department of Energy under Contract No. DE-AC5206NA25396. Work performed in conjunction with D. P. Kilcrease, H. M. Johns, E. J. Judge, J. E. Barefield, R. C. Wiens, S. M. Clegg.

  3. Automated metastatic brain lesion detection: a computer aided diagnostic and clinical research tool

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Devine, Jeremy; Sahgal, Arjun; Karam, Irene; Martel, Anne L.

    2016-03-01

    The accurate localization of brain metastases in magnetic resonance (MR) images is crucial for patients undergoing stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) to ensure that all neoplastic foci are targeted. Computer automated tumor localization and analysis can improve both of these tasks by eliminating inter and intra-observer variations during the MR image reading process. Lesion localization is accomplished using adaptive thresholding to extract enhancing objects. Each enhancing object is represented as a vector of features which includes information on object size, symmetry, position, shape, and context. These vectors are then used to train a random forest classifier. We trained and tested the image analysis pipeline on 3D axial contrast-enhanced MR images with the intention of localizing the brain metastases. In our cross validation study and at the most effective algorithm operating point, we were able to identify 90% of the lesions at a precision rate of 60%.

  4. Whole-body MRI as an unconventional diagnostic tool in a pediatric patient with systemic infection

    PubMed Central

    Picco, Paolo; Pala, Giovanna; Rizzo, Francesca; Damasio, Beatrice; Buoncompagni, Antonella; Martini, Alberto

    2014-01-01

    Anaplasma phagocytophilum, an obligate intracellular bacterium, is the causative agent of human granulocytic anaplasmosis (HGA), a tickborne infection usually manifesting as fever, malaise, cytopenia, spleen enlargement, and hepatitis. Herein, we report a case of a 14-year-old girl with HGA whose whole-body magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) disclosed an unusual picture characterized by small, widespread punctuate millimetric nodules, hypointense on T1-weighted and hyperintense on STIR sequences. This firstly reported finding may represent an alternative tool for identifying atypical infectious diseases. PMID:25535572

  5. Simple X-ray versus ultrasonography examination in blunt chest trauma: effective tools of accurate diagnosis and considerations for rib fractures

    PubMed Central

    Hwang, Eun Gu; Lee, Yunjung

    2016-01-01

    Simple radiography is the best diagnostic tool for rib fractures caused by chest trauma, but it has some limitations. Thus, other tools are also being used. The aims of this study were to investigate the effectiveness of ultrasonography (US) for identifying rib fractures and to identify influencing factors of its effectiveness. Between October 2003 and August 2007, 201 patients with blunt chest trauma were available to undergo chest radiographic and US examinations for diagnosis of rib fractures. The two modalities were compared in terms of effectiveness based on simple radiographic readings and US examination results. We also investigated the factors that influenced the effectiveness of US examination. Rib fractures were detected on radiography in 69 patients (34.3%) but not in 132 patients. Rib fractures were diagnosed by using US examination in 160 patients (84.6%). Of the 132 patients who showed no rib fractures on radiography, 92 showed rib fractures on US. Among the 69 patients of rib fracture detected on radiography, 33 had additional rib fractures detected on US. Of the patients, 76 (37.8%) had identical radiographic and US results, and 125 (62.2%) had fractures detected on US that were previously undetected on radiography or additional fractures detected on US. Age, duration until US examination, and fracture location were not significant influencing factors. However, in the group without detected fractures on radiography, US showed a more significant effectiveness than in the group with detected fractures on radiography (P=0.003). US examination could detect unnoticed rib fractures on simple radiography. US examination is especially more effective in the group without detected fractures on radiography. More attention should be paid to patients with chest trauma who have no detected fractures on radiography. PMID:28119889

  6. Infrared vibrational spectroscopy: a rapid and novel diagnostic and monitoring tool for cystinuria

    PubMed Central

    Oliver, Katherine V.; Vilasi, Annalisa; Maréchal, Amandine; Moochhala, Shabbir H.; Unwin, Robert J.; Rich, Peter R.

    2016-01-01

    Cystinuria is the commonest inherited cause of nephrolithiasis (~1% in adults; ~6% in children) and is the result of impaired cystine reabsorption in the renal proximal tubule. Cystine is poorly soluble in urine with a solubility of ~1 mM and can readily form microcrystals that lead to cystine stone formation, especially at low urine pH. Diagnosis of cystinuria is made typically by ion-exchange chromatography (IEC) detection and quantitation, which is slow, laboursome and costly. More rapid and frequent monitoring of urinary cystine concentration would significantly improve the diagnosis and clinical management of cystinuria. We used attenuated total reflection - Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR) to detect and quantitate insoluble cystine in 22 cystinuric and 5 healthy control urine samples. Creatinine concentration was also determined by ATR-FTIR to adjust for urinary concentration/dilution. Urine was centrifuged, the insoluble fraction re-suspended in 5 μL water and dried on the ATR prism. Cystine was quantitated using its 1296 cm−1 absorption band and levels matched with parallel measurements made using IEC. ATR-FTIR afforded a rapid and inexpensive method of detecting and quantitating insoluble urinary cystine. This proof-of-concept study provides a basis for developing a high-throughput, cost-effective diagnostic method for cystinuria, and for point-of-care clinical monitoring PMID:27721432

  7. High-Content Movement Analysis as a Diagnostic Tool in C. elegans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winter, Peter; Lancichinetti, Andrea; Krevitt, Leah; Amaral, Luis; Morimoto, Rick

    2013-03-01

    Many neurodegenerative diseases manifest themselves through a loss of motor control and give us information about the underlying disease. This loss of coordination is observed in humans and in the model organisms used to study neurodegeneration. In Caenorhabditis elegans, there is an extensive genetic library of strains that lack functional neuronal signaling pathways and expressing proteins associated with neurodegenerative diseases. While most of these strains have decrease motility or cause paralysis, relatively few have been screened to look for more subtle changes in motor control such as stiffness, twitching, or other changes in behavior. we use high-resolution position and posture data to automatically analyze the movement of worms from different genetic backgrounds and characterize 14 movement characteristics. By creating a quantitative mapping between the movement characterization and an online database of gene annotation, gene expression, and anatomy, we aim to predict a likely set of cellular and molecular disruptions. This work provides a proof of concept for the use of detailed movement analysis to uncover novel disruptions in certain motor control processes. Knowledge of the molecular origin of these disruptions provided by our understanding of C. elegans genetics and physiology could lead to new diagnostic and therapeutic targets for neurodegenerative disease.

  8. Digital capillaroscopy as important tool for early diagnostics of arterial hypertension

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gurfinkel, Yu. I.; Sasonko, M. L.; Priezzhev, A. V.

    2015-03-01

    The study is aimed to determine the digital capillaroscopy possibilities in early diagnostics of an arterial hypertension. A total of 123 adult persons were examined in the study. The first group consisted of 40 patients with prehypertension (BP 130-139/85-89 mm Hg). The second group included 36 patients with 1-2 stage of hypertension (mean systolic BP 152.7±12 mm Hg). Patients in both groups did not receive regular drug therapy. The group of volunteers (n=47) included healthy adults without signs of cardiovascular pathology. The capillary circulation was examined on the nailbed using the optical digital capillaroscope developed by the company "AET", Russia. Diameters of the arterial and venous segments, perivascular zone size, capillary blood velocity, the degree of arterial loops narrowing and the density of the capillary network were estimated. In patients with arterial hypertension and even in patients with prehypertension remodeling and rarefaction of capillaries and the expressed narrowing their arterial loops were manifested. The results of the study revealed the presence of abnormalities of microcirculation parameters in patients of both groups. The capillaries density in both groups of patients was significantly lower than in healthy persons. The significant narrowing of arterial loops was revealed in patients with both arterial hypertension and prehypertension, in comparison with healthy volunteers. Capillary blood velocity did not differ significantly between healthy volunteers group and the group of prehypertensive patients. However in patients with hypertension this parameter was significantly lower in comparison with control group.

  9. Identification of genetic defects in pulmonary arterial hypertension by a new gene panel diagnostic tool.

    PubMed

    Song, Jie; Eichstaedt, Christina A; Viales, Rebecca Rodríguez; Benjamin, Nicola; Harutyunova, Satenik; Fischer, Christine; Grünig, Ekkehard; Hinderhofer, Katrin

    2016-11-01

    In the present study we developed a new specific gene panel for pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) including major disease genes and further candidates. We assessed 37 patients with invasively confirmed PAH and five relatives of affected patients for genetic testing. A new PAH-specific gene panel was designed using next generation sequencing (NGS) including 12 known disease genes and 17 further candidates. Any potential pathogenic variants were reassessed by Sanger sequencing. Twenty-two of the 37 patients (59%) had a mutation in BMPR2, ALK1, ENG or EIF2AK4 genes identified by panel and Sanger sequencing. In addition, 12 unclassified variants were identified in seven genes (known and candidate genes). A sensitivity of 100% was met after quality parameters were adjusted. Specificity increased to 100% when Sanger technique was added as a routine validation. The new PAH-specific gene panel developed in the present study allowed for the first time the assessment of all known PAH genes and further candidates at once and markedly reduced overall sequencing time and costs. Sensitivity and specificity reached 100% when Sanger sequencing was additionally applied. Thus, this technique will potentially change the routine diagnostic genetic testing in PAH patients.

  10. Inverse Compton Scattering as a Diagnostic Tool for the Measurement of Electron Beam Energies in Diodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Critchley, A. D. J.

    2003-10-01

    The main emphasis of the diode research project at the Atomic Weapons Establishment (AWE) UK is to produce small diameter radiographic spot sizes at high dose to improve the resolution of the transmission radiographs taken during hydrodynamic experiments. Experimental measurements of conditions within the diodes of Pulsed Power driven flash x-ray machines are vital to provide a benchmark for electromagnetic PIC codes such as LSP which are used to develop new diode designs. The potential use of inverse Compton scattering (ICS) as a diagnostic technique in the determination of electron energies within the diode has been investigated. The interaction of a laser beam with a beam of high-energy electrons will create an ICS spectrum of photons. Theoretically, one should be able to glean information on the energies and positions of the electrons from the energy spectrum and differential cross section of the scattered photons. The feasibility of fielding this technique on various diode designs has been explored, and an experimental setup with the greatest likelihood of success is proposed.

  11. Taeniasis-cysticercosis in Southern Ecuador: assessment of infection status using multiple laboratory diagnostic tools.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez-Hidalgo, R; Benitez-Ortiz, W; Praet, N; Saa, L R; Vercruysse, J; Brandt, J; Dorny, P

    2006-11-01

    Taenia solium-taeniasis and cysticercosis were studied in the human and porcine populations of a rural community in the Southern Ecuadorian Andes. From the 1059 inhabitants, 800 serum samples and 958 stool samples could be collected. In addition, 646 from the estimated 1148 pigs were tongue inspected. Circulating antigen was detected by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (Ag-ELISA) in 2.25% of the human population, whereas intestinal taeniasis was detected in 1.46% by the formalin-ether technique. Following treatment and recovery of tapeworm fragments these were all identified as T. solium. Porcine cysticercosis was diagnosed in 3.56% of the pigs by tongue inspection. In addition, enzyme linked immunoelectrotransfer blot (EITB) was performed on a subset group of 100 humans to confirm the results of the Ag-ELISA. One hundred serum samples from pigs were also analysed by EITB. It appeared that 43 and 74% of humans and pigs had antibodies against T. solium cysticerci, respectively. It is concluded that contrary to the high exposure of the human population to T. solium that is suggested by EITB, the number of active cysticercosis cases, diagnosed by Ag-ELISA, was low, which may indicate endemic stability. The further use of complementary diagnostic methods for a better understanding of the epidemiology of T. solium is suggested.

  12. Laryngeal Measurements and Diagnostic Tools for Diagnosis of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease

    PubMed Central

    Casado, Verónica; Navarro, Sandra M.; Alvarez, Andrés E.; Villafañe, Mercedes; Miranda, Ana; Spaans, Natalia

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE The purpose of this study was to evaluate sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative likelihood ratios of laryngeal height, lung function, and diagnostic questionnaires for screening and diagnosis of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). METHODS We undertook a cross-sectional study of 233 people aged between 40 and 75 years. Measured variables were age, sex, weight, height, body mass index, tobacco use, maximum laryngeal height, and spirometry, and we administered a COPD questionnaire and the Lung Function Questionnaire. RESULTS For laryngeal height, we found a positive likelihood ratio of 5.21, and for the Lung Function Questionnaire, we found a negative likelihood ratio of 0.10. Combining a maximum laryngeal height of ≤4 cm with Lung Function Questionnaire findings of ≤18 yielded a positive likelihood ratio of 29.06, and a negative likelihood ratio of 0.26. CONCLUSIONS The intrinsic validity of the lung function questionnaire makes it useful for screening. Combining Lung Function Questionnaire results and laryngeal height can help confirm or dismiss COPD. PMID:25583892

  13. Raman spectroscopy: a diagnostic tool for detection of early malignant changes in the larynx

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stone, Nicholas; Stavroulaki, Pelagia; Kendall, Catherine A.; Birchall, Martin; Barr, Hugh

    2000-05-01

    The incidence of laryngeal cancer has risen progressively over the last 25 years. Early diagnosis and treatment of premalignant lesions of the larynx is vital to prevent progression to invasive squamous cell carcinoma. In the larynx, it has long been recognized that histological evidence of maturation abnormality is associated with a higher risk of transformation to malignancy. Currently, it is extremely difficult if not impossible for the clinician to ascertain the level of abnormality present without removing a biopsy sample and sending it for histopathological analysis. Inherent risks with this technique include damage to vocal chords and loss of speech quality as well as possible selection of unrepresentative biopsy samples. Raman spectroscopy, incorporated into an endoscopic system, has the potential to provide a real-time, non-invasive diagnostic technique able to detect biochemical changes that accompany abnormal pathology. Likely outcomes would be improved biopsy targeting and patient management by providing immediate result of tissue pathology. This paper demonstrates the capacity of near IR Raman spectroscopy combine with statistical data analysis techniques to discriminate between normal, dysplastic and cancerous laryngeal tissue.

  14. Broadband coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS): a potential tool for atherosclerosis diagnostic imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cormier, J.-F.; Ko, A.; Choo-Smith, L.-P.; Werner, J.; Kohlenberg, E.; Hewko, M.; Fréchette, J.; Fortin, M.; Noiseux, I.; Bouchard, J. P.; Gay, David; Desroches, P.; Roy-Moisan, Francois; Bourgault, Marie-Eve; Sowa, M. G.; Vernon, M. L.

    2007-02-01

    Nonlinear optical imaging technologies offer some intriguing medical diagnostic applications. Examples include fast imaging of elastin and collagen distributions in diseased tissues using two-photon fluorescence (TPF) and second harmonic generation (SHG), respectively. The 3D sectioning capabilities and biochemical specificity that enable fast imaging in highly scattering biological media lie at the heart of the appeal of these nonlinear approaches for medical applications. One of these promising nonlinear techniques relies on the resonance enhancement of the third order nonlinear susceptibility by a vibrational mode of a molecule. Coherent Anti-Stokes Raman Scattering (CARS) can provide similar vibrational information as a spontaneous Raman spectrum. The technique has been shown to be orders of magnitude more sensitive than spontaneous Raman, with video rate imaging demonstrated recently. In this work, we investigate the potential use of broadband CARS spectroscopy and CARS imaging for biochemical analysis of arterial tissue. Biochemical imaging data from broadband CARS is compared with spontaneous Raman microspectroscopy. The broadband CARS system comprised of a single femtosecond-laser is presented in detail. Issues related to data analysis, the advantages and current limitations of the CARS technique in biodiagnostics are discussed.

  15. Clinical diagnostic tools for screening of perioperative stroke in general surgery: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Sun, Z; Yue, Y; Leung, C C H; Chan, M T V; Gelb, A W

    2016-03-01

    Perioperative stroke is a devastating complication that carries high mortality and functional disability. Unfortunately, residual anaesthesia and analgesia may obscure important warning signs and may lead to a delay in the assessment and treatment of major stroke after surgery. The purpose of this review is to examine the utility of existing stroke scales, for the recognition of perioperative stroke in the general surgical population. A total of 21 stroke scales have been described in the literature. Diagnostic performance was reported in 17 scales. The majority of the stroke scales were designed to evaluate current neurological deficits after an established stroke event. Recent abbreviated stroke test, such as the Face, Arm, Speech Test (FAST), were developed to facilitate stroke identification in the emergency department. Only two stroke scales have been applied in the perioperative setting after cardiac, carotid and neurological surgeries. The modified National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale appears to be useful in detecting new subtle neurological deficits in critical care, or high dependency units after surgery. However, in the general postsurgical wards, given the concern about the workload required, abbreviated stroke tests may be more appropriate for routine regular stroke surveillance. It is hoped that these tests will provide rapid assessment of global neurological function to facilitate timely diagnosis and treatment of perioperative stroke.

  16. Optical property measurements as a diagnostic tool for control of materials processing in space and on Earth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krishnan, Shankar; Weber, J. K. Richard; Nordine, Paul C.; Schiffman, Robert A.

    1990-01-01

    A new method is described, including results, to measure, control, and follow containerless processing in ground based levitators. This technique enables instantaneous optical property measurements from a transient solid or liquid surface concurrent with true temperature measurement. This was used successfully as a diagnostic tool to follow processing of Al, Si, and Ti during electromagnetic levitation. Experiments on Al show the disappearance of the oxide (emittance 0.33) at ca. 1300 C leaving a liquid surface with an emittance of 0.06. Electromagnetic levitation of silicon shows a liquid with a constant emittance (0.2) but with a solid whose emittance decreases very rapidly with increasing temperature. Consequently, the processing of materials at high temperatures can be controlled quite well through the control of surface optical properties.

  17. System Diagnostic Builder - A rule generation tool for expert systems that do intelligent data evaluation. [applied to Shuttle Mission Simulator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nieten, Joseph; Burke, Roger

    1993-01-01

    Consideration is given to the System Diagnostic Builder (SDB), an automated knowledge acquisition tool using state-of-the-art AI technologies. The SDB employs an inductive machine learning technique to generate rules from data sets that are classified by a subject matter expert. Thus, data are captured from the subject system, classified, and used to drive the rule generation process. These rule bases are used to represent the observable behavior of the subject system, and to represent knowledge about this system. The knowledge bases captured from the Shuttle Mission Simulator can be used as black box simulations by the Intelligent Computer Aided Training devices. The SDB can also be used to construct knowledge bases for the process control industry, such as chemical production or oil and gas production.

  18. Cerebrospinal Fluid IL-10 and IL-10/IL-6 as Accurate Diagnostic Biomarkers for Primary Central Nervous System Large B-cell Lymphoma

    PubMed Central

    Song, Yang; Zhang, Wei; Zhang, Li; Wu, Wei; Zhang, Yan; Han, Xiao; Yang, Chen; Zhang, Lu; Zhou, Daobin

    2016-01-01

    Early diagnosis of primary central nervous system lymphoma (PCNSL) represents a challenge, and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) cytokines may be diagnostic biomarkers for PCNSL. We used an electrochemiluminescence immunoassay to measure interleukin (IL)-10, IL-6, IL-8 and tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α) in the CSF of 22 B cell PCNSL patients and 80 patients with other CNS diseases. CSF IL-10 was significantly higher in PCNSL patients than in the control group (median 74.7 pg/ml vs < 5.0 pg/ml, P < 0.000). Using a CSF IL-10 cutoff value of 8.2 pg/ml, the diagnostic sensitivity and specificity were 95.5% and 96.1%, respectively (AUC, 0.957; 95% CI, 0.901–1.000). For a CSF IL-10/IL-6 cutoff value of 0.72, the sensitivity was 95.5%, and the specificity was 100.0% (AUC, 0.976; 95% CI, 0.929–1.000). An increased CSF IL-10 level at diagnosis and post-treatment was associated with poor Progression free survival (PFS) for patients with PCNSL (P = 0.0181 and P = 0.0002, respectively). A low diagnostic value for PCNSL was found with CSF IL-8 or TNF-α. In conclusion, increased CSF IL-10 was a reliable diagnostic biomarker for large B cell PCNSL, and an IL-10/IL-6 ratio facilitates differentiation from other conditions, especially a CNS infection. PMID:27924864

  19. Chemiluminescence and Toluidine Blue as Diagnostic Tools for Detecting Early Stages of Oral Cancer: An invivo Study

    PubMed Central

    Ravikiran, A.; Samatha, Y.; Rao, Purna Chandra; Naik, Ravindra; Vashisht, Divy

    2014-01-01

    Background: There is a need for development and use of diagnostic aids that help the dental specialist more readily identify and assess Potentially Malignant Epithelial Lesions (PMELs) and Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma (OSCC). This study was done to assess the value of two such commercially available tools: chemiluminescent light kit or ViziLite and 1% toluidine blue. Aims and Objectives: a) To detect epithelial dysplastic changes using chemiluminescene (commercially available as ViziLite) and toluidine blue staining in PMELs and OSCC patients and compare the results obtained with histopathological examination. b) To determine whether these techniques can be used to detect early epithelial dysplastic changes in clinically normal appearing oral mucosa of high risk (with habits) patients. Materials and Methods: A total of 60 patients- 25 patients with PMELs, specifically oral leukoplakia, 10 patients with clinically diagnosed OSCC and 25 high risk patients with no clinically visible lesion, were screened with ViziLite and toluidine blue staining; followed by incisional biopsy. Results: Sensitivity and specificity of ViziLite were calculated to be 95.45% and 84.6% respectively. ViziLite detected early epithelial dysplastic changes in one high risk patient with clinically normal appearing oral mucosa. Sensitivity and specificity of toluidine blue were calculated to be 86.36% and 76.9% respectively. Conclusion: ViziLite was relatively reliable in screening PMELs compared to toluidine blue, and was a useful chair side diagnostic aid. PMID:24959513

  20. Virtual human as a new diagnostic tool, a proof of concept study in the field of major depressive disorders

    PubMed Central

    Philip, Pierre; Micoulaud-Franchi, Jean-Arthur; Sagaspe, Patricia; Sevin, Etienne De; Olive, Jérôme; Bioulac, Stéphanie; Sauteraud, Alain

    2017-01-01

    Embodied Conversational Agents (ECAs) are promising software to communicate with patients but no study has tested them in the diagnostic field of mental disorders. The aim of this study was 1) to test the performance of a diagnostic system for major depressive disorders (MDD), based on the identification by an ECA of specific symptoms (the MDD DSM 5 criteria) in outpatients; 2) to evaluate the acceptability of such an ECA. Patients completed two clinical interviews in a randomized order (ECA versus psychiatrist) and filled in the Acceptability E-scale (AES) to quantify the acceptability of the ECA. 179 outpatients were included in this study (mean age 46.5 ± 12.9 years, 57.5% females). Among the 35 patients diagnosed with MDD by the psychiatrist, 14 (40%) patients exhibited mild, 12 (34.3%) moderate and 9 (25.7%) severe depressive symptoms. Sensitivity increased across the severity level of depressive symptoms and reached 73% for patients with severe depressive symptoms, while specificity remained above 95% for all three severity levels. The acceptability of the ECA evaluated by the AES was very good (25.4). We demonstrate here the validity and acceptability of an ECA to diagnose major depressive disorders. ECAs are promising tools to conduct standardized and well-accepted clinical interviews. PMID:28205601

  1. Can teledermatology be a useful diagnostic tool in dermatology practice in remote areas? An Egyptian experience with 600 patients.

    PubMed

    Saleh, Nadia; Abdel Hay, Rania; Hegazy, Rehab; Hussein, Marwa; Gomaa, Dalia

    2017-02-01

    Introduction The paucity of studies evaluating teledermatology (TD) in developing countries was the impetus behind conducting this work. We aimed to evaluate the feasibility and reliability of TD in remote areas where medical facilities and consultant dermatologists are not available, through measurement of diagnostic concordance rates between face-to-face diagnosis and store-and-forward (SAF) TD diagnosis. Methods A total of 600 patients with dermatological ailments who attended Abshway Hospital were recruited into the study, examined by an on-site dermatology resident, and offered a diagnosis. The clinical images and patients' history were collected and transferred (through the Dropbox application) to two remote consultant dermatologists. The reliability of the three physicians' agreement rates was assessed. Results Diagnostic agreement rates between the face-to-face dermatologist and the two teledermatologists were 86.7% and 87% respectively. Of the cases, 97% had complete or partial agreement and 81.3% of cases showed complete agreement between the three physicians. The reliability of the three physicians' agreement rates was assessed statistically using Cohen's kappa coefficient (κ) and this showed a range of 0.46-0.52. Conclusion This study might aid in enhancing the utilization of this tool in our country, especially in remote areas with a lack of a proper dermatological service. The simplicity and low cost of the adopted technique might facilitate its use over large sectors. It opens the door for gaining the benefit of this technology in other aspects such as teaching and monitoring health care providers.

  2. Radio frequency diagnostics on board of Cubesat as a tool for planetary Space Weather monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rothkaehl, H.; Morawski, M.; Szewczyk, T.

    2014-04-01

    CubeSat pico-satellite standard was developed recently to allow easy access to space for projects with limited funds. Due to relatively cheap yet professional development process, CubeSats have also great educational impact. This allows the students to learn about all crucial aspects of space engineering and project management. Since all the basic steps for developing CubeSat are similar to those performed on bigger satellites (i.e. designing, testing, operating in space), this gives possibility to develop all the necessary skills and experience for future work at space industries. Space Research Center, together with its collaborators from University of Warmia and Mazury in Olsztyn and others, would like to design and build double unit CubeSat as an opportunity to perform scientific experiments in space together with technological demonstrators of subsystems. In order to monitor the Earth's and planetary space environment and obtain a much more complete picture of magnetosphere and ionosphere coupling and particularly waves-particle interaction in this system than those available hitherto new mission of clustered Cubesat mission can be propose. Moreover to enhance our understanding of the rich plasma physical processes that drive the Solar Terrestrial space environment, we need to increase our ability to perform multi-point measurements by means of different sensors. Therefore, new technologies radio frequency radio analyser RFA instrument will gave the possibility for diagnostics 3D electric field component (spectra and wave forms) with extremely high time resolution. Additional technological challenges regarding size, computational power and energy constraints are imposed by the design of CubeSat.

  3. FANCD2 Western blot as a diagnostic tool for Brazilian patients with Fanconi anemia.

    PubMed

    Pilonetto, D V; Pereira, N F; Bitencourt, M A; Magdalena, N I R; Vieira, E R; Veiga, L B A; Cavalli, I J; Ribeiro, R C; Pasquini, R

    2009-03-01

    Fanconi anemia is a rare hereditary disease showing genetic heterogeneity due to a variety of mutations in genes involved in DNA repair pathways, which may lead to different clinical manifestations. Phenotypic variability makes diagnosis difficult based only on clinical manifestations, therefore laboratory tests are necessary. New advances in molecular pathogenesis of this disease led researchers to develop a diagnostic test based on Western blot for FANCD2. The objective of the present study was to determine the efficacy of this method for the diagnosis of 84 Brazilian patients with Fanconi anemia, all of whom tested positive for the diepoxybutane test, and 98 healthy controls. The FANCD2 monoubiquitinated isoform (FANCDS+/FANCD2L-) was not detected in 77 patients (91.7%). In 2 patients (2.4%), there was an absence of both the monoubiquitinated and the non-ubiquitinated proteins (FANCD2S-/FANCD2L-) and 5 patients (5.9%) had both isoforms (FANCD2S+/FANCD2L+). This last phenotype suggests downstream subtypes or mosaicism. All controls were diepoxybutane negative and were also negative on the FANCD2 Western blot. The Western blot for FANCD2 presented a sensitivity of 94% (79/84) and specificity of 100% (98/98). This method was confirmed as an efficient approach to screen Brazilian patients with deleterious mutations on FANCD2 (FANCD2S-/FANCD2L-) or other upstream genes of the FA/BRCA pathway (FANCDS+/FANCD2L-), to confirm the chromosome breakage test and to classify patients according to the level of FA/BRCA pathway defects. However, patients showing both FANCD2 isoforms (FANCD2S+/FANCD2L+) require additional studies to confirm mutations on downstream Fanconi anemia genes or the presence of mosaicism.

  4. Algorithms for optimized maximum entropy and diagnostic tools for analytic continuation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bergeron, Dominic; Tremblay, A.-M. S.

    2016-08-01

    Analytic continuation of numerical data obtained in imaginary time or frequency has become an essential part of many branches of quantum computational physics. It is, however, an ill-conditioned procedure and thus a hard numerical problem. The maximum-entropy approach, based on Bayesian inference, is the most widely used method to tackle that problem. Although the approach is well established and among the most reliable and efficient ones, useful developments of the method and of its implementation are still possible. In addition, while a few free software implementations are available, a well-documented, optimized, general purpose, and user-friendly software dedicated to that specific task is still lacking. Here we analyze all aspects of the implementation that are critical for accuracy and speed and present a highly optimized approach to maximum entropy. Original algorithmic and conceptual contributions include (1) numerical approximations that yield a computational complexity that is almost independent of temperature and spectrum shape (including sharp Drude peaks in broad background, for example) while ensuring quantitative accuracy of the result whenever precision of the data is sufficient, (2) a robust method of choosing the entropy weight α that follows from a simple consistency condition of the approach and the observation that information- and noise-fitting regimes can be identified clearly from the behavior of χ2 with respect to α , and (3) several diagnostics to assess the reliability of the result. Benchmarks with test spectral functions of different complexity and an example with an actual physical simulation are presented. Our implementation, which covers most typical cases for fermions, bosons, and response functions, is available as an open source, user-friendly software.

  5. Pathogenesis of cerebral malaria: new diagnostic tools, biomarkers, and therapeutic approaches

    PubMed Central

    Sahu, Praveen K.; Satpathi, Sanghamitra; Behera, Prativa K.; Mishra, Saroj K.; Mohanty, Sanjib; Wassmer, Samuel Crocodile

    2015-01-01

    Cerebral malaria is a severe neuropathological complication of Plasmodium falciparum infection. It results in high mortality and post-recovery neuro-cognitive disorders in children, even after appropriate treatment with effective anti-parasitic drugs. While the complete landscape of the pathogenesis of cerebral malaria still remains to be elucidated, numerous innovative approaches have been developed in recent years in order to improve the early detection of this neurological syndrome and, subsequently, the clinical care of affected patients. In this review, we briefly summarize the current understanding of cerebral malaria pathogenesis, compile the array of new biomarkers and tools available for diagnosis and research, and describe the emerging therapeutic approaches to tackle this pathology effectively. PMID:26579500

  6. Detection of collagen by second harmonic microscopy as a diagnostic tool for liver fibrosis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banavar, Maruth; Kable, Eleanor P. W.; Braet, Filip; Wang, X. M.; Gorrell, M. D.; Cox, Guy

    2006-02-01

    Liver fibrosis has many causes, including hepatitis C, alcohol abuse, and non-alcoholic steatohepatitis. It is characterized by abnormal deposition of extracellular matrix proteins, mainly collagen. The deposition of these proteins results in impaired liver function caused by distortion of the hepatic architecture by fibrous scar tissue. The unique triple helix structure of collagen and high level of crystallinity make it very efficient for generating second harmonic signals. In this study we have set out to see if second harmonic imaging of collagen can be used as a non-biased quantitative tool for classification of fibrosis levels in liver biopsies and if it can detect early fibrosis formation not detected by current methods.

  7. Theory of the quantum breathing mode in harmonic traps and its use as a diagnostic tool.

    PubMed

    McDonald, C R; Orlando, G; Abraham, J W; Hochstuhl, D; Bonitz, M; Brabec, T

    2013-12-20

    An analytical expression for the quantum breathing frequency ωb of harmonically trapped quantum particles with inverse power-law repulsion is derived. It is verified by ab initio numerical calculations for electrons confined in a lateral (2D) quantum dot. We show how this relation can be used to express the ground state properties of harmonically trapped quantum particles as functions of the breathing frequency by presenting analytical results for the kinetic, trap, and repulsive energy and for the linear entropy. Measurement of ωb together with these analytical relations represents a tool to characterize the state of harmonically trapped interacting particles--from the Fermi gas to the Wigner crystal regime.

  8. Perspectives on the use of new diagnostic tools in the treatment of chronic lymphocytic leukemia.

    PubMed

    Binet, Jacques-Louis; Caligaris-Cappio, Federico; Catovsky, Daniel; Cheson, Bruce; Davis, Tom; Dighiero, Guillaume; Döhner, Hartmut; Hallek, Michael; Hillmen, Peter; Keating, Michael; Montserrat, Emili; Kipps, Thomas J; Rai, Kanti

    2006-02-01

    Recently, considerable progress has been made in the identification of molecular and cellular markers that may predict the tendency for disease progression in patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) or detect minimal residual disease after therapy. These developments have created uncertainty for clinicians who hope to incorporate the use of these markers and new disease-assessment tools into standard clinical practice. However, clinical trials are required to determine whether poor-prognosis leukemia-cell markers, such as expression of unmutated immunoglobulin genes or the zeta-associated protein of 70 kDa (ZAP-70), can be used as the basis for determining the time or type of therapy. Pending the outcome of such trials, treatment decisions outside the context of a clinical trial still should be based on guidelines established by the most recent National Cancer Institute-sponsored Working Group.

  9. An Efficient Multiplex PCR-Based Assay as a Novel Tool for Accurate Inter-Serovar Discrimination of Salmonella Enteritidis, S. Pullorum/Gallinarum and S. Dublin

    PubMed Central

    Xiong, Dan; Song, Li; Tao, Jing; Zheng, Huijuan; Zhou, Zihao; Geng, Shizhong; Pan, Zhiming; Jiao, Xinan

    2017-01-01

    Salmonella enterica serovars Enteritidis, Pullorum/Gallinarum, and Dublin are infectious pathogens causing serious problems for pig, chicken, and cattle production, respectively. Traditional serotyping for Salmonella is costly and labor-intensive. Here, we established a rapid multiplex PCR method to simultaneously identify three prevalent Salmonella serovars Enteritidis, Pullorum/Gallinarum, and Dublin individually for the first time. The multiplex PCR-based assay focuses on three genes tcpS, lygD, and flhB. Gene tcpS exists only in the three Salmonella serovars, and lygD exists only in S. Enteritidis, while a truncated region of flhB gene is only found in S. Pullorum/Gallinarum. The sensitivity and specificity of the multiplex PCR assay using three pairs of specific primers for these genes were evaluated. The results showed that this multiplex PCR method could accurately identify Salmonella Enteritidis, Pullorum/Gallinarum, and Dublin from eight non-Salmonella species and 27 Salmonella serovars. The least concentration of genomic DNA that could be detected was 58.5 pg/μL and the least number of cells was 100 CFU. Subsequently, this developed method was used to analyze clinical Salmonella isolates from one pig farm, one chicken farm, and one cattle farm. The results showed that blinded PCR testing of Salmonella isolates from the three farms were in concordance with the traditional serotyping tests, indicating the newly developed multiplex PCR system could be used as a novel tool to accurately distinguish the three specific Salmonella serovars individually, which is useful, especially in high-throughput screening. PMID:28360901

  10. Diagnostic tools for assessment of urinary dysfunction in MS patients without urinary disturbances.

    PubMed

    Ghezzi, A; Mutta, E; Bianchi, F; Bonavita, S; Buttari, F; Caramma, A; Cavarretta, R; Centonze, D; Coghe, G C; Coniglio, G; Del Carro, U; Ferrò, M T; Marrosu, M G; Patti, F; Rovaris, M; Sparaco, M; Simone, I; Tortorella, C; Bergamaschi, R

    2016-03-01

    Many guidelines are available for the management of lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTSs) in multiple sclerosis (MS) patients, but no agreement exists on the best approach for subjects without LUTSs. The objective of this study was to evaluate whether LUTSs can be detected in MS patients asymptomatic for urinary dysfunction, comparing three different tools [measure of post-void residual volume (PRV), bladder diary (BD), a focused questionnaire (IPSS)], and whether disability, disease duration and signs of pyramidal involvement are linked to their subclinical presence. 178 MS patients (118 women) have been included (mean age 41.2 years, mean disease duration 11.3 years, mean EDSS 2.2), and tested with the above-mentioned tools. PRV was abnormal in 14 subjects (7.8%), associated to abnormal findings at IPSS in 3 cases, at BD in 2 cases, at both in 1. BD was abnormal in 37 subjects (20.8%), with concomitant abnormal PRV in 2, abnormal IPSS in 10 cases, abnormal IPSS and BD in 1. IPSS was ≥ 9 in 43 subjects (24.1%). At least one test was abnormal in 76 patients (42.7%): 1 in 57 patients (32.0%), 2 in 17 (9.5%), and 3 tests in 2 (1.1%). Patients with at least one abnormal urinary variable, compared to patients without urinary abnormalities, had a more frequent pyramidal involvement (69.5 vs. 16.8%, χ(2) = 48.6, p < 0.00001), a more frequent occurrence of EDSS ≥2 (83.1 vs. 23.5%, χ(2) = 56.9, p < 0.00001), and a longer disease duration (15.7 ± 7.3 vs. 9.1 ± 7.1, t = 5.7, p < 0.00001). Asymptomatic LUTS were frequent but none of the tests used permitted to better identify asymptomatic patients.

  11. The Utility of Malaria Rapid Diagnostic Tests as a Tool in Enhanced Surveillance for Malaria Elimination in Vanuatu

    PubMed Central

    Guintran, Jean-Olivier; Iata, Harry; Anderson, Karen; Nausien, Johnny; Gresty, Karryn J; Waters, Norman C.; Vestergaard, Lasse S.; Taleo, George; Cheng, Qin

    2016-01-01

    Background As part of efforts to eliminate malaria, Vanuatu has piloted the implementation of enhanced malaria surveillance and response strategies since 2011. This involves passive case detection (PCD) in health facilities, proactive case detection (Pro-ACD) and reactive case detection (Re-ACD) in communities using malaria rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs). While RDTs improve case management, their utility for detection of malaria infections in ACDs in this setting is unclear. Methods The utility of malaria RDTs as diagnostic tools was evaluated in PCD, in five rounds of Pro-ACDs and five rounds of Re-ACDs conducted in Tafea and Torba Provinces between 2011 and 2014. The number of malaria infections detected by RDTs was compared to that detected by PCR from collected used-RDTs. Results PCD in Tafea Province (2013) showed a RDT-positive rate of 0.21% (2/939) and a PCR-positive rate of 0.44% (2/453), indicating less than 1% of suspected malaria cases in Tafea Province were due to malaria. In Pro-ACDs conducted in Tafea and Torba Provinces, RDT-positive rates in 2013 and 2014 were 0.14% (3/2145) and 0% (0/2823), respectively, while the corresponding PCR-positive rates were 0.72% (9/1242) and 0.79% (9/1141). PCR identified villages in both provinces appearing to be transmission foci with a small number of low-density infections, mainly P. falciparum infections. In five rounds of Re-ACD, RDTs did not identify any additional infections while PCR detected only one among 173 subjects screened. Conclusions PCD and Pro-ACDs demonstrate that both Tafea and Torba Provinces in Vanuatu has achieved very low malaria prevalence. In these low-transmission areas, conducting Pro-ACD and Re-ACDs using RDTs appears not cost-effective and may have limited impact on interrupting malaria transmission due to the small number of infections identified by RDTs and considerable operational resources invested. More sensitive, field deployable and affordable diagnostic tools will improve malaria

  12. The Maastricht Ultrasound Shoulder pain trial (MUST): Ultrasound imaging as a diagnostic triage tool to improve management of patients with non-chronic shoulder pain in primary care

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Subacromial disorders are considered to be one of the most common pathologies affecting the shoulder. Optimal therapy for shoulder pain (SP) in primary care is yet unknown, since clinical history and physical examination do not provide decisive evidence as to the patho-anatomical origin of the symptoms. Optimal decision strategies can be furthered by applying ultrasound imaging (US), an accurate method in diagnosing SP, demonstrating a clear relationship between diagnosis and available therapies. Yet, the clinical cost-effectiveness of applying US in the management of SP in primary care has not been studied. The aim of this paper is to describe the design and methods of a trial assessing the cost-effectiveness of ultrasound imaging as a diagnostic triage tool to improve management of primary care patients with non-chronic shoulder pain. Methods/Design This randomised controlled trial (RCT) will involve 226 adult patients with suspected subacromial disorders recruited by general practitioners. During a Qualification period of two weeks, patients receive care as usual as advised by the Dutch College of General Practitioners, and patients are referred for US. Patients with insufficient improvement qualify for the RCT. These patients are then randomly assigned to the intervention or the control group. The therapies used in both groups are the same (corticosteroid injections, referral to a physiotherapist or orthopedic surgeon) except that therapies used in the intervention group will be tailored based on the US results. Ultrasound diagnosed disorders include tendinopathy, calcific tendinitis, partial and full thickness tears, and subacromial bursitis. The primary outcome is patient-perceived recovery at 52 weeks, using the Global Perceived Effect questionnaire. Secondary outcomes are disease specific and generic quality of life, cost-effectiveness, and the adherence to the initial applied treatment. Outcome measures will be assessed at baseline, 13, 26, 39

  13. Characterizing the intrinsic bioremediation potential of 1,4-dioxane and trichloroethene using innovative environmental diagnostic tools.

    PubMed

    Chiang, Sheau-Yun Dora; Mora, Rebecca; Diguiseppi, William H; Davis, Greg; Sublette, Kerry; Gedalanga, Phillip; Mahendra, Shaily

    2012-09-01

    An intrinsic biodegradation study involving the design and implementation of innovative environmental diagnostic tools was conducted to evaluate whether monitored natural attenuation (MNA) could be considered as part of the remedial strategy to treat an aerobic aquifer contaminated with 1,4-dioxane and trichloroethene (TCE). In this study, advanced molecular biological and stable isotopic tools were applied to confirm in situ intrinsic biodegradation of 1,4-dioxane and TCE. Analyses of Bio-Trap® samplers and groundwater samples collected from monitoring wells verified the abundance of bacteria and enzymes capable of aerobically degrading TCE and 1,4-dioxane. Furthermore, phospholipid fatty acid analysis with stable isotope probes (PLFA-SIP) of the microbial community validated the ability for microbial degradation of TCE and 1,4-dioxane. Compound specific isotope analysis (CSIA) of groundwater samples for TCE resulted in δ(13)C values that indicated likely biodegradation of TCE in three of the four monitoring wells sampled. Results of the MNA evaluation showed that enzymes capable of aerobically degrading TCE and 1,4-dioxane were present, abundant, and active in the aquifer. Taken together, these results provide direct evidence of the occurrence of TCE and 1,4-dioxane biodegradation at the study site, supporting the selection of MNA as part of the final remedy at some point in the future.

  14. Physical Exercise as a Diagnostic, Rehabilitation, and Preventive Tool: Influence on Neuroplasticity and Motor Recovery after Stroke.

    PubMed

    Pin-Barre, Caroline; Laurin, Jérôme

    2015-01-01

    Stroke remains a leading cause of adult motor disabilities in the world and accounts for the greatest number of hospitalizations for neurological disease. Stroke treatments/therapies need to promote neuroplasticity to improve motor function. Physical exercise is considered as a major candidate for ultimately promoting neural plasticity and could be used for different purposes in human and animal experiments. First, acute exercise could be used as a diagnostic tool to understand new neural mechanisms underlying stroke physiopathology. Indeed, better knowledge of stroke mechanisms that affect movements is crucial for enhancing treatment/rehabilitation effectiveness. Secondly, it is well established that physical exercise training is advised as an effective rehabilitation tool. Indeed, it reduces inflammatory processes and apoptotic marker expression, promotes brain angiogenesis and expression of some growth factors, and improves the activation of affected muscles during exercise. Nevertheless, exercise training might also aggravate sensorimotor deficits and brain injury depending on the chosen exercise parameters. For the last few years, physical training has been combined with pharmacological treatments to accentuate and/or accelerate beneficial neural and motor effects. Finally, physical exercise might also be considered as a major nonpharmacological preventive strategy that provides neuroprotective effects reducing adverse effects of brain ischemia. Therefore, prestroke regular physical activity may also decrease the motor outcome severity of stroke.

  15. Pharmacogenetics of osteoporosis-related bone fractures: moving towards the harmonization and validation of polymorphism diagnostic tools.

    PubMed

    Rojo Venegas, Karen; Aguilera Gómez, Margarita; Eisman, John Allan; García Sánchez, Antonio; Faus Dader, María J; Calleja Hernández, Miguel A

    2010-09-01

    Osteoporosis is one of the most common skeletal chronic conditions in developed countries, hip fracture being one of its major healthcare outcomes. There is considerable variation in the implementation of current pharmacological treatment and prevention, despite consistent recommendations and guidelines. Many studies have reported conflicting findings of genetic associations with bone density and turnover that might predict fracture risk. Moreover, it is not clear whether genetic differences exist in relation to the morbidity and efficiency of the pharmacotherapy treatments. Clinical response, including beneficial and adverse events associated with osteoporosis treatments, is highly variable among individuals. In this context, the present article intends to summarize putative candidate genes and genome-wide association studies that have been related with BMD and fracture risk, and to draw the attention to the need for pharmacogenetic methodology that could be applicable in clinical translational research after an adequate validation process. This article mainly compiles analysis of important polymorphisms in osteoporosis documented previously, and it describes the simple molecular biology tools for routine genotype acquisition. Validation of methods for the easy, fast and accessible identification of SNPs is necessary for evolving pharmacogenetic diagnostic tools in order to contribute to the discovery of clinically relevant genetic variation with an impact on osteoporosis and its personalized treatment.

  16. Physical Exercise as a Diagnostic, Rehabilitation, and Preventive Tool: Influence on Neuroplasticity and Motor Recovery after Stroke

    PubMed Central

    Pin-Barre, Caroline; Laurin, Jérôme

    2015-01-01

    Stroke remains a leading cause of adult motor disabilities in the world and accounts for the greatest number of hospitalizations for neurological disease. Stroke treatments/therapies need to promote neuroplasticity to improve motor function. Physical exercise is considered as a major candidate for ultimately promoting neural plasticity and could be used for different purposes in human and animal experiments. First, acute exercise could be used as a diagnostic tool to understand new neural mechanisms underlying stroke physiopathology. Indeed, better knowledge of stroke mechanisms that affect movements is crucial for enhancing treatment/rehabilitation effectiveness. Secondly, it is well established that physical exercise training is advised as an effective rehabilitation tool. Indeed, it reduces inflammatory processes and apoptotic marker expression, promotes brain angiogenesis and expression of some growth factors, and improves the activation of affected muscles during exercise. Nevertheless, exercise training might also aggravate sensorimotor deficits and brain injury depending on the chosen exercise parameters. For the last few years, physical training has been combined with pharmacological treatments to accentuate and/or accelerate beneficial neural and motor effects. Finally, physical exercise might also be considered as a major nonpharmacological preventive strategy that provides neuroprotective effects reducing adverse effects of brain ischemia. Therefore, prestroke regular physical activity may also decrease the motor outcome severity of stroke. PMID:26682073

  17. Bioimpedance Harmonic Analysis as a Diagnostic Tool to Assess Regional Circulation and Neural Activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mudraya, I. S.; Revenko, S. V.; Khodyreva, L. A.; Markosyan, T. G.; Dudareva, A. A.; Ibragimov, A. R.; Romich, V. V.; Kirpatovsky, V. I.

    2013-04-01

    The novel technique based on harmonic analysis of bioimpedance microvariations with original hard- and software complex incorporating a high-resolution impedance converter was used to assess the neural activity and circulation in human urinary bladder and penis in patients with pelvic pain, erectile dysfunction, and overactive bladder. The therapeutic effects of shock wave therapy and Botulinum toxin detrusor injections were evaluated quantitatively according to the spectral peaks at low 0.1 Hz frequency (M for Mayer wave), respiratory (R) and cardiac (C) rhythms with their harmonics. Enhanced baseline regional neural activity identified according to M and R peaks was found to be presumably sympathetic in pelvic pain patients, and parasympathetic - in patients with overactive bladder. Total pulsatile activity and pulsatile resonances found in the bladder as well as in the penile spectrum characterised regional circulation and vascular tone. The abnormal spectral parameters characteristic of the patients with genitourinary diseases shifted to the norm in the cases of efficient therapy. Bioimpedance harmonic analysis seems to be a potent tool to assess regional peculiarities of circulatory and autonomic nervous activity in the course of patient treatment.

  18. Procalcitonin as an early diagnostic and monitoring tool in urosepsis following percutaneous nephrolithotomy.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Ji; Li, Qianwei; Fu, Weihua; Ren, Jing; Song, Siji; Deng, Guoxian; Yao, Jiwei; Wang, Yongquan; Li, Weibing; Yan, Junan

    2015-02-01

    To evaluate the value of procalcitonin (PCT) as an early marker for diagnosis and differentiation of without urosepsis, urosepsis, severe urosepsis, and uroseptic shock following PCNL and the ability of PCT to assess the effectiveness of antibiotic therapy in patients with urosepsis. From June 2012 to August 2013, 267 patients undergoing PCNL for renal calculi, and who fulfilled selection criteria, were recruited into our study. The patients' medical records were reviewed retrospectively. One of selection criteria was the scores of PCT and WBC were collected at operative day, postoperative day one, day two, day three, day five and day seven. The area under the ROC curve for the prediction of urosepsis was 0.960 for PCT and 0.634 for WBC. PCT concentrations were higher in patients with uroseptic shock versus severe urosepsis versus urosepsis versus without urosepsis following PCNL. WBC values showed no significant difference between patients with urosepsis, severe urosepsis and uroseptic shock following PCNL. With time, in patients with successfully treated urosepsis following PCNL, the PCT concentrations significantly declined and kept decreasing from postoperative day two to postoperative day seven and the WBC scores showed no significant change over the first postoperative 2 days and were decreased only after postoperative day three. PCT appears to be a useful early marker to diagnosis and discriminate urosepsis, severe urosepsis and uroseptic shock following PCNL. Daily PCT measurements may be a valuable tool in monitoring the effectiveness of antibiotic therapy in urosepsis following PCNL.

  19. Development of a diagnostic tool: the wastewater collection network odour wheel.

    PubMed

    Decottignies, V; Huyard, A; Kelly, R F; Barillon, B

    2013-01-01

    The assessment of nuisance odour problems and the application of an effective odour management programme for the associated industrial activity may be achieved using a representative odour wheel and Odour Profile Analysis methodology. The odour wheel is a very useful tool for conducting odour quality control monitoring and developing a constructive dialogue regarding nuisance odours with the public. Previously, odours from wastewater treatment plant activities have been identified and described with a dedicated odour wheel. The oxidation state of the organic chemicals responsible for a given odour depends on multiple parameters specific to the individual wastewater collection networks (residence time of wastewater, topographic disposition and network slope, aeration and on line chemical treatment processes). This is especially important for odorous nitrogen, sulfur and volatile fatty acids. Trained sensory odour panels combined with chemical analyses have been used to study wastewater collection network odours and to adapt the wastewater odour wheel accordingly. The wastewater collection network odour wheel has been produced using the results of five sampling campaigns; eight out of the 11 odour families constituting the wastewater odour wheel have been identified and consequently validated for sewer networks. Different groups of odours have been perceived according to the presence or absence of wastewater effluents at the various sampling points.

  20. Application of Infrared Thermography as a Diagnostic Tool of Knee Osteoarthritis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arfaoui, Ahlem; Bouzid, Mohamed Amine; Pron, Hervé; Taiar, Redha; Polidori, Guillaume

    This paper aimed to study the feasibility of application of infrared thermography to detect osteoarthritis of the knee and to compare the distribution of skin temperature between participants with osteoarthritis and those without pathology. All tests were conducted at LACM (Laboratory of Mechanical Stresses Analysis) and the gymnasium of the University of Reims Champagne Ardennes. IR thermography was performed using an IR camera. Ten participants with knee osteoarthritis and 12 reference healthy participants without OA participated in this study. Questionnaires were also used. The participants with osteoarthritis of the knee were selected on clinical examination and a series of radiographs. The level of pain was recorded by using a simple verbal scale (0-4). Infrared thermography reveals relevant disease by highlighting asymmetrical behavior in thermal color maps of both knees. Moreover, a linear evolution of skin temperature in the knee area versus time has been found whatever the participant group is in the first stage following a given effort. Results clearly show that the temperature can be regarded as a key parameter for evaluating pain. Thermal images of the knee were taken with an infrared camera. The study shows that with the advantage of being noninvasive and easily repeatable, IRT appears to be a useful tool to detect quantifiable patterns of surface temperatures and predict the singular thermal behavior of this pathology. It also seems that this non-intrusive technique enables to detect the early clinical manifestations of knee OA.

  1. Bone formation and resorption markers as diagnostic tools for bone metastases evaluation.

    PubMed

    Galliera, Emanuela; Luzzati, Alessandro; Perrucchini, Giuseppe; Gagliano, Fabio; Colloredo Mels, Ludovica; Banfi, Giuseppe; Corsi Romanelli, Massimiliano Marco; Drago, Lorenzo

    2012-12-27

    Bone metastases are a frequent complication of several types of cancers. Since bone metastases are difficult to diagnose with the current available approaches, there is a demand for new methods for assessing bone response. In this context, biochemical markers of bone remodeling may provide useful information on bone turnover that, in turn, may reflect disease activity in bone. In this study we tested a panel of bone remodeling markers (distinguishing between bone formation and bone resorption ones) in different groups of cancer patients, so as to evaluate the potential clinical role of the examined bone remodeling markers in the early diagnosis of metastases formation and progression. Among the bone resorption markers, tartrate resistant acid phosphatase 5b (TRAP5b) resulted the most specific for the metastatic tumor stage. Both the bone formation markers we analyzed displayed a direct correlation (positive for bone-specific alkaline phosphatase [BAP] and negative for osteocalcin [OC]) with tumor disease progression, ranging from healthy controls to primary tumor and, ultimately, to the metastatic stage. Taken together our results suggest that these markers can be valuable tools to be used, in parallel with traditional methods of metastases diagnosis, in order to monitor more in detail the pathological effect of metastases progression in bone tissue.

  2. Direct Blood Dry LAMP: A Rapid, Stable, and Easy Diagnostic Tool for Human African Trypanosomiasis

    PubMed Central

    Hayashida, Kyoko; Kajino, Kiichi; Hachaambwa, Lottie; Namangala, Boniface; Sugimoto, Chihiro

    2015-01-01

    Loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) is a rapid and sensitive tool used for the diagnosis of a variety of infectious diseases. One of the advantages of this method over the polymerase chain reaction is that DNA amplification occurs at a constant temperature, usually between 60–65°C; therefore, expensive devices are unnecessary for this step. However, LAMP still requires complicated sample preparation steps and a well-equipped laboratory to produce reliable and reproducible results, which limits its use in resource-poor laboratories in most developing countries. In this study, we made several substantial modifications to the technique to carry out on-site diagnosis of Human African Trypanosomiasis (HAT) in remote areas using LAMP. The first essential improvement was that LAMP reagents were dried and stabilized in a single tube by incorporating trehalose as a cryoprotectant to prolong shelf life at ambient temperature. The second technical improvement was achieved by simplifying the sample preparation step so that DNA or RNA could be amplified directly from detergent-lysed blood samples. With these modifications, diagnosis of HAT in local clinics or villages in endemic areas becomes a reality, which could greatly impact on the application of diagnosis not only for HAT but also for other tropical diseases. PMID:25769046

  3. Diagnostic tool for red blood cell membrane disorders: Assessment of a new generation ektacytometer.

    PubMed

    Da Costa, Lydie; Suner, Ludovic; Galimand, Julie; Bonnel, Amandine; Pascreau, Tiffany; Couque, Nathalie; Fenneteau, Odile; Mohandas, Narla

    2016-01-01

    Inherited red blood cell (RBC) membrane disorders, such as hereditary spherocytosis, elliptocytosis and hereditary ovalocytosis, result from mutations in genes encoding various RBC membrane and skeletal proteins. The RBC membrane, a composite structure composed of a lipid bilayer linked to a spectrin/actin-based membrane skeleton, confers upon the RBC unique features of deformability and mechanical stability. The disease severity is primarily dependent on the extent of membrane surface area loss. RBC membrane disorders can be readily diagnosed by various laboratory approaches that include RBC cytology, flow cytometry, ektacytometry, electrophoresis of RBC membrane proteins and genetics. The reference technique for diagnosis of RBC membrane disorders is the osmotic gradient ektacytometry. However, in spite of its recognition as the reference technique, this technique is rarely used as a routine diagnosis tool for RBC membrane disorders due to its limited availability. This may soon change as a new generation of ektacytometer has been recently engineered. In this review, we describe the workflow of the samples shipped to our Hematology laboratory for RBC membrane disorder analysis and the data obtained for a large cohort of French patients presenting with RBC membrane disorders using a newly available version of the ektacytomer.

  4. Tools for Evaluating Fault Detection and Diagnostic Methods for HVAC Secondary Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pourarian, Shokouh

    Although modern buildings are using increasingly sophisticated energy management and control systems that have tremendous control and monitoring capabilities, building systems routinely fail to perform as designed. More advanced building control, operation, and automated fault detection and diagnosis (AFDD) technologies are needed to achieve the goal of net-zero energy commercial buildings. Much effort has been devoted to develop such technologies for primary heating ventilating and air conditioning (HVAC) systems, and some secondary systems. However, secondary systems, such as fan coil units and dual duct systems, although widely used in commercial, industrial, and multifamily residential buildings, have received very little attention. This research study aims at developing tools that could provide simulation capabilities to develop and evaluate advanced control, operation, and AFDD technologies for these less studied secondary systems. In this study, HVACSIM+ is selected as the simulation environment. Besides developing dynamic models for the above-mentioned secondary systems, two other issues related to the HVACSIM+ environment are also investigated. One issue is the nonlinear equation solver used in HVACSIM+ (Powell's Hybrid method in subroutine SNSQ). It has been found from several previous research projects (ASRHAE RP 825 and 1312) that SNSQ is especially unstable at the beginning of a simulation and sometimes unable to converge to a solution. Another issue is related to the zone model in the HVACSIM+ library of components. Dynamic simulation of secondary HVAC systems unavoidably requires an interacting zone model which is systematically and dynamically interacting with building surrounding. Therefore, the accuracy and reliability of the building zone model affects operational data generated by the developed dynamic tool to predict HVAC secondary systems function. The available model does not simulate the impact of direct solar radiation that enters a zone

  5. Immunoassay for ethyl glucuronide in vitreous humor: a new tool for postmortem diagnostics of alcohol use.

    PubMed

    Rainio, Juha; Kultti, Johanna; Kangastupa, Päivikki; Tuomi, Heidi; Ahola, Sanna; Karhunen, Pekka J; Helander, Anders; Niemelä, Onni

    2013-03-10

    Although excessive alcohol consumption plays a major role in fatal events, the role of alcohol use as a possible contributing factor at the time of death is not easy to establish due to lack of suitable biomarkers for postmortem analyses. We used an immunological approach to measure ethyl glucuronide (EtG) concentrations from vitreous humor (VH) and serum from 58 individuals representing a forensic autopsy population of cases with either a well-documented history of excessive alcohol use (n=37) or cases without such history (n=21), according to medical and police records and blood alcohol determinations (BAC). The immunoassay was based on the Microgenics DRI-EtG EIA reagents applied on an automated Abbott Architect c8000 clinical chemistry analyzer. Liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) determination of EtG and ethyl sulfate (EtS) was used as a reference method. At a cut-off of 0.3mg/l for VH-EtG, the immunoassay correctly identified 92% of the cases with a history of excessive alcohol use, whereas the BAC was positive (cut-off 10mg/dl) in 68% of the cases. A significant correlation emerged between VH-EtG and serum EtG (r=0.77, p<0.001) and between VH-EtG and BAC (r=0.62, p<0.001), although VH-EtG was frequently elevated also in cases with no detectable BAC. The EtG immunoassay showed a strong correlation with the LC-MS/MS reference method (r=0.94, p<0.001) and there was 100% agreement in the frequency of marker positive and negative findings between the immunoassay EtG results and the LC-MS/MS analysis of EtG and EtS. The present data indicate that the immunoassay for VH-EtG is a useful forensic tool for screening of antemortem alcohol use.

  6. Fluorescence: a diagnostic tool for the detection of stress in plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chappelle, Emmett W.; Corp, Lawrence A.; McMurtrey, James E., III; Kim, Moon S.; Daughtry, Craig S. T.

    1997-01-01

    Green vegetation when excited by specific wavelengths of light dissipates a portion of the absorbed energy as light emissions in the form of fluorescence in several broad areas of the spectrum. Currently, leaf level fluoresence emissions have been broken down into five primary regions, namely; ultraviolet (UV), blue, green, red, and near-infrared (NIR). The optimal excitation wavelengths for each of these bands was verified for healthy soybean leaves through the use of the EEM. Intact vegetation when excited at 280 nm emits substantial fluorescence in two bands; the first centered near 335 nm, and the second centered near 440 nm. UV band fluorescence from vegetation treated with varying levels of nitrogen decreases relative to the blur fluorescence as a function of total protein concentration. These studies indicate that in vivo UV band fluorescence can be utilized as a non-destructive tool to remotely sense variations in protein concentration due to nitrogen fertilization level. It has been well established that this fluorescence emission originates from proteins contain aromatic amino acids. The majority of plant proteins contain these amino acids and as a result have the potential to fluorescence in the region of the spectrum discussed here. Pure ribulose 1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase in aqueous solution exhibited intense UV fluorescence characteristics with excitation and emission distributions similar to those of intact vegetation. Due to its high concentration we believe this protein contributes to the UV band fluorescence emanating from the intact leaf. The red and NIR fluorescence emissions can be excited within the broad wavelength region from 250 to 675 nm with excitation maxima at 430 nm, 470 nm, 600 nm, and 660 nm. The ratio of red to NIR fluorescence excitation spectra produces a ratio spectrum which exhibits striking similarities to the action spectrum of photosynthesis. The relative differences between these two emission bands depend on the wavelength

  7. microRNA classifiers are powerful diagnostic/prognostic tools in ALK-, EGFR-, and KRAS-driven lung cancers.

    PubMed

    Gasparini, Pierluigi; Cascione, Luciano; Landi, Lorenza; Carasi, Stefania; Lovat, Francesca; Tibaldi, Carmelo; Alì, Greta; D'Incecco, Armida; Minuti, Gabriele; Chella, Antonio; Fontanini, Gabriella; Fassan, Matteo; Cappuzzo, Federico; Croce, Carlo M

    2015-12-01

    microRNAs (miRNAs) can act as oncosuppressors or oncogenes, induce chemoresistance or chemosensitivity, and are major posttranscriptional gene regulators. Anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK), EGF receptor (EGFR), and V-Ki-ras2 Kirsten rat sarcoma viral oncogene homolog (KRAS) are major drivers of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). The aim of this study was to assess the miRNA profiles of NSCLCs driven by translocated ALK, mutant EGFR, or mutant KRAS to find driver-specific diagnostic and prognostic miRNA signatures. A total of 85 formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded samples were considered: 67 primary NSCLCs and 18 matched normal lung tissues. Of the 67 primary NSCLCs, 17 were echinoderm microtubule-associated protein-like 4-ALK translocated (ALK(+)) lung cancers; the remaining 50 were not (ALK(-)). Of the 50 ALK(-) primary NSCLCs, 24 were EGFR and KRAS mutation-negative (i.e., WT; triple negative); 11 were mutant EGFR (EGFR(+)), and 15 were mutant KRAS (KRAS(+)). We developed a diagnostic classifier that shows how miR-1253, miR-504, and miR-26a-5p expression levels can classify NSCLCs as ALK-translocated, mutant EGFR, or mutant KRAS versus mutation-free. We also generated a prognostic classifier based on miR-769-5p and Let-7d-5p expression levels that can predict overall survival. This classifier showed better performance than the commonly used classifiers based on mutational status. Although it has several limitations, this study shows that miRNA signatures and classifiers have great potential as powerful, cost-effective next-generation tools to improve and complement current genetic tests. Further studies of these miRNAs can help define their roles in NSCLC biology and in identifying best-performing chemotherapy regimens.

  8. Co-Development of Diagnostic Vectors to Support Targeted Therapies and Theranostics: Essential Tools in Personalized Cancer Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Nicolaides, Nicholas C.; O’Shannessy, Daniel J.; Albone, Earl; Grasso, Luigi

    2014-01-01

    Novel technologies are being developed to improve patient therapy through the identification of targets and surrogate molecular signatures that can help direct appropriate treatment regimens for efficacy and drug safety. This is particularly the case in oncology whereby patient tumor and biofluids are routinely isolated and analyzed for genetic, immunohistochemical, and/or soluble markers to determine if a predictive biomarker signature (i.e., mutated gene product, differentially expressed protein, altered cell surface antigen, etc.) exists as a means for selecting optimal treatment. These biomarkers may be drug-specific targets and/or differentially expressed nucleic acids, proteins, or cell lineage profiles that can directly affect the patient’s disease tissue or immune response to a therapeutic regimen. Improvements in diagnostics that can prescreen predictive response biomarker profiles will continue to optimize the ability to enhance patient therapy via molecularly defined disease-specific treatment. Conversely, patients lacking predictive response biomarkers will no longer needlessly be exposed to drugs that are unlikely to provide clinical benefit, thereby enabling patients to pursue other therapeutic options and lowering overall healthcare costs by avoiding futile treatment. While patient molecular profiling offers a powerful tool to direct treatment options, the difficulty in identifying disease-specific targets or predictive biomarker signatures that stratify a significant fraction within a disease indication remains challenging. A goal for drug developers is to identify and implement new strategies that can rapidly enable the development of beneficial disease-specific therapies for broad patient-specific targeting without the need of tedious predictive biomarker discovery and validation efforts, currently a bottleneck for development timelines. Successful strategies may gain an advantage by employing repurposed, less-expensive existing agents while

  9. A Simple Evaluation Tool (ET-CET) Indicates Increase of Diagnostic Skills From Small Bowel Capsule Endoscopy Training Courses

    PubMed Central

    Albert, J.G.; Humbla, O.; McAlindon, M.E.; Davison, C.; Seitz, U.; Fraser, C.; Hagenmüller, F.; Noetzel, E.; Spada, C.; Riccioni, M.E.; Barnert, J.; Filmann, N.; Keuchel, M.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Small bowel capsule endoscopy (SBCE) has become a first line diagnostic tool. Several training courses with a similar format have been established in Europe; however, data on learning curve and training in SBCE remain sparse. Between 2008 and 2011, different basic SBCE training courses were organized internationally in UK (n = 2), Italy (n = 2), Germany (n = 2), Finland (n = 1), and nationally in Germany (n = 10), applying similar 8-hour curricula with 50% lectures and 50% hands-on training. The Given PillCam System was used in 12 courses, the Olympus EndoCapsule system in 5, respectively. A simple evaluation tool for capsule endoscopy training (ET-CET) was developed using 10 short SBCE videos including relevant lesions and normal or irrelevant findings. For each video, delegates were required to record a diagnosis (achievable total score from 0 to 10) and the clinical relevance (achievable total score 0 to 10). ET-CET was performed at baseline before the course and repeated, with videos in altered order, after the course. Two hundred ninety-four delegates (79.3% physicians, 16.3% nurses, 4.4% others) were included for baseline analysis, 268 completed the final evaluation. Forty percent had no previous experience in SBCE, 33% had performed 10 or less procedures. Median scores for correct diagnosis improved from 4.0 (IQR 3) to 7.0 (IQR 3) during the courses (P < 0.001, Wilcoxon), and for correct classification of relevance of the lesions from 5.0 (IQR 3) to 7.0 (IQR 3) (P < 0.001), respectively. Improvement was not dependent on experience, profession, SBCE system, or course setting. Previous experience in SBCE was associated with higher baseline scores for correct diagnosis (P < 0.001; Kruskal–Wallis). Additionally, independent nonparametric partial correlation with experience in gastroscopy (rho 0.33) and colonoscopy (rho 0.27) was observed (P < 0.001). A simple ET-CET demonstrated significant improvement of diagnostic

  10. Summary Report on the Graded Prognostic Assessment: An Accurate and Facile Diagnosis-Specific Tool to Estimate Survival for Patients With Brain Metastases

    PubMed Central

    Sperduto, Paul W.; Kased, Norbert; Roberge, David; Xu, Zhiyuan; Shanley, Ryan; Luo, Xianghua; Sneed, Penny K.; Chao, Samuel T.; Weil, Robert J.; Suh, John; Bhatt, Amit; Jensen, Ashley W.; Brown, Paul D.; Shih, Helen A.; Kirkpatrick, John; Gaspar, Laurie E.; Fiveash, John B.; Chiang, Veronica; Knisely, Jonathan P.S.; Sperduto, Christina Maria; Lin, Nancy; Mehta, Minesh

    2012-01-01

    Purpose Our group has previously published the Graded Prognostic Assessment (GPA), a prognostic index for patients with brain metastases. Updates have been published with refinements to create diagnosis-specific Graded Prognostic Assessment indices. The purpose of this report is to present the updated diagnosis-specific GPA indices in a single, unified, user-friendly report to allow ease of access and use by treating physicians. Methods A multi-institutional retrospective (1985 to 2007) database of 3,940 patients with newly diagnosed brain metastases underwent univariate and multivariate analyses of prognostic factors associated with outcomes by primary site and treatment. Significant prognostic factors were used to define the diagnosis-specific GPA prognostic indices. A GPA of 4.0 correlates with the best prognosis, whereas a GPA of 0.0 corresponds with the worst prognosis. Results Significant prognostic factors varied by diagnosis. For lung cancer, prognostic factors were Karnofsky performance score, age, presence of extracranial metastases, and number of brain metastases, confirming the original Lung-GPA. For melanoma and renal cell cancer, prognostic factors were Karnofsky performance score and the number of brain metastases. For breast cancer, prognostic factors were tumor subtype, Karnofsky performance score, and age. For GI cancer, the only prognostic factor was the Karnofsky performance score. The median survival times by GPA score and diagnosis were determined. Conclusion Prognostic factors for patients with brain metastases vary by diagnosis, and for each diagnosis, a robust separation into different GPA scores was discerned, implying considerable heterogeneity in outcome, even within a single tumor type. In summary, these indices and related worksheet provide an accurate and facile diagnosis-specific tool to estimate survival, potentially select appropriate treatment, and stratify clinical trials for patients with brain metastases. PMID:22203767

  11. IrisPlex: a sensitive DNA tool for accurate prediction of blue and brown eye colour in the absence of ancestry information.

    PubMed

    Walsh, Susan; Liu, Fan; Ballantyne, Kaye N; van Oven, Mannis; Lao, Oscar; Kayser, Manfred

    2011-06-01

    A new era of 'DNA intelligence' is arriving in forensic biology, due to the impending ability to predict externally visible characteristics (EVCs) from biological material such as those found at crime scenes. EVC prediction from forensic samples, or from body parts, is expected to help concentrate police investigations towards finding unknown individuals, at times when conventional DNA profiling fails to provide informative leads. Here we present a robust and sensitive tool, termed IrisPlex, for the accurate prediction of blue and brown eye colour from DNA in future forensic applications. We used the six currently most eye colour-informative single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) that previously revealed prevalence-adjusted prediction accuracies of over 90% for blue and brown eye colour in 6168 Dutch Europeans. The single multiplex assay, based on SNaPshot chemistry and capillary electrophoresis, both widely used in forensic laboratories, displays high levels of genotyping sensitivity with complete profiles generated from as little as 31pg of DNA, approximately six human diploid cell equivalents. We also present a prediction model to correctly classify an individual's eye colour, via probability estimation solely based on DNA data, and illustrate the accuracy of the developed prediction test on 40 individuals from various geographic origins. Moreover, we obtained insights into the worldwide allele distribution of these six SNPs using the HGDP-CEPH samples of 51 populations. Eye colour prediction analyses from HGDP-CEPH samples provide evidence that the test and model presented here perform reliably without prior ancestry information, although future worldwide genotype and phenotype data shall confirm this notion. As our IrisPlex eye colour prediction test is capable of immediate implementation in forensic casework, it represents one of the first steps forward in the creation of a fully individualised EVC prediction system for future use in forensic DNA intelligence.

  12. Quantum cascade laser based monitoring of CF2 radical concentration as a diagnostic tool of dielectric etching plasma processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hübner, M.; Lang, N.; Zimmermann, S.; Schulz, S. E.; Buchholtz, W.; Röpcke, J.; van Helden, J. H.

    2015-01-01

    Dielectric etching plasma processes for modern interlevel dielectrics become more and more complex by the introduction of new ultra low-k dielectrics. One challenge is the minimization of sidewall damage, while etching ultra low-k porous SiCOH by fluorocarbon plasmas. The optimization of this process requires a deeper understanding of the concentration of the CF2 radical, which acts as precursor in the polymerization of the etch sample surfaces. In an industrial dielectric etching plasma reactor, the CF2 radical was measured in situ using a continuous wave quantum cascade laser (cw-QCL) around 1106.2 cm-1. We measured Doppler-resolved ro-vibrational absorption lines and determined absolute densities using transitions in the ν3 fundamental band of CF2 with the aid of an improved simulation of the line strengths. We found that the CF2 radical concentration during the etching plasma process directly correlates to the layer structure of the etched wafer. Hence, this correlation can serve as a diagnostic tool of dielectric etching plasma processes. Applying QCL based absorption spectroscopy opens up the way for advanced process monitoring and etching controlling in semiconductor manufacturing.

  13. Dissociative symptoms and dissociative disorders comorbidity in obsessive compulsive disorder: Symptom screening, diagnostic tools and reflections on treatment.

    PubMed

    Belli, Hasan

    2014-08-16

    Borderline personality disorder, conversion disorder and obsessive compulsive disorder frequently have dissociative symptoms. The literature has demonstrated that the level of dissociation might be correlated with the severity of obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) and that those not responding to treatment had high dissociative symptoms. The structured clinical interview for DSM-IV dissociative disorders, dissociation questionnaire, somatoform dissociation questionnaire and dissociative experiences scale can be used for screening dissociative symptoms and detecting dissociative disorders in patients with OCD. However, a history of neglect and abuse during childhood is linked to a risk factor in the pathogenesis of dissociative psychopathology in adults. The childhood trauma questionnaire-53 and childhood trauma questionnaire-40 can be used for this purpose. Clinicians should not fail to notice the hidden dissociative symptoms and childhood traumatic experiences in OCD cases with severe symptoms that are resistant to treatment. Symptom screening and diagnostic tools used for this purpose should be known. Knowing how to treat these pathologies in patients who are diagnosed with OCD can be crucial.

  14. Auditory Brainstem Response Wave Amplitude Characteristics as a Diagnostic Tool in Children with Speech Delay with Unknown Causes

    PubMed Central

    Abadi, Susan; Khanbabaee, Ghamartaj; Sheibani, Kourosh

    2016-01-01

    Speech delay with an unknown cause is a problem among children. This diagnosis is the last differential diagnosis after observing normal findings in routine hearing tests. The present study was undertaken to determine whether auditory brainstem responses to click stimuli are different between normally developing children and children suffering from delayed speech with unknown causes. In this cross-sectional study, we compared click auditory brainstem responses between 261 children who were clinically diagnosed with delayed speech with unknown causes based on normal routine auditory test findings and neurological examinations and had >12 months of speech delay (case group) and 261 age- and sex-matched normally developing children (control group). Our results indicated that the case group exhibited significantly higher wave amplitude responses to click stimuli (waves I, III, and V) than did the control group (P=0.001). These amplitudes were significantly reduced after 1 year (P=0.001); however, they were still significantly higher than those of the control group (P=0.001). The significant differences were seen regardless of the age and the sex of the participants. There were no statistically significant differences between the 2 groups considering the latency of waves I, III, and V. In conclusion, the higher amplitudes of waves I, III, and V, which were observed in the auditory brainstem responses to click stimuli among the patients with speech delay with unknown causes, might be used as a diagnostic tool to track patients’ improvement after treatment. PMID:27582591

  15. Serum profiling by MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry as a diagnostic tool for domoic acid toxicosis in California sea lions

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background There are currently no reliable markers of acute domoic acid toxicosis (DAT) for California sea lions. We investigated whether patterns of serum peptides could diagnose acute DAT. Serum peptides were analyzed by MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry from 107 sea lions (acute DAT n = 34; non-DAT n = 73). Artificial neural networks (ANN) were trained using MALDI-TOF data. Individual peaks and neural networks were qualified using an independent test set (n = 20). Results No single peak was a good classifier of acute DAT, and ANN models were the best predictors of acute DAT. Performance measures for a single median ANN were: sensitivity, 100%; specificity, 60%; positive predictive value, 71%; negative predictive value, 100%. When 101 ANNs were combined and allowed to vote for the outcome, the performance measures were: sensitivity, 30%; specificity, 100%; positive predictive value, 100%; negative predictive value, 59%. Conclusions These results suggest that MALDI-TOF peptide profiling and neural networks can perform either as a highly sensitive (100% negative predictive value) or a highly specific (100% positive predictive value) diagnostic tool for acute DAT. This also suggests that machine learning directed by populations of predictive models offer the ability to modulate the predictive effort into a specific type of error. PMID:22429742

  16. A potential new diagnostic tool to aid DNA analysis from heat compromised bone using colorimetry: A preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Fredericks, Jamie D; Ringrose, Trevor J; Dicken, Anthony; Williams, Anna; Bennett, Phil

    2015-03-01

    Extracting viable DNA from many forensic sample types can be very challenging, as environmental conditions may be far from optimal with regard to DNA preservation. Consequently, skeletal tissue can often be an invaluable source of DNA. The bone matrix provides a hardened material that encapsulates DNA, acting as a barrier to environmental insults that would otherwise be detrimental to its integrity. However, like all forensic samples, DNA in bone can still become degraded in extreme conditions, such as intense heat. Extracting DNA from bone can be laborious and time-consuming. Thus, a lot of time and money can be wasted processing samples that do not ultimately yield viable DNA. We describe the use of colorimetry as a novel diagnostic tool that can assist DNA analysis from heat-treated bone. This study focuses on characterizing changes in the material and physical properties of heated bone, and their correlation with digitally measured color variation. The results demonstrate that the color of bone, which serves as an indicator of the chemical processes that have occurred, can be correlated with the success or failure of subsequent DNA amplification.

  17. Detection of ESAT-6 by a label free miniature immuno-electrochemical biosensor as a diagnostic tool for tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Diouani, Mohamed Fethi; Ouerghi, Oussama; Refai, Amira; Belgacem, Kamel; Tlili, Chaker; Laouini, Dhafer; Essafi, Makram

    2017-05-01

    Tuberculosis is a worldwide disease considered as a major health problem with high morbidity and mortality rates. Poor detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb), the causative agent of tuberculosis remains a major obstacle to the global control of this disease. Here we report the development of a new test based on the detection of the major virulent factor of Mtb, namely the early secreted antigenic target 6-kDa protein or ESAT-6. A label free electrochemical immunosensor using an anti-ESAT-6 monoclonal antibody as a bio-receptor is described herein. Anti-ESAT-6 antibodies were first covalently immobilized on the surface of a gold screen-printed electrode functionalized via a self-assembled thiol monolayer. Interaction between the bio-receptor and ESAT-6 antigen was evaluated by square wave voltammetry method using [Fe(CN)6](3-/4-) as redox probe. The detection limit of ESAT-6 antigen was 7ng/ml. The immunosensor has also been able to detect native ESAT-6 antigen secreted in cell culture filtrates of three pathogenic strains of Mtb (CDC1551, H37RV and H8N8). Overall, this work describes an immune-electrochemical biosensor, based on ESAT-6 antigen detection, as a useful diagnostic tool for tuberculosis.

  18. Fetal alcohol spectrum disorders and fetal alcohol syndrome: the state of the art and new diagnostic tools.

    PubMed

    Memo, Luigi; Gnoato, Elisa; Caminiti, Stefania; Pichini, Simona; Tarani, Luigi

    2013-06-01

    Ethanol consumption during pregnancy is a widespread problem which is increasing in the generation of young women. Gestational alcohol consumption causes fetal exposure to this teratogen and is associated with the onset of fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD) including fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS). FASD and FAS can lead to several physical, cognitive and behavioral disabilities, whose early diagnosis is of primary importance to perform primary prevention with total abstinence from alcohol during pregnancy and secondary prevention in newborns and children for a proper follow up to reduce risk of secondary consequences. In recent years significant efforts have been made to understand the underlying mechanisms of this disease and to identify objective biological and instrumental diagnostic tools, such as exposure biomarkers in neonatal meconium and advanced magnetic resonance imaging. Nonetheless, further studies are still needed to implement our knowledge on fetal effects of ethanol, and multidisciplinary actions are necessary to raise awareness among women of childbearing age about the danger of consuming even small amounts of ethanol during pregnancy.

  19. Carbon isotope discrimination as a diagnostic tool for C4 photosynthesis in C3-C4 intermediate species

    PubMed Central

    Alonso-Cantabrana, Hugo; von Caemmerer, Susanne

    2016-01-01

    The presence and activity of the C4 cycle in C3-C4 intermediate species have proven difficult to analyze, especially when such activity is low. This study proposes a strategy to detect C4 activity and estimate its contribution to overall photosynthesis in intermediate plants, by using tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy (TDLAS) coupled to gas exchange systems to simultaneously measure the CO2 responses of CO2 assimilation (A) and carbon isotope discrimination (Δ) under low O2 partial pressure. Mathematical models of C3-C4 photosynthesis and Δ are then fitted concurrently to both responses using the same set of constants. This strategy was applied to the intermediate species Flaveria floridana and F. brownii, and to F. pringlei and F. bidentis as C3 and C4 controls, respectively. Our results support the presence of a functional C4 cycle in F. floridana, that can fix 12–21% of carbon. In F. brownii, 75–100% of carbon is fixed via the C4 cycle, and the contribution of mesophyll Rubisco to overall carbon assimilation increases with CO2 partial pressure in both intermediate plants. Combined gas exchange and Δ measurement and modeling is a powerful diagnostic tool for C4 photosynthesis. PMID:26862154

  20. Arabic version of the Major Depression Inventory as a diagnostic tool: reliability and concurrent and discriminant validity.

    PubMed

    Fawzi, M H; Fawzi, M M; Abu-Hindi, W

    2012-04-01

    The Major Depression Inventory (MDI) is a brief questionnaire to assess the presence of a depressive disorder. We prepared an Arabic version of the MDI and tested its reliability and concurrent and discriminant validity as a diagnostic tool of major depressive disorder. A group of 50 Egyptian outpatients with major depressive disorder (assessed clinically and with the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV-TR Axis I Disorders) were compared with 50 healthy controls using the MDI-A, Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) and Spielberger State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STA.). Cronbach a was 0.91 and intraclass correlation coefficient was 0.98 (95% CI: 0.97-0.99). Scores on the MDI-A strongly correlated with BDI scores (r = 0.81) but insignificantly correlated with STAI scores. Using the MDI scoring algorithm, the sensitivity was 88.4% and specificity 78.9%. We conclude that the MDI-A has an excellent reliability and an acceptable concurrent and discriminant validity.

  1. Metal Emission Lines as Diagnostic Tools for Shock Waves in Outer Atmospheres of M-type Mira Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richter, He.; Sedlmayr, E.; Wood, P. R.

    One way to reveal the thermo- and hydrodynamical conditions in M-type Mira atmospheres is to study the various emission lines which are emitted behind a shock front and can be observed over a substantial portion of the pulsation period. Analysing a time-resolved series of these emission lines offers the possibility to determine these conditions in different atmospheric layers influenced by the passing shock wave. In particular, the metal emission lines are a diagnostic tool to probe the hydrodynamical conditions of the outer, dust-forming layers of the atmosphere, because they appear late in the pulsation cycle when the shock wave has reached these layers. We present quantitive data on radial velocities, shapes, widths and fluxes of metal emission lines obtained by spectral observations in the optical wavelength region for a sample of six M-type Miras (periods 281-389 days), namely R Aql, RR Sco, R Car, R Leo, S Scl and R Hya (cf. Richter & Wood 2001, A&A 369, 1027-1047). Because of the multiple phase coverage of our observations, the data shows the history of the shock as it emerges through the deep photosphere and then moves out through the atmosphere. The observations are analysed and discussed with regard to the atmospheric conditions.

  2. Dissociative symptoms and dissociative disorders comorbidity in obsessive compulsive disorder: Symptom screening, diagnostic tools and reflections on treatment

    PubMed Central

    Belli, Hasan

    2014-01-01

    Borderline personality disorder, conversion disorder and obsessive compulsive disorder frequently have dissociative symptoms. The literature has demonstrated that the level of dissociation might be correlated with the severity of obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) and that those not responding to treatment had high dissociative symptoms. The structured clinical interview for DSM-IV dissociative disorders, dissociation questionnaire, somatoform dissociation questionnaire and dissociative experiences scale can be used for screening dissociative symptoms and detecting dissociative disorders in patients with OCD. However, a history of neglect and abuse during childhood is linked to a risk factor in the pathogenesis of dissociative psychopathology in adults. The childhood trauma questionnaire-53 and childhood trauma questionnaire-40 can be used for this purpose. Clinicians should not fail to notice the hidden dissociative symptoms and childhood traumatic experiences in OCD cases with severe symptoms that are resistant to treatment. Symptom screening and diagnostic tools used for this purpose should be known. Knowing how to treat these pathologies in patients who are diagnosed with OCD can be crucial. PMID:25133142

  3. Cotton-based Diagnostic Devices

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Shang-Chi; Hsu, Min-Yen; Kuan, Chen-Meng; Wang, Hsi-Kai; Chang, Chia-Ling; Tseng, Fan-Gang; Cheng, Chao-Min

    2014-01-01

    A good diagnostic procedure avoids wasting medical resources, is easy to use, resists contamination, and provides accurate information quickly to allow for rapid follow-up therapies. We developed a novel diagnostic procedure using a “cotton-based diagnostic device” capable of real-time detection, i.e., in vitro diagnostics (IVD), which avoids reagent contamination problems common to existing biomedical devices and achieves the abovementioned goals of economy, efficiency, ease of use, and speed. Our research reinforces the advantages of an easy-to-use, highly accurate diagnostic device created from an inexpensive and readily available U.S. FDA-approved material (i.e., cotton as flow channel and chromatography paper as reaction zone) that adopts a standard calibration curve method in a buffer system (i.e., nitrite, BSA, urobilinogen and uric acid assays) to accurately obtain semi-quantitative information and limit the cross-contamination common to multiple-use tools. Our system, which specifically targets urinalysis diagnostics and employs a multiple biomarker approach, requires no electricity, no professional training, and is exceptionally portable for use in remote or home settings. This could be particularly useful in less industrialized areas. PMID:25393975

  4. Post transplant urinary tract infection in Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease a perpetual diagnostic dilema - 18-fluorodeoxyglucose - Positron emission computerized tomography - A valuable tool.

    PubMed

    Sainaresh, Vv; Jain, Sh; Patel, Hv; Shah, Pr; Vanikar, Av; Trivedi, Hl

    2011-04-01

    Urinary tract infection (UTI) is the most common infection contracted by renal allograft recipients. In patients of autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD), cyst infection presents a complex diagnostic and therapeutic challenge especially in the post transplant period. Accurate diagnosis forms the cornerstone in salvaging the graft from potentially catastrophic outcome. We describe a case of xanthogranulomatous pyelonephritis (XPN) in the native kidney in a patient of post transplant ADPKD which presented as frequently relapsing UTI with graft dysfunction where in accurate diagnosis was made possible with the aid of 18-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) - Positron emission computerized tomography (PET/CT).

  5. Thyroid Imaging Reporting and Data System and Ultrasound Elastography: Diagnostic Accuracy as a Tool in Recommending Repeat Fine-Needle Aspiration for Solid Thyroid Nodules with Non-Diagnostic Fine-Needle Aspiration Cytology.

    PubMed

    Park, Vivian Youngjean; Kim, Eun-Kyung; Kwak, Jin Young; Yoon, Jung Hyun; Kim, Min Jung; Moon, Hee Jung

    2016-02-01

    The Thyroid Imaging Reporting and Data System (TIRADS) has been found to be accurate in the stratification of malignancy risk, and elastography has been found to have a high negative predictive value in non-diagnostic thyroid nodules. Through assessment of 104 solid non-diagnostic thyroid nodules, this study investigated the role of both in recommending repeat ultrasonography-guided fine-needle aspiration for solid thyroid nodules with non-diagnostic cytology. All nodules were classified by TIRADS (categories 4a, 4b, 4c and 5), and elastography scores were assigned according to the Rago and Asteria criteria. The malignancy risks for TIRADS categories 4a, 4b, 4c and 5 were 12.5%, 25.0%, 25.8% and 16.7%, respectively. Elastography revealed the highest diagnostic performance for TIRADS category 4a, with a sensitivity, specificity, negative predictive value, positive predictive value and accuracy of 100%, 85.7%, 100%, 50% and 87.5% for the Asteria criteria. Observation may be considered for non-diagnostic solid nodules that have no other suspicious ultrasonographic features and are also benign on real-time strain elastography using the Asteria criteria.

  6. Multispectral imaging techniques observing the dynamic changes in the hemoglobin concentrations as diagnostic tool for diseased tissues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klaessens, John H. G. M.; Noordmands, Herke Jan; de Roode, Rowland; Verdaasdonk, Rudolf M.

    2010-02-01

    Tissue oxygenation imaging is a promising diagnostics tool to study the changes and dynamics of tissue perfusion reflecting pathologic and/or physiologic conditions of tissue. In clinical settings, imaging of local oxygenation or blood perfusion variations can be useful for e.g. detection of skin cancer, detection of early inflammation, effectiveness of peripheral nerve block anesthesia, study of the process of wound healing or localization of the cerebral area causing an epileptic attack. In this study, two oxygenation imaging methods based on multi-spectral techniques were evaluated: one system consisting of a CCD camera in combination with a Liquid Crystal Tunable Filter (420 - 730 nm or 650-1100 nm) and a broad band (white) light source, while the second system was a CCD camera in combination with a tunable multispectral LED light source (450-890nm). By collecting narrowband images at selected wavelengths, concentration changes of the different chromophores at the surface of the tissue (e.g. dO2Hb, dHHb and dtHb) can be calculated using the modified Lambert Beer equation. Two analyzing methods were used to calculate the concentration changes this to reduce the errors caused by movement of the tissue. In vivo measurements were obtained during skin oxygen changes induced by temporary arm clamping to validate the methods and algorithms. Functional information from the tissue surface was collected, in non-contact mode, by imaging the hemodynamic and oxygenation changes just below that surface. Both multi-spectral imaging techniques show promising results for detecting dynamic changes in the hemoglobin concentrations. The algorithms need to be optimized and image acquisition and processing needs to be developed top real time for practical clinical applications.

  7. Contralateral suppression of distortion-product otoacoustic emissions: a potential diagnostic tool to evaluate the vestibular nerve.

    PubMed

    Chang, Mun Young; Song, Jae-Jin; Kim, Ji Soo; Koo, Ja-Won

    2013-11-01

    The amplitude of distortion-product otoacoustic emission (DPOAE) is suppressed in one ear when the contralateral ear is subjected to sound stimulation. Contralateral suppression of DPOAE is the phenomenon resulted by the efferent cochlear innervation on the outer hair cells via medial olivocochlear bundle (MOCB) and inferior vestibular nerve. We assumed that DPOAE would not be suppressed by contralateral sound stimulation in patients with vestibular nerve lesion as long as the specific pathway conveying that efferent innervation is affected. To test this hypothesis, we compared the amount of DPOAE contralateral suppression in patients with vestibular neuritis and healthy controls. Twenty healthy volunteers without hearing loss and vestibulopathy, and 13 patients with vestibular neuritis were recruited. DP audiogram was measured without contralateral sound stimulation and then with contralateral sound stimulation (70 dB HL of 2 kHz narrow band noise, NBN). The suppression value of DPOAE was evaluated according to the f2 frequency and was defined as the amount of DPOAE suppression: An-Ao, where An represents the DPOAE amplitude in the presence of contralateral NBN, and Ao represents the DPOAE amplitude in the absence of NBN. Cervical vestibular evoked myogenic potential (cVEMP) was performed in some patients with vestibular neuritis. The suppression values of DPOAE were compared between groups and were analyzed according to the results of cVEMP. The amount of suppression of DPOAE during contralateral sound stimulation was significantly reduced in the patient group compared to control at the f2 frequencies of 1257, 1587, and 2002 Hz (P=0.045, P<0.001, P=0.009, respectively). However, the results of contralateral suppression of DPOAE were not consistent with the results of cVEMP in this study. Efferent cochlear innervation was affected in vestibular neuritis. Evaluation of contralateral suppression of DPOAE can be a potential diagnostic tool to evaluate the functional

  8. WE-FG-207A-05: Dedicated Breast CT as a Diagnostic Imaging Tool: Physics and Clinical Feasibility.

    PubMed

    Karellas, A

    2016-06-01

    Mammography-based screening has been a valuable imaging tool for the early detection of non-palpable lesions and has contributed to significant reduction in breast cancer associated mortality. However, the breast imaging community recognizes that mammography is not ideal, and in particular is inferior for women with dense breasts. Also, the 2-D projection of a 3-D organ results in tissue superposition contributing to false-positives. The sensitivity of mammography is breast-density dependent. Its sensitivity, especially in dense breasts, is low due to overlapping tissue and the fact that normal breast tissue, benign lesions and breast cancers all have similar "densities", making lesion detection more difficult. We ideally need 3-D imaging for imaging the 3-D breast. MRI is 3-D, whole breast ultrasound is 3-D, digital breast tomosynthesis is called 3-D but is really "pseudo 3-D" due to poor resolution along the depth-direction. Also, and importantly, we need to be able to administer intravenous contrast agents for optimal imaging, similar to other organ systems in the body. Dedicated breast CT allows for 3-D imaging of the uncompressed breast. In current designs, the patient is positioned prone on the table and the breast is pendant through an aperture and the scan takes approximately 10 seconds [O'Connell et al., AJR 195: 496-509, 2010]. Almost on the heels of the invention of CT itself, work began on the development of dedicated breast CT. These early breast CT systems were used in clinical trials and the results from comparative performance evaluation of breast CT and mammography for 1625 subjects were reported in 1980 [Chang et al., Cancer 46: 939-46, 1980]. However, the technological limitations at that time stymied clinical translation for decades. Subsequent to the landmark article in 2001 [Boone et al., Radiology 221: 657-67, 2001] that demonstrated the potential feasibility in terms of radiation dose, multiple research groups are actively investigating

  9. Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry: a new tool in diagnostic investigation of nail disorders?

    PubMed

    Pföhler, Claudia; Hollemeyer, Klaus; Heinzle, Elmar; Altmeyer, Wolfgang; Graeber, Stefan; Müller, Cornelia S L; Stark, Alexandra; Jager, Sven Uwe; Tilgen, Wolfgang

    2009-10-01

    The incidence and prevalence of onychomycosis are rising worldwide. Common diagnostic techniques often lack sensitivity or specificity. Differentiation between non-infectious nail disorders is frequently not possible. The aim of this study was to establish a better diagnostic routine procedure based on modern mass spectrometric peptide analysis techniques. One hundred and fifty-five nail samples from 145 patients with clinically suspected onychomycosis (n = 96, 62%) and without onychomycosis [e.g. nail psoriasis or nail dystrophy resulting from eczema (n = 59, 38%)] were investigated using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) peptide mass fingerprinting in comparison with standard techniques. We demonstrated that MALDI-TOF MS represents a precise, robust and fast tool in diagnostic investigation of nail disorders, which is superior to common standard methods.

  10. Diagnostic tools for hypersensitivity to platinum drugs and taxanes: skin testing, specific IgE, and mast cell/basophil mediators.

    PubMed

    Caiado, Joana; Picard, Matthieu

    2014-08-01

    Hypersensitivity reactions (HSRs) to platinum drugs and taxanes are increasing in cancer patients, and rapid drug desensitization has emerged as a safe and effective method to reintroduce these drugs in reactive patients. Optimal management of patients presenting HSRs to chemotherapy depends on the use of various diagnostic tools, which include measurement of mast cell/basophil mediator release following a HSR and skin testing. Serum tryptase should be measured in patients presenting chemotherapy HSRs, and its elevation would support mast cell/basophil activation. Skin testing to platinum drugs has a high sensitivity and specificity and is critical to guide the management of platinum-reactive patients. Taxane skin testing is also emerging as a useful diagnostic and risk stratification tool in the evaluation of patients with HSRs to taxanes. Platinum sIgE assays have been recently developed and can be helpful in combination with skin testing or as an alternative when skin testing is not available.

  11. Physiologic Mechanisms Underlying the Failure of the Shock Index as a Tool for Accurate Assessment of Patient Status during Progressive Simulated Hemorrhage

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-08-01

    Shock index (SI), the ratio of heart rate (HR) to systolic arterial pressure (SAP), is a metric often used to diagnose patients at risk of impending...traditionally dependent on the availability of ‘‘legacy’’diagnostic markers such as heart rate (HR) and systolic arterial pressure (SAP). Since stand...use of autonomic stim- ulants such as prescription (e.g., antihistamines, decongestants) or nonprescription drugs (e.g., caffeine ) for 24 hours

  12. Investigation of the potential of optical coherence tomography (OCT) as a non-invasive diagnostic tool in reproductive medicine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trottmann, Matthias; Homann, Christian; Leeb, R.; Doering, D.; Kuznetsova, J.; Reese, S.; Stief, C. G.; Koelle, S.; Sroka, R.

    2015-02-01

    Introduction and objective: In Europe, nearly every sixth couple in the reproductive age is involuntarily childless. In about 30%, both male and female reveal fertility problems. In about 10% of infertile men, azoospermia is the underlying cause. As conventional therapeutic options are limited, surgical testicular sperm extraction (TESE) is necessary to obtain sperms for assisted reproductive techniques. Regarding the females, up to 30% of all idiopathic infertilities are due to alterations of the uterine tube So far, no imaging technique, which does not require any labelling, is available to evaluate the male and female genital tract at a microscopic level under in vivo conditions. Thus, the aim of this study was to investigate the potential of optical coherence tomography (OCT) as a non-invasive diagnostic tool in gynaecology and andrology. Material and Methods: Tissues samples from the bovine testis, epididymis, vas deferens, ovary, oviduct (ampulla and isthmus) and uterus were obtained immediately after slaughter (14 cows aged 3 to 8 years and 14 bulls aged 3 to 6 years; breeds: Holstein- Friesian, and Deutsches Fleckvieh). Imaging was done by using the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved probe-based Niris Imaging System (Imalux, Cleveland, Ohio, USA) and the Telesto 1325 nm OCT System and Ganymede 930 nm OCT System (Thorlabs Inc., Dachau, Germany). All images obtained were compared to histological images after paraffin embedding and HE staining. Results: OCT imaging visualized the microarchitecture of the testis, epididymis, spermatic duct and the ovary, oviduct and uterus. Using the Thorlabs systems a axial resolution of approx. 5μm and lateral resolution of 8- 15μm could be achieved. Different optical tissue volumes could be visualized, which depends on the optical penetration depth of the wavelength of the system used. While the tissue volume observed by probe based Imalux-OCT is similar to the used Thorlabs systems, the optical resolution is

  13. Regression Modeling and Meta-Analysis of Diagnostic Accuracy of SNP-Based Pathogenicity Detection Tools for UGT1A1 Gene Mutation

    PubMed Central

    Rahim, Fakher; Galehdari, Hamid; Mohammadi-asl, Javad; Saki, Najmaldin

    2013-01-01

    Aims. This review summarized all available evidence on the accuracy of SNP-based pathogenicity detection tools and introduced regression model based on functional scores, mutation score, and genomic variation degree. Materials and Methods. A comprehensive search was performed to find all mutations related to Crigler-Najjar syndrome. The pathogenicity prediction was done using SNP-based pathogenicity detection tools including SIFT, PHD-SNP, PolyPhen2, fathmm, Provean, and Mutpred. Overall, 59 different SNPs related to missense mutations in the UGT1A1 gene, were reviewed. Results. Comparing the diagnostic OR, our model showed high detection potential (diagnostic OR: 16.71, 95% CI: 3.38–82.69). The highest MCC and ACC belonged to our suggested model (46.8% and 73.3%), followed by SIFT (34.19% and 62.71%). The AUC analysis showed a significance overall performance of our suggested model compared to the selected SNP-based pathogenicity detection tool (P = 0.046). Conclusion. Our suggested model is comparable to the well-established SNP-based pathogenicity detection tools that can appropriately reflect the role of a disease-associated SNP in both local and global structures. Although the accuracy of our suggested model is not relatively high, the functional impact of the pathogenic mutations is highlighted at the protein level, which improves the understanding of the molecular basis of mutation pathogenesis. PMID:23997956

  14. The COMPASS-2 satellite and the ground-based LOIS vector sensing radar facility as novel tools for ionospheric plasma diagnostics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rothkaehl, H.; Bergman, J. E. S.; Thidé, B.; Klos, Z.

    2008-04-01

    To give a more detailed and complete understanding of physical plasma processes that govern the solar-terrestrial space, and to develop qualitative and quantitative models of the magnetosphere-ionosphere-thermosphere coupling, it is necessary to design and build the next generation of instruments for space diagnostics and monitoring. Novel ground-based wide-area sensor networks, such as the LOFAR Outrigger In Scandinavia (LOIS, LOFAR: Low Frequency Array) radar facility, comprising wide band, and vector-sensing radio receivers with full three-dimensional polarization coverage, and multi-spacecraft plasma diagnostics should help solve outstanding problems of space physics and describe long-term environmental changes. The new digital radio frequency analyzer (RFA) on board the low-orbiting COMPASS-2 satellite was designed to monitor and investigate the ionospheric plasma properties. This two-point ground-based and topside ionosphere-located space plasma diagnostic can be a useful new tool for monitoring and diagnosing turbulent plasma properties. The RFA on board the COMPASS-2 satellite is the first in a series of experiments which is planned to be launched into the near-Earth environment. The main purpose of this presentation is to describe new advanced diagnostic techniques of the near-Earth space plasma and point out the scientific challenges of the COMPASS-2 and LOIS experiments.

  15. Rapid infectious diseases diagnostics using Smartphones

    PubMed Central

    Bates, Matthew

    2015-01-01

    The “Smartphone” is an almost universal possession in high-income populations, and is rapidly becoming so in lower-income regions, particularly among urban populations, and serves social networking and a quest for information and knowledge. The field of infectious disease diagnostics is at a potential watershed moment, with the essential building blocks for the development of diagnostic assays being ever more available and affordable, which is leading to creative innovative approaches to developing much-needed accurate and simple point-of-care (POC) diagnostic tools for high disease burden, low-income settings. We review the importance and implications of a paper published in Science Translational Medicine on the development of a smartphone-powered and -controlled multiplex immunological assay that tests for HIV and syphilis simultaneously. This is reviewed in the context of other prototype smartphone-enabled/assisted diagnostic devices, and how such developments might shape the future of the POC diagnostics field. PMID:26488011

  16. Meta-analysis diagnostic accuracy of SNP-based pathogenicity detection tools: a case of UTG1A1 gene mutations

    PubMed Central

    Galehdari, Hamid; Saki, Najmaldin; Mohammadi-asl, Javad; Rahim, Fakher

    2013-01-01

    Crigler-Najjar syndrome (CNS) type I and type II are usually inherited as autosomal recessive conditions that result from mutations in the UGT1A1 gene. The main objective of the present review is to summarize results of all available evidence on the accuracy of SNP-based pathogenicity detection tools compared to published clinical result for the prediction of in nsSNPs that leads to disease using prediction performance method. A comprehensive search was performed to find all mutations related to CNS. Database searches included dbSNP, SNPdbe, HGMD, Swissvar, ensemble, and OMIM. All the mutation related to CNS was extracted. The pathogenicity prediction was done using SNP-based pathogenicity detection tools include SIFT, PHD-SNP, PolyPhen2, fathmm, Provean, and Mutpred. Overall, 59 different SNPs related to missense mutations in the UGT1A1 gene, were reviewed. Comparing the diagnostic OR, PolyPhen2 and Mutpred have the highest detection 4.983 (95% CI: 1.24 – 20.02) in both, following by SIFT (diagnostic OR: 3.25, 95% CI: 1.07 – 9.83). The highest MCC of SNP-based pathogenicity detection tools, was belong to SIFT (34.19%) followed by Provean, PolyPhen2, and Mutpred (29.99%, 29.89%, and 29.89%, respectively). Hence the highest SNP-based pathogenicity detection tools ACC, was fit to SIFT (62.71%) followed by PolyPhen2, and Mutpred (61.02%, in both). Our results suggest that some of the well-established SNP-based pathogenicity detection tools can appropriately reflect the role of a disease-associated SNP in both local and global structures. PMID:23875061

  17. Plasma spectroscopic diagnostic tool using collisional-radiative models and its application to different plasma discharges for electron temperature and neutral density determination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sciamma, Ella Marion

    A spectroscopic diagnostic tool has been developed to determine the electron temperature and the neutral density in helium, hydrogen and argon plasmas from absolutely calibrated spectroscopic measurements. For each gas, a method of analysis which uses models specific to each species present in the plasma (neutral atom or singly ionized atom) has been defined. The experimental electron density is used as an input parameter to the models, and the absolutely calibrated spectroscopic data are processed beforehand to obtain the populations of the upper excited levels corresponding to the observed spectral lines. For helium plasmas, the electron temperature is inferred from the experimental helium ion excited level p = 4 population using a corona model, and then the neutral density is determined from the experimental helium neutral excited level populations using a collisional-radiative model for helium neutrals. For hydrogen plasmas, combinations of the electron temperature and the neutral density are determined from the experimental hydrogen neutral excited level populations using a collisional-radiative model specific to hydrogen atoms. For argon plasmas, the electron temperature is inferred from the experimental argon ion excited level populations using a collisional-radiative model for argon ions, and then the neutral density is determined from the experimental argon neutral excited level populations using a collisional-radiative model for argon neutrals. This diagnostic tool was applied to three experiments with different geometries and plasma conditions to test the validity of each data analysis method. The helium and hydrogen data analysis methods were tested and validated on helium and hydrogen plasmas produced in the VASIMR experiment, a plasma propulsion system concept. They gave electron temperatures and neutral densities that were consistent with other diagnostics and theory. The argon diagnostic tool was tested on argon plasmas produced in the VASIMR

  18. Ex vivo investigations on the potential of optical coherence tomography (OCT) as a diagnostic tool for reproductive medicine in a bovine model.

    PubMed

    Trottmann, Matthias; Kölle, Sabine; Leeb, Regina; Doering, Daniel; Reese, Sven; Stief, Christian G; Dulohery, Kate; Leavy, Myles; Kuznetsova, Julia; Homann, Christian; Sroka, Ronald

    2016-01-01

    Routine infertility investigations in the male and female include imaging techniques such as ultrasonography and endoscopy (fertiloscopy). However, these techniques lack the resolution to localize vital sperm or to reveal detailed morphological analysis of the oviduct which is often the cause of infertility in females. Therefore we set out to evaluate the efficiency of optical coherence tomography (OCT) as a diagnostic imaging tool for micron-scale visualization of the male and female genital tract. Using the bovine as a model, the optical features of the Telesto(TM) , Ganymede(TM) (both Thorlabs) and Niris(TM) (Imalux) OCT imaging systems were compared.

  19. Translational and functional oncogenomics. From cancer-oriented genomic screenings to new diagnostic tools and improved cancer treatment.

    PubMed

    Medico, Enzo

    2008-01-01

    We present here an experimental pipeline for the systematic identification and functional characterization of genes with high potential diagnostic and therapeutic value in human cancer. Complementary competences and resources have been brought together in the TRANSFOG Consortium to reach the following integrated research objectives: 1) execution of cancer-oriented genomic screenings on tumor tissues and experimental models and merging of the results to generate a prioritized panel of candidate genes involved in cancer progression and metastasis; 2) setup of systems for high-throughput delivery of full-length cDNAs, for gain-of-function analysis of the prioritized candidate genes; 3) collection of vectors and oligonucleotides for systematic, RNA interference-mediated down-regulation of the candidate genes; 4) adaptation of existing cell-based and model organism assays to a systematic analysis of gain and loss of function of the candidate genes, for identification and preliminary validation of novel potential therapeutic targets; 5) proteomic analysis of signal transduction and protein-protein interaction for better dissection of aberrant cancer signaling pathways; 6) validation of the diagnostic potential of the identified cancer genes towards the clinical use of diagnostic molecular signatures; 7) generation of a shared informatics platform for data handling and gene functional annotation. The results of the first three years of activity of the TRANSFOG Consortium are also briefly presented and discussed.

  20. Raman spectroscopy and PCA-SVM as a non-invasive diagnostic tool to identify and classify qualitatively glycated hemoglobin levels in vivo.

    PubMed

    Villa-Manríquez, J F; Castro-Ramos, J; Gutiérrez-Delgado, F; Lopéz-Pacheco, M A; Villanueva-Luna, A E

    2016-12-23

    In this study we identify and classify high and low levels of glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) in healthy volunteers (HV) and diabetic patients (DP). Overall, 86 subjects were evaluated. The Raman spectrum was measured in three anatomical regions of the body: index fingertip, right ear lobe, and forehead. The measurements were performed to compare the difference between the HV and DP (22 well controlled diabetic patients (WCDP) (HbA1c <6.5%), and 49 not controlled diabetic patients (NCDP) (HbA1c ≥6.5%)). Multivariable methods such as principal components analysis (PCA) combined with support vector machine (SVM) were used to develop effective diagnostic algorithms for classification among these groups. The forehead of HV versus WCDP showed the highest sensitivity (100%) and specificity (100%). Sensitivity (100%) and specificity (60%), were highest in the forehead of WCDP, versus NCDP. In HV versus NCDP, the fingertip had the highest sensitivity (100%) and specificity (80%). The efficacy of the diagnostic algorithm by receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve was confirmed. Overall, our study demonstrated that the combination of Raman spectroscopy and PCA-SVM are feasible non-invasive diagnostic tool in diabetes to classify qualitatively high and low levels of HbA1c in vivo.

  1. GlycoMinestruct: a new bioinformatics tool for highly accurate mapping of the human N-linked and O-linked glycoproteomes by incorporating structural features

    PubMed Central

    Li, Fuyi; Li, Chen; Revote, Jerico; Zhang, Yang; Webb, Geoffrey I.; Li, Jian; Song, Jiangning; Lithgow, Trevor

    2016-01-01

    Glycosylation plays an important role in cell-cell adhesion, ligand-binding and subcellular recognition. Current approaches for predicting protein glycosylation are primarily based on sequence-derived features, while little work has been done to systematically assess the importance of structural features to glycosylation prediction. Here, we propose a novel bioinformatics method called GlycoMinestruct(http://glycomine.erc.monash.edu/Lab/GlycoMine_Struct/) for improved prediction of human N- and O-linked glycosylation sites by combining sequence and structural features in an integrated computational framework with a two-step feature-selection strategy. Experiments indicated that GlycoMinestruct outperformed NGlycPred, the only predictor that incorporated both sequence and structure features, achieving AUC values of 0.941 and 0.922 for N- and O-linked glycosylation, respectively, on an independent test dataset. We applied GlycoMinestruct to screen the human structural proteome and obtained high-confidence predictions for N- and O-linked glycosylation sites. GlycoMinestruct can be used as a powerful tool to expedite the discovery of glycosylation events and substrates to facilitate hypothesis-driven experimental studies. PMID:27708373

  2. Bias-corrected diagnostic performance of the naked-eye single-tube red-cell osmotic fragility test (NESTROFT): an effective screening tool for beta-thalassemia.

    PubMed

    Mamtani, Manju; Jawahirani, Anil; Das, Kishor; Rughwani, Vinky; Kulkarni, Hemant

    2006-08-01

    It is being increasingly recognized that a majority of the countries in the thalassemia-belt need a cost-effective screening program as the first step towards control of thalassemia. Although the naked eye single tube red cell osmotic fragility test (NESTROFT) has been considered to be a very effective screening tool for beta-thalassemia trait, assessment of its diagnostic performance has been affected with the reference test- and verification-bias. Here, we set out to provide estimates of sensitivity and specificity of NESTROFT corrected for these potential biases. We conducted a cross-sectional diagnostic test evaluation study using data from 1563 subjects from Central India with a high prevalence of beta-thalassemia. We used latent class modelling after ensuring its validity to account for the reference test bias and global sensitivity analysis to control the verification bias. We also compared the results of latent class modelling with those of five discriminant indexes. We observed that across a range of cut-offs for the mean corpuscular volume (MCV) and the hemoglobin A2 (HbA2) concentration the average sensitivity and specificity of NESTROFT obtained from latent class modelling was 99.8 and 83.7%, respectively. These estimates were comparable to those characterizing the diagnostic performance of HbA2, which is considered by many as the reference test to detect beta-thalassemia. After correction for the verification bias these estimates were 93.4 and 97.2%, respectively. Combined with the inexpensive and quick disposition of NESTROFT, these results strongly support its candidature as a screening tool-especially in the resource-poor and high-prevalence settings.

  3. Development of Dual TaqMan Based One-Step rRT-PCR Assay Panel for Rapid and Accurate Diagnostic Test of MERS-CoV: A Novel Human Coronavirus, Ahead of Hajj Pilgrimage

    PubMed Central

    Hashemzadeh, Mohammad Sadegh; Rasouli, Rahimeh; Zahraei, Bentolhoda; Izadi, Morteza; Tat, Mahdi; Saadat, Seyed Hassan; Najarasl, Mohammad; Khansari Nejad, Behzad; Dorostkar, Ruhollah

    2016-01-01

    Background Coronaviruses (CoVs) are large ribonucleic acid (RNA) viruses causing primarily respiratory disease in humans. A novel human coronavirus, subsequently named middle east respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV), was first reported in Saudi Arabia in September of 2012. With increasing numbers of infections and deaths from MERS-CoV, development of a rapid and reliable kit was crucial to prevent further spread of MERS-CoV. Objectives In this study, we present two real-time reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (rRT-PCR) assays for in-house rapid and sensitive diagnostic testing of MERS-CoV, detecting the regions upstream of the envelope gene (upE) and open reading frame (ORF) 1b, respectively, for initial screening and final confirmation of MERS-CoV infection, as recommended by the world health organization (WHO). Materials and Methods In this experimental study, acquiring patient samples was difficult; thus, according to WHO recommendations and standard protocols, we synthesized RNA sequences of upE and ORF1b genes as the template signatures and TaqMan based-diagnostic rRT-PCR assays were carried out using these synthetic genes for detection of MERS-CoV. In this research, we also inaugurated a cell-free system to transcribe these RNA sequences using the DNA templates synthesized. Results The upE and ORF1b based one-step rRT-PCR assays were optimized by testing several times via different synthetic RNAs, and validation results were highly successful. The sensitivity obtained for upE was fewer than ten copies of RNA template per reaction and for ORF1b was 50 or fewer copies per reaction. Conclusions This study showed that the developed rRT-PCR assays are rapid, reliable, reproducible, specific, sensitive, and simple tools for detection of MERS-CoV. Finally, a kit consisting of two assay signatures and controls was assembled, which can be distributed to public health laboratories in Iran to support international MERS-CoV surveillance and public

  4. Tuberculosis in elephants-a reemergent disease: diagnostic dilemmas, the natural history of infection, and new immunological tools.

    PubMed

    Maslow, J N; Mikota, S K

    2015-05-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) in elephants has been described since ancient times. However, it was not until 1996 when infection with Mycobacterium tuberculosis was identified in a herd of circus elephants that significant research into this disease began. The epidemiology and natural history of TB were unknown in elephants since there had been no comprehensive screening programs, and diagnostic techniques developed for cervidae and bovidae were of unknown value. And, while precepts of test and slaughter were the norm for cattle and deer, this was considered untenable for an endangered species. With no precedent for the treatment of TB in animals, treatment regimens for elephants were extrapolated from human protocols, which guided changes to the Guidelines for the Control of Tuberculosis in Elephants. In the absence of diagnostic testing to confirm cure in elephants, the efficacy of these treatment regimens is only beginning to be understood as treated elephants die and are examined postmortem. However, because of pressures arising from public relations related to elephant husbandry and the added considerations of TB infection in animals (whether real or imagined), sharing of information to aid in research and treatment has been problematic. Here we review the challenges and successes of the diagnosis of tuberculosis in elephants and discuss the natural history of the disease to put the work of Landolfi et al on the immunological response to tuberculosis in elephants in perspective.

  5. A user-friendly, open-source tool to project impact and cost of diagnostic tests for tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Dowdy, David W; Andrews, Jason R; Dodd, Peter J; Gilman, Robert H

    2014-06-04

    Most models of infectious diseases, including tuberculosis (TB), do not provide results customized to local conditions. We created a dynamic transmission model to project TB incidence, TB mortality, multidrug-resistant (MDR) TB prevalence, and incremental costs over 5 years after scale-up of nine alternative diagnostic strategies. A corresponding web-based interface allows users to specify local costs and epidemiology. In settings with little capacity for up-front investment, same-day microscopy had the greatest impact on TB incidence and became cost-saving within 5 years if delivered at $10/test. With greater initial investment, population-level scale-up of Xpert MTB/RIF or microcolony-based culture often averted 10 times more TB cases than narrowly-targeted strategies, at minimal incremental long-term cost. Xpert for smear-positive TB had reasonable impact on MDR-TB incidence, but at substantial price and little impact on overall TB incidence and mortality. This user-friendly modeling framework improves decision-makers' ability to evaluate the local impact of TB diagnostic strategies.

  6. A user-friendly, open-source tool to project impact and cost of diagnostic tests for tuberculosis

    PubMed Central

    Dowdy, David W; Andrews, Jason R; Dodd, Peter J; Gilman, Robert H

    2014-01-01

    Most models of infectious diseases, including tuberculosis (TB), do not provide results customized to local conditions. We created a dynamic transmission model to project TB incidence, TB mortality, multidrug-resistant (MDR) TB prevalence, and incremental costs over 5 years after scale-up of nine alternative diagnostic strategies. A corresponding web-based interface allows users to specify local costs and epidemiology. In settings with little capacity for up-front investment, same-day microscopy had the greatest impact on TB incidence and became cost-saving within 5 years if delivered at $10/test. With greater initial investment, population-level scale-up of Xpert MTB/RIF or microcolony-based culture often averted 10 times more TB cases than narrowly-targeted strategies, at minimal incremental long-term cost. Xpert for smear-positive TB had reasonable impact on MDR-TB incidence, but at substantial price and little impact on overall TB incidence and mortality. This user-friendly modeling framework improves decision-makers' ability to evaluate the local impact of TB diagnostic strategies. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.02565.001 PMID:24898755

  7. Development of a Three-Tier Test as a Valid Diagnostic Tool for Identification of Misconceptions Related to Carbohydrates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Milenkovic, Dusica D.; Hrin, Tamara N.; Segedinac, Mirjana D.; Horvat, Sasa

    2016-01-01

    This study describes the development and application of a three-tier test as a valid and reliable tool in diagnosing students' misconceptions regarding some basic concepts about carbohydrates. The test was administrated to students of the Pharmacy Department at the University of Bijeljina (Serb Republic). The results denoted construct and content…

  8. Success Is an Open Book: Online Diagnostic Tools and Learning Outcomes in Introduction to American Government Courses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reed, Ryan; Smith, Daniel E.

    2016-01-01

    This project examines the utility of a particular course enhancement, Cengage's Aplia, and more generally interactive tools designed to facilitate reading in the introductory American government course. Using two control and two treatment sections of the course (one section each for two instructors) during the Fall 2013 term, we measured student…

  9. Intelligent Information Retrieval: Diagnosing Information Need. Part II. Uncertainty Expansion in a Prototype of a Diagnostic IR Tool.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cole, Charles; Cantero, Pablo; Sauve, Diane

    1998-01-01

    Outlines a prototype of an intelligent information-retrieval tool to facilitate information access for an undergraduate seeking information for a term paper. Topics include diagnosing the information need, Kuhlthau's information-search-process model, Shannon's mathematical theory of communication, and principles of uncertainty expansion and…

  10. Cervical cytology as a diagnostic tool for female genital schistosomiasis: Correlation to cervical atypia and Schistosoma polymerase chain reaction

    PubMed Central

    Pillay, Pavitra; van Lieshout, Lisette; Taylor, Myra; Sebitloane, Motshedisi; Zulu, Siphosenkosi Gift; Kleppa, Elisabeth; Roald, Borghild; Kjetland, Eyrun Floerecke

    2016-01-01

    Background: Female genital schistosomiasis (FGS) is a tissue reaction to lodged ova of Schistosoma haematobium in the genital mucosa. Lesions can make the mucosa friable and prone to bleeding and discharge. Women with FGS may have an increased risk of HIV acquisition, and FGS may act as a cofactor in the development of cervical cancer. Objectives: To explore cytology as a method for diagnosing FGS and to discuss the diagnostic challenges in low-resource rural areas. The correlation between FGS and squamous cell atypia (SCA) is also explored and discussed. Cytology results are compared to Schistosoma polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in vaginal lavage and urine and in urine microscopy. Materials and Methods: In a clinical study, 394 women aged between 16 and 23 years from rural high schools in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa, underwent structured interviews and the following laboratory tests: Cytology Papanicolaou (Pap) smears for S. haematobium ova and cervical SCA, real-time PCR for Schistosoma-specific DNA in vaginal lavage and urine samples, and urine microscopy for the presence of S. haematobium ova. Results: In Pap smears, S. haematobium ova were detected in 8/394 (2.0%). SCA was found in 107/394 (27.1%), seven of these had high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (HSIL). Schistosoma specific DNA was detected in 38/394 (9.6%) of vaginal lavages and in 91/394 (23.0%) of urines. Ova were found microscopically in 78/394 (19.7%) of urines. Conclusion: Schistosoma PCR on lavage was a better way to diagnose FGS compared to cytology. There was a significant association between S. haematobium ova in Pap smears and the other diagnostic methods. In low-resource Schistosoma-endemic areas, it is important that cytology screeners are aware of diagnostic challenges in the identification of schistosomiasis in addition to the cytological diagnosis of SCA. Importantly, in this study, three of eight urines were negative but showed Schistosoma ova in their Pap smear, and one of them

  11. Hard x-ray correlation analysis as a diagnostic tool for the measurement of magnetic turbulence in tokamaks

    SciTech Connect

    Saha, S. K.; Hui, A. K.; Chowdhury, S.; Raychaudhuri, Santwana; Banik, D.

    2010-12-15

    A diagnostic has been developed for the measurement and characterization of the magnetic turbulence occurring in the core region of a tokamak. A specially shielded detector looking in the tangential direction has been employed to measure the thin target bremsstrahlung from the core plasma. The thick target bremsstrahlung from the limiter is also recorded at the same time. Auto- and cross-correlation analyses have been shown to yield, respectively, the stochasticity of the magnetic fluctuations in the core region and the consequent diffusion coefficient of the nonthermal electrons. The measured stochasticity bears a relationship with the diffusion coefficient. Data obtained from internal magnetic probes corroborate the above trend but the hard x-ray measurement data are shown to be more reliable than those obtained from magnetic probes.

  12. C-arm cone-beam CT-guided transthoracic lung core needle biopsy as a standard diagnostic tool: an observational study.

    PubMed

    Jaconi, Marta; Pagni, Fabio; Vacirca, Francesco; Leni, Davide; Corso, Rocco; Cortinovis, Diego; Bidoli, Paolo; Bono, Francesca; Cuttin, Maria S; Valente, Maria G; Pesci, Alberto; Bedini, Vittorio A; Leone, Biagio E

    2015-03-01

    C-arm cone-beam computed tomography (CT)-guided transthoracic lung core needle biopsy (CNB) is a safe and accurate procedure for the evaluation of patients with pulmonary nodules. This article will focus on the clinical features related to CNB in terms of diagnostic performance and complication rate. Moreover, the concept of categorizing pathological diagnosis into 4 categories, which could be used for clinical management, follow-up, and quality assurance is also introduced. We retrospectively collected data regarding 375 C-arm cone-beam CT-guided CNBs from January 2010 and June 2014. Clinical and radiological variables were evaluated in terms of success or failure rate. Pathological reports were inserted in 4 homogenous groups (nondiagnostic--L1, benign--L2, malignant not otherwise specified--L3, and malignant with specific histotype--L4), defining for each category a hierarchy of suggested actions. The sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive value and accuracy for patients subjected to CNBs were of 96.8%, 100%, 100%, 100%, and 97.2%, respectively. Roughly 75% of our samples were diagnosed as malignant, with 60% lung adenocarcinoma diagnoses. Molecular analyses were performed on 85 malignant samples to verify applicability of targeted therapy. The rate of "nondiagnostic" samples was 12%. C-arm cone-beam CT-guided transthoracic lung CNB can represent the gold standard for the diagnostic evaluation of pulmonary nodules. A clinical and pathological multidisciplinary evaluation of CNBs was needed in terms of integration of radiological, histological, and oncological data. This approach provided exceptional performances in terms of specificity, positive and negative predictive values; sensitivity in our series was lower compared with other large studies, probably due to the application of strong criteria of adequacy for CNBs (L1 class rate). The satisfactory rate of collected material was evaluated not only in terms of merely diagnostic

  13. Magnetic resonance imaging tractography as a diagnostic tool in patients with spinal cord injury treated with human embryonic stem cells.

    PubMed

    Shroff, Geeta

    2017-02-01

    Introduction Spinal cord injury is a cause of severe disability and mortality. The pharmacological and non-pharmacological methods used, are unable to improve the quality of life in spinal cord injury. Spinal disorders have been treated with human embryonic stem cells. Magnetic resonance imaging and tractography were used as imaging modality to document the changes in the damaged cord, but the magnetic resonance imaging tractography was seen to be more sensitive in detecting the changes in the spinal cord. The present study was conducted to evaluate the diagnostic modality of magnetic resonance imaging tractography to determine the efficacy of human embryonic stem cells in chronic spinal cord injury. Materials and methods The study included the patients with spinal cord injury for whom magnetic resonance imaging tractography was performed before and after the therapy. Omniscan (gadodiamide) magnetic resonance imaging tractography was analyzed to assess the spinal defects and the improvement by human embryonic stem cell treatment. The patients were also scored by American Spinal Injury Association scale. Results Overall, 15 patients aged 15-44 years with clinical manifestations of spinal cord injury had magnetic resonance imaging tractography performed. The average treatment period was nine months. The majority of subjects ( n = 13) had American Spinal Injury Association score A, and two patients were at score C at the beginning of therapy. At the end of therapy, 10 patients were at score A, two patients were at score B and three patients were at score C. Improvements in patients were clearly understood through magnetic resonance imaging tractography as well as in clinical signs and symptoms. Conclusion Magnetic resonance imaging tractography can be a crucial diagnostic modality to assess the improvement in spinal cord injury patients.

  14. CLIPS: A tool for corn disease diagnostic system and an aid to neural network for automated knowledge acquisition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wu, Cathy; Taylor, Pam; Whitson, George; Smith, Cathy

    1990-01-01

    This paper describes the building of a corn disease diagnostic expert system using CLIPS, and the development of a neural expert system using the fact representation method of CLIPS for automated knowledge acquisition. The CLIPS corn expert system diagnoses 21 diseases from 52 symptoms and signs with certainty factors. CLIPS has several unique features. It allows the facts in rules to be broken down to object-attribute-value (OAV) triples, allows rule-grouping, and fires rules based on pattern-matching. These features combined with the chained inference engine result to a natural user query system and speedy execution. In order to develop a method for automated knowledge acquisition, an Artificial Neural Expert System (ANES) is developed by a direct mapping from the CLIPS system. The ANES corn expert system uses the same OAV triples in the CLIPS system for its facts. The LHS and RHS facts of the CLIPS rules are mapped into the input and output layers of the ANES, respectively; and the inference engine of the rules is imbedded in the hidden layer. The fact representation by OAC triples gives a natural grouping of the rules. These features allow the ANES system to automate rule-generation, and make it efficient to execute and easy to expand for a large and complex domain.

  15. A newly developed BVDV-1 RT-qPCR Taqman assay based on Italian isolates: evaluation as a diagnostic tool.

    PubMed

    Zoccola, Roberto; Mazzei, Maurizio; Carrozza, Maria Luisa; Ricci, Emanuele; Forzan, Mario; Pizzurro, Federica; Giammarioli, Monica; Bandecchi, Patrizia; Tolari, Francesco

    2017-01-26

    A single-step TaqMan® RT-qPCR was developed for the detection of bovine viral diarrhea virus type 1 (BVDV-1), an important pathogen of cattle worldwide. The assay was based on conserved 5'UTR sequences of Italian BVDV-1 isolates. In order to establish a diagnostic protocol which simplifies sample collection and processing, the assay was tested on a variety of biological specimens collected from persistently infected calves. The samples analyzed included PBMCs, plasma, dry blood, ear notch and hair bulb. Time and costs required for the analysis of each type of specimen were compared. The RT-qPCR, whose lower limit of detection was 100 copies of viral RNA (1 TCID50), correctly identified all PI animals, irrespective of the type of specimen. The highest copy numbers were obtained from the RNAs extracted from PBMCs, ear notches and hair bulbs. Hair bulb-supernatants directly used as a template allowed identification of all PI animals. In conclusion, based on time and cost evaluation, the most effective and efficient protocol was the one based on the direct analysis of hair bulb-supernatants, avoiding the RNA extraction step.

  16. Gene transcription in sea otters (Enhydra lutris); development of a diagnostic tool for sea otter and ecosystem health

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bowen, Lizabeth; Miles, A. Keith; Murray, Michael; Haulena, Martin; Tuttle, Judy; van Bonn, William; Adams, Lance; Bodkin, James L.; Ballachey, Brenda; Estes, James A.; Tinker, M. Tim; Keister, Robin; Stott, Jeffrey L.

    2012-01-01

    Gene transcription analysis for diagnosing or monitoring wildlife health requires the ability to distinguish pathophysiological change from natural variation. Herein, we describe methodology for the development of quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) assays to measure differential transcript levels of multiple immune function genes in the sea otter (Enhydra lutris); sea otter-specific qPCR primer sequences for the genes of interest are defined. We establish a ‘reference’ range of transcripts for each gene in a group of clinically healthy captive and free-ranging sea otters. The 10 genes of interest represent multiple physiological systems that play a role in immuno-modulation, inflammation, cell protection, tumour suppression, cellular stress response, xenobiotic metabolizing enzymes, antioxidant enzymes and cell–cell adhesion. The cycle threshold (CT) measures for most genes were normally distributed; the complement cytolysis inhibitor was the exception. The relative enumeration of multiple gene transcripts in simple peripheral blood samples expands the diagnostic capability currently available to assess the health of sea otters in situ and provides a better understanding of the state of their environment.

  17. Gene transcription in sea otters (Enhydra lutris); development of a diagnostic tool for sea otter and ecosystem health.

    PubMed

    Bowen, Lizabeth; Miles, A Keith; Murray, Michael; Haulena, Martin; Tuttle, Judy; Van Bonn, William; Adams, Lance; Bodkin, James L; Ballachey, Brenda; Estes, James; Tinker, M Tim; Keister, Robin; Stott, Jeffrey L

    2012-01-01

    Gene transcription analysis for diagnosing or monitoring wildlife health requires the ability to distinguish pathophysiological change from natural variation. Herein, we describe methodology for the development of quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) assays to measure differential transcript levels of multiple immune function genes in the sea otter (Enhydra lutris); sea otter-specific qPCR primer sequences for the genes of interest are defined. We establish a 'reference' range of transcripts for each gene in a group of clinically healthy captive and free-ranging sea otters. The 10 genes of interest represent multiple physiological systems that play a role in immuno-modulation, inflammation, cell protection, tumour suppression, cellular stress response, xenobiotic metabolizing enzymes, antioxidant enzymes and cell-cell adhesion. The cycle threshold (C(T)) measures for most genes were normally distributed; the complement cytolysis inhibitor was the exception. The relative enumeration of multiple gene transcripts in simple peripheral blood samples expands the diagnostic capability currently available to assess the health of sea otters in situ and provides a better understanding of the state of their environment.

  18. Infrared imaging as a cancer diagnostic tool: introducing a new concept of spectral barcodes for identifying molecular changes in colon tumors.

    PubMed

    Nallala, Jayakrupakar; Piot, Olivier; Diebold, Marie-Danièle; Gobinet, Cyril; Bouché, Olivier; Manfait, Michel; Sockalingum, Ganesh D

    2013-03-01

    Complementary diagnostic methods to conventional histopathology are under scrutiny for various types of cancers for rapid and molecular level diagnostics. In this perspective, a biophotonic approach based on infrared spectral micro-imaging combined with multivariate statistical analysis has been implemented on colon tissues. The ability of infrared imaging to investigate the intrinsic biochemical features of cells and tissues has been exploited to develop a new concept of spectral bar coding. To implement this concept, 10 frozen colon tissue samples (five nontumoral and tumoral pairs from five patients) were imaged using infrared spectral micro-imaging in a nondestructive manner. The spectral images were processed by a multivariate clustering method to identify the histological organization in a label-free manner. Spectral information from the epithelial components was then automatically recovered on the basis of their intrinsic biochemical composition, and compared using a statistical method (Mann-Whitney U-test) to construct spectral barcodes specific to each patient. The spectral barcodes representing the discriminant infrared spectral wavenumbers (900-1,800 cm(-1) ) enabled characterization of some of the malignancy-associated biochemical alterations associated with mucin, nucleotides, carbohydrates, and protein regions. This approach not only allowed the identification of common biochemical alterations among all the colon cancer patients, but also revealed a difference of gradient within individual patients. This new concept of spectral bar coding gives insight into the potential of infrared spectral micro-imaging as a complementary diagnostic tool to conventional histopathology, for biochemical level understanding of malignancy in colon cancers in an objective and label-free manner.

  19. Assessing the utility of infrared spectroscopy as a structural diagnostic tool for β-sheets in self-assembling aromatic peptide amphiphiles.

    PubMed

    Fleming, Scott; Frederix, Pim W J M; Ramos Sasselli, Iván; Hunt, Neil T; Ulijn, Rein V; Tuttle, Tell

    2013-07-30

    β-Sheets are a commonly found structural motif in self-assembling aromatic peptide amphiphiles, and their characteristic "amide I" infrared (IR) absorption bands are routinely used to support the formation of supramolecular structure. In this paper, we assess the utility of IR spectroscopy as a structural diagnostic tool for this class of self-assembling systems. Using 9-fluorene-methyloxycarbonyl dialanine (Fmoc-AA) and the analogous 9-fluorene-methylcarbonyl dialanine (Fmc-AA) as examples, we show that the origin of the band around 1680-1695 cm(-1) in Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectra, which was previously assigned to an antiparallel β-sheet conformation, is in fact absorption of the stacked carbamate group in Fmoc-peptides. IR spectra from (13)C-labeled samples support our conclusions. In addition, DFT frequency calculations on small stacks of aromatic peptides help to rationalize these results in terms of the individual vibrational modes.

  20. Ewing sarcoma mimicking atypical carcinoid tumor: detection of unexpected genomic alterations demonstrates the use of next generation sequencing as a diagnostic tool.

    PubMed

    Doyle, Leona A; Wong, Kwok-Kin; Bueno, Raphael; Dal Cin, Paola; Fletcher, Jonathan A; Sholl, Lynette M; Kuo, Frank

    2014-01-01

    Increasingly, tumors are being analyzed for a variety of mutations and other genomic changes, with the goals of guiding personalized therapy and directing patients to appropriate clinical trials based on genotype, as well as identifying previously unknown genomic changes in different tumor types and thereby providing new insights into the pathogenesis of human cancers. Next generation sequencing is a powerful research tool now gaining traction in the clinic. In this report, we demonstrate the utility of next generation sequencing assays in providing diagnostic information when evaluating tumor specimens. This is illustrated by a case previously thought to represent an atypical carcinoid tumor, in which an EWSR1-ERG translocation was detected during next generation sequencing using a hybrid capture approach, leading to a revised diagnosis of Ewing sarcoma. The role of translocation detection in these assays is also discussed.

  1. Two Consecutive Standardized Skin Surface Biopsies: An Improved Sampling Method to Evaluate Demodex Density as a Diagnostic Tool for Rosacea and Demodicosis.

    PubMed

    Forton, Fabienne M N; De Maertelaer, Viviane

    2017-02-08

    Diagnosing papulopustular rosacea is not always straightforward; no specific diagnostic test is currently available. A high density of Demodex mites is consistently observed in this condition. This retrospective study assesses an improved method for evaluating Demodex density among 1,044 patients presenting to our dermatology practice. The skin was cleaned with ether and Demodex densities were measured in 2 consecutive standardized skin surface biopsies taken from the same site. Mean densities in patients with rosacea and demodicosis were much higher than those in healthy controls and patients with other facial dermatoses. The optimal cut-off values for the 2 biopsies were combined and the resultant criterion (presence of a first biopsy density < 5 Demodex/cm2 or a second biopsy density < 10 Demodex/cm2) enabled confirmation of a diagnosis of rosacea or demodicosis with a sensitivity of 98.7% and specificity of 95.5%, making this a valuable diagnostic tool for dermatologists in routine clinical practice.

  2. Sequential simulation (SqS) of clinical pathways: a tool for public and patient engagement in point-of-care diagnostics

    PubMed Central

    Huddy, Jeremy R; Weldon, Sharon-Marie; Ralhan, Shvaita; Painter, Tim; Hanna, George B; Kneebone, Roger; Bello, Fernando

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Public and patient engagement (PPE) is fundamental to healthcare research. To facilitate effective engagement in novel point-of-care tests (POCTs), the test and downstream consequences of the result need to be considered. Sequential simulation (SqS) is a tool to represent patient journeys and the effects of intervention at each and subsequent stages. This case study presents a process evaluation of SqS as a tool for PPE in the development of a volatile organic compound-based breath test POCT for the diagnosis of oesophagogastric (OG) cancer. Setting Three 3-hour workshops in central London. Participants 38 members of public attended a workshop, 26 (68%) had no prior experience of the OG cancer diagnostic pathway. Interventions Clinical pathway SqS was developed from a storyboard of a patient, played by an actor, noticing symptoms of oesophageal cancer and following a typical diagnostic pathway. The proposed breath testing strategy was then introduced and incorporated into a second SqS to demonstrate pathway impact. Facilitated group discussions followed each SqS. Primary and secondary outcome measures Evaluation was conducted through pre-event and postevent questionnaires, field notes and analysis of audiovisual recordings. Results 38 participants attended a workshop. All participants agreed they were able to contribute to discussions and like the idea of an OG cancer breath test. Five themes emerged related to the proposed new breath test including awareness of OG cancer, barriers to testing and diagnosis, design of new test device, new clinical pathway and placement of test device. 3 themes emerged related to the use of SqS: participatory engagement, simulation and empathetic engagement, and why participants attended. Conclusions SqS facilitated a shared immersive experience for participants and researchers that led to the coconstruction of knowledge that will guide future research activities and be of value to stakeholders concerned with the invention

  3. Diffuse Parenchymal Lung Diseases with Clinicoradiological Discordance: Role of Transbronchial Lung Biopsy as a Diagnostic Tool - An Observational Study

    PubMed Central

    Narayan, Kiran Vishnu; Edakalavan, Jyothi; Kumar, Neethu Kesava

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The diagnosis of Diffuse Parenchymal Lung Disease (DPLD) requires a multidisciplinary approach with reconciliation of clinicoradiological and histopathological data. But when the preliminary clinicoradiological profile fails to suggest a diagnosis, an adequate lung biopsy specimen with meticulous histological examination and a multidisciplinary approach usually yields results. There is also a high chance of sampling error due to patchy and heterogeneous involvement of the disease process and due to the small volume of tissue taken. As seen in our study, Trans-Bronchial Lung Biopsy (TBLB) if performed by an experienced bronchoscopist can be done as an outpatient procedure yielding adequate specimens for diagnosis and guide effective treatment in these patients. Aim To study the utility and diagnostic yield of TBLB in DPLD patients when there is clinicoradiological discordance. Materials and Methods The current retrospective observational study was undertaken in the Institute of Chest Diseases, Government Medical College, Kozhikode, Kerala, India, from January 2012 to December 2014. Out of 169 DPLD patients who attended the tertiary care centre, 66 patients without a definite diagnosis by clinicoradiological assessment were included in the study. They underwent TBLB using a fibre-optic video bronchoscope. An open lung biopsy was advised if the TBLB did not yield a definite diagnosis. Results Among the 66 patients, histopathological confirmation was obtained in 51 patients, 39 of which were by TBLB (59%). Few diagnoses like invasive adenocarcinoma, Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia and Aspergillus infection were least expected. Conclusion TBLB if performed correctly can be an effective intervening modality in establishing the diagnosis of DPLD before going for an invasive surgical biopsy. PMID:28050417

  4. Particle-size evidence of estuary evolution: A rapid and diagnostic tool for determining the nature of recent saltmarsh accretion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rahman, Rubina; Plater, Andrew J.

    2014-05-01

    A conceptual model of saltmarsh sedimentation based on high-resolution particle-size analysis has been tested on short cores (c. 0.5 m) of known age from the Dee estuary, NW England, UK. Here, two components of the particle-size distribution (PSD) are interpreted as the traction load deposited by the faster tidal flow velocities ('fast tide') and the suspension load that settles during the turn of the tide ('slow tide'). The feasibility of this model for diagnosing the driving mechanism of estuary evolution in both time and space is tested with reference to historical evidence of saltmarsh accretion, up-core trends in dated saltmarsh cores, and the PSDs of present-day saltmarsh surface sediments. Cores that show an up-core progression from very fine-skewed to near symmetrical PSDs are interpreted in the context of estuary infilling due to a positive sediment budget (sediment surplus), whilst those that show a persistence of near-symmetrical, (very) poorly sorted, mesokurtic particle-size distributions in the fine to very fine silts size range are considered to be the result of 'slow tide' sedimentation. The influences of the two 'end-member' styles of saltmarsh accretion, i.e. (i) infilling due to sediment surplus and (ii) 'slow tide' settling linked to sea level, exhibit spatial and temporal trends as predicted, particularly in cores from mid- and lower saltmarsh locations. The upper saltmarsh cores also show evidence of estuary infilling due to 'slow tide' sedimentation at rates in excess of sea-level rise. The results confirm that the diagnostic approach can be applied as a 'pre-filtering' method for assessing the suitability of saltmarsh sediments for reconstructing sea-level trends, and for providing input data for improved estuary morphological modelling.

  5. Optical-fiber-coupled inferometric measurement of tympanic membrane temperature: a new diagnostic tool for acute otitis media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DeRowe, Ari; Ophir, Eyal; Sade, Sharon; Fishman, Gadi; Ophir, Dov; Grankin, Mila; Katzir, Abraham

    1998-07-01

    A novel infrared (IR) transparent optical fiber coupled to a hand held otoscope and a radiometer was constructed and used to measure the temperatures of the tympanic membrane (TM) and to distinguish between diseased and healthy middle ears. A greater temperature difference between TM readings was found when Acute Otitis Media (AOM) existed in one of the ears examined. This supports the hypothesis that acute inflammation of the middle ear will result in elevated local temperature when measured in such a way that the reading is taken only from the TM without interference of the external canal. The use of an optical fiber enabled temperature measurements of the TM with high spatial resolution eliminating the external ear canal interference. A small patient population was examined and the initial results were statistically significant. In the hands of the primary care physician, this tool would prevent misdiagnosis of AOM preventing indiscriminate use of antibiotics and avoiding complications by early diagnosis.

  6. Optimizing the G8 Screening Tool for Older Patients With Cancer: Diagnostic Performance and Validation of a Six-Item Version

    PubMed Central

    Martinez-Tapia, Claudia; Canoui-Poitrine, Florence; Bastuji-Garin, Sylvie; Soubeyran, Pierre; Mathoulin-Pelissier, Simone; Tournigand, Christophe; Paillaud, Elena; Laurent, Marie

    2016-01-01

    Background. A multidimensional geriatric assessment (GA) is recommended in older cancer patients to inventory health problems and tailor treatment decisions accordingly but requires considerable time and human resources. The G8 is among the most sensitive screening tools for selecting patients warranting a full GA but has limited specificity. We sought to develop and validate an optimized version of the G8. Patients and Methods. We used a prospective cohort of cancer patients aged ≥70 years referred to geriatricians for GA (2007–2012: n = 729 [training set]; 2012–2014: n = 414 [validation set]). Abnormal GA was defined as at least one impaired domain across seven validated tests. Multiple correspondence analysis, multivariate logistic regression, and bootstrapped internal validation were performed sequentially. Results. The final model included six independent predictors for abnormal GA: weight loss, cognition/mood, performance status, self-rated health status, polypharmacy (≥6 medications per day), and history of heart failure/coronary heart disease. For the original G8, sensitivity was 87.2% (95% confidence interval, 84.3–89.7), specificity 57.7% (47.3–67.7), and area under the receiver-operating characteristic curve (AUROC) 86.5% (83.5–89.6). The modified G8 had corresponding values of 89.2% (86.5–91.5), 79.0% (69.4–86.6), and 91.6% (89.3; 93.9), with higher AUROC values for all tumor sites and stable properties on the validation set. Conclusion. A modified G8 screening tool exhibited better diagnostic performance with greater uniformity across cancer sites and required only six items. If these features are confirmed in other settings, the modified tool may facilitate selection for a full GA in older patients with cancer. Implications for Practice: Several screening tools have been developed to identify older patients with cancer likely to benefit from a complete geriatric assessment, but none combines appropriate sensitivity and specificity

  7. RNA Aptamer That Specifically Binds to Mycolactone and Serves as a Diagnostic Tool for Diagnosis of Buruli Ulcer

    PubMed Central

    Aboagye, Samuel Yaw; Otchere, Isaac Darko; Liao, Albert M.; Caltagirone, Thomas G.; Yeboah-Manu, Dorothy

    2016-01-01

    most promising aptamer, Apt-3683 showed a discernible cleavage difference relative to the non-specific autocatalysis over a 3-minute time course. Conclusion This preliminary proof-of-concept indicates that diagnosis of BUD with RNA aptamers is feasible and can be used as point of care upon incorporation into a diagnostic platform. PMID:27776120

  8. Pressure fluctuations as a diagnostic tool for fluidized beds. Technical progress report, July 1, 1996--September 30, 1996

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, R.C.; Brue, E.

    1996-10-10

    By studying pressure fluctuations using a system identification approach, it is hypothesized that circulating fluidized bed (CFB) pressure fluctuations are indicative of CFB hydrodynamics in two ways. First, the frequency phenomenon that is observed in the lower regions of the CFB under conditions of high solids loading is the result of lower dense bed voidage oscillations. Our results suggest that a surface wave phenomena inversely proportional to the square root of the bed diameter is also be observed in CFB pressure fluctuations under most conditions. By matching revised similitude parameters between two CFBs a number of conclusions can be drawn. First, spectral analysis of pressure fluctuations, if properly applied, can be used to verify that similitude has been achieved. To do this, not only must the Bode plot characteristics important for hydrodynamics be identified, but the pressure fluctuation structure at all elevations of the CFB must be similar. The set of similitude parameters defined by Glicksman is not sufficient to establish hydrodynamic similitude. The solids flux as typically measured in the downcomer does not contain information on the solids hold-up in the riser, or the amount of solids that progress downwards in the annulus rather than exit the riser. It is better to use the total mass contained in the riser as the important ``solids`` parameter for the establishment of similitude, rather than the solids flux. This measurement can be made more accurately, monitored continuously, and is a much simpler measurement to perform in most CFB systems. Even with this new set of dimensionless parameters, the differences in the coefficient of restitution of particle/bed collisions may make a significant difference in the CFB hydrodynamics. The effects of particle collisions with the riser top-plate must be considered in similitude studies.

  9. Polymeric micelles as a diagnostic tool for image-guided drug delivery and radiotherapy of HER2 overexpressing breast cancer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoang, Nu Bryan

    Block copolymer micelles have emerged as a viable formulation strategy with several drugs relying on this technology in clinical evaluation. To date, information on the tumor penetration and intratumoral distribution of block copolymer micelles (BCM) has been quite limited. Thus, there is impetus to develop a radiolabeled formulation that can be used to gain invaluable insight into the intratumoral distribution of the BCMs. This information could then be used to direct formulation strategies as a means to optimize treatment outcomes. This thesis describes the synthesis and characterization of a targeted block copolymer micelle system based on poly(ethylene glycol)-block -poly(epsilon-caprolactone) labeled with the radionuclide Indium-111 (111In). The incorporation of the imageable component, 111In permits pursuit of image-guided drug delivery for real-time monitoring of tumor localization and intratumoral distribution. Intracellular trafficking of drugs and therapies such as Auger electron emitting radionuclides to perinuclear and nuclear regions of cells is critical to realizing their full therapeutic potential. HER2 specific antibodies (trastuzumab fab fragments) and nuclear localization signal peptides were conjugated to the surface of the BCMs to direct uptake in HER2 expressing cells and subsequent localization in the cell nucleus. Cell uptake was HER2 density dependent, confirming receptor-mediated internalization of the BCMs. Importantly, conjugation of NLS resulted in a significant increase in nuclear uptake of the radionuclide 111In. Successful nuclear targeting was shown to improve the antiproliferative effect of the Auger electrons. In addition, a significant radiation enhancement effect was observed by concurrent delivery of low-dose MTX and 111In in all breast cancer cell lines evaluated. Imaging enabled the accurate quantification of the specific tumor uptake of the micelles and visualization of their degree of tumor penetration in relation to

  10. Comparative Evaluation of Diagnostic Tools for Oxidative Deterioration of Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid-Enriched Infant Formulas during Storage

    PubMed Central

    Siefarth, Caroline; Serfert, Yvonne; Drusch, Stephan; Buettner, Andrea

    2013-01-01

    The challenge in the development of infant formulas enriched with polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) is to meet the consumers’ expectations with regard to high nutritional and sensory value. In particular, PUFAs may be prone to fatty acid oxidation that can generate potential rancid, metallic and/or fishy off-flavors. Although such off-flavors pose no health risk, they can nevertheless lead to rejection of products by consumers. Thus, monitoring autoxidation at its early stages is of great importance and finding a suitable analytical tool to perform these evaluations is therefore of high interest in quality monitoring. Two formulations of infant formulas were varied systematically in their mineral composition and their presence of antioxidants to produce 18 model formulas. All models were aged under controlled conditions and their oxidative deterioration was monitored. A quantitative study was performed on seven characteristic odor-active secondary oxidation products in the formulations via two-dimensional high resolution gas chromatography-mass spectrometry/olfactometry (2D-HRGC-MS/O). The sensitivity of the multi-dimensional GC-MS/O analysis was supported by two additional analytical tools for monitoring autoxidation, namely the analysis of lipid hydroperoxides and conjugated dienes. Furthermore, an aroma profile analysis (APA) was performed to reveal the presence and intensities of typical odor qualities generated in the course of fatty acid oxidation. The photometrical analyses of lipid hydroperoxides and conjugated dienes were found to be too insensitive for early indication of the development of sensory defects. By comparison, the 2D-HRGC-MS/O was capable of monitoring peroxidation of PUFAs at low ppb-level in its early stages. Thereby, it was possible to screen oxidative variances on the basis of such volatile markers already within eight weeks after production of the products, which is an earlier indication of oxidative deterioration than achievable via

  11. Use of stable isotope tracers as a diagnostic tool for determining connectedness of road runoff to stream peak flows in disturbed forest environments.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skaugset, A.; McDonnell, J. J.

    2003-12-01

    Forest disturbance, and in particular forest road construction can cause changes in hydrological processes emergent at the catchment scale. The magnitude of the impacts of forest roads on stream peak flows and chronic sedimentation is perceived to be directly proportional to the degree that roads are connected to the stream system. Scientific studies to date that have examined the degree to which the roadside ditch acts as an extension of the stream system have been highly equivocal. The engineering prescription to "fix" the perceived impacts of roads is to isolate the road system from the stream system. This is generally carried out by upgrading the drainage system for the forest road by either installing more drainage structures, cross drain culverts, or simply isolating live stream crossing culverts using water bars or rolling dips. At this time there is no simple, universally applicable method to determine the degree of connectivity of a road system to the stream. This paper presents some preliminary research using stable isotope tracer approaches as a diagnostic tool for quantifying connectedness of road runoff to stream peak flows. We argue that time source hydrograph separation may be a tool for determining whether or not engineering improvements have "worked" and how much current road systems in any given watershed influence stream peak flow. We present data for a rainstorm in the Winter of 2003 from nested sub-catchments and road ditches at the Oak Creek Watershed in the McDonald/Dunn Research Forest, Western Oregon.

  12. Label-Free Imaging of Female Genital Tract Melanocytic Lesions With Pump-Probe Microscopy: A Promising Diagnostic Tool

    PubMed Central

    Robles, Francisco E.; Deb, Sanghamitra; Fischer, Martin C.; Warren, Warren S.; Selim, Maria Angelica

    2017-01-01

    Objectives Melanomas of the female genital tract present a unique clinical challenge. Not only are these lesions in an anatomically sensitive area, but also they tend to be multifocal and have high recurrence rates. Furthermore, several benign melanocytic proliferations resemble early-stage melanoma clinically and/or histopathologically. Thus, there is a significant need for additional tools that can help correctly diagnose and stage these lesions. Here, we quantitatively and nondestructively analyze the chemical composition of melanin in excised pigmented lesions of the female genital tract using pump-probe microscopy, a high-resolution optical imaging technique that is sensitive to many biochemical properties of melanin. Materials and Methods Thirty-one thin (~5 μm) tissue sections previously excised from female genital tract melanocytic lesions were imaged with pump-probe microscopy and analyzed. Results We find significant quantitative differences in melanin type and structure between melanoma and nonmalignant melanocytic proliferations. Our analysis also suggests a link between the molecular signatures of melanins and lesion-specific genetic mutations. Finally, significant differences are found between metastatic and nonmetastatic melanomas. The limitations of this work include the fact that molecular information is restricted to melanin pigment and the sample size is relatively small. Conclusions Pump-probe microscopy provides unique information regarding the biochemical composition of genital tract melanocytic lesions, which can be used to improve the diagnosis and staging of vulvar melanomas. PMID:28157824

  13. Feasibility study of the Fab fragment of a monoclonal antibody against tissue factor as a diagnostic tool.

    PubMed

    Tsumura, Ryo; Sato, Ryuta; Furuya, Fumiaki; Koga, Yoshikatsu; Yamamoto, Yoshiyuki; Fujiwara, Yuki; Yasunaga, Masahiro; Matsumura, Yasuhiro

    2015-12-01

    Tissue factor (TF) is expressed strongly in various types of cancer, especially cancers that are often refractory to treatment, such as pancreatic cancer. In this study, we compared the differences in the biophysical and pharmacological properties of whole IgG and the Fab fragment of anti-human TF monoclonal antibody (1849 antibodies), in order to determine their suitability for application in the diagnosis and treatment of cancers. In the biophysical examination, we investigated the characteristics of 1849-whole IgG and 1849-Fab by SPR sensing and confocal fluorescence microscopy analysis using recombinant human TF antigen and TF-overexpressing human pancreatic cancer cell line, BxPC3, respectively. After conjugation with Alexa-Flour-647, in vivo imaging was conducted in mice bearing BxPC3 xenograft tumors. Furthermore, the distribution of the conjugates in tumors and major organs was evaluated by ex vivo study. The in vitro experiments showed that 1849 antibodies had high affinity against TF antigen. In addition, 1849-Fab showed a faster dissociation rate from the antigen than 1849-whole IgG. In mice, 1849-Fab-Alexa-Flour-647 showed rapid renal clearance and faster tumor accumulation, achieving a high contrast signal over nearby normal tissues in the early phase and enhanced tumor penetration after administration. On the other hand, 1849-whole IgG-Alexa-Flour-647 showed slow clearance from the blood and sustained high tumor accumulation. These results suggest that 1849-Fab may be a useful tool for pancreatic cancer diagnosis.

  14. Diapause-specific gene expression in Calliphora vicina (Diptera: Calliphoridae)--a useful diagnostic tool for forensic entomology.

    PubMed

    Fremdt, Heike; Amendt, Jens; Zehner, Richard

    2014-11-01

    Estimating the post mortem interval (PMImin) by age determination of blow fly larvae has been well-established for moderate temperatures. Low-temperature developmental data is only available sparsely and usually does not take overwintering strategies into account. The blow fly Calliphora vicina hibernates by diapausing in the third larval stage extending the duration of this developmental stage up to several weeks or even months. As the diagnosis of the diapause status is not possible by morphological characteristics, PMImin estimations might be biased during the cold season if only based on age determination of third instar larvae of C. vicina. Molecular markers were searched for which allows one to identify diapause in larvae. Expression analysis of 19 genes was performed in diapausing and non-diapausing larvae. Three genes encoding for heat shock proteins (hsp23, hsp24 and hsp70) were found to be up-regulated distinctly in diapausing larvae and at 1 day in non-diapausing larvae. If several larvae are subjected to an analysis, a high variance in the expression level of the gene encoding for the anterior fat body protein is a further marker for diapause. The present study proves the potential use of gene expression analysis as a suitable diagnosis tool for diapause in C. vicina.

  15. Sensiprobe--a miniature thermal device incorporating Peltier technology as a diagnostic tool for studying human oesophageal sensitivity.

    PubMed

    Reeves, J W; Al-Zinaty, M; Woodland, P; Sifrim, D; Aziz, Q; Birch, M J

    2014-07-01

    Heightened perception of gastrointestinal sensation is termed visceral hypersensitivity (VH) and is commonly observed in patients with gastrointestinal disorders. VH is thought to be a major contributory factor in oesophageal disease, particularly gastro-oesophageal reflux disease that does not respond to standard (proton pump inhibitor) treatment, and in functional heartburn. Clinical tools that can help phenotype according to the mechanism of chronic pain and thus allow targeted drug treatment (e.g. with pain modulator therapy) would be very desirable. A technique that produces repeatable and controllable thermal stimuli within the oesophagus could meet this need. The aims of this study were to develop a method for linear control of the heat stimulation in the oesophagus, to assess the reproducibility of this method, and obtain normal thermal sensitivity values in the distal and proximal oesophagus. The 7 mm diameter Peltier-based thermal device was investigated on 27 healthy subjects using a heating ramp of 0.2 °C s(-1). The pain detection threshold (PDT) temperature was recorded. To assess the reproducibility of the device, each subject underwent the procedure twice, with a minimum of two weeks between each procedure. The mean PDT temperature measured in the distal oesophagus, was 53.8 ± 2.9 °C and 53.6 ± 2.6 °C, for visits 1 and 2 respectively. The mean PDT temperature measured in the proximal oesophagus was 54.1 ± 2.4 °C and 54.0 ± 2.8 °C, for visits 1 and 2 respectively. The reproducibility of the PDT temperature in the distal and proximal oesophagus, was good (intra-class correlation >0.6). Future studies should be aimed to determine whether oesophageal thermal sensitivity can act as a biomarker of transient receptor potential vallanoid 1 upregulation.

  16. Diagnostic Tool for Assessing Overactive Bladder Symptoms: Could the International Prostate Symptom Storage Subscore Replace the Overactive Bladder Symptom Score?

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The goal of this study was to compare the International Prostate Symptom Storage Subscore (IPSS-s) and the overactive bladder symptom score (OABSS) as tools for assessing the symptoms of overactive bladder (OAB). Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted of a sample of 1,341 patients aged 50 years and older with lower urinary tract complaints who had undergone a medical examination at one of several centers. For each patient, we reviewed the International Prostate Symptom Score and the OABSS. The patients were divided into 2 groups according to their IPSS-s result (group 1, score ≥6; group 2, score<6) and into another 2 groups according to their OABSS diagnosis (group 3, OAB patients; group 4, non-OAB patients). We determined whether the OABSS varied to a statistically significant extent between groups 1 and 2. Furthermore, we evaluated the correlation of IPSS-s severity with the OABSS results in group 3, and the OAB diagnosis rate was compared between groups 1 and 2. Results In groups 1 and 2, the OABSS results were not found to vary to a statistically significant extent (P=0.326). In group 3, no significant correlation was found between IPSS-s severity and the OABSS results (P=0.385). In the prevalence analysis, no statistically significant difference was found among the groups, and the receiver operating characteristic curve showed an area under the curve of 0.474. Conclusions The results of this cross-sectional analysis suggest that the IPSS-s and the OABSS are not significantly correlated. Although both scores are used to measure OAB symptoms, the simultaneous use of IPSS-s and OABSS is not warranted. PMID:27706011

  17. Intelligent diagnostics systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcquiston, Barbara M.; Dehoff, Ronald L.

    1992-01-01

    Intelligent systems have been applied to today's problems and could also be applied to space operations integrity. One of these systems is the XMAN tool designed for 'troubleshooting' jet engines. XMAN is the eXpert MAiNtenance tool developed to be an expert information analysis tool which stores trending and diagnostic data on Air Force engines. XMAN operates with a 'network topology' which follows a flow chart containing engine management information reports required by the governments technical order procedures. With XMAN technology, the user is able to identify engine problems by presenting the assertions of the fault isolation logic and attempting to satisfy individual assertions by referring to the databases created by an engine monitoring system. The troubleshooting process requires interaction between the technician and the computer to acquire new evidence form auxiliary maintenance tests corroboration of analytical results to accurately diagnose equipment malfunctions. This same technology will be required for systems which are functioning in space either with an onboard crew, or with an unmanned system. The technology and lessons learned developing this technology while suggesting definite applications for its use with developing space systems are addressed.

  18. An integrated data analysis tool for improving measurements on the MST RFP

    SciTech Connect

    Reusch, L. M. Galante, M. E.; Johnson, J. R.; McGarry, M. B.; Den Hartog, D. J.; Franz, P.; Stephens, H. D.

    2014-11-15

    Many plasma diagnostics contain complementary information. For example, the double-foil soft x-ray system (SXR) and the Thomson Scattering diagnostic (TS) on the Madison Symmetric Torus both measure electron temperature. The complementary information from these diagnostics can be combined using a systematic method based on integrated data analysis techniques, leading to more accurate and sensitive results. An integrated data analysis tool based on Bayesian probability theory was able to estimate electron temperatures that are consistent with both the SXR and TS diagnostics and more precise than either. A Markov Chain Monte Carlo analysis to increase the flexibility of the tool was implemented and benchmarked against a grid search method.

  19. Optical diagnostics in the oral cavity: an overview

    PubMed Central

    Wilder-Smith, P; Holtzman, J; Epstein, J; Le, A

    2014-01-01

    As the emphasis shifts from damage mitigation to disease prevention or reversal of early disease in the oral cavity, the need for sensitive and accurate detection and diagnostic tools become more important. Many novel and emergent optical diagnostic modalities for the oral cavity are becoming available to clinicians with a variety of desirable attributes including: (i) non-invasiveness, (ii) absence of ionizing radiation, (iii) patient-friendliness, (iv) real-time information (v) repeatability, and (vi) high-resolution surface and subsurface images. In this article, the principles behind optical diagnostic approaches, their feasibility and applicability for imaging soft and hard tissues, and their potential usefulness as a tool in the diagnosis of oral mucosal lesions, dental pathologies, and other dental applications will be reviewed. The clinical applications of light-based imaging technologies in the oral cavity and of their derivative devices will be discussed to provide the reader with a comprehensive understanding of emergent diagnostic modalities. PMID:20561224

  20. High Energy Laser Diagnostic Sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luke, James R.; Goddard, Douglas N.; Lewis, Jay; Thomas, David

    2010-10-01

    Recent advancements in high energy laser (HEL) sources have outpaced diagnostic tools capable of accurately quantifying system performance. Diagnostic tools are needed that allow system developers to measure the parameters that define HEL effectiveness. The two critical parameters for quantifying HEL effectiveness are the irradiance on target and resultant rise in target temperature. Off-board sensing has its limitations, including unpredictable changes in the reflectivity of the target, smoke and outgassing, and atmospheric distortion. On-board sensors overcome the limitations of off-board techniques but must survive high irradiance levels and extreme temperatures. We have developed sensors for on-target diagnostics of high energy laser beams and for the measurement of the thermal response of the target. The conformal sensors consist of an array of quantum dot photodetectors and resistive temperature detectors. The sensor arrays are lithographically fabricated on flexible substrates and can be attached to a variety of laser targets. We have developed a nanoparticle adhesive process that provides good thermal contact with the target and that ensures the sensor remains attached to the target for as long as the target survives. We have calibrated the temperature and irradiance sensors and demonstrated them in a HEL environment.

  1. Use of Universal 16S rRNA Gene PCR as a Diagnostic Tool for Venous Access Port-Related Bloodstream Infections

    PubMed Central

    Marín, M.; Martín-Rabadán, P.; Echenagusia, A.; Camúñez, F.; Rodríguez-Rosales, G.; Simó, G.; Echenagusia, M.; Bouza, E.

    2013-01-01

    Amplification of the universal 16S rRNA gene using PCR has improved the diagnostic yield of microbiological samples. However, no data have been reported on the reliability of this technique with venous access ports (VAPs). We assessed the utility of 16S rRNA PCR for the prediction of VAP-related bloodstream infection (VAP-RBSI). During a 2-year period, we prospectively received all VAPs removed by interventional radiologists. PCR and conventional cultures were performed using samples from the different VAP sites. We compared the results of PCR with those of conventional culture for patients with confirmed VAP-RBSI. We collected 219 VAPs from 219 patients. Conventional VAP culture revealed 15 episodes of VAP-RBSI. PCR revealed a further 4 episodes in patients undergoing antibiotic therapy which would have gone undetected using conventional culture. Moreover, it had a negative predictive value of 97.8% for the prediction of VAP-RBSI when it was performed using biofilm from the internal surface of the port. In conclusion, universal 16S rRNA PCR performed with samples from the inside of VAPs proved to be a useful tool for the diagnosis of VAP-RBSI. It increased detection of VAP-RBSI episodes by 21.1% in patients undergoing antibiotic therapy whose episodes would have gone undetected using conventional culture. Therefore, we propose a new application of 16S rRNA PCR as a useful tool for the diagnosis of VAP-RBSI in patients receiving antibiotic therapy. PMID:23254136

  2. Comparison of the time behavior in the separation of light and heavy materials in X-ray backscattered method as a diagnostic tool in inspection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faezeh, Rahmani; Sepideh Sadat, Azimi; Esmaiel, Bayat; Vahid, Dost Mohammadi

    2016-03-01

    X-ray backscattered method based on Compton backscattering is used in the inspection field. In contrast to transmission method, source and detectors are positioned on one side of the target, so in the situation that transmission inspection is difficult, X-ray backscattered method can be provided suitable data in the inspection field. Also, detection of hidden explosives and narcotic materials are very difficult or impossible in transmission methods. High intensity backscattered beam from light materials (low-Z), such as explosives and narcotics, in comparison to the heavy materials (high-Z), made this method as the strong technique in inspection. X-ray and gamma photons scattered by the light material (such as PE and PTFE) as well as heavy material (such as Fe and Cu) were studied using MCNPX2.6 Monte Carlo code. The results showed that rise time of pulse from light materials are slower than that of from heavy materials due to multi scattering of low energy photons in the light ones, so time expansion would occur in signals from light elements. If measurement is possible, the difference in time behavior can be used as a novel method in complementary diagnostic tool beside the use of pulse height in X-ray backscattered method.

  3. Level of accessibility of radiological diagnostic tools of high technology and its effect on human health: study of ultrasonography, CT scan and MRI in different perspective.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Lalit; Husain, Munawwar; Ahmad, Ibne

    2012-03-01

    The study was conducted at JNMC, Aligarh, India, to discern the obstacles/hurdles that stood in the way of the patients and the high technology diagnostic tool. For this purpose several parameters were taken eg, education/literacy, occupation and income group, etc. From the study 97% chose to undergo USG and only 3% were defaulters; 86% chose to undergo CT scan and only 14% were defaulters; 79% chose to undergo MRI and 21% were defaulters. Low cost investigations ie, USG and CT scan were more prescribed to IVth social class but MRI was mostly prescribed to IInd. Most of the defaulters were from IVth social class and showed financial problem for getting investigation. Taking into consideration the cost and sensitivity of procedure, it was found in this study that mainly cost determines the outcome. Sensitivity did not matter in patient's perspective. This was the reason that maximum defaulters were found in MRI, followed by CT scan and least in USG. Financial constraint was primary reason declared by defaulters followed by distance. Additional parameters like literacy, occupation and social standing were also found significant in the study in the sense of prescription of investigation and being defaulter.

  4. Quantum cascade laser based monitoring of CF{sub 2} radical concentration as a diagnostic tool of dielectric etching plasma processes

    SciTech Connect

    Hübner, M.; Lang, N.; Röpcke, J.; Helden, J. H. van; Zimmermann, S.; Schulz, S. E.; Buchholtz, W.

    2015-01-19

    Dielectric etching plasma processes for modern interlevel dielectrics become more and more complex by the introduction of new ultra low-k dielectrics. One challenge is the minimization of sidewall damage, while etching ultra low-k porous SiCOH by fluorocarbon plasmas. The optimization of this process requires a deeper understanding of the concentration of the CF{sub 2} radical, which acts as precursor in the polymerization of the etch sample surfaces. In an industrial dielectric etching plasma reactor, the CF{sub 2} radical was measured in situ using a continuous wave quantum cascade laser (cw-QCL) around 1106.2 cm{sup −1}. We measured Doppler-resolved ro-vibrational absorption lines and determined absolute densities using transitions in the ν{sub 3} fundamental band of CF{sub 2} with the aid of an improved simulation of the line strengths. We found that the CF{sub 2} radical concentration during the etching plasma process directly correlates to the layer structure of the etched wafer. Hence, this correlation can serve as a diagnostic tool of dielectric etching plasma processes. Applying QCL based absorption spectroscopy opens up the way for advanced process monitoring and etching controlling in semiconductor manufacturing.

  5. Fluorescence lifetime imaging of DAPI-stained nuclei as a novel diagnostic tool for the detection and classification of B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia.

    PubMed

    Yahav, Gilad; Hirshberg, Abraham; Salomon, Ophira; Amariglio, Ninette; Trakhtenbrot, Luba; Fixler, Dror

    2016-07-01

    B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (B-CLL) and B-cell precursor acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (B-ALL) are the most common type of leukaemia in adults and children, respectively. Today, fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) is the standard for detecting chromosomal aberrations that reflect adverse and favorable outcome. This study revealed a new, simple, and fast diagnostic tool to detect pathological cells by measuring and imaging the fluorescence lifetime (FLT) using FLT imaging microscopy (FLIM) of the peripheral blood (PB) cells of B-CLL samples that were labeled with the DNA binder, DAPI. The FLT of DAPI in healthy individuals was found to be 2.66 ± 0.12 ns. In contrast, PB cells of B-CLL and BM cells of B-ALL patients were characterized by a specific group distribution of the FLT values. The FLT of DAPI was divided into four subgroups, relative to 2.66 ns: short+, normal, prolonged, and prolonged+. These alterations could be related to different chromatin arrangements of B-CLL and B-ALL interphase nuclei. Notably, extremely long FLT of nuclear DAPI correlate with the presence of extra chromosome 12, while moderate increases compared to normal characterize the deletion of p53. Such correlations potentially enable a FLT-based rapid automatic diagnosis and classification of B-CLL even when the frequency of genetic and chromosomal abnormalities is low. © 2016 International Society for Advancement of Cytometry.

  6. Evaluation of 18F-FDG PET/CT as a diagnostic imaging and staging tool for feline oral squamous cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Randall, E K; Kraft, S L; Yoshikawa, H; LaRue, S M

    2016-03-01

    18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography combined with computed tomography (18FDG-PET/CT) has been shown to be effective for staging human oral squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) but its application for cats with oral SCC is unknown. Twelve cats with biopsy-proven oral SCC were imaged with whole body 18FDG-PET/CT to determine its value as a diagnostic imaging and staging tool and fine needle aspirates were obtained of accessible regional lymph nodes. All tumors were FDG avid and conspicuous on 18FDG-PET/CT images, with an average of the maximum standardized uptake value 9.88 ± 5.33 SD (range 2.9-24.9). Soft tissue infiltrative tumors that were subtle and ill defined on CT were highly visible and more extensive on FDG-PET/CT. Tumors invading the osseous structures were more similar in extent on 18FDG-PET/CT and CT although they were more conspicuous on PET images. Three cytologically confirmed metastases were hypermetabolic on PET, while two of those metastases were equivocal on CT.

  7. AAT as a diagnostic tool.

    PubMed

    Lisowska-Myjak, Barbara

    2005-02-01

    Serum alpha-1-antitrypsin (AAT) concentration can be affected by both inflammatory and non-inflammatory conditions. This paper characterizes the nature of AAT in physiology and pathologic deficiency and increasing states. The relationships between the AAT concentration in different clinical materials (serum, urine, faeces) and various diseases connected with different organs were analyzed.

  8. QuantiGene Plex Represents a Promising Diagnostic Tool for Cell-of-Origin Subtyping of Diffuse Large B-Cell Lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Hall, John S; Usher, Suzanne; Byers, Richard J; Higgins, Rebekah C; Memon, Danish; Radford, John A; Linton, Kim M

    2015-07-01

    Emerging therapies targeting the molecularly distinct GCB and non-GCB/ABC subtypes of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) have created the need to develop an accurate subtyping assay for routine use. We investigated the potential of QuantiGene Plex (QGP)-branched DNA signal amplification assay-for DLBCL subtyping. We performed in silico analysis of public DLBCL datasets to develop and validate a naïve Bayes classifier, and migrated the resulting 21-gene classifier to QGP and real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR) assays. Forty DLBCL formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tumors of known subtype (20 per subtype by gene expression profiling of paired fresh-frozen tissues) were reclassified, and results for QGP (on 38/40 for 21/21 targets) and qPCR (on 40/40 samples for 19/21 targets) compared for recapitulation of microarray data and classification accuracy. The 21-gene bayesian classifier achieved mean area under the curve values >0.9 on independent validation. QGP showed a higher correlation with microarray data (mean R(2) = 0.66 ± 0.05 versus 0.34 ± 0.07; P < 0.0001) and classification accuracy (92.1% versus 78.9%). The proportion of validated targets was also higher for QGP (85.7% versus 47.4%). The QGP protocol was rapid and simple to perform, at a cost similar to qPCR. These promising preliminary results strongly support ongoing work to develop a QGP companion diagnostic assay for DLBCL subtyping.

  9. Fermilab recycler diagnostics

    SciTech Connect

    Martin Hu

    2001-07-24

    The Fermilab Recycler Ring is a permanent magnet storage ring for the storage and cooling of antiprotons. The following note describes the diagnostic tools currently available for commissioning, as well as the improvements and upgrades planned for the near future.

  10. Raman microspectroscopy as a diagnostic tool for the non-invasive analysis of fibrillin-1 deficiency in the skin and in the in vitro skin models.

    PubMed

    Brauchle, Eva; Bauer, Hannah; Fernes, Patrick; Zuk, Alexandra; Schenke-Layland, Katja; Sengle, Gerhard

    2016-12-09

    Fibrillin microfibrils and elastic fibers are critical determinants of elastic tissues where they define as tissue-specific architectures vital mechanical properties such as pliability and elastic recoil. Fibrillin microfibrils also facilitate elastic fiber formation and support the association of epithelial cells with the interstitial matrix. Mutations in fibrillin-1 (FBN1) are causative for the Marfan syndrome, a congenital multisystem disorder characterized by progressive deterioration of the fibrillin microfibril/ elastic fiber architecture in the cardiovascular, musculoskeletal, ocular, and dermal system. In this study, we utilized Raman microspectroscopy in combination with principal component analysis (PCA) to analyze the molecular consequences of fibrillin-1 deficiency in skin of a mouse model (GT8) of Marfan syndrome. In addition, full-thickness skin models incorporating murine wild-type and Fbn1(GT8/GT8) fibroblasts as well as human HaCaT keratinocytes were generated and analyzed. Skin models containing GT8 fibroblasts showed an altered epidermal morphology when compared to wild-type models indicating a new role for fibrillin-1 in dermal-epidermal crosstalk. Obtained Raman spectra together with PCA allowed to discriminate between healthy and deficient microfibrillar networks in murine dermis and skin models. Interestingly, results obtained from GT8 dermis and skin models showed similar alterations in molecular signatures triggered by fibrillin-1 deficiency such as amide III vibrations and decreased levels of glycan vibrations. Overall, this study indicates that Raman microspectroscopy has the potential to analyze subtle changes in fibrillin-1 microfibrils and elastic fiber networks. Therefore Raman microspectroscopy may be utilized as a non-invasive and sensitive diagnostic tool to identify connective tissue disorders and monitor their disease progression.

  11. Cytoplasmic expression of HuR may be a valuable diagnostic tool for determining the potential for malignant transformation of oral verrucous borderline lesions

    PubMed Central

    HABIBA, UMMA; KITAMURA, TETSUYA; YANAGAWA-MATSUDA, AYA; HIDA, KYOKO; HIGASHINO, FUMIHIRO; OHIRO, YOICHI; TOTSUKA, YASUNORI; SHINDOH, MASANOBU

    2014-01-01

    Oral verrucous carcinoma (OVC) is a low grade variant of oral squamous cell carcinoma, and oral verrucous hyperplasia (OVH) is a benign lesion without malignant features. However, pathologists are sometimes presented with borderline lesions and are indecisive as to diagnose them as benign or malignant. Thus, these lesions are tentatively termed oral verrucous lesions (OVLs). HuR is an ARE mRNA-binding protein, normally localized in the nucleus but cytoplasmic exportation is frequently observed in cancer cells. The present study aimed to elucidate whether expression of the HuR protein facilitates the diagnosis of true malignant lesions. Clinicopathological features were evaluated, and immunohistochemical analysis for p53, Ki67 and HuR proteins was performed in 48 cases of OVH, OVC and OVL, and the outcomes were correlated using appropriate statistical analysis. The association of these three proteins in relation to malignant transformation was analyzed after a 3-year follow-up of 25 OVL cases. The basal characteristics (age, gender and location) of all cases had no significant association with the types of lesions. Gingiva (39.4%) was the common site for all lesions. Distribution of the examined proteins had a significant association with the lesions. As compared with the OVLs, the number of immunostained-positive cells was significantly higher in the OVCs and lower in the OVH cases. During follow-up, 24% of the OVLs underwent malignant transformation for which high HuR expression and a diffuse staining pattern in the epithelium were observed. Taken together, the high degree of HuR expression with diffuse staining pattern in the epithelium may be an effective diagnostic tool that determines the potential of OVLs for malignant transformation. PMID:24534848

  12. Rasch Analysis of the Premature Ejaculation Diagnostic Tool (PEDT) and the International Index of Erectile Function (IIEF) in an Iranian Sample of Prostate Cancer Patients

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Chung-Ying; Pakpour, Amir H.; Burri, Andrea; Montazeri, Ali

    2016-01-01

    Background Male sexual dysfunction is an increasing problem across a variety of general and clinical populations, such as cancer populations; especially among prostate cancer patients who tend to receive treatments that often result in erectile dysfunction (ED) and/or premature ejaculation (PE). Therefore, in order to diagnose ED and PE in these populations, adequate and efficient instruments such as the International Index of Erectile Function 5-item version (IIEF-5) and the Premature Ejaculation Diagnostic Tool (PEDT) are needed. However, since this is an important topic additional evidence of psychometric properties of the IIEF-5 and the PEDT in such samples are required. Thus the aim of the present study was to use Rasch models to investigate the construct validity, local dependency, score order, and differential item functioning (DIF) of both questionnaires in a sample of prostate cancer patients. Methods Prostate cancer patients (n = 1058, mean±SD age = 64.07±6.84 years) who visited urology clinics were invited to fill out the IIEF-5 and the PEDT. Construct validity was examined using infit and outfit mean square (MnSq) and local dependency using correlations between each two residual Rasch scores. Score order was investigated using step and average measures of difficulty and DIF using DIF contrast. Results All IIEF-5 and PEDT items had acceptable infit and outfit MnSq. Step measures revealed that all but two items had disordered categories in terms of scores 1 to 3. Only one local dependency was found, and no items displayed DIF across age, educational level, and help seeking. Conclusions The results showed that both the IIEF-5 and the PEDT had sound psychometric properties in the Rasch analyses, although some score disordering could be detected in both instruments. The results of no DIF items in both instruments suggest using them to compare ED and PE across age and educational level is adequate. PMID:27336626

  13. A field trial of infrared thermography as a non-invasive diagnostic tool for early detection of digital dermatitis in dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Alsaaod, M; Syring, C; Dietrich, J; Doherr, M G; Gujan, T; Steiner, A

    2014-02-01

    Infrared thermography (IRT) was used to detect digital dermatitis (DD) prior to routine claw trimming. A total of 1192 IRT observations were collected from 149 cows on eight farms. All cows were housed in tie-stalls. The maximal surface temperatures of the coronary band (CB) region and skin (S) of the fore and rear feet (mean value of the maximal surface temperatures of both digits for each foot separately, CBmax and Smax) were assessed. Grouping was performed at the foot level (presence of DD, n=99; absence, n=304), or at the cow level (all four feet healthy, n=24) or where there was at least one DD lesion on the rear feet, n=37). For individual cows (n=61), IRT temperature difference was determined by subtracting the mean sum of CBmax and Smax of the rear feet from that of the fore feet. Feet with DD had higher CBmax and Smax (P<0.001) than healthy feet. Smax was significantly higher in feet with infectious DD lesions (M-stage: M2+M4; n=15) than in those with non-infectious M-lesions (M1+M3; n=84) (P=0.03), but this was not the case for CBmax (P=0.12). At the cow level, an optimal cut-off value for detecting DD of 0.99°C (IRT temperature difference between rear and front feet) yielded a sensitivity of 89.1% and a specificity of 66.6%. The results indicate that IRT may be a useful non-invasive diagnostic tool to screen for the presence of DD in dairy cows by measuring CBmax and Smax.

  14. Prospective assessment of rapid diagnostic tests for the detection of antibodies to hepatitis C virus, a tool for improving access to care.

    PubMed

    Chevaliez, S; Poiteau, L; Rosa, I; Soulier, A; Roudot-Thoraval, F; Laperche, S; Hézode, C; Pawlotsky, J-M

    2016-05-01

    Large-scale hepatitis C screening is required to prevent further spread of the infection, improve access to care in the context of new hepatitis C virus (HCV) drug regimens without interferon-alpha and subsequently reduce the risk of long-term complications of chronic liver disease. Rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) represent an attractive alternative to enzyme immunoassay using blood from venepuncture. The aim of the present study was to prospectively assess the clinical performance of CE-marked RDTs detecting anti-HCV antibodies in fingerstick capillary whole blood and/or oral fluid. A total of 513 individuals, including 318 patients with chronic HCV infection, 25 patients with resolved HCV infection and 170 HCV-seronegative individuals, were prospectively enrolled. The specificity of RDTs with fingerstick whole blood varied from 98.8% to 100%. The clinical sensitivity was high for the OraQuick(®) and Toyo(®) tests (99.4% and 95.8%, respectively), but low for the Labmen(®) test (63.1%). The specificity and clinical sensitivity in crevicular fluid were both satisfactory for the OraQuick(®) test (100% and 97.6%, respectively). HCV antibody RDTs were easy and rapid to perform in the context of patient care. They were highly specific. Both the OraQuick(®) and Toyo(®) tests reached the expected level of performance for wide-scale use, with a performance advantage for the OraQuick(®) HCV test. RDTs appear to be a promising new tool for wide-scale screening of HCV infection in high-risk to medium-risk populations. Hence, careful assessment of the performance of HCV RDTs must be recommended before they can be implemented in clinical practice.

  15. Tuberculosis Diagnostics: State of the Art and Future Directions.

    PubMed

    Pai, Madhukar; Nicol, Mark P; Boehme, Catharina C

    2016-10-01

    Rapid and accurate diagnosis is critical for timely initiation of anti-tuberculosis (TB) treatment, but many people with TB (or TB symptoms) do not have access to adequate initial diagnosis. In many countries, TB diagnosis is still reliant on sputum microscopy, a test with known limitations. However, new diagnostics are starting to change the landscape. Stimulated, in part, by the success and rollout of Xpert MTB/RIF, an automated, molecular test, there is now considerable interest in new technologies. The landscape looks promising with a pipeline of new tools, particularly molecular diagnostics, and well over 50 companies actively engaged in product development, and many tests have been reviewed by WHO for policy endorsement. However, new diagnostics are yet to reach scale, and there needs to be greater convergence between diagnostics development and the development of shorter TB drug regimens. Another concern is the relative absence of non-sputum-based diagnostics in the pipeline for children, and of biomarker tests for triage, cure, and latent TB progression. Increased investments are necessary to support biomarker discovery, validation, and translation into clinical tools. While transformative tools are being developed, high-burden countries will need to improve the efficiency of their health care delivery systems, ensure better uptake of new technologies, and achieve greater linkages across the TB and HIV care continuum. While we wait for next-generation technologies, national TB programs must scale up the best diagnostics currently available, and use implementation science to get the maximum impact.

  16. Diagnostic and Therapeutic Challenges in a Liver Transplant Recipient with Central Nervous System Invasive Aspergillosis

    PubMed Central

    Dionissios, Neofytos; Shmuel, Shoham; Kerry, Dierberg; Katharine, Le; Simon, Dufresne; Sean, Zhang X; Kieren, Marr A

    2012-01-01

    This is a case report of central nervous system (CNS) invasive aspergillosis (IA) in a liver transplant recipient, which illustrates the utility of enzyme-based diagnostic tools for the timely and accurate diagnosis of IA, the treatment challenges and poor outcomes associated with CNS IA in liver transplant recipients. PMID:22676861

  17. An emerging micro-scale immuno-analytical diagnostic tool to see the unseen. Holding promise for precision medicine and P4 medicine.

    PubMed

    Guzman, Norberto A; Guzman, Daniel E

    2016-05-15

    Over the years, analytical chemistry and immunology have contributed significantly to the field of clinical diagnosis by introducing quantitative techniques that can detect crucial and distinct chemical, biochemical and cellular biomarkers present in biosamples. Currently, quantitative two-dimensional hybrid immuno-analytical separation technologies are emerging as powerful tools for the sequential isolation, separation and detection of protein panels, including those with subtle structural changes such as variants, isoforms, peptide fragments, and post-translational modifications. One such technique to perform this challenging task is immunoaffinity capillary electrophoresis (IACE), which combines the use of antibodies and/or other affinity ligands as highly selective capture agents with the superior resolving power of capillary electrophoresis. Since affinity ligands can be polyreactive, i.e., binding and capturing more than one molecule, they may generate false positive results when tested under mono-dimensional procedures; one such application is enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). IACE, on the other hand, is a two-dimensional technique that captures (isolation and enrichment), releases, separates and detects (quantification, identification and characterization) a single or a panel of analytes from a sample, when coupled to one or more detectors simultaneously, without the presence of false positive or false negative data. This disruptive technique, capable of preconcentrate on-line results in enhanced sensitivity even in the analysis of complex matrices, may change the traditional system of testing biomarkers to obtain more accurate diagnosis of diseases, ideally before symptoms of a specific disease manifest. In this manuscript, we will present examples of the determination of biomarkers by IACE and the design of a miniaturized multi-dimensional IACE apparatus capable of improved sensitivity, specificity and throughput, with the potential of being used

  18. First all-in-one diagnostic tool for DNA intelligence: genome-wide inference of biogeographic ancestry, appearance, relatedness, and sex with the Identitas v1 Forensic Chip.

    PubMed

    Keating, Brendan; Bansal, Aruna T; Walsh, Susan; Millman, Jonathan; Newman, Jonathan; Kidd, Kenneth; Budowle, Bruce; Eisenberg, Arthur; Donfack, Joseph; Gasparini, Paolo; Budimlija, Zoran; Henders, Anjali K; Chandrupatla, Hareesh; Duffy, David L; Gordon, Scott D; Hysi, Pirro; Liu, Fan; Medland, Sarah E; Rubin, Laurence; Martin, Nicholas G; Spector, Timothy D; Kayser, Manfred

    2013-05-01

    When a forensic DNA sample cannot be associated directly with a previously genotyped reference sample by standard short tandem repeat profiling, the investigation required for identifying perpetrators, victims, or missing persons can be both costly and time consuming. Here, we describe the outcome of a collaborative study using the Identitas Version 1 (v1) Forensic Chip, the first commercially available all-in-one tool dedicated to the concept of developing intelligence leads based on DNA. The chip allows parallel interrogation of 201,173 genome-wide autosomal, X-chromosomal, Y-chromosomal, and mitochondrial single nucleotide polymorphisms for inference of biogeographic ancestry, appearance, relatedness, and sex. The first assessment of the chip's performance was carried out on 3,196 blinded DNA samples of varying quantities and qualities, covering a wide range of biogeographic origin and eye/hair coloration as well as variation in relatedness and sex. Overall, 95 % of the samples (N = 3,034) passed quality checks with an overall genotype call rate >90 % on variable numbers of available recorded trait information. Predictions of sex, direct match, and first to third degree relatedness were highly accurate. Chip-based predictions of biparental continental ancestry were on average ~94 % correct (further support provided by separately inferred patrilineal and matrilineal ancestry). Predictions of eye color were 85 % correct for brown and 70 % correct for blue eyes, and predictions of hair color were 72 % for brown, 63 % for blond, 58 % for black, and 48 % for red hair. From the 5 % of samples (N = 162) with <90 % call rate, 56 % yielded correct continental ancestry predictions while 7 % yielded sufficient genotypes to allow hair and eye color prediction. Our results demonstrate that the Identitas v1 Forensic Chip holds great promise for a wide range of applications including criminal investigations, missing person investigations, and for national security

  19. Diagnostics for studies of novel laser ion acceleration mechanisms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Senje, Lovisa; Yeung, Mark; Aurand, Bastian; Kuschel, Stephan; Rödel, Christian; Wagner, Florian; Li, Kun; Dromey, Brendan; Bagnoud, Vincent; Neumayer, Paul; Roth, Markus; Wahlström, Claes-Göran; Zepf, Matthew; Kuehl, Thomas; Jung, Daniel

    2014-11-01

    Diagnostic for investigating and distinguishing different laser ion acceleration mechanisms has been developed and successfully tested. An ion separation wide angle spectrometer can simultaneously investigate three important aspects of the laser plasma interaction: (1) acquire angularly resolved energy spectra for two ion species, (2) obtain ion energy spectra for multiple species, separated according to their charge to mass ratio, along selected axes, and (3) collect laser radiation reflected from and transmitted through the target and propagating in the same direction as the ion beam. Thus, the presented diagnostic constitutes a highly adaptable tool for accurately studying novel acceleration mechanisms in terms of their angular energy distribution, conversion efficiency, and plasma density evolution.

  20. Diagnostic scope and certainty: an analysis of FNP practice.

    PubMed

    Draye, M A; Pesznecker, B L

    1979-01-01

    The health problems of 2,136 patients randomly selected from 8,905 patients seen by 356 family nurse practitioners around the U.S.A. were analyzed. Primary diagnoses were reported on all patients using an adapted H-ICDA/ICHPPC classification. This system allowed for 18 diagnostic categories and 115 diagnoses relevant to primary care. The ten most frequent diagnostic categories were reported and analyzed as to certainty and status (old or new diagnosis). Analysis of diagnostic certainty revealed areas where FNPs felt most accurate. Reporting both diagnoses and diagnostic categories allowed greater understanding of the health problems presented to family nurse practitioners in primary care. This comprehensive data bank of patient care problems adds another dimension to the study of primary care and is a useful tool in further family nurse practitioner research and in curriculum development.

  1. European surveillance network for influenza in pigs: surveillance programs, diagnostic tools and Swine influenza virus subtypes identified in 14 European countries from 2010 to 2013.

    PubMed

    Simon, Gaëlle; Larsen, Lars E; Dürrwald, Ralf; Foni, Emanuela; Harder, Timm; Van Reeth, Kristien; Markowska-Daniel, Iwona; Reid, Scott M; Dan, Adam; Maldonado, Jaime; Huovilainen, Anita; Billinis, Charalambos; Davidson, Irit; Agüero, Montserrat; Vila, Thaïs; Hervé, Séverine; Breum, Solvej Østergaard; Chiapponi, Chiara; Urbaniak, Kinga; Kyriakis, Constantinos S; Brown, Ian H; Loeffen, Willie

    2014-01-01

    Swine influenza causes concern for global veterinary and public health officials. In continuing two previous networks that initiated the surveillance of swine influenza viruses (SIVs) circulating in European pigs between 2001 and 2008, a third European Surveillance Network for Influenza in Pigs (ESNIP3, 2010-2013) aimed to expand widely the knowledge of the epidemiology of European SIVs. ESNIP3 stimulated programs of harmonized SIV surveillance in European countries and supported the coordination of appropriate diagnostic tools and subtyping methods. Thus, an extensive virological monitoring, mainly conducted through passive surveillance programs, resulted in the examination of more than 9 000 herds in 17 countries. Influenza A viruses were detected in 31% of herds examined from which 1887 viruses were preliminary characterized. The dominating subtypes were the three European enzootic SIVs: avian-like swine H1N1 (53.6%), human-like reassortant swine H1N2 (13%) and human-like reassortant swine H3N2 (9.1%), as well as pandemic A/H1N1 2009 (H1N1pdm) virus (10.3%). Viruses from these four lineages co-circulated in several countries but with very different relative levels of incidence. For instance, the H3N2 subtype was not detected at all in some geographic areas whereas it was still prevalent in other parts of Europe. Interestingly, H3N2-free areas were those that exhibited highest frequencies of circulating H1N2 viruses. H1N1pdm viruses were isolated at an increasing incidence in some countries from 2010 to 2013, indicating that this subtype has become established in the European pig population. Finally, 13.9% of the viruses represented reassortants between these four lineages, especially between previous enzootic SIVs and H1N1pdm. These novel viruses were detected at the same time in several countries, with increasing prevalence. Some of them might become established in pig herds, causing implications for zoonotic infections.

  2. Monitoring bone strontium levels of an osteoporotic subject due to self-administration of strontium citrate with a novel diagnostic tool, in vivo XRF: a case study.

    PubMed

    Moise, H; Adachi, J D; Chettle, D R; Pejović-Milić, A

    2012-07-01

    A previously developed in vivo X-ray fluorescence (IVXRF) I-125 based system was used to measure bone strontium levels non-invasively in an osteoporotic female volunteer. The volunteer was recruited in December 2008, as part of the Ryerson and McMaster University Strontium in Bone Research Study and measured at twice weekly, weekly and monthly intervals. Thirty minute measurements were taken at the finger and ankle bone sites, representing primarily cortical and trabecular bone, respectively and the strontium K-alpha X-ray peak at 14.16 keV was used in the analysis. Since the volunteer had no prior history of strontium based medications or supplementation, baseline natural strontium levels were obtained followed by a 24h measurement of first intake of strontium citrate supplements (680 mg Sr/day). While the baseline levels of 0.38 ± 0.05 and 0.39 ± 0.10 for the finger and ankle, respectively, were on par with those previously reported in Caucasians among twenty-two healthy non-supplementing strontium individuals by our group, an increase began to be seen after 24 hrs of 0.62 ± 0.14 and 0.45 ± 0.12 for the finger and ankle, respectively. By 120 h, the increase was statistically significant at 0.68 ± 0.07 and 0.93 ± 0.05, respectively. Further increases occurred within an interval of 90-180 days, with the most recent, after 800 days, at the finger and ankle being 7 and 15 times higher than the initial baseline reading. The intriguing results show bone strontium incorporation and retention follow a pattern, suggesting strontium levels, at least in the ankle, do not plateau within two to three years and will continue to increase over time, as an individual takes strontium supplements. The ability of this IVXRF system to monitor and measure bone strontium levels over time provides a useful diagnostic tool to help gain insight into strontium bone kinetics.

  3. Tools for the diagnosis of equine respiratory disorders.

    PubMed

    Roy, Marie-France; Lavoie, Jean-Pierre

    2003-04-01

    Respiratory disorders are among the most common problems leading horse owners to seek veterinary attention. Accurate diagnosis of these conditions allows for proper treatment to be instituted, much to the benefit of the patient and satisfaction of the client. As an introduction to this issue on equine respiratory disorders, we review some of the tools that are available to equine veterinarians for the diagnosis of respiratory disorders. Physical and endoscopic examination, radiology, diagnostic ultrasound, techniques for sampling the respiratory tract, hematology, blood gas analysis, respiratory mechanics, and some modern diagnostic tools are briefly covered.

  4. Novel physico-chemical diagnostic tools for high throughput identification of bovine mastitis associated gram-positive, catalase-negative cocci

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The routine diagnosis of Streptococcus spp. and other mastitis associated gram-positive, catalase-negative cocci is still based upon biochemical tests and serological methods, which frequently provide ambiguous identification results. We therefore aimed to establish an accurate identification system for differential diagnosis of mastitis associated Streptococcus spp. and related species using biophysical techniques such as Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and MALDI – TOF/MS. Results Based on a panel of 210 isolates from cases of bovine mastitis, an unsupervised FTIR spectral reference library was established and an artificial neural network (ANN) - assisted identification system was developed. All bacterial isolates were previously identified by species-specific PCR and/or 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis. An overall identification rate of 100% at species level for 173 strains unknown to the ANN and the library was achieved by combining ANN and the spectral database, thus demonstrating the suitability of our FTIR identification system for routine diagnosis. In addition, we investigated the potential of matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) for the identification of mastitis associated Streptococcus spp. and related bacteria. Using the Microflex LT System, MALDI Biotyper software™ (V3.3) we achieved an accuracy rate of 95.2%. A blind study, including 21 clinical samples from dairy cows, revealed a 100% correct species identification rate for FTIR and 90.5% for MALDI-TOF MS, indicating that these techniques are valuable tools for diagnosis. Conclusions This study clearly demonstrates that FTIR spectroscopy as well as MALDI-TOF MS can significantly improve and facilitate the identification and differentiation of mastitis associated Streptococcus spp. and related species. Although the FTIR identification system turned out being slightly superior to MALDI-TOF MS in terms of identification

  5. Molecular malaria diagnostics: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Roth, Johanna M; Korevaar, Daniël A; Leeflang, Mariska M G; Mens, Pètra F

    2016-01-01

    Accurate diagnosis of malaria is essential for identification and subsequent treatment of the disease. Currently, microscopy and rapid diagnostic tests are the most commonly used diagnostics, next to treatment based on clinical signs only. These tests are easy to deploy, but have a relatively high detection limit. With declining prevalence in many areas, there is an increasing need for more sensitive diagnostics. Molecular tools may be a suitable alternative, although costs and technical requirements currently hamper their implementation in resource limited settings. A range of (near) point-of-care diagnostics is therefore under development, including simplifications in sample preparation, amplification and/or read-out of the test. Accuracy data, in combination with technical characteristics, are essential in determining which molecular test, if any, would be the most promising to be deployed. This review presents a comprehensive overview of the currently available molecular malaria diagnostics, ranging from well-known tests to platforms in early stages of evaluation, and systematically evaluates their published accuracy. No important difference in accuracy was found between the most commonly used PCR-based assays (conventional, nested and real-time PCR), with most of them having high sensitivity and specificity, implying that there are no reasons other than practical ones to choose one technique over the other. Loop-mediated isothermal amplification and other (novel) diagnostics appear to be highly accurate as well, with some offering potential to be used in resource-limited settings.

  6. Saliva diagnostics - Current views and directions.

    PubMed

    Kaczor-Urbanowicz, Karolina Elżbieta; Martin Carreras-Presas, Carmen; Aro, Katri; Tu, Michael; Garcia-Godoy, Franklin; Wong, David Tw

    2017-03-01

    In this review, we provide an update on the current and future applications of saliva for diagnostic purposes. There are many advantages of using saliva as a biofluid. Its collection is fast, easy, inexpensive, and non-invasive. In addition, saliva, as a "mirror of the body," can reflect the physiological and pathological state of the body. Therefore, it serves as a diagnostic and monitoring tool in many fields of science such as medicine, dentistry, and pharmacotherapy. Introduced in 2008, the term "Salivaomics" aimed to highlight the rapid development of knowledge about various "omics" constituents of saliva, including: proteome, transcriptome, micro-RNA, metabolome, and microbiome. In the last few years, researchers have developed new technologies and validated a wide range of salivary biomarkers that will soon make the use of saliva a clinical reality. However, a great need still exists for convenient and accurate point-of-care devices that can serve as a non-invasive diagnostic tool. In addition, there is an urgent need to decipher the scientific rationale and mechanisms that convey systemic diseases to saliva. Another promising technology called liquid biopsy enables detection of circulating tumor cells (CTCs) and fragments of tumor DNA in saliva, thus enabling non-invasive early detection of various cancers. The newly developed technology-electric field-induced release and measurement (EFIRM) provides near perfect detection of actionable mutations in lung cancer patients. These recent advances widened the salivary diagnostic approach from the oral cavity to the whole physiological system, and thus point towards a promising future of salivary diagnostics for personalized individual medicine applications including clinical decisions and post-treatment outcome predictions. Impact statement The purpose of this mini-review is to make an update about the present and future applications of saliva as a diagnostic biofluid in many fields of science such as dentistry

  7. SveDem, the Swedish Dementia Registry – A Tool for Improving the Quality of Diagnostics, Treatment and Care of Dementia Patients in Clinical Practice

    PubMed Central

    Religa, Dorota; Fereshtehnejad, Seyed-Mohammad; Cermakova, Pavla; Edlund, Ann-Katrin; Garcia-Ptacek, Sara; Granqvist, Nicklas; Hallbäck, Anne; Kåwe, Kerstin; Farahmand, Bahman; Kilander, Lena; Mattsson, Ulla-Britt; Nägga, Katarina; Nordström, Peter; Wijk, Helle; Wimo, Anders; Winblad, Bengt; Eriksdotter, Maria

    2015-01-01

    Background The Swedish Dementia Registry (SveDem) was developed with the aim to improve the quality of diagnostic work-up, treatment and care of patients with dementia disorders in Sweden. Methods SveDem is an internet based quality registry where several indicators can be followed over time. It includes information about the diagnostic work-up, medical treatment and community support (www.svedem.se). The patients are diagnosed and followed-up yearly in specialist units, primary care centres or in nursing homes. Results The database was initiated in May 2007 and covers almost all of Sweden. There were 28 722 patients registered with a mean age of 79.3 years during 2007–2012. Each participating unit obtains continuous online statistics from its own registrations and they can be compared with regional and national data. A report from SveDem is published yearly to inform medical and care professionals as well as political and administrative decision-makers about the current quality of diagnostics, treatment and care of patients with dementia disorders in Sweden. Conclusion SveDem provides knowledge about current dementia care in Sweden and serves as a framework for ensuring the quality of diagnostics, treatment and care across the country. It also reflects changes in quality dementia care over time. Data from SveDem can be used to further develop the national guidelines for dementia and to generate new research hypotheses. PMID:25695768

  8. Diagnostic approach to the congenital muscular dystrophies

    PubMed Central

    Bönnemann, Carsten G.; Wang, Ching H.; Quijano-Roy, Susana; Deconinck, Nicolas; Bertini, Enrico; Ferreiro, Ana; Muntoni, Francesco; Sewry, Caroline; Béroud, Christophe; Mathews, Katherine D.; Moore, Steven A.; Bellini, Jonathan; Rutkowski, Anne; North, Kathryn N.

    2017-01-01

    Congenital muscular dystrophies (CMDs) are early onset disorders of muscle with histological features suggesting a dystrophic process. The congenital muscular dystrophies as a group encompass great clinical and genetic heterogeneity so that achieving an accurate genetic diagnosis has become increasingly challenging, even in the age of next generation sequencing. In this document we review the diagnostic features, differential diagnostic considerations and available diagnostic tools for the various CMD subtypes and provide a systematic guide to the use of these resources for achieving an accurate molecular diagnosis. An International Committee on the Standard of Care for Congenital Muscular Dystrophies composed of experts on various aspects relevant to the CMDs performed a review of the available literature as well as of the unpublished expertise represented by the members of the committee and their contacts. This process was refined by two rounds of online surveys and followed by a three-day meeting at which the conclusions were presented and further refined. The combined consensus summarized in this document allows the physician to recognize the presence of a CMD in a child with weakness based on history, clinical examination, muscle biopsy results, and imaging. It will be helpful in suspecting a specific CMD subtype in order to prioritize testing to arrive at a final genetic diagnosis. PMID:24581957

  9. Integrated diagnostics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hunthausen, Roger J.

    1988-01-01

    Recently completed projects in which advanced diagnostic concepts were explored and/or demonstrated are summarized. The projects begin with the design of integrated diagnostics for the Army's new gas turbine engines, and advance to the application of integrated diagnostics to other aircraft subsystems. Finally, a recent project is discussed which ties together subsystem fault monitoring and diagnostics with a more complete picture of flight domain knowledge.

  10. Developing an edge-plasma diagnostic tool for the Globus-M tokamak based on measuring ratios of HeI lines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Timokhin, V. M.; Rykachevskii, A. I.; Miroshnikov, I. V.; Sergeev, V. Yu.; Kochergin, M. M.; Koval', A. N.; Mukhin, E. E.; Tolstyakov, S. Yu.; Voronin, A. V.

    2016-08-01

    A diagnostic technique that is based on measuring the ratios of neutral-helium line strengths has been developed for peripheral distributions of electron temperature and density of tokamak plasma. The main components of the technique are a four-channel filter-lens imaging polychromator (FLIP-4) and a Phantom Miro M110 high-speed camera for recording the images. The polychromator has been assembled, adjusted, and tested on an optical test bench. The optical system was installed on the spherical Globus-M tokamak. Some preliminary experiments were carried out. Images of the plasma-gun jet were obtained at neutralhelium lines.

  11. Analysis of the electroluminescence features of silicon metal-insulator-semiconductor structures as a tool for diagnostics of the injection properties of a dielectric layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Illarionov, Yu. Yu.; Vexler, M. I.; Isakov, D.; Fedorov, V. V.; Sing, Yew Kwang

    2013-10-01

    A technique for diagnostics of the injection properties of thin dielectric layers based on analysis of the data on silicon electroluminescence in a metal-insulator-semiconductor structure is proposed. The possibility of applying this technique to control the electron injection energy (in particular, when the barrier parameters are poorly known) is demonstrated by the example of samples with CaF2 and HfO2/SiO2. The results obtained are important for application of the insulators under study in microelectronic devices.

  12. Accurate Finite Difference Algorithms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goodrich, John W.

    1996-01-01

    Two families of finite difference algorithms for computational aeroacoustics are presented and compared. All of the algorithms are single step explicit methods, they have the same order of accuracy in both space and time, with examples up to eleventh order, and they have multidimensional extensions. One of the algorithm families has spectral like high resolution. Propagation with high order and high resolution algorithms can produce accurate results after O(10(exp 6)) periods of propagation with eight grid points per wavelength.

  13. Accurate monotone cubic interpolation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huynh, Hung T.

    1991-01-01

    Monotone piecewise cubic interpolants are simple and effective. They are generally third-order accurate, except near strict local extrema where accuracy degenerates to second-order due to the monotonicity constraint. Algorithms for piecewise cubic interpolants, which preserve monotonicity as well as uniform third and fourth-order accuracy are presented. The gain of accuracy is obtained by relaxing the monotonicity constraint in a geometric framework in which the median function plays a crucial role.

  14. Visual Detection of Human Antibodies Using Sugar Chain-Immobilized Fluorescent Nanoparticles: Application as a Point of Care Diagnostic Tool for Guillain-Barré Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Shinchi, Hiroyuki; Yuki, Nobuhiro; Ishida, Hideharu; Hirata, Koichi; Wakao, Masahiro; Suda, Yasuo

    2015-01-01

    Sugar chain binding antibodies have gained substantial attention as biomarkers due to their crucial roles in various disorders. In this study, we developed simple and quick detection method of anti-sugar chain antibodies in sera using our previously developed sugar chain-immobilized fluorescent nanoparticles (SFNPs) for the point-of-care diagnostics. Sugar chain structure on SFNPs was modified with the sugar moieties of the GM1 ganglioside via our original linker molecule to detect anti-GM1 antibodies. The structures and densities of the sugar moieties immobilized on the nanoparticles were evaluated in detail using lectins and sera containing anti-GM1 antibodies from patients with Guillain-Barré syndrome, a neurological disorder, as an example of disease involving anti-sugar chain antibodies. When optimized SFNPs were added to sera from patients with Guillain-Barré syndrome, fluorescent aggregates were able to visually detect under UV light in three hours. The sensitivity of the detection method was equivalent to that of the current ELISA method used for the diagnosis of Guillain-Barré syndrome. These results suggest that our method using SFNPs is suitable for the point-of-care diagnostics of diseases involving anti-sugar chain antibodies.

  15. Next-generation sequencing (NGS) as a diagnostic tool for retinal degeneration reveals a much higher detection rate in early-onset disease

    PubMed Central

    Shanks, Morag E; Downes, Susan M; Copley, Richard R; Lise, Stefano; Broxholme, John; Hudspith, Karl AZ; Kwasniewska, Alexandra; Davies, Wayne IL; Hankins, Mark W; Packham, Emily R; Clouston, Penny; Seller, Anneke; Wilkie, Andrew OM; Taylor, Jenny C; Ragoussis, Jiannis; Németh, Andrea H

    2013-01-01

    Inherited retinal degeneration (IRD) is a common cause of visual impairment (prevalence ∼1/3500). There is considerable phenotype and genotype heterogeneity, making a specific diagnosis very difficult without molecular testing. We investigated targeted capture combined with next-generation sequencing using Nimblegen 12plex arrays and the Roche 454 sequencing platform to explore its potential for clinical diagnostics in two common types of IRD, retinitis pigmentosa and cone-rod dystrophy. 50 patients (36 unknowns and 14 positive controls) were screened, and pathogenic mutations were identified in 25% of patients in the unknown, with 53% in the early-onset cases. All patients with new mutations detected had an age of onset <21 years and 44% had a family history. Thirty-one percent of mutations detected were novel. A de novo mutation in rhodopsin was identified in one early-onset case without a family history. Bioinformatic pipelines were developed to identify likely pathogenic mutations and stringent criteria were used for assignment of pathogenicity. Analysis of sequencing metrics revealed significant variability in capture efficiency and depth of coverage. We conclude that targeted capture and next-generation sequencing are likely to be very useful in a diagnostic setting, but patients with earlier onset of disease are more likely to benefit from using this strategy. The mutation-detection rate suggests that many patients are likely to have mutations in novel genes. PMID:22968130

  16. Use of a Process Analysis Tool for Diagnostic Study on Fine Particulate Matter Predictions in the U.S.-Part II: Analysis and Sensitivity Simulations

    EPA Science Inventory

    Following the Part I paper that described an application of the U.S. EPA Models-3/Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) modeling system to the 1999 Southern Oxidants Study episode, this paper presents results from process analysis (PA) using the PA tool embedded in CMAQ and s...

  17. Measurement of x-ray laser beam divergence with CADIX, a time-resolved diagnostic tool using an insertable multilayer mirror

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reverdin, C.; Bourgade, J. L.; Bruneau, J.; Charret, M.; Desenne, D.; Dulieu, A.; Dumont, H.; Louis-Jacquet, M.; Sauneuf, R.; Schirmann, D.; Troussel, P.

    1992-10-01

    To study the x-ray laser beam deflection and divergence due to the refraction within the plasma, a specific diagnostic called CADIX has been developed at the Centre d'Etudes de Limeil-Valenton (CEL-V). When the beam refraction analysis is required a multilayer mirror is inserted on the x-ray laser output beam. It selects the lasing wavelengths and reflects them to an off-axis streak camera which records x rays as a function of time and angle. A detailed description of the instrument is presented including multilayer mirror calibration at the LURE (Laboratoire pour L'Utilisation du Rayonnement Synchrotron, Orsay, France). An experimental measurement on neon-like silver amplification is presented and analyzed with the response of the mirror. An important refraction effect is observed.

  18. Student Interpretations of Diagnostic Feedback

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doe, Christine

    2015-01-01

    Diagnostic assessment is increasingly being recognized as a potentially beneficial tool for teaching and learning (Jang, 2012). There have been calls in the research literature for students to receive diagnostic feedback and for researchers to investigate how such feedback is used by students. Therefore, this study examined how students…

  19. Ellipsoidal reflectors in biomedical diagnostic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bezuglyi, M. A.; Bezuglaya, N. V.

    2013-11-01

    In this work were considered photometric tools for biomedical diagnostics, which contain a mirror ellipsoid of revolution. Proposed schemes with ellipsoidal reflectors for diagnostics in reflected and in reflected and transmitted light. A comparative analysis of measurement standards scattering surfaces was held.

  20. Using Rapid Diagnostic Tests as a Source of Viral RNA for Dengue Serotyping by RT-PCR - A Novel Epidemiological Tool

    PubMed Central

    Vongsouvath, Manivanh; Phommasone, Koukeo; Sengvilaipaseuth, Onanong; Kosoltanapiwat, Nathamon; Chantratita, Narisara; Blacksell, Stuart D.; Lee, Sue J.; de Lamballerie, Xavier; Mayxay, Mayfong; Keomany, Sommay; Newton, Paul N.; Dubot-Pérès, Audrey

    2016-01-01

    Background Dengue virus infection causes major public health problems in tropical and subtropical areas. In many endemic areas, including the Lao PDR, inadequate access to laboratory facilities is a major obstacle to surveillance and study of dengue epidemiology. Filter paper is widely used for blood collection for subsequent laboratory testing for antibody and nucleic acid detection. For the first time, we demonstrate that dengue viral RNA can be extracted from dengue rapid diagnostic tests (RDT) and then submitted to real-time RT-PCR for serotyping. Methodology/Principal Findings We evaluated the Standard Diagnostics (SD) Bioline Dengue Duo RDT, a commonly used test in dengue endemic areas. First, using the QIAamp RNA kit, dengue RNA was purified from the sample pad of the NS1 RDT loaded with virus isolates of the four serotypes, then quantified by RT-PCR. We observed greater recovery of virus, with a mean of 27 times more RNA recovered from RDT, than from filter paper. Second, we evaluated dengue NS1 RDTs from patients at Mahosot Hospital, Vientiane, (99 patients) and from rural Salavan Provincial Hospital (362 patients). There was good agreement between dengue RT-PCR from NS1 RDT with RT-PCR performed on RNA extracted from patient sera, either using RDT loaded with blood (82.8% and 91.4%, in Vientiane and Salavan, respectively) or serum (91.9% and 93.9%). There was 100% concordance between RDT and serum RT-PCR of infecting dengue serotype. Conclusions/Significance Therefore, the collection of NS1 positive RDTs, which do not require cold storage, may be a novel approach for dengue serotyping by RT-PCR and offers promising prospects for the collection of epidemiological data from previously inaccessible tropical areas to aid surveillance and public health interventions. PMID:27159058

  1. Sodiation as a tool for enhancing the diagnostic value of MALDI-TOF/TOF-MS spectra of complex astaxanthin ester mixtures from Haematococcus pluvialis.

    PubMed

    Weesepoel, Yannick; Vincken, Jean-Paul; Pop, Raluca Maria; Liu, Kun; Gruppen, Harry

    2013-07-01

    The microalga Haematococcus pluvialis produces the pigment astaxanthin mainly in esterified form with a multitude of fatty acids, which results in a complex mixture of carotenol mono- and diesters. For rapid fingerprinting of these esters, matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF/TOF-MS) might be an alternative to traditional chromatographic separation combined with MS. Investigation of ionization and fragmentation of astaxanthin mono- and diester palmitate standards in MALDI-TOF/TOF-MS showed that sodium adduct parent masses [M + Na](+) gave much simpler MS(2) spectra than radical / protonated [M](+●) / [M + H](+) parents. [M + Na](+) fragments yielded diagnostic polyene-specific eliminations and fatty acid neutral losses, whereas [M](+●) / [M + H](+) fragmentation resulted in a multitude of non-diagnostic daughters. For diesters, a benzonium fragment, formed by polyene elimination, was required for identification of the second fatty acid attached to the astaxanthin backbone. Parents were forced into [M + Na](+) ionization by addition of sodium acetate, and best signal-to-noise ratios were obtained in the 0.1 to 1.0 mM range. This method was applied to fingerprinting astaxanthin esters in a crude H. pluvialis extract. Prior to MALDI-TOF/TOF-MS, the extract was fractionated by normal phase Flash chromatography to obtain fractions enriched in mono- and diesters and to remove pheophytin a, which compromised monoester signals. All 12 types of all-trans esterified esters found in LC were identified with MALDI-TOF/TOF-MS, with the exception of two minor monoesters.

  2. Accurate quantum chemical calculations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bauschlicher, Charles W., Jr.; Langhoff, Stephen R.; Taylor, Peter R.

    1989-01-01

    An important goal of quantum chemical calculations is to provide an understanding of chemical bonding and molecular electronic structure. A second goal, the prediction of energy differences to chemical accuracy, has been much harder to attain. First, the computational resources required to achieve such accuracy are very large, and second, it is not straightforward to demonstrate that an apparently accurate result, in terms of agreement with experiment, does not result from a cancellation of errors. Recent advances in electronic structure methodology, coupled with the power of vector supercomputers, have made it possible to solve a number of electronic structure problems exactly using the full configuration interaction (FCI) method within a subspace of the complete Hilbert space. These exact results can be used to benchmark approximate techniques that are applicable to a wider range of chemical and physical problems. The methodology of many-electron quantum chemistry is reviewed. Methods are considered in detail for performing FCI calculations. The application of FCI methods to several three-electron problems in molecular physics are discussed. A number of benchmark applications of FCI wave functions are described. Atomic basis sets and the development of improved methods for handling very large basis sets are discussed: these are then applied to a number of chemical and spectroscopic problems; to transition metals; and to problems involving potential energy surfaces. Although the experiences described give considerable grounds for optimism about the general ability to perform accurate calculations, there are several problems that have proved less tractable, at least with current computer resources, and these and possible solutions are discussed.

  3. Endodontic diagnostic terminology update.

    PubMed

    McClannahan, Scott B; Baisden, Michael K; Bowles, Walter R

    2011-01-01

    Determination of the etiology of the patient's chief complaint and a correct diagnosis are paramount prior to a recommendation of endodontic therapy. Reproduction of the patient's chief complaint is critical. If the chief complaint cannot be reproduced, consider consultation with or referral to an endodontist or orofacial pain specialist. The diagnostic terminology presented in this update provides for a more accurate description and communication of the health or pathological conditions of both pulpal and apical tissues. This information is summarized in Table I.

  4. Beamlet laser diagnostics

    SciTech Connect

    Burkhart, S.C.; Behrendt, W.C.; Smith, I.

    1996-06-01

    Beamlet is instrumented extensively to monitor the performance of the overall laser system and many of its subsystems. Beam diagnostics, installed in key locations, are used to fully characterize the beam during its propagation through the multipass cavity and the laser`s output section. This article describes the diagnostics stations located on Beamlet and discusses the design, calibration, and performance of the Beamlet calorimeters. The authors used Nova`s diagnostics packages to develop the Beamlet design to determine beam energy, spatial profile, temporal profile, and other beam parameters. Technologic improvements within the last several years in controls, charge-coupled device (CCD) cameras, and fast oscilloscopes have allowed the authors to obtain more accurate measurements on the Beamlet laser system. They briefly cover some of these techniques, including a description of their LabVIEW based data acquisition system.

  5. THE ESTABLISHMENT OF LOCAL DIAGNOSTIC REFERENCE LEVELS IN ENDOSCOPIC RETROGRADE CHOLANGIOPANCREATOGRAPHY: A PRACTICAL TOOL FOR THE OPTIMISATION AND FOR QUALITY ASSURANCE MANAGEMENT.

    PubMed

    Saukko, E; Henner, A; Nieminen, M T; Ahonen, S-M

    2016-02-29

    Fluoroscopic procedures are an area of special concern in relation to radiation protection. The aim of this study was to describe the current level of patient radiation doses in endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) collected from a single centre, as well as to establish and review local diagnostic reference levels (DRLs) in ERCP. A total of 100 patients' radiation doses in ERCP were recorded, and the third-quartile method was adopted to establish local DRLs for ERCP. The mean dose area product (DAP) was 2.05 Gy cm(2), fluoroscopy time (FT) 1.7 min and the number of images was 3. The proposed local DRLs for ERCP were 3.00 Gy cm(2) and 3.0 min. Local DRLs were reviewed in a sample of 25 patients 5 y after they had been established. In reviewing data, the averages of DAP and FT were below the local DRLs. Local DRLs help in the optimisation process of fluoroscopic procedures and guides to a good clinical practice.

  6. [Cultural detection of thermotolerant Campylobacter spp. in food--potentials and limitations of diagnostic tools in the context of official food control].

    PubMed

    Messelhäusser, Ute; Thärigen, Diana; Fella, Christiane; Schreiner, Hermann; Busch, Ulrich; Höller, Christiane

    2015-01-01

    Thermotolerant Campylobacter spp. rank among the most important foodborne pathogens in Germany. Therefore a necessity for rapid and routinely useable detection methods exists also in the area of food microbiology. A reliable, cultura qualitative, but also quantitative detection of thermotolerant Campylobacter spp. pose a challenge, at least concerning special food matrices, especially because in the context of official food control the cultural detection of thermotolerant Campylobacter spp. is needed. This was the reason, why different cultural detection methods, beside the standard procedure of ISO 10272:2006, in combination with molecular and immunological screening methods were tested at the Bavarian Health and Food Safety Authority (LGL) during the last years for the use in routine diagnostic using different food matrices of animal and plant origin. The results of the comparative studies showed clearly that no enrichment broth tested gave completely satisfactory results for an only culture-based detection the combination with a screening method is therefore recommended for a rapid and reliable detection. But in this case the user should take into account that the sensitivity of such molecular and immunological methods is normally so high that in some cases, depending on the food matrix and processing step, the isolation of the pathogen would not be possible in samples, which were positive in the screening methods.

  7. Assessment of intracellular cytokines and regulatory cells in patients with autoimmune diseases and primary immunodeficiencies - novel tool for diagnostics and patient follow-up.

    PubMed

    Osnes, Liv T; Nakken, Britt; Bodolay, Edit; Szodoray, Peter

    2013-08-01

    Serum and intracytoplasmic cytokines are mandatory in host defense against microbes, but also play a pivotal role in the pathogenesis of autoimmune diseases by initiating and perpetuating various cellular and humoral autoimmune processes. The intricate interplay and fine balance of pro- and anti-inflammatory processes drive, whether inflammation and eventually organ damage will occur, or the inflammatory cascade quenches. In the early and late, as well as inactive and active stages of autoimmune diseases, different cellular and molecular patterns can dominate in these patients. However, the simultaneous assessment of pro- and anti-inflammatory biomarkers aids to define the immunological state of a patient. A group of the most useful inflammatory biomarkers are cytokines, and with increasing knowledge during the last decade their role have been well-defined in patients with autoimmune diseases and immunodeficiencies. Multiple pathological processes drive the development of autoimmunity and immunodeficiencies, most of which involve quantitative and qualitative disturbances in regulatory cells, cytokine synthesis and signaling pathways. The assessment of these biomarkers does not aid only in the mechanistic description of autoimmune diseases and immunodeficiencies, but further helps to subcategorize diseases and to evaluate therapy responses. Here, we provide an overview, how monitoring of cytokines and regulatory cells aid in the diagnosis and follow-up of patients with autoimmune diseases and immunodeficiencies furthermore, we pinpoint novel cellular and molecular diagnostic possibilities in these diseases.

  8. Identification of Chabertiidae (Nematoda, Strongylida) by PCR-RFLP based method: a new diagnostic tool for cross transmission investigation between domestic and wild ruminants in France.

    PubMed

    Patrelle, Cécile; Ferté, Hubert; Jouet, Damien

    2014-12-01

    We describe a PCR-RFLP-based method that allows reliable identification of four species of nematode parasites presenting similar infective third-stage larvae (L3) with a flagelliform tail and more than 16 intestinal cells, commonly observed in gastrointestinal tract of ruminants in France. Molecular analysis of the second internal transcribed spacer (ITS2) of ribosomal DNA, considered as a specific marker for Strongylida, revealed four robust monophyletic clades corresponding to species Chabertia ovina, Oesophagostomum sikae, Oesophagostomum radiatum and Oesophagostomum venulosum. One restriction enzyme (DdeI) was used to digest this domain, and we observed four different and clear digestion patterns according to these species (adults or larvae). Hence, this new method is a good tool easy to use for veterinary laboratories to characterize the different species, and allows considering possible cross transmission between domestic and wild ruminants, especially cervids often incriminated as potential reservoir of parasites for cattle. Moreover, thanks to this new tool, necroscopic analyses could be substituted by coprological methods, a non-invasive approach.

  9. Knowledge based jet engine diagnostics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jellison, Timothy G.; Dehoff, Ronald L.

    1987-01-01

    A fielded expert system automates equipment fault isolation and recommends corrective maintenance action for Air Force jet engines. The knowledge based diagnostics tool was developed as an expert system interface to the Comprehensive Engine Management System, Increment IV (CEMS IV), the standard Air Force base level maintenance decision support system. XMAM (trademark), the Expert Maintenance Tool, automates procedures for troubleshooting equipment faults, provides a facility for interactive user training, and fits within a diagnostics information feedback loop to improve the troubleshooting and equipment maintenance processes. The application of expert diagnostics to the Air Force A-10A aircraft TF-34 engine equipped with the Turbine Engine Monitoring System (TEMS) is presented.

  10. Value of quantitative and qualitative analyses of circulating cell-free DNA as diagnostic tools for hepatocellular carcinoma: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Liao, Wenjun; Mao, Yilei; Ge, Penglei; Yang, Huayu; Xu, Haifeng; Lu, Xin; Sang, Xinting; Zhong, Shouxian

    2015-04-01

    Qualitative and quantitative analyses of circulating cell-free DNA (cfDNA) are potential methods for the detection of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Many studies have evaluated these approaches, but the results have been variable. This meta-analysis is the first to synthesize these published results and evaluate the use of circulating cfDNA values for HCC diagnosis. All articles that met our inclusion criteria were assessed using QUADAS guidelines after the literature research. We also investigated 3 subgroups in this meta-analysis: qualitative analysis of abnormal concentrations of circulating cfDNA; qualitative analysis of single-gene methylation alterations; and multiple analyses combined with alpha-fetoprotein (AFP). Statistical analyses were performed using the software Stata 12.0. We synthesized these published results and calculated accuracy measures (pooled sensitivity and specificity, positive/negative likelihood ratios [PLRs/NLRs], diagnostic odds ratios [DORs], and corresponding 95% confidence intervals [95% CIs]). Data were pooled using bivariate generalized linear mixed model. Furthermore, summary receiver operating characteristic curves and area under the curve (AUC) were used to summarize overall test performance. Heterogeneity and publication bias were also examined. A total of 2424 subjects included 1280 HCC patients in 22 studies were recruited in this meta-analysis. Pooled sensitivity and specificity, PLR, NLR, DOR, AUC, and CIs of quantitative analysis were 0.741 (95% CI: 0.610-0.840), 0.851 (95% CI: 0.718-0.927), 4.970 (95% CI: 2.694-9.169), 0.304 (95% CI: 0.205-0.451), 16.347 (95% CI: 8.250-32.388), and 0.86 (95% CI: 0.83-0.89), respectively. For qualitative analysis, the values were 0.538 (95% CI: 0.401-0.669), 0.944 (95% CI: 0.889-0.972), 9.545 (95% CI: 5.298-17.196), 0.490 (95% CI: 0.372-0.646), 19.491 (95% CI: 10.458-36.329), and 0.87 (95% CI: 0.84-0.90), respectively. After combining with AFP assay, the values were 0.818 (95% CI: 0

  11. Miniature all-solid-state heterostructure nanowire Li-ion batteries as a tool for engineering and structural diagnostics of nanoscale electrochemical processes.

    PubMed

    Oleshko, Vladimir P; Lam, Thomas; Ruzmetov, Dmitry; Haney, Paul; Lezec, Henri J; Davydov, Albert V; Krylyuk, Sergiy; Cumings, John; Talin, A Alec

    2014-10-21

    Complex interfacial phenomena and phase transformations that govern the operation of Li-ion batteries require detailed nanoscale 3D structural and compositional characterization that can be directly related to their capacity and electrical transport properties. For this purpose, we have designed model miniature all solid-state radial heterostructure Li-ion batteries composed of LiCoO2 cathode, LiPON electrolyte and amorphous Si anode shells, which were deposited around metallized high-aspect-ratio Si nanowires as a scaffolding core. Such diagnostic batteries, the smallest, complete secondary Li-ion batteries realized to date, were specifically designed for in situ electrical testing in a field-emission scanning electron microscope and/or transmission electron microscope. The results of electrochemical testing were described in detail in a previous publication (Nano Lett., 2012, 12, 505-511). The model Li-ion batteries allow analysis of the correlations between electrochemical properties and their structural evolution during cycling in various imaging, diffraction and spectroscopic modes down to the atomic level. Employing multimode analytical scanning/transmission electron microscopy imaging coupled with correlative multivariate statistical analysis and tomography, we have analyzed and quantified the 3D morphological and structural arrangement of the batteries, including textured platelet-like LiCoO2 nanocrystallites, buried electrode-electrolyte interfaces and hidden internal defects to clarify effects of scaling on a battery's electrochemical performance. Characterization of the nanoscale interfacial processes using model heterostructure nanowire-based Li-ion batteries provides useful guidelines for engineering of prospective nano-sized building blocks in future electrochemical energy storage systems.

  12. BIOACCESSIBILITY TESTS ACCURATELY ESTIMATE ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Hazards of soil-borne Pb to wild birds may be more accurately quantified if the bioavailability of that Pb is known. To better understand the bioavailability of Pb to birds, we measured blood Pb concentrations in Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica) fed diets containing Pb-contaminated soils. Relative bioavailabilities were expressed by comparison with blood Pb concentrations in quail fed a Pb acetate reference diet. Diets containing soil from five Pb-contaminated Superfund sites had relative bioavailabilities from 33%-63%, with a mean of about 50%. Treatment of two of the soils with P significantly reduced the bioavailability of Pb. The bioaccessibility of the Pb in the test soils was then measured in six in vitro tests and regressed on bioavailability. They were: the “Relative Bioavailability Leaching Procedure” (RBALP) at pH 1.5, the same test conducted at pH 2.5, the “Ohio State University In vitro Gastrointestinal” method (OSU IVG), the “Urban Soil Bioaccessible Lead Test”, the modified “Physiologically Based Extraction Test” and the “Waterfowl Physiologically Based Extraction Test.” All regressions had positive slopes. Based on criteria of slope and coefficient of determination, the RBALP pH 2.5 and OSU IVG tests performed very well. Speciation by X-ray absorption spectroscopy demonstrated that, on average, most of the Pb in the sampled soils was sorbed to minerals (30%), bound to organic matter 24%, or present as Pb sulfate 18%. Ad

  13. Whole-Cell Biosensors as Tools for the Detection of Quorum-Sensing Molecules: Uses in Diagnostics and the Investigation of the Quorum-Sensing Mechanism.

    PubMed

    O'Connor, Gregory; Knecht, Leslie D; Salgado, Nelson; Strobel, Sebastian; Pasini, Patrizia; Daunert, Sylvia

    2015-10-17

    Genetically engineered bacterial whole-cell biosensors are powerful tools that take advantage of bacterial proteins and pathways to allow for detection of a specific analyte. These biosensors have been employed for a broad range of applications, including the detection of bacterial quorum-sensing molecules (QSMs). Bacterial QSMs are the small molecules bacteria use for population density-dependent communication, a process referred to as quorum sensing (QS). Various research groups have investigated the presence of QSMs, including N-acyl homoserine lactones (AHLs) and autoinducer-2 (AI-2), in physiological samples in attempts to enhance our knowledge of the role of bacteria and QS in disease states. Continued studies in these fields may allow for improved patient care and therapeutics based upon QSMs. Furthermore, bacterial whole-cell biosensors have elucidated the roles of some antibiotics as QS agonists and antagonists. Graphical Abstract.

  14. Electrophoresis of tear proteins as a new diagnostic tool for two high risk groups for dry eye: computer users and contact lens wearers

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Rationale: Dry eye is the most prevalent condition seen by the ophthalmologist, in particular in elderly. The identification of new common risk factors (computer use and contact lens wear) extends the disease among the young people. The early diagnosis of dry eye is essential, but difficult, because the biochemical changes in tear film usually occur before any detectable signs. Due its advantages, electrophoresis of tear proteins could be an important tool for diagnosis of tear film impairment in high risk groups for dry eye. Objective: The role of tear proteins electrophoresis in early diagnosis of dry eye related to computer use and contact lens wear, as well as the biochemical changes in these high risk groups are presented. Methods: This review will summarize the actual data concerning the electrophoretic changes of tear proteins in computer users and contact lens wearers, two common high risk groups for dry eye. Discussion: Electrophoresis of tear proteins using automated system Hyrys–Hydrasys SEBIA France is an important tool for early diagnosis of tear film alterations and monitoring of therapy. The quantification of many proteins in a single analysis using a small quantity of unconcentrated reflex tears is the main advantage of this technique. Electrophoresis of tear proteins should became a prerequisite, in particular for computer users less than 3h/day, as well as at prescribing contact lenses. Abbreviations: DED– dry eye disease, EGF–epidermal growth factor, IL interleukins, MMP–metalloproteinase, ELISA– Enzyme–linked immunosorbent assay, SDS– sodium dodecyl sulfate, CVS– computer vision syndrome, CLRDE– contact lens– related dry eye PMID:22567044

  15. Circulating microRNAs as diagnostic biomarkers for endometriosis: privation and promise

    PubMed Central

    Nothnick, Warren B.; Al-Hendy, Ayman; Lue, John R.

    2015-01-01

    Endometriosis represents a major medical concern in women of reproductive age. One of the major hurdles in successful treatment of endometriosis that remains is the limitation in the process of timely disease diagnosis. A simple blood test for endometriosis-specific biomarkers would offer a timelier, accurate diagnosis for the disease allowing earlier treatment intervention. While there have been considerable efforts to identify such biomarkers, no clear choice for such non-invasive diagnostic tools have been identified. MicroRNAs are small non-coding RNAs which have been intensively evaluated as biomarkers for several diseases and may hold promise for endometriosis diagnosis. In this review, we highlight the need for non-invasive testing for endometriosis, discuss the potential use of miRNAs as diagnostic tools for this disease, and consider potential limitations in the use of these small RNA molecules as diagnostic markers for endometriosis. PMID:25757811

  16. Serum Cytokinome Profile Evaluation: A Tool to Define New Diagnostic and Prognostic Markers of Cancer Using Multiplexed Bead-Based Immunoassays

    PubMed Central

    Sorice, Angela

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, many researchers are focusing their attention on the link between inflammation and cancer. The inflammation is involved in the tumor development and suppression, by stimulating the immune response. In particular, the transition from chronic inflammation to cancer produces angiogenic and growth factors able to repair the tissue and to promote cancer cell survival, implantation, and growth. In this contest, the cytokines contribute to the development of these processes becoming active before and during the inflammatory process and playing an important function at the various disease levels. Thus, these proteins can represent specific markers of tumor development and progression. Therefore the “cytokinome” term is used to indicate the evaluation of cytokine pattern by using an “omics” approach. Newly, specific protein chips of considerable and improved sensitivity are being developed to determine simultaneously several and different cytokines. This can be achieved by a multiplex technology that, through the use of small amounts of serum or other fluids, is used to determine the presence and the levels of underrepresented cytokines. Since this method is an accurate, sensitive, and reproducible cytokine assay, it is already used in many different studies. Thus, this review focuses on the more latest aspects related to cytokinome profile evaluation in different cancers. PMID:28050120

  17. MetaboQuant: a tool combining individual peak calibration and outlier detection for accurate metabolite quantification in 1D (1)H and (1)H-(13)C HSQC NMR spectra.

    PubMed

    Klein, Matthias S; Oefner, Peter J; Gronwald, Wolfram

    2013-05-01

    Solution nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy is widely used to analyze complex mixtures of organic compounds such as biological fluids and tissue extracts. Targeted profiling approaches with reliable compound quantitifcation are hampered, however, by signal overlap and other interferences. Here, we present a tool named MetaboQuant for automated compound quantification from pre-processed 1D and 2D heteronuclear single quantum coherence (HSQC) NMR spectral data and concomitant validation of results. Performance of MetaboQuant was tested on a urinary spike-in data set and compared with other quantification strategies. The use of individual calibration factors in combination with the validation algorithms of MetaboQuant raises the reliability of the quantification results. MetaboQuant can be downloaded at http://genomics.uni-regensburg.de/site/institute/software/metaboquant/ as stand-alone software for Windows or run on other operating systems from within Matlab. Separate software for peak fitting and integration is necessary in order to use MetaboQuant.

  18. Accurate spectral color measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hiltunen, Jouni; Jaeaeskelaeinen, Timo; Parkkinen, Jussi P. S.

    1999-08-01

    Surface color measurement is of importance in a very wide range of industrial applications including paint, paper, printing, photography, textiles, plastics and so on. For a demanding color measurements spectral approach is often needed. One can measure a color spectrum with a spectrophotometer using calibrated standard samples as a reference. Because it is impossible to define absolute color values of a sample, we always work with approximations. The human eye can perceive color difference as small as 0.5 CIELAB units and thus distinguish millions of colors. This 0.5 unit difference should be a goal for the precise color measurements. This limit is not a problem if we only want to measure the color difference of two samples, but if we want to know in a same time exact color coordinate values accuracy problems arise. The values of two instruments can be astonishingly different. The accuracy of the instrument used in color measurement may depend on various errors such as photometric non-linearity, wavelength error, integrating sphere dark level error, integrating sphere error in both specular included and specular excluded modes. Thus the correction formulas should be used to get more accurate results. Another question is how many channels i.e. wavelengths we are using to measure a spectrum. It is obvious that the sampling interval should be short to get more precise results. Furthermore, the result we get is always compromise of measuring time, conditions and cost. Sometimes we have to use portable syste or the shape and the size of samples makes it impossible to use sensitive equipment. In this study a small set of calibrated color tiles measured with the Perkin Elmer Lamda 18 and the Minolta CM-2002 spectrophotometers are compared. In the paper we explain the typical error sources of spectral color measurements, and show which are the accuracy demands a good colorimeter should have.

  19. Diagnostic value of osteoporosis self-assessment tool for Asians (OSTA) and quantitative bone ultrasound (QUS) in detecting high-risk populations for osteoporosis among elderly Chinese men.

    PubMed

    Zha, Xiao-Yun; Hu, Yu; Pang, Xiao-Na; Chang, Gui-Lin; Li, Li

    2015-03-01

    This study aims to evaluate an osteoporosis self-assessment tool for Asians (OSTA) and quantitative bone ultrasound (QUS) and their combination in detecting populations at high risk for osteoporosis, and to determine the best cutoff value for the diagnosis of osteoporosis among elderly Chinese men. A group of Chinese men, aged ≥ 60 years, recruited from the health checkup population of Zhongshan Hospital, Fudan University, were included. The OSTA index was calculated from age and weight. Bone mineral density (BMD) at left hip (femoral neck, internal, and total hip) and lumbar spine (L1-L4, L-Total) was measured with dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA), and calcaneal BMD was measured with QUS. Receiver operating characteristic analysis was used to determine the best cutoff values, sensitivity, and specificity. The area under the curve (AUC) between the different screening tools was compared. Our study included 472 men with mean age of 78.0 years. The prevalence of osteoporosis was 27.7%.The best cutoff for OSTA was -3.5 for predicting men with osteoporosis at any site; this yielded a sensitivity and specificity of 47.3% and 76.8%, respectively. The AUC for OSTA was 0.676. The optimal cutoff for QUS-T score was -1.25, with a sensitivity of 80.4% and specificity of 59.7%. The AUC for QUS-T score was 0.762. Combining QUS with OSTA improved the specificity to 92.9% but reduced sensitivity to 36.1%. A new variable derived from a combination of OSTA and the QUS-T score gave a better performance, with sensitivity of 70.1% and specificity of 72.1%; the AUC for this variable was 0.771, which was greater than OSTA but not different from QUS alone. In conclusion, OSTA and QUS, respectively, and their combination may help find populations at high risk for osteoporosis, which could be an alternative method for diagnosing osteoporosis, especially in areas where DXA measurement is not accessible.

  20. Immunohistochemistry and real-time PCR as diagnostic tools for detection of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato in ticks collected from humans.

    PubMed

    Briciu, Violeta T; Sebah, Daniela; Coroiu, Georgiana; Lupşe, Mihaela; Cârstina, Dumitru; Ţăţulescu, Doina F; Mihalca, Andrei D; Gherman, Călin M; Leucuţa, Daniel; Meyer, Fabian; Hizo-Teufel, Cecilia; Fingerle, Volker; Huber, Ingrid

    2016-05-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate different methods used for detection of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato (s.l.) in ticks: immunohistochemistry followed by focus floating microscopy (FFM) and real-time polymerase chain reaction (real-time PCR) targeting the ospA and hbb genes. Additionally, an optimized ospA real-time PCR assay was developed with an integrated internal amplification control (IAC) for the detection of inhibition in the PCR assay and was validated as an improved screening tool for B. burgdorferi. One hundred and thirty-six ticks collected from humans in a hospital from Cluj-Napoca, Romania, were investigated regarding genus, stage of development and sex, and then tested by all three assays. A poor quality of agreement was found between FFM and each of the two real-time PCR assays, as assessed by concordance analysis (Cohen's kappa), whereas the agreement between the two real-time PCR assays was moderate. The present study argues for a low sensitivity of FFM and underlines that discordant results of different assays used for detection of B. burgdorferi in ticks are frequent.

  1. [Age-related cognitive impairment: conceptual changes and diagnostic strategies].

    PubMed

    Annoni, Jean-Marie; Chouiter, Leila; Démonet, Jean-François

    2016-04-20

    The actual field of dementia encompasses also the pre-symptomatic phase, which may evolve for decades. Early detection and appropriate diagnosis decrease patient's and family's anxiety, improve patient's global care and allow better legal patient's protection. General Practitioners have at hand several available tools to screen a neurocognitive disorder, with up to 80% of sensitivity and specificity, to complete their clinical evaluation. An accurate diagnosis requires then a complete medical, neurological neuropsychological and neuroradiological evaluation in a Memory Clinic. Other investigations, such as functional cerebral imagery and spinal tap can be critical in unusual situations. Despite mood improvement after diagnostic announcement, increased suicidal risk in the 3 first months should be screened.

  2. The Impact of an Online Crowdsourcing Diagnostic Tool on Health Care Utilization: A Case Study Using a Novel Approach to Retrospective Claims Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Quisel, Thomas R; Foschini, Luca; Ladapo, Joseph A

    2016-01-01

    Background Patients with difficult medical cases often remain undiagnosed despite visiting multiple physicians. A new online platform, CrowdMed, uses crowdsourcing to quickly and efficiently reach an accurate diagnosis for these patients. Objective This study sought to evaluate whether CrowdMed decreased health care utilization for patients who have used the service. Methods Novel, electronic methods of patient recruitment and data collection were utilized. Patients who completed cases on CrowdMed’s platform between July 2014 and April 2015 were recruited for the study via email and screened via an online survey. After providing eConsent, participants provided identifying information used to access their medical claims data, which was retrieved through a third-party web application program interface (API). Utilization metrics including frequency of provider visits and medical charges were compared pre- and post-case resolution to assess the impact of resolving a case on CrowdMed. Results Of 45 CrowdMed users who completed the study survey, comprehensive claims data was available via API for 13 participants, who made up the final enrolled sample. There were a total of 221 health care provider visits collected for the study participants, with service dates ranging from September 2013 to July 2015. Frequency of provider visits was significantly lower after resolution of a case on CrowdMed (mean of 1.07 visits per month pre-resolution vs. 0.65 visits per month post-resolution, P=.01). Medical charges were also significantly lower after case resolution (mean of US $719.70 per month pre-resolution vs. US $516.79 per month post-resolution, P=.03). There was no significant relationship between study results and disease onset date, and there was no evidence of regression to the mean influencing results. Conclusions This study employed technology-enabled methods to demonstrate that patients who used CrowdMed had lower health care utilization after case resolution. However

  3. Companion diagnostics and molecular imaging-enhanced approaches for oncology clinical trials

    PubMed Central

    Van Heertum, Ronald L; Scarimbolo, Robert; Ford, Robert; Berdougo, Eli; O’Neal, Michael

    2015-01-01

    In the era of personalized medicine, diagnostic approaches are helping pharmaceutical and biotechnology sponsors streamline the clinical trial process. Molecular assays and diagnostic imaging are routinely being used to stratify patients for treatment, monitor disease, and provide reliable early clinical phase assessments. The importance of diagnostic approaches in drug development is highlighted by the rapidly expanding global cancer diagnostics market and the emergent attention of regulatory agencies worldwide, who are beginning to offer more structured platforms and guidance for this area. In this paper, we highlight the key benefits of using companion diagnostics and diagnostic imaging with a focus on oncology clinical trials. Nuclear imaging using widely available radiopharmaceuticals in conjunction with molecular imaging of oncology targets has opened the door to more accurate disease assessment and the modernization of standard criteria for the evaluation, staging, and treatment responses of cancer patients. Furthermore, the introduction and validation of quantitative molecular imaging continues to drive and optimize the field of oncology diagnostics. Given their pivotal role in disease assessment and treatment, the validation and commercialization of diagnostic tools will continue to advance oncology clinical trials, support new oncology drugs, and promote better patient outcomes. PMID:26392755

  4. Companion diagnostics and molecular imaging-enhanced approaches for oncology clinical trials.

    PubMed

    Van Heertum, Ronald L; Scarimbolo, Robert; Ford, Robert; Berdougo, Eli; O'Neal, Michael

    2015-01-01

    In the era of personalized medicine, diagnostic approaches are helping pharmaceutical and biotechnology sponsors streamline the clinical trial process. Molecular assays and diagnostic imaging are routinely being used to stratify patients for treatment, monitor disease, and provide reliable early clinical phase assessments. The importance of diagnostic approaches in drug development is highlighted by the rapidly expanding global cancer diagnostics market and the emergent attention of regulatory agencies worldwide, who are beginning to offer more structured platforms and guidance for this area. In this paper, we highlight the key benefits of using companion diagnostics and diagnostic imaging with a focus on oncology clinical trials. Nuclear imaging using widely available radiopharmaceuticals in conjunction with molecular imaging of oncology targets has opened the door to more accurate disease assessment and the modernization of standard criteria for the evaluation, staging, and treatment responses of cancer patients. Furthermore, the introduction and validation of quantitative molecular imaging continues to drive and optimize the field of oncology diagnostics. Given their pivotal role in disease assessment and treatment, the validation and commercialization of diagnostic tools will continue to advance oncology clinical trials, support new oncology drugs, and promote better patient outcomes.

  5. [Thalassaemia diagnostics].

    PubMed

    Kusters, Elske; Kerkhoffs, Jean-Louis H; van Rossum, André P

    2014-01-01

    The thalassaemias are characterised by quantitative aberrations in the production of the globin chains that make up haemoglobin, and are a subgroup of the haemoglobinopathies. In this LabQuiz we show how thalassaemia carrier status can be indicated in the results of regular laboratory tests, and discuss the laboratory diagnostics that can confirm or rule out thalassaemia. In these two cases we will present a man of Moroccan descent, and two brothers of Filipino descent, all with anaemia and microcytosis. We show it is possible to differentiate between iron-deficiency anaemia and thalassaemia carrier status on the basis of a complete blood count and measurement of ferritin levels, and which laboratory diagnostics can be subsequently performed in order to confirm a suspicion of thalassaemia. The background section discusses the properties and pitfalls of routine laboratory diagnostics for the thalassaemias, and thalassaemia diagnostics in the Dutch newborn screening programme.

  6. A novel anti-PSMA human scFv has the potential to be used as a diagnostic tool in prostate cancer

    PubMed Central

    Han, Yueheng; Wei, Ming; Han, Sen; Lin, Ruihe; Sun, Ziyong; Yang, Fa; Jiao, Dian; Xie, Pin; Zhang, Lingling; Yang, An-Gang; Zhao, Aizhi; Wen, Weihong; Qin, Weijun

    2016-01-01

    Prostate cancer (PCa) is the most commonly diagnosed malignancy and the second leading cause of cancer related death in men. The early diagnosis and treatment of PCa are still challenging due to the lack of efficient tumor targeting agents in traditional managements. Prostate specific membrane antigen (PSMA) is highly expressed in PCa, while only has limited expression in other organs, providing an ideal target for the diagnosis and therapy of PCa. The antibody library technique has opened the avenue for the discovery of novel antibodies to be used in the diagnosis and therapy of cancer. In this paper, by screening a large yeast display naive human single chain antibody fragment (scFv) library, we obtained a high affinity scFv targeting PSMA, called gy1. The gy1 scFv was expressed in E.coli and purified via a C terminal 6His tag. The binding affinity of gy1 was shown to be at the nanomolar level and gy1 can specifically bind with PSMA positive cancer cells, and binding triggers its rapid internalization through the endosome-lysosome pathway. The specific targeting of gy1 to PSMA positive tumor tissues was also evaluated in vivo. We showed that the IRDye800CW labeled gy1 can efficiently target and specifically distribute in PSMA positive tumor tissues after being injected into xenograft nude mice. This study indicated that the novel antibody gy1 could be used as a great tool for the development of PSMA targeted imaging and therapy agents for PCa. PMID:27448970

  7. Polymerase chain reaction for the amplification of the 121-bp repetitive sequence of Schistosoma mansoni: a highly sensitive potential diagnostic tool for areas of low endemicity.

    PubMed

    Ferrer, E; Pérez, F; Bello, I; Bolívar, A; Lares, M; Osorio, A; León, L; Amarista, M; Incani, R N

    2015-11-01

    Schistosomiasis is a disease caused by parasitic flatworms of the genus Schistosoma, whose diagnosis has limitations, such as the low sensitivity and specificity of parasitological and immunological methods, respectively. In the present study an alternative molecular technique requiring previous standardization was carried out using the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for the amplification of a 121-bp highly repetitive sequence for Schistosoma mansoni. DNA was extracted from eggs of S. mansoni by salting out. Different conditions were standardized for the PCR technique, including the concentration of reagents and the DNA template, annealing temperature and number of cycles, followed by the determination of the analytical sensitivity and specificity of the technique. Furthermore, the standardized PCR technique was employed in DNA extracted, using Chelex®100, from samples of sera of patients with an immunodiagnosis of schistosomiasis. The optimal conditions for the PCR were 2.5 mm MgCl2, 150 mm deoxynucleoside triphosphates (dNTPs), 0.4 μm primers, 0.75 U DNA polymerase, using 35 cycles and an annealing temperature of 63°C. The analytical sensitivity of the PCR was 10 attograms of DNA and the specificity was 100%. The DNA sequence was successfully detected in the sera of two patients, demonstrating schistosomiasis transmission, although low, in the community studied. The standardized PCR technique, using smaller amounts of reagents than in the original protocol, is highly sensitive and specific for the detection of DNA from S. mansoni and could be an important tool for diagnosis in areas of low endemicity.

  8. Recent advances in salivary cancer diagnostics enabled by biosensors and bioelectronics.

    PubMed

    Mishra, Saswat; Saadat, Darius; Kwon, Ohjin; Lee, Yongkuk; Choi, Woon-Seop; Kim, Jong-Hoon; Yeo, Woon-Hong

    2016-07-15

    There is a high demand for a non-invasive, rapid, and highly accurate tool for disease diagnostics. Recently, saliva based diagnostics for the detection of specific biomarkers has drawn significant attention since the sample extraction is simple, cost-effective, and precise. Compared to blood, saliva contains a similar variety of DNA, RNA, proteins, metabolites, and microbiota that can be compiled into a multiplex of cancer detection markers. The salivary diagnostic method holds great potential for early-stage cancer diagnostics without any complicated and expensive procedures. Here, we review various cancer biomarkers in saliva and compare the biomarkers efficacy with traditional diagnostics and state-of-the-art bioelectronics. We summarize biomarkers in four major groups: genomics, transcriptomics, proteomics, and metabolomics/microbiota. Representative bioelectronic systems for each group are summarized based on various stages of a cancer. Systematic study of oxidative stress establishes the relationship between macromolecules and cancer biomarkers in saliva. We also introduce the most recent examples of salivary diagnostic electronics based on nanotechnologies that can offer rapid, yet highly accurate detection of biomarkers. A concluding section highlights areas of opportunity in the further development and applications of these technologies.

  9. Diagnostic approach to Cushing disease.

    PubMed

    Gross, Bradley A; Mindea, Stefan A; Pick, Anthony J; Chandler, James P; Batjer, H Hunt

    2007-01-01

    In Cushing disease, a pituitary corticotroph neoplasm causes secondary adrenal hypercortisolism. This condition has known morbidity and mortality, underscoring the need for an efficient and accurate diagnostic approach. An 11 p.m. salivary cortisol level is a modern, simple initial screening tool for the diagnosis of Cushing syndrome. Confirmation with a 24-hour urinary free cortisol test and/or a low-dose dexamethasone suppression test may subsequently be performed. Patients with repeatedly equivocal results should be reevaluated after several months or undergo a corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) stimulation test following low-dose dexamethasone suppression to help rule out pseudo-Cushing states. The presence of low morning serum adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) levels then distinguishes primary adrenal hypercortisolism from Cushing disease and the ectopic ACTH syndrome. Patients with moderate ACTH levels can undergo CRH stimulation testing to clarify the underlying disease because those with an ACTH-independent disorder have blunted subsequent ACTH levels. Once ACTH-dependent hypercortisolemia is detected, magnetic resonance (MR) imaging of the pituitary gland can be performed to detect a pituitary neoplasm. Normal or equivocal MR imaging results revealing small pituitary lesions should be followed up with inferior petrosal sinus sampling, a highly specific measure for the diagnosis of Cushing disease in experienced hands. If necessary, body imaging may be used in turn to detect sources of ectopic ACTH.

  10. Implementation of Rapid Molecular Infectious Disease Diagnostics: the Role of Diagnostic and Antimicrobial Stewardship.

    PubMed

    Messacar, Kevin; Parker, Sarah K; Todd, James K; Dominguez, Samuel R

    2017-03-01

    New rapid molecular diagnostic technologies for infectious diseases enable expedited accurate microbiological diagnoses. However, diagnostic stewardship and antimicrobial stewardship are necessary to ensure that these technologies conserve, rather than consume, additional health care resources and optimally affect patient care. Diagnostic stewardship is needed to implement appropriate tests for the clinical setting and to direct testing toward appropriate patients. Antimicrobial stewardship is needed to ensure prompt appropriate clinical action to translate faster diagnostic test results in the laboratory into improved outcomes at the bedside. This minireview outlines the roles of diagnostic stewardship and antimicrobial stewardship in the implementation of rapid molecular infectious disease diagnostics.

  11. Diagnostic self-testing: autonomous choices and relational responsibilities.

    PubMed

    Kearns, Alan J; O'Mathúna, Dónal P; Scott, P Anne

    2010-05-01

    Diagnostic self-testing devices are being developed for many illnesses, chronic diseases and infections. These will be used in hospitals, at point-of-care facilities and at home. Designed to allow earlier detection of diseases, self-testing diagnostic devices may improve disease prevention, slow the progression of disease and facilitate better treatment outcomes. These devices have the potential to benefit both the individual and society by enabling individuals to take a more proactive role in the maintenance of their health and by helping society improve health and reduce health costs. However, the full implications of future home-based diagnostic technology for individuals and society remain unclear due to their novelty. We argue that the development of diagnostic tools, especially for home use, will heighten a number of ethical challenges. This paper will explore some of the ethical implications of home-based self-testing diagnostic devices for the autonomous and relational dimensions of the person. This will be facilitated by examining the impact of diagnostic devices for individual autonomy, for the delivery of accurate diagnosis and for the personal significance of the information for the user. The latter will be examined using Charles Taylor's view of personhood and his emphasis on human agency and interpretation. While the ethical issues are not necessarily new, the development of home-based self-testing diagnostic devices will make issues regarding autonomy, accuracy of information and personal significance more and more demanding. This will be the case particularly when an individual's autonomous choices come into conflict with the person's relational responsibilities.

  12. Astrovirus Diagnostics

    PubMed Central

    Pérot, Philippe; Lecuit, Marc; Eloit, Marc

    2017-01-01

    Various methods exist to detect an astrovirus infection. Current methods include electron microscopy (EM), cell culture, immunoassays, polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and various other molecular approaches that can be applied in the context of diagnostic or in surveillance studies. With the advent of metagenomics, novel human astrovirus (HAstV) strains have been found in immunocompromised individuals in association with central nervous system (CNS) infections. This work reviews the past and current methods for astrovirus detection and their uses in both research laboratories and for medical diagnostic purposes. PMID:28085120

  13. DIAGNOSTICS OF BNL ERL

    SciTech Connect

    POZDEYEV,E.; BEN-ZVI, I.; CAMERON, P.; GASSNER, D.; KAYRAN, D.; ET AL.

    2007-06-25

    The ERL Prototype project is currently under development at the Brookhaven National Laboratory. The ERL is expected to demonstrate energy recovery of high-intensity beams with a current of up to a few hundred milliamps, while preserving the emittance of bunches with a charge of a few nanocoulombs produced by a high-current SRF gun. To successfully accomplish this task the machine will include beam diagnostics that will be used for accurate characterization of the three dimensional beam phase space at the injection and recirculation energies, transverse and longitudinal beam matching, orbit alignment, beam current measurement, and machine protection. This paper outlines requirements on the ERL diagnostics and describes its setup and modes of operation.

  14. Comparative Capabilities of Clinical Assessment, Diagnostic Criteria, and Polysomnography in Detecting Sleep Bruxism

    PubMed Central

    Palinkas, Marcelo; De Luca Canto, Graziela; Rodrigues, Laíse Angélica Mendes; Bataglion, César; Siéssere, Selma; Semprini, Marisa; Regalo, Simone Cecilio Hallak

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the diagnostic capability of signs and symptoms of sleep bruxism (SB) as per the American Academy of Sleep Medicine (AASM) criteria and a diagnostic grading system proposed by international experts for assessing SB. Methods: The study was conducted in three phases (interview, physical examination, and sleep studies). Subjects were asked about self-reported tooth grinding sounds occurring during sleep, muscle fatigue, temporal headaches, jaw muscle pain, and jaw locking. A visual examination was conducted to check for presence of abnormal tooth wear. A full-night polysomnography (PSG) was performed. After three phases, the subjects were divided into two groups matched by age and gender: Case Group, 45 SB subjects, and Control Group, 45 non-SB subjects. Diagnostic accuracy measurements were calculated for each sign or symptom individually and for the two diagnostic criteria analyzed. Results: Muscle fatigue, temporal headaches, and AASM criteria were associated with highest sensitivity (78%, 67%, 58%, respectively) and also with highest diagnostic odds ratio (OR = 9.63, 9.25, 6.33, respectively). Jaw locking, muscle pain, and the criterion of “probable SB” were associated with the worst sensitivity (16%, 18%, 22%, respectively). Conclusions: Presence of muscle fatigue and temporal headaches can be considered good tools to screen SB patients. None of the diagnostic criteria evaluated was able to accurately identify patients with SB. AASM criteria had the strongest diagnostic capabilities and—although they do not attain diagnostic values high enough to replace the current gold standard (PSG)—should be used as a screening tool to identify SB. Citation: Palinkas M, De Luca Canto G, Rodrigues LA, Bataglion C, Siéssere S, Semprini M, Regalo SC. Comparative capabilities of clinical assessment, diagnostic criteria, and polysomnography in detecting sleep bruxism. J Clin Sleep Med 2015;11(11):1319–1325. PMID:26235152

  15. Accurate radiometry from space: an essential tool for climate studies.

    PubMed

    Fox, Nigel; Kaiser-Weiss, Andrea; Schmutz, Werner; Thome, Kurtis; Young, Dave; Wielicki, Bruce; Winkler, Rainer; Woolliams, Emma

    2011-10-28

    The Earth's climate is undoubtedly changing; however, the time scale, consequences and causal attribution remain the subject of significant debate and uncertainty. Detection of subtle indicators from a background of natural variability requires measurements over a time base of decades. This places severe demands on the instrumentation used, requiring measurements of sufficient accuracy and sensitivity that can allow reliable judgements to be made decades apart. The International System of Units (SI) and the network of National Metrology Institutes were developed to address such requirements. However, ensuring and maintaining SI traceability of sufficient accuracy in instruments orbiting the Earth presents a significant new challenge to the metrology community. This paper highlights some key measurands and applications driving the uncertainty demand of the climate community in the solar reflective domain, e.g. solar irradiances and reflectances/radiances of the Earth. It discusses how meeting these uncertainties facilitate significant improvement in the forecasting abilities of climate models. After discussing the current state of the art, it describes a new satellite mission, called TRUTHS, which enables, for the first time, high-accuracy SI traceability to be established in orbit. The direct use of a 'primary standard' and replication of the terrestrial traceability chain extends the SI into space, in effect realizing a 'metrology laboratory in space'.

  16. Accurate Radiometry from Space: An Essential Tool for Climate Studies

    NASA Tech